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Sample records for syndrome-associated cxcr4 mutant

  1. Construction and Quantitative Validation of Chicken CXCR4 Expression Reporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Es-Haghi, Masoumeh; Bassami, Mohammadreza; Dehghani, Hesam

    2016-03-01

    Site directional migration is an important biological event and an essential behavior for latent migratory cells. A migratory cell maintains its motility, survival, and proliferation abilities by a network of signaling pathways where CXCR4/SDF signaling route plays crucial role for directed homing of a polarized cell. The chicken embryo due to its specific vasculature modality has been used as a valuable model for organogenesis, migration, cancer, and metastasis. In this research, the regulatory regions of chicken CXCR4 gene have been characterized in a chicken hematopoietic lymphoblast cell line (MSB1). A region extending from -2000 bp upstream of CXCR4 gene to +68 after its transcriptional start site, in addition to two other mutant fragments were constructed and cloned in a promoter-less reporter vector. Promoter activity was analyzed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR and flow cytometry techniques. Our findings show that the full sequence from -2000 to +68 bp of CXCR4 regulatory region is required for maximum promoter functionality, while the mutant CXCR4 promoter fragments show a partial promoter activity. The chicken CXCR4 promoter validated in this study could be used for characterization of directed migratory cells in chicken development and disease models.

  2. Molecular Pharmacology of CXCR4 inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steen, Anne; Rosenkilde, Mette Marie

    2012-01-01

    pharmacology of well-known CXCR4 antagonists in order to augment the potency and affinity and to increase the specificity of future CXCR4-targeting compounds. In this chapter, binding modes of CXCR4 antagonists that have been shown to mobilize stem cells are discussed. In addition, comparisons between results...

  3. CXCR4 Ligands : The Next Big Hit?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walenkamp, Annemiek M. E.; Lapa, Constantin; Herrmann, Ken; Wester, Hans-Juergen

    2017-01-01

    The G protein-coupled protein receptor C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) is an attractive target for cancer diagnosis and treatment, as it is overexpressed in many solid and hematologic cancers. Binding of its ligand, C-X-C chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12), results in receptor internalization and

  4. Plectin regulates the signaling and trafficking of the HIV-1 co-receptor CXCR4 and plays a role in HIV-1 infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Yun; Zhang Li; Goodwin, J. Shawn; Wang Ziqing; Liu Bingdong; Zhang Jingwu; Fan Guohuang

    2008-01-01

    The CXC chemokine CXCL12 and its cognate receptor CXCR4 play an important role in inflammation, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and cancer metastasis. The signal transduction and intracellular trafficking of CXCR4 are involved in these functions, but the underlying mechanisms remain incompletely understood. In the present study, we demonstrated that the CXCR4 formed a complex with the cytolinker protein plectin in a ligand-dependent manner in HEK293 cells stably expressing CXCR4. The glutathione-S-transferase (GST)-CXCR4 C-terminal fusion proteins co-precipitated with the full-length and the N-terminal fragments of plectin isoform 1 but not with the N-terminal deletion mutants of plectin isoform 1, thereby suggesting an interaction between the N-terminus of plectin and the C-terminus of CXCR4. This interaction was confirmed by confocal microscopic reconstructions showing co-distribution of these two proteins in the internal vesicles after ligand-induced internalization of CXCR4 in HEK293 cells stably expressing CXCR4. Knockdown of plectin with RNA interference (RNAi) significantly inhibited ligand-dependent CXCR4 internalization and attenuated CXCR4-mediated intracellular calcium mobilization and activation of extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2). CXCL12-induced chemotaxis of HEK293 cells stably expressing CXCR4 and of Jurkat T cells was inhibited by the plectin RNAi. Moreover, CXCR4 tropic HIV-1 infection in MAGI (HeLa-CD4-LTR-Gal) cells was inhibited by the RNAi of plectin. Thus, plectin appears to interact with CXCR4 and plays an important role in CXCR4 signaling and trafficking and HIV-1 infection

  5. CXCR4-specific Nanobodies as potential therapeutics for WHIM syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Wit, Raymond H; Heukers, Raimond; Brink, Hendrik

    2017-01-01

    WHIM syndrome is a rare congenital immunodeficiency disease, named after its main clinical manifestations: Warts, Hypogammaglobulinemia, Infections and Myelokathexis. The disease is primarily caused by C-terminal truncation mutations of the chemokine receptor CXCR4. Consequently, these CXCR4-WHIM...... as alternative therapeutics for CXCR4-associated diseases like WHIM syndrome....

  6. Engineering HIV-resistant human CD4+ T cells with CXCR4-specific zinc-finger nucleases.

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    Craig B Wilen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 entry requires the cell surface expression of CD4 and either the CCR5 or CXCR4 coreceptors on host cells. Individuals homozygous for the ccr5Δ32 polymorphism do not express CCR5 and are protected from infection by CCR5-tropic (R5 virus strains. As an approach to inactivating CCR5, we introduced CCR5-specific zinc-finger nucleases into human CD4+ T cells prior to adoptive transfer, but the need to protect cells from virus strains that use CXCR4 (X4 in place of or in addition to CCR5 (R5X4 remains. Here we describe engineering a pair of zinc finger nucleases that, when introduced into human T cells, efficiently disrupt cxcr4 by cleavage and error-prone non-homologous DNA end-joining. The resulting cells proliferated normally and were resistant to infection by X4-tropic HIV-1 strains. CXCR4 could also be inactivated in ccr5Δ32 CD4+ T cells, and we show that such cells were resistant to all strains of HIV-1 tested. Loss of CXCR4 also provided protection from X4 HIV-1 in a humanized mouse model, though this protection was lost over time due to the emergence of R5-tropic viral mutants. These data suggest that CXCR4-specific ZFNs may prove useful in establishing resistance to CXCR4-tropic HIV for autologous transplant in HIV-infected individuals.

  7. Synaptotagmin 3 deficiency in T cells impairs recycling of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 and thereby inhibits CXCL12 chemokine-induced migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masztalerz, Agnieszka; Zeelenberg, Ingrid S; Wijnands, Yvonne M; de Bruijn, Rosalie; Drager, Angelika M; Janssen, Hans; Roos, Ed

    2007-01-15

    Synaptotagmins regulate vesicle trafficking and fusion of vesicles with membranes - processes that have been implicated in cell migration. We therefore hypothesized that synaptotagmins play a role in T-cell migration. Amongst synaptotagmins 1-11, we found synaptotagmin 3 (SYT3) to be the only one that is expressed in T cells. CXCR4-triggered migration was inhibited by antisense synaptotagmin 3 mRNA and by the isolated C2B domain, known to impair oligomerization of all synaptotagmins, but not by a C2B mutant that binds Ca(2+) but does not block oligomerization. The C2B domain also blocked CXCR4-triggered actin polymerization and invasion. However, CXCR4-dependent adhesion in flow was not affected. Surprisingly, we found that little or no SYT3 is present near the plasma membrane but that it is mainly localized in multivesicular bodies, which also contained much of the CXCR4. Impaired SYT3 function blocked CXCR4 recycling and thus led to reduced surface levels of CXCR4. Migration was restored by overexpression of CXCR4. We conclude that STT3 is essential for CXCR4 recycling in T cells and thereby for the maintenance of high CXCR4 surface levels required for migration.

  8. Mutation of Asp(171) and Asp(262) of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 impairs its coreceptor function for human immunodeficiency virus-1 entry and abrogates the antagonistic activity of AMD3100

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatse, S; Princen, K; Gerlach, L O

    2001-01-01

    by mutational analysis. We established a set of stably transfected U87.CD4 cell lines expressing different mutant forms of CXCR4 (i.e., CXCR4[WT], CXCR4[D171N], CXCR4[D262N], CXCR4[D171N,D262N], and CXCR4[H281A]), to compare the activity of the compound against mutated versus wild-type CXCR4. We found...... by substitution of Asp(171) and/or Asp(262) by neutral asparagine residue(s). Both aspartates, but most particularly Asp(262), also proved essential for the anti-HIV-1 activity of AMD3100 against the viruses NL4.3, IIIB, and HE. In contrast, substitution of His(281) by a neutral alanine potentiated...

  9. Development of a Unique Small Molecule Modulator of CXCR4

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    Yoon, Younghyoun; Lin, Songbai; Sasaki, Maiko; Klapproth, Jan-Michael A.; Yang, Hua; Grossniklaus, Hans E.; Xu, Jianguo; Rojas, Mauricio; Voll, Ronald J.; Goodman, Mark M.; Arrendale, Richard F.; Liu, Jin; Yun, C. Chris; Snyder, James P.; Liotta, Dennis C.; Shim, Hyunsuk

    2012-01-01

    Background Metastasis, the spread and growth of tumor cells to distant organ sites, represents the most devastating attribute and plays a major role in the morbidity and mortality of cancer. Inflammation is crucial for malignant tumor transformation and survival. Thus, blocking inflammation is expected to serve as an effective cancer treatment. Among anti-inflammation therapies, chemokine modulation is now beginning to emerge from the pipeline. CXC chemokine receptor-4 (CXCR4) and its ligand stromal cell-derived factor-1 (CXCL12) interaction and the resulting cell signaling cascade have emerged as highly relevant targets since they play pleiotropic roles in metastatic progression. The unique function of CXCR4 is to promote the homing of tumor cells to their microenvironment at the distant organ sites. Methodology/Principal Findings We describe the actions of N,N′-(1,4-phenylenebis(methylene))dipyrimidin-2-amine (designated MSX-122), a novel small molecule and partial CXCR4 antagonist with properties quite unlike that of any other reported CXCR4 antagonists, which was prepared in a single chemical step using a reductive amination reaction. Its specificity toward CXCR4 was tested in a binding affinity assay and a ligand competition assay using 18F-labeled MSX-122. The potency of the compound was determined in two functional assays, Matrigel invasion assay and cAMP modulation. The therapeutic potential of MSX-122 was evaluated in three different murine models for inflammation including an experimental colitis, carrageenan induced paw edema, and bleomycin induced lung fibrosis and three different animal models for metastasis including breast cancer micrometastasis in lung, head and neck cancer metastasis in lung, and uveal melanoma micrometastasis in liver in which CXCR4 was reported to play crucial roles. Conclusions/Significance We developed a novel small molecule, MSX-122, that is a partial CXCR4 antagonist without mobilizing stem cells, which can be safer for

  10. Development of a unique small molecule modulator of CXCR4.

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    Zhongxing Liang

    Full Text Available Metastasis, the spread and growth of tumor cells to distant organ sites, represents the most devastating attribute and plays a major role in the morbidity and mortality of cancer. Inflammation is crucial for malignant tumor transformation and survival. Thus, blocking inflammation is expected to serve as an effective cancer treatment. Among anti-inflammation therapies, chemokine modulation is now beginning to emerge from the pipeline. CXC chemokine receptor-4 (CXCR4 and its ligand stromal cell-derived factor-1 (CXCL12 interaction and the resulting cell signaling cascade have emerged as highly relevant targets since they play pleiotropic roles in metastatic progression. The unique function of CXCR4 is to promote the homing of tumor cells to their microenvironment at the distant organ sites.We describe the actions of N,N'-(1,4-phenylenebis(methylenedipyrimidin-2-amine (designated MSX-122, a novel small molecule and partial CXCR4 antagonist with properties quite unlike that of any other reported CXCR4 antagonists, which was prepared in a single chemical step using a reductive amination reaction. Its specificity toward CXCR4 was tested in a binding affinity assay and a ligand competition assay using (18F-labeled MSX-122. The potency of the compound was determined in two functional assays, Matrigel invasion assay and cAMP modulation. The therapeutic potential of MSX-122 was evaluated in three different murine models for inflammation including an experimental colitis, carrageenan induced paw edema, and bleomycin induced lung fibrosis and three different animal models for metastasis including breast cancer micrometastasis in lung, head and neck cancer metastasis in lung, and uveal melanoma micrometastasis in liver in which CXCR4 was reported to play crucial roles.We developed a novel small molecule, MSX-122, that is a partial CXCR4 antagonist without mobilizing stem cells, which can be safer for long-term blockade of metastasis than other reported CXCR4

  11. Targeting CXCR4 in HIV Cell-Entry Inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steen, Anne; Schwartz, T W; Rosenkilde, M M

    2010-01-01

    CXCR4 and CCR5 constitute the two major coreceptors for HIV-1 entry into host cells. In the course of an HIV-infection, a coreceptor switch takes place in approximately half of the patients - from R5 HIV-1 (CCR5 utilizing) strains to X4 HIV-1 (CXCR4 utilizing) strains. Treatment of HIV......-infected individuals with CXCR4 antagonists delays the onset of AIDS by preventing the CCR5 to CXCR4 coreceptor switch. In addition to the endogenous CXCR4 and CCR5 ligands, other chemokines, for example the human herpesvirus 8 encoded CC-chemokine, vCCL2, and modifications hereof, have proven efficient HIV-1 cell...... no oral bioavailability. The hunt for orally active small-molecule CXCR4 antagonists led to the development of monocyclam-based compounds, and recently to the non-cyclam antagonist AMD070, which is orally active and currently in Phase II clinical trial as anti-HIV treatment. Current review provides...

  12. Increased BRAF Heterodimerization Is the Common Pathogenic Mechanism for Noonan Syndrome-Associated RAF1 Mutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xue; Yin, Jiani; Simpson, Jeremy; Kim, Kyoung-Han; Gu, Shengqing; Hong, Jenny H.; Bayliss, Peter; Backx, Peter H.

    2012-01-01

    Noonan syndrome (NS) is a relatively common autosomal dominant disorder characterized by congenital heart defects, short stature, and facial dysmorphia. NS is caused by germ line mutations in several components of the RAS–RAF–MEK–extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, including both kinase-activating and kinase-impaired alleles of RAF1 (∼3 to 5%), which encodes a serine-threonine kinase for MEK1/2. To investigate how kinase-impaired RAF1 mutants cause NS, we generated knock-in mice expressing Raf1D486N. Raf1D486N/+ (here D486N/+) female mice exhibited a mild growth defect. Male and female D486N/D486N mice developed concentric cardiac hypertrophy and incompletely penetrant, but severe, growth defects. Remarkably, Mek/Erk activation was enhanced in Raf1D486N-expressing cells compared with controls. RAF1D486N, as well as other kinase-impaired RAF1 mutants, showed increased heterodimerization with BRAF, which was necessary and sufficient to promote increased MEK/ERK activation. Furthermore, kinase-activating RAF1 mutants also required heterodimerization to enhance MEK/ERK activation. Our results suggest that an increased heterodimerization ability is the common pathogenic mechanism for NS-associated RAF1 mutations. PMID:22826437

  13. CXCR4 expression in feline mammary carcinoma cells: evidence of a proliferative role for the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis

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    Ferrari Angelo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mammary tumours frequently develop in female domestic cats being highly malignant in a large percentage of cases. Chemokines regulate many physiological and pathological processes including organogenesis, chemotaxis of inflammatory cells, as well as tumour progression and metastasization. In particular, the chemokine/receptor pair SDF-1/CXCR4 has been involved in the regulation of metastatic potential of neoplastic cells, including breast cancer. The aim of this study was the immunohistochemical defininition of the expression profile of CXCR4 in primary and metastatic feline mammary carcinomas and the evaluation of the role of SDF-1 in feline mammary tumour cell proliferation. Results A total of 45 mammary surgical samples, including 33 primary tumours (31 carcinomas and 2 adenomas, 6 metastases, and 4 normal mammary tissues were anlyzed. Tumor samples were collected from a total number of 26 animals, as in some cases concurrent occurrence of neoplasm in more than one mammary gland was observed. Tissues were processed for standard histological examination, and all lesions were classified according to the World Health Organization criteria. CXCR4 expression in neoplastic cells was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. The level of CXCR4 immunoreactivity was semi-quantitatively estimated as CXCR4 score evaluating both the number of positive cells and the intensity of staining. Six primary, fibroblast-free primary cultures were obtained from fresh feline mammary carcinomas and characterized by immunofluorescence for CXCR4 and malignant mammary cell marker expression. SDF-1-dependent in vitro proliferative effects were also assayed. CXCR4 expression was observed in 29 out of 31 malignant tissues with a higher CXCR4 score observed in 4 out of 6 metastatic lesions than in the respective primary tumours. In 2 benign lesions analyzed, only the single basaloid adenoma showed a mild positive immunostaining against CXCR4. Normal tissue did

  14. Determination of the binding mode for the cyclopentapeptide CXCR4 antagonist FC131 using a dual approach of ligand modifications and receptor mutagenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiele, Stefanie; Mungalpara, J; Steen, A

    2014-01-01

    have previously been suggested based on molecular docking guided by structure-activity relationship (SAR) data; however, none of these have been verified by in vitro experiments. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Heterologous (125) I-12G5-competition binding and functional assays (inhibition of CXCL12-mediated...... activation) of FC131 and three analogues were performed on wild-type CXCR4 and 25 receptor mutants. Computational modelling was used to rationalize the experimental data. KEY RESULTS: The Arg(2) and 2-Nal(3) side chains of FC131 interact with residues in TM-3 (His(113) , Asp(171) ) and TM-5 (hydrophobic......-bond in CXCR4 crystal structures and mutation of either residue to Ala abolishes CXCR4 activity. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Ligand modification, receptor mutagenesis and computational modelling approaches were used to identify the binding mode of FC131 in CXCR4, which was in agreement with binding modes...

  15. Suicide gene reveals the myocardial neovascularization role of mesenchymal stem cells overexpressing CXCR4 (MSC(CXCR4.

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    Jialiang Liang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Our previous studies indicated that MSC(CXCR4 improved cardiac function after myocardial infarction (MI. This study was aimed to investigate the specific role of MSC(CXCR4 in neovascularization of infarcted myocardium using a suicide gene approach. METHODS: MSCs were transduced with either lentivirus-null vector/GFP (MSC(Null as control or vector encoding for overexpressing CXCR4/GFP. The MSC derived-endothelial cell (EC differentiation was assessed by a tube formation assay, Dil-ac-LDL uptake, EC marker expression, and VE-cadherin promoter activity assay. Gene expression was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR or Western blot. The suicide gene approach was under the control of VE-cadherin promoter. In vivo studies: Cell patches containing MSC(Null or MSC(CXCR4 were transduced with suicide gene and implanted into the myocardium of MI rat. Rats received either ganciclovir (GCV or vehicle after cell implantation. After one month, the cardiac functional changes and neovascularization were assessed by echocardiography, histological analysis, and micro-CT imaging. RESULTS: The expression of VEGF-A and HIF-1α was significantly higher in MSC(CXCR4 as compared to MSC(Null under hypoxia. Additionally, MSC(CXCR4 enhanced new vessel formation and EC differentiation, as well as STAT3 phosphorylation under hypoxia. STAT3 participated in the transcription of VE-cadherin in MSC(CXCR4 under hypoxia, which was inhibited by WP1066 (a STAT3 inhibitor. In addition, GCV specifically induced death of ECs with suicide gene activation. In vivo studies: MSC(CXCR4 implantation promoted cardiac functional restoration, reduced infarct size, improved cardiac remodeling, and enhanced neovascularization in ischemic heart tissue. New vessels derived from MSC(CXCR4 were observed at the injured heart margins and communicated with native coronary arteries. However, the derived vessel networks were reduced by GCV, reversing improvement of cardiac function. CONCLUSION: The

  16. Discovery and Characterization of an Endogenous CXCR4 Antagonist

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    Onofrio Zirafi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available CXCL12-CXCR4 signaling controls multiple physiological processes and its dysregulation is associated with cancers and inflammatory diseases. To discover as-yet-unknown endogenous ligands of CXCR4, we screened a blood-derived peptide library for inhibitors of CXCR4-tropic HIV-1 strains. This approach identified a 16 amino acid fragment of serum albumin as an effective and highly specific CXCR4 antagonist. The endogenous peptide, termed EPI-X4, is evolutionarily conserved and generated from the highly abundant albumin precursor by pH-regulated proteases. EPI-X4 forms an unusual lasso-like structure and antagonizes CXCL12-induced tumor cell migration, mobilizes stem cells, and suppresses inflammatory responses in mice. Furthermore, the peptide is abundant in the urine of patients with inflammatory kidney diseases and may serve as a biomarker. Our results identify EPI-X4 as a key regulator of CXCR4 signaling and introduce proteolysis of an abundant precursor protein as an alternative concept for chemokine receptor regulation.

  17. New dimensions in CXCR4 and Rac1 regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoughlami, Y.

    2013-01-01

    To gain more insights in the molecular mechanisms regulating cellular migration, which is an important process involved in beneficial biological processes as well as in pathological conditions, we focused our research on two crucial proteins, i,e. the chemokine receptor CXCR4 and the small GTPase

  18. A novel CXCR4-targeted near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent probe (Peptide R-NIR750) specifically detects CXCR4 expressing tumors.

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    Santagata, Sara; Portella, Luigi; Napolitano, Maria; Greco, Adelaide; D'Alterio, Crescenzo; Barone, Maria Vittoria; Luciano, Antonio; Gramanzini, Matteo; Auletta, Luigi; Arra, Claudio; Zannetti, Antonella; Scala, Stefania

    2017-05-31

    C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) is over-expressed in multiple human cancers and correlates with tumor aggressiveness, poor prognosis and increased risk for distant metastases. Imaging agents for CXCR4 are thus highly desirable. We developed a novel CXCR4-targeted near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent probe (Peptide R-NIR750) conjugating the new developed CXCR4 peptidic antagonist Peptide R with the NIR fluorescent dye VivoTag-S750. Specific CXCR4 binding was obtained in cells overexpressing human CXCR4 (B16-hCXCR4 and human melanoma cells PES43), but not in CXCR4 low expressing cells (FB-1). Ex vivo evaluation demonstrated that PepR-NIR750 specifically detects B16-hCXCR4-derived subcutaneous tumors and lung metastases. Fluorescence Molecular Tomography (FMT) in vivo imaging was performed on mice carrying subcutaneous CHO and CHO-CXCR4 tumors. PepR-NIR750 accumulates only in CXCR4-positive expressing subcutaneous tumors. Additionally, an intense NIR fluorescence signal was detected in PES43-derived lung metastases of nude mice injected with PepR-NIR750 versus mice injected with VivoTag-S750. With a therapeutic intent, mice bearing PES43-derived lung metastases were treated with Peptide R. A the dramatic reduction in PES43-derived lung metastases was detected through a decrease of the PepR-NIR750 signal. PepR-NIR750 is a specific probe for non-invasive detection of human high CXCR4-expressing tumors and metastatic lesion and thus a valuable tool for cancer molecular imaging.

  19. Comparison of cell-based assays for the identification and evaluation of competitive CXCR4 inhibitors.

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    Anneleen Van Hout

    Full Text Available The chemokine receptor CXCR4 is activated by its unique chemokine ligand CXCL12 and regulates many physiological and developmental processes such as hematopoietic cell trafficking. CXCR4 is also one of the main co-receptors for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV entry. Dysfunction of the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis contributes to several human pathologies, including cancer and inflammatory diseases. Consequently, inhibition of CXCR4 activation is recognized as an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. In this regard, numerous agents modifying CXCR4 activity have been evaluated in in vitro experimental studies and pre-clinical models. Here, we evaluated a CXCL12 competition binding assay for its potential as a valuable initial screen for functional and competitive CXCR4 inhibitors. In total, 11 structurally diverse compounds were included in a side-by-side comparison of in vitro CXCR4 cell-based assays, such as CXCL12 competition binding, CXCL12-induced calcium signaling, CXCR4 internalization, CXCL12-guided cell migration and CXCR4-specific HIV-1 replication experiments. Our data indicated that agents that inhibit CXCL12 binding, i.e. the anti-CXCR4 peptide analogs T22, T140 and TC14012 and the small molecule antagonists AMD3100, AMD3465, AMD11070 and IT1t showed inhibitory activity with consistent relative potencies in all further applied CXCR4-related assays. Accordingly, agents exerting no or very weak receptor binding (i.e., CTCE-9908, WZ811, Me6TREN and gambogic acid showed no or very poor anti-CXCR4 inhibitory activity. Thus, CXCL12 competition binding studies were proven to be highly valuable as an initial screening assay and indicative for the pharmacological and functional profile of competitive CXCR4 antagonists, which will help the design of new potent CXCR4 inhibitors.

  20. A radiogallium-DOTA-based bivalent peptidic ligand targeting a chemokine receptor, CXCR4, for tumor imaging.

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    Sano, Kohei; Masuda, Ryo; Hisada, Hayato; Oishi, Shinya; Shimokawa, Kenta; Ono, Masahiro; Fujii, Nobutaka; Saji, Hideo; Mukai, Takahiro

    2014-03-01

    We have developed a novel radiogallium (Ga)-DOTA-based bivalent peptidic ligand targeting a chemokine receptor, CXCR4, for tumor imaging. A CXCR4 imaging probe with two CXCR4 antagonists (Ac-TZ14011) on Ga-DOTA core, Ga-DOTA-TZ2, was synthesized, and the affinity and binding to CXCR4 was evaluated in CXCR4 expressing cells in vitro. The affinity of Ga-DOTA-TZ2 for CXCR4 was 20-fold greater than the corresponding monovalent probe, Ga-DOTA-TZ1. (67)Ga-DOTA-TZ2 showed the significantly higher accumulation in CXCR4-expressing tumor cells compared with (67)Ga-DOTA-TZ1, suggesting the bivalent effect enhances its binding to CXCR4. The incorporation of two CXCR4 antagonists to Ga-DOTA could be effective in detecting CXCR4-expressing tumors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Loss of anti-Bax function in Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome-associated prion protein mutants.

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    Julie Jodoin

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Previously, we have shown the loss of anti-Bax function in Creutzfeldt Jakob disease (CJD-associated prion protein (PrP mutants that are unable to generate cytosolic PrP (CyPrP. To determine if the anti-Bax function of PrP modulates the manifestation of prion diseases, we further investigated the anti-Bax function of eight familial Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker Syndrome (GSS-associated PrP mutants. These PrP mutants contained their respective methionine ((M or valine ((V at codon 129. All of the mutants lost their ability to prevent Bax-mediated chromatin condensation or DNA fragmentation in primary human neurons. In the breast carcinoma MCF-7 cells, the F198S(V, D202N(V, P102L(V and Q217R(V retained, whereas the P102L(M, P105L(V, Y145stop(M and Q212P(M PrP mutants lost their ability to inhibit Bax-mediated condensed chromatin. The inhibition of Bax-mediated condensed chromatin depended on the ability of the mutants to generate cytosolic PrP. However, except for the P102L(V, none of the mutants significantly inhibited Bax-mediated caspase activation. These results show that the cytosolic PrP generated from the GSS mutants is not as efficient as wild type PrP in inhibiting Bax-mediated cell death. Furthermore, these results indicate that the anti-Bax function is also disrupted in GSS-associated PrP mutants and is not associated with the difference between CJD and GSS.

  2. Hypoxia increases the metastatic ability of breast cancer cells via upregulation of CXCR4

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cronin, Patricia A

    2010-05-21

    Abstract Background Chemokine SDF1α and its unique receptor CXCR4 have been implicated in organ-specific metastases of many cancers including breast cancer. Hypoxia is a common feature of solid tumors and is associated with their malignant phenotype. We hypothesized that hypoxia would upregulate CXCR4 expression and lead to increased chemotactic responsiveness to its specific ligand SDF1α. Methods Three breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231, MCF7 and 4T1 were subjected to 48 hrs of hypoxia or normoxia. Cell surface receptor expression was evaluated using flow cytometry. An extracellular matrix invasion assay and microporous migration assay was used to assess chemotactic response and metastatic ability. Results CXCR4 surface expression was significantly increased in the two human breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and MCF7, following exposure to hypoxia. This upregulation of CXCR4 cell surface expression corresponded to a significant increase in migration and invasion in response to SDF1-α in vitro. The increase in metastatic potential of both the normoxic and the hypoxic treated breast cancer cell lines was attenuated by neutralization of CXCR4 with a CXCR4 neutralizing mAb, MAB172 or a CXCR4 antagonist, AMD3100, showing the relationship between CXCR4 overexpression and increased chemotactic responsiveness. Conclusions CXCR4 expression can be modulated by the tissue microenvironment such as hypoxia. Upregulation of CXCR4 is associated with increased migratory and invasive potential and this effect can be abrogated by CXCR4 inhibition. Chemokine receptor CXCR4 is a potential therapeutic target in the adjuvant treatment of breast cancer.

  3. Silencing of CXCR4 inhibits tumor cell proliferation and neural invasion in human hilar cholangiocarcinoma.

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    Tan, Xin-Yu; Chang, Shi; Liu, Wei; Tang, Hui-Huan

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the expression of CXC motif chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) in the tissues of patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma (hilar-CCA) and to investigate the cell proliferation and frequency of neural invasion (NI) influenced by RNAi-mediated CXCR4 silencing. An immunohistochemical technique was used to detect the expression of CXCR4 in 41 clinical tissues, including hilar-CCA, cholangitis, and normal bile duct tissues. The effects of small interference RNA (siRNA)-mediated CXCR4 silencing were detected in the hilar-CCA cell line QBC939. Cell proliferation was determined by MTT. Expression of CXCR4 was monitored by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. The NI ability of hilar-CCA cells was evaluated using a perineural cell and hilar-CCA cell coculture migration assay. The expression of CXCR4 was significantly induced in clinical hilar-CCA tissue. There was a positive correlation between the expression of CXCR4 and lymph node metastasis/NI in hilar-CCA patients (philar-CCA. CXCR4 is involved in the invasion and proliferation of human hilar-CCA cell line QBC939, indicating that CXCR4 could be a promising therapeutic target for hilar-CCA.

  4. Coexpression of EGFR and CXCR4 predicts poor prognosis in resected pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

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    Huanwen Wu

    Full Text Available Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR is highly expressed in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC and is involved in tumorigenesis and development. However, EGFR expression alone has limited clinical and prognostic significance. Recently, the cross-talk between EGFR and G-protein-coupled chemokine receptor CXCR4 has become increasingly recognized.In the present study, immunohistochemical staining of EGFR and CXCR4 was performed on paraffin-embedded specimens from 131 patients with surgically resected PDAC. Subsequently, the associations between EGFR expression, CXCR4 expression, EGFR/CXCR4 coexpression and clinicopathologic factors were assessed, and survival analyses were performed.In total, 64 (48.9% patients expressed EGFR, 68 (51.9% expressed CXCR4, and 33 (25.2% coexpressed EGFR and CXCR4. No significant association between EGFR and CXCR4 expression was observed (P = 0.938. EGFR expression significantly correlated with tumor differentiation (P = 0.031, whereas CXCR4 expression significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis (P = 0.001. EGFR/CXCR4 coexpression was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis (P = 0.026, TNM stage (P = 0.048, and poor tumor differentiation (P = 0.004. By univariate survival analysis, both CXCR4 expression and EGFR/CXCR4 coexpression were significant prognostic factors for poor disease-free survival (DFS and overall survival (OS. Moreover, EGFR/CXCR4 coexpression significantly increased the hazard ratio for both recurrence and death compared with EGFR or CXCR4 protein expression alone. Multivariate survival analysis demonstrated that EGFR/CXCR4 coexpression was an independent prognostic factor for DFS (HR = 2.33, P<0.001 and OS (HR = 2.48, P = 0.001.In conclusion, our data indicate that although EGFR expression alone has limited clinical and prognostic significance, EGFR/CXCR4 coexpression identified a subset of PDAC patients with more aggressive tumor characteristics and a significantly worse

  5. Differential expression and prognostic value of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 in bronchopulmonary neuroendocrine neoplasms

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    Specht, Elisa; Wirtz, Ralph M.; Sayeg, Manal; Baum, Richard P.; Schulz, Stefan; Lupp, Amelie

    2015-01-01

    Introduction For many tumors, the overexpression of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 is associated with increased malignancy and poor patient outcomes. However, comprehensive data for neuroendocrine neoplasms of the lung are still lacking. Methods CXCR4 expression was evaluated in a panel of bronchopulmonary neuroendocrine neoplasms (BP-NEN) comprising typical carcinoids (n = 26), atypical carcinoids (n = 30), and small cell lung cancers (SCLC, n = 34). Samples were analyzed by immunohistochemistry using the novel monoclonal rabbit anti-human CXCR4 antibody UMB-2 and by qRT-PCR. The expression was correlated with clinical data and overall patient survival. Results CXCR4 was predominantly localized at the plasma membrane of the tumor cells. CXCR4 was expressed with a high intensity in almost all of the 30 SCLC samples. In contrast, it was detected infrequently and with low intensity in the typical carcinoid and atypical carcinoid samples. There was a significant correlation between the immunohistochemistry and qRT-PCR data. Additionally, there was a significant negative relationship between CXCR4 expression and overall survival. Conclusions With increasing malignancy, BP-NEN clearly differ in the extent of CXCR4 expression. As in other tumor entities, CXCR4 overexpression significantly correlates with negative patient outcome. Due to its particular high expression rate in SCLC, CXCR4 may serve as a promising new target for diagnostic and pharmacological intervention as well as for peptide receptor-based radionuclide therapy. PMID:25671300

  6. Development of CXCR4 modulators by virtual HTS of a novel amide-sulfamide compound library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Renren; Shi, Qi; Liang, Zhongxing; Yoon, Younghyoun; Han, Yiran; Feng, Amber; Liu, Shuangping; Oum, Yoonhyeun; Yun, C Chris; Shim, Hyunsuk

    2017-01-27

    CXCR4 plays a crucial role in recruitment of inflammatory cells to inflammation sites at the beginning of the disease process. Modulating CXCR4 functions presents a new avenue for anti-inflammatory strategies. However, using CXCR4 antagonists for a long term usage presents potential serious side effect due to their stem cell mobilizing property. We have been developing partial CXCR4 antagonists without such property. A new computer-aided drug design program, the FRESH workflow, was used for anti-CXCR4 lead compound discovery and optimization, which coupled both compound library building and CXCR4 docking screens in one campaign. Based on the designed parent framework, 30 prioritized amide-sulfamide structures were obtained after systemic filtering and docking screening. Twelve compounds were prepared from the top-30 list. Most synthesized compounds exhibited good to excellent binding affinity to CXCR4. Compounds Ig and Im demonstrated notable in vivo suppressive activity against xylene-induced mouse ear inflammation (with 56% and 54% inhibition). Western blot analyses revealed that Ig significantly blocked CXCR4/CXCL12-mediated phosphorylation of Akt. Moreover, Ig attenuated the amount of TNF-α secreted by pathogenic E. coli-infected macrophages. More importantly, Ig had no observable cytotoxicity. Our results demonstrated that FRESH virtual high throughput screening program of targeted chemical class could successfully find potent lead compounds, and the amide-sulfamide pharmacophore was a novel and effective framework blocking CXCR4 function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. The chemokine receptor CXCR4 is required for outgrowth of colon carcinoma micrometastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeelenberg, Ingrid S; Ruuls-Van Stalle, Lisette; Roos, Ed

    2003-07-01

    CXCR4, the receptor for the chemokine stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1 (CXCL12), is involved in lymphocyte trafficking. We have demonstrated previously that it is required for invasion of lymphoma cells into tissues and therefore essential for lymphoma metastasis. CXCR4 is also expressed by carcinoma cells, and CXCR4 antibodies were recently shown to reduce metastasis of a mammary carcinoma cell line. This was also ascribed to impaired invasion. We have blocked CXCR4 function in CT-26 colon carcinoma cells by transfection of SDF-1, extended with a KDEL sequence. The SDF-KDEL protein is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum by the KDEL-receptor and binds CXCR4, which is thus prevented from reaching the cell surface. We found that metastasis of these cells to liver and lungs was greatly reduced and often completely blocked. Surprisingly, however, our observations indicate that this was not attributable to inhibition of invasion but rather to impairment of outgrowth of micrometastases: (a) in contrast to the lymphoma cells, metastasis was not affected by the transfected S1 subunit of pertussis toxin. S1 completely inhibited Gi protein signaling, which is required for SDF-1-induced invasion; (b) CXCR4 levels were very low in CT-26 cells grown in vitro but strongly up-regulated in vivo. Strong up-regulation was not seen in the lungs until 7 days after tail vein injection. CXCR4 can thus have no role in initial invasion in the lungs; and (c) CXCR4-deficient cells did colonize the lungs to the same extent as control cells and survived. However, they did not expand, whereas control cells proliferated rapidly after a lag period of > or = 7 days. We conclude that CXCR4 is up-regulated by the microenvironment and that isolated metastatic cells are likely to require CXCR4 signals to initiate proliferation. Our results suggest that CXCR4 inhibitors have potential as anticancer agents to suppress outgrowth of micrometastases.

  8. Downregulation of CXCR4 Expression and Functionality After Zoledronate Exposure in Canine Osteosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrum, M L; Pondenis, H C; Fredrickson, R L; Wycislo, K L; Fan, T M

    2016-07-01

    The establishment and progression of metastases remains the life-limiting factor for dogs diagnosed with osteosarcoma (OS). The pattern of metastases is likely regulated through interactions between chemokine receptors and chemokines, and perturbations in these signaling cascades responsible for cytoskeletal organization and directional migration have the potential to alter metastatic cell trafficking behaviors. Zoledronate will impair directional migration of OS cells through downregulation of chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 4 (CXCR4) expression and functionality. Nineteen archived tumor specimens and plasma from 20 dogs with OS. Prospectively, the expressions of CXCR4 were studied in OS cell lines and spontaneous tumor samples. The effect of zoledronate on CXCR4 expression and functionality was investigated by characterizing responses in 3 OS cell lines. In 19 OS specimens and 20 dogs with OS, changes in CXCR4 expression and circulating CXCR4 concentrations were characterized in response to zoledronate therapy respectively. All canine OS cells express CXCR4, and zoledronate reduces CXCR4 expression and functionality by 27.7% (P < .0001), through augmented proteasome degradation and reduced prenylation of heterotrimeric G-proteins in 33% of tumor cell lines evaluated. In OS-bearing dogs, zoledronate reduces CXCR4 expressions by 40% within the primary tumor compared to untreated controls (P = .03) and also decreases the circulating concentrations of CXCR4 in 18 of 20 dogs with OS. Zoledronate can alter CXCR4 expression and functionality in OS cells, and consequent perturbations in CXCR4 intracellular signaling cascades might influence patterns of metastases. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  9. Cationized dextran nanoparticle-encapsulated CXCR4-siRNA enhanced correlation between CXCR4 expression and serum alkaline phosphatase in a mouse model of colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abedini F

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Fatemeh Abedini,1 Hossein Hosseinkhani,2 Maznah Ismail,1,3 Abraham J Domb,4 Abdul Rahman Omar,1,5 Pei Pei Chong,1,2 Po-Da Hong,3 Dah-Shyong Yu,6 Ira-Yudovin Farber41Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, 2Graduate Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei, Taiwan, 3Faculty of Medicine & Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia, 4Institute of Drug Research, The Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, School of Pharmacy-Faculty of Medicine, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel, 5Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia, 6Nanomedicine Research Center, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, TaiwanPurpose: The failure of colorectal cancer treatments is partly due to overexpression of CXCR4 by tumor cells, which plays a critical role in cell metastasis. Moreover, serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP levels are frequently elevated in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. A polysaccharide, dextran, was chosen as the vector of siRNA. Spermine was conjugated to oxidized dextran by reductive amination process to obtain cationized dextran, so-called dextran-spermine, in order to prepare CXCR4-siRNAs/dextran-spermine nanoparticles. The fabricated nanoparticles were used in order to investigate whether downregulation of CXCR4 expression could affect serum ALP in mouse models of colorectal cancer.Methods: Colorectal cancer was established in BALB/C mice following injection of mouse colon carcinoma cells CT.26WT through the tail vein. CXCR4 siRNA for two sites of the target gene was administered following injection of naked siRNA or siRNA encapsulated into nanoparticles.Results: In vivo animal data revealed that CXCR4 silencing by dextran-spermine nanoparticles significantly downregulated CXCR4 expression compared with naked CXCR4 siRNA. Furthermore, there was

  10. Peptide-Functionalized Luminescent Iridium Complexes for Lifetime Imaging of CXCR4 Expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuil, J.; Steunenberg, P.; Chin, P.T.K.; Oldenburg, J.; Jalink, K.; Velders, A.H.; Leeuwen, F.W.B. van

    2011-01-01

    The chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) is over-expressed in 23 types of cancer in which it plays a role in, among others, the metastatic spread. For this reason it is a potential biomarker for the field of diagnostic oncology. The antagonistic Ac-TZ14011 peptide, which binds to CXCR4, has been conjugated

  11. AMD3465, a monomacrocyclic CXCR4 antagonist and potent HIV entry inhibitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatse, Sigrid; Princen, Katrien; De Clercq, Erik

    2005-01-01

    The chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR4 function as coreceptors for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and are attractive targets for the development of anti-HIV drugs. The most potent CXCR4 antagonists described until today are the bicyclams. The prototype compound, AMD3100, exhibits potent and s...

  12. Prognostic value of CXCL12 and CXCR4 in inoperable head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rave-Fraenk, Margret; Tehrany, Narges; Leu, Martin; Weber, Hanne Elisabeth; Wolff, Hendrik Andreas [University Medical Center Goettingen, Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Goettingen (Germany); Kitz, Julia [University Medical Center Goettingen, Department of Pathology, Goettingen (Germany); Burfeind, Peter [University Medical Center Goettingen, Department of Human Genetics, Goettingen (Germany); Schliephake, Henning [University Medical Center Goettingen, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Goettingen (Germany); Canis, Martin [University Medical Center Goettingen, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Goettingen (Germany); Beissbarth, Tim [University Medical Center Goettingen, Institute of Medical Statistics, Goettingen (Germany); Reichardt, Holger Michael [University Medical Center Goettingen, Institute for Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Goettingen (Germany)

    2016-01-15

    The chemokine CXCL12 and its receptor CXCR4 can affect tumor growth, recurrence, and metastasis. We tested the hypothesis that the CXCL12 and CXCR4 expression influences the prognosis of patients with inoperable head and neck cancer treated with definite radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded pretreatment tumor tissue from 233 patients with known HPV/p16{sup INK4A} status was analyzed. CXCL12 and CXCR4 expressions were correlated with pretreatment parameters and survival data by univariate and multivariate Cox regression. CXCL12 was expressed in 43.3 % and CXCR4 in 66.1 % of the samples and both were correlated with HPV/p16{sup INK4A} positivity. A high CXCL12 expression was associated with increased overall survival (p = 0.036), while a high CXCR4 expression was associated with decreased metastasis-free survival (p = 0.034). A high CXCR4 expression could be regarded as a negative prognostic factor in head and neck cancer because it may foster metastatic spread. This may recommend CXCR4 as therapeutic target for combating head and neck cancer metastasis. (orig.) [German] Das Chemokin CXCL12 und sein Rezeptor CXCR4 beeinflussen Tumorwachstum, Auftreten von Rezidiven und Metastasierung. Es wurde die Hypothese geprueft, dass ein Zusammenhang der CXCL12- und CXCR4-Expression mit der Prognose von Patienten bestehe, die wegen eines inoperablen Kopf-Hals-Tumors eine primaere Radio- oder Radiochemotherapie erhielten. Dabei wurde auch der HPV-Status der Patienten beruecksichtigt. Formalinfixierte Proben aus unbehandelten Tumoren von 233 Patienten mit bekanntem HPV/p16{sup INK4A}-Status wurden ausgewertet. Die CXCL12- und CXCR4-Expression wurde mit klinischen Parametern und Ueberlebensdaten mittels uni- und multivariater Cox Regression analysiert. CXCL12 wurde von 43,3 %, CXCR4 von 66,1 % der Tumoren exprimiert, und beide Marker korrelierten mit einer HPV/p16{sup INK4A}-Expression. Eine hohe CXCL12-Expression war mit einem verbesserten

  13. Preclinical development of a novel class of CXCR4 antagonist impairing solid tumors growth and metastases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Portella

    Full Text Available The CXCR4/CXCL12 axis plays a role in cancer metastases, stem cell mobilization and chemosensitization. Proof of concept for efficient CXCR4 inhibition has been demonstrated in stem cell mobilization prior to autologous transplantation in hematological malignancies. Nevertheless CXCR4 inhibitors suitable for prolonged use as required for anticancer therapy are not available. To develop new CXCR4 antagonists a rational, ligand-based approach was taken, distinct from the more commonly used development strategy. A three amino acid motif (Ar-Ar-X in CXCL12, also found in the reverse orientation (X-Ar-Ar in the vMIP-II inhibitory chemokine formed the core of nineteen cyclic peptides evaluated for inhibition of CXCR4-dependent migration, binding, P-ERK1/2-induction and calcium efflux. Peptides R, S and I were chosen for evaluation in in vivo models of lung metastases (B16-CXCR4 and KTM2 murine osteosarcoma cells and growth of a renal cells xenograft. Peptides R, S, and T significantly reduced the association of the 12G5-CXCR4 antibody to the receptor and inhibited CXCL12-induced calcium efflux. The four peptides efficiently inhibited CXCL12-dependent migration at concentrations as low as 10 nM and delayed CXCL12-mediated wound healing in PES43 human melanoma cells. Intraperitoneal treatment with peptides R, I or S drastically reduced the number of B16-CXCR4-derived lung metastases in C57/BL mice. KTM2 osteosarcoma lung metastases were also reduced in Balb/C mice following CXCR4 inhibition. All three peptides significantly inhibited subcutaneous growth of SN12C-EGFP renal cancer cells. A novel class of CXCR4 inhibitory peptides was discovered. Three peptides, R, I and S inhibited lung metastases and primary tumor growth and will be evaluated as anticancer agents.

  14. CXCR7 maintains osteosarcoma invasion after CXCR4 suppression in bone marrow microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yan; Wu, Chunlei; Wang, Jing; Liu, Na

    2017-05-01

    The major cause of death in osteosarcoma is the invasion and metastasis. Better understanding of the molecular mechanism of osteosarcoma invasion is essential in developing effective tumor-suppressive therapies. Interaction between chemokine receptors plays a crucial role in regulating osteosarcoma invasion. Here, we investigated the relationship between CXCR7 and CXCR4 in osteosarcoma invasion induced by bone marrow microenvironment. Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were co-cultured with osteosarcoma cells to mimic actual bone marrow microenvironment. Osteosarcoma cell invasion and CXCL12/CXCR4 activation were observed within this co-culture model. Interestingly, in this co-culture model, osteosarcoma cell invasion was not inhibited by suppressing CXCR4 expression with neutralizing antibody or specific inhibitor AMD3100. Downstream signaling extracellular signal-regulated kinase and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 were not significantly affected by CXCR4 inhibition. However, suppressing CXCR4 led to CXCR7 upregulation. Constitutive expression of CXCR7 could maintain osteosarcoma cell invasion when CXCR4 was suppressed. Simultaneously, inhibiting CXCR4 and CXCR7 compromised osteosarcoma invasion in co-culture system and suppressed extracellular signal-regulated kinase and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 signals. Moreover, bone marrow microenvironment, not CXCL12 alone, is required for CXCR7 activation after CXCR4 suppression. Taken together, suppressing CXCR4 is not enough to impede osteosarcoma invasion in bone marrow microenvironment since CXCR7 is activated to sustain invasion. Therefore, inhibiting both CXCR4 and CXCR7 could be a promising strategy in controlling osteosarcoma invasion.

  15. Gambogic acid inhibits multiple myeloma mediated osteoclastogenesis through suppression of chemokine receptor CXCR4 signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Manoj K; Kale, Vijay P; Song, Chunhua; Sung, Shen-shu; Sharma, Arun K; Talamo, Giampaolo; Dovat, Sinisa; Amin, Shantu G

    2014-10-01

    Bone disease, characterized by the presence of lytic lesions and osteoporosis is the hallmark of multiple myeloma (MM). Stromal cell-derived factor 1α (SDF-1α) and its receptor, CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), has been implicated as a regulator of bone resorption, suggesting that agents that can suppress SDF1α/CXCR4 signaling might inhibit osteoclastogenesis, a process closely linked to bone resorption. We, therefore, investigated whether gambogic acid (GA), a xanthone, could inhibit CXCR4 signaling and suppress osteoclastogenesis induced by MM cells. Through docking studies we predicted that GA directly interacts with CXCR4. This xanthone down-regulates the expression of CXCR4 on MM cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The down-regulation of CXCR4 was not due to proteolytic degradation, but rather GA suppresses CXCR4 mRNA expression by inhibiting nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) DNA binding. This was further confirmed by quantitative chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, as GA inhibits p65 binding at the CXCR4 promoter. GA suppressed SDF-1α-induced chemotaxis of MM cells and downstream signaling of CXCR4 by inhibiting phosphorylation of Akt, p38, and Erk1/2 in MM cells. GA abrogated the RANKL-induced differentiation of macrophages to osteoclasts in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In addition, we found that MM cells induced differentiation of macrophages to osteoclasts, and that GA suppressed this process. Importantly, suppression of osteoclastogenesis by GA was mediated through IL-6 inhibition. Overall, our results show that GA is a novel inhibitor of CXCR4 expression and has a strong potential to suppress osteoclastogenesis mediated by MM cells. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Expression of chemokine receptor CXCR4 in esophageal squamous cell and adenocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gockel, Ines; Galle, Peter R; Junginger, Theodor; Moehler, Markus; Schimanski, Carl C; Heinrich, Christian; Wehler, T; Frerichs, K; Drescher, Daniel; Langsdorff, Christian von; Domeyer, Mario; Biesterfeld, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    Prognosis of esophageal cancer is poor despite curative surgery. The chemokine receptor CXCR4 has been proposed to distinctly contribute to tumor growth, dissemination and local immune escape in a limited number of malignancies. The aim of our study was to evaluate the role of CXCR4 in tumor spread of esophageal cancer with a differentiated view of the two predominant histologic types – squamous cell and adenocarcinoma. Esophageal cancer tissue samples were obtained from 102 consecutive patients undergoing esophageal resection for cancer with curative intent. The LSAB+ System was used to detect the protein CXCR4. Tumor samples were classified into two groups based on the homogeneous staining intensity. A cut-off between CXCR4w (= weak expression) and CXCR4s (= strong expression) was set at 1.5 (grouped 0 – 1.5 versus 2.0 – 3). Long-term survival rates were calculated using life tables and the Kaplan-Meier method. Using the Cox's proportional hazards analysis, a model of survival prediction was established. The overall expression rate for CXCR4 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma was 94.1%. Subdividing these samples, CXCR4w was found in 54.9% and CXCR4s in 45.1%. In adenocarcinoma, an overall expression rate of 89.1% was detected with a weak intensitiy in 71.7% compared to strong staining in 29.3% (p = 0.066 squamous cell versus adenocarcinoma). The Cox's proportional hazards analysis identified the pM-category with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.860 (95% CI: 1.014–3.414) (p = 0.045), the histologic tumor type (HR: 0.334; 95% CI: 0.180–0.618) (p = 0.0001) and the operative approach (transthoracic > transhiatal esophageal resection) (HR: 0.546; 95% CI: 0.324–0.920) (p = 0.023) as independent factors with a possible influence on the long-term prognosis in patients with esophageal carcinoma, whereas CXCR4 expression was statistically not significant (>0.05). Expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 in esophageal cancer is of major relevance in both

  17. PEA3 activates CXCR4 transcription in MDA-MB-231 and MCF7 breast cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shengmei Gu; Li Chen; Qi Hong; Tingting Yan; Zhigang Zhuang; Qiaoqiao wang; Wei Jin; Hua Zhu; Jiong Wu

    2011-01-01

    CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) is a cell surface receptor that has been shown to mediate the metastasis of many solid tumors including lung,breast,kidney,and prostate tumors.In this study,we found that overexpression of ets variant gene 4 (PEA3) could elevate CXCR4 mRNA level and CXCR4 promoter activity in human MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells.PEA3 promoted CXCR4 expression and breast cancer metastasis.Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated that PEA3 could bind to the CXCR4 promoter in the cells transfected with PEA3 expression vector.PEA3 siRNA attenuated CXCR4 promoter activity and the binding of PEA3 to the CXCR4 promoter in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells.These results indicated that PEA3 could activate CXCR4 promoter transcription and promote breast cancer metastasis.

  18. Epigenetic Silencing of CXCR4 Promotes Loss of Cell Adhesion in Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Singh Yadav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the network of chemokine signaling pathways, recent reports have described the SDF-1α/CXCR4 axis and its role in cancer progression and metastasis. Interestingly, we found downregulation of CXCR4 at both transcript and protein level in cervical cancer cell lines and primary tumors. We also found CXCR4 promoter hypermethylation in cervical cancer cell lines and primary biopsy samples. DNA hypomethylating drug 5-AZA-2′-deoxycytidine and histone deacetylase inhibitor Trichostatin A treatments in cell lines reactivate both CXCR4 transcription and protein expression. Cell adhesion assay demonstrated that autocrine SDF-1α promotes the loss of cell adhesion while paracrine SDF-1α predominantly protects the normal cervical cells from loss of cell adhesion. Cervical cancer cell line C-33A having increased expression of CXCR4 after TSA treatment showed increased cell adhesion by paracrine source of SDF-1α in comparison to untreated C-33A. These findings demonstrate the first evidence that epigenetic silencing of CXCR4 makes the cells inefficient to respond to the paracrine source of SDF-1α leading to loss of cell adhesion, one of the key events in metastases and progression of the disease. Our results provide novel insight of SDF-1α/CXCR4 signaling in tumor microenvironment which may be promising to further delineate molecular mechanism of cervical carcinogenesis.

  19. The SDF-1–CXCR4 signaling pathway: a molecular hub modulating neo-angiogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Isabelle; Jin, David; Rafii, Shahin

    2010-01-01

    Pro-angiogenic bone marrow (BM) cells include subsets of hematopoietic cells that provide vascular support and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), which under certain permissive conditions could differentiate into functional vascular cells. Recent evidence demonstrates that the chemokine stromal-cell derived factor-1 (SDF-1, also known as CXCL12) has a major role in the recruitment and retention of CXCR4+ BM cells to the neo-angiogenic niches supporting revascularization of ischemic tissue and tumor growth. However, the precise mechanism by which activation of CXCR4 modulates neo-angiogenesis is not clear. SDF-1 not only promotes revascularization by engaging with CXCR4 expressed on the vascular cells but also supports mobilization of pro-angiogenic CXCR4+VEGFR1+ hematopoietic cells, thereby accelerating revascularization of ischemic organs. Here, we attempt to define the multiple functions of the SDF-1–CXCR4 signaling pathway in the regulation of neo-vascularization during acute ischemia and tumor growth. In particular, we introduce the concept that, by modulating plasma SDF-1 levels, the CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 acutely promotes, while chronic AMD3100 treatment inhibits, mobilization of pro-angiogenic cells. We will also discuss strategies to modulate the mobilization of essential subsets of BM cells that participate in neo-angiogenesis, setting up the stage for enhancing revascularization or targeting tumor vessels by exploiting CXCR4 agonists and antagonists, respectively. PMID:17560169

  20. DMPD: Macrophage activation through CCR5- and CXCR4-mediated gp120-elicited signalingpathways. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 12960231 Macrophage activation through CCR5- and CXCR4-mediated gp120-elicited sign...82. Epub 2003 Jul 22. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Macrophage activation through CCR5- and CXCR4-media...on through CCR5- and CXCR4-mediated gp120-elicited signalingpathways. Authors Lee C, Liu QH, Tomkowicz B, Yi

  1. Persistent CXCR4 expression after preoperative chemoradiotherapy predicts early recurrence and poor prognosis in esophageal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koishi, Kenji; Yoshikawa, Reigetsu; Tsujimura, Tohru; Hashimoto-Tamaoki, Tomoko; Kojima, Syoudou; Yanagi, Hidenori; Yamamura, Takehira; Fujiwara, Yoshinori

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of CXC chemokine receptor-4 (CXCR4) expression on disease progression and prognosis in esophageal cancer. METHODS: CXCR4 expression was evaluated in 37 patients with histologically confirmed esophageal squamous carcinomas (ESCC) undergoing preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) by immunohistochemical staining. RESULTS: Eleven out of 37 ESCC patients showed a pathological complete response (CR) after CRT. CXCR4 protein expression was observed in cell cytoplasms of 13 tumors, and null expression was seen in 13 tumors. Distant recurrence was significantly more common in patients with positive CXCR4 expression (P = 0.0318). After a median follow-up time of 31.6 mo, 19 patients progressed (12 of 19 expressed positive CXCR4) and 11 died (10 of 11 expressed positive CXCR4). Overall survival was significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis (952.1 ± 53.8 d in negative group vs 475.1 ± 56.2 d in positive group, P = 0.023), distant metastasis (874.0 ± 60.4 d in negative group vs 434.9 ± 75.2 d in positive group, P = 0.014) and CRT (811.5 ± 51.2 d in responder group vs 459.6 ± 94.0 d in non-responder group, P = 0.00038) and further with an absence of CXCR4 expression or no residual tumor (959.8 ± 51.0 d in null expression or no tumor group vs 412.0 ± 57.1 d in positive expression group, P = 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Persistent positive CXCR4 expression is implicated in tumor aggressiveness and poor prognosis in ESCC after CRT, and preoperative CRT may improve the prognosis of ESCC via CXCL12-CXCR4 signaling pathway. PMID:17171785

  2. BMP signaling protects telencephalic fate by repressing eye identity and its Cxcr4-dependent morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielen, Holger; Houart, Corinne

    2012-10-16

    Depletion of Wnt signaling is a major requirement for the induction of the anterior prosencephalon. However, the molecular events driving the differential regionalization of this area into eye-field and telencephalon fates are still unknown. Here we show that the BMP pathway is active in the anterior neural ectoderm during late blastula to early gastrula stage in zebrafish. Bmp2b mutants and mosaic loss-of-function experiments reveal that BMP acts as a repressor of eye-field fate through inhibition of its key transcription factor Rx3, thereby protecting the future telencephalon from acquiring eye identity. This BMP-driven mechanism initiates the establishment of the telencephalon prior to the involvement of Wnt antagonists from the anterior neural border. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Rx3 and BMP are respectively required to maintain and restrict the chemokine receptor cxcr4a, which in turn contributes to the morphogenetic separation of eye-field and telencephalic cells during early neurulation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. ِIncreased expression of T- cell- surface CXCR4 in asthmatic children.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ehab

    Background: Signals delivered through the chemokine receptor CXCR4 upon interaction with its ..... El-Gamal et al. 84 mediated signals contribute to lung inflammation ... receptors in asthma suggests that targeting the correct chemokine ...

  4. Anti-HIV Effect of Liposomes Bearing CXCR4 Receptor Antagonist ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Antagonist, CXCR4, Liposomes, Receptor, Inflammation, HIV. Tropical Journal of ... receptors and inhibits HIV-1 entry mediated through CCR3, CCR5, and ..... circulation, facilitating HIV-targeted drug delivery. By tissue distribution ...

  5. Bioinformatics analysis of breast cancer bone metastasis related gene-CXCR4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Heng-Wei Zhang; Xian-Fu Sun; Ya-Ning He; Jun-Tao Li; Xu-Hui Guo; Hui Liu

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To analyze breast cancer bone metastasis related gene-CXCR4. Methods: This research screened breast cancer bone metastasis related genes by high-flux gene chip. Results:It was found that the expressions of 396 genes were different including 165 up-regulations and 231 down-regulations. The expression of chemokine receptor CXCR4 was obviously up-regulated in the tissue with breast cancer bone metastasis. Compared with the tissue without bone metastasis, there was significant difference, which indicated that CXCR4 played a vital role in breast cancer bone metastasis. Conclusions: The bioinformatics analysis of CXCR4 can provide a certain basis for the occurrence and diagnosis of breast cancer bone metastasis, target gene therapy and evaluation of prognosis.

  6. SDF1-CXCR4 Signaling Contributes to the Transition from Acute to Chronic Pain State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fei; Sun, Wei; Luo, Wen-Jun; Yang, Yan; Yang, Fan; Wang, Xiao-Liang; Chen, Jun

    2017-05-01

    Emerging evidence has demonstrated the involvement of stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF1, also known as CXCL12)-CXCR4 signaling in a variety of pain state. However, the underlying mechanisms of SDF1-CXCR4 signaling leading to the maintenance of chronic pain states are poorly understood. In the present study, we sought to explore the role of SDF1-CXCR4 signaling in the forming of neuroplasticity by applying a model of the transition from acute to chronic pain state, named as hyperalgesic priming. Utilizing intraplantar bee venom (BV) injection, we successfully established hyperalgesic priming state and found that peripheral treating with AMD3100, a CXCR4 antagonist, or knocking down CXCR4 by intraganglionar CXCR4 small interfering RNA (siRNA) injection could prevent BV-induced primary mechanical hyperalgesia and hyperalgesic priming. Moreover, we showed that single intraplantar active SDF1 protein injection is sufficient to induce acute mechanical hyperalgesia and hyperalgesic priming through CXC4. Intraplantar coinjection of ERK inhibitor, U0126, and PI3K inhibitor, LY294002, as well as two protein translation inhibitors, temsirolimus and cordycepin, prevented the development of SDF1-induced acute mechanical hyperalgesia and hyperalgesic priming. Finally, on the models of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced chronic inflammatory pain and spared nerve injury (SNI)-induced chronic neuropathic pain, we observed that knock-down of CXCR4 could both prevent the development and reverse the maintenance of chronic pain state. In conclusion, our present data suggested that through regulating ERK and PI3K-AKT pathways-mediated protein translation SDF1-CXCR4 signaling mediates the transition from acute pain to chronic pain state and finally contributes to the development and maintenance of chronic pain.

  7. Consequences of ChemR23 heteromerization with the chemokine receptors CXCR4 and CCR7.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cédric de Poorter

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that heteromerization of the chemokine receptors CCR2, CCR5 and CXCR4 is associated to negative binding cooperativity. In the present study, we build on these previous results, and investigate the consequences of chemokine receptor heteromerization with ChemR23, the receptor of chemerin, a leukocyte chemoattractant protein structurally unrelated to chemokines. We show, using BRET and HTRF assays, that ChemR23 forms homomers, and provide data suggesting that ChemR23 also forms heteromers with the chemokine receptors CCR7 and CXCR4. As previously described for other chemokine receptor heteromers, negative binding cooperativity was detected between ChemR23 and chemokine receptors, i.e. the ligands of one receptor competed for the binding of a specific tracer of the other. We also showed, using mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells prepared from wild-type and ChemR23 knockout mice, that ChemR23-specific ligands cross-inhibited CXCL12 binding on CXCR4 in a ChemR23-dependent manner, supporting the relevance of the ChemR23/CXCR4 interaction in native leukocytes. Finally, and in contrast to the situation encountered for other previously characterized CXCR4 heteromers, we showed that the CXCR4-specific antagonist AMD3100 did not cross-inhibit chemerin binding in cells co-expressing ChemR23 and CXCR4, demonstrating that cross-regulation by AMD3100 depends on the nature of receptor partners with which CXCR4 is co-expressed.

  8. Consequences of ChemR23 heteromerization with the chemokine receptors CXCR4 and CCR7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Poorter, Cédric; Baertsoen, Kevin; Lannoy, Vincent; Parmentier, Marc; Springael, Jean-Yves

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that heteromerization of the chemokine receptors CCR2, CCR5 and CXCR4 is associated to negative binding cooperativity. In the present study, we build on these previous results, and investigate the consequences of chemokine receptor heteromerization with ChemR23, the receptor of chemerin, a leukocyte chemoattractant protein structurally unrelated to chemokines. We show, using BRET and HTRF assays, that ChemR23 forms homomers, and provide data suggesting that ChemR23 also forms heteromers with the chemokine receptors CCR7 and CXCR4. As previously described for other chemokine receptor heteromers, negative binding cooperativity was detected between ChemR23 and chemokine receptors, i.e. the ligands of one receptor competed for the binding of a specific tracer of the other. We also showed, using mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells prepared from wild-type and ChemR23 knockout mice, that ChemR23-specific ligands cross-inhibited CXCL12 binding on CXCR4 in a ChemR23-dependent manner, supporting the relevance of the ChemR23/CXCR4 interaction in native leukocytes. Finally, and in contrast to the situation encountered for other previously characterized CXCR4 heteromers, we showed that the CXCR4-specific antagonist AMD3100 did not cross-inhibit chemerin binding in cells co-expressing ChemR23 and CXCR4, demonstrating that cross-regulation by AMD3100 depends on the nature of receptor partners with which CXCR4 is co-expressed.

  9. Dual-Functional Nanoparticles Targeting CXCR4 and Delivering Antiangiogenic siRNA Ameliorate Liver Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chun-Hung; Chan, Kun-Ming; Chiang, Tsaiyu; Liu, Jia-Yu; Chern, Guann-Gen; Hsu, Fu-Fei; Wu, Yu-Hsuan; Liu, Ya-Chi; Chen, Yunching

    2016-07-05

    The progression of liver fibrosis, an intrinsic response to chronic liver injury, is associated with hepatic hypoxia, angiogenesis, abnormal inflammation, and significant matrix deposition, leading to the development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Due to the complex pathogenesis of liver fibrosis, antifibrotic drug development has faced the challenge of efficiently and specifically targeting multiple pathogenic mechanisms. Therefore, CXCR4-targeted nanoparticles (NPs) were formulated to deliver siRNAs against vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) into fibrotic livers to block angiogenesis during the progression of liver fibrosis. AMD3100, a CXCR4 antagonist that was incorporated into the NPs, served dual functions: it acted as a targeting moiety and suppressed the progression of fibrosis by inhibiting the proliferation and activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). We demonstrated that CXCR4-targeted NPs could deliver VEGF siRNAs to fibrotic livers, decrease VEGF expression, suppress angiogenesis and normalize the distorted vessels in the fibrotic livers in the carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced mouse model. Moreover, blocking SDF-1α/CXCR4 by CXCR4-targeted NPs in combination with VEGF siRNA significantly prevented the progression of liver fibrosis in CCl4-treated mice. In conclusion, the multifunctional CXCR4-targeted NPs delivering VEGF siRNAs provide an effective antifibrotic therapeutic strategy.

  10. Role of CXCL12 and CXCR4 in normal cerebellar development and medulloblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Patricia Midori Murobushi; Ariza, Carolina Batista; Ishibashi, Cintya Mayumi; Fujita, Thiago Cezar; Banin-Hirata, Bruna Karina; Oda, Julie Massayo Maeda; Watanabe, Maria Angelica Ehara

    2016-01-01

    Chemokines and its receptors have significant impact on physiological and pathological processes and studies concerning their association with tumor biology are subject of great interest in scientific community. CXCL12/CXCR4 axis has been widely studied due to its significant role in tumor microenvironment, but it is also important to development and maintenance of tissues and organs, for example, in the brain and cerebellum. Studies have demonstrated that CXCL12 and CXCR4 are required for normal cerebellar development and that dysfunction in this pathway may be involved with medulloblastoma pathogenesis. In this context, a new molecular subgroup has been suggested based on the importance of the association between CXCR4 overexpression and sonic hedgehog subgroup. Treatment using CXCR4 antagonists showed significant results, evidencing the important role and possible therapeutic capacity of CXCR4 in MB. This review summarizes studies on MB cell biology, focusing on a chemokine-receptor axis, CXCL12/CXCR4, that may have implications for treatment strategies once it can improve life expectancy and reduce neurocognitive sequelae of patients with this neoplasia. © 2014 UICC.

  11. Reprogramming Medulloblastoma-Propagating Cells by a Combined Antagonism of Sonic Hedgehog and CXCR4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Stacey A; Warrington, Nicole M; Taylor, Sara; Kfoury, Najla; Luo, Jingqin; Rubin, Joshua B

    2017-03-15

    The CXCR4 chemokine and Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) morphogen pathways are well-validated therapeutic targets in cancer, including medulloblastoma. However, single-agent treatments with SHH or CXCR4 antagonists have not proven efficacious in clinical trials to date. Here, we discovered that dual inhibition of the SHH and CXCR4 pathways in a murine model of SHH-subtype medulloblastoma exerts potent antitumor effects. This therapeutic synergy resulted in the suppression of tumor-propagating cell function and correlated with increased histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation within the promoters of stem cell genes, resulting in their decreased expression. These results demonstrate that CXCR4 contributes to the epigenetic regulation of a tumor-propagating cell phenotype. Moreover, they provide a mechanistic rationale to evaluate the combination of SHH and CXCR4 inhibitors in clinical trials for the treatment of medulloblastoma, as well as other cancers driven by SHH that coexpress high levels of CXCR4. Cancer Res; 77(6); 1416-26. ©2016 AACR . ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  12. In vitro characterization and inhibition of the CXCR4/CXCL12 chemokine axis in human uveal melanoma cell lines

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    Antecka Emilia

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose The CXCR4/CXCL12 chemokine axis may play a critical role in guiding CXCR4+ circulating malignant cells to organ specific locations that actively secrete its ligand CXCL12 (SDF-1 such as bone, brain, liver, and lungs. We sought to characterize the presence of the CXCR4/CXCL12 axis in five uveal melanoma (UM cell lines in vitro. The ability of TN14003, a synthetic peptide inhibitor that targets the CXCR4 receptor complex, to inhibit this axis was also assessed. Methods Immunocytochemistry was performed against CXCR4 to confirm expression of this chemokine receptor in all five UM cell lines. Flow cytometry was preformed to evaluate CXCR4 cell surface expression on all five UM cell lines. A proliferation assay was also used to test effects TN14003 would have on cellular proliferation. Inhibition of cellular migration by specifically inhibiting the CXCR4/CXCL12 axis with TN14003 was also investigated. The binding efficacy of TN14003 to the CXCR4 receptor was assessed through flow cytometric methods. Results The CXCR4 receptor was present on all five UM cell lines. All five cell lines expressed different relative levels of surface CXCR4. TN14003 did not affect the proliferation of the five cell lines (p > 0.05. All cell lines migrated towards the chemokine CXCL12 at a level greater than the negative control (p Conclusion Interfering with the CXCR4/CXCL12 axis, using TN14003 was shown to effectively down regulate UM cell migration in vitro. Knowing that UM expresses the CXCR4 receptor, these CXCR4+ cells may be less likely to colonize distant organs that secrete the CXCL12 ligand, if treated with an inhibitor that binds CXCR4. Further studies should be pursued in order to test TN14003 efficacy in vivo.

  13. Mutations at the CXCR4 interaction sites for AMD3100 influence anti-CXCR4 antibody binding and HIV-1 entry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatse, Sigrid; Princen, Katrien; Vermeire, Kurt

    2003-01-01

    The interaction of the CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 with its target is greatly influenced by specific aspartate residues in the receptor protein, including Asp(171) and Asp(262). We have now found that aspartate-to-asparagine substitutions at these positions differentially affect the binding of four...

  14. Targeting the CXCR4 pathway using a novel anti-CXCR4 IgG1 antibody (PF-06747143 in chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj K. Kashyap

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The CXCR4-CXCL12 axis plays an important role in the chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL-microenvironment interaction. Overexpression of CXCR4 has been reported in different hematological malignancies including CLL. Binding of the pro-survival chemokine CXCL12 with its cognate receptor CXCR4 induces cell migration. CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling axis promotes cell survival and proliferation and may contribute to the tropism of leukemia cells towards lymphoid tissues and bone marrow. Therefore, we hypothesized that targeting CXCR4 with an IgG1 antibody, PF-06747143, may constitute an effective therapeutic approach for CLL. Methods Patient-derived primary CLL-B cells were assessed for cytotoxicity in an in vitro model of CLL microenvironment. PF-06747143 was analyzed for cell death induction and for its potential to interfere with the chemokine CXCL12-induced mechanisms, including migration and F-actin polymerization. PF-06747143 in vivo efficacy was determined in a CLL murine xenograft tumor model. Results PF-06747143, a novel-humanized IgG1 CXCR4 antagonist antibody, induced cell death of patient-derived primary CLL-B cells, in presence or absence of stromal cells. Moreover, cell death induction by the antibody was independent of CLL high-risk prognostic markers. The cell death mechanism was dependent on CXCR4 expression, required antibody bivalency, involved reactive oxygen species production, and did not require caspase activation, all characteristics reminiscent of programmed cell death (PCD. PF-06747143 also induced potent B-CLL cytotoxicity via Fc-driven antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC and complement-dependent cytotoxicity activity (CDC. PF-06747143 had significant combinatorial effect with standard of care (SOC agents in B-CLL treatment, including rituximab, fludarabine (F-ara-A, ibrutinib, and bendamustine. In a CLL xenograft model, PF-06747143 decreased tumor burden and improved survival as a monotherapy

  15. Nuclear Pattern of CXCR4 Expression Is Associated with a Better Overall Survival in Patients with Gastric Cancer

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    Bahram Nikkhoo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Previous studies have shown that stromal-derived factor-1 (CXCL12 and its receptor, CXCR4, play a crucial role in metastasis of various tumors. Similarly, it has been cleared that CXCR4 is expressed on the cell surface of gastric cancers. However, nuclear expression of CXCR4 and its clinical importance have not been yet studied. Materials and Methods. Herein, we studied the expression of CXCR4 in gastric samples from patients with gastric adenocarcinoma as well as human gastric carcinoma cell line, AGS, by employing RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, and flow cytometry techniques. Results. RT-PCR data showed that CXCR4 is highly expressed on AGS cells. This was confirmed by IHC and FACS as CXCR4 was detected on cell membrane, in cytoplasm, and in nucleus of AGS cells. Moreover, we found that both cytoplasmic and nuclear CXCR4 are strongly expressed in primary gastric cancer and the cytoplasmic pattern of CXCR4 tends to be associated with a shorter overall survival than nuclear staining. In conclusion, we present evidence for the first time that both cytoplasmic and nuclear expression of CXCR4 are detectable in gastric cancer tissues. However, the role of both cytoplasmic and nuclear CXCR4 needs to be further elucidated.

  16. CXCR4 expression in papillary thyroid carcinoma: induction by nitric oxide and correlation with lymph node metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuoka, Hironao; Kodama, Rieko; Hirokawa, Mitsuyoshi; Takamura, Yuuki; Miyauchi, Akira; Sanke, Tokio; Nakamura, Yasushi

    2008-01-01

    Metastasis to regional lymph nodes is a common step in the progression of cancer. Recent evidence suggests that tumor production of CXCR4 promotes lymph node metastasis. Nitric oxide (NO) may also increase metastatic ability in human cancers. Nitrite/nitrate levels and functional CXCR4 expression were assessed in K1 and B-CPAP papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) cells after induction and/or inhibition of NO synthesis. CXCR4 expression was also analyzed in primary human PTC. The relationship between nitrotyrosine levels, which are a biomarker for peroxynitrate formation from NO in vivo, CXCR4 expression, and lymph node status was also analyzed. Production of nitrite/nitrate and functional CXCR4 expression in both cell lines was increased by treatment with the NO donor DETA NONOate. The NOS inhibitor L-NAME eliminated this increase. Positive CXCR4 immunostaining was observed in 60.7% (34/56) of PTCs. CXCR4 expression was significantly correlated with nitrotyrosine levels and lymph node metastasis in human PTC. Our data indicate that NO stimulates CXCR4 expression in vitro. Formation of the NO biomarker nitrotyrosine was also correlated with CXCR4 expression and lymph node metastasis in human PTC. NO may induce lymph node metastasis via CXCR4 induction in papillary thyroid carcinoma

  17. Clinicopathologic Significance of CXCL12 and CXCR4 Expressions in Patients with Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Yoshuantari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Colorectal cancer (CRC is both a global and national burden, being the third most common malignancy in men and the second in women, worldwide. The prognosis of CRC is affected by various factors like the histological grade, angiolymphatic invasion, and distant metastases. Metastasis is an intricate process; one of the possible mechanisms is through the interaction of the chemokines CXCL12 and CXCR4. This study aims to reveal the expression patterns of CXCL12 and CXCR4 in CRC. Methods. The quantitative expressions of CXCL12 and CXCR4 messenger RNA (mRNA were evaluated in 32 patients with adenocarcinoma-type CRC. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR was performed on formalin-fixed tissues. CXCL12 and CXCR4’s expressions, clinicopathologic features, and the treatment response to the CRC were analysed. Results. All tumour tissues showed higher levels of both chemokines compared to normal colonic tissue. The expression of CXCL12 mRNA was higher in rectal location (p=0.04 with a tendency to be higher in later stages (p=0.15, while the expression of CXCR4 was lower in tumours with a lymphatic invasion (p=0.02, compared to their counterparts. There was no difference in the expression of CXCL12 and CXCR4 according to the patients’ ages, gender, tumour differentiation, or response to chemotherapy. Conclusion. Our study demonstrated that the mRNA expression of CXCL12 was significantly correlated with rectal location. CXCR4 mRNA expression was inversely correlated in tumours with a lymphatic invasion.

  18. Inverse expression of somatostatin and CXCR4 chemokine receptors in gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms of different malignancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaemmerer, Daniel; Träger, Tina; Hoffmeister, Maike; Sipos, Bence; Hommann, Merten; Sänger, Järg; Schulz, Stefan; Lupp, Amelie

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Somatostatin receptors (SSTR) are widely distributed in well-differentiated neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN) and serve as primary targets for diagnostics and treatment. An overexpression of the chemokine receptor CXCR4, in contrast, is considered to be present mainly in highly proliferative and advanced tumors. Comparative data are still lacking, however, for neuroendocrine carcinomas (NEC). Methods SSTR subtype (1, 2A, 3, 5) and CXCR4 expression was evaluated in G1 (n = 31), G2 (n = 47), and low (G3a; Ki-67: 21–49%; n = 21) and highly proliferative (G3b; Ki-67: >50%, n = 22) G3 (total n = 43) gastroenteropancreatic NEN samples by performing immunohistochemistry with monoclonal rabbit anti-human anti-SSTR and anti-CXCR4 antibodies, respectively, and was correlated with clinical data. Results Both CXCR4 and SSTR were widely expressed in all tumors investigated. CXCR4 expression differed significantly between the G1 and G3 specimens and within the G3 group (G3a to G3b), and was positively correlated with Ki-67 expression. SSTR2A, in contrast, exhibited an inverse association with Ki-67. SSTR2A was highly expressed in G1 and G2 tumors, but was significantly less abundant in G3 carcinomas. Additionally, SSTR1 expression was higher in G3a than in G3b tumors. Conclusion We observed an elevation in CXCR4 and a decrease in SSTR2A expression with increasing malignancy. Interestingly, 23% of the G3 specimens had strong SSTR2A expression. Because CXCR4 was strongly expressed in highly proliferative G3 carcinomas, it is an interesting new target and needs to be validated in larger studies. PMID:26259237

  19. Retention of CXCR4 in the endoplasmic reticulum blocks dissemination of a T cell hybridoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeelenberg, I S; Ruuls-Van Stalle, L; Roos, E

    2001-07-01

    The dissemination of T cell hybridomas to multiple nonhematopoietic tissues is blocked by pertussis toxin, suggesting the involvement of a chemokine. To study whether this chemokine is SDF-1, we employed a strategy proposed previously for gene therapy of AIDS, whereby the SDF-1 receptor CXCR4 (also a coreceptor for HIV) is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and fails to reach the cell surface. We transfected SDF-1, carrying an ER retention sequence, into a T cell hybridoma. This altered chemokine is retained in the ER, where it binds CXCR4 and prevents the latter protein from reaching the surface. These cells failed to migrate toward SDF-1 or to invade fibroblast monolayers, although they could still migrate toward thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) and invade TARC-treated monolayers. Furthermore, the ability of the transfected cells to disseminate to multiple organs upon intravenous injection into mice was abolished. This dissemination reflects the in vivo migration patterns of activated and memory T cells into nonhematopoietic tissues, which is thus likely to depend on CXCR4. Attempts to block CXCR4 function as a therapy for AIDS may affect this migration with consequences for T cell function. Our results also suggest a decisive role for CXCR4 in the dissemination of hematopoietic malignancies expressing this receptor.

  20. Emerging Targets in Pituitary Adenomas: Role of the CXCL12/CXCR4-R7 System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Barbieri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemokines are chemotactic regulators of immune surveillance in physiological and pathological conditions such as inflammation, infection, and cancer. Several chemokines and cognate receptors are constitutively expressed in the central nervous system, not only in glial and endothelial cells but also in neurons, controlling neurogenesis, neurite outgrowth, and axonal guidance during development. In particular, the chemokine CXCL12 and its receptors, CXCR4 and CXCR7, form a functional network that controls plasticity in different brain areas, influencing neurotransmission, neuromodulation, and cell migration, and the dysregulation of this chemokinergic axis is involved in several neurodegenerative, neuroinflammatory, and malignant diseases. CXCR4 primarily mediates the transduction of proliferative signals, while CXCR7 seems to be mainly responsible for scavenging CXCL12. Importantly, the multiple intracellular signalling generated by CXCL12 interaction with its receptors influences hypothalamic modulation of neuroendocrine functions, although a direct modulation of pituitary functioning via autocrine/paracrine mechanisms was also reported. Both CXCL12 and CXCR4 are constitutively overexpressed in pituitary adenomas and their signalling induces cell survival and proliferation, as well as hormonal hypersecretion. In this review we focus on the physiological and pathological functions of immune-related cyto- and chemokines, mainly focusing on the CXCL12/CXCR4-7 axis, and their role in pituitary tumorigenesis. Accordingly, we discuss the potential targeting of CXCR4 as novel pharmacological approach for pituitary adenomas.

  1. A role for the CXCR4-CXCL12 axis in the little skate, Leucoraja erinacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersh, Taylor A; Dimond, Alexandria L; Ruth, Brittany A; Lupica, Noah V; Bruce, Jacob C; Kelley, John M; King, Benjamin L; Lutton, Bram V

    2018-04-11

    The interaction between C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) and its cognate ligand, C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12), plays a critical role in regulating hematopoietic stem cell activation and subsequent cellular mobilization. Extensive studies of these genes have been conducted in mammals, but much less is known about the expression and function of CXCR4 and CXCL12 in non-mammalian vertebrates. In the present study, we identify simultaneous expression of CXCR4 and CXCL12 orthologues in the epigonal organ (the primary hematopoietic tissue) of the little skate, Leucoraja erinacea. Genetic and phylogenetic analyses were functionally supported by significant mobilization of leukocytes following administration of Plerixafor: a CXCR4 antagonist and clinically important drug. Our results provide evidence that, as in humans, Plerixafor disrupts CXCR4/CXCL12 binding in the little skate, facilitating release of leukocytes into the bloodstream. Our study illustrates the value of the little skate as a model organism, particularly in studies of hematopoiesis, and potentially for pre-clinical research on hematological and vascular disorders.

  2. CXCR4(+) dendritic cells promote angiogenesis during embryo implantation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrientos, Gabriela; Tirado-González, Irene; Freitag, Nancy; Kobelt, Peter; Moschansky, Petra; Klapp, Burghard F; Thijssen, Victor L J L; Blois, Sandra M

    2013-04-01

    Early pregnancy is characterized by decidual adaption to the developing embryo involving angiogenesis and vascular growth. Failure of decidual vascular expansion is linked to diseases of pregnancy. Dendritic cells (DC) have been associated with vascular growth during early gestation, though it is unknown whether their capacity to modulate angiogenesis is ubiquitous to all DC subsets. Here, we show that DC normally found associated with the decidual vasculature co-express the C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4). In addition, we demonstrate that impaired homing of CXCR4(+)DC during early gestation provoked a disorganized decidual vasculature with impaired spiral artery remodeling later in gestation. In contrast, adoptive transfer experiments provided evidence that CXCR4(+)DC are able to rescue early pregnancy by normalizing decidual vascular growth and delivery of pro-angiogenic factors, which results in adequate remodeling of the spiral arteries during placental development. Taken together, our results indicate an important role of CXCR4(+)DC in the regulation of decidual angiogenesis and highlight the importance of the CXCL12/CXCR4 pathway during this process, suggesting that this may represent a key pathway to evaluate during pregnancy pathologies associated with impaired vascular expansion.

  3. Emerging targets in cancer management: role of the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cojoc M

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Monica Cojoc,1 Claudia Peitzsch,1 Franziska Trautmann,1 Leo Polishchuk,2 Gennady D Telegeev,2 Anna Dubrovska11OncoRay National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden University of Technology, Dresden, Germany; 2Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, UkraineAbstract: The chemokine CXCL12 (SDF-1 and its cell surface receptor CXCR4 were first identified as regulators of lymphocyte trafficking to the bone marrow. Soon after, the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis was proposed to regulate the trafficking of breast cancer cells to sites of metastasis. More recently, it was established that CXCR4 plays a central role in cancer cell proliferation, invasion, and dissemination in the majority of malignant diseases. The stem cell concept of cancer has revolutionized the understanding of tumorigenesis and cancer treatment. A growing body of evidence indicates that a subset of cancer cells, referred to as cancer stem cells (CSCs, plays a critical role in tumor initiation, metastatic colonization, and resistance to therapy. Although the signals generated by the metastatic niche that regulate CSCs are not yet fully understood, accumulating evidence suggests a key role of the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis. In this review we focus on physiological functions of the CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling pathway and its role in cancer and CSCs, and we discuss the potential for targeting this pathway in cancer management.Keywords: epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, cancer stem cells, metastasis

  4. CXCL12/CXCR4-Axis Dysfunctions: Markers of the Rare Immunodeficiency Disorder WHIM Syndrome

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    Françoise Bachelerie

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The WHIM syndrome features susceptibility to human Papillomavirus infection-induced warts and carcinomas, hypogammaglobulinemia, recurrent bacterial infections, B and T-cell lymphopenia, and neutropenia associated with retention of senescent neutrophils in the bone marrow (i.e. myelokathexis. This rare disorder is mostly linked to inherited heterozygous autosomal dominant mutations in the gene encoding CXCR4, a G protein coupled receptor with a unique ligand, the chemokine CXCL12/SDF-1. Some individuals who have full clinical forms of the syndrome carry a wild type CXCR4 gene. In spite of this genetic heterogeneity, leukocytes from WHIM patients share in common dysfunctions of the CXCR4-mediated signaling pathway upon exposure to CXCL12. Dysfunctions are characterized by impaired desensitization and receptor internalization, which are associated with enhanced responses to the chemokine. Our increasing understanding of the mechanisms that account for the aberrant CXCL12/CXCR4-mediated responses is beginning to provide insight into the pathogenesis of the disorder. As a result we can expect to identify markers of the WHIM syndrome, as well as other disorders with WHIM-like features that are associated with dysfunctions of the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis.

  5. Specific interaction of CXCR4 with CD4 and CD8α: Functional analysis of the CD4/CXCR4 interaction in the context of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein-mediated membrane fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basmaciogullari, Stephane; Pacheco, Beatriz; Bour, Stephan; Sodroski, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    We investigated possible interactions between HIV-1 receptor (CD4) and the main coreceptors CXCR4 and CCR5. We found that CD4 and CXCR4 coexpressed in 293T cells form a complex that can be immunoprecipitated with antibodies directed against the extracellular domain of either protein. Mutagenesis revealed that the CD4/CXCR4 interaction maps to two previously uncharacterized basic motifs in the cytoplasmic domain of CD4. HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein-mediated membrane fusion was found to be independent of the ability of CD4 and CXCR4 to interact, whether fusion was studied in a virus-cell or a cell-cell model. However, this interaction might explain the adaptation of HIV-1 to CXCR4 as an alternative to CCR5. We found that CXCR4 also interacts with the cytoplasmic domain of CD8α in a way that is similar to the CD4/CXCR4 interaction. The CD4/CXCR4 and CD8α/CXCR4 interactions may thus be involved in cellular signaling pathways shared by the CD4 and CD8α molecules

  6. MicroRNA-146a and AMD3100, two ways to control CXCR4 expression in acute myeloid leukemias

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    Spinello, I; Quaranta, M T; Riccioni, R; Riti, V; Pasquini, L; Boe, A; Pelosi, E [Department of Hematology, Oncology and Molecular Medicine, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome (Italy); Vitale, A; Foà, R [Department of Cellular Biotechnologies and Hematology, Division of Hematology, ‘Sapienza' University, Rome (Italy); Testa, U; Labbaye, C [Department of Hematology, Oncology and Molecular Medicine, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome (Italy)

    2011-06-01

    CXCR4 is a negative prognostic marker in acute myeloid leukemias (AMLs). Therefore, it is necessary to develop novel ways to inhibit CXCR4 expression in leukemia. AMD3100 is an inhibitor of CXCR4 currently used to mobilize cancer cells. CXCR4 is a target of microRNA (miR)-146a that may represent a new tool to inhibit CXCR4 expression. We then investigated CXCR4 regulation by miR-146a in primary AMLs and found an inverse correlation between miR-146a and CXCR4 protein expression levels in all AML subtypes. As the lowest miR-146a expression levels were observed in M5 AML, we analyzed the control of CXCR4 expression by miR-146a in normal and leukemic monocytic cells and showed that the regulatory miR-146a/CXCR4 pathway operates during monocytopoiesis, but is deregulated in AMLs. AMD3100 treatment and miR-146a overexpression were used to inhibit CXCR4 in leukemic cells. AMD3100 treatment induces the decrease of CXCR4 protein expression, associated with miR-146a increase, and increases sensitivity of leukemic blast cells to cytotoxic drugs, this effect being further enhanced by miR-146a overexpression. Altogether our data indicate that miR-146a and AMD3100, acting through different mechanism, downmodulate CXCR4 protein levels, impair leukemic cell proliferation and then may be used in combination with anti-leukemia drugs, for development of new therapeutic strategies.

  7. MicroRNA-146a and AMD3100, two ways to control CXCR4 expression in acute myeloid leukemias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinello, I; Quaranta, M T; Riccioni, R; Riti, V; Pasquini, L; Boe, A; Pelosi, E; Vitale, A; Foà, R; Testa, U; Labbaye, C

    2011-01-01

    CXCR4 is a negative prognostic marker in acute myeloid leukemias (AMLs). Therefore, it is necessary to develop novel ways to inhibit CXCR4 expression in leukemia. AMD3100 is an inhibitor of CXCR4 currently used to mobilize cancer cells. CXCR4 is a target of microRNA (miR)-146a that may represent a new tool to inhibit CXCR4 expression. We then investigated CXCR4 regulation by miR-146a in primary AMLs and found an inverse correlation between miR-146a and CXCR4 protein expression levels in all AML subtypes. As the lowest miR-146a expression levels were observed in M5 AML, we analyzed the control of CXCR4 expression by miR-146a in normal and leukemic monocytic cells and showed that the regulatory miR-146a/CXCR4 pathway operates during monocytopoiesis, but is deregulated in AMLs. AMD3100 treatment and miR-146a overexpression were used to inhibit CXCR4 in leukemic cells. AMD3100 treatment induces the decrease of CXCR4 protein expression, associated with miR-146a increase, and increases sensitivity of leukemic blast cells to cytotoxic drugs, this effect being further enhanced by miR-146a overexpression. Altogether our data indicate that miR-146a and AMD3100, acting through different mechanism, downmodulate CXCR4 protein levels, impair leukemic cell proliferation and then may be used in combination with anti-leukemia drugs, for development of new therapeutic strategies

  8. Cytoplasmic CXCR4 expression in breast cancer: induction by nitric oxide and correlation with lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuoka, Hironao; Tsujimoto, Masahiko; Yoshidome, Katsuhide; Nakahara, Masaaki; Kodama, Rieko; Sanke, Tokio; Nakamura, Yasushi

    2008-01-01

    Lymph nodes constitute the first site of metastasis for most malignancies, and the extent of lymph node involvement is a major criterion for evaluating patient prognosis. The CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) has been shown to play an important role in lymph node metastasis. Nitric oxide (NO) may also contribute to induction of metastatic ability in human cancers. CXCR4 expression was analyzed in primary human breast carcinoma with long-term follow-up. The relationship between nitrotyrosine levels (a biomarker for peroxynitrate formation from NO in vivo) and lymph node status, CXCR4 immunoreactivity, and other established clinico-pathological parameters, as well as prognosis, was analyzed. Nitrite/nitrate levels and CXCR4 expressions were assessed in MDA-MB-231 and SK-BR-3 breast cancer cell lines after induction and/or inhibition of NO synthesis. CXCR4 staining was predominantly cytoplasmic; this was observed in 50%(56/113) of the tumors. Cytoplasmic CXCR4 expression was significantly correlated with nitrotyrosine levels and lymph node metastasis. Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed that cytoplasmic CXCR4 expression was associated with reduced disease-free and overall survival. In multivariate analysis, cytoplasmic CXCR4 expression emerged as a significant independent predictor for overall and disease-free survival. Cytoplasmic expression of functional CXCR4 in MDA-MB-231 and SK-BR-3 cells was increased by treatment with the NO donor DETA NONOate. This increase was abolished by L-NAME, an inhibitor of NOS. Our data showed a role for NO in stimulating cytoplasmic CXCR4 expression in vitro. Formation of the biomarker nitrotyrosine was also correlated with CXCR4 expression and lymph node metastasis in vivo. In addition, cytoplasmic CXCR4 expression may serve as a significant prognostic factor for long-term survival in breast cancer

  9. Vesnarinone downregulates CXCR4 expression via upregulation of Krüppel-like factor 2 in oral cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uchida Daisuke

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have demonstrated that the stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1; CXCL12/CXCR4 system is involved in the establishment of lymph node metastasis in oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC. Chemotherapy is a powerful tool for the treatment of oral cancer, including oral SCC; however, the effects of chemotherapeutic agents on the expression of CXCR4 are unknown. In this study, we examined the expression of CXCR4 associated with the chemotherapeutic agents in oral cancer cells. Results The expression of CXCR4 was examined using 3 different chemotherapeutic agents; 5-fluorouracil, cisplatin, and vesnarinone (3,4-dihydro-6-[4-(3,4-dimethoxybenzoyl-1-piperazinyl]-2-(1H-quinolinone in B88, a line of oral cancer cells that exhibits high levels of CXCR4 and lymph node metastatic potential. Of the 3 chemotherapeutic agents that we examined, only vesnarinone downregulated the expression of CXCR4 at the mRNA as well as the protein level. Vesnarinone significantly inhibited lymph node metastasis in tumor-bearing nude mice. Moreover, vesnarinone markedly inhibited 2.7-kb human CXCR4 promoter activity, and we identified the transcription factor, Krüppel-like factor 2 (KLF2, as a novel vesnarinone-responsive molecule, which was bound to the CXCR4 promoter at positions -300 to -167 relative to the transcription start site. The forced-expression of KLF2 led to the downregulation of CXCR4 mRNA and impaired CXCR4 promoter activity. The use of siRNA against KLF2 led to an upregulation of CXCR4 mRNA. Conclusion These Results indicate that vesnarinone downregulates CXCR4 via the upregulation of KLF2 in oral cancer.

  10. Discovery and computer aided potency optimization of a novel class of small molecule CXCR4 antagonists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Vinader

    Full Text Available Amongst the chemokine signalling axes involved in cancer, chemokine CXCL12 acting on chemokine receptor CXCR4 is particularly significant since it orchestrates migration of cancer cells in a tissue-specific metastatic process. High CXCR4 tumour expression is associated with poor prognosis of lung, brain, CNS, blood and breast cancers. We have identified a new class of small molecule CXCR4 antagonists based on the use of computational modelling studies in concert with experimental determination of in vitro activity against CXCL12-induced intracellular calcium mobilisation, proliferation and chemotaxis. Molecular modelling proved to be a useful tool in rationalising our observed potencies, as well as informing the direction of the synthetic efforts aimed at producing more potent compounds.

  11. Emodin suppresses migration and invasion through the modulation of CXCR4 expression in an orthotopic model of human hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanjoormana Aryan Manu

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence(s indicate that CXCL12-CXCR4 signaling cascade plays an important role in the process of invasion and metastasis that accounts for more than 80% of deaths in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC patients. Thus, identification of novel agents that can downregulate CXCR4 expression and its associated functions have a great potential in the treatment of metastatic HCC. In the present report, we investigated an anthraquinone derivative, emodin for its ability to affect CXCR4 expression as well as function in HCC cells. We observed that emodin downregulated the expression of CXCR4 in a dose-and time-dependent manner in HCC cells. Treatment with pharmacological proteasome and lysosomal inhibitors did not have substantial effect on emodin-induced decrease in CXCR4 expression. When investigated for the molecular mechanism(s, it was observed that the suppression of CXCR4 expression was due to downregulation of mRNA expression, inhibition of NF-κB activation, and abrogation of chromatin immunoprecipitation activity. Inhibition of CXCR4 expression by emodin further correlated with the suppression of CXCL12-induced migration and invasion in HCC cell lines. In addition, emodin treatment significantly suppressed metastasis to the lungs in an orthotopic HCC mice model and CXCR4 expression in tumor tissues. Overall, our results show that emodin exerts its anti-metastatic effect through the downregulation of CXCR4 expression and thus has the potential for the treatment of HCC.

  12. Cytokine-mediated deployment of SDF-1 induces revascularization through recruitment of CXCR4+ hemangiocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, David K; Shido, Koji; Kopp, Hans-Georg; Petit, Isabelle; Shmelkov, Sergey V; Young, Lauren M; Hooper, Andrea T; Amano, Hideki; Avecilla, Scott T; Heissig, Beate; Hattori, Koichi; Zhang, Fan; Hicklin, Daniel J; Wu, Yan; Zhu, Zhenping; Dunn, Ashley; Salari, Hassan; Werb, Zena; Hackett, Neil R; Crystal, Ronald G; Lyden, David; Rafii, Shahin

    2009-01-01

    The mechanisms through which hematopoietic cytokines accelerate revascularization are unknown. Here, we show that the magnitude of cytokine-mediated release of SDF-1 from platelets and the recruitment of nonendothelial CXCR4+VEGFR1+ hematopoietic progenitors, ‘hemangiocytes,’ constitute the major determinant of revascularization. Soluble Kit-ligand (sKitL), thrombopoietin (TPO, encoded by Thpo) and, to a lesser extent, erythropoietin (EPO) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) induced the release of SDF-1 from platelets, enhancing neovascularization through mobilization of CXCR4+VEGFR1+ hemangiocytes. Although revascularization of ischemic hindlimbs was partially diminished in mice deficient in both GM-CSF and G-CSF (Csf2−/−Csf3−/−), profound impairment in neovascularization was detected in sKitL-deficient Mmp9−/− as well as thrombocytopenic Thpo−/− and TPO receptor–deficient (Mpl−/−) mice. SDF-1–mediated mobilization and incorporation of hemangiocytes into ischemic limbs were impaired in Thpo−/−, Mpl−/− and Mmp9−/− mice. Transplantation of CXCR4+VEGFR1+ hemangiocytes into Mmp9−/− mice restored revascularization, whereas inhibition of CXCR4 abrogated cytokine- and VEGF-A–mediated mobilization of CXCR4+VEGFR1+ cells and suppressed angiogenesis. In conclusion, hematopoietic cytokines, through graded deployment of SDF-1 from platelets, support mobilization and recruitment of CXCR4+VEGFR1+ hemangiocytes, whereas VEGFR1 is essential for their angiogenic competency for augmenting revascularization. Delivery of SDF-1 may be effective in restoring angiogenesis in individuals with vasculopathies. PMID:16648859

  13. Induction of chemokine receptor CXCR4 expression by transforming growth factor-β1 in human basal cell carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chia-Yu; Sheen, Yi-Shuan; Cha, Shih-Ting; Hu, Yeh-Fang; Tan, Ching-Ting; Chiu, Hsien-Ching; Chang, Cheng-Chi; Chen, Min-Wei; Kuo, Min-Liang; Jee, Shiou-Hwa

    2013-11-01

    Higher CXCR4 expression enhances basal cell carcinoma (BCC) invasion and angiogenesis. The underlying mechanism of increased CXCR4 expression in invasive BCC is still not well understood. To investigate the mechanisms involved in the regulation of CXCR4 expression in invasive BCC. We used qRT-PCR, RT-PCR, Western blot, and flow cytometric analyses to examine different CXCR4 levels among the clinical samples, co-cultured BCC cells and BCC cells treated with recombinant transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF). Immunohistochemical studies were used to demonstrate the correlation between TGF-β1 and CXCR4 expressions. The signal transduction pathway and transcriptional regulation were confirmed by treatments with chemical inhibitors, neutralizing antibodies, or short interfering RNAs, as well as luciferase reporter activity. Invasive BCC has higher TGF-β1 and CTGF levels compared to non-invasive BCC. Non-contact dermal fibroblasts co-culture with human BCC cells also increases the expression of CXCR4 in BCC cells. Treatment with recombinant human TGF-β1, but not CTGF, enhanced the CXCR4 levels in time- and dose-dependent manners. The protein level and surface expression of CXCR4 in human BCC cells was increased by TGF-β1 treatment. TGF-β1 was intensely expressed in the surrounding fibroblasts of invasive BCC and was positively correlated with the CXCR4 expression of BCC cells. The transcriptional regulation of CXCR4 by TGF-β1 is mediated by its binding to the TGF-β receptor II and phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2)-ETS-1 pathway. TGF-β1 induces upregulation of CXCR4 in human BCC cells by phosphorylation of ERK1/2-ETS-1 pathway. Copyright © 2013 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Bicyclams, selective antagonists of the human chemokine receptor CXCR4, potently inhibit feline immunodeficiency virus replication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horzinek, M.C.; Egberink, H.F.; Clercq, E. de; Vliet, A.L.W. van; Balzarini, J.; Bridger, G.J.; Henson, G.; Schols, D.

    1999-01-01

    Bicyclams are low-molecular-weight anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) agents that have been shown to act as potent and selective CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) antagonists. Here, we demonstrate that bicyclams are potent inhibitors of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) replication when

  15. Targeting CXCR4 reverts the suppressive activity of T-regulatory cells in renal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santagata, Sara; Napolitano, Maria; D'Alterio, Crescenzo; Desicato, Sonia; Maro, Salvatore Di; Marinelli, Luciana; Fragale, Alessandra; Buoncervello, Maria; Persico, Francesco; Gabriele, Lucia; Novellino, Ettore; Longo, Nicola; Pignata, Sandro; Perdonà, Sisto; Scala, Stefania

    2017-09-29

    With the intent to identify biomarkers in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) the functional status of T-regulatory cells (Tregs) was investigated in primary RCC. Tregs were isolated from tumoral-(TT), peritumoral tissue-(PT) and peripheral blood-(PB) of 42 primary RCC patients and function evaluated through effector T cells (Teff) proliferation, cytokines release and demethylation of Treg Specific Region (TSDR). The highest value of Tregs was detected in TT with the uppermost amount of effector-Tregs-(CD4 + CD25 hi FOXP3 hi CD45RA - ). PB-RCC Tregs efficiently suppress Teff proliferation compared to healthy donor (HD)-Tregs and, at the intrapatient evaluation, TT-derived Tregs were the most suppressive. Higher demethylation TSDR was detected in TT- and PB-RCC Tregs vs HD-Tregs ( P <0,001). CXCR4 is highly expressed on Tregs, thus we wished to modulate Tregs function through CXCR4 inhibition. CXCR4 antagonism, elicited by a new peptidic antagonist, Peptide-R29, efficiently reversed Tregs suppression of Teff proliferation. Thus Tregs functional evaluation precisely reflects Tregs status and may be a reliable biomarker of tumoral immune response. In addition, treatment with CXCR4 antagonist, impairing Tregs function, could improve the anticancer immune response, in combination with conventional therapy and/or immunotherapy such as checkpoints inhibitors.

  16. Synthesis of AMD3100 for antagonist of CXCR4 and labeled with 99Tcm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gui Yuan; Xu Zhihong; Zhang Xiaojun; Zhang Shuwen; Liu Jian; Tian Jiahe; Zhang Jinming

    2013-01-01

    Most of human tumors over-express CXCR4. AMD3100, a nonpeptide antagonist for CXCR4 receptor, can be used for therapy of those tumors. It was found that metal ion complex, such as Cu 2+ , with AMD3100 enhanced its binding affinity to the receptor 10-fold higher as compared to AMD3100 alone. AMD3100 was synthesis from 3-aminopropyl ethylene diamine. 99 Tc m -AMD3100 was labeled directly. Biodistribution studies were carried out in NH mice. SPECT imaging was performed in Hep-G2 tumor bearing mouse. The synthetic yield was 5.8% from 3-aminopropyl ethylene diamine to AMD3100. The labeling yield of 99 Tc m -AMD3100 was over 98%. Biodistribution studies showed high accumulation of radio- tracer in liver which had high-expression of CXCR4. SPECT imaging results showed that uptake in Hep-G2 tumor was high. The results showed that 99 Tc m -AMD3100 was an attractive candidate for further development of SPECT radiotracer potentially suitable for CXCR4. (authors)

  17. Reprogramming antitumor immunity against chemoresistant ovarian cancer by a CXCR4 antagonist-armed viral oncotherapy

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    Marcin P Komorowski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer remains the most lethal gynecologic malignancy owing to late detection, intrinsic and acquired chemoresistance, and remarkable heterogeneity. Here, we explored approaches to inhibit metastatic growth of murine and human ovarian tumor variants resistant to paclitaxel and carboplatin by oncolytic vaccinia virus expressing a CXCR4 antagonist to target the CXCL12 chemokine/CXCR4 receptor signaling axis alone or in combination with doxorubicin. The resistant variants exhibited augmented expression of the hyaluronan receptor CD44 and CXCR4 along with elevated Akt and ERK1/2 activation and displayed an increased susceptibility to viral infection compared with the parental counterparts. The infected cultures were more sensitive to doxorubicin-mediated killing both in vitro and in tumor-challenged mice. Mechanistically, the combination treatment increased apoptosis and phagocytosis of tumor material by dendritic cells associated with induction of antitumor immunity. Targeting syngeneic tumors with this regimen increased intratumoral infiltration of antitumor CD8+ T cells. This was further enhanced by reducing the immunosuppressive network by the virally-delivered CXCR4 antagonist, which augmented antitumor immune responses and led to tumor-free survival. Our results define novel strategies for treatment of drug-resistant ovarian cancer that increase immunogenic cell death and reverse the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment, culminating in antitumor immune responses that control metastatic tumor growth.

  18. Regorafenib inhibited gastric cancer cells growth and invasion via CXCR4 activated Wnt pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiao-Lin; Xu, Qi; Tang, Lei; Sun, Li; Han, Ting; Wang, Li-Wei; Xiao, Xiu-Ying

    2017-01-01

    Regorafenib is an oral small-molecule multi kinase inhibitor. Recently, several clinical trials have revealed that regorafenib has an anti-tumor activity in gastric cancer. However, only part of patients benefit from regorafenib, and the mechanisms of regorafenib's anti-tumor effect need further demonstrating. In this study, we would assess the potential anti-tumor effects and the underlying mechanisms of regorafenib in gastric cancer cells, and explore novel biomarkers for patients selecting of regorafenib. The anti-tumor effects of regorafenib on gastric cancer cells were analyzed via cell proliferation and invasion. The underlying mechanisms were demonstrated using molecular biology techniques. We found that regorafenib inhibited cell proliferation and invasion at the concentration of 20μmol/L and in a dose dependent manner. The anti-tumor effects of regorafenib related to the decreased expression of CXCR4, and elevated expression and activation of CXCR4 could reverse the inhibition effect of regorafenib on gastric cancer cells. Further studies revealed that regorafenib reduced the transcriptional activity of Wnt/β-Catenin pathway and led to decreased expression of Wnt pathway target genes, while overexpression and activation of CXCR4 could attenuate the inhibition effect of regorafenib on Wnt/β-Catenin pathway. Our findings demonstrated that regorafenib effectively inhibited cell proliferation and invasion of gastric cancer cells via decreasing the expression of CXCR4 and further reducing the transcriptional activity of Wnt/β-Catenin pathway.

  19. Chemokine receptor CXCR4 downregulated by von Hippel-Lindau tumour suppressor pVHL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staller, Peter; Sulitkova, Jitka; Lisztwan, Joanna

    2003-01-01

    Organ-specific metastasis is governed, in part, by interactions between chemokine receptors on cancer cells and matching chemokines in target organs. For example, malignant breast cancer cells express the chemokine receptor CXCR4 and commonly metastasize to organs that are an abundant source of t...

  20. SDF-1/CXCR4 expression in head and neck cancer and outcome after postoperative radiochemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara De-Colle

    2017-08-01

    Conclusions: Our exploratory data support the hypothesis that overexpression of intracellular SDF-1 is an independent negative prognostic biomarker for LRC after postoperative RT-CT in high-risk HNSCC. Prospective validation is warranted and further exploration of SDF-1/CXCR4 as a potential therapeutic target to overcome treatment resistance in HNSCC appears promising.

  1. Design, synthesis, and functionalization of dimeric peptides targeting chemokine receptor CXCR4.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demmer, O.; Dijkgraaf, I.; Schumacher, U.; Marinelli, L.; Cosconati, S.; Gourni, E.; Wester, H.J.; Kessler, H.

    2011-01-01

    The chemokine receptor CXCR4 is a critical regulator of inflammation and immune surveillance, and it is specifically implicated in cancer metastasis and HIV-1 infection. On the basis of the observation that several of the known antagonists remarkably share a C(2) symmetry element, we constructed

  2. Intracellular CXCR4+ cell targeting with T22-empowered protein-only nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unzueta, Ugutz; Céspedes, María Virtudes; Ferrer-Miralles, Neus; Casanova, Isolda; Cedano, Juan; Corchero, José Luis; Domingo-Espín, Joan; Villaverde, Antonio; Mangues, Ramón; Vázquez, Esther

    2012-01-01

    Background Cell-targeting peptides or proteins are appealing tools in nanomedicine and innovative medicines because they increase the local drug concentration and reduce potential side effects. CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) is a cell surface marker associated with several severe human pathologies, including colorectal cancer, for which intracellular targeting agents are currently missing. Results Four different peptides that bind CXCR4 were tested for their ability to internalize a green fluorescent protein-based reporter nanoparticle into CXCR4+ cells. Among them, only the 18 mer peptide T22, an engineered segment derivative of polyphemusin II from the horseshoe crab, efficiently penetrated target cells via a rapid, receptor-specific endosomal route. This resulted in accumulation of the reporter nanoparticle in a fully fluorescent and stable form in the perinuclear region of the target cells, without toxicity either in cell culture or in an in vivo model of metastatic colorectal cancer. Conclusion Given the urgent demand for targeting agents in the research, diagnosis, and treatment of CXCR4-linked diseases, including colorectal cancer and human immunodeficiency virus infection, T22 appears to be a promising tag for the intracellular delivery of protein drugs, nanoparticles, and imaging agents. PMID:22923991

  3. CXCR4/CXCL12/CXCR7 axis is functional in neuroendocrine tumors and signals on mTOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Circelli, Luisa; Sciammarella, Concetta; Guadagno, Elia; Tafuto, Salvatore; del Basso de Caro, Marialaura; Botti, Giovanni; Pezzullo, Luciano; Aria, Massimo; Ramundo, Valeria; Tatangelo, Fabiana; Losito, Nunzia Simona; Ieranò, Caterina; D'Alterio, Crescenzo; Izzo, Francesco; Ciliberto, Gennaro; Colao, Annamaria; Faggiano, Antongiulio; Scala, Stefania

    2016-04-05

    To evaluate the possible crosstalk between C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4)/C-X-C motif chemokine 12 (CXCL12)/C-X-C chemokine receptor 7 (CXCR7) axis with the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway in neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Sixty-one human NETs were included into the study. CXCR4/CXCL12/CXCR7 axis and mTOR pathway were assessed by qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC). The effect of mTOR inhibitor, RAD001, was evaluated on CXCR4 pathway through proliferation and p-Erk and p-AKT induction. CXCR4/CXCL12/CXCR7 axis and p-mTOR were found to be active and correlated with grading, Ki67 index and tumor stage. mTOR pathway activation significantly correlated with poor prognosis. In human NET cells, CXCL12 induced mTOR signalling while AMD3100 (CXCR4-antagonist) impaired it. The mTOR-antagonist, RAD001, impaired the CXCL12-dependent induction of CXCR4 downstream effectors. Combination of AMD3100 and RAD001 potentiate cell growth inhibition. CXCR4/CXCL12/CXCR7 axis is active in NETs and signals on mTOR. CXCR4 might be considered a prognostic factor in NETs. Combined treatment with AMD3100 and RAD001 may provide clinical benefits in NET patients with drug-resistant.

  4. Relevance of P-glycoprotein on CXCR4+ B cells to organ manifestation in highly active rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura, Shizuyo; Adachi, Tomoko; Saito, Kazuyoshi; Kawabe, Akio; Tanaka, Yoshiya

    2018-03-01

    In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression on activated B cells is associated with active efflux of intracellular drugs, resulting in drug resistance. CXCR4 is associated with migration of B cells. This study was designed to elucidate the relevance of P-gp expression on CXCR4 + B cells to clinical manifestations in refractory RA. CD19 + B cells were analyzed using flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. P-gp was highly expressed especially on CXCR4 + CD19 + B cells in RA. The proportion of P-gp-expressing CXCR4 + B cells correlated with disease activity, estimated by Simplified Disease Activity Index (SDAI), and showed marked expansion in RA patients with high SDAI and extra-articular involvement. In highly active RA, massive infiltration of P-gp + CXCR4 + CD19 + B cells was noted in CXCL12-expressing inflammatory lesions of RA synovitis and RA-associated interstitial pneumonitis. In RA patient with active extra-articular involvement, intracellular dexamethasone level (IDL) in lymphocytes diminished with expansion of P-gp + CXCR4 + CD19 + B cells. Adalimumab reduced P-gp + CXCR4 + CD19 + B cells, increased IDL in lymphocytes, and improved the clinical manifestation and allowed tapering of concomitant medications. Expansion of P-gp + CXCR4 + B cells seems to be associated with drug resistance, disease activity and progressive destructive arthritis with extra-articular involvement in RA.

  5. Fine definition of the CXCR4-binding region on the V3 loop of feline immunodeficiency virus surface glycoprotein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong-Ying Hu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The chemokine receptor CXCR4 is shared by primary and laboratory-adapted strains of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV for viral entry. Our previous studies implicated a contiguous nine-amino-acid region of the V3 loop of the FIV envelope surface as important in CXCR4 binding and virus entry. The binding is specific for CXCR4 since it can be inhibited by AMD3100, a selective CXCR4 inhibitor. Additional site-directed mutagenesis was used to further reveal the key residues. Binding studies indicated that basic residues R395, K397, R399 as well as N398 are critical for CXCR4 binding. The effect of other amino acid residues on receptor binding depends on the type of amino acid residue substituted. The binding study results were confirmed on human CXCR4-expressing SupT1 cells and correlated with entry efficiency using a virus entry assay. Amino acid residues critical for CXCR4 are not critical for interactions with the primary binding receptor CD134, which has an equivalent role as CD4 for HIV-1 binding. The ELISA results show that W394 and W400 are crucial for the recognition by neutralizing anti-V3 antibodies. Since certain strains of HIV-1 also use CXCR4 as the entry receptor, the findings make the feline model attractive for development of broad-based entry antagonists and for study of the molecular mechanism of receptor/virus interactions.

  6. CXCR4 blockade decreases CD4+ T cell exhaustion and improves survival in a murine model of polymicrobial sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramonell, Kimberly M; Zhang, Wenxiao; Hadley, Annette; Chen, Ching-Wen; Fay, Katherine T; Lyons, John D; Klingensmith, Nathan J; McConnell, Kevin W; Coopersmith, Craig M; Ford, Mandy L

    2017-01-01

    Sepsis is a dysregulated systemic response to infection involving many inflammatory pathways and the induction of counter-regulatory anti-inflammatory processes that results in a state of immune incompetence and can lead to multi-organ failure. CXCR4 is a chemokine receptor that, following ligation by CXCL12, directs cells to bone marrow niches and also plays an important role in T cell cosignaling and formation of the immunological synapse. Here, we investigated the expression and function of CXCR4 in a murine model of polymicrobial sepsis. Results indicate that CXCR4 is selectively upregulated on naïve CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and CD4+ central memory T cells following the induction of sepsis, and that CXCR4 antagonism resulted in a significant decrease in sepsis-induced mortality. We probed the mechanistic basis for these findings and found that CXCR4 antagonism significantly increased the number of peripheral CD4+ and CD8+ T cells following sepsis. Moreover, mice treated with the CXCR4 antagonist contained fewer PD-1+ LAG-3+ 2B4+ cells, suggesting that blockade of CXCR4 mitigates CD4+ T cell exhaustion during sepsis. Taken together, these results characterize CXCR4 as an important pathway that modulates immune dysfunction and mortality following sepsis, which may hold promise as a target for future therapeutic intervention in septic patients.

  7. CXCR4 blockade decreases CD4+ T cell exhaustion and improves survival in a murine model of polymicrobial sepsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly M Ramonell

    Full Text Available Sepsis is a dysregulated systemic response to infection involving many inflammatory pathways and the induction of counter-regulatory anti-inflammatory processes that results in a state of immune incompetence and can lead to multi-organ failure. CXCR4 is a chemokine receptor that, following ligation by CXCL12, directs cells to bone marrow niches and also plays an important role in T cell cosignaling and formation of the immunological synapse. Here, we investigated the expression and function of CXCR4 in a murine model of polymicrobial sepsis. Results indicate that CXCR4 is selectively upregulated on naïve CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and CD4+ central memory T cells following the induction of sepsis, and that CXCR4 antagonism resulted in a significant decrease in sepsis-induced mortality. We probed the mechanistic basis for these findings and found that CXCR4 antagonism significantly increased the number of peripheral CD4+ and CD8+ T cells following sepsis. Moreover, mice treated with the CXCR4 antagonist contained fewer PD-1+ LAG-3+ 2B4+ cells, suggesting that blockade of CXCR4 mitigates CD4+ T cell exhaustion during sepsis. Taken together, these results characterize CXCR4 as an important pathway that modulates immune dysfunction and mortality following sepsis, which may hold promise as a target for future therapeutic intervention in septic patients.

  8. Discovery of non-peptide small molecular CXCR4 antagonists as anti-HIV agents: Recent advances and future opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Heng; Kang, Dongwei; Huang, Boshi; Liu, Na; Zhao, Fabao; Zhan, Peng; Liu, Xinyong

    2016-05-23

    CXCR4 plays vital roles in HIV-1 life cycle for it's essential in mediating the interaction of host and virus and completing the entry process in the lifecycle of HIV-1 infection. Compared with some traditional targets, CXCR4 provides a novel and less mutated drug target in the battle against AIDS. Its antagonists have no cross resistance with other antagonists. Great achievements have been made recent years and a number of small molecular CXCR4 antagonists with diversity scaffolds have been discovered. In this review, recent advances in the discovery of CXCR4 antagonists with special attentions on their evolution and structure-activity relationships of representative CXCR4 antagonists are described. Moreover, some classical medicinal chemistry strategies and novel methodologies are also introduced. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. CXCR4-mediated osteosarcoma growth and pulmonary metastasis is promoted by mesenchymal stem cells through VEGF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Dong, Ling; Yan, Kang; Long, Hua; Yang, Tong-Tao; Dong, Ming-Qing; Zhou, Yong; Fan, Qing-Yu; Ma, Bao-An

    2013-10-01

    Chemokines and chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) play an important role in metastasis. CXCR4 is also expressed in the human osteosarcoma cell line 9607-F5M2 (F5M2), which has a high tumorigenic ability and potential for spontaneous pulmonary metastasis. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) contribute to the formation of the tumor stroma and promote metastasis. However, mechanisms underlying the promotion of osteosarcoma growth and pulmonary metastasis by MSCs are still elusive. Our study co-injected the human MSCs and F5M2 cells into the caudal vein of nude mice. The total number of tumor nodules per lung was significantly increased in the F5M2+MSC group compared to the other groups (control, F5M2 cells alone and MSCs alone) at week six. Moreover, a high number of Dil-labeled MSCs was present also at the osteosarcoma metastasis sites in the lung. Using Transwell assays, we found that F5M2 cells migrate towards MSCs, while the CXCR4 inhibitor AMD3100 decreased the migration potential of F5M2 cells towards MSCs. Furthermore, upon treatment with F5M2-conditioned medium, MSCs expressed and secreted higher levels of VEGF as determined by immunohistochemistry, western blotting and ELISA, respectively. Importantly, co-cultured with F5M2 cells, MSCs expressed and secreted higher VEGF levels, while AMD3100 dramatically decreased the VEGF secretion by MSCs. However, CXCR4 expression on F5M2 cells was not significantly increased in the co-culture system. Additionally, VEGF increased the proliferation of both MSCs and F5M2 cells. These findings suggest that CXCR4-mediated osteosarcoma growth and pulmonary metastasis are promoted by MSCs through VEGF.

  10. The puzzling role of CXCR4 in human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicenzi, Elisa; Liò, Pietro; Poli, Guido

    2013-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) is the etiological agent of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), a disease highly lethal in the absence of combination antiretroviral therapy. HIV infects CD4(+) cells of the immune system (T cells, monocyte-macrophages and dendritic cells) via interaction with a universal primary receptor, the CD4 molecule, followed by a mandatory interaction with a second receptor (co-receptor) belonging to the chemokine receptor family. Apart from some rare cases, two chemokine receptors have been evolutionarily selected to accomplish this need for HIV-1: CCR5 and CXCR4. Yet, usage of these two receptors appears to be neither casual nor simply explained by their levels of cell surface expression. While CCR5 use is the universal rule at the start of every infection regardless of the transmission route (blood-related, sexual or mother to child), CXCR4 utilization emerges later in disease coinciding with the immunological deficient phase of infection. Moreover, in most instances CXCR4 use as viral entry co-receptor is associated with maintenance of CCR5 use. Since antiviral agents preventing CCR5 utilization by the virus are already in use, while others targeting either CCR5 or CXCR4 (or both) are under investigation, understanding the biological correlates of this "asymmetrical" utilization of HIV entry co-receptors bears relevance for the clinical choice of which therapeutics should be administered to infected individuals. We will here summarize the basic knowledge and the hypotheses underlying the puzzling and yet unequivocal role of CXCR4 in HIV-1 infection.

  11. Expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 on lymphocytes of leprosy patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Mendonça

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Leprosy is caused by Mycobacterium leprae, which induces chronic granulomatous infection of the skin and peripheral nerves. The disease ranges from the tuberculoid to the lepromatous forms, depending on the cellular immune response of the host. Chemokines are thought to be involved in the immunopathogenesis of leprosy, but few studies have investigated the expression of chemokine receptors on leukocytes of leprosy patients. In the present study, we evaluated 21 leprosy patients (M/F: 16/5 with a new diagnosis from the Dermatology Outpatient Clinic of the University Hospital, Federal University of Minas Gerais. The control group was composed of 20 healthy members (M/F: 15/5 of the community recruited by means of announcements. The expression of CCR2, CCR3, CCR5, and CXCR4 was investigated by flow cytometry on the surface of peripheral blood lymphocytes. There was a decrease in percentage of CD3+CXCR4+ and CD4+CXCR4+ lymphocytes in the peripheral blood of leprosy patients (median [range], 17.6 [2.7-41.9] and 65.3 [3.9-91.9], respectively compared to the control group (median [range], 43.0 [3.7-61.3] and 77.2 [43.6-93.5], respectively. The percentage of CD4+CXCR4+ was significantly lower in patients with the tuberculoid form (median [range], 45.7 [0.0-83.1] of the disease, but not in lepromatous patients (median [range], 81.5 [44.9-91.9]. The CXCR4 chemokine receptor may play a role in leprosy immunopathogenesis, probably directing cell migration to tissue lesions in tuberculoid leprosy patients.

  12. CXC chemokine receptor 7 (CXCR7 regulates CXCR4 protein expression and capillary tuft development in mouse kidney.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sammy Haege

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The CXCL12/CXCR4 axis is involved in kidney development by regulating formation of the glomerular tuft. Recently, a second CXCL12 receptor was identified and designated CXCR7. Although it is established that CXCR7 regulates heart and brain development in conjunction with CXCL12 and CXCR4, little is known about the influence of CXCR7 on CXCL12 dependent kidney development. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We provided analysis of CXCR7 expression and function in the developing mouse kidney. Using in situ hybridization, we identified CXCR7 mRNA in epithelial cells including podocytes at all nephron stages up to the mature glomerulus. CXCL12 mRNA showed a striking overlap with CXCR7 mRNA in epithelial structures. In addition, CXCL12 was detected in stromal cells and the glomerular tuft. Expression of CXCR4 was complementary to that of CXCR7 as it occurred in mesenchymal cells, outgrowing ureteric buds and glomerular endothelial cells but not in podocytes. Kidney examination in CXCR7 null mice revealed ballooning of glomerular capillaries as described earlier for CXCR4 null mice. Moreover, we detected a severe reduction of CXCR4 protein but not CXCR4 mRNA within the glomerular tuft and in the condensed mesenchyme. Malformation of the glomerular tuft in CXCR7 null mice was associated with mesangial cell clumping. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We established that there is a similar glomerular pathology in CXCR7 and CXCR4 null embryos. Based on the phenotype and the anatomical organization of the CXCL12/CXCR4/CXCR7 system in the forming glomerulus, we propose that CXCR7 fine-tunes CXCL12/CXCR4 mediated signalling between podocytes and glomerular capillaries.

  13. Neuropilin-2 expression in breast cancer: correlation with lymph node metastasis, poor prognosis, and regulation of CXCR4 expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuoka, Hironao; Kodama, Rieko; Tsujimoto, Masahiko; Yoshidome, Katsuhide; Akamatsu, Hiroki; Nakahara, Masaaki; Inagaki, Michiya; Sanke, Tokio; Nakamura, Yasushi

    2009-01-01

    Neuropilin-2 (Nrp2) is a receptor for vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C), which is a well-known lymphangiogenic factor and plays an important role in lymph node metastasis of various human cancers, including breast cancer. Recently, Nrp2 was shown to play a role in cancer by promoting tumor cell metastasis. CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) also promotes tumor metastasis. In the previous studies, we demonstrated that VEGF-C and cytoplasmic CXCR4 expressions were correlated with poorer patient prognosis (BMC Cancer 2008,8:340; Breast Cancer Res Treat 2005, 91:125–132). The relationship between Nrp2 expression and lymph node metastasis, VEGF-C expression, CXCR4 expression, and other established clinicopathological variables (these data were cited in our previous papers), including prognosis, was analyzed in human breast cancer. Effects of neutralizing anti-Nrp2 antibody on CXCR4 expression and chemotaxis were assessed in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Nrp2 expression was observed in 53.1% (60 of 113) of the invasive breast carcinomas. Nrp2 expression was significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis, VEGF-C expression, and cytoplasmic CXCR4 expression. Survival curves determined by the Kaplan-Meier method showed that Nrp2 expression was associated with reduced overall survival. In multivariate analysis, Nrp2 expression emerged as a significant independent predictor for overall survival. Neutralizing anti-Nrp2 antibody blocks cytoplasmic CXCR4 expression and CXCR4-induced migration in MDA-MB-231 cells. Nrp2 expression was correlated with lymph node metastasis, VEGF-C expression, and cytoplasmic CXCR4 expression. Nrp2 expression may serve as a significant prognostic factor for long-term survival in breast cancer. Our data also showed a role for Nrp2 in regulating cytoplasmic CXCR4 expression in vitro

  14. CXC Chemokine Receptor 7 (CXCR7) Regulates CXCR4 Protein Expression and Capillary Tuft Development in Mouse Kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haege, Sammy; Mueller, Wiebke; Nietzsche, Sandor; Lupp, Amelie; Mackay, Fabienne; Schulz, Stefan; Stumm, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    Background The CXCL12/CXCR4 axis is involved in kidney development by regulating formation of the glomerular tuft. Recently, a second CXCL12 receptor was identified and designated CXCR7. Although it is established that CXCR7 regulates heart and brain development in conjunction with CXCL12 and CXCR4, little is known about the influence of CXCR7 on CXCL12 dependent kidney development. Methodology/Principal Findings We provided analysis of CXCR7 expression and function in the developing mouse kidney. Using in situ hybridization, we identified CXCR7 mRNA in epithelial cells including podocytes at all nephron stages up to the mature glomerulus. CXCL12 mRNA showed a striking overlap with CXCR7 mRNA in epithelial structures. In addition, CXCL12 was detected in stromal cells and the glomerular tuft. Expression of CXCR4 was complementary to that of CXCR7 as it occurred in mesenchymal cells, outgrowing ureteric buds and glomerular endothelial cells but not in podocytes. Kidney examination in CXCR7 null mice revealed ballooning of glomerular capillaries as described earlier for CXCR4 null mice. Moreover, we detected a severe reduction of CXCR4 protein but not CXCR4 mRNA within the glomerular tuft and in the condensed mesenchyme. Malformation of the glomerular tuft in CXCR7 null mice was associated with mesangial cell clumping. Conclusions/Significance We established that there is a similar glomerular pathology in CXCR7 and CXCR4 null embryos. Based on the phenotype and the anatomical organization of the CXCL12/CXCR4/CXCR7 system in the forming glomerulus, we propose that CXCR7 fine-tunes CXCL12/CXCR4 mediated signalling between podocytes and glomerular capillaries. PMID:22880115

  15. CXXL 14 Blockade of CXCL12/CXCR4 Signaling in Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    6. Products 4 Publications: The paper entitled “CXCL14 is a Marker of Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis: A Pro-Metastatic Chemokine with CXCR4...overnight, followed by one-hour incubation with 2 mg/ml of bovine serum albumin (BSA). Cells were plated and grown to confluency. Thereafter, a...ARCaPM and PC-3, at 80% confluence, were serum-starved in medium supplemented with 0.1% bovine serum albumin (Probumin, Celliance) for 8 hours

  16. Csk Homologous Kinase, a Potential Regulator of CXCR4-mediated Breast Cancer Cell Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    SH2 ) and SH3 domains and lacks the consensus tyrosine phosphorylation and myristylation sites found in Src family kinases . CHK has been shown to...0350 TITLE: Csk Homologous Kinase , a Potential Regulator of CXCR4-mediated Breast Cancer Cell Metastasis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Byeong-Chel...1 AUG 2009 - 31 JUL 2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-09-1-0350 Csk Homologous Kinase , a Potential Regulator

  17. Expression of chemokine CXCL12 and its receptor CXCR4 in folliculostellate (FS) cells of the rat anterior pituitary gland: the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis induces interconnection of FS cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiguchi, Kotaro; Ilmiawati, Cimi; Fujiwara, Ken; Tsukada, Takehiro; Kikuchi, Motoshi; Yashiro, Takashi

    2012-04-01

    The anterior pituitary gland is composed of five types of hormone-producing cells plus folliculostellate (FS) cells, which do not produce classical anterior pituitary hormones. FS cells are interconnected by cytoplasmic processes and encircle hormone-producing cells or aggregate homophilically. Using living-cell imaging of primary culture, we recently reported that some FS cells precisely extend their cytoplasmic processes toward other FS cells and form interconnections with them. These phenomena suggest the presence of a chemoattractant factor that facilitates the interconnection. In this study, we attempted to discover the factor that induces interconnection of FS cells and succeeded in identifying chemokine (CXC)-L12 and its receptor CXCR4 as potential candidate molecules. CXCL12 is a chemokine of the CXC subfamily. It exerts its effects via CXCR4, a G protein-coupled receptor. The CXCL12/CXCR4 axis is a potent chemoattractant for many types of neural cells. First, we revealed that CXCL12 and CXCR4 are expressed by FS cells in rat anterior pituitary gland. Next, to clarify the function of the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis in FS cells, we observed living anterior pituitary cells in primary culture with specific CXCL12 inhibitor or CXCR4 antagonist and noted that extension of cytoplasmic processes and interconnection of FS cells were inhibited. Finally, we examined FS cell migration and invasion by using Matrigel matrix assays. CXCL12 treatment resulted in markedly increased FS cell migration and invasion. These data suggest that FS cells express chemokine CXCL12 and its receptor CXCR4 and that the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis evokes interconnection of FS cells.

  18. Intracellular CXCR4+ cell targeting with T22-empowered protein-only nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unzueta U

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Ugutz Unzueta,1–3 María Virtudes Céspedes,3,4 Neus Ferrer-Miralles,1–3 Isolda Casanova,3,4 Juan Cedano,5 José Luis Corchero,1–3 Joan Domingo-Espín,1–3 Antonio Villaverde,1–3 Ramón Mangues,3,4 Esther Vázquez1–31Institut de Biotecnologia i de Biomedicina, 2Departamento de Genètica i de Microbiologia, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Barcelona, 3CIBER en Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina, Bellaterra, Barcelona, 4Oncogenesis and Antitumor Drug Group, Biomedical Research Institute Sant Pau, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona, Spain; 5Laboratory of Immunology, Regional Norte, Universidad de la Republica, Salto, UruguayBackground: Cell-targeting peptides or proteins are appealing tools in nanomedicine and innovative medicines because they increase the local drug concentration and reduce potential side effects. CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4 is a cell surface marker associated with several severe human pathologies, including colorectal cancer, for which intracellular targeting agents are currently missing.Results: Four different peptides that bind CXCR4 were tested for their ability to internalize a green fluorescent protein-based reporter nanoparticle into CXCR4+ cells. Among them, only the 18 mer peptide T22, an engineered segment derivative of polyphemusin II from the horseshoe crab, efficiently penetrated target cells via a rapid, receptor-specific endosomal route. This resulted in accumulation of the reporter nanoparticle in a fully fluorescent and stable form in the perinuclear region of the target cells, without toxicity either in cell culture or in an in vivo model of metastatic colorectal cancer.Conclusion: Given the urgent demand for targeting agents in the research, diagnosis, and treatment of CXCR4-linked diseases, including colorectal cancer and human immunodeficiency virus infection, T22 appears to be a promising tag for the intracellular delivery of protein drugs, nanoparticles

  19. Determination of the catalytic activity of LEOPARD syndrome-associated SHP2 mutants toward parafibromin, a bona fide SHP2 substrate involved in Wnt signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noda, Saori; Takahashi, Atsushi; Hayashi, Takeru; Tanuma, Sei-ichi; Hatakeyama, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    SHP2, encoded by the PTPN11 gene, is a protein tyrosine phosphatase that plays a key role in the proliferation of cells via RAS-ERK activation. SHP2 also promotes Wnt signaling by dephosphorylating parafibromin. Germline missense mutations of PTPN11 are found in more than half of patients with Noonan syndrome (NS) and LEOPARD syndrome (LS), both of which are congenital developmental disorders with multiple common symptoms. However, whereas NS-associated PTPN11 mutations give rise to gain-of-function SHP2 mutants, LS-associated SHP2 mutants are reportedly loss-of-function mutants. To determine the phosphatase activity of LS-associated SHP2 more appropriately, we performed an in vitro phosphatase assay using tyrosine-phosphorylated parafibromin, a biologically relevant substrate of SHP2 and the positive regulator of Wnt signaling that is activated through SHP2-mediated dephosphorylation. We found that LS-associated SHP2 mutants (Y279C, T468M, Q506P, and Q510E) exhibited a substantially reduced phosphatase activity toward parafibromin when compared with wild-type SHP2. Furthermore, each of the LS-associated mutants displayed a differential degree of decrease in phosphatase activity. Deviation of the SHP2 catalytic activity from a certain range, either too strong or too weak, may therefore lead to similar clinical outcomes in NS and LS, possibly through an imbalanced Wnt signal caused by inadequate dephosphorylation of parafibromin. - Highlights: • LS-associated SHP2 mutants dephosphorylate parafibromin on Y290, Y293, and Y315. • LS-associated SHP2 mutants display a reduced tyrosine phosphatase activity. • LS-specific SHP2-Y279C is catalytically less active than LS-specific SHP2-T468M. • NS/LS-associated SHP2-Q506P has both hyper- and hypomorphic enzymatic properties.

  20. Determination of the catalytic activity of LEOPARD syndrome-associated SHP2 mutants toward parafibromin, a bona fide SHP2 substrate involved in Wnt signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noda, Saori [Division of Microbiology, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokyo University of Science, Chiba (Japan); Takahashi, Atsushi; Hayashi, Takeru [Division of Microbiology, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Tanuma, Sei-ichi [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokyo University of Science, Chiba (Japan); Hatakeyama, Masanori, E-mail: mhata@m.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Division of Microbiology, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    2016-01-22

    SHP2, encoded by the PTPN11 gene, is a protein tyrosine phosphatase that plays a key role in the proliferation of cells via RAS-ERK activation. SHP2 also promotes Wnt signaling by dephosphorylating parafibromin. Germline missense mutations of PTPN11 are found in more than half of patients with Noonan syndrome (NS) and LEOPARD syndrome (LS), both of which are congenital developmental disorders with multiple common symptoms. However, whereas NS-associated PTPN11 mutations give rise to gain-of-function SHP2 mutants, LS-associated SHP2 mutants are reportedly loss-of-function mutants. To determine the phosphatase activity of LS-associated SHP2 more appropriately, we performed an in vitro phosphatase assay using tyrosine-phosphorylated parafibromin, a biologically relevant substrate of SHP2 and the positive regulator of Wnt signaling that is activated through SHP2-mediated dephosphorylation. We found that LS-associated SHP2 mutants (Y279C, T468M, Q506P, and Q510E) exhibited a substantially reduced phosphatase activity toward parafibromin when compared with wild-type SHP2. Furthermore, each of the LS-associated mutants displayed a differential degree of decrease in phosphatase activity. Deviation of the SHP2 catalytic activity from a certain range, either too strong or too weak, may therefore lead to similar clinical outcomes in NS and LS, possibly through an imbalanced Wnt signal caused by inadequate dephosphorylation of parafibromin. - Highlights: • LS-associated SHP2 mutants dephosphorylate parafibromin on Y290, Y293, and Y315. • LS-associated SHP2 mutants display a reduced tyrosine phosphatase activity. • LS-specific SHP2-Y279C is catalytically less active than LS-specific SHP2-T468M. • NS/LS-associated SHP2-Q506P has both hyper- and hypomorphic enzymatic properties.

  1. The CXCR4/SDF-1 chemokine receptor axis: a new target therapeutic for non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Shannon; Bebb, Gwyn

    2008-12-01

    Chemokines are proinflammatory chemoattractant cytokines that regulate cell trafficking and adhesion. The CXCR4 chemokine receptor and its ligand, stromal cell derived factor (SDF-1), constitute a chemokine/receptor axis that has attracted great interest because of an increasing understanding of its role in cancer, including lung cancer. The CXCR4/SDF-1 complex activates several pathways that mediate chemotaxis, migration and secretion of angiopoietic factors. Neutralization of SDF-1 by anti-SDF-1 or anti-CXCR4 monoclonal antibody in preclinical in vivo studies results in a significant decrease of non-small cell lung cancer metastases. Since anti-SDF-1/CXCR4 strategies have already been developed for use in combating human immunodeficiency virus infections, it is likely that these approaches will be used in clinical trials in non-small cell lung cancer in the very near future.

  2. CXCR4 Protein Epitope Mimetic Antagonist POL5551 Disrupts Metastasis and Enhances Chemotherapy Effect in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Jingyu; Hurchla, Michelle A; Fontana, Francesca; Su, Xinming; Amend, Sarah R; Esser, Alison K; Douglas, Garry J; Mudalagiriyappa, Chidananda; Luker, Kathryn E; Pluard, Timothy; Ademuyiwa, Foluso O; Romagnoli, Barbara; Tuffin, Gérald; Chevalier, Eric; Luker, Gary D; Bauer, Michael; Zimmermann, Johann; Aft, Rebecca L; Dembowsky, Klaus; Weilbaecher, Katherine N

    2015-11-01

    The SDF-1 receptor CXCR4 has been associated with early metastasis and poorer prognosis in breast cancers, especially the most aggressive triple-negative subtype. In line with previous reports, we found that tumoral CXCR4 expression in patients with locally advanced breast cancer was associated with increased metastases and rapid tumor progression. Moreover, high CXCR4 expression identified a group of bone marrow-disseminated tumor cells (DTC)-negative patients at high risk for metastasis and death. The protein epitope mimetic (PEM) POL5551, a novel CXCR4 antagonist, inhibited binding of SDF-1 to CXCR4, had no direct effects on tumor cell viability, but reduced migration of breast cancer cells in vitro. In two orthotopic models of triple-negative breast cancer, POL5551 had little inhibitory effect on primary tumor growth, but significantly reduced distant metastasis. When combined with eribulin, a chemotherapeutic microtubule inhibitor, POL5551 additively reduced metastasis and prolonged survival in mice after resection of the primary tumor compared with single-agent eribulin. Hypothesizing that POL5551 may mobilize tumor cells from their microenvironment and sensitize them to chemotherapy, we used a "chemotherapy framing" dosing strategy. When administered shortly before and after eribulin treatment, three doses of POL5551 with eribulin reduced bone and liver tumor burden more effectively than chemotherapy alone. These data suggest that sequenced administration of CXCR4 antagonists with cytotoxic chemotherapy synergize to reduce distant metastases. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  3. CXCR4 Is Required by a Nonprimate Lentivirus: Heterologous Expression of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus in Human, Rodent, and Feline Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeschla, Eric M.; Looney, David J.

    1998-01-01

    A heterologous feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) expression system permitted high-level expression of FIV proteins and efficient production of infectious FIV in human cells. These results identify the FIV U3 element as the sole restriction to the productive phase of replication in nonfeline cells. Heterologous FIV expression in a variety of human cell lines resulted in profuse syncytial lysis that was FIV env specific, CD4 independent, and restricted to cells that express CXCR4, the coreceptor for T-cell-line-adapted strains of human immunodeficiency virus. Stable expression of human CXCR4 in CXCR4-negative human and rodent cell lines resulted in extensive FIV Env-mediated, CXCR4-dependent cell fusion and infection. In feline cells, stable overexpression of human CXCR4 resulted in increased FIV infectivity and marked syncytium formation during FIV replication or after infection with FIV Env-expressing vectors. The use of CXCR4 is a fundamental feature of lentivirus biology independent of CD4 and a shared cellular link to infection and cytopathicity for distantly related lentiviruses that cause AIDS. Their conserved use implicates chemokine receptors as primordial lentivirus receptors. PMID:9658135

  4. Involvement of the CXCR7/CXCR4/CXCL12 axis in the malignant progression of human neuroblastoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Liberman

    Full Text Available Neuroblastoma (NB is a typical childhood and heterogeneous neoplasm for which efficient targeted therapies for high-risk tumors are not yet identified. The chemokine CXCL12, and its receptors CXCR4 and CXCR7 have been involved in tumor progression and dissemination. While CXCR4 expression is associated to undifferentiated tumors and poor prognosis, the role of CXCR7, the recently identified second CXCL12 receptor, has not yet been elucidated in NB. In this report, CXCR7 and CXCL12 expressions were evaluated using a tissue micro-array including 156 primary and 56 metastatic NB tissues. CXCL12 was found to be highly associated to NB vascular and stromal structures. In contrast to CXCR4, CXCR7 expression was low in undifferentiated tumors, while its expression was stronger in matured tissues and specifically associated to differentiated neural tumor cells. As determined by RT-PCR, CXCR7 expression was mainly detected in N-and S-type NB cell lines, and was slightly induced upon NB cell differentiation in vitro. The relative roles of the two CXCL12 receptors were further assessed by overexpressing CXCR7 or CXCR4 receptor alone, or in combination, in the IGR-NB8 and the SH-SY5Y NB cell lines. In vitro functional analyses indicated that, in response to their common ligand, both receptors induced activation of ERK1/2 cascade, but not Akt pathway. CXCR7 strongly reduced in vitro growth, in contrast to CXCR4, and impaired CXCR4/CXCL12-mediated chemotaxis. Subcutaneous implantation of CXCR7-expressing NB cells showed that CXCR7 also significantly reduced in vivo growth. Moreover, CXCR7 affected CXCR4-mediated orthotopic growth in a CXCL12-producing environment. In such model, CXCR7, in association with CXCR4, did not induce NB cell metastatic dissemination. In conclusion, the CXCR7 and CXCR4 receptors revealed specific expression patterns and distinct functional roles in NB. Our data suggest that CXCR7 elicits anti-tumorigenic functions, and may act as a

  5. Keratitis-Ichthyosis-Deafness syndrome-associated Cx26 mutants produce nonfunctional gap junctions but hyperactive hemichannels when co-expressed with wild type Cx43

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Isaac E.; Maripillán, Jaime; Jara, Oscar; Ceriani, Ricardo; Palacios-Muñoz, Angelina; Ramachandran, Jayalakshimi; Olivero, Pablo; Pérez-Acle, Tomás; González, Carlos; Sáez, Juan C.; Contreras, Jorge E.; Martínez, Agustín D.

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in Cx26 gene are found in most cases of human genetic deafness. Some mutations produce syndromic deafness associated with skin disorders, like Keratitis Ichthyosis Deafness syndrome (KID). Because in the human skin Cx26 is co-expressed with other connexins, like Cx43 and Cx30, and since KID syndrome is inherited as autosomal dominant condition, it is possible that KID mutations change the way Cx26 interacts with other co-expressed connexins. Indeed, some Cx26 syndromic mutations showed gap junction dominant negative effect when co-expressed with wild type connexins, including Cx26 and Cx43. The nature of these interactions and the consequences on hemichannels and gap junction channels functions remain unknown. In this study we demonstrate that syndromic mutations at the N-terminus segment of Cx26, change connexin oligomerization compatibility, allowing aberrant interactions with Cx43. Strikingly, heteromeric oligomer formed by Cx43/Cx26 (syndromic mutants) show exacerbated hemichannel activity, but nonfunctional gap junction channels; this also occurs for those Cx26 KID mutants that do not show functional homomeric hemichannels. Heterologous expression of these hyperactive heteromeric hemichannels increases cell membrane permeability, favoring ATP release and Ca2+ overload. The functional paradox produced by oligomerization of Cx43 and Cx26 KID mutants could underlie the severe syndromic phenotype in human skin. PMID:25625422

  6. Plerixafor (a CXCR4 antagonist following myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation enhances hematopoietic recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael M. B. Green

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The binding of CXCR4 with its ligand (stromal-derived factor-1 maintains hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs in a quiescent state. We hypothesized that blocking CXCR4/SDF-1 interaction after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT promotes hematopoiesis by inducing HSC proliferation. Methods We conducted a phase I/II trial of plerixafor on hematopoietic cell recovery following myeloablative allogeneic HSCT. Patients with hematologic malignancies receiving myeloablative conditioning were enrolled. Plerixafor 240 μg/kg was administered subcutaneously every other day beginning day +2 until day +21 or until neutrophil recovery. The primary efficacy endpoints of the study were time to absolute neutrophil count >500/μl and platelet count >20,000/μl. The cumulative incidence of neutrophil and platelet engraftment of the study cohort was compared to that of a cohort of 95 allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplant recipients treated during the same period of time and who received similar conditioning and graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis. Results Thirty patients received plerixafor following peripheral blood stem cell (n = 28 (PBSC or bone marrow (n = 2 transplantation. Adverse events attributable to plerixafor were mild and indistinguishable from effects of conditioning. The kinetics of neutrophil and platelet engraftment, as demonstrated by cumulative incidence, from the 28 study subjects receiving PBSC showed faster neutrophil (p = 0.04 and platelet recovery >20 K (p = 0.04 compared to the controls. Conclusions Our study demonstrated that plerixafor can be given safely following myeloablative HSCT. It provides proof of principle that blocking CXCR4 after HSCT enhances hematopoietic recovery. Larger, confirmatory studies in other settings are warranted. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01280955

  7. SLUG promotes prostate cancer cell migration and invasion via CXCR4/CXCL12 axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uygur, Berna; Wu, Wen-Shu

    2011-11-10

    SLUG is a zinc-finger transcription factor of the Snail/Slug zinc-finger family that plays a role in migration and invasion of tumor cells. Mechanisms by which SLUG promotes migration and invasion in prostate cancers remain elusive. Expression level of CXCR4 and CXCL12 was examined by Western blot, RT-PCR, and qPCR analyses. Forced expression of SLUG was mediated by retroviruses, and SLUG and CXCL12 was downregulated by shRNAs-expressing lentiviruses. Migration and invasion of prostate cancer were measured by scratch-wound assay and invasion assay, respectively. We demonstrated that forced expression of SLUG elevated CXCR4 and CXCL12 expression in human prostate cancer cell lines PC3, DU145, 22RV1, and LNCaP; conversely, reduced expression of SLUG by shRNA downregulated CXCR4 and CXCL12 expression at RNA and protein levels in prostate cancer cells. Furthermore, ectopic expression of SLUG increased MMP9 expression and activity in PC3, 22RV1, and DU-145 cells, and SLUG knockdown by shRNA downregulated MMP9 expression. We showed that CXCL12 is required for SLUG-mediated MMP9 expression in prostate cancer cells. Moreover, we found that migration and invasion of prostate cancer cells was increased by ectopic expression of SLUG and decreased by SLUG knockdown. Notably, knockdown of CXCL12 by shRNA impaired SLUG-mediated migration and invasion in prostate cancer cells. Lastly, our data suggest that CXCL12 and SLUG regulate migration and invasion of prostate cancer cells independent of cell growth. We provide the first compelling evidence that upregulation of autocrine CXCL12 is a major mechanism underlying SLUG-mediated migration and invasion of prostate cancer cells. Our findings suggest that CXCL12 is a therapeutic target for prostate cancer metastasis.

  8. The Role of ERG and CXCR4 in Prostate Cancer Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    NI, Koh -Paige AJ, Shim H, et al. (2005). Skeletal localization and neutralization of the SDF-1(CXCL12)/CXCR4 axis blocks prostate cancer metastasis...cancer metastasis and growth in osseous sites in vivo. J Bone Miner Res. 2005;20(2):318-29. 34. Ao M, Franco OE, Park D, Raman D, Williams K...Schneider A, Jung Y, Wang J, Dai J, Wang J, Cook K, Osman NI, Koh -Paige AJ, Shim H, et al: Skeletal localization and neutralization of the SDF- 1(CXCL12

  9. Chloroquine targets pancreatic cancer stem cells via inhibition of CXCR4 and hedgehog signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balic, Anamaria; Sørensen, Morten Dræby; Trabulo, Sara Maria

    2014-01-01

    effectively eliminating established tumors and improved overall survival. The inhibitory effect of chloroquine was not related to inhibition of autophagy, but was due to inhibition of CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling, resulting in reduced phosphorylation of ERK and STAT3. Furthermore, chloroquine showed potent...... is an effective adjuvant therapy to chemotherapy, offering more efficient tumor elimination and improved cure rates. Chloroquine should be further explored in the clinical setting as its success may help to more rapidly improve the poor prognosis of patients with pancreatic cancer...

  10. Csk Homologous Kinase, a Potential Regulator of CXCR4-Medicated Breast Cancer Cell Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase and a second member of the Csk family. Like Csk, CHK has Src homology 2 ( SH2 ) and SH3 domains and lacks the...MSCV-retroviral vectors encoding either wild-type CHK or kinase -dead CHK or wild type SH2 domain or SH2 -R147A or SH2 -G129A. All these constructs were... Kinase , a Potential Regulator of CXCR4-Medicated Breast Cancer Cell Metastasis Byeong-Chel Lee The University of Pittsburgh Pittsburgh, PA 15213

  11. Resveratrol Protects PC12 Cell against 6-OHDA Damage via CXCR4 Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrol, herbal nonflavonoid polyphenolic compound naturally derived from grapes, has long been acknowledged to possess extensive biological and pharmacological properties including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory ones and may exert a neuroprotective effect on neuronal damage in neurodegenerative diseases. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain undefined. In the present study, we intended to investigate the neuroprotective effects of resveratrol against 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity of PC12 cells and further explore the possible mechanisms involved. For this purpose, PC12 cells were exposed to 6-OHDA in the presence of resveratrol (0, 12.5, 25, and 50 μM. The results showed that resveratrol increased cell viability, alleviated the MMP reduction, and reduced the number of apoptotic cells as measured by MTT assay, JC-1 staining, and Hoechst/PI double staining (all p<0.01. Immunofluorescent staining and Western blotting revealed that resveratrol averts 6-OHDA induced CXCR4 upregulation (p<0.01. Our results demonstrated that resveratrol could effectively protect PC12 cells from 6-OHDA-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis via CXCR4 signaling pathway.

  12. Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus replication by a dual CCR5/CXCR4 antagonist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Princen, Katrien; Hatse, Sigrid; Vermeire, Kurt

    2004-01-01

    Here we report that the N-pyridinylmethyl cyclam analog AMD3451 has antiviral activity against a wide variety of R5, R5/X4, and X4 strains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and HIV-2 (50% inhibitory concentration [IC(50)] ranging from 1.2 to 26.5 microM) in various T-cell lines, CCR5...... at the virus entry stage. AMD3451 dose-dependently inhibited the intracellular Ca(2+) signaling induced by the CXCR4 ligand CXCL12 in T-lymphocytic cells and in CXCR4-transfected cells, as well as the Ca(2+) flux induced by the CCR5 ligands CCL5, CCL3, and CCL4 in CCR5-transfected cells. The compound did...... not interfere with chemokine-induced Ca(2+) signaling through CCR1, CCR2, CCR3, CCR4, CCR6, CCR9, or CXCR3 and did not induce intracellular Ca(2+) signaling by itself at concentrations up to 400 microM. In freshly isolated monocytes, AMD3451 inhibited the Ca(2+) flux induced by CXCL12 and CCL4...

  13. Stromal Derived Factor-1/CXCR4 Axis Involved in Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Recruitment to Injured Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuai Xiao Ling

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The molecular mechanism of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal stem cells (BMSCs mobilization and migration to the liver was poorly understood. Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1 participates in BMSCs homing and migration into injury organs. We try to investigate the role of SDF-1 signaling in BMSCs migration towards injured liver. The expression of CXCR4 in BMSCs at mRNA level and protein level was confirmed by RT-PCR, flow cytometry, and immunocytochemistry. The SDF-1 or liver lysates induced BMSCs migration was detected by transwell inserts. CXCR4 antagonist, AMD3100, and anti-CXCR4 antibody were used to inhibit the migration. The Sprague-Dawley rat liver injury model was established by intraperitoneal injection of thioacetamide. The concentration of SDF-1 increased as modeling time extended, which was determined by ELISA method. The Dir-labeled BMSCs were injected into the liver of the rats through portal vein. The cell migration in the liver was tracked by in vivo imaging system and the fluorescent intensity was measured. In vivo, BMSCs migrated into injured liver which was partially blocked by AMD3100 or anti-CXCR4 antibody. Taken together, the results demonstrated that the migration of BMSCs was regulated by SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling which involved in BMSCs recruitment to injured liver.

  14. An Ultra-High Fluorescence Enhancement and High Throughput Assay for Revealing Expression and Internalization of Chemokine Receptor CXCR4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hua; Wang, Xiaojuan; Cheng, Tiantian; Xia, Yongqing; Lao, Jun; Ge, Baosheng; Ren, Hao; Khan, Naseer Ullah; Huang, Fang

    2016-04-18

    Revealing chemokine receptor CXCR4 expression, distribution, and internalization levels in different cancers helps to evaluate cancer progression or prognosis and to set personalized treatment strategy. We here describe a sensitive and high-throughput immunoassay for determining CXCR4 expression and distribution in cancer cells. The assay is accessible to a wide range of users in an ordinary lab only by dip-coating poly(styrene-co-N-isopropylacrylamide) spheres on the glass substrate. The self- assembled spheres form three-dimensional photonic colloidal crystals which enhance the fluorescence of CF647 and Alexa Fluor 647 by a factor of up to 1000. CXCR4 in cells is detected by using the sandwich immunoassay, where the primary antibody recognizes CXCR4 and the secondary antibody is labeled with CF647. With the newly established assay, we quantified the total expression of CXCR4, its distribution on the cell membrane and cytoplasm, and revealed their internalization level upon SDF-1α activation in various cancer cells, even for those with extremely low expression level. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. The Serum Concentrations of Chemokine CXCL12 and Its Specific Receptor CXCR4 in Patients with Esophageal Cancer

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    Marta Łukaszewicz-Zając

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Recent investigations have suggested that upregulated levels of inflammatory biomarkers, such as chemokines, may be associated with development of many malignancies, including esophageal cancer (EC. Based on our knowledge, this study is the first to assess the serum concentration of chemokine CXCL12 and its specific receptor CXCR4 in the diagnosis of EC patients. Material and Methods. The present study included 79 subjects: 49 patients with EC and 30 healthy volunteers. The serum concentrations of CXCL12 and CXCR4 and classical tumor markers such as carcinoembryonal antigen (CEA and squamous cell cancer antigen (SCC-Ag were measured using immunoenzyme assays, while C-reactive protein (CRP levels were assessed by immunoturbidimetric method. Moreover, diagnostic criteria of all proteins tested and the survival of EC patients were assessed. Results. The serum concentrations of CXCL12 were significantly higher, while those of its receptor CXCR4 were significantly lower in EC patients compared to healthy controls. The diagnostic sensitivity, negative predictive value, and accuracy of CXCR4 were the highest among all analyzed proteins and increased for combined analysis with classical tumor markers and CRP levels. Conclusion. Our findings suggest that serum CXCR4 may improve the diagnosis of EC patients, especially in combination with classical tumor markers.

  16. Omega-3 Fatty Acids Supplementation Differentially Modulates the SDF-1/CXCR-4 Cell Homing Axis in Hypertensive and Normotensive Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halmenschlager, Luiza; Lehnen, Alexandre Machado; Marcadenti, Aline; Markoski, Melissa Medeiros

    2017-08-01

    We assessed the effect of acute and chronic dietary supplementation of ω-3 on lipid metabolism and cardiac regeneration, through its influence on the Stromal Derived Factor-1 (SDF-1) and its receptor (CXCR4) axis in normotensive and hypertensive rats. Male Wistar Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were allocated in eight groups (of eight animals each), which received daily orogastric administration of ω-3 (1 g) for 24 h, 72 h or 2 weeks. Blood samples were collected for the analysis of the lipid profile and SDF-1 systemic levels (ELISA). At the end of the treatment period, cardiac tissue was collected for CXCR4 expression analysis (Western blot). The use of ω-3 caused a reduction in total cholesterol levels ( p = 0.044), and acutely activated the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis in normotensive animals ( p = 0.037). In the presence of the ω-3, after 72 h, SDF-1 levels decreased in WKY and increased in SHR ( p = 0.017), and tissue expression of the receptor CXCR4 was higher in WKY than in SHR ( p = 0.001). The ω-3 fatty acid supplementation differentially modulates cell homing mediators in normotensive and hypertensive animals. While WKY rats respond acutely to omega-3 supplementation, showing increased release of SDF-1 and CXCR4, SHR exhibit a weaker, delayed response.

  17. COUP-TFI mitotically regulates production and migration of dentate granule cells and modulates hippocampal Cxcr4 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisot, Joséphine; Flore, Gemma; Bertacchi, Michele; Studer, Michèle

    2017-06-01

    Development of the dentate gyrus (DG), the primary gateway for hippocampal inputs, spans embryonic and postnatal stages, and involves complex morphogenetic events. We have previously identified the nuclear receptor COUP-TFI as a novel transcriptional regulator in the postnatal organization and function of the hippocampus. Here, we dissect its role in DG morphogenesis by inactivating it in either granule cell progenitors or granule neurons. Loss of COUP-TFI function in progenitors leads to decreased granule cell proliferative activity, precocious differentiation and increased apoptosis, resulting in a severe DG growth defect in adult mice. COUP-TFI-deficient cells express high levels of the chemokine receptor Cxcr4 and migrate abnormally, forming heterotopic clusters of differentiated granule cells along their paths. Conversely, high COUP-TFI expression levels downregulate Cxcr4 expression, whereas increased Cxcr4 expression in wild-type hippocampal cells affects cell migration. Finally, loss of COUP-TFI in postmitotic cells leads to only minor and transient abnormalities, and to normal Cxcr4 expression. Together, our results indicate that COUP-TFI is required predominantly in DG progenitors for modulating expression of the Cxcr4 receptor during granule cell neurogenesis and migration. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. V3-independent competitive resistance of a dual-X4 HIV-1 to the CXCR4 inhibitor AMD3100.

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    Yosuke Maeda

    Full Text Available A CXCR4 inhibitor-resistant HIV-1 was isolated from a dual-X4 HIV-1 in vitro. The resistant variant displayed competitive resistance to the CXCR4 inhibitor AMD3100, indicating that the resistant variant had a higher affinity for CXCR4 than that of the wild-type HIV-1. Amino acid sequence analyses revealed that the resistant variant harbored amino acid substitutions in the V2, C2, and C4 regions, but no remarkable changes in the V3 loop. Site-directed mutagenesis confirmed that the changes in the C2 and C4 regions were principally involved in the reduced sensitivity to AMD3100. Furthermore, the change in the C4 region was associated with increased sensitivity to soluble CD4, and profoundly enhanced the entry efficiency of the virus. Therefore, it is likely that the resistant variant acquired the higher affinity for CD4/CXCR4 by the changes in non-V3 regions. Taken together, a CXCR4 inhibitor-resistant HIV-1 can evolve using a non-V3 pathway.

  19. Overexpression of CXCR4 on human CD34+ progenitors increases their proliferation, migration, and NOD/SCID repopulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Joy; Byk, Tamara; Jansson-Sjostrand, Lottie; Petit, Isabelle; Shivtiel, Shoham; Nagler, Arnon; Hardan, Izhar; Deutsch, Varda; Gazit, Zulma; Gazit, Dan; Karlsson, Stefan; Lapidot, Tsvee

    2004-04-15

    A major limitation to clinical stem cell-mediated gene therapy protocols is the low levels of engraftment by transduced progenitors. We report that CXCR4 overexpression on human CD34+ progenitors using a lentiviral gene transfer technique helped navigate these cells to the murine bone marrow and spleen in response to stromal-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) signaling. Cells overexpressing CXCR4 exhibited significant increases in SDF-1-mediated chemotaxis and actin polymerization compared with control cells. A major advantage of CXCR4 overexpression was demonstrated by the ability of transduced CD34+ cells to respond to lower, physiologic levels of SDF-1 when compared to control cells, leading to improved SDF-1-induced migration and proliferation/survival, and finally resulting in significantly higher levels of in vivo repopulation of nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency (NOD/SCID) mice including primitive CD34+/CD38(-/low) cells. Importantly, no cellular transformation was observed following transduction with the CXCR4 vector. Unexpectedly, we documented lack of receptor internalization in response to high levels of SDF-1, which can also contribute to increased migration and proliferation by the transduced CD34+ cells. Our results suggest CXCR4 overexpression for improved definitive human stem cell motility, retention, and multilineage repopulation, which could be beneficial for in vivo navigation and expansion of hematopoietic progenitors.

  20. Denys-Drash syndrome associated WT1 glutamine 369 mutants have altered sequence-preferences and altered responses to epigenetic modifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Hideharu; Zhang, Xing; Zheng, Yu; Wilson, Geoffrey G.; Cheng, Xiaodong

    2016-09-04

    Mutations in human zinc-finger transcription factor WT1 result in abnormal development of the kidneys and genitalia and an array of pediatric problems including nephropathy, blastoma, gonadal dysgenesis and genital discordance. Several overlapping phenotypes are associated with WT1 mutations, including Wilms tumors, Denys-Drash syndrome (DDS), Frasier syndrome (FS) and WAGR syndrome (Wilms tumor, aniridia, genitourinary malformations, and mental retardation). These conditions vary in severity from individual to individual; they can be fatal in early childhood, or relatively benign into adulthood. DDS mutations cluster predominantly in zinc fingers (ZF) 2 and 3 at the C-terminus of WT1, which together with ZF4 determine the sequence-specificity of DNA binding. We examined three DDS associated mutations in ZF2 of human WT1 where the normal glutamine at position 369 is replaced by arginine (Q369R), lysine (Q369K) or histidine (Q369H). These mutations alter the sequence-specificity of ZF2, we find, changing its affinity for certain bases and certain epigenetic forms of cytosine. X-ray crystallography of the DNA binding domains of normal WT1, Q369R and Q369H in complex with preferred sequences revealed the molecular interactions responsible for these affinity changes. DDS is inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion, implying a gain of function by mutant WT1 proteins. This gain, we speculate, might derive from the ability of the mutant proteins to sequester WT1 into unproductive oligomers, or to erroneously bind to variant target sequences.

  1. Simultaneous Activation of Induced Heterodimerization between CXCR4 Chemokine Receptor and Cannabinoid Receptor 2 (CB2) Reveals a Mechanism for Regulation of Tumor Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coke, Christopher J; Scarlett, Kisha A; Chetram, Mahandranauth A; Jones, Kia J; Sandifer, Brittney J; Davis, Ahriea S; Marcus, Adam I; Hinton, Cimona V

    2016-05-06

    The G-protein-coupled chemokine receptor CXCR4 generates signals that lead to cell migration, cell proliferation, and other survival mechanisms that result in the metastatic spread of primary tumor cells to distal organs. Numerous studies have demonstrated that CXCR4 can form homodimers or can heterodimerize with other G-protein-coupled receptors to form receptor complexes that can amplify or decrease the signaling capacity of each individual receptor. Using biophysical and biochemical approaches, we found that CXCR4 can form an induced heterodimer with cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) in human breast and prostate cancer cells. Simultaneous, agonist-dependent activation of CXCR4 and CB2 resulted in reduced CXCR4-mediated expression of phosphorylated ERK1/2 and ultimately reduced cancer cell functions such as calcium mobilization and cellular chemotaxis. Given that treatment with cannabinoids has been shown to reduce invasiveness of cancer cells as well as CXCR4-mediated migration of immune cells, it is plausible that CXCR4 signaling can be silenced through a physical heterodimeric association with CB2, thereby inhibiting subsequent functions of CXCR4. Taken together, the data illustrate a mechanism by which the cannabinoid system can negatively modulate CXCR4 receptor function and perhaps tumor progression. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Simultaneous Activation of Induced Heterodimerization between CXCR4 Chemokine Receptor and Cannabinoid Receptor 2 (CB2) Reveals a Mechanism for Regulation of Tumor Progression*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coke, Christopher J.; Scarlett, Kisha A.; Chetram, Mahandranauth A.; Jones, Kia J.; Sandifer, Brittney J.; Davis, Ahriea S.; Marcus, Adam I.

    2016-01-01

    The G-protein-coupled chemokine receptor CXCR4 generates signals that lead to cell migration, cell proliferation, and other survival mechanisms that result in the metastatic spread of primary tumor cells to distal organs. Numerous studies have demonstrated that CXCR4 can form homodimers or can heterodimerize with other G-protein-coupled receptors to form receptor complexes that can amplify or decrease the signaling capacity of each individual receptor. Using biophysical and biochemical approaches, we found that CXCR4 can form an induced heterodimer with cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) in human breast and prostate cancer cells. Simultaneous, agonist-dependent activation of CXCR4 and CB2 resulted in reduced CXCR4-mediated expression of phosphorylated ERK1/2 and ultimately reduced cancer cell functions such as calcium mobilization and cellular chemotaxis. Given that treatment with cannabinoids has been shown to reduce invasiveness of cancer cells as well as CXCR4-mediated migration of immune cells, it is plausible that CXCR4 signaling can be silenced through a physical heterodimeric association with CB2, thereby inhibiting subsequent functions of CXCR4. Taken together, the data illustrate a mechanism by which the cannabinoid system can negatively modulate CXCR4 receptor function and perhaps tumor progression. PMID:26841863

  3. Over-expression of CXCR4, a stemness enhancer, in human blastocysts by low level laser irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Tahmasbi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The key role of chemokine receptor CXCR4 in the maintenance of stemness property of stem cells has been shown recently. The low level laser irradiation (LLLI is being used currently in a wide variety of clinical cases as a therapeutic tool for wound healing, relieving pain and destroying tumor cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of LLLI mimicking low level laser therapy (LLLT on the expression level of CXCR4 gene a few hours after irradiation on human blastocysts. After the development of human embryos to the first grade blastocyst stage, they were irradiated with a low power Ga-Al-As laser at a continuous wavelength of 650 nm and a power output of 30 mW. The total RNA of the irradiated blastocysts and control groups were isolated in groups of 1x2 J/cm2, 2x2 J/cm2, 1x4 J/cm2 and 2x4 J/cm2 LLLI. Specific Real-Time PCR primers were designed to amplify all the two CXCR4 isoforms yet identified. RNA amplifications were done for all the groups. We showed for the first time that LLLI makes the human blastocysts to increase the expression level of CXCR4 a few hours after irradiation. Moreover, it was shown that two irradiation doses with one day interval can cause a significant increase in CXCR4 expression level in human blastocysts. This study revealed that LLLI could be a proliferation motivator for embryonic cell divisions through enhanced over-expression of CXCR4 level.

  4. DPP4 inhibitors promote biological functions of human endothelial progenitor cells by targeting the SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling pathway

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    Liu Feng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4 inhibitors(oral hypoglycemic agentshave beneficial effects during the early stages of diabetes. In this study, we evaluated the role of DPP4inhibitorsonthe biological functions of cultured human endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs. After treating EPCs with the DPP4 inhibitors sitagliptin and vildagliptin, we examined the mRNA expression of DPP4, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF,VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR-2,endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, caspase-3,stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1, chemokine (C-X-C motif receptor 4 (CXCR4 were measured by RT-PCR. The protein expression of SDF-1 and CXCR4 was determined by Western blot; cell proliferation was tested by the MTT method, and DPP4 activity was determined by a DPP4 assay. Our results revealed that DPP4 expression and activity were inhibited following the treatment with various doses of DPP4 inhibitors. Cell proliferation and the expression of VEGF, VEGFR-2andeNOS were up regulated, while cell apoptosis was inhibited by DPP4 inhibitors in a dose-dependent manner. DPP4 inhibitors activated the SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling pathway, shown by the elevated expression of SDF-1/CXCR4. This further proved that after the SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling pathway was blocked by its inhibitor ADM3100, the effects of DPP4 inhibitors on the proliferation and apoptosis, and the expression of VEGF, VEGFR-2and eNOS of EPCs were significantly reduced. These findings suggest that DPP4 inhibitors promote the biological functions of human EPCs by up regulating the SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling pathway.

  5. Agonist-induced CXCR4 and CB2 Heterodimerization Inhibits Gα13/RhoA-mediated Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarlett, Kisha A; White, El-Shaddai Z; Coke, Christopher J; Carter, Jada R; Bryant, Latoya K; Hinton, Cimona V

    2018-04-01

    G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) heterodimerization has emerged as a means by which alternative signaling entities can be created; yet, how receptor heterodimers affect receptor pharmacology remains unknown. Previous observations suggested a biochemical antagonism between GPCRs, CXCR4 and CB2 (CNR2), where agonist-bound CXCR4 and agonist-bound CB2 formed a physiologically nonfunctional heterodimer on the membrane of cancer cells, inhibiting their metastatic potential in vitro However, the reduced signaling entities responsible for the observed functional outputs remain elusive. This study now delineates the signaling mechanism whereby heterodimeric association between CXCR4 and CB2, induced by simultaneous agonist treatment, results in decreased CXCR4-mediated cell migration, invasion, and adhesion through inhibition of the Gα13/RhoA signaling axis. Activation of CXCR4 by its cognate ligand, CXCL12, stimulates Gα13 (GNA13), and subsequently, the small GTPase RhoA, which is required for directional cell migration and the metastatic potential of cancer cells. These studies in prostate cancer cells demonstrate decreased protein expression levels of Gα13 and RhoA upon simultaneous CXCR4/CB2 agonist stimulation. Furthermore, the agonist-induced heterodimer abrogated RhoA-mediated cytoskeletal rearrangement resulting in the attenuation of cell migration and invasion of an endothelial cell barrier. Finally, a reduction was observed in the expression of integrin α5 (ITGA5) upon heterodimerization, supported by decreased cell adhesion to extracellular matrices in vitro Taken together, the data identify a novel pharmacologic mechanism for the modulation of tumor cell migration and invasion in the context of metastatic disease. Implications: This study investigates a signaling mechanism by which GPCR heterodimerization inhibits cancer cell migration. Mol Cancer Res; 16(4); 728-39. ©2018 AACR . ©2018 American Association for Cancer Research.

  6. Interleukin-3 enhances the migration of human mesenchymal stem cells by regulating expression of CXCR4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barhanpurkar-Naik, Amruta; Mhaske, Suhas T; Pote, Satish T; Singh, Kanupriya; Wani, Mohan R

    2017-07-14

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represent an important source for cell therapy in regenerative medicine. MSCs have shown promising results for repair of damaged tissues in various degenerative diseases in animal models and also in human clinical trials. However, little is known about the factors that could enhance the migration and tissue-specific engraftment of exogenously infused MSCs for successful regenerative cell therapy. Previously, we have reported that interleukin-3 (IL-3) prevents bone and cartilage damage in animal models of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. Also, IL-3 promotes the differentiation of human MSCs into functional osteoblasts and increases their in-vivo bone regenerative potential in immunocompromised mice. However, the role of IL-3 in migration of MSCs is not yet known. In the present study, we investigated the role of IL-3 in migration of human MSCs under both in-vitro and in-vivo conditions. MSCs isolated from human bone marrow, adipose and gingival tissues were used for in-vitro cell migration, motility and wound healing assays in the presence or absence of IL-3. The effect of IL-3 preconditioning on expression of chemokine receptors and integrins was examined by flow cytometry and real-time PCR. The in-vivo migration of IL-3-preconditioned MSCs was investigated using a subcutaneous matrigel-releasing stromal cell-derived factor-1 alpha (SDF-1α) model in immunocompromised mice. We observed that human MSCs isolated from all three sources express IL-3 receptor-α (IL-3Rα) both at gene and protein levels. IL-3 significantly enhances in-vitro migration, motility and wound healing abilities of MSCs. Moreover, IL-3 preconditioning upregulates expression of chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 4 (CXCR4) on MSCs, which leads to increased migration of cells towards SDF-1α. Furthermore, CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 decreases the migration of IL-3-treated MSCs towards SDF-1α. Importantly, IL-3 also induces in-vivo migration of MSCs towards

  7. CXCR7 controls competition for recruitment of β-arrestin 2 in cells expressing both CXCR4 and CXCR7.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel L Coggins

    Full Text Available Chemokine CXCL12 promotes growth and metastasis of more than 20 different human cancers, as well as pathogenesis of other common diseases. CXCL12 binds two different receptors, CXCR4 and CXCR7, both of which recruit and signal through the cytosolic adapter protein β-arrestin 2. Differences in CXCL12-dependent recruitment of β-arrestin 2 in cells expressing one or both receptors remain poorly defined. To quantitatively investigate parameters controlling association of β-arrestin 2 with CXCR4 or CXCR7 in cells co-expressing both receptors, we used a systems biology approach combining real-time, multi-spectral luciferase complementation imaging with computational modeling. Cells expressing only CXCR4 maintain low basal association with β-arrestin 2, and CXCL12 induces a rapid, transient increase in this interaction. In contrast, cells expressing only CXCR7 have higher basal association with β-arrestin 2 and exhibit more gradual, prolonged recruitment of β-arrestin 2 in response to CXCL12. We developed and fit a data-driven computational model for association of either CXCR4 or CXCR7 with β-arrestin 2 in cells expressing only one type of receptor. We then experimentally validated model predictions that co-expression of CXCR4 and CXCR7 on the same cell substantially decreases both the magnitude and duration of CXCL12-regulated recruitment of β-arrestin 2 to CXCR4. Co-expression of both receptors on the same cell only minimally alters recruitment of β-arrestin 2 to CXCR7. In silico experiments also identified β-arrestin 2 as a limiting factor in cells expressing both receptors, establishing that CXCR7 wins the "competition" with CXCR4 for CXCL12 and recruitment of β-arrestin 2. These results reveal how competition for β-arrestin 2 controls integrated responses to CXCL12 in cells expressing both CXCR4 and CXCR7. These results advance understanding of normal and pathologic functions of CXCL12, which is critical for developing effective

  8. Inhibition of the CXCL12/CXCR4-axis as preventive therapy for radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

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    Hui-Kuo G Shu

    Full Text Available A devastating late injury caused by radiation is pulmonary fibrosis. This risk may limit the volume of irradiation and compromise potentially curative therapy. Therefore, development of a therapy to prevent this toxicity can be of great benefit for this patient population. Activation of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 by its ligand stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1/CXCL12 may be important in the development of radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Here, we tested whether MSX-122, a novel small molecule and partial CXCR4 antagonist, can block development of this fibrotic process.The radiation-induced lung fibrosis model used was C57BL/6 mice irradiated to the entire thorax or right hemithorax to 20 Gy. Our parabiotic model involved joining a transgenic C57BL/6 mouse expressing GFP with a wild-type mouse that was subsequently irradiated to assess for migration of GFP+ bone marrow-derived progenitor cells to the irradiated lung. CXCL12 levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF and serum after irradiation were determined by ELISA. CXCR4 and CXCL12 mRNA in the irradiated lung was determined by RNase protection assay. Irradiated mice were treated daily with AMD3100, an established CXCR4 antagonist; MSX-122; and their corresponding vehicles to determine impact of drug treatment on fibrosis development. Fibrosis was assessed by serial CTs and histology. After irradiation, CXCL12 levels increased in BALF and serum with a corresponding rise in CXCR4 mRNA within irradiated lungs consistent with recruitment of a CXCR4+ cell population. Using our parabiotic model, we demonstrated recruitment of CXCR4+ bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, identified based on marker expression, to irradiated lungs. Finally, irradiated mice that received MSX-122 had significant reductions in development of pulmonary fibrosis while AMD3100 did not significantly suppress this fibrotic process.CXCR4 inhibition by drugs such as MSX-122 may alleviate potential

  9. Inhibition of the CXCL12/CXCR4-axis as preventive therapy for radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Hui-Kuo G; Yoon, Younghyoun; Hong, Samuel; Xu, Kaiming; Gao, Huiying; Hao, Chunhai; Torres-Gonzalez, Edilson; Nayra, Cardenes; Rojas, Mauricio; Shim, Hyunsuk

    2013-01-01

    A devastating late injury caused by radiation is pulmonary fibrosis. This risk may limit the volume of irradiation and compromise potentially curative therapy. Therefore, development of a therapy to prevent this toxicity can be of great benefit for this patient population. Activation of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 by its ligand stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1/CXCL12) may be important in the development of radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Here, we tested whether MSX-122, a novel small molecule and partial CXCR4 antagonist, can block development of this fibrotic process. The radiation-induced lung fibrosis model used was C57BL/6 mice irradiated to the entire thorax or right hemithorax to 20 Gy. Our parabiotic model involved joining a transgenic C57BL/6 mouse expressing GFP with a wild-type mouse that was subsequently irradiated to assess for migration of GFP+ bone marrow-derived progenitor cells to the irradiated lung. CXCL12 levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and serum after irradiation were determined by ELISA. CXCR4 and CXCL12 mRNA in the irradiated lung was determined by RNase protection assay. Irradiated mice were treated daily with AMD3100, an established CXCR4 antagonist; MSX-122; and their corresponding vehicles to determine impact of drug treatment on fibrosis development. Fibrosis was assessed by serial CTs and histology. After irradiation, CXCL12 levels increased in BALF and serum with a corresponding rise in CXCR4 mRNA within irradiated lungs consistent with recruitment of a CXCR4+ cell population. Using our parabiotic model, we demonstrated recruitment of CXCR4+ bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, identified based on marker expression, to irradiated lungs. Finally, irradiated mice that received MSX-122 had significant reductions in development of pulmonary fibrosis while AMD3100 did not significantly suppress this fibrotic process. CXCR4 inhibition by drugs such as MSX-122 may alleviate potential radiation-induced lung

  10. [99mTc]O2-AMD3100 as a SPECT tracer for CXCR4 receptor imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartimath, Siddesh V.; Domanska, Urszula M.; Walenkamp, Annemiek M.E.; Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O.; Vries, Erik F.J. de

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: CXCR4 plays an important role in HIV infection, tumor progression, neurogenesis, and inflammation. In-vivo imaging of CXCR4 could provide more insight in the role of this receptor in health and disease. The aim of this study was to investigate [ 99m Tc]O 2 -AMD3100 as a potential SPECT tracer for imaging of CXCR4. Method: AMD3100 was labelled with [ 99m Tc]pertechnetate. A cysteine challenge assay was performed to test the tracer stability. Heterologous and homologous receptor binding assay and internalization assay were performed in CXCR4 expressing Jurkat-T cells. Ex vivo biodistribution was studied in healthy mice at 30, 60, and 120 min after tracer injection. Tumor uptake of the tracer was determined by microSPECT imaging in nude mice xenografted with human PC-3 prostate tumor. Specificity of tracer uptake was determined by blocking studies using an excess of unlabelled AMD3100. Results: AMD3100 was labelled with technetium-99 m with a radiochemical yield of > 98%. The tracer was stable in PBS and mouse plasma for at least 6 h at 37 °C. Heterologous and homologous binding assays with AMD3100 showed IC 50 values of 240 ± 10 μM, and 92 ± 5 μM for [ 125 I]SDF-1α and [ 99m Tc]O 2 -AMD3100 respectively, with negligible receptor internalisation. The tracer showed high uptake in liver, lungs, spleen, thymus, intestine and bone. Blocking dose of AMD3100.8HCl (20 mg/kg) decreased the uptake in these organs (p 99m Tc]O 2 -AMD3100 showed specific tumor accumulation in mice bearing PC-3 xenografts model. Time activity curves (TAC) in AMD3100 pre-treated animals tracer showed 1.7 times less tumor uptake as compared to control animals (p 99m Tc]O 2 -AMD3100 is readily labelled, is stable in plasma and displays a favourable binding affinity for the CXCR4 receptors. [ 99m Tc O 2 -AMD3100 shows specific binding in organs with high CXCR4 expression and in CXCR4 positive tumors. These results justify further evaluation of this radiopharmaceutical as a potential

  11. CXCR4/CXCL12 in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Metastasis to the Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastiano Cavallaro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer represents the leading cause of cancer-related mortality throughout the world. Patients die of local progression, disseminated disease, or both. At least one third of the people with lung cancer develop brain metastases at some point during their disease, even often before the diagnosis of lung cancer is made. The high rate of brain metastasis makes lung cancer the most common type of tumor to spread to the brain. It is critical to understand the biologic basis of brain metastases to develop novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. This review will focus on the emerging data supporting the involvement of the chemokine CXCL12 and its receptor CXCR4 in the brain metastatic evolution of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC and the pharmacological tools that may be used to interfere with this signaling axis.

  12. Synthesis and evaluation of an 18F-labeled pyrimidine-pyridine amine for targeting CXCR4 receptors in gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demoin, Dustin Wayne; Shindo, Masahiro; Zhang, Hanwen; Edwards, Kimberly J.; Serganova, Inna; Pillarsetty, Naga Vara Kishore; Lewis, Jason S.; Blasberg, Ronald G.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Chemokine receptor-4 (CXCR4, fusin, CD184) is expressed on several tissues involved in immune regulation and is upregulated in many diseases including malignant gliomas. A radiolabeled small molecule that readily crosses the blood–brain barrier can aid in identifying CXCR4-expressing gliomas and monitoring CXCR4-targeted therapy. In the current work, we have synthesized and evaluated an [ 18 F]-labeled small molecule based on a pyrimidine–pyridine amine for its ability to target CXCR4. Experimental: The nonradioactive standards and the nitro precursor used in this study were prepared using established methods. An HPLC method was developed to separate the nitro-precursor from the nonradioactive standard and radioactive product. The nitro-precursor was radiolabeled with 18 F under inert, anhydrous conditions using the [ 18 F]-kryptofix 2.2.2 complex to form the desired N-(4-(((6-[ 18 F]fluoropyridin-2-yl)amino)methyl)benzyl)pyrimidin-2-amine ([ 18 F]-3). The purified radiolabeled compound was used in serum stability, partition coefficient, cellular uptake, and in vivo cancer targeting studies. Results: [ 18 F]-3 was synthesized in 4–10% decay-corrected yield (to start of synthesis). [ 18 F]-3 (t R ≈ 27 min) was separated from the precursor (t R ≈ 30 min) using a pentafluorophenyl column with an isocratic solvent system. [ 18 F]-3 displayed acceptable serum stability over 2 h. The amount of [ 18 F]-3 bound to the plasma proteins was determined to be > 97%. The partition coefficient (LogD 7.4 ) is 1.4 ± 0.5. Competitive in vitro inhibition indicated 3 does not inhibit uptake of 67 Ga-pentixafor. Cell culture media incubation and ex vivo urine analysis indicate rapid metabolism of [ 18 F]-3 into hydrophilic metabolites. Thus, in vitro uptake of [ 18 F]-3 in CXCR4 overexpressing U87 cells (U87 CXCR4) and U87 WT indicated no specific binding. In vivo studies in mice bearing U87 CXCR4 and U87 WT tumors on the left and right shoulders were carried

  13. Molecular characterization of sdf1 and cxcr4 in the Mozambique tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amat-Fernandez, Jorge; Hammond, Michael J; Liang, Di; Wang, Tianfang; Ventura, Tomer; Elizur, Abigail; Cummins, Scott F

    2017-01-01

    Animal sexual reproduction relies on primordial germ cells (PGCs), the predecessors of the germ cell lineage, giving rise to either spermatogonia or oogonia after the completion of gonadal differentiation. There is limited information on the mechanism of PGC migration leading to the formation of the primordial gonad in Perciform fish. Oreochromis mossambicus, a tilapiine species, was investigated that is a commercially important aquaculture species in many parts of the world while in other areas it has become an invasive pest. Key components involved in PGC migration were identified, including the stromal-cell derived factor 1 (Om-sdf1a, Om-sdf1b) and the CXC receptor 4 (Om-cxcr4): both share conservation with existing model species. The spatial gene expression profiles were determined through transcript and protein analysis and displayed distinct localisation within the region of the developing gonad in larvae and within the adult gonads of certain cell populations. A recombinant Om-sdf1a was produced in Escherichia coli that activates Om-cxcr4 using a BRET-based yeast in vitro assay system, suggesting that it is structurally similar to the native Om-sdf1a and is appropriate for further structural studies. This study has improved understanding of the molecular basis of tilapia reproduction through investigation of gonad development, which may be important in the progression towards reproductive suppression methods to control tilapia populations in the wild. In addition, this research will facilitate developments in germ cell transplantation, an innovative technique that harnesses germ cell migration and allows the uptake of foreign germ cells, which differentiate to produce sperm or ova. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Transfusion of CXCR4-primed endothelial progenitor cells reduces cerebral ischemic damage and promotes repair in db/db diabetic mice.

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    Ji Chen

    Full Text Available This study investigated the role of stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α/CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4 axis in brain and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs, and explored the efficacy of CXCR4 primed EPCs in treating ischemic stroke in diabetes. The db/db diabetic and db/+ mice were used in this study. Levels of plasma SDF-1α and circulating CD34+CXCR4+ cells were measured. Brain SDF-1α and CXCR4 expression were quantified at basal and after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO. In in vitro study, EPCs were transfected with adenovirus carrying null (Ad-null or CXCR4 (Ad-CXCR4 followed with high glucose (HG treatment for 4 days. For pathway block experiments, cells were pre-incubated with PI3K inhibitor or nitric oxide synthase (NOS inhibitor for two hours. The CXCR4 expression, function and apoptosis of EPCs were determined. The p-Akt/Akt and p-eNOS/eNOS expression in EPCs were also measured. In in vivo study, EPCs transfected with Ad-null or Ad-CXCR4 were infused into mice via tail vein. On day 2 and 7, the cerebral blood flow, neurologic deficit score, infarct volume, cerebral microvascular density, angiogenesis and neurogenesis were determined. We found: 1 The levels of plasma SDF-1α and circulating CD34+CXCR4+ cells were decreased in db/db mice; 2 The basal level of SDF-1α and MCAO-induced up-regulation of SDF-1α/CXCR4 axis were reduced in the brain of db/db mice; 3 Ad-CXCR4 transfection increased CXCR4 expression in EPCs and enhanced EPC colonic forming capacity; 4 Ad-CXCR4 transfection prevented EPCs from HG-induced dysfunction (migration and tube formation and apoptosis via activation of PI3K/Akt/eNOS signal pathway; 4 Ad-CXCR4 transfection enhanced the efficacy of EPC infusion in attenuating infarct volume and promoting angiogenesis and neurogenesis. Our data suggest that Ad-CXCR4 primed EPCs have better therapeutic effects for ischemia stroke in diabetes than unmodified EPCs do.

  15. The SDF-1-CXCR4 Axis Functions Through p38-MAPK Signaling to Drive Breast Cancer Progression and Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    2002). Rubin JB, Kung AL, Klein RS, Chan JA, Sun Y, Schmidt K, Kieran MW, Luster AD, Segal RA.A small-molecule antagonist of CXCR4 inhibits... Melanie H. Howell, Michelle Lacey, Betty Y. Shih, Carol Carter-Wientjes, Thomas E. Cleveland, John A. McLachlan, Thomas E. Wiese, Barbara S. Beckman

  16. Mimicking protein-protein interactions through peptide-peptide interactions: HIV-1 gp120 and CXCR4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eGross

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We have recently designed a soluble synthetic peptide that functionally mimics the HIV-1 coreceptor CXCR4, which is a chemokine receptor that belongs to the family of seven-transmembrane GPCRs. This CXCR4 mimetic peptide, termed CX4-M1, presents the three extracellular loops (ECLs of the receptor. In binding assays involving recombinant proteins, as well as in cellular infection assays, CX4-M1 was found to selectively recognize gp120 from HIV-1 strains that use CXCR4 for cell entry (X4 tropic HIV-1. Furthermore, anti-HIV-1 antibodies modulate this interaction in a molecular mechanism related to that of their impact on the gp120-CXCR4 interaction. We could now show that the selectivity of CX4-M1 pertains not only to gp120 from X4 tropic HIV-1, but also to synthetic peptides presenting the V3 loops of these gp120 proteins. The V3 loop is thought to be an essential part of the coreceptor binding site of gp120 that contacts the second ECL of the coreceptor. We were able to experimentally confirm this notion in binding assays using substitution analogs of CX4-M1 and the V3 loop peptides, respectively, as well as in cellular infection assays. These results indicate that interactions of the HIV-1 Env with coreceptors can be mimicked by synthetic peptides, which may be useful to explore these interactions at the molecular level in more detail.

  17. Identification of hepatic niche harboring human acute lymphoblastic leukemic cells via the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis.

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    Itaru Kato

    Full Text Available In acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL patients, the bone marrow niche is widely known to be an important element of treatment response and relapse. Furthermore, a characteristic liver pathology observed in ALL patients implies that the hepatic microenvironment provides an extramedullary niche for leukemic cells. However, it remains unclear whether the liver actually provides a specific niche. The mechanism underlying this pathology is also poorly understood. Here, to answer these questions, we reconstituted the histopathology of leukemic liver by using patients-derived primary ALL cells into NOD/SCID/Yc (null mice. The liver pathology in this model was similar to that observed in the patients. By using this model, we clearly demonstrated that bile duct epithelial cells form a hepatic niche that supports infiltration and proliferation of ALL cells in the liver. Furthermore, we showed that functions of the niche are maintained by the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis, proposing a novel therapeutic approach targeting the extramedullary niche by inhibition of the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the liver dissemination of leukemia is not due to nonselective infiltration, but rather systematic invasion and proliferation of leukemic cells in hepatic niche. Although the contribution of SDF-1/CXCR4 axis is reported in some cancer cells or leukemic niches such as bone marrow, we demonstrated that this axis works even in the extramedullary niche of leukemic cells. Our findings form the basis for therapeutic approaches that target the extramedullary niche by inhibiting the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis.

  18. CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 reverses the neurogenesis and behavioral recovery promoted by forced limb-use in stroke rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shanshan; Qu, Huiling; Zhao, Yi; Xiao, Ting; Zhao, Mei; Li, Yong; Jolkkonen, Jukka; Cao, Yunpeng; Zhao, Chuansheng

    2015-01-01

    Forced limb-use can enhance neurogenesis and behavioral recovery as well as increasing the level of stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) in stroke rats. We examined whether the SDF-1/CXCR4 pathway is involved in the enhanced neurogenesis and promoted behavioral recovery induced by forced limb-use in the chronic phase of stroke. The CXCR4 antagonist, AMD3100, was used to block the SDF-1/CXCR4 pathway in the ischemic rats. Brain ischemia was induced by endothelin-1. One week after ischemia, the unimpaired forelimb of rats was immobilized for 3 weeks. The proliferation, migration, and survival of DCX-positive cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ), and the dendritic complexity of DCX-positive cells in the dentate gyrus (DG), as well as the inflammatory response in the infarcted striatum were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Functional recovery was assessed in beam-walking and water maze tests. Forced limb-use enhanced the proliferation, migration, dendritic complexity and the survival of newborn neurons. Furthermore, forced limb-use suppressed the inflammatory response and improved both motor and cognitive functions after stroke. AMD3100 significantly abrogated the enhanced neurogenesis and behavioral recovery induced by forced limb-use without influencing the inflammatory response. SDF-1/CXCR4 pathway seems to be involved in the enhancement of neurogenesis and behavioral recovery induced by post-stroke forced limb-use.

  19. Haematopoietic stem cell migration to the ischemic damaged kidney is not altered by manipulating the SDF-1/CXCR4-axis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stroo, Ingrid; Stokman, Geurt; Teske, Gwendoline J. D.; Florquin, Sandrine; Leemans, Jaklien C.

    2009-01-01

    Methods. HSC were isolated from mouse bone marrow and labelled with a cell tracker. Acceptor mice were subjected to unilateral ischemia and received HSC intravenously directly after reperfusion. In addition, in separate groups of acceptor mice, endogenous SDF-1 or HSC-associated CXCR4 was blocked or

  20. N-[C-11]Methyl-AMD3465 PET as a Tool for In Vivo Measurement of Chemokine Receptor 4 (CXCR4) Occupancy by Therapeutic Drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartimath, Siddanna; Doorduin, Janine; Dierckx, Rudi; van Waarde, Aren; de Vries, Erik

    Chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) is overexpressed in many cancers and a potential drug target. We have recently developed the tracer N-[C-11]methyl-AMD3465 for imaging of CXCR4 expression by positron emission tomography (PET). We investigated the pharmacokinetics of N-[C-11]methyl-AMD3465 in rats

  1. Depletion of naive CD4 T cells by CXCR4-using HIV-1 variants occurs mainly through increased T-cell death and activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazenberg, Mette D.; Otto, Sigrid A.; Hamann, Dörte; Roos, Marijke Th L.; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; de Boer, Rob J.; Miedema, Frank

    2003-01-01

    Objective: Using SCID-Hu mice models and in vitro culture systems, it has been shown that syncytium inducing/CXCR4 using (X4) HIV-1 variants affect thymic function through infection and killing of CXCR4 thymocytes. The effect of X4-emergence on naive, memory and effector T-cell subset kinetics in

  2. Fluorescent imaging of high-grade bladder cancer using a specific antagonist for chemokine receptor CXCR4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishizawa, Koji; Nishiyama, Hiroyuki; Oishi, Shinya; Tanahara, Noriko; Kotani, Hirokazu; Mikami, Yoshiki; Toda, Yoshinobu; Evans, Barry J; Peiper, Stephen C; Saito, Ryoichi; Watanabe, Jun; Fujii, Nobutaka; Ogawa, Osamu

    2010-09-01

    We previously reported that the expression of CXC chemokine receptor-4 (CXCR4) was upregulated in invasive bladder cancers and that the small peptide T140 was a highly sensitive antagonist for CXCR4. In this study, we identified that CXCR4 expression was induced in high-grade superficial bladder tumors, including carcinoma in situ and invasive bladder tumors. To visualize the bladder cancer cells using urinary sediments from the patients and chemically induced mouse bladder cancer model, a novel fluorescent CXCR4 antagonist TY14003 was developed, that is a T140 derivative. TY14003 could label bladder cancer cell lines expressing CXCR4, whereas negative-control fluorescent peptides did not label them. When labeling urinary sediments from patients with invasive bladder cancer, positive-stained cells were identified in all patients with bladder cancer and positive urine cytology but not in controls. Although white blood cells in urine were also labeled with TY14003, they could be easily discriminated from urothelial cells by their shape and size. Finally, intravesical instillation of TY14003 into mouse bladder, using N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine (BBN)-induced bladder cancer model, demonstrated that fluorescent signals were detected in the focal areas of bladder of all mice examined at 12 weeks of BBN drinking by confocal microscopy and fluorescent endoscopy. On the contrary, all the normal bladders were found to be negative for TY14003 staining. In conclusion, these results indicate that TY14003 is a promising diagnostic tool to visualize small or flat high-grade superficial bladder cancer.

  3. Expression and function of the SDF-1 chemokine receptors CXCR4 and CXCR7 during mouse limb muscle development and regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunger, Conny; Ödemis, Veysel; Engele, Jürgen

    2012-10-15

    The chemokine, SDF-1/CXCL12, and its receptor, CXCR4, have been implied to play major roles during limb myogenesis. This concept was recently challenged by the identification of CXCR7 as an alternative SDF-1 receptor, which can either act as a scavenger receptor, a modulator of CXCR4, or an active chemokine receptor. We have now re-examined this issue by determining whether SDF-1 would signal to C2C12 myoblasts and subsequently influence their differentiation via CXCR4 and/or CXCR7. In addition, we have analyzed CXCR7, CXCR4, and SDF-1 expression in developing and injured mouse limb muscles. We demonstrate that in undifferentiated C2C12 cells, SDF-1-dependent cell signaling and resulting inhibitory effects on myogenic differentiation are entirely mediated by CXCR4. We further demonstrate that CXCR7 expression increases in differentiating C2C12 cells, which in turn abrogates CXCR4 signaling. Moreover, consistent with the view that CXCR4 and CXCR7 control limb myogenesis in vivo by similar mechanisms, we found that CXCR4 expression is the highest in late embryonic hindlimb muscles and drops shortly after birth when secondary muscle growth terminates. Vice versa, CXCR7 expression increased perinatally and persisted into adult life. Finally, underscoring the role of the SDF-1 system in muscle regeneration, we observed that SDF-1 is continuously expressed by endomysial cells of postnatal and adult muscle fibers. Analysis of dystrophin-deficient mdx mice additionally revealed that muscle regeneration is associated with muscular re-expression of CXCR4. The apparent tight control of limb muscle development and regeneration by CXCR4 and CXCR7 points to these chemokine receptors as promising therapeutic targets for certain muscle disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Deficiency in adipocyte chemokine receptor CXCR4 exacerbates obesity and compromises thermoregulatory responses of brown adipose tissue in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Longbiao; Heuser-Baker, Janet; Herlea-Pana, Oana; Zhang, Nan; Szweda, Luke I.; Griffin, Timothy M.; Barlic-Dicen, Jana

    2014-01-01

    The chemokine receptor CXCR4 is expressed on adipocytes and macrophages in adipose tissue, but its role in this tissue remains unknown. We evaluated whether deficiency in either adipocyte or myeloid leukocyte CXCR4 affects body weight (BW) and adiposity in a mouse model of high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obesity. We found that ablation of adipocyte, but not myeloid leukocyte, CXCR4 exacerbated obesity. The HFD-fed adipocyte-specific CXCR4-knockout (AdCXCR4ko) mice, compared to wild-type C57BL/6 control mice, had increased BW (average: 52.0 g vs. 35.5 g), adiposity (average: 49.3 vs. 21.0% of total BW), and inflammatory leukocyte content in white adipose tissue (WAT), despite comparable food intake. As previously reported, HFD feeding increased uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression (fold increase: 3.5) in brown adipose tissue (BAT) of the C57BL/6 control mice. However, no HFD-induced increase in UCP1 expression was observed in the AdCXCR4ko mice, which were cold sensitive. Thus, our study suggests that adipocyte CXCR4 limits development of obesity by preventing excessive inflammatory cell recruitment into WAT and by supporting thermogenic activity of BAT. Since CXCR4 is conserved between mouse and human, the newfound role of CXCR4 in mouse adipose tissue may parallel the role of this chemokine receptor in human adipose tissue.—Yao, L., Heuser-Baker, J., Herlea-Pana, O., Zhang, N., Szweda, L. I., Griffin, T. M., Barlic-Dicen, J. Deficiency in adipocyte chemokine receptor CXCR4 exacerbates obesity and compromises thermoregulatory responses of brown adipose tissue in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. PMID:25016030

  5. Effect of integrin α5β1 inhibition on SDF-l/CXCR4- mediated choroidal neovascularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Lyu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the roles of integrins in choroidal neovascularization (CNV and their associations with the stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1/CXCR4 axis. METHODS: CNV lesions were induced in mice using laser photocoagulation. After CNV induction, all animals were randomly assigned to: control, SDF-1, SDF-1+age-related macular degeneration (AMD 3100 (CXCR4 inhibitor, and SDF-1+ATN161 (integrin α5β1 inhibitor groups; their effects on CNV progression were observed using hematoxylin eosin (HE staining, fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA grading and optical coherence tomography (OCT, and their effects on CXCR4/integrin α5 expression were evaluated using Western blot and double immunofluorescence staining. Hypoxia-exposed endothelial cells (ECs were used to simulate CNV in vitro, they were treated with SDF-1, combined with CXCR4 siRNA/AMD3100 or ATN161, and expression of integrin α5, cell migration and tube formation were analyzed. RESULTS: Integrin subunit α5 increased at 3rd and 7th day and decreased at 14th day in CNV mice, with no significant change of β1-integrin. CXCR4 expression in CNV mice had persistent increase within 14d after induction. SDF-1 treatment significantly promoted the CNV progression during 3-14d. The mean CNV length in AMD3100 and ATN161 group at day 7 was 270.13 and 264.23 μm in HE images, significantly lower than the mean length in SDF-1 (345.70 μm group. AMD3100 and ATN161 also significantly reduced thickness and leakage of CNV induced by SDF-1. Mean integrin α5 positive area in SDF-1 group reached 2.31×104 μm2, significantly higher than control (1.25×104 μm2, which decreased to 1.78×104 μm2 after AMD3100 treatment. About 61.36% of ECs in CNV lesions expressed α5 in SDF-1 group, which significantly decreased to 43.12% after AMD3100 treatment. In vitro, integrin α5 peaked by 6 folds after 6h of hypoxia exposure and CXCR4 gradually increased by up to 2.3 folds after 24h of hypoxia. Approximately 25

  6. Radiation-induced lung damage promotes breast cancer lung-metastasis through CXCR4 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feys, Lynn; Descamps, Benedicte; Vanhove, Christian; Vral, Anne; Veldeman, Liv; Vermeulen, Stefan; De Wagter, Carlos; Bracke, Marc; De Wever, Olivier

    2015-09-29

    Radiotherapy is a mainstay in the postoperative treatment of breast cancer as it reduces the risks of local recurrence and mortality after both conservative surgery and mastectomy. Despite recent efforts to decrease irradiation volumes through accelerated partial irradiation techniques, late cardiac and pulmonary toxicity still occurs after breast irradiation. The importance of this pulmonary injury towards lung metastasis is unclear. Preirradiation of lung epithelial cells induces DNA damage, p53 activation and a secretome enriched in the chemokines SDF-1/CXCL12 and MIF. Irradiated lung epithelial cells stimulate adhesion, spreading, growth, and (transendothelial) migration of human MDA-MB-231 and murine 4T1 breast cancer cells. These metastasis-associated cellular activities were largely mimicked by recombinant CXCL12 and MIF. Moreover, an allosteric inhibitor of the CXCR4 receptor prevented the metastasis-associated cellular activities stimulated by the secretome of irradiated lung epithelial cells. Furthermore, partial (10%) irradiation of the right lung significantly stimulated breast cancer lung-specific metastasis in the syngeneic, orthotopic 4T1 breast cancer model.Our results warrant further investigation of the potential pro-metastatic effects of radiation and indicate the need to develop efficient drugs that will be successful in combination with radiotherapy to prevent therapy-induced spread of cancer cells.

  7. CXCR4 expression varies significantly among different subtypes of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and its low expression or hypermethylation might predict favorable overall survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xinlong; Shang, Feng; Zhu, Weidong; Lin, Qingtang

    2017-09-01

    CXCR4 is an oncogene in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) but the mechanism of its dysregulation and its prognostic value in GBM have not been fully understood. Bioinformatic analysis was performed by using R2 and the UCSC Xena browser based on data from GSE16011 in GEO datasets and in GBM cohort in TCGA database (TCGA-GBM). Kaplan Meier curves of overall survival (OS) were generated to assess the association between CXCR4 expression/methylation and OS in patients with GBM. GBM patients with high CXCR4 expression had significantly worse 5 and 10 yrs OS (p GBM subtypes, there was an inverse relationship between overall DNA methylation and CXCR4 expression. CXCR4 expression was significantly lower in CpG island methylation phenotype (CIMP) group than in non CIMP group. Log rank test results showed that patients with high CXCR4 methylation (first tertile) had significantly better 5 yrs OS (p = 0.038). CXCR4 expression is regulated by DNA methylation in GBM and its low expression or hypermethylation might indicate favorable OS in GBM patients.

  8. Two distinct CXC chemokine receptors (CXCR3 and CXCR4) from the big-belly seahorse Hippocampus abdominalis: Molecular perspectives and immune defensive role upon pathogenic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyathilaka, Thanthrige Thiunuwan; Oh, Minyoung; Bathige, S D N K; De Zoysa, Mahanama; Lee, Jehee

    2017-06-01

    CXC chemokine receptor 3 (CXCR3) and 4 (CXCR4) are members of the seven transmembrane G protein coupled receptor family, involved in pivotal physiological functions. In this study, seahorse CXCR3 and CXCR4 (designated as HaCXCR3 and HaCXCR4) cDNA sequences were identified from the transcriptome library and subsequently molecularly characterized. HaCXCR3 and HaCXCR4 encoded 363 and 373 amino acid long polypeptides, respectively. The HaCXCR3 and HaCXCR4 deduced proteins have typical structural features of chemokine receptors, including seven transmembrane domains and a G protein coupled receptors family 1 profile with characteristic DRY motifs. Amino acid sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis of these two CXC chemokine receptors revealed a close relationship to their corresponding teleost counterparts. Quantitative real time PCR analysis revealed that HaCXCR3 and HaCXCR4 were ubiquitously expressed in all the tested tissues, with highest expression levels in blood cells. The seahorse blood cells and kidney HaCXCR3 and HaCXCR4 mRNA expressions were differently modulated when challenged with Edwardsiella tarda, Streptococcus iniae, lipopolysaccharide, and polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid, confirming their involvement in post immune responses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Transfection of CXCR-4 using microbubble-mediated ultrasound irradiation and liposomes improves the migratory ability of bone marrow stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gong; Zhuo, Zhongxiong; Zhang, Qian; Xu, Yali; Wu, Shengzheng; Li, Lu; Xia, Hongmei; Gao, Yunhua

    2015-01-01

    Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) have proven useful for the treatment of various human diseases and injuries. However, their reparative capacity is limited by their poor migration and homing ability, which are primarily dependent on the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis. Most subcultured BMSCs lack CXCR4 receptor expression on the cell surface and exhibit impaired migratory capacity. To increase responsiveness to SDF-1 and promote cell migration and survival of cultured BMSCs, we used a combination of ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD) and liposomes to increase CXCR4 expression in vitro. We isolated and cultured rat BMSCs to their third passage and transduced them with recombinant plasmid pDsRed-CXCR4 using microbubble-mediated ultrasound irradiation and liposomes. Compared to some viral vectors, the method we employed here resulted in significantly better transfection efficiency, CXCR4 expression, and technical reproducibility. The benefits of this approach are likely due to the combination of "sonoporation" caused by shockwaves and microjet flow resulting from UTMD-generated cavitation. Following transfection, we performed a transwell migration assay and found that the migration ability of CXCR4-modified BMSCs was 9-fold higher than controls. The methods we describe here provide an effective, safe, non-viral means to achieve high levels of CXCR4 expression. This is associated with enhanced migration of subcultured BMSCs and may be useful for clinical application as well.

  10. Response assessment with the CXCR4-directed positron emission tomography tracer [68Ga]Pentixafor in a patient with extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of the orbital cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herhaus, Peter; Habringer, Stefan; Vag, Tibor; Steiger, Katja; Slotta-Huspenina, Julia; Gerngroß, Carlos; Wiestler, Benedikt; Wester, Hans-Jürgen; Schwaiger, Markus; Keller, Ulrich

    2017-12-01

    CXCR4 belongs to the family of chemokine receptors. Together with its sole known ligand CXCL12 (SDF-1alpha), it has a pivotal role during organogenesis and for homing of hematopoietic stem cells. CXCR4 is overexpressed in various malignancies, and this is often associated with poor prognosis. Therefore, molecular imaging of CXCR4 bears a great potential for diagnostics and selecting patients for CXCR4-directed therapies. The CXCR4-directed positron emission tomography (PET) tracer [ 68 Ga]Pentixafor has been shown to visualize CXCR4 expression in various malignancies in vivo. Whereas this tracer has limitations compared to 18 F-Fluorodeoxyglucose ([ 18 F]FDG) in diagnostic PET imaging in peripheral tumour lesions, it might add valuable information in routine diagnostics and response assessment of tumours in close proximity to the central nervous system (CNS) and malignancies within this organ. As a proof-of-concept, we performed [ 68 Ga]Pentixafor PET imaging in a patient with extranodal marginal zone lymphoma (MZL) of the orbital cavities at diagnosis and for post-therapy response assessment. Compared to routinely conducted [ 18 F]FDG PET, the lymphoma lesions determined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed high tracer accumulation at diagnosis, which decreased upon treatment. We therefore propose that imaging of CXCR4 with [ 68 Ga]Pentixafor is a potential diagnostic tool for tumours close to or within the CNS and suggest this being studied in clinical trials.

  11. Profound blockage of CXCR4 signaling at multiple points using the synergy between plerixafor, mirtazapine, and clotrimazole as a new glioblastoma treatment adjunct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kast, Richard E

    2010-10-01

    CXCL12 signaling at CXCR4 is important in glioblastoma growth promotion as a migration-directing chemokine and as a mitosis-stimulating cytokine system. Recent developments in other areas of medicine may have made it now possible to comprehensively block glioblastoma's use of CXCL12 signaling. CXCL12 signaling at CXCR4 requires an active intermediate conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel to function. Plerixafor (AMD3100) is a new small molecular weight inhibitor of CXCR4, FDA approved to aid in stem cell mobilization. Inhibition of CXCR4 by plerixafor is expected to inhibit particularly the glioblastoma stem cell population by inhibiting that sub-population's homing to the protective hypoxic niche. Histamine signals through the H1 receptor in glioblastoma cells to activate the intermediate conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel also, thereby forming a potential bypass for inhibition of CXCR4-initiated signaling. The antidepressant mirtazapine is perhaps the most potent H1 antagonist in common clinical use. By inhibiting H1 stimulation of intermediate conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels, it could prevent circumvention of CXCR4 inhibition by that path. The anti-fungal clotrimazole directly inhibits the intermediate conductance Ca2+- activated K+ channel at clinically achievable and well-tolerated doses. These three drugs used simultaneously are potential low morbidity paths to deeply inhibit CXCR4/CXCL12 signaling during cytotoxic glioblastoma treatment.

  12. Control of humoral immunity and auto-immunity by the CXCR4/CXCL12 axis in lupus patients following influenza vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Launay, Odile; Paul, Stéphane; Servettaz, Amélie; Roguet, Gwénaëlle; Rozenberg, Flore; Lucht, Frédéric; Lambert, Claude; Presles, Emilie; Goulvestre, Claire; Méritet, Jean-François; Galtier, Florence; Dubray, Claude; Lebon, Pierre; Weill, Bernard; Batteux, Frédéric

    2013-08-02

    CXCR4 is a chemokine receptor with multiple effects on the immune system, upregulated in patients with SLE, and correlated with disease severity. This study has investigated whether the levels of CXCR4 expressed on leucocyte subsets in lupus patients are correlated with the efficacy and the safety of the influenza vaccine. Twenty-seven patients were vaccinated and vaccine immunogenicity and tolerance were evaluated. CXCR4 was assayed on leucocyte subsets and correlated with clinical and immunological signs of diseases activity. A significant increase in the titres of antibodies to the three viral strains was observed along with trends towards an increased vaccine efficacy in patients with quiescent disease vs patients with active disease. Recent flu vaccine history and, to a lesser extent, immunosuppressive treatment may influence vaccine immunogenicity. Influenza immunization was not associated with clinical side-effects or clinical lupus flare but with an increase in rheumatoid factor levels. Our study also confirms the correlation of CXCR4 expression with biological autoimmunity as shown by the correlation between the percentage of CXCR4-positive T cells and the ANA titres at D0, and the reverse correlation between CXCR4 expression and vaccine immunogenicity as demonstrated by the higher percentage of CXCR4-positive T cells at D0 and D30 in non-responders vs responders. Altogether, our study confirms the efficacy and the safety of flu vaccine in SLE patients, highlights the role of CXCR4 as a surrogate marker for autoimmunity in lupus and shows that CXCR4 expression on T cells is predictive of vaccine efficacy in SLE patients. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. The role of SDF-1-CXCR4/CXCR7 axis in biological behaviors of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Qiang; Zhang, Aijun; Tao, Changbo; Li, Xueyang; Jin, Peisheng, E-mail: jinps2006@163.com

    2013-11-22

    Highlights: •SDF-1 pretreating increased the levels of CXCR4, CXCR7 in ADSCs. •SDF-1 improved cells paracrine migration and proliferation abilities. •CXCR4 and CXCR7 could function in ADSCs paracrine, migration and proliferation. -- Abstract: Numerous studies have reported that CXCR4 and CXCR7 play an essential, but differential role in stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1)-inducing cell chemotaxis, viability and paracrine actions of BMSCs. Adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) have been suggested to be potential seed cells for clinical application instead of bone marrow derived stroma cell (BMSCs). However, the function of SDF-1/CXCR4 and SDF-1/CXCR7 in ADSCs is not well understood. This study was designed to analyze the effect of SDF-1/CXCR4 and SDF-1/CXCR7 axis on ADSCs biological behaviors in vitro. Using Flow cytometry and Western blot methods, we found for the first time that CXCR4/CXCR7 expression was increased after treatment with SDF-1 in ADSCs. SDF-1 promoted ADSCs paracrine, proliferation and migration abilities. CXCR4 or CXCR7 antibody suppressed ADSCs paracrine action induced by SDF-1. The migration of ADSCs can be abolished by CXCR4 antibody, while the proliferation of ADSCs was only downregulated by CXCR7 antibody. Our study indicated that the angiogenesis of ADSCs is, at least partly, mediated by SDF-1/CXCR4 and SDF-1/CXCR7 axis. However, only binding of SDF-1/CXCR7 was required for proliferation of ADSCs, and CXCR7 was required for migration of ADSCs induced by SDF-1. Our studies provide evidence that the activation of either axis may be helpful to improve the effectiveness of ADSCs-based stem cell therapy.

  14. Synthesis and preliminary evaluation of a novel 125I-labeled T140 analog for quantitation of CXCR4 expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanjiang Han; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; Duanzhi Yin; Mingqiang Zheng; Wei Zhou; Lan Zhan; Yufei Ma; Mingxing Wu; Lingli Shi; Ni Wang; ZhenHong Lee

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a radiopharmaceutical for the imaging of CXCR4-expressing tumors in vivo. For 125 I-labeling, 125 I-SIB was synthesized and conjugated with the ε-NH 2 group of Ac-TZ14011, a specific CXCR4 antagonist. The specific radioactivity of the product was 5 GBq/μmol and the radiochemical purity (RCP) was 96% (n = 3). After 6 h, the RCP of the product in PBS was 93%. The MCF-7 cell uptake of Ac-TZ14011 was rapid and high. Primary biodistribution studies indicated that 125 I-IB-Ac-TZ14011 was mainly excreted via the kidney, and further evaluation in mice with induced tumors was necessary. (author)

  15. mDia2 and CXCL12/CXCR4 chemokine signaling intersect to drive tumor cell amoeboid morphological transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyse, Meghan M; Goicoechea, Silvia; Garcia-Mata, Rafael; Nestor-Kalinoski, Andrea L; Eisenmann, Kathryn M

    2017-03-04

    Morphological plasticity in response to environmental cues in migrating cancer cells requires F-actin cytoskeletal rearrangements. Conserved formin family proteins play critical roles in cell shape, tumor cell motility, invasion and metastasis, in part, through assembly of non-branched actin filaments. Diaphanous-related formin-2 (mDia2/Diaph3/Drf3/Dia) regulates mesenchymal-to-amoeboid morphological conversions and non-apoptotic blebbing in tumor cells by interacting with its inhibitor diaphanous-interacting protein (DIP), and disrupting cortical F-actin assembly and bundling. F-actin disruption is initiated by a CXCL12-dependent mechanism. Downstream CXCL12 signaling partners inducing mDia2-dependent amoeboid conversions remain enigmatic. We found in MDA-MB-231 tumor cells CXCL12 induces DIP and mDia2 interaction in blebs, and engages its receptor CXCR4 to induce RhoA-dependent blebbing. mDia2 and CXCR4 associate in blebs upon CXCL12 stimulation. Both CXCR4 and RhoA are required for CXCL12-induced blebbing. Neither CXCR7 nor other Rho GTPases that activate mDia2 are required for CXCL12-induced blebbing. The Rho Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor (GEF) Net1 is required for CXCL12-driven RhoA activation and subsequent blebbing. These results reveal CXCL12 signaling, through CXCR4, directs a Net1/RhoA/mDia-dependent signaling hub to drive cytoskeleton rearrangements to regulate morphological plasticity in tumor cells. These signaling hubs may be conserved during normal and cancer cells responding to chemotactic cues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of Acyclic Nucleoside Phosphonate Antivirals on Gene Expression of Chemokine Receptors CCR5 and CXCR4

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Potměšil, P.; Holý, Antonín; Zídek, Zdeněk

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 1 (2015), s. 1-7 ISSN 0015-5500 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA305/03/1470; GA MŠk 1M0508 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:68378041 Keywords : acyclic nucleoside phosphonate * HIV * CCR5 * CXCR4 * cytokine * RT-PCR Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry; FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry (UEM-P) Impact factor: 0.833, year: 2015

  17. Genetic characterization of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 gene in lagomorphs: comparison between the families Ochotonidae and Leporidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrantes, J; Esteves, P J; Carmo, C R; Müller, A; Thompson, G; van der Loo, W

    2008-04-01

    Chemokines receptors are transmembrane proteins that bind chemokines. Chemokines and their receptors are known to play a crucial role in the immune system and in pathogen entry. There is evidence that myxoma virus, the causative agent of myxomatosis, can use the chemokine receptor CXCR4 to infect cells. This virus causes a benign disease in its natural host, Sylvilagus, but in the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) it causes a highly fatal and infectious disease known as myxomatosis. We have characterized the chemokine receptor CXCR4 gene in five genera of the order Lagomorpha, Ochotona (Ochotonidae), and Oryctolagus, Lepus, Bunolagus and Sylvilagus (Leporidae). In lagomorphs, the CXCR4 is highly conserved, with most of the protein diversity found at surface regions. Five amino acid replacements were observed, two in the intracellular loops, one in the transmembrane domain and two in the extracellular loops. Oryctolagus features unique amino acid changes at the intracellular domains, putting this genus apart of all other lagomorphs. Furthermore, in the 37 European rabbits analysed, which included healthy rabbits and rabbits with clinical symptoms of myxomatosis, 14 nucleotide substitutions were obtained but no amino acid differences were observed.

  18. Risk of Breast Cancer with CXCR4-using HIV Defined by V3-Loop Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goedert, James J.; Swenson, Luke C.; Napolitano, Laura A.; Haddad, Mojgan; Anastos, Kathryn; Minkoff, Howard; Young, Mary; Levine, Alexandra; Adeyemi, Oluwatoyin; Seaberg, Eric C.; Aouizerat, Bradley; Rabkin, Charles S.; Harrigan, P. Richard; Hessol, Nancy A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Evaluate the risk of female breast cancer associated with HIV-CXCR4 (X4) tropism as determined by various genotypic measures. Methods A breast cancer case-control study, with pairwise comparisons of tropism determination methods, was conducted. From the Women's Interagency HIV Study repository, one stored plasma specimen was selected from 25 HIV-infected cases near the breast cancer diagnosis date and 75 HIV-infected control women matched for age and calendar date. HIVgp120-V3 sequences were derived by Sanger population sequencing (PS) and 454-pyro deep sequencing (DS). Sequencing-based HIV-X4 tropism was defined using the geno2pheno algorithm, with both high-stringency DS [False-Positive-Rate (FPR 3.5) and 2% X4 cutoff], and lower stringency DS (FPR 5.75, 15% X4 cut-off). Concordance of tropism results by PS, DS, and previously performed phenotyping was assessed with kappa (κ) statistics. Case-control comparisons used exact P-values and conditional logistic regression. Results In 74 women (19 cases, 55 controls) with complete results, prevalence of HIV-X4 by PS was 5% in cases vs 29% in controls (P=0.06, odds ratio 0.14, confidence interval 0.003-1.03). Smaller case-control prevalence differences were found with high-stringency DS (21% vs 36%, P=0.32), lower-stringency DS (16% vs 35%, P=0.18), and phenotyping (11% vs 31%, P=0.10). HIV-X4-tropism concordance was best between PS and lower-stringency DS (93%, κ=0.83). Other pairwise concordances were 82%-92% (κ=0.56-0.81). Concordance was similar among cases and controls. Conclusions HIV-X4 defined by population sequencing (PS) had good agreement with lower stringency deep sequencing and was significantly associated with lower odds of breast cancer. PMID:25321183

  19. Novel anti-metastatic action of cidofovir mediated by inhibition of E6/E7, CXCR4 and Rho/ROCK signaling in HPV tumor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdessamad Amine

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is frequently associated with HPV infection. The expression of E6 and E7 HPV oncoproteins is a key factor in its carcinogenicity and might also influence its virulence, including metastatic conversion. The cellular mechanisms involved in metastatic spread remain elusive, but pro-adhesive receptors and their ligands, such as SDF-1alpha and CXCR4 are implicated. In the present study, we assessed the possible relationship between SDF-1alpha/CXCR4 signaling, E6/E7 status and the metastatic process. We found that SDF-1alpha stimulated the invasion of E6/E7-positive cancer cell lines (HeLa and TC-1 in Matrigel though CXCR4 and subsequent Rho/ROCK activation. In pulmonary metastatic foci generated by TC-1 cells IV injection a high proportion of cells expressed membrane-associated CXCR4. In both cases models (in vitro and in vivo cell adhesion and invasion was abrogated by CXCR4 immunological blockade supporting a contribution of SDF-1alpha/CXCR4 to the metastatic process. E6 and E7 silencing using stable knock-down and the approved anti-viral agent, Cidofovir decreased CXCR4 gene expression as well as both, constitutive and SDF-1alpha-induced cell invasion. In addition, Cidofovir inhibited lung metastasis (both adhesion and invasion supporting contribution of E6 and E7 oncoproteins to the metastatic process. Finally, potential signals activated downstream SDF-1alpha/CXCR4 and involved in lung homing of E6/E7-expressing tumor cells were investigated. The contribution of the Rho/ROCK pathway was suggested by the inhibitory effect triggered by Cidofovir and further confirmed using Y-27632 (a small molecule ROCK inhibitor. These data suggest a novel and highly translatable therapeutic approach to cervix cancer, by inhibition of adhesion and invasion of circulating HPV-positive tumor cells, using Cidofovir and/or ROCK inhibition.

  20. Ultrasound-Targeted Microbubble Destruction Improves the Migration and Homing of Mesenchymal Stem Cells after Myocardial Infarction by Upregulating SDF-1/CXCR4: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC therapy shows considerable promise for the treatment of myocardial infarction (MI. However, the inefficient migration and homing of MSCs after systemic infusion have limited their therapeutic applications. Ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD has proven to be promising to improve the homing of MSCs to the ischemic myocardium, but the concrete mechanism remains unclear. We hypothesize that UTMD promotes MSC homing by upregulating SDF-1/CXCR4, and this study was aimed at exploring this potential mechanism. We analyzed SDF-1/CXCR4 expression after UTMD treatment in vitro and in vivo and counted the number of homing MSCs in MI areas. The in vitro results demonstrated that UTMD not only led to elevated secretion of SDF-1 but also resulted in an increased proportion of MSCs that expressed surface CXCR4. The in vivo findings show an increase in the number of homing MSCs and higher expression of SDF-1/CXCR4 in the UTMD combined with MSCs infusion group compared to other groups. In conclusion, UTMD can increase SDF-1 expression in the ischemic myocardium and upregulate the expression of surface CXCR4 on MSCs, which provides a molecular mechanism for the homing of MSCs assisted by UTMD via SDF-1/CXCR4 axis.

  1. Interaction of chemokine receptor CXCR4 in monomeric and dimeric state with its endogenous ligand CXCL12: coarse-grained simulations identify differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutolo, Pasquale; Basdevant, Nathalie; Bernadat, Guillaume; Bachelerie, Françoise; Ha-Duong, Tâp

    2017-02-01

    Despite the recent resolutions of the crystal structure of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 in complex with small antagonists or viral chemokine, a description at the molecular level of the interactions between the full-length CXCR4 and its endogenous ligand, the chemokine CXCL12, in relationship with the receptor recognition and activation, is not yet completely elucidated. Moreover, since CXCR4 is able to form dimers, the question of whether the CXCR4-CXCL12 complex has a 1:1 or 2:1 preferential stoichiometry is still an open question. We present here results of coarse-grained protein-protein docking and molecular dynamics simulations of CXCL12 in association with CXCR4 in monomeric and dimeric states. Our proposed models for the 1:1 and 2:1 CXCR4-CXCL12 quaternary structures are consistent with recognition and activation motifs of both partners provided by the available site-directed mutagenesis data. Notably, we observed that in the 2:1 complex, the chemokine N-terminus makes more steady contacts with the receptor residues critical for binding and activation than in the 1:1 structure, suggesting that the 2:1 stoichiometry would favor the receptor signaling activity with respect to the 1:1 association.

  2. Impact of a CXCL12/CXCR4 Antagonist in Bleomycin (BLM Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis and Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4 Induced Hepatic Fibrosis in Mice.

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    Leola N Chow

    Full Text Available Modulation of chemokine CXCL12 and its receptor CXCR4 has been implicated in attenuation of bleomycin (BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced hepatic injury. In pulmonary fibrosis, published reports suggest that collagen production in the injured lung is derived from fibrocytes recruited from the circulation in response to release of pulmonary CXCL12. Conversely, in hepatic fibrosis, resident hepatic stellate cells (HSC, the key cell type in progression of fibrosis, upregulate CXCR4 expression in response to activation. Further, CXCL12 induces HSC proliferation and subsequent production of collagen I. In the current study, we evaluated AMD070, an orally bioavailable inhibitor of CXCL12/CXCR4 in alleviating BLM-induced pulmonary and CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis in mice. Similar to other CXCR4 antagonists, treatment with AMD070 significantly increased leukocyte mobilization. However, in these two models of fibrosis, AMD070 had a negligible impact on extracellular matrix deposition. Interestingly, our results indicated that CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling has a role in improving mortality associated with BLM induced pulmonary injury, likely through dampening an early inflammatory response and/or vascular leakage. Together, these findings indicate that the CXCL12-CXCR4 signaling axis is not an effective target for reducing fibrosis.

  3. The expression of chemokine receptors CXCR3 and CXCR4 in predicting postoperative tumour progression in stages I-II colon cancer: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Changzheng; Yao, Yunfeng; Xue, Weicheng; Zhu, Wei-Guo; Peng, Yifan; Gu, Jin

    2014-01-01

    The prognostic significance of chemokine receptors in stage I/II colon cancer is unclear. We assessed the prognostic value of chemokine receptor CXCR3 and CXCR4 in stage I/II colon cancer. 145 patients with stage I/II colon cancer who underwent curative surgery alone from 2000 to 2007 were investigated. Chemokine receptor expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry. The associations between CXCR3, CXCR4 and clinicopathological variables were analysed using the χ2 test, and the relationships between chemokine receptors and a 5-year disease-free survival were analysed by univariate and multivariate analyses. The high-expression rates of CXCR3 and CXCR4 were 17.9% (26/145) and 38.6% (56/145), respectively. There were no significant associations between the expressions of CXCR3, CXCR4 and clinicopathological factors including gender, age, tumour location, histological differentiation, pathological stage, lymphovascular invasion and pretreatment serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). The 5-year disease-free survival was not significantly different between low-expression groups and high-expression groups of CXCR3 and CXCR4. Multivariate analysis revealed that serum CEA and a number of retrieved lymph nodes, rather than chemokine receptors, were independent prognosticators. CXCR3 and CXCR4 are not independent prognosticators for stage I/II colon cancer after curative surgery.

  4. SDF-1/CXCR4 expression in bladder cancer tissue and the correlation with negative costimulatory molecule PD-L1, cell apoptosis and invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Bao Ye

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the SDF-1/CXCR4 expression in bladder cancer tissue and the correlation with negative costimulatory molecule PD-L1, cell apoptosis and invasion. Methods: A total of 118 cases of bladder cancer tissue and para-carcinoma tissue surgically removed in our hospital between May 2014 and May 2016 were selected as the research samples, the RNA was extracted and then reverse-transcribed into cDNA, and the expression levels of SDF-1/ CXCR4, PD-L1/PD-1, cell apoptosis-related molecules and cell invasion-related molecules were detected. Results: SDF-1 and CXCR4 mRNA expression in bladder cancer tissue were significantly higher than those in para-carcinoma tissue; PD-L1, PD-1, Rec1, Survivin, MRPS5, Nanog, BCAPP2Ac, TRPM8, TRPV2, ILK, β-catenin and GUGBP1 mRNA expression in bladder cancer tissue were significantly higher than those in para-carcinoma tissue and positively correlated with SDF-1 and CXCR4 mRNA expression. Conclusion: Highly expressed SDF-1/CXCR4 in bladder cancer tissue are closely related to the high expression of negative costimulatory molecule PD-L1, pro-proliferation molecules and proinvasion molecules, and SDF-1/CXCR4 can promote the immune escape, proliferation and invasion of bladder cancer cells.

  5. The WHIM-like CXCR4(S338X) somatic mutation activates AKT and ERK, and promotes resistance to ibrutinib and other agents used in the treatment of Waldenstrom's Macroglobulinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Y; Hunter, Z R; Liu, X; Xu, L; Yang, G; Chen, J; Patterson, C J; Tsakmaklis, N; Kanan, S; Rodig, S; Castillo, J J; Treon, S P

    2015-01-01

    CXCR4(WHIM) somatic mutations are common Waldenstrom's Macroglobulinemia (WM), and are associated with clinical resistance to ibrutinib. We engineered WM cells to express the most common WHIM (Warts, Hypogammaglobulinemia, Infections and Myelokathexis), CXCR(S338X) mutation in WM. Following SDF-1a stimulation, CXCR4(S338X) WM cells exhibited decreased receptor internalization, enhanced and sustained AKT kinase (AKT) and extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) signaling, decreased poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase and caspase 3 cleavage, and decreased Annexin V staining versus CXCR4 wild-type (WT) cells. CXCR4(S338X)-related signaling and survival effects were blocked by the CXCR4 inhibitor AMD3100. SDF-1a-treated CXCR4(S338X) WM cells showed sustained AKT and ERK activation and decreased apoptotic changes versus CXCR4(WT) cells following ibrutinib treatment, findings which were also reversed by AMD3100. AKT or ERK antagonists restored ibrutinib-triggered apoptotic changes in SDF-1a-treated CXCR4(S338X) WM cells demonstrating their role in SDF-1a-mediated ibrutinib resistance. Enhanced bone marrow pAKT staining was also evident in CXCR4(WHIM) versus CXCR4(WT) WM patients, and remained active despite ibrutinib therapy in CXCR4(WHIM) patients. Last, CXCR4(S338X) WM cells showed varying levels of resistance to other WM relevant therapeutics, including bendamustine, fludarabine, bortezomib and idelalisib in the presence of SDF-1a. These studies demonstrate a functional role for CXCR4(WHIM) mutations, and provide a framework for investigation of CXCR4 inhibitors in WM.

  6. CXCR4/Let-7a Axis Regulates Metastasis and Chemoresistance of Pancreatic Cancer Cells Through Targeting HMGA2

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    Guangfa Xiao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Pancreatic cancer cells (PCC is one of the most risky cancers and gemcitabine (GEM is the standard first-line drug for treating PCC. The PCC will develop drug resistance to GEM after a period of treatment. However, the detailed molecular mechanism of pathogenesis and drug resistance remains unresolved. Methods: we employed qRT-PCR and western blot to examine the expression level of CXCR4, let-7a and HMGA2. In addition, we used MTT assay to detect cell proliferation and transwell assay to measure migration and invasiveness. The expression level of epithelial marker E-cadherin and mesenthymal marker N-cadherin was detected by western blot. The apoptosis was determined using annexin V-FITC/PI apoptosis detection kit by flow cytometry. Results: we first proved that CXCR4 negatively regulated let-7a in PCC. Next, let-7a was confirmed to play crucial role in tumorigenesis, metastasis and drug resistance of pancreatic cancer cells Bxpc-3 and Panc-1 in vitro and in vivo. Finally, we identified HMGA2 as important downsteam target of let-7a in PCC and overexpression of HMGA2 restores cell proliferation, metastasis and chemosensitivity of GEM inhibited by let-7a. Conlusion: Taken together, we show an important signaling pathway involved in pathogenesis and drug resistance of PCC, thereby providing deeper insight into molecular mechanism by which CXCR4/let-7a regulates tumorigenesis and drug resistance of PCC. These findings will help us develop new strategies for diagnosis and treatment of PCC.

  7. Synthesis of a novel tripeptidomimetic scaffold and biological evaluation for CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) antagonism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumann, Markus; Nome, Lina Marie; Zachariassen, Zack G.

    2017-01-01

    We here report the preparation of a new 2,6,8-trisubstituted bicyclic tripeptidomimetic scaffold through TFA-mediated cyclization of a linear precursor containing three side chains. The introduction of a triphenylmethyl-protected thiol into carboxylic acid containing building blocks through sulfa...... the stereochemical outcome of the cyclization differently when the R1 side chain is positioned on C2 in the bicycles (present work) instead of C3 (previous work). Tripeptidomimetic compounds based on the new scaffold were synthesized and evaluated for antagonistic potency toward CXCR4, and one compound (45a...

  8. Inhibition of SDF-1α/CXCR4 Signalling in Subchondral Bone Attenuates Post-Traumatic Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghui Dong

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies showed that SDF-1α is a catabolic factor that can infiltrate cartilage, decrease proteoglycan content, and increase MMP-13 activity. Inhibiting the SDF-1α/CXCR4 signalling pathway can attenuate the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA. Recent studies have also shown that SDF-1α enhances chondrocyte proliferation and maturation. These results appear to be contradictory. In the current study, we used a destabilisation OA animal model to investigate the effects of SDF-1α/CXCR4 signalling in the tibial subchondral bone and the OA pathological process. Post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA mice models were prepared by transecting the anterior cruciate ligament (ACLT, or a sham surgery was performed, in a total of 30 mice. Mice were treated with phosphate buffer saline (PBS or AMD3100 (an inhibitor of CXCR4 and sacrificed at 30 days post ACLT or sham surgery. Tibial subchondral bone status was quantified by micro-computed tomography (μCT. Knee-joint histology was analysed to examine the articular cartilage and joint degeneration. The levels of SDF-1α and collagen type I c-telopeptidefragments (CTX-I were quantified by ELISA. Bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMCs were used to clarify the effects of SDF-1α on osteoclast formation and activity in vivo. μCT analysis revealed significant loss of trabecular bone from tibial subchondral bone post-ACLT, which was effectively prevented by AMD3100. AMD3100 could partially prevent bone loss and articular cartilage degeneration. Serum biomarkers revealed an increase in SDF-1α and bone resorption, which were also reduced by AMD3100. SDF-1α can promote osteoclast formation and the expression oftartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP, cathepsin K (CK, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-9 in osteoclasts by activating the MAPK pathway, including ERK and p38, but not JNK. In conclusion, inhibition of SDF-1α/CXCR4signalling was able to prevent trabecular bone loss and attenuated cartilage

  9. COX-2 and Prostaglandin EP3/EP4 Signaling Regulate the Tumor Stromal Proangiogenic Microenvironment via CXCL12-CXCR4 Chemokine Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Hiroshi; Hosono, Kanako; Ito, Yoshiya; Suzuki, Tatsunori; Ogawa, Yasufumi; Kubo, Hidefumi; Kamata, Hiroki; Mishima, Toshiaki; Tamaki, Hideaki; Sakagami, Hiroyuki; Sugimoto, Yukihiko; Narumiya, Shuh; Watanabe, Masahiko; Majima, Masataka

    2010-01-01

    Bone marrow (BM)–derived hematopoietic cells, which are major components of tumor stroma, determine the tumor microenvironment and regulate tumor phenotypes. Cyclooxygenase (COX)−2 and endogenous prostaglandins are important determinants for tumor growth and tumor-associated angiogenesis; however, their contributions to stromal formation and angiogenesis remain unclear. In this study, we observed that Lewis lung carcinoma cells implanted in wild-type mice formed a tumor mass with extensive stromal formation that was markedly suppressed by COX-2 inhibition, which reduced the recruitment of BM cells. Notably, COX-2 inhibition attenuated CXCL12/CXCR4 expression as well as expression of several other chemokines. Indeed, in a Matrigel model, prostaglandin (PG) E2 enhanced stromal formation and CXCL12/CXCR4 expression. In addition, a COX-2 inhibitor suppressed stromal formation and reduced expression of CXCL12/CXCR4 and a fibroblast marker (S100A4) in a micropore chamber model. Moreover, stromal formation after tumor implantation was suppressed in EP3−/− mice and EP4−/− mice, in which stromal expression of CXCL12/CXCR4 and S100A4 was reduced. The EP3 or EP4 knockout suppressed S100A4+ fibroblasts, CXCL12+, and/or CXCR4+ stromal cells as well. Immunofluorescent analyses revealed that CXCL12+CXCR4+S100A4+ fibroblasts mainly comprised stromal cells and most of these were recruited from the BM. Additionally, either EP3- or EP4-specific agonists stimulated CXCL12 expression by fibroblasts in vitro. The present results address the novel activities of COX-2/PGE2-EP3/EP4 signaling that modulate tumor biology and show that CXCL12/CXCR4 axis may play a crucial role in tumor stromal formation and angiogenesis under the control of prostaglandins. PMID:20110411

  10. Interstitial Fluid Flow Increases Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Invasion through CXCR4/CXCL12 and MEK/ERK Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common form of liver cancer (~80%), and it is one of the few cancer types with rising incidence in the United States. This highly invasive cancer is very difficult to detect until its later stages, resulting in limited treatment options and low survival rates. There is a dearth of knowledge regarding the mechanisms associated with the effects of biomechanical forces such as interstitial fluid flow (IFF) on hepatocellular carcinoma invasion. We hypothesized that interstitial fluid flow enhanced hepatocellular carcinoma cell invasion through chemokine-mediated autologous chemotaxis. Utilizing a 3D in vitro invasion assay, we demonstrated that interstitial fluid flow promoted invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma derived cell lines. Furthermore, we showed that autologous chemotaxis influences this interstitial fluid flow-induced invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma derived cell lines via the C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4)/C-X-C motif chemokine 12 (CXCL12) signaling axis. We also demonstrated that mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling affects interstitial fluid flow-induced invasion; however, this pathway was separate from CXCR4/CXCL12 signaling. This study demonstrates, for the first time, the potential role of interstitial fluid flow in hepatocellular carcinoma invasion. Uncovering the mechanisms that control hepatocellular carcinoma invasion will aid in enhancing current liver cancer therapies and provide better treatment options for patients. PMID:26560447

  11. Inhibition of CXCL12/CXCR4 autocrine/paracrine loop reduces viability of human glioblastoma stem-like cells affecting self-renewal activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatti, Monica; Pattarozzi, Alessandra; Bajetto, Adriana; Würth, Roberto; Daga, Antonio; Fiaschi, Pietro; Zona, Gianluigi; Florio, Tullio; Barbieri, Federica

    2013-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) or tumor initiating cells (TICs) drive glioblastoma (GBM) development, invasiveness and drug resistance. Distinct molecular pathways might regulate CSC biology as compared to cells in the bulk tumor mass, representing potential therapeutic targets. Chemokine CXCL12 and its receptor CXCR4 control proliferation, invasion and angiogenesis in GBM cell lines and primary cultures, but little is known about their activity in GBM CSCs. We demonstrate that CSCs, isolated from five human GBMs, express CXCR4 and release CXCL12 in vitro, although different levels of expression and secretion were observed in individual cultures, as expected for the heterogeneity of GBMs. CXCL12 treatment induced Akt-mediated significant pro-survival and self-renewal activities, while proliferation was induced at low extent. The role of CXCR4 signaling in CSC survival and self-renewal was further demonstrated using the CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 that reduced self-renewal and survival with greater efficacy in the cultures that released higher CXCL12 amounts. The specificity of CXCL12 in sustaining CSC survival was demonstrated by the lack of AMD3100-dependent inhibition of viability in differentiated cells derived from the same GBMs. These findings, although performed on a limited number of tumor samples, suggest that the CXCL12/CXCR4 interaction mediates survival and self-renewal in GBM CSCs with high selectivity, thus emerging as a candidate system responsible for maintenance of cancer progenitors, and providing survival benefits to the tumor

  12. Notch-RBP-J signaling regulates the mobilization and function of endothelial progenitor cells by dynamic modulation of CXCR4 expression in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Wang

    Full Text Available Bone marrow (BM-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPC have therapeutic potentials in promoting tissue regeneration, but how these cells are modulated in vivo has been elusive. Here, we report that RBP-J, the critical transcription factor mediating Notch signaling, modulates EPC through CXCR4. In a mouse partial hepatectomy (PHx model, RBP-J deficient EPC showed attenuated capacities of homing and facilitating liver regeneration. In resting mice, the conditional deletion of RBP-J led to a decrease of BM EPC, with a concomitant increase of EPC in the peripheral blood. This was accompanied by a down-regulation of CXCR4 on EPC in BM, although CXCR4 expression on EPC in the circulation was up-regulated in the absence of RBP-J. PHx in RBP-J deficient mice induced stronger EPC mobilization. In vitro, RBP-J deficient EPC showed lowered capacities of adhering, migrating, and forming vessel-like structures in three-dimensional cultures. Over-expression of CXCR4 could at least rescue the defects in vessel formation by the RBP-J deficient EPC. These data suggested that the RBP-J-mediated Notch signaling regulated EPC mobilization and function, at least partially through dynamic modulation of CXCR4 expression. Our findings not only provide new insights into the regulation of EPC, but also have implications for clinical therapies using EPC in diseases.

  13. Human Breast Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Transfected with the Stromal Cell-Derived Factor-1 Receptor CXCR4 Exhibit Enhanced Viability in Human Autologous Free Fat Grafts

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    Fang-tian Xu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The main complication of autologous free fat tissue transplantation is fat resorption and calcification due to the ischemic necrosis of fat. The promotion of transplant neovascularization soon after autologous free fat grafts may reduce these outcomes. In adulthood, stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1 and its membrane receptor C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4 are involved in the homing and migration of multiple stem cell types, neovascularization, and cell proliferation. We hypothesized that CXCR4 may improve the long-term survival of free fat tissue transplants by recruiting endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs and may therefore improve graft revascularization. In this study, we aimed to determine the effect of human breast adipose-derived stem cells (HBASCs transfected with the CXCR4 gene on the survival rate of human autologous free fat transplants in nude mice. Methods: Human breast adipose-derived stem cells (HBASCs were expanded ex vivo for 3 passages, labeled with green fluorescent protein (GFP and transfected with CXCR4 or left untransfected. Autologous fat tissues were mixed with the GFP-labeled, CXCR4-transfected HBASCs (group A, GFP-labeled HBASCs (group B, the known vascularization-promoting agent VEGF (group C, or medium (group D and then injected subcutaneously into 32 nude mice at 4 spots in a random fashion. Six months later, the transplanted tissue volume and histology were evaluated, and neo-vascularization was quantified by counting the capillaries. CXCR4 and SDF-1α mRNA expression in the transplants was determined using real-time quantitative PCR analysis (qPCR. Results: The data revealed that the control (group D transplant volume survival was 28.3 ± 4.5%. Mixing CXCR4-transfected (group A and untransfected (group B HBASCs significantly increased transplant volume survival (79.5 ± 8.3% and 67.2 ± 5.9%, respectively, whereas VEGF-transfected HBASCs (group C were less effective (41.2 ± 5.1%. Histological

  14. TCR-CXCR4 signaling stabilizes cytokine mRNA transcripts via a PREX1-Rac1 pathway: implications for CTCL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Kimberly N; Dinkel, Brittney A; Sterner, Rosalie M; Osborne, Douglas G; Jevremovic, Dragan; Hedin, Karen E

    2017-08-24

    As with many immunopathologically driven diseases, the malignant T cells of cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCLs), such as Sézary syndrome, display aberrant cytokine secretion patterns that contribute to pathology and disease progression. Targeting this disordered release of cytokines is complicated by the changing cytokine milieu that drives the phenotypic changes of CTCLs. Here, we characterize a novel signaling pathway that can be targeted to inhibit the secretion of cytokines by modulating either CXCR4 or CXCR4-mediated signaling. We demonstrate that upon ligation of the T-cell antigen receptor (TCR), the TCR associates with and transactivates CXCR4 via phosphorylation of S339-CXCR4 in order to activate a PREX1-Rac1-signaling pathway that stabilizes interleukin-2 (IL-2) , IL-4 , and IL-10 messenger RNA (mRNA) transcripts. Pharmacologic inhibition of either TCR-CXCR4 complex formation or PREX1-Rac1 signaling in primary human T cells decreased mRNA stability and inhibited secretion of IL-2, IL-4, and IL-10. Applying this knowledge to Sézary syndrome, we demonstrate that targeting various aspects of this signaling pathway blocks both TCR-dependent and TCR-independent cytokine secretion from a Sézary syndrome-derived cell line and patient isolates. Together, these results identify multiple aspects of a novel TCR-CXCR4-signaling pathway that could be targeted to inhibit the aberrant cytokine secretion that drives the immunopathogenesis of Sézary syndrome and other immunopathological diseases. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  15. Stable gene transfer of CCR5 and CXCR4 siRNAs by sleeping beauty transposon system to confer HIV-1 resistance

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    Akkina Ramesh

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thus far gene therapy strategies for HIV/AIDS have used either conventional retroviral vectors or lentiviral vectors for gene transfer. Although highly efficient, their use poses a certain degree of risk in terms of viral mediated oncogenesis. Sleeping Beauty (SB transposon system offers a non-viral method of gene transfer to avoid this possible risk. With respect to conferring HIV resistance, stable knock down of HIV-1 coreceptors CCR5 and CXCR4 by the use of lentiviral vector delivered siRNAs has proved to be a promising strategy to protect cells from HIV-1 infection. In the current studies our aim is to evaluate the utility of SB system for stable gene transfer of CCR5 and CXCR4 siRNA genes to derive HIV resistant cells as a first step towards using this system for gene therapy. Results Two well characterized siRNAs against the HIV-1 coreceptors CCR5 and CXCR4 were chosen based on their previous efficacy for the SB transposon gene delivery. The siRNA transgenes were incorporated individually into a modified SB transfer plasmid containing a FACS sortable red fluorescence protein (RFP reporter and a drug selectable neomycin resistance gene. Gene transfer was achieved by co-delivery with a construct expressing a hyperactive transposase (HSB5 into the GHOST-R3/X4/R5 cell line, which expresses the major HIV receptor CD4 and and the co-receptors CCR5 and CXCR4. SB constructs expressing CCR5 or CXCR4 siRNAs were also transfected into MAGI-CCR5 or MAGI-CXCR4 cell lines, respectively. Near complete downregulation of CCR5 and CXCR4 surface expression was observed in transfected cells. During viral challenge with X4-tropic (NL4.3 or R5-tropic (BaL HIV-1 strains, the respective transposed cells showed marked viral resistance. Conclusion SB transposon system can be used to deliver siRNA genes for stable gene transfer. The siRNA genes against HIV-1 coreceptors CCR5 and CXCR4 are able to downregulate the respective cell surface proteins

  16. Stromal cell derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) directed chemoattraction of transiently CXCR4 overexpressing mesenchymal stem cells into functionalized three-dimensional biomimetic scaffolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thieme, S; Ryser, Martin; Gentsch, Marcus

    2009-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) bone substitute material should not only serve as scaffold in large bone defects but also attract mesenchymal stem cells, a subset of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) that are able to form new bone tissue. An additional crucial step is to attract BMSCs from the surface int...... invaded up to 250 mum into SDF-1alpha-releasing 3D scaffolds, whereas CXCR4-overexpressing BMSC invaded up to 500 mum within 5 days. Thus, the SDF-1alpha/CXCR4 chemoattraction system can be used to efficiently recruit BMSCs into SDF-1alpha-releasing 3D scaffolds in vitro and in vivo....

  17. Data on human neutrophil activation induced by pepducins with amino acid sequences derived from β2AR and CXCR4

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    André Holdfeldt

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The data described here is related to the research article titled (Gabl et al., 2016 [1]. Pepducins with peptide sequence derived from one of the intracellular domains of a given G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR can either activate or inhibit cell functions. Here we include data on human neutrophil function induced by pepducins derived from β2AR (ICL3-8 and CXCR4 (ATI-2341, respectively. ICL3-8 exerts neither direct activating effect on the NADPH-oxidase as measured by superoxide release nor inhibitory effect on FPR signaling. ATI-2341 dose-dependently triggers neutrophil activation and these cells were subsequently desensitized in their response to FPR2 specific agonists F2Pal10 and WKYMVM. Moreover, the ATI-2341 response is inhibited by PBP10 and the peptidomimetic Pam-(Lys-betaNSpe6-NH2 (both are FPR2 specific inhibitors, but not to the FPR1 specific inhibitor cyclosporine H.

  18. Molecular mechanism of AMD3100 antagonism in the CXCR4 receptor: transfer of binding site to the CXCR3 receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, Mette M; Gerlach, Lars-Ole; Jakobsen, Janus S

    2004-01-01

    , respectively. Metal ion binding in the cyclam rings of AMD3100 increased its dependence on Asp(262) and provided a tighter molecular map of the binding site, where borderline mutational hits became clear hits for the Zn(II)-loaded analog. The proposed binding site for AMD3100 was confirmed by a gradual build......-up in the rather distinct CXCR3 receptor, for which the compound normally had no effect. Introduction of only a Glu at position VII:06 and the removal of a neutralizing Lys residue at position VII:02 resulted in a 1000-fold increase in affinity of AMD3100 to within 10-fold of its affinity in CXCR4. We conclude...

  19. Combination of Vessel-Targeting Agents and Fractionated Radiation Therapy: The Role of the SDF-1/CXCR4 Pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Fang-Hsin; Fu, Sheng-Yung; Yang, Ying-Chieh; Wang, Chun-Chieh; Chiang, Chi-Shiun; Hong, Ji-Hong

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate vascular responses during fractionated radiation therapy (F-RT) and the effects of targeting pericytes or bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) on the efficacy of F-RT. Methods and Materials: Murine prostate TRAMP-C1 tumors were grown in control mice or mice transplanted with green fluorescent protein-tagged bone marrow (GFP-BM), and irradiated with 60 Gy in 15 fractions. Mice were also treated with gefitinib (an epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor) or AMD3100 (a CXCR4 antagonist) to examine the effects of combination treatment. The responses of tumor vasculatures to these treatments and changes of tumor microenvironment were assessed. Results: After F-RT, the tumor microvascular density (MVD) was reduced; however, the surviving vessels were dilated, incorporated with GFP-positive cells, tightly adhered to pericytes, and well perfused with Hoechst 33342, suggesting a more mature structure formed primarily via vasculogenesis. Although the gefitinib+F-RT combination affected the vascular structure by dissociating pericytes from the vascular wall, it did not further delay tumor growth. These tumors had higher MVD and better vascular perfusion function, leading to less hypoxia and tumor necrosis. By contrast, the AMD3100+F-RT combination significantly enhanced tumor growth delay more than F-RT alone, and these tumors had lower MVD and poorer vascular perfusion function, resulting in increased hypoxia. These tumor vessels were rarely covered by pericytes and free of GFP-positive cells. Conclusions: Vasculogenesis is a major mechanism for tumor vessel survival during F-RT. Complex interactions occur between vessel-targeting agents and F-RT, and a synergistic effect may not always exist. To enhance F-RT, using CXCR4 inhibitor to block BM cell influx and the vasculogenesis process is a better strategy than targeting pericytes by epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor

  20. Phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C inhibition down- regulates CXCR4 expression and interferes with proliferation, invasion and glycolysis in glioma cells.

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    Laura Mercurio

    Full Text Available The chemokine receptor CXCR4 plays a crucial role in tumors, including glioblastoma multiforme (GBM, the most aggressive glioma. Phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC, a catabolic enzyme of PC metabolism, is involved in several aspects of cancer biology and its inhibition down-modulates the expression of growth factor membrane receptors interfering with their signaling pathways. In the present work we investigated the possible interplay between CXCR4 and PC-PLC in GBM cells.Confocal microscopy, immunoprecipitation, western blot analyses, and the evaluation of migration and invasion potential were performed on U87MG cells after PC-PLC inhibition with the xanthate D609. The intracellular metabolome was investigated by magnetic resonance spectroscopy; lactate levels and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activity were analyzed by colorimetric assay.Our studies demonstrated that CXCR4 and PC-PLC co-localize and are associated on U87MG cell membrane. D609 reduced CXCR4 expression, cell proliferation and invasion, interfering with AKT and EGFR activation and expression. Metabolic analyses showed a decrease in intracellular lactate concentration together with a decrement in LDH activity.Our data suggest that inhibition of PC-PLC could represent a new molecular approach in glioma biology not only for its ability in modulating cell metabolism, glioma growth and motility, but also for its inhibitory effect on crucial molecules involved in cancer progression.

  1. pVHL co-ordinately regulates CXCR4/CXCL12 and MMP2/MMP9 expression in human clear-cell renal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Struckmann, K; Mertz, Kd; Steu, S

    2008-01-01

    Loss of pVHL function, characteristic for clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), causes increased expression of CXCR4 chemokine receptor, which triggers expression of metastasis-associated MMP2/MMP9 in different human cancers. The impact of pVHL on MMP2/MMP9 expression and their relationship to...

  2. BAG3 promotes stem cell-like phenotype in breast cancer by upregulation of CXCR4 via interaction with its transcript.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bao-Qin; Zhang, Song; Li, Si; An, Ming-Xin; Li, Chao; Yan, Jing; Wang, Jia-Mei; Wang, Hua-Qin

    2017-07-13

    BAG3 is an evolutionarily conserved co-chaperone expressed at high levels and has a prosurvival role in many tumor types. The current study reported that BAG3 was induced under specific floating culture conditions that enrich breast cancer stem cell (BCSC)-like cells in spheres. Ectopic BAG3 overexpression increased CD44 + /CD24 - CSC subpopulations, first-generation and second-generation mammosphere formation, indicating that BAG3 promotes CSC self-renewal and maintenance in breast cancer. We further demonstrated that mechanically, BAG3 upregulated CXCR4 expression at the post-transcriptional level. Further studies showed that BAG3 interacted with CXCR4 mRNA and promoted its expression via its coding and 3'-untranslational regions. BAG3 was also found to be positively correlated with CXCR4 expression and unfavorable prognosis in patients with breast cancer. Taken together, our data demonstrate that BAG3 promotes BCSC-like phenotype through CXCR4 via interaction with its transcript. Therefore, this study establishes BAG3 as a potential adverse prognostic factor and a therapeutic target of breast cancer.

  3. Inhibition of signaling between human CXCR4 and zebrafish ligands by the small molecule IT1t impairs the formation of triple-negative breast cancer early metastases in a zebrafish xenograft model

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    Claudia Tulotta

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC is a highly aggressive and recurrent type of breast carcinoma that is associated with poor patient prognosis. Because of the limited efficacy of current treatments, new therapeutic strategies need to be developed. The CXCR4-CXCL12 chemokine signaling axis guides cell migration in physiological and pathological processes, including breast cancer metastasis. Although targeted therapies to inhibit the CXCR4-CXCL12 axis are under clinical experimentation, still no effective therapeutic approaches have been established to block CXCR4 in TNBC. To unravel the role of the CXCR4-CXCL12 axis in the formation of TNBC early metastases, we used the zebrafish xenograft model. Importantly, we demonstrate that cross-communication between the zebrafish and human ligands and receptors takes place and human tumor cells expressing CXCR4 initiate early metastatic events by sensing zebrafish cognate ligands at the metastatic site. Taking advantage of the conserved intercommunication between human tumor cells and the zebrafish host, we blocked TNBC early metastatic events by chemical and genetic inhibition of CXCR4 signaling. We used IT1t, a potent CXCR4 antagonist, and show for the first time its promising anti-tumor effects. In conclusion, we confirm the validity of the zebrafish as a xenotransplantation model and propose a pharmacological approach to target CXCR4 in TNBC.

  4. Chemotherapeutic agents attenuate CXCL12-mediated migration of colon cancer cells by selecting for CXCR4-negative cells and increasing peptidase CD26

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutler, Murray J.; Lowthers, Erica L.; Richard, Cynthia L.; Hajducek, Dagmar M.; Spagnuolo, Paul A.; Blay, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Recurrence of colorectal cancer (CRC) may arise due to the persistence of drug-resistant and cancer-initiating cells that survive exposure to chemotherapy. Proteins responsible for this recurrence include the chemokine receptor CXCR4, which is known to enable CRC metastasis, as well as the cancer-initiating cell marker and peptidase CD26, which terminates activity of its chemokine CXCL12. We evaluated the expression and function of CXCR4 and CD26 in colon cancer cell lines and xenografts following treatment with common chemotherapies using radioligand binding, flow cytometry, immunofluorescence, and enzymatic assays. 5-Fluorouracil, oxaliplatin and SN-38 (the active metabolite of irinotecan), as well as cisplatin, methotrexate and vinblastine, each caused decreases in cell-surface CXCR4 and concomitant increases in CD26 on HT-29, T84, HRT-18, SW480 and SW620 CRC cell lines. Flow cytometry indicated that the decline in CXCR4 was associated with a significant loss of CXCR4+/CD26- cells. Elevations in CD26 were paralleled by increases in both the intrinsic dipeptidyl peptidase activity of CD26 as well as its capacity to bind extracellular adenosine deaminase. Orthotopic HT-29 xenografts treated with standard CRC chemotherapeutics 5-fluorouracil, irinotecan, or oxaliplatin showed dramatic increases in CD26 compared to untreated tumors. Consistent with the loss of CXCR4 and gain in CD26, migratory responses to exogenous CXCL12 were eliminated in cells pretreated with cytotoxic agents, although cells retained basal motility. Analysis of cancer-initiating cell CD44 and CD133 subsets revealed drug-dependent responses of CD26/CD44/CD133 populations, suggesting that the benefits of combining standard chemotherapies 5-fluoruracil and oxaliplatin may be derived from their complementary elimination of cell populations. Our results indicate that conventional anticancer agents may act to inhibit chemokine-mediated migration through eradication of CXCR4+ cells and attenuation of

  5. Hormophysa triquerta polyphenol, an elixir that deters CXCR4- and COX2-dependent dissemination destiny of treatment-resistant pancreatic cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravindan, Sheeja; Ramraj, Satishkumar; Kandasamy, Kathiresan; Thirugnanasambandan, Somasundaram S; Somasundaram, Dinesh Babu; Herman, Terence S; Aravindan, Natarajan

    2017-01-24

    Therapy-resistant pancreatic cancer (PC) cells play a crucial role in tumor relapse, recurrence, and metastasis. Recently, we showed the anti-PC potential of an array of seaweed polyphenols and identified efficient drug deliverables. Herein, we investigated the benefit of one such deliverable, Hormophysa triquerta polyphenol (HT-EA), in regulating the dissemination physiognomy of therapy-resistant PC cells in vitro,and residual PC in vivo. Human PC cells exposed to ionizing radiation (IR), with/without HT-EA pre-treatment were examined for the alterations in the tumor invasion/metastasis (TIM) transcriptome (93 genes, QPCR-profiling). Utilizing a mouse model of residual PC, we investigated the benefit of HT-EA in the translation regulation of crucial TIM targets (TMA-IHC). Radiation activated 30, 50, 15, and 38 TIM molecules in surviving Panc-1, Panc-3.27, BxPC3, and MiaPaCa-2 cells. Of these, 15, 44, 12, and 26 molecules were suppressed with HT-EA pre-treatment. CXCR4 and COX2 exhibited cell-line-independent increases after IR, and was completely suppressed with HT-EA, across all PC cells. HT-EA treatment resulted in translational repression of IR-induced CXCR4, COX2, β-catenin, MMP9, Ki-67, BAPX, PhPT-1, MEGF10, and GRB10 in residual PC. Muting CXCR4 or COX2 regulated the migration/invasion potential of IR-surviving cells, while forced expression of CXCR4 or COX2 significantly increased migration/invasion capabilities of PC cells. Further, treatment with HT-EA significantly inhibited IR-induced and CXCR4/COX2 forced expression-induced PC cell migration/invasion. This study (i) documents the TIM blueprint in therapy-resistant PC cells, (ii) defines the role of CXCR4 and COX2 in induced metastatic potential, and (iii) recognizes the potential of HT-EA in deterring the CXCR4/COX2-dependent dissemination destiny of therapy-resistant residual PC cells.

  6. Locoregional Confinement and Major Clinical Benefit of 188Re-Loaded CXCR4-Targeted Nanocarriers in an Orthotopic Human to Mouse Model of Glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Séhédic, Delphine; Chourpa, Igor; Tétaud, Clément; Griveau, Audrey; Loussouarn, Claire; Avril, Sylvie; Legendre, Claire; Lepareur, Nicolas; Wion, Didier; Hindré, François; Davodeau, François; Garcion, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    Gold standard beam radiation for glioblastoma (GBM) treatment is challenged by resistance phenomena occurring in cellular populations well prepared to survive or to repair damage caused by radiation. Among signals that have been linked with radio-resistance, the SDF1/CXCR4 axis, associated with cancer stem-like cell, may be an opportune target. To avoid the problem of systemic toxicity and blood-brain barrier crossing, the relevance and efficacy of an original system of local brain internal radiation therapy combining a radiopharmaceutical with an immuno-nanoparticle was investigated. The nanocarrier combined lipophilic thiobenzoate complexes of rhenium-188 loaded in the core of a lipid nanocapsule (LNC 188 Re) with a function-blocking antibody, 12G5 directed at the CXCR4, on its surface. The efficiency of 12G5-LNC 188 Re was investigated in an orthotopic and xenogenic GBM model of CXCR4-positive U87MG cells implanted in the striatum of Scid mice. We demonstrated that 12G5-LNC 188 Re single infusion treatment by convection-enhanced delivery resulted in a major clinical improvement in median survival that was accompanied by locoregional effects on tumor development including hypovascularization and stimulation of the recruitment of bone marrow derived CD11b- or CD68-positive cells as confirmed by immunohistochemistry analysis. Interestingly, thorough analysis by spectral imaging in a chimeric U87MG GBM model containing CXCR4-positive/red fluorescent protein (RFP)-positive- and CXCR4-negative/RFP-negative-GBM cells revealed greater confinement of DiD-labeled 12G5-LNCs than control IgG2a-LNCs in RFP compartments. Main conclusion: These findings on locoregional impact and targeting of disseminated cancer cells in tumor margins suggest that intracerebral active targeting of nanocarriers loaded with radiopharmaceuticals may have considerable benefits in clinical applications.

  7. Rac1 plays a role in CXCL12 but not CCL3-induced chemotaxis and Rac1 GEF inhibitor NSC23766 has off target effects on CXCR4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Shirley C; Howell, Lesley; Beekman, Andrew; Stokes, Leanne; Mueller, Anja

    2018-01-01

    Cell migration towards a chemotactic stimulus relies on the re-arrangement of the cytoskeleton, which is triggered by activation of small G proteins RhoA, Rac1 and Cdc42, and leads to formation of lamellopodia and actin polymerisation amongst other effects. Here we show that Rac1 is important for CXCR4 induced chemotaxis but not for CCR1/CCR5 induced chemotaxis. For CXCL12-induced migration via CXCR4, breast cancer MCF-7 cells are reliant on Rac1, similarly to THP-1 monocytes and Jurkat T-cells. For CCL3-induced migration via CCR1 and/or CCR5, Rac1 signalling does not regulate cell migration in either suspension or adherent cells. We have confirmed the involvement of Rac1 with the use of a specific Rac1 blocking peptide. We also used a Rac1 inhibitor EHT 1864 and a Rac1-GEF inhibitor NSC23766 to probe the importance of Rac1 in chemotaxis. Both inhibitors did not block CCL3-induced chemotaxis, but they were able to block CXCL12-induced chemotaxis. This confirms that Rac1 activation is not essential for CCL3-induced migration, however NSC23766 might have secondary effects on CXCR4. This small molecule exhibits agonistic features in internalisation and cAMP assays, whereas it acts as an antagonist for CXCR4 in migration and calcium release assays. Our findings strongly suggest that Rac1 activation is not necessary for CCL3 signalling, and reveal that NSC23766 could be a novel CXCR4 receptor ligand. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. HIV-1 with multiple CCR5/CXCR4 chimeric receptor use is predictive of immunological failure in infected children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavarelli, Mariangela; Karlsson, Ingrid; Zanchetta, Marisa; Antonsson, Liselotte; Plebani, Anna; Giaquinto, Carlo; Fenyö, Eva Maria; De Rossi, Anita; Scarlatti, Gabriella

    2008-09-29

    HIV-1 R5 viruses are characterized by a large phenotypic variation, that is reflected by the mode of coreceptor use. The ability of R5 HIV-1 to infect target cells expressing chimeric receptors between CCR5 and CXCR4 (R5(broad) viruses), was shown to correlate with disease stage in HIV-1 infected adults. Here, we ask the question whether phenotypic variation of R5 viruses could play a role also in mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV-1 and pediatric disease progression. Viral isolates obtained from a total of 59 HIV-1 seropositive women (24 transmitting and 35 non transmitting) and 28 infected newborn children, were used to infect U87.CD4 cells expressing wild type or six different CCR5/CXCR4 chimeric receptors. HIV-1 isolates obtained from newborn infants had predominantly R5(narrow) phenotype (n = 20), but R5(broad) and R5X4 viruses were also found in seven and one case, respectively. The presence of R5(broad) and R5X4 phenotypes correlated significantly with a severe decline of the CD4+ T cells (CDC stage 3) or death within 2 years of age. Forty-three percent of the maternal R5 isolates displayed an R5(broad) phenotype, however, the presence of the R5(broad) virus was not predictive for MTCT of HIV-1. Of interest, while only 1 of 5 mothers with an R5X4 virus transmitted the dualtropic virus, 5 of 6 mothers carrying R5(broad) viruses transmitted viruses with a similar broad chimeric coreceptor usage. Thus, the maternal R5(broad) phenotype was largely preserved during transmission and could be predictive of the phenotype of the newborn's viral variant. Our results show that R5(broad) viruses are not hampered in transmission. When transmitted, immunological failure occurs earlier than in children infected with HIV-1 of R5(narrow) phenotype. We believe that this finding is of utmost relevance for therapeutic interventions in pediatric HIV-1 infection.

  9. HIV-1 with multiple CCR5/CXCR4 chimeric receptor use is predictive of immunological failure in infected children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Cavarelli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV-1 R5 viruses are characterized by a large phenotypic variation, that is reflected by the mode of coreceptor use. The ability of R5 HIV-1 to infect target cells expressing chimeric receptors between CCR5 and CXCR4 (R5(broad viruses, was shown to correlate with disease stage in HIV-1 infected adults. Here, we ask the question whether phenotypic variation of R5 viruses could play a role also in mother-to-child transmission (MTCT of HIV-1 and pediatric disease progression. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Viral isolates obtained from a total of 59 HIV-1 seropositive women (24 transmitting and 35 non transmitting and 28 infected newborn children, were used to infect U87.CD4 cells expressing wild type or six different CCR5/CXCR4 chimeric receptors. HIV-1 isolates obtained from newborn infants had predominantly R5(narrow phenotype (n = 20, but R5(broad and R5X4 viruses were also found in seven and one case, respectively. The presence of R5(broad and R5X4 phenotypes correlated significantly with a severe decline of the CD4+ T cells (CDC stage 3 or death within 2 years of age. Forty-three percent of the maternal R5 isolates displayed an R5(broad phenotype, however, the presence of the R5(broad virus was not predictive for MTCT of HIV-1. Of interest, while only 1 of 5 mothers with an R5X4 virus transmitted the dualtropic virus, 5 of 6 mothers carrying R5(broad viruses transmitted viruses with a similar broad chimeric coreceptor usage. Thus, the maternal R5(broad phenotype was largely preserved during transmission and could be predictive of the phenotype of the newborn's viral variant. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results show that R5(broad viruses are not hampered in transmission. When transmitted, immunological failure occurs earlier than in children infected with HIV-1 of R5(narrow phenotype. We believe that this finding is of utmost relevance for therapeutic interventions in pediatric HIV-1 infection.

  10. Predictive role of the overexpression for CXCR4, C-Met, and VEGF-C among breast cancer patients: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Li, Shanshan; Zhao, Yueguang; Yang, Kunxian; Chen, Minju; Niu, Heng; Yang, Jingyu; Luo, Ying; Tang, Wenru; Sheng, Miaomiao

    2016-08-01

    The overexpression of CXCR4, C-Met and VEGF-C present widely in breast tumors, they may be markers of resistance to treatment. However, the studies are still controversial. Thus, this meta-analysis aims to research the relationship between the overexpression of CXCR4, C-Met, VEGF-C and clinical prognosis among breast cancer patients. PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched for eligible literature. The outcomes of interest were progression-free survival (PFS), relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS). All tests of statistical significance were two sided. A total of 7830 patients from 28 eligible studies were assessed. The overexpression of the CXCR4 and C-Met both implied significantly worse PFS compared with normal expression [HR = 2.56, 95% CI = 1.34-4.91, P = 0.005; and HR = 1.63 95% CI = 1.20-2.22, P = 0.002]. Meanwhile, if patients had high expression of CXCR4, they would have worse OS [HR = 2.56 95% CI = 1.52-4.31, P = 0.000]. However, the overexpression of C-Met did not relate to OS for breast cancer patients [HR = 1.16, 95% CI = 0.69-1.95, P = 0.570]. Meanwhile, no statistically significant different was observed with respect to PFS and OS between VEGF-C overexpression and normal expression [HR = 0.99, 95% CI = 0.64-1.52, P = 0.968; and HR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.43-1.33, P = 0.333]. Our meta-analysis showed that CXCR4 and C-Met were efficient prognostic factors for breast cancer. Nevertheless, highly expressing VEGF-C was not related to progression-free survival and overall survival. Due to the small samples and insufficient date, further studies should be conducted to clarify the association between the overexpression of CXCR4 or C-Met or VEGF-C and the prognosis about breast cancer patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Meninges control tangential migration of hem-derived Cajal-Retzius cells via CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrell, Víctor; Marín, Oscar

    2006-10-01

    Cajal-Retzius cells are critical in the development of the cerebral cortex, but little is known about the mechanisms controlling their development. Three focal sources of Cajal-Retzius cells have been identified in mice-the cortical hem, the ventral pallium and the septum-from where they migrate tangentially to populate the cortical surface. Using a variety of tissue culture assays and in vivo manipulations, we demonstrate that the tangential migration of cortical hem-derived Cajal-Retzius cells is controlled by the meninges. We show that the meningeal membranes are a necessary and sufficient substrate for the tangential migration of Cajal-Retzius cells. We also show that the chemokine CXCL12 secreted by the meninges enhances the dispersion of Cajal-Retzius cells along the cortical surface, while retaining them within the marginal zone in a CXCR4-dependent manner. Thus, the meningeal membranes are fundamental in the development of Cajal-Retzius cells and, hence, in the normal development of the cerebral cortex.

  12. IGF-1R Promotes Symmetric Self-Renewal and Migration of Alkaline Phosphatase+ Germ Stem Cells through HIF-2α-OCT4/CXCR4 Loop under Hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Che Kuo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Hypoxia cooperates with endocrine signaling to maintain the symmetric self-renewal proliferation and migration of embryonic germline stem cells (GSCs. However, the lack of an appropriate in vitro cell model has dramatically hindered the understanding of the mechanism underlying this cooperation. Here, using a serum-free system, we demonstrated that hypoxia significantly induced the GSC mesenchymal transition, increased the expression levels of the pluripotent transcription factor OCT4 and migration-associated proteins (SDF-1, CXCR4, IGF-1, and IGF-1R, and activated the cellular expression and translocalization of the CXCR4-downstream proteins ARP3/pFAK. The underlying mechanism involved significant IGF-1/IGF-1R activation of OCT4/CXCR4 expression through HIF-2α regulation. Picropodophyllin-induced inhibition of IGF-1R phosphorylation significantly suppressed hypoxia-induced SDF-1/CXCR4 expression and cell migration. Furthermore, transactivation between IGF-1R and CXCR4 was involved. In summary, we demonstrated that niche hypoxia synergistically cooperates with its associated IGF-1R signaling to regulate the symmetric division (self-renewal proliferation and cell migration of alkaline phosphatase-positive GSCs through HIF-2α-OCT4/CXCR4 during embryogenesis. : In this article, Huang and colleagues demonstrate that niche hypoxia promotes symmetric self-renewal proliferation and migration of PGC-like CD49f+AP+GSCs through IGF-IR regulation. Using a serum-free culture system, the crosstalk between IGF-1R and CXCR4 signaling was discovered. This work demonstrated that embryonic hypoxia synergistically cooperated with IGF-1R signaling to regulate the symmetric self-renewal and migration of PGC-like GSCs through a HIF-2α–OCT4/CXCR4 loop. Keywords: hypoxia, niche, germline stem cells, self-renewal, migration, IGF-1R, HIF-2α, OCT4, SDF-1, CXCR4

  13. HIV-1 resistance conferred by siRNA cosuppression of CXCR4 and CCR5 coreceptors by a bispecific lentiviral vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akkina Ramesh

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RNA interference (RNAi mediated by small interfering RNAs (siRNAs has proved to be a highly effective gene silencing mechanism with great potential for HIV/AIDS gene therapy. Previous work with siRNAs against cellular coreceptors CXCR4 and CCR5 had shown that down regulation of these surface molecules could prevent HIV-1 entry and confer viral resistance. Since monospecific siRNAs targeting individual coreceptors are inadequate in protecting against both T cell tropic (X4 and monocyte tropic (R5 viral strains simultaneously, bispecific constructs with dual specificity are required. For effective long range therapy, the bispecific constructs need to be stably transduced into HIV-1 target cells via integrating viral vectors. Results To achieve this goal, lentiviral vectors incorporating both CXCR4 and CCR5 siRNAs of short hairpin design were constructed. The CXCR4 siRNA was driven by a U6 promoter whereas the CCR5 siRNA was driven by an H1 promoter. A CMV promoter driven EGFP reporter gene is also incorporated in the bispecific construct. High efficiency transduction into coreceptor expressing Magi and Ghost cell lines with a concomitant down regulation of respective coreceptors was achieved with lentiviral vectors. When the siRNA expressing transduced cells were challenged with X4 and R5 tropic HIV-1, they demonstrated marked viral resistance. HIV-1 resistance was also observed in bispecific lentiviral vector transduced primary PBMCs. Conclusions Both CXCR4 and CCR5 coreceptors could be simultaneously targeted for down regulation by a single combinatorial lentiviral vector incorporating respective anti-coreceptor siRNAs. Stable down regulation of both the coreceptors protects cells against infection by both X4 and R5 tropic HIV-1. Stable down regulation of cellular molecules that aid in HIV-1 infection will be an effective strategy for long range HIV gene therapy.

  14. CXCL12 MODULATION OF CXCR4 AND CXCR7 ACTIVITY IN HUMAN GLIOBLASTOMA STEM-LIKE CELLS AND REGULATION OF THE TUMOR MICROENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto eWurth

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Chemokines are crucial autocrine and paracrine players in tumor development. In particular, CXCL12, through its receptors CXCR4 and CXCR7, affects tumor progression by controlling cancer cell survival, proliferation and migration, and, indirectly, via angiogenesis or recruiting immune cells.Glioblastoma (GBM is the most prevalent primary malignant brain tumor in adults and despite current multimodal therapies it remains almost incurable. The aggressive and recurrent phenotype of GBM is ascribed to high growth rate, invasiveness to normal brain, marked angiogenesis, ability to escape the immune system and resistance to standard of care therapies. Tumor molecular and cellular heterogeneity severely hinders GBM therapeutic improvement. In particular, a subpopulation of chemo- and radio-therapy resistant tumorigenic cancer stem–like cells (CSCs is believed to be the main responsible for tumor cell dissemination to the brain.GBM cells display heterogeneous expression levels of CXCR4 and CXCR7 that are overexpressed in CSCs, representing a molecular correlate for the invasive potential of GBM. The microenvironment contribution in GBM development is increasingly emphasized. An interplay exists between CSCs, differentiated GBM cells, and the microenvironment, mainly through secreted chemokines (e.g. CXCL12 causing recruitment of fibroblasts, endothelial, mesenchymal and inflammatory cells to the tumor, via specific receptors such as CXCR4.This review covers recent developments on the role of CXCL12/CXCR4-CXCR7 networks in GBM progression and the potential translational impact of their targeting. The biological and molecular understanding of the heterogeneous GBM cell behavior, phenotype and signaling is still limited. Progress in the identification of chemokine-dependent mechanisms that affect GBM cell survival, trafficking and chemo-attractive functions, opens new perspectives for development of more specific therapeutic approaches that include

  15. CD4 is expressed on a heterogeneous subset of hematopoietic progenitors, which persistently harbor CXCR4 and CCR5-tropic HIV proviral genomes in vivo.

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    Nadia T Sebastian

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Latent HIV infection of long-lived cells is a barrier to viral clearance. Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells are a heterogeneous population of cells, some of which are long-lived. CXCR4-tropic HIVs infect a broad range of HSPC subtypes, including hematopoietic stem cells, which are multi-potent and long-lived. However, CCR5-tropic HIV infection is limited to more differentiated progenitor cells with life spans that are less well understood. Consistent with emerging data that restricted progenitor cells can be long-lived, we detected persistent HIV in restricted HSPC populations from optimally treated people. Further, genotypic and phenotypic analysis of amplified env alleles from donor samples indicated that both CXCR4- and CCR5-tropic viruses persisted in HSPCs. RNA profiling confirmed expression of HIV receptor RNA in a pattern that was consistent with in vitro and in vivo results. In addition, we characterized a CD4high HSPC sub-population that was preferentially targeted by a variety of CXCR4- and CCR5-tropic HIVs in vitro. Finally, we present strong evidence that HIV proviral genomes of both tropisms can be transmitted to CD4-negative daughter cells of multiple lineages in vivo. In some cases, the transmitted proviral genomes contained signature deletions that inactivated the virus, eliminating the possibility that coincidental infection explains the results. These data support a model in which both stem and non-stem cell progenitors serve as persistent reservoirs for CXCR4- and CCR5-tropic HIV proviral genomes that can be passed to daughter cells.

  16. CD4 is expressed on a heterogeneous subset of hematopoietic progenitors, which persistently harbor CXCR4 and CCR5-tropic HIV proviral genomes in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Nadia T; Zaikos, Thomas D; Terry, Valeri; Taschuk, Frances; McNamara, Lucy A; Onafuwa-Nuga, Adewunmi; Yucha, Ryan; Signer, Robert A J; Riddell, James; Bixby, Dale; Markowitz, Norman; Morrison, Sean J; Collins, Kathleen L

    2017-07-01

    Latent HIV infection of long-lived cells is a barrier to viral clearance. Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells are a heterogeneous population of cells, some of which are long-lived. CXCR4-tropic HIVs infect a broad range of HSPC subtypes, including hematopoietic stem cells, which are multi-potent and long-lived. However, CCR5-tropic HIV infection is limited to more differentiated progenitor cells with life spans that are less well understood. Consistent with emerging data that restricted progenitor cells can be long-lived, we detected persistent HIV in restricted HSPC populations from optimally treated people. Further, genotypic and phenotypic analysis of amplified env alleles from donor samples indicated that both CXCR4- and CCR5-tropic viruses persisted in HSPCs. RNA profiling confirmed expression of HIV receptor RNA in a pattern that was consistent with in vitro and in vivo results. In addition, we characterized a CD4high HSPC sub-population that was preferentially targeted by a variety of CXCR4- and CCR5-tropic HIVs in vitro. Finally, we present strong evidence that HIV proviral genomes of both tropisms can be transmitted to CD4-negative daughter cells of multiple lineages in vivo. In some cases, the transmitted proviral genomes contained signature deletions that inactivated the virus, eliminating the possibility that coincidental infection explains the results. These data support a model in which both stem and non-stem cell progenitors serve as persistent reservoirs for CXCR4- and CCR5-tropic HIV proviral genomes that can be passed to daughter cells.

  17. Improved detection of CXCR4-using HIV by V3 genotyping: application of population-based and "deep" sequencing to plasma RNA and proviral DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Luke C; Moores, Andrew; Low, Andrew J; Thielen, Alexander; Dong, Winnie; Woods, Conan; Jensen, Mark A; Wynhoven, Brian; Chan, Dennison; Glascock, Christopher; Harrigan, P Richard

    2010-08-01

    Tropism testing should rule out CXCR4-using HIV before treatment with CCR5 antagonists. Currently, the recombinant phenotypic Trofile assay (Monogram) is most widely utilized; however, genotypic tests may represent alternative methods. Independent triplicate amplifications of the HIV gp120 V3 region were made from either plasma HIV RNA or proviral DNA. These underwent standard, population-based sequencing with an ABI3730 (RNA n = 63; DNA n = 40), or "deep" sequencing with a Roche/454 Genome Sequencer-FLX (RNA n = 12; DNA n = 12). Position-specific scoring matrices (PSSMX4/R5) (-6.96 cutoff) and geno2pheno[coreceptor] (5% false-positive rate) inferred tropism from V3 sequence. These methods were then independently validated with a separate, blinded dataset (n = 278) of screening samples from the maraviroc MOTIVATE trials. Standard sequencing of HIV RNA with PSSM yielded 69% sensitivity and 91% specificity, relative to Trofile. The validation dataset gave 75% sensitivity and 83% specificity. Proviral DNA plus PSSM gave 77% sensitivity and 71% specificity. "Deep" sequencing of HIV RNA detected >2% inferred-CXCR4-using virus in 8/8 samples called non-R5 by Trofile, and <2% in 4/4 samples called R5. Triplicate analyses of V3 standard sequence data detect greater proportions of CXCR4-using samples than previously achieved. Sequencing proviral DNA and "deep" V3 sequencing may also be useful tools for assessing tropism.

  18. Proof of activity with AMD11070, an orally bioavailable inhibitor of CXCR4-tropic HIV type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyle, Graeme; DeJesus, Edwin; Boffito, Marta; Wong, Rebecca S; Gibney, Colleen; Badel, Karin; MacFarland, Ron; Calandra, Gary; Bridger, Gary; Becker, Stephen

    2009-03-15

    The X4 Antagonist Concept Trial investigates the safety and antiviral activity of AMD11070, a potent inhibitor of X4-tropic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in vitro in HIV-infected patients harboring X4-tropic virus. Patients enrolled in the study had an X4 virus population 2000 relative luminescence units (rlu; by the Monogram Trofile Assay) and an HIV-1 RNA level 5000 copies/mL. Patients received AMD11070 monotherapy for 10 days. Coreceptor tropism, plasma HIV-1 RNA level, and CD4 cell count were measured at study entry, on day 5, and on day 10. Daily predose and serial samples on the last day of treatment were obtained for determination of plasma AMD11070 concentration. Ten patients were given AMD11070 monotherapy (200 mg to 8 patients and 100 mg to 2 patients) twice daily for 10 days. The median baseline CD4 cell count was 160 cells/mm(3), and the median HIV-1 RNA level was 91,447 copies/mL. Four of 9 evaluable patients achieved a reduction in X4 virus population of >or= rlu. The median change in X4 virus population at the end of treatment was -0.22 log(10) rlu (range, -1.90 to 0.23 log(10) rlu). Three of 4 patients who responded to therapy showed a tropism shift from dual- or mixed-tropic viruses to exclusively R5 virus by day 10. There were no drug-related serious adverse events, adverse events of greater than grade 2, or laboratory abnormalities. These results demonstrate the activity of AMD11070, the first oral CXCR4 antagonist, against X4-tropic HIV-1. The drug was well tolerated, with no serious safety concerns. AMD11070 is on clinical hold because of histologic changes to the liver observed in long-term animal studies; additional preclinical safety assessments are pending.

  19. Critical role in CXCR4 signaling and internalization of the polypeptide main chain in the amino terminus of SDF-1α probed by novel N-methylated synthetically and modularly modified chemokine analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chang-Zhi; Tian, Shaomin; Choi, Won-Tak; Kumar, Santhosh; Liu, Dongxiang; Xu, Yan; Han, Xiaofeng; Huang, Ziwei; An, Jing

    2012-07-31

    The replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) can be profoundly inhibited by the natural ligands of two major HIV-1 coreceptors, CXCR4 and CCR5. Stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) is a natural ligand of CXCR4. We have recently developed a synthetic biology approach of using synthetically and modularly modified (SMM)-chemokines to dissect various aspects of the structure-function relationship of chemokines and their receptors. Here, we used this approach to design novel SMM-SDF-1α analogues containing unnatural N-methylated residues in the amino terminus to investigate whether the polypeptide main chain amide bonds in the N-terminus of SDF-1α play a role in SDF-1α signaling via CXCR4 and/or receptor internalization. The results show that SDF-1α analogues with a modified N-methylated main chain at position 2, 3, or 5 retain significant CXCR4 binding and yet completely lose signaling activities. Furthermore, a representative N-methylated analogue has been shown to be incapable of causing CXCR4 internalization. These results suggest that the ability of SDF-1α to activate CXCR4 signaling and internalization is dependent upon the main chain amide bonds in the N-terminus of SDF-1α. This study demonstrates the feasibility and value of applying a synthetic biology approach to chemically engineer natural proteins and peptide ligands as probes of important biological functions that are not addressed by other biological techniques.

  20. IGF-1R Promotes Symmetric Self-Renewal and Migration of Alkaline Phosphatase+ Germ Stem Cells through HIF-2α-OCT4/CXCR4 Loop under Hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Yung-Che; Au, Heng-Kien; Hsu, Jue-Liang; Wang, Hsiao-Feng; Lee, Chiung-Ju; Peng, Syue-Wei; Lai, Ssu-Chuan; Wu, Yu-Chih; Ho, Hong-Nerng; Huang, Yen-Hua

    2018-02-13

    Hypoxia cooperates with endocrine signaling to maintain the symmetric self-renewal proliferation and migration of embryonic germline stem cells (GSCs). However, the lack of an appropriate in vitro cell model has dramatically hindered the understanding of the mechanism underlying this cooperation. Here, using a serum-free system, we demonstrated that hypoxia significantly induced the GSC mesenchymal transition, increased the expression levels of the pluripotent transcription factor OCT4 and migration-associated proteins (SDF-1, CXCR4, IGF-1, and IGF-1R), and activated the cellular expression and translocalization of the CXCR4-downstream proteins ARP3/pFAK. The underlying mechanism involved significant IGF-1/IGF-1R activation of OCT4/CXCR4 expression through HIF-2α regulation. Picropodophyllin-induced inhibition of IGF-1R phosphorylation significantly suppressed hypoxia-induced SDF-1/CXCR4 expression and cell migration. Furthermore, transactivation between IGF-1R and CXCR4 was involved. In summary, we demonstrated that niche hypoxia synergistically cooperates with its associated IGF-1R signaling to regulate the symmetric division (self-renewal proliferation) and cell migration of alkaline phosphatase-positive GSCs through HIF-2α-OCT4/CXCR4 during embryogenesis. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Hesperidin suppresses the migration and invasion of non-small cell lung cancer cells by inhibiting the SDF-1/CXCR-4 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Rongmu; Xu, Gang; Huang, Yue; Sheng, Xin; Xu, Xianlin; Lu, Hongling

    2018-05-15

    The present study aimed to investigate the ability of hesperidin to suppress the migration and invasion of A549 cells, and to investigate the role of the SDF-1/CXCR-4 cascade in this suppression. We performed a Transwell migration assay to measure the migratory capability of A549 cells treated with 0.5% DMSO, SDF-1α, AMD3100 or hesperidin. The SDF-1 level in the culture medium was determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect whether different concentrations of hesperidin affected SDF-1 secretion. A wound-healing assay was performed to determine the effects of different concentrations of hesperidin on the migration inhibition of A549, H460 and H1975 cells. Additionally, the effect of various hesperidin concentrations on the rate of A549 cell invasion and migration was examined with and without Matrigel in Transwell assays, respectively. Western blot analysis was used to evaluate the protein levels of CXCR-4, MMP-9, CK-19, Vimentin, p65, p-p65, p-IκB, IκB, p-Akt and Akt. RT-qPCR was used to detect the mRNA levels of CXCR-4, MMP-9, CK-19, Vimentin, p65, IκB, SDF-1 and Akt. The Transwell migration assay indicated that SDF-1α promoted A549 cell migration, while AMD3100 and hesperidin significantly inhibited the migratory capability. The wound-healing assay demonstrated that hesperidin treatment significantly reduced the rate of wound closure compared with the control group in a dose-dependent manner. Similarly, the migration and invasive abilities of A549 cells, H460 and H1975 cells treated with hesperidin were significantly decreased compared with the control group. The ELISA data suggested that hesperidin attenuated the secretion of SDF-1 from A549 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, western blot analysis indicated that SDF-1α treatment significantly increased the levels of CXCR-4, p-p65, p-IκB and p-Akt in A549 cells. In contrast, AMD3100 or hesperidin reversed the effect induced by SDF-1α through decreasing the expression

  2. The CXCR4–STAT3–IL-10 Pathway Controls the Immunoregulatory Function of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia and Is Modulated by Lenalidomide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hila Shaim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL cells possess regulatory functions comparable to those of normal B10 cells, a regulatory B cell subset that suppresses effector T-cell function through STAT3-mediated IL-10 production. However, the mechanisms governing IL-10 production by CLL cells are not fully understood. Here, we show that the CXC chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12–CXCR4–STAT3 axis regulates IL-10 production by CLL cells and their ability to suppress T-cell effector function through an IL-10 mediated mechanism. Knockdown of STAT3 significantly impaired the ability of CLL cells to produce IL-10. Furthermore, experiments to assess the role of lenalidomide, an immunomodulatory agent with direct antitumor effect as well as pleiotropic activity on the immune system, showed that this agent prevents a CXCL12-induced increase in p-S727-STAT3 and the IL-10 response by CLL cells. Lenalidomide also suppressed IL-10-induced Y705-STAT3 phosphorylation in healthy T cells, thus reversing CLL-induced T-cell dysfunction. We conclude that the capacity of CLL cells to produce IL-10 is mediated by the CXCL12–CXCR4–STAT3 pathway and likely contributes to immunodeficiency in patients. Lenalidomide appears to be able to reverse CLL-induced immunosuppression through including abrogation of the CXCL12–CXCR4–S727–STAT3-mediated IL-10 response by CLL cells and prevention of IL-10-induced phosphorylation of Y705-STAT3 in T cells.

  3. Comparison of chemokines (CCL-5 and SDF-1), chemokine receptors (CCR-5 and CXCR-4) and IL-6 levels in patients with different severities of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogłodek, Ewa A; Szota, Anna; Just, Marek J; Moś, Danuta; Araszkiewicz, Aleksander

    2014-10-01

    Depression can be perceived as a psychoneuroimmunological disorder in which cytokines affecting the body's neurochemical and neuroendocrine functions play an important role. Among cytokines, chemokines participating in activation of the inflammatory response are considered to be crucial. 160 men and women were enrolled in the study. 120 of them were diagnosed with various types of depression. The mean age was 45.2 ± 4.5 years (range: 19-47 years). The control group consisted of 40 healthy individuals. The average age in this group was 42.4 ± 4.1 years. Plasma levels of chemokines and their receptors (CCL-5 - RANTES and CXCR-5, SDF-1 and CXCR-4), as well as of IL-6, were assessed by ELISA. There was an increase in SDF-1 and CCL-5 levels in women and men with different severities of depression, versus the control group. Also, an increase in the IL-6 levels, CXCR4 and CCR-5 receptors was observed in both women and men with all types of depression. Levels of SDF-1 and CCL-5 chemokines, as well as of CCR-5 and CXCR4 chemokine receptors, were higher in women than in men. The results of this study indicate the need for assessment of CCL-5 and SDF-1 chemokines levels, as they are likely markers of developing depression. Early measurement of these chemokines levels may be helpful in choosing the best pharmacotherapy. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  4. RasGRP1, but not RasGRP3, is required for efficient thymic β-selection and ERK activation downstream of CXCR4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic P Golec

    Full Text Available T cell development is a highly dynamic process that is driven by interactions between developing thymocytes and the thymic microenvironment. Upon entering the thymus, the earliest thymic progenitors, called CD4(-CD8(- 'double negative' (DN thymocytes, pass through a checkpoint termed "β-selection" before maturing into CD4(+CD8(+ 'double positive' (DP thymocytes. β-selection is an important developmental checkpoint during thymopoiesis where developing DN thymocytes that successfully express the pre-T cell receptor (TCR undergo extensive proliferation and differentiation towards the DP stage. Signals transduced through the pre-TCR, chemokine receptor CXCR4 and Notch are thought to drive β-selection. Additionally, it has long been known that ERK is activated during β-selection; however the pathways regulating ERK activation remain unknown. Here, we performed a detailed analysis of the β-selection events in mice lacking RasGRP1, RasGRP3 and RasGRP1 and 3. We report that RasGRP1 KO and RasGRP1/3 DKO deficient thymi show a partial developmental block at the early DN3 stage of development. Furthermore, DN3 thymocytes from RasGRP1 and RasGRP1/3 double knock-out thymi show significantly reduced proliferation, despite expression of the TCRβ chain. As a result of impaired β-selection, the pool of TCRβ(+ DN4 is significantly diminished, resulting in inefficient DN to DP development. Also, we report that RasGRP1 is required for ERK activation downstream of CXCR4 signaling, which we hypothesize represents a potential mechanism of RasGRP1 regulation of β-selection. Our results demonstrate that RasGRP1 is an important regulator of proliferation and differentiation at the β-selection checkpoint and functions downstream of CXCR4 to activate the Ras/MAPK pathway.

  5. Clone-specific MYD88 L265P and CXCR4 mutation status can provide clinical utility in suspected Waldenström macroglobulinemia/lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnworth, Bettina; Wang, Zhixing; Singleton, Timothy P; Bennington, Angela; Fritschle, Wayne; Bennington, Richard; Brodersen, Lisa Eidenschink; Wells, Denise A; Loken, Michael R; Zehentner, Barbara K

    2016-12-01

    MYD88 L265P, a diagnostic marker for lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (LPL)/Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) can also be detected in other hematopoietic malignancies. We demonstrate a novel approach to increase the specificity of this marker for WM/LPL diagnosis by combining flow cytometric cell sorting with molecular analysis. Clonal B-lymphocyte and co-occurring clonal plasma cell populations of low-grade B-cell lymphomas were sorted by flow cytometry and analyzed for immunoglobulin gene rearrangements (PCR), and for MYD88 and CXCR4 mutations. Identical clonal origin was confirmed by PCR for 21 LPL/WM cases and MYD88 L265P was detected in both B-cell and plasma cell fractions. 9/20 other B-cell lymphomas with identical light chain restriction on B-cells and plasma cells were genotypically identical by PCR and MYD88 L265P was detected in both cell fractions in 7/9 whereas in 11/20 specimens with different clonal origin, MYD88 L265P was absent (5/11), or only found in B-lymphocytes (4/11), or plasma cells (2/11). CXCR4 mutations were detected in 17/39 cases, but missed in 63% of these without cell sorting. Confirming MYD88L265P in both B-cells and plasma cell fractions can provide a novel and powerful discriminator to distinguish LPL/WM from phenotypically similar disorders. Furthermore, this approach significantly increases CXCR4 detection sensitivity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Lynch syndrome-associated neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shia, Jinru; Holck, Susanne; Depetris, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    It was a century ago that Warthin, a pathologist, first described the clinical condition now known as Lynch syndrome. One hundred years later, our understanding of this syndrome has advanced significantly. Much of the progress took place over the last 25 years and was marked by a series...... of interacting developments from the disciplines of clinical oncology, pathology, and molecular genetics, with each development serving to guide or enhance the next. The advancement of our understanding about the pathology of Lynch syndrome associated tumors exemplifies such intimate interplay among disciplines....... Today, accumulative knowledge has enabled surgical pathologists to detect tumors that are likely to be associated with Lynch syndrome, and the pathologist is playing an increasingly more important role in the care of these patients. The pathologist's ability is afforded primarily by information gained...

  7. Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals Wound Healing of Morus alba Root Extract by Up-Regulating Keratin Filament and CXCL12/CXCR4 Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kang-Hoon; Chung, Won-Seok; Kim, Yoomi; Kim, Ki-Suk; Lee, In-Seung; Park, Ji Young; Jeong, Hyeon-Soo; Na, Yun-Cheol; Lee, Chang-Hun; Jang, Hyeung-Jin

    2015-08-01

    Facilitation of the wound healing process is important because a prolonged wound site increases pain and the risk of infection. In oriental medicine, an extract of Morus alba root (MA) has usually been prescribed as traditional treatment for accelerating wound healing, and it has been proven to be safe for centuries. To study the molecular mechanism of MA-mediated skin wound healing, we performed a primary cell culture and a skin explant culture and observed significant difference between the groups with and without MA extract. In the cellular system, a real-time cell analysis and real-time quantitative PCR were performed. It was found that MA extract enhanced proliferation in a dose-dependent manner on Kera-308 cell line, and up-regulated keratin expression including wound-induced Krt6a. In skin explant culture, the mRNA level derived from cell outgrowth displayed a tendency toward more up-regulated mRNA associated keratin filaments and toward a more up-regulated mRNA level of C-X-C motif chemokine 12 (CXCL12) and a chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) axis signaling pathway downstream. In this process, we concluded that MA extract had a scientific possibility of wound repair by increasing intracellular and extracellular supports and by inducing a CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling pathway. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Curcumin exhibits anti-tumor effect and attenuates cellular migration via Slit-2 mediated down-regulation of SDF-1 and CXCR4 in endometrial adenocarcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirohi, Vijay Kumar; Popli, Pooja; Sankhwar, Pushplata; Kaushal, Jyoti Bala; Gupta, Kanchan; Manohar, Murli; Dwivedi, Anila

    2017-06-01

    Although curcumin shows anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory activities in various cancers, the effect of curcumin on cellular migration in endometrial adenocarcinoma cells remains to be understood. The current investigation was aimed to explore the anti-proliferative and anti-migratory effects of curcumin and its mechanism of action in endometrial cancer cells. Our in-vitro and in-vivo experimental studies showed that curcumin inhibited the proliferation of endometrial cancer cells and suppressed the tumor growth in Ishikawa xenograft mouse model. Curcumin induced ROS-mediated apoptosis in endometrial cancer cells. Curcumin suppressed the migration rate of Ishikawa and Hec-1B cells as analyzed by scratch wound assay. In transwell migration studies, knock down of Slit-2 reversed the anti-migratory effect of curcumin in these cell lines. Curcumin significantly up-regulated the expression of Slit-2 in Ishikawa, Hec-1B and primary endometrial cancer cells while it down-regulated the expression of stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) and CXCR4 which in turn, suppressed the expression of matrix metallopeptidases (MMP) 2 and 9, thus attenuating the migration of endometrial cancer cells. In summary, we have demonstrated that curcumin has inhibitory effect on cellular migration via Slit-2 mediated down-regulation of CXCR4, SDF-1, and MMP2/MMP9 in endometrial carcinoma cells. These findings helped explore the role of Slit-2 in endometrial cancer cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Prognostic implications of the nuclear localization of Y-box-binding protein-1 and CXCR4 expression in ovarian cancer: their correlation with activated Akt, LRP/MVP and P-glycoprotein expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Yoshinao; Ohishi, Yoshihiro; Basaki, Yuji; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Hirakawa, Toshio; Wake, Norio; Ono, Mayumi; Nishio, Kazuto; Kuwano, Michihiko; Tsuneyoshi, Masazumi

    2007-07-01

    The nuclear localization of Y-box-binding protein-1 (YB-1) is known to be a poor prognostic factor in several human malignancies, including ovarian carcinoma. Following on from our basic study dealing with microarray analyses of YB-1-associated gene expression in ovarian cancer cells, we examined whether nuclear localization of YB-1 is associated with the expression of CXCR4, a vault protein named lung resistance-related vault protein (LRP/MVP), phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt) or P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in human ovarian carcinoma. Fifty-three surgically resected ovarian carcinomas treated with paclitaxel and carboplatin were examined immunohistochemically for nuclear YB-1 expression and intrinsic expression of p-Akt, P-gp, LRP/MVP and CXCR4. Nuclear expression of YB-1 demonstrated significant correlation with p-Akt, P-gp and LRP expression, but no relationship with CXCR4 expression. By multivariate analysis, only YB-1 nuclear expression and CXCR4 expression were independent prognostic factors with regard to overall survival. These results indicate that YB-1 nuclear expression and CXCR4 expression are important prognostic factors in ovarian carcinoma.

  10. Genetic modification of mesenchymal stem cells to overexpress CXCR4 and CXCR7 does not improve the homing and therapeutic potentials of these cells in experimental acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheisari, Yousof; Azadmanesh, Kayhan; Ahmadbeigi, Naser; Nassiri, Seyed Mahdi; Golestaneh, Azadeh Fahim; Naderi, Mahmood; Vasei, Mohammad; Arefian, Ehsan; Mirab-Samiee, Siamak; Shafiee, Abbas; Soleimani, Masoud; Zeinali, Sirous

    2012-11-01

    The therapeutic potential of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in kidney failure has been examined in some studies. However, recent findings indicate that after transplantation, these cells home to kidneys at very low levels. Interaction of stromal derived factor-1 (SDF-1) with its receptor, CXCR4, is of pivotal importance in migration and homing. Recently, CXCR7 has also been recognized as another SDF-1 receptor that interacts with CXCR4 and modulates its functions. In this study, CXCR4 and CXCR7 were separately and simultaneously overexpressed in BALB/c bone marrow MSCs by using a lentiviral vector system and the homing and renoprotective potentials of these cells were evaluated in a mouse model of cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury. Using flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry, and real-time PCR methods for detection of GFP-labeled MSCs, we found that although considerably entrapped in lungs, native MSCs home very rarely to kidneys and bone marrow and this rate cannot be significantly affected by CXCR4 and/or CXCR7 upregulation. Transplantation of neither native nor genetically engineered MSCs ameliorated kidney failure. We concluded that overexpression of CXCR4 and CXCR7 receptors in murine MSCs cannot improve the homing and therapeutic potentials of these cells and it can be due to severe chromosomal abnormalities that these cells bear during ex vivo expansion.

  11. Genetically divergent strains of feline immunodeficiency virus from the domestic cat (Felis catus) and the African lion (Panthera leo) share usage of CD134 and CXCR4 as entry receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, William A; McMonagle, Elizabeth L; Logan, Nicola; Serra, Rodrigo C; Kat, Pieter; Vandewoude, Sue; Hosie, Margaret J; Willett, Brian J

    2008-11-01

    The env open reading frames of African lion (Panthera leo) lentivirus (feline immunodeficiency virus [FIV(Ple)]) subtypes B and E from geographically distinct regions of Africa suggest two distinct ancestries, with FIV(Ple)-E sharing a common ancestor with the domestic cat (Felis catus) lentivirus (FIV(Fca)). Here we demonstrate that FIV(Ple)-E and FIV(Fca) share the use of CD134 (OX40) and CXCR4 as a primary receptor and coreceptor, respectively, and that both lion CD134 and CXCR4 are functional receptors for FIV(Ple)-E. The shared usage of CD134 and CXCR4 by FIV(Fca) and FIV(Ple)-E may have implications for in vivo cell tropism and the pathogenicity of the E subtype among free-ranging lion populations.

  12. [68Ga]pentixafor for CXCR4 imaging in a PC-3 prostate cancer xenograft model - comparison with [18F]FDG PET/CT, MRI and ex vivo receptor expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzenböck, Sarah M; Stenzel, Jan; Otto, Thomas; Helldorff, Heike V; Bergner, Carina; Kurth, Jens; Polei, Stefan; Lindner, Tobias; Rauer, Romina; Hohn, Alexander; Hakenberg, Oliver W; Wester, Hans J; Vollmar, Brigitte; Krause, Bernd J

    2017-11-10

    The aim was to characterize the properties of [ 68 Ga]Pentixafor as tracer for prostate cancer imaging in a PC-3 prostate cancer xenograft mouse model and to investigate its correlation with [ 18 F]FDG PET/CT, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ex vivo analyses. Static [ 68 Ga]Pentixafor and [ 18 F]FDG PET as well as morphological/ diffusion weighted MRI and 1 H MR spectroscopy was performed. Imaging data were correlated with ex vivo biodistribution and CXCR4 expression in PC-3 tumors (immunohistochemistry (IHC), mRNA analysis). Flow cytometry was performed for evaluation of localization of CXCR4 receptors ( in vitro PC-3 cell experiments). Tumor uptake of [ 68 Ga]Pentixafor was significantly lower compared to [ 18 F]FDG. Ex vivo CXCR4 mRNA expression of tumors was shown by PCR. Only faint tumor CXCR4 expression was shown by IHC (immuno reactive score of 3). Accordingly, flow cytometry of PC-3 cells revealed only a faint signal, cell membrane permeabilisation showed a slight signal increase. There was no significant correlation of [ 68 Ga]Pentixafor tumor uptake and ex vivo receptor expression. Spectroscopy showed typical spectra of prostate cancer. PC-3 tumor uptake of [ 68 Ga]Pentixafor was existent but lower compared to [ 18 F]FDG. No significant correlation of ex vivo tumor CXCR4 receptor expression and [ 68 Ga]Pentixafor tumor uptake was shown. CXCR4 receptor expression on the surface of PC-3 cells was existent but rather low possibly explaining the limited [ 68 Ga]Pentixafor tumor uptake; receptor localization in the interior of PC-3 cells is presumable as shown by cell membrane permeabilisation. Further studies are necessary to define the role of [ 68 Ga]Pentixafor in prostate cancer imaging.

  13. Downregulation of miR-221-3p contributes to IL-1β-induced cartilage degradation by directly targeting the SDF1/CXCR4 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xin; Zhao, Feng-Chao; Pang, Yong; Li, Dong-Ya; Yao, Sheng-Cheng; Sun, Shao-Song; Guo, Kai-Jin

    2017-06-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by degradation of chondrocyte extracellular matrix (ECM). Accumulating evidence suggests that microRNAs (miRNAs) are associated with OA, but little is known of their function in chondrocyte ECM degradation. The objective of this study was to investigate the expression and function of miRNAs in OA. miRNA expression profile was determined in OA cartilage tissues and controls, employing Solexa sequencing and reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). According to a modified Mankin scale, cartilage degradation was evaluated. Functional analysis of the miRNAs on chondrocyte ECM degradation was performed after miRNA transfection and IL-1β treatment. Luciferase reporter assays and western blotting were employed to determine miRNA targets. Expression of miR-221-3p was downregulated in OA cartilage tissues, which was significantly correlated with a modified Mankin scale. Through gain-of-function and loss-of-function studies, miR-221-3p was shown to significantly affect matrix synthesis gene expression and chondrocyte proliferation and apoptosis. Using SW1353 and C28I2 cells, SDF1 was identified as a target of miR-221-3p. SDF1 overexpression resulted in increased expression of catabolic genes such as MMP-13 and ADAMTS-5 in response to IL-1β, but these effects were moderated by miR-221-3p. SDF1 treatment antagonized this effect, while knockdown of SDF1 by shSDF1 induced inhibitory effects on the expression of CXCR4 and its main target genes, similar to miR-221-3p. The results indicate that upregulation of miR-221-3p could prevent IL-1β-induced ECM degradation in chondrocytes. Targeting the SDF1/CXCR4 signaling pathway may be used as a therapeutic approach for OA. miR-221-3p is downregulated in human cartilage tissues. miR-221-3p levels are associated with cartilage degeneration grade. miR-221-3p upregulation prevents IL-1β-induced ECM degradation in chondrocytes. Protection of ECM degradation by miR-223-3p occurs via SDF1/CXCR4

  14. Identification and characterization of HIV-2 strains obtained from asymptomatic patients that do not use CCR5 or CXCR4 coreceptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo-Pereira, J.M.; Santos-Costa, Q.; Mansinho, K.; Moniz-Pereira, J.

    2003-01-01

    In vivo, human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) infection reveals several unique characteristics when compared to HIV-1 infection, the most remarkable of which is the extraordinarily long asymptomatic period. Here we describe two HIV-2 primary isolates, obtained from asymptomatic individuals, which do not infect any coreceptor-expressing cell lines tested. In those cells, we show that the absence of replication is directly related to cell entry events. Furthermore, productive infection observed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was not inhibited by natural ligands and monoclonal antibodies directed to CCR5 and CXCR4. Finally, viral entry efficiency and viral progeny production of these viruses are markedly impaired in PBMC, indicating a reduced replicative fitness of both viruses. In conclusion, our data suggest that in some HIV-2 asymptomatic individuals, the circulating viruses are unable to use the major coreceptors to infect PBMC. This fact should have important implications in HIV-2 pathogenesis and transmission

  15. Flexible use of CCR5 in the absence of CXCR4 use explains the immune deficiency in HIV-1 infected children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavarelli, Mariangela; Karlsson, Ingrid; Ripamonti, Chiara; Plebani, Anna; Fenyo, Eva Maria; Scarlatti, Gabriella

    2010-10-23

    CCR5-using HIV-1 (R5 viruses) are usually isolated during acute infection from both adults and children. We have recently demonstrated that R5 viruses with a flexible use of CCR5 (called R5broad) can be detected in children close to birth and are predictive of a fast immunological failure. The aim of the present work was to investigate viral phenotype variation during disease progression in HIV-1 infected children, six slow and eight fast progressors. A total of 74 viral isolates obtained sequentially from 14 HIV-1 infected children were tested for their ability to infect U87.CD4 cells expressing a set of six different CCR5/CXCR4 chimeric receptors or wild-type coreceptors. The sensitivity of 35 R5 viruses to inhibition with the CC-chemokine RANTES (regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted) was evaluated in a peripheral blood mononuclear cells based assay. Viral evolution to R5broad or to R5X4 phenotype occurred with one exception, in all children, although at a different time point according to rate of disease progression. Immune deficiency in the children was significantly associated with the appearance of R5broad phenotype or R5X4 viruses. Analysis of the sensitivity to inhibition by RANTES revealed a significant correlation between the R5broad phenotype and an augmented resistance to this CC-chemokine. We demonstrate that the viral evolution to a more flexible CCR5-use is sufficient to explain the immunological failure in the absence of CXCR4 usage. These results warrant detailed analysis of the R5 phenotype in forthcoming clinical studies introducing CCR5 inhibitors for the treatment of pediatric HIV-1 infection.

  16. The Significance of SDF-1α-CXCR4 Axis in in vivo Angiogenic Ability of Human Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Yoon-Kyung; Kim, Gee-Hye; Lee, Jae Cheoun; Seo, Byoung-Moo; Joo, Kyeung-Min; Lee, Gene; Nam, Hyun

    2017-06-30

    Periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) are multipotent stem cells derived from periodontium and have mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-like characteristics. Recently, the perivascular region was recognized as the developmental origin of MSCs, which suggests the in vivo angiogenic potential of PDLSCs. In this study, we investigated whether PDLSCs could be a potential source of perivascular cells, which could contribute to in vivo angiogenesis. PDLSCs exhibited typical MSC-like characteristics such as the expression pattern of surface markers (CD29, CD44, CD73, and CD105) and differentiation potentials (osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation). Moreover, PDLSCs expressed perivascular cell markers such as NG2, αsmooth muscle actin, platelet-derived growth factor receptor β, and CD146. We conducted an in vivo Matrigel plug assay to confirm the in vivo angiogenic potential of PDLSCs. We could not observe significant vessel-like structures with PDLSCs alone or human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HU-VECs) alone at day 7 after injection. However, when PDLSCs and HUVECs were co-injected, there were vessel-like structures containing red blood cells in the lumens, which suggested that anastomosis occurred between newly formed vessels and host circulatory system. To block the SDF-1α and CXCR4 axis between PDLSCs and HUVECs, AMD3100, a CXCR4 antagonist, was added into the Matrigel plug. After day 3 and day 7 after injection, there were no significant vessel-like structures. In conclusion, we demonstrated the peri-vascular characteristics of PDLSCs and their contribution to in vivo angiogenesis, which might imply potential application of PDLSCs into the neovascularization of tissue engineering and vascular diseases.

  17. Cortisol increases CXCR4 expression but does not affect CD62L and CCR7 levels on specific T cell subsets in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besedovsky, Luciana; Linz, Barbara; Dimitrov, Stoyan; Groch, Sabine; Born, Jan; Lange, Tanja

    2014-06-01

    Glucocorticoids are well known to affect T cell migration, leading to a redistribution of the cells from blood to the bone marrow, accompanied by a concurrent suppression of lymph node homing. Despite numerous studies in this context, with most of them employing synthetic glucocorticoids in nonphysiological doses, the mechanisms of this redistribution are not well understood. Here, we investigated in healthy men the impact of cortisol at physiological concentrations on the expression of different migration molecules on eight T cell subpopulations in vivo and in vitro. Hydrocortisone (cortisol, 22 mg) infused during nocturnal rest when endogenous cortisol levels are low, compared with placebo, differentially reduced numbers of T cell subsets, with naive CD4(+) and CD8(+) subsets exhibiting the strongest reduction. Hydrocortisone in vivo and in vitro increased CXCR4 expression, which presumably mediates the recruitment of T cells to the bone marrow. Expression of the lymph node homing receptor CD62L on total CD3(+) and CD8(+) T cells appeared reduced following hydrocortisone infusion. However, this was due to a selective extravasation of CD62L(+) T cell subsets, as hydrocortisone affected neither CD62L expression on a subpopulation level nor CD62L expression in vitro. Corresponding results in the opposite direction were observed after blocking of endogenous cortisol synthesis by metyrapone. CCR7, another lymph node homing receptor, was also unaffected by hydrocortisone in vitro. Thus, cortisol seems to redirect T cells to the bone marrow by upregulating their CXCR4 expression, whereas its inhibiting effect on T cell homing to lymph nodes is apparently regulated independently of the expression of classical homing receptors. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Prune belly syndrome associated with incomplete VACTERL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghritlaharey R

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A Prune Belly syndrome with VATER/VACTERL association is an extremely rare. They are either stillborn or die within few days of life, only few such cases have been reported in literature. We are presenting here a male neonate of Prune Belly syndrome associated with incomplete VACTERL with brief review of literature.

  19. Combined VEGF and CXCR4 antagonism targets the GBM stem cell population and synergistically improves survival in an intracranial mouse model of glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Amy; Sengupta, Rajarshi; Warrington, Nicole M; Smith, Erin; Wen, Patrick Y; Brekken, Rolf A; Romagnoli, Barbara; Douglas, Garry; Chevalier, Eric; Bauer, Michael P; Dembowsky, Klaus; Piwnica-Worms, David; Rubin, Joshua B

    2014-10-30

    Glioblastoma recurrence involves the persistence of a subpopulation of cells with enhanced tumor-initiating capacity (TIC) that reside within the perivascular space, or niche (PVN). Anti-angiogenic therapies may prevent the formation of new PVN but have not prevented recurrence in clinical trials, suggesting they cannot abrogate TIC activity. We hypothesized that combining anti-angiogenic therapy with blockade of PVN function would have superior anti-tumor activity. We tested this hypothesis in an established intracranial xenograft model of GBM using a monoclonal antibody specific for murine and human VEGF (mcr84) and a Protein Epitope Mimetic (PEM) CXCR4 antagonist, POL5551. When doses of POL5551 were increased to overcome an mcr84-induced improvement in vascular barrier function, combinatorial therapy significantly inhibited intracranial tumor growth and improved survival. Anti-tumor activity was associated with significant changes in tumor cell proliferation and apoptosis, and a reduction in the numbers of perivascular cells expressing the TIC marker nestin. A direct effect on TICs was demonstrated for POL5551, but not mcr84, in three primary patient-derived GBM isolates. These findings indicate that targeting the structure and function of the PVN has superior anti-tumor effect and provide a strong rationale for clinical evaluation of POL5551 and Avastin in patients with GBM.

  20. CXCR4-using HIV variants in a cohort of Black men who have sex with men: HIV Prevention Trials Network 061.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Iris; Huang, Wei; Connor, Matthew B; Frantzell, Arne; Cummings, Vanessa; Beauchamp, Geetha G; Griffith, Sam; Fields, Sheldon D; Scott, Hyman M; Shoptaw, Steven; Del Rio, Carlos; Magnus, Manya; Mannheimer, Sharon; Tieu, Hong-Van; Wheeler, Darrell P; Mayer, Kenneth H; Koblin, Beryl A; Eshleman, Susan H

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate factors associated with HIV tropism among Black men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States enrolled in a clinical study (HIV Prevention Trials Network 061). HIV tropism was analyzed using a phenotypic assay (Trofile assay, Monogram Biosciences). Samples were analyzed from 43 men who were HIV infected at enrollment and reported either exclusive insertive intercourse or exclusive receptive intercourse; samples were also analyzed from 20 men who were HIV uninfected at enrollment and seroconverted during the study. Clonal analysis of individual viral variants was performed for seroconverters who had dual/mixed (DM) viruses. DM viruses were detected in samples from 11 (26%) of the 43 HIV-infected men analyzed at the enrollment visit; HIV tropism did not differ between those reporting exclusive insertive vs receptive intercourse. DM viruses were also detected in five (25%) of the 20 seroconverters. DM viruses were associated with lower CD4 cell counts. Seroconverters with DM viruses had dual-tropic viruses only or mixed populations of CCR5- and dual-tropic viruses. DM viruses were frequently detected among Black MSM in this study, including seroconverters. Further studies are needed to understand factors driving transmission and selection of CXCR4- and dual-tropic viruses among Black MSM.

  1. Intra-Articular Injection of Human Meniscus Stem/Progenitor Cells Promotes Meniscus Regeneration and Ameliorates Osteoarthritis Through Stromal Cell-Derived Factor-1/CXCR4-Mediated Homing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Weiliang; Chen, Jialin; Zhu, Ting; Chen, Longkun; Zhang, Wei; Fang, Zhi; Heng, Boon Chin; Yin, Zi; Chen, Xiao; Ji, Junfeng

    2014-01-01

    Meniscus injury is frequently encountered in clinical practice. Current surgical therapy involving partial or complete meniscectomy relieves pain in the short-term but often leads to osteoarthritis (OA) in the long-term. In this study, we report a new strategy of articular cartilage protection by intra-articular injection of novel human meniscus stem/progenitor cells (hMeSPCs). We found that hMeSPCs displayed both mesenchymal stem cell characteristics and high expression levels of collagen II. In the rat meniscus injury model, hMeSPC transplantation not only led to more neo-tissue formation and better-defined shape but also resulted in more rounded cells and matured extracellular matrix. Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) enhanced the migration of hMeSPCs, whereas AMD3100 abolished the chemotactic effects of SDF-1 on hMeSPCs, both in vitro and in vivo. In an experimental OA model, transplantation of hMeSPCs effectively protected articular cartilage, as evidenced by reduced expression of OA markers such as collagen I, collagen X, and hypoxia-inducible factor 2α but increased expression of collagen II. Our study demonstrated for the first time that intra-articular injection of hMeSPCs enhanced meniscus regeneration through the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis. Our study highlights a new strategy of intra-articular injection of hMeSPCs for meniscus regeneration. PMID:24448516

  2. Replacement of the V3 domain in the surface subunit of the feline immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoprotein with the equivalent region of a T cell-tropic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 results in a chimeric surface protein that efficiently binds to CXCR4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Silvia A; Falcón, Juan I; Affranchino, José L

    2014-03-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and the T cell-tropic strains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) share the use of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 for cell entry. To study this process further we developed a cell surface binding assay based on the expression of a soluble version of the FIV SU C-terminally tagged with the influenza virus hemagglutinin epitope (HA). The specificity of the assay was demonstrated by the following evidence: (1) the SU-HA protein bound to HeLa cells that express CXCR4 but not to MDCK cells that lack this chemokine receptor; and (2) binding of the SU-HA to HeLa cells was blocked by incubation with the CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 as well as with the anti-CXCR4 monoclonal antibody (MAb) 12G5. Deletion of the V3 region from the FIV SU glycoprotein abolished its ability to bind CXCR4-expressing cells. Remarkably, substitution of the V3 domain of the FIV SU by the equivalent region of the HIV-1 NL4-3 isolate resulted in efficient cell surface binding of the chimeric SU protein to CXCR4. Moreover, transfection of MDCK cells with a plasmid encoding human CXCR4 allowed the association of the chimeric SU-HA glycoprotein to the transfected cells. Interestingly, while cell binding of the chimeric FIV-HIV SU was inhibited by an anti-HIV-1 V3 MAb, its association with CXCR4 was found to be resistant to AMD3100. Of note, the chimeric FIV-HIV Env glycoprotein was capable of promoting CXCR4-dependent cell-to-cell fusion.

  3. Migration of bone marrow and cord blood mesenchymal stem cells in vitro is regulated by stromal-derived factor-1-CXCR4 and hepatocyte growth factor-c-met axes and involves matrix metalloproteinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Bo-Ra; Marquez-Curtis, Leah A; Kucia, Magda; Wysoczynski, Marcin; Turner, A Robert; Ratajczak, Janina; Ratajczak, Mariusz Z; Janowska-Wieczorek, Anna

    2006-05-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are increasingly being considered in cell-based therapeutic strategies for regeneration of various organs/tissues. However, the signals required for their homing and recruitment to injured sites are not yet fully understood. Because stromal-derived factor (SDF)-1 and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) become up-regulated during tissue/organ damage, in this study we examined whether these factors chemoattract ex vivo-expanded MSCs derived from bone marrow (BM) and umbilical cord blood (CB). Specifically, we investigated the expression by MSCs of CXCR4 and c-met, the cognate receptors of SDF-1 and HGF, and their functionality after early and late passages of MSCs. We also determined whether MSCs express matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), including membrane type 1 (MT1)-MMP, matrix-degrading enzymes that facilitate the trafficking of hematopoietic stem cells. We maintained expanded BM- or CB-derived MSCs for up to 15-18 passages with monitoring of the expression of 1) various tissue markers (cardiac and skeletal muscle, neural, liver, and endothelial cells), 2) functional CXCR4 and c-met, and 3) MMPs. We found that for up to 15-18 passages, both BM- and CB-derived MSCs 1) express mRNA for cardiac, muscle, neural, and liver markers, as well as the vascular endothelial (VE) marker VE-cadherin; 2) express CXCR4 and c-met receptors and are strongly attracted by SDF-1 and HGF gradients; 3) express MMP-2 and MT1-MMP transcripts and proteins; and 4) are chemo-invasive across the reconstituted basement membrane Matrigel. These in vitro results suggest that the SDF-1-CXCR4 and HGF-c-met axes, along with MMPs, may be involved in recruitment of expanded MSCs to damaged tissues.

  4. The maintenance of cisplatin- and paclitaxel-induced mechanical and cold allodynia is suppressed by cannabinoid CB2 receptor activation and independent of CXCR4 signaling in models of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Liting

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemotherapeutic agents produce dose-limiting peripheral neuropathy through mechanisms that remain poorly understood. We previously showed that AM1710, a cannabilactone CB2 agonist, produces antinociception without producing central nervous system (CNS-associated side effects. The present study was conducted to examine the antinociceptive effect of AM1710 in rodent models of neuropathic pain evoked by diverse chemotherapeutic agents (cisplatin and paclitaxel. A secondary objective was to investigate the potential contribution of alpha-chemokine receptor (CXCR4 signaling to both chemotherapy-induced neuropathy and CB2 agonist efficacy. Results AM1710 (0.1, 1 or 5 mg/kg i.p. suppressed the maintenance of mechanical and cold allodynia in the cisplatin and paclitaxel models. Anti-allodynic effects of AM1710 were blocked by the CB2 antagonist AM630 (3 mg/kg i.p., but not the CB1 antagonist AM251 (3 mg/kg i.p., consistent with a CB2-mediated effect. By contrast, blockade of CXCR4 signaling with its receptor antagonist AMD3100 (10 mg/kg i.p. failed to attenuate mechanical or cold hypersensitivity induced by either cisplatin or paclitaxel. Moreover, blockade of CXCR4 signaling failed to alter the anti-allodynic effects of AM1710 in the paclitaxel model, further suggesting distinct mechanisms of action. Conclusions Our results indicate that activation of cannabinoid CB2 receptors by AM1710 suppresses both mechanical and cold allodynia in two distinct models of chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain. By contrast, CXCR4 signaling does not contribute to the maintenance of chemotherapy-induced established neuropathy or efficacy of AM1710. Our studies suggest that CB2 receptors represent a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of toxic neuropathies produced by cisplatin and paclitaxel chemotherapeutic agents.

  5. Processing, fusogenicity, virion incorporation and CXCR4-binding activity of a feline immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoprotein lacking the two conserved N-glycosylation sites at the C-terminus of the V3 domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Silvia A; Affranchino, José L

    2016-07-01

    The process of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) entry into its target cells is initiated by the association of the surface (SU) subunit of the viral envelope glycoprotein (Env) with the cellular receptors CD134 and CXCR4. This event is followed by the fusion of the viral and cellular membranes, which is mediated by the transmembrane (TM) subunit of Env. We and others have previously demonstrated that the V3 domain of the SU subunit of Env is essential for CXCR4 binding. Of note, there are two contiguous and highly conserved potential N-glycosylation sites ((418)NST(420) and (422)NLT(424)) located at the C-terminal side of the V3 domain. We therefore decided to study the relevance for Env functions of these N-glycosylation motifs and found that disruption of both of them by introducing the N418Q/N422Q double amino acid substitution drastically impairs Env processing into the SU and TM subunits. Moreover, the simultaneous mutation of these N-glycosylation sites prevents Env incorporation into virions and Env-mediated cell-to-cell fusion. Notably, a recombinant soluble version of the SU glycoprotein carrying the double amino acid replacement N418Q/N422Q at the V3 C-terminal side binds to CXCR4 with an efficiency similar to that of wild-type SU.

  6. Anti-RhoC siRNAs inhibit the proliferation and invasiveness of breast cancer cells via modulating the KAI1, MMP9, and CXCR4 expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu X

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Xu-Dong Xu,1 Han-Bin Shen,1 Li Zhu,2 Jian-Qin Lu,2 Lin Zhang,3 Zhi-Yong Luo,3 Ya-Qun Wu3 1Department of Thyroid and Breast Surgery, The Fifth Hospital of Wuhan, Hanyang District, 2Department of Oncology, 3Department of Thyroid and Breast Surgery, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Overexpression of RhoC in breast cancer cells indicates poor prognosis. In the present study, we aim to investigate the possible antitumor effects of anti-RhoC small-interfering RNA (siRNA in inflammatory breast cancer cells. In this study, a specific anti-RhoC siRNA was used to inhibit RhoC synthesis. Transfection of anti-RhoC siRNA into two IBC cells SUM149 and SUM190 induced extensive degradation of target mRNA and led to significant decrease in the synthesis of protein. Anti-RhoC siRNA inhibited cell proliferation and invasion, increased cell apoptosis, and induced cell cycle arrest in vitro. Moreover, the transfection of siRNA increased the expression of KAI1 and decreased the expression of MMP9 and CXCR4 in both mRNA and protein levels. Furthermore, transplantation tumor experiments in BALB/c-nu mice showed that intratumoral injection of anti-RhoC siRNA inhibited tumor growth and increased survival rate. Our results suggested that RhoC gene silencing with specific anti-RhoC siRNA would be a potential therapeutic method for metastatic breast cancer. Keywords: gene silencing, proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle arrest

  7. Serum concentrations of chemokines (CCL-5 and CXCL-12), chemokine receptors (CCR-5 and CXCR-4), and IL-6 in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder and avoidant personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogłodek, Ewa A; Szota, Anna M; Moś, Danuta M; Araszkiewicz, Aleksander; Szromek, Adam R

    2015-12-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can be perceived as a psychoneuroimmunological disorder in which cytokines affecting the neurochemical and neuroendocrine functions of the body play an important role. Among cytokines, chemokines participating in activation of the inflammatory response are considered to be crucial. 220 men and women were enrolled in the study. 180 of them constituted the study group. The studied groups consisted of: 60 patients with a diagnosed avoidant personality disorders (APD), 60 patients with a diagnosed APD and with PTSD and of 60 patients with PTSD but without a APD. There were 30 women and 30 men in each group of 60 subjects. The control group consisted of 40 healthy individuals. The plasma levels of chemokines and their receptors (CCL-5, CXCR-5, CXCL-12 and CXCR-4), as well as IL-6, were assessed by ELISA. There was an increase in the CXCL-12 and CCL-5 levels in women and men with the PTSD versus the control group. Also, increased levels of IL-6 and the receptors CXCR-4, CCR-5 were observed in women and men with PTSD. The levels of CXCL-12 and CCL-5 chemokines, as well as CCR-5 and CXCR4 receptors were higher in women than in men. The results of this study indicate a need for assessment of the CCL-5 and CXCL-12 chemokine levels, as they are likely markers of PTSD. Measurement of the concentrations of chemokines, chemokine receptors and IL-6 in women and men with PTSD along with concomittant APD may be useful for early detection of mental disorders. Copyright © 2015 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of the CCR2-V64I Polymorphism on Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Coreceptor Activity and on Chemokine Receptor Function of CCR2b, CCR3, CCR5, and CXCR4

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Benhur; Doranz, Benjamin J.; Rana, Shalini; Yi, Yanji; Mellado, Mario; Frade, Jose M. R.; Martinez-A., Carlos; O’Brien, Stephen J.; Dean, Michael; Collman, Ronald G.; Doms, Robert W.

    1998-01-01

    The chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR4 are used by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in conjunction with CD4 to infect cells. In addition, some virus strains can use alternative chemokine receptors, including CCR2b and CCR3, for infection. A polymorphism in CCR2 (CCR2-V64I) is associated with a 2- to 4-year delay in the progression to AIDS. To investigate the mechanism of this protective effect, we studied the expression of CCR2b and CCR2b-V64I, their chemokine and HIV-1 coreceptor ...

  9. Dominantly inherited isolated hyperparathyroidism: a syndromic association?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlowski, K.; Czerminska-Kowalska, A.; Kulczycka, H.; Rowinska, E.; Pronicka, E.

    1999-01-01

    Dominantly inherited isolated hyperparathyroidism (DIIH) is rare in childhood. It may be the first biochemical abnormality in the multiple endocrine neoplasia type I (MEN I) and type II (MEN II) syndromes. Its clinical course is usually asymptomatic or of low morbidity. Radiographic examination is most often normal. We describe six members of a family with distinctive phenotype and DIIH. Limited systemic symptoms and severe radiographic osteitis fibrosa cystica were further unusual features in this family. The diagnosis of DIIH was made only after a 9-year-old girl developed hypercalcaemic crisis after a pathological femoral fracture. Distinctive phenotype, unusual clinical course and unparalleled radiographic changes suggest a not yet described syndromic association. (orig.)

  10. Bartter syndrome associated with nephropathic cystinosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Nader M; Sanosi, Ali Al

    2016-01-01

    Bartter syndrome is a rare inherited defect in the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle. It is characterized by low potassium levels (hypokalaemia), increased blood pH (alkalosis) and normal to low blood pressure. There are three types of Bartter syndrome: neonatal, the classic type and Gitelman syndrome. Nephropathic cystinosis is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by accumulation of free cystine in lysosomes due to disorder of lysosomal transport that can lead to end stage renal failure within 10 years and multiorgan impairment. We report a 5 year 9 month old child with Bartter syndrome associated with nephropathic cystinosis, hypothyroidism and rickets. Hitherto, only a handful of similar cases have been reported in the literature.

  11. Usher syndrome associated with Fuchs' heterochromic uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtinger, Alejandro; Chowers, Itay; Amer, Radgonde

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to report two new cases of Usher syndrome associated with Fuchs' heterochromic uveitis (FHU), to confirm our previous observation of the association between FHU and retinitis pigmentosa (RP), and to evaluate if FHU is particularly associated with Usher syndrome. Retrospective medical record review of all new RP cases at Hadassah Medical Center between the years 2000 and 2007, review of our previously published data, and a meta-analysis of published relevant articles in peer reviewed journals. During the time frame of the study we diagnosed 58 new cases of RP, of whom one male and one female had the typical findings of FHU, and both had Usher syndrome type II. The difference in the occurrence of FHU between the 616 controls and the patients with RP was significant (p = 0.0073, Fisher's exact test). In our combined data, FHU occurred only in two types of RP; RP simplex with an incidence of 0.57%, and Usher syndrome with an incidence of 13.5%. This difference between the incidence of FHU in patients with Usher syndrome and other types of RP was significant (p Usher syndrome type II. Although infectious agents seem to play a role, the cause for this significant correlation is still unclear.

  12. Association of rs1801157 single nucleotide polymorphism of CXCL12 gene in breast cancer in Pakistan and in-silico expression analysis of CXCL12–CXCR4 associated biological regulatory network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samra Khalid

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background C-X-C chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12 has important implications in breast cancer (BC pathogenesis. It is selectively expressed on B and T lymphocytes and is involved in hematopoiesis, thymocyte trafficking, stem cell motility, neovascularization, and tumorigenesis. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs1801157 of CXCL12 gene has been found to be associated with higher risk of BC. Methods Our study focuses on the genotypic and allelic distribution of SNP (rs1801157; G/A in Pakistani population as well as its association with the clinico-pathological features. The association between rs1801157 genotypes (G/A and BC risks was assessed by a multivariate logistic regression (MLR analysis. Genotyping was performed in both healthy individuals and patients of BC using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP method. Furthermore, in-silico approaches were adapted to investigate the association of CXCL12 and its receptor CXCR4 with genes/proteins involved in BC signalling. Results Significant differences in allelic and genotypic distribution between BC patients and healthy individuals of genotype (G/G and (A/G (p  0.05 was assessed. In a MLR analysis, a number of variables including age, weight of an individual, affected lymph nodes, hormonal status (estrogen and progesterone receptor, alcohol consumption and family history associated with the GG genotype (GG:AA, odds ratio (OR = 1.30, 95% CI [1.06–1.60] were found to be independent risk factors for BC. Our in-vitro results suggest that genotype GG is possibly increasing the risk of BC in Pakistani cohorts. in-silico analysis finds that CXCL12–CXCR4 is associated with an increased expression of PDZK1, PI3k and Akt which lead the breast tumor towards metastasis. Conclusion Multiple targets such as CXCL12, CXCR4, PDZK1, PI3k and Akt can be inhibited in combined strategies to treat BC metastasis.

  13. Cryptic nature of a conserved, CD4-inducible V3 loop neutralization epitope in the native envelope glycoprotein oligomer of CCR5-restricted, but not CXCR4-using, primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusso, Paolo; Earl, Patricia L; Sironi, Francesca; Santoro, Fabio; Ripamonti, Chiara; Scarlatti, Gabriella; Longhi, Renato; Berger, Edward A; Burastero, Samuele E

    2005-06-01

    The external subunit of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein (Env), gp120, contains conserved regions that mediate sequential interactions with two cellular receptor molecules, CD4 and a chemokine receptor, most commonly CCR5 or CXCR4. However, antibody accessibility to such regions is hindered by diverse protective mechanisms, including shielding by variable loops, conformational flexibility and extensive glycosylation. For the conserved neutralization epitopes hitherto described, antibody accessibility is reportedly unrelated to the viral coreceptor usage phenotype. Here, we characterize a novel, conserved gp120 neutralization epitope, recognized by a murine monoclonal antibody (MAb), D19, which is differentially accessible in the native HIV-1 Env according to its coreceptor specificity. The D19 epitope is contained within the third variable (V3) domain of gp120 and is distinct from those recognized by other V3-specific MAbs. To study the reactivity of MAb D19 with the native oligomeric Env, we generated a panel of PM1 cells persistently infected with diverse primary HIV-1 strains. The D19 epitope was conserved in the majority (23/29; 79.3%) of the subtype-B strains tested, as well as in selected strains from other genetic subtypes. Strikingly, in CCR5-restricted (R5) isolates, the D19 epitope was invariably cryptic, although it could be exposed by addition of soluble CD4 (sCD4); epitope masking was dependent on the native oligomeric structure of Env, since it was not observed with the corresponding monomeric gp120 molecules. By contrast, in CXCR4-using strains (X4 and R5X4), the epitope was constitutively accessible. In accordance with these results, R5 isolates were resistant to neutralization by MAb D19, becoming sensitive only upon addition of sCD4, whereas CXCR4-using isolates were neutralized regardless of the presence of sCD4. Other V3 epitopes examined did not display a similar divergence in accessibility based on

  14. Epidermal Nevus Syndrome Associated with Brain Malformations and Medulloblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Researchers at Juntendo University and Tokyo Women’s Medical University, Japan; and University of California, San Francisco, Ca, report a male infant with epidermal nevus syndrome associated with brainstem and cerebellar malformations and neonatal medulloblastoma.

  15. MicroRNA-381 Favors Repair of Nerve Injury Through Regulation of the SDF-1/CXCR4 Signaling Pathway via LRRC4 in Acute Cerebral Ischemia after Cerebral Lymphatic Blockage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Min Piao

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Acute cerebral ischemia is a manifestation of cerebral vascular insufficiency and has a high mortality. However, the therapy for acute cerebral ischemia is still limited. This study aimed to investigate the effect of microRNA-381 (miR-381 on the repair of nerve injury in rats with acute cerebral ischemia after cerebral lymphatic blockage (CLB by targeting leucine-rich repeat C4 protein (LRRC4 through the Stromal cell-derived factor-1/CXC chemokine receptor-4 signaling pathway. Methods: Rat models of CLB and middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO were established, and 56 Wistar rats were divided into sham, MCAO, CLB + MCAO, CLB + MCAO + miR-381 inhibitor, CLB + MCAO + miR-381 mimic, CLB + MCAO + AMD3100 and CLB + MCAO + miR-381 mimic + AMD3100 groups. Modified neurological severity score (mNSS was used to determine nerve injury, TTC staining to measure infarction volume, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL staining and flow cytometry to evaluate cell apoptosis, immunofluorescence to measure BrdU-positive cell number, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA to determine contents of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, interleukin-6 (IL-6, interleukin-10 (IL-10, nerve growth factor (NGF and neurite outgrowth inhibitor -A (Nogo-A, Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR and Western blotting to evaluate expression of miR-381, LRRC4, SDF-1, CXCR4, pERK, Slit2 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. Results: LRRC4 was a target gene of miR-381. Compared with the results in the CLB + MCAO group, mNSS, infarction volume, apoptosis rate and TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and Nogo-A contents as well as LRRC4 expression in the CLB + MCAO + miR-381 inhibitor and CLB + MCAO + AMD3100 groups were increased (those in the CLB + MCAO + AMD3100 group > those in the CLB + MCAO + miR-381 mimic + AMD3100 group, while BrdU-positive cell number, contents of NGF and

  16. Maffucci's syndrome associated with chondrosarcoma and aneurysm: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Hyoung Gun; Yoo, Won Jong; Lim, Yeon Soo; Sung, Mi Sook; Chung Myung Hee; Lee, Hae Giu; Jung, So Lyung; Kim, Jea NA

    2002-01-01

    Maffucci syndrome is a rare congenital non-inherited condition characterized by multiple enchondromas and cutaneous hemangiomas. It is associated with increased risk of malignancy, including chondrosarcomas, and because of generalized mesodermal dysplasia, aneurysms can develop. We present a case of Maffucci syndrome associated with intracranial chondrosarcoma and aneurysm

  17. Maffucci's syndrome associated with chondrosarcoma and aneurysm: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Hyoung Gun; Yoo, Won Jong; Lim, Yeon Soo; Sung, Mi Sook; Chung, Myung Hee; Lee, Hae Giu; Jung, So Lyung; Kim, Jae Na

    2002-01-01

    Maffucci syndrome is rare congenital non-inherited condition characterized by multiple enchondromas and cutaneous hemangiomas. It is associated with increased risk of malignancy, including chondrosarcomas, and because of generalized mesodermal dysplasia, aneurysms can develop. We present a case of maffucci syndrome associated with intracranial chondrosarcoma and aneurysm

  18. Early diagnosis of Bardet-Biedl syndrome associated with obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the urgent problems of modern health care is the increase in the prevalence of obesity among children and adolescents. Late diagnosis and delayed initiation of treatment lead to serious complications such as hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus. At present there are quite rare syndromes associated with obesity: Prader-Willi syndrome, Bardet-Biedl, Alström. Bardet-Biedl syndrome, - a disease characterized by obesity central origin, retinitis pigmentosa, polydactyly, mental retardation, hypogonadism, and renal dysfunction.

  19. Differential evolution of a CXCR4-using HIV-1 strain in CCR5wt/wt and CCR5∆32/∆32 hosts revealed by longitudinal deep sequencing and phylogenetic reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Anh Q; Taylor, Jeremy; Dong, Winnie; McCloskey, Rosemary; Woods, Conan; Danroth, Ryan; Hayashi, Kanna; Milloy, M-J; Poon, Art F Y; Brumme, Zabrina L

    2015-12-03

    Rare individuals homozygous for a naturally-occurring 32 base pair deletion in the CCR5 gene (CCR5∆32/∆32) are resistant to infection by CCR5-using ("R5") HIV-1 strains but remain susceptible to less common CXCR4-using ("X4") strains. The evolutionary dynamics of X4 infections however, remain incompletely understood. We identified two individuals, one CCR5wt/wt and one CCR5∆32/∆32, within the Vancouver Injection Drug Users Study who were infected with a genetically similar X4 HIV-1 strain. While early-stage plasma viral loads were comparable in the two individuals (~4.5-5 log10 HIV-1 RNA copies/ml), CD4 counts in the CCR5wt/wt individual reached a nadir of 250 cells/mm(3) in the CCR5∆32/∆32 individual. Ancestral phylogenetic reconstructions using longitudinal envelope-V3 deep sequences suggested that both individuals were infected by a single transmitted/founder (T/F) X4 virus that differed at only one V3 site (codon 24). While substantial within-host HIV-1 V3 diversification was observed in plasma and PBMC in both individuals, the CCR5wt/wt individual's HIV-1 population gradually reverted from 100% X4 to ~60% R5 over ~4 years whereas the CCR5∆32/∆32 individual's remained consistently X4. Our observations illuminate early dynamics of X4 HIV-1 infections and underscore the influence of CCR5 genotype on HIV-1 V3 evolution.

  20. Churg-Strauss syndrome associated with montelukast therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuggey, J; Hosker, H

    2000-01-01

    Churg-Strauss syndrome is a rare form of eosinophilic vasculitis associated with asthma. There have been several recent case reports of the condition in association with leukotriene antagonists and it has been speculated that the Churg-Strauss syndrome was unmasked when oral corticosteroids were withdrawn. We report a case of Churg-Strauss syndrome associated with montelukast therapy in an asthmatic patient in whom there had been no recent oral corticosteroid use. We believe that this is the first such reported case and would suggest that clinicians need to be vigilant in all patients who develop systemic symptoms when starting treatment with leukotriene antagonists.

 PMID:10950903

  1. A case of Werner's syndrome associated with osteosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, K; Hatamochi, A; Shinkai, H; Ishikawa, Y; Kawaguchi, N; Goto, M

    1999-10-01

    We described a case of Werner's syndrome associated with osteosarcoma. A 37-year-old Japanese man was diagnosed as having Werner's syndrome by the presence of juvenile cataracts, skin sclerosis and hyperpigmentation of the feet, high-pitched voice, characteristic bird-like appearance of the face with beak-shaped nose, thinning of the entire skin and hyperkeratoses on soles, hyperlipemia, hyperuricemia, diabetes melitus, and the mutated responsible gene (WRN). He had a 3-month history of a tumor on his left forearm. Histologically, the tumor included four histological patterns; a malignant fibrous histiocytoma-like, a desmoid-like, a dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans-like, and a chondrosarcoma-like pattern. Tumoral osteoid formation was also found in the tumor. Therefore, the tumor was diagnosed as osteosarcoma.

  2. Autoinflammatory syndromes associated with hidradenitis suppurativa and/or acne

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinkel, Caroline; Thomsen, Simon F.

    2017-01-01

    Autoinflammatory syndromes associated with hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) and/or acne are rare but potentially debilitating disorders if not diagnosed and treated correctly. They share a common pathogenesis involving a dysregulated innate immune system with abnormal interleukin (IL)-1 signaling...... leading to sterile neutrophilic inflammation. The clinical features are recurrent episodes of fever, painful arthritis, and skin lesions consistent with HS, acne, and pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) accompanied by elevated systemic inflammatory markers in blood. So far, several clinically different syndromes...... have been reported in the literature including pyoderma gangrenosum, acne, and pyogenic arthritis (PAPA), pyoderma gangrenosum, acne, and hidradenitis suppurativa (PASH), pyoderma gangrenosum, acne, and spondyloarthritis (PASS), pyoderma gangrenosum, acne, pyogenic arthritis, and hidradenitis...

  3. Mirizzi syndrome associated with hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Oliver

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction This is the first case report of Mirizzi syndrome associated with hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm. Case presentation A 54-year-old man presented with painful obstructive jaundice and weight loss. Computed tomography showed a hilar mass in the liver. Following an episode of haemobilia, angiography demonstrated a pseudoaneurysm of a branch of the right hepatic artery that was embolised. At surgery, a gallstone causing Mirizzi type II syndrome was found to be responsible for the biliary obstruction and a necrotic inflammatory mass and haematoma were found to be extending into the liver. The mass was debrided and drained, the obstructing stones removed and the bile duct drained with a t-tube. The patient made a full recovery. Conclusion This case highlights another situation where there may be difficulty in differentiating Mirizzi syndrome from biliary tract cancer.

  4. Orbital apex syndrome associated with herpes zoster ophthalmicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurimoto T

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Takuji Kurimoto1, Masahiro Tonari1, Norihiko Ishizaki1, Mitsuhiro Monta2, Saori Hirata2, Hidehiro Oku1, Jun Sugasawa1, Tsunehiko Ikeda11Department of Ophthalmology, Osaka Medical College, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Shitennoji Hospital, Osaka, JapanAbstract: We report our findings for a patient with orbital apex syndrome associated with herpes zoster ophthalmicus. Our patient was initially admitted to a neighborhood hospital because of nausea and loss of appetite of 10 days' duration. The day after hospitalization, she developed skin vesicles along the first division of the trigeminal nerve, with severe lid swelling and conjunctival injection. On suspicion of meningoencephalitis caused by varicella zoster virus, antiviral therapy with vidarabine and betamethasone was started. Seventeen days later, complete ptosis and ophthalmoplegia developed in the right eye. The light reflex in the right eye was absent and anisocoria was present, with the right pupil larger than the left. Fat-suppressed enhanced T1-weighted magnetic resonance images showed high intensity areas in the muscle cone, cavernous sinus, and orbital optic nerve sheath. Our patient was diagnosed with orbital apex syndrome, and because of skin vesicles in the first division of the trigeminal nerve, the orbital apex syndrome was considered to be caused by herpes zoster ophthalmicus. After the patient was transferred to our hospital, prednisolone 60 mg and vidarabine antiviral therapy was started, and fever and headaches disappeared five days later. The ophthalmoplegia and optic neuritis, but not the anisocoria, gradually resolved during tapering of oral therapy. From the clinical findings and course, the cause of the orbital apex syndrome was most likely invasion of the orbital apex and cavernous sinus by the herpes virus through the trigeminal nerve ganglia.Keywords: varicella zoster virus, orbital apex syndrome, herpes zoster ophthalmicus, complete ophthalmoplegia

  5. Nutcracker syndrome associated with celiacomesentric trunk anomaly: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Zoubi NA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nabil A Al-Zoubi,1 Ibrahim F Al-Ghalayini,1,2 Radwan Al-Okour1,2 1Department of Surgery, 2Division of Urology, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan Introduction: Nutcracker syndrome is a rare disease entity that is caused by entrapment of the left renal vein between the aorta and superior mesenteric artery, usually due to abnormal branching of the superior mesenteric artery from the aorta causing renal venous hypertension. The symptoms vary from asymptomatic hematuria to severe pelvic congestion. Celiacomesenteric trunk anomaly is a rare variation of splanchnic artery anomaly that occurs when the celiac trunk and superior mesenteric arteries have a common origin from the aorta. A disease involving the rarely encountered celiacomesenteric trunk anomaly is extremely uncommon. To our knowledge, association between nutcracker syndrome and celiacomesentric trunk anomaly has not been reported in the literature.Case presentation: A 14-year-old boy with no significant past medical history presented with a 3-year painless hematuria. CT-angiogram revealed anterior nutcracker syndrome with celiacomesenteric trunk anomaly. The patient was managed conservatively with close follow-up.Conclusion: Nutcracker syndrome associated with celiacomesenteric trunk anomaly is extremely uncommon and is a rare cause of hematuria in children. Whether this abnormal anatomy is the cause of nutcracker syndrome or just an association should be investigated. Moreover, awareness of this anatomical variation may help in planning therapeutic options and reducing the chance of surgical iatrogenic injuries. Keywords: nutcracker syndrome, celiacomesenteric trunk, hematuria in children

  6. Characteristics of fetal anticonvulsant syndrome associated autistic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasalam, A D; Hailey, H; Williams, J H G; Moore, S J; Turnpenny, P D; Lloyd, D J; Dean, J C S

    2005-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical features and frequency of autistic disorder or Asperger syndrome (AS; according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition [DSM-IV] criteria) in children exposed to anticonvulsant medication in utero. During a 20-year study period, 626 children were born in Aberdeen to mothers taking antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). The study examined long-term effects of prenatal exposure to AEDs in 260 children (122 males, 138 females). Of these, 26 (16 males) were reported by parents to have social or behavioural difficulties. Eleven children (6 males, 5 females) fulfilled the DSM-IV criteria for autistic disorder and one (female) fulfilled the DSM-IV criteria for AS. These children comprised 4.6% of the exposed children studied, and 1.9% of all exposed children born during the study period. Mean age of these children at diagnosis was 5 years 4 months (SD 2y 11mo) and 9 years 10 months (SD 3y 10mo) at the time of this study. Other children from the group of 26 had difficulties in areas of speech and language development and social communication but did not meet the criteria for an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Sodium valproate was the drug most commonly associated with autistic disorder, five of 56 (8.9%) of the study children exposed to sodium valproate alone had either autistic disorder or AS. It was concluded that prenatal exposure to anticonvulsant medication is a risk factor for the development of an ASD. Fetal anticonvulsant syndrome associated autistic disorder is characterized by an even sex ratio, absence of regression or skill loss, and language delay in the absence of global delay.

  7. Mismatch repair deficiency commonly precedes adenoma formation in Lynch Syndrome-Associated colorectal tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, Shigeki; Mori, Taisuke; Ogawa, Reiko; Tanaka, Masahiro; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Taniguchi, Hirokazu; Nakajima, Takeshi; Sugano, Kokichi; Yoshida, Teruhiko; Kato, Mamoru; Furukawa, Eisaku; Ochiai, Atsushi; Hiraoka, Nobuyoshi

    2017-08-01

    Lynch syndrome is a cancer predisposition syndrome caused by germline mutations in mismatch repair (MMR) genes. MMR deficiency is a ubiquitous feature of Lynch syndrome-associated colorectal adenocarcinomas; however, it remains unclear when the MMR-deficient phenotype is acquired during tumorigenesis. To probe this issue, the present study examined genetic alterations and MMR statuses in Lynch syndrome-associated colorectal adenomas and adenocarcinomas, in comparison with sporadic adenomas. Among the Lynch syndrome-associated colorectal tumors, 68 of 86 adenomas (79%) and all adenocarcinomas were MMR-deficient, whereas all the sporadic adenomas were MMR-proficient, as determined by microsatellite instability testing and immunohistochemistry for MMR proteins. Sequencing analyses identified APC or CTNNB1 mutations in the majority of sporadic adenomas (58/84, 69%) and MMR-proficient Lynch syndrome-associated adenomas (13/18, 72%). However, MMR-deficient Lynch syndrome-associated adenomas had less APC or CTNNB1 mutations (25/68, 37%) and frequent frameshift RNF43 mutations involving mononucleotide repeats (45/68, 66%). Furthermore, frameshift mutations affecting repeat sequences constituted 14 of 26 APC mutations (54%) in MMR-deficient adenomas whereas these frameshift mutations were rare in MMR-proficient adenomas in patients with Lynch syndrome (1/12, 8%) and in sporadic adenomas (3/52, 6%). Lynch syndrome-associated adenocarcinomas exhibited mutation profiles similar to those of MMR-deficient adenomas. Considering that WNT pathway activation sufficiently drives colorectal adenoma formation, the distinct mutation profiles of WNT pathway genes in Lynch syndrome-associated adenomas suggest that MMR deficiency commonly precedes adenoma formation.

  8. Atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome associated with a hybrid complement gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian P Venables

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sequence analysis of the regulators of complement activation (RCA cluster of genes at chromosome position 1q32 shows evidence of several large genomic duplications. These duplications have resulted in a high degree of sequence identity between the gene for factor H (CFH and the genes for the five factor H-related proteins (CFHL1-5; aliases CFHR1-5. CFH mutations have been described in association with atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome (aHUS. The majority of the mutations are missense changes that cluster in the C-terminal region and impair the ability of factor H to regulate surface-bound C3b. Some have arisen as a result of gene conversion between CFH and CFHL1. In this study we tested the hypothesis that nonallelic homologous recombination between low-copy repeats in the RCA cluster could result in the formation of a hybrid CFH/CFHL1 gene that predisposes to the development of aHUS. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In a family with many cases of aHUS that segregate with the RCA cluster we used cDNA analysis, gene sequencing, and Southern blotting to show that affected individuals carry a heterozygous CFH/CFHL1 hybrid gene in which exons 1-21 are derived from CFH and exons 22/23 from CFHL1. This hybrid encodes a protein product identical to a functionally significant CFH mutant (c.3572C>T, S1191L and c.3590T>C, V1197A that has been previously described in association with aHUS. CONCLUSIONS: CFH mutation screening is recommended in all aHUS patients prior to renal transplantation because of the high risk of disease recurrence post-transplant in those known to have a CFH mutation. Because of our finding it will be necessary to implement additional screening strategies that will detect a hybrid CFH/CFHL1 gene.

  9. Promising rice mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakim, L.; Azam, M.A.; Miah, A.J.; Mansur, M.A.; Akanda, H.R.

    1988-01-01

    Two induced mutants namely, Mut NS 1 (tall) and Mut NS 5 (semi-dwarf) derived from rice variety Nizersail were evaluated for various agronomic characters at four locations in Bangladesh. Both the mutants matured about three weeks earlier and yielded significantly higher than the parent variety Nizersail. (author). 3 tabs., 9 refs

  10. It's not All Doom and Gloom: Prune Belly Syndrome Associated with VACTERL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Karim; Lall, Anupam

    2016-01-01

    Prune belly syndrome is a rare abnormality; its association with VACTERL is even rarer. This association has been reported in literature a few times since first reported in 1993 and so far the majority have either been stillbirths or died shortly after birth. We present a case of Prune belly syndrome associated with VACTERL who is now one year old.

  11. Presumed atypical HDR syndrome associated with Band Keratopathy and pigmentary retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Cinoo; Cheong, Hae Il; Kim, Jeong Hun; Yu, Young Suk; Kwon, Ji Won

    2011-01-01

    This report describes presumed atypical hypoparathyroidism, deafness, and renal dysplasia (HDR) syndrome associated with unexpected ocular findings. The patient had exotropia, bilateral band keratopathy, and pigmentary retinopathy, including attenuated retinal vessels and atrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium. Even though the calcific plaques were successfully removed, visual acuity in both eyes gradually decreased and electroretinography was extinguished. Copyright 2009, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. Adult Reye-like syndrome associated with serologic evidence of acute parvovirus B19 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio Gonçalves da Costa

    Full Text Available Reye's syndrome is an infrequently diagnosed medical condition affecting mainly children. The etiology, epidemiology and natural history of Reye's syndrome have been cloudily written in footnotes of medical books and exotic papers since the initial description in early 1950s. We report here a case of adult Reye's syndrome associated with serologic evidence of parvovirus B19 infection.

  13. Mutant heterosis in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    In the variety TKM6 a high yielding semidwarf mutant has been induced. This TKM6 mutant was used in test crosses with a number of other varieties and mutants to examine the extent of heterosis of dwarfs in rice and to select superior crosses. An excerpt of the published data is given. It appears from the backcross of the mutant with its original variety, that an increase in number of productive tillers occurs in the hybrid, leading to a striking grain yield increase, while the semi-dwarf culm length (the main mutant character) reverts to the normal phenotype. In the cross with IR8 on the other hand, there is only a minimal increase in tiller number but a substantial increase in TGW leading to more than 30% yield increase over the better parent

  14. Identification and isolation from either adult human bone marrow or G-CSF-mobilized peripheral blood of CD34(+)/CD133(+)/CXCR4(+)/ Lin(-)CD45(-) cells, featuring morphological, molecular, and phenotypic characteristics of very small embryonic-like (VSEL) stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sovalat, Hanna; Scrofani, Maurice; Eidenschenk, Antoinette; Pasquet, Stéphanie; Rimelen, Valérie; Hénon, Philippe

    2011-04-01

    Recently, we demonstrated that normal human bone marrow (hBM)-derived CD34(+) cells, released into the peripheral blood after granulocyte colony-stimulating factor mobilization, contain cell subpopulations committed along endothelial and cardiac differentiation pathways. These subpopulations could play a key role in the regeneration of post-ischemic myocardial lesion after their direct intracardiac delivery. We hypothesized that these relevant cells might be issued from very small embryonic-like stem cells deposited in the BM during ontogenesis and reside lifelong in the adult BM, and that they could be mobilized into peripheral blood by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. Samples of normal hBM and leukapheresis products harvested from cancer patients after granulocyte colony-stimulating factor mobilization were analyzed and sorted by multiparameter flow cytometry strategy. Immunofluorescence and reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays were performed to analyze the expression of typical pluripotent stem cells markers. A population of CD34(+)/CD133(+)/CXCR4(+)/Lin(-) CD45(-) immature cells was first isolated from the hBM or from leukapheresis products. Among this population, very small (2-5 μm) cells expressing Oct-4, Nanog, and stage-specific embryonic antigen-4 at protein and messenger RNA levels were identified. Our study supports the hypothesis that very small embryonic-like stem cells constitute a "mobile" pool of primitive/pluripotent stem cells that could be released from the BM into the peripheral blood under the influence of various physiological or pathological stimuli. In order to fully support that hBM- and leukapheresis product-derived very small embryonic-like stem cells are actually pluripotent, we are currently testing their ability to differentiate in vitro into cells from all three germ layers. Copyright © 2011 ISEH - Society for Hematology and Stem Cells. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Klinefelter's syndrome associated with breast carcinoma and Paget's disease of the nipple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshakis, V; Fordyce, M J; Griffiths, J D

    1983-09-01

    We describe a patient with Klinefelter's syndrome associated with multi-focal breast carcinoma and Paget's disease of the nipple. Reviewing the 16 previously documented cases in the world literature, it is apparent that patients with this syndrome have an increased incidence of breast carcinoma. There is no evidence to date to suggest that such tumour is morphologically or biologically different from breast cancer in females and normal men.

  16. Usher syndrome associated with a variant of Dandy-Walker malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, Tulay; Ozdamar, Yasemin; Simsek, Enver; Men, Gamze

    2010-05-21

    Three cases of Usher syndrome associated with a variant of Dandy-Walker malformation in three siblings from consanguineous Turkish parents are described. The siblings had retinitis pigmentosa and hearing loss. Two of the siblings also had mental retardation, which is not a constant finding in Usher syndrome. Dandy-Walker malformation might have contributed to the mental retardation in two of these patients and might be a coincidental finding with Usher syndrome. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. Productive mutants of niger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, R.C.

    2001-01-01

    Seeds of six niger (Guizotia abyssinica Cass.) varieties ('GA-10', 'ONS-8', 'IGP-72', 'N-71', 'NB-9' and 'UN-4') were treated with 0.5, 0.75 and 1% ethyl methanesulphonate. After four generations of selection, 29 mutant lines were developed and those were evaluated from 1990-92 during Kharif (July to October) and Rabi (December to March) seasons. Average plant characteristics and yield data of four high yielding mutants along with 'IGP-76' (National Check), GA-10 (Zonal Check) and 'Semiliguda Local' (Local Check) are presented

  18. A confirmed case of toxic shock syndrome associated with the use of a menstrual cup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Michael A; Bisch, Steve; Arntfield, Shannon; Hosseini-Moghaddam, Seyed M

    2015-01-01

    Menstrual cups have been reported to be an acceptable substitute for tampons. These flexible cups have also been reported to provide a sustainable solution to menstrual management, with modest cost savings and no significant health risk. The present article documents the first case of toxic shock syndrome associated with the use of a menstrual cup in a woman 37 years of age, using a menstrual cup for the first time. Toxic shock syndrome and the literature on menstrual cups is reviewed and a possible mechanism for the development of toxic shock syndrome in the patient is described.

  19. Williams-Beuren syndrome associated with single kidney and nephrocalcinosis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidi, Kamel; Jellouli, Manel; Ben Rabeh, Rania; Hammi, Yousra; Gargah, Tahar

    2015-01-01

    Williams-Beuren syndrome is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder, characterized by congenital heart defects, abnormal facial features, mental retardation with specific cognitive and behavioral profile, growth hormone deficiency, renal and skeletal anomalies, inguinal hernia, infantile hypercalcaemia. We report a case with Williams-Beuren syndrome associated with a single kidney and nephrocalcinosis complicated by hypercalcaemia. A male infant, aged 20 months presented growth retardation associated with a psychomotor impairment, dysmorphic features and nephrocalcinosis. He had also hypercalciuria and hypercalcemia. Echocardiography was normal. DMSA renal scintigraphy showed a single functioning kidney. The FISH generated one ELN signal in 20 metaphases read and found the presence of ELN deletion, with compatible Williams-Beuren syndrome.

  20. West syndrome associated with administration of a histamine H1 antagonist, oxatomide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Yushiro; Isagai, Takeo; Seki, Yoshitaka; Ohya, Takashi; Nagamitsu, Shinichiro; Matsuishi, Toyojiro

    2004-01-01

    We report a 4-month-old female infant who developed West syndrome eleven days after administration of a histamine H1 antagonist, oxatomide, for atopic dermatitis. It has been reported that some histamine H1 antagonists induce seizures in epileptic patients. The age, the interval between oxatomide administration, and the onset of West syndrome and its clinical course were similar to two previously reported 3-month-old infants with West syndrome associated with ketotifen administration. We should be cautious in using the histamine H1 antagonists, oxatomide and ketotifen, in young infants because such agents could potentially disturb the anticonvulsive central histaminergic system.

  1. Mutation in cpsf6/CFIm68 (Cleavage and Polyadenylation Specificity Factor Subunit 6 causes short 3'UTRs and disturbs gene expression in developing embryos, as revealed by an analysis of primordial germ cell migration using the medaka mutant naruto.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takao Sasado

    Full Text Available Our previous studies analyzing medaka mutants defective in primordial germ cell (PGC migration identified cxcr4b and cxcr7, which are both receptors of the chemokine sdf1/cxcl12, as key regulators of PGC migration. Among PGC migration mutants, naruto (nar is unique in that the mutant phenotype includes gross morphological abnormalities of embryos, suggesting that the mutation affects a broader range of processes. A fine genetic linkage mapping and genome sequencing showed the nar gene encodes Cleavage and Polyadenylation Specificity Factor subunit 6 (CPSF6/CFIm68. CPSF6 is a component of the Cleavage Factor Im complex (CFIm which plays a key role in pre-mRNA 3'-cleavage and polyadenylation. 3'RACE of sdf1a/b and cxcr7 transcripts in the mutant embryos indicated shorter 3'UTRs with poly A additions occurring at more upstream positions than wild-type embryos, suggesting CPSF6 functions to prevent premature 3'UTR cleavage. In addition, expression of the coding region sequences of sdf1a/b in nar mutants was more anteriorly extended in somites than wild-type embryos, accounting for the abnormally extended distribution of PGCs in nar mutants. An expected consequence of shortening 3'UTR is the escape from the degradation mechanism mediated by microRNAs interacting with distal 3'UTR sequence. The abnormal expression pattern of sdf1a coding sequence may be at least partially accounted for by this mechanism. Given the pleiotropic effects of nar mutation, further analysis using the nar mutant will reveal processes in which CPSF6 plays essential regulatory roles in poly A site selection and involvement of 3'UTRs in posttranscriptional gene regulation in various genes in vivo.

  2. Mutation in cpsf6/CFIm68 (Cleavage and Polyadenylation Specificity Factor Subunit 6) causes short 3'UTRs and disturbs gene expression in developing embryos, as revealed by an analysis of primordial germ cell migration using the medaka mutant naruto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasado, Takao; Kondoh, Hisato; Furutani-Seiki, Makoto; Naruse, Kiyoshi

    2017-01-01

    Our previous studies analyzing medaka mutants defective in primordial germ cell (PGC) migration identified cxcr4b and cxcr7, which are both receptors of the chemokine sdf1/cxcl12, as key regulators of PGC migration. Among PGC migration mutants, naruto (nar) is unique in that the mutant phenotype includes gross morphological abnormalities of embryos, suggesting that the mutation affects a broader range of processes. A fine genetic linkage mapping and genome sequencing showed the nar gene encodes Cleavage and Polyadenylation Specificity Factor subunit 6 (CPSF6/CFIm68). CPSF6 is a component of the Cleavage Factor Im complex (CFIm) which plays a key role in pre-mRNA 3'-cleavage and polyadenylation. 3'RACE of sdf1a/b and cxcr7 transcripts in the mutant embryos indicated shorter 3'UTRs with poly A additions occurring at more upstream positions than wild-type embryos, suggesting CPSF6 functions to prevent premature 3'UTR cleavage. In addition, expression of the coding region sequences of sdf1a/b in nar mutants was more anteriorly extended in somites than wild-type embryos, accounting for the abnormally extended distribution of PGCs in nar mutants. An expected consequence of shortening 3'UTR is the escape from the degradation mechanism mediated by microRNAs interacting with distal 3'UTR sequence. The abnormal expression pattern of sdf1a coding sequence may be at least partially accounted for by this mechanism. Given the pleiotropic effects of nar mutation, further analysis using the nar mutant will reveal processes in which CPSF6 plays essential regulatory roles in poly A site selection and involvement of 3'UTRs in posttranscriptional gene regulation in various genes in vivo.

  3. Connexin mutants and cataracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric C Beyer

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The lens is a multicellular, but avascular tissue that must stay transparent to allow normal transmission of light and focusing of it on the retina. Damage to lens cells and/or proteins can cause cataracts, opacities that disrupt these processes. The normal survival of the lens is facilitated by an extensive network of gap junctions formed predominantly of connexin46 and connexin50. Mutations of the genes that encode these connexins (GJA3 and GJA8 have been identified and linked to inheritance of cataracts in human families and mouse lines. In vitro expression studies of several of these mutants have shown that they exhibit abnormalities that may lead to disease. Many of the mutants reduce or modify intercellular communication due to channel alterations (including loss of function or altered gating or due to impaired cellular trafficking which reduces the number of gap junction channels within the plasma membrane. However, the abnormalities detected in studies of other mutants suggest that they cause cataracts through other mechanisms including gain of hemichannel function (leading to cell injury and death and formation of cytoplasmic accumulations (that may act as light scattering particles. These observations and the anticipated results of ongoing studies should elucidate the mechanisms of cataract development due to mutations of lens connexins and abnormalities of other lens proteins. They may also contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms of disease due to connexin mutations in other tissues.

  4. Photorepair mutants of Arabidopsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, C.Z.; Yee, J.; Mitchell, D.L.; Britt, A.B.

    1997-01-01

    UV radiation induces two major DNA damage products, the cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) and, at a lower frequency, the pyrimidine (6-4) pyrimidinone dimer (6-4 product). Although Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae produce a CPD-specific photolyase that eliminates only this class of dimer, Arabidopsis thaliana, Drosophila melanogaster, Crotalus atrox, and Xenopus laevis have recently been shown to photoreactivate both CPDs and 6-4 products. We describe the isolation and characterization of two new classes of mutants of Arabidopsis, termed uvr2 and uvr3, that are defective in the photoreactivation of CPDs and 6-4 products, respectively. We demonstrate that the CPD photolyase mutation is genetically linked to a DNA sequence encoding a type II (metazoan) CPD photolyase. In addition, we are able to generate plants in which only CPDs or 6-4 products are photoreactivated in the nuclear genome by exposing these mutants to UV light and then allowing them to repair one or the other class of dimers. This provides us with a unique opportunity to study the biological consequences of each of these two major UV-induced photoproducts in an intact living system

  5. Construindo Marcas Mutantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizete De Azevedo Kreutz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo é o resultado de estudos realizados desde 2000 e busca instrumentalizar os proñssionals para a construção de Marcas Mutantes, que é   uma tendência contemporânea nas estratégias comunicacionais e de branding. Embora esta estratégia ainda não esteja consolidada, observamos que a mesma tem obtido um crescimento constante e tem sido adotadas pelas mais diferentes categorias de marcas e não apenas por aquelas direcionadas aos jovens, ao esporte, ao entretenimento, como era no principia. Com base na Hermenêutica de Profundidade de Thompson (1995, alicerçada nas pesquisas bibliográficas, de intemet, entrevistas e análise semiótica, desenhamos um método de construção de Marcas Mutantes dividido em sete fases. Como resultado, esperamos que este estudo possa auxiliar na compreensão dos processos envolvidos, ao mesmo tempo que provoque a discussão sobreo mesmo e, por consequência, o seu aprimoramento.

  6. New approaches to the treatments of short bowel syndrome-associated intestinal failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Palle B

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Teduglutide, a recombinant analog of human glucagon-like peptide 2, has recently been approved in the US and Europe (Gattex and Revestive, respectively) as the first targeted treatment of short bowel syndrome-associated intestinal failure (SBS-IF). Glucagon-like peptide 2...... improves structural and functional intestinal adaptation following intestinal resection by decelerating a rapid gastric emptying, by decreasing gastric hypersecretion, by increasing intestinal blood flow and by promoting intestinal growth. This review summarizes the findings from phase 2 and 3 studies...... energy losses by approximately 0.8 MJ/day (∼200 kcal/day). In two subsequent 24-week, phase 3 studies, teduglutide reduced the need for parenteral support in the same magnitude. Teduglutide had an acceptable tolerability profile, where adverse events generally were of gastrointestinal origin consistent...

  7. Isozyme differences in barley mutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AI-Jibouri, A A.M.; Dham, K M [Department of Botany, Nuclear Research Centre, Baghdad (Iraq)

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Thirty mutants (M{sub 11}) of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) induced by physical and chemical mutagens were analysed for isozyme composition using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Results show that these mutants were different in the isozymes leucine aminopeptidase, esterase and peroxidase. The differences included the number of forms of each enzyme, relative mobility value and their intensity on the gel. Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase isozyme was found in six molecular forms and these forms were similar in all mutants. (author)

  8. Isozyme differences in barley mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AI-Jibouri, A.A.M.; Dham, K.M.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Thirty mutants (M 11 ) of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) induced by physical and chemical mutagens were analysed for isozyme composition using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Results show that these mutants were different in the isozymes leucine aminopeptidase, esterase and peroxidase. The differences included the number of forms of each enzyme, relative mobility value and their intensity on the gel. Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase isozyme was found in six molecular forms and these forms were similar in all mutants. (author)

  9. Biallelic Variants in OTUD6B Cause an Intellectual Disability Syndrome Associated with Seizures and Dysmorphic Features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santiago-Sim, Teresa; Burrage, Lindsay C; Ebstein, Frédéric

    2017-01-01

    regulators of the ubiquitin system. OTUD6B encodes a member of the ovarian tumor domain (OTU)-containing subfamily of deubiquitinating enzymes. Herein, we report biallelic pathogenic variants in OTUD6B in 12 individuals from 6 independent families with an intellectual disability syndrome associated...

  10. Evaluation of tall rice mutant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakim, L.; Azam, M.A.; Miah, A.J.; Mansur, M.A.; Akanda, H.R.

    1989-01-01

    One tall mutant (Mut NS1) of rice variety Nizersail was put to multilocation on-farm trial. It showed improvement over the parent in respect of by earlier maturity and higher grain yield at all locations and thus it appears as an improved mutant of Nizersail. (author). 6 refs

  11. Bilateral simultaneous traumatic upper arm compartment syndromes associated with anabolic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erturan, Gurhan; Davies, Nev; Williams, Huw; Deo, Sunny

    2013-01-01

    Acute compartment syndrome, a surgical emergency, is defined as increased pressure in an osseofascial space. The resulting reduction of capillary perfusion to that compartment requires prompt fasciotomy. Treatment delay has a poor prognosis, and is associated with muscle and nerve ischemia, resultant infarction, and late-onset contractures. We report a case of traumatic bilateral upper limb acute compartment syndrome associated with anabolic steroids, requiring bilateral emergency fasciotomies. A 25-year-old male bodybuilder taking anabolic steroids, with no past medical history, presented to the Emergency Department 25 min after a road traffic accident. Secondary survey confirmed injuries to both upper limbs with no distal neurovascular deficit. Plain radiographs demonstrated bilateral metaphyseal fractures of the distal humeri. Within 2 h of the accident, the patient developed clinical features that were consistent with bilateral upper arm compartment syndrome. Bilateral fasciotomies of both anterior and posterior compartments were performed, confirming clinical suspicion. We suggest consideration of a history of anabolic steroid use when evaluating patients with extremity trauma. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A Case of Swyer Syndrome Associated with Advanced Gonadal Dysgerminoma Involving Long Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salete Da Silva Rios

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Swyer syndrome is caused by abnormal sex differentiation during the embryonic period, resulting in incomplete intrauterine masculinization and undifferentiated gonads. The current case report describes a patient with Swyer syndrome associated with stage 3 gonadal dysgerminoma who has survived for 23 years. At age 18, this patient sought assistance for primary amenorrhea from the Gynecological Services Department of the University of Brasília Hospital. A physical examination revealed that the patient was at Tanner stage 4 with respect to axillary hair, breasts, and pubic hair; she presented with a eutrophic vagina and a small cervix. She was treated with a combination of estrogens and progestogens to induce cycling. Approximately 4 years later, a complex tumor was found and resected; a histopathological analysis revealed that this tumor was a right adnexal dysgerminoma with peritoneal affection. The patient was also subjected to chemotherapy. Her follow-up has continued to the present time, with no signs of tumor recurrence. In conclusion, this report describes an extremely rare case in which Swyer syndrome was associated with ovarian dysgerminoma; relative to similar patients, the described patient has survived for an unusually prolonged time.

  13. Hereditary syndromes associated with the congenital heart diseases in Azerbaijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Gadzhieva

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the study of the incidence and structure of the genetic syndromes associated with congenital heart diseases in Azerbaijan. The results of observation of 430 children with congenital heart diseases, which have been stayed in the Child Department of Scientific Surgery Center named after Academician M.A. Topchubashov during 2010-2015 period, have been analyzed. It was demonstrated that the incidence of the chromosomal and monogenic pathological conditions is 6.5±1.2% (28 children among the above population. The chromosomal syndromes were diagnosed in 20 (4.7±1.0% children, monogenic ones – in 8 (1.9+0.7% children. The chromosomal pathological condition was mostly presented with the Down’s syndrome (in 12 patents. As to the monogenic syndromes, it was mostly the heterotoxic syndrome (4 children. These data testify that in spite of the multifactorial genesis of the most of the congenital heart diseases and role of the unfavorable factors of the antenatal period, the genetic component influences with a great importance upon the prevalence rate of the malformations. 

  14. Botulinum Toxin for the Management of Sjögren Syndrome-Associated Recurrent Parotitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Luke M; Palme, Carsten E; Riffat, Faruque; Mahant, Neil

    2016-12-01

    Recurrent parotitis is a rare manifestation of Sjögren syndrome. The management of recurrent parotitis is challenging because conservative methods may be of limited efficacy and invasive approaches carry the risk of complications. Botulinum toxin has been shown to reduce salivary flow, and consequently, the results of its use in the management of recurrent parotitis have been encouraging. A 65-year-old female patient with recurrent parotitis due to Sjögren syndrome was referred to us, complaining of weekly bouts of inflammation. She required a course of antibiotics monthly to control bacterial superinfections. We treated her with onabotulinumtoxinA injections into both parotid glands at regular intervals. After her second injection cycle, she denied further inflammatory bouts, has not required antibiotics in more than 36 months, and denied any side effects. Botulinum toxin may be a safe and effective method of treating Sjögren syndrome-associated recurrent parotitis. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Primary biliary cirrhosis--autoimmune hepatitis overlap syndrome associated with dermatomyositis, autoimmune thyroiditis and antiphospholipid syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamfil, Cristina; Candrea, Elisabeta; Berki, Emese; Popov, Horațiu I; Radu, Pompilia I; Rednic, Simona

    2015-03-01

    Autoimmune liver diseases may be associated with extrahepatic autoimmune pathology. We report the case of a 52-year old woman who initially presented to the gastroenterology department for extreme fatigue, pale stools, dark urine and pruritus. Laboratory tests showed significant cholestasis and elevation of aminotransferase levels. Immunological tests revealed positive antinuclear (ANA=1:320) and antimitochondrial antibodies (AMA=1:40) with negative anti-smooth muscle and liver kidney microsomal type 1 antibodies. The biopsy was compatible with overlap syndrome type 1. The patient was commenced on immunosuppressive therapy according to standard of care (azathioprine 50mg, ursodeoxycholic acid and prednisone 0.5mg/kg), with moderate biochemical improvement. She subsequently developed proximal symmetrical weakness and cutaneous involvement and was diagnosed with biopsy-proven dermatomyositis. The immunosuppressive regimen was intensified to 150 mg azathioprine. At the three-month follow-up, her symptoms subsided and aminotransferases and muscle enzymes normalized. Upon further investigation the patient was diagnosed with autoimmune thyroiditis and antiphospholipid syndrome. To our knowledge, this is the first case of primary biliary cirrhosis - autoimmune hepatitis overlap syndrome associated with dermatomyositis, autoimmune thyroiditis and antiphospholipid syndrome.

  16. The Swedish mutant barley collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Full text: The Swedish mutation research programme in barley began about 50 years ago and has mainly been carried out at Svaloev in co-operation with the institute of Genetics at the University of Lund. The collection has been produced from different Swedish high-yielding spring barley varieties, using the following mutagens: X-rays, neutrons, several organic chemical compounds such as ethyleneimine, several sulfonate derivatives and the inorganic chemical mutagen sodium azide. Nearly 10,000 barley mutants are stored in the Nordic Gene Bank and documented in databases developed by Udda Lundquist, Svaloev AB. The collection consists of the following nine categories with 94 different types of mutants: 1. Mutants with changes in the spike and spikelets; 2. Changes in culm length and culm composition; 3. Changes in growth types; 4. Physiological mutants; 5. Changes in awns; 6. Changes in seed size and shape; 7. Changes in leaf blades; 8. Changes in anthocyanin and colour; 9. Resistance to barley powdery mildew. Barley is one of the most thoroughly investigated crops in terms of induction of mutations and mutation genetics. So far, about half of the mutants stored at the Nordic Gene Bank, have been analysed genetically; They constitute, however, only a minority of the 94 different mutant types. The genetic analyses have given valuable insights into the mutation process but also into the genetic architecture of various characters. A number of mutants of two-row barley have been registered and commercially released. One of the earliest released, Mari, an early maturing, daylength neutral, straw stiff mutant, is still grown in Iceland. The Swedish mutation material has been used in Sweden, but also in other countries, such as Denmark, Germany, and USA, for various studies providing a better understanding of the barley genome. The collection will be immensely valuable for future molecular genetical analyses of clone mutant genes. (author)

  17. The Swedish mutant barley collection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-07-01

    Full text: The Swedish mutation research programme in barley began about 50 years ago and has mainly been carried out at Svaloev in co-operation with the institute of Genetics at the University of Lund. The collection has been produced from different Swedish high-yielding spring barley varieties, using the following mutagens: X-rays, neutrons, several organic chemical compounds such as ethyleneimine, several sulfonate derivatives and the inorganic chemical mutagen sodium azide. Nearly 10,000 barley mutants are stored in the Nordic Gene Bank and documented in databases developed by Udda Lundquist, Svaloev AB. The collection consists of the following nine categories with 94 different types of mutants: 1. Mutants with changes in the spike and spikelets; 2. Changes in culm length and culm composition; 3. Changes in growth types; 4. Physiological mutants; 5. Changes in awns; 6. Changes in seed size and shape; 7. Changes in leaf blades; 8. Changes in anthocyanin and colour; 9. Resistance to barley powdery mildew. Barley is one of the most thoroughly investigated crops in terms of induction of mutations and mutation genetics. So far, about half of the mutants stored at the Nordic Gene Bank, have been analysed genetically; They constitute, however, only a minority of the 94 different mutant types. The genetic analyses have given valuable insights into the mutation process but also into the genetic architecture of various characters. A number of mutants of two-row barley have been registered and commercially released. One of the earliest released, Mari, an early maturing, daylength neutral, straw stiff mutant, is still grown in Iceland. The Swedish mutation material has been used in Sweden, but also in other countries, such as Denmark, Germany, and USA, for various studies providing a better understanding of the barley genome. The collection will be immensely valuable for future molecular genetical analyses of clone mutant genes. (author)

  18. Analysis of Chemokines and Receptors Expression Profile in the Myelin Mutant Taiep Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe Soto-Rodriguez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Taiep rat has a failure in myelination and remyelination processes leading to a state of hypomyelination throughout its life. Chemokines, which are known to play a role in inflammation, are also involved in the remyelination process. We aimed to demonstrate that remyelination-stimulating factors are altered in the brainstem of 1- and 6-month-old taiep rats. We used a Rat RT2 Profiler PCR Array to assess mRNA expression of 84 genes coding for cytokines, chemokines, and their receptors. We also evaluated protein levels of CCL2, CCR1, CCR2, CCL5, CCR5, CCR8, CXCL1, CXCR2, CXCR4, FGF2, and VEGFA by ELISA. Sprague-Dawley rats were used as a control. PCR Array procedure showed that proinflammatory cytokines were not upregulated in the taiep rat. In contrast, some mRNA levels of beta and alpha chemokines were upregulated in 1-month-old rats, but CXCR4 was downregulated at their 6 months of age. ELISA results showed that CXCL1, CCL2, CCR2, CCR5, CCR8, and CXCR4 protein levels were decreased in brainstem at the age of 6 months. These results suggest the presence of a chronic neuroinflammation process with deficiency of remyelination-stimulating factors (CXCL1, CXCR2, and CXCR4, which might account for the demyelination in the taiep rat.

  19. Lynch Syndrome Associated Colon Adenocarcinoma Resembling Lymphoma on Fluoro-Deoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aparici, Carina Mari; Win, Aung Zaw

    2015-01-01

    The patient was a 46-year-old Asian male diagnosed with lynch syndrome associated colon adenocarcinoma in the right ascending colon. A presurgical staging 18-fluoro-deoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) found increased metabolic activity in the cervical, axillary, mediastinal, supraclavicular, para-aortic and mesenteric lymph nodes. This pattern of metastasis was very unusual for lynch syndrome associated colon adenocarcinoma and the involvement of those lymph nodes resembles the pattern of spread of lymphoma. He underwent right hemicolectomy and he was subsequently treated with 12 cycles of folinic acid (leucovorin), fluorouracil (5-FU), irinotecan. A restaging FDG-PET/CT at the end of the chemotherapy showed interval decrease in size and metabolic activity in the affected lymph nodes. FDG-PET/CT is a useful imaging modality in following-up the treatment response in colon adenocarcinoma

  20. Genetic Syndromes Associated with Congenital Cardiac Defects and Ophthalmologic Changes - Systematization for Diagnosis in the Clinical Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Priscila H. A.; Souza, Beatriz S.; Pacheco, Eimi N.; Menegazzo, Michele S.; Corrêa, Ivan S.; Zen, Paulo R. G.; Rosa, Rafael F. M.; Cesa, Claudia C.; Pellanda, Lucia C.; Vilela, Manuel A. P.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background: Numerous genetic syndromes associated with heart disease and ocular manifestations have been described. However, a compilation and a summarization of these syndromes for better consultation and comparison have not been performed yet. Objective: The objective of this work is to systematize available evidence in the literature on different syndromes that may cause congenital heart diseases associated with ocular changes, focusing on the types of anatomical and functional ...

  1. [Correction of syndrome-associated metabolic disturbances in patients with erosive and ulcerative lesions in the gastroduodenal system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaĭsinova, A S; Efimenko, N V

    2009-01-01

    Correction of syndrome-associated metabolic disturbances in patients with erosive and ulcerative lesions in the gastroduodenal system was achieved by inclusion of moderately mineralized drinking water (Essentuki No 4 and the like), low-sulfide mineral baths, and essential phospholipids in the system of combined sanatorium-and-spa treatment. This approach allowed metabolic status of the patients to be improved and peroxide homeostasis stabilized. Moreover, it had generalized beneficial effect on the pathological process.

  2. The Germline MLH1 K618A Variant and Susceptibility to Lynch Syndrome-Associated Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Fabiola; Lindor, Noralane M.; Couch, Fergus J.; Highsmith, W. Edward

    2013-01-01

    Missense variants discovered during sequencing of cancer susceptibility genes can be problematic for clinical interpretation. MLH1 K618A, which results from a 2-bp alteration (AAG→GCG) leading to a substitution of lysine to alanine in codon 618, has variously been interpreted as a pathogenic mutation, a variant of unknown significance, and a benign polymorphism. We evaluated the role of MLH1 K618A in predisposition to cancer by genotyping 1512 control subjects to assess its frequency in the general population. We also reviewed the literature concerning MLH1 K618A in families with colorectal cancer. The measured allele frequency of the K618A variant was 0.40%, which is remarkably close to the 0.44% summarized from 2491 control subjects in the literature. K618A was over-represented in families with suspected Lynch syndrome. In 1366 families, the allele frequency was 0.88% (OR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.3 to 3.5; P = 0.006). In studies of sporadic cancers of the type associated with Lynch syndrome, K618A was over-represented in 1742 cases (allele frequency of 0.83) (OR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.2 to 3.2; P = 0.008). We conclude that MLH1 K618A is not a fully penetrant Lynch syndrome mutation, although it is not without effect, appearing to increase the risk of Lynch syndrome-associated tumors approximately twofold. Our systematic assessment approach may be useful for variants in other genes. PMID:22426235

  3. Emerging psychiatric syndromes associated with antivoltage-gated potassium channel complex antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prüss, Harald; Lennox, Belinda R

    2016-11-01

    Antibodies against the voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) were first recognised as having a potential pathogenic role in disorders of the central nervous system in 2001, with VGKC antibodies described in patients with limbic encephalitis, and the subsequent seminal paper describing the clinical phenotype and immunotherapy treatment responsiveness in 13 patients with VGKC antibodies and limbic encephalitis in 2004. These initial case descriptions were of a progressive neuropsychiatric syndrome with abnormalities of mood, sleep and cognition recognised alongside the neurological symptoms of seizures and autonomic instability. The clinical syndromes associated with VGKC complex (VGKCC) antibodies have broadened considerably over the last 15 years, with multiple cases of more restricted 'formes fruste' presentations associated with VGKCC antibodies being described. However, the relevance of antibodies in these cases has remained controversial. The understanding of the pathogenic nature of VGKC antibodies has further advanced since 2010 with the discovery that VGKC antibodies are not usually antibodies against the VGKC subunits themselves, but instead to proteins that are complexed with the potassium channel, in particular leucine-rich, glioma-inactivated protein 1 (LGI1) and contactin-associated protein 2 (Caspr2). Antibodies against these proteins have been associated with particular, although overlapping, clinical phenotypes, each also including neuropsychiatric features. Our aim is to critically review the association between VGKCC, LGI1 and Caspr2 antibodies with isolated psychiatric presentations-with a focus on cognitive impairment, mood disorders and psychosis. We recommend that screening for VGKCC, LGI1 and Caspr2 antibodies be considered for those with neuropsychiatric presentations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. Mutants of alfalfa mosaic virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roosien, J.

    1983-01-01

    In this thesis the isolation and characterization of a number of mutants of alfalfa mosaic virus, a plant virus with a coat protein dependent genome, is described. Thermo-sensitive (ts) mutants were selected since, at least theoretically, ts mutations can be present in all virus coded functions. It was found that a high percentage of spontaneous mutants, isolated because of their aberrant symptoms, were ts. The majority of these isolates could grow at the non-permissive temperature in the presence of a single wild type (wt) component. To increase the mutation rate virus preparations were treated with several mutagens. After nitrous acid treatment or irradiation with ultraviolet light, an increase in the level of mutations was observed. UV irradiation was preferred since it did not require large amounts of purified viral components. During the preliminary characterization of potential ts mutants the author also obtained one structural and several symptom mutants which were analysed further (chapter 7, 8 and 9). The properties of the ts mutants are described in chapter 3-7. (Auth.)

  5. Root hair mutants of barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engvild, K.C.; Rasmussen, K.

    2005-01-01

    Barley mutants without root hairs or with short or reduced root hairs were isolated among M 2 seeds of 'Lux' barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) after acidified sodium azide mutagenesis. Root hair mutants are investigated intensively in Arabidopsis where about 40 genes are known. A few root hair mutants are known in maize, rice, barley and tomato. Many plants without root hairs grow quite well with good plant nutrition, and mutants have been used for investigations of uptake of strongly bound nutrients like phosphorus, iron, zinc and silicon. Seed of 'Lux' barley (Sejet Plant Breeding, Denmark) were soaked overnight, and then treated with 1.5-millimolarsodium azide in 0.1 molar sodium phosphate buffer, pH 3, for 2.5 hours according to the IAEA Manual on Mutation Breeding (2nd Ed.). After rinsing in tap water and air-drying, the M 2 seeds were sown in the field the same day. Spikes, 4-6 per M 1 plant, were harvested. The mutation frequency was similar to that obtained with other barley cultivars from which low-phytate mutants were isolated [5]. Seeds were germinated on black filter paper in tap water for 3 or 4 days before scoring for root hair mutants

  6. Mutants induced in winter rye (Secale cereale L.): Short straw-mutant No. 2714 and late-senescence mutant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muszynski, S; Darlewska, M [Department of Plant Breeding and Seed Science, Warsaw Agricultural University, Warsaw (Poland)

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Mutants were induced by treating dormant seeds with ionizing radiation (fast neutrons) or chemicals (N-nitroso-N-ethyl urea or sodium azide). Among several mutants obtained, of special value is the short-straw mutant No. 2714 and a late senescent mutant. (author)

  7. Hirschsprung disease and congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT): a novel syndromic association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pini Prato, Alessio; Musso, Marco; Ceccherini, Isabella; Mattioli, Girolamo; Giunta, Camilla; Ghiggeri, Gian Marco; Jasonni, Vincenzo

    2009-03-01

    a novel syndromic association. These results need to be confirmed in a larger series. At present, we strongly suggest considering ultrasound screening of the urinary tract in every patient with a diagnosis of HSCR.

  8. Macrophage activation syndrome associated with griscelli syndrome type 2: case report and review of literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefsafi, Zakia; Hasbaoui, Brahim El; Kili, Amina; Agadr, Aomar; Khattab, Mohammed

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) is a severe and potentially fatal life-threatening condition associated with excessive activation and expansion of T cells with macrophages and a high expression of cytokines, resulting in an uncontrolled inflammatory response, with high levels of macrophage colony-stimulating factor and causing multiorgan damage. This syndrome is classified into primary (genetic/familial) or secondary forms to several etiologies, such as infections, neoplasias mainly hemopathies or autoimmune diseases. It is characterised clinically by unremitting high fever, pancytopaenia, hepatosplenomegaly, hepatic dysfunction, encephalopathy, coagulation abnormalities and sharply increased levels of ferritin. The pathognomonic feature of the syndrome is seen on bone marrow examination, which frequently, though not always, reveals numerous morphologically benign macrophages exhibiting haemophagocytic activity. Because MAS can follow a rapidly fatal course, prompt recognition of its clinical and laboratory features and immediate therapeutic intervention are essential. However, it is difficult to distinguish underlying disease flare, infectious complications or medication side effects from MAS. Although, the pathogenesis of MAS is unclear, the hallmark of the syndrome is an uncontrolled activation and proliferation of T lymphocytes and macrophages, leading to massive hypersecretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Mutations in cytolytic pathway genes are increasingly being recognised in children who develop MAS in his secondary form. We present here a case of Macrophage activation syndrome associated with Griscelli syndrome type 2 in a 3-years-old boy who had been referred due to severe sepsis with non-remitting high fever, generalized lymphoadenopathy and hepato-splenomegaly. Laboratory data revealed pancytopenia with high concentrations of triglycerides, ferritin and lactic dehydrogenase while the bone marrow revealed numerous morphologically benign

  9. Production of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-associated retrovirus in human and nonhuman cells transfected with an infectious molecular clone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, A.; Gendelman, H.E.; Koenig, S.; Folks, T.; Willey, R.; Rabson, A.; Martin, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    The authors considered an infectious molecular clone of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-associated retrovirus. Upon transfection, this clone directed the production of infectious virus particles in a wide variety of cells in addition to human T4 cells. The progeny, infectious virions, were synthesized in mouse, mink, monkey, and several human non-T cell lines, indicating the absence of any intracellular obstacle to viral RNA or protein production or assembly. During the course of these studies, a human colon carcinoma cell line, exquisitely sensitive to DNA transfection, was identified

  10. Tenth annual scientific conference of the Prader-Willi Syndrome Association (USA), July 19, 1995, Seattle, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holm, V.A.; Hudgins, L. [Univ. of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA (United States); Cassidy, S.B. [Univ. of Washington School of Medicine, and Children`s Hospital and Medical Center, Seattle, WA (United States)]|[Univ. Hospitals of Cleveland, OH (United States)

    1996-09-06

    Each year for the last 10 years, scientists conducting research on Prader-Willi syndrome have come together to exchange information during a scientific conference held in conjunction with the annual Prader-Willi Syndrome Association (USA) meeting. Presentations based on submitted abstracts encompass such varied fields as genetics, endocrinology, pediatrics, nutrition, psychology, psychiatry, and education. This year`s scientific conference was held in Seattle, Washington, on July 19, 1995, in conjunction with the 14th PWSA (USA) meeting held July 20-23. Seventeen reports were presented at the scientific meeting, the abstracts of which follow.

  11. Síndrome de Sweet asociado a neoplasias Sweet's syndrome associated with neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Franco

    2006-10-01

    : idiopathic, parainflammatory, paraneoplastic, drug-induced, and pregnancy-related. Twenty percent of cases are associated with malignancies; 85% out of them involve hematologic alignancies and the remaining 15%, solid tumors. A series of seven cases of Sweet's syndrome associated with neoplasms which were diagnosed from 2002 to 2006 is presented. Six cases were related to oncohematologic diseases and one to solid tumors. These results highlight the importance of the diagnosis of the syndrome, since it may predict tumor relapse or underlying disease progression. The timely use of diagnostic and treatment methods may improve the quality of life of these patients. The fact that oncology patients take multiple medications (a colony-stimulating factor which may be associated with the onset of this entity must also be considered in excluding possible causes.

  12. Larger aggregates of mutant seipin in Celia's Encephalopathy, a new protein misfolding neurodegenerative disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Riquelme, Alejandro; Sánchez-Iglesias, Sofía; Rábano, Alberto; Guillén-Navarro, Encarna; Domingo-Jiménez, Rosario; Ramos, Adriana; Rosa, Isaac; Senra, Ana; Nilsson, Peter; García, Ángel; Araújo-Vilar, David; Requena, Jesús R

    2015-11-01

    Celia's Encephalopathy (MIM #615924) is a recently discovered fatal neurodegenerative syndrome associated with a new BSCL2 mutation (c.985C>T) that results in an aberrant isoform of seipin (Celia seipin). This mutation is lethal in both homozygosity and compounded heterozygosity with a lipodystrophic BSCL2 mutation, resulting in a progressive encephalopathy with fatal outcomes at ages 6-8. Strikingly, heterozygous carriers are asymptomatic, conflicting with the gain of toxic function attributed to this mutation. Here we report new key insights about the molecular pathogenic mechanism of this new syndrome. Intranuclear inclusions containing mutant seipin were found in brain tissue from a homozygous patient suggesting a pathogenic mechanism similar to other neurodegenerative diseases featuring brain accumulation of aggregated, misfolded proteins. Sucrose gradient distribution showed that mutant seipin forms much larger aggregates as compared with wild type (wt) seipin, indicating an impaired oligomerization. On the other hand, the interaction between wt and Celia seipin confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation (CoIP) assays, together with the identification of mixed oligomers in sucrose gradient fractionation experiments can explain the lack of symptoms in heterozygous carriers. We propose that the increased aggregation and subsequent impaired oligomerization of Celia seipin leads to cell death. In heterozygous carriers, wt seipin might prevent the damage caused by mutant seipin through its sequestration into harmless mixed oligomers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Mutant power: using mutant allele collections for yeast functional genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Kaitlyn L; Kumar, Anuj

    2016-03-01

    The budding yeast has long served as a model eukaryote for the functional genomic analysis of highly conserved signaling pathways, cellular processes and mechanisms underlying human disease. The collection of reagents available for genomics in yeast is extensive, encompassing a growing diversity of mutant collections beyond gene deletion sets in the standard wild-type S288C genetic background. We review here three main types of mutant allele collections: transposon mutagen collections, essential gene collections and overexpression libraries. Each collection provides unique and identifiable alleles that can be utilized in genome-wide, high-throughput studies. These genomic reagents are particularly informative in identifying synthetic phenotypes and functions associated with essential genes, including those modeled most effectively in complex genetic backgrounds. Several examples of genomic studies in filamentous/pseudohyphal backgrounds are provided here to illustrate this point. Additionally, the limitations of each approach are examined. Collectively, these mutant allele collections in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the related pathogenic yeast Candida albicans promise insights toward an advanced understanding of eukaryotic molecular and cellular biology. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Mutant genes in pea breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiecicki, W.K.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Mutations of genes Dpo (dehiscing pods) and A (anthocyanin synthesis) played a role in pea domestication. A number of other genes were important in cultivar development for 3 types of usage (dry seeds, green vegetable types, fodder), e.g. fn, fna, le, p, v, fas and af. New genes (induced and spontaneous), are important for present ideotypes and are registered by the Pisum Genetics Association (PGA). Comparison of a pea variety ideotype with the variation available in gene banks shows that breeders need 'new' features. In mutation induction experiments, genotype, mutagen and method of treatment (e.g. combined or fractionated doses) are varied for broadening the mutation spectrum and selecting more genes of agronomic value. New genes are genetically analysed. In Poland, some mutant varieties with the gene afila were registered, controlling lodging by a shorter stem and a higher number of internodes. Really non-lodging pea varieties could strongly increase seed yield. But the probability of detecting a major gene for lodging resistance is low. Therefore, mutant genes with smaller influence on plant architecture are sought, to combine their effect by crossing. Promising seem to be the genes rogue, reductus and arthritic as well as a number of mutant genes not yet genetically identified. The gene det for terminal inflorescence - similarly to Vicia faba - changes plant development. Utilisation of assimilates and ripening should be better. Improvement of harvest index should give higher seed yield. A number of genes controlling disease resistance are well known (eg. Fw, Fnw, En, mo and sbm). Important in mass screening of resistance are closely linked gene markers. Pea gene banks collect respective lines, but mutants induced in highly productive cultivars would be better. Inducing gene markers sometimes seems to be easier than transfer by crossing. Mutation induction in pea breeding is probably more important because a high number of monogenic features are

  15. LEOPARD syndrome-associated SHP2 mutation confers leanness and protection from diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajan, Mylène; Batut, Aurélie; Cadoudal, Thomas; Deleruyelle, Simon; Le Gonidec, Sophie; Saint Laurent, Céline; Vomscheid, Maëlle; Wanecq, Estelle; Tréguer, Karine; De Rocca Serra-Nédélec, Audrey; Vinel, Claire; Marques, Marie-Adeline; Pozzo, Joffrey; Kunduzova, Oksana; Salles, Jean-Pierre; Tauber, Maithé; Raynal, Patrick; Cavé, Hélène; Edouard, Thomas; Valet, Philippe; Yart, Armelle

    2014-10-21

    LEOPARD syndrome (multiple Lentigines, Electrocardiographic conduction abnormalities, Ocular hypertelorism, Pulmonary stenosis, Abnormal genitalia, Retardation of growth, sensorineural Deafness; LS), also called Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines (NSML), is a rare autosomal dominant disorder associating various developmental defects, notably cardiopathies, dysmorphism, and short stature. It is mainly caused by mutations of the PTPN11 gene that catalytically inactivate the tyrosine phosphatase SHP2 (Src-homology 2 domain-containing phosphatase 2). Besides its pleiotropic roles during development, SHP2 plays key functions in energetic metabolism regulation. However, the metabolic outcomes of LS mutations have never been examined. Therefore, we performed an extensive metabolic exploration of an original LS mouse model, expressing the T468M mutation of SHP2, frequently borne by LS patients. Our results reveal that, besides expected symptoms, LS animals display a strong reduction of adiposity and resistance to diet-induced obesity, associated with overall better metabolic profile. We provide evidence that LS mutant expression impairs adipogenesis, triggers energy expenditure, and enhances insulin signaling, three features that can contribute to the lean phenotype of LS mice. Interestingly, chronic treatment of LS mice with low doses of MEK inhibitor, but not rapamycin, resulted in weight and adiposity gains. Importantly, preliminary data in a French cohort of LS patients suggests that most of them have lower-than-average body mass index, associated, for tested patients, with reduced adiposity. Altogether, these findings unravel previously unidentified characteristics for LS, which could represent a metabolic benefit for patients, but may also participate to the development or worsening of some traits of the disease. Beyond LS, they also highlight a protective role of SHP2 global LS-mimicking modulation toward the development of obesity and associated disorders.

  16. An extra early mutant of pigeonpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravikesavan, R.; Kalaimagal, T.; Rathnaswamy, R.

    2001-01-01

    The redgram (Cajanus cajan (L.) Huth) variety 'Prabhat DT' was gamma irradiated with 100, 200, 300 and 400 Gy doses. Several mutants have been identified viz., extra early mutants, monostem mutants, obcordifoliate mutants and bi-stigmatic mutants. The extra early mutant was obtained when treated with 100 Gy dose. The mutant was selfed and forwarded from M 2 to M 4 generation. In the M 4 generation the mutant line was raised along with the parental variety. Normal cultural practices were followed and the biometrical observations were recorded. It was observed that for the characters viz., total number of branches per plant, number of pods per plants, seeds per pod, 100 seed weight and seed yield per plant there was no difference between the mutant and parent variety. Whereas, regarding the days to flowering and maturity the mutants were earlier than the parents. The observation was recorded from two hundred plants each. The mutant gives the same yield in 90 days as that of the parent variety in 107 days, which make it an economic mutant

  17. Problem-Solving Test: Tryptophan Operon Mutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a problem-solving test that deals with the regulation of the "trp" operon of "Escherichia coli." Two mutants of this operon are described: in mutant A, the operator region of the operon carries a point mutation so that it is unable to carry out its function; mutant B expresses a "trp" repressor protein unable to bind…

  18. Dwarf mutant of rice variety Seratus Malam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mugiono, P. S.; Soemanggono, A.M.R.

    1989-01-01

    Full text: Seeds of 'Seratus Malam', a local tall upland variety with long panicles and high yield potential were irradiated with 10-50 krad gamma rays in 1983. From 50,000 M 2 plants, 130 semidwarf mutants and 1 dwarf mutant were selected. The dwarf mutant M-362 was obtained from the 10 krad treatment. The mutant shows about 50% reduction in plant height, but also in number of productive tillers. Thus the yield per plant is also significantly less. However, the mutant gene is not allelic to DGWG and therefore may be useful in cross breeding. (author)

  19. PNRI mutant variety: Cordyline 'Afable'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurigue, Fernando B.

    2012-01-01

    Cordyline 'Afable', registered by the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute as NSIC 2009 Or-83, is an induced mutant developed from Cordyline 'Kiwi' by treating stem cuttings with acute gamma radiation from a Cobalt-60 source. The new mutant is identical to Cordyline 'Kiwi' in growth habit but differs in foliage color, and exhibits field resistance to Phytophthora sp., a fungus that causes leaf blight and rot in Ti plants. Results of this mutation breeding experiment showed that leaf color was altered by gamma irradiation and resistance to fungal diseases was improved. It also demonstrated how mutations that occur in nature may be generated artificially. Propagation of cordyline 'Afable' is true-to-type by vegetative propagation methods, such as separation of suckers and offshoots, shoot tip cutting, and top cutting. Aside from landscaping material, terrarium or dish-garden plant, it is ideal as containerized plant for indoor and outdoor use. The leaves or shoots may be harvested as cut foliage for flower arrangements. (author)

  20. Gamma ray induced mutants in Coleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasudevan, K.; Jos, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    The germplasm collection of Chinese potato (Coleus parviflorus Benth) contains almost no variation for yield contributing traits. The crop does not produce seeds. Treatment of underground tubers with 1 kR, 2 kR, 3 kR and 4 kR gamma rays resulted in 50 morphologically different mutants which are maintained as mutant clones. In the M 1 V 1 generation, suspected mutant sprouts, were carefully removed and grown separately. The most interesting mutant types are the following: (i) erect mutant with spoon shaped light green leaves, 30 cm long inflorescences against 20 cm in the control, cylindrical tubers measuring ca. 7.0 cm long and 3 cm girth against 4 cm and 2.5 cm in the control (ii) early mutants 1 and 2, one having less leaf serration, the other having light green small leaves and dwarf type (iii) fleshy leaf mutant, dark green, thick and smooth leaves. Control plants spread almost in 1 m 2 area and bear tubers from the nodes of branches. In the early mutants tuber formation is mainly restricted to the base of the plant, which makes harvest easier. The crop usually matures within 150 - 160 days, the early mutants are ready for harvest 100 days after planting. As the mutants are less spreading, the yield could be increased by closer spacing

  1. Gamma ray induced mutants in Coleus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasudevan, K; Jos, J S [Central Tuber Crops Research Institute, Trivandrum, Kerala (India)

    1988-07-01

    The germplasm collection of Chinese potato (Coleus parviflorus Benth) contains almost no variation for yield contributing traits. The crop does not produce seeds. Treatment of underground tubers with 1 kR, 2 kR, 3 kR and 4 kR gamma rays resulted in 50 morphologically different mutants which are maintained as mutant clones. In the M{sub 1}V{sub 1} generation, suspected mutant sprouts, were carefully removed and grown separately. The most interesting mutant types are the following: (i) erect mutant with spoon shaped light green leaves, 30 cm long inflorescences against 20 cm in the control, cylindrical tubers measuring ca. 7.0 cm long and 3 cm girth against 4 cm and 2.5 cm in the control (ii) early mutants 1 and 2, one having less leaf serration, the other having light green small leaves and dwarf type (iii) fleshy leaf mutant, dark green, thick and smooth leaves. Control plants spread almost in 1 m{sup 2} area and bear tubers from the nodes of branches. In the early mutants tuber formation is mainly restricted to the base of the plant, which makes harvest easier. The crop usually matures within 150 - 160 days, the early mutants are ready for harvest 100 days after planting. As the mutants are less spreading, the yield could be increased by closer spacing.

  2. Sharing mutants and experimental information prepublication using FgMutantDb (https://scabusa.org/FgMutantDb).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Thomas T; Basenko, Evelina; Harb, Omar; Brown, Neil A; Urban, Martin; Hammond-Kosack, Kim E; Bregitzer, Phil P

    2018-06-01

    There is no comprehensive storage for generated mutants of Fusarium graminearum or data associated with these mutants. Instead, researchers relied on several independent and non-integrated databases. FgMutantDb was designed as a simple spreadsheet that is accessible globally on the web that will function as a centralized source of information on F. graminearum mutants. FgMutantDb aids in the maintenance and sharing of mutants within a research community. It will serve also as a platform for disseminating prepublication results as well as negative results that often go unreported. Additionally, the highly curated information on mutants in FgMutantDb will be shared with other databases (FungiDB, Ensembl, PhytoPath, and PHI-base) through updating reports. Here we describe the creation and potential usefulness of FgMutantDb to the F. graminearum research community, and provide a tutorial on its use. This type of database could be easily emulated for other fungal species. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. CTNNB1-mutant colorectal carcinomas with immediate invasive growth: a model of interval cancers in Lynch syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahadova, Aysel; von Knebel Doeberitz, Magnus; Bläker, Hendrik; Kloor, Matthias

    2016-10-01

    The implementation of regular colonoscopy programs has significantly decreased the mortality associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) in Lynch syndrome patients. However, interval CRCs in Lynch syndrome that remain undetected by colonoscopy still represent a substantial problem in the management of the syndrome. One possible reason of interval cancers could be a non-polypous pathway of cancer development. To examine the possibility of a non-polypous pathway of CRC development in Lynch syndrome, we analyzed the histological appearance of 46 Lynch syndrome-associated CRCs and compared them to 34 sporadic microsatellite unstable cancers. We observed that 25 (62.5 %) out of 40 assessable Lynch syndrome-associated carcinomas lacked evidence of polypous growth, compared to 17 (50 %) out of 34 sporadic MSI-H cancers. We detected CTNNB1 mutations in 8 (17.4 %) out of 46 Lynch syndrome-associated cancers compared to 0 out of 34 sporadic MSI-H cancers (p = 0.01). The majority of CTNNB1-mutant cancers presented with a histological appearance suggesting immediate invasive growth. Our results suggest that a distinct subgroup of CRCs in Lynch syndrome may in fact emerge from a non-polypous precursor, thus potentially explaining the phenomenon of interval cancers. Such a non-polypous precursor may be the recently described mismatch repair-deficient crypt focus, which remains invisible for the examiner during colonoscopy. This calls for considering the implementation of active, primary preventive measures in the management of Lynch syndrome. Future studies on pathogenic pathways and precursor lesions in Lynch syndrome are strongly encouraged, and the clinical efficacy of new prevention approaches should be evaluated in prospective clinical trials.

  4. Studies on reduced height mutants in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narahari, P.; Bhagwat, S.G.

    1984-01-01

    Two cross-bred derivatives of the mutant TR5xTR17 and TR21 continued to show promise and were advanced to wider scale testing. TR5 was found to carry a semi-dwarfing gene different from that in IR8. New semi-dwarf mutants were screened from M 2 through M 4 from two separate radiation experiments. The gibberellin response of seedlings of mutant and tester strains was evaluated and crosses of tester stocks and mutant semi-dwarfs were made for genetic analyses. (author)

  5. Differences in histological features and PD-L1 expression between sporadic microsatellite instability and Lynch-syndrome-associated disease in Japanese patients with colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Rin; Yamaguchi, Tatsuro; Iijima, Takeru; Wakaume, Rika; Takao, Misato; Koizumi, Koichi; Hishima, Tsunekazu; Horiguchi, Shin-Ichiro

    2018-06-01

    The field of immunotherapy has recently focused on cancers with microsatellite instability (MSI). These cancers include both Lynch-syndrome-associated tumors, which are caused by mismatch repair (MMR) germline mutations, and sporadic MSI tumors, which are mainly attributed to MLH1 promoter methylation. The present study aimed to clarify differences in the histological and PD-L1 expression profiles between these two types of MSI cancers in Japanese patients. Among 908 cases of colorectal cancer treated via surgical resection from 2008 to 2014, we identified 64 MSI cancers, including 36 sporadic MSI and 28 Lynch-syndrome-associated cancers, using a BRAF V600E mutation analysis and MLH1 methylation analysis. Of the latter subgroup, 21 (75%) harbored MMR germline mutations. The following were more frequent with sporadic MSI than with Lynch syndrome associated cancers: poor differentiation (50.0 vs. 7.1%, P = 0.0002), especially solid type (30.6 vs. 3.6%, P = 0.0061); medullary morphology (19.4 and 0%, P = 0.015), Crohn-like lymphoid reaction (50.0 vs. 25.0%, P = 0.042), and PD-L1 expression (25.0 vs. 3.6%, P = 0.034). However, the groups did not differ in terms of the mean invasive front and intratumoral CD8-positive cell densities. In a logistic regression analysis, PD-L1 expression correlated with poor differentiation (odds ratio: 7.65, 95% confidence interval: 1.55-37.7, P = 0.012), but not with the difference between sporadic MSI cancer and Lynch-syndrome-associated cancer (odds ratio: 4.74, 95% confidence interval: 0.50-45.0, P = 0.176). Therefore, compared with Lynch-syndrome-associated cancers, sporadic MSI cancers are more frequently solid, poorly differentiated medullary cancers that express PD-L1.

  6. Mild aerobic exercise blocks elastin fiber fragmentation and aortic dilatation in a mouse model of Marfan syndrome associated aortic aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Christine; Nielsen, Cory; Alex, Ramona; Cooper, Kimbal; Farney, Michael; Gaufin, Douglas; Cui, Jason Z; van Breemen, Cornelis; Broderick, Tom L; Vallejo-Elias, Johana; Esfandiarei, Mitra

    2017-07-01

    Regular low-impact physical activity is generally allowed in patients with Marfan syndrome, a connective tissue disorder caused by heterozygous mutations in the fibrillin-1 gene. However, being above average in height encourages young adults with this syndrome to engage in high-intensity contact sports, which unfortunately increases the risk for aortic aneurysm and rupture, the leading cause of death in Marfan syndrome. In this study, we investigated the effects of voluntary (cage-wheel) or forced (treadmill) aerobic exercise at different intensities on aortic function and structure in a mouse model of Marfan syndrome. Four-week-old Marfan and wild-type mice were subjected to voluntary and forced exercise regimens or sedentary lifestyle for 5 mo. Thoracic aortic tissue was isolated and subjected to structural and functional studies. Our data showed that exercise improved aortic wall structure and function in Marfan mice and that the beneficial effect was biphasic, with an optimum at low intensity exercise (55-65% V̇o 2max ) and tapering off at a higher intensity of exercise (85% V̇o 2max ). The mechanism underlying the reduced elastin fragmentation in Marfan mice involved reduction of the expression of matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 within the aortic wall. These findings present the first evidence of potential beneficial effects of mild exercise on the structural integrity of the aortic wall in Marfan syndrome associated aneurysm. Our finding that moderate, but not strenuous, exercise protects aortic structure and function in a mouse model of Marfan syndrome could have important implications for the medical care of young Marfan patients. NEW & NOTEWORTHY The present study provides conclusive scientific evidence that daily exercise can improve aortic health in a mouse model of Marfan syndrome associated aortic aneurysm, and it establishes the threshold for the exercise intensity beyond which exercise may not be as protective. These findings establish a platform

  7. Genetic fingerprinting of mutant rose cultivars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S; Prasad, K V; Singh, K P; Singh, A.P. [Division of Floriculture and Landscaping, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, Pusa, New Delhi (India)], E-mail: kvprasad66@gmail.com

    2008-07-01

    Six rose mutants evolved at the Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi from four parent cultivars were characterized based on RAPD markers. Contrary to the earlier findings our effort has conclusively proven that the RAPD markers are indeed robust tools to discern the mutants from their parents. Among 40 primers screened, 7 primers produced inconsistent banding pattern. The number of polymorphic bands varied between 4 (OPA 14) and 10 (OPA1) with an average of 6.5 bands per primer. The percentage polymorphism ranged from 62.5 (OPM 9) to 100 percent (OPA 1). Most of the primers produced monomorphic bands between parent and mutant rose cultivars. When primer OPA 2 was used a specific band of 2.5 kb was noticed in mutant cv. Pusa Urmil and cv. Pusa Abhishek but was absent in parent cv. Jantar Mantar. A polymorphic band of 750 bp was noticed in the parent Kiss of Fire and helped in differentiating the parent from its mutant when amplified with OPK 3. Primer OPS 16 produced discriminatory band of 800 bp in mutant cv. Pink Sport of Montezuma while it was absent in its parent cv. Montezuma. Another specific band of 650 bp was present in parent cv. Montezuma and absent in its mutant cv. Pink Sport of Montezuma signifying the uniqueness of the mutant. Primer OPM 5 brought out distinct polymorphism among the parent Jantar Mantar and its three mutants with absence of a specific band of 1.5 kb in the parent. The four parents and 6 mutants were divided into four distinct groups in the Dendogram constructed by UPGMA method. The most genetically similar cultivar among the 10 cultivars analyzed are Montezuma and its pink sport of Montezuma whereas Abhisarika a mutant of cv. Kiss of Fire was distinctly different and formed a separate cluster. (author)

  8. Generation and characterization of pigment mutants of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Compared to the wild CC-124, these mutants are characterized by a decrease in chlorophyll a & b content and an increase in carotenoids. The lowest decrease in chlorophyll a was 3 to 4 folds, while the highest increase in carotenoids was 2 to 4 folds. The result of bio-test, using the resulting pigment mutant of C. reinhardtii ...

  9. Calf Compartment Syndrome associated with the Use of an Intra-osseous Line in an Adult Patient: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malhotra R

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of a lower limb compartment syndrome associated with the use of an intra-osseous line inserted into the proximal tibia in an adult patient. An unconscious 59-year old male with multiple injuries presented to our Emergency Department after a road traffic accident. Bilateral proximal tibial intra osseous-lines were inserted due to poor venous access. After resuscitation his left leg was noted to be tense and swollen with absent pulses. Acute compartment syndrome was diagnosed both clinically and with compartment pressure measurement. Two incision fasciotomy on his left lower leg was performed. Intra osseous-lines in the proximal tibia are increasingly used in adult patients in the pre-hospital setting by paramedics and emergency physicians. Their use, along with the possible complications of these devices, such as the development of compartment syndrome or osteomyelitis leading to amputation, is well reported in the paediatric literature. To the best of our knowledge, there have not been any previous reports of complications in the adult patient. We present a case of lower leg compartment syndrome developing from the use of an intra-osseous line in the proximal tibia in an adult patient. With the increasing use of intra-osseous lines in adult patients, clinicians should be aware of the possibility of developing compartment syndrome which may lead to disability or amputation in severe cases.

  10. Genetic Syndromes Associated with Congenital Cardiac Defects and Ophthalmologic Changes - Systematization for Diagnosis in the Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Priscila H A; Souza, Beatriz S; Pacheco, Eimi N; Menegazzo, Michele S; Corrêa, Ivan S; Zen, Paulo R G; Rosa, Rafael F M; Cesa, Claudia C; Pellanda, Lucia C; Vilela, Manuel A P

    2018-01-01

    Numerous genetic syndromes associated with heart disease and ocular manifestations have been described. However, a compilation and a summarization of these syndromes for better consultation and comparison have not been performed yet. The objective of this work is to systematize available evidence in the literature on different syndromes that may cause congenital heart diseases associated with ocular changes, focusing on the types of anatomical and functional changes. A systematic search was performed on Medline electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, Lilacs) of articles published until January 2016. Eligibility criteria were case reports or review articles that evaluated the association of ophthalmic and cardiac abnormalities in genetic syndrome patients younger than 18 years. The most frequent genetic syndromes were: Down Syndrome, Velo-cardio-facial / DiGeorge Syndrome, Charge Syndrome and Noonan Syndrome. The most associated cardiac malformations with ocular findings were interatrial communication (77.4%), interventricular communication (51.6%), patent ductus arteriosus (35.4%), pulmonary artery stenosis (25.8%) and tetralogy of Fallot (22.5%). Due to their clinical variability, congenital cardiac malformations may progress asymptomatically to heart defects associated with high morbidity and mortality. For this reason, the identification of extra-cardiac characteristics that may somehow contribute to the diagnosis of the disease or reveal its severity is of great relevance.

  11. Genetic Syndromes Associated with Congenital Cardiac Defects and Ophthalmologic Changes - Systematization for Diagnosis in the Clinical Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila H. A. Oliveira

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Numerous genetic syndromes associated with heart disease and ocular manifestations have been described. However, a compilation and a summarization of these syndromes for better consultation and comparison have not been performed yet. Objective: The objective of this work is to systematize available evidence in the literature on different syndromes that may cause congenital heart diseases associated with ocular changes, focusing on the types of anatomical and functional changes. Method: A systematic search was performed on Medline electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, Lilacs of articles published until January 2016. Eligibility criteria were case reports or review articles that evaluated the association of ophthalmic and cardiac abnormalities in genetic syndrome patients younger than 18 years. Results: The most frequent genetic syndromes were: Down Syndrome, Velo-cardio-facial / DiGeorge Syndrome, Charge Syndrome and Noonan Syndrome. The most associated cardiac malformations with ocular findings were interatrial communication (77.4%, interventricular communication (51.6%, patent ductus arteriosus (35.4%, pulmonary artery stenosis (25.8% and tetralogy of Fallot (22.5%. Conclusion: Due to their clinical variability, congenital cardiac malformations may progress asymptomatically to heart defects associated with high morbidity and mortality. For this reason, the identification of extra-cardiac characteristics that may somehow contribute to the diagnosis of the disease or reveal its severity is of great relevance.

  12. Mazabraud syndrome associated with McCune-Albright syndrome: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biazzo, Alessio; Di Bernardo, Andrea; Parafioriti, Antonina; Confalonieri, Norberto

    2017-08-23

    Mazabraud syndrome is a very rare benign disorder characterized by the association of monostotic or polyostotic fibrous dysplasia and one or multiple intramuscular myxomas. McCune -Albright syndrome is a rare benign disorder characterized by the association of polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, cafè-au-lait skin pigmentations and endocrine dysfunction, such as precocious puberty, diabetes mellitus, goiter and breast fibroadenomatosis. The association of Mazabraud syndrome and McCune-Albright in the same patient is an anecdotal event. We report the case of a 28-year-old girl with Mazabraud syndrome associated with McCune-Albright syndrome. Our literature review shows that in these patients there is a higher risk of malignant transformation of fibrous dysplasia into osteosarcoma, confirming previous reports. Conversely, no malignant transformation has been reported for myxomas in isolated Mazabraud syndrome or in the association with McCune-Albright syndrome. We conclude that these patients should be scheduled to a close and long-term follow-up.

  13. Causes of death in Prader-Willi syndrome: Prader-Willi Syndrome Association (USA) 40-year mortality survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Merlin G; Manzardo, Ann M; Heinemann, Janalee; Loker, Carolyn; Loker, James

    2017-06-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a rare, complex, neurodevelopmental genetic disorder that is associated with hyperphagia and morbid obesity in humans and leads to a shortened life expectancy. This report summarizes the primary causes of death and evaluates mortality trends in a large cohort of individuals with PWS. The US Prader-Willi Syndrome Association (PWSA (USA)) syndrome-specific database of death reports was collected through a cursory bereavement program for PWSA (USA) families using a brief survey created in 1999. Causes of death were descriptively characterized and statistically examined using Cox proportional hazards. A total of 486 deaths were reported (263 males, 217 females, 6 unknown) between 1973 and 2015, with mean age of 29.5 ± 16 years (2 months-67 years); 70% occurred in adulthood. Respiratory failure was the most common cause, accounting for 31% of all deaths. Males were at increased risk for presumed hyperphagia-related accidents/injuries and cardiopulmonary factors compared to females. PWS maternal disomy 15 genetic subtype showed an increased risk of death from cardiopulmonary factors compared to the deletion subtype. These findings highlight the heightened vulnerability to obesity and hyperphagia-related mortality in PWS. Future research is needed to address critical vulnerabilities such as gender and genetic subtype in the cause of death in PWS.Genet Med advance online publication 17 November 2016.

  14. Combined Endovascular Treatment with Distal Radial Artery Coil Embolization and Angioplasty in Steal Syndrome Associated with Forearm Dialysis Fistula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tercan, Fahri, E-mail: ftercan@yahoo.com; Koçyiğit, Ali, E-mail: alkoc@yahoo.com [Pamukkale University, Department of Radiology, School of Medicine (Turkey); Güney, Bünyamin [Muğla Sıtkı Kocman University, Department of Radiology, School of Medicine (Turkey)

    2016-09-15

    PurposeThe present study was performed to define the results of the endovascular treatment with angioplasty and distal radial artery embolization in ischemic steal syndrome associated with forearm arteriovenous accesses.MethodThe cases referred to our interventional radiology unit with symptoms and physical examination findings suggestive of ischemic steal syndrome were retrospectively evaluated first by Doppler ultrasonography, and then by angiography. Cases with proximal artery stenosis were applied angioplasty, and those with steal syndrome underwent coil embolization to distal radial artery.ResultsOf 589 patients who underwent endovascular intervention for dialysis arteriovenous fistulae (AVF)-associated problems, 6 (1.01 %) (5 female, 1 males; mean age 62 (range 41–78) with forearm fistula underwent combined endovascular treatment for steal syndrome. In addition to steal phenomenon, there were stenosis and/or occlusion in proximal radial and/or ulnar artery in 6 patients concurrently. Embolization of distal radial artery and angioplasty to proximal arterial stenoses were performed in all patients. Ischemic symptoms were eliminated in all patients and the AVF were in use at the time of study. In one patient, ischemic symptoms recurring 6 months later were alleviated by repeat angioplasty of ulnar artery.ConclusionIn palmar arch steal syndrome affecting forearm fistulae, combined distal radial embolization and angioplasty is also an effective treatment method in the presence of proximal radial and ulnar arterial stenoses and occlusions.

  15. A mutant of a mutant of a mutant of a ...: Irradiation of progressive radiation-induced mutants in a mutation-breeding programme with Chrysanthenum morifolium RAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broertjes, C.; Koene, P.; Veen, J.W.H. van.

    1980-01-01

    Radiation-induced sports in Chrysanthemum morifolium RAM. have been reported for several years. It has become an everyday practice to produce flower-colour mutants from outstanding cross-breeding products, even before they are distributed for the commercial production of cut flowers. One of the most successful and recent examples is that of cv. Horim, of which hundreds of mutants were produced by successive use of radiation-induced mutants in the mutation-breeding programme. Over about 4 years a variety of flower-colour mutants was obtained, not only largely including the outstanding characteristics of the original cultivar but sometimes even with an appreciable improvement in quality and yield. It is expected that the latter types, the Miros group, will soon completely supersede the spontaneous or raditation-induced Horim sports and mutants and take over the leading position of the Horim group in the production of all-year-round (AYR) cut-flowers. (orig.)

  16. Los mutantes de la escuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Armando Jaramillo-Ocampo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo muestra los resultados parciales del estudio “Juegos en el recreo escolar: un escenario para la formación ciudadana”, cuya pretensión fue comprender los imaginarios sociales de juego en el recreo escolar y su relación con la convivencia social desde la proximidad del enfoque de complementariedad y el diseño de investigación emergente, planteado por Murcia y Jaramillo (2008. Se presentan los desarrollos logrados en dos categorías centrales del estudio: el patio y el cuerpo; dos categorías que mutan constantemente como entidades vivas en la escuela, hacia la configuración de sujetos que reconocen en el otro y lo otro su posibilidad. La escuela viva, donde es posible “ser en relación con”… se reduce a un espacio temporal y físico, limitado por la campana, “el recreo”. El texto muestra, desde la voz de los actores, esa vida que se da y se quita en la escuela y que se posiciona como una más de las imposiciones normalizadas para controlar. Reconoce, finalmente, una propuesta desde la posibilidad que estos dos mutantes propician para una escuela libre y dinámica.

  17. Induction of Mutants in Durum Wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AL-Ubaidi, M.; Ibrahim, I.; AL-Hadithi, A.

    2002-01-01

    This investigation presents a breeding program for induction and development of a new genotype of durum wheat, resistant to lodging with high yield, by irradiation durum wheat hybrids (F2) with gamma rays 100 Gy, during 1990-1997 cultivation seasons. This program involves: induction of variability, selection evaluation of the mutants at three locations: Twaitha (Baghdad) Latifya ( Babylon) and Swari (Kutt). All mutants showed resistance to lodging and there was a significant reduction in plant height. Mutant SIXIZ-22 surpassed other mutants and its origin in lodging resistance and plant height (83.5,82.8 and 89.4 cm) in the three locations at generation M5 and M6, respectively. Also, there were significant differences between mutant and their origin in the number of spikes/M 2 and grain yild during the two successive generation. On the other hand, mutant IZxCO-105 surpassed other mutants in the number of spikes/M 2 (231.8,242.3 and 292) and grain yield (4336,3376 and 5232 kg/ha) in all testing location, respectively . (authors) 14 refs., 4 tabs

  18. Spectrum of induced floral mutants in Petunia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padmaja, V.; Sudhakar, P.

    1987-01-01

    A total of six floral mutants of garden Petunia isolated from the populations raised from the seed treatment with γ-rays, 2, 4-D and sodium azide are described. Five of the mutants viz. stellata, Campyloflora, Rubriflora mixed, Grandiflora and Albiflora mixed originated as segregants in M 2 generation while the chimeral floral phenotype was expressed in M 1 generation itself. Breeding behaviour of these horticulturally interesting altered floral phenotypes were studied in subsequent generations and appropriate conclusions were drawn regarding mode of inheritance of the mutant traits. 15 refs., 4 figures, 1 table. (author)

  19. Percutenous Catheter Ablation of the Accessory Pathway in a Patient with Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome Associated with Familial Atrial Fibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cay, Serkan; Topaloglu, Serkan; Aras, Dursun

    2008-01-01

    Percutenous catheter ablation of the accessory pathway in Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome is a highly successful mode of therapy. Sudden cardiac arrest survivors associated with WPW syndrome should undergo radiofrequency catheter ablation. WPW syndrome associated with familial atrial fibrillation is a very rare condition. Herein, we describe a case who presented with sudden cardiac arrest secondary to WPW syndrome and familial atrial fibrillation and treated via radiofrequency catheter ablation. PMID:18379660

  20. Percutenous Catheter Ablation of the Accessory Pathway in a Patient with Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome Associated with Familial Atrial Fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan Cay

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Percutenous catheter ablation of the accessory pathway in Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome is a highly successful mode of therapy. Sudden cardiac arrest survivors associated with WPW syndrome should undergo radiofrequency catheter ablation. WPW syndrome associated with familial atrial fibrillation is a very rare condition. Herein, we describe a case who presented with sudden cardiac arrest secondary to WPW syndrome and familial atrial fibrillation and treated via radiofrequency catheter ablation.

  1. Dynamic innate immune responses of human bronchial epithelial cells to severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoki Yoshikawa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Human lung epithelial cells are likely among the first targets to encounter invading severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV. Not only can these cells support the growth of SARS-CoV infection, but they are also capable of secreting inflammatory cytokines to initiate and, eventually, aggravate host innate inflammatory responses, causing detrimental immune-mediated pathology within the lungs. Thus, a comprehensive evaluation of the complex epithelial signaling to SARS-CoV is crucial for paving the way to better understand SARS pathogenesis. Based on microarray-based functional genomics, we report here the global gene response of 2B4 cells, a cloned bronchial epithelial cell line derived from Calu-3 cells. Specifically, we found a temporal and spatial activation of nuclear factor (NFkappaB, activator protein (AP-1, and interferon regulatory factor (IRF-3/7 in infected 2B4 cells at 12-, 24-, and 48-hrs post infection (p.i., resulting in the activation of many antiviral genes, including interferon (IFN-beta, -lambdas, inflammatory mediators, and many IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs. We also showed, for the first time, that IFN-beta and IFN-lambdas were capable of exerting previously unrecognized, non-redundant, and complementary abilities to limit SARS-CoV replication, even though their expression could not be detected in infected 2B4 bronchial epithelial cells until 48 hrs p.i. Collectively, our results highlight the mechanics of the sequential events of antiviral signaling pathway/s triggered by SARS-CoV in bronchial epithelial cells and identify novel cellular targets for future studies, aiming at advancing strategies against SARS.

  2. Semi-dwarf mutants for rice improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, Ramli; Osman, Mohammad; Ibrahim, Rusli

    1990-01-01

    Full text: MARDI and the National University of Malaysia embarked on a programme to induce resistance against blast in rice in 1978. MARDI also obtained semi dwarf mutants of cvs 'Mahsuri', 'Muda', 'Pongsu seribu' and 'Jarum Mas', which are under evaluation. The popular local rice variety 'Manik' was subjected to gamma irradiation (15-40 krad) and 101 promising semidwarf mutants have been obtained following selection in M 2 -M 6 . 29 of them show grain yields of 6.0-7.3 t/ha, compared with 5.7t for 'Manik'. Other valuable mutants were found showing long grain, less shattering, earlier maturity, and glutinous endosperm. One mutant, resistant to brown plant hopper yields 6.3t/ha. (author)

  3. X-rays sensitive mammalian cell mutant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utsumi, Hiroshi

    1982-01-01

    A phenomenon that in x-ray-sensitive mammalian-cell mutants, cellular death due to x-ray radiation was not increased by caffeine, but on the contrary, the dead cells were resuscitated by it was discussed. The survival rate of mutant cells increased by caffein in a low concentration. This suggested that caffeine may have induced some mechanism to produce x-ray resistant mutant cells. Postirradiation treatment with caffeine increased considerably the survival rate of the mutant cells, and this suggested the existence of latent caffeine-sensitive potentially lethal damage repair system. This system, after a few hours, is thought to be substituted by caffeine-resistant repair system which is induced by caffeine, and this may be further substituted by x-ray-resistant repair system. The repair system was also induced by adenine. (Ueda, J.)

  4. Generation and characterization of pigment mutants of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    2014-01-08

    Jan 8, 2014 ... aquatic ecosystems were studied. In the present ... logy and photosynthesis research (Stolbov, 1995;. Pedersen ... Microalgal strain and cultivation conditions ..... evaluated for their ecotoxicological effects using 124y-1 mutant.

  5. The Role of SDF-1alpha and CXCR4 in Metastatic Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    investigations are needed to establish the cause and effect relationship of survivin gene regulation and 3,3V-diindolylmethane-induced cell growth...Chem 2002;277:29674-29680. 32. Basu GD, Pathangey LB, Tinder TL, et al. Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells in an in

  6. Regorafenib inhibited gastric cancer cells growth and invasion via CXCR4 activated Wnt pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Xiao-Lin; Xu, Qi; Tang, Lei; Sun, Li; Han, Ting; Wang, Li-Wei; Xiao, Xiu-Ying

    2017-01-01

    Aim Regorafenib is an oral small-molecule multi kinase inhibitor. Recently, several clinical trials have revealed that regorafenib has an anti-tumor activity in gastric cancer. However, only part of patients benefit from regorafenib, and the mechanisms of regorafenib?s anti-tumor effect need further demonstrating. In this study, we would assess the potential anti-tumor effects and the underlying mechanisms of regorafenib in gastric cancer cells, and explore novel biomarkers for patients selec...

  7. Wnt/beta-Catenin, Foxa2, and CXCR4 Axis Controls Prostate Cancer Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    NT1 cells that over-expressing Foxa2. The reason we used NT1 cells for the Foxa2 over-expressing experiments is that NT1 is an AR-expressing... cells . We have also established NT1 cells over-expressing a dominant active beta-catenin. We have characterized these cells . Our research found: 1...expression profiles of control NT1 , NT1 /Foxa2, and NT1 /beta-catenin cells Figure 1. We did RT-PCR to examine the expression of key

  8. The Puzzling Role of CXCR4 in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Elisa Vicenzi, Pietro Liò, Guido Poli

    2013-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) is the etiological agent of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), a disease highly lethal in the absence of combination antiretroviral therapy. HIV infects CD4+ cells of the immune system (T cells, monocyte-macrophages and dendritic cells) via interaction with a universal primary receptor, the CD4 molecule, followed by a mandatory interaction with a second receptor (co-receptor) belonging to the chemokine receptor family. Apart from som...

  9. CXCR4 Antagonist as an Adjuvant in Immunotherapy of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    oncogene activation in human tumors by chromosomal translocation. Subsequently, as an independent investigator, I expanded my research to virology by...activation (abl and myc) by chromosomal translocation in leukemia and solid tumors. Kozbor, D., Finan, J., Nowell, P.C., and Croce, C.M. The gene...encoding the T4 antigen maps to human chromosome 12. J. Immunol., 136: 1141-1143, 1986. Kozbor, D., Giallongo, A., Sierzega, M.E., Konopka, J.B

  10. CXCL14 Blockade of CXCL12/CXCR4 Signaling in Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-04-3785. 55. Jung Y, Kim JK, Shiozawa Y, Wang J, Mishra A, Joseph J, Berry JE, McGee S, Lee E, Sun H, Wang J, Jin T, Zhang H...and unfortunate complication of advanced prostate cancer resulting in significant pain and fractures . The most devastating consequence, however, is...treatments. These data suggest a mechanism of increased migration and invasion may be associated with expression of EMT genes. Regulation of Kinase

  11. Structure-activity relationship studies of the aromatic positions in cyclopentapeptide CXCR4 antagonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mungalpara, Jignesh; Zachariassen, Zack G; Thiele, Stefanie

    2013-01-01

    , and autoimmune diseases. While the structure-activity relationships for Arg(1), Arg(2), and Gly(4) are well established, less is understood about the roles of the aromatic residues 2-Nal(3) and D-Tyr(5). Here we report further structure-activity relationship studies of these two positions, which showed that (i......) the distal aromatic ring of the 2-Nal(3) side chain is required in order to maintain high potency and (ii) replacement of D-Tyr(5) with conformationally constrained analogues results in significantly reduced activity. However, a simplified analogue that contained Gly instead of D-Tyr(5) was only 13-fold less...

  12. Role of SDF1/CXCR4 Interaction in Experimental Hemiplegic Models with Neural Cell Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noboru Suzuki

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Much attention has been focused on neural cell transplantation because of its promising clinical applications. We have reported that embryonic stem (ES cell derived neural stem/progenitor cell transplantation significantly improved motor functions in a hemiplegic mouse model. It is important to understand the molecular mechanisms governing neural regeneration of the damaged motor cortex after the transplantation. Recent investigations disclosed that chemokines participated in the regulation of migration and maturation of neural cell grafts. In this review, we summarize the involvement of inflammatory chemokines including stromal cell derived factor 1 (SDF1 in neural regeneration after ES cell derived neural stem/progenitor cell transplantation in mouse stroke models.

  13. Molecular analysis of waxy mutants in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yatou, O.; Amano, E.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: The 'waxy' gene is a structural gene coding a glycosyl transferase which synthesises amylose in the endosperm tissue. 'Non-waxy' rice cultivars have an active gene and their amylose content is 18-25% depending upon gene performance and modifier genes. In 'waxy' rice, no amylose is found because the enzyme is absent. In mutants induced by gamma rays, neutrons, EI or EMS, amylose content ranged from 0 to 20%, i.e. there are intermediate phenotypes as well. Some of them had the same amount of the enzyme as a 'non-waxy' cultivar, even fully 'waxy' mutants showed a certain amount of the enzyme. This suggests that in mutants there may be no structural change in the enzyme gene but the enzyme produced might be less active. By molecular analysis of the mutants' genes it was found that only two mutants induced by thermal neutrons show structural alterations, the changes in other mutants are either too small to be detected by Southern analysis or are outside the structural gene in question. (author)

  14. Commercialization Of Orchid Mutants For Floriculture Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakinah Ariffin; Zaiton Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Orchids are the main contributors to cut flower industry in Malaysia with an existing good market and a huge business potential. Orchid industry has been established in Malaysia since 1960s but only started to develop and expand since 1980s. Continuous development of new orchid varieties is essential to meet customers' demands. Orchid mutagenesis research using gamma irradiation at Malaysian Nuclear Agency has successfully generated a number of new orchid varieties with commercial potentials. Therefore, Nuclear Malaysia has collaborated with an industrial partner, Hexagon Green Sdn Bhd (HGSB), to carry out commercialization research on these mutants under a Technofund project entitled 'Pre-Commercialization of Mutant Orchids for Cut Flowers Industry' from July 2011 to July 2014. Through this collaboration, Dendrobium orchid mutant plants developed by Nuclear Malaysia were transferred to HGSB's commercial orchid nursery at Bukit Changgang Agrotechnology Park, Banting, Selangor, for mass-propagation. The activities include evaluations on plant growth performance, flower quality, post harvest and market potential of these mutants. Mutants with good field performance have been identified and filed for Plant Variety Protection (PVP) with Department of Agriculture Malaysia. This paper describes outputs from this collaboration and activities undertaken in commercializing these mutants. (author)

  15. From one body mutant to one cell mutant. A progress of radiation breeding in crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagatomi, Shigeki

    1996-01-01

    An effective method was established to obtain non-chimeral mutants with wide spectrum of flower colors, regenerated from floral organs on which mutated sectors were come out on chronic irradiated plants. By this way, six mutant varieties of flower colors have been selected from one pink flower of chrysanthemum, and cultivated for cut-flower production. By the same method, 3 mutant varieties with small and spray type flowers were selected in Eustoma. Mutant varieties such as a rust disease resistant in sugarcane, 6 dwarfs in Cytisus and pure-white mushroom in velvet shank have been selected successively for short period. (J.P.N.)

  16. Gamma-radiation Mutagenesis in Genetically Unstable Barley Mutants. Pt. 2. Comparison of Various Mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balchiuniene, L.

    1995-01-01

    Spontaneous and gamma-induced mutability was compared in two groups of genetically unstable barley ear structure mutants - tweaky spike (tw) and branched ear (be). Instability in different loci causes different levels of spontaneous and gamma-induced mutability. A high spontaneous level of chlorophyll mutations is peculiar to be-ust mutants. It is suggested that the high level of induced chlorophyll mutations in allelic tw mutants is a result of better surviving of chlorophyll mutation carriers in the genotypical-physiological environment created by mutant tw alleles. (author). 6 refs., 2 tabs

  17. Officially released mutant varieties in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, L.; Van Zanten, L.; Shu, Q.Y.; Maluszynski, M.

    2004-01-01

    The use of mutation techniques for crop improvement in China has a long and well-established tradition of more than 50 years. As the result of intensive research in many institutes dealing with application of nuclear technologies more than 620 cultivars of 44 crop species have been released. Numerous mutant varieties have been grown on a large scale bringing significant economic impact, sustaining crop production and greatly contributing to increase of food production also in stress prone areas of the country. However, there is still missing information not only on the number of mutant varieties released in particular crop species but also on mutagens applied, selection approaches and on the use of mutants in cross breeding. Numerous Chinese scientists collected and systematized this information. Results of their work were often published in local scientific journals in the Chinese language and as such were unavailable to breeders from other countries. Having this in mind, we requested Dr. Liu Luxiang, the Director of the Department of Plant Mutation Breeding and Genetics, Institute for Application of Atomic Energy, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences in Beijing to help us in finding as much information as possible on mutant varieties officially released in China. The data has been collected in close collaboration with his colleagues from various institutions all over the country and then evaluated, edited and prepared for publication by our team responsible for the FAO/IAEA Database of Officially Released Mutant Varieties. We would like to thank all Chinese colleagues who contributed to this list of Chinese mutant varieties. We hope that this publication will stimulate plant breeders in China to collect more information on released mutant varieties and especially on the use of mutated genes in cross breeding. (author)

  18. Development of high yielding mutants in lentil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajput, M.A.; Sarwar, G.; Siddiqui, K.A.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) locally known as Masoor, is the second most important rabi pulse crop, after chickpea, in Pakistan. It is cultivated on an area of over 63,400 ha, which constitutes about 4.83% of the total area under pulses. The annual production of the crop is 28,200 tones with an average yield of 445 kg/ha. Yield at the national level is very low, about one-half of the world's yield, which is mainly due to non-availability of high yield potential genotypes. Keeping in view the importance of mutants in developing a large number of new varieties, an induced mutations programme was initiated at AEARC, Tandojam during 1987-88, to develop high yielding varieties in lentil. For this, seeds of two lentil varieties, 'Masoor-85' and 'ICARDA-8' had been irradiated with gamma-rays ranging from 100-600 Gy in NIAB, Faisalabad during 1990. Selections were made in M2 on the basis of earliness, plant height, branches/plant and 100 grain weight. After confirming these mutants in M3 they were promoted in station yield trials and studied continuously for three consecutive years (1993- 1995). Overall results revealed that these mutants have consistent improvement of earliness in flowering and maturity. Plant height also increased in all mutant lines except AEL 23/40/91 where reduction in this attribute was observed as compared to parent variety. Mutant lines AEL 49/20/91 and AEL 13/30/91 showed improvement in 100 grain weight. The improvement of some agronomic characters enhanced the yield of mutant lines in comparison to parent varieties (Masoor-85 and ICARDA-8). The diversity in yield over the respective parents was computed from 6.94 to 60.12%. From these encouraging results it is hoped that mutant lines like AEL 12/30/91 and AEL 49/20/91 may serve as potential lentil genotypes in future. (author)

  19. The research progress on plant mutant germplasm resources in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Cexi; Ji Linzhen; Zhao Shirong

    1991-07-01

    Mutants induced by nuclear radiation or other mutagens are new artificial germplasm resources. Some mutants have been applied in plant breeding and great achievements have been reached. The status and progress on the collection, identification and utilization of mutants in China are introduced. A proposal for developing mutant germplasm resources with good agronomic characters is suggested

  20. Bacterio-opsin mutants of Halobacterium halobium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betlach, Mary; Pfeifer, Felicitas; Friedman, James; Boyer, Herbert W.

    1983-01-01

    The bacterio-opsin (bop) gene of Halobacterium halobium R1 has been cloned with about 40 kilobases of flanking genomic sequence. The 40-kilobase segment is derived from the (G+C)-rich fraction of the chromosome and is not homologous to the major (pHH1) or minor endogenous covalently closed circular DNA species of H. halobium. A 5.1-kilobase Pst I fragment containing the bop gene was subcloned in pBR322 and a partial restriction map was determined. Defined restriction fragments of this clone were used as probes to analyze the defects associated with the bop gene in 12 bacterio-opsin mutants. Eleven out of 12 of the mutants examined had inserts ranging from 350 to 3,000 base pairs either in the bop gene or up to 1,400 base pairs upstream. The positions of the inserts were localized to four regions in the 5.1-kilobase genomic fragment: within the gene (one mutant), in a region that overlaps the 5′ end of the gene (seven mutants), and in two different upstream regions (three mutants). Two revertants of the mutant with the most distal insert had an additional insert in the same region. The polar effects of these inserts are discussed in terms of inactivation of a regulatory gene or disruption of part of a coordinately expressed operon. Given the defined nature of the bop mRNA—i.e., it has a 5′ leader sequence of three ribonucleotides—these observations indicate that the bop mRNA might be processed from a large mRNA transcript. Images PMID:16593291

  1. Chlorophyll mutants in Phaseolus vulgaris (L.) Savi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svetleva, D.; Petkova, S.

    1991-01-01

    Three-year investigations were conducted on chlorophyll mutants of three type: viridissima, claroviridis, flavoviridis, viridocostata and xanthomarginata produced post gamma irradiation ( 60 Co, 8 krad, 280 rad/min). Cell division rate in spectrum and in quantity of induced aberrations was found to have no significant differences with the control. Chlorophyll mutations compared to the control are less developed and their productive characters are less manifested. Cell division rate and the quantity of induced aberrations have no relation to the elements of productivity in the mutants investigated. 3 tabs., 12 refs

  2. Ethanol production using engineered mutant E. coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Lonnie O.; Clark, David P.

    1991-01-01

    The subject invention concerns novel means and materials for producing ethanol as a fermentation product. Mutant E. coli are transformed with a gene coding for pyruvate decarboxylase activity. The resulting system is capable of producing relatively large amounts of ethanol from a variety of biomass sources.

  3. Molecular Genetic Identification Of Some Flax Mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AMER, I.M.; MOUSTAFA, H.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Five flax genotypes (Linum usitatissimum L.) i.e., commercial cultivar Sakha 2, the mother variety Giza 4 and three mutant types induced by gamma rays, were screened for their salinity tolerance in field experiments (salinity concentration was 8600 and 8300 ppm for soil and irrigation water, respectively). Mutation 6 was the most salt tolerant as compared to the other four genotypes.RAPD technique was used to detect some molecular markers associated with salt tolerance in flax (Mut 6), RAPD-PCR results using 12 random primers exhibited 149 amplified fragments; 91.9% of them were polymorphic and twelve molecular markers (8.1%) for salt tolerant (mutant 6) were identified with molecular size ranged from 191 to 4159 bp and only eight primers successes to amplify these specific markers. Concerning the other mutants, Mut 15 and Mut 25 exhibited 4.3% and 16.2% specific markers, respectively. The induced mutants exhibited genetic similarity to the parent variety were about 51%, 58.3% and 61.1% for Mut 25, Mut 6 and Mut 15, respectively. These specific markers (SM) are used for identification of the induced mutations and it is important for new variety registration.

  4. Induced mutants for cereal grain protein improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Out of 17 papers and one summary presented, six dealing with the genetic improvement of seed protein using ionizing radiations fall within the INIS subject scope. Other topics discussed were non-radiation induced mutants used for cereal grain protein improvement

  5. Male sterile mutant in Vigna radiata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pande, Kalpana; Raghuvanshi, S.S.

    1987-01-01

    Single and combined treatment of γ-rays and 0.25 per cent EMS were tried on Vigna radiata variety K851. A male sterile mutant was isolated in M 2 generation. Experiments indicated male sterility to be recessive and monogenic in nature. 6 figures. (author)

  6. Phanerochaete mutants with enhanced ligninolytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakar, S.N.; Perez, A.; Gonzales, J.

    1994-01-01

    In addition to lignin, the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium has the ability to degrade a wide spectrum of recalcitrant organo pollutants in soils and aqueous media. Most of the organic compounds are degraded under ligninolytic conditions with the involvement of the extracellular enzymes, lignin peroxidases, and manganese-dependent peroxidases, which are produced as secondary metabolites triggered by conditions of nutrient starvation (e.g., nitrogen limitation). The fungus and its enzymes can thus provide alternative technologies for bioremediation, bio pulping, bio bleaching, and other industrial applications. The efficiency and effectiveness of the fungus can be enhanced by increasing production and secretion of the important enzymes in large quantities and as primary metabolites under enriched conditions. One way this can be achieved is through isolation of mutants that are deregulated, or are hyper producers or super secretors of key enzymes under enriched conditions. Through UV-light and γ-ray mutagenesis, we have isolated a variety of mutants, some of which produce key enzymes of the ligninolytic system under high-nitrogen growth conditions. One of the mutants, 76UV, produced 272 U of lignin peroxidases enzyme activity/L after 9 d under high nitrogen (although the parent strain does not produce this enzyme under these conditions). The mutant and the parent strains produced up to 54 and 62 U/L, respectively, of the enzyme activity under low nitrogen growth conditions during this period. In some experiments, the mutant showed 281 U/L of enzyme activity under high nitrogen after 17 d

  7. Spontaneous resolution of hemophagocytic syndrome associated with acute parvovirus B19 infection and concomitant Epstein-Barr virus reactivation in an otherwise healthy adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larroche, C; Scieux, C; Honderlick, P; Piette, A M; Morinet, F; Blétry, O

    2002-10-01

    Reported here is the case of a patient who spontaneously recovered from hemophagocytic syndrome associated with acute B19 infection and concomitant Epstein-Barr virus reactivation. The previously healthy 37-year-old-man was hospitalized after 10 days of high fever, arthralgia and arthritis and was determined to have hemophagocytic syndrome. Immunoglobulin (Ig) M antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) capsid antigen, early antigen and parvovirus B19 (B19) were found. B19 DNA and low-level EBV DNA were detected in bone marrow, serum and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The patient recovered spontaneously without any treatment. Two months later anti-B19 IgG antibodies were detected, while at 9-month follow-up, anti-B19 IgM antibodies were no longer detectable and B19 DNA had disappeared from serum. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of spontaneous resolution of hemophagocytic syndrome associated with acute B19 infection and concomitant EBV reactivation in an otherwise healthy adult.

  8. PNRI mutant variety: sansevieria 'Sword of Ibe'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurigue, Fernando B.

    2011-01-01

    Sansevieria 'Sword of Ibe,' registered by the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute as NSIC 2008 Or-66, is a chlorophyll mutant of Sansevieria trifasciata 'Moonshine' developed by treating its suckers or shoots arising from a rhizome with acute gamma radiation from a Cobalt-60 source. The new mutant is identical in growth habit and vigor to Sansevieria 'Moonshine,' also known as Moonglow. Results of this mutation breeding experiment showed that leaf color and flowering were altered by gamma irradiation without changing the other characteristics of the plant. Propagation is true-to-type by separation of sucker and top cutting. The plant is recommended for use as landscaping material and as pot plant for indoor and outdoor use. The leaves may be harvested as cut foliage for Japanese flower arrangements. (author)

  9. Serine:glyoxylate aminotransferase mutant of barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackwell, R.; Murray, A.; Joy, K.; Lea, P.

    1987-01-01

    A photorespiratory mutant of barley (LaPr 85/84), deficient in both of the major peaks of serine:glyoxylate aminotransferase activity detected in the wild type, also lacks serine:pyruvate and asparagine:glyoxylate aminotransferase activities. Genetic analysis of the mutation demonstrated that these three activities are all carried on the same enzyme. The mutant, when placed in air, accumulated a large pool of serine, showed the expected rate (50%) of ammonia release during photorespiration but produced CO 2 at twice the wild type rate when it was fed [ 14 C] glyoxylate. Compared with the wild type, LaPr 85/84 exhibited abnormal transient changes in chlorophyll a fluorescence when the CO 2 concentration of the air was altered, indicating that the rates of the fluorescence quenching mechanisms were affected in vivo by the lack of this enzyme

  10. Intact interval timing in circadian CLOCK mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordes, Sara; Gallistel, C R

    2008-08-28

    While progress has been made in determining the molecular basis for the circadian clock, the mechanism by which mammalian brains time intervals measured in seconds to minutes remains a mystery. An obvious question is whether the interval-timing mechanism shares molecular machinery with the circadian timing mechanism. In the current study, we trained circadian CLOCK +/- and -/- mutant male mice in a peak-interval procedure with 10 and 20-s criteria. The mutant mice were more active than their wild-type littermates, but there were no reliable deficits in the accuracy or precision of their timing as compared with wild-type littermates. This suggests that expression of the CLOCK protein is not necessary for normal interval timing.

  11. The application of shortened upper leaf mutant in barley breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Hua

    2004-01-01

    The shortened upper leaf mutant was induced from Fuji Nigo by γ-ray irradiation. Fuji Nigo, the mutant, cross-cut F 1 , F 2 and back-cross F 1 , F 2 were used to analyze mutant heredity by comparative study. The yield, chlorophyll content, light intensity, dry matter of mutant were investigated. The results showed that (1) the mutant character was controlled by a couple of nuclear genes which were partial dominance; (2) the transmittance of the mutant colony was better than that of Fuji Nigo and bottom dry matter was much more than that of Fuji Nigo; (3) under the condition of high fertilizer and high plant population , the yield of mutant was higher than that of Fuji Nigo; (4) the content of chlorophyll a in the mutant was higher than that in Fuji Nigo

  12. ''Fushi'' - excellent mutant germplasm for peanut improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, X.; Zhou, Y.

    1989-01-01

    Full text: The mutant line ''Fushi'' was selected following seed treatment of the variety ''Shi Xuan 64'' in 1960 with 32 P. Many good peanut varieties were developed using ''Fushi'' in cross-breeding (ref. Mutation Breeding Newsletter No. 30 (July 1987) p. 2-3). In the past 10 years, planting areas of these varieties added up to 3,3 million ha in South China, peanut production was increased by more than 500 000 t valued 500 million Yuan. (author)

  13. Radiation induced early maturing mutants in barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, R.; Chauhan, S.V.S.; Sharma, R.P.

    1978-01-01

    In M 2 generation, two early maturing plants were screened from a single spike progeny of a plant obtained from 20 kR of gamma-ray irradiation of a six-rowed barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. Jyoti). Their true breeding nature was confirmed in M 3 generation. These mutants flower and mature 38 and 22 days earlier than those of control. (auth.)

  14. Grain product of 34 soya mutant lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmeron E, J.; Mastache L, A. A.; Valencia E, F.; Diaz V, G. E.; Cervantes S, T.; De la Cruz T, E.; Garcia A, J. M.; Falcon B, T.; Gatica T, M. A.

    2009-01-01

    This work was development with the objective of obtaining information of the agronomic behavior of 34 soya mutant lines (R 4 M 18 ) for human consumption and this way to select the 2 better lines. The genetic materials were obtained starting from the variety ISAAEG-B M2 by means of the application of recurrent radiation with Co 60 gammas, to a dose of 350 Gray for the first two generations and both later to 200 Gray and selection during 17 cycles, being obtained the 34 better lines mutants with agronomic characteristic wanted and good flavor. The obtained results were that the mutant lines L 25 and L 32 produced the major quantity in branches/plant number with 7.5 and 7.25, pods/plant number with 171.25 and 167, grains/plant number with 350.89 and 333.07 and grain product (ton/ha) to 15% of humidity 5.15 and 4.68 ton/ha, respectively. (Author)

  15. Multivariate analysis for selecting apple mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faedi, W.; Bagnara, G.L.; Rosati, P.; Cecchini, M.

    1992-01-01

    The mutlivariate analysis of four year records on several vegetative and productive traits of twenty-one apple mutants (3 of 'Jonathan', 3 of 'Ozark Gold', 14 of 'Mollie's Delicious', 1 of 'Neipling's Early Stayman)' induced by gamma radiations showed that observation of some traits of one-year-old shoots is the most efficient way to reveal compact growing apple mutants. In particular, basal cross-section area, total length and leaf area resulted the most appropriate parameters, while internode length together with conopy height and width are less appropriate. The most interesting mutants we found are: one of 'Mollie's Delicious for the best balance among tree and fruit traits and for high skin color; one of 'Neipling's Early Stayman' with an earlier and more extensively red colored apple than the original clone. (author)

  16. Probiotic features of Lactobacillus plantarum mutant strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bove, Pasquale; Gallone, Anna; Russo, Pasquale; Capozzi, Vittorio; Albenzio, Marzia; Spano, Giuseppe; Fiocco, Daniela

    2012-10-01

    In this study, the probiotic potential of Lactobacillus plantarum wild-type and derivative mutant strains was investigated. Bacterial survival was evaluated in an in vitro system, simulating the transit along the human oro-gastro-intestinal tract. Interaction with human gut epithelial cells was studied by assessing bacterial adhesive ability to Caco-2 cells and induction of genes involved in innate immunity. L. plantarum strains were resistant to the combined stress at the various steps of the simulated gastrointestinal tract. Major decreases in the viability of L. plantarum cells were observed mainly under drastic acidic conditions (pH ≤ 2.0) of the gastric compartment. Abiotic stresses associated to small intestine poorly affected bacterial viability. All the bacterial strains significantly adhered to Caco-2 cells, with the ΔctsR mutant strain exhibiting the highest adhesion. Induction of immune-related genes resulted higher upon incubation with heat-inactivated bacteria rather than with live ones. For specific genes, a differential transcriptional pattern was observed upon stimulation with different L. plantarum strains, evidencing a possible role of the knocked out bacterial genes in the modulation of host cell response. In particular, cells from Δhsp18.55 and ΔftsH mutants strongly triggered immune defence genes. Our study highlights the relevance of microbial genetic background in host-probiotic interaction and might contribute to identify candidate bacterial genes and molecules involved in probiosis.

  17. Radiation studies in Cajanus cajan: meiotic behaviour in some M/sub 2/ mutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, S.S.N.; Akhaury, S.B. (Ranchi Univ. (India). Dept. of Botany)

    1982-01-01

    A qualitative study of the mutants produced in M/sub 2/ generation has been made. The mutants were classified as: (1) chlorophyll mutant, (2) morphological mutant, (3) pollen mutant, (4) semi-sterile and (5) sterile mutant. Cytological investigations of pollen mutants, sterile and semi-sterile mutants have revealed that these mutants generally arise at higher dose levels (20 Kr and 25 Kr).

  18. Molecular analysis of mutants of the Neurospora adenylosuccinate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-08-07

    Aug 7, 2012 ... and mutants induced with X-ray, UV or chemical mutagens. ... We have sequenced the ad-8 locus from 13 of these mutants and identified the molecular nature ..... mutants in yeast by selection for constitutive behavior in pig-.

  19. Biological changes in Barley mutants resistant to powdery mildew disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amer, I. M.; Fahim, M. M.; Moustafa, N. A.

    2012-12-01

    physiological studies showed that all kinds of chlorophyll (a), (b) and (a + b) content in infected plant were decreased while, the carotenes pigment were increased. Infection generally reduced total sugars content of all resistant mutants. Infected resistant mutant showed more phenols content and peroxidase, polyphenoloxidase activities than healthy ones of the mutants. (Author)

  20. Mouse breast cancer model-dependent changes in metabolic syndrome-associated phenotypes caused by maternal dioxin exposure and dietary fat

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Merrill, Michele; Baston, David S.; Denison, Michael S.; Birnbaum, Linda S.; Pomp, Daniel; Threadgill, David W.

    2009-01-01

    Diets high in fat are associated with increased susceptibility to obesity and metabolic syndrome. Increased adipose tissue that is caused by high-fat diets (HFD) results in altered storage of lipophilic toxicants like 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), which may further increase susceptibility to metabolic syndrome. Because both TCDD and HFD are associated with increased breast cancer risk, we examined their effects on metabolic syndrome-associated phenotypes in three mouse models of breast cancer: 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA), Tg(MMTV-Neu)202Mul/J (HER2), and TgN(MMTV-PyMT)634Mul/J (PyMT), all on an FVB/N genetic background. Pregnant mice dosed with 1 μg/kg of TCDD or vehicle on gestational day 12.5 were placed on a HFD or low-fat diet (LFD) at parturition. Body weights, percent body fat, and fasting blood glucose were measured longitudinally, and triglycerides were measured at study termination. On HFD, all cancer models reached the pubertal growth spurt ahead of FVB controls. Among mice fed HFD, the HER2 model had a greater increase in body weight and adipose tissue from puberty through adulthood compared with the PyMT and DMBA models. However, the DMBA model consistently had higher fasting blood glucose levels than the PyMT and HER2 models. TCDD only impacted serum triglycerides in the PyMT model maintained on HFD. Because the estrogenic activity of the HFD was three times lower than that of the LFD, differential dietary estrogenic activities did not drive the observed phenotypic differences. Rather, the HFD-dependent changes were cancer model dependent. These results show that cancer models can have differential effects on metabolic syndrome-associated phenotypes even before cancers arise. PMID:18840765

  1. Gamma-radiation Mutagenesis in Genetically Unstable Barley Mutants. Pt. 1. Chlorophyll Mutations in Allelic tw Mutants and Their Revertants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaitkuniene, V.

    1995-01-01

    Genotypical environment is an essential factor determining the mutability of mutants of the same type. Decreased chlorophyll mutant frequency was a common characteristic of all tested tw type (tw, tw 1 , tw 2 ) mutants induced in barley c. 'Auksiniai II'. The mutability of all the tested revertants was close to that of the initial c. 'Auksiniai II'. (author). 9 refs., 2 tabs

  2. The Meckel syndrome- associated protein MKS1 functionally interacts with components of the BBSome and IFT complexes to mediate ciliary trafficking and hedgehog signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrington, Chloe L.; Katsanis, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    The importance of primary cilia in human health is underscored by the link between ciliary dysfunction and a group of primarily recessive genetic disorders with overlapping clinical features, now known as ciliopathies. Many of the proteins encoded by ciliopathy-associated genes are components of a handful of multi-protein complexes important for the transport of cargo to the basal body and/or into the cilium. A key question is whether different complexes cooperate in cilia formation, and whether they participate in cilium assembly in conjunction with intraflagellar transport (IFT) proteins. To examine how ciliopathy protein complexes might function together, we have analyzed double mutants of an allele of the Meckel syndrome (MKS) complex protein MKS1 and the BBSome protein BBS4. We find that Mks1; Bbs4 double mutant mouse embryos exhibit exacerbated defects in Hedgehog (Hh) dependent patterning compared to either single mutant, and die by E14.5. Cells from double mutant embryos exhibit a defect in the trafficking of ARL13B, a ciliary membrane protein, resulting in disrupted ciliary structure and signaling. We also examined the relationship between the MKS complex and IFT proteins by analyzing double mutant between Mks1 and a hypomorphic allele of the IFTB component Ift172. Despite each single mutant surviving until around birth, Mks1; Ift172avc1 double mutants die at mid-gestation, and exhibit a dramatic failure of cilia formation. We also find that Mks1 interacts genetically with an allele of Dync2h1, the IFT retrograde motor. Thus, we have demonstrated that the MKS transition zone complex cooperates with the BBSome to mediate trafficking of specific trans-membrane receptors to the cilium. Moreover, the genetic interaction of Mks1 with components of IFT machinery suggests that the transition zone complex facilitates IFT to promote cilium assembly and structure. PMID:28291807

  3. The Meckel syndrome- associated protein MKS1 functionally interacts with components of the BBSome and IFT complexes to mediate ciliary trafficking and hedgehog signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah C Goetz

    Full Text Available The importance of primary cilia in human health is underscored by the link between ciliary dysfunction and a group of primarily recessive genetic disorders with overlapping clinical features, now known as ciliopathies. Many of the proteins encoded by ciliopathy-associated genes are components of a handful of multi-protein complexes important for the transport of cargo to the basal body and/or into the cilium. A key question is whether different complexes cooperate in cilia formation, and whether they participate in cilium assembly in conjunction with intraflagellar transport (IFT proteins. To examine how ciliopathy protein complexes might function together, we have analyzed double mutants of an allele of the Meckel syndrome (MKS complex protein MKS1 and the BBSome protein BBS4. We find that Mks1; Bbs4 double mutant mouse embryos exhibit exacerbated defects in Hedgehog (Hh dependent patterning compared to either single mutant, and die by E14.5. Cells from double mutant embryos exhibit a defect in the trafficking of ARL13B, a ciliary membrane protein, resulting in disrupted ciliary structure and signaling. We also examined the relationship between the MKS complex and IFT proteins by analyzing double mutant between Mks1 and a hypomorphic allele of the IFTB component Ift172. Despite each single mutant surviving until around birth, Mks1; Ift172avc1 double mutants die at mid-gestation, and exhibit a dramatic failure of cilia formation. We also find that Mks1 interacts genetically with an allele of Dync2h1, the IFT retrograde motor. Thus, we have demonstrated that the MKS transition zone complex cooperates with the BBSome to mediate trafficking of specific trans-membrane receptors to the cilium. Moreover, the genetic interaction of Mks1 with components of IFT machinery suggests that the transition zone complex facilitates IFT to promote cilium assembly and structure.

  4. High yielding mutants of blackgram variety 'PH-25'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, R.C.; Mohapatra, B.D.; Panda, B.S.

    2001-01-01

    Seeds of blackgram (Vigna mungo L.) variety 'PH-5' were treated with chemical mutagens ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS), nitrosoguanidine (NG), maleic hydrazide (MH) and sodium azide (NaN 3 ), each at 3 different concentrations. Thirty six mutant lines developed from mutagenic treatments along with parent varieties were tested in M 4 generation. The mutants showed wide variation in most of the traits and multivariante D 2 analysis showed genetic divergence among themselves. Twenty of the thirty mutants showed genetic divergence from parent. Ten selected high yielding mutants were tested in M 5 . Yield and other productive traits of five high yielding mutants in M 4 and M 5 are presented

  5. Mutant p53 interactions with supercoiled DNA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brázdová, Marie; Němcová, Kateřina; Činčárová, Lenka; Šebest, Peter; Pivoňková, Hana; Brázda, Václav; Fojta, Miroslav; Paleček, Emil

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 6 (2007), s. 639-640 ISSN 0739-1102. [Alban 2007: The 15th Conversation . 19.06.2007-23.06.2007, Albany] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1K04119; GA ČR(CZ) GP204/06/P369; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06035 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : mutant p53 * supercoiled DNA * cancer Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  6. Radiation induced desynaptic mutants in barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, H.M.

    1974-01-01

    Spontaneous occurrence of asynapsis and desynapsis has been frequently reported in a number of crop plants (Beadle 1930, 1933; Beasley and Brown 1942; Li et al. 1945; Magoon et al. 1961; Miller 1963) and other angiospermic texa (Calarier 1955; Chennaveraiah and Krisnappa 1968; Ehrenberg 1949; Johnson 1941, 1944; Roy and Jha 1958). However, there are only a few reports of induced asynapsis or desynapsis (Gottschalk and Baquar 1971; Martini and Bozzini 1966). The present paper deals with the morphology and meiotic behavior of gamma-ray induced barley mutants showing high degree of desynapsis resulting in partial to complete sterility. (author)

  7. Induction of drought tolerant mutants of rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Hissewy, A.A.; Abd Allah, A.

    2001-01-01

    The ultimate goal of crop breeding is to develop varieties with a high yield potential and desirable agronomic characteristics. In Egypt, the most important qualities sought by breeders have been high yield potential, resistance to major diseases and insects, and improved grain and eating quality. However, breeding efforts should concentrate on varieties with the potential to minimize yield losses under unfavorable conditions such as drought, and to maximize yields when conditions are favorable. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) in Egypt is completely irrigated and a significant portion of the rice cultivated area is subject to water deficit resulting from an inadequate or insufficient irrigation supply. Drought tolerance is a complex trait in that it results from the interaction of histological and physiological characters of plant with environmental factors, both above-ground and under-ground. Accordingly, root characters are closely related to drought tolerance. Little attention has been paid in Egyptian breeding programs to root characters and their relation to shoot characters. Furthermore, induced mutations are considered as one of the most important methods to induce useful mutants, especially with improved root characters, to overcome the drought problem. The present investigation aimed to study the effect of different doses of gamma rays on several characters of three Egyptian rice varieties, i.e. 'Giza 171', 'Giza 175' and 'Giza 176' and to induce one or more mutants possessing drought tolerance

  8. Indy mutants: live long and prosper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart eFrankel

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Indy encodes the fly homologue of a mammalian transporter of di and tricarboxylatecomponents of the Krebs cycle. Reduced expression of fly Indy or two of the C. elegansIndy homologs leads to an increase in life span. Fly and worm tissues that play key roles inintermediary metabolism are also the places where Indy genes are expressed. One of themouse homologs of Indy (mIndy is mainly expressed in the liver. It has been hypothesizedthat decreased INDY activity creates a state similar to caloric restriction (CR. Thishypothesis is supported by the physiological similarities between Indy mutant flies on highcalorie food and control flies on CR, such as increased physical activity and decreases inweight, egg production, triglyceride levels, starvation resistance, and insulin signaling. Inaddition, Indy mutant flies undergo changes in mitochondrial biogenesis also observed inCR animals. Recent findings with mIndy knockout mice support and extend the findingsfrom flies. mIndy-/- mice display an increase in hepatic mitochondrial biogenesis, lipidoxidation and decreased hepatic lipogenesis. When mIndy-/- mice are fed high calorie foodthey are protected from adiposity and insulin resistance. These findings point to INDY as apotential drug target for the treatment of metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and obesity.

  9. Flower morphology of Dendrobium Sonia mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakinah Ariffin; Azhar Mohamad; Affrida Abu Hassan; Zaiton Ahmad; Mohd Nazir Basiran

    2010-01-01

    Dendrobium Sonia is a commercial hybrid which is popular as cut flower and potted plant in Malaysia. Variability in flower is important for new variety to generate more demands and choices in selection. Mutation induction is a tool in creating variability for new flower color and shape. In vitro cultures of protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) were exposed to gamma ray at dose 35 Gy. Phenotypic characteristics of the flower were observed at fully bloomed flower with emphasis on shape and color. Approximately 2000 regenerated irradiated plants were observed and after subsequent flowering, 100 plants were finally selected for further evaluation. Most of the color and shape changes are expressed in different combinations of petal, sepal and lip of the flower. In this work, 11 stable mutants were found different at flower phenotype as compared to control. Amongst these, four mutant varieties with commercial potential has been named as Dendrobium 'SoniaKeenaOval', Dendrobium 'SoniaKeenaRadiant', Dendrobium 'SoniaKeenaHiengDing' and Dendrobium 'Sonia KeenaAhmadSobri'. In this paper, variations in flower morphology and flower color were discussed, giving emphasis on variations in flower petal shape. (author)

  10. High yielding rice mutants for West Bengal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debnath, A.R.; Sen, S.

    1980-01-01

    Four high yielding mutants with specific genetic corrections of the simply inherited characters were developed from IR-8 through X-irradiation. Recurrent selections of the promising isolates were made under diverse agro-climatic conditions in Winter and Summer seasons of West Bengal. The isolates CNM 6 and CNM 25 belonging to early maturity group and CNM 20 and CNM 31, to mid-early maturity group were finally selected at X 5 generation on the basis of their resistance qualities, maturity period and grain yield. They were evaluated upto X 10 qeneration at multi-locations as Pre-release and Minikit Varieties at State level. They were also placed at the National Screening Nursery (NSN) for screening against multiple diseases and pests at the National level. CNM 6 is reported to be promising in IRTP nurseries. It is reported that CNM 25 (IET 5646) ranked 2nd on the basis of average grain yield, CNM 20 (IET 5937) and CNM 31 (IET 5936) were resistant to diseases and with yield comparable to Jaya. These four productive mutants of superior types are widely accepted. CNM 6 is recommended for cultivation in Bankura and Birbhum districts and CNM 25 and CNM 31 in the different agro-climatic zones of West Bengal. (author)

  11. Allosteric Mutant IDH1 Inhibitors Reveal Mechanisms for IDH1 Mutant and Isoform Selectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Xiaoling; Baird, Daniel; Bowen, Kimberly; Capka, Vladimir; Chen, Jinyun; Chenail, Gregg; Cho, YoungShin; Dooley, Julia; Farsidjani, Ali; Fortin, Pascal; Kohls, Darcy; Kulathila, Raviraj; Lin, Fallon; McKay, Daniel; Rodrigues, Lindsey; Sage, David; Touré, B. Barry; van der Plas, Simon; Wright, Kirk; Xu, Ming; Yin, Hong; Levell, Julian; Pagliarini, Raymond A. (Novartis)

    2017-03-01

    Oncogenic IDH1 and IDH2 mutations contribute to cancer via production of R-2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG). Here, we characterize two structurally distinct mutant- and isoform-selective IDH1 inhibitors that inhibit 2-HG production. Both bind to an allosteric pocket on IDH1, yet shape it differently, highlighting the plasticity of this site. Oncogenic IDH1R132H mutation destabilizes an IDH1 “regulatory segment,” which otherwise restricts compound access to the allosteric pocket. Regulatory segment destabilization in wild-type IDH1 promotes inhibitor binding, suggesting that destabilization is critical for mutant selectivity. We also report crystal structures of oncogenic IDH2 mutant isoforms, highlighting the fact that the analogous segment of IDH2 is not similarly destabilized. This intrinsic stability of IDH2 may contribute to observed inhibitor IDH1 isoform selectivity. Moreover, discrete residues in the IDH1 allosteric pocket that differ from IDH2 may also guide IDH1 isoform selectivity. These data provide a deeper understanding of how IDH1 inhibitors achieve mutant and isoform selectivity.

  12. Serrated leaf mutant in mungbean (Vigna radiata (L) Wilczek)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, I.A.; Ghulam, Sarwar; Yousaf, Ali; Saleem, M.

    1988-01-01

    Dry dormant seeds of mungbean (Vigna radiata (L) Wilczek) were treated with gamma rays (15, 30 and 60 kR). The serrated leaf mutation was noticed in M 2 of cultivar Pak 32 treated with 60 kR. Cf 14 plants, 3 showed the altered leaf structure and the others were normal. The feature of this mutant was the deep serration of leaflet margins. The mutant had large thick leaflets with prominent venation. The mutant bred true in the M 3 and successive generation. Details of the morphological characteristics of the mutant are presented. The mutant exhibited slower growth particularly during the early stages of development, flowered later and attained shorter height. There was an increase in the number of pods, in seed weight and in seed protein content, but number of seed per pod was considerably reduced. The seed coat colour showed a change from green to yellowish green. In the mutant's flowers the stamina were placed much below the stigma level and the stigma sometimes protruded the corolla. Outcrossing of 4% recorded in some of the mutant lines revealed a reduced cleistogamy. The low number of seeds per pod in the mutant could be due to reduced pollen fertility. The mutant behaved as monogenic recessive. The symbols SL/sl are proposed for this allelic pair. The mutant may have use as a green manure crop because of its large foliage and for the breeders as a genetic marker

  13. Characterization of a Weak Allele of Zebrafish cloche Mutant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ning; Huang, Zhibin; Chen, Xiaohui; He, Fei; Wang, Kun; Liu, Wei; Zhao, Linfeng; Xu, Xiangmin; Liao, Wangjun; Ruan, Hua; Luo, Shenqiu; Zhang, Wenqing

    2011-01-01

    Hematopoiesis is a complicated and dynamic process about which the molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. Danio rerio (zebrafish) is an excellent vertebrate system for studying hematopoiesis and developmental mechanisms. In the previous study, we isolated and identified a cloche 172 (clo 172) mutant, a novel allele compared to the original cloche (clo) mutant, through using complementation test and initial mapping. Here, according to whole mount in-situ hybridization, we report that the endothelial cells in clo 172 mutant embryos, although initially developed, failed to form the functional vascular system eventually. In addition, further characterization indicates that the clo 172 mutant exhibited weaker defects instead of completely lost in primitive erythroid cells and definitive hematopoietic cells compared with the clo s5 mutant. In contrast, primitive myeloid cells were totally lost in clo 172 mutant. Furthermore, these reappeared definitive myeloid cells were demonstrated to initiate from the remaining hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in clo 172 mutant, confirmed by the dramatic decrease of lyc in clo 172 runx1w84x double mutant. Collectively, the clo 172 mutant is a weak allele compared to the clo s5 mutant, therefore providing a model for studying the early development of hematopoietic and vascular system, as well as an opportunity to further understand the function of the cloche gene. PMID:22132109

  14. Mutants of Cercospora kikuchii altered in cercosporin synthesis and pathogenicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upchurch, R.G.; Walker, D.C.; Rollins, J.A.; Ehrenshaft, M.; Daub, M.E.

    1991-01-01

    The authors have obtained spontaneous and UV-induced stable mutants, altered in the synthesis of cercosporin, of the fungal soybean pathogen Cercospora kikuchii. The mutants were isolated on the basis of colony color on minimal medium. The UV-induced mutants accumulated, at most, 2% of wild-type cercosporin levels on all media tested. In contrast, cercosporin accumulation by the spontaneous mutants was strongly medium regulated, occurring only on potato dextrose medium but at concentrations comparable to those produced by the wild-type strain. UV-induced mutants unable to synthesize cercosporin on any medium were unable to incite lesions when inoculated onto the soybean host. Cercosporin was reproducibly isolated from all inoculated leaves showing lesions. Although cercosporin involvement in disease has been indirectly suggested by many previous studies, this is the first report in which mutants blocked in cercosporin synthesis have been used to demonstrate that cercosporin is a crucial pathogenicity factor for this fungal genus

  15. Temperature sensitive riboflavin mutants of Penicillium vermiculatum Dangeard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, J.; Chaudhari, K.L.

    1974-01-01

    Two temperature sensitive UV induced riboflavin mutants rib 1 and rib 6 have been physiologically and genetically characterized. The two mutants behave differently with regard to their temperature sensitivity. The rib 1 mutant exhibits a leaky growth in minimal medium between 15 0 C and 30 0 C but grows well when the medium is supplemented with riboflavin. At 35 0 C the growth response of the mutant is at its max. and at 40 0 C and below 15 0 C it ceases to grow. The rib 6 mutant which is red brown in colour shows wild type character at temp. below 25 0 C in minimal medium but requires riboflavin at 30 0 C and above. Heterokaryotic analysis revealed the nonallelic nature of the two temperature mutants. Genetic tests of allelic relationship between riboflavin markers by crossing were also done. (author)

  16. Some mutants in maize obtained by irradiation with thermal neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaconu, P.

    1993-01-01

    Irradiation was carried out at the Bucharest Institute of Atomic Physics and the National Laboratory Brookhaven, USA. A description is given of 22 genic mutants affecting leaf color, plant size, and branching capacity. Characteristics related to pollen fertility and the vegetative period were affected in all the mutants. Improvement of pollen fertility was attempted over four generations without success. The maize mutants obtained by irradiation may be considered as being without practical significance. (author). 7 figs., 1 tab. 11 ref

  17. Chemotaxis-defective mutants of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusenbery, D B; Sheridan, R E; Russell, R L

    1975-06-01

    The technique of countercurrent separation has been used to isolate 17 independent chemotaxis-defective mutants of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The mutants, selected to be relatively insensitive to the normally attractive salt NaCl, show varying degrees of residual sensitivity; some are actually weakly repelled by NaCl. The mutants are due to single gene defects, are autosomal and recessive, and identify at least five complementation groups.

  18. Study on ionizing radiosensitivity of respiratory deficiency yeast mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Shuhong; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; Jin Genming; Wei Zengquan; Xie Hongmei

    2006-01-01

    The radiosensitivity of respiratory deficiency yeast mutants has been studied in this work. The mutants which were screened from the yeasts after ionizing irradiation were irradiated with 12 C 6+ at different doses. Because of the great change in its mitochondria and mitochondrial DNA, the respiratory deficiency yeast mutants show radio-sensitivity at dose less than 1 Gy and radioresistance at doses higher than 1 Gy. (authors)

  19. Defective Glycinergic Synaptic Transmission in Zebrafish Motility Mutants

    OpenAIRE

    Hirata, Hiromi; Carta, Eloisa; Yamanaka, Iori; Harvey, Robert J.; Kuwada, John Y.

    2010-01-01

    Glycine is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the spinal cord and brainstem. Recently, in vivo analysis of glycinergic synaptic transmission has been pursued in zebrafish using molecular genetics. An ENU mutagenesis screen identified two behavioral mutants that are defective in glycinergic synaptic transmission. Zebrafish bandoneon (beo) mutants have a defect in glrbb, one of the duplicated glycine receptor (GlyR) β subunit genes. These mutants exhibit a loss of glycinergic synaptic ...

  20. Studies on mutant breeding of Hibiscus syriacus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Hi Sup; Kim, Jin Kyu; Lee, Ki Un; Kim, Young Taik.

    1997-01-01

    Hibiscus has been known as a national flower of Korea. Hibiscus has such a characteristic of self-incompatibility that all the plant exist as natural hybrids and have heterogeneous genes. Many domestic 91 varieties of Hibiscus syriacus were collected. Radiosensitivity of H. Syriacus irradiated with γ-ray was investigated in plant cuttings. The plant height was reduced by 45% in 5KR irradiated group, compared to control group. The radiation dose of 5KR could be recommended for mutation breeding of Hibiscus cuttings. Radiosensitivity of γ-ray irradiated Hibiscus seed were investigated. The germination rate, survival rate and plant height was better in the 4KR irradiation plot than control. The radiation dose of 10∼12KR are recommended for mutation breeding of Hibiscus. Promising mutant lines were selected form the varieties of Hwarang, Wolsan no. 176, Ilpyondansim, Emille, Hanol, Yongkwang, Saeyongkwang, Chungmu, Imjinhong, Arang, Hungdansim-1 and Hongdansim-2. (author). 66 refs., 16 tabs., 13 figs

  1. Google: a narrativa de uma marca mutante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizete de Azevedo Kreutz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As marcas mutantes já fazem parte de nossa realidade, embora ainda não totalmente percebidas e/ou aceitas como tal. O presente artigo busca refletir sobre a relevância dessas novas estratégias de comunicação e branding, identificando suas principais características. Para isso, utilizamos o método de estudo de caso, o Google, ancorado nos métodos de pesquisa bibliográfica e de internet. A escolha foi intencional, posto que a organização é referência em sua categoria, mecanismo de busca, e reflete essa estratégia comunicacional contemporânea. Como resultado, as informações obtidas nos possibilitam compreender essa tendência de comportamento de marca que busca a interação com seus públicos.

  2. Studies on mutant breeding of Hibiscus syriacus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Hi Sup; Kim, Jin Kyu; Lee, Ki Un; Kim, Young Taik

    1997-01-01

    Hibiscus has been known as a national flower of Korea. Hibiscus has such a characteristic of self-incompatibility that all the plant exist as natural hybrids and have heterogeneous genes. Many domestic 91 varieties of Hibiscus syriacus were collected. Radiosensitivity of H. Syriacus irradiated with {gamma}-ray was investigated in plant cuttings. The plant height was reduced by 45% in 5KR irradiated group, compared to control group. The radiation dose of 5KR could be recommended for mutation breeding of Hibiscus cuttings. Radiosensitivity of {gamma}-ray irradiated Hibiscus seed were investigated. The germination rate, survival rate and plant height was better in the 4KR irradiation plot than control. The radiation dose of 10{approx}12KR are recommended for mutation breeding of Hibiscus. Promising mutant lines were selected form the varieties of Hwarang, Wolsan no. 176, Ilpyondansim, Emille, Hanol, Yongkwang, Saeyongkwang, Chungmu, Imjinhong, Arang, Hungdansim-1 and Hongdansim-2. (author). 66 refs., 16 tabs., 13 figs.

  3. Recombination-deficient mutants of Bacillus subtilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadaie, Y.; Kada, T.

    1976-01-01

    Two mutant strains of Bacillus subtilis Marburg, NIG43 and NIG45, were isolated. They showed high sensitivities to gamma rays, ultraviolet light (uv), and chemicals. Deficiencies in genetic recombination of these two mutants were shown by the experiments on their capacity in transformation, SPO2 transfection, and PBS1 phage transduction, as well as on their radiation and drug sensitivities and their Hcr + capacity for uv-exposed phage M2. Some of these characteristics were compared with those of the known strains possessing the recA1 or recB2 alleles. Mapping studies revealed that the mutation rec-43 of strain NIG43 lies in the region of chromosome replication origin. The order was purA dna-8132 rec-43. Another mutation, rec-45, of strain NIG45 was found to be tightly linked to recA1. The mutation rec-43 reduced mainly the frequency of PBS1 transduction. On the other hand, the mutation rec-45 reduced the frequency of recombination involved both in transformation and PBS1 tranduction. The mutation rec-43 of strain NIG43 is conditional, but rec-45 of strain NIG45 is not. The uv impairment in cellular survival of strain NIG43 was gradually reverted at higher salt or sucrose concentrations, suggesting cellular possession of a mutated gene product whose function is conditional. In contrast to several other recombination-deficient strains, SPO2 lysogens of strains NIG43 and NIG45 were not inducible, indicating involvement of rec-43 + or rec-45 + gene product in the development of SPO2 prophage to a vegetative form. The uv-induced deoxyribonucleic acid degradation in vegetative cells was higher in rec-43 and rec-45 strains

  4. Winter barley mutants created in the Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayats, O.M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Increasing fodder and protein production is one of the objectives of the development of agriculture in Ukraine. Higher productivity of fodder crops, due to new highly productive varieties, is the means to meet this aim. Winter barley is an important crop for fodder purposes. The climate of the Ukraine is favourable for growing this crop. The areas used for the growth of winter barley are however, small (500,000-550,000 ha) and there is a shortage of good quality varieties. The main aim of the work was therefore to create new varieties of highly productive winter barley, of good quality. The new varieties and mutation lines of winter barley were created under the influence of water solutions of N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMH - 0,012, 0,005%), N-nitroso-N-ethylurea (NEH - 0,05; 0.025; 0,012%) ethyleneimine (EI - 0,02; 0,01; 0,005%) on winter barley seeds of the varieties of local and foreign selections. On the basis of many years of investigations (1984-94) the following mutations were described: hard-grained, winter-hardiness, earliness, middle-maturity, late-maturity, wide and large leaves, narrow leaves, multinodal, great number of leaves, great number of flowers, strong stem (lodging resistant), tallness, semi-dwarfness, dwarfness, and high productivity. Particularly valuable are mutants with high productivity of green bulk. Their potential yield is 70 t/ha. As a result of the work two varieties of winter barley 'Shyrokolysty' and 'Kormovy' were released into the State register of plant varieties of the Ukraine. The other valuable mutant genotypes are used in cross breeding programmes. (author)

  5. Isoenzymes performance of some rice varieties and their mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winarno, Ermin; Suliwarno, Ambyah; Ismachin, M.

    1992-01-01

    Isoenzymes performance of some rice varieties and their mutants. Genetics studies on alcohol dehydrogenase, malic enzyme, peroxidase, acid phosphase, and aminopeptidase isoenzymes were carried out on several groups of rice varieties and their mutant lines. The first groups consisted of Atomita I, Pelita I/1, A227/5, Mudgo, TN-1, and IR-26. The second group was Cisadane variety and its five mutants, namely OBS 18, OBS 208, OBS 297, OBS 306, and OBS 330. The third group was mutants line 627-10-3 and its mutants, namely 1063, 1066, 1067, 1076, and 1090. Isoenzymes extracts of the rice leaves were fractionated using polyacrylamide gel disc electrophoresis. The pattern of acid phosphate isoenzyme shows the specific character of rice mutants susceptible to brown plant hopper biotype 1. The gene(s) controlling malic enzyme in Cisadane's mutants is (are) estimated more resistant toward gamma irradiation than gene(s) responsible for controlling the other enzymes. Generally, the isoenzymes zymograms show that gene(s) controlling the mutants enzyme have undergone mutation. This case is shown by the changes of Rm value, as well as the amount and intensity of mutants bands. (authors). 7 refs., 7 figs

  6. Agronomic performance of old soybean variety 'Altona' derived mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodosne, K.G.; Heszky, L.E.

    2001-01-01

    An induced mutation program has been initiated at the Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding to develop early maturing cultivars with good yielding capacity. Some new mutants have been produced by irradiation of variety Altona with 60 Co gamma rays. Ten years of breeding resulted in two new mutant varieties named 'Noventa' and 'Gate 511'. The present study deals with agronomic performance of these mutants. Registered soybean varieties Altona and 'McCall' as well as Altona derived mutants (Gate 511 and Noventa) have been compared

  7. Seed protein and nitrogen fixation in chickpea mutant variety Hyprosola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, H E; Gibson, A H; Oram, R N [CSIRO, Division of Plant Industry, Canberra ACT (Australia); Shaikh, M A.Q. [Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture, Mymensingh (Bangladesh)

    1989-01-01

    Full text: 'Hyprosola' is a high yielding, high protein mutant cultivar obtained after gamma irradiation from the variety 'Faridpur-1'. The mutant yields 45 % more protein per unit area. The essential amino acid index is unchanged. It is likely that the high nutritional value in 'Hyprosola' seed protein arises from an increase in the albumin:globulin ratio. Nitrogen fixation rates of the mutant during the first 7 weeks of growth were found to be similar to 'Faridpur-1'. Under field conditions, the mutant may be able to nodulate more rapidly and more extensively than the parent variety. (author)

  8. Morphological and physiological investigations on mutants of Fusarium monoliforme IM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gancheva, V.

    1996-01-01

    High-producing mutants of Fusarium moniliforme IM are obtained as a result of gamma irradiation. The cultural characteristics of mutant strains 3284, 3211 and 76 following incubation of the producers for 14 days on potato-glucose agar are described. The colour of the aerial and substrate mycelium and the ability of the mutant strains to form conidiae and pigments are discussed in detail. The differences in the ability of mutants to assimilate different carbon and nitrogen sources are of specific importance for modelling nutrient media for submerged cultivation of F. moniliforme. 2 tabs., 2 figs. 7 refs

  9. Colonic fermentation of polyphenols from Chilean currants (Ribes spp.) and its effect on antioxidant capacity and metabolic syndrome-associated enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos-Edwards, Alberto; Jiménez-Aspee, Felipe; Theoduloz, Cristina; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo

    2018-08-30

    The Chilean wild currants Ribes magellanicum and R. punctatum are a good source of polyphenols. Polyphenolic-enriched extracts (PEEs) from both species were submitted to in vitro colonic fermentation to assess the changes in phenolic composition, antioxidant capacity and inhibition of metabolic syndrome-associated enzymes. The phenolic profiles of the fermented samples showed significant changes after 24 h incubation. Nine metabolites, derived from the microbial fermentation, were tentatively identified, including dihydrocaffeic acid, dihydrocaffeoyl-, dihydroferuloylquinic acid, 1-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3-(2,4,6-trihydroxyphenyl)propan-2-ol (3,4-diHPP-2-ol), among others. The content of anthocyanins and hydroxycinnamic acids was most affected by simulated colonic conditions, with a loss of 71-92% and 90-100% after 24 h incubation, respectively. The highest antioxidant capacity values (ORAC) were reached after 8 h incubation. The inhibitory activity against the enzyme α-glucosidase was maintained after the fermentation process. Our results show that simulated colonic fermentation exerts significant changes on the polyphenolic composition of these berries, modifying their health-promoting properties. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Poland syndrome associated with an aberrant subclavian artery and vascular abnormalities of the retina in a child exposed to misoprostol during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Rafael Fabiano Machado; Travi, Giovanni M; Valiatti, Fabiana; Zen, Paulo Ricardo Gazzola; Pinto, Louise Lapagesse; Kiss, Andrea; Graziadio, Carla; Paskulin, Giorgio Adriano

    2007-06-01

    Poland syndrome has been attributed to a process of vascular disruption, and exposure to misoprostol at 6-8 weeks of gestation has been shown to produce defects attributed to vascular disruption. Herein we report the first case of a patient with Poland syndrome associated with an aberrant subclavian artery and vascular abnormalities of the retina, whose mother used misoprostol during pregnancy. A White boy of 1 year and 7 months of age, whose mother used misoprostol during the second month of pregnancy, presented with bilateral epicanthal folds, aplasia of the sternocostal head of the pectoralis major muscle with a hypoplastic nipple on the right side, and asymmetry between the upper limbs. The results of an angiotomographic study showed the presence of an aberrant right subclavian artery. Ultrasonographic evaluation showed turbulence and a high peak in the diastolic velocity in both carotid arteries, suggesting stenosis. Ophthalmologic assessment disclosed an intense bilateral tortuosity of the retinal blood vessels, with arterialnarrowing and rarefaction of the retinal pigment epithelium. This case suggests that the mechanism of vascular disruption of misoprostol could be related to the aberrant subclavian artery and the observed Poland syndrome. His retinal findings are different from those in cases described thus far in the literature, and this pattern of anomaly has never been associated with a gestational exposure to misoprostol. The possibility of a relationship of the aberrant right subclavian artery and the pattern of blood flow verified in the carotid arteries with the eye fundus abnormalities could be causally related or simply coincidental.

  11. Ascertainment of the effect of differential growth rates of mutants on observed mutant frequencies in X-irradiated mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knaap, A.G.A.C.; Simons, J.W.I.M.

    1983-01-01

    As it is not known to what extent differential growth rates of induced mutants lead to over- and under-representation of mutants in treated populations and thereby affect the determination of mutant frequencies, the mutation induction in X-irradiated L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells was determined via two methods. The first method involves the standard protocol which may suffer from the effect of differential growth rates, while the second method is based upon the fluctuation test in which the differential growth rates can be actually measured. It appeared that the standard protocol led to a mutant frequency that was similar to the mutant frequency determined in the fluctuation test. Therefore, the standard protocol appears to lead to only a minor under-estimation if any. Substantial heterogeneity in growth rates of induced mutants was observed, but the mutants with a selective advantage appear largely to compensate for the mutants that are lost because of selective disadvantage. It was calculated that the chance for isolating the same mutant twice from a treated population had been increased 2.2-fold because of the observed differential growth rates. (orig./AJ)

  12. Applications of Protein Thermodynamic Database for Understanding Protein Mutant Stability and Designing Stable Mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromiha, M Michael; Anoosha, P; Huang, Liang-Tsung

    2016-01-01

    Protein stability is the free energy difference between unfolded and folded states of a protein, which lies in the range of 5-25 kcal/mol. Experimentally, protein stability is measured with circular dichroism, differential scanning calorimetry, and fluorescence spectroscopy using thermal and denaturant denaturation methods. These experimental data have been accumulated in the form of a database, ProTherm, thermodynamic database for proteins and mutants. It also contains sequence and structure information of a protein, experimental methods and conditions, and literature information. Different features such as search, display, and sorting options and visualization tools have been incorporated in the database. ProTherm is a valuable resource for understanding/predicting the stability of proteins and it can be accessed at http://www.abren.net/protherm/ . ProTherm has been effectively used to examine the relationship among thermodynamics, structure, and function of proteins. We describe the recent progress on the development of methods for understanding/predicting protein stability, such as (1) general trends on mutational effects on stability, (2) relationship between the stability of protein mutants and amino acid properties, (3) applications of protein three-dimensional structures for predicting their stability upon point mutations, (4) prediction of protein stability upon single mutations from amino acid sequence, and (5) prediction methods for addressing double mutants. A list of online resources for predicting has also been provided.

  13. Mutants dissecting development and behaviour in drosophila

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Adita; Chandrashekaran, Shanti; Sharma, R.P.

    2005-01-01

    We have traced in this paper the progress in Drosophila genetics research from the 1960s, at the IARI, spearheaded by the visionary insight of M. S. Swaminathan. The work started with the study of indirect effect of radiation and the synergistic interaction of physical and chemical mutagens on chromosomal and genetic changes. This paved the way for the study of single gene mutants in dissecting developmental and behavioural processes. New genes discovered by us have been shown to encode conserved cell signalling molecules controlling developmental and behavioural pathways. With the complete sequencing of the Drosophila genome, in the year 2000, mounting evidence for the homology between Drosophila and human genes controlling genetic disorders became available. This has led to the fly becoming an indispensable tool for studying human diseases as well as a model to test for drugs and pharmaceuticals against human diseases and complex behavioural processes. For example wingless in Drosophila belongs to the conserved Wnt gene family and aberrant WNT signalling is linked to a range of human diseases, most notably cancer. Inhibition as well as activation of WNT signalling form the basis of an effective therapy for some cancers as well as several other clinical conditions. Recent experiments have shown that WNTs might also normally participate in self-renewal, proliferation or differentiation of stem cells and altering WNT signalling might be beneficial to the use of stem cells for therapeutic means. Likewise, the stambhA mutant of Drosophila which was discovered for its temperature-dependent paralytic behaviour is the fly homologue of Phospholipase Cβ. Phospholipase C mediated G protein signalling plays a central role in vital processes controlling epilepsy, vision, taste, and olfaction in animals. Proteins of the G-signalling pathway are of intense research interest since many human diseases involve defects in G-protein signalling pathways. In fact, approximately 50

  14. Histological and Molecular Characterization of Grape Early Ripening Bud Mutant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Long Guo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An early ripening bud mutant was analyzed based on the histological, SSR, and methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP analysis and a layer-specific approach was used to investigate the differentiation between the bud mutant and its parent. The results showed that the thickness of leaf spongy tissue of mutant (MT is larger than that of wild type (WT and the differences are significant. The mean size of cell layer L2 was increased in the mutant and the difference is significant. The genetic background of bud mutant revealed by SSR analysis is highly uniform to its parent; just the variations from VVS2 SSR marker were detected in MT. The total methylation ratio of MT is lower than that of the corresponding WT. The outside methylation ratio in MT is much less than that in WT; the average inner methylation ratio in MT is larger than that in WT. The early ripening bud mutant has certain proportion demethylation in cell layer L2. All the results suggested that cell layer L2 of the early ripening bud mutant has changed from the WT. This study provided the basis for a better understanding of the characteristic features of the early ripening bud mutant in grape.

  15. Gamma-ray induced mutants in castor (Ricinus communis L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janila, P.; Ashok Kumar, A.; Rajashekar Reddy, N.; Hemalatha, V.

    2007-01-01

    We report isolation of three recessive mutants in castor using dry seed irradiation with gamma rays. The crinkled leaf mutant (crf) was identified in K-55-112 M2 family and leafy mutant (lea) in H-55-577 M2 family; both are recessive lethal and thus maintained as heterozygotes. The cri mutant has highly wrinkled leaves resembling finger millet head and failed to enter reproductive phase, consequently did not produce seeds. The number of leaf lobes is reduced in lea mutant and though it produced spikes, the male and female flowers are converted to leafy appendages. The third mutant, fused (Ius) stem identified in H-55-617 M2 family is a recessive mutant. The branches of which are fused at the base and though each branch terminates in to monoceous spike like normal plant, the spike is highly condensed. The three mutants under report are valuable genetic stocks for development of linkage maps in castor, which is at infancy. (author)

  16. Development of Database Software with Plant Mutant Resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namgoong, Won; Lee, M. J.; Kim, J. D.; Ma, N. K.

    2007-03-01

    In this research, mutants induced by nuclear radiation are developed information computerised system. The status and progress on the collection, identification and utilization of mutants in Korea are introduced. And it was produced home page, manual, test record, construction of system

  17. Clear Plaque Mutants of Lactococcal Phage TP901-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kot, Witold; Kilstrup, Mogens; Vogensen, Finn K.

    2016-01-01

    We report a method for obtaining turbid plaques of the lactococcal bacteriophage TP901-1 and its derivative TP901-BC1034. We have further used the method to isolate clear plaque mutants of this phage. Analysis of 8 such mutants that were unable to lysogenize the host included whole genome...

  18. Isolation and characterization of stable mutants of Streptomyces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Daunorubicin and its derivative doxorubicin are antitumour anthracycline antibiotics produced by Streptomyces peucetius. In this study we report isolation of stable mutants of S. peucetius blocked in different steps of the daunorubicin biosynthesis pathway. Mutants were screened on the basis of colony colour since producer ...

  19. Photosynthetic characterization of a rolled leaf mutant of rice ( Oryza ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new rolling leaf rice mutant was identified which showed an apparently straighter longitudinal shape normal transverse rolling characters at all developing stages. The chlorophyll contents per fresh weight of this mutant leaves were lower than those of wild-type. The electron transfer rate (ETR) and photochemical ...

  20. Mutant strain of C. acetobutylicum and process for making butanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Mahendra K.; Beacom, Daniel; Datta, Rathin

    1993-01-01

    A biologically pure asporogenic mutant of Clostridium acetobutylicum is produced by growing sporogenic C. acetobutylicum ATCC 4259 and treating the parent strain with ethane methane sulfonate. The mutant which as been designated C. acetobutylicum ATCC 55025 is useful in an improved ABE fermentation process, and produces high concentrations of butanol and total solvents.

  1. Sorghum Brown Midrib Mutants, Tools to Improve Biomass for Biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    To improve sorghum for cellulosic bioenergy uses, brown midrib mutants are being investigated for their ability to increase the conversion efficiency of biomass. brown midrib 6 and 12 (bmr6 and 12) mutants affect monolignol biosynthesis resulting in reduced lignin content and altered lignin composi...

  2. Isozyme patterns of powdery mildew resistant wheat mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Wengau; Li Zhengkui; Wang Kefeng

    1989-01-01

    Full Text: Wheat mutants induced by gamma irradiation and showing improved resistance to powdery mildew were analysed for isozymes. The peroxidase band 3A could be related to the disease reaction. The band 3A is absent in resistant mutants, the higher the activity of band 3A the greater the susceptibility. (author)

  3. Strain improvement in dye decolourising mutants of Mucor mucedo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... M. mucedo {MMM1-U.V. irradiated mutant and MMM2-EMS (ethyl methyl sulfonate) treated ... tions were induced and two positive mutants (MMM1, .... yeast biofilter for the treatment of a Nigerian fertilizer plant effluent. World J.

  4. Chinese hamster ovary cell mutants defective in heparan sulfate biosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bame, K.J.; Kiser, C.S.; Esko, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have isolated Chinese hamster ovary cell mutants defective in proteoglycan synthesis by radiographic screening for cells unable to incorporate 35 SO 4 into acid-precipitable material. Some mutants did not incorporate 35 SO 4 into acid-precipitable material, whereas others incorporated about 3-fold less radioactivity. HPLC anion exchange chromatographic analysis of radiolabelled glycosaminoglycans isolated from these mutants revealed many are defective in heparan sulfate biosynthesis. Mutants 803 and 677 do not synthesize heparan sulfate, although they produce chondroitin sulfate: strain 803 makes chondroitin sulfate normally, whereas 677 overaccumulates chondroitin sulfate by a factor of three. These mutants fall into the same complementation group, suggesting that the mutations are allelic. A second group of heparan sulfate biosynthetic mutants, consisting of cell lines 625, 668 and 679, produce undersulfated heparan sulfate and normal chondroitin sulfate. Treatment of the chains with nitrous acid should determine the position of the sulfate groups along the chain. These mutants may define a complementation group that is defective in the enzymes which modify the heparan sulfate chain. To increase the authors repertoire of heparan sulfate mutants, they are presently developing an in situ enzyme assay to screen colonies replica plated on filter discs for sulfotransferase defects

  5. Screening of in vitro derived mutants of banana against nematodes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rest of the mutants namely Ro Im V4 6-1-2 and Si Im V4 6-2-5 were found to be susceptible to nematodes. The resistant and moderately resistant mutants of banana could be further used in breeding programmes as well as being recognized as potential cultivars of commerce. Key words: Banana, nematode, resistance, ...

  6. Induction and characterization of Arabidopsis mutants by Ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Y. H.; Choi, J. D.; Park, J. Y.; Lee, J. R.; Sohn, H. S.

    2008-03-01

    This study was conducted to search the proper conditions and times for irradiating proton beam to seeds generally used for induction of mutant. Arabidopsis as model plants has good characters that is a short generation time, producing a lot of seeds, sequenced genome, developed maker. This points were the best materials for plant breeding for this study. The data of inducing mutants of Arabidopsis is used to be applicate to crops have more longer generation that is the final goals of this study. The goals of this project were to inducing and characterizing arabidopsis mutants by the proton ion beam and γ-ray. As well as, the purpose of this study was securing more than 10 lines of arabidopsis mutants in this project and also to know the changed DNA structure of the mutants using the basic data for applying to the more study

  7. Phage Pl mutants with altered transducing abilities for Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, J.D.; Harriman, P.D.

    1974-01-01

    A search was made for mutants of the coliphage P1 with altered transducing frequencies. A method was developed for the rapid assay of transducing frequencies in single plaques using prophage lambda as the transduced bacterial marker. This procedure selects for mutants altered in their ability to package host DNA. Mutants with 5 to 10 times higher or 10 to 20 times lower frequencies than those of wild-type P1 were found. Not only are the markers used for the detection of the mutants affected, but all other markers are similarly affected (not always to the same extent). One of the high transducing frequency mutants is a suppressible amber, indicating that loss of a function increases P1's ability to package host DNA preferentially. (U.S.)

  8. Spectrum of mutant characters utilized in developing improved cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donini, B.; Kawai, T.; Micke, A.

    1984-01-01

    Although about 500 cultivars are known to have been developed by using induced mutations, the range of mutant traits seems to be rather narrow. Mutant traits have mostly been used that can be detected visually on an individual plant basis. However, in the background of such mutants other valuable mutations have been found in later generations. In cross-breeding with mutants valuable characteristics occurred, which could not be predicted from the phenotypes of the parents. It is concluded that improved attributes in the released mutant varieties do not comprise the entire genetic variation that could derive from mutagenesis. Current selection techniques are inadequate to exploit the full potential of mutagenesis for plant breeding. (author)

  9. Poliovirus Mutants Resistant to Neutralization with Soluble Cell Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Gerardo; Peters, David; Racaniello, Vincent R.

    1990-12-01

    Poliovirus mutants resistant to neutralization with soluble cellular receptor were isolated. Replication of soluble receptor-resistant (srr) mutants was blocked by a monoclonal antibody directed against the HeLa cell receptor for poliovirus, indicating that the mutants use this receptor to enter cells. The srr mutants showed reduced binding to HeLa cells and cell membranes. However, the reduced binding phenotype did not have a major impact on viral replication, as judged by plaque size and one-step growth curves. These results suggest that the use of soluble receptors as antiviral agents could lead to the selection of neutralization-resistant mutants that are able to bind cell surface receptors, replicate, and cause disease.

  10. The agronomic characters of a high protein rice mutant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harn, C.; Won, J.L.; Choi, K.T.

    1975-01-01

    Mutant lines (M 5 -M 9 ) of macro-phenotypic traits from several varieties were screened for the protein content. Mutant 398 (M 9 ) is one of the high protein mutants selected from Hokwang. Three years' tests revealed that it has a high protein line under any condition of cultivation. Except for early maturity and short culmness, other agronomic and yield characters were similar to the original variety. There was no difference between the mutant 398 and its mother variety in grain shape and weight, and also the size and protein content of the embryo. The high protein content of the mutant is attributable to the increase of protein in the endosperm. About 150 normal-looking or a few days-earlier-maturing selections were made from Jinheung variety in the M 3 and screened for protein. Promising lines in terms of the plant type, yield and protein were obtained. (author)

  11. Mildew resistant and less lodging wheat mutants induced in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naghedi-Ahmadi, I.

    1989-01-01

    ''Tabassi'' is a lodging and mildew susceptible cultivar. To induce mutations, seeds were gamma irradiated (50 to 150 Gy) in 1982 and selection for lodging resistance was carried out in M 2 . During field experiments with the mutant lines in 1985/86 there has been a heavy mildew epidemic under which mutant 63-5-I (derived from 50 Gy treatment) exhibited considerable resistance and as a consequence, higher yield. The control was 100% infected, the mutant only 40%. The mutant yielded 31% more grain, 7.5% less straw and 4.5% more protein than the control. Lodging of 63-5-I was only 60% in an experiment under rainfed conditions in the same season, resulting in a relative yield increase of about 11%. In 1986/87 there was no mildew epidemic and the mutant yielded the same as ''Tabassi''

  12. Characteristics of mutant lines of sweet potato flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aryanti

    2012-01-01

    Research on mutation induction of sweet potato Sari variety has been conducted. Flour mutant lines were obtained from selection of M1V5 tubers irradiated by gamma rays at the dose of 10 Gy. Flour was made by peeling of tubers, then dried, blended and sieved. The quality test of flour have been done by measuring degree of whiteness, proximate, amylose contents, water content, soluble water, swelling power, and flour characteristics. The result of this work showed that flour of C6.26.13 mutant line had higher protein content than the parent plant with concentration of 3.62 % and its amylose content was also higher than the other mutant lines. The soluble water value of mutant lines were significant different compared to the parent plant from 1.82 to 2.25 % and swelling power from 4.28 to 5.55 %. The flour granule of the mutant line was different compared to the parent plant. (author)

  13. Photosynthetic and nitrogen fixation capability in several soybean mutant lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandanegara, S.; Hendratno, K.

    1987-01-01

    Photosynthetic and nitrogen fixation capability in several soybean mutant lines. A greenhouse experiment has been carried out to study photosynthetic and nitrogen fixation capability of five mutant lines and two soybean varieties. An amount of 330 uCi of 14 CO 2 was fed to the plants including of the non-fixing reference crop (Chippewa non-nodulating isoline). Nitrogen fixation measurements was carried out using 15 N isotope dilution technique according to A-value concept. Results showed that beside variety/mutant lines, plant growth also has important role in photosynthetic and N fixing capability. Better growth and a higher photosynthetic capability in Orba, mutant lines nos. 63 and 65 resulted in a greater amount of N 2 fixed (mg N/plant) than other mutant lines. (author). 12 refs.; 5 figs

  14. Induction and characterization of Arabidopsis mutants by Ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Y. H.; Choi, J. D.; Park, J. Y.; Lee, J. R.; Sohn, H. S. [Gyeongbuk Institute for Bio Industry, Andong (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-03-15

    This study was conducted to search the proper conditions and times for irradiating proton beam to seeds generally used for induction of mutant. Arabidopsis as model plants has good characters that is a short generation time, producing a lot of seeds, sequenced genome, developed maker. This points were the best materials for plant breeding for this study. The data of inducing mutants of Arabidopsis is used to be applicate to crops have more longer generation that is the final goals of this study. The goals of this project were to inducing and characterizing arabidopsis mutants by the proton ion beam and {gamma}-ray. As well as, the purpose of this study was securing more than 10 lines of arabidopsis mutants in this project and also to know the changed DNA structure of the mutants using the basic data for applying to the more study

  15. Study on growth condition of Trichoderma mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jian'ai; Xiao Min; Wang Weiming; Chen Weijing; Sun Yongtang

    2002-01-01

    Some Trichoderma mutants were cultured under different conditions 4 strains, T5, T0803, T1010, T1003 were selected with different mediums and every medium was mixed with fungicide of 40 ppm. The fungicides were procymidone + chlorothalonil, maneb and phosethyl-Al. The pH of medium were 5, 6, 7 and 8, respectively. The growing temperatures were 15, 20, 25 and 30 degree C, respectively. After the hypha growing for some days under natural high temperature, they were put in low temperature for producing spores. The growing times for these hypha were 3,4,5 and 6 days, respectively. All dates were analyzed on statistics with the orthogonal array and ranges (R) were different with different factor and levels (R = 40.4, 42.4, 48.0, 62.8, 107.0). The results showed that the strain was the most influent condition (R = 107.0) and the changed temperature time from high to low was the least influent condition (R = 40.4). Each factor variance was significant and A 3 b 4 C 2 D 1 E 3 was the optimum combined condition, under which T1010 grew more quickly and produced the most spores

  16. Assessment and application of oats mutant forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velikovsky, V [Vyzkumny a Slechtitelsky Ustav Obilnarsky, Kromeriz (Czechoslovakia)

    1978-04-01

    Five oat varieties were studied for the effect of X-rays on the degree of survival, on the occurrence rate of mutations, and on the possibility of obtaining improved forms for further breeding work. Oats were treated with doses of 20,000 and 40,000 R and the latter dose was found to be highly lethal. For this reason, further studies were performed with doses of 15,000 and 25,000 R. The 'Diadem' variety (CSSR) showed the highest sensitivity to irradiation. The varieties 'Tiger' (West Germany) and 'Diane' (Belgium) showed medium susceptibility and the 'Permit' and 'Pollux' varieties (both W. Germany) were the least sensitive. In selection oriented mainly to stalk shortening and to higher resistance to lodging, the greatest number of useful macromutations was obtained from the 'Permit' variety after exposure of dry seeds to a dose of 20,000 R. The most promising mutant forms obtained in this variety were sent to some breeding stations of the Plant-Breeding and Seed-Production Enterprise Oseva for further breeding use.

  17. Radiation induced mutants in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayar, G.G.; Rajendran, P.G.

    1987-01-01

    Full text: Stem cuttings and true seeds of three promising cultivars of cassava were exposed respectively to 1 to 5 kR and 10 to 50 kR acute gamma rays from a 60 Co source. Treatments of stem cuttings beyond 5 kR and seeds beyond 50 kR were lethal. One mutant each in the cultivars M4, H-165 and H-2304 was obtained from the stem irradiated populations. Another mutant was found in the seed irradiated progeny of H-2304. The mutant of M4 is characterised by light green (chlorina) leaves. The mutant of H-165 shows significantly shorter petiole (22,5 against 35.2 cm) and narrow leaf lobes, while the H-2304 mutant shows speckled leaves, branching and early flowering. The mutant found in the seed irradiated progeny of H-2304 is having yellow tuber flesh indicating the presence of carotene. The mutants may be useful in studies related to basic information as well as in practical breeding. The chlorina mutant in M4 showed slow growth and high HCN content in leaves. Late branching may be a useful trait in the traditionally non-branching clones of cassava to maintain the desirable leaf area index during high leaf fall period. Early flowering could be useful in a recombinant breeding programme. The tuber yield of the short petiole mutant in H-165 increased by 20% - 25% through closer planting. The narrow leaf lobes of this mutant permit better light penetration to lower leaves. (author)

  18. Human liver cell trafficking mutants: characterization and whole exome sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Yuan

    Full Text Available The HuH7 liver cell mutant Trf1 is defective in membrane trafficking and is complemented by the casein kinase 2α subunit CK2α''. Here we identify characteristic morphologies, trafficking and mutational changes in six additional HuH7 mutants Trf2-Trf7. Trf1 cells were previously shown to be severely defective in gap junction functions. Using a Lucifer yellow transfer assay, remarkable attenuation of gap junction communication was revealed in each of the mutants Trf2-Trf7. Electron microscopy and light microscopy of thiamine pyrophosphatase showed that several mutants exhibited fragmented Golgi apparatus cisternae compared to parental HuH7 cells. Intracellular trafficking was investigated using assays of transferrin endocytosis and recycling and VSV G secretion. Surface binding of transferrin was reduced in all six Trf2-Trf7 mutants, which generally correlated with the degree of reduced expression of the transferrin receptor at the cell surface. The mutants displayed the same transferrin influx rates as HuH7, and for efflux rate, only Trf6 differed, having a slower transferrin efflux rate than HuH7. The kinetics of VSV G transport along the exocytic pathway were altered in Trf2 and Trf5 mutants. Genetic changes unique to particular Trf mutants were identified by exome sequencing, and one was investigated in depth. The novel mutation Ile34Phe in the GTPase RAB22A was identified in Trf4. RNA interference knockdown of RAB22A or overexpression of RAB22AI34F in HuH7 cells caused phenotypic changes characteristic of the Trf4 mutant. In addition, the Ile34Phe mutation reduced both guanine nucleotide binding and hydrolysis activities of RAB22A. Thus, the RAB22A Ile34Phe mutation appears to contribute to the Trf4 mutant phenotype.

  19. Homologous series of induced early mutants in indican rice. Pt.1. The production of homologous series of early mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiulan; Yang Hefeng; He Zhentian; Han Yuepeng; Liu Xueyu

    1999-01-01

    The percentage of homologous series of early mutants induced from the same Indican rice variety were almost the same (1.37%∼1.64%) in 1983∼1993, but the ones from the different eco-typical varieties were different. The early variety was 0.73%, the mid variety was 1.51%, and the late variety was 1.97%. The percentage of homologous series of early mutants from the varieties with the same pedigree and relationship were similar, but the one from the cog nation were lower than those from distant varieties. There are basic laws and characters in the homologous series of early mutants: 1. The inhibited phenotype is the basic of the homologous series of early mutants; 2. The production of the homologous series of early mutants is closely related with the growing period of the parent; 3. The parallel mutation of the stem and leaves are simultaneously happened with the variation of early or late maturing; 4. The occurrence of the homologous series of early mutants is in a state of imbalance. According to the law of parallel variability, the production of homologous series of early mutants can be predicted as long as the parents' classification of plant, pedigree and ecological type are identified. Therefore, the early breeding can be guided by the law of homologous series of early mutants

  20. The Native Fruit Geoffroea decorticans from Arid Northern Chile: Phenolic Composition, Antioxidant Activities and In Vitro Inhibition of Pro-Inflammatory and Metabolic Syndrome-Associated Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Jiménez-Aspee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The native tree Geoffroea decorticans (chañar grows in the arid lands of northern Chile. It has been used as a food plant since prehistoric times. Phenolic-enriched extracts (PEEs of Chilean chañar fruits were assessed for their chemical composition, antioxidant properties and inhibition of pro-inflammatory and metabolic syndrome-associated enzymes. Phenolic profiles were determined by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS. The PEEs of G. decorticans showed a strong effect towards the enzymes COX-1/COX-2, with inhibition percentages ranging from inactive to 92.1% and inactive to 76.0% at 50 µg PEE/mL, respectively. The IC50 values of the PEEs towards lipoxygenase and phospholipase A2 inhibitory activity were between 43.6–96.8 and 98.9–156.0 μg PEE/mL, respectively. Samples inhibited α-glucosidase (IC50 0.8–7.3 μg PEE/mL and lipase (9.9 to >100 μg PEE/mL. However, samples did not inhibit α-amylase. The HPLC-DAD-MS analysis of the PEEs allowed the tentative identification of 53 compounds, mainly flavonol glycosides and procyanidins. The procyanidin content of the Chilean G. decorticans pulp was positively correlated with the antioxidant activity and the inhibition of the enzyme α-glucosidase. These results indicate that the Chilean chañar fruit contains bioactive polyphenols with functional properties.

  1. Lynch syndrome-associated endometrial carcinoma with MLH1 germline mutation and MLH1 promoter hypermethylation: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Takanori; Takehara, Kazuhiro; Sugimoto, Nao; Kaneko, Keika; Fujimoto, Etsuko; Okazawa-Sakai, Mika; Okame, Shinichi; Shiroyama, Yuko; Yokoyama, Takashi; Teramoto, Norihiro; Ohsumi, Shozo; Saito, Shinya; Imai, Kazuho; Sugano, Kokichi

    2018-05-21

    Lynch syndrome is an autosomal dominant inherited disease caused by germline mutations in mismatch repair genes. Analysis for microsatellite instability (MSI) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) of protein expressions of disease-associated genes is used to screen for Lynch syndrome in endometrial cancer patients. When losses of both MLH1 and PMS2 proteins are observed by IHC, MLH1 promoter methylation analysis is conducted to distinguish Lynch syndrome-associated endometrial cancer from sporadic cancer. Here we report a woman who developed endometrial cancer at the age of 49 years. She had a family history of colorectal cancer (first-degree relative aged 52 years) and stomach cancer (second-degree relative with the age of onset unknown). No other family history was present, and she failed to meet the Amsterdam II criteria for the diagnosis of Lynch syndrome. Losses of MLH1 and PMS2, but not MSH2 and MSH6, proteins were observed by IHC in endometrial cancer tissues. Because MLH1 promoter hypermethylation was detected in endometrial cancer tissue samples, the epigenetic silencing of MLH1 was suspected as the cause of the protein loss. However, because of the early onset of endometrial cancer and the positive family history, a diagnosis of Lynch syndrome was also suspected. Therefore, we provided her with genetic counseling. After obtaining her consent, MLH1 promoter methylation testing and genetic testing of peripheral blood were performed. MLH1 promoter methylation was not observed in peripheral blood. However, genetic testing revealed a large deletion of exon 5 in MLH1; thus, we diagnosed the presence of Lynch syndrome. Both MLH1 germline mutation and MLH1 promoter hypermethylation may be observed in endometrial cancer. Therefore, even if MLH1 promoter hypermethylation is detected, a diagnosis of Lynch syndrome cannot be excluded.

  2. Prader-Willi Syndrome Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... everyone will be talking about. Join the many families and individuals that are part of the PWS community this year in Orlando, FL from November ... of autism spectrum disorders in children with Prader-Willi syndrome pwsa | Jun ...

  3. Nephrotic syndrome associated with meningioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P P Zachariah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 58-year-old man presented with recurrent frontal meningioma and nephrotic syndrome. Renal biopsy could not be done in view of the rapid neurological deterioration. The patient underwent surgical resection of the tumor. Within 4 weeks, the edema decreased, serum albumin improved, and proteinuria decreased spontaneously. At three months of followup, the patient had attained complete remission of nephrotic state.

  4. Genetic studies on dwarf triticale mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nalepa, S.

    1984-01-01

    The parents, F 1 , F 2 and backcrosses derived from triticale dwarf mutants and tall cultivars were studied during the 1979-80 crop season. Data was taken on individual plants to estimate dwarf inheritance, gene action and interrelationships of grain yield and selected yield related traits. The direct and indirect effects of grain yield per spike on other grain yield components were also studied. Results indicate that dwarfing is controlled by two, partially dominant, genes. Additional crosses involving other hexaploid triticale lines revealed the inheritance of other characters. The results in F 2 show that glossy plant, waxy covering of the neck and hairy neck are dominant, while short straw is recessive. Waxy covering on the spike seems to be controlled by two genes with additive action. Observation of F 2 progenies indicates that a gene for waxy neck covering Wx and hairy neck Hp might be located on the same chromosome at a distance of about 19 units. Plant height showed a positive phenotypic correlation with grain yield and 1,000 kernel weight. Non-significant correlations were found between plant height and number of grains per spike, harvest index and spikelet fertility. Path coefficient analyses at the phenotypic level indicated that the direct effects of grain number on grain yield were large while the direct effects of 1,000 kernel weight were relatively small. The results of this study indicate that selection for high kernel number is the most important factor in a breeding programme for increasing grain yield in some dwarf triticale. It was found that epistasis is not involved in the inheritance of harvest index. Additive, dominance and additive x dominance epistasis were important for grain yield per spike. A duplicate type of epistasis was found for 1,000 kernel weight and number of grains per spikelet. (author)

  5. Induced mutant for male sterility in niger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sujatha, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Niger (Guizotia abyssinica Cass.), an important oilseed crop of the family Compositae is highly cross-pollinated due to the twin mechanisms of protandry and incompatibility. Studies revealed the functional nature of protandry and the breakdown of incompatibility with alteration in temperature. It has very small flowers (disc florets) arranged in a capitulum that open on 3-4 consecutive days which pose problems in emasculation for cross-breeding. To induce mutations, seeds of variety 'IGP-76' were irradiated with γ-rays 200 to 1000 Gy. All seeds of M 1 plants were sown separately in individual plant-to progeny rows. The results of screening of M 2 segregating material indicated that γ-ray treatment was effective in induction of male sterility. Frequency of visible mutations were higher in sibbed progeny as compared to open pollinated population and male sterile plants were observed only in sibbed population (1000 Gy). Male sterile plants could easily be identified at the flowering stage by their altered floral morphology (disc florets transformed into ligulate ray florets) and complete absence or presence of a rudimentary anther column. Seeds were collected following sib-mating with the fertile counterparts. Progeny segregated in a ration of 3 normal : 1 male sterile. Further work on the mechanism of sterility, maintenance and linkage relationships with associated characters is under progress. This is the first report of induction of male sterility in niger through the use of physical mutagens. The availability of this mutant will be of great value for exploitation of heterosis on commercial basis. (author)

  6. Mapping pathological phenotypes in Reelin mutant mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina eMichetti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD are neurodevelopmental disorders with multifactorial origin characterized by social communication and behavioural perseveration deficits. Several studies showed an association between the reelin gene mutation and increased risk of ASD and a reduced reelin expression in some brain regions of ASD subjects, suggesting a role for reelin deficiency in ASD etiology. Reelin is a large extracellular matrix glycoprotein playing important roles during development of the central nervous system. To deeply investigate the role of reelin dysfunction as vulnerability factor in ASD, we investigated the behavioural, neurochemical and brain morphological features of reeler male mice. We recently reported a genotype-dependent deviation in ultrasonic vocal repertoire and a general delay in motor development in reeler pups. We now report that adult male heterozygous reeler mice did not show social behaviour and communication deficits during male-female social interactions. Wildtype and heterozygous mice also showed a typical light/dark locomotor activity profile, with a peak during the central interval of the dark phase. However, when faced with a mild stressful stimulus (a saline injection only heterozygous mice showed an over response to stress. At the end of the behavioural studies, we conducted high performance liquid chromatography and magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy to investigate whether reelin mutation influences brain monoamine and metabolites levels in regions involved in ASD. Low levels of dopamine in cortex and high levels of glutamate and taurine in hippocampus were detected in heterozygous mice, in line with clinical data collected on ASD children. Altogether, our data detected subtle but relevant neurochemical abnormalities in reeler mice supporting this mutant line, particularly male subjects, as a valid experimental model to estimate the contribution played by reelin deficiency in the global ASD

  7. Ethanol production using nuclear petite yeast mutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutter, A.; Oliver, S.G. [Department of Biomolecular Sciences, UMIST, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-31

    Two respiratory-deficient nuclear petites, FY23{Delta}pet191 and FY23{Delta}cox5a, of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae were generated using polymerase-chain-reaction-mediated gene disruption, and their respective ethanol tolerance and productivity assessed and compared to those of the parental grande, FY23WT, and a mitochondrial petite, FY23{rho}{sup 0}. Batch culture studies demonstrated that the parental strain was the most tolerant to exogenously added ethanol with an inhibition constant. K{sub i}, of 2.3% (w/v) and a specific rate of ethanol production, q{sub p}, of 0.90 g ethanol g dry cells{sup -1} h{sup -1}. FY23{rho}{sup 0} was the most sensitive to ethanol, exhibiting a K{sub i} of 1.71% (w/v) and q{sub p} of 0.87 g ethanol g dry cells{sup -1} h{sup -1}. Analyses of the ethanol tolerance of the nuclear petites demonstrate that functional mitochondria are essential for maintaining tolerance to the toxin with the 100% respiratory-deficient nuclear petite, FY23{Delta}pet191, having a K{sub i} of 2.14% (w/v) and the 85% respiratory-deficient FY23{Delta}cox5a, having a K{sub i} of 1.94% (w/v). The retention of ethanol tolerance in the nuclear petites as compared to that of FY23{rho}{sup 0} is mirrored by the ethanol productivities of these nuclear mutants, being respectively 43% and 30% higher than that of the respiratory-sufficient parent strain. This demonstrates that, because of their respiratory deficiency, the nuclear petites are not subject of the Pasteur effect and so exhibit higher rates of fermentation. (orig.)

  8. Circulation of Pneumocystis dihydropteroate synthase mutants in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gal, Solène; Damiani, Céline; Perrot, Maëla; Rouillé, Amélie; Virmaux, Michèle; Quinio, Dorothée; Moalic, Elodie; Saliou, Philippe; Berthou, Christian; Le Meur, Yann; Totet, Anne; Nevez, Gilles

    2012-10-01

    Data on the prevalence of Pneumocystis jirovecii (P. jirovecii) dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) mutants in France are still limited. In this study, mutant prevalence in the Brest region (western France) was determined. Archival pulmonary specimens from 85 patients infected with P. jirovecii and admitted to our institution (University Hospital, Brest) from October 2007 to February 2010 were retrospectively typed at the DHPS locus using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. Type identification was successful in 66 of 85 patients. Sixty-four patients were infected with a wild type, whereas mutants were found in 2 patients (2/66, 3%). Medical chart analysis revealed that these 2 patients usually lived in Paris. Another patient usually lived on the French Riviera, whereas 63 patients were from the city of Brest. Thus, the corrected prevalence of mutants in patients who effectively lived in our geographic area was 0% (0/63). Taking into account that i) Paris is characterized by a high prevalence of mutants from 18.5% to 40%, ii) infection diagnoses were performed in the 2 Parisians during their vacation Paris to Brest through infected vacationers. The study shows that the usual city of patient residence, rather than the city of infection diagnosis, is a predictor of mutants and that P. jirovecii infections involving mutants do not represent a public health issue in western France. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Cytogenetic characteristics of soft wheat mutants under x-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakaryan, Zh.O.; Avakyan, V.A.; Amirbekyan, V.A.

    1981-01-01

    Radiosensitivity of induced mutants of soft wheat is studied by criteria of frequency and character of changes in 1 and 2 divisions of meiosis. Two constant induced mutant forms of soft wheat were investigated. Mutant lines of squareheads with red ear (re) and erectoids 37/1 were obtained by X-ray irradiating hydride seeds F 1 of hybride combination of Alty-Agach Awnless 1. Seeds of mutants and initial kinds were exposed to X-rays at a dose of 10 kR. A conclusion may be drawn on the basis of studying the meiosis process in mutants and initial kinds of soft wheat on X-ray radiation that the mutants are more radiosensitive. This testifies to that that the induced mutants of soft wheat represent new genotypes in comparison with the initial kinds and differ from the latter not only in morphological characters but in the reaction norm with respect to external medium factors, i.e. the limit of possible changeability of the genotype has been extended [ru

  10. Methods of producing protoporphyrin IX and bacterial mutants therefor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jizhong; Qiu, Dongru; He, Zhili; Xie, Ming

    2016-03-01

    The presently disclosed inventive concepts are directed in certain embodiments to a method of producing protoporphyrin IX by (1) cultivating a strain of Shewanella bacteria in a culture medium under conditions suitable for growth thereof, and (2) recovering the protoporphyrin IX from the culture medium. The strain of Shewanella bacteria comprises at least one mutant hemH gene which is incapable of normal expression, thereby causing an accumulation of protoporphyrin IX. In certain embodiments of the method, the strain of Shewanella bacteria is a strain of S. loihica, and more specifically may be S. loihica PV-4. In certain embodiments, the mutant hemH gene of the strain of Shewanella bacteria may be a mutant of shew_2229 and/or of shew_1140. In other embodiments, the presently disclosed inventive concepts are directed to mutant strains of Shewanella bacteria having at least one mutant hemH gene which is incapable of normal expression, thereby causing an accumulation of protoporphyrin IX during cultivation of the bacteria. In certain embodiments the strain of Shewanella bacteria is a strain of S. loihica, and more specifically may be S. loihica PV-4. In certain embodiments, the mutant hemH gene of the strain of Shewanella bacteria may be a mutant of shew_2229 and/or shew_1140.

  11. Genetics of Ustilago violacea. I. Carotenoid mutants and carotenogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garber, E.D.; Baird, M.L.; Chapman, D.J.

    1975-01-01

    Wild-type strains of Ustilago violacea produce pink colonies on laboratory medium and yield white, orange, pumpkin, and yellow colonies after uv mutagenesis. The wild-type strains contain neurosporene and lycopene; one orange mutant, γ-carotene; and one yellow mutant, β-carotene. One white mutant had no detectable carotenoids. Diploid colonies heterozygous for wild type and orange, pumpkin, yellow, or white are phenotypically wild type. Diploid colonies heterozygous for yellow and orange are also phenotypically wild type. Diploid colonies heterozygous for white and orange; white and yellow; and white, yellow, and orange are phenotypically light orange, light yellow, and orange-yellow, respectively. The white mutants give a circular complementation map; the color mutants fit a linear complementation map. We propose a multienzyme of four identical dehydrogenases and one or two identical cyclases for carotenogenesis in this species. The white and color mutants represent structural mutations altering the conformation of the dehydrogenase or cyclase, respectively. Furthermore, cyclases may or may not aggregate in association with the dehydrogenase aggregate to form the multienzyme aggregate responsible for the color mutants

  12. Promising semi-dwarf mutant in wheat variety K68

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, D [Banaras Hindu Univ. (India). Dept. of Genetics and Plant Breeding

    1977-04-01

    A semi-dwarf mutant (HUW-SDf 1) was induced from common wheat Var. K68 through the exposure of /sup 60/Co ..gamma..-rays at 15 kR. This mutant along with other induced mutants and control was assessed for yield components, yield and grain quality (M/sub 4/ generation); internode length reduction pattern and the yielding ability at three levels of nitrogen (M/sub 5/ generation). The mutant was significantly shorter in height and almost equal in tillers per plant and grains per spike to K68. However, it showed marked reduction in spike length and spikelets per spike. On the other hand, it possessed significantly higher (50.04 g) 1000-grain weight against control (41.15 g). The mutant gave 56.0% higher yield than the control. Grain quality studies indicated that the mutant possessed significantly higher (14.15%) total protein than K68. It was equally as good as K68 in lysine content. Pelshenke value (62.5 min) of the mutant indicated medium hard nature of gluten as compared to hard nature (198.0) of the control. The mutant showed 24.0% reduction in total culm length compared to K68. Reduction occurred due to maximum and almost equal reduction in 5th and 4th internodes (ca 34.0%) followed by 3rd, 2nd and 1st. The mutant showed similar yield and yield response to increasing nitrogen levels (80 to 160 kg per ha.) as for current commercial semi-dwarf varieties.

  13. Diacylglycerol kinase zeta negatively regulates CXCR4-stimulated T lymphocyte firm arrest to ICAM-1 under shear flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dooyoung; Kim, Jiyeon; Beste, Michael T; Koretzky, Gary A; Hammer, Daniel A

    2012-06-01

    T lymphocyte arrest within microvasculature is an essential process in immune surveillance and the adaptive immune response. Integrins and chemokines coordinately regulate when and where T cells stop under flow via chemokine-triggered inside-out activation of integrins. Diacylglycerol kinases (DGKs) regulate the levels of diacylglycerol (DAG) which in turn determine the activation of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) and Ras proximity 1 (Rap1) molecules crucial to the activation of integrin lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1). However, how the level of DGK regulates chemokine-stimulated LFA-1-mediated T cell arrest under flow is unknown. Using a combination of experiment and computational modeling, we demonstrate that DGKζ is a crucial regulator of CXCL12-triggered T cell arrest on surfaces presenting inter-cellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1). Using flow chamber assays, we found that the deficiency of DGKζ in T cells significantly increased firm arrest to ICAM-1-coated substrates and shortened the time to stop without altering the rolling velocity. These results suggest that DGKζ levels affect LFA-1-mediated T cell firm arrest, but not P-selectin-mediated rolling during CXCL12 stimulation. We accurately simulated the role of DGKζ in firm arrest of T cells computationally using an Integrated-Signaling Adhesive Dynamics (ISAD). In the absence of DGK catalytic reaction, the model cells rolled for a significantly shorter time before arrest, compared to when DGK molecules were present. Predictions of our model for T cell arrest quantitatively match experimental results. Overall these results demonstrate that DGKζ is a negative regulator of CXCL12-triggered inside-out activation of LFA-1 and firm adhesion of T cells under shear flow.

  14. Fusion genetic analysis of jasmonate-signalling mutants in Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Bøgh; Raventos, D.; Mundy, John Williams

    2002-01-01

    as two recessive mutants, designated joe1 and 2, that overexpress the reporter. Genetic analysis indicated that reporter overexpression in the joe mutants requires COI. joe1 responded to MeJA with increased anthocyanin accumulation, while joe2 responded with decreased root growth inhibition. In addition...... activity was also induced by the protein kinase inhibitor staurosporine and antagonized by the protein phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid. FLUC bio-imaging, RNA gel-blot analysis and progeny analyses identified three recessive mutants that underexpress the FLUC reporter, designated jue1, 2 and 3, as well...

  15. Characterization of mutants of yeast sensitive to x rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strike, T.L.

    1978-01-01

    This study deals with the characterization of mutants at the rad50 to rad57 loci selected on the basis of their sensitivity to x rays. They were also examined for sensitivity to uv and mms and for characteristics of mutation induction, heteroallelic reversion (gene conversion), liquid holding recovery from x rays, and sporulation. All the mutants were slightly to moderately sensitive to uv though they did not show the extreme sensitivity of the rad1 to rad22 mutations, and all demonstrated cross sensitivity to both x rays and MMS. If a mutant was very sensitive to x-rays, it was usually very sensitive to MMS also

  16. Subunit-specific phenotypes of Salmonella typhimurium HU mutants.

    OpenAIRE

    Hillyard, D R; Edlund, M; Hughes, K T; Marsh, M; Higgins, N P

    1990-01-01

    Salmonella hupA and hupB mutants were studied to determine the reasons for the high degree of conservation in HU structure in bacteria. We found one HU-1-specific effect; the F'128 plasmid was 25-fold less stable in hupB compared with hupA or wild-type cells. F' plasmids were 120-fold more unstable in hupA hupB double mutants compared with wild-type cells, and the double mutant also had a significant alteration in plasmid DNA structure. pBR322 DNA isolated from hupA hupB strains was deficient...

  17. Radiation induced mutants in cape-gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, S.K.; Roy, S.K.

    1986-01-01

    Dry seeds of Physalis peruviana (n=24) were irradiated with different doses of gamma-rays. The M 1 plants were grown to maturity and their seeds collected and sown separately for M 2 generation. Mutants were isolated from M 2 seedlings and plants. Mutant characters obtained were virido-albino chlorophyllous, high yielding, small leaf and fruit, semi-sterile and curly leaf type etc. The high yielding and small leaf and fruit mutants bred true in M 3 and M 4 generation reproducing the characters of the M 2 generation. (author)

  18. Genetic studies with morphological mutants of Aspergillus niger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Ponty; Das, Arati

    1979-01-01

    Three classes of coloured mutations, viz., fawn, yellow and green, occurred recurrently among the population following UV- and γ-radiation from Co 60 of a wild Aspergillus niger strain 350. Ten mutants were picked up and complementation tests were performed by growing them in pairwise combinations. In two cases, allelic mutants of the same colour were observed. All these mutants were again grown in pairwise crosses with a brown A. niger mutant of different lineage. A poor heterokaryotic growth was, however, observed in one combination which later produced a diploid heterozygous nucleus. It segregated spontaneously to develop a large variety of colonies ranging from haploidy to diploidy including aneuploids. These have been analysed genetically and the possible explanations have been given. (auth.)

  19. Gamma ray induced mutants in Colocasia with improved storability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasudevan, K.; Jos, J.S.; Padmaja, G.

    1989-01-01

    Our mutation induction experiments with Colocasia esculenta (taro) were described before. Poor storability of tubers and acridity of tuber flesh in tubers are problems in taro. While screening for induced mutants, variability in shelf-life of tubers was observed. Tubers of the mutant CM 17 did neither spoil nor lose their viability even after storing for 180 days. Yield and results of quality analyses are presented in the Table in comparison with the control variety C 9 (locally known as ''Thamarakkannan''), the check variety Rasmi (well accepted in Kerala) and another mutant CM 1. Besides high yield and long storability, the mutant CM 17 shows a reduction in phenol and sugar, but an increase in dry matter and starch content which were found to be excellent characteristics for making taro chips as the usual browning phenomenon did not occur

  20. Compact type mutants in apple and sour cherries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagaja, S.W.; Przybyla, A.

    1976-01-01

    Induction of mutations in deciduous fruits is considered complementary to the conventional breeding methods. Several promissing mutants, particularly in apples, were described and some of them were introduced to commercial orchards. Studies described herein are aimed at developing compact type mutants in apple cultivars, apple rootstocks and in sour cherry cultivars. Data obtained so far confirm the results of the other authors, who developed compact type mutants in apples and sweet cherries. Physiological studies have shown that the leaves of spontaneous apple mutants of compact type are more efficient in photosynthesis than the leaves of respective standards. In spite of this, using branch ringing techniques, it was found that the leaves of compacts and those of standards do not differ in their productivity. There seem to be several advantages in employing tissue culture technique in mutation breeding. That is why a project was started to work out a method of growing apple shoots from adventitious buds developed on sections of roots. (author)

  1. nitrosoguanidine-induced cadmium resistant mutants of Aspergillus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    nitrosoguanidine-induced cadmium resistant mutants of. Aspergillus niger. SAMAR ... gens and UV irradiation to study transportation of cad- mium ion through cell ..... Rowley W S 1993 Yeast bZib proteins mediate pleiotropic drug and metal ...

  2. Selection of mutants of capsicum annuum induced by gamma ray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y. I.; Lee, Y. B. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, E. K. [Chungnam National Univ., Taejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-06-01

    For induction and selection of mutations of Capsicum annuum L., dry seeds of pure lines No.1 and No.2 were irradiated with gamma ray of 150Gy, 200Gy and 250Gy. Various mutants were selected such as showing early maturity, short plant height, long fruit and chlorophyll mutations. Mutation frequency of No.1 line was 3.4% in the dose of 150Gy, while the frequency of No.2 line was 2.7% in the dose of 250Gy. For selection of resistant mutant to amino acid analog, the optimum concentration of 5-methyltryptophan (5-MT) and S-(2-aminoethyl)-L-cysteine were 25 ppm and 30 ppm, respectively. Four resistant mutant lines to 5-MT were selected among 400 mutant lines.

  3. Characterization of a novel curled-cotyledons mutant in soybean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ARL

    different stages. Protein and amino acid contents in seeds of mutant are higher than those of the wild .... curled shape, from seedling to maturation phase (Figure. 1D-1F). ..... Arabidopsis seed dermination by stimulating abscisic acid synthesis.

  4. early maturing mutants in Indica rice and their traits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiulan; He Zhentian; Han Yuepeng; Liu Xueyu; Yang Hefeng; Xu Chenwu; Gu Shiliang

    1998-01-01

    The correlation and genetic parameters of eleven agronomic characters of 50 early mature lines induced from late mature cultivar, IR 1529-68-3-2 were studied by morphological classification and correlation and regression analysis. The results showed that: 1. The early mutants could be divided into two ecotype: early mature type and medium mature type of mid-maturity rice. 2. The 1000-grain weight of early mutants negatively correlated with the length of growing period. 3. According to direct path coefficients, the relation with heading period of early mutants was in order of 1000-grain-weight>plant height>seed sterility. 4.The higher heritability in broad sense were found in plant height, 1000 grain weight and heading period of the early mutants

  5. Characteristics of the repair - deficient mutants 1435 plague microbe strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temiralieva, G.A.

    1977-01-01

    Repair-deficient mutants 1435 A uvr - hcr - , 1435-17 uvr - hcr + and 1435-35 lon have been obtained from 1435 plague microbe strain, isolated from a large gerbil living in the Central Asian desert region. The mutants have the same cultural-morphological and enzymatic characteristics, the same need in growth factors and similar virulence determinants as the original strain, but they do not cause death of the experimental animals

  6. High yielding small grain mutant of rice variety Pankaj

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1987-07-01

    Full text: By treatment with EMS a mutant has been produced from the variety Pankaj which has better tillering, longer panicle and more grains per panicle. In multilocation trials at Burdwan, Suri and Rampurhat in West Bengal it yielded significantly more than Pankaj and Mahsuri at all locations, with a mean 5.2t. The mutant named BU 79 would be a suitable substitute for Pankaj and similar long-duration rices. (author)

  7. Investigations on gamma ray induced chlorophyll variegated mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, S.K.; Dwivedi, A.K.; Banerji, B.K.

    1995-01-01

    Considering economic importance of chlorophyll variegation in floriculture trade an attempt was made for cytological, anatomical and biochemical analysis of four Bougainvillea and Lantana depressa chlorophyll variegated mutants for better and clear understanding of origin of chlorophyll variegation. No cytological evidence could be detected for their origin. Anatomical and biochemical examinations revealed that chlorophyll variegation in these mutants were due to changes in biosynthesis pathways and time of chlorophyll synthesis in palisade and spongy mesophyll cells. (author). 7 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  8. Semi-dwarf mutants in triticale and wheat breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driscoll, C.J.

    1984-01-01

    The triticale lines Beagle and DR-IRA have been subjected to ionizing irradiation and chemical mutagenesis in order to produce semi-dwarf mutants. Beagle is 100 cm tall and DR-IRA 80 cm under average field conditions. A bulk then pedigree method is currently represented by 158 single plots of M 6 (or in some cases M 7 ) mutants that are from 5 to 35 cm shorter than the control variety. The shortest mutants are 65 cm in height. Forty of these mutants are also earlier flowering than the control varieties. Replicated yield testing will be conducted on confirmed mutants in 1983. Response to gibberellic acid of these mutants will also be determined. The Cornerstone male-sterility mutant (ms1c) on chromosome arm 4Aα has been combined with the GA-insensitive/reduced height gene Gai/Rht1 which is also on chromosome arm 4Aα. The ms1c mutant has also been combined with Gai/Rht2 on chromosome 4D and with both Gai/Rht1 and Gai/Rht2. The combination ms1c and Gai/Rht1 has been chosen as the basis of a composite cross. Thirteen varieties were tested with GA 3 and seven (Warigal, Aroona, Oxley, Banks, Avocet, Matipo and Toquifen) which contain Gai/Rht1 were crossed with ms1c Gai/Rht1 and entered into an interpollinating F 2 . The entire composite is homozygous for this semi-dwarf allele and selection will be practiced for increased height on a GA-insensitive background. (author)

  9. Isolation of new gravitropic mutants under hypergravity conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Akiko Mori; Masatsugu Toyota; Masatsugu Toyota; Masayoshi Shimada; Mika Mekata; Tetsuya Kurata; Masao Tasaka; Miyo Terao Morita

    2016-01-01

    Forward genetics is a powerful approach used to link genotypes and phenotypes, and mutant screening/analysis has provided deep insights into many aspects of plant physiology. Gravitropism is a tropistic response in plants, in which hypocotyls and stems sense the direction of gravity and grow upwards. Previous studies of gravitropic mutants have suggested that shoot endodermal cells in Arabidopsis stems and hypocotyls are capable of sensing gravity (i.e., statocytes). In the present study, we ...

  10. Isolation of New Gravitropic Mutants under Hypergravity Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Mori, Akiko; Toyota, Masatsugu; Shimada, Masayoshi; Mekata, Mika; Kurata, Tetsuya; Tasaka, Masao; Morita, Miyo T.

    2016-01-01

    Forward genetics is a powerful approach used to link genotypes and phenotypes, and mutant screening/analysis has provided deep insights into many aspects of plant physiology. Gravitropism is a tropistic response in plants, in which hypocotyls and stems sense the direction of gravity and grow upward. Previous studies of gravitropic mutants have suggested that shoot endodermal cells in Arabidopsis stems and hypocotyls are capable of sensing gravity (i.e., statocytes). In the present study, we r...

  11. X-ray-induced mutants resistant to 8-azaguanine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carver, J.H.; Dewey, W.C.; Hopwood, L.E.

    1976-01-01

    Asynchronous Chinese hamster ovary cells were irradiated and colony survival in Alpha MEM medium with dialyzed serum was determined with or without 15 μg/ml 8-Azaguanine (AG). Data indicated that a reproducible assay for the system was dependent upon controlling cell density at least two days prior to induction as well as throughout the expression period. Generally, spontaneous and radiation-induced mutant frequencies decreased when cell densities exceeded a critical density of 3-6 x 10 4 cells/cm 2 . Infrequently, the critical density was exceeded by a factor of two with no observed decrease, possibly correlated with a longer cell doubling time. Drug depletion artifacts can occur because of drug degradation, or because wild-type cells utilize the drug or produce conditions which reduce uptake of the drug. Thus, as the effective drug concentration is lowered, the observed mutant frequency increases because a spectrum of mutants resistant to only low concentrations can now survive. In fact, refeeding with AG at intervals during the incubation period lowered spontaneous and radiation-induced frequencies approx. 5-fold. Therefore, to standardize conditions, cells were trypsinized at the end of the expression time and replated at a constant cell number for mutant selection by AG. Over two generations of growth during the expression period were required for optimal manifestation of induced mutants, and when densities were kept below 4 x 10 4 cells/cm 2 at all times, observed mutant frequencies did not change significantly over a period between 80 and 140 h post-induction (over 4 generations for irradiated cells and over 6 generations for controls). Previous reports of observed mutant frequencies decreasing beyond three generations may be due to cell interaction prior to mutant selection

  12. Development of compact mutants in apple and sour cherry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagaja, S.W.; Przybyla, A.; Machnik, B.

    1982-01-01

    During the period 1973 - 79 studies were conducted with the aim of developing compact mutants in apple and cherry cultivars and in apple vegetative rootstocks. During the investigations the effect of the dose of gamma rays on frequency of the mutants was studied. Attempts were also made to evolve a micropropagation technique adapted to propagate P 2 and P 22 apple rootstocks, as an aid in mutation breeding. Several mutants were produced in all the material studied, but none of them have yet reached a sufficient developmental stage to enable their complete assessment. On the basis of the results obtained so far the following conclusions can be drawn: higher doses of irradiation resulted in higher frequency of mutants in most apple cultivars and apple rootstocks; in sour cherries the effect of dose depended on the cultivars. Among V 1 shoots developed from sleeping buds on irradiated scion wood, compact mutants were found; their frequency, however, was about 60% lower than among V 1 shoots developed directly from irradiated dormant buds. In apple rootstocks A 2 and M 26 several dwarfed mutants were found; some of these produced thorny plants and some had lower rooting ability; both these characteristics are inferior from the practical point of view. Multiplication and rooting media for in vitro propagation of apple rootstocks, worked out for M 26, were found unsuitable for the rootstocks P 2 and P 22; modifications made in the growth substance composition of the above media enabled satisfactory propagation to be obtained. (author)

  13. A wheat cold resistance mutant derived from space mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Peng; Sun Mingzhu; Zhang Fengyun; Gao Guoqiang; Qiu Denglin; Li Xinhua

    2012-01-01

    A cold resistance mutant, obtained by spaceflight mutagenesis on the seeds of wheat variety Han6172, and the DNA of cold resistance mutant and contrast Han6172 were compared by SRAP technique. 380 pairs of primers were screened, 6 pairs of them had polymorphisms between mutant and contrast, the rate was 1.58%, and this data indicated that there are no obvious DNA differences between mutant and contrast Six specific fragments were obtained, 3 fragments of them were amplified in mutant. Homology analysis in GenBank showed that Me3-Em7-Mt, Me4-Em11-CK, Me7-Em19-CK and Me6-Em9-Mt all had homologous sequences with wheat chromosome 3B-specific BAC library, and this result indicated that the gene and regulator sequences associated with mutant cold resistance might locate on 3B chromosome. It was speculated that space mutation induced the mutation of 3B chromosome primary structure, and influenced the expressions of cold resistance genes, which resulted in the mutation of cold resistance ability. (authors)

  14. Proteomic analysis of the flooding tolerance mechanism in mutant soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Setsuko; Nanjo, Yohei; Nishimura, Minoru

    2013-02-21

    Flooding stress of soybean is a serious problem because it reduces growth; however, flooding-tolerant cultivars have not been identified. To analyze the flooding tolerance mechanism of soybean, the flooding-tolerant mutant was isolated and analyzed using a proteomic technique. Flooding-tolerance tests were repeated five times using gamma-ray irradiated soybeans, whose root growth (M6 stage) was not suppressed even under flooding stress. Two-day-old wild-type and mutant plants were subjected to flooding stress for 2days, and proteins were identified using a gel-based proteomic technique. In wild-type under flooding stress, levels of proteins related to development, protein synthesis/degradation, secondary metabolism, and the cell wall changed; however, these proteins did not markedly differ in the mutant. In contrast, an increased number of fermentation-related proteins were identified in the mutant under flooding stress. The root tips of mutant plants were not affected by flooding stress, even though the wild-type plants had damaged root. Alcohol dehydrogenase activity in the mutant increased at an early stage of flooding stress compared with that of the wild-type. Taken together, these results suggest that activation of the fermentation system in the early stages of flooding may be an important factor for the acquisition of flooding tolerance in soybean. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Isolation of new gravitropic mutants under hypergravity conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Mori

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Forward genetics is a powerful approach used to link genotypes and phenotypes, and mutant screening/analysis has provided deep insights into many aspects of plant physiology. Gravitropism is a tropistic response in plants, in which hypocotyls and stems sense the direction of gravity and grow upwards. Previous studies of gravitropic mutants have suggested that shoot endodermal cells in Arabidopsis stems and hypocotyls are capable of sensing gravity (i.e., statocytes. In the present study, we report a new screening system using hypergravity conditions to isolate enhancers of gravitropism mutants, and we also describe a rapid and efficient genome mapping method, using Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP-based markers. Using the endodermal-amyloplast less 1 (eal1 mutant, which exhibits defective development of endodermal cells and gravitropism, we found that hypergravity (10 g restored the reduced gravity responsiveness in eal1 hypocotyls and could, therefore, be used to obtain mutants with further reduction in gravitropism in the eal1 background. Using the new screening system, we successfully isolated six ene (enhancer of eal1 mutants that exhibited little or no gravitropism under hypergravity conditions, and using NGS and map-based cloning with SNP markers, we narrowed down the potential causative genes, which revealed a new genetic network for shoot gravitropism in Arabidopsis.

  16. Isolation of New Gravitropic Mutants under Hypergravity Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Akiko; Toyota, Masatsugu; Shimada, Masayoshi; Mekata, Mika; Kurata, Tetsuya; Tasaka, Masao; Morita, Miyo T

    2016-01-01

    Forward genetics is a powerful approach used to link genotypes and phenotypes, and mutant screening/analysis has provided deep insights into many aspects of plant physiology. Gravitropism is a tropistic response in plants, in which hypocotyls and stems sense the direction of gravity and grow upward. Previous studies of gravitropic mutants have suggested that shoot endodermal cells in Arabidopsis stems and hypocotyls are capable of sensing gravity (i.e., statocytes). In the present study, we report a new screening system using hypergravity conditions to isolate enhancers of gravitropism mutants, and we also describe a rapid and efficient genome mapping method, using next-generation sequencing (NGS) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based markers. Using the endodermal-amyloplast less 1 ( eal1 ) mutant, which exhibits defective development of endodermal cells and gravitropism, we found that hypergravity (10 g) restored the reduced gravity responsiveness in eal1 hypocotyls and could, therefore, be used to obtain mutants with further reduction in gravitropism in the eal1 background. Using the new screening system, we successfully isolated six ene ( enhancer of eal1 ) mutants that exhibited little or no gravitropism under hypergravity conditions, and using NGS and map-based cloning with SNP markers, we narrowed down the potential causative genes, which revealed a new genetic network for shoot gravitropism in Arabidopsis .

  17. Sodium azide mutagenesis in wheat: Mutants with golden glumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, K.A.; Jafri, K.A.; Arain, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    In bread wheat, Triticum aestivum L. (2n=6x=42, AABBDD), detection of induced mutations is hampered by the presence of duplicate and triplicate genes. Induced changes in spike characteristics are known, but mutants with changed glume colour do not seem to have been reported. Physical mutagens such as gamma rays, thermal neutrons and fast neutrons, and chemical mutagens like EMS, El, dES and NEH have been extensively used for induction of mutations in bread wheat but it seems as if these mutagens did not induce mutants with changed glume colour. We used sodium azide for inducing mutations in the widely adapted cultivar 'Sonalika', which is characterized by brown glume colour. Presoaked seeds were treated with 0.2M sodium azide for 3 hours. Three spikes were harvested from each M 1 plant. M 2 generation was space-planted as spike progeny. We were successful in identifying 3 mutants with golden glumes. The mutants resemble 'Sonalika' in other spike characteristics. The mutants glume colour was confirmed in M 3 . The mutants were also evaluated for agronomically important characteristics. Some characters were significantly different from the parent. Glume colours may be useful as genetic markers since such characters are less influenced by the environment. Our investigation confirms that also agronomically useful genetic variation may be readily induced in bread wheat through sodium azide

  18. Inactivation of carbenicillin by some radioresistant mutant strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahiera, T.S.; Mahmoud, M.I.; Bashandy, A.A.

    1990-01-01

    Sensitivity test of five bacterial species to carbenicillin was performed microbiologically. The bacterial species were previously isolated from high level radiation environment. All the studied species could either highly decrease the antibiotic activity or even inactivate it completely. Detailed study of the inactivation of carbenicillin by the radioresistant mutant strains B. Laterosporus, B. firmus and M. roseus was performed, in the present study. Using high performace liquid chromatography technique. The gram-positive m. roseus mutant strain seemed to be the most active mutant in degrading the antibiotic. The left over of the antibiotic attained a value of 9% of the original amount after 14 day incubation of the antibiotic with this mutant strain, while the value of the left over reached 36% and 32% after the same period of incubation with the mutants B. laterosporus and B. firmus respectively. In the case of bacillus species, the degradation of the antibiotic started at the same moment when it was added to the bacterial cultures. This fact may indicate that the inactivation of the studied antibiotic by these bacillus species was due to extracellular enzymes extracted rapidly in the surrounding medium. In the case of M. roseus the inactivation process started later. after the addition of the antibiotic to the mutant culture

  19. Leaf and canopy photosynthesis of a chlorophyll deficient soybean mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakowska, Karolina; Alberti, Giorgio; Genesio, Lorenzo; Peressotti, Alessandro; Delle Vedove, Gemini; Gianelle, Damiano; Colombo, Roberto; Rodeghiero, Mirco; Panigada, Cinzia; Juszczak, Radosław; Celesti, Marco; Rossini, Micol; Haworth, Matthew; Campbell, Benjamin W; Mevy, Jean-Philippe; Vescovo, Loris; Cendrero-Mateo, M Pilar; Rascher, Uwe; Miglietta, Franco

    2018-03-02

    The photosynthetic, optical, and morphological characteristics of a chlorophyll-deficient (Chl-deficient) "yellow" soybean mutant (MinnGold) were examined in comparison with 2 green varieties (MN0095 and Eiko). Despite the large difference in Chl content, similar leaf photosynthesis rates were maintained in the Chl-deficient mutant by offsetting the reduced absorption of red photons by a small increase in photochemical efficiency and lower non-photochemical quenching. When grown in the field, at full canopy cover, the mutants reflected a significantly larger proportion of incoming shortwave radiation, but the total canopy light absorption was only slightly reduced, most likely due to a deeper penetration of light into the canopy space. As a consequence, canopy-scale gross primary production and ecosystem respiration were comparable between the Chl-deficient mutant and the green variety. However, total biomass production was lower in the mutant, which indicates that processes other than steady state photosynthesis caused a reduction in biomass accumulation over time. Analysis of non-photochemical quenching relaxation and gas exchange in Chl-deficient and green leaves after transitions from high to low light conditions suggested that dynamic photosynthesis might be responsible for the reduced biomass production in the Chl-deficient mutant under field conditions. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. A wheat cold resistance mutant derived from space mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Peng; Sun Mingzhu; Zhang Fengyun; Gao Guoqiang; Qiu Denglin; Li Xinhua

    2011-01-01

    A cold resistance mutant, obtained by spaceflight mutagenesis on the seeds of wheat variety Han6172, and the DNA of cold resistance mutant and contrast Han6172 were compared by SRAP technique. 380 pairs of primers were screened, 6 pairs of them had polymorphisms between mutant and contrast, the rate was 1.58%, and this data indicated that there are no obvious DNA differences between mutant and contrast. Six specific fragments were obtained, 3 fragments of them were amplified in mutant. Homology analysis in GenBank showed that Me3-Em7-Mt, Me4-Em11-CK, Me7-Em19-CK and Me6-Em9-Mt all had homologous sequences with wheat chromosome 3B-specific BAC library, and this result indicated that the gene and regulator sequences associated with mutant cold resistance might locate on 3B chromosome. It was speculated that space mutation induced the mutation of 3B chromosome primary structure, and influenced the expressions of cold resistance genes, which resulted in the mutation of cold resistance ability. (authors)

  1. Gamma ray induced male sterility mutant in lentil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, A.; Yadav, A.K.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Male sterility refers to the failure of pollen grains to bring about effective fertilization, either due to structural default or physiological disfunctioning and has special significance in hybridization programmes. Male steriles have been produced in a number of crop plants like red gram, pigeon pea, mung bean, khesari and lentil. A completely male sterile mutant was isolated in Lens culinaris Medik, after seed treatment with 100 Gy dose of gamma rays. The male sterile mutant showed 100% pollen sterility but was morphologically more vigorous than the parent plants. It showed more branches and its leaves were bigger, more oblong and dark green. The number of flowers borne by the mutant was significantly higher than any other plant of the treatment. The size of the flowers was also increased but the anthers were smaller in size. Pollen grains were few in number, round in shape but empty and did not take up any stain, indicating that normal microsporogenesis had not taken place. This male sterile mutant was used as the female parent and pollinated with pollen of a parent. Four pods with one seed in each were formed indicating that the mutant was female fertile. The seeds were smaller than those of the parent variety and also dark coloured. The mutant showed increased vigour and flower number as compared to parental plants. Lentil is an important pulse crop and induction of variability in its germplasm is necessary for its improvement. Male steriles can be used conveniently in lentil hybridization programmes. (author)

  2. Mutation induction and evaluation of high yield rice mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Rahim Harun; Sobri Husein; Rusli Ibrahim

    2006-01-01

    The successful use of plant breeding for improving crops requires the existence of genetic variation of useful traits. Unfortunately, the desired variation is often lacking. However, radiation has been used to induce mutations and thereby generate genetic variation from which desired mutants may be selected. Mutation induction has become a proven way of creating variation within a crop variety. It offers the possibility of inducing desired attributes that either cannot be expressed in nature or have been lost during evolution. Rice is security food crop in Malaysia. Efforts were undertaken to enhance rice yield from 4.0 tones per hectare in 1995 to 5.5 tones per hectare in 2010. Proper management and good varieties are two factors that require for enhancing yield of rice. In this research, purified seeds of MR211 and MR219 were gamma irradiated at 100 to 400 Gray and sown for planting as M1 generation at MARDI experimental plot. The M2 population was sown in bulk with population size around 15,000 to 20,000 plants. Individual plant selection was carried out at maturity and each selected plant became a mutant line of M3 generation. Agronomic trial of M3 mutants lines were conducted in Mardi, Tanjung Karang, Selangor. About 115 of selected mutant lines were evaluated. Each row of those mutant lines were planted in two rows at planting distance of 25cm within and between rows. These mutant lines were visually observed and data were recorded in each of every mutant line. (Author)

  3. Defective glycinergic synaptic transmission in zebrafish motility mutants

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    Hiromi Hirata

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycine is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the spinal cord and brainstem. Recently, in vivo analysis of glycinergic synaptic transmission has been pursued in zebrafish using molecular genetics. An ENU mutagenesis screen identified two behavioral mutants that are defective in glycinergic synaptic transmission. Zebrafish bandoneon (beo mutants have a defect in glrbb, one of the duplicated glycine receptor (GlyR β subunit genes. These mutants exhibit a loss of glycinergic synaptic transmission due to a lack of synaptic aggregation of GlyRs. Due to the consequent loss of reciprocal inhibition of motor circuits between the two sides of the spinal cord, motor neurons activate simultaneously on both sides resulting in bilateral contraction of axial muscles of beo mutants, eliciting the so-called ‘accordion’ phenotype. Similar defects in GlyR subunit genes have been observed in several mammals and are the basis for human hyperekplexia/startle disease. By contrast, zebrafish shocked (sho mutants have a defect in slc6a9, encoding GlyT1, a glycine transporter that is expressed by astroglial cells surrounding the glycinergic synapse in the hindbrain and spinal cord. GlyT1 mediates rapid uptake of glycine from the synaptic cleft, terminating synaptic transmission. In zebrafish sho mutants, there appears to be elevated extracellular glycine resulting in persistent inhibition of postsynaptic neurons and subsequent reduced motility, causing the ‘twitch once’ phenotype. We review current knowledge regarding zebrafish ‘accordion’ and ‘twitch once’ mutants, including beo and sho, and report the identification of a new α2 subunit that revises the phylogeny of zebrafish GlyRs.

  4. Defective Glycinergic Synaptic Transmission in Zebrafish Motility Mutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Hiromi; Carta, Eloisa; Yamanaka, Iori; Harvey, Robert J.; Kuwada, John Y.

    2009-01-01

    Glycine is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the spinal cord and brainstem. Recently, in vivo analysis of glycinergic synaptic transmission has been pursued in zebrafish using molecular genetics. An ENU mutagenesis screen identified two behavioral mutants that are defective in glycinergic synaptic transmission. Zebrafish bandoneon (beo) mutants have a defect in glrbb, one of the duplicated glycine receptor (GlyR) β subunit genes. These mutants exhibit a loss of glycinergic synaptic transmission due to a lack of synaptic aggregation of GlyRs. Due to the consequent loss of reciprocal inhibition of motor circuits between the two sides of the spinal cord, motor neurons activate simultaneously on both sides resulting in bilateral contraction of axial muscles of beo mutants, eliciting the so-called ‘accordion’ phenotype. Similar defects in GlyR subunit genes have been observed in several mammals and are the basis for human hyperekplexia/startle disease. By contrast, zebrafish shocked (sho) mutants have a defect in slc6a9, encoding GlyT1, a glycine transporter that is expressed by astroglial cells surrounding the glycinergic synapse in the hindbrain and spinal cord. GlyT1 mediates rapid uptake of glycine from the synaptic cleft, terminating synaptic transmission. In zebrafish sho mutants, there appears to be elevated extracellular glycine resulting in persistent inhibition of postsynaptic neurons and subsequent reduced motility, causing the ‘twitch-once’ phenotype. We review current knowledge regarding zebrafish ‘accordion’ and ‘twitch-once’ mutants, including beo and sho, and report the identification of a new α2 subunit that revises the phylogeny of zebrafish GlyRs. PMID:20161699

  5. Biochemical characteristics of mutant lines of currant tomato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbatenko, I.Yu.; Khrustaleva, V.V.; Shcherbakov, V.K.

    1988-01-01

    The currant tomato is used in breeding for fruit quality. It contains up to 50 mg% ascorbic acid, a large quantity of sugar and 8-10% of dry matter. The weight of the fruit, however, does not exceed 1.2-1.5 g. The plants have long, spreading and very branchy stems. Gamma ray induced mutants of currant tomato were used, as initial material in breeding for fruit quality in varieties suitable for mechanized harvesting. The research was carried out mainly at the Department of Vegetable Growing Ukrainian Scientific Research Institute of Irrigation Farming. The regional variety Lebyazhinskij (suitable for mechanized harvesting) was adopted as the standard. Its fruits contain: 5.6% dry matter, 2.7% sugars, 0.543% titrated acidity, 26.6 mg/100 g ascorbic acid, 0.425 mg% carotene and 0.35% cellulose. The biochemical characteristics of the tomato mutants are shown. In terms of fruit dry matter, all mutants surpassed the standard. The acidity and the ascorbic acid content varied considerably. Most noteworthy in terms of carotene were the lines GP-5, GP-9 and GP-12. An important factor in the production of tomato paste is the fruit cellulose content. The lowest cellulose content is found in mutant GP-3. As shown, all of the mutants were early ripening. The mutants surpassed the standard in simultaneous fruit ripening. Mutant lines GP-3, GP-6, GP-9 and GP-12 will be used in the breeding programme for improving fruit quality of varieties suitable for mechanized harvesting

  6. Functional analysis of Waardenburg syndrome-associated PAX3 and SOX10 mutations: report of a dominant-negative SOX10 mutation in Waardenburg syndrome type II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Chen, Hongsheng; Luo, Hunjin; An, Jing; Sun, Lin; Mei, Lingyun; He, Chufeng; Jiang, Lu; Jiang, Wen; Xia, Kun; Li, Jia-Da; Feng, Yong

    2012-03-01

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is an auditory-pigmentary disorder resulting from melanocyte defects, with varying combinations of sensorineural hearing loss and abnormal pigmentation of the hair, skin, and inner ear. WS is classified into four subtypes (WS1-WS4) based on additional symptoms. PAX3 and SOX10 are two transcription factors that can activate the expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), a critical transcription factor for melanocyte development. Mutations of PAX3 are associated with WS1 and WS3, while mutations of SOX10 cause WS2 and WS4. Recently, we identified some novel WS-associated mutations in PAX3 and SOX10 in a cohort of Chinese WS patients. Here, we further identified an E248fsX30 SOX10 mutation in a family of WS2. We analyzed the subcellular distribution, expression and in vitro activity of two PAX3 mutations (p.H80D, p.H186fsX5) and four SOX10 mutations (p.E248fsX30, p.G37fsX58, p.G38fsX69 and p.R43X). Except H80D PAX3, which retained partial activity, the other mutants were unable to activate MITF promoter. The H80D PAX3 and E248fsX30 SOX10 were localized in the nucleus as wild type (WT) proteins, whereas the other mutant proteins were distributed in both cytoplasm and nucleus. Furthermore, E248fsX30 SOX10 protein retained the DNA-binding activity and showed dominant-negative effect on WT SOX10. However, E248fsX30 SOX10 protein seems to decay faster than the WT one, which may underlie the mild WS2 phenotype caused by this mutation.

  7. Síndrome de Brown bilateral associada com hipermobilidade articular benigna: relato de caso Bilateral Brown's syndrome associated with benign joint hypermobility: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Kirsch

    2007-03-01

    this case the authors describe a case of Brown's syndrome associated with Benign joint hipermobility and call attention to a little described association in the literature. J.C.S, male, 6 years old, mulatto, student, was referred to the University of Santo Amaro with complaint of exotropia for 2 years that it increased in supraversion. The patient with the diagnosis of bilateral Brown's syndrome, was diagnosed as having benign joint hipermobility by the reumatologist. The patient with benign joint hipermobility can develop symptoms such as arthralgia caused by a joint inflammation. We believe in the possibility that Brown syndrome has occurred, caused by an inflammatory process in the trochlea that started because of the benign joint hypermobility.

  8. Hipodoncia y hueso navicular accesorio: una interesante asociación sindrómica Hypodontia and accessory navicular bone: an interesting syndromic association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Cantín

    2012-09-01

    the teeth 1.7, 2.7, 2.8, 3.8 and 4.8; and the presence of an accessory navicular bone in the left foot. It is interesting to suggest that this rare association, with clear dominant autosomal inheritance, might exist; since the dental agenesis and the presence of accessory navicular bone have similar prevalence, which could point to a new syndromic association probably related to the lack of PAX9.

  9. Development Of New Chrysanthemum Mutants For Malaysian Floriculture Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaiton Ahmad; Affrida Abu Hassan; Shakinah Salleh; Nurul Hidayah Mahmud; Shuhaimi Shamsudin; Mohamed Najli Mohamed Yasin

    2014-01-01

    This five-year project was in collaboration with Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) under the Bilateral Cooperative Research Program and was partly funded by Ministry of Agriculture and Agro-Based Industry (MOA) under Agriculture R&D Fund. The main objective was to produce new chrysanthemum varieties with good horticultural traits especially for cut flower production. In this project, tissue culture samples of chrysanthemum (red and pink varieties) were sent to JAEA for ion beam irradiations. Plant regeneration and multiplication were carried out at Nuclear Malaysia whilst field screenings for morphological characteristics were done at MARDI Cameron Highlands. Through this project, a number of stable chrysanthemum mutants with various new features have been generated and of these, 8 mutants were selected based on their uniqueness and/or suitability for cut flower production. In preparation for future commercialization process, five of these mutants have been filed for plant variety protection with Department of Agriculture Malaysia and a similar process in Japan is also under consideration. In addition, molecular marker work to fingerprint these mutants has also been initiated and future research may also include development of markers for selected horticultural traits and isolation of unique mutant genes. (author)

  10. Characterization of MMS-sensitive mutants of Neurospora crassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeLange, A.M.; Mishra, N.C.

    1982-01-01

    Several MMS-sensitive mutants of Neurospora crassa were compared with the wild-type strain for their relative sensitivities to UV, X-ray, and histidine. They were also compared for the frequency of spontaneous mutation at the loci which confer resistance to p-fluorophenylalanine. The mutants were also examined for possible defects in meiotic behavior in homozygous crosses and for any change in the inducible DNA salvage pathways. On the basis of these characterizations, the present MMS-sensitive mutants of Neurospora can be placed into three groups. On the basis of data presented, the MMS sensitivity of the first group mutants cannot be ascertained to arise from a defect in the DNA repair pathways; instead, it may stem from altered cell permeability or other pleotropic effects of the mus mutations. However, it can be suggested that the second and third group of mus mutants may indeed result from a defect in the DNA repair pathways controlled by the mus genes; this conclusion is based on their cross-sensitivity to a number of DNA-damaging agents such as MMS, UV and/or X-rays, high frequencies of spontaneous mutation and defects in meiotic behavior.

  11. Promising mutant variety of rice evolved through gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, S.C.; Sinha, S.K.

    1980-01-01

    Rice occupies a major share in crop production in the Chotanagpur plateau of Bihar State. Uplands are roughly 40% in area where traditional low yielding rice, known as ''gora'' is cultivated as directly sown crop. Despite introduction of high yielding rice varieties, gora group of rices continue to prevail. It is therefore desired to increase the productivity level of the gora rice by mutation breeding. One such mutant known as ''gora mutant'' was obtained through gamma irradiation (10 kR) of variety Brown gora. The maturity of both parent and mutant remaining constant (ie. 100 days), there is some improvement in other characteristics like plant height, tillering capacity and kernel character. The parent being tall, shy in tillering and red bold kernel, the mutant has dwarfish characteristics, profuse tillering habit and white kernel with fine grains. The yielding capacity of mutant derivative is 30-40% higher than the parent Brown gora. This variety is in pre-release stage, and the farmers have taken great liking for it. (author)

  12. Pollen irradiation method to obtain mutants in cucumber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, S.; Amano, E.

    1988-01-01

    Seed irradiation for mutation induction in dioecious crops like cucumber is not very useful because chimerism of the mutated tissues makes the segregation of mutants in the M 2 generation nearly impossible. This problem does not exist with pollen irradiation. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. var. Nishikisuyo) was used for a model experiment. The petals of male and female flowers were closed by pinching with binding wire before flowering to prevent pollination by insects. On the flowering day, the male flowers were collected and irradiated with 1kR to 10 kR of acute gamma rays (137-Cs), then used to pollinate the female flowers. The M 1 seeds thus obtained are not chimeric but heterozygous for induced mutations. When planted, no mutant phenotype appeared. Selfing within a plant lead to segregation of mutants in the M 2 generation. Seedling examination revealed eight mutants. One mutant line, in which the shape of leaves changed from pentagonal to round heart shape, was found under field conditions. The optimal dose for pollen irradiation seems to be between 2 kR and 4kR

  13. Mutant number distribution in an exponentially growing population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Peter; Antal, Tibor

    2015-01-01

    We present an explicit solution to a classic model of cell-population growth introduced by Luria and Delbrück (1943 Genetics 28 491-511) 70 years ago to study the emergence of mutations in bacterial populations. In this model a wild-type population is assumed to grow exponentially in a deterministic fashion. Proportional to the wild-type population size, mutants arrive randomly and initiate new sub-populations of mutants that grow stochastically according to a supercritical birth and death process. We give an exact expression for the generating function of the total number of mutants at a given wild-type population size. We present a simple expression for the probability of finding no mutants, and a recursion formula for the probability of finding a given number of mutants. In the ‘large population-small mutation’ limit we recover recent results of Kessler and Levine (2014 J. Stat. Phys. doi:10.1007/s10955-014-1143-3) for a fully stochastic version of the process.

  14. Mutant number distribution in an exponentially growing population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, Peter; Antal, Tibor

    2015-01-01

    We present an explicit solution to a classic model of cell-population growth introduced by Luria and Delbrück (1943 Genetics 28 491–511) 70 years ago to study the emergence of mutations in bacterial populations. In this model a wild-type population is assumed to grow exponentially in a deterministic fashion. Proportional to the wild-type population size, mutants arrive randomly and initiate new sub-populations of mutants that grow stochastically according to a supercritical birth and death process. We give an exact expression for the generating function of the total number of mutants at a given wild-type population size. We present a simple expression for the probability of finding no mutants, and a recursion formula for the probability of finding a given number of mutants. In the ‘large population-small mutation’ limit we recover recent results of Kessler and Levine (2014 J. Stat. Phys. doi:10.1007/s10955-014-1143-3) for a fully stochastic version of the process. (paper)

  15. A preliminary yield trial of some soybean mutant lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratma, Rivaie

    1985-01-01

    A preliminary yield trial of some soybean mutant lines, derived from irradiated Orba variety with dose of 0.40 kGy, were carried out during the wet and dry season in 1979-1982 in Muara and Citayam, Bogor. The result obtained showed that yield potential of mutant lines no. M6/40/10 was higher than that of the control in dry season in 1979 as well as in the wet season of 1979/80 in Muara. Whereas, the yield potential of the mutant lines no. M6/40/8 and no. M6/40/14 were higher than that of the control only in the wet season. The yield potential of semi dwarf mutant lines no. M6/40/68 was highly significant compared to that of the control in dry season in Muara and the wet season in 1981/82 in Citayam. Whereas, the yield potential of the mutant lines no. M6/40/69 was higher yield compared to that of the control in dry season in 1981 in Muara. (author). 10 refs

  16. Analysis of AtCry1 and Mutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdick, Derek; Purvis, Adam; Ahmad, Margaret; Link, Justin J.; Engle, Dorothy

    Cryptochrome is an incredibly versatile protein that influences numerous biological processes such as plant growth, bird migration, and sleep cycles. Due to the versatility of this protein, understanding the mechanism would allow for advances in numerous fields such as crop growth, animal behavior, and sleep disorders. It is known that cryptochrome requires blue light to function, but the exact processes in the regulation of biological activity are still not fully understood. It is believed that the c-terminal domain of the protein undergoes a conformational change when exposed to blue light which allows for biological function. Three different non-functioning mutants were tested during this study to gain insight on the mechanism of cryptochrome. Absorbance spectra showed a difference between two of the mutants and the wild type with one mutant showing little difference. Immunoprecipitation experiments were also conducted to identify the different c-terminal responses of the mutants. By studying non functioning mutants of this protein, the mechanism of the protein can be further characterized. This two-month research experience in Paris allowed us to experience international and interdisciplinary collaborations in science and immerse in a different culture. The Borcer Fund for Student Research, Xavier University, Cincinnati, OH, and John Hauck Foundation.

  17. Productive mutants in lemongrass induced by gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopinathan Nair, V.

    1980-01-01

    Seeds of the lemongrass variety O.D. 19 were irradiated with gamma rays at a dose range of 5 to 30 krad. M 1 plants with one or a few tillers differing from the standard plants of O.D. 19 were selected, split into single slips and planted as clonal progenies. Mutants were isolated in M 1 V 1 and carried forward. Forty two M 1 V 2 mutant clones differing from O.D. 19 in morphological characters such as vigour, plant height, growth habit, pigmentation and number of tillers have been established. These were evaluated for tiller number, grass yield and oil content. Six clones gave higher grass yield, the highest being 556 gm per plant per cutting as against 360 gm in the standard. Five clones gave higher oil yield, the highest being 0.42% as against 0.23% in the standard. Isolation of viable mutants with high grass yield and essential oil content indicate the scope for evolving productive mutant varieties in this perennial aromatic grass. The eleven M 1 V 2 mutant clones are being critically evaluated by estimating oil yield per hectare per year. (author)

  18. Normal aging modulates the neurotoxicity of mutant huntingtin.

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    Elsa Diguet

    Full Text Available Aging likely plays a role in neurodegenerative disorders. In Huntington's disease (HD, a disorder caused by an abnormal expansion of a polyglutamine tract in the protein huntingtin (Htt, the role of aging is unclear. For a given tract length, the probability of disease onset increases with age. There are mainly two hypotheses that could explain adult onset in HD: Either mutant Htt progressively produces cumulative defects over time or "normal" aging renders neurons more vulnerable to mutant Htt toxicity. In the present study, we directly explored whether aging affected the toxicity of mutant Htt in vivo. We studied the impact of aging on the effects produced by overexpression of an N-terminal fragment of mutant Htt, of wild-type Htt or of a beta-Galactosidase (beta-Gal reporter gene in the rat striatum. Stereotaxic injections of lentiviral vectors were performed simultaneously in young (3 week and old (15 month rats. Histological evaluation at different time points after infection demonstrated that the expression of mutant Htt led to pathological changes that were more severe in old rats, including an increase in the number of small Htt-containing aggregates in the neuropil, a greater loss of DARPP-32 immunoreactivity and striatal neurons as assessed by unbiased stereological counts.The present results support the hypothesis that "normal" aging is involved in HD pathogenesis, and suggest that age-related cellular defects might constitute potential therapeutic targets for HD.

  19. Results of the use of induced mutants in maize breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balint, A.; Kovacs, Gezane; Hajos, Laszlone; Geczki, I.

    1979-01-01

    The investigated mutagens have the same effect on the increasing of protein content. In the case of WF9 mutants no essential improvement can be found compared with the untreated co trol selected for protein. ''Lines'' flowering 16-19 days earlier than controls were produced; the most effective agent of this production is the fast neutron. Mutation caused a significant change in their combining ability, but there were more negative variants than positive ones. Three hybrids with stronger stalk than that of MvSc 620 were obtained. Stalk standing ability of mutants did not improve. The flowering date of lines (male) is in r=+0.5672 +++ correlation to the yield of their test hybrid. Mutant lines in SC test cross seemed to be stable. The correlation of the yield of two years is r=+0.8659. The correlation of both the yield of test hybrids to the protein content of mutant lines (r=0.2307) and the flowering date of lines to their protein content (r=-0.3032) is loose. The earliest mutant line of WF9, which produced low crop (5000 kg/ha) when crossed with N6, gave a high-yielding hybrid when crossed with other lines. The average yield of eight combinations was 10050 kg/ha and the highest yield was 11680 kg/ha. (author)

  20. Selection of high hectolitre weight mutants of winter wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowley, C.; Jones, P.

    1989-01-01

    Grain quality in wheat includes hectolitre weight (HLW) besides protein content and thousand-grain weight (TGW). The British winter wheat variety ''Guardian'' has a very high yield potential. Although the long grain of ''Guardian'' results in a desirable high TGW the HLW is too low. To select mutants exhibiting increased HLW the character was first analyzed to identify traits that could more easily be screened for using M 2 seeds. In comparison of 6 wheat cultivars, correlation analyses with HLW resulted in coefficients of -0.86 (grain length, L:P 2 seeds for shorter, less prolate grains. Mutagenesis was carried out using EMS sulphonate (1.8 or 3.6%), sodium azide (2 or 20 mM) or X-rays (7.5 or 20 kR). 69 M 2 grains with altered shape were selected. Examination of the M 3 progeny confirmed 6 grain-shape mutants, most of them resulting from EMS treatment (Table). Two of the mutants showed TGW values significantly below the parental variety, but three mutants exhibited HLW and TGW value