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Sample records for syndrome derived campylobacter

  1. Campylobacter gastroenteritis associated with Sweet's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Sumita; Rytina, Ed; Sterling, Jane; Karas, J A; Aliyu, S H

    2012-10-01

    Sweet's syndrome or acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis has been associated with underlying infection, malignancy, inflammatory disease and certain medications. The infection agents associated with this include Streptococcus species, Yersinia species, Chlamydia species, Salmonella species and Helicobacter pylori. We report a case of Sweet's syndrome in a 73-year-old woman following a 2 week course of severe gastroenteritis caused by Campylobacter species. Histological examination of skin lesions showed marked inflammatory infiltrate throughout the dermis, composed of neutrophils and histiocytes. The patient was successfully treated with topical and systemic steroids. To date, this is the first case of Sweet's syndrome to be reported linked to Campylobacter species to our knowledge.

  2. Campylobacter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Collette

    2015-06-01

    Campylobacter continues to be one of the most common bacterial causes of diarrheal illness in the United States and worldwide. Infection with Campylobacter causes a spectrum of diseases including acute enteritis, extraintestinal infections, and postinfectious complications. The most common species of Campylobacter associated with human illness is Campylobacter jejuni, but other Campylobacter species can also cause human infections. This comprehensive review includes discussion of the taxonomy, clinical manifestations of infection, epidemiology and the different methods of laboratory detection of Campylobacter. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Campylobacter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis is a frequently diagnosed disease in humans. Most infections are considered food-borne and are caused by Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli. The animal reservoirs of these Campylobacter, and the sources and routes of transmission, are described and discussed. Most warm-blooded

  4. Campylobacter infection as a trigger for Guillain-Barré syndrome in Egypt.

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    Thomas F Wierzba

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most studies of Campylobacter infection triggering Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS are conducted in western nations were Campylobacter infection and immunity is relatively rare. In this study, we explored Campylobacter infections, Campylobacter serotypes, autoantibodies to gangliosides, and GBS in Egypt, a country where Campylobacter exposure is common. METHODS: GBS cases (n = 133 were compared to age- and hospital-matched patient controls (n = 374. A nerve conduction study was performed on cases and a clinical history, serum sample, and stool specimen obtained for all subjects. RESULTS: Most (63.3% cases were demyelinating type; median age four years. Cases were more likely than controls to have diarrhea (29.5% vs. 22.5%, Adjusted Odds Ratio (ORa = 1.69, P = 0.03, to have higher geometric mean IgM anti-Campylobacter antibody titers (8.18 vs. 7.25 P<0.001, and to produce antiganglioside antibodies (e.g., anti-Gd1a, 35.3 vs. 11.5, ORa = 4.39, P<0.0001. Of 26 Penner:Lior Campylobacter serotypes isolated, only one (41:27, C. jejuni, P = 0.02 was associated with GBS. CONCLUSIONS: Unlike results from western nations, data suggested that GBS cases were primarily in the young and cases and many controls had a history of infection to a variety of Campylobacter serotypes. Still, the higher rates of diarrhea and greater antibody production against Campylobacter and gangliosides in GBS patients were consistent with findings from western countries.

  5. Guillain-Barré syndrome- and Miller Fisher syndrome-associated Campylobacter jejuni lipopolysaccharides induce anti-GM1 and anti-GQ1b Antibodies in rabbits.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. de Klerk; H.P. Endtz (Hubert); B.C. Jacobs (Bart); J.D. Laman (Jon); F.G.A. van der Meché (Frans); P.A. van Doorn (Pieter); C.W. Ang (Wim)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractCampylobacter jejuni infections are thought to induce antiganglioside antibodies in patients with Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) and Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS) by molecular mimicry between C. jejuni lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and gangliosides. We used

  6. The crucial role of Campylobacter jejuni genes in anti-ganglioside antibody induction in Guillain-Barré syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.C. Jacobs (Bart); H.P. Endtz (Hubert); A.P. Heikema (Astrid); M. Gilbert (Michel); T. Komagamine (Tomoko); C.W. Ang (Wim); J. Glerum (Jobine); D. Brochu (Denis); J. Li (Jianjun); N. Yuki (Nobuhiro); A.F. van Belkum (Alex); P.C.R. Godschalk (Peggy)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractMolecular mimicry of Campylobacter jejuni lipo-oligosaccharides (LOS) with gangliosides in nervous tissue is considered to induce cross-reactive antibodies that lead to Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS), an acute polyneuropathy. To determine whether specific bacterial genes

  7. Distinct Campylobacter jejuni capsular types are related to Guillain-Barré syndrome in The Netherlands and Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    An infection with the intestinal pathogen Campylobacter jejuni leads to Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) in around one in thousand cases. It is established that sialylated lipooligosaccharides (LOS) of C. jejuni are a crucial virulence factor in GBS development. Frequent detection of C. jejuni with sia...

  8. Genomic characterization of the Guillain-Barre syndrome-associated Campylobacter jejuni ICDCCJ07001 Isolate.

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    Maojun Zhang

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni ICDCCJ07001 (HS:41, ST2993 was isolated from a Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS patient during a 36-case GBS outbreak triggered by C. jejuni infections in north China in 2007. Sequence analysis revealed that the ICDCCJ07001 genome consisted of 1,664,840 base pairs (bp and one tetracycline resistance plasmid of 44,084 bp. The GC content was 59.29% and 1,579 and 37 CDSs were identified on the chromosome and plasmid, respectively. The ICDCCJ07001 genome was compared to C. jejuni subsp. jejuni strains 81-176, 81116, NCTC11168, RM1221 and C. jejuni subsp. doylei 269.97. The length and organization of ICDCCJ07001 was similar to that of NCTC11168, 81-176 and 81-116 except that CMLP1 had a reverse orientation in strain ICDCCJ07001. Comparative genomic analyses were also carried out between GBS-associated C. jejuni strains. Thirteen common genes were present in four GBS-associated strains and 9 genes mapped to the LOS cluster and the ICDCCJ07001_pTet (44 kb plasmid was mosaic in structure. Thirty-seven predicted CDS in ICDCCJ07001_pTet were homologous to genes present in three virulence-associated plasmids in Campylobacter: 81-176_pTet, pCC31 and 81-176_pVir. Comparative analysis of virulence loci and virulence-associated genes indicated that the LOS biosynthesis loci of ICDCCJ07001 belonged to type A, previously reported to be associated with cases of GBS. The polysaccharide capsular biosynthesis (CPS loci and the flagella modification (FM loci of ICDCCJ07001 were similar to corresponding sequences of strain 260.94 of similar serotype as strain ICDCCJ07001. Other virulence-associated genes including cadF, peb1, jlpA, cdt and ciaB were conserved between the C. jejuni strains examined.

  9. Phenotypic Characterization of Derivative 22 Syndrome: Case ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    DEEPTI

    E-mail: shubharaophadke@gmail.com. Conflict of Interest Statement: There is no conflict of interest among the authors. Key words: Emanuel syndrome; derivative chromosome 22; microarray; intellectual disability; chromosomal rearrangement. Abstract. Emanuel syndrome is characterized by severe intellectual disability, ...

  10. Detection of Campylobacter jejuni by culture and real-time PCR in a French cohort of patients with Guillain-Barre syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivadon-Tardy, Valérie; Orlikowski, David; Porcher, Raphael; Ronco, Esthel; Caudie, Christiane; Roussi, Jacqueline; Fauchère, Jean-Louis; Mégraud, Francis; Tabor, Helen; Sharshar, Tarek; Annane, Djillali; Raphaël, Jean-Claude; Gaillard, Jean-Louis

    2010-06-01

    Bacteriological culture and real-time PCR (RT-PCR) were used to detect Campylobacter jejuni in fecal samples from a French cohort of 237 patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). We provide evidence that diverse serotypes and genotypes of C. jejuni are a major trigger of GBS in France.

  11. Identification of DNA sequence variation in Campylobacter jejuni strains associated with the Guillain-Barre syndrome by high-throughput AFLP analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.C.R. Godschalk (Peggy); M.P. Bergman (Mathijs); R.F.J. Gorkink (Raymond); G. Simons (Guus); N.P.W.C.J. van den Braak (Nicole); A.J. Lastovica (Albert); H.P. Endtz (Hubert); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri); A.F. van Belkum (Alex)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Campylobacter jejuni is the predominant cause of antecedent infection in post-infectious neuropathies such as the Guillain-Barre (GBS) and Miller Fisher syndromes (MFS). GBS and MFS are probably induced by molecular mimicry between human gangliosides and bacterial

  12. Comparative genotyping of Campylobacter jejuni strains from patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome in Bangladesh.

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    Zhahirul Islam

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Campylobacter jejuni is a common cause of acute gastroenteritis and is associated with post-infectious neuropathies such as the Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS and the Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS. We here present comparative genotyping of 49 C. jejuni strains from Bangladesh that were recovered from patients with enteritis or GBS. All strains were serotyped and analyzed by lipo-oligosaccharide (LOS genotyping, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP analysis, multilocus sequence typing (MLST, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: C. jejuni HS:23 was a predominant serotype among GBS patients (50%, and no specific serotype was significantly associated with GBS compared to enteritis. PCR screening showed that 38/49 (78% of strains could be assigned to LOS classes A, B, C, or E. The class A locus (4/7 vs 3/39; p<0.01 was significantly associated in the GBS-related strains as compared to enteritis strains. All GBS/oculomotor related strains contained the class B locus; which was also detected in 46% of control strains. Overlapping clonal groups were defined by MLST, AFLP and PFGE for strains from patients with gastroenteritis and GBS. MLST defined 22 sequence types (STs and 7 clonal complexes including 7 STs not previously identified (ST-3742, ST-3741, ST-3743, ST-3748, ST-3968, ST-3969 and ST-3970. C. jejuni HS:23 strains from patients with GBS or enteritis were clonal and all strains belonged to ST-403 complex. Concordance between LOS class B and ST-403 complex was revealed. AFLP defined 25 different types at 90% similarity. The predominant AFLP type AF-20 coincided with the C. jejuni HS:23 and ST-403 complex. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: LOS genotyping, MLST, AFLP and PFGE helped to identify the HS:23 strains from GBS or enteritis patients as clonal. Overall, genotypes exclusive for enteritis or for GBS-related strains were not obtained although LOS class A was significantly associated with GBS

  13. A definition for chronic sequelae applied to campylobacter and guillian-barre syndrome (Gbs).

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    Parkin; Davies-Cole; Balbus

    2000-10-01

    PURPOSE: Chronic sequelae (CS) are increasingly important to drinking water risk assessment and management processes, but there has been relatively little scientific rigor in defining CS or reviewing the literature on water-related CS. Our purposes were to develop a scientific definition for CS and to evaluate the definition's practical merit.METHODS: We examined scientific publications for definitions of "chronic sequela." We developed a definition that is based on scientific concepts and that can be systematically applied to literature to assess whether pathogen-related health outcomes qualify as CS. As a case study, we conducted an extensive Medline search and tested our definition on the epidemiological and clinical literature linking Campylobacter and GBS.RESULTS: We defined "chronic sequela" as the secondary adverse health outcome that 1) occurs as a result of a previous infection by a microbial pathogen, and 2) is clearly distinguishable from the health events that initially result from the causative infection, and 3) lasts 3 months or more after recognition. The 12 Campylobacter and GBS studies (five epidemiological and seven clinical) revealed that current data reporting practices limit the evaluation of all three elements in our definition. Laboratory methods and criteria to characterize infection were not always adequately reported. Primary and secondary health events were always reported, but eight of the studies required obtaining additional articles to determine the GBS criteria used. Ten of the 12 articles contained duration data for the GBS symptoms.CONCLUSIONS: Much of the evidence needed to apply our definition was found in the studies reviewed, but changes in reporting practices would facilitate the scientific evaluation of pathogen-CS relationships and estimation of their public health magnitude.

  14. Microbiota-Derived Short-Chain Fatty Acids Modulate Expression of Campylobacter jejuni Determinants Required for Commensalism and Virulence.

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    Luethy, Paul M; Huynh, Steven; Ribardo, Deborah A; Winter, Sebastian E; Parker, Craig T; Hendrixson, David R

    2017-05-09

    Campylobacter jejuni promotes commensalism in the intestinal tracts of avian hosts and diarrheal disease in humans, yet components of intestinal environments recognized as spatial cues specific for different intestinal regions by the bacterium to initiate interactions in either host are mostly unknown. By analyzing a C. jejuni acetogenesis mutant defective in converting acetyl coenzyme A (Ac-CoA) to acetate and commensal colonization of young chicks, we discovered evidence for in vivo microbiota-derived short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and organic acids as cues recognized by C. jejuni that modulate expression of determinants required for commensalism. We identified a set of C. jejuni genes encoding catabolic enzymes and transport systems for amino acids required for in vivo growth whose expression was modulated by SCFAs. Transcription of these genes was reduced in the acetogenesis mutant but was restored upon supplementation with physiological concentrations of the SCFAs acetate and butyrate present in the lower intestinal tracts of avian and human hosts. Conversely, the organic acid lactate, which is abundant in the upper intestinal tract where C. jejuni colonizes less efficiently, reduced expression of these genes. We propose that microbiota-generated SCFAs and lactate are cues for C. jejuni to discriminate between different intestinal regions. Spatial gradients of these metabolites likely allow C. jejuni to locate preferred niches in the lower intestinal tract and induce expression of factors required for intestinal growth and commensal colonization. Our findings provide insights into the types of cues C. jejuni monitors in the avian host for commensalism and likely in humans to promote diarrheal disease. IMPORTANCE Campylobacter jejuni is a commensal of the intestinal tracts of avian species and other animals and a leading cause of diarrheal disease in humans. The types of cues sensed by C. jejuni to influence responses to promote commensalism or

  15. Role of Campylobacter jejuni Infection in the Pathogenesis of Guillain-Barré Syndrome: An Update

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    Kishan Kumar Nyati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Our current knowledge on Campylobacter jejuni infections in humans has progressively increased over the past few decades. Infection with C. jejuni is the most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis, sometimes surpassing other infections due to Salmonella, Shigella, and Escherichia coli. Most infections are acquired due to consumption of raw or undercooked poultry, unpasteurized milk, and contaminated water. After developing the diagnostic methods to detect C. jejuni, the possibility to identify the association of its infection with new diseases has been increased. After the successful isolation of C. jejuni, reports have been published citing the occurrence of GBS following C. jejuni infection. Thus, C. jejuni is now considered as a major triggering agent of GBS. Molecular mimicry between sialylated lipooligosaccharide structures on the cell envelope of these bacteria and ganglioside epitopes on the human nerves that generates cross-reactive immune response results in autoimmune-driven nerve damage. Though C. jejuni is associated with several pathologic forms of GBS, axonal subtypes following C. jejuni infection may be more severe. Ample amount of existing data covers a large spectrum of GBS; however, the studies on C. jejuni-associated GBS are still inconclusive. Therefore, this review provides an update on the C. jejuni infections engaged in the pathogenesis of GBS.

  16. Novel plasmid conferring kanamycin and tetracycline resistance in the turkey-derived Campylobacter jejuni strain 11601MD.

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    Crespo, M D; Altermann, E; Olson, J; Miller, W G; Chandrashekhar, K; Kathariou, S

    2016-07-01

    In Campylobacter spp., resistance to the antimicrobials kanamycin and tetracycline is frequently associated with plasmid-borne genes. However, relatively few plasmids of Campylobacter jejuni have been fully characterized to date. A novel plasmid (p11601MD; 44,095nt) harboring tet(O) was identified in C. jejuni strain 11601MD, which was isolated from the jejunum of a turkey produced conventionally in North Carolina. Analysis of the p11601MD sequence revealed the presence of a high-GC content cassette with four genes that included tet(O) and a putative aminoglycoside transferase gene (aphA-3) highly similar to kanamycin resistance determinants. Several genes putatively involved in conjugative transfer were also identified on the plasmid. These findings will contribute to a better understanding of the distribution of potentially self-mobilizing plasmids harboring antibiotic resistance determinants in Campylobacter spp. from turkeys and other sources. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Campylobacter Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter infection is a common foodborne illness. You usually get it from eating contaminated food, especially raw ... You can also get it from drinking contaminated water or raw milk, or handling infected animal feces ( ...

  18. MLST clustering of Campylobacter jejuni isolates from patients with gastroenteritis, reactive arthritis and Guillain–Barré syndrome

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    Nielsen, L.N.; Sheppard, S.K.; McCarthy, N.D.; Maiden, M.C.J.; Ingmer, H.; Krogfelt, K.A.

    2014-01-01

    Aims To determine the diversity and population structure of Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) isolates from Danish patients and to examine the association between multilocus sequence typing types and different clinical symptoms including gastroenteritis (GI), Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS) and reactive arthritis (RA). Methods and Results Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was used to characterize 122 isolates, including 18 from patients with RA and 8 from patients with GBS. The GI and RA isolates were collected in Denmark during 2002–2003 and the GBS isolates were obtained from other countries. In overall, 51 sequence types (STs) were identified within 18 clonal complexes (CCs). Of these three CCs, ST-21, ST-45 and ST-22 clonal complexes accounted for 64 percent of all isolates. The GBS isolates in this study significantly grouped into the ST-22 clonal complex, consistent with the PubMLST database isolates. There was no significant clustering of the RA isolates. Conclusions Isolates from Denmark were found to be highly genetically diverse. GBS isolates grouped significantly with clonal complex ST-22, but the absence of clustering of RA isolates indicated that the phylogenetic background for this sequela could not be reconstructed using variation in MLST loci. Possibly, putative RA-associated genes may vary, by recombination or expression differences, independent of MLST loci. Significance and Impact of the Study MLST typing of C. jejuni isolates from Danish patients with gastroenteritis confirmed that the diversity of clones in Denmark is comparable to that in other European countries. Furthermore, a verification of the grouping of GBS isolates compared to RA isolates provides information about evolution of the bacterial population resulting in this important sequela. PMID:19702866

  19. MLST clustering of Campylobacter jejuni isolates from patients with gastroenteritis, reactive arthritis and Guillain-Barré syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, L N; Sheppard, S K; McCarthy, N D; Maiden, M C J; Ingmer, H; Krogfelt, K A

    2010-02-01

    To determine the diversity and population structure of Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) isolates from Danish patients and to examine the association between multilocus sequence typing types and different clinical symptoms including gastroenteritis (GI), Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and reactive arthritis (RA). Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was used to characterize 122 isolates, including 18 from patients with RA and 8 from patients with GBS. The GI and RA isolates were collected in Denmark during 2002-2003 and the GBS isolates were obtained from other countries. In overall, 51 sequence types (STs) were identified within 18 clonal complexes (CCs). Of these three CCs, ST-21, ST-45 and ST-22 clonal complexes accounted for 64 percent of all isolates. The GBS isolates in this study significantly grouped into the ST-22 clonal complex, consistent with the PubMLST database isolates. There was no significant clustering of the RA isolates. Isolates from Denmark were found to be highly genetically diverse. GBS isolates grouped significantly with clonal complex ST-22, but the absence of clustering of RA isolates indicated that the phylogenetic background for this sequela could not be reconstructed using variation in MLST loci. Possibly, putative RA-associated genes may vary, by recombination or expression differences, independent of MLST loci. MLST typing of C. jejuni isolates from Danish patients with gastroenteritis confirmed that the diversity of clones in Denmark is comparable to that in other European countries. Furthermore, a verification of the grouping of GBS isolates compared to RA isolates provides information about evolution of the bacterial population resulting in this important sequela.

  20. Microbiota-derived short-chain fatty acids modulate expression of Campylobacter jejuni determinants required for commensalism and virulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter jejuni effectively promotes commensalism in the intestinal tract of avian hosts and diarrheal disease in humans, yet components of intestinal environments sensed by the bacterium in either host to initiate interactions are mostly unknown. By analyzing a C. jejuni acetogenesis mutant th...

  1. Campylobacter jejuni - A MONOGRAPHIC STUDY (REVIEW

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    N. CORCIONIVOSCHI

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter is the primary cause of bacterial diarrhoeal illness in the developed world with an estimated 2-3 million Campylobacter-related illnesses occurring in the United States per year. Campylobacter jejuni can cause a spectrum of disease including gastroenteritis, proctitis, septicaemia, meningitis, abortion and autoimmune diseases such as Reiter’s arthritis and Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS. The association of Campylobacter with poultry (e.g. chickens, turkeys, ducks, and geese has been known for the last 30 years. In this review we will present the biology of this organism as presented for the last two decades and also the connection between Campylobacter jejuni and farm animals.

  2. Host-Pathogen Interactions in Guillain-Barré Syndrome : the role of Campylobacter jejuni lipooligosaccharide sialylation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.P. Heikema (Astrid)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract*Campylobacter jejuni* (*C. jejuni*) is a spiral, comma-shaped Gram-negative bacterium which is motile due to bipolar flagella. *C. jejuni* is frequently present in the intestines of poultry and birds, where it is considered to be part of the normal intestinal flora (1).

  3. Campylobacter Infections

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    ... Head Neck & Nervous System Heart Infections Learning Disabilities Obesity ... Body Campylobacter are a type of bacteria that produce infections in the GI tract. They are a major bacterial cause of diarrheal sickness among children in the United States. You may hear ...

  4. Infection with multidrug-resistant Campylobacter coli mimicking recurrence of carcinoid syndrome: a case report of a neuroendocrine tumor patient with repeated diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagler, Heimo; Kiesewetter, Barbara; Raderer, Markus

    2016-08-12

    Campylobacteriosis caused by Gram-negative bacteria of the genus Campylobacter (mainly C. jejuni and C. coli) is one of the most common gastrointestinal zoonotic infections with increased incidence in humans worldwide. The typical symptoms are severe abdominal cramps, diarrhea and sometimes fever. The clinical course of Campylobacter infection is mainly mild and after one week self-limiting, but can take several weeks in some rare cases. However, patients with neuroendocrine tumors in the gastrointestinal tract, a neoplasm of enterochromaffin/neuroendocrine cell origin, can develop severe diarrhea during progression of tumor growth caused by hormonal excess due to the tumor. Both diseases have very similar clinical symptoms and this case report elaborates the differences. So far it is known in the literature that the clinical symptoms of campylobacteriosis can mimic appendicitis or acute colitis of inflammatory bowel disease but a mimicking of recurrence of carcinoid syndrome in a patient with neuroendocrine tumor is not reported. A 72-year-old man with already diagnosed and treated metastatic neuroendocrine tumor of the terminal ileum (G1 rated, Ki-67 index 1 %) was again suffering from increasing diarrhea, abdominal cramps and weight lost. These symptoms were similar to the initial symptoms due to the tumor which improved at the time after total resection of the primary in the terminal ileum and regular therapy with long-acting release depot octreotide intramuscularly. As progression/tachyphylaxis in symptomatic patients with carcinoid syndrome undergoing therapy, reassessment of disease and analysis of tumor markers was initiated, and the interval of intramuscular injections was shortened. Radiological findings and tumor marker levels disclosed no evidence of neuroendocrine tumor progression and the symptoms continued. After 4 weeks with symptoms the patient developed additionally fever. Due to impaired renal function and elevated signs of systemic

  5. Preventing Campylobacter at the Source: Why Is It So Difficult?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar, J.A.; French, N.P.; Havelaar, A.H.

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis in humans, caused by Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, is the most common recognized bacterial zoonosis in the European Union and the United States. The acute phase is characterized by gastrointestinal symptoms. The long-term sequelae (Guillain-Barre syndrome, reactive

  6. Campylobacter fetus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Ayaka; Hashimoto, Etaro; Ishioka, Haruhiko; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Gomi, Harumi

    2018-01-01

    Meningitis caused by the zoonotic pathogen Campylobacter fetus in immunocompetent adults is rare. We report a 48-year-old Japanese woman with no underlying disease who was found to have meningitis caused by C. fetus . Both C. fetus subsp. fetus and C. fetus subsp. venerealis were isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid culture. The mode of infection in our patient was considered to be associated with the consumption of raw beef and raw cattle liver on a regular basis. Public awareness and education to avoid the consumption of raw or undercooked meat might help prevent C. fetus meningitis.

  7. Phenotypic characterization of derivative 22 syndrome: case series ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    DEEPTI SAXENA

    2018-03-05

    Mar 5, 2018 ... Abstract. Emanuel syndrome is caused due to an additional derivative chromosome 22 and is characterized by severe intellectual disability, microcephaly, failure to thrive, preauricular tags or pits, ear anomalies, cleft or high-arched palate, micrognathia, kidney abnormalities, congenital heart defects and ...

  8. Campylobacter serology test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003530.htm Campylobacter serology test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Campylobacter serology test is a blood test to look ...

  9. Campylobacter jejuni organism (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter jejuni infection causes cramping, diarrhea, abdominal pain and fever within 2 to 5 days after a person has been exposed to the organism. Campylobacter jejuni is one of the most common bacterial ...

  10. Association of Anti-GT1a Antibodies with an Outbreak of Guillain-Barré Syndrome and Analysis of Ganglioside Mimicry in an Associated Campylobacter jejuni Strain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maojun Zhang

    Full Text Available An outbreak of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS, subsequent to Campylobacter jejuni enteritis, occurred in China in 2007. Serum anti-ganglioside antibodies were measured in GBS patients and controls. Genome sequencing was used to determine the phylogenetic relationship among three C. jejuni strains from a patient with GBS (ICDCCJ07001, a patient with gastroenteritis (ICDCCJ07002 and a healthy carrier (ICDCCJ07004, which were all associated with the outbreak. The ganglioside-like structures of the lipo-oligosaccharides of these strains were determined by mass spectrometry. Seventeen (53% of the GBS patients had anti-GT1a IgG antibodies. GT1a mimicry was found in the lipo-oligosaccharides of strain ICDCCJ07002 and ICDCCJ07004; but a combination of GM3/GD3 mimics was observed in ICDCCJ07001, although this patient had anti-GT1a IgG antibodies. A single-base deletion in a glycosyltransferase gene caused the absence of GT1a mimicry in ICDCCJ07001. The phylogenetic tree showed that ICDCCJ07002 and ICDCCJ07004 were genetically closer to each other than to ICDCCJ07001. C. jejuni, bearing a GT1a-like lipo-oligosaccharide, might have caused the GBS outbreak and the loss of GT1a mimicry may have helped ICDCCJ07001 to survive in the host.

  11. PRESENCE OF RESISTANCE IN CAMPYLOBACTER JEJUNI AND CAMPYLOBACTER COLI

    OpenAIRE

    Branislava Kocić; Biljana Miljković-Selimović; Tatjana Babić; Ljiljana Ristić

    2009-01-01

    There are 18 species belonging to the genus of Campylobacter (rRNK group I), of which thermophilic ones are the following: Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter lari and Campylobacter upsaliensis. The aim of our research was to determine the sensitivity of Campylobacter species, isolated from human feces, to antibiotics being used in practice. The study involved 50 human strains of C. jejuni/coli isolated from feces in the Center for Microbiology in the Public Health Insti...

  12. Identification of DNA sequence variation in Campylobacter jejuni strains associated with the Guillain-Barré syndrome by high-throughput AFLP analysis

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    Endtz Hubert P

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Campylobacter jejuni is the predominant cause of antecedent infection in post-infectious neuropathies such as the Guillain-Barré (GBS and Miller Fisher syndromes (MFS. GBS and MFS are probably induced by molecular mimicry between human gangliosides and bacterial lipo-oligosaccharides (LOS. This study describes a new C. jejuni-specific high-throughput AFLP (htAFLP approach for detection and identification of DNA polymorphism, in general, and of putative GBS/MFS-markers, in particular. Results We compared 6 different isolates of the "genome strain" NCTC 11168 obtained from different laboratories. HtAFLP analysis generated approximately 3000 markers per stain, 19 of which were polymorphic. The DNA polymorphisms could not be confirmed by PCR-RFLP analysis, suggesting a baseline level of 0.6% AFLP artefacts. Comparison of NCTC 11168 with 4 GBS-associated strains revealed 23 potentially GBS-specific markers, 17 of which were identified by DNA sequencing. A collection of 27 GBS/MFS-associated and 17 enteritis control strains was analyzed with PCR-RFLP tests based on 11 of these markers. We identified 3 markers, located in the LOS biosynthesis genes cj1136, cj1138 and cj1139c, that were significantly associated with GBS (P = 0.024, P = 0.047 and P Conclusion This study shows that bacterial GBS markers are limited in number and located in the LOS biosynthesis genes, which corroborates the current consensus that LOS mimicry may be the prime etiologic determinant of GBS. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that htAFLP, with its high reproducibility and resolution, is an effective technique for the detection and subsequent identification of putative bacterial disease markers.

  13. Resistance mechanisms in Campylobacter jejuni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iovine, Nicole M.

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a major cause of food-borne gastroenteritis worldwide. While mortality is low, morbidity imparted by post-infectious sequelae such as Guillain-Barré syndrome, Reiter syndrome/reactive arthritis and irritable bowel syndrome is significant. In addition, the economic cost is high due to lost productivity. Food animals, particularly poultry, are the main reservoirs of C. jejuni. The over-use of antibiotics in the human population and in animal husbandry has led to an increase in antibiotic-resistant infections, particularly with fluoroquinolones. This is problematic because C. jejuni gastroenteritis is clinically indistinguishable from that caused by other bacterial pathogens, and such illnesses are usually treated empirically with fluoroquinolones. Since C. jejuni is naturally transformable, acquisition of additional genes imparting antibiotic resistance is likely. Therefore, an understanding of the antibiotic resistance mechanisms in C. jejuni is needed to provide proper therapy both to the veterinary and human populations. PMID:23406779

  14. Campylobacter jejuni: exposure assessment and hazard characterization : growth, survival and infectivity of Campylobacter jejuni

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff-Bakkenes, L.

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni, a small, curved or spirally shaped highly motile microorganism, is identified as a major cause of bacterial gastroenteritis throughout the world. Serious complications such as the Guillain-Barré syndrome and reactive arthritis might occasionally follow infection. In this

  15. Campylobacter jejuni: exposure assessment and hazard characterization : growth, survival and infectivity of Campylobacter jejuni

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff-Bakkenes, L.

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni, a small, curved or spirally shaped highly motile microorganism, is identified as a major cause of bacterial gastroenteritis throughout the world. Serious complications such as the Guillain-Barré syndrome and reactive arthritis might occasionally follow infection.

  16. Fluoroquinolone resistance in Campylobacter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli are common in animals because of the use of fluoroquinolones as therapeutic agents in animal husbandry, particularly in chickens and other poultry. Campylobacter is a commensal in poultry, and therefore, poultry and poultry products are the...

  17. Flying insects and Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Skovgård, Henrik

    Campylobacter in flies Flies of the Muscidae family forage on all kind of faeces – various fly species have different preferences. M domestica prefer pigs, horses and cattle faeces, animals which are all known to frequently excrete Campylobacter. As a result, the insects pick up pathogenic micro...... organisms, which may collect on their bodies or survive passage through the fly gut. Campylobacter and other pathogens are then easily transferred to other surfaces, for instance peoples food – or to broiler houses where they may be swallowed by chickens or contaminate the environment. On a large material...... of several species of flies collected outside broiler houses, merely ~1% of the flies were found Campylobacter positive. However, the prevalence varied considerably with fly species, time of the year, and availability of Campylobacter sources. Influx of flies to broiler houses As the influx of flies...

  18. Foodborne Campylobacter: Infections, Metabolism, Pathogenesis and Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epps, Sharon V. R.; Harvey, Roger B.; Hume, Michael E.; Phillips, Timothy D.; Anderson, Robin C.; Nisbet, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter species are a leading cause of bacterial-derived foodborne illnesses worldwide. The emergence of this bacterial group as a significant causative agent of human disease and their propensity to carry antibiotic resistance elements that allows them to resist antibacterial therapy make them a serious public health threat. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are considered to be the most important enteropathogens of this genus and their ability to colonize and survive in a wide variety of animal species and habitats make them extremely difficult to control. This article reviews the historical and emerging importance of this bacterial group and addresses aspects of the human infections they cause, their metabolism and pathogenesis, and their natural reservoirs in order to address the need for appropriate food safety regulations and interventions. PMID:24287853

  19. Risk factors associated with Campylobacter jejuni infections in Curacao, Netherlands Antilles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.P. Endtz (Hubert); L. de Haan (Lidewij); R. van Koningsveld (Rinske); Y. Halabi; N.P.W.C.J. van den Braak (Nicole); B.I. Kesztyus; C.W. Ang (Wim); I. Gerstenbluth; E. Leyde; A. Ott (Alewijn); F.G. Rodgers; R.P.A.J. Verkooyen (Roel); D.L. Woodward; A.F. van Belkum (Alex); L.J. Price; H. West; P.C.R. Godschalk (Peggy)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractA steady increase in the incidence of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) with a seasonal preponderance, almost exclusively related to Campylobacter jejuni, and a rise in the incidence of laboratory-confirmed Campylobacter enteritis have been reported from Curacao,

  20. Campylobacter jejuni acquire new host-derived CRISPR spacers when in association with bacteriophages harbouring a CRISPR-like Cas4 protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian F. Connerton

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is a worldwide cause of human diarrhoeal disease. Clustered Repetitively Interspaced Palindromic Repeats (CRISPRs and associated proteins allow Bacteria and Archaea to evade bacteriophage and plasmid infection. Type II CRISPR systems are found in association with combinations of genes encoding the CRISPR-associated Cas1, Cas2, Cas4 or Csn2, and Cas9 proteins. C. jejuni possesses a minimal subtype II-C CRISPR system containing cas1, cas2, and cas9 genes whilst cas4 is notably absent. Cas4 proteins possess 5ʹ-3ʹ exonuclease activity to create recombinogenic-ends for spacer acquisition. Here we report a conserved Cas4-like protein in Campylobacter bacteriophages that creates a novel split arrangement between the bacteriophage and host that represents a new twist in the bacteriophage/host co-evolutionary arms race. The continuous association of bacteriophage and host in the carrier state life cycle of C. jejuni provided an opportunity to study spacer acquisition in this species. Remarkably all the spacer sequences observed were of host origin. We hypothesise that Campylobacter bacteriophages can use Cas4-like protein to activate spacer acquisition to use host DNA as an effective decoy to bacteriophage DNA. Bacteria that acquire self-spacers and escape phage infection must overcome CRISPR-mediated autoimmunity either by loss of the interference functions leaving them susceptible to foreign DNA incursion or tolerate changes in gene regulation.

  1. [Genetics of Campylobacter phages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerl, Jens A; Jäckel, Claudia; Hertwig, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The application of virulent (lytic) bacteriophages isa promising tool to reduce the number of Campylobacter along the food chain. However, only little is known aboutthe genetics of Campylobacter phages. To date, the nucleotide sequences of nine virulent Campylobacter phages have been published.The analysis of the sequences indicated that at the nucleotide level, phages of the same group (group II or group III) are closely related, but that similarities between the groups only exist at the protein level. Both groups of phages are distantly related to T4-like phages. The genomes of the studied Campylobacter phages contain numerous genes for homing endonucleases and transposases as well as repetitive sequences. These elements could be important for genomic rearrangements.

  2. Epidemiology of Campylobacter in poultry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs - Reitsma, W.

    1994-01-01

    Campylobacter , causing human infections with severe symptoms of diarrhoea, is mainly transmitted by food, especially poultry meat products.

    Several studies on Campylobacter colonization in breeders, laying hens, and broilers were carried

  3. Empirically derived dietary habits are associated with irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaribaf, Fatemeh; Keshteli, Ammar Hassanzadeh; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Saneei, Parvane; Feizi, Awat; Daghaghzadeh, Hamed; Feinle-Bisset, Christine; Adibi, Peyman

    2018-03-13

    The associations between empirically derived dietary habits and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) have not been investigated. This study aimed to assess the relationship between empirically derived dietary habits and IBS in a large population of Iranian adults. In a cross-sectional study, dietary habits of 4763 adults were assessed in three domains, "meal pattern", "eating rate" and "intra-meal fluid intake". We used latent class analysis to identify classes of dietary habits. IBS was defined based on ROME III criteria. IBS was prevalent in 20.3% (n = 966) of the study population. Two distinct classes of meal patterns: "regular" and "irregular", three classes of eating rates: "moderate", "moderate-to-slow" and "moderate-to-fast" and two classes of fluid ingestion with meals: "moderate" and "heavy intra-meal drinking" were identified. After adjustment for confounders, "heavy intra-meal fluid intake" was protectively associated with IBS (OR = 0.79; 95% CI:0.64-0.96). When potential confounders were considered, "meal pattern" and "eating rate" were not significantly associated with IBS in the whole population. After adjustment for confounders, women with "irregular meal pattern" had a 30% greater risk of having IBS, compared with those with "regular meal pattern" (OR = 1.30; 95% CI:1.02-1.67). Overweight participants with "fast eating rate" were 70% more likely to have IBS, compared to those with "moderate eating rate" (OR = 1.70; 95% CI:1.13-2.55). "Irregular meal pattern" was related to frequency and severity of abdominal pain. We found a significant association between heavy intra-meal fluid intake" and IBS. More large-scale prospective studies are needed to affirm this association.

  4. X-derived marker chromosome in patient with mosaic Turner syndrome and Dandy-Walker syndrome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telepova, Alena S; Romanenko, Svetlana A; Lemskaya, Natalya A; Maksimova, Yulia V; Shorina, Asia R; Yudkin, Dmitry V

    2017-01-01

    Small supernumerary marker chromosomes can be derived from autosomes and sex chromosomes and can accompany chromosome pathologies, such as Turner syndrome. Here, we present a case report of a patient with mosaic Turner syndrome and Dandy-Walker syndrome carrying a marker chromosome. We showed the presence of the marker chromosome in 33.8% of blood cells. FISH of the probe derived from the marker chromosome by microdissection revealed that it originated from the centromeric region of chromosome X. Additionally, we showed no telomeric sequences and no XIST sequence in the marker chromosome. This is the first report of these two syndromes accompanied by the presence of a marker chromosome. Marker chromosome was X-derived and originated from centromeric region. Patient has mild symptoms but there is no XIST gene in marker chromosome. CPG137. Registered 03 March 2017.

  5. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in Children With Acute Diarrhea in Health Centers of Hamadan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastyani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Enteritis caused by Campylobacter is considered as the most common acute bacterial diarrhea around the world. In most cases, infection occurs as a result of consuming contaminated water or food, especially raw meat of fowls. Objectives The purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of campylobacter species among pediatrics of Hamadan city, Iran. Patients and Methods A total of 120 stool samples from children less than 10 years old were examined from January 2013 to December 2014 in Hamadan, Iran. The samples were incubated in Campy-Thio enrichment medium for 1 - 2 hours and then cultured on a specific medium; after that, the suspected colonies were analyzed for Campylobacter spp. identification by conventional tests. The identified species by biochemical methods were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by disk agar diffusion (DAD method. Results Twelve (10% Campylobacter spp. from 120 stool samples were isolated including C. coli and C. jejuni. In the antibiotic susceptibility test, the most frequent resistance was observed to ciprofloxacin 8 (88.8%, followed by 7 (77.7% resistant strains to tetracycline, 7 (77.7% to erythromycin, 6 (66.6% to clindamycin, 5 (55.5% to meropenem, 4 (44.4% to gentamicin, 3 (33.3% to nalidixicacid and only 1 (11.1% to chloramphenicol. Conclusions Campylobacter is responsible for some important clinical problems such as enteritis and is also associated with meningitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome. It is imperative to monitor the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Campylobacter spp. as well as other the zoonotic bacteria.

  6. Molecular diagnosis of Shigella , Salmonella and Campylobacter by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Bacteriological diagnosis of Campylobacter spp, Salmonella spp and Shigella spp could be necessary in case of infectious gastroenteritis syndrome. The objective of this study was to diagnose concomitantly the three enteropathogenic bacteria by multiplex Real-Time PCR in stool culture samples in ...

  7. Validation of an ELISA for the diagnosis of recent Campylobacter infections in Guillain-Barré and reactive arthritis patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ang, C. W.; Krogfelt, K.; Herbrink, P.; Keijser, J.; van Pelt, W.; Dalby, T.; Kuijf, M.; Jacobs, B. C.; Bergman, M. P.; Schiellerup, P.; Visser, C. E.

    2007-01-01

    Weeks or months following Campylobacter infection, a small proportion of infected individuals develop Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) or reactive arthritis (ReA). Stool culture for Campylobacter is often negative in these patients, and serology is therefore the method of choice for diagnosing a recent

  8. Flying insects and Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Skovgård, Henrik

    organisms, which may collect on their bodies or survive passage through the fly gut. Campylobacter and other pathogens are then easily transferred to other surfaces, for instance peoples food – or to broiler houses where they may be swallowed by chickens or contaminate the environment. On a large material...... period was rather short, as even high doses of Campylobacter remained viable for less than 24 hours in flies, when they were incubated at temperatures from 20 ºC and higher. Lower temperatures are less- or irrelevant, as flies become slow or immobile below 15-20 ºC....

  9. Plant-derived therapeutics for the treatment of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Brittany L; Raskin, Ilya; Cefalu, William T; Ribnicky, David M

    2010-10-01

    Metabolic syndrome is defined as a set of coexisting metabolic disorders that increase an individual's likelihood of developing type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and stroke. Medicinal plants, some of which have been used for thousands of years, serve as an excellent source of bioactive compounds for the treatment of metabolic syndrome because they contain a wide range of phytochemicals with diverse metabolic effects. In order for botanicals to be effectively used against metabolic syndrome, however, botanical preparations must be characterized and standardized through the identification of their active compounds and respective modes of action, followed by validation in controlled clinical trials with clearly defined endpoints. This review assesses examples of commonly known and partially characterized botanicals to describe specific considerations for the phytochemical, preclinical and clinical characterization of botanicals associated with metabolic syndrome.

  10. [Campylobacteriosis of man : livestock as reservoir for Campylobacter species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, T; Bereswill, S; Glünder, G; Haag, L-M; Hänel, I; Heimesaat, M M; Lugert, R; Rautenschlein, S; Weber, R M; Zautner, A E; Gross, U

    2011-06-01

    Over the last few years, infections with Campylobacter have significantly increased in Europe and Germany and these bacteria have even surpassed Salmonella as the most prevalent bacteria, causing gastroenteritis. Especially contamination during the handling and consumption of meat products seems to be the most important risk factor which plays a prominent role for transmission to man. In addition, contact with pets and other animals, drinking raw or improperly pasteurized milk, and the tenacity of Campylobacter in different environments, especially water, have also to be considered for an adequate risk assessment. Besides gastroenteritis, arthralgia, and Guillain-Barré syndrome are important clinical complications of Campylobacter infections in man. At the same time, it is mostly unclear why the course of infection in man and in reservoir animals differs significantly, especially as only a few classical bacterial virulence factors have been identified so far. For these reasons, the development of efficient prevention strategies is of utmost importance in order to control campylobacteriosis.

  11. Campylobacter Risk Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nauta, Maarten

    In several countries quantitative microbiological risk assessments (QMRAs) have been performed for Campylobacter in chicken meat. The models constructed for this purpose provide a good example of the development of QMRA in general and illustrate the diversity of available methods. Despite...... the differences between the models, the most prominent conclusions of the QMRAs are similar. These conclusions for example relate to the large risk of highly contaminated meat products and the insignificance of contamination from Campylobacter positive flocks to negative flocks during slaughter and processing....... Nonetheless, there seems to be a discrepancy between model predictions and the accumulating microbiological data. For example, a recent study in the Netherlands showed that model predictions on the efficacy of “testing and scheduling” of broiler flocks as a control strategy, could not be confirmed...

  12. Campylobacter hyointestinalis subsp hyointestinalis, a common Campylobacter species in reindeer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanninen, M.L.; Sarelli, L.; Sukura, A.

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To study the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in the faecal material of reindeer, and to identify the isolates by means of a polyphasic approach. In addition, to study the genetic diversity of Camp. hyointestinalis subsp. hyointestinalis reindeer isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis...... slaughterhouses. Samples were cultured by methods suitable for isolation of fastidious Campylobacter species. Of all samples, 6% (24/399) were Campylobacter-positive. Phenotypic characteristics, SDS-PAGE protein patterns, dot blot DNA-DNA hybridization, 23S rDNA restriction fragment polymorphism analysis and PFGE...... identified the isolates as Camp. hyointestinalis subsp. kyointestinalis. Conclusions: Campylobacter hyointestinalis subsp. hyointestinalis was the only Campylobacter species isolated from reindeer in this study. The isolates showed high genomic diversity in PFGE with the restriction enzymes SmaI and Kpn...

  13. Gastroenteritis caused by Campylobacter concisus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, D L J; Pettersson, A M; Rijnsburger, M C; Herbrink, P; van den Berg, H P; Ang, C W

    2012-05-01

    We describe a case of gastroenteritis caused by Campylobacter concisus. The pathogenic potential of C. concisus has yet to be elucidated. Recent studies indicate an association with enteric disease in immunocompromised patients and inflammatory bowel disease in children. Molecular identification methods may be necessary for identifying certain Campylobacter species because of phenotypic similarity. © 2012 SGM

  14. Current and Potential Treatments for Reducing Campylobacter Colonization in Animal Hosts and Disease in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tylor J.; Shank, Janette M.; Johnson, Jeremiah G.

    2017-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacteria-derived gastroenteritis worldwide. In the developed world, Campylobacter is usually acquired by consuming under-cooked poultry, while in the developing world it is often obtained through drinking contaminated water. Once consumed, the bacteria adhere to the intestinal epithelium or mucus layer, causing toxin-mediated inhibition of fluid reabsorption from the intestine and invasion-induced inflammation and diarrhea. Traditionally, severe or prolonged cases of campylobacteriosis have been treated with antibiotics; however, overuse of these antibiotics has led to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains. As the incidence of antibiotic resistance, emergence of post-infectious diseases, and economic burden associated with Campylobacter increases, it is becoming urgent that novel treatments are developed to reduce Campylobacter numbers in commercial poultry and campylobacteriosis in humans. The purpose of this review is to provide the current status of present and proposed treatments to combat Campylobacter infection in humans and colonization in animal reservoirs. These treatments include anti-Campylobacter compounds, probiotics, bacteriophage, vaccines, and anti-Campylobacter bacteriocins, all of which may be successful at reducing the incidence of campylobacteriosis in humans and/or colonization loads in poultry. In addition to reviewing treatments, we will also address several proposed targets that may be used in future development of novel anti-Campylobacter treatments. PMID:28386253

  15. Gene expression profiling in a mouse model identifies fetal liver- and placenta-derived potential biomarkers for Down syndrome screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennings, J.L.A.; Rodenburg, W.; Imholz, S.; Koster, M.P.H.; van Oostrom, C.T.M.; Breit, T.M.; Schielen, P.C.J.I.; de Vries, A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: As a first step to identify novel potential biomarkers for prenatal Down Syndrome screening, we analyzed gene expression in embryos of wild type mice and the Down Syndrome model Ts1Cje. Since current Down Syndrome screening markers are derived from placenta and fetal liver, these tissues

  16. Het Guillain-Barré-syndroom na een Campylobacter jejuni-enteritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beenen, L. F.; Scholten, H. G.

    1990-01-01

    A 7-year-old boy nine days before onset of a Guillain-Barré-syndrome had had enteritis caused by Campylobacter jejuni. The clinical signs were restricted to minor motor and sensory deficits in the limbs; 5 weeks after the onset of the syndrome, recovery was complete. So far, 16 cases of

  17. Comparative population structure analysis of Campylobacter jejuni from human and poultry origin in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Islam, Z; van Belkum, A; Wagenaar, Jaap; Cody, A J; de Boer, A G; Sarker, S K; Jacobs, B C; Talukder, K A; Endtz, H P

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most important cause of antecedent infections leading to Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS). The objective of the present study was to define the genetic diversity, population structure, and potential role of poultry in the transmission of

  18. Comparative population structure analysis of Campylobacter jejuni from human and poultry origin in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Islam, Z.; Belkum, van A.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Cody, A.J.; Boer, de A.G.; Sarker, S.K.; Jacobs, B.C.; Talukder, K.A.; Endtz, H.P.

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most important cause of antecedent infections leading to Guillain-Barr, syndrome (GBS) and Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS). The objective of the present study was to define the genetic diversity, population structure, and potential role of poultry in the transmission of

  19. PRESENCE OF RESISTANCE IN CAMPYLOBACTER JEJUNI AND CAMPYLOBACTER COLI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislava Kocić

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available There are 18 species belonging to the genus of Campylobacter (rRNK group I, of which thermophilic ones are the following: Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter lari and Campylobacter upsaliensis. The aim of our research was to determine the sensitivity of Campylobacter species, isolated from human feces, to antibiotics being used in practice. The study involved 50 human strains of C. jejuni/coli isolated from feces in the Center for Microbiology in the Public Health Institute Nis. Sensitivity was tested by applying the disk diffusion method on seven antibiotics (erythromycin, gentamicin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, hloramphenicol, cephalexin and nalidixic acid. Our results showed low resistance to erythromycin, gentamicin and tetracycline (2%, which corresponds to the studies conducted in the world. Moreover, these findings indicate that erythromycin may be considered the drug of choice in the treatment of Campylobacter diarrhea in this region. Resistance to fluoroquinolone and nalidixic acid was 44%, and C. coli showed higher resistance compared to C. jejuni, though statistical significance was not proved.

  20. Nuclear Nox4-Derived Reactive Oxygen Species in Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Guida

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A role for intracellular ROS production has been recently implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of a wide variety of neoplasias. ROS sources, such as NAD(PH oxidase (Nox complexes, are frequently activated in AML (acute myeloid leukemia blasts and strongly contribute to their proliferation, survival, and drug resistance. Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS comprise a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis, with an increased propensity to develop AML. The molecular basis for MDS progression is unknown, but a key element in MDS disease progression is the genomic instability. NADPH oxidases are now recognized to have specific subcellular localizations, this targeting to specific compartments for localized ROS production. Local Nox-dependent ROS production in the nucleus may contribute to the regulation of redox-dependent cell growth, differentiation, senescence, DNA damage, and apoptosis. We observed that Nox1, 2, and 4 isoforms and p22phox and Rac1 subunits are expressed in MDS/AML cell lines and MDS samples, also in the nuclear fractions. Interestingly, Nox4 interacts with ERK and Akt1 within nuclear speckle domain, suggesting that Nox4 could be involved in regulating gene expression and splicing factor activity. These data contribute to the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms used by nuclear ROS to drive MDS evolution to AML.

  1. Ganglioside GM1 mimicry in Campylobacter strains from sporadic infections in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachamkin, I; Ung, H; Moran, A P; Yoo, D; Prendergast, M M; Nicholson, M A; Sheikh, K; Ho, T; Asbury, A K; McKhann, G M; Griffin, J W

    1999-05-01

    To determine whether GM1-like epitopes in Campylobacter species are specific to O serotypes associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) or whether they are frequent among random Campylobacter isolates causing enteritis, 275 random enteritis-associated isolates of Campylobacter jejuni were analyzed. To determine whether GM1-like epitopes in Campylobacter species are specific to O serotypes associated with Guillan-Barre syndrome (GBS) or whether they are frequent among random Campylobacter isolates causing enteritis, 275 enteritis-associated isolates, randomly collected in the United States, were analyzed using a cholera-toxin binding assay [corrected]. Overall, 26.2% of the isolates were positive for the GM1-like epitope. Of the 36 different O serotypes in the sample, 21 (58.3%) contained no strains positive for GM1, whereas in 6 serotypes (16.7%), >50% of isolates were positive for GM1. GBS-associated serotypes were more likely to contain strains positive for GM1 than were non-GBS-associated serotypes (37.8% vs. 15.1%, P=.0116). The results suggest that humans are frequently exposed to strains exhibiting GM1-like mimicry and, while certain serotypes may be more likely to possess GM1-like epitopes, the presence of GM1-like epitopes on Campylobacter strains does not itself trigger GBS.

  2. Investigating Antibacterial Effects of Garlic (Allium sativum) Concentrate and Garlic-Derived Organosulfur Compounds on Campylobacter jejuni by Using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Raman Spectroscopy, and Electron Microscopy ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaonan; Rasco, Barbara A.; Jabal, Jamie M. F.; Aston, D. Eric; Lin, Mengshi; Konkel, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy were used to study the cell injury and inactivation of Campylobacter jejuni from exposure to antioxidants from garlic. C. jejuni was treated with various concentrations of garlic concentrate and garlic-derived organosulfur compounds in growth media and saline at 4, 22, and 35°C. The antimicrobial activities of the diallyl sulfides increased with the number of sulfur atoms (diallyl sulfide garlic, much greater than those of garlic phenolic compounds, as indicated by changes in the spectral features of proteins, lipids, and polysaccharides in the bacterial cell membranes. Confocal Raman microscopy (532-nm-gold-particle substrate) and Raman mapping of a single bacterium confirmed the intracellular uptake of sulfur and phenolic components. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were employed to verify cell damage. Principal-component analysis (PCA), discriminant function analysis (DFA), and soft independent modeling of class analogs (SIMCA) were performed, and results were cross validated to differentiate bacteria based upon the degree of cell injury. Partial least-squares regression (PLSR) was employed to quantify and predict actual numbers of healthy and injured bacterial cells remaining following treatment. PLSR-based loading plots were investigated to further verify the changes in the cell membrane of C. jejuni treated with organosulfur compounds. We demonstrated that bacterial injury and inactivation could be accurately investigated by complementary infrared and Raman spectroscopies using a chemical-based, “whole-organism fingerprint” with the aid of chemometrics and electron microscopy. PMID:21642409

  3. Use of pcr-rflp of thefla a gene for detection and subtyping of Campylobacter jejuni strains Potentially related to Guillain-barré syndrome, isolated from humans and animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Scarcelli

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study were the subtyping of Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni strains obtained from humans and different animal species using PCR-RFLP, and the detection, by means of the same technique, of strains related to serotype PEN O19:LIO 7, the main C. jejuni serotype linked to Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS. Seventy C. jejuni strains isolated from human feces (n=33, primates (n=15, dogs (n=5, swine (n=2, bovines (n=1, abortion material from goats (n=2 and poultry carcasses (n=12, all collected in the state of São Paulo, were subtyped by means of PCR-RFLP of fla A gene, using restriction endonucleases Hae III, Afa I and Mbo I. Seven subtypes were observed when using the enzyme Hae III; eight when using Mbo I; and seven when using Afa I. The combination of the three endonucleases led to 16 fla-RFLP subtypes, from which ten subtypes shared strains of human and animal origin. From these, seven subtypes were observed in human and broiler strains. In eight subtypes, the other animal species shared patterns with human strains. It was inferred that, besides broilers, swine, goats, dogs and primates may be sources of infection for human in São Paulo. PCR-RFLP is a highly discriminatory technique that may be applied to molecular epidemiology studies of samples from different origins. Besides, the study also enabled the detection of two human strains and two primate strains related to serotype PEN O19: LIO 7.

  4. Phenotypic expansion of the supernumerary derivative (22) chromosome syndrome: VACTERL and Hirschsprung's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Juan C; Garcia, Nilda M; Elder, Frederick F; Zinn, Andrew R; Baker, Linda A

    2007-11-01

    Phenotypically healthy carriers of the balanced 11;22 translocation, the most frequent non-Robertsonian constitutional translocation known in human beings, are at risk of having a progeny with supernumerary derivative (22)t(11;22) syndrome [der(22) syndrome]. We present the cases of 2 male patients with supernumerary der(22) syndrome [47,XY,+der(22)t(11;22)(q23;q11.2)mat], yielding partial trisomy for 22pter-q11 and 11q23-qter. These cases expand the phenotype of the der(22) syndrome, with the first case highlighting the phenotypic overlap of VACTERL and the second adding Hirschsprung's disease and intestinal malrotation to the list of associated anorectal anomalies. Because der(22) syndrome and cat eye syndrome (partial tetrasomy of 22q11) share a similar region of extra dosage on 22q11 and both typically manifest an anorectal phenotype, a dosage-sensitive gene for anorectal anomalies may be present in this locus.

  5. Survival and resuscitation of ten strains of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli under acid conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaveerach, P.; Huurne, ter A.A.H.M.; Lipman, L.J.A.; Knapen, van F.

    2003-01-01

    The culturability of 10 strains of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli was studied after the bacteria were exposed to acid conditions for various periods of time. Campylobacter cells could not survive 2 h under acid conditions (formic acid at pH 4). The 10 Campylobacter strains could not be

  6. Campylobacter bacteriophages and bacteriophage therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connerton, P L; Timms, A R; Connerton, I F

    2011-08-01

    Members of the genus Campylobacter are frequently responsible for human enteric disease with occasionally very serious outcomes. Much of this disease burden is thought to arise from consumption of contaminated poultry products. More than 80% of poultry in the UK harbour Campylobacter as a part of their intestinal flora. To address this unacceptably high prevalence, various interventions have been suggested and evaluated. Among these is the novel approach of using Campylobacter-specific bacteriophages, which are natural predators of the pathogen. To optimize their use as therapeutic agents, it is important to have a comprehensive understanding of the bacteriophages that infect Campylobacter, and how they can affect their host bacteria. This review will focus on many aspects of Campylobacter-specific bacteriophages including: their first isolation in the 1960s, their use in bacteriophage typing schemes, their isolation from the different biological sources and genomic characterization. As well as their use as therapeutic agents to reduce Campylobacter in poultry their future potential, including their use in bio-sanitization of food, will be explored. The evolutionary consequences of naturally occurring bacteriophage infection that have come to light through investigations of bacteriophages in the poultry ecosystem will also be discussed. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Antimicrobial resistance mechanisms among Campylobacter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Kinga; Osek, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are recognized as the most common causative agents of bacterial gastroenteritis in the world. Humans most often become infected by ingesting contaminated food, especially undercooked chicken, but also other sources of bacteria have been described. Campylobacteriosis is normally a self-limiting disease. Antimicrobial treatment is needed only in patients with more severe disease and in those who are immunologically compromised. The most common antimicrobial agents used in the treatment of Campylobacter infections are macrolides, such as erythromycin, and fluoroquinolones, such as ciprofloxacin. Tetracyclines have been suggested as an alternative choice in the treatment of clinical campylobacteriosis but in practice are not often used. However, during the past few decades an increasing number of resistant Campylobacter isolates have developed resistance to fluoroquinolones and other antimicrobials such as macrolides, aminoglycosides, and beta-lactams. Trends in antimicrobial resistance have shown a clear correlation between use of antibiotics in the veterinary medicine and animal production and resistant isolates of Campylobacter in humans. In this review, the patterns of emerging resistance to the antimicrobial agents useful in treatment of the disease are presented and the mechanisms of resistance to these drugs in Campylobacter are discussed.

  8. Antimicrobial Resistance Mechanisms among Campylobacter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are recognized as the most common causative agents of bacterial gastroenteritis in the world. Humans most often become infected by ingesting contaminated food, especially undercooked chicken, but also other sources of bacteria have been described. Campylobacteriosis is normally a self-limiting disease. Antimicrobial treatment is needed only in patients with more severe disease and in those who are immunologically compromised. The most common antimicrobial agents used in the treatment of Campylobacter infections are macrolides, such as erythromycin, and fluoroquinolones, such as ciprofloxacin. Tetracyclines have been suggested as an alternative choice in the treatment of clinical campylobacteriosis but in practice are not often used. However, during the past few decades an increasing number of resistant Campylobacter isolates have developed resistance to fluoroquinolones and other antimicrobials such as macrolides, aminoglycosides, and beta-lactams. Trends in antimicrobial resistance have shown a clear correlation between use of antibiotics in the veterinary medicine and animal production and resistant isolates of Campylobacter in humans. In this review, the patterns of emerging resistance to the antimicrobial agents useful in treatment of the disease are presented and the mechanisms of resistance to these drugs in Campylobacter are discussed. PMID:23865047

  9. Aspects of epidemiology of Campylobacter in poultry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs-Reitsma, W.F.

    1997-01-01

    Campylobacter bacteria, which in humans cause infections with severe symptoms of diarrhoea, are mainly transmitted by food, especially poultry meat products. Several studies on Campylobacter colonization in breeders, laying hens, and broilers were carried out. Isolates were serotyped, using a

  10. Anti-Campylobacter Activities and Resistance Mechanisms of Natural Phenolic Compounds in Campylobacter

    OpenAIRE

    Klan?nik, Anja; Mo?ina, Sonja Smole; Zhang, Qijing

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Campylobacter is a major foodborne pathogen and alternative antimicrobials are needed to prevent or decrease Campylobacter contamination in foods or food producing animals. The objectives of this study are to define the anti-Campylobacter activities of natural phenolic compounds of plant origin and to determine the roles of bacterial drug efflux systems in the resistance to these natural phenolics in Campylobacter jejuni. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Anti-Campylobacter activiti...

  11. Specific detection of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli by using polymerase chain reaction.

    OpenAIRE

    Oyofo, B A; Thornton, S A; Burr, D H; Trust, T J; Pavlovskis, O R; Guerry, P

    1992-01-01

    Development of a routine detection assay for Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in clinical specimens was undertaken by using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). An oligonucleotide primer pair from a conserved 5' region of the flaA gene of C. coli VC167 was used to amplify a 450-bp region by PCR. The primer pair specifically detected 4 strains of C. coli and 47 strains of C. jejuni; but it did not detect strains of Campylobacter fetus, Campylobacter lari, Campylobacter upsaliensis, ...

  12. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poultry are recognized as a main reservoir of Campylobacter spp. However, longitudinal studies investigating the persistence of Campylobacter on broilers and retail chciekn meat in Tanzania are rare. The aim of the current work was to evaluate the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter spp. isolated ...

  13. Kip, consument en Campylobacter: infectieziektebestrijding met consumentenvoorlichting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de R.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Nauta, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    In the Netherlands, Campylobacter is an important bacterial causative agent of gastroenteritis, with poultry as an important source. Measures aiming to reduce the number of Campylobacter on poultry meat however cannot guarantee the production of fresh meat free of Campylobacter. To minimize the

  14. Campylobacter spp. and birds of prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipineto, Ludovico; De Luca Bossa, Luigi Maria; Russo, Tamara Pasqualina; Cutino, Eridania Annalisa; Gargiulo, Antonio; Ciccarelli, Francesca; Raia, Pasquale; Menna, Lucia Francesca; Fioretti, Alessandro

    2014-06-01

    A total of 170 birds of prey admitted to two Wildlife Rescue and Rehabilitation Centers of Italy were examined. Birds were divided by diurnal (n = 15) and nocturnal (n = 7) species, sampled by cloacal swabs, and examined for Campylobacter spp. by cultural and molecular methods. Campylobacter spp. were isolated in 43 out of the 170 (25.3%) birds of prey examined. Among these, 43/43 (100%) were identified as Campylobacter jejuni and 10/43 (23.3%) were identified as Campylobacter coli recovered from mixed infections. Diurnal birds of prey showed a significantly higher prevalence value (P = 0.0006) for Campylobacter spp. than did nocturnal birds of prey.

  15. Global Epidemiology of Campylobacter Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaakoush, Nadeem O.; Castaño-Rodríguez, Natalia; Mitchell, Hazel M.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Campylobacter jejuni infection is one of the most widespread infectious diseases of the last century. The incidence and prevalence of campylobacteriosis have increased in both developed and developing countries over the last 10 years. The dramatic increase in North America, Europe, and Australia is alarming, and data from parts of Africa, Asia, and the Middle East indicate that campylobacteriosis is endemic in these areas, especially in children. In addition to C. jejuni, there is increasing recognition of the clinical importance of emerging Campylobacter species, including Campylobacter concisus and Campylobacter ureolyticus. Poultry is a major reservoir and source of transmission of campylobacteriosis to humans. Other risk factors include consumption of animal products and water, contact with animals, and international travel. Strategic implementation of multifaceted biocontrol measures to reduce the transmission of this group of pathogens is paramount for public health. Overall, campylobacteriosis is still one of the most important infectious diseases that is likely to challenge global health in the years to come. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the global epidemiology, transmission, and clinical relevance of Campylobacter infection. PMID:26062576

  16. Global Epidemiology of Campylobacter Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaakoush, Nadeem O; Castaño-Rodríguez, Natalia; Mitchell, Hazel M; Man, Si Ming

    2015-07-01

    Campylobacter jejuni infection is one of the most widespread infectious diseases of the last century. The incidence and prevalence of campylobacteriosis have increased in both developed and developing countries over the last 10 years. The dramatic increase in North America, Europe, and Australia is alarming, and data from parts of Africa, Asia, and the Middle East indicate that campylobacteriosis is endemic in these areas, especially in children. In addition to C. jejuni, there is increasing recognition of the clinical importance of emerging Campylobacter species, including Campylobacter concisus and Campylobacter ureolyticus. Poultry is a major reservoir and source of transmission of campylobacteriosis to humans. Other risk factors include consumption of animal products and water, contact with animals, and international travel. Strategic implementation of multifaceted biocontrol measures to reduce the transmission of this group of pathogens is paramount for public health. Overall, campylobacteriosis is still one of the most important infectious diseases that is likely to challenge global health in the years to come. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the global epidemiology, transmission, and clinical relevance of Campylobacter infection. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Pengembangan Metode Imunokromatografi untuk Deteksi secara Serologi Campylobacter jejuni pada Ayam DEVELOPMENT OF IMMUNOCHROMATOGRAPHIC METHOD FOR DETECTING Campylobacter jejuni ON CHICKEN SEROLOGICALLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Rosyidi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter spp cause infection in human in the form of gastroenteritis and Guillain-Barre syndrome.Campylobacter jejuni is one of  Campylobacter spp responsible for about 90% of cases of Campylobacteriosisin human with gastroenteritis.  Efforts to prevent the incidence of Campylobacteriosis in humans should bestarted with an assessment on its level of poultry. This study aims to develop a diagnostic test for C. jejunion chicken using immunochromatographic serological method. Stages of the research consist of thepreparation of test card, antigen preparation, optimization of the antigen and serum. The results showedthat immmunochromatographic card can distinguish infected serum from the uninfected.The minimumamount of antigen  was found to be 1,5 ng/µl. It needs 10 µl serum to perform the test properly.

  18. Antimicrobial resistance of thermophilic Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Engberg, J.

    2001-01-01

    Campylobacter has become the leading cause of zoonotic enteric infections in developed and developing countries world-wide. Antimicrobial resistance has emerged among Campylobacter mainly as a consequence of the use of antimicrobial agents in food animal production. Resistance to drugs of choice...... for the treatment of infections, macrolides and fluoroquinolones has emerged as a clinical problem and interventions to reduce this are recommended. Resistance to fluoroquinolones and macrolides is mediated by chromosomal mutations. Resistance to other relevant antimicrobial agents, mediated by acquired resistance...... genes, has not become widespread so far. However, resistance genes originating from both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial species have been found, showing the potential for acquired resistance to emerge in Campylobacter....

  19. Characterization of the specific interaction between sialoadhesin and sialylated Campylobacter jejuni lipooligosaccharides.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heikema, A.P.; Bergman, M.P.; Richards, H.; Crocker, P.R.; Gilbert, M.; Samsom, J.N.; Wamel, W.J.; Endtz, H.Ph.; van Belkum, A.

    2010-01-01

    In Campylobacter jejuni-induced Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), molecular mimicry between C. jejuni lipooligosaccharide (LOS) and host gangliosides leads to the production of cross-reactive antibodies directed against the peripheral nerves of the host. Currently, the presence of surface exposed

  20. Complete genomic sequence of campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni HS:19 penner reference strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni (Cjj) infections are a leading cause of foodborne gastroenteritis and the most prevalent antecedent to Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Capsular type Penner HS:19 is among several capsule types shown to be markers for GBS. This study describes the genome of Cjj HS:19...

  1. Molecular evidence for dissemination of unique Campylobacter jejuni clones in Curacao, Netherlands Antilles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duim, B.; Godschalk, P.C.R.; Braak, van der N.; Dingle, K.E.; Dijkstra, J.R.; Leyde, E.; Plas, van der J.; Colles, F.M.; Endtz, H.P.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Maiden, M.C.J.; Belkum, van A.

    2003-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni isolates (n = 234) associated with gastroenteritis and the Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) in the island of Curaçao, Netherlands Antilles, and collected from March 1999 to March 2000 were investigated by a range of molecular typing techniques. Data obtained by pulsed-field gel

  2. Molecular Evidence for Dissemination of Unique Campylobacter jejuni Clones in Curaçao, Netherlands Antilles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duim, B.; Godschalk, P.C.R.; Braak, N. van den; Dingle, K.E.; Dijkstra, J.R.; Leyde, E.; Plas, J. van der; Colles, F.M.; Endtz, H.P.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Maiden, M.C.J.; Belkum, A. van

    2003-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni isolates (n = 234) associated with gastroenteritis and the Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) in the island of Curaçao, Netherlands Antilles, and collected from March 1999 to March 2000 were investigated by a range of molecular typing techniques. Data obtained by pulsed-field gel

  3. Campylobacter bacteremia: A rare and under-reported event?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwen, R.; Baarlen, van P.; Vliet, van A.H.M.; Belkum, van A.; Hays, J.P.; Endtz, H.P.

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria belonging to the species Campylobacter are the most common cause of bacterial diarrhoea in humans. The clinical phenotype associated with Campylobacter infections ranges from asymptomatic conditions to severe colitis and bacteremia. In susceptible patients, Campylobacter infections are

  4. Campylobacter hyoilei Alderton et al. 1995 and Campylobacter coli Veron and Chatelain 1973 are subjective synonyms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandamme, P.; VanDoorn, L.J.; AlRashid, S.T.

    1997-01-01

    The taxonomic affiliation of Campylobacter hyoilei was reevaluated by examining a variety of phenotypic and genotypic criteria. Whole cell protein electrophoresis and a comparison of 66 phenotypic characters revealed that reference strains of C. hyoilei were indistinguishable from Campylobacter...

  5. Inflammasome activation by Campylobacter jejuni

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, Lieneke I; de Zoete, Marcel R; Bleumink-Pluym, Nancy M C; Flavell, Richard A; van Putten, Jos P M

    2014-01-01

    The Gram-negative pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is the most common cause of bacterial foodborne disease worldwide. The mechanisms that lead to bacterial invasion of eukaryotic cells and massive intestinal inflammation are still unknown. In this study, we report that C. jejuni infection of mouse

  6. Lectin typing of Campylobacter concisus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabenhus, Rune Munck; Hynes, Sean O; Permin, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    A total of 44 clinical isolates and the type strain of the putative pathogen Campylobacter concisus were grouped based on their reactions with plant lectins. The optimized lectin typing system used C. concisus strains proteolytically pretreated and subsequently typed by using a panel of four...

  7. Campylobacter pylori. Diagnosis and treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tytgat, G. N.; Rauws, E. A.; de Koster, E. H.

    1989-01-01

    There is now a plethora of methods to diagnose colonization of the human stomach with Campylobacter pylori, such as microbiological culture on various media, identification of C. pylori in biopsies or biopsy smears using various stains or neurological methods, serological demonstration of specific

  8. In vitro susceptibilities of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli to azithromycin and erythromycin.

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, D E; Chang, N

    1991-01-01

    MICs of azithromycin and erythromycin for 20 Campylobacter coli and 20 Campylobacter jejuni strains were determined. The results demonstrated that, for Campylobacter species, all high-level erythromycin-resistant strains were also resistant to azithromycin and that azithromycin did not exhibit increased potency in comparison with that of erythromycin.

  9. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of thermophilic campylobacters isolated from patients in the town of Niš

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljković-Selimović Biljana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. In some clinical forms of human Campylobacter infections, such as prolonged diarrhea or associated with postinfections sequels, antibacterial treatment is necessary. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility of thermophilic Campylobacter strains isolated from patients with diarrhea, as well as from patients with diarrhea followed by postinfections sequels, to drugs used in the therapy of enterocolitis, and to nalidixic acid used in laboratory identification and differentiation of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. Methods. We studied the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of 131 Campylobacter strains isolated from patients with diarrhea (122 strains, diarrhea associated with rheumatic disorders (8 strains, and one strain isolated from a patient with Guillain-Barré Syndrome following Campylobacter enterocolitis. Susceptibility testing to erythromycin, gentamicin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid was performed by the agar dilution method. Results. In the strains we investigated, resistance to gentamicin and chloramphenicol was not recorded, whereas a low rate of strains resistant to erythromycin (2.4%, a higher prevalence of strains resistant to tetracycline (9.9%, and a high level of resistance to ciprofloxacin (29.8% and nalidixic acid (33.3% were registered. All strains resistant to nalidixic acid were also resistant to ciprofloxacin. In addition, there was no difference in the occurrence of resistance between strains isolated from patients with diarrhea as compared to those isolated from patients with diarrhea followed by postinfection disorders. Conclusion. The fact that the most of Campylobacter strains were sensitive to erythromycin and all to gentamicin, makes erythromycin an antibiotic of choice in the treatment of Campylobacter diarrhea and gentamicin when parenteral therapy should be administered. Resistance to tetracycline and, especially, ciprofloxacin

  10. Survey of chicken abattoir for the presence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Pesquisa de Campylobacter jejuni e Campylobacter coli em abatedouros de aves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L.L. Cortez

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Campylobacter is of great importance to public health because it includes several species that may cause diarrhea. These species may be found in water, food and in the intestinal tract of chickens. This study investigated the presence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in chicken abattoirs in São Paulo State, Brazil. A total of 288 samples of feces, feathers, scald water, evisceration water, chiller water, and the rinse water of eviscerated, not eviscerated and chilled carcasses were collected in six chicken abattoirs. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR was performed in Campylobacter spp.-positive isolates using the gene HIP, specific for hippuricase enzyme from Campylobacter jejuni and aspartokinase gene, specific to detect Campylobacter coli. The percentage of positive isolates of Campylobacter jejuni was 4.9% (14/288. Isolation was greater in feces samples (22%, 8/36. One sample was positive for the species C. coli. In conclusion, the results indicate that it is necessary to improve quality control for Campylobacter spp. in chicken abattoirs.O gênero Campylobacter tem grande destaque em saúde pública, principalmente por pertencerem a este gênero várias espécies que podem causar diarréia. Estas espécies podem ser encontradas em amostras de água, alimentos e no trato intestinal das aves. Este estudo investigou a presença de Campylobacter jejuni e Campylobacter coli em abatedouros de aves no Estado de São Paulo. As 288 amostras foram coletadas em seis estabelecimentos e incluíram: fezes; penas; água de escaldamento, de evisceração e de resfriamento; e água de enxaguadura de carcaça não eviscerada, eviscerada e resfriada. Após o isolamento microbiológico das amostras positivas de Campylobacter spp. foi realizada uma Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase (PCR utilizando o gene HIP, da hipuricase, específico para Campylobacter jejuni e o gene da enzima aspartoquinase, específico para Campylobacter coli. A

  11. Screening, isolation and optimization of anti–white spot syndrome virus drug derived from marine plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Somnath; Ghosh, Upasana; Balasubramanian, Thangavel; Das, Punyabrata

    2014-01-01

    Objective To screen, isolate and optimize anti-white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) drug derived from various marine floral ecosystems and to evaluate the efficacy of the same in host–pathogen interaction model. Methods Thirty species of marine plants were subjected to Soxhlet extraction using water, ethanol, methanol and hexane as solvents. The 120 plant isolates thus obtained were screened for their in vivo anti-WSSV property in Litopenaeus vannamei. By means of chemical processes, the purified anti-WSSV plant isolate, MP07X was derived. The drug was optimized at various concentrations. Viral and immune genes were analysed using reverse transcriptase PCR to confirm the potency of the drug. Results Nine plant isolates exhibited significant survivability in host. The drug MP07X thus formulated showing 85% survivability in host. The surviving shrimps were nested PCR negative at the end of the 15 d experimentation. The lowest concentration of MP07X required intramuscularly for virucidal property was 10 mg/mL. The oral dosage of 1 000 mg/kg body weight/day survived at the rate of 85%. Neither VP28 nor ie 1 was expressed in the test samples at 42nd hour and 84th hour post viral infection. Conclusions The drug MP07X derived from Rhizophora mucronata is a potent anti-WSSV drug. PMID:25183065

  12. Screening, isolation and optimization of anti-white spot syndrome virus drug derived from marine plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Somnath; Ghosh, Upasana; Balasubramanian, Thangavel; Das, Punyabrata

    2014-05-01

    To screen, isolate and optimize anti-white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) drug derived from various marine floral ecosystems and to evaluate the efficacy of the same in host-pathogen interaction model. Thirty species of marine plants were subjected to Soxhlet extraction using water, ethanol, methanol and hexane as solvents. The 120 plant isolates thus obtained were screened for their in vivo anti-WSSV property in Litopenaeus vannamei. By means of chemical processes, the purified anti-WSSV plant isolate, MP07X was derived. The drug was optimized at various concentrations. Viral and immune genes were analysed using reverse transcriptase PCR to confirm the potency of the drug. Nine plant isolates exhibited significant survivability in host. The drug MP07X thus formulated showing 85% survivability in host. The surviving shrimps were nested PCR negative at the end of the 15 d experimentation. The lowest concentration of MP07X required intramuscularly for virucidal property was 10 mg/mL. The oral dosage of 1 000 mg/kg body weight/day survived at the rate of 85%. Neither VP28 nor ie 1 was expressed in the test samples at 42nd hour and 84th hour post viral infection. The drug MP07X derived from Rhizophora mucronata is a potent anti-WSSV drug.

  13. Empirically derived dimensional syndromes of self-reported psychopathology: Cross-cultural comparisons of Portuguese and US elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Masha Y; Achenbach, Thomas; Leite, Manuela; Almeida, Vera; Caldas, Carlos; Turner, Lori; Dumas, Julie A

    2018-05-01

    As the world population ages, mental health professionals increasingly need empirically supported assessment instruments for older adult psychopathology. This study tested the degree to which syndromes derived from self-ratings of psychopathology by elders in the US would fit self-ratings by elders in Portugal. The Older Adult Self-Report (OASR) was completed by 352 60- to 102-year-olds in Portuguese community and residential settings. Confirmatory factor analyses tested the fit of the 7-syndrome OASR model to self-ratings by Portuguese elders. The primary fit index (Root Mean Square Error of Approximation) showed good fit, while secondary fit indices (the Comparative Fit Index and the Tucker-Lewis Index) showed acceptable fit. Loadings of 95 of the 97 items on their expected syndromes were statistically significant (mean = .63), indicating that the items measured the syndromes well. Correlations between latent factors, ie, between the hypothesized syndrome constructs measured by the items, averaged .66. The correlations between syndromes reflect varying degrees of comorbidity between problems comprising particular pairs of syndromes. The results support the syndrome structure of the OASR for Portuguese elders, offering Portuguese clinicians and researchers a useful instrument for assessing a broad spectrum of psychopathology. The results also offer a core of empirically supported taxonomic constructs of later life psychopathology as a basis for advancing clinical practice, training, and cross-cultural research. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Derivative chromosome 1 and GLUT1 deficiency syndrome in a sibling pair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akarsu Nurten

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic imbalances constitute a major cause of congenital and developmental abnormalities. GLUT1 deficiency syndrome is caused by various de novo mutations in the facilitated human glucose transporter 1 gene (1p34.2 and patients with this syndrome have been diagnosed with hypoglycorrhachia, mental and developmental delay, microcephaly and seizures. Furthermore, 1q terminal deletions have been submitted in the recent reports and the absence of corpus callosum has been related to the deletion between C1orf100 and C1orf121 in 1q44. Results This study reports on a sibling pair with developmental delay, mental retardation, microcephaly, hypotonia, epilepsy, facial dysmorphism, ataxia and impaired speech. Chromosome analysis revealed a derivative chromosome 1 in both patients. FISH and MCB analysis showed two interstitial deletions at 1p34.2 and 1q44. SNP array and array-CGH analysis also determined the sizes of deletions detailed. The deleted region on 1p34.2 encompasses 33 genes, among which is GLUT1 gene (SLC2A1. However, the deleted region on 1q44 includes 59 genes and distal-proximal breakpoints were located in the ZNF672 gene and SMYD3 gene, respectively. Conclusion Haploinsufficiency of GLUT1 leads to GLUT1 deficiency syndrome, consistent with the phenotype in patients of this study. Conversely, in the deleted region on 1q44, none of the genes are related to findings in these patients. Additionally, the results confirm previous reports on that corpus callosal development may depend on the critical gene(s lying in 1q44 proximal to the SMYD3 gene.

  15. Autologous Bone Marrow-Derived Stem Cells for Treating Diabetic Neuropathy in Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic neuropathy is one of the most common and serious complications of diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome. The current therapy strategies, including glucose control and pain management, are not effective for most patients. Growing evidence suggests that infiltration of inflammation factors and deficiency of local neurotrophic and angiogenic factors contribute significantly to the pathologies of diabetic neuropathy. Experimental and clinical studies have shown that bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMCs therapy represents a novel and promising strategy for tissue repair through paracrine secretion of multiple cytokines, which has a potential to inhibit inflammation and promote angiogenesis and neurotrophy in diabetic neuropathy. In this review, we discuss the clinical practice in diabetic neuropathy and the therapeutic effect of BMC. We subsequently illustrate the functional impairment of autologous BMCs due to the interrupted bone marrow niche in diabetic neuropathy. We anticipate that the functional restoration of BMCs could improve their therapeutic effect and enable their wide applications in diabetic neuropathy.

  16. Campylobacter virulence and survival factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Declan J

    2015-06-01

    Despite over 30 years of research, campylobacteriosis is the most prevalent foodborne bacterial infection in many countries including in the European Union and the United States of America. However, relatively little is known about the virulence factors in Campylobacter or how an apparently fragile organism can survive in the food chain, often with enhanced pathogenicity. This review collates information on the virulence and survival determinants including motility, chemotaxis, adhesion, invasion, multidrug resistance, bile resistance and stress response factors. It discusses their function in transition through the food processing environment and human infection. In doing so it provides a fundamental understanding of Campylobacter, critical for improved diagnosis, surveillance and control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Lectin typing of Campylobacter concisus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabenhus, Rune Munck; Hynes, Sean O; Permin, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    A total of 44 clinical isolates and the type strain of the putative pathogen Campylobacter concisus were grouped based on their reactions with plant lectins. The optimized lectin typing system used C. concisus strains proteolytically pretreated and subsequently typed by using a panel of four...... lectins. The system grouped all 45 strains into 13 lectin reaction patterns, leaving no strain untypeable due to autoagglutination. Lectin types were both stable and reproducible....

  18. Neutrophil activation by Campylobacter concisus

    OpenAIRE

    S?rensen, Nina B; Nielsen, Hans L; Varming, Kim; Nielsen, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Background Campylobacter concisus is an emerging enteric pathogen associated with prolonged diarrhoea and possibly inflammatory bowel disease in children as well as adults, but the interaction with cells of the innate immune system is unclear. The magnitude of systemic immunoglobulin response in acute infection is unknown. Methods Neutrophils from healthy volunteers were activated with five faecal isolates of C. concisus from patients with gastroenteritis as well as the oral reference strain ...

  19. Prevalence of Thermophilic Campylobacter species in carcasses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Thermophilic Campylobacter spp. namely, Campylobacter jejuni and coli cause acute diarrheal diseases in humans worldwide; although these species are known to occur in the intestinal tract of a wide variety of domestic and wild animals. Objective: Little is known about the presence of these bacteria in ...

  20. Campylobacter jejuni strategies to evade hostile environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaezirad, M.M.

    2017-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most common cause of human bacterial foodborne disease in the western world. Each year hundreds of millions of cases of Campylobacter infection occur worldwide. After a few weeks, the infection may be followed by serious auto-immune diseases like the Guillain-Barre

  1. Integrated approach leads to less Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenquist, Hanne; Hald, Birthe; Borck Høg, Birgitte

    2012-01-01

    Methods of reducing the risk of Campylobacter infection during indoor broiler (chicken) production are discussed, including: risk management intiatives; biosecurity measures; scheduled slaughter; hygiene and decontamination; and improving consumer information.......Methods of reducing the risk of Campylobacter infection during indoor broiler (chicken) production are discussed, including: risk management intiatives; biosecurity measures; scheduled slaughter; hygiene and decontamination; and improving consumer information....

  2. Quantifying transmission of Campylobacter spp. among broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerwe, van T.J.; Bouma, A.; Jacobs-Reitsma, W.F.; Broek, van den E.W.F.; Klinkenberg, D.; Stegeman, J.A.; Heesterbeek, J.A.P.

    2005-01-01

    Campylobacter species are frequently identified as a cause of human gastroenteritis, often from eating or mishandling contaminated poultry products. Quantitative knowledge of transmission of Campylobacter in broiler flocks is necessary, as this may help to determine the moment of introduction of

  3. Campylobacter prevalence in retail chicken liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foodborne campylobacteriosis has been linked to undercooked chicken liver. It is unknown how commonly chicken livers are contaminated with Campylobacter. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter on chicken livers available at retail. For each of five weeks, t...

  4. Flies and Campylobacter infection of broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Skovgård, Henrik; Bang, Dang Duong

    2004-01-01

    A total of 8.2% of flies caught outside a broiler house in Denmark had the potential to transmit Campylobacter jejuni to chickens, and hundreds of flies per day passed through the ventilation system into the broiler house. Our study suggests that flies may be an important source of Campylobacter ...... infection of broiler flocks in summer....

  5. Emergence of a plasmid-borne multidrug resistance gene cfr(C) in foodborne pathogen Campylobacter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yizhi; Dai, Lei; Sahin, Orhan; Wu, Zuowei; Liu, Mingyuan; Zhang, Qijing

    2017-06-01

    To identify and characterize a novel cfr variant that recently emerged and confers multidrug resistance in Campylobacter , a major foodborne pathogen. WGS was initially used to identify the cfr (C) gene in Campylobacter isolates and its function was further verified by cloning into an antibiotic-susceptible Campylobacter jejuni strain. Distribution of cfr (C) in various Campylobacter isolates was determined by PCR analysis. Genotyping of cfr (C)-positive strains was done by PFGE and MLST. The cfr (C) gene is predicted to encode a protein that shares 55.1% and 54.9% identity with Cfr and Cfr(B), respectively. cfr (C) was located on a conjugative plasmid of ∼48 kb. Cloning of cfr (C) into C. jejuni NCTC 11168 and conjugative transfer of the cfr (C)-containing plasmid confirmed its role in conferring resistance to phenicols, lincosamides, pleuromutilins and oxazolidinones, and resulted in an 8-256-fold increase in their MICs in both C. jejuni and Campylobacter coli . The cfr (C) gene was detected in multiple C. coli (34 of 344; 10%) isolates derived from different cattle farms in different states, and molecular typing of the cfr (C)-positive C. coli isolates revealed its spread mainly via clonal expansion. These results identify cfr (C) as a new multidrug resistance mechanism in Campylobacter and suggest the potential transmission of this mechanism via the foodborne route, warranting enhanced efforts to monitor its spread in Campylobacter and other foodborne pathogens. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. The genomic architecture of resistance to Campylobacter jejuni intestinal colonisation in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psifidi, A; Fife, M; Howell, J; Matika, O; van Diemen, P M; Kuo, R; Smith, J; Hocking, P M; Salmon, N; Jones, M A; Hume, D A; Banos, G; Stevens, M P; Kaiser, P

    2016-04-18

    Campylobacter is the leading cause of foodborne diarrhoeal illness in humans and is mostly acquired from consumption or handling of contaminated poultry meat. In the absence of effective licensed vaccines and inhibitors, selection for chickens with increased resistance to Campylobacter could potentially reduce its subsequent entry into the food chain. Campylobacter intestinal colonisation levels are influenced by the host genetics of the chicken. In the present study, two chicken populations were used to investigate the genetic architecture of avian resistance to colonisation: (i) a back-cross of two White Leghorn derived inbred lines [(61 x N) x N] known to differ in resistance to Campylobacter colonisation and (ii) a 9(th) generation advanced intercross (61 x N) line. The level of colonisation with Campylobacter jejuni following experimental infection was found to be a quantitative trait. A back-cross experiment using 1,243 fully informative single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers revealed quantitative trait loci (QTL) on chromosomes 7, 11 and 14. In the advanced intercross line study, the location of the QTL on chromosome 14 was confirmed and refined and two new QTLs were identified located on chromosomes 4 and 16. Pathway and re-sequencing data analysis of the genes located in the QTL candidate regions identified potential pathways, networks and candidate resistance genes. Finally, gene expression analyses were performed for some of the candidate resistance genes to support the results. Campylobacter resistance in chickens is a complex trait, possibly involving the Major Histocompatibility Complex, innate and adaptive immune responses, cadherins and other factors. Two of the QTLs for Campylobacter resistance are co-located with Salmonella resistance loci, indicating that it may be possible to breed simultaneously for enhanced resistance to both zoonoses.

  7. Plant-derived chimeric virus particles for the diagnosis of primary Sjögren syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa eTinazzi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Plants are ideal for the production of protein-based nanomaterials because they synthesize and assemble complex multimeric proteins that cannot be expressed efficiently using other platforms. Plant viruses can be thought of as self-replicating proteinaceous nanomaterials generally stable and easily produced in high titers. We used Potato virus X (PVX chimeric virus particles (CVPs and Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV empty virus-like particles (eVLPs to display a linear peptide (lipo derived from human lipocalin , which is immunodominant in Sjögren’s syndrome (SjS and is thus recognized by autoantibodies in SjS patient serum. These virus-derived nanoparticles (VNPs were thus used to develop a diagnostic assay for SjS based on a direct enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA format. We found that PVX-lipo formulations were more sensitive than the chemically synthesized immunodominant peptide and equally specific when used to distinguish between healthy individuals and SjS patients. Our novel assay therefore allows the diagnosis of SjS using a simple, low-invasive serum test, contrasting with the invasive labial biopsy required for current tests. Our results demonstrate that nanomaterials based on plant viruses can be used as diagnostic reagents for SjS, and could also be developed for the diagnosis of other diseases.

  8. Plant-Derived Chimeric Virus Particles for the Diagnosis of Primary Sjögren Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinazzi, Elisa; Merlin, Matilde; Bason, Caterina; Beri, Ruggero; Zampieri, Roberta; Lico, Chiara; Bartoloni, Elena; Puccetti, Antonio; Lunardi, Claudio; Pezzotti, Mario; Avesani, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Plants are ideal for the production of protein-based nanomaterials because they synthesize and assemble complex multimeric proteins that cannot be expressed efficiently using other platforms. Plant viruses can be thought of as self-replicating proteinaceous nanomaterials generally stable and easily produced in high titers. We used Potato virus X (PVX), chimeric virus particles, and Cowpea mosaic virus, empty virus-like particles to display a linear peptide (lipo) derived from human lipocalin, which is immunodominant in Sjögren's syndrome (SjS) and is thus recognized by autoantibodies in SjS patient serum. These virus-derived nanoparticles were thus used to develop a diagnostic assay for SjS based on a direct enzyme linked immunosorbent assay format. We found that PVX-lipo formulations were more sensitive than the chemically synthesized immunodominant peptide and equally specific when used to distinguish between healthy individuals and SjS patients. Our novel assay therefore allows the diagnosis of SjS using a simple, low-invasive serum test, contrasting with the invasive labial biopsy required for current tests. Our results demonstrate that nanomaterials based on plant viruses can be used as diagnostic reagents for SjS, and could also be developed for the diagnosis of other diseases.

  9. Disrupted neuronal maturation in Angelman syndrome-derived induced pluripotent stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, James J.; Robinson, Tiwanna M.; Germain, Noelle D.; Sirois, Carissa L.; Bolduc, Kaitlyn A.; Ward, Amanda J.; Rigo, Frank; Chamberlain, Stormy J.; Levine, Eric S.

    2017-01-01

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurogenetic disorder caused by deletion of the maternally inherited UBE3A allele and is characterized by developmental delay, intellectual disability, ataxia, seizures and a happy affect. Here, we explored the underlying pathophysiology using induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons from AS patients and unaffected controls. AS-derived neurons showed impaired maturation of resting membrane potential and action potential firing, decreased synaptic activity and reduced synaptic plasticity. These patient-specific differences were mimicked by knocking out UBE3A using CRISPR/Cas9 or by knocking down UBE3A using antisense oligonucleotides. Importantly, these phenotypes could be rescued by pharmacologically unsilencing paternal UBE3A expression. Moreover, selective effects of UBE3A disruption at late stages of in vitro development suggest that changes in action potential firing and synaptic activity may be secondary to altered resting membrane potential. Our findings provide a cellular phenotype for investigating pathogenic mechanisms underlying AS and identifying novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:28436452

  10. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) infection inhibition using spike protein heptad repeat-derived peptides.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.J. Bosch (Berend Jan); B.E.E. Martina (Byron); R. van der Zee (Ruurd); J. Lepault (Jean); B.J. Haijema; C. Versluis (Cees); A.J.R. Heck (Albert); R. de Groot (Ronald); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); P.J.M. Rottier (Peter)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThe coronavirus SARS-CoV is the primary cause of the life-threatening severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). With the aim of developing therapeutic agents, we have tested peptides derived from the membrane-proximal (HR2) and membrane-distal (HR1) heptad repeat region of the spike

  11. Impact Of Mutation-derived Antigens In Immune Recognition Of Hematological Malignancies, Specifically Myeloid Dysplastic Syndromes (MDS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saini, Sunil Kumar; Dorfmüller, S.; Bjerregaard, Anne-Mette

    2016-01-01

    Mutation-derived neoepitopes have been suggested as a major component for immune recognition of solid tumors with a high mutational load, e.g. Melanoma and Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC). Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a heterogeneous group of myeloid neoplasms characterized by increasing...

  12. Impact Of Mutation-derived Antigens In Immune Recognition Of Hematological Malignancies, Specifically Myeloid Dysplastic Syndromes (MDS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saini, Sunil Kumar; Dorfmüller, S.; Bjerregaard, Anne-Mette

    2016-01-01

    Mutation-derived neoepitopes have been suggested as a major component for immune recognition of solid tumors with a high mutational load, e.g. Melanoma and Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC). Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a heterogeneous group of myeloid neoplasms characterized by increasing...... to the generation of tumor-specific neoepitopes....

  13. Campylobacter-Associated Diseases in Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Orhan; Yaeger, Michael; Wu, Zuowei; Zhang, Qijing

    2017-02-08

    Campylobacter includes a group of genetically diverse species causing a range of diseases in animals and humans. The bacterium is frequently associated with two economically important and epidemiologically distinct reproductive diseases in ruminants: enzootic infectious infertility in cattle owing to Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis and abortions in sheep, goats, and cattle. Septic abortion, usually epizootic in sheep, has been historically associated with C. fetus subsp. fetus and to a lesser extent with Campylobacter jejuni. However, there has been a dramatic species shift in the etiology of Campylobacter abortions in recent years: C. jejuni has now replaced C. fetus subsp. fetus as the predominant cause of sheep abortion in the United States, which appears to be driven primarily by clonal expansion of a hypervirulent tetracycline-resistant C. jejuni clone. Here we provide a review on the recent advances in understanding the pathobiology of Campylobacter infections in animals, with an emphasis on the diseases in ruminants, covering epidemiology, pathogenesis, genomics, and control measures.

  14. Campylobacter in poultry, pork and beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Mathilde Hasseldam; Carroll, C.; Rudi, K.

    2011-01-01

    Campylobacter infection has become one of the most important zoonoses worldwide. A low prevalence of Campylobacter is generally found in beef and pork at retail, although they may still be sources of infection. Based on the high prevalence of poultry-associated infections, this chapter mainly...... focuses on rapid methods for detection of Campylobacter in this particular production chain, and describes the routes of transmission and sampling in the different levels as well as intervention strategies. The chapter focuses on the introduction, infection dynamics, and sampling of Campylobacter...... throughout the poultry production chain, from farm to consumer level. It also describes culture-based, immunological, and molecular methods for rapid detection, characterization, and enumeration for Campylobacter. Rapid methods can generally be also more sensitive and specific than culture-based methods...

  15. The first closed genome sequence of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis biovar intermedius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter fetus venerealis biovar intermedius is a variant of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis, the causative agent of Bovine Genital Campylobacteriosis. In contrast to Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis which is restricted to the genital tract of cattle, Campylobacter fetus subsp. vener...

  16. Association of mast cell-derived VEGF and proteases in Dengue shock syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahisa Furuta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent in-vitro studies have suggested that mast cells are involved in Dengue virus infection. To clarify the role of mast cells in the development of clinical Dengue fever, we compared the plasma levels of several mast cell-derived mediators (vascular endothelial cell growth factor [VEGF], soluble VEGF receptors [sVEGFRs], tryptase, and chymase and -related cytokines (IL-4, -9, and -17 between patients with differing severity of Dengue fever and healthy controls. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The study was performed at Children's Hospital No. 2, Ho Chi Minh City, and Vinh Long Province Hospital, Vietnam from 2002 to 2005. Study patients included 103 with Dengue fever (DF, Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF, and Dengue shock syndrome (DSS, as diagnosed by the World Health Organization criteria. There were 189 healthy subjects, and 19 febrile illness patients of the same Kinh ethnicity. The levels of mast cell-derived mediators and -related cytokines in plasma were measured by ELISA. VEGF and sVEGFR-1 levels were significantly increased in DHF and DSS compared with those of DF and controls, whereas sVEGFR-2 levels were significantly decreased in DHF and DSS. Significant increases in tryptase and chymase levels, which were accompanied by high IL-9 and -17 concentrations, were detected in DHF and DSS patients. By day 4 of admission, VEGF, sVEGFRs, and proteases levels had returned to similar levels as DF and controls. In-vitro VEGF production by mast cells was examined in KU812 and HMC-1 cells, and was found to be highest when the cells were inoculated with Dengue virus and human Dengue virus-immune serum in the presence of IL-9. CONCLUSIONS: As mast cells are an important source of VEGF, tryptase, and chymase, our findings suggest that mast cell activation and mast cell-derived mediators participate in the development of DHF. The two proteases, particularly chymase, might serve as good predictive markers of Dengue disease severity.

  17. Association of Mast Cell-Derived VEGF and Proteases in Dengue Shock Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Takahisa; Murao, Lyre Anni; Lan, Nguyen Thi Phuong; Huy, Nguyen Tien; Huong, Vu Thi Que; Thuy, Tran Thi; Tham, Vo Dinh; Nga, Cao Thi Phi; Ha, Tran Thi Ngoc; Ohmoto, Yasukazu; Kikuchi, Mihoko; Morita, Kouichi; Yasunami, Michio; Hirayama, Kenji; Watanabe, Naohiro

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent in-vitro studies have suggested that mast cells are involved in Dengue virus infection. To clarify the role of mast cells in the development of clinical Dengue fever, we compared the plasma levels of several mast cell-derived mediators (vascular endothelial cell growth factor [VEGF], soluble VEGF receptors [sVEGFRs], tryptase, and chymase) and -related cytokines (IL-4, -9, and -17) between patients with differing severity of Dengue fever and healthy controls. Methodology/Principal Findings The study was performed at Children's Hospital No. 2, Ho Chi Minh City, and Vinh Long Province Hospital, Vietnam from 2002 to 2005. Study patients included 103 with Dengue fever (DF), Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), and Dengue shock syndrome (DSS), as diagnosed by the World Health Organization criteria. There were 189 healthy subjects, and 19 febrile illness patients of the same Kinh ethnicity. The levels of mast cell-derived mediators and -related cytokines in plasma were measured by ELISA. VEGF and sVEGFR-1 levels were significantly increased in DHF and DSS compared with those of DF and controls, whereas sVEGFR-2 levels were significantly decreased in DHF and DSS. Significant increases in tryptase and chymase levels, which were accompanied by high IL-9 and -17 concentrations, were detected in DHF and DSS patients. By day 4 of admission, VEGF, sVEGFRs, and proteases levels had returned to similar levels as DF and controls. In-vitro VEGF production by mast cells was examined in KU812 and HMC-1 cells, and was found to be highest when the cells were inoculated with Dengue virus and human Dengue virus-immune serum in the presence of IL-9. Conclusions As mast cells are an important source of VEGF, tryptase, and chymase, our findings suggest that mast cell activation and mast cell-derived mediators participate in the development of DHF. The two proteases, particularly chymase, might serve as good predictive markers of Dengue disease severity. PMID:22363824

  18. Bacteriophage receptor binding protein based assays for the simultaneous detection of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad A Javed

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are the most common bacterial causes of foodborne gastroenteritis which is occasionally followed by a debilitating neuropathy known as Guillain-Barré syndrome. Rapid and specific detection of these pathogens is very important for effective control and quick treatment of infection. Most of the diagnostics available for these organisms are time consuming and require technical expertise with expensive instruments and reagents to perform. Bacteriophages bind to their host specifically through their receptor binding proteins (RBPs, which can be exploited for pathogen detection. We recently sequenced the genome of C. jejuni phage NCTC12673 and identified its putative host receptor binding protein, Gp047. In the current study, we localized the receptor binding domain to the C-terminal quarter of Gp047. CC-Gp047 could be produced recombinantly and was capable of agglutinating both C. jejuni and C. coli cells unlike the host range of the parent phage which is limited to a subset of C. jejuni isolates. The agglutination procedure could be performed within minutes on a glass slide at room temperature and was not hindered by the presence of buffers or nutrient media. This agglutination assay showed 100% specificity and the sensitivity was 95% for C. jejuni (n = 40 and 90% for C. coli (n = 19. CC-Gp047 was also expressed as a fusion with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP. Chimeric EGFP_CC-Gp047 was able to specifically label C. jejuni and C. coli cells in mixed cultures allowing for the detection of these pathogens by fluorescent microscopy. This study describes a simple and rapid method for the detection of C. jejuni and C. coli using engineered phage RBPs and offers a promising new diagnostics platform for healthcare and surveillance laboratories.

  19. A carvacrol wash and/or a chitosan based coating reduced Campylobacter jejuni on chicken wingettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of foodborne disease in humans, largely associated with consumption of contaminated poultry and poultry products. With increasing consumer demand for natural and minimally processed foods, the use of Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) status plant derived com...

  20. Effect of brain-derived neurotrophic factor on the formation of psycho-vegetative syndrome with brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selyanina N.V.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to determine the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the formation and forecasting of psycho-vegetative syndrome in patients with cerebral mild to moderate injury. Material and Methods. There have been 150 patients with contusion of the brain, examined. Indicators of neurological, psycho-vegetative status, quantitative content of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and nerve growth factor (NGF in the serum were studied. Results. At patients with brain contusion neurological, psycho-vegetative disturbances and decrease neurotrophic factors are determined. It was found to depend of the content of BDNF and psycho-vegetative indicators. Conclusion. The level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor serum (less than 300 pg/ml is a predictor of psycho-vegetative syndrome in the long term of the brain injury.

  1. Characterization of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Broiler Isolates by Whole-Genome Sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cantero, Guillermo; Correa-Fiz, Florencia; Ronco, Troels

    2017-01-01

    Campylobacter has been the most commonly reported cause of bacterial diarrheal disease in humans in the European Union since 2005. Most broiler batches at slaughter are colonized with Campylobacter, and the major source of infection is contaminated poultry meat. The aim of this study was to chara......Campylobacter has been the most commonly reported cause of bacterial diarrheal disease in humans in the European Union since 2005. Most broiler batches at slaughter are colonized with Campylobacter, and the major source of infection is contaminated poultry meat. The aim of this study...... was to characterize a selection of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolates from broilers through whole-genome sequencing (WGS). A total of 16 isolates (C. jejuni = 12 and C. coli = 4) from five broiler farms from Catalonia (northeastern Spain) were analyzed. A phylogenetic analysis based on 8420 single...

  2. Gene expression profiling in a mouse model identifies fetal liver- and placenta-derived potential biomarkers for Down Syndrome screening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen L A Pennings

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As a first step to identify novel potential biomarkers for prenatal Down Syndrome screening, we analyzed gene expression in embryos of wild type mice and the Down Syndrome model Ts1Cje. Since current Down Syndrome screening markers are derived from placenta and fetal liver, these tissues were chosen as target. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Placenta and fetal liver at 15.5 days gestation were analyzed by microarray profiling. We confirmed increased expression of genes located at the trisomic chromosomal region. Overall, between the two genotypes more differentially expressed genes were found in fetal liver than in placenta. Furthermore, the fetal liver data are in line with the hematological aberrations found in humans with Down Syndrome as well as Ts1Cje mice. Together, we found 25 targets that are predicted (by Gene Ontology, UniProt, or the Human Plasma Proteome project to be detectable in human serum. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Fetal liver might harbor more promising targets for Down Syndrome screening studies. We expect these new targets will help focus further experimental studies on identifying and validating human maternal serum biomarkers for Down Syndrome screening.

  3. Campylobacter polysaccharide capsules: virulence and vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia eGuerry

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni remains a major cause of bacterial diarrhea worldwide and is associated with numerous sequelae, including Guillain Barre Syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, reactive arthritis, and irritable bowel syndrome. C. jejuni is unusual for an intestinal pathogen in its ability to coat its surface with a polysaccharide capsule (CPS. These capsular polysaccharides vary in sugar composition and linkage, especially those involving heptoses of unusual configuration and O-methyl phosphoramidate linkages. This structural diversity is consistent with CPS being the major serodeterminant of the Penner scheme, of which there are 47 C. jejuni serotypes. Both CPS expression and expression of modifications are subject to phase variation by slip strand mismatch repair. Although capsules are virulence factors for other pathogens, the role of CPS in C. jejuni disease has not been well defined beyond descriptive studies demonstrating a role in serum resistance and for diarrhea in a ferret model of disease. However, perhaps the most compelling evidence for a role in pathogenesis are data that CPS conjugate vaccines protect against diarrheal disease in non-human primates. A CPS conjugate vaccine approach against this pathogen is intriguing, but several questions need to be addressed, including the valency of CPS types required for an effective vaccine. There have been numerous studies of prevalence of CPS serotypes in the developed world, but few studies from developing countries where the disease incidence is higher. The complexity and cost of Penner serotyping has limited its usefulness, and a recently developed multiplex PCR method for determination of capsule type offers the potential of a more rapid and affordable method. Comparative studies have shown a strong correlation of the two methods and studies are beginning to ascertain CPS-type distribution worldwide, as well as examination of correlation of severity of illness with specific CPS types.

  4. Cytolethal Distending Toxin Genes in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Isolates: Detection and Analysis by PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Eyigor, Aysegul; Dawson, Karl A.; Langlois, Bruce E.; Pickett, Carol L.

    1999-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni produces a toxin called cytolethal distending toxin (CDT). Knowledge of the prevalence and homogeneity of Campylobacter sp. cdt genes is incomplete. In this work, we identified four PCR primer pairs that collectively amplified cdt genes in all of the C. jejuni and Campylobacter coli strains tested. Restriction analyses of the cdt PCR products showed clear differences between the cdt genes of these two species, yet there were few heterogeneities noted between members of th...

  5. Campylobacter iguaniorum sp. nov., isolated from reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Maarten J; Kik, Marja; Miller, William G; Duim, Birgitta; Wagenaar, Jaap A

    2015-03-01

    During sampling of reptiles for members of the class Epsilonproteobacteria, strains representing a member of the genus Campylobacter not belonging to any of the established taxa were isolated from lizards and chelonians. Initial amplified fragment length polymorphism, PCR and 16S rRNA sequence analysis showed that these strains were most closely related to Campylobacter fetus and Campylobacter hyointestinalis. A polyphasic study was undertaken to determine the taxonomic position of five strains. The strains were characterized by 16S rRNA and atpA sequence analysis, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry and conventional phenotypic testing. Whole-genome sequences were determined for strains 1485E(T) and 2463D, and the average nucleotide and amino acid identities were determined for these strains. The strains formed a robust phylogenetic clade, divergent from all other species of the genus Campylobacter. In contrast to most currently known members of the genus Campylobacter, the strains showed growth at ambient temperatures, which might be an adaptation to their reptilian hosts. The results of this study clearly show that these strains isolated from reptiles represent a novel species within the genus Campylobacter, for which the name Campylobacter iguaniorum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 1485E(T) ( = LMG 28143(T) = CCUG 66346(T)). © 2015 IUMS.

  6. Evaluation of 11 PCR assays for species-level identification of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    On, Stephen L.W.; Jordan, Penelope J.

    2003-01-01

    We examined the sensitivity and specificity of 11 PCR assays described for the species identification of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli by using 111 type, reference, and field strains of C. jejuni, C. coli, and Campylobacter lari. For six assays, an additional 21 type strains...... representing related Campylobacter, Arcobacter, and Helicobacter species were also included. PCR tests were initially established in the laboratory by optimizing conditions with respect to five type and reference strains of C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. lari. One PCR test for C. coli failed to give appropriate...

  7. Campylobacter jejuni : An emerging pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathanon Trachoo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is a major cause of food-borne diarrhea in many countries. However, in some countries, a number of cases were undetected because of the inappropriate detection method and ignorance. Although C. jejuni usually does not cause death in health adults, it can be deadly for immunocompromised persons (Pigrau, et al., 1997. Although thought to be very susceptible in several conditions, C. jejuni in fact is quite prevalent in nature. It can easily cause sporadic cases and outbreaks resulting in economic loss. This review covers three major parts: clinical aspects of Campylobacteriosis, C. jejuni reservoirs and transmission, and methods for detection.

  8. Autologous adipocyte derived stem cells favour healing in a minipig model of cutaneous radiation syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Forcheron

    Full Text Available Cutaneous radiation syndrome (CRS is the delayed consequence of localized skin exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation. Here we examined for the first time in a large animal model the therapeutic potential of autologous adipose tissue-derived stroma cells (ASCs. For experiments, Göttingen minipigs were locally gamma irradiated using a (60Co source at the dose of 50 Gy and grafted (n = 5 or not (n = 8. ASCs were cultured in MEM-alpha with 10% fetal calf serum and basic fibroblast growth factor (2 ng.mL(-1 and post irradiation were intradermally injected on days 25, 46, 67 and finally between days 95 and 115 (50 × 10(6 ASCs each time into the exposed area. All controls exhibited a clinical evolution with final necrosis (day 91. In grafted pigs an ultimate wound healing was observed in four out of five grafted animals (day 130 +/- 28. Immunohistological analysis of cytokeratin expression showed a complete epidermis recovery. Grafted ASCs accumulated at the dermis/subcutis barrier in which they attracted numerous immune cells, and even an increased vasculature in one pig. Globally this study suggests that local injection of ASCs may represent a useful strategy to mitigate CRS.

  9. Expansion of Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-ge Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to explore whether the circulating frequency and function of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs are altered in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS. Methods: The frequency of MDSCs in peripheral blood was determined by flow cytometry, and mRNA expression in purified MDSCs was analyzed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. The suppressive function of MDSCs isolated from different groups was also determined. The plasma levels of certain cytokines were determined using Bio-Plex Pro™ Human Cytokine Assays. Results: The frequency of circulating CD14+HLA-DR-/low MDSCs; arginase-1 (Arg-1 expression; and plasma levels of interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, and IL-33 were markedly increased in ACS patients compared to stable angina (SA or control patients. Furthermore, MDSCs from ACS patients were more potent suppressors of T-cell proliferation and IFN-γ production than those from the SA or control groups at ratios of 1:4 and 1:2; this effect was partially mediated by Arg-1. In addition, the frequency of MDSCs was positively correlated with plasma levels of IL-6, IL-33, and TNF-α. Conclusions: We observed an increased frequency and suppressive function of MDSCs in ACS patients, a result that may provide insights into the mechanisms involved in ACS.

  10. Radioprotection against radiation induced bone marrow syndrome by a semi-synthetic derivative of chlorophyll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suryavanshi, Shweta; Sharma, Deepak; Checker, Rahul; Santosh Kumar, S.; Sainis, Krishna B.

    2014-01-01

    A plethora of biological properties have been attributed to chlorophyllin (CHL), the water soluble derivative of the green plant pigment chlorophyll. Several studies are available describing its ability to modify genotoxic effects. It has been shown that administration CHL to human lymphopenic individuals led to the recovery and restoration of the immune system and also inhibited aflatoxin B1-DNA binding in individuals residing in high risk exposure to this liver carcinogen. The present study is aimed at establishing radioprotective efficacy of CHL against ionizing radiation induced hematopoietic syndrome. CHL offered complete protection against whole body irradiation (WBI, 7 Gy) induced mortality in mice. This observation was supported by increase in the number of macroscopic endogenous colonies enumerated on the surface of the spleens taken from CHL+WBI group as compared to WBI group. Radioprotection by CHL was found to be mediated by increasing the frequency of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) as evaluated by side population assay. Administration of CHL induced G1 arrest in bone marrow cells, increased number of granulocytes and neutrophils in the peripheral blood. At the molecular level, activation of ERK was observed in bone marrow cells obtained from CHL administered mice. In conclusion, CHL mediated radioprotection was attributed to increased stem cell numbers, G1 arrest in bone marrow cells, increased neutrophil numbers and ERK activation. (author)

  11. Empirical derivation to improve the definition of the metabolic syndrome in the evaluation of cardiovascular disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildman, Rachel P; McGinn, Aileen P; Kim, Mimi; Muntner, Paul; Wang, Dan; Cohen, Hillel W; Ogorodnikova, Alexandra D; Reynolds, Kristi; Fonseca, Vivian

    2011-03-01

    To examine whether a quantitatively derived metabolic syndrome definition predicts incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) events better than do existing definitions. Data were pooled from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities, Cardiovascular Health, and Framingham Offspring studies (n = 20,581). Incident coronary heart disease and stroke events were ascertained over 9 years. The sensitivity for incident CVD events was higher and the specificity lower for the empirically derived versus the Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III, International Diabetes Federation (IDF), or Harmonized metabolic syndrome definitions (sensitivity/specificity 0.65/0.53 vs. 0.53/0.63, 0.51/0.66, and 0.64/0.56, respectively), resulting in no overall improvement in discrimination. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios for incident CVD events were similar across definitions and were 1.7 (95% CI 1.6-1.9) for ATP III, 1.8 (1.6-2.0) for IDF, 1.9 (1.7-2.0) for Harmonized, and 1.7 (1.6-1.9) for the empirically derived definition. Empirical derivation of the metabolic syndrome definition did not improve CVD discrimination or risk prediction.

  12. Campylobacter ureolyticus: an emerging gastrointestinal pathogen?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bullman, Susan

    2011-03-01

    A total of 7194 faecal samples collected over a 1-year period from patients presenting with diarrhoea were screened for Campylobacter spp. using EntericBio(®) , a multiplex-PCR system. Of 349 Campylobacter-positive samples, 23.8% were shown to be Campylobacter ureolyticus, using a combination of 16S rRNA gene analysis and highly specific primers targeting the HSP60 gene of this organism. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first report of C. ureolyticus in the faeces of patients presenting with gastroenteritis and may suggest a role for this organism as an emerging enteric pathogen.

  13. Campylobacter in poultry, pork and beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Mathilde Hasseldam; Carroll, C.; Rudi, K.

    2011-01-01

    focuses on rapid methods for detection of Campylobacter in this particular production chain, and describes the routes of transmission and sampling in the different levels as well as intervention strategies. The chapter focuses on the introduction, infection dynamics, and sampling of Campylobacter...... throughout the poultry production chain, from farm to consumer level. It also describes culture-based, immunological, and molecular methods for rapid detection, characterization, and enumeration for Campylobacter. Rapid methods can generally be also more sensitive and specific than culture-based methods...

  14. Molecular and Statistical Analysis of Campylobacter spp. and Antimicrobial-Resistant Campylobacter Carriage in Wildlife and Livestock from Ontario Farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, M; Pearl, D L; Taboada, E N; Parmley, E J; Mutschall, S; Jardine, C M

    2017-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to (i) compare the carriage of Campylobacter and antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter among livestock and mammalian wildlife on Ontario farms, and (ii) investigate the potential sharing of Campylobacter subtypes between livestock and wildlife. Using data collected from a cross-sectional study of 25 farms in 2010, we assessed associations, using mixed logistic regression models, between Campylobacter and antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter carriage and the following explanatory variables: animal species (beef, dairy, swine, raccoon, other), farm type (swine, beef, dairy), type of sample (livestock or wildlife) and Campylobacter species (jejuni, coli, other). Models included a random effect to account for clustering by farm where samples were collected. Samples were subtyped using a Campylobacter-specific 40 gene comparative fingerprinting assay. A total of 92 livestock and 107 wildlife faecal samples were collected, and 72% and 27% tested positive for Campylobacter, respectively. Pooled faecal samples from livestock were significantly more likely to test positive for Campylobacter than wildlife samples. Relative to dairy cattle, pig samples were at significantly increased odds of testing positive for Campylobacter. The odds of isolating Campylobacter jejuni from beef cattle samples were significantly greater compared to dairy cattle and raccoon samples. Fifty unique subtypes of Campylobacter were identified, and only one subtype was found in both wildlife and livestock samples. Livestock Campylobacter isolates were significantly more likely to exhibit antimicrobial resistance (AMR) compared to wildlife Campylobacter isolates. Campylobacter jejuni was more likely to exhibit AMR when compared to C. coli. However, C. jejuni isolates were only resistant to tetracycline, and C.  coli isolates exhibited multidrug resistance patterns. Based on differences in prevalence of Campylobacter spp. and resistant Campylobacter between

  15. Quality of life for post-polio syndrome: a patient derived, Rasch standard scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Carolyn A; Quincey, Anne-Marie C; Wong, Samantha M; Tennant, Alan

    2018-03-01

    To design a disease-specific quality of life (QoL) questionnaire for people with post-polio syndrome (PPS). Qualitative interviews were conducted with 45 people with PPS to identify themes and derive potential items reflecting impact upon QoL. After cognitive debriefing, these were made into a questionnaire pack along with comparative questionnaires and posted to 319 patients. The 271 (85%) returned questionnaires were subjected to exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and Rasch analysis. A 25 item scale, the post-polio quality of life scale (PP-QoL), showed good fit to the Rasch model (conditional chi-square p = 0.156), unidimensionality (% t-tests 2.0: CI 0.7-3.8), and Cronbach's alpha of 0.87. With the latent estimate transformed to a 0-100 scale, the mean score was 56.9 (SD 18.5) with only 3.3% of respondents at the floor or ceiling of the scale. Test-retest reliability showed an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) (2.1) of 0.916, and correlation of 0.85. The disease-specific PP-QoL demonstrated excellent reliability, appropriate concurrent validity, and satisfied the standards of the Rasch model. It enables examination of the impact of health status upon perceived QoL, and the impact of rehabilitation interventions. The scale is freely available for academic or not-for-profit users to improve research in this neglected, disabling condition. Implications for Rehabilitation In post-polio syndrome (PPS), existing work examines aspects of health-related quality of life (HRQoL), such as activity limitations. A disease-specific QoL measure would enable researchers to model the impact of health status, such as fatigue or mobility restrictions, upon QoL in PPS. The post-polio quality of life scale (PP-QoL) is based on the patients' lived experience, meets Rasch standards and is free for use for academic and not-for-profit researchers. The raw score is reliable for individual use in clinical settings, and interval scale transformation is available for parametric

  16. Campylobacter jejuni strain CG8421: a refined model for the study of Campylobacteriosis and evaluation of Campylobacter vaccines in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribble, David R; Baqar, Shahida; Carmolli, Marya P; Porter, Chad; Pierce, Kristen K; Sadigh, Katrin; Guerry, Patricia; Larsson, Catherine J; Rockabrand, David; Ventone, Cassandra H; Poly, Frederic; Lyon, Caroline E; Dakdouk, Sandra; Fingar, Ann; Gilliland, Theron; Daunais, Patrick; Jones, Erika; Rymarchyk, Stacia; Huston, Christopher; Darsley, Michael; Kirkpatrick, Beth D

    2009-11-15

    A robust human challenge model for Campylobacter jejuni is an important tool for the evaluation of candidate vaccines. The previously established model conveys a potential risk of Guillain-Barré syndrome attributable to lipooligosaccharide ganglioside mimicry. This work establishes a new C. jejuni human challenge model that uses a strain (CG8421) without ganglioside mimicry and that applies Campylobacter-specific cellular immunity screening to achieve high attack rates at lower inoculum doses. Healthy Campylobacter-naive adults participated in an open-label challenge trial. Participants were dosed with C. jejuni CG8421 and followed as inpatients. Pattern of illness, bacterial shedding, and immunologic responses were determined. Following screening, 23 subjects received 1 X 10(6) or 1 X 10(5) colony-forming units of C. jejuni, with attack rates (percentage of patients who became ill) of 100% (1 X 10(6) colony-forming units) or 93% (1 X 10(5) colony-forming units). Every subject shed CG8421; the median time to diarrhea onset was 72.3 h (interquartile range, 53.9-99.9 h). Symptoms included abdominal cramps (74%), nausea (65%), and fever (39%). No major safety concerns occurred, including bacteremia, hypotension, or postinfectious sequelae. Unexpectedly, recrudescent infection occurred in 2 subjects (1 subject without Campylobacter-specific adaptive immune responses and 1 with azithromycin resistance acquired in vivo); both infections cleared after receipt of additional antibiotics. Cumulative Campylobacter-specific immune responses were as follows: serologic response occurred in 87% (immunoglobulin [Ig] A) and 48% (IgG) of subjects, in vitro interferon-gamma production occurred in 91% of subjects, and 96% of subjects had IgA antibody-secreting cells and fecal IgA detected. The C. jejuni CG8421 challenge model provides a safe and effective tool, without the risk of Guillain-Barré syndrome. The model demonstrates high attack rates after lower doses of challenge

  17. Chromosome 21-derived MicroRNAs Provide an Etiological Basis for Aberrant Protein Expression in Human Down Syndrome Brains*

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhn, Donald E.; Nuovo, Gerard J.; Terry, Alvin V.; Martin, Mickey M.; Malana, Geraldine E.; Sansom, Sarah E.; Pleister, Adam P.; Beck, Wayne D.; Head, Elizabeth; Feldman, David S.; Elton, Terry S.

    2009-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS), or Trisomy 21, is the most common genetic cause of cognitive impairment and congenital heart defects in the human population. Bioinformatic annotation has established that human chromosome 21 (Hsa21) harbors five microRNA (miRNAs) genes: miR-99a, let-7c, miR-125b-2, miR-155, and miR-802. Our laboratory recently demonstrated that Hsa21-derived miRNAs are overexpressed in DS brain and heart specimens. The aim of this study was to identify important Hsa21-derived miRNA/mRNA t...

  18. The clinical importance of emerging Campylobacter species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Si Ming

    2011-10-25

    A growing number of Campylobacter species other than C. jejuni and C. coli have been recognized as emerging human and animal pathogens. Although C. jejuni continues to be the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans worldwide, advances in molecular biology and development of innovative culture methodologies have led to the detection and isolation of a range of under-recognized and nutritionally fastidious Campylobacter spp., including C. concisus, C. upsaliensis and C. ureolyticus. These emerging Campylobacter spp. have been associated with a range of gastrointestinal diseases, particularly gastroenteritis, IBD and periodontitis. In some instances, infection of the gastrointestinal tract by these bacteria can progress to life-threatening extragastrointestinal diseases. Studies have shown that several emerging Campylobacter spp. have the ability to attach to and invade human intestinal epithelial cells and macrophages, damage intestinal barrier integrity, secrete toxins and strategically evade host immune responses. Members of the Campylobacter genus naturally colonize a wide range of hosts (including pets, farm animals and wild animals) and are frequently found in contaminated food products, which indicates that these bacteria are at risk of zoonotic transmission to humans. This Review presents the latest information on the role and clinical importance of emerging Campylobacter spp. in gastrointestinal health and disease.

  19. Inaccuracy of routine susceptibility tests for detection of erythromycin resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, M.T.; Claas, E.C.J.; Mevius, D.J.; Pelt, van W.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Kuijper, E.J.

    2010-01-01

    In The Netherlands, both an increase in and regional differences in erythromycin resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli have been reported. To determine the accuracy of routine tests for erythromycin resistance, 48 erythromycin-resistant isolates from various laboratories that

  20. Vaccine-derived poliomyelitis and postpolio syndrome: an Italian Cutter Incident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarascio, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Post-polio syndrome is a condition characterized by increased muscle weakness, atrophy, fatigue and pain developing several years after the acute polio event. We describe a 52-year-old patient who experienced post-polio syndrome; he had contracted acute paralytic poliomyelitis at 12 months of age, shortly after the third dose of Salk polio vaccine. PMID:25057364

  1. Vaccine-derived poliomyelitis and postpolio syndrome: an Italian Cutter Incident

    OpenAIRE

    Lusi, Elena Angela; Guarascio, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Post-polio syndrome is a condition characterized by increased muscle weakness, atrophy, fatigue and pain developing several years after the acute polio event. We describe a 52-year-old patient who experienced post-polio syndrome; he had contracted acute paralytic poliomyelitis at 12 months of age, shortly after the third dose of Salk polio vaccine.

  2. Derivative 11;22 (Emanuel Syndrome: A Case Report and A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madan Gopal Choudhary

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Emanuel syndrome (ES is a rare anomaly characterized by a distinctive phenotype, consisting of characteristic facial dysmorphism, microcephaly, severe mental retardation, developmental delay, renal anomalies, congenital cardiac defects, and genital anomalies in boys. Here, we report a male neonate, with the classical features of Emanuel syndrome.

  3. Selective medium for growth of Campylobacter in containers incubated aerobically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction. Campylobacter are traditionally cultured in primary containers inside of secondary containers filled with microaerobic atmospheres. Recent findings indicated that media supplemented with optimal concentrations of amino acids, organic acids, and bicarbonate support Campylobacter growth ...

  4. Campylobacter bacteremia: a rare and under-reported event?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louwen, R.; van Baarlen, P.; van Vliet, A. H. M.; van Belkum, A.; Hays, J. P.; Endtz, H. P.

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria belonging to the species Campylobacter are the most common cause of bacterial diarrhoea in humans. The clinical phenotype associated with Campylobacter infections ranges from asymptomatic conditions to severe colitis and bacteremia. In susceptible patients, Campylobacter infections are associated with significant morbidity and mortality, with both host factors and bacterial factors being involved in the pathogenesis of bacteremia. In the host, age, gender and immune-compromising conditions may predispose for Campylobacter infections, whilst the most important bacterial determinants mentioned in the literature are cytotoxin production and flagellar motility. The role of sialylated lipo-oligosaccharide (LOS) and serum resistance in bacteremia is inconclusive at this time, and the clinical significance of Campylobacter bacteremia is not yet fully understood. More emphasis on the detection of Campylobacter species from blood cultures in susceptible patients at risk for Campylobacter infections will increase our understanding of the pathogenesis and the relevance of Campylobacter bacteremia. PMID:24611124

  5. Influxed insects as Vectors for Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coll in Danish Broiler Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Skovgård, Henrik; Pedersen, Karl

    2008-01-01

    The vector potential of flies (Diptera: Brachycera) for spread of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli on 5 Danish broiler farms was evaluated in a longitudinal field study from April to November 2004. First, the prevalence of C. jejuni- and C. coli-positive flies was determined in 2...... houses was estimated by trapping of insects (n = 5,936) in ventilation vents. In total, 31 flies (28 of which were of the Muscidae family) caught in farm surroundings were Campylobacter spp.-positive (C. jejuni, n = 7; C. coli, n = 23; other Campylobacter spp., n = 1). Musca domestica (L) (house fly...... caesar (L) (green bottle fly) of the Calliphoridae family and 2 flies of unidentified species were also positive. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp.-positive flies varied from 0.0 in April to a peak of 16.3% in July and decreasing to 2.0% in October on a farm with pig production. On 4 broiler farms...

  6. Post-genome Analysis of the Foodborne Pathogen Campylobacter jejuni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Emily J.; Gundogdu, Ozan; Wren, Brendan

    The human pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is part of the genus Campylobacter that lies within the epsilon proteobacteria subclass of bacteria. The nearest family in phylogenetic terms is the Helicobacteraceae which includes the Helicobacter and Wolinella genuses. Campylobacter species are Gram-negative, curved rod shaped or spiral and are motile (via polar flagella).

  7. 21 CFR 866.3110 - Campylobacter fetus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Campylobacter fetus serological reagents. 866.3110... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3110 Campylobacter fetus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Campylobacter fetus serological reagents are devices...

  8. The prevalence of thermotolerant Campylobacter species in food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. is known to occur in the intestinal systems of a wide variety of domestic and wild animals. Although Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli cause acute diarrhoeal diseases in humans worldwide, they mostly manifest themselves in an apparently healthy carrier state in ...

  9. The prevalence of thermotolerant Campylobacter species in food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    Abstract. Background: Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. is known to occur in the intestinal systems of a wide variety of domestic and wild animals. Although Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli cause acute diarrhoeal diseases in humans worldwide, they mostly manifest themselves in an apparently healthy ...

  10. Multi drug resistance of campylobacter jejuni and campylobacter coli to tested antibiotics in strains originating from humans, poultry and swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tambur Zoran Ž.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermophilic Campylobacter are among the most common cause of bacterial enteritis in humans. Food animals are considered one of the most important sources of Campylobacter causing infections in man. Campylobacter infection is clinically mild and resolves spontaneously. In severe or long-lasting cases, treatment with antibiotics is necessary. Resistance of Campylobacter spp. to drugs used in treatment of infection is a matter of concern. The aim of this paper is to determine presence of multi drug resistant strains of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolated from animals and man. Material for testing was obtained by scraping the cecum surface from boilers, pig cecum and colon, and human feces. For isolation Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli microaerophilic conditions, temperature of 42°C and antibiotic supplement were required to inhibit the growth of other intestinal bacteria. In this research, for sensitivity testing of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli three different methods were used: disc diffusion test, E-test, and dilution agar method. A total of 55 strains of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. Out of the total, 24 strains originated from man, 16 from broilers were isolated, and 15 from pigs. Multidrug resistance was determined in cases when the strains were resistant to two or more antibiotics. Applying E-test, we detected that the largest number of Campylobacter jejuni were multi drug resistant to two antibiotics (41.2%, and three antibiotics (11.8%. Applying disc diffusion method it was detected that 5.9% of Campylobacter jejuni from man was resistant to four tested antibiotics. Applying all three methods, it was detected that the largest number of Campylobacter strains was resistant to two antibiotics and three antibiotics. Applying disc diffusion method it was detected that 50% of Campylobacter coli strains from pigs were resistant to three tested antibiotics.

  11. Use of Culture, PCR Analysis, and DNA Microarrays for Detection of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from Chicken Feces

    OpenAIRE

    Keramas, Georgios; Bang, Dang Duong; Lund, Marianne; Madsen, Mogens; Bunkenborg, Henrik; Telleman, Pieter; Christensen, Claus Bo Vöge

    2004-01-01

    A DNA microarray for detection of Campylobacter spp. was recently developed and applied to detect Campylobacter spp. directly from chicken feces. Sixty-five pooled chicken cloacal swab samples from 650 individual broiler chickens were included in the study. The results of Campylobacter sp. detection obtained with DNA microarrays were compared to those obtained by conventional culture and gel electrophoresis. By conventional culture, 60% of the samples were positive for either Campylobacter je...

  12. Thrombospondin-derived peptide attenuates Sjögren's syndrome-associated ocular surface inflammation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras Ruiz, L; Mir, F A; Turpie, B; Masli, S

    2017-04-01

    Sjögren's syndrome is the second most common rheumatic disease in which autoimmune response targets exocrine glands (salivary and lacrimal glands) result in clinical symptoms of dry mouth and dry eye. Inflammation of the lacrimal gland induces tear abnormalities that contribute to the inflammation of the ocular surface, which includes ocular mucosa. Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) plays a critical regulatory role in the ocular mucosa and as such TSP-1 -/- mice develop spontaneously chronic ocular surface inflammation associated with Sjögren's syndrome. The autoimmune pathology is also accompanied by a peripheral imbalance in regulatory (T reg ) and inflammatory Th17 effectors. In this study, we demonstrate an in-vitro effect of a CD47-binding TSP-derived peptide in the induction of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1-secreting forkhead box protein 2 (Foxp3 + ) T regs from activated CD4 + CD25 - T cells and the inhibition of pathogenic T helper type 17 (Th17)-promoting interleukin (IL)-23 derived from antigen-presenting cells. The in-vivo administration of this peptide promotes Foxp3 + T reg induction and inhibition of Th17 development. Consistent with these results, topical administration of CD47-binding TSP peptide, both before and after the onset of the disease, attenuates clinical symptoms of SS-associated dry eye in TSP-1 -/- mice. Augmented expression of Foxp3 detected in the draining lymph nodes of TSP peptide -treated mice compared to those treated with control peptide suggests the ability of TSP peptide to restore peripheral immune imbalance. Thus, our results suggest that TSP-derived peptide attenuates Sjögren's syndrome-associated dry eye and autoimmune inflammation by preventing Th17 development while promoting the induction of T regs . Collectively, our data identify TSP-derived peptide as a novel therapeutic option to treat autoimmune diseases. © 2017 British Society for Immunology.

  13. Characterization of Campylobacter phages including analysis of host range by selected Campylobacter Penner serotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Stanley

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The predominant food borne pathogen in the western world today is Campylobacter. Campylobacter specific bacteriophages (phages have been proposed as an alternative agent for reducing the burden of Campylobacter in broilers. One concern in relation to phage biocontrol is the narrow host range often displayed by phages. To identify the potential of phages as a Campylobacter reducing agent we needed to determine their infectivity on a panel of isolates representing the Campylobacter strains found in broilers as well as humans. Results In this study, Campylobacter phages were isolated from the intestines of broilers and ducks and from abattoir sewage. Twelve phages were investigated to determine their ability to infect the Campylobacter Penner serotypes commonly present in Danish poultry and patients with campylobacteriosis. A total of 89% of the Campylobacter jejuni strains and 14% of the Campylobacter coli strains could be infected by at least one of the bacteriophages. The majority of the phages infected the most common serotypes in Danish broilers (O:1,44; O:2; O:4-complex, but showed limited ability to infect 21 of the less frequent Campylobacter serotypes. Pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE and restriction endonuclease analysis (REA were used to characterize the phage genomes. Three categories of bacteriophages were observed. I: a genome size of ~194 kb and refractory to digestion with HhaI; II: a genome size of ~140 kb and digestible by HhaI; and III: a genome size undeterminable in PFGE. The categorization of the phages correlated with the host range patterns displayed by the phages. Six phages were subjected to transmission electron microscopy (TEM. They all belonged to the family of Myoviridae. Conclusion We have characterized and identified the host range of 12 Danish Campylobacter phages. Due to their ability to infect the majority of the common serotypes in Denmark we suggest the phages can become an effective

  14. Characterization of Campylobacter phages including analysis of host range by selected Campylobacter Penner serotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Vinni Mona; Rosenquist, Hanne; Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Brown, Stanley; Christensen, Bjarke Bak

    2007-10-18

    The predominant food borne pathogen in the western world today is Campylobacter. Campylobacter specific bacteriophages (phages) have been proposed as an alternative agent for reducing the burden of Campylobacter in broilers. One concern in relation to phage biocontrol is the narrow host range often displayed by phages. To identify the potential of phages as a Campylobacter reducing agent we needed to determine their infectivity on a panel of isolates representing the Campylobacter strains found in broilers as well as humans. In this study, Campylobacter phages were isolated from the intestines of broilers and ducks and from abattoir sewage. Twelve phages were investigated to determine their ability to infect the Campylobacter Penner serotypes commonly present in Danish poultry and patients with campylobacteriosis. A total of 89% of the Campylobacter jejuni strains and 14% of the Campylobacter coli strains could be infected by at least one of the bacteriophages. The majority of the phages infected the most common serotypes in Danish broilers (O:1,44; O:2; O:4-complex), but showed limited ability to infect 21 of the less frequent Campylobacter serotypes. Pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and restriction endonuclease analysis (REA) were used to characterize the phage genomes. Three categories of bacteriophages were observed. I: a genome size of approximately 194 kb and refractory to digestion with HhaI; II: a genome size of approximately 140 kb and digestible by HhaI; and III: a genome size undeterminable in PFGE. The categorization of the phages correlated with the host range patterns displayed by the phages. Six phages were subjected to transmission electron microscopy (TEM). They all belonged to the family of Myoviridae. We have characterized and identified the host range of 12 Danish Campylobacter phages. Due to their ability to infect the majority of the common serotypes in Denmark we suggest the phages can become an effective agent in the effort to reduce

  15. New therapeutic option for irritable bowel syndrome: serum-derived bovine immunoglobulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Larry; Rosario, Roxanne; Panas, Raymond

    2015-03-21

    Oral prescription medical foods have long been used in hospital settings but are also appropriate therapies for gastrointestinal disorders in outpatient medical practice. Oral serum-derived bovine immunoglobulin/protein isolate (SBI) has been shown in clinical studies to reduce loose stools and improve stool consistency as well as other symptoms (i.e., abdominal pain, bloating, and urgency) in patients with irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea (IBS-D) and human immunodeficiency virus-associated enteropathy. This case series reports the outcomes of 14 IBS patients who received SBI as an addition to standard of care at an individual physician's clinical practice. The patients: 2 IBS with constipation (IBS-C), 7 IBS-D, 2 mixed diarrhea and constipation IBS (IBS-M) and 3 undefined IBS (IBS-U; also described by some physicians as IBS-Bloating), ranged in age from 22-87 years. SBI (5 g or 10 g daily dose) was added to the patient's current standard care and followed for several weeks to determine if symptoms were improved with the addition of SBI. Overall, 12 of the 14 patients indicated some level of improvement through direct questioning of the patients regarding changes from the prior visit. One IBS-Bloating patient had a resolution of symptoms and two patients (1 IBS-Bloating and 1 IBS-C) discontinued therapy because of insufficient relief. The 12 patients who continued on therapy reported an overall improvement in symptoms with better stool consistency, decreased frequency as well as reductions in abdominal pain, bloating, distention, and incontinence. In most cases, therapeutic effects of SBI were seen within the first four weeks of therapy with continued improvements at subsequent visits. SBI has a multifaceted mechanism of action and may help to manage IBS by providing a distinct protein source required to normalize bowel function, gastrointestinal microbiota, and nutritionally enhance tight junction protein expression between intestinal epithelial cells. SBI

  16. Characterization of Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns and Detection of Virulence Genes in Campylobacter Isolates in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Di Giannatale

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter has developed resistance to several antimicrobial agents over the years, including macrolides, quinolones and fluoroquinolones, becoming a significant public health hazard. A total of 145 strains derived from raw milk, chicken faeces, chicken carcasses, cattle faeces and human faeces collected from various Italian regions, were screened for antimicrobial susceptibility, molecular characterization (SmaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and detection of virulence genes (sequencing and DNA microarray analysis. The prevalence of C. jejuni and C. coli was 62.75% and 37.24% respectively. Antimicrobial susceptibility revealed a high level of resistance for ciprofloxacin (62.76%, tetracycline (55.86% and nalidixic acid (55.17%. Genotyping of Campylobacter isolates using PFGE revealed a total of 86 unique SmaI patterns. Virulence gene profiles were determined using a new microbial diagnostic microarray composed of 70-mer oligonucleotide probes targeting genes implicated in Campylobacter pathogenicity. Correspondence between PFGE and microarray clusters was observed. Comparisons of PFGE and virulence profiles reflected the high genetic diversity of the strains examined, leading us to speculate different degrees of pathogenicity inside Campylobacter populations.

  17. Characterization of antimicrobial resistance patterns and detection of virulence genes in Campylobacter isolates in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giannatale, Elisabetta; Di Serafino, Gabriella; Zilli, Katiuscia; Alessiani, Alessandra; Sacchini, Lorena; Garofolo, Giuliano; Aprea, Giuseppe; Marotta, Francesca

    2014-02-19

    Campylobacter has developed resistance to several antimicrobial agents over the years, including macrolides, quinolones and fluoroquinolones, becoming a significant public health hazard. A total of 145 strains derived from raw milk, chicken faeces, chicken carcasses, cattle faeces and human faeces collected from various Italian regions, were screened for antimicrobial susceptibility, molecular characterization (SmaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis) and detection of virulence genes (sequencing and DNA microarray analysis). The prevalence of C. jejuni and C. coli was 62.75% and 37.24% respectively. Antimicrobial susceptibility revealed a high level of resistance for ciprofloxacin (62.76%), tetracycline (55.86%) and nalidixic acid (55.17%). Genotyping of Campylobacter isolates using PFGE revealed a total of 86 unique SmaI patterns. Virulence gene profiles were determined using a new microbial diagnostic microarray composed of 70-mer oligonucleotide probes targeting genes implicated in Campylobacter pathogenicity. Correspondence between PFGE and microarray clusters was observed. Comparisons of PFGE and virulence profiles reflected the high genetic diversity of the strains examined, leading us to speculate different degrees of pathogenicity inside Campylobacter populations.

  18. Control strategies against Campylobacter at the poultry production level: biosecurity measures, feed additives and vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, M; Guyard-Nicodème, M; Dory, D; Chemaly, M

    2016-05-01

    Campylobacteriosis is the most prevalent bacterial foodborne gastroenteritis affecting humans in the European Union, and ranks second in the United States only behind salmonellosis. In Europe, there are about nine million cases of campylobacteriosis every year, making the disease a major public health issue. Human cases are mainly caused by the zoonotic pathogen Campylobacter jejuni. The main source of contamination is handling or consumption of poultry meat. Poultry constitutes the main reservoir of Campylobacter, substantial quantities of which are found in the intestines following rapid, intense colonization. Reducing Campylobacter levels in the poultry chain would decrease the incidence of human campylobacteriosis. As primary production is a crucial step in Campylobacter poultry contamination, controlling the infection at this level could impact the following links along the food chain (slaughter, retail and consumption). This review describes the control strategies implemented during the past few decades in primary poultry production, including the most recent studies. In fact, the implementation of biosecurity and hygiene measures is described, as well as the immune strategy with passive immunization and vaccination trials and the nutritional strategy with the administration of organic and fatty acids, essential oil and plant-derived compound, probiotics, bacteriocins and bacteriophages. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Characterization of Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns and Detection of Virulence Genes in Campylobacter Isolates in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giannatale, Elisabetta; Di Serafino, Gabriella; Zilli, Katiuscia; Alessiani, Alessandra; Sacchini, Lorena; Garofolo, Giuliano; Aprea, Giuseppe; Marotta, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter has developed resistance to several antimicrobial agents over the years, including macrolides, quinolones and fluoroquinolones, becoming a significant public health hazard. A total of 145 strains derived from raw milk, chicken faeces, chicken carcasses, cattle faeces and human faeces collected from various Italian regions, were screened for antimicrobial susceptibility, molecular characterization (SmaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis) and detection of virulence genes (sequencing and DNA microarray analysis). The prevalence of C. jejuni and C. coli was 62.75% and 37.24% respectively. Antimicrobial susceptibility revealed a high level of resistance for ciprofloxacin (62.76%), tetracycline (55.86%) and nalidixic acid (55.17%). Genotyping of Campylobacter isolates using PFGE revealed a total of 86 unique SmaI patterns. Virulence gene profiles were determined using a new microbial diagnostic microarray composed of 70-mer oligonucleotide probes targeting genes implicated in Campylobacter pathogenicity. Correspondence between PFGE and microarray clusters was observed. Comparisons of PFGE and virulence profiles reflected the high genetic diversity of the strains examined, leading us to speculate different degrees of pathogenicity inside Campylobacter populations. PMID:24556669

  20. Development of a novel triplex PCR assay for the detection and differentiation of thermophilic species of Campylobacter using 16S-23S rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, I U H; Edge, T A

    2007-12-01

    Campylobacter species are significantly implicated in human gastrointestinal infections. Of 20 species of Campylobacter, C. jejuni, C. coli and C. lari have been considered as the most important causative agents of human infections. In order to better understand the occurrence and epidemiology of these thermophilic Campylobacter species, an improved and rapid detection method is warranted. A novel triplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed based on the variable 16S-23S rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region to identify and discriminate between these species in water samples. Campylobacter species-specific primers for C. jejuni, C. coli and C. lari derived from highly variable sequences in the ITS region were used. Specificity of the newly designed primers and PCR conditions were verified using other species of Campylobacter as well as 31 different negative control species. The assay was further validated with 97 Campylobacter cultures from water samples. The assay was found to be simple, easy to perform, and had a high sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility. It enabled simultaneous detection and differentiation of multiple Campylobacter species in water samples. Use of the newly developed PCR assay, coupled with a previously developed rapid DNA template preparation step, will enable improved detection capabilities for Campylobacter species in environmental matrices.

  1. Animal derived surfactant extract versus protein free synthetic surfactant for the prevention and treatment of respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardell, Stephanie; Pfister, Robert H; Soll, Roger

    2015-08-24

    A wide variety of surfactant preparations have been developed and tested including synthetic surfactants and surfactants derived from animal sources. Although clinical trials have demonstrated that both synthetic surfactant and animal derived surfactant preparations are effective, comparison in animal models has suggested that there may be greater efficacy of animal derived surfactant products, perhaps due to the protein content of animal derived surfactant. To compare the effect of animal derived surfactant to protein free synthetic surfactant preparations in preterm infants at risk for or having respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Searches were updated of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library (2014), PubMed, CINAHL and EMBASE (1975 through November 2014). All languages were included. Randomized controlled trials comparing administration of protein free synthetic surfactants to administration of animal derived surfactant extracts in preterm infants at risk for or having respiratory distress syndrome were considered for this review. Data collection and analysis were conducted according to the standards of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group. Fifteen trials met the inclusion criteria. The meta-analysis showed that the use of animal derived surfactant rather than protein free synthetic surfactant resulted in a significant reduction in the risk of pneumothorax [typical relative risk (RR) 0.65, 95% CI 0.55 to 0.77; typical risk difference (RD) -0.04, 95% CI -0.06 to -0.02; number needed to treat to benefit (NNTB) 25; 11 studies, 5356 infants] and a marginal reduction in the risk of mortality (typical RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.79 to 0.99; typical RD -0.02, 95% CI -0.04 to -0.00; NNTB 50; 13 studies, 5413 infants).Animal derived surfactant was associated with an increase in the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis [typical RR 1.38, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.76; typical RD 0.02, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.04; number needed to treat to harm (NNTH) 50; 8

  2. Veriflow Campylobacter. Performance tested method 101201.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joelsson, Adam C; Brown, Ashley S; Puri, Amrita; Keough, Martin P; Pascal, Benjamin J; Gaudioso, Zara E

    2014-01-01

    Veriflow Campylobacter is a molecular based assay for the presumptive and qualitative detection of the most common occurring foodborne Campylobacter species: C. jejuni and C. coli. The assay utilizes a PCR detection method coupled with a rapid, visual, flow-based assay that develops in 3 min post PCR amplification and requires only 24 h of non-specialized enrichment for maximum sensitivity. The Veriflow Campylobacter system eliminates the need for microaerobic chambers, gel electrophoresis or fluorophore based detection of target amplification, and does not require complex data analysis. This Performance Tested Method validation study demonstrated the ability of the Veriflow method to detect naturally occurring Campylobacterfrom chicken carcass rinsates. In the reference comparison study, Chi-square and probability of detection analyses of two unpaired studies indicated that there was no significant difference between the Veriflow Campylobacter method and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)/Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) reference method. There was no indication of false positive or false negative detection in the reference comparison study, and all 50 C. jejuni and C. coli strains were detected, while 35 nonspecific organisms were undetected in the exclusivity/ inclusivity study. The study results show that Veriflow Campylobacter is a sensitive, selective and robust assay for the detection of C. jejuni and C. coli in chicken carcass rinsates.

  3. Campylobacter jejuni: A rare agent in a child with peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tural Kara, Tugce; Yilmaz, Songul; Ozdemir, Halil; Birsin Ozcakar, Zeynep; Derya Aysev, Ahmet; Ciftci, Ergin; Ince, Erdal

    2016-10-01

    Peritonitis is a serious problem in children receiving peritoneal dialysis. Campylobacter jejuni is an unusual cause of peritonitis. A 10-year-old boy who had end stage renal failure due to atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome was admitted to our hospital with abdominal pain and fever. Peritoneal dialysis fluid was cloudy and microscopic examination showed abundant leukocytes. Intraperitoneal cefepime treatment was started. Campylobacter jejuni was isolated from peritoneal dialysis fluid culture and oral clarithromycin was added to the treatment. At the end of therapy, peritoneal fluid culture was negative. To our knowledge, C. jejuni peritonitis was not reported in children previously. Although C. jejuni peritonitis is rarely encountered in children, it should be considered as an etiologic factor for peritonitis. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  4. KCC2 rescues functional deficits in human neurons derived from patients with Rett syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xin; Kim, Julie; Zhou, Li; Wengert, Eric; Zhang, Lei; Wu, Zheng; Carromeu, Cassiano; Muotri, Alysson R; Marchetto, Maria C N; Gage, Fred H; Chen, Gong

    2016-01-19

    Rett syndrome is a severe form of autism spectrum disorder, mainly caused by mutations of a single gene methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) on the X chromosome. Patients with Rett syndrome exhibit a period of normal development followed by regression of brain function and the emergence of autistic behaviors. However, the mechanism behind the delayed onset of symptoms is largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that neuron-specific K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter2 (KCC2) is a critical downstream gene target of MeCP2. We found that human neurons differentiated from induced pluripotent stem cells from patients with Rett syndrome showed a significant deficit in KCC2 expression and consequently a delayed GABA functional switch from excitation to inhibition. Interestingly, overexpression of KCC2 in MeCP2-deficient neurons rescued GABA functional deficits, suggesting an important role of KCC2 in Rett syndrome. We further identified that RE1-silencing transcriptional factor, REST, a neuronal gene repressor, mediates the MeCP2 regulation of KCC2. Because KCC2 is a slow onset molecule with expression level reaching maximum later in development, the functional deficit of KCC2 may offer an explanation for the delayed onset of Rett symptoms. Our studies suggest that restoring KCC2 function in Rett neurons may lead to a potential treatment for Rett syndrome.

  5. Characterization of Campylobacter phages including analysis of host range by selected Campylobacter Penner serotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vinni; Rosenquist, Hanne; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    2007-01-01

    size undeterminable in PFGE. The categorization of the phages correlated with the host range patterns displayed by the phages. Six phages were subjected to transmission electron microscopy (TEM). They all belonged to the family of Myoviridae. Conclusion: We have characterized and identified the host......Background: The predominant food borne pathogen in the western world today is Campylobacter. Campylobacter specific bacteriophages (phages) have been proposed as an alternative agent for reducing the burden of Campylobacter in broilers. One concern in relation to phage biocontrol is the narrow host...

  6. Faecal Campylobacter shedding among dogs in animal shelters across Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, A M; Cummings, K J; Rodriguez-Rivera, L D; Hamer, S A; Lawhon, S D

    2017-12-01

    Epidemiologic studies on faecal Campylobacter shedding among dogs in the United States have been limited, despite evidence that the incidence of human campylobacteriosis has increased over the last decade. Our objectives were to estimate the prevalence of faecal Campylobacter shedding among shelter dogs in Texas, to estimate the specific prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli shedding, and to identify risk factors for Campylobacter-positive status. Using a cross-sectional study design, we collected faecal samples from dogs in six animal shelters across Texas between May and December, 2014. Quantitative PCR protocols were used to detect Campylobacter in samples and to specifically identify C. jejuni and C. coli. The prevalence of faecal Campylobacter shedding among sampled dogs was 75.7% (140/185). Prevalence varied significantly by shelter (p = .03), ranging from 57% to 93%. There was a marginal association (p = .06) between abnormal faecal consistency and positive Campylobacter status, after controlling for shelter as a random effect. However, approximately 70% of Campylobacter-positive dogs had grossly normal faeces. Campylobacter prevalence did not vary significantly by age group or sex. The prevalence of C. jejuni-positive samples was 5.4% (10/185), but C. coli was not detected in any samples. Dogs are a potential source of zoonotic Campylobacter transmission. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Prenatal diagnosis of the derivative chromosome 22 associated with cat eye syndrome by fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeser, S L; Donnenfeld, A E; Miller, R C; Sellinger, B S; Emanuel, B S; Driscoll, D A

    1994-11-01

    Cytogenetic studies of cultured amniocytes demonstrated a karyotype of 46,XX/47,XX, +mar. A bisatellited, dicentric, distamycin-DAPI negative, NOR-positive marker was present in 76 per cent of the metaphases examined. Similar markers have been associated with cat eye syndrome (CES). We report on the utilization of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with a 14/22 alpha-satellite probe and a chromosome 22-specific cosmid for locus D22S9 to determine the origin of the prenatally detected supernumerary marker chromosome. FISH studies demonstrated that the marker is a derivative of chromosome 22 and enabled us to provide the family with additional prognostic information.

  8. Synthesis of N-(6-(4-(Piperazin-1-ylphenoxypyridin-3-ylbenzenesulfonamide Derivatives for the Treatment of Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabajyoti Deka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome is a widely prevalent multifactorial disorder associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. High plasma levels of insulin and glucose due to insulin resistance are a major component of the metabolic disorder. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs are potent PPARγ ligand and used as insulin sensitizers in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. They are potent insulin-sensitizing agents but due to adverse effects like hepatotoxicity, a safer alternative of TZDs is highly demanded. Here we report synthesis of N-(6-(4-(piperazin-1-ylphenoxypyridin-3-ylbenzenesulfonamide derivatives as an alternate remedy for insulin resistance.

  9. Arsenic Resistance and Prevalence of Arsenic Resistance Genes in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Isolated from Retail Meats

    OpenAIRE

    Noormohamed, Aneesa; Fakhr, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Studies that investigate arsenic resistance in the foodborne bacterium Campylobacter are limited. A total of 552 Campylobacter isolates (281 Campylobacter jejuni and 271 Campylobacter coli) isolated from retail meat samples were subjected to arsenic resistance profiling using the following arsenic compounds: arsanilic acid (4?2,048 ?g/mL), roxarsone (4?2048 ?g/mL), arsenate (16?8,192 ?g/mL) and arsenite (4?2,048 ?g/mL). A total of 223 of these isolates (114 Campylobacter jejuni and 109 Campyl...

  10. Neutrophil-derived microparticles are released into the coronary circulation following percutaneous coronary intervention in acute coronary syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Gonzalo J; Barraclough, Jennifer Y; Nakhla, Shirley; Kienzle, Vivian; Robertson, Stacy; Mallat, Ziad; Celermajer, David S; Patel, Sanjay

    2017-02-28

    To evaluate (i) local coronary and systemic levels of microparticles (MP) in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and stable angina pectoris (SAP) patients and (ii) their release after plaque disruption with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). MP are small vesicles originating from plasma membranes of cells after activation or apoptosis and are implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Neutrophils play a role in plaque destabilization and shed neutrophil-derived MP that have the potential to drive significant proinflammatory and thrombotic downstream effects. Eight ACS and eight SAP patients were included. Coronary sinus (CS) samples pre-intervention (CS1), 45 s following balloon angioplasty (CS2) and at 45 s intervals following stent deployment (CS3, CS4 and CS5), together with peripheral vein samples, pre- and post-PCI were analysed for neutrophil-derived (CD66b+), endothelial-derived (CD144+), platelet-derived (CD41a+), monocyte-derived (CD14+) and apoptotic (Annexin V+) MP. ELISA for interleukin (IL)-6, myeloperoxidase (MPO) and P-selectin was also performed. CD66b+ MP levels were similar in both groups pre-intervention. Post-PCI, CS levels rose significantly in ACS but not SAP patients (ACS area under the curve (AUC): 549 ± 83, SAP AUC: 24 ± 29, Pderived MP release post-PCI occurs in ACS compared with stable patients, likely to be reflective of plaque MP content in vulnerable lesions. © 2017 The Author(s).

  11. Campylobacter ureolyticus: an emerging gastrointestinal pathogen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullman, Susan; Corcoran, Daniel; O'Leary, James; Lucey, Brigid; Byrne, Deirdre; Sleator, Roy D

    2011-03-01

    A total of 7194 faecal samples collected over a 1-year period from patients presenting with diarrhoea were screened for Campylobacter spp. using EntericBio(®) , a multiplex-PCR system. Of 349 Campylobacter-positive samples, 23.8% were shown to be Campylobacter ureolyticus, using a combination of 16S rRNA gene analysis and highly specific primers targeting the HSP60 gene of this organism. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first report of C. ureolyticus in the faeces of patients presenting with gastroenteritis and may suggest a role for this organism as an emerging enteric pathogen. © 2010 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Use of culture, PCR analysis, and DNA microarrays for detection of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from chicken feces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keramas, Georgios; Bang, Dang Duong; Lund, Marianne

    2004-01-01

    A DNA microarray for detection of Campylobacter spp. was recently developed and applied to detect Campylobacter spp. directly from chicken feces. Sixty-five pooled chicken cloacal swab samples from 650 individual broiler chickens were included in the study. The results of Campylobacter sp....... detection obtained with DNA microarrays were compared to those obtained by conventional culture and gel electrophoresis. By conventional culture, 60% of the samples were positive for either Campylobacter jejuni or Campylobacter coli. By PCR and capillary electrophoresis, 95% of the samples were positive...... for Campylobacter spp., whereas with DNA microarrays all samples were positive for Campylobacter spp. By application of DNA microarray analysis, the isolates in 4 samples (6%) could not be identified to the species level, whereas by PCR-capillary electrophoresis, the isolates in 12 samples (19%) remained...

  13. Angelman syndrome-derived neurons display late onset of paternal UBE3A silencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanurova, Jana; Neureiter, Anika; Hiber, Michaela; de Oliveira Kessler, Hannah; Stolp, Kristin; Goetzke, Roman; Klein, Diana; Bankfalvi, Agnes; Klump, Hannes; Steenpass, Laura

    2016-08-03

    Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic phenomenon resulting in parent-of-origin-specific gene expression that is regulated by a differentially methylated region. Gene mutations or failures in the imprinting process lead to the development of imprinting disorders, such as Angelman syndrome. The symptoms of Angelman syndrome are caused by the absence of functional UBE3A protein in neurons of the brain. To create a human neuronal model for Angelman syndrome, we reprogrammed dermal fibroblasts of a patient carrying a defined three-base pair deletion in UBE3A into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). In these iPSCs, both parental alleles are present, distinguishable by the mutation, and express UBE3A. Detailed characterization of these iPSCs demonstrated their pluripotency and exceptional stability of the differentially methylated region regulating imprinted UBE3A expression. We observed strong induction of SNHG14 and silencing of paternal UBE3A expression only late during neuronal differentiation, in vitro. This new Angelman syndrome iPSC line allows to study imprinted gene regulation on both parental alleles and to dissect molecular pathways affected by the absence of UBE3A protein.

  14. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in wild birds on Danish livestock farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Skov, Marianne Nielsine; Nielsen, Eva Møller

    2016-01-01

    Background: Reducing the occurrence of campylobacteriosis is a food safety issue of high priority, as in recent years it has been the most commonly reported zoonosis in the EU. Livestock farms are of particular interest, since cattle, swine and poultry are common reservoirs of Campylobacter spp....... The farm environment provides attractive foraging and breeding habitats for some bird species reported to carry thermophilic Campylobacter spp. We investigated the Campylobacter spp. carriage rates in 52 wild bird species present on 12 Danish farms, sampled during a winter and a summer season, in order...... to study the factors influencing the prevalence in wild birds according to their ecological guild. In total, 1607 individual wild bird cloacal swab samples and 386 livestock manure samples were cultured for Campylobacter spp. according to the Nordic Committee on Food Analysis method NMKL 119.Results...

  15. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in wild birds on Danish livestock farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Skov, Marianne Nielsine; Nielsen, Eva Møller

    2016-01-01

    , fat score, gender, and migration range were not found to be associated with Campylobacter spp. carriage. A correlation was found between the prevalence (%) of C. jejuni in wild birds and the proportions (%) of C. jejuni in both manure on cattle farms (R-2 = 0.92) and poultry farms (R-2 = 0....... The farm environment provides attractive foraging and breeding habitats for some bird species reported to carry thermophilic Campylobacter spp. We investigated the Campylobacter spp. carriage rates in 52 wild bird species present on 12 Danish farms, sampled during a winter and a summer season, in order...... to study the factors influencing the prevalence in wild birds according to their ecological guild. In total, 1607 individual wild bird cloacal swab samples and 386 livestock manure samples were cultured for Campylobacter spp. according to the Nordic Committee on Food Analysis method NMKL 119.Results...

  16. Isolation and characterization of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from domestic and wild mammals in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosef, O; Gondrosen, B; Kapperud, G; Underdal, B

    1983-10-01

    A total of 1,262 domestic and wild mammals from Norway were surveyed for fecal carriage of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. Of the five species of domestic mammals examined, the highest isolation rate was recorded among swine (100.0%), followed by sheep (8.1%) and cows (0.8%). No strains were recovered from horses or goats. Among wild mammals, C. jejuni was isolated from 1 of 23 hares, and no isolated were obtained from three species of cervids and three species of rodents. Of the 133 Campylobacter strains isolated, 114 were classified as C. coli, 18 were C. jejuni biotype 1, and 1 belonged to C. jejuni biotype 2. All 114 strains from swine were C. coli. Milk samples from 113 domestic animals with clinically diagnosed mastitis (106 cows, 5 sheep, 1 horse, and 1 pig) were negative for campylobacters.

  17. Healthy puppies and kittens as carriers of Campylobacter spp., with special reference to Campylobacter upsaliensis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Madsen, Mogens

    1997-01-01

    Living in a household with a dog or cat has previously been identified as a significant risk factor for acquiring campylobacteriosis, in particular, with reference to Campylobacter upsaliensis infection. In a cross-sectional study carried out in Denmark between August and December 1996, 72 healthy...... puppies and 42 healthy kittens, aged between 11 and 17 weeks, were sampled for fecal campylobacter shedding by culture of rectal swab specimens on blood-free agar base with cefoperazone at 32 mg/liter and amphotericin at 10 mg/liter and on blood-free agar base with cefoperazone at 8 mg/liter, teicoplanin...... for Campylobacter spp., with a species distribution of 76% C. jejuni, 5% C. coli, and 19% C. upsaliensis, Of the kittens examined, two (5%) excreted campylobacters; both strains were C. upsaliensis, None of the chicken samples examined were found to be positive for C. upsaliensis. We concluded that young puppies...

  18. Resistance to quinolones in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from Danish broilers at farm level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl; Wedderkopp, A.

    2003-01-01

    Aims : To investigate the prevalence of quinolone resistance among Campylobacter jejuni and Camp. coli isolates from Danish poultry at the farm level, as well as for the whole country. Methods and Results : Data and isolates were collected from a national surveillance of Campylobacter in poultry......-resistant variant. Conclusions : Overall, quinolone resistance among Campylobacter isolates from Danish broilers was 7.5% in 1998 and 1999; it was higher among Camp. coli than Camp. jejuni . Genetic diversity among resistant isolates was lower than among susceptible isolates, and certain clones existed in both...... a resistant and a susceptible variant. Some resistant clones appeared to persist on the farms and were repeatedly isolated from poultry flocks. Significance and Impact of the Study : The study is important for the understanding of persistence and dynamics of Campylobacter in broiler houses. It also highlights...

  19. National surveillance of Campylobacter in broilers at slaughter in Denmark in 1998

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wedderkopp, A.; Rattenborg, Erik; Madsen, Mogens

    2000-01-01

    was Campylobacter jejuni 86%, Campylobacter coli 11%, Campylobacter lari 1%, other not further diagnosed species 2%. The prevalence was significantly higher in the period from June to October (3.2 abattoir (OR

  20. Prevalence of Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. in Chicken Meat in Croatia and Multilocus Sequence Typing of a Small Subset of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Humski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to detect thermotolerant Campylobacter spp., 241 samples of fresh chicken meat, at retail in Croatia, were analysed according to a standard method, followed by biochemical test and molecular polymerase chain reaction/restriction enzyme analysis for exact species determination. Campylobacter spp. prevalence was 73.86 %. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli were isolated from 53.53 and 15.35 % of the samples, respectively. In 4.98 % of isolates thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. were not determined. The multi locus sequence typing method was used to evaluate genetic diversity of eight Campylobacter jejuni and four Campylobacter coli isolates. To our knowledge, these results of genotyping provided the first data on the presence of sequence types (STs and clonal complexes (CCs of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli isolates in Croatia. By applying the multilocus sequence typing, a new allele of tkt gene locus was discovered and marked tkt508. The C. jejuni ST 6182 and C. coli ST 6183 genotypes were described for the fi rst time, and all other identified genotypes were clustered in the previously described sequence types and clonal complexes. These findings provide useful information on the prevalence and epidemiology of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli in Croatia.

  1. Campylobacter jejuni in commercial eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Belchiolina Beatriz; Beletti, Marcelo Emílio; de Melo, Roberta Torres; Mendonça, Eliane Pereira; Coelho, Letícia Ríspoli; Nalevaiko, Priscila Christen; Rossi, Daise Aparecida

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the ability of Campylobacter jejuni to penetrate through the pores of the shells of commercial eggs and colonize the interior of these eggs, which may become a risk factor for human infection. Furthermore, this study assessed the survival and viability of the bacteria in commercial eggs. The eggs were placed in contact with wood shavings infected with C. jejuni to check the passage of the bacteria. In parallel, the bacteria were inoculated directly into the air chamber to assess the viability in the egg yolk. To determine whether the albumen and egg fertility interferes with the entry and survival of bacteria, we used varying concentrations of albumen and SPF and commercial eggs. C. jejuni was recovered in SPF eggs (fertile) after three hours in contact with contaminated wood shavings but not in infertile commercial eggs. The colonies isolated in the SPF eggs were identified by multiplex PCR and the similarity between strains verified by RAPD-PCR. The bacteria grew in different concentrations of albumen in commercial and SPF eggs. We did not find C. jejuni in commercial eggs inoculated directly into the air chamber, but the bacteria were viable during all periods tested in the wood shavings. This study shows that consumption of commercial eggs infected with C. jejuni does not represent a potential risk to human health.

  2. Campylobacter jejuni in commercial eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belchiolina Beatriz Fonseca

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the ability of Campylobacter jejuni to penetrate through the pores of the shells of commercial eggs and colonize the interior of these eggs, which may become a risk factor for human infection. Furthermore, this study assessed the survival and viability of the bacteria in commercial eggs. The eggs were placed in contact with wood shavings infected with C. jejuni to check the passage of the bacteria. In parallel, the bacteria were inoculated directly into the air chamber to assess the viability in the egg yolk. To determine whether the albumen and egg fertility interferes with the entry and survival of bacteria, we used varying concentrations of albumen and SPF and commercial eggs. C. jejuni was recovered in SPF eggs (fertile after three hours in contact with contaminated wood shavings but not in infertile commercial eggs. The colonies isolated in the SPF eggs were identified by multiplex PCR and the similarity between strains verified by RAPD-PCR. The bacteria grew in different concentrations of albumen in commercial and SPF eggs. We did not find C. jejuni in commercial eggs inoculated directly into the air chamber, but the bacteria were viable during all periods tested in the wood shavings. This study shows that consumption of commercial eggs infected with C. jejuni does not represent a potential risk to human health.

  3. Campylobacter Fetus Meningitis in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Samkar, Anusha; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; van der Ende, Arie; van de Beek, Diederik

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The zoonotic pathogen Campylobacter fetus is a rare cause of bacterial meningitis. Little is known about the clinical characteristics, predisposing factors and outcome of C fetus meningitis in adults. We report cases of C fetus meningitis in a nationwide cohort study of adult bacterial meningitis patients in the Netherlands and performed a review of the literature. Two patients with C fetus meningitis were identified from January 2006 through May 2015. The calculated annual incidence was 0.02 per million adults. Combined with the literature, we identified 22 patients with a median age of 48 years. An immunocompromised state was present in 16 patients (73%), mostly due to alcoholism (41%) and diabetes mellitus (27%). The source of infection was identified in 13 out of 19 patients (68%), consisting of regular contact with domestic animals in 5 and working on a farm in 4. Recurrent fever and illness was reported in 4 patients (18%), requiring prolonged antibiotic treatment. Two patients died (9%) and 3 survivors (15%) had neurological sequelae. C fetus is a rare cause of bacterial meningitis and is associated with an immunocompromised state. Based on the apparent slow clinical response seen in this limited number of cases, the authors of this study recommend a prolonged course of antimicrobial therapy when C fetus is identified as a causative agent of bacterial meningitis. Cases appeared to do best with carbapenem therapy. PMID:26937916

  4. Growth of non-Campylobacter, oxidase-positive bacteria on selective Campylobacter agar.

    OpenAIRE

    Moskowitz, L B; Chester, B

    1982-01-01

    A total of 67 oxidase-positive, gram-negative bacteria were tested for growth on selective Campylobacter agar (Blaser formulation, BBL Microbiology Systems, Cockeysville, Md.) at 42 degrees C under microaerophilic conditions. Although the growth of most of these bacteria was prevented, all strains of Achromobacter xylosoxidans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas putrefaciens, Pseudomonas alcaligenes, and Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes grew as well as Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni.

  5. Neural activity in relation to clinically derived personality syndromes in depression using a psychodynamic fMRI paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svenja eTaubner

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The heterogeneity between patients with depression cannot be captured adequately with existing descriptive systems of diagnosis and neurobiological models of depression. Furthermore, considering the highly individual nature of depression, the application of general stimuli in past research efforts may not capture the essence of the disorder. This study aims to identify subtypes of depression by using empirically-derived personality-syndromes, and to explore neural correlates of the derived personality syndromes.Method: In the present exploratory study an individually tailored and psychodynamically based fMRI paradigm using dysfunctional relationship patterns was presented to 20 chronically depressed patients. Results from the Shedler-Westen-Assessment-Procedure (SWAP-200 were analyzed by Q-factor analysis to identify clinically relevant subgroups of depression and related brain activation.Results: The principle component analysis of SWAP-200 items from all 20 patients lead to a 2-factor solution: Depressive Personality and Emotional-Hostile-Externalizing Personality. Both factors were used in a whole-brain correlational analysis but only the second factor yielded significant positive correlations in four regions: A large cluster in the right orbitofrontal cortex (OFC, the left ventral striatum, a small cluster in the left temporal pole and another small cluster in the right middle frontal gyrus. Discussion: The degree to which patients with depression score high on the factor Emotional-Hostile-Externalizing Personality correlated with relatively higher activity in three key areas involved in emotion processing, evaluation of reward/punishment, negative cognitions, depressive pathology and social knowledge (OFC, ventral striatum, temporal pole. Results may contribute to an alternative description of neural correlates of depression showing differential brain activation dependent on the extent of specific personality syndromes in

  6. Campylobacter Antimicrobial Resistance in Peru: A Ten-year Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-16

    Miller WG, Konkel ME: Differentiation of Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter lari, and Campylobacter upsaliensis by a multiplex PCR ...van Pelt W, Wagenaar JA, Kuijper EJ: Inaccuracy of routine susceptibility tests for detection of erythromycin resistance of Campylobacter jejuni...available soon. Campylobacter antimicrobial resistance in Peru: a ten-year observational study BMC Infectious Diseases 2012, 12:193 doi:10.1186/1471-2334-12

  7. Quantifying potential sources of surface water contamination with Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Penny, Christian; Ragimbeau, Catherine; Schets, Franciska M; Blaak, Hetty; Duim, Birgitta; Wagenaar, Jaap A; de Boer, Albert; Cauchie, Henry-Michel; Mossong, Joel; van Pelt, Wilfrid

    2016-09-15

    Campylobacter is the most common causative agent of human bacterial gastroenteritis and is frequently found in surface water, where it indicates recent contamination with animal faeces, sewage effluent, and agricultural run-off. The contribution of different animal reservoirs to surface water contamination with Campylobacter is largely unknown. In the Netherlands, the massive poultry culling to control the 2003 avian influenza epidemic coincided with a 44-50% reduction in human campylobacteriosis cases in the culling areas, suggesting substantial environment-mediated spread of poultry-borne Campylobacter. We inferred the origin of surface water Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli strains in Luxembourg and the Netherlands, as defined by multilocus sequence typing, by comparison to strains from poultry, pigs, ruminants, and wild birds, using the asymmetric island model for source attribution. Most Luxembourgish water strains were attributed to wild birds (61.0%), followed by poultry (18.8%), ruminants (15.9%), and pigs (4.3%); whereas the Dutch water strains were mainly attributed to poultry (51.7%), wild birds (37.3%), ruminants (9.8%), and pigs (1.2%). Attributions varied over seasons and surface water types, and geographical variation in the relative contribution of poultry correlated with the magnitude of poultry production at either the national or provincial level, suggesting that environmental dissemination of Campylobacter from poultry farms and slaughterhouses can be substantial in poultry-rich regions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A unique mosaic Turner syndrome patient with androgen receptor gene derived marker chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Rasime; Özdağ, Nermin; Bundak, Rüveyde; Çirakoğlu, Ayşe; Serakinci, Nedime

    2016-01-01

    Patients with Turner syndrome are generally characterized by having short stature with no secondary sexual characteristics. Some abnormalities, such as webbed neck, renal malformations (>50%) and cardiac defects (10%) are less common. The intelligence of these patients is considered normal. Non-mosaic monosomy X is observed in approximately 45% of postnatal patients with Turner syndrome and the rest of the patients have structural abnormalities or mosaicism involving 46,X,i(Xq), 45,X/46,XX, 45,X and other variants. The phenotype of 45,X/46,X,+mar individuals varies by the genetic continent and degree of the mosaicism. The gene content of the marker chromosome is the most important when correlating the phenotype with the genotype. Here we present an 11-year-old female who was referred for evaluation of her short stature and learning disabilities. Conventional cytogenetic investigation showed a mosaic 45,X/46,X,+mar karyotype. Fluorescence in situ hybridization showed that the marker chromosome originated from the X chromosome within the androgen receptor (AR) and X-inactive specific transcript (XIST) genes. Therefore, it is possible that aberrant activation of the marker chromosome, compromising the AR and XIST genes, may modify the Turner syndrome phenotype.

  9. Prevalence of Thermophilic Campylobacter species in carcasses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bernt Lindtjorn

    However, antimicrobial resistance to clinically important drugs used for treatment (especially macrolides and fluoroquinolones) is increasingly reported for campylobacters (9). There is growing scientific evidence that the use of antibiotics in food animals, particularly in developed countries, leads to the development of.

  10. Studies on the epidemiology of Campylobacter jejuni

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Oosterom (Johannes)

    1985-01-01

    textabstractOver the last few years the bacterial species Campylobacter jejuni has been recognized as an important cause of acute enteritis in man. Investigations in several countries have shown that infections caused by C. jejuni may be as serious as those due to Salmonella spp., both in prevalence

  11. Campylobacter enteritis among children in Dembia District ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To estimate the magnitude of Campylobacter enteritis in children below fifteen years of age. Design: A cross-sectional survey. Setting: Seven villages found in the outskirts of Kolla Diba town were covered. The town is located 35 kilometres away from Gondar teaching hospital. Participants: Stool specimens were ...

  12. CAMPYLOBACTER ENTERITIS AMONG CHILDREN IN DEMBIA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2000-12-12

    Dec 12, 2000 ... Objective: To estimate the magnitude of Campylobacter enteritis in children below fifteen years of age. Design: A cross-sectional survey. Setting: Seven villages found in the outskirts of Kolla Diba town were covered. The town is located 35 kilometres away from Gondar teaching hospital. Participants: Stool ...

  13. Molecular characterization of thermophilic Campylobacter species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We identified two species of thermophilic Campylobacter in companion dogs in Jos. Majority of C. jejuni were isolated from mucoid faeces while mixed infections of the two species were more common among diarrhoeic dogs. Pet owners should observe strict hand hygiene especially after handling dogs or their faeces to ...

  14. Isolation and molecular characterization of Campylobacter coli

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Campylobacter coli is prevalent among trade pigs in Kafanchan, Nigeria and is distributed across four of the five states from which trade pigs were sourced. Adequate hand hygiene is recommended for farmers, traders and Veterinary professionals handling pigs to prevent the transmission of this zoonosis to humans.

  15. Campylobacter Antimicrobial Drug Resistance among Humans in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Though Campylobacter enteritis is a self-limiting disease, antimicrobial agents are recommended for extraintestinal infections and for treating immunocompromised persons. Erythromycin and ciprofloxacin are drugs of choice. The rate of resistance to these drugs is increasing in both developed and developing ...

  16. Prevalence of Campylobacter foetus and Trichomonas foetus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trichomoniasis and campylobacteriosis are diseases caused by Trichomonas foetus and Campylobacter foetus respectively. These diseases pose economic losses due to infertility and abortion. The aim of this retrospective study was to estimate the prevalence of C. foetus and T. foetus among southern African cattle.

  17. Campylobacter Spp. Epidemiology and Antimicrobial Susceptibility ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The isolation rate of Campylobacter was 2.3%,comprising of the following species C. jejuni (51.8%), C. coli (13.8%), and C. upsaliensis (3.5%). However, 30.9% of the isolates were unidentified. No resistant strain was found to gentamicin. The resistance to amoxicillin+clavulanic acid (3.4%) was lower than those ...

  18. Campylobacter jejuni diarrhea model in infant chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanyal, S. C.; Islam, K. M.; Neogy, P. K.; Islam, M.; Speelman, P.; Huq, M. I.

    1984-01-01

    To study the pathogenic mechanisms of Campylobacter jejuni infection, 36- to 72-h-old chickens were fed 10(3) to 10(6) live cells, using strains isolated from 40 patients with watery diarrhea and 6 with bloody mucoid diarrhea from whom no other known enteropathogen was detected. Chickens of Starbro

  19. Maternal derivation of inv dup (22) and clinical variation in cat-eye syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupler, R; Hoeller, A; Pezzolo, A; Maraschio, P

    1994-01-01

    Cytogenetic analysis in a male child with dismorphies and renal anomalies showed an extra bisatellited chromosome. In situ hybridization and an analysis of cytogenetic polymorphisms revealed that the abnormal chromosome derived from a single maternal chromosome 22.

  20. Detection of Campylobacter concisus and other Campylobacter species in colonic biopsies from adults with ulcerative colitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrani Mukhopadhya

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The critical role of bacteria in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC is well recognized, but an individual causative microorganism has not been singled out so far. Campylobacter concisus and other non-jejuni species of Campylobacter have been implicated as putative aetiological agents in inflammatory bowel disease in children, but such studies have not been addressed in adults. This study investigated the prevalence of Campylobacter species in colonic biopsy samples from adults with UC and healthy controls. METHODS: Adult patients who were undergoing diagnostic colonoscopy were recruited for the study, which included 69 patients with histologically proven UC and 65 healthy controls. DNA was extracted from the biopsy samples and subjected to Campylobacter genus specific and Campylobacter concisus specific polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. RESULTS: Detection of all Campylobacter DNA utilising genus specific primers was significantly higher in cases of UC, with a prevalence of 73.9% (51/69 compared to 23.1% (15/65 in controls (p = 0.0001. Nested PCR for C. concisus DNA was positive in 33.3% (23/69 of biopsy samples from subjects with UC, which was significantly higher than the prevalence rate of 10.8% (7/65 from controls (p = 0.0019. Sequencing of the remaining Campylobacter positive samples revealed that Campylobacter ureolyticus was positive in 21.7% (15/69 of samples from UC subjects as opposed to 3.1% (2/65 in controls (p = 0.0013. Mixed Campylobacter species were more common in UC patients, 20.3% (14/69 as compared to controls 4.6% (3/65 (p = 0.0084. CONCLUSION: The higher prevalence of Campylobacter genus and more specifically C. concisus and C. ureolyticus in biopsy samples from adults with UC suggests these genera of bacteria may be involved in the chronic inflammation that is characteristically seen in UC. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of this association of C. concisus

  1. Detection of Campylobacter concisus and Other Campylobacter Species in Colonic Biopsies from Adults with Ulcerative Colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhya, Indrani; Thomson, John M.; Hansen, Richard; Berry, Susan H.; El-Omar, Emad M.; Hold, Georgina L.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The critical role of bacteria in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC) is well recognized, but an individual causative microorganism has not been singled out so far. Campylobacter concisus and other non-jejuni species of Campylobacter have been implicated as putative aetiological agents in inflammatory bowel disease in children, but such studies have not been addressed in adults. This study investigated the prevalence of Campylobacter species in colonic biopsy samples from adults with UC and healthy controls. Methods Adult patients who were undergoing diagnostic colonoscopy were recruited for the study, which included 69 patients with histologically proven UC and 65 healthy controls. DNA was extracted from the biopsy samples and subjected to Campylobacter genus specific and Campylobacter concisus specific polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. Results Detection of all Campylobacter DNA utilising genus specific primers was significantly higher in cases of UC, with a prevalence of 73.9% (51/69) compared to 23.1% (15/65) in controls (p = 0.0001). Nested PCR for C. concisus DNA was positive in 33.3% (23/69) of biopsy samples from subjects with UC, which was significantly higher than the prevalence rate of 10.8% (7/65) from controls (p = 0.0019). Sequencing of the remaining Campylobacter positive samples revealed that Campylobacter ureolyticus was positive in 21.7% (15/69) of samples from UC subjects as opposed to 3.1% (2/65) in controls (p = 0.0013). Mixed Campylobacter species were more common in UC patients, 20.3% (14/69) as compared to controls 4.6% (3/65) (p = 0.0084). Conclusion The higher prevalence of Campylobacter genus and more specifically C. concisus and C. ureolyticus in biopsy samples from adults with UC suggests these genera of bacteria may be involved in the chronic inflammation that is characteristically seen in UC. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of this association of C. concisus and C

  2. Variation in Campylobacter jejuni culturability in presence of Acanthamoeba castellanii Neff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Batlle, María; Girbau, Cecilia; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Sifaoui, Ines; Liendo, Aitor Rizo; Bethencourt Estrella, Carlos J; García Méndez, Ana B; Chiboub, Olfa; Hajaji, Soumaya; Fernández-Astorga, Aurora; Valladares, Basilio; Martínez-Carretero, Enrique; Piñero, José E; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2017-12-01

    Free-living amoebae (FLA) are protozoa that are widely distributed in the environment mainly in water and soil related habitats. These amoebae have also been reported to be associated with some bacterial pathogens for humans such as Campylobacter spp. The species C. jejuni is the causative agent of about 90% of human campylobacteriosis cases worldwide and this disease may even end up in severe autoimmune sequelae as Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). In this study, the interactions between the strain Acanthamoeba castellanii Neff and Campylobacter jejuni was investigated. Campylobacter jejuni was coincubated with Acanthamoeba castellanii Neff trophozoites at different temperatures, in order to evaluate the C. jejuni ability to grow in presence A. castellanii culture and Acanthamoeba Conditioned Medium (ACM). C. jejuni was coincubated with A. castellanii axenic culture at different temperatures in aerobic conditions. Our results revealed that bacteria were still cultivable (Blood Agar medium, at 37 °C, in microaerophilic atmosphere) after a 14 days C. jejuni - A. castellanii coculture, comparing with C. jejuni alone, which was only cultivable for 24 h. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Update on Campylobacter jejuni vaccine development for preventing human campylobacteriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagusztyn-Krynicka, Elzbieta Katarzyna; Łaniewski, Paweł; Wyszyńska, Agnieszka

    2009-05-01

    Campylobacteriosis constitutes a serious medical and socioeconomic problem worldwide. Rapidly increasing antibiotic resistance of bacterial strains compels us to develop alternative therapeutic strategies and to search for efficient immunoprophylactic methods. The vast majority of Campylobacter infections in developed countries occur as sporadic cases, mainly caused by eating undercooked Campylobacter-contaminated poultry. The most efficient strategy of decreasing the number of human Campylobacter infections is by implementing protective vaccinations for humans and/or chickens. Despite more than 10 years of research, an effective anti-Campylobacter vaccine has not been developed. This review highlights our increasing knowledge of Campylobacter interaction with host cells and focuses on recently published data describing the efficacy of anti-Campylobacter vaccine prototypes.

  4. [Evaluation of usefulness of commercial recomwell Campylobacter enzyme--linked immunosorbent assays for routine serodiagnosis of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokosz, Natalia; Rastawicki, Waldemar; Jagielski, Marek

    2008-01-01

    The commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA recomWell Campylobacter) from Mikrogen was evaluated for the diagnosis of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli infections. Serum samples from 20 healthy controls, 44 persons with symptoms of primary Campylobacter infection and 24 serum samples from patients with Yersinia enterocolitica or Salmonella infections were tested. This ELISA assay detects IgA and IgG antibodies against three recombinant antigens of the Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli: OMP 18 (18 kDa), PEB4 (31 kDa) and P39 (39 kDa). The healthy controls showed significantly lower antibody titers in all two immunoglobulin classes. The IgA antibodies were diagnosed only in 2 (18.2%) serum samples obtained from patients with bacteriologically confirmed campylobacteriosis. The presence of IgG antibodies was confirmed in 82% of serum samples. Furthermore, we showed that 66.7% of the 33 serum samples obtained from the patients suspected for campylobacteriosis not confirmed by isolation, were positive for IgG and 15.2% for IgA antibodies. We observed also not specific reactions in ELISA recom Well Campylobacter with sera obtained form patients with yersiniosis and salmonelosis. This study demonstrates the usefulness of commercially available assay for the routine diagnosis of Campylobacter infection but with some limitations.

  5. Longitudinal study of the excretion patterns of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in young pet dogs in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Pedersen, Karl; Wainø, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The Campylobacter excretion patterns of 26 domestic pet dogs were described in a longitudinal study. The dogs entered the study between 3 and 8 months of age and were monitored until 2 years of age. They were tested monthly for Campylobacter carriage in stool samples that were cultured...... on the Campylobacter-selective media CAT and modified CCDA agar at 37 and 42 C. This study comprised 366 fecal swab samples, of which 278 (76.2%) were found to be Campylobacter positive, with the following distribution of species: 75.0% Campylobacter upsaliensis, 19.4% Campylobacter jejuni, 2.1% Campylobacter lari, 0.......7% Campylobacter coli, and 2.8% Campylobacter spp. Isolates were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to elucidate the strain excretion pattern. All study dogs excreted Campylobacter spp. during the study period. At 3 months of age, 60% of the dogs carried Campylobacter, increasing to nearly 100...

  6. Neuronal target genes of the neuron-restrictive silencer factor in neurospheres derived from fetuses with Down's syndrome: a gene expression study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahn, Sabine; Mimmack, Michael; Ryan, Margaret; Caldwell, Maeve A; Jauniaux, Eric; Starkey, Michael; Svendsen, Clive N; Emson, Piers

    2002-01-26

    Identification of genes and characterisation of their function is an essential step towards understanding complex pathophysiological abnormalities in Down's syndrome. We did a study to investigate abnormalities in gene expression in human neuronal stem cells and progenitor cells from Down's syndrome and control post-mortem human fetal tissue. Indexing-based differential display PCR was done on neuronal precursor cells derived from the cortex of a fetus with Down's syndrome, and findings were compared with those of two control samples. Findings were validated against neurosphere preparations from three independent Down's syndrome fetuses and five independent controls by real-time quantitative PCR. Results of differential display PCR analysis showed that SCG10--a neuron--specific growth-associated protein regulated by the neuron-restrictive silencer factor REST-was almost undetectable in the Down's syndrome sample. This finding was validated by real-time PCR. We also found that other genes regulated by the REST transcription factor were selectively repressed, whereas non-REST-regulated genes with similar functions were unaffected. Changes in expression of several key developmental genes in the Down's syndrome stem-cell and progenitor-cell pool correlated with striking changes in neuron morphology after differentiation. Our findings suggest a link between dysregulation of the REST transcription factor and some of the neurological deficits seen in Down's syndrome. Experimental REST downregulation has been shown to trigger apoptosis, which could account for the striking and selective loss of neurons in the differentiated Down's syndrome cell preparations.

  7. Campylobacter in the environment: A major threat to public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Hasan Abulreesh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological data suggest that Campylobacter remains a worldwide leading cause of gastrointestinal infections. Improperly prepared meat products, unpasteurized milk as well as non chlorinated drinking water were shown to be the main sources of campylobacteriosis. The Campylobacter survival mechanism in various environments facilitated the transmission of Campylobacter-associated infections; however the exact mode of transmission remains to be elucidated. This review aims to summarize recent insights on the incidence and survival of Campylobacter in the environment. Besides, methods of detection and risk assessment for public health safety are also addressed.

  8. High-resolution genomic fingerprinting of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli by analysis of amplified fragment length polymorphisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokotovic, Branko; On, Stephen L.W.

    1999-01-01

    A method for high-resolution genomic fingerprinting of the enteric pathogens Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, based on the determination of amplified fragment length polymorphism, is described. The potential of this method for molecular epidemiological studies of these species...... to available epidemiological data. We conclude that this amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting method may be a highly effective tool for molecular epidemiological studies of Campylobacter spp....

  9. Chromosome 21-derived microRNAs provide an etiological basis for aberrant protein expression in human Down syndrome brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Donald E; Nuovo, Gerard J; Terry, Alvin V; Martin, Mickey M; Malana, Geraldine E; Sansom, Sarah E; Pleister, Adam P; Beck, Wayne D; Head, Elizabeth; Feldman, David S; Elton, Terry S

    2010-01-08

    Down syndrome (DS), or Trisomy 21, is the most common genetic cause of cognitive impairment and congenital heart defects in the human population. Bioinformatic annotation has established that human chromosome 21 (Hsa21) harbors five microRNA (miRNAs) genes: miR-99a, let-7c, miR-125b-2, miR-155, and miR-802. Our laboratory recently demonstrated that Hsa21-derived miRNAs are overexpressed in DS brain and heart specimens. The aim of this study was to identify important Hsa21-derived miRNA/mRNA target pairs that may play a role, in part, in mediating the DS phenotype. We demonstrate by luciferase/target mRNA 3'-untranslated region reporter assays, and gain- and loss-of-function experiments that miR-155 and -802 can regulate the expression of the predicted mRNA target, the methyl-CpG-binding protein (MeCP2). We also demonstrate that MeCP2 is underexpressed in DS brain specimens isolated from either humans or mice. We further demonstrate that, as a consequence of attenuated MeCP2 expression, transcriptionally activated and silenced MeCP2 target genes, CREB1/Creb1 and MEF2C/Mef2c, are also aberrantly expressed in these DS brain specimens. Finally, in vivo silencing of endogenous miR-155 or -802, by antagomir intra-ventricular injection, resulted in the normalization of MeCP2 and MeCP2 target gene expression. Taken together, these results suggest that improper repression of MeCP2, secondary to trisomic overexpression of Hsa21-derived miRNAs, may contribute, in part, to the abnormalities in the neurochemistry observed in the brains of DS individuals. Finally these results suggest that selective inactivation of Hsa21-derived miRNAs may provide a novel therapeutic tool in the treatment of DS.

  10. A Transcriptional Signature of Fatigue Derived from Patients with Primary Sjögren's Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine James

    Full Text Available Fatigue is a debilitating condition with a significant impact on patients' quality of life. Fatigue is frequently reported by patients suffering from primary Sjögren's Syndrome (pSS, a chronic autoimmune condition characterised by dryness of the eyes and the mouth. However, although fatigue is common in pSS, it does not manifest in all sufferers, providing an excellent model with which to explore the potential underpinning biological mechanisms.Whole blood samples from 133 fully-phenotyped pSS patients stratified for the presence of fatigue, collected by the UK primary Sjögren's Syndrome Registry, were used for whole genome microarray. The resulting data were analysed both on a gene by gene basis and using pre-defined groups of genes. Finally, gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA was used as a feature selection technique for input into a support vector machine (SVM classifier. Classification was assessed using area under curve (AUC of receiver operator characteristic and standard error of Wilcoxon statistic, SE(W.Although no genes were individually found to be associated with fatigue, 19 metabolic pathways were enriched in the high fatigue patient group using GSEA. Analysis revealed that these enrichments arose from the presence of a subset of 55 genes. A radial kernel SVM classifier with this subset of genes as input displayed significantly improved performance over classifiers using all pathway genes as input. The classifiers had AUCs of 0.866 (SE(W 0.002 and 0.525 (SE(W 0.006, respectively.Systematic analysis of gene expression data from pSS patients discordant for fatigue identified 55 genes which are predictive of fatigue level using SVM classification. This list represents the first step in understanding the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of fatigue in patients with pSS.

  11. A Transcriptional Signature of Fatigue Derived from Patients with Primary Sjögren’s Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Katherine; Al-Ali, Shereen; Tarn, Jessica; Cockell, Simon J.; Gillespie, Colin S.; Hindmarsh, Victoria; Locke, James; Mitchell, Sheryl; Lendrem, Dennis; Bowman, Simon; Price, Elizabeth; Pease, Colin T.; Emery, Paul; Lanyon, Peter; Hunter, John A.; Gupta, Monica; Bombardieri, Michele; Sutcliffe, Nurhan; Pitzalis, Costantino; McLaren, John; Cooper, Annie; Regan, Marian; Giles, Ian; Isenberg, David; Saravanan, Vadivelu; Coady, David; Dasgupta, Bhaskar; McHugh, Neil; Young-Min, Steven; Moots, Robert; Gendi, Nagui; Akil, Mohammed; Griffiths, Bridget; Wipat, Anil; Newton, Julia; Jones, David E.; Isaacs, John; Hallinan, Jennifer; Ng, Wan-Fai

    2015-01-01

    Background Fatigue is a debilitating condition with a significant impact on patients’ quality of life. Fatigue is frequently reported by patients suffering from primary Sjögren’s Syndrome (pSS), a chronic autoimmune condition characterised by dryness of the eyes and the mouth. However, although fatigue is common in pSS, it does not manifest in all sufferers, providing an excellent model with which to explore the potential underpinning biological mechanisms. Methods Whole blood samples from 133 fully-phenotyped pSS patients stratified for the presence of fatigue, collected by the UK primary Sjögren’s Syndrome Registry, were used for whole genome microarray. The resulting data were analysed both on a gene by gene basis and using pre-defined groups of genes. Finally, gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was used as a feature selection technique for input into a support vector machine (SVM) classifier. Classification was assessed using area under curve (AUC) of receiver operator characteristic and standard error of Wilcoxon statistic, SE(W). Results Although no genes were individually found to be associated with fatigue, 19 metabolic pathways were enriched in the high fatigue patient group using GSEA. Analysis revealed that these enrichments arose from the presence of a subset of 55 genes. A radial kernel SVM classifier with this subset of genes as input displayed significantly improved performance over classifiers using all pathway genes as input. The classifiers had AUCs of 0.866 (SE(W) 0.002) and 0.525 (SE(W) 0.006), respectively. Conclusions Systematic analysis of gene expression data from pSS patients discordant for fatigue identified 55 genes which are predictive of fatigue level using SVM classification. This list represents the first step in understanding the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of fatigue in patients with pSS. PMID:26694930

  12. The Prevalence of Antibiotic and Biocide Resistance Among Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni from Different Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mavri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing levels of antimicrobial resistance among foodborne bacteria are recognised as an important emerging public health problem. Reduced susceptibility to biocides also appears to be increasing. A potential concern is the possibility that the widespread use of biocides is responsible for the selection and maintenance of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Here, we examine the prevalence of erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, triclosan, benzalkonium chloride, chlorhexidine diacetate, cetylpyridinium chloride, trisodium phosphate and sodium dodecyl sulphate resistance among 27 isolates of Campylobacter coli and 15 isolates of Campylobacter jejuni from food, animal, human and environmental water sources. These antimicrobial susceptibilities were determined by the broth microdilution method. In the 42 Campylobacter strains studied, different antibiotic resistance levels were seen. The resistance to erythromycin and ciprofloxacin was observed in 14.3 % of Campylobacter strains. A higher rate of erythromycin resistance and multi-resistance was observed among isolated C. coli than among C. jejuni strains. Similar situations were seen for triclosan. Conversely, the level of benzalkonium chloride resistance was higher in C. jejuni than in C. coli. No correlation between biocide and antibiotic resistance was observed. This study does not provide evidence to confirm that tolerance to biocides is connected to antibiotic resistance in Campylobacter.

  13. Prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli among broilers in Bareilly region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hina Malik

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli among broilers at the time of slaughter in and around Bareilly, India. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 chicken caecal samples were screened by conventional plating in modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar with incubation at 42°C for 48 h under microaerophilic conditions. The characteristic colonies were confirmed by morphological and biochemical characteristics and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR assay targeting lpxA gene. Results: Out of 100 chicken caecal samples, 32 yielded isolates with typical phenotypic of Campylobacter species. The hippurate hydrolysis test found to be positive for 2 isolates, categorized as C. jejuni and negative for 30 isolates. The mPCR assay targeting lpxA gene also confirmed 2 (6.25% isolates as C. jejuni, and 30 (93.75% isolates as C. coli. Conclusion: The present study showed broilers to an important source of Campylobacter in the region with predominance of C. coli than C. jejuni indicating a shift in the prevalence of important species of Campylobacter. To understand the variation in pattern of occurrence of species with high prevalence of organisms, detail studies on the ecology of campylobacteriosis are suggested.

  14. Different response to hypoxia of adipose-derived multipotent cells from obese subjects with and without metabolic syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfredo Oliva-Olivera

    Full Text Available Multiple studies suggest that hypoxia, together with inflammation, could be one of the phenomena involved in the onset and progression of obesity-related insulin resistance. In addition, dysfunction of adipose tissue in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome is associated with decreased angiogenesis. However, some subjects with a high body mass index do not develop metabolic abnormalities associated with obesity. The aim of the current study was to examine the neovascular properties of visceral adipose tissue-derived multipotent mesenchymal cells subjected to hypoxia (hypox-visASCs from normal-weight subjects (Nw and obese patients with metabolic syndrome (MS and without metabolic syndrome (NonMS.This was a 2-year study to enroll subjects who underwent bariatric surgery or cholecystectomy. Eight patients who underwent either bariatric surgery or cholecystectomy (27 patients participated in the study. Visceral adipose tissue samples from Nw, MS and NonMS subjects were processed by enzymatic digestion. VisASCs cultured under hypoxic conditions were characterized by tubule formation assay, ELISA, flow cytometry, migration rate, and qRT-PCR, and the effects of visASCs-conditioned medium on survival and endothelial cell tubule formation were evaluated.Hypox-visASCs from NonMS subjects showed a greater capacity for tubule formation than hypox-visASCs from Nw and MS subjects. The lower percentage of CD140b+/CD44+ and CD140b+/CD184+ cells observed in hypox-visASCs from NonMS subjects compared to MS subjects was accompanied not only by a lower migration rate from the chemotactic effects of stromal cell derived factor 1α, but also by lower levels of NOX5 mRNA expression. While the levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 mRNA expressed by hypox-visASCs correlated positively with the body mass index and waist circumference of the subjects, the concentration of vascular endothelial growth factor present in hypox-visASC-conditioned culture medium

  15. Different response to hypoxia of adipose-derived multipotent cells from obese subjects with and without metabolic syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Indias, Isabel; Coín-Aragüez, Leticia; Lhamyani, Said; Alcaide Torres, Juan; Fernández-Veledo, Sonia; Vendrell, Joan; Camargo, Antonio; El Bekay, Rajaa; Tinahones, Francisco José

    2017-01-01

    Background/Objectives Multiple studies suggest that hypoxia, together with inflammation, could be one of the phenomena involved in the onset and progression of obesity-related insulin resistance. In addition, dysfunction of adipose tissue in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome is associated with decreased angiogenesis. However, some subjects with a high body mass index do not develop metabolic abnormalities associated with obesity. The aim of the current study was to examine the neovascular properties of visceral adipose tissue-derived multipotent mesenchymal cells subjected to hypoxia (hypox-visASCs) from normal-weight subjects (Nw) and obese patients with metabolic syndrome (MS) and without metabolic syndrome (NonMS). Methods This was a 2-year study to enroll subjects who underwent bariatric surgery or cholecystectomy. Eight patients who underwent either bariatric surgery or cholecystectomy (27 patients) participated in the study. Visceral adipose tissue samples from Nw, MS and NonMS subjects were processed by enzymatic digestion. VisASCs cultured under hypoxic conditions were characterized by tubule formation assay, ELISA, flow cytometry, migration rate, and qRT-PCR, and the effects of visASCs-conditioned medium on survival and endothelial cell tubule formation were evaluated. Results Hypox-visASCs from NonMS subjects showed a greater capacity for tubule formation than hypox-visASCs from Nw and MS subjects. The lower percentage of CD140b+/CD44+ and CD140b+/CD184+ cells observed in hypox-visASCs from NonMS subjects compared to MS subjects was accompanied not only by a lower migration rate from the chemotactic effects of stromal cell derived factor 1α, but also by lower levels of NOX5 mRNA expression. While the levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 mRNA expressed by hypox-visASCs correlated positively with the body mass index and waist circumference of the subjects, the concentration of vascular endothelial growth factor present in hypox

  16. Rapid detection and differentiation of Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter lari in food, using multiplex real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, A M; Lick, S; Bauer, J; Thärigen, D; Busch, U; Huber, I

    2010-02-01

    A multiplex real-time PCR assay based on four differently labeled TaqMan probes for detection and differentiation of the thermophilic Campylobacter species C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. lari was established and validated in food products. This assay combines two previously published PCR assays for C. jejuni and C. coli with a newly developed detection assay for C. lari and an internal amplification control system. The selectivity of the method was determined by analyzing 70 Campylobacter strains and 43 strains of other bacteria. The sensitivity was 50 fg of C. jejuni and C. lari DNA and 500 fg of C. coli DNA per PCR. It was possible to detect 1 to 10 CFU/25 g of food before preenrichment of all three species. More than 400 samples of various foods (poultry, seafood, and meat) were analyzed after 48 h of preenrichment parallel to the conventional diagnostic method of culture and biochemical identification. Using the established real-time PCR assay, 55.4% of the samples were recognized as positive for thermophilic Campylobacter species, whereas with the conventional method only 40.3% of the samples were positive. The real-time PCR assay also detected contaminations with two different Campylobacter species in 32.6% of the analyzed poultry samples, a finding of epidemiological interest. Compared with the original PCR method, which was established for the differentiation of bacterial isolates of C. jejuni and C. coli, this new method also detects and distinguishes C. lari, was validated as an analytical tool for food analysis, and provides reliable and extensive results within 2 days.

  17. Reduction of thermotolerant Campylobacter species on broiler carcasses following physical decontamination at slaughter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Louise; Rosenquist, Hanne

    2009-01-01

    To reduce the incidences of human Campylobacter infections, a number of countries are investigating methods for reducing human exposure to Campylobacter from broiler meat. In addition to implementing biosecurity measures at the farm, Campylobacter may be controlled by reducing Campylobacter counts...

  18. Alveolar-derived exhaled nitric oxide is reduced in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foresi, Antonio; Leone, Clementina; Olivieri, Dario; Cremona, George

    2007-09-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is associated with cardiovascular diseases, in particular systemic arterial hypertension. We postulated that intermittent nocturnal hypoxia in OSAS may be associated to decreased fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) levels from distal airspaces. Multiple flow rate measurements have been used to fractionate nitric oxide (NO) from alveolar and bronchial sources in 34 patients with OSAS, in 29 healthy control subjects, and in 8 hypertensive non-OSAS patients. The effect of 2 days of treatment with nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) on FENO was examined in 18 patients with severe OSAS. We found that the mean [+/- SE] concentrations of exhaled NO at a rate of 50 mL/s was 21.8 +/- 1.9 parts per billion (ppb) in patients with OSAS, 25.1 +/- 3.3 ppb in healthy control subjects, and 15.4 +/- 1.7 ppb in hypertensive control patients. The mean fractional alveolar NO concentration (CANO) in OSAS patients was significantly lower than that in control subjects (2.96 +/- 0.48 vs 5.35 +/- 0.83 ppb, respectively; p bronchial FENO, is impaired in patients with OSAS and that this impairment is associated with an increased risk of hypertension. NO production within the alveolar space is modified by treatment with nCPAP.

  19. The concept of cycloid psychosis: sensitivity and specificity of syndromes derived by multivariate clustering techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jönsson, S A; Jonsson, H; Nyman, A K; Nyman, G E

    1991-05-01

    A total of 154 patients admitted for the first time to hospital for a psychotic or affective disorder in 1925 were rediagnosed in accordance with DSM-III and Leonhard's diagnostic system. Symptoms were rated in accordance with a rating protocol containing 33 items based on Leonhard's descriptions of cycloid psychoses. The patients were followed up through parish registers and hospital records. Of 42 cases considered to be cycloid psychosis at index admission, 34 were prognostically verified. The symptom ratings of the 154 patients were analysed by K-means cluster analysis to test whether the patients with cycloid psychoses would separate from the rest of the material. With a 2-cluster solution, 30 of 34 cases (88%) were contained in the same cluster. The sensitivity of the ratings was therefore judged to be acceptable. Specificity was low, however, since 19 cases in the cluster were differently diagnosed. A subcohort of 64 patients, satisfying at least 5 items of the rating protocol, was then analysed by Q-factor analysis to test whether nuclear cases of cycloid psychosis differ from symptomatically related syndromes. No such differences could be statistically verified; no symptom profile specifically indicating cycloid psychosis could be found. Prominent confusion symptoms appear, however, to be prognostically favourable, whereas motility symptoms without confusion seem to indicate an unfavourable course.

  20. Microbiological aspects of Helicobacter pylori (Campylobacter pylori).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, C S; Armstrong, J A

    1990-01-01

    The human gastric pathogen Campylobacter pylori has recently been reclassified as Helicobacter pylori, and a related spiral bacterium found in the stomach of ferrets has been designated Helicobacter mustelae. The general microbiological features of Helicobacter pylori are delineated here, with details of phenotypic differences between Helicobacter pylori and Helicobacter mustelae; comparisons are made with Wolinella succinogenes and Campylobacter jejuni. The Helicobacter organisms possess an external glycocalyx which can be visualised by electron microscopy, and which may be involved in bacterial adherence. The finding of soluble and cell-associated haemagglutinins of Helicobacter pylori is reported. Detection of Helicobacter pylori in clinical specimens, susceptibility of the organism to antibacterial agents, and other aspects of practical and clinical significance are briefly reviewed.

  1. Infeções alimentares por Campylobacter

    OpenAIRE

    Neto, Carlota Duarte Castro

    2017-01-01

    Dissertação para obtenção do grau de Mestre no Instituto Superior de Ciências da Saúde Egas Moniz Após o isolamento bem-sucedido em fezes na década de setenta do século passado (1972), Campylobacter tornou-se rapidamente a espécie bacteriana mais comumente associada a doenças diarreicas em todo o mundo. A infeção por Campylobacter provoca um espectro de doenças, incluindo enterite aguda, infeções extra-gastrointestinais e complicações pós-infeciosas. A doença gastrointestinal autolimita...

  2. Antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) and eradication regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Tetsufumi; Aoki, Wataru; Mizuno, Takashi; Wakazono, Kuniko; Ohno, Junki; Nakai, Tsunehiro; Nomiya, Takao; Fujii, Miki; Fusegawa, Keiichi; Kinoshita, Kazuya; Hamada, Takakazu; Ikeda, Yoshinori

    2017-02-01

    Campylobacter spp. are zoonotic pathogens, however, knowledge about their presence and antimicrobial resistance in nonhuman primates is limited. Our animal facility purchased cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) from various Asian countries: China, Cambodia, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Vietnam. Colonization by Campylobacter spp. was investigated in 238 of the monkeys from 2009 to 2012 and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out for these isolates. Furthermore, we eradicated these pathogens from these monkeys. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 47 monkeys from three specific countries: China, Cambodia, and Indonesia, with respective isolation rates of 15%, 36%, and 67%. Two monkeys, which were each infected with Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, showed clinical symptoms of diarrhea and bloody feces. In total, 41 isolates of C. coli and 17 isolates of C. jejuni were detected. Antimicrobial susceptibility varied: in the monkeys from China, erythromycin (ERY)-, tetracycline (TET)-, and ciprofloxacin-resistant C. coli, in the monkeys from Cambodia, amoxicillin-intermediate, TET- and ciprofloxacin-resistant C. coli and amoxicillin- and ciprofloxacin-resistant C. jejuni, and in the monkeys from Indonesia, ciprofloxacin-resistant C. coli and TET- and ciprofloxacin-resistant C. jejuni were common (>75%). Multiresistant isolates of C. coli were found in monkeys from all countries and multiresistant isolates of C. jejuni were found in monkeys from Indonesia. The eradication rate with azithromycin was comparable to that with gentamicin (GEN) by oral administration, and was higher than those with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (AMC) and chloramphenicol (CHL). From the perspective of zoonosis, we should acknowledge multiresistant Campylobacter spp. isolated from the monkeys as a serious warning. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Campylobacter jejuni seroepidemiology in native chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Rosyidi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is responsible for about 90% of cases of Campylobacteriosis in humans with gastroenteritis. Healthy chickens can carry Campylobacter spp. in the intestinal tract. Efforts to reduce exposure to Campylobacteriosis by humans may be enhanced by knowledge of its prevalence in poultry. This study aimed to identify factors associated with seropositive response to C. jejuni in native chickens in Mataram. Detection of C. jejuni was accomplished using an immunochromatographic serological method. Association between Campylobacter jejuni seropositive response as the dependent variable with various independent variables was analyzed using χ² (Chi square and Odds Ratio (OR. A total of 216 chicken samples were examined and 44 chicken owners were interviewed and their farms examined. Results showed the prevalence of serological response to C. jejuni in chicken samples to be as high as 35.6% and that as many as 70.5% of farms had affected chickens. Age of the chicken was the variable most closely associated with incidence of seropositive response, birds older than 3 months more likely to be affected. Variables at the farm level associated with variation in seropositive response were cage type, cage floor material, and origin of drinking water, surface water sources being less desirable.

  4. Electrocardiography-Derived Predictors for Therapeutic Response to Treatment in Children with Postural Tachycardia Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wenxin; Yan, Hui; Wu, Shu; Chen, Selena; Xu, Wenrui; Jin, Hongfang; Du, Junbao

    2016-09-01

    To explore whether electrocardiography (ECG) variables could be used to predict responses to physical treatment in children with postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS). Forty children with POTS and 32 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. General information and hemodynamic and supine ECG variables, including QT interval dispersion (QTd), were collected. The children with POTS received physical treatment and 3 months of follow-up. A receiver-operating characteristic curve was used to evaluate the value of ECG variables for predicting the effectiveness of physical treatment. Compared with the healthy children, the children with POTS had longer baseline QTd and heart rate (HR)-corrected QTd (QTcd), but shorter minimum QT intervals (QTmin) and minimum HR-corrected QT intervals (P < .05). In children with POTS, responders to physical treatment had a longer baseline time between QRS complexes (RR) interval of minimum QT interval and a longer QTcd compared with nonresponders. A longer QTcd was a significant risk factor for the presence of POTS (OR, 1.022; P = .02) and for undesirable responses to physical treatment in children with POTS (OR, 1.044; P = .03). Baseline QTcd was positively correlated with the HR elevation from supine to upright seen in children with POTS (r = 0.348; P = .003). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis demonstrated an area under the curve of 0.73, and using 43.0 msec as a cutoff of QTcd yielded a sensitivity of 90% and a specificity of 60%. QTcd might be useful for predicting the effectiveness of physical treatment for POTS in children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Molecular Diagnosis of Shigella, Salmonella and Campylobacter by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    infections, enteric bacteria such as Campylobacter, Salmonella and Shigella are impor- tant because of the frequency and severity of the symptoms they could cause. Thus,. Campylobacter is currently considered the leading cause of intestinal bacterial infec- tions in humans worldwide with an increasing incidence in ...

  6. Foodborne disease prevention and broiler chickens with reduced Campylobacter infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahrndorff, Simon; Rangstrup-Christensen, Lena; Nordentoft, Steen

    2013-01-01

    Studies have suggested that flies play a linking role in the epidemiology of Campylobacter spp. in broiler chickens and that fly screens can reduce the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. We examined the year-round and long-term effects of fly screens in 10 broiler chicken houses (99 flocks...... broiler chicken flocks....

  7. Campylobacter: animal reservoirs, human infections, and options for control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar, Jaap; Newell, D.G.; Kalupahana, R.S.; Mughini Gras, Lapo

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis is a frequently diagnosed disease in humans. Most infections are considered food-borne and are caused by Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli. The animal reservoirs of these Campylobacter, and the sources and routes of transmission, are described and discussed. Most warm-blooded

  8. Campylobacter infections in fattening pigs; excretion pattern and genetic diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijtens, M.J.B.M.; Reinders, R.D.; Urlings, H.A.P.; Plas, van der J.

    1999-01-01

    The excretion of campylobacter by eight individually housed fattening pigs was monitored during 15 weeks. Rectal faeces samples were collected six times from these pigs and twice from their mothers (seven sows). Campylobacter was cultured from these samples on Preston medium. In some pigs, samples

  9. Host-pathogen interactions in Campylobacter infections: the host perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, R.; Krogfelt, K.A.; Cawthraw, S.A.; Pelt, van W.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Owen, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    Campylobacter is a major cause of acute bacterial diarrhea in humans worldwide. This study was aimed at summarizing the current understanding of host mechanisms involved in the defense against Campylobacter by evaluating data available from three sources: (i) epidemiological observations, (ii)

  10. Campylobacter infections in fattening pigs; Excretion pattern and genetic diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijtens, M.J.B.M.; Reinders, R.D.; Urlings, H.A.P.; Plas, J. van der

    1999-01-01

    The excretion of campylobacter by eight individually housed fattening pigs was monitored during 15 weeks. Rectal faeces samples were collected six times from these pigs and twice from their mothers (seven sows). Campylobacter was cultured from these samples on Preston medium. In some pigs, samples

  11. The role of Campylobacter jejuni cytolethal distending toxin in gastroenteritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Ninell P; Schiellerup, Peter; Boisen, Nadia

    2011-01-01

    The role of Campylobacter jejuni cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) on clinical outcome after gastroenteritis was investigated. Clinical data, blood serum samples, and Campylobacter spp. isolated, from each of 30 patients were collected over a period of 6 months. The CDT encoding genes, cdt...

  12. Campylobacter and Toll-like receptors : implications for vaccine development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Zoete, M.R.

    2010-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a Gram-negative highly motile bacterium that colonizes the intestinal tract of humans, leading to inflammation of the intestinal mucosal layer. Campylobacter-induced enteritis causes (bloody) diarrhea, cramps, malaise and fever, which resolves within two weeks. In a small

  13. Campylobacter pylori as possible factor in peptic ulcer recurrence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rauws, E. A.

    1989-01-01

    The author reviews the literature up to 1988 about the close association of Campylobacter pylori with chronic active gastritis, duodenitis and peptic ulcer disease. No firm data however demonstrate that Campylobacter pylori causes duodenal ulcer but long term eradication of this bacterium prevents

  14. Cellular response of Campylobacter jejuni to trisodium phosphate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riedel, Charlotte Tandrup; Cohn, M. T.; Stabler, R. A.

    2012-01-01

    The highly alkaline compound trisodium phosphate (TSP) is used as an intervention to reduce the load of Campylobacter on poultry meat in U.S. poultry slaughter plants. The aim of the present study was to investigate the cellular responses of Campylobacter jejuni NCTC11168 when exposed to sublethal...

  15. Effect of Noradrenaline on the Virulence Properties of Campylobacter Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sree V. Aroori

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter species cause a spectrum of illnesses in humans. The type of illness and the outcome is dependent on the virulence of the infecting pathogen strain and host immune status. Acute stress can seriously compromise host immunity and increase susceptibility to infection. Noradrenaline (NA is a stress hormone. Several studies have shown that it stimulated growth and increased the pathogenicity of organisms including E. coli and Campylobacter jejuni. However, the effect of NA on other Campylobacter species is unknown. We have examined the effect of NA on growth rate, motility, invasion of T84 epithelial cells, and colonisation of chickens by diverse Campylobacter species. Campylobacter cultures grown with NA had reduced lag phases, increased growth rates, and higher final optical densities than controls. The motility of Campylobacter was also significantly increased in the presence of noradrenaline. Some of the Campylobacter strains tested also showed increased invasion of T84 epithelial cells, greater breakdown of tight junctions, and an enhanced potential to colonise chickens. Our results show that noradrenaline-induced enhancement of virulence of Campylobacter can influence the outcome of infection.

  16. Generation of Campylobacter jejuni genetic diversity in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de P.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Achterberg, R.P.; Putten, van J.P.M.; Schouls, L.M.; Duim, B.

    2002-01-01

    Molecular epidemiology studies suggest that horizontal genetic exchange is a major cause of pathogen biodiversity. We tested this concept for the bacterial enteropathogen Campylobacter jejuni by seeking direct in vivo evidence for the exchange of genetic material among Campylobacter strains. For

  17. Campylobacter spp among Children with acute diarrhea attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolation rate in developing countries is between 5-35%. This study aimed at finding prevalence of children with campylobacter infection among children with acute diarrhea attending Mulago hospital. Objective: The objective was to establish the proportion of children infected with Campylobacter spp among children with ...

  18. Quantifying Transmission of Campylobacter jejuni in Commercial Broiler Flocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerwe, van T.; Miflin, J.K.; Templeton, J.M.; Bouma, A.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Jacobs-Reitsma, W.F.; Stegeman, A.; Klinkenberg, D.

    2009-01-01

    Since meat from poultry colonized with Campylobacter spp. is a major cause of bacterial gastroenteritis, human exposure should be reduced by, among other things, prevention of colonization of broiler flocks. To obtain more insight into possible sources of introduction of Campylobacter into broiler

  19. Bayesian analysis of culture and PCR methods for detection of Campylobacter spp. in broiler caecal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, M E; Jones, E M; Lawes, J R; Vidal, A B; Clifton-Hadley, F A; Rodgers, J D; Powell, L F

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of a culture method and a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method for detection of two Campylobacter species: C. jejuni and C. coli. Data were collected during a 3-year survey of UK broiler flocks, and consisted of parallel sampling of caeca from 436 batches of birds by both PCR and culture. Batches were stratified by season (summer/non-summer) and whether they were the first depopulation of the flock, resulting in four sub-populations. A Bayesian approach in the absence of a gold standard was adopted, and the sensitivity and specificity of the PCR and culture for each Campylobacter subtype was estimated, along with the true C. jejuni and C. coli prevalence in each sub-population. Results indicated that the sensitivity of the culture method was higher than that of PCR in detecting both species when the samples were derived from populations infected with at most one species of Campylobacter. However, from a mixed population, the sensitivity of culture for detecting both C. jejuni or C. coli is reduced while PCR is potentially able to detect both species, although the total probability of correctly identifying at least one species by PCR is similar to that of the culture method.

  20. Donor-derived Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection syndrome after simultaneous kidney/pancreas transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Galiano

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Most cases of strongyloidiasis associated with solid organ transplantation have been due to the reactivation of a latent infection in the recipient as a result of the immunosuppressive therapy; however, donor-derived infections are becoming increasingly frequent. The case of a patient who nearly died of a Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection after receiving simultaneous kidney/pancreas transplants is described herein. No specific parasitological tests were performed pre-transplantation, despite the fact that both the recipient and the donor originated from endemic areas. Serological analysis of the donor's serum performed retrospectively revealed the origin of the infection, which if it had been done beforehand would have prevented the serious complications. Current practice guidelines need to be updated to incorporate immunological and molecular techniques for the rapid screening of Strongyloides prior to transplantation, and empirical treatment with ivermectin should be applied systematically when there is the slightest risk of infection in the donor or recipient.

  1. Restaurant Cooking Trends and Increased Risk for Campylobacter Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Anna K; Rigby, Dan; Burton, Michael; Millman, Caroline; Williams, Nicola J; Jones, Trevor R; Wigley, Paul; O'Brien, Sarah J; Cross, Paul

    2016-07-01

    In the United Kingdom, outbreaks of Campylobacter infection are increasingly attributed to undercooked chicken livers, yet many recipes, including those of top chefs, advocate short cooking times and serving livers pink. During 2015, we studied preferences of chefs and the public in the United Kingdom and investigated the link between liver rareness and survival of Campylobacter. We used photographs to assess chefs' ability to identify chicken livers meeting safe cooking guidelines. To investigate the microbiological safety of livers chefs preferred to serve, we modeled Campylobacter survival in infected chicken livers cooked to various temperatures. Most chefs correctly identified safely cooked livers but overestimated the public's preference for rareness and thus preferred to serve them more rare. We estimated that 19%-52% of livers served commercially in the United Kingdom fail to reach 70°C and that predicted Campylobacter survival rates are 48%-98%. These findings indicate that cooking trends are linked to increasing Campylobacter infections.

  2. Antimicrobial resistance in campylobacter: susceptibility testing methods and resistance trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Beilei; Wang, Fei; Sjölund-Karlsson, Maria; McDermott, Patrick F

    2013-10-01

    Most Campylobacter infections are self-limiting but antimicrobial treatment (e.g., macrolides, fluoroquinolones) is necessary in severe or prolonged cases. Susceptibility testing continues to play a critical role in guiding therapy and epidemiological monitoring of resistance. The methods of choice for Campylobacter recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) are agar dilution and broth microdilution, while a disk diffusion method was recently standardized by the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST). Macrolides, quinolones, and tetracyclines are among the common antimicrobials recommended for testing. Molecular determination of Campylobacter resistance via DNA sequencing or PCR-based methods has been performed. High levels of resistance to tetracycline and ciprofloxacin are frequently reported by many national surveillance programs, but resistance to erythromycin and gentamicin in Campylobacter jejuni remains low. Nonetheless, variations in susceptibility observed over time underscore the need for continued public health monitoring of Campylobacter resistance from humans, animals, and food. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Risk factors for indigenous Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli infections in The Netherlands: a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorduyn, Y.; Brandhof, van den W.E.; Duynhoven, van Y.T.H.P.; Breukink, B.J.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Pelt, van W.

    2010-01-01

    A case-control study comprising 1315 Campylobacter jejuni cases, 121 Campylobacter coli cases and 3409 frequency-matched controls was conducted in The Netherlands in 2002-2003. Risk factors for both C. jejuni and C. coli enteritis were consumption of undercooked meat and barbecued meat, ownership of

  4. Detection of Campylobacter Bacteria in Air Samples for Continuous Real-Time Monitoring of Campylobacter Colonization in Broiler Flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Katja Nyholm; Lund, Marianne; Skov, J.

    2009-01-01

    Improved monitoring tools are important for the control of Campylobacter bacteria in broiler production. In this study, we compare the sensitivities of detection of Campylobacter by PCR with feces, dust, and air samples during the lifetimes of broilers in two poultry houses and conclude that the ...

  5. Chromosome 21-derived MicroRNAs Provide an Etiological Basis for Aberrant Protein Expression in Human Down Syndrome Brains*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Donald E.; Nuovo, Gerard J.; Terry, Alvin V.; Martin, Mickey M.; Malana, Geraldine E.; Sansom, Sarah E.; Pleister, Adam P.; Beck, Wayne D.; Head, Elizabeth; Feldman, David S.; Elton, Terry S.

    2010-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS), or Trisomy 21, is the most common genetic cause of cognitive impairment and congenital heart defects in the human population. Bioinformatic annotation has established that human chromosome 21 (Hsa21) harbors five microRNA (miRNAs) genes: miR-99a, let-7c, miR-125b-2, miR-155, and miR-802. Our laboratory recently demonstrated that Hsa21-derived miRNAs are overexpressed in DS brain and heart specimens. The aim of this study was to identify important Hsa21-derived miRNA/mRNA target pairs that may play a role, in part, in mediating the DS phenotype. We demonstrate by luciferase/target mRNA 3′-untranslated region reporter assays, and gain- and loss-of-function experiments that miR-155 and -802 can regulate the expression of the predicted mRNA target, the methyl-CpG-binding protein (MeCP2). We also demonstrate that MeCP2 is underexpressed in DS brain specimens isolated from either humans or mice. We further demonstrate that, as a consequence of attenuated MeCP2 expression, transcriptionally activated and silenced MeCP2 target genes, CREB1/Creb1 and MEF2C/Mef2c, are also aberrantly expressed in these DS brain specimens. Finally, in vivo silencing of endogenous miR-155 or -802, by antagomir intra-ventricular injection, resulted in the normalization of MeCP2 and MeCP2 target gene expression. Taken together, these results suggest that improper repression of MeCP2, secondary to trisomic overexpression of Hsa21-derived miRNAs, may contribute, in part, to the abnormalities in the neurochemistry observed in the brains of DS individuals. Finally these results suggest that selective inactivation of Hsa21-derived miRNAs may provide a novel therapeutic tool in the treatment of DS. PMID:19897480

  6. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis following Campylobacter jejuni gastroenteritis: Case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marziali, Simone; Picchi, Eliseo; Di Giuliano, Francesca; Altobelli, Simone; Mataluni, Giorgia; Marfia, Girolama; Garaci, Francesco; Floris, Roberto

    2017-02-01

    We describe a case of a 25-year-old male with a diagnosis of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) following infection with Campylobacter jejuni, which is implicated in various human pathologies regarding the central nervous system (CNS) with acute course like Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), Miller-Fisher syndrome (MFS), Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis (BEE), acute transverse myelitis (ATM) as well as ADEM. These conditions are caused by cross-reactivity between Campylobacter's epitopes and cells of the CNS that causes an immunomediated inflammatory demyelination of the CNS. In the acute phase, magnetic resonance (MR) can detect pathologic signal intensity at the CNS with areas of pathologic contrast enhancement at cortical and spinal white matter that normalize over time or can be stable. These findings can be associated with edema in parts of the CNS. The lesions typically appear at different times during the disease course and also can have a different evolution. Our purpose therefore was to describe the clinical course and MR findings of this case and perform a critical review of the literature.

  7. The immunobiology of Campylobacter jejuni: Innate immunity and autoimmune diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phongsisay, Vongsavanh

    2016-04-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Campylobacter jejuni causes gastroenteritis and Guillain-Barré syndrome in humans. Recent advances in the immunobiology of C. jejuni have been made. This review summarizes C. jejuni-binding innate receptors and highlights the role of innate immunity in autoimmune diseases. This human pathogen produces a variety of glycoconjugates, including human ganglioside-like determinants and multiple activators of Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Furthermore, C. jejuni targets MyD88, NLRP3 inflammasome, TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (TRIF), sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectins (Siglecs), macrophage galactose-type lectin (MGL), and immunoglobulin-like receptors (TREM2, LMIR5/CD300b). The roles of these innate receptors and signaling molecules have been extensively studied. MyD88-mediated TLR activation or inflammasome-dependent IL-1β secretion is essential for autoimmune induction. TRIF mediates the production of type I interferons that promote humoral immune responses and immunoglobulin class-switching. Siglec-1 and Siglec-7 interact directly with gangliosides. Siglec-1 activation enhances phagocytosis and inflammatory responses. MGL internalizes GalNAc-containing glycoconjugates. TREM2 is well-known for its role in phagocytosis. LMIR5 recognizes C. jejuni components and endogenous sulfoglycolipids. Several lines of evidence from animal models of autoimmune diseases suggest that simultaneous activation of innate immunity in the presence of autoreactive lymphocytes or antigen mimicry may link C. jejuni to immunopathology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in wild birds on Danish livestock farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Skov, Marianne Nielsine; Nielsen, Eva Møller

    2016-01-01

    Background: Reducing the occurrence of campylobacteriosis is a food safety issue of high priority, as in recent years it has been the most commonly reported zoonosis in the EU. Livestock farms are of particular interest, since cattle, swine and poultry are common reservoirs of Campylobacter spp. ...

  9. Tight junction changes in epithelial cells by Campylobacter jejuni and non-jejuni Campylobacter species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bücker, Roland; Nielsen, Hans Linde; Krüg, S

    Campylobacter concisus infections of the gastrointestinal tract can be accompanied by diarrhea and inflammation, whereas colonization of the human oral cavity might have a commensal nature. We focus on the pathophysiology of C. concisus and the effects of different clinical oral and fecal C...

  10. Computer-assisted analysis and epidemiological value of genotyping methods for Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, P. de; Duim, B.; Rigter, A.; Plas, J. van der; Jacobs-Reitsma, W.F.; Wagenaar, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    For epidemiological tracing of the thermotolerant Campylobacter species C. jejuni and C. coli, reliable and highly discriminatory typing techniques are necessary. In this study the genotyping techniques of flagellin typing (flaA typing), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), automated ribotyping,

  11. Quantifying potential sources of surface water contamination with Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Penny, Christian; Ragimbeau, Catherine; Schets, Franciska M.; Blaak, Hetty; Duim, Birgitta; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; Boer, de Albert; Cauchie, Henry-Michel; Mossong, Joel; Pelt, Van Wilfrid

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter is the most common causative agent of human bacterial gastroenteritis and is frequently found in surface water, where it indicates recent contamination with animal faeces, sewage effluent, and agricultural run-off. The contribution of different animal reservoirs to surface water

  12. Higher resistance of Campylobacter coli compared to Campylobacter jejuni at chicken slaughterhouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torralbo, Alicia; Borge, Carmen; García-Bocanegra, Ignacio; Méric, Guillaume; Perea, Anselmo; Carbonero, Alfonso

    2015-04-01

    In order to compare the prevalence of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni during the processing of broilers at slaughterhouse a total of 848 samples were analyzed during 2012 in southern Spain. Four hundred and seventy six samples were collected from cloaca, carcass surfaces and quartered carcasses. Moreover, 372 environmental swabs from equipment and scalding water were collected. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) to ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, streptomycin, tetracycline and gentamicin was determined for isolates from chicken meat. The general prevalence of Campylobacter was 68.8% (40.2% of C. coli and 28.5% of C. jejuni). The relative prevalence of C. coli increased from loading dock area (41.5%) to packing area (64.6%). In contrast, the relative prevalence of C. jejuni decreased from 58.5% to 35.4%. These differences between species from initial to final area were significant (p=0.02). The highest antimicrobial resistance for C. jejuni and C. coli was detected to tetracycline (100%) and ciprofloxacin (100%), respectively. Campylobacter coli showed an antimicrobial resistance significantly higher than C. jejuni to streptomycin (p=0.002) and erythromycin (p<0.0001). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Detection and quantification of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli using real-time multiplex PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toplak, N; Kovač, M; Piskernik, S; Možina, S Smole; Jeršek, B

    2012-04-01

    We describe a real-time quantitative multiplex polymerase chain reaction (qmPCR) assay to identify and discriminate between isolates of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. Two novel sets of primers and hydrolysis probes were designed to amplify the unique DNA sequences within the hipO, ccoN and cadF genes that are specific to Camp. jejuni and Camp. coli. Using the designed optimized qmPCR assay conditions, the amplification efficiency is in range from 108 to 116%. These qmPCR assays are highly specific for Camp. jejuni and Camp. coli, as seen through testing of 40 Campylobacter strains and 17 non-Campylobacter strains. In chicken juice and tap water models spiked with known quantities of Camp. jejuni, qmPCR detected 10(2) -10(3) CFU ml(-1) within 4 h. The qmPCR assays developed in this study provide reliable and simultaneous detection and quantification of Camp. jejuni and Camp. coli, with good amplification reaction parameters. Following further validation, the qmPCR assay reported here has the potential to be applied to various sample types as an alternative and rapid methodology. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Comparative genomic fingerprinting for the subtyping of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli biotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljković-Selimović Biljana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Objective. Thermophilic campylobacters, especially Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni and Campylobacter coli (C. coli, are the most important causes of bacterial diarrhea in developed and developing countries. The disease can occur as a sporadic infection or as large and small outbreaks. Phenotyping and genotyping methods are in use to determine similarities between strains as well their possible common origin. The goal of the study was to compare discriminatory power of biotyping tests and comparative genomic fingerprinting (CGF 40 (100%, as well as a combination of the two tests in detection of clonality or epidemiological relatedness between the studied strains. Methods. We investigated 23 Campylobacter strains using biotyping and CGF typing. Results. We found that biotyping was a more discriminatory method for C. coli, and CGF for C. jejuni strains. In the discrimination of C. jejuni strains, CGF had better discriminatory power [Simpson’s index of diversity (ID was 0.879] over the discrimination of C. coli strains (Simpson’s ID was 0.389. Conclusion. Biotyping and CGF can be complementary methods in detection of similarity, relatedness and possible common origin between strains since the combination of biotyping and CGF methods gives more precise data about diversity within C. coli and C. jejuni strains. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. TR34008

  15. Systemic radical scavenger treatment of a mouse model of Rett syndrome: merits and limitations of the vitamin E derivative Trolox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliwa Alicja Janc

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Rett syndrome (RTT is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder typically arising from spontaneous mutations in the X-chromosomal methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2 gene. The almost exclusively female Rett patients show an apparently normal development during their first 6-18 months of life. Subsequently, cognitive- and motor-impairment, hand stereotypies, loss of learned skills, epilepsy, and irregular breathing manifest. Early mitochondrial impairment and oxidative challenge are considered to facilitate disease progression. Along this line, we recently confirmed in vitro that acute treatment with the vitamin E-derivative Trolox dampens neuronal hyperexcitability, reinstates synaptic plasticity, ameliorates cellular redox balance, and improves hypoxia tolerance in male MeCP2-deficient (Mecp2-/y mouse hippocampus. Pursuing these promising findings, we performed a preclinical study to define the merit of systemic Trolox administration. Blinded, placebo-controlled in vivo treatment of male mice started at postnatal day 10-11 and continued for ~40 days. Compounds (vehicle only, 10 mg/kg or 40 mg/kg Trolox were injected intraperitoneally every 48h. Detailed phenotyping revealed that in Mecp2-/y mice, blood glucose levels, lipid peroxidation, synaptic short-term plasticity, hypoxia tolerance, and certain forms of environmental exploration were improved by Trolox. Yet, body weight and size, motor function, and the rate and regularity of breathing did not improve. In conclusion, in vivo Trolox treatment partially ameliorated a subset of symptoms of the complex Rett phenotype, thereby confirming a partial merit of the vitamin E-derivative based pharmacotherapy. Yet, it also became evident that frequent animal handling and the route of drug administration are critical issues to be optimized in future trials.

  16. Extracts of edible and medicinal plants in inhibition of growth, adherence, and cytotoxin production of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Sandra L; Heredia, Norma; Contreras, Juan F; García, Santos

    2011-08-01

    Campylobacter spp. is recognized as one of the most common cause of food-borne bacterial gastroenteritis in humans. Campylobacter infection causes campylobacteriosis, which can range from asymptomatic to dysentery-type illnesses with severe complications, such as Guillian-Barre syndrome. Epidemiological studies have revealed that consumption of poultry products is an important risk factor of this disease. Adherence and cytotoxic activity of the bacteria to host mucosal surfaces have been proposed to be critical steps in pathogenesis. Innovative tools for controlling Campylobacter, such as natural products from plants, represent good alternatives for use in foods or as therapeutic agents. In this study, 28 edible or medicinal plants species were analyzed for their bactericidal effects on the growth of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli. The extracts of Acacia farnesiana, Artemisia ludoviciana, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Cynara scolymus were the most effective against these microorganisms at minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of 0.3, 0.5, 0.4, and 2.0 mg/mL, respectively. No effect on growth was detected with lower concentrations of extract (25%, 50%, or 75% of the MBC) added to the media. The effect of each extract (75% of the MBC) on adherence and cytotoxicity of C. jejuni and C. coli was evaluated in Vero cells. Adherence of Campylobacter to Vero cells was significantly affected by all the extracts. Cytotoxic activity of bacterial cultures was inhibited by A. farnesiana and A. ludoviciana. These plant extracts are potential candidates to be studied for controlling Campylobacter contamination in foods and the diseases associated with this microorganism. Innovative tools for controlling Campylobacter, such as natural products from plants, represent good alternatives for use in foods or as therapeutic agents. The extracts of Acacia farnesiana, Artemisia ludoviciana, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Cynara scolymus

  17. {gamma}-irradiation deregulates cell cycle control and apoptosis in nevoid basal cell carcinomas syndrome-derived cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Katsunori; Miyashita, Toshiyuki; Yamada, Masao [National Children' s Medical Research Center, Tokyo (Japan); Takanashi, Jun-ichi; Sugita, Katsuo; Kohno, Yoichi; Nishie, Haruko; Yasumoto, Shin-ichiro; Furue, Masutaka

    1999-12-01

    The nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by nevi, palmar and plantar pits, falx calcification, vertebrate anomalies and basal cell carcinomas. It is well known in NBCCS that {gamma}-irradiation to the skin induces basal cell carcinomas or causes an enlargement of the tumor size, although the details of the mechanism remain unknown. We have established lymphoblastoid cell lines from three NBCCS patients, and we present here the first evidence of abnormal cell cycle and apoptosis regulations. A novel mutation (single nucleotide deletion) in the coding region of the human patched gene, PTCH, was identified in two sibling patients, but no apparent abnormalities were detected in the gene of the remaining patient. Nevertheless, the three established cell lines showed similar features in the following analyses. Flow cytometric analyses revealed that the NBCCS-derived cells were accumulated in the G{sub 2}M phase after {gamma}-irradiation, whereas normal cells showed cell cycle arrest both in the G{sub 0}G{sub 1} and G{sub 2}M phases. The fraction of apoptotic cells after {gamma}-irradiation was smaller in the NBCCS cells. The level of p27 expression markedly decreased after {gamma}-irradiation in the NBCCS cells, although the effects of the irradiation on the expression profiles for p53, p21 and Rb did not differ in normal and NBCCS cells. These findings may provide a clue to the molecular mechanisms of tumorigenesis in NBCCS. (author)

  18. Comparison of radiosensitivity between human hematopoietic cell lines derived from patients with Down's syndrome and from normal persons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, C.C.; Banerjee, A.; Tan, J.C.; Hou, Y.

    1977-01-01

    Seven hematopoietic cell lines, four derived from the peripheral blood of patients with Down's syndrome (DS) and three from normal persons, were irradiated with 100, 150, 300, and 500 rads from a 60 Co source and harvested for cell count and chromosome aberration studies every 12 hours for 72 hours post irradiation. Cell growth inhibition and an increase in chromosome aberration were observed in all the cell lines at each dose level and time interval. No significant difference was observed in the effects between DS and normal cell lines. The most common types of aberrations in the 12-hour samples were chromosome and/or chromatid breaks. In the later samples, chromatid exchanges were predominant. The results of the variance analyses on the induced chromosome aberrations in six lines (three DS and three normal lines) showed radiation dosage to be the largest component of total variance, following postirradiation duration and cell lines. The samples harvested 24 and 36 hours post irradiation generally showed greater effects than the samples of other harvest durations. The cell line variance could only be attributed to the differences among and between individual cell lines rather than the difference between DS and normal cell lines

  19. Serum level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in fibromyalgia syndrome correlates with depression but not anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugraha, Boya; Korallus, Christoph; Gutenbrunner, Christoph

    2013-02-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been known to play a role in fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) patients. Depression and anxiety are quite common additional symptoms in FMS. However the role of BDNF in these symptoms still needs to be elucidated. Although BDNF has been shown to be relevant in major depression, however studies could not show such differences between FMS patients with and without major depression. As mood-related symptom occurs frequently and differs in its intensity in FMS patients, BDNF level should be measured in subgroup regarding depression and anxiety scale. Therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation of BDNF in serum of FMS with intensity of depression and anxiety. Additionally, interleukin (IL)-6 was measured. This study showed that serum level of BDNF was age-dependent in HCs. FMS patients had higher level of serum BDNF as compared to HC. Additionally, serum level of BDNF showed correlation with depression, but not with anxiety. Serum level of BDNF increased with depression score in FMS. However, serum level of IL-6 was not correlated with both depression and anxiety scores. Taken together, BDNF is involved in the pathophysiology of FMS. Additionally, it seems to be correlated with intensity of depressive symptoms in FMS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Participation of some campylobacter species in the etiology of enterocolitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otašević Marica M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In recent decades, medical community has increasingly been calling attention to the importance of Campylobacter as an disease-causing agent in humans. Nowdays, Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni is known as the most frequent bacterial cause of diarrhea worldwide. Epidemiological differences of the infections caused by Campylobacter, present in the developed and the developing countries, are attributed to the differences of the types of virulence. Due to the specificity, and the demanding features of Campylobacter, as well as poorly equipped microbiological laboratories, campylobacteriosis is insufficiently studied in our country. This investigation aimed to determine the participation of some Campylobacter species in the etiology of diarrheal diseases in our population. Methods. The four-years continuous monitoring of Campylobacter presence was performed in the faeces of 12 605 patients with enterocolitis. The control group included 5 774 examinees of healthy children and youth. Faeces samples were cultivated on Skirrow's selective medium, and further incubated according to effective methodology for Campylobacter. Identification of strains was based on morphological, cultural and physiologic features of strains (oxidase test, catalase test, susceptibility to nalidixic acid, and hypurate hydrolysis. As a statistical method, for data processing, c2 test and Fisher’s exact test were used. Results. Campylobacter was proven in 3.86% of enterocolitis patients, and in 0.71% of healthy population. Out of 518 Campylobacter isolates, 86.48% belonged to enterocolitis outpatients, and 13,51% to inpatients. Predominant symptoms of the disease were diarrhea (81.83%, increased temperature (34.71%, vomiting (19.77%, and stomach pain (15.17%. The diseased were predominantly infants in the first year of life. Out of 300 Campylobacter isolates, 75% were identified as Campylobacer jejuni, 23% as Campylobacter coli (C. coli, and 2% as Campylobacter lari

  1. Antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from poultry in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomelli, Martina; Salata, Cristiano; Martini, Marco; Montesissa, Clara; Piccirillo, Alessandra

    2014-04-01

    This study was aimed at assessing the antimicrobial resistance (AMR) of Campylobacter isolates from broilers and turkeys reared in industrial farms in Northern Italy, given the public health concern represented by resistant campylobacters in food-producing animals and the paucity of data about this topic in our country. Thirty-six Campylobacter jejuni and 24 Campylobacter coli isolated from broilers and 68 C. jejuni and 32 C. coli from turkeys were tested by disk diffusion for their susceptibility to apramycin, gentamicin, streptomycin, cephalothin, cefotaxime, ceftiofur, cefuroxime, ampicillin, amoxicillin+clavulanic acid, nalidixic acid, flumequine, enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, tilmicosin, tylosin, tiamulin, clindamycin, tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole+trimethoprim, chloramphenicol. Depending on the drug, breakpoints provided by Comité de l'antibiogramme de la Société Française de Microbiologie, Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, and the manufacturer were followed. All broiler strains and 92% turkey strains were multidrug resistant. Very high resistance rates were detected for quinolones, tetracycline, and sulfamethoxazole+trimethoprim, ranging from 65% to 100% in broilers and from 74% to 96% in turkeys. Prevalence of resistance was observed also against ampicillin (97% in broilers, 88% in turkeys) and at least three cephalosporins (93-100% in broilers, 100% in turkeys). Conversely, no isolates showed resistance to chloramphenicol and tiamulin. Susceptibility prevailed for amoxicillin+clavulanic acid and aminoglycosides in both poultry species, and for macrolides and clindamycin among turkey strains and among C. jejuni from broilers, whereas most C. coli strains from broilers (87.5%) were resistant. Other differences between C. jejuni and C. coli were observed markedly in broiler isolates, with the overall predominance of resistance in C. coli compared to C. jejuni. This study provides updates and novel data on the AMR of broiler and

  2. Rapid and Specific Methods to Differentiate Foodborne Pathogens, Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and the New Species Causing Spotty Liver Disease in Chickens, Campylobacter hepaticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van, Thi Thu Hao; Anwar, Arif; Scott, Peter C; Moore, Robert J

    2018-01-22

    Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli play a major role in bacteria-related foodborne illness in humans. Recently, a newly identified species, Campylobacter hepaticus, was shown to be the causative agent of spotty liver disease in chickens. The pathogenic potential of C. hepaticus in humans is unknown. This new species contains genes usually used to detect C. jejuni and C. coli in DNA-based detection methods, such as the hippuricase (hipO) gene and the glyA (serine hydroxymethyltransferase) gene, with a high degree of similarity. Therefore, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers used to detect these species need to be evaluated carefully to prevent misidentification of these important Campylobacter species. A multiplex PCR was developed and optimized to simultaneously and specifically identify the presence of C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. hepaticus in chicken samples containing high-complexity microbiota. The assay represents a new diagnostic tool for investigating the epidemiology of Campylobacter colonization in poultry and environmental samples. It may also be applicable to the investigation of Campylobacter contamination in food and in outbreaks of campylobacteriosis.

  3. Arsenic Resistance and Prevalence of Arsenic Resistance Genes in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Isolated from Retail Meats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed K. Fakhr

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Studies that investigate arsenic resistance in the foodborne bacterium Campylobacter are limited. A total of 552 Campylobacter isolates (281 Campylobacter jejuni and 271 Campylobacter coli isolated from retail meat samples were subjected to arsenic resistance profiling using the following arsenic compounds: arsanilic acid (4–2,048 μg/mL, roxarsone (4–2048 μg/mL, arsenate (16–8,192 μg/mL and arsenite (4–2,048 μg/mL. A total of 223 of these isolates (114 Campylobacter jejuni and 109 Campylobacter coli were further analyzed for the presence of five arsenic resistance genes (arsP, arsR, arsC, acr3, and arsB by PCR. Most of the 552 Campylobacter isolates were able to survive at higher concentrations of arsanilic acid (512–2,048 μg/mL, roxarsone (512–2,048 μg/mL, and arsenate (128–1,024 μg/mL, but at lower concentrations for arsenite (4–16 μg/mL. Ninety seven percent of the isolates tested by PCR showed the presence of arsP and arsR genes. While 95% of the Campylobacter coli isolates contained a larger arsenic resistance operon that has all of the four genes (arsP, arsR, arsC and acr3, 85% of the Campylobacter jejuni isolates carried the short operon (arsP, and arsR. The presence of arsC and acr3 did not significantly increase arsenic resistance with the exception of conferring resistance to higher concentrations of arsenate to some Campylobacter isolates. arsB was prevalent in 98% of the tested Campylobacter jejuni isolates, regardless of the presence or absence of arsC and acr3, but was completely absent in Campylobacter coli. To our knowledge, this is the first study to determine arsenic resistance and the prevalence of arsenic resistance genes in such a large number of Campylobacter isolates.

  4. Host-Pathogen Interactions in Campylobacter Infections: the Host Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Riny; Krogfelt, Karen A.; Cawthraw, Shaun A.; van Pelt, Wilfrid; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; Owen, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    Campylobacter is a major cause of acute bacterial diarrhea in humans worldwide. This study was aimed at summarizing the current understanding of host mechanisms involved in the defense against Campylobacter by evaluating data available from three sources: (i) epidemiological observations, (ii) observations of patients, and (iii) experimental observations including observations of animal models and human volunteer studies. Analysis of available data clearly indicates that an effective immune system is crucial for the host defense against Campylobacter infection. Innate, cell-mediated, and humoral immune responses are induced during Campylobacter infection, but the relative importance of these mechanisms in conferring protective immunity against reinfection is unclear. Frequent exposure to Campylobacter does lead to the induction of short-term protection against disease but most probably not against colonization. Recent progress in the development of more suitable animal models for studying Campylobacter infection has opened up possibilities to study the importance of innate and adaptive immunity during infection and in protection against reinfection. In addition, advances in genomics and proteomics technologies will enable more detailed molecular studies. Such studies combined with better integration of host and pathogen research driven by epidemiological findings may truly advance our understanding of Campylobacter infection in humans. PMID:18625685

  5. Campylobacter species in animal, food, and environmental sources, and relevant testing programs in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hongsheng; Brooks, Brian W; Lowman, Ruff; Carrillo, Catherine D

    2015-10-01

    Campylobacter species, particularly thermophilic campylobacters, have emerged as a leading cause of human foodborne gastroenteritis worldwide, with Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter lari responsible for the majority of human infections. Although most cases of campylobacteriosis are self-limiting, campylobacteriosis represents a significant public health burden. Human illness caused by infection with campylobacters has been reported across Canada since the early 1970s. Many studies have shown that dietary sources, including food, particularly raw poultry and other meat products, raw milk, and contaminated water, have contributed to outbreaks of campylobacteriosis in Canada. Campylobacter spp. have also been detected in a wide range of animal and environmental sources, including water, in Canada. The purpose of this article is to review (i) the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in animals, food, and the environment, and (ii) the relevant testing programs in Canada with a focus on the potential links between campylobacters and human health in Canada.

  6. Prevalence of Campylobacter concisus in diarrhoea of immunocompromised patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabenhus, Rune Munck; Permin, Henrik; On, Stephen L W

    2002-01-01

    The importance of Campylobacter species other than C. jejuni/coli in diarrhoeal disease is largely unknown. We wished to determine the prevalence and clinical presentation of C. concisus infection in patients with enteric disease in a tertiary hospital. Stool specimens were routinely tested...... for the presence of Campylobacter species, by use of the filter isolation method. The medical records of the C. concisus-positive patients were reviewed. Of 224 Campylobacter isolates obtained, 110 were identified as C. concisus. Concomitant infection occurred in only 27% of cases. By means of protein profiling we...

  7. Prevalence of Campylobacter concisus in diarrhoea of immunocompromised patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabenhus, Rune; Permin, Henrik; On, Stephen L.W.

    2002-01-01

    The importance of Campylobacter species other than C. jejuni/coli in diarrhoeal disease is largely unknown. We wished to determine the prevalence and clinical presentation of C. concisus infection in patients with enteric disease in a tertiary hospital. Stool specimens were routinely tested...... for the presence of Campylobacter species, by use of the filter isolation method. The medical records of the C. concisus-positive patients were reviewed. Of 224 Campylobacter isolates obtained, 110 were identified as C. concisus. Concomitant infection occurred in only 27% of cases. 13 means of protein profiling we...

  8. Current methods for molecular typing of Campylobacter species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taboada, Eduardo N; Clark, Clifford G; Sproston, Emma L; Carrillo, Catherine D

    2013-10-01

    Campylobacter remains one of the most common bacterial causes of gastroenteritis worldwide. Tracking sources of this organism is challenging due to the large numbers of human cases, and the prevalence of this organism throughout the environment due to growth in a wide range of animal species. Many molecular subtyping methods have been developed to characterize Campylobacter species, but only a few are commonly used in molecular epidemiology studies. This review examines the applicability of these methods, as well as the role that emerging whole genome sequencing technologies will play in tracking sources of Campylobacter spp. infection. © 2013.

  9. Campylobacter spp. as a foodborne pathogen: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana eSilva

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter is well recognized as the leading cause of bacterial foodborne diarrheal disease worldwide, causing mild to severe symptoms including serious infections of the extremities and permanent neurological symptoms. The organism is a cytochrome oxidase positive, microaerophilic, curved Gram-negative rod exhibiting corkscrew motility and is carried in the intestine of many wild and domestic animals, particularly avian species including poultry, where the intestine is colonized resulting in healthy animals as carriers. This review aims to elucidate and discuss the i genus Campylobacter, growth and survival characteristics; ii detection, isolation and confirmation of Campylobacter; iii campylobacteriosis and presence of virulence factors and iv colonization of poultry and control strategies.

  10. A Quantitative Real-Time PCR Approach for Assessing Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Colonization in Broiler Herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Katrin; Overesch, Gudrun; Kuhnert, Peter

    2017-04-01

    Human campylobacteriosis is a major public health concern in developed countries, with Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from poultry recognized as the main source of human infection. Identification of Campylobacter-positive broiler herds before slaughter is essential for implementing measures to avoid carryover of pathogens via the slaughter process into the food chain. However, appropriate methods that have been validated for testing poultry flocks antemortem are lacking for Campylobacter. A quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) that allows simultaneous detection and quantification of C. jejuni and C. coli was adapted and optimized to be applied on boot socks. The adjusted qPCR serves as an easy, sensitive, and quantitative method for Campylobacter detection in poultry flocks antemortem by analysis of boot socks. An adequate correlation was found between qPCR and culture, as well as between boot socks and cecal samples, which are regarded as the "gold standard." Therefore, boot sock sampling followed by qPCR analysis provides a reliable and simple method for assessing Campylobacter load within a flock prior to slaughter. The approach allows categorization of broiler herds into negative, low, moderate, or high Campylobacter colonization. Based on the results of this new approach, risk assessment models, such as evaluating the possible effect of sorting flocks before slaughter, can be easily implemented. Similarly, targeted identification of highly colonized flocks for improvement of biosecurity measures at the farm level will become feasible, presenting an opportunity to increase food safety.

  11. Molecular Typing ofCampylobacter jejuniandCampylobacter coliIsolated from Various Retail Meats by MLST and PFGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noormohamed, Aneesa; Fakhr, Mohamed K

    2014-01-08

    Campylobacter species are one of the leading causes of foodborne disease in the United States. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are the two main species of concern to human health and cause approximately 95% of human infections. Molecular typing methods, such as pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) are often used to source track foodborne bacterial pathogens. The aim of the present study was to compare PFGE and MLST in typing strains of C. jejuni and C. coli that were isolated from different Oklahoma retail meat sources. A total of 47 Campylobacter isolates (28 C. jejuni and 19 C. coli ) isolated from various retail meat samples (beef, beef livers, pork, chicken, turkey, chicken livers, and chicken gizzards) were subjected to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). PFGE was able to group the 47 Campylobacter isolates into two major clusters (one for C. jejuni and one for C. coli ) but failed to differentiate the isolates according to their source. MLST revealed 21 different sequence types (STs) that belonged to eight different clonal complexes. Twelve of the screened Campylobacter isolates (8 C. jejuni and 4 C. coli ) did not show any defined STs. All the defined STs of C. coli isolates belonged to ST-828 complex. The majority of C. jejuni isolates belonged to ST-353, ST-607, ST-52, ST-61, and ST-21 complexes. It is worthy to mention that, while the majority of Campylobacter isolates in this study showed STs that are commonly associated with human infections along with other sources, most of the STs from chicken livers were solely reported in human cases. In conclusion, retail meat Campylobacter isolates tested in this study particularly those from chicken livers showed relatedness to STs commonly associated with humans. Molecular typing, particularly MLST, proved to be a helpful tool in suggesting this relatedness to Campylobacter human isolates.

  12. FROM GENE TO PROTEIN – CLONNING, EXPRESSION AND PUFICATION OF A P450 CYTOCHROM FROM Campylobacter jejuni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. CORCIONIVOSCHI

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the complete genome sequence of Campylobacter jejuni NCTC 11168 was published revealing the presence of only one open reading frame (Cj1411c encoding for a cytochrome P450, in contrast to 20 found in M. tuberculosis. The gene Cj1411c encodes for a soluble 52.6 kDa protein with a predicted isoelectric point of 9.3. The P450 gene is part of reading frame which hosts genes involved in the synthesis of cell surface components (capsula. Campylobacter capsule are important in adherence, invasion and colonisation of host cells and for maintenance of cell surface charge and serum resistance. These capsule are thought to cause autoimmunity leading to Guillan-Barre and Miller-Fischer syndromes. The structure of the lipoolygosaccharides and capsule polysaccharide was published last year revealing that the strain possessed a type II/III capsule locus found in other microorganisms such Nisseria meningitidis. This project focuses on the cloning and characterisation of the only P450 enzyme of the human pathogen Campylobacter jejuni NCTC 11168. We aim to understand the metabolic role of this P450 cytochrome in order to elucidate its possible use as a new target for drug design. To achieve this aim we have cloned, expressed and purify the product of P450 coding gene.

  13. Cytoplasmic aggregates of dynactin in iPSC-derived tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons from a patient with Perry syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishima, Takayasu; Ishikawa, Taizo; Imamura, Keiko; Kondo, Takayuki; Koshiba, Yasushi; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Takahashi, Jun; Watanabe, Akihiro; Fujii, Naoki; Tsuboi, Yoshio; Inoue, Haruhisa

    2016-09-01

    Perry syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disorder clinically characterized by parkinsonism with depression/apathy, weight loss, and central hypoventilation. Eight mutations in DCTN1 gene have been reported. A novel disease model is required because the detailed pathogenesis remains unclear. To develop a novel model, we generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from a Perry syndrome patient with F52L mutation in DCTN1, and describe clinical and neuroimaging investigations. We differentiated iPSCs into tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons. Immunocytochemistry analyses of control and mutant were performed. The patient displayed levodopa responsive parkinsonism. Dopamine transporter single photon emission tomography showed markedly decreased uptake in the striatum, and metaiodobenzylguanidine cardiac scintigraphy also showed decreased uptake. Perry syndrome TH-positive neurons showed dynactin aggregates in cytoplasm. TH-positive neurons from Perry syndrome iPSCs recapitulated an aspect of the disease phenotype of Perry syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Campylobacter fetus infections in humans : exposure and disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar, Jaap A; van Bergen, Marcel A P; Blaser, Martin J; Tauxe, Robert V; Newell, Diane G; van Putten, Jos P M

    Campylobacter fetus can cause intestinal illness and, occasionally, severe systemic infections. Infections mainly affect persons at higher risk, including elderly and immunocompromised individuals and those with occupational exposure to infected animals. Outbreaks are infrequent but have provided

  15. Spondylodiscitis and an aortic aneurysm due to Campylobacter coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bournet Béatrice

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Campylobacter coli is a rare cause of bacteremia. We report here the first case of C.coli spondylodiscitis complicated by an aortic aneurysm. Outcome was favourable with surgery and antibiotic therapy.

  16. Salmonella and Campylobacter: Antimicrobial resistance and bacteriophage control in poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Ar'Quette; Hashem, Fawzy; Parveen, Salina

    2016-02-01

    Salmonella and Campylobacter are major causes of foodborne related illness and are traditionally associated with consuming undercooked poultry and/or consuming products that have been cross contaminated with raw poultry. Many of the isolated Salmonella and Campylobacter that can cause disease have displayed antimicrobial resistance phenotypes. Although poultry producers have reduced on-the-farm overuse of antimicrobials, antimicrobial resistant Salmonella and Campylobacter strains still persist. One method of bio-control, that is producing promising results, is the use of lytic bacteriophages. This review will highlight the current emergence and persistence of antimicrobial resistant Salmonella and Campylobacter recovered from poultry as well as bacteriophage research interventions and limitations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Methods for Initial Characterization of Campylobacter jejuni Bacteriophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Martine Camilla Holst; Gencay, Yilmaz Emre; Brøndsted, Lone

    2017-01-01

    Here we describe an initial characterization of Campylobacter jejuni bacteriophages by host range analysis, genome size determination by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and receptor-type identification by screening mutants for phage sensitivity.

  18. Biodiversity, ecology, and evolution of Campylobacter in reptiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Species of the Epsilonproteobacteria genera Campylobacter, Arcobacter, and Helicobacter are frequently isolated from endothermic mammals and birds. However, little information was available about the presence of Epsilonproteobacteria in ectothermic reptiles and no comprehensive studies had been

  19. Sensitivity of Campylobacter spp. to irradiation in poultry meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, M.F.

    1995-01-01

    The sensitivity of Campylobacter jejuni (three strains), Camp. coli (three strains), Camp. fetus (one strain) and Camp. lari (one strain) to irradiation in poultry meat was investigated. There was no significant difference in the counts obtained on Blood or Skirrows agar. Preston agar gave a significantly lower recovery of the pathogens after irradiation so these results were not included in calculations of D10 values. The D10 values ranged from 0.12 to 0.25 kGy and there was a significant difference in the radiation sensitivity between different Campylobacter spp. and within strains of the same species. These values indicate that Campylobacter spp. are more radiation-sensitive than Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes irradiated under similar conditions. Therefore irradiation treatments suggested to eliminate the latter from poultry carcasses would also be sufficient to remove Campylobacter

  20. Campylobacter spp. as a Foodborne Pathogen: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Joana; Leite, Daniela; Fernandes, Mariana; Mena, Cristina; Gibbs, Paul Anthony; Teixeira, Paula

    2011-01-01

    Campylobacter is well recognized as the leading cause of bacterial foodborne diarrheal disease worldwide. Symptoms can range from mild to serious infections of the children and the elderly and permanent neurological symptoms. The organism is a cytochrome oxidase positive, microaerophilic, curved Gram-negative rod exhibiting corkscrew motility and is carried in the intestine of many wild and domestic animals, particularly avian species including poultry. Intestinal colonization results in healthy animals as carriers. In contrast with the most recent published reviews that cover specific aspects of Campylobacter/campylobacteriosis, this broad review aims at elucidating and discussing the (i) genus Campylobacter, growth and survival characteristics; (ii) detection, isolation and confirmation of Campylobacter; (iii) campylobacteriosis and presence of virulence factors; and (iv) colonization of poultry and control strategies. PMID:21991264

  1. Occurrence and genotypes of Campylobacter species in broilers during the rearing period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoyan; Yin, Tiantian; Du, Xueqing; Yang, Wenbin; Huang, Jinlin; Jiao, Xinan

    2017-04-01

    Poultry are the main source of Campylobacter infection worldwide. To obtain information on Campylobacter-infected flocks and create a reference for preventing and controlling Campylobacter at farm level, Campylobacter isolates were recovered from broilers and the environments of nine chicken flocks in two farms during growth. The genetic relationship between the Campylobacter isolates was determined using multilocus sequence typing. Flocks were colonized as early as 3 weeks after introduction to the farm. The highest colonization rate was more than 90% and occurred 4-6 weeks after introduction to the farm. Quantitative data showed that the highest Campylobacter loads appeared at 1-2 weeks after initial colonization. Campylobacter loads in cloacal swabs in four flocks were significantly higher at 5 weeks than at 3 weeks (P Campylobacter jejuni and eight for Campylobacter coli isolates. The STs of the Campylobacter isolates recovered from farm 1 were more diversified than those from farm 2. The STs of environmental samples were highly consistent with those of the cloacal swab samples. The consistency between Campylobacter STs in the environmental and cloacal swab samples suggested that the environment might be one of the main sources of infection. Thus, our study highlights the prevalence and contamination load of Campylobacter in broilers during their rearing period and emphasizes the need for control and prevention measures for Campylobacter infection in broilers, which is also important for human health.

  2. Investigation of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolated from broilers susceptibility to antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tambur Zoran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work sensitivity to eritromycine, tetracycline and ciprofloxacin was investigated on 16 (sixteen strains Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli originated from broilers’ coecum by use of dics-diffussion method and E-test. Out of 10 (ten examined strains of C. jejuni, 1 strain (10% was resistant to erithromycin, 5 (five examined strains (50% to tetracycline and 4 (four examined strains (40% to ciprofloxacine. Out of 6 investigated strains of C. coli, 1 strain was resistant to erithromycin (16,7%, 5 of investigated strains to tetracycline and ciprofloxacine (83,3% (table 1 and 2, graph 3. Out of 16 (sixteen investigated strains of C. jejuni and C. coli, 9 (nine strains were resistant to ciprofloxacine (56,2%, 2 (two strains to erythromycine (12,5% and 10 of investigated strains to tetracycline (62,5%.

  3. Real Time PCR to detect and differentiate Campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus and Campylobacter fetus subspecies venerealis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGoldrick, A; Chanter, J; Gale, S; Parr, J; Toszeghy, M; Line, K

    2013-09-01

    Bovine venereal campylobacter infection, caused by Campylobacter fetus venerealis, is of significant economic importance to the livestock industry. Unfortunately, the successful detection and discrimination of C. fetus venerealis from C. fetus fetus continue to be a limitation throughout the world. There are several publications warning of the problem with biotyping methods as well as with recent molecular based assays. In this study, assessed on 1071 isolates, we report on the successful development of two Real Time SYBR® Green PCR assays that will allow for the detection and discrimination of C. fetus fetus and C. fetus venerealis. The sensitivity reported here for the C. fetus (CampF4/R4) and the C. fetus venerealis (CampF7/R7) specific PCR assays are 100% and 98.7% respectively. The specificity for these same PCR assays are 99.6% and 99.8% respectively. © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. "Campylobacter upsaliensis" isolated from blood cultures of pediatric patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Lastovica, A J; Le Roux, E; Penner, J L

    1989-01-01

    Seventeen campylobacters isolated from cultures of blood samples of 16 bacteremic patients were susceptible to cephalothin and were either catalase negative or had only weak catalase activity (CNW strains) and were classified as "Campylobacter upsaliensis" (K. Sandstedt and J. Ursing, XIV Int. Congr. Microbiol., p. B8-17, 1986). All of the patients had predisposing conditions, and 10 patients were less than or equal to 12 months old, indicating that "C. upsaliensis" is an opportunistic pathog...

  5. Clinical aspects of Campylobacter jejuni infections in adults.

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, M C

    1994-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is an almost ubiquitous, microaerophilic, gram-negative rod. Outbreaks have been associated with drinking raw milk or contaminated water and eating poultry. Campylobacter jejuni accounts for 3.2% to 6.1% of cases of diarrheal illness in the general population of the United States, and infected patients frequently present with abdominal pain and fever. Less frequently, C jejuni is responsible for bacteremia, septic arthritis, septic abortion, and other extraintestinal infe...

  6. Methods for initial characterization of Campylobacter jejuni bacteriophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Martine Camilla Holst; Gencay, Yilmaz Emre; Brøndsted, Lone

    2017-01-01

    Here we describe an initial characterization of Campylobacter jejuni bacteriophages by host range analysis, genome size determination by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and receptor-type identification by screening mutants for phage sensitivity.......Here we describe an initial characterization of Campylobacter jejuni bacteriophages by host range analysis, genome size determination by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and receptor-type identification by screening mutants for phage sensitivity....

  7. Detection and survival of Campylobacter in chicken eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, O; Kobalka, P; Zhang, Q

    2003-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni, a food-borne human pathogen, is widespread in poultry; however, the sources of infection and modes of transmission of this organism on chicken farms are not well understood. The objective of this study was to determine if vertical transmission of C. jejuni occurs via eggs. Using a temperature differential method, it was shown that Campylobacter had limited ability to penetrate the eggshell. When C. jejuni was directly inoculated into the egg yolk and the eggs were stored at 18 degrees C, the organism was able to survive for up to 14 days. However, viability of C. jejuni was dramatically shortened when injected into the albumen or the air sac. When freshly laid eggs from Campylobacter-inoculated specific pathogen-free (SPF) layers were tested, C. jejuni-contamination was detected in three of 65 pooled whole eggs (5-10 eggs in each pool) via culture and PCR. However, the organism was not detected from any of the 800 eggs (80 pools), collected from the same SPF flock, but kept at 18 degrees C for 7 days before testing. Likewise, Campylobacter was not recovered from any of 500 fresh eggs obtained from commercial broiler-breeder flocks that were actively shedding Campylobacter in faeces. Also, none of the 1000 eggs from broiler breeders obtained from a commercial hatchery were positive for Campylobacter. These results suggest that vertical transmission of C. jejuni through the egg is probably a rare event and does not play a major role in the introduction of Campylobacter to chicken flocks. Control of Campylobacter transmission to chicken flocks should focus on sources of infection that are not related to eggs.

  8. Development of antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli adapted to biocides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavri, Ana; Smole Možina, Sonja

    2013-01-01

    The potential for adaptive resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli after step-wise exposure to increasing sub-inhibitory concentrations of five biocides as triclosan, benzalkonium chloride, cetylpyridinium chloride, chlorhexidine diacetate and trisodium phosphate, was investigated, to identify the mechanisms underlying resistance. The biocide resistance and cross-resistance to the antimicrobials erythromycin and ciprofloxacin, and to sodium dodecyl sulphate, were examined according to the broth microdilution method. The presence of active efflux was studied on the basis of restored sensitivity in the presence of the efflux pump inhibitors phenylalanine-arginine beta-naphthylamide, 1-(1-naphthylmethyl)-piperazine, cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone, verapamil and reserpine. Changes in the outer membrane protein profiles and morphological changes in adapted strains were studied, as compared with the parent strains. Repeated exposure of C. jejuni and C. coli to biocides resulted in partial increases in tolerance to biocides itself, to other biocides and antimicrobial compounds. The developed resistance was stable for up to 10 passages in biocide-free medium. More than one type of active efflux was identified in adapted strains. These adapted strains showed different alterations to their outer membrane protein profiles, along with morphological changes. The data presented here suggest that different mechanisms are involved in adaptation to biocides and that this adaptation is unique to each strain of Campylobacter and does not result from a single species-specific mechanism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. [Microbiological diagnosis of infections caused by Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in humans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokosz, Natalia; Rastawicki, Waldemar; Wołkowicz, Tomasz

    2014-01-22

    Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are Gram-negative, microaerophilic bacteria which are worldwide in distribution, causing a zoonotic disease in humans called campylobacteriosis. These infections are mainly caused by eating contaminated food products, most often improperly prepared poultry meat. Campylobacteriosis usually takes the form of gastroenteritis, or inflammation of the intestines, and the characteristic symptoms are watery-mucous diarrhea often with the presence of blood in stool, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and fever. The epidemiological data suggest that in Europe, as well as in North America, bacteria of the genus Campylobacter, especially C. jejuni and C. coli, are the most commonly isolated pathogens in infections of the gastrointestinal tract in humans. Epidemiological data indicate that these organisms are a much more common cause of acute diarrhea, mostly in young children, than Salmonella and Yersinia. The lack of specific symptoms makes the diagnosis of campylobacteriosis necessary to carry out specialized microbiological diagnostics. Because so far these studies are performed in our country only in a few laboratories, the overwhelming number of cases of campylobacteriosis are not recorded in Polish epidemiological statistics. The purpose of this paper is to discuss issues related to the microbiological diagnosis of infections caused by C. jejuni and C. coli. It also describes the basic epidemiological and clinical data, as well as current treatment of campylobacteriosis.

  10. Effects of short-chain nitrocompounds against Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horrocks, S M; Jung, Y S; Huwe, J K; Harvey, R B; Ricke, S C; Carstens, G E; Callaway, T R; Anderson, R C; Ramlachan, N; Nisbet, D J

    2007-03-01

    Effects of 2-nitro-1-propanol, 2-nitroethanol, nitroethane, and 2-nitro-methyl-propionate (0, 10, and 20 mM) on growth of Campylobacter jejuni were tested during culture in Bolton broth adjusted to pH 5.6, 7.0, or 8.2. The nitrocompounds were similarly tested against C. coli but at pH 8.2 only. Viable cell counts measured during incubation revealed main effects (P nitrocompounds on the survivability of C. jejuni. An effect of pH (P nitrocompounds was observed, with greater inhibition observed at pH 8.2 than at pH 5.6 or 7.0 for nitroethane, 2-nitro-l-propanol, and 2-nitroethanol, but not for 2-nitro-methyl-propionate, which showed greatest inhibition at pH 5.6. Except for 2-nitro-methyl-propionate, which was ineffective, all nitrocompounds elicited similar effects on C. coli. The effect of nitroethane and 2-nitro-l-propanol (10 mM) on naturally occurring Campylobacter was investigated during incubation of porcine fecal suspensions, where Campylobacter concentrations decreased more rapidly (P < 0.05) in suspensions with added 2-nitro-l-propanol than in unsupplemented or nitroethane-supplemented suspensions, thus reiterating the superior inhibitory effect of 2-nitro-l-propanol.

  11. Microbiological diagnosis of infections caused by Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Rokosz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are Gram-negative, microaerophilic bacteria which are worldwide in distribution, causing a zoonotic disease in humans called campylobacteriosis. These infections are mainly caused by eating contaminated food products, most often improperly prepared poultry meat. Campylobacteriosis usually takes the form of gastroenteritis, or inflammation of the intestines, and the characteristic symptoms are watery-mucous diarrhea often with the presence of blood in stool, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and fever. The epidemiological data suggest that in Europe, as well as in North America, bacteria of the genus Campylobacter, especially C. jejuni and C. coli, are the most commonly isolated pathogens in infections of the gastrointestinal tract in humans. Epidemiological data indicate that these organisms are a much more common cause of acute diarrhea, mostly in young children, than Salmonella and Yersinia. The lack of specific symptoms makes the diagnosis of campylobacteriosis necessary to carry out specialized microbiological diagnostics. Because so far these studies are performed in our country only in a few laboratories, the overwhelming number of cases of campylobacteriosis are not recorded in Polish epidemiological statistics. The purpose of this paper is to discuss issues related to the microbiological diagnosis of infections caused by C. jejuni and C. coli. It also describes the basic epidemiological and clinical data, as well as current treatment of campylobacteriosis.

  12. Campylobacter inoculation and quantification from broiler cecal samples to compare two plate counting methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderlise Borsoi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacteriosis is a zoonosis, a disease transmitted to humans from animals or animal products. The primarily source of Campylobacter infection in human is believed to be the handling and/or consumption of contaminated meat, especially poultry meat. Although in humans such infections are generally self-limiting, complications can arise and may include bacteraemia, Guillain-Barré syndrome, reactive arthritis and abortion. In this study, 32 birds were divided in 2 groups: a control (C group and an inoculated (I group, with 16 birds each. The I group was inoculated orally with 108 CFU/mL of Campylobacter jejuni ATCC 33291, whereas the C group was inoculated with a saline solution. Four chicks per group were euthanized by cervical dislocation at 0, 7, 14 and 21 days post-inoculation (pi. Cecum samples were collected for microbiological analyses. The samples were processed by two plate count methodologies, one developed by the USDA (United States Department of Agriculture in 2011 (B method and the other a serial dilution direct count method (A method. All birds from the C group remained negative until day 21. For the I group, the B method was found to be statistically superior to the A method for counting the recovered cells from the cecal contents at 7, 14 and 21 days pi. The microbiological direct plating counting method is a cost effective and rapid method to determine the level of contamination in broilers to help risk assessment programs at the industry level.

  13. [A nutrient medium for the isolation and cultivation of Campylobacter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temirkhanova, Z U; Gashimova, P Sh; Safonova, N V; Moroz, A F; Khazenson, L V

    1999-01-01

    Campylobacter agar, nutrient medium intended for the isolation of bacteria of the genus Campylobacter from clinical material, has been developed. The composition of the medium includes sprat hydrolysate, aerotolerant additive (ferric sulfate--oxide, sodium pyruvate, sodium pyrosulfite), sodium glutaminate, agar. The selective properties of the medium are ensured by introducing the mixture of antibiotics consisting of polymyxin B, rifampicin, amphotericin B, ristomycin. The balanced composition of Campylobacter agar ensures the aerotolerance of Campylobacter organisms and gives the optimal conditions for their growth when the inoculated material is cultivated in the atmosphere made up of the mixture of three gases (5% of oxygen, 10% of carbon dioxide, 85% of nitrogen), as well as under the conditions of a "candle vessel". The medium suppresses the development of the associative microflora diluted 10(-1). As shown in the trial of the quality of Campylobacter agar by the inoculation of material taken from patients with acute enteric infections, agricultural animals and monkeys, the medium has pronounced selective, properties with regard to extraneous microflora, while ensuring the isolation of Campylobacter on the level of the control medium.

  14. Phylogenetic diversity and position of the genus Campylobacter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, P. P.; DeBrunner-Vossbrinck, B.; Dunn, B.; Miotto, K.; MacDonnell, M. T.; Rollins, D. M.; Pillidge, C. J.; Hespell, R. B.; Colwell, R. R.; Sogin, M. L.; hide

    1987-01-01

    RNA sequence analysis has been used to examine the phylogenetic position and structure of the genus Campylobacter. A complete 5S rRNA sequence was determined for two strains of Campylobacter jejuni and extensive partial sequences of the 16S rRNA were obtained for several strains of C. jejuni and Wolinella succinogenes. In addition limited partial sequence data were obtained from the 16S rRNAs of isolates of C. coli, C. laridis, C. fetus, C. fecalis, and C. pyloridis. It was found that W. succinogenes is specifically related to, but not included, in the genus Campylobacter as presently constituted. Within the genus significant diversity was noted. C. jejuni, C. coli and C. laridis are very closely related but the other species are distinctly different from one another. C. pyloridis is without question the most divergent of the Campylobacter isolates examined here and is sufficiently distinct to warrant inclusion in a separate genus. In terms of overall position in bacterial phylogeny, the Campylobacter/Wolinella cluster represents a deep branching most probably located within an expanded version of the Division containing the purple photosynthetic bacteria and their relatives. The Campylobacter/Wolinella cluster is not specifically includable in either the alpha, beta or gamma subdivisions of the purple bacteria.

  15. Importance of Campylobacter jejuni for Food Safety and Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Cakmak

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter spp. are microorganisms that can be found in nature in the entire domestic and wild animal’s intestinal flora including the poultry and the sea animals. Campylobacter can better colonize in the poultry than the other animals. Campylobacter jejuni is an important pathogen among the thermophilic Campylobacter spp. whose growth temperature’s are different than the other Campylobacter spp. and can cause serious gastroenteritis in human beings which in some cases ended up with death. Human beings are generally infected with C. jejuni mainly because of the poultry meat and products and rarely because of the red meat which are contaminated during preparation and serving stages. Inadequate cooking, consumption of poorly chlorinated drinking water or unpasteurized milk are other infection sources of C. jejuni. Campylobacteriosis especially affect children under 5 years of age and reported to be a zoonotic illness that cause acute gastroenteritis in human. In many countries, food sourced C. jejuni infections were reported to occur more frequently than Salmonella spp. infections. In order to avoid Campylobacter infections, it is very important to enforce food security programmes and HACCP like systems during growth, slaughterhouses and point of sales stages. Also adequate cooking of the products, hygiene of the kitchen and personnel are important. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(2.000: 157-166

  16. Antibiotic resistance trends and mechanisms in the foodborne pathogen, Campylobacter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yizhi; Fang, Liangxing; Xu, Changyun; Zhang, Qijing

    2017-11-23

    Campylobacter is a major foodborne pathogen and is commonly present in food producing animals. This pathogenic organism is highly adaptable and has become increasingly resistant to various antibiotics. Recently, both the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the World Health Organization have designated antibiotic-resistant Campylobacter as a serious threat to public health. For the past decade, multiple mechanisms conferring resistance to clinically important antibiotics have been described in Campylobacter, and new resistance mechanisms constantly emerge in the pathogen. Some of the recent examples include the erm(B) gene conferring macrolide resistance, the cfr(C) genes mediating resistance to florfenicol and other antimicrobials, and a functionally enhanced variant of the multidrug resistance efflux pump, CmeABC. The continued emergence of new resistance mechanisms illustrates the extraordinary adaptability of Campylobacter to antibiotic selection pressure and demonstrate the need for innovative strategies to control antibiotic-resistant Campylobacter. In this review, we will briefly summarize the trends of antibiotic resistance in Campylobacter and discuss the mechanisms of resistance to antibiotics used for animal production and important for clinical therapy in humans. A special emphasis will be given to the newly discovered antibiotic resistance.

  17. Detection of Campylobacter in human faecal samples in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Aruna; Wilkinson, Jenny; Mahony, Timothy; Vanniasinkam, Thiru

    2014-01-01

    Data on campylobacteriosis in developed countries are well documented; in contrast, few studies on campylobacteriosis have been conducted in developing countries. This study was undertaken to test for Campylobacter in human faecal samples sent to the two major pathology laboratories in Fiji. A total of 408 diarrhoeal faecal samples were collected from the two major hospital pathology laboratories in Central Fiji (Suva) and Western Fiji (Lautoka) between December 2012 and February 2013 and from June to July 2013. Samples were analysed for the presence of Campylobacter using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based methods. Campylobacter was detected in 241/408 (59.1%) of samples tested using PCR. Samples from children aged less than five accounted for 21.6% of positive cases. Campylobacter was detected in 59.1% of diarrhoeal samples collected from the two main laboratories in Fiji. A high proportion of children under five years with Campylobacter has been reported in other countries and could be due to parents being more likely to seek medical attention. Further studies are required to confirm the species of Campylobacter that are predominantly associated with gastroenteritis in Fiji.

  18. Detection of Campylobacter in human faecal samples in Fiji

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruna Devi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Data on campylobacteriosis in developed countries are well documented; in contrast, few studies on campylobacteriosis have been conducted in developing countries. This study was undertaken to test for Campylobacter in human faecal samples sent to the two major pathology laboratories in Fiji. Methods: A total of 408 diarrhoeal faecal samples were collected from the two major hospital pathology laboratories in Central Fiji (Suva and Western Fiji (Lautoka between December 2012 and February 2013 and from June to July 2013. Samples were analysed for the presence of Campylobacter using polymerase chain reaction (PCR based methods. Results: Campylobacter was detected in 241/408 (59.1% of samples tested using PCR. Samples from children aged less than five accounted for 21.6% of positive cases. Discussion: Campylobacter was detected in 59.1% of diarrhoeal samples collected from the two main laboratories in Fiji. A high proportion of children under five years with Campylobacter has been reported in other countries and could be due to parents being more likely to seek medical attention. Further studies are required to confirm the species of Campylobacter that are predominantly associated with gastroenteritis in Fiji.

  19. In vivo and in silico determination of essential genes of Campylobacter jejuni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metris Aline

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the United Kingdom, the thermophilic Campylobacter species C. jejuni and C. coli are the most frequent causes of food-borne gastroenteritis in humans. While campylobacteriosis is usually a relatively mild infection, it has a significant public health and economic impact, and possible complications include reactive arthritis and the autoimmune diseases Guillain-Barré syndrome. The rapid developments in "omics" technologies have resulted in the availability of diverse datasets allowing predictions of metabolism and physiology of pathogenic micro-organisms. When combined, these datasets may allow for the identification of potential weaknesses that can be used for development of new antimicrobials to reduce or eliminate C. jejuni and C. coli from the food chain. Results A metabolic model of C. jejuni was constructed using the annotation of the NCTC 11168 genome sequence, a published model of the related bacterium Helicobacter pylori, and extensive literature mining. Using this model, we have used in silico Flux Balance Analysis (FBA to determine key metabolic routes that are essential for generating energy and biomass, thus creating a list of genes potentially essential for growth under laboratory conditions. To complement this in silico approach, candidate essential genes have been determined using a whole genome transposon mutagenesis method. FBA and transposon mutagenesis (both this study and a published study predict a similar number of essential genes (around 200. The analysis of the intersection between the three approaches highlights the shikimate pathway where genes are predicted to be essential by one or more method, and tend to be network hubs, based on a previously published Campylobacter protein-protein interaction network, and could therefore be targets for novel antimicrobial therapy. Conclusions We have constructed the first curated metabolic model for the food-borne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni and have

  20. 76 FR 15282 - New Performance Standards for Salmonella and Campylobacter in Young Chicken and Turkey Slaughter...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ... Performance Standards for Salmonella and Campylobacter in Young Chicken and Turkey Slaughter Establishments... young chicken (broiler) and turkey slaughter establishments. The new performance standards were... Salmonella and new Campylobacter performance standards for young chickens and turkeys will take effect with...

  1. A comparison of molecular technologies and genomotyping for tracing and strain characterization of Campylobacter isolates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vossen, J. van der; Keijser, B.; Schuren, F.; Nocker, A.; Montijn, R.

    2011-01-01

    Thermophilic Campylobacter species are the most common cause of gastroenteritis in developed countries. Campylobacter spp. are ubiquitous in nature and widespread in livestock. Infections occur sporadically, and are believed to occur through consumption of contaminated meat products and from

  2. Characterization and subgrouping of Campylobacter concisus strains using protein profiles, conventional biochemical testing and antibiotic susceptibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabenhus, Rune Munck; Permin, Henrik; Andersen, Leif P

    2005-01-01

    To characterize and subgroup clinical strains of Campylobacter concisus isolated from patients with gastrointestinal disease.......To characterize and subgroup clinical strains of Campylobacter concisus isolated from patients with gastrointestinal disease....

  3. Evaluation of PCR for detection of Campylobacter in a national broiler surveillance programme in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Marianne; Wedderkopp, A; Wainø, M

    2003-01-01

    To develop and evaluate a rapid and sensitive PCR method for detection of Campylobacter spp. directly from chicken faeces.......To develop and evaluate a rapid and sensitive PCR method for detection of Campylobacter spp. directly from chicken faeces....

  4. Risk-based microbiological criteria for Campylobacter in broiler meat: A comparison of two approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nauta, Maarten; Andersen, Jens Kirk; Tuominen, Pirkko

    2015-01-01

    Risk-based microbiological criteria can offer a tool to control Campylobacter in the broiler meat production chain. Recently two approaches have been applied to derive such criteria and to analyse their potential impact in terms of human health risk reduction: the risk-based version of the establ......Risk-based microbiological criteria can offer a tool to control Campylobacter in the broiler meat production chain. Recently two approaches have been applied to derive such criteria and to analyse their potential impact in terms of human health risk reduction: the risk-based version...... and Denmark are used to compare the performance of the two approaches in terms of efficiency, i.e. the balance between the residual risk after implementation of the criterion and the percentage of non-complying batches, and the attending uncertainty. The analysis shows that the two approaches are equally...... efficient, and suggests that the RRL criterion is attended with less uncertainty. The two approaches are compared and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Given the uncertainties attending the results of the analysis, more research in terms of data collection, risk assessment and uncertainty...

  5. How a routine checking of Escherichia coli in retailed food of animal origin can protect consumers against exposition to Campylobacter spp. and Listeria monocytogenes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trajković-Pavlović Ljiljana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. According to the literature that has been published over the last two decades Campylobacter spp i Listeria monocitogens can be identified as causes of numerous diseases derived by consuming food of animal origin. The purpose of this paper was to find out how established national microbiological criteria of the Republic of Serbia on food safety in retailed food of animal origin could contribute to consumer's protection against exposition to foodborne pathogens such as Campylobacter spp. and Listeria monocytogenes. Methods. During a routine microbiological safety control of randomly selected 60 samples of fresh poultry meat, 30 samples of other fresh meat readymade for grilling, 30 samples of sausage products, 37 samples of heattreated meat, 39 samples of toppings for fast food of animal origin and 31 samples of dairy products a national food safety criteria (Escherichia coli, aerobic plate count, Salmonella spp., coagulasa positive Staphylococcus, Proteus spp., sulphitoreducting Clostridia were applied and, as well as, testing to Campylobacter spp. and Listeria monocitogens. In determination of Campylobacter spp. and Listeria monocytogenes, food quality control methods of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO were applied, while in determination of the other above motioned bacteria, national provisions on microbiological methods were applied who are adjusted to the FAO ones. Results. Related to the national criteria on microbiological food safety, 88 (38.8% samples, out of the total 227 tested, were rejected. When to these results, the results of laboratory tests on Listeria monocytogens were added, a terminal number of rejected samples were not changed. When to these results, the results of Campylobacter spp. testing were added, 91 (40.1% out of the 227 samples were unsatisfied. Results of logistic regression model with occurrence of Escherichia coli as dependent variable indicated that Escherichia coli was 4.5 times likely

  6. How a routine checking of Escherichia coli in retailed food of animal origin can protect consumers against exposition to Campylobacter spp. and Listeria monocytogenes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trajković-Pavlović, Ljiljana; Novaković, Budimka; Martinov-Cvejin, Mirjana; Gusman, Vera; Bijelović, Sanja; Dragnić, Natasa; Balać, Dragana

    2010-08-01

    According to the literature that has been published over the last two decades Campylobacter spp i Listeria monocitogens can be identified as causes of numerous diseases derived by consuming food of animal origin. The purpose of this paper was to find out how established national microbiological criteria of the Republic of Serbia on food safety in retailed food of animal origin could contribute to consumer's protection against exposition to foodborne pathogens such as Campylobacter spp. and Listeria monocytogenes. During a routine microbiological safety control of randomly selected 60 samples of fresh poultry meat, 30 samples of other fresh meat readymade for grilling, 30 samples of sausage products, 37 samples of heat-treated meat, 39 samples of toppings for fast food of animal origin and 31 samples of dairy products a national food safety criteria (Escherichia coli, aerobic plate count, Salmonella spp., coagulasa positive Staphylococcus, Proteus spp., sulphito-reducting Clostridia) were applied and, as well as, testing to Campylobacter spp. and Listeria monocitogens. In determination of Campylobacter spp. and Listeria monocytogenes, food quality control methods of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) were applied, while in determination of the other above motioned bacteria, national provisions on microbiological methods were applied who are adjusted to the FAO ones. Related to the national criteria on microbiological food safety, 88 (38.8%) samples, out of the total 227 tested, were rejected. When to these results, the results of laboratory tests on Listeria monocytogens were added, a terminal number of rejected samples were not changed. When to these results, the results of Campylobacter spp. testing were added, 91 (40.1%) out of the 227 samples were unsatisfied. Results of logistic regression model with occurrence of Escherichia coli as dependent variable indicated that Escherichia coli was 4.5 times likely to occur among samples with Campylobacter spp

  7. Effect of gamma radiation on Campylobacter jejuni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, J.D.; Maxcy, R.B.

    1984-01-01

    Radiation resistance of Campylobacter jejuni in broth, ground beef, and ground turkey meat was determined using dose levels from 0-200 Krad at -30 +/- 10 0 C, at 0-5 0 C, and at 30 +/- 10 0 C. Irradiation at -30 0 C increased radiation resistance of cultures in ground meats; broth cultures were not greatly influenced by temperature. The effect of culture age on radiation resistance was also evaluated using cells in various physiological phases. Age did not have a pronounced effect on radiation resistance. The largest D 10 value for C. jejuni was 32 Krad, which was less than D 10 values commonly reported for salmonellae. 20 references, 4 figures

  8. Comparison of animal-derived surfactants for the prevention and treatment of respiratory distress syndrome in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Neetu; Halliday, Henry L; Stevens, Timothy P; Suresh, Gautham; Soll, Roger; Rojas-Reyes, Maria Ximena

    2015-12-21

    Animal-derived surfactants have been shown to have several advantages over the first generation synthetic surfactants and are the most commonly used surfactant preparations. The animal-derived surfactants in clinical use are minced or lavaged and modified or purified from bovine or porcine lungs. It is unclear whether significant differences in clinical outcome exist among the available bovine (modified minced or lavage) and porcine (minced or lavage) surfactant extracts. To compare the effect of administration of different animal-derived surfactant extracts on the risk of mortality, chronic lung disease, and other morbidities associated with prematurity in preterm infants at risk for or having respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review group to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2015, Issue 7), MEDLINE via PubMed (1966 to July 31, 2015), EMBASE (1980 to July 31, 2015), and CINAHL (1982 to July 31, 2015). We also searched clinical trials databases, conference proceedings, and the reference lists of retrieved articles for randomized controlled trials and quasi-randomized trials. Randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials that compared the effect of animal-derived surfactant extract treatment administered to preterm infants at risk for or having RDS to prevent complications of prematurity and mortality. Data regarding clinical outcomes were excerpted from the reports of the clinical trials by the review authors. Subgroup analyses were performed based on gestational age, surfactant dosing and schedule, treatment severity and treatment strategy. Data analysis was performed in accordance with the standards of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group. Sixteen randomized controlled trials were included in the analysis. Bovine lung lavage surfactant extract to modified bovine minced lung surfactant extract: Seven treatment studies and two prevention studies compared bovine lung

  9. Impact of technical and economic performance on costs of campylobacter spp. interventions on broiler farms in six European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenberg, van C.P.A.; Horne, van P.L.M.

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter spp. is one of the leading causes of acute diarrheal disease in humans worldwide and human Campylobacter spp. infections can result in severe sequelae. Because broilers are an important reservoir for human Campylobacter spp. infections, it is relevant to control Campylobacter spp.

  10. Detection of Campylobacter species and Arcobacter butzleri in stool samples by use of real-time multiplex PCR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.F. de Boer (Richard); A. Ott (Alewijn); P. Güren (Pinar); E. van Zanten; A.F. van Belkum (Alex); A.M.D. Kooistra-Smid

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe presence of Campylobacter (or Campylobacter-like) species in stools from patients suspected of infectious gastroenteritis (n = 493) was investigated using real-time PCR for detection of Arcobacter butzleri (hsp60 gene), Campylobacter coli (ceuE gene), Campylobacter jejuni (mapA),

  11. Analysis of the baseline survey on the prevalence of Campylobacter in broiler batches and of Campylobacter and Salmonella on broiler carcasses in the EU, 2008, Part A: Campylobacter and Salmonella prevalence estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine

    A European Union-wide baseline survey on Campylobacter in broiler batches and on Campylobacter and Salmonella on broiler carcasses was carried out in 2008. A total of 10,132 broiler batches were sampled from 561 slaughterhouses in 26 European Union Member States and two countries not belonging......-contaminated broiler carcasses was 75.8%. The Member State prevalence varied from 2.0% to 100.0% and from 4.9% to 100.0%, for caecal contents and carcasses, respectively. The results of the counts of Campylobacter on broiler carcasses showed substantial variation among the countries in contamination levels. About two......-thirds of the Campylobacter isolates from the pooled caecal contents as well as from the broiler carcasses were identified as Campylobacter jejuni, while one-third was Campylobacter coli. Twenty-two Member States and one non-Member State isolated Salmonella on the broiler carcasses, with a Community prevalence of 15...

  12. Campylobacter epidemiology from breeders to their progeny in Eastern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingresa-Capaccioni, S; Jiménez-Trigos, E; Marco-Jiménez, F; Catalá, P; Vega, S; Marin, C

    2016-03-01

    While horizontal transmission is a route clearly linked to the spread of Campylobacter at the farm level, few studies support the transmission of Campylobacter spp. from breeder flocks to their offspring. Thus, the present study was carried out to investigate the possibility of vertical transmission. Breeders were monitored from the time of housing day-old chicks, then throughout the laying period (0 to 60 wk) and throughout their progeny (broiler fattening, 1 to 42 d) until slaughter. All samples were analyzed according with official method ISO 10272:2006. Results revealed that on breeder farms, Campylobacter isolation started from wk 16 and reached its peak at wk 26, with 57.0% and 93.2% of positive birds, respectively. After this point, the rate of positive birds decreased slightly to 86.0% at 60 wk. However, in broiler production all day-old chicks were found negative for Campylobacter spp, and the bacteria was first isolated at d 14 of age (5.0%), with a significant increase in detection during the fattening period with 62% of Campylobacter positive animals at the end of the production cycle. Moreover, non-positive sample was determined from environmental sources. These results could be explained because Campylobacter may be in a low concentration or in a non-culturable form, as there were several studies that successfully detected Campylobacter DNA, but failed to culture. This form can survive in the environment and infect successive flocks; consequently, further studies are needed to develop more modern, practical, cost-effective and suitable techniques for routine diagnosis. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  13. Host epithelial cell invasion by Campylobacter jejuni: trigger or zipper mechanism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadhg eÓ Cróinín

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni, a spiral-shaped Gram-negative pathogen, is a highly frequent cause of gastrointestinal foodborne illness in humans worldwide. Clinical outcome of C. jejuni infections ranges from mild to severe diarrheal disease, and some other complications including reactive arthritis and Guillain–Barré syndrome. This review article highlights various C. jejuni pathogenicity factors, host cell determinants and proposed signaling mechanisms involved in human host cell invasion and their potential role in the development of C. jejuni-mediated disease. A model is presented which outlines the various important interactions of C. jejuni with the intestinal epithelium, and we discuss the pro’s and con’s for the zipper over the trigger mechanism of invasion. Future work should clarify the contradictory role of some previously identified factors, and should identify and characterize novel virulence determinants, which are crucial to provide fresh insights into the diversity of strategies employed by this pathogen to cause disease.

  14. Synthesis of N-(6-(4-(Piperazin-1-yl)phenoxy)pyridin-3-yl)benzenesulfonamide Derivatives for the Treatment of Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deka, Nabajyoti; Bajare, Swapnil; Anthony, Jessy; Nair, Amrutha; Damre, Anagha; Patel, Dharmeshkumar; B-Rao, Chandrika; Sivaramakrishnan, H; Mutt, Shivaprakash Jagalur; Wilankar, Chandan; Marita, Rosalind

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a widely prevalent multifactorial disorder associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. High plasma levels of insulin and glucose due to insulin resistance are a major component of the metabolic disorder. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are potent PPARγ ligand and used as insulin sensitizers in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. They are potent insulin-sensitizing agents but due to adverse effects like hepatotoxicity, a safer alternative of TZDs is highly demanded. Here we report synthesis of N-(6-(4-(piperazin-1-yl)phenoxy)pyridin-3-yl)benzenesulfonamide derivatives as an alternate remedy for insulin resistance.

  15. Data regarding association between serum osteoprotegerin level, numerous of circulating endothelial-derived and mononuclear-derived progenitor cells in patients with metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander E. Berezin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MetS is defined as cluster of multiple metabolic and cardiovascular (CV abnormalities included abdominal obesity, high-normal blood pressure, dyslipidaemia, and impaired fasting glucose tolerance that exhibits has a growing prevalence worldwide. We investigated whether an elevated level of osteoprotegerin (OPG predicts imbalance between different phenotypes of circulating endothelial (EPCs and mononuclear (MPCs progenitor cells in MetS patients. We have analyzed data regarding dysmetabolic disorder subjects without known CV disease, as well as with known type two diabetes mellitus. All patients have given their informed written consent for participation in the study. This article contains data on the independent predictors of depletion in numerous of circulating EPCs and MPCs in MetS patients. The data are supplemental to our original research article describing detailed associations of elevated OPG level in MetS patients with numerous of EPCs and MPCs beyond traditional CV risk factors.

  16. Genetic Characterization of Campylobacter Jejuni and C. coli Isolated From Broilers Using flaA PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Method in Shiraz, Southern Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Khoshbakht, Rahem; Tabatabaei, Mohammad; Hosseinzadeh, Saeid; Shirzad Aski, Hesamaddin; Seifi, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Background: Thermophilic campylobacters, particularly Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli are the main agents of human campylobacteriosis. Campylobacter contaminated chicken products is the most important source of foodborne gastroenteritis. Evaluation of genetic diversity among Campylobacter population is critical for understanding the epidemiology of this bacterium and developing effective control strategies against Campylobacter infections and other related disorders. Objectives: The aim of t...

  17. Bibliometric analysis of publications on Campylobacter: (2000-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweileh, Waleed M; Al-Jabi, Samah W; Sawalha, Ansam F; AbuTaha, Adham S; Zyoud, Sa'ed H

    2016-11-29

    Campylobacter species are widespread zoonotic pathogens. Campylobacter jejuni causes a form of gastroenteritis called campylobacteriosis. Campylobacter drug resistance is considered a serious threat. In order to better understand national and international research output on Campylobacter, we conducted this bibliometric overview of publications on Campylobacter. This study can be used to assess extent of interaction and response of researchers, food regulators, and health policy makers to global burden of campylobacateriosis. Scopus database was used to retrieve publications with the following keywords (Campylobacter/campylobacteriosis, C. jejuni, C. coli). The study period was set from 2000 to 2015. All types of journal documents, excluding errata, were considered. Bibliometric indicators such as annual growth of publications, country contribution, international collaboration, and citation analysis were presented. The quality of retrieved data was indirectly assessed by Hirsch index and impact factor of journals. A total of 5522 documents were retrieved with median (Q1-Q3) citations of 9 (2-23) and h-index of 113. Annual number of publications showed a fluctuating increase. The core leading journals were Applied and Environmental Microbiology journal and Journal of Food Protection with 246 (4.46%) publications for each. The USA (1309; 23.6%) was the most productive country while Danmarks Tekniske Universitet (150; 2.7%) was the most productive institution. Half of the top ten productive countries were European. France had the lowest percentage (33.5%) of articles with international collaboration while Netherlands (57.7%) had the highest percentage of articles with international collaboration. Approximately half (50.1%) of retrieved articles were published in journals under the subject area of "immunology/microbiology". Main themes in highly cited articles were molecular biology/genetics and public health burden of campylobacteriosis. There were 728 (13

  18. Development of a PCR assay suitable for Campylobacter spp. mass screening programs in broiler production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Dang Duong; Pedersen, Karl; Madsen, Mogens

    2001-01-01

    culture techniques since 1998. However, using conventional culture methods is time consuming and laborious, and therefore a Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Campylobacter detection assay suitable for mass screening of cloacal swab samples from broilers was developed. By comparing the PCR detection...... with conventional culture methods, significantly more samples were found positive for Campylobacter with the PCR method. The PCR method is rapid, sensitive and suitable for mass screening for Campylobacter in poultry. Using this PCR method Campylobacter can be detected within 15 h. Notably, the method can...... be applied to detect Campylobacter directly from chicken feces at the species level....

  19. High-resolution transcriptome maps reveal strain-specific regulatory features of multiple Campylobacter jejuni isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Dugar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is currently the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans. Comparison of multiple Campylobacter strains revealed a high genetic and phenotypic diversity. However, little is known about differences in transcriptome organization, gene expression, and small RNA (sRNA repertoires. Here we present the first comparative primary transcriptome analysis based on the differential RNA-seq (dRNA-seq of four C. jejuni isolates. Our approach includes a novel, generic method for the automated annotation of transcriptional start sites (TSS, which allowed us to provide genome-wide promoter maps in the analyzed strains. These global TSS maps are refined through the integration of a SuperGenome approach that allows for a comparative TSS annotation by mapping RNA-seq data of multiple strains into a common coordinate system derived from a whole-genome alignment. Considering the steadily increasing amount of RNA-seq studies, our automated TSS annotation will not only facilitate transcriptome annotation for a wider range of pro- and eukaryotes but can also be adapted for the analysis among different growth or stress conditions. Our comparative dRNA-seq analysis revealed conservation of most TSS, but also single-nucleotide-polymorphisms (SNP in promoter regions, which lead to strain-specific transcriptional output. Furthermore, we identified strain-specific sRNA repertoires that could contribute to differential gene regulation among strains. In addition, we identified a novel minimal CRISPR-system in Campylobacter of the type-II CRISPR subtype, which relies on the host factor RNase III and a trans-encoded sRNA for maturation of crRNAs. This minimal system of Campylobacter, which seems active in only some strains, employs a unique maturation pathway, since the crRNAs are transcribed from individual promoters in the upstream repeats and thereby minimize the requirements for the maturation machinery. Overall, our study provides new

  20. High-Resolution Transcriptome Maps Reveal Strain-Specific Regulatory Features of Multiple Campylobacter jejuni Isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förstner, Konrad U.; Heidrich, Nadja; Reinhardt, Richard; Nieselt, Kay; Sharma, Cynthia M.

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is currently the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans. Comparison of multiple Campylobacter strains revealed a high genetic and phenotypic diversity. However, little is known about differences in transcriptome organization, gene expression, and small RNA (sRNA) repertoires. Here we present the first comparative primary transcriptome analysis based on the differential RNA–seq (dRNA–seq) of four C. jejuni isolates. Our approach includes a novel, generic method for the automated annotation of transcriptional start sites (TSS), which allowed us to provide genome-wide promoter maps in the analyzed strains. These global TSS maps are refined through the integration of a SuperGenome approach that allows for a comparative TSS annotation by mapping RNA–seq data of multiple strains into a common coordinate system derived from a whole-genome alignment. Considering the steadily increasing amount of RNA–seq studies, our automated TSS annotation will not only facilitate transcriptome annotation for a wider range of pro- and eukaryotes but can also be adapted for the analysis among different growth or stress conditions. Our comparative dRNA–seq analysis revealed conservation of most TSS, but also single-nucleotide-polymorphisms (SNP) in promoter regions, which lead to strain-specific transcriptional output. Furthermore, we identified strain-specific sRNA repertoires that could contribute to differential gene regulation among strains. In addition, we identified a novel minimal CRISPR-system in Campylobacter of the type-II CRISPR subtype, which relies on the host factor RNase III and a trans-encoded sRNA for maturation of crRNAs. This minimal system of Campylobacter, which seems active in only some strains, employs a unique maturation pathway, since the crRNAs are transcribed from individual promoters in the upstream repeats and thereby minimize the requirements for the maturation machinery. Overall, our study provides new insights into

  1. Antibiotic Resistance and Prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in Poultry Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Saadatmand

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Campylobacter is a common type of bacteria in humans and poultry, which generally accounts for various diseases in humans, such as gastroenteritis. The poultry digestive system contains a high level of these bacteria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of C. jejuni and C. coli in the poultry liver packed for marketing and determine the antibiotic resistance of the isolates. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in the spring of 2016 in the city of Hamadan, Iran. A total of 80 samples of packed chicken liver were collected from the stores supplying meat and poultry products in Hamadan. The enrichment of the liver samples was performed in brucella broth; subsequently, separation was carried out on Campylobacter selective agar. The presence of bacteria was confirmed by the implementation of chemical diagnostic tests and direct microscopic observation. Finally, the antibiotic resistance of the isolates was tested using disk diffusion method. Results: According to the results, Campylobacter had a prevalence rate of 90%, 73.61% and 26.39% of which were C. jejuni and C. coli, respectively. Out of the 12 antibiotic discs used in this study, the highest resistance (79% and sensitivity (99% rates were observed for cotrimoxazole (10 µg and gentamycin (10 µg, respectively. Conclusion: The packed poultry liver in Hamadan had a relatively high prevalence of C. jejuni and C. coli. Therefore, the consumers should be careful about the cooking time and using this food. Accordingly, they can prevent the dissemination of this bacteria by cooking the liver at a temperature of above 70°C for 20 min and properly washing the devices before cooking this product. Additionally, the elderly, children, and those with immunodeficiency are recommended to avoid eating poultry liver.

  2. Evaluation of fecal calprotectin in Campylobacter concisus and Campylobacter jejuni/coli gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Hans Linde; Engberg, Jørgen; Ejlertsen, Tove; Nielsen, Henrik

    2013-05-01

    Calprotectin (CP) is a calcium-binding cytosolic neutrophil protein and the concentration in feces reflects the migration of neutrophils into the gut lumen. Testing for fecal CP (f-CP) in patients with negative cultures for enteric pathogens is widely accepted as a useful screening tool for identifying patients who are most likely to benefit from endoscopy for suspected inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) with the assumption that a negative f-CP is compatible with a functional disorder. Campylobacter concisus has recently been reported to have a high incidence in the Danish population almost equal to Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli and has been reported to cause prolonged watery diarrhea. However, isolation of C. concisus from feces requires the filter method in a hydrogen-enriched microaerobic atmosphere, which is not commonly used in the laboratory, and the diagnosis may consequently be missed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the f-CP levels, as a marker for the intestinal inflammation in C. jejuni/coli- and C. concisus-infected patients. The authors found a high concentration of f-CP (median 631: IQR 221-1274) among 140 patients with C. jejuni/coli infection, whereas the f-CP level among 99 C. concisus-infected patients was significantly lower (median 53: IQR 20-169). The data correlate to the severe inflammatory gastroenteritis seen in patients infected with C. jejuni/coli, whereas C. concisus-infected patients have a much lower intestinal inflammation which could be compared with viral gastroenteritis. Nevertheless, clinicians should be aware of C. concisus infection, especially in patients with prolonged mild diarrhea, in the differential diagnosis to IBD.

  3. Molecular subtyping and erythromycin resistance of Campylobacter in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, A; Song, L; Liang, H; Gu, Y; Zhang, C; Liu, X; Zhang, J; Zhang, M

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the erythromycin resistance patterns and mechanism for Campylobacter isolates in China. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of erythromycin on 858 Chinese Campylobacter isolates were analysed. PCR and DNA sequencing were used to identify mutations in the 23S rRNA and the presence of the ermB gene in the 158 erythromycin resistance isolates (18·4%). About 83% (131/158) had A2075G mutation in their 23S rRNA; no A2074C/G mutants were found. The ermB gene was identified in 30 Campylobacter coli isolates (19%). Four types of multidrug-resistant gene islands (MDRGIs) were found. Fifty-three types were identified by multilocus sequence typing among the resistant isolates. All isolates of STs 6322 and 1145 had the ermB gene. The erythromycin resistance rate of Camp. coli (58·56%) was much higher than Campylobacter jejuni (0·67%). The insertion sites between cadF and CCO1582 and between nfsB and cinA on the chromosome might be hot spots for MDRGI transformation. Point mutation in domain V of the 23S rRNA and the ermB gene accounted for 100% of the erythromycin resistance of Campylobacter in China. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Survival with a helping hand: Campylobacter and microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana eIndikova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacteriosis is the most important bacterial food-borne disease in the developed world. Consumption of chicken meat, beef or raw milk, direct contact with ruminants and exposure to contaminated surface water or even consumption of tap water have been identified as risk factors for human disease. However, the most important risk factor is consumption of and/or handling contaminated chicken. Campylobacter spp. are fastidious microorganisms but must somehow survive outside the host, especially in food and agricultural environments and also resist the innate and humoral immune responses inside the host. In this paper we hypothesize that other microorganisms in mixed populations with Campylobacter may act to improve survival outside the host and may also protect the pathogen against the intestinal immune system. Our evidence for this hypothesis is based on: 1. newly generated microbial community analysis; 2. the prolonged survival of Campylobacter in mixed species biofilms and in co-culture with environmental bacteria; 3. improved survival in amoebae and rumen fluid; 4. sulphur release and iron uptake systems within the intestinal lumen. This would make Campylobacter an exceptional food-borne pathogen. With this in mind, new strategies are necessary to combat Campylobacter along the total food chain.

  5. QUANTITATIVE ASSESSMENT OF CAMPYLOBACTER SPP. ON POULTRY CARCASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Alberghini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter spp. are bacterial pathogens associated with human gastroenteritis worldwide. In Europe, campylobacteriosis is one of the leading food-borne bacterial diseases and the consumption of poultry meats is suspected to be one of the major causes of illness. The aim of our research was to determine the number of Campylobacter spp. in poultry carcasses and in poultry meat samples during their storage till to retail markets. The study was conducted from February 2009 to February 2010 at slaughterhouse in Veneto region, followed by a test of fresh poultry meat placed on the market for sale. A total of 90 poultry carcass and 90 samples of poultry meat were examined. The quantitative examination resulted in Campylobacter spp. counts (mean: for carcasses between 2,0 ∙101 ufc/g and 1,5 ∙103 ufc/g (4,2 ∙102 and poultry meat between 2,0 ∙101 ufc/g and 3,7 ∙102 ufc/g (8,1 ∙101. The majority of isolates were classified as Campylobacter jejuni (58,3%, Campylobacter coli (22,9% or Arcobacter cryaerophilus (4,2%. Acknowledgments: The project was funded with grants from Fondazione Cariverona 2007.

  6. [Campylobacter and Salmonella acute gastroenteritis: epidemiology and health care utilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala Farré, Maria Rosa; Osorio Sánchez, Dimelza; Arias Varela, Cesar; Simó Sanahuja, Maria; Recasens Recasens, Assumpta; Pérez Jové, Josefa

    2015-10-05

    In Catalonia the current surveillance systems do not allow to know the true incidence or the health care utilization of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) caused by Campylobacter and Salmonella infections. The aim of this study is to analyze these characteristics. Descriptive study of Campylobacter and Salmonella infections reported in 2002 and 2012 in Catalonia, Spain. We included cases isolated and reported by the laboratory to a regional Surveillance Unit. The estimated incidence of Salmonella and Campylobacter AGE decreased by almost 50% and 20% respectively in 2012. Children between one and 4 years old were the most affected in both years. Significant differences in the clinical characteristics and disease duration were observed between Campylobacter and Salmonella. Visits to the Emergency Department and hospitalization rates were 63.7% and 15%, being more frequent among salmonellosis cases. The estimated incidence of Campylobacter and Salmonella infections has decreased, however rates are still important, as well as it is the health care utilization in both diseases. Current surveillance systems need appropriateness improvements to reach a better control of these infections. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Rapidly decreased serum IgG to Campylobacter pylori following elimination of Campylobacter in histological chronic biopsy Campylobacter-positive gastritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bohemen, C. G.; Langenberg, M. L.; Rauws, E. A.; Oudbier, J.; Weterings, E.; Zanen, H. C.

    1989-01-01

    The anaerobic bacterium Campylobacter pylori (Cp) is thought to be associated with chronic gastritis. This paper presents clinical data underpinning this view. Five patients with histological chronic gastritis as determined by diagnostic endoscopy, which was associated with Cp as determined by

  8. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment for Campylobacter spp. on Ham in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeeyeon; Ha, Jimyeong; Kim, Sejeong; Lee, Heeyoung; Lee, Soomin; Yoon, Yohan

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the risk of illness from Campylobacter spp. on ham. To identify the hazards of Campylobacter spp. on ham, the general characteristics and microbial criteria for Campylobacter spp., and campylobacteriosis outbreaks were investigated. In the exposure assessment, the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. on ham was evaluated, and the probabilistic distributions for the temperature of ham surfaces in retail markets and home refrigerators were prepared. In addition, the raw data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHNES) 2012 were used to estimate the consumption amount and frequency of ham. In the hazard characterization, the Beta-Poisson model for Campylobacter spp. infection was used. For risk characterization, a simulation model was developed using the collected data, and the risk of Campylobacter spp. on ham was estimated with @RISK. The Campylobacter spp. cell counts on ham samples were below the detection limit (ham was 23.93 g per person, and the consumption frequency was 11.57%. The simulated mean value of the initial contamination level of Campylobacter spp. on ham was -3.95 Log CFU/g, and the mean value of ham for probable risk per person per day was 2.20×10(-12). It is considered that the risk of foodborne illness for Campylobacter spp. was low. Furthermore, these results indicate that the microbial risk assessment of Campylobacter spp. in this study should be useful in providing scientific evidence to set up the criteria of Campylobacter spp..

  9. Polymerase chain reaction detection of naturally occurring Campylobacter in commercial broiler chicken embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiett, K L; Cox, N A; Rothrock, M J

    2013-04-01

    Campylobacter, a foodborne pathogen closely associated with poultry, is recognized as a leading bacterial etiologic agent of human gastroenteritis in the United States. In this investigation, 2 trials were performed where tissues from 7-, 14/15-, and 19-d-old commercial broiler chicken embryos were tested for the presence of Campylobacter using both culturing methodology and PCR. Conventional culturing methods failed to detect Campylobacter from any samples tested during this investigation. Using a set of primers specific for the Campylobacter flagellinA short variable region (flaA SVR), Campylobacter DNA was amplified in 100, 80, and 100% of gastrointestinal tracts from 7-, 15-, and 19-d-old embryos, respectively, in the first trial. Similarly, Campylobacter DNA was detected in 100, 70, and 60% of gastrointestinal tracts of 7-, 14-, and 18-d-old embryos, respectively, in the second trial. In both trials, yolk sac, albumin, and liver/gallbladder samples from 19-d-old embryos all failed to produce amplicons indicative of Campylobacter DNA. Subsequent DNA sequence analyses of the flaA SVR PCR products were consistent with the amplicon arising from Campylobacter. Although a determination of whether the Campylobacter was living or dead within the embryos could not be made, these results demonstrate that Campylobacter-specific DNA is present within the gastrointestinal tract of broiler chicken embryos; however, the means by which it is present and the relative contribution to subsequent Campylobacter contamination of poultry flocks requires further investigation.

  10. A longitudinal study of Campylobacter distribution in a turkey production chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perko-Mäkelä, P.; Isohanni, P.; Katzav, M.

    2009-01-01

    . The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence of Campylobacter during a complete turkey production cycle which lasts for 1,5 years of time. For detection of Campylobacter, a conventional culture method was compared with a PCR method. Campylobacter isolates from different types of samples have been...... identified to the species level by a multiplex PCR assay. Methods: Samples (N = 456) were regularly collected from one turkey parent flock, the hatchery, six different commercial turkey farms and from 11 different stages at the slaughterhouse. For the detection of Campylobacter, a conventional culture...... and a PCR method were used. Campylobacter isolates (n = 143) were identified to species level by a multiplex PCR assay. Results: No Campylobacter were detected in either the samples from the turkey parent flock or from hatchery samples using the culture method. PCR detected Campylobacter DNA in five faecal...

  11. Danish strategies to control Campylobacter in broilers and broiler meat: facts and effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenquist, Hanne; Boysen, Louise; Galliano, C.

    2009-01-01

    Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. have been the most common bacterial cause of human gastrointestinal disease in Denmark since 1999. In 2003, the Danish voluntary strategy to control Campylobacter was intensified. The focus was on biosecurity, allocation of meat from Campylobacter-negative broilers...... to the production of chilled products, and consumer information campaigns. From 2002 to 2007, the percentage of Campylobacter-positive broiler flocks at slaughter decreased from 43% to 27%. After processing, Campylobacter-positive samples of chilled broiler meat fell from 18% in 2004 to 8% in 2007. Furthermore......, the number of registered human Campylobacter cases decreased by 12%; from 4379 cases in 2002 to 3865 cases in 2007. We believe that the observed decrease in the occurrence of Campylobacter in broilers and broiler meat and the coincidental fall in the number of registered human cases is, in part, a result...

  12. Adipogenic Impairment of Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Subjects With Metabolic Syndrome: Possible Protective Role of FGF2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva-Olivera, Wilfredo; Coín-Aragüez, Leticia; Lhamyani, Said; Clemente-Postigo, Mercedes; Torres, Juan Alcaide; Bernal-López, Maria Rosa; El Bekay, Rajaa; Tinahones, Francisco José

    2017-02-01

    The decreased expansion capacity of adipose tissue plays a crucial role in the onset of disorders associated with metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to examine the state of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) from obese subjects with different metabolic profiles. This was a 2-year study to enroll subjects who underwent bariatric surgery or cholecystectomy. University Hospital. Patients who underwent either bariatric surgery (20 morbidly obese) or cholecystectomy (40 subjects) participated in the study. ASCs were obtained from both visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue. Adipogenic, fibrotic gene expression was quantified by quantitative polymerase chain reaction; Smad7 and fibroblast growth factor 2 were quantified by western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. The susceptibility of ASCs to apoptosis, their population doubling time, and their clonogenic potential were evaluated. The worsening metabolic profile of the patients was accompanied by a decrease in the intrinsic levels of adipogenic gene expression, reduced proliferation rate, clonogenic potential, and exportation of fibroblast growth factor 2 to the cell surface of the ASCs derived from both tissues. In addition, the ASCs from patients without metabolic syndrome showed differences in susceptibility to apoptosis and expression of TGFβ-signaling inhibitory protein Smad7 with respect to the ASCs from patients with metabolic syndrome. Our results suggest that the decrease in adipogenic-gene mRNA and clonogenic potential, as well as the accumulation of fibrotic proteins with metabolic alterations, could be a relevant mechanism controlling the number and size of neogenerated adipocytes and involved in alteration of adipose-tissue expansion. Copyright © 2017 by the Endocrine Society

  13. Methylation-dependent DNA discrimination in natural transformation ofCampylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, Jessica M; Leveque, Rhiannon M; Dawid, Suzanne; DiRita, Victor J

    2017-09-19

    Campylobacter jejuni , a leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis, is naturally competent. Like many competent organisms, C. jejuni restricts the DNA that can be used for transformation to minimize undesirable changes in the chromosome. Although C. jejuni can be transformed by C. jejuni -derived DNA, it is poorly transformed by the same DNA propagated in Escherichia coli or produced with PCR. Our work indicates that methylation plays an important role in marking DNA for transformation. We have identified a highly conserved DNA methyltransferase, which we term Campylobacter transformation system methyltransferase ( ctsM ), which methylates an overrepresented 6-bp sequence in the chromosome. DNA derived from a ctsM mutant transforms C. jejuni significantly less well than DNA derived from ctsM + (parental) cells. The ctsM mutation itself does not affect transformation efficiency when parental DNA is used, suggesting that CtsM is important for marking transforming DNA, but not for transformation itself. The mutant has no growth defect, arguing against ongoing restriction of its own DNA. We further show that E. coli plasmid and PCR-derived DNA can efficiently transform C. jejuni when only a subset of the CtsM sites are methylated in vitro. A single methylation event 1 kb upstream of the DNA involved in homologous recombination is sufficient to transform C. jejuni , whereas otherwise identical unmethylated DNA is not. Methylation influences DNA uptake, with a slight effect also seen on DNA binding. This mechanism of DNA discrimination in C. jejuni is distinct from the DNA discrimination described in other competent bacteria.

  14. Campylobacter ornithocola sp. nov., a novel member of the Campylobacter lari group isolated from wild bird faecal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres, Alberto; Muñoz, Ivo; Iraola, Gregorio; Díaz-Viraqué, Florencia; Collado, Luis

    2017-06-01

    During a study on the prevalence and diversity of campylobacteria in wild birds faecal samples from the city of Valdivia (southern Chile) 17 Gram-stain-negative, curved-rod-shaped isolates, were initially identified as Campylobacter lari by PCR-RFLP. Further identification by 16S rRNA sequence analysis revealed that they formed a distinct group in the genus Campylobacter. This unique position was confirmed by the results of analysis of rpoB, atpA and cpn60 gene sequences. The average nucleotide identity between the representative strain WBE38T and the type strain of the most closely related taxon C. larisubsp.concheus (LMG 11760) was 90.8 %. The oxidase and urease activity of the novel isolates enabled them to be phenotypically differentiated from species of the genus Campylobacter with validly published names. Therefore, on the basis of phenotypic, genetic and genomic characterizations, the results of this study clearly indicate that these strains represent a novel species within the genus Campylobacter, for which the name Campylobacter ornithocola sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain WBE38T (=CECT 9147T=LMG 29815T).

  15. Identification of the main quinolone resistance determinant in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli by MAMA-DEG PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormeño, Lorena; Palomo, Gonzalo; Ugarte-Ruiz, María; Porrero, M Concepción; Borge, Carmen; Vadillo, Santiago; Píriz, Segundo; Domínguez, Lucas; Campos, Maria J; Quesada, Alberto

    2016-03-01

    Among zoonotic diseases, campylobacteriosis stands out as the major bacterial infection producing human gastroenteritis. Antimicrobial therapy, only recommended in critical cases, is challenged by resistance mechanisms that should be unambiguously detected for achievement of effective treatments. Quinolone (ciprofloxacin) resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, the 2 main Campylobacter detected in humans, is conferred by the mutation gyrA C-257-T, which can be genotyped by several methods that require a previous identification of the pathogen species to circumvent the sequence polymorphism of the gene. A multiplex PCR, based on degenerated oligonucleotides, has been designed for unambiguous identification of the quinolone resistance determinant in Campylobacter spp. isolates. The method was verified with 249 Campylobacter strains isolated from humans (141 isolates) and from the 3 most important animal sources for this zoonosis: poultry (34 isolates), swine (38 isolates), and cattle (36 isolates). High resistance to ciprofloxacin, MIC above 4μg/mL, linked to the mutated genotype predicted by MAMA-DEG PCR (mismatch amplification mutation assay PCR with degenerated primers) was found frequently among isolates from the different hosts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Differentiation of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Using Multiplex-PCR and High Resolution Melt Curve Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banya Banowary

    Full Text Available Campylobacter spp. are important causes of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans in developed countries. Among Campylobacter spp. Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni and C. coli are the most common causes of human infection. In this study, a multiplex PCR (mPCR and high resolution melt (HRM curve analysis were optimized for simultaneous detection and differentiation of C. jejuni and C. coli isolates. A segment of the hippuricase gene (hipO of C. jejuni and putative aspartokinase (asp gene of C. coli were amplified from 26 Campylobacter isolates and amplicons were subjected to HRM curve analysis. The mPCR-HRM was able to differentiate between C. jejuni and C. coli species. All DNA amplicons generated by mPCR were sequenced. Analysis of the nucleotide sequences from each isolate revealed that the HRM curves were correlated with the nucleotide sequences of the amplicons. Minor variation in melting point temperatures of C. coli or C. jejuni isolates was also observed and enabled some intraspecies differentiation between C. coli and/or C. jejuni isolates. The potential of PCR-HRM curve analysis for the detection and speciation of Campylobacter in additional human clinical specimens and chicken swab samples was also confirmed. The sensitivity and specificity of the test were found to be 100% and 92%, respectively. The results indicated that mPCR followed by HRM curve analysis provides a rapid (8 hours technique for differentiation between C. jejuni and C. coli isolates.

  17. Differentiation of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Using Multiplex-PCR and High Resolution Melt Curve Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banowary, Banya; Dang, Van Tuan; Sarker, Subir; Connolly, Joanne H; Chenu, Jeremy; Groves, Peter; Ayton, Michelle; Raidal, Shane; Devi, Aruna; Vanniasinkam, Thiru; Ghorashi, Seyed A

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacter spp. are important causes of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans in developed countries. Among Campylobacter spp. Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) and C. coli are the most common causes of human infection. In this study, a multiplex PCR (mPCR) and high resolution melt (HRM) curve analysis were optimized for simultaneous detection and differentiation of C. jejuni and C. coli isolates. A segment of the hippuricase gene (hipO) of C. jejuni and putative aspartokinase (asp) gene of C. coli were amplified from 26 Campylobacter isolates and amplicons were subjected to HRM curve analysis. The mPCR-HRM was able to differentiate between C. jejuni and C. coli species. All DNA amplicons generated by mPCR were sequenced. Analysis of the nucleotide sequences from each isolate revealed that the HRM curves were correlated with the nucleotide sequences of the amplicons. Minor variation in melting point temperatures of C. coli or C. jejuni isolates was also observed and enabled some intraspecies differentiation between C. coli and/or C. jejuni isolates. The potential of PCR-HRM curve analysis for the detection and speciation of Campylobacter in additional human clinical specimens and chicken swab samples was also confirmed. The sensitivity and specificity of the test were found to be 100% and 92%, respectively. The results indicated that mPCR followed by HRM curve analysis provides a rapid (8 hours) technique for differentiation between C. jejuni and C. coli isolates.

  18. Isolation and polymerase chain reaction-based detection of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from poultry in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magistrado, P A; Garcia, M M; Raymundo, A K

    2001-10-22

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the conventional culture method of detecting thermophilic Campylobacter species in duck and chicken samples from two locations in the province of Laguna, Philippines, were compared. Three Campylobacter jejuni and five C. coli strains were isolated from a total of 135 duck and chicken samples from both methods. The PCR technique, however, was found to be more sensitive, accurate and rapid than the conventional culture method. The specificity of two sets of published primers, C442-C490 (specific for C. jejuni, C. coli and C. lari) and CL2-CR3 (specific for C. jejuni) were confirmed with reference and field strains. To improve detection, a lysate was prepared by boiling cells in Triton X-100, and then used as template for PCR to detect Campylobacter from spiked and naturally contaminated chicken rinse. For spiked chicken samples, a 17-h Meuller-Hinton Broth enrichment for the chicken rinse resulted in an improved sensitivity at 31.7 CFU/g using C442-C490. This enrichment-PCR tandem also detected thermophilic Campylobacter from 1 out of 21 native chicken samples from a wet market. To our knowledge, this is the first report of thermophilic Campylobacter isolation from poultry in the Philippines. The approaches described here could serve as a basis for future surveillance and/or epidemiological studies on this emerging foodborne pathogen.

  19. Campylobacter pinnipediorum sp. nov., isolated from pinnipeds, comprising Campylobacter pinnipediorum subsp. pinnipediorum subsp. nov. and Campylobacter pinnipediorum subsp. caledonicus subsp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Maarten J; Miller, William G; Leger, Judy St; Chapman, Mary H; Timmerman, Arjen J; Duim, Birgitta; Foster, Geoffrey; Wagenaar, Jaap A

    2017-06-01

    During independent diagnostic screenings of otariid seals in California (USA) and phocid seals in Scotland (UK), Campylobacter-like isolates, which differed from the established taxa of the genus Campylobacter, were cultured from abscesses and internal organs of different seal species. A polyphasic study was undertaken to determine the taxonomic position of these six isolates. The isolates were characterized by 16S rRNA gene and AtpA sequence analysis and by conventional phenotypic testing. The whole-genome sequences were determined for all isolates, and the average nucleotide identity (ANI) was determined. The isolates formed a separate phylogenetic clade, divergent from all other taxa of the genus Campylobacter and most closely related to Campylobactermucosalis. Although all isolates showed 100 % 16S rRNA gene sequence homology, AtpA and ANI analyses indicated divergence between the otariid isolates from California and the phocid isolates from Scotland, which warrants subspecies status for each clade. The two subspecies could also be distinguished phenotypically on the basis of catalase activity. This study shows clearly that the isolates obtained from pinnipeds represent a novel species within the genus Campylobacter, for which the name Campylobacter pinnipediorum sp. nov. is proposed. Within this novel species, the Californian isolates represent a separate subspecies, for which the name C. pinnipediorum subsp. pinnipediorum subsp. nov. is proposed. The type strain for both this novel species and subspecies is RM17260T (=LMG 29472T=CCUG 69570T). The Scottish isolates represent another subspecies, for which the name C. pinnipediorum subsp. caledonicus subsp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of this subspecies is M302/10/6T (=LMG 29473T=CCUG 68650T).

  20. Incidence and antimicrobial resistance profiling of Campylobacter in retail chicken livers and gizzards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noormohamed, Aneesa; Fakhr, Mohamed K

    2012-07-01

    Campylobacter species are one of the leading causes of foodborne disease in the United States. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are the two main species that are of concern to human health, and they cause approximately 95% of human infections. The number of studies investigating Campylobacter in chicken livers and gizzards is very limited in the literature. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in retail chicken livers and gizzards purchased from grocery stores in the Tulsa, Oklahoma, area and to further characterize the isolates obtained through antimicrobial susceptibility testing. A total of 202 retail chilled chicken livers and gizzards (159 livers and 43 gizzards) were purchased on a weekly basis from several grocery stores. The overall prevalence of Campylobacter in chicken livers and gizzards was 136/202 (67%), where 69/202 (34%) of the samples were contaminated with Campylobacter jejuni and 66/202 (33%) with Campylobacter coli. While the prevalence of Campylobacter in chicken livers was 77%, its prevalence in chicken gizzards was lower at 33%. The prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni was slightly higher in chicken livers (36%) than gizzards (26%), while the prevalence of Campylobacter coli was significantly higher in the chicken livers (40%) than chicken gizzards (7%). The prevalence of resistance among C. jejuni and C. coli isolates recovered against 16 antimicrobials were as follows: amoxicillin (98%, 99%), ampicillin (32%, 55%), azithromycin (10%, 25%), cephalothin (92%, 99%), chloramphenicol (4%, 12%), ciprofloxacin (58%, 48%), clindamycin (5%, 19%), doxycycline (39%, 66%), erythromycin (6%, 32%), gentamicin (9%, 43%), kanamycin (11%, 43%), nalidixic acid (50%, 43%), oxytetracycline (99%, 100%), streptomycin (3%, 18%), tetracycline (37%, 60%), and tilmicosin (9%, 16%). Multidrug resistance was higher among Campylobacter coli than Campylobacter jejuni isolates.

  1. A comparison of risk assessments on Campylobacter in broiler meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nauta, Maarten; Hill, Andy; Rosenquist, Hanne

    2009-01-01

    In recent years. several quantitative risk assessments for Campylobacter in broiler meat have been developed to support risk managers in controlling this pathogen. The models encompass some or all of the consecutive stages in the broiler meat production chain: primary production, industrial...... to contaminated broiler meat, but more importantly for analyses of the effects of control measures at different stages in the broiler meat production chain. This review paper provides a comparative overview of models developed in the United Kingdom, Denmark, the Netherlands and Germany, and aims to identify...... the variability in Campylobacter concentrations between meat products and meals determine the risks, not the mean values of those distributions. Although a unified model for risk assessment of Campylobacter in the broiler meat production would be desirable in order to promote a European harmonized approach...

  2. Clinical Manifestations of Campylobacter concisus Infection in Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Linde; Engberg, Jørgen; Ejlertsen, Tove

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND:: There is only sparse information about the clinical impact of Campylobacter concisus infections in children. METHODS:: A study was performed during a two-year period to determine the clinical manifestations in C. concisus positive children with gastroenteritis. A case patient...... with Campylobacter jejuni/coli infection. RESULTS:: Two thousand three hundred and seventy-two diarrheic stool samples from 1,867 children were cultured for pathogenic enteric bacteria during the study period, and 85 and 109 children with C. concisus and C. jejuni/coli, respectively, were identified. Comparison...... for more than two weeks and two-thirds of all children with C. concisus reported loose stools after six month follow-up. CONCLUSIONS:: Campylobacter concisus infection in children seems to have a milder course of acute gastroenteritis compared with C. jejuni/coli infection, but is associated with more...

  3. Vaccination of poultry against Campylobacter in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård

    2013-01-01

    in the food chain, from farm-to-fork, where poultry meat is considered to be one of the major vehicles of Campylobacter infections in humans, accounting for 50–80% of reported cases. One way to reduce this economic loss to society is perhaps the introduction of a new Campylobacter vaccine, which could...... be administered to one-day old chicks. This would effectively reduce the outbreak of illness among the general population, enhancing general well-being, and increase the efficiency of the employed labor force. In the present paper, we assess the potential economic benefits of a mandatory vaccination program...... at the EU27 level. In this study, benefits are mainly assumed to comprise lower risk of illness due to Campylobacter infections, and hence increased labor productivity. In the modeled analysis presented in this paper, the possible price of the vaccine is estimated when it is assumed that: (i) the number...

  4. Molecular Tracking, through Processing, of Campylobacter Strains Colonizing Broiler Flocks▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvers, Karen T.; Morris, Victoria K.; Newell, Diane G.; Allen, Vivien M.

    2011-01-01

    Many of the poultry flocks produced in the United Kingdom are colonized with Campylobacter, and the intensive nature of poultry processing usually results in contaminated carcasses. In this study, a previously reported molecular oligonucleotide probe method was used to track a specific flock-colonizing strain(s) on broiler carcasses during processing in two United Kingdom commercial poultry processing plants. Five Campylobacter-positive flocks were sampled at four points along the processing line, postbleed, postpluck, prechill, and postchill, and two Campylobacter-negative flocks processed immediately after positive flocks were sampled prechill. flaA was sequenced from Campylobacter strains isolated from these flocks, and strain-specific probes were synthesized. Skin and cecal samples were plated onto selective agar to give individual colonies, which were transferred onto membranes. These were then hybridized with the strain- and genus-specific probes. For all the 5 positive flocks, there was a significant reduction in campylobacters postbleed compared to postpluck but no subsequent fall on sampling pre- and postchill, and the strain(s) predominating on the carcasses throughout processing came from the flock being processed. This indicates that strains from the abattoir environment were not a significant cause of carcass contamination in flocks with well-established campylobacter colonization. However, negative flocks that were preceded by positive flocks were contaminated by strains that did not generally originate from the predominating strains recovered from the ceca of the previous positive flocks. This suggests that the abattoir environment has a significant role in the contamination of carcasses from negative but not fully colonized flocks. PMID:21705532

  5. Composition of human faecal microbiota in resistance to Campylobacter infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampmann, C; Dicksved, J; Engstrand, L; Rautelin, H

    2016-01-01

    In mice, specific species composition of gut microbiota enhances susceptibility to Campylobacter jejuni but little is known about the specific composition of the human gut microbiota in providing protection from infections caused by enteropathogens. Healthy adult individuals, who travelled in groups from Sweden to destinations with an estimated high risk for acquisition of Campylobacter infection, were enrolled. Faecal samples, collected before travelling and after returning home, were cultured for bacterial enteropathogens, and analysed for Campylobacter by PCR and for the species composition of the microbiota by 16S amplicon massive parallel sequencing. The microbiota compositions were compared between persons who became infected during their travel and those who did not. A total of 63 participants completed the study; 14 became infected with Campylobacter, two with Salmonella and 47 remained negative for the enteropathogens tested. After exclusion of samples taken after antimicrobial treatment, 49 individuals were included in the final analyses. Intra-individual stability of the microbiota was demonstrated for samples taken before travelling. The original diversity of the faecal microbiota was significantly lower among individuals who later became infected compared with those who remained uninfected. The relative abundances of bacteria belonging to the family Lachnospiraceae, and more specifically its two genera Dorea and Coprococcus, were significantly higher among those who remained uninfected. The travel-related infection did not significantly modify the faecal microbiota composition. Species composition of human gut microbiota is important for colonization resistance to Campylobacter infection. Especially individuals with a lower diversity are more susceptible to Campylobacter infection. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Enterite da Campylobacter upsaliensis: un paradigma della microbiologia clinica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Letizia D’Annibale

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The Authors describe a case of acute enteritis in a adult woman with severe hepatitis C infection caused by a strain of Campylobacter upsaliensis.The clinical isolate was obtained only on blood agar because filter membrane technique was performed. In fact for this strain it was no growth on selective Campy agar, which include cephalotin too; C. upsaliensis is sensitive to this antibiotic molecule. So, the use of filter membrane on blood agar or charcoal agar at 37°C in microaerophilic atmosphere is recommended for isolation of all campylobacters responsible of human enteritis.

  7. Metronidazole resistance in Campylobacter jejuni from poultry meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sigrid Rita; Shukri, Naseer Mahmoud; Boel, Jeppe

    2006-01-01

    The occurrence of metronidazole resistance was investigated among Campylobacter jejuni in raw poultry meat collected from supermarkets. MICs were determined by the agar dilution procedure in the testing range of 3 to 60 mu g/ml metronidazole. The MICs showed a bimodal distribution with a signific......The occurrence of metronidazole resistance was investigated among Campylobacter jejuni in raw poultry meat collected from supermarkets. MICs were determined by the agar dilution procedure in the testing range of 3 to 60 mu g/ml metronidazole. The MICs showed a bimodal distribution...

  8. Prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni in poultry breeder flocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovico Dipineto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to present the preliminary results of a study about the prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni in poultry breeder flocks. It was examined three different breeder flocks of Bojano in Molise region. A total of 360 cloacal swabs and 80 enviromental swabs was collected. Of the 3 flocks studied, 6.9% tested were positive for Campylobacter spp. The most-prevalent isolated species is C. jejuni (8.2%. Only 3 of the 360 cloacal swabs samples examined were associated with C. coli. The environmental swabs resulted negative. This results confirms again that poultry is a reservoir of this germ.

  9. Prevalence of Campylobacter species in adult Crohn's disease and the preferential colonization sites of Campylobacter species in the human intestine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikneswari Mahendran

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Crohn's disease (CD and ulcerative colitis (UC are the two major forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. A high prevalence of Campylobacter concisus was previously detected in paediatric CD and adult UC. Currently, the prevalence of C. concisus in adult CD and the preferential colonization sites of Campylobacter species in the human intestine are unknown. In this study, we examined the prevalence of Campylobacter species in biopsies collected from multiple anatomic sites of adult patients with IBD and controls. METHODS: Three hundred and one biopsies collected from ileum, caecum, descending colon and rectum of 28 patients IBD (15 CD and 13 UC and 33 controls were studied. Biopsies were used for DNA extraction and detection of Campylobacter species by PCR-sequencing and Campylobacter cultivation. RESULTS: A significantly higher prevalence of C. concisus in colonic biopsies of patients with CD (53% was detected as compared with the controls (18%. Campylobacter genus-PCR positivity and C. concisus positivity in patients with UC were 85% and 77% respectively, being significantly higher than that in the controls (48% and 36%. C. concisus was more often detected in descending colonic and rectal biopsies from patients with IBD in comparison to the controls. C. concisus was isolated from patients with IBD. CONCLUSION: The high intestinal prevalence of C. concisus in patients with IBD, particularly in the proximal large intestine, suggests that future studies are needed to investigate the possible involvement of C. concisus in a subgroup of human IBD. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the association between adult CD and C. concisus as well as the first study of the preferential colonization sites of C. concisus in the human intestine.

  10. Prevalence of Campylobacter Species in Adult Crohn's Disease and the Preferential Colonization Sites of Campylobacter Species in the Human Intestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahendran, Vikneswari; Riordan, Stephen M.; Grimm, Michael C.; Tran, Thi Anh Tuyet; Major, Joelene; Kaakoush, Nadeem O.; Mitchell, Hazel; Zhang, Li

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are the two major forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). A high prevalence of Campylobacter concisus was previously detected in paediatric CD and adult UC. Currently, the prevalence of C. concisus in adult CD and the preferential colonization sites of Campylobacter species in the human intestine are unknown. In this study, we examined the prevalence of Campylobacter species in biopsies collected from multiple anatomic sites of adult patients with IBD and controls. Methods Three hundred and one biopsies collected from ileum, caecum, descending colon and rectum of 28 patients IBD (15 CD and 13 UC) and 33 controls were studied. Biopsies were used for DNA extraction and detection of Campylobacter species by PCR-sequencing and Campylobacter cultivation. Results A significantly higher prevalence of C. concisus in colonic biopsies of patients with CD (53%) was detected as compared with the controls (18%). Campylobacter genus-PCR positivity and C. concisus positivity in patients with UC were 85% and 77% respectively, being significantly higher than that in the controls (48% and 36%). C. concisus was more often detected in descending colonic and rectal biopsies from patients with IBD in comparison to the controls. C. concisus was isolated from patients with IBD. Conclusion The high intestinal prevalence of C. concisus in patients with IBD, particularly in the proximal large intestine, suggests that future studies are needed to investigate the possible involvement of C. concisus in a subgroup of human IBD. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the association between adult CD and C. concisus as well as the first study of the preferential colonization sites of C. concisus in the human intestine. PMID:21966525

  11. A Higher Prevalence Rate of Campylobacter in Retail Beef Livers Compared to Other Beef and Pork Meat Cuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noormohamed, Aneesa; Fakhr, Mohamed K.

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in retail beef, beef livers, and pork meats purchased from the Tulsa (OK, USA) area and to further characterize the isolates obtained through antimicrobial susceptibility testing. A total of 97 chilled retail beef (50 beef livers and 47 other cuts), and 100 pork samples were collected. The prevalence of Campylobacter in beef livers was 39/50 (78%), while no Campylobacter was isolated from the other beef cuts. The prevalence in pork samples was 2/100 (2%). A total of 108 Campylobacter isolates (102 beef livers isolates and six pork isolates) were subjected to antimicrobial resistance profiling against sixteen different antimicrobials that belong to eight different antibiotic classes. Of the six pork Campylobacter coli isolates, four showed resistance to all antimicrobials tested. Among the beef liver isolates, the highest antibiotic resistances were to tetracyclines and β-lactams, while the lowest resistances were to macrolides, aminoglycosides, lincosamides, and phenicols. Resistances to the fluoroquinolone, macrolide, aminoglycoside, tetracycline, β-lactam, lincosamide, and phenicol antibiotic classes were significantly higher in Campylobacter coli than Campylobacter jejuni isolates. Multidrug Resistance (MDR) among the 102 Campylobacter (33 Campylobacter jejuni and 69 Campylobacter coli) beef liver isolates was significantly higher in Campylobacter coli (62%) than Campylobacter jejuni (39%). The high prevalence of Campylobacter in retail beef livers and their antimicrobial resistance raise concern about the safety of these retail products. PMID:23698698

  12. Prevalence and types of Campylobacter on poultry farms and in their direct environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schets, Franciska M; Jacobs-Reitsma, Wilma F; van der Plaats, Rozemarijn Q J; Heer, Lianne Kerkhof-De; van Hoek, Angela H A M; Hamidjaja, Raditijo A; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria; Blaak, Hetty

    2017-10-01

    To study whether broiler and layer farms contribute to the environmental Campylobacter load, environmental matrices at or close to farms, and caecal material from chickens, were examined. Similarity between Campylobacter from poultry and environment was tested based on species identification and Multilocus Sequence Typing. Campylobacter prevalence in caecal samples was 97% at layer farms (n = 5), and 93% at broiler farms with Campylobacter-positive flocks (n = 2/3). Campylobacter prevalence in environmental samples was 24% at layer farms, and 29% at broiler farms with Campylobacter-positive flocks. Campylobacter was detected in soil and surface water, not in dust and flies. Campylobacter prevalence in adjacent and remote surface waters was not significantly (P > 0.1) different. Detected species were C. coli (52%), C. jejuni (40%) and C. lari (7%) in layers, and C. jejuni (100%) in broilers. Identical sequence types (STs) were detected in caecal material and soil. A deviating species distribution in surface water adjacent to farms indicated a high background level of environmental Campylobacter. STs from layer farms were completely deviant from surface water STs. The occasional detection of identical STs in broilers, wastewater at broiler farms and surface water in the farm environment suggested a possible contribution of broiler farms to the aquatic environmental Campylobacter load.

  13. Impaired Fitness and Transmission of Macrolide-Resistant Campylobacter jejuni in Its Natural Host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luangtongkum, Taradon; Shen, Zhangqi; Seng, Virginia W.; Sahin, Orhan; Jeon, Byeonghwa; Liu, Peng

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a major zoonotic pathogen transmitted to humans via the food chain and is prevalent in chickens, a natural reservoir for this pathogenic organism. Due to the importance of macrolide antibiotics in clinical therapy of human campylobacteriosis, development of macrolide resistance in Campylobacter has become a concern for public health. To facilitate the control of macrolide-resistant Campylobacter, it is necessary to understand if macrolide resistance affects the fitness and transmission of Campylobacter in its natural host. In this study we conducted pairwise competitions and comingling experiments in chickens using clonally related and isogenic C. jejuni strains, which are either susceptible or resistant to erythromycin (Ery). In every competition pair, Ery-resistant (Eryr) Campylobacter was consistently outcompeted by the Ery-susceptible (Erys) strain. In the comingling experiments, Eryr Campylobacter failed to transmit to chickens precolonized by Erys Campylobacter, while isogenic Erys Campylobacter was able to transmit to and establish dominance in chickens precolonized by Eryr Campylobacter. The fitness disadvantage was linked to the resistance-conferring mutations in the 23S rRNA. These findings clearly indicate that acquisition of macrolide resistance impairs the fitness and transmission of Campylobacter in chickens, suggesting that the prevalence of macrolide-resistant C. jejuni will likely decrease in the absence of antibiotic selection pressure. PMID:22183170

  14. Temperature-dependent phenotypic variation of Campylobacter jejuni lipooligosaccharides

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Semchenko, Evgeny A

    2010-11-30

    Abstract Background Campylobacter jejuni is a major bacterial cause of food-borne enteritis, and its lipooligosaccharide (LOS) plays an initiating role in the development of the autoimmune neuropathy, Guillain-Barré syndrome, by induction of anti-neural cross-reactive antibodies through ganglioside molecular mimicry. Results Herein we describe the existence and heterogeneity of multiple LOS forms in C. jejuni strains of human and chicken origin grown at 37°C and 42°C, respectively, as determined on sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide electrophoresis gels with carbohydrate-specific silver staining and blotting with anti-ganglioside ligands, and confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The C. jejuni NCTC 11168 original isolate (11168-O) was compared to its genome-sequenced variant (11168-GS), and both were found to have a lower-Mr LOS form, which was different in size and structure to the previously characterized higher-Mr form bearing GM1 mimicry. The lower-Mr form production was found to be dependent on the growth temperature as the production of this form increased from ~5%, observed at 37°C to ~35% at 42°C. The structure of the lower-Mr form contained a β-D-Gal-(1→3)-β-D-GalNAc disaccharide moiety which is consistent with the termini of the GM1, asialo-GM1, GD1, GT1 and GQ1 gangliosides, however, it did not display GM1 mimicry as assessed in blotting studies but was shown in NMR to resemble asialo-GM1. The production of multiple LOS forms and lack of GM1 mimicry was not a result of phase variation in the genes tested of NCTC 11168 and was also observed in most of the human and chicken isolates of C. jejuni tested. Conclusion The presence of differing amounts of LOS forms at 37 and 42°C, and the variety of forms observed in different strains, indicate that LOS form variation may play a role in an adaptive mechanism or a stress response of the bacterium during the colonization of different hosts.

  15. Commonality and biosynthesis of the O-methyl phosphoramidate capsule modification in Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, David J; Lamoureux, Marc P; Karlyshev, Andrey V; Fiori, Laura M; Li, Jianjun; Thacker, Gillian; Coleman, Russell A; Khieu, Nam H; Wren, Brendan W; Brisson, Jean-Robert; Jarrell, Harold C; Szymanski, Christine M

    2007-09-28

    In this study we investigated the commonality and biosynthesis of the O-methyl phosphoramidate (MeOPN) group found on the capsular polysaccharide (CPS) of Campylobacter jejuni. High resolution magic angle spinning NMR spectroscopy was used as a rapid, high throughput means to examine multiple isolates, analyze the cecal contents of colonized chickens, and screen a library of CPS mutants for the presence of MeOPN. Sixty eight percent of C. jejuni strains were found to express the MeOPN with a high prevalence among isolates from enteritis, Guillain Barré, and Miller-Fisher syndrome patients. In contrast, MeOPN was not observed for any of the Campylobacter coli strains examined. The MeOPN was detected on C. jejuni retrieved from cecal contents of colonized chickens demonstrating that the modification is expressed by bacteria inhabiting the avian gastrointestinal tract. In C. jejuni 11168H, the cj1415-cj1418 cluster was shown to be involved in the biosynthesis of MeOPN. Genetic complementation studies and NMR/mass spectrometric analyses of CPS from this strain also revealed that cj1421 and cj1422 encode MeOPN transferases. Cj1421 adds the MeOPN to C-3 of the beta-d-GalfNAc residue, whereas Cj1422 transfers the MeOPN to C-4 of D-glycero-alpha-L-gluco-heptopyranose. CPS produced by the 11168H strain was found to be extensively modified with variable MeOPN, methyl, ethanolamine, and N-glycerol groups. These findings establish the importance of the MeOPN as a diagnostic marker and therapeutic target for C. jejuni and set the groundwork for future studies aimed at the detailed elucidation of the MeOPN biosynthetic pathway.

  16. Impact of apoptotic adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells on attenuating organ damage and reducing mortality in rat sepsis syndrome induced by cecal puncture and ligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chia-Lo; Leu, Steve; Sung, Hsin-Ching; Zhen, Yen-Yi; Cho, Chung-Lung; Chen, Angela; Tsai, Tzu-Hsien; Chung, Sheng-Ying; Chai, Han-Tan; Sun, Cheuk-Kwan; Yen, Chia-Hung; Yip, Hon-Kan

    2012-12-07

    We tested whether apoptotic adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (A-ADMSCs) were superior to healthy (H)-ADMSCs at attenuating organ damage and mortality in sepsis syndrome following cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Adult male rats were categorized into group 1 (sham control), group 2 (CLP), group 3 [CLP + H-ADMSC administered 0.5, 6, and 18 h after CLP], group 4 [CLP + A-ADMSC administered as per group 3]. Circulating peak TNF-α level, at 6 h, was highest in groups 2 and 3, and higher in group 4 than group 1 (p HO-1, NQO-1) showed an opposite way of Bcl-2; these patterns were reversed for group 4 (all p < 0.001). Mortality was highest in group 3 and higher in group 2 than group 4 than group 1 (all p < 0.001). A-ADMSC therapy protected major organs from damage and improved prognosis in rats with sepsis syndrome.

  17. Milk modulates campylobacter invasion into caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwen, R.; Neerven, van R.J.J.

    2015-01-01

    Raw milk is a recognized source of Campylobacter outbreaks, but pasteurization is an effective way to eliminate the causative agent of Campylobacteriosis. Whereas breastfeeding is protective against infectious diseases, consumption of formula milk is thought to be not. However, in relation to

  18. Campylobacter pylori and its role in peptic ulcer disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tytgat, G. N.; Rauws, E. A.

    1990-01-01

    In almost all patients with genuine nondrug-induced duodenal or gastric ulcer there is evidence of gastric Campylobacter pylori colonization and concomitant inflammation. C. pylori is only demonstrable in the duodenal cap when there is "gastric mucus metaplasia." Suppression or eradication of C.

  19. Molecular Mechanisms Influencing Genetic Diversity of Campylobacter jejuni

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaasbeek, E.J.

    2009-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is an important food-borne pathogen, causing human bacterial gastroenteritis. Throughout the years several methods have been developed for typing C. jejuni. These methods uncovered the existence of enormous genetic diversity within the species. Stable lineages of C. jejuni are

  20. Campylobacter hominis sp nov., from the human gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawson, A.J.; On, Stephen L.W.; Logan, J.M.J.

    2001-01-01

    identified by a genus and taxon-specific PCR assay, and 16S rDNA nucleotide sequence analysis was carried out. All isolates exhibited the typical Campylobacter characteristics of being non-fermentative, oxidase-positive, catalase-negative and Gram-negative. Unusually, however, they were straight rods lacking...

  1. Campylobacter jejuni in Duck Faeces around Drinking Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Faeces from 192 ducks feeding around 10 wells and 6 ponds in peri-urban areas of Makurdi town, North-Central Nigeria were randomly sampled during the dry season period of October, 2006 to March, 2007. The samples were cultured for Campylobacter jejuni, followed by characterisation of positive samples. The overall ...

  2. Chemical Decontamination of Campylobacter jejuni on Chicken Skin and Meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riedel, Charlotte Tandrup; Brøndsted, Lone; Rosenquist, Hanne

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of 11 chemical compounds to reduce Campylobacter jejuni on chicken skin and meat samples dipped in chemical solutions. Treatment of skin samples for 1 min using tartaric acid (2%) and caprylic acid sodium salt (5%) caused reductions of C. jejuni NCTC11168...

  3. Phage therapy reduces Campylobacter jejuni colonization in broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar, J.A.; Bergen, van M.A.P.; Mueller, M.A.; Wassenaar, T.M.; Carlton, R.M.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of phage therapy in the control of Campylobacter jejuni colonization in young broilers, either as a preventive or a therapeutic measure, was tested. A prevention group was infected with C. jejuni at day 4 of a 10-day phage treatment. A therapeutic group was phage treated for 6 days,

  4. Prevalence of Campylobacter in Dutch sewage purification plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenraad, P.M.F.J.

    1995-01-01

    Campylobacter bacteria are an important cause of bacterial gastro-enteritis in man. Although food of animal origin is the main source of human infection, a casecontrol study in the United States of America showed that 8% of all campylobacteriosis cases could be

  5. Unsaturated fatty acids and viability of Helicobacter (Campylobacter) pylori.

    OpenAIRE

    Hazell, S L; Graham, D Y

    1990-01-01

    Helicobacter (Campylobacter) pylori was found to be sensitive to the toxic effects of an unsaturated fatty acid (arachidonic acid). Data are presented that support the hypothesis that exogenous catalase added to basal media enhances the growth of H. pylori by preventing the formation of toxic peroxidation products from long-chain unsaturated fatty acids.

  6. Spatio-temporal patterns of Campylobacter colonization in Danish broilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chowdhury, S; Themudo, G E; Sandberg, M

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Despite a number of risk-factor studies in different countries, the epidemiology of Campylobacter colonization in broilers, particularly spatial dependencies, is still not well understood. A series of analyses (visualization and exploratory) were therefore conducted in order to obtain...

  7. Clonal Distribution and Virulence of Campylobacter jejuni Isolates in Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haan, Caroline P.A.; Ellström, Patrik; Sarna, Seppo; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa; Rautelin, Hilpi

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni bacteria are highly diverse enteropathogens. Seventy-three C. jejuni isolates from blood collected in Finland were analyzed by multilocus sequence typing and serum resistance. Approximately half of the isolates belonged to the otherwise uncommon sequence type 677 clonal complex. Isolates of this clonal complex were more resistant than other isolates to human serum. PMID:24047729

  8. Optimal interventions to control campylobacter in broilers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenquist, Hanne; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Bodil Hald, Anna

    In a multi disciplinary project we have evaluated interventions against Campylobacter in the broiler production chain. Taking into account risk reduction, costs, practicability and public acceptance of decontamination, it was concluded that at present the optimal control measure for the Danish...

  9. Salmonella og Campylobacter i økologisk svineproduktion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette Nygaard; Nielsen, Eva Møller; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    2005-01-01

    De mere ekstensive systemer i økologisk svineproduktion formodes at have en positiv effekt på dyrenes robusthed f.eks. over for infektioner. Der er dog ingen dokumentation for, at økologiske svin har et lavere indhold af de almindelige zoonotiske bakterier som f.eks. Salmonella og Campylobacter end...

  10. Identification of Campylobacter pyloridis isolates by restriction endonuclease DNA analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langenberg, W.; Rauws, E. A.; Widjojokusumo, A.; Tytgat, G. N.; Zanen, H. C.

    1986-01-01

    Campylobacter pyloridis isolates recovered from gastric biopsy specimens of 16 patients were examined by restriction endonuclease DNA analysis with HindIII. For 8 of these 16 patients two different isolates were compared to study the persistence of the colonizing strains and the stability of their

  11. Genomic Characterization of Campylobacter jejuni strain M1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Carsten; Wassenaar, Gertrude Maria; Javed, Muhammad A.

    2010-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni strain M1 (laboratory designation 99/308) is a rarely documented case of direct transmission of C. jejuni from chicken to a person, resulting in enteritis. We have sequenced the genome of C. jejuni strain M1, and compared this to 12 other C. jejuni sequenced genomes currently...

  12. Survival of Campylobacter jejuni in different gas mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Louise; Knochel, Susanne; Rosenquist, Hanne

    2007-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni in fresh chilled chicken meat is known to be a major risk factor for human gastrointestinal disease. In the present study, the survival under chilled conditions of different C. jejuni strains exposed to different gas mixtures usually used for gas packaging of food was examined...

  13. First attempt to produce experimental Campylobacter concisus infection in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabenhus, R.; Stenram, U.; Andersen, L.P.

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To infect mice with atypical Campylobacter concisus (C. concisus) for the first time. METHODS: Three separate experiments were conducted in order to screen the ability of five clinical C. concisus isolates of intestinal origin and the ATCC 33237 type strain of oral origin to colonize...

  14. Prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni in duck faeces around drinking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Faeces from one hundred and ninety-two ducks feeding around ten wells and six ponds in peri urban areas of Makurdi town, North-Central Nigeria were randomly sampled during the dry season period of October, 2004 to March, 2005. In total, one hundred and ninety-two samples were cultured for Campylobacter jejuni, ...

  15. Cytotoxity of cell free filtrates of campylobacter jejuni isolated in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Culture filtrates of Campylobacter jejuni strains isolated from clinical specimens in Lagos Nigeria were tested for toxic activity. Two out of five filtrates tested manifested cytopathic effect on BHK cells. The effects were mainly cytotoxic and cytotonic. Toxic activity of C. jejuni filtrates was much lower than toxic activity elicited by ...

  16. Reactions of Chicken Sera to Recombinant Campylobacter jejuni Flagellar Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter jejuni is a Gram-negative rod bacterium and is the leading but under-reported bacterial food-borne pathogen that causes human campylobacteriosis worldwide. Raw or undercooked poultry products are regarded as a major source for human infection. C. jejuni flagella have been implicated ...

  17. A Risk Assessment Model for Campylobacter in Broiler Meat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, M.J.; Jacobs-Reitsma, W.F.; Havelaar, A.H.

    2007-01-01

    A quantitative microbiological risk assessment model describes the transmission of Campylobacter through the broiler meat production chain and at home, from entering the processing plant until consumption of a chicken breast fillet meal. The exposure model is linked to a dose-response model to allow

  18. The aroA gene of Campylobacter jejuni

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M.S.M. Wösten (M. M S M); H.J. Dubbink (Erik Jan); B.A.M. van der Zeijst (Ben)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThe gene for 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate (EPSP) synthase (aroA) cloned from Campylobacter jejuni (Cj) strain 81116 was identified by complementation of an Escherichia coli (Ec) auxotrophic aroA mutant. The Cj aroA gene has been sequenced. It encodes an enzyme of 428 amino acids

  19. Immunocapture and real-time PCR to detect Campylobacter spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Rayas, Rocío; Wolffs, Petra F G; Griffiths, Mansel W

    2008-12-01

    In this work, the feasibility of using a large-volume immunocapture system as a sample pretreatment before detection of Campylobacter was studied. Real-time PCR was used for detection of captured cells after immunocapture. This immunocapture system is able to process high-volume samples by recirculation, increasing the possibility of capturing cells in low numbers. After 30 min of recirculation, the sample is concentrated from 250 ml to 200 microl. In this study, different parameters were compared in order to improve cell capture. The analysis of inoculated chicken skin showed that detection of Campylobacter at levels of 10(3) CFU/25 g was possible after 8 h of enrichment. The low recovery of Campylobacter cells (detection limit of the entire protocol was increased due to the low cell recovery of the sample pretreatment. Therefore, this immunoseparation is able to recover cells present in high concentration after enrichment but not cells present in low concentration. Isolation of Campylobacter cells is achievable using this separation method rather than rapid detection.

  20. Campylobacter in Broiler Chicken and Broiler Meat in Sri Lanka : Influence of Semi-Automated vs. Wet Market Processing on Campylobacter Contamination of Broiler Neck Skin Samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kottawatta, Kottawattage S A; van Bergen, Marcel A P; Abeynayake, Preeni; Wagenaar, Jaap A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/126613354; Veldman, Kees T; Kalupahana, Ruwani S

    2017-01-01

    Broiler meat can become contaminated with Campylobacter of intestinal origin during processing. The present study aimed to identify the prevalence of Campylobacter in broiler flocks and meat contamination at retail shops, and determine the influence of semi-automated and wet market processing on

  1. Complete Genome Sequences of Plasmid-Bearing Multidrug-Resistant Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Strains with Type VI Secretion Systems, Isolated from Retail Turkey and Pork

    OpenAIRE

    Marasini, Daya; Fakhr, Mohamed K.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We report the complete genome sequences of multidrug-resistant Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolated from retail turkey and pork, respectively. The chromosomes of these two isolates contained type VI secretion system genes. The two isolates also harbored large plasmids with antimicrobial resistance genes possibly contributing to their multidrug resistance.

  2. Cell wall anchoring of the Campylobacter antigens to Lactococcus lactis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrycja Anna Kobierecka

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is the most frequent cause of human food-borne gastroenteritis and chicken meat is the main source of infection. Recent studies showed that broiler chicken immunization against Campylobacter should be the most efficient way to lower the number of human infections by this pathogen. Induction of the mucosal immune system after oral antigen administration should provide protective immunity to chickens. In this work we tested the usefulness of Lactococcus lactis, the most extensively studied lactic acid bacterium, as a delivery vector for Campylobacter antigens. First we constructed hybrid protein – CjaA antigen presenting CjaD peptide epitopes on its surface. We showed that specific rabbit anti-rCjaAD serum reacted strongly with both CjaA and CjaD produced by a wild type Campylobacter jejuni strain. Next, rCjaAD and CjaA were fused to the C-terminus of the L. lactis YndF containing the LPTXG motif. The genes expressing these proteins were transcribed under control of the L. lactis Usp45 promoter and their products contain the Usp45 signal sequences. This strategy ensures a cell surface location of both analysed proteins, which was confirmed by immunofluorescence assay. In order to evaluate the impact of antigen location on vaccine prototype efficacy, a L. lactis strain producing cytoplasm-located rCjaAD was also generated. Animal experiments showed a decrease of Campylobacter cecal load in vaccinated birds as compared with the control group and showed that the L. lactis harboring the surface-exposed rCjaAD antigen afforded greater protection than the L. lactis producing cytoplasm-located rCjaAD. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to employ LAB (Lactic Acid Bacteria strains as a mucosal delivery vehicle for chicken immunization. Although the observed reduction of chicken colonization by Campylobacter resulting from vaccination was rather moderate, the experiments showed that LAB strains can be considered

  3. Analysis of topoisomerase mutations in fluoroquinolone-resistant and -susceptible Campylobacter jejuni strains isolated in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinana, Alfred Dieudonné; Cardinale, Eric; Bahsoun, Ibrahim; Tall, Fatou; Sire, Jean-Marie; Garin, Benoit; Boye, Cheikh Saad-Bouh; Dromigny, Jacques-Albert; Perrier-Gros-Claude, Jean-David

    2007-04-01

    In this study, topoisomerase mutations in ciprofloxacin-resistant and -susceptible Campylobacter jejuni were analysed by DNA sequencing. In certain ciprofloxacin-resistant C. jejuni, the mechanism of resistance was complex. The Thr86-Ala substitution in the GyrA protein appears to play a role in increasing the minimum inhibitory concentration of nalidixic acid only. In addition, isolates with this amino acid change and those resistant to quinolones but lacking a mutation in the GyrA quinolone resistance-determining region could be derived from two different clones. Based on gyrA and gyrB polymorphisms, C. jejuni isolates from the Dakar region of Senegal appeared to be less diverse than those from other countries. Moreover, C. jejuni isolates in Senegal appeared to differ from European isolates by lack of a silent mutation at codon 120 of the gyrA gene.

  4. Cardiomyocytes Derived From Pluripotent Stem Cells Recapitulate Electrophysiological Characteristics of an Overlap Syndrome of Cardiac Sodium Channel Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davis, Richard P.; Casini, Simona; van den Berg, Cathelijne W.; Hoekstra, Maaike; Remme, Carol Ann; Dambrot, Cheryl; Salvatori, Daniela; Ward-van Oostwaard, Dorien; Wilde, Arthur A. M.; Bezzina, Connie R.; Verkerk, Arie O.; Freund, Christian; Mummery, Christine L.

    2012-01-01

    Background-Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) offer a new paradigm for modeling genetic cardiac diseases, but it is unclear whether mouse and human PSCs can truly model both gain-and loss-of-function genetic disorders affecting the Na+ current (I-Na) because of the immaturity of the PSC-derived

  5. Reduction of thermotolerant Campylobacter species on broiler carcasses following physical decontamination at slaughter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Louise; Rosenquist, Hanne

    2009-01-01

    through physical decontamination of the meat. The current study was conducted to compare the Campylobacter-reducing ability of three physical decontamination techniques, forced air chilling, crust freezing, and steam-ultrasound, performed in the plant with naturally contaminated broiler chickens......To reduce the incidences of human Campylobacter infections, a number of countries are investigating methods for reducing human exposure to Campylobacter from broiler meat. In addition to implementing biosecurity measures at the farm, Campylobacter may be controlled by reducing Campylobacter counts...... in an increase of 0.9 log CFU per carcass, suggesting that Campylobacter counts also may be reduced by optimizing the hygienic design of equipment or by physical removal of fecal contamination....

  6. Identification of taxonomic and epidemiological relationships among Campylobacter species by numerical analysis of AFLP profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ona, Stephen L.W.; Harringtona, Clare S.

    2000-01-01

    at higher S-levels. All outbreak or 'genetically identical' strains of C. jejuni subsp. jejuni, Campylobacter coli, C. hyointestinalis and C. sputorum clustered at S-levels > 92% and were distinguished from unrelated strains. Numerical analysis of AFLP profiles is useful for concurrent identification......Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP)-based profiling was performed on 138 strains representing all named Campylobacter species and subspecies. Profiles of 15/16 species comprised 6 to greater than 100 fragments and were subjected to numerical analysis. The mean similarity of 48 duplicate......, outbreak and/or 'identical' strain profiles exceeded 94%. Species were clearly distinguished at the 17.90% similarity (S-) level in the dendrogram. Subspecies of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter. hyointestinalis, and biovars of Campylobacter lari and Campylobacter sputorum were distinguished...

  7. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of thermophilic Campylobacter in organic and conventional broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuer, Ole Eske; Pedersen, Karl; Andersen, J.S.

    2001-01-01

    Aims: To determine the flock prevalence and to estimate the within flock prevalence of Campylobacter in broiler flocks from different rearing systems, and to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter isolates to selected antimicrobial substances. Methods and Results: One hundred...... and sixty broiler flocks originating from organic, conventional and extensive indoor production farms were investigated for the presence of Campylobacter at the time of slaughter. Campylobacter isolates from a subsample of positive flocks were subjected to susceptibility testing. Campylobacter spp. were...... isolated from 100% of organic broiler flocks, from 36.7% of conventional broiler flocks and from 49.2% of extensive indoor broiler flocks. Six of 62 Campylobacter isolates were resistant to one or more of the antimicrobials tested. Conclusions: These results indicate that the special characteristics...

  8. PCR assay for the detection of Campylobacter in marinated and non-marinated poultry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzav, Marianne; Isohanni, Pauliina; Lund, Marianne; Hakkinen, Marjaana; Lyhs, Ulrike

    2008-10-01

    During a period of 9 months, 194 marinated and non-marinated poultry products were collected from retail shops in a defined area in Western Finland and tested for Campylobacter spp. using a conventional enrichment culture and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) method. For marinated poultry products, the study involved modification of a commercial DNA isolation method. Using either a conventional culture or PCR method, a total of 25 (12.9%) of all investigated samples were Campylobacter positive. In marinated poultry products, Campylobacter was detected at a prevalence of 21.1% and 9.5% in turkey and chicken products, respectively. In August, there was a peak with 28.9% positive Campylobacter samples. Campylobacter inoculation tests were carried out to test the detection limit of both methods. The PCR method used is faster than microbiological analyses. However, enrichment of the samples is necessary due to the low occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in retail Finnish poultry products.

  9. Evaluation of a new chromogenic medium for direct enumeration of Campylobacter in poultry meat samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seliwiorstow, Tomasz; Baré, Julie; Verhaegen, Bavo; Uyttendaele, Mieke; de Zutter, Lieven

    2014-12-01

    The present study was conducted to compare Campylobacter counts obtained by three selective media: modified charcoal cefoperazonedeoxycholate agar (mCCDA), Campy Food agar (CFA), and a novel agar RAPID' Campylobacter agar. Analysis of 12 artificially and 36 naturally contaminated samples indicated no significant differences in Campylobacter counts obtained with all three selective media. Lin's concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) and the Bland-Altman plot revealed a high level of agreement between Campylobacter counts when evaluating RAPID versus mCCDA and CFA plates. RAPID agar was the only medium tested that could effectively suppress the growth of the background microflora with naturally contaminated samples. Results of this study clearly indicated that RAPID agar is highly selective without loss of sensitivity for recovering Campylobacter. Results obtained are in agreement with those for other commonly used media; therefore, RAPID medium is suitable for Campylobacter enumeration in poultry meat samples.

  10. Description and sources of contamination by Campylobacter spp. of river water destined for human consumption in Brittany, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, M; M Tanguy; Chidaine, B; Laisney, M-J; Mégraud, F; Fravalo, P

    2011-10-01

    Presence or absence of Campylobacter spp. in water of five rivers upstream from an intake point for drinking water production was investigated, and isolates genetically compared with human, pig and poultry isolates in order to determine their source. River water and drinking water obtained from these rivers were sampled one time per month, over a period of one year, and tested for Campylobacter. Isolates were typed by PFGE. Campylobacter was not detected in treated drinking water, but 50% of the river samples were contaminated. Contamination was observed on the four seasons. In total, 297 Campylobacter isolates were collected and generated 46 PFGE profiles. Campylobacter jejuni was the most frequently detected species in samples (74.1% of the isolates), followed by Campylobacter coli (17.8%) and Campylobacter lari (8.1%). Forty-two of the 46 PFGE profiles were unique. Only one genotype was detected three times in a river during the year and four genotypes in two different rivers. When compared to animal and human Campylobacter PFGE profiles, 14, 11 and one Campylobacter genotypes from water were genetically closed to human, poultry, and pig Campylobacter genotypes, respectively. The Campylobacter population displayed a high level of genetic diversity, suggesting that contamination originated from various origins. Human, poultry and pig were sources of contamination of the river by Campylobacter. Finally, no Campylobacter were detected in drinking water, indicating that the risk of outbreaks due to consumption of drinking water is low. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Prevalence, virulence, and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in white stork Ciconia ciconia in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepańska, Bernadeta; Kamiński, Piotr; Andrzejewska, Małgorzata; Śpica, Dorota; Kartanas, Edmund; Ulrich, Werner; Jerzak, Leszek; Kasprzak, Mariusz; Bocheński, Marcin; Klawe, Jacek J

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of white stork Ciconia ciconia as a potential reservoir of Campylobacter spp. Antimicrobial resistance and the presence of putative virulence genes of the isolates were also examined. A total of 398 white stork chicks sampled in Western Poland in habitats with high density of breeding were examined. Rectal swabs were collected during breeding season 2009-2012 from storks developing in a relatively pure environment (Odra meadows), in polluted areas (a copper mining-smelting complex), and in suburbs. Of the anal swabs collected, 7.6% were positive for Campylobacter among chicks (5.3% samples positive for C. jejuni and 2.3% samples positive for C. coli). Samples from polluted areas had the highest prevalence of Campylobacter (12.2%). The prevalence of resistance among C. jejuni and C. coli isolates from young storks was as follows: to ciprofloxacin (52.4%, 44.4%), and to tetracycline (19%, 77.8%). All of the analyzed isolates were susceptible to macrolides. The resistance to both classes of antibiotics was found in the 23.3% of Campylobacter spp. All Campylobacter spp. isolates had cadF gene and flaA gene responsible for adherence and motility. CdtB gene associated with toxin production was present in 88.9% of C. coli isolates and 57.1% of C. jejuni isolates. The iam marker was found more often in C. coli strains (55.6%) compared to C. jejuni isolates (42.9%). Our results confirm the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in the white stork in natural conditions and, because it lives in open farmlands with access to marshy wetlands, the environmental sources such as water reservoirs and soil-water can be contaminated from white stork feces and the pathogens can be widely disseminated. We can thus conclude that Campylobacter spp. may easily be transmitted to waterfowl, other birds, and humans via its environmental sources and/or by immediate contact.

  12. Discrimination of Major Capsular Types of Campylobacter jejuni by Multiplex PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Discrimination of Major Capsular Types of Campylobacter jejuni by Multiplex PCR’Vt Frederic Poly...two PCRs with sensitivities and specificities ranging from 90 tn 100% using 244 strains of knnwn Penner type. Campylobacter jejwzi is one of the...2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Discrimination of Major Capsular Types of Campylobacter jejuni

  13. Distribution of Flagella Secreted Protein and Integral Membrane Protein Among Campylobacter jejuni Isolated from Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    secreted protein and integral membrane protein among Campylobacter jejuni isolated from Thailand Piyarat Pootong 1·, Oralak Serichantalergs...Ladaporn Bodhidatta \\ Frederic Poly2, Patricia Guerry2 and Carl J Mason 1 Abstract Background: Campylobacter jejuni, a gram-negative bacterium, is a...groups of integral membrane protein. The significance of these different FspA variants to virulence requires further study. Background Campylobacter

  14. A longitudinal study of Campylobacter distribution in a turkey production chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perko-Mäkelä, Päivikki; Isohanni, Pauliina; Katzav, Marianne; Lund, Marianne; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa; Lyhs, Ulrike

    2009-04-07

    Campylobacter is the most common cause of bacterial enteritis worldwide. Handling and eating of contaminated poultry meat has considered as one of the risk factors for human campylobacteriosis. Campylobacter contamination can occur at all stages of a poultry production cycle. The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence of Campylobacter during a complete turkey production cycle which lasts for 1,5 years of time. For detection of Campylobacter, a conventional culture method was compared with a PCR method. Campylobacter isolates from different types of samples have been identified to the species level by a multiplex PCR assay. Samples (N = 456) were regularly collected from one turkey parent flock, the hatchery, six different commercial turkey farms and from 11 different stages at the slaughterhouse. For the detection of Campylobacter, a conventional culture and a PCR method were used. Campylobacter isolates (n = 143) were identified to species level by a multiplex PCR assay. No Campylobacter were detected in either the samples from the turkey parent flock or from hatchery samples using the culture method. PCR detected Campylobacter DNA in five faecal samples and one fluff and eggshell sample. Six flocks out of 12 commercial turkey flocks where found negative at the farm level but only two were negative at the slaughterhouse. During the brooding period Campylobacter might have contact with the birds without spreading of the contamination within the flock. Contamination of working surfaces and equipment during slaughter of a Campylobacter positive turkey flock can persist and lead to possible contamination of negative flocks even after the end of the day's cleaning and desinfection. Reduction of contamination at farm by a high level of biosecurity control and hygiene may be one of the most efficient ways to reduce the amount of contaminated poultry meat in Finland. Due to the low numbers of Campylobacter in the Finnish turkey production chain

  15. Laboratorní diagnostika infekcí způsobených Campylobacter spp.

    OpenAIRE

    MRKVIČKOVÁ, Renáta

    2016-01-01

    Bachelor´s thesis deals with problematics of bacterial Campylobacter species, their distribution, and increase in resistence to antibiotics. It also deals with campylobacteriosis prevention, diagnosis and identification of individual species of bacteria. The theoretical part focuses on the general characteristics of the genus Campylobacter, resources, and transmission of infection and possible prevention. This section comprises methods for the identification and diagnosis of Campylobacter spp...

  16. Impaired Fitness and Transmission of Macrolide-Resistant Campylobacter jejuni in Its Natural Host

    OpenAIRE

    Luangtongkum, Taradon; Shen, Zhangqi; Seng, Virginia W.; Sahin, Orhan; Jeon, Byeonghwa; Liu, Peng; Zhang, Qijing

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a major zoonotic pathogen transmitted to humans via the food chain and is prevalent in chickens, a natural reservoir for this pathogenic organism. Due to the importance of macrolide antibiotics in clinical therapy of human campylobacteriosis, development of macrolide resistance in Campylobacter has become a concern for public health. To facilitate the control of macrolide-resistant Campylobacter, it is necessary to understand if macrolide resistance affects the fitness...

  17. Prevalence and Molecular Characterization of Campylobacter spp. Isolated from Patients with Diarrhea in Shunyi, Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial pathogens have been confirmed as the major cause of acute diarrhea among outpatients in China. In this study, 370 stool samples from the patients aged from 15 to 87 years old with diarrhea were collected over 12 months (from May 2016 to April 2017 in two hospitals in Shunyi, Beijing. Bacterial isolation was performed for the common enteric pathogens: Campylobacter, Salmonella, Shigella, Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus for 370 samples. The filtration method was used for the Campylobacter isolation in this study. The prevalence and molecular characterization of the Campylobacter were investigated. The isolation ratio for Campylobacter, Salmonella, Shigella, Diarrheagenic E. coli, and V. parahaemolyticus was 7.0% (26/370, 6.2% (23/370, 0.3% (1/370, 7.3% (27/370, and 10.3% (38/370, respectively. Based on the isolation result, Campylobacter positive cases presented in almost every month of the whole year and the isolation ratio was the highest among the tested pathogens during October to March. There was no significant difference between genders of Campylobacter positive cases. More Campylobacter positive cases presented dehydration compared with those who were positive for Salmonella. Twenty-six Campylobacter isolates were obtained in this study and 24 of these were Campylobacter jejuni. The antibiotic susceptibility tests indicated that 83.3% (20/24 of the isolates exhibited resistance to three or more types of antibiotic. Twenty STs were identified for the 26 Campylobacter isolates and four novel STs were identified in this study. No clonal cluster was found among these isolates. This is the first study for Campylobacter isolated using the filtration method in China which indicated the Campylobacter infection might be seriously under-ascertained in the diarrheal patients in China.

  18. Campylobacter concisus pathotypes are present at significant levels in patients with gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Alexander P; Kaakoush, Nadeem O; Sodhi, Nidhi; Merif, Juan; Seah Lee, Way; Riordan, Stephen M; Rawlinson, William D; Mitchell, Hazel M

    2016-03-01

    Given that Campylobacter jejuni is recognized as the most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, recent findings showing comparable levels of Campylobacter concisus in patients with gastroenteritis would suggest that this bacterium is clinically important. The prevalence and abundance of Campylobacter concisus in stool samples collected from patients with acute gastroenteritis was examined using quantitative real-time PCR. The associated virulence determinants exotoxin 9 and zonula occludens toxin DNA were detected for Campylobacter concisus-infected samples using real-time PCR. Campylobacter concisus was detected at high prevalence in patients with gastroenteritis (49.7 %), higher than that observed for Campylobacter jejuni (∼5 %). The levels of Campylobacter concisus were putatively classified into clinically relevant and potentially transient subgroups based on a threshold developed using Campylobacter jejuni levels, as the highly sensitive real-time PCR probably detected transient passage of the bacterium from the oral cavity. A total of 18 % of patients were found to have clinically relevant levels of Campylobacter concisus, a significant number of which also had high levels of one of the virulence determinants. Of these patients, 78 % were found to have no other gastrointestinal pathogen identified in the stool, which strongly suggests a role for Campylobacter concisus in the aetiology of gastroenteritis in these patients. These results emphasize the need for diagnostic laboratories to employ identification protocols for emerging Campylobacter species. Clinical follow-up in patients presenting with high levels of Campylobacter concisus in the intestinal tract is needed, given that it has been associated with more chronic sequelae.

  19. Systematic serotyping and riboprinting of Campylobacter spp. improves surveillance: experiences from two Danish counties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fussing, V.; Møller Nielsen, E.; Neimann, J.

    2007-01-01

    In order to monitor the distribution of subtypes of Campylobacter and to identify clusters, 975 isolates of Campylobacter spp., obtained from human infections occurring in two Danish counties, were studied during a 1-year period. The isolates were characterised by Penner serotyping and automated ...... the validity of selected clusters identified by serotyping and ribotyping. The observed clustering of Campylobacter isolates, with identical types in time and place, indicates that common-source outbreaks of campylobacteriosis are more common than is usually thought....

  20. A longitudinal study of Campylobacter distribution in a turkey production chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hänninen Marja-Liisa

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Campylobacter is the most common cause of bacterial enteritis worldwide. Handling and eating of contaminated poultry meat has considered as one of the risk factors for human campylobacteriosis.Campylobacter contamination can occur at all stages of a poultry production cycle. The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence of Campylobacter during a complete turkey production cycle which lasts for 1,5 years of time. For detection of Campylobacter, a conventional culture method was compared with a PCR method. Campylobacter isolates from different types of samples have been identified to the species level by a multiplex PCR assay. Methods Samples (N = 456 were regularly collected from one turkey parent flock, the hatchery, six different commercial turkey farms and from 11 different stages at the slaughterhouse. For the detection of Campylobacter, a conventional culture and a PCR method were used. Campylobacter isolates (n = 143 were identified to species level by a multiplex PCR assay. Results No Campylobacter were detected in either the samples from the turkey parent flock or from hatchery samples using the culture method. PCR detected Campylobacter DNA in five faecal samples and one fluff and eggshell sample. Six flocks out of 12 commercial turkey flocks where found negative at the farm level but only two were negative at the slaughterhouse. Conclusion During the brooding period Campylobacter might have contact with the birds without spreading of the contamination within the flock. Contamination of working surfaces and equipment during slaughter of a Campylobacter positive turkey flock can persist and lead to possible contamination of negative flocks even after the end of the day's cleaning and desinfection. Reduction of contamination at farm by a high level of biosecurity control and hygiene may be one of the most efficient ways to reduce the amount of contaminated poultry meat in Finland. Due to the low numbers of

  1. The pattern of Campylobacter contamination on broiler farms; external and internal sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battersby, T; Whyte, P; Bolton, D J

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to apply the most sensitive molecular techniques in combination with culture-based methods to characterize broiler farms in terms of the timeline ('appearance' and 'pattern') of Campylobacter contamination prior to and post detection in the birds. Faecal and environmental samples were collected from three broiler farms (two flocks per farm). Real-time PCR was used to test for the presence of Campylobacter. Culture-based methods (enrichment and direct plating) were also applied and isolates were subject to a range of confirmatory tests before speciation (multiplex PCR). All flocks were colonized by Campylobacter before first thin and a similar pattern of Campylobacter contamination was observed; (day -1) a range of external and internal samples real-time PCR positive but culture negative; (day 0) chicks negative; (6-9 days pre-detection in the birds) internal samples (feeders, drinkers, barrier and/or bird weigh) culture positive and (post broiler infection) increasing concentrations of Campylobacter in internal samples but also on the tarmac apron and anteroom. It was concluded that; (i) vertical transmission did not occur; (ii) the environment was a potential source of Campylobacter; (iii) testing areas frequented by all birds (e.g. feeders and drinkers), may offer an opportunity for early Campylobacter detection and (iv) once the broilers are infected with Campylobacter, these bacteria are spread from the birds, through the anteroom to the areas surrounding the broiler house, highlighting the need for improved biosecurity. This study has established the pattern of Campylobacter contamination on broiler farms, identified an early detection opportunity, highlighted the need to better understand the role of viable but nonculturable Campylobacter in the ecology of Campylobacter on broiler farms and demonstrated the need for improved biosecurity to prevent the spread of Campylobacter from within the house to the surrounding environment.

  2. Rapid Detection of Campylobacter jejuni by Polymerase Chain Reaction and Evaluation of its Sensitivity and Specificity

    OpenAIRE

    Razei A; Sorouri R; Aghamollaei H; Mousavi SL

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Campylobacter jejuni is one of the most common causes of food poising in humans. Rapid and specific detection of these bacteria has an important role in diagnosis and treatment of infection. The aim of this study was to design a specific PCR for the detection of Campylobacter jejuni. Methods: In this experimental study, oxidoreductase gene from the Campylobacter jejuni was selected for rapid and specific detection. For this purpose, specific primers were designed and charecte...

  3. Aplicación de PCR-RFLP para subtipificar Campylobacter jejuni PCR-RFLP for Campylobacter jejuni subtyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Giacoboni

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Diez cepas de Campylobacter jejuni aisladas de fetos porcinos abortados fueron identificadas por pruebas bioquímicas: 8 como C. jejuni biotipo II de Lior, y 2 como C. jejuni biotipo I. Para poder subtipificarlas se utilizó la técnica de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR para amplificar el gen flaA y al producto obtenido se lo digirió con la enzima de restricción DdeI (RFLP. Se pudieron obtener 6 subtipos a partir de C. jejuni biotipo II, mientras que los dos aislamientos de biotipo I correspondieron a un mismo subtipo. Aunque existe una amplia variedad de técnicas de biología molecular que son aplicadas con fines epidemiológicos para Campylobacter, PCR-RFLP, demostró ser una técnica simple y accesible, capaz de subtipificar a C. jejuni.Ten Campylobacter jejuni isolates, 8 identified as C. jejuni biotype II of Lior and 2 as C. jejuni biotipe I, were recovered from aborted pig fetuses. In order to discriminate among strains, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP using DdeI of polymerase chain reaction (PCR products of flaA gen was used. C. jejuni biotype II strains could be diferenciated in 6 by PCR-RFLP, and one subtype was obtained from C. jejuni biotype I. Although there is great variability of molecular techniques applied to the Campylobacter epidemiological studies, PCR-RFLP demonstrated to be a simple and accessible technique to discriminate Campylobacter jejuni isolates.

  4. Evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy of 2 immunochromatographic tests detecting campylobacter in stools and their role in campylobacter infection diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessède, Emilie; Asselineau, Julien; Perez, Paul; Valdenaire, Guillaume; Richer, Olivier; Lehours, Philippe; Mégraud, Francis

    2018-02-07

    The detection of campylobacters in stools is performed essentially by culture, but this technique has a low sensitivity. New detection methods are now available. Among them, immunochromatography tests (ICTs) are very attractive in that they offer a result within 15 minutes. However, previous studies suggest that these tests have a relatively low specificity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of these tests.During the study period, all patients who consulted the emergency units and had a stool culture were included. Their stool samples were tested with 2 ICTs, RIDA®QUICK Campylobacter and ImmunoCardSTAT!Campy. Stools were also tested by a home-made PCR and 2 commercially available ELISAs when one of the ICTs was positive. The composite reference standard (CRS) was defined as positive if the culture was positive or, in case of a negative culture, if the PCR and one of the ELISAs were positive simultaneously.Three hundred and five patients were included. Among the 50 positive specimens with RIDA®QUICK Campylobacter, 47 were considered as true positives by the CRS, corresponding to a positive predictive value (PPV) of 94.0%. Among the 52 positive specimens with ImmunoCardSTAT!Campy, 44 were considered as true positives by the CRS, corresponding to a PPV of 84.6%. The negative predictive values (NPV) were estimated at 94.9% and 92.4% for RIDA®QUICK and ImmunoCardSTAT!Campy, respectively.ICTs appear to be very efficient and allow a very rapid detection of campylobacters which is important to treat early campylobacter infection with an adapted antibiotherapy. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  5. Prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli and enteric Helicobacter in domestic and free living birds in North-Western Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robino, P; Tomassone, L; Tramuta, C; Rodo, M; Giammarino, M; Vaschetti, G; Nebbia, P

    2010-09-01

    In order to investigate the prevalence of some thermophilic Campylobacter (C. jejuni and C. coli) and enteric Helicobacter (H. pullorum and H. canadensis) in domestic and wild birds, a total of 278 bird caecal samples were analyzed over a 2 year period in North-Western Italy. Samples were collected from poultry raised in intensive farming at the slaughterhouse (n=102, group A) and in small scale rural farms (n=60, group B) as well as from wild birds (n=116, group C). PCR amplifications were carried out on DNA extracted from caecal samples. Molecular assays targeted the hipO gene for C. jejuni, the asp gene for C. coli and the 16S rRNA gene of H. pullorum/H. canadensis. To differentiate H. pullorum from H. canadensis, PCR products were subjected to an ApaLI digestion assay. Prevalence of thermophilic Campylobacter and enteric Helicobacter was significantly different among groups (p<0.0001). Campylobacter infections were detected in all three bird groups (78.4% group A, 18.3% group B and 38.8% group C, respectively), Helicobacter infections were only detected in poultry, with H. pullorum infecting 68.6% of group A and 21.7% of group B birds. H. canadensis was detected in Guinea fowls (group A) and for the first time in pheasants (group B). Mixed infections by enteric Campylobacter and Helicobacter were shown in 53.9% of group A and in 5.0 % of group B. Our results show that both microorganisms commonly infect poultry, especially intensive farming animals. Only hooded crows among the wild bird group (group C), proved to be highly sensitive to Campylobacter infection.

  6. Origin, evolution, and distribution of the molecular machinery for biosynthesis of sialylated lipooligosaccharide structures in Campylobacter coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culebro, Alejandra; Machado, Miguel P; Carriço, João André; Rossi, Mirko

    2018-02-14

    Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are the most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Additionally, C. jejuni is the most common bacterial etiological agent in the autoimmune Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Ganglioside mimicry by C. jejuni lipooligosaccharide (LOS) is the triggering factor of the disease. LOS-associated genes involved in the synthesis and transfer of sialic acid (glycosyltranferases belonging to family GT-42) are essential in C. jejuni to synthesize ganglioside-like LOS. Despite being isolated from GBS patients, scarce genetic evidence supports C. coli role in the disease. In this study, through data mining and bioinformatics analysis, C. coli is shown to possess a larger GT-42 glycosyltransferase repertoire than C. jejuni. Although GT-42 glycosyltransferases are widely distributed in C. coli population, only a fraction of C. coli strains (1%) are very likely able to express ganglioside mimics. Even though the activity of C. coli specific GT-42 enzymes and their role in shaping the bacterial population are yet to be explored, evidence presented herein suggest that loss of function of some LOS-associated genes occurred during agriculture niche adaptation.

  7. Normalization of proliferation and tight junction formation in bladder epithelial cells from patients with interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome by d-proline and d-pipecolic acid derivatives of antiproliferative factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keay, Susan; Kaczmarek, Piotr; Zhang, Chen-Ou; Koch, Kristopher; Szekely, Zoltan; Barchi, Joseph J; Michejda, Christopher

    2011-06-01

    Interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome is a chronic bladder disorder with epithelial thinning or ulceration, pain, urinary frequency and urgency, for which there is no reliably effective therapy. We previously reported that interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome bladder epithelial cells make a glycopeptide antiproliferative factor or 'APF' (Neu5Acα2-3Galβ1-3GalNAcα-O-TVPAAVVVA) that induces abnormalities in normal cells similar to those in interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome cells in vitro, including decreased proliferation, decreased tight junction formation, and increased paracellular permeability. We screened inactive APF derivatives for their ability to block antiproliferative activity of asialylated-APF ('as-APF') in normal bladder cells and determined the ability of as-APF-blocking derivatives to normalize tight junction protein expression, paracellular permeability, and/or proliferation of interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome cells. Only two of these derivatives [Galβ1-3GalNAcα-O-TV-(d-pipecolic acid)-AAVVVA and Galβ1-3GalNAcα-O-TV-(d-proline)-AAVVVA] blocked as-APF antiproliferative activity in normal cells (p PCR; 2) normalized interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome epithelial cell tight junction protein expression and tight junction formation by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy; and 3) decreased paracellular permeability of (14) C-mannitol and (3) H-inulin between confluent interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome epithelial cells on Transwell plates, suggesting that these potent APF antagonists may be useful for the development as interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome therapies. Published 2011. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  8. Climatic factors and prevalence of Campylobacter in commercial broiler flocks in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prachantasena, S; Charununtakorn, P; Muangnoicharoen, S; Hankla, L; Techawal, N; Chaveerach, P; Tuitemwong, P; Chokesajjawatee, N; Williams, N; Humphrey, T; Luangtongkum, T

    2017-04-01

    Campylobacter are bacteria associated with human foodborne disease worldwide. Poultry and poultry products are generally considered as a main source of these organisms. Compared to temperate zones, baseline information on Campylobacter in tropical regions is limited. Thus, the objectives of the present study were 1) to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter in Thai broiler flocks and 2) to investigate the association between climatic factors (i.e., rainfall, ambient temperature, and relative humidity) and Campylobacter colonization status of broiler flocks in Thailand. A total of 442 commercial broiler flocks reared in the central and northeastern regions of Thailand during 2012 to 2014 were investigated. Campylobacter positive status was identified in 252 examined flocks (57.01%; 95% CI 52.39 to 61.63%). Prevalence of Campylobacter in the northeastern region (54.46%; 95% CI 44.76 to 63.83%) was slightly lower than that of the central region (57.77%; 95% CI 52.47 to 62.90%). More than 65% of Campylobacter positive flocks in the central and northeastern regions had within-flock prevalence higher than 75%. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) revealed that the increased rainfall and relative humidity were associated with the increase of Campylobacter colonization in broiler flocks (P ≤ 0.05), while no relationship between ambient temperature and Campylobacter colonization status was identified. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  9. Variation in Campylobacter Multilocus Sequence Typing Subtypes from Chickens as Detected on Three Plating Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrang, M E; Ladely, S R; Meinersmann, R J; Line, J E; Oakley, B B; Cox, N A

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to compare subtypes of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli detected on three selective Campylobacter plating media to determine whether each medium selected for different subtypes. Fifty ceca and 50 carcasses (representing 50 flocks) were collected from the evisceration line in a commercial broiler processing plant. Campylobacter was cultured and isolated from cecal contents and carcass rinses on Campy-Cefex, Campy Line, and RF Campylobacter jejuni/coli agars. When a positive result was obtained with all three media, one colony of the most prevalent morphology on each medium was selected for further analysis by full genome sequencing and multilocus sequence typing. Sequence types were assigned according to PubMLST. A total of 49 samples were positive for Campylobacter on all three media. Forty samples contained only C. jejuni , three had only C. coli , and both species were detected in six samples. From 71% of samples, Campylobacter isolates of the same sequence type were recovered on all three media. From 81.6% of samples, isolates were all from the same clonal complex. From significantly fewer samples (26%, P Campylobacter jejuni/coli . From one sample, three sequence types were detected. In most cases, all three plating media allowed detection of the same type of Campylobacter from complex naturally contaminated chicken samples.

  10. Prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and risk factors for Campylobacter colonising dogs and cats in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Lazou

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to determine the prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and risk factors for Campylobacter colonising dogs and cats in Greece. Faecal specimens were collected from 181 dogs and 132 cats. Culture methods were applied to detect Campylobacter spp. and a multiplex PCR assay to identify the isolates. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was 3.8% in dogs and 12.1% in cats. The most frequently identified Campylobacter species in dogs was C. jejuni (57.1% followed by C. coli (42.9%. All feline isolates were identified as C. jejuni apart from one isolate that was characterised as Campylobacter-like organism. Gender, age, breed, life style, diarrhoea and type of diet of dogs and cats did not significantly correlate (P>0.05 with Campylobacter isolation. Possible predictors regarding Campylobacter presence in dogs and cats were assessed by binary logistic regression. A tendency towards higher risk for Campylobacter contamination was observed in dogs consuming a homemade diet and in outdoor cats. Disk diffusion method revealed that all Campylobacter isolates exhibited susceptibility to erythromycin, gentamicin and streptomycin. Contrariwise, 66.7% of canine isolates were resistant concurrently to tetracycline and quinolones and 59.0%, 13.6% and 4.5% of feline isolates were resistant to quinolones, quinolones along with tetracycline and tetracycline alone, respectively

  11. A prospective follow-up study on transmission of Campylobacter from poultry to abattoir workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellström, Patrik; Hansson, Ingrid; Söderström, Claes; Engvall, Eva Olsson; Rautelin, Hilpi

    2014-09-01

    Contact with poultry or poultry meat is a well-known risk factor for campylobacteriosis, but prospective studies on transmission of Campylobacter from chickens to humans during slaughter are scarce. In this study, we monitored transmission of Campylobacter from slaughtered chicken to originally culture-negative abattoir workers during the peak season of colonized chicken and human Campylobacter infection. Stool samples were obtained from 28 abattoir workers together with data on health status once a month between June and September 2010, with a follow-up sample collected in February 2011. Campylobacter-positive individuals and chicken flocks were identified by culture, and isolates were further characterized using molecular techniques. Campylobacter was isolated from seven asymptomatic individuals. Four of them had been newly employed and had not reported any previous Campylobacter infection. Four human isolates had matching genetic fingerprints with isolates from recently slaughtered chickens. Our results further support the role of chicken as the source of human Campylobacter infection but suggest that asymptomatic Campylobacter infection may occur even in individuals with only limited earlier exposure to Campylobacter.

  12. Antimicrobial-Resistant Campylobacter in Organically and Conventionally Raised Layer Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Issmat I; Kehinde, Olugbenga; Kumar, Anand; Rajashekara, Gireesh

    2017-01-01

    Poultry is a major source of Campylobacter, which can cause foodborne bacterial gastroenteritis in humans. Additionally, poultry-associated Campylobacter can develop resistance to important antimicrobials, which increases the risk to public health. While broiler chickens have been the focus of many studies, the emergence of antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter on layer farms has not received equal attention. However, the growing popularity of cage-free and organic layer farming necessitates a closer assessment of (1) the impact of these farming practices on the emergence of antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter and (2) layers as a potential source for the transmission of these pathogens. Here, we showed that the prevalence of Campylobacter on organic and conventional layer farms was statistically similar (p > 0.05). However, the average number of Campylobacter jejuni-positive organically grown hens was lower (p Campylobacter isolated from both production systems carried antimicrobial resistance genes. The tet(O) and cmeB were the most frequently detected genes, while the occurrence of aph-3-1 and blaOXA-61 was significantly lower (p Campylobacter were isolated. We conclude that organic farming can potentially impact the emergence of antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter. Nevertheless, this impact should be regularly monitored to avoid potential relapses.

  13. A Prospective Follow-Up Study on Transmission of Campylobacter from Poultry to Abattoir Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Ingrid; Söderström, Claes; Engvall, Eva Olsson; Rautelin, Hilpi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Contact with poultry or poultry meat is a well-known risk factor for campylobacteriosis, but prospective studies on transmission of Campylobacter from chickens to humans during slaughter are scarce. In this study, we monitored transmission of Campylobacter from slaughtered chicken to originally culture-negative abattoir workers during the peak season of colonized chicken and human Campylobacter infection. Stool samples were obtained from 28 abattoir workers together with data on health status once a month between June and September 2010, with a follow-up sample collected in February 2011. Campylobacter-positive individuals and chicken flocks were identified by culture, and isolates were further characterized using molecular techniques. Campylobacter was isolated from seven asymptomatic individuals. Four of them had been newly employed and had not reported any previous Campylobacter infection. Four human isolates had matching genetic fingerprints with isolates from recently slaughtered chickens. Our results further support the role of chicken as the source of human Campylobacter infection but suggest that asymptomatic Campylobacter infection may occur even in individuals with only limited earlier exposure to Campylobacter. PMID:24885791

  14. Is it possible to reduce foodborne Campylobacter infections in humans through vaccination of animals?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Vaccination has been used successfully over the years to eradicate many serious diseases, but what about human foodborne pathogens, such as Campylobacter? Most human cases of Campylobacter infection are associated with consumption of poultry products. Vaccination of poultry to prevent early...... colonization or to reduce the Campylobacter colonization level may be a viable intervention strategy in the future; however, no commercial Campylobacter vaccine is currently available. This case considers the rationale for such a strategy, the forms it could take and the challenges it would involve....

  15. Rapid identification and classification of Campylobacter spp. using laser optical scattering technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yiping; Reed, Sue; Bhunia, Arun K; Gehring, Andrew; Nguyen, Ly-Huong; Irwin, Peter L

    2015-05-01

    Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are the two important species responsible for most of the Campylobacter infections in humans. Reliable isolation and detection of Campylobacter spp. from food samples are challenging due to the interferences from complex food substances and the fastidious growth requirements of this organism. In this study, a novel biosensor-based detection called BARDOT (BActerial Rapid Detection using Optical scattering Technology) was developed for high-throughput screening of Campylobacter colonies grown on an agar plate without disrupting the intact colonies. Image pattern characterization and principal component analysis (PCA) of 6909 bacterial colonies showed that the light scatter patterns of C. jejuni and C. coli were strikingly different from those of Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes. Examination of a mixed culture of these microorganisms revealed 85% (34/40) accuracy in differentiating Campylobacter from the other three major foodborne pathogens based on the similarity to the scatter patterns in an established library. The application of BARDOT in real food has been addressed through the analysis of Campylobacter spiked ground chicken and naturally contaminated fresh chicken pieces. Combined with real-time PCR verification, BARDOT was able to identify Campylobacter isolates from retail chicken. Moreover, applying passive filtration to food samples facilitated the isolation of pure Campylobacter colonies and therefore overcame the interference of the food matrix on BARDOT analysis. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Lack of evidence for vertical transmission of Campylobacter spp. in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callicott, Kenneth A; Friethriksdóttir, Vala; Reiersen, Jarle; Lowman, Ruff; Bisaillon, Jean-Robert; Gunnarsson, Eggert; Berndtson, Eva; Hiett, Kelli L; Needleman, David S; Stern, Norman J

    2006-09-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a major cause of bacterial food-borne infection in the industrial world. There is evidence that C. jejuni is present in eggs and hatchery fluff, opening the possibility for vertical transmission from hens to progeny. Poultry operations in Iceland provide an excellent opportunity to study this possibility, since breeding flocks are established solely from eggs imported from grandparent flocks in Sweden. This leaves limited opportunity for grandparents and their progeny to share isolates through horizontal transmission. While Campylobacter was not detected in all grandparent flocks, 13 of the 16 egg import lots consisted of eggs gathered from one or more Campylobacter-positive grandparent flocks. No evidence of Campylobacter was found by PCR in any of the 10 relevant quarantine hatchery fluff samples examined, and no Campylobacter was isolated from the parent birds through 8 weeks, while they were still in quarantine rearing facilities. After the birds were moved to less biosecure rearing facilities, Campylobacter was isolated, and 29 alleles were observed among the 224 isolates studied. While three alleles were found in both Sweden and Iceland, in no case was the same allele found both in a particular grandparent flock and in its progeny. We could find no evidence for vertical transmission of Campylobacter to the approximately 60,000 progeny parent breeders that were hatched from eggs coming from Campylobacter-positive grandparent flocks. If vertical transmission is occurring, it is not a significant source for the contamination of chicken flocks with Campylobacter spp.

  17. Risk factors for Campylobacter spp. infection in Senegalese broiler-chicken flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinale, E; Tall, F; Guèye, E F; Cisse, M; Salvat, G

    2004-06-10

    Our objective was to identify the risk factors for Campylobacter infection in Senegalese broiler flocks. Seventy broiler farms were studied around Dakar from January 2000 to December 2001 around Dakar. A questionnaire was administered to the farmers, and samples of fresh droppings were taken to assess the flocks' Campylobacter status. About 63% of the flocks were infected by Campylobacter spp.; Campylobacter jejuni was the most-prevalent species (P hatchery to the farm as feed plates (rather than specifically designed feed plates). Alternatively, thorough cleaning and disinfection of poultry-house surroundings and manure disposal outside the farm were associated with decreased flock risk.

  18. Explanatory variables associated with Campylobacter and Escherichia coli concentrations on broiler chicken carcasses during processing in two slaughterhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacholewicz, Ewa; Swart, Arno; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; Lipman, Len J.A.; Havelaar, Arie H.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying explanatory variables that were associated with Campylobacter and Escherichia coli concentrations throughout processing in two commercial broiler slaughterhouses. Quantative data on Campylobacter and E. coli along the processing line were collected. Moreover,

  19. Explanatory Variables Associated with Campylobacter and Escherichia coli Concentrations on Broiler Chicken Carcasses during Processing in Two Slaughterhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacholewicz, Ewa; Swart, Arno; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; Lipman, Len J.A.; Havelaar, Arie H.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying explanatory variables that were associated with Campylobacter and Escherichia coli concentrations throughout processing in two commercial broiler slaughterhouses. Quantative data on Campylobacter and E. coli along the processing line were collected. Moreover,

  20. EPHRIN-B1 Mosaicism Drives Cell Segregation in Craniofrontonasal Syndrome hiPSC-Derived Neuroepithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niethamer, Terren K; Larson, Andrew R; O'Neill, Audrey K; Bershteyn, Marina; Hsiao, Edward C; Klein, Ophir D; Pomerantz, Jason H; Bush, Jeffrey O

    2017-03-14

    Although human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) hold great potential for the study of human diseases affecting disparate cell types, they have been underutilized in seeking mechanistic insights into the pathogenesis of congenital craniofacial disorders. Craniofrontonasal syndrome (CFNS) is a rare X-linked disorder caused by mutations in EFNB1 and characterized by craniofacial, skeletal, and neurological anomalies. Heterozygous females are more severely affected than hemizygous males, a phenomenon termed cellular interference that involves mosaicism for EPHRIN-B1 function. Although the mechanistic basis for cellular interference in CFNS has been hypothesized to involve Eph/ephrin-mediated cell segregation, no direct evidence for this has been demonstrated. Here, by generating hiPSCs from CFNS patients, we demonstrate that mosaicism for EPHRIN-B1 expression induced by random X inactivation in heterozygous females results in robust cell segregation in human neuroepithelial cells, thus supplying experimental evidence that Eph/ephrin-mediated cell segregation is relevant to pathogenesis in human CFNS patients. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Excessive astrocyte-derived neurotrophin-3 contributes to the abnormal neuronal dendritic development in a mouse model of fragile X syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Yang

    Full Text Available Fragile X syndrome (FXS is a form of inherited mental retardation in humans that results from expansion of a CGG repeat in the Fmr1 gene. Recent studies suggest a role of astrocytes in neuronal development. However, the mechanisms involved in the regulation process of astrocytes from FXS remain unclear. In this study, we found that astrocytes derived from a Fragile X model, the Fmr1 knockout (KO mouse which lacks FMRP expression, inhibited the proper elaboration of dendritic processes of neurons in vitro. Furthermore, astrocytic conditioned medium (ACM from KO astrocytes inhibited proper dendritic growth of both wild-type (WT and KO neurons. Inducing expression of FMRP by transfection of FMRP vectors in KO astrocytes restored dendritic morphology and levels of synaptic proteins. Further experiments revealed elevated levels of the neurotrophin-3 (NT-3 in KO ACM and the prefrontal cortex of Fmr1 KO mice. However, the levels of nerve growth factor (NGF, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF, and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF were normal. FMRP has multiple RNA-binding motifs and is involved in translational regulation. RNA-binding protein immunoprecipitation (RIP showed the NT-3 mRNA interacted with FMRP in WT astrocytes. Addition of high concentrations of exogenous NT-3 to culture medium reduced the dendrites of neurons and synaptic protein levels, whereas these measures were ameliorated by neutralizing antibody to NT-3 or knockdown of NT-3 expression in KO astrocytes through short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs. Prefrontal cortex microinjection of WT astrocytes or NT-3 shRNA infected KO astrocytes rescued the deficit of trace fear memory in KO mice, concomitantly decreased the NT-3 levels in the prefrontal cortex. This study indicates that excessive NT-3 from astrocytes contributes to the abnormal neuronal dendritic development and that astrocytes could be a potential therapeutic target for FXS.

  2. Campylobacter jejuni contamination of broiler carcasses: Population dynamics and genetic profiles at slaughterhouse level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruntar, Igor; Biasizzo, Majda; Kušar, Darja; Pate, Mateja; Ocepek, Matjaž

    2015-09-01

    Six slaughter batches deriving from six typical industrial broiler flocks were examined for the presence, quantity and genetic characteristics of contaminating Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) during various stages of slaughtering and carcass processing. To assess the contamination dynamics of the carcasses, the analyses were always conducted on neck-skin samples from the same pre-selected and carefully marked carcasses in each batch. The skin samples were taken sequentially at three successive slaughter-line locations in the evisceration room, after three-day refrigeration and after three-day freezing procedure. Caecal samples from the same animals were also tested, as well as samples from the slaughterhouse environment before and after slaughtering. The samples were analysed by the ISO10272 isolation method; campylobacters from neck-skin samples were also quantified. Isolates were species-identified and genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). On average, the highest C. jejuni skin contamination was detected at the first sampling point (post-plucking), suggesting that the majority of Campylobacter contamination actually occurs before the entrance to the eviscerating room, probably during the preceding plucking stage. In two out of five positive batches, an additional increase in contamination was recorded after the evisceration step. An evident trend of increasing contamination level was detected when successive batches were compared at each of two initial sampling sites in the evisceration room, indicating an accumulation of contaminating C. jejuni at some point before the evisceration room. Three-day refrigeration and three-day freezing caused a 4.5- and 142-fold drop in mean C. jejuni CFU counts, respectively. All pre-slaughtering samples from the slaughterhouse environment were negative and all post-slaughtering samples, except water from the scalding tank, were positive. Pulsotypes were limited: altogether five different types were detected

  3. Evaluation of a PCR/DNA Probe Colorimetric Membrane Assay for Identification of Campylobacter spp. in Human Stool Specimens

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, Evelyn; Glennon, Maura; Hanley, Shirley; Murray, Anne-Marie; Cormican, Martin; Smith, Terry; Maher, Majella

    2001-01-01

    DNA was extracted from 50 human stool specimens using the QIAamp DNA stool minikit. PCR amplification was followed by post-PCR hybridization to DNA probes specific for the Campylobacter genus, Campylobacter jejuni, and Campylobacter coli in a colorimetric membrane assay. Thirty-two of 38 culture-positive specimens were PCR/DNA probe positive for C. jejuni. The assay is rapid and simple and can be applied to stool specimens for the detection of Campylobacter.

  4. Nachweis und Differenzierung von Campylobacter jejuni, C. coli und C. lari in Lebensmitteln mittels Quadruplex real-time PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Mayr, Anja Maria

    2009-01-01

    Es wurde ein Quadruplex real-time PCR-Verfahren zum parallelen Nachweis und zur Differenzierung der lebensmittelrelevanten thermophilen Campylobacter spp. Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli und Campylobacter lari in Geflügel, Fleisch, Fisch und Muscheln etabliert. Das Nachweissystem wurde hinsichtlich seiner Selektivität, Sensitivität, Effizienz, Präzision und Robustheit überprüft und im Vergleich zur konventionellen Diagnostik (kultureller Nachweis) anhand von 464 Feldproben validiert....

  5. High Prevalence and Predominance of the aph(2″)-If Gene Conferring Aminoglycoside Resistance in Campylobacter

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Hong; Liu, Dejun; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Qijing; Shen, Zhangqi

    2017-01-01

    Campylobacter is a major foodborne pathogen, and previous studies revealed that Campylobacter isolates from food-producing animals are increasingly resistant to gentamicin in China. The molecular epidemiology and genetic mechanisms responsible for gentamicin resistance in China have not been well understood. In this study, 607 Campylobacter isolates of chicken and swine origins collected in 2014 were analyzed, revealing that 15.6% (25/160) of the Campylobacter jejuni isolates and 79.9% (357/4...

  6. First case report of myopericarditis linked to Campylobacter coli enterocolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffatt, Cameron R M; Moloi, Soniah B; Kennedy, Karina J

    2017-01-05

    Campylobacter spp. are a common cause of mostly self-limiting enterocolitis. Although rare, pericarditis and myopericarditis have been increasingly documented as complications following campylobacteriosis. Such cases have occurred predominantly in younger males, and involved a single causative species, namely Campylobacter jejuni. We report the first case of myopericarditis following Campylobacter coli enterocolitis, with illness occurring in an immunocompetent middle-aged female. A 51-yo female was admitted to a cardiology unit with a 3-days history of chest pain. The woman had no significant medical history or risk factors for cardiac disease, nor did she report any recent overseas travel. Four days prior to the commencement of chest pain the woman had reported onset of an acute gastrointestinal illness, passing 3-4 loose stools daily, a situation that persisted at the time of presentation. Physical examination showed the woman's vital signs to be essentially stable, although she was noted to be mildly tachycardic. Laboratory testing showed mildly elevated C-reactive protein and a raised troponin I in the absence of elevation of the serum creatinine kinase. Electrocardiography (ECG) demonstrated concave ST segment elevations, and PR elevation in aVR and depression in lead II. Transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) revealed normal biventricular size and function with no significant valvular abnormalities. There were no left ventricular regional wall motion abnormalities. No pericardial effusion was present but the pericardium appeared echodense. A diagnosis of myopericarditis was made on the basis of chest pain, typical ECG changes and troponin rise. The chest pain resolved and she was discharged from hospital after 2-days of observation, but with ongoing diarrhoea. Following discharge, a faecal sample taken during the admission, cultured Campylobacter spp. Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (Bruker) confirmed the cultured isolate as C. coli

  7. Association of Vitamin E Levels with Metabolic Syndrome, and MRI-Derived Body Fat Volumes and Liver Fat Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Waniek

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to relate circulating α- and γ-tocopherol levels to a broad spectrum of adiposityrelated traits in a cross-sectional Northern German study. Anthropometric measures were obtained, and adipose tissue volumes and liver fat were quantified by magnetic resonance imaging in 641 individuals (mean age 61 years; 40.6% women. Concentrations of α- and γ-tocopherol were measured using high performance liquid chromatography. Multivariable-adjusted linear and logistic regression were used to assess associations of circulating α- and γ-tocopherol/cholesterol ratio levels with visceral (VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT, liver signal intensity (LSI, fatty liver disease (FLD, metabolic syndrome (MetS, and its individual components. The α- tocopherol/cholesterol ratio was positively associated with VAT (β scaled by interquartile range (IQR: 0.036; 95%Confidence Interval (CI: 0.0003; 0.071 and MetS (Odds Ratio (OR: 1.83; 95% CI: 1.21–2.76 for 3rd vs. 1st tertile, and the γ-tocopherol/cholesterol ratio was positively associated with VAT (β scaled by IQR: 0.066; 95% CI: 0.027; 0.104, SAT (β scaled by IQR: 0.048; 95% CI: 0.010; 0.087 and MetS (OR: 1.87; 95% CI: 1.23–2.84 for 3rd vs. 1st tertile. α- and γ-tocopherol levels were positively associated with high triglycerides and low high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (all Ptrend < 0.05. No association of α- and γ-tocopherol/cholesterol ratio with LSI/FLD was observed. Circulating vitamin E levels displayed strong associations with VAT and MetS. These observations lay the ground for further investigation in longitudinal studies.

  8. Erythromyeloid-Derived TREM2: A Major Determinant of Alzheimer’s Disease Pathology in Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raha-Chowdhury, Ruma; Henderson, James W.; Raha, Animesh Alexander; Stott, Simon R.W.; Vuono, Romina; Foscarin, Simona; Wilson, Liam; Annus, Tiina; Fincham, Robert; Allinson, Kieren; Devalia, Vinod; Friedland, Robert P.; Holland, Anthony; Zaman, Shahid H.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Down syndrome (DS; trisomy 21) individuals have a spectrum of hematopoietic and neuronal dysfunctions and by the time they reach the age of 40 years, almost all develop Alzheimer’s disease (AD) neuropathology which includes senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Inflammation and innate immunity are key players in AD and DS. Triggering receptor expressed in myeloid cells-2 (TREM2) variants have been identified as risk factors for AD and other neurodegenerative diseases. Objective: To investigate the effects of TREM2 and the AD-associated R47H mutation on brain pathology and hematopoietic state in AD and DS. Methods: We analyzed peripheral blood, bone marrow, and brain tissue from DS, AD, and age-matched control subjects by immunohistochemistry and western blotting. TREM2-related phagocytosis was investigated using a human myeloid cell line. Results: TREM2 protein levels in brain and sera declined with age and disease progression in DS. We observed soluble TREM2 in brain parenchyma that may be carried by a subset of microglia, macrophages, or exosomes. Two DS cases had the AD-associated TREM2-R47H mutation, which manifested a morphologically extreme phenotype of megakaryocytes and erythrocytes in addition to impaired trafficking of TREM2 to the erythroid membrane. TREM2 was shown to be involved in phagocytosis of red blood cells. TREM2 was seen in early and late endosomes. Silencing TREM2 using siRNA in THP1 cells resulted in significant cell death. Conclusion: We provide evidence that peripheral TREM2 originating from erythromyeloid cells significantly determines AD neuropathology in DS subjects. Understanding the molecular signaling pathways mediated by TREM2 may reveal novel therapeutic targets. PMID:29278889

  9. Campylobacter in Broiler Chicken and Broiler Meat in Sri Lanka: Influence of Semi-Automated vs. Wet Market Processing on Campylobacter Contamination of Broiler Neck Skin Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kottawattage S. A. Kottawatta

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Broiler meat can become contaminated with Campylobacter of intestinal origin during processing. The present study aimed to identify the prevalence of Campylobacter in broiler flocks and meat contamination at retail shops, and determine the influence of semi-automated and wet market processing on Campylobacter contamination of neck skin samples. Samples were collected from semi-automated plants (n = 102 and wet markets (n = 25. From each batch of broilers, pooled caecal samples and neck skin samples were tested for Campylobacter. Broiler meat purchased from retail outlets (n = 37 was also tested. The prevalence of Campylobacter colonized broiler flocks was 67%. The contamination of meat at retail was 59%. Both semi-automated and wet market processing resulted to contaminate the broiler neck skins to the levels of 27.4% and 48%, respectively. When Campylobacter-free broiler flocks were processed in semi-automated facilities 15% (5/33 of neck skin samples became contaminated by the end of processing whereas 25% (2/8 became contaminated after wet market processing. Characterization of isolates revealed a higher proportion of C. coli compared to C. jejuni. Higher proportions of isolates were resistant to important antimicrobials. This study shows the importance of Campylobacter in poultry industry in Sri Lanka and the need for controlling antimicrobial resistance.

  10. Campylobacter in Broiler Chicken and Broiler Meat in Sri Lanka: Influence of Semi-Automated vs. Wet Market Processing on Campylobacter Contamination of Broiler Neck Skin Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottawatta, Kottawattage S A; Van Bergen, Marcel A P; Abeynayake, Preeni; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Veldman, Kees T; Kalupahana, Ruwani S

    2017-11-29

    Broiler meat can become contaminated with Campylobacter of intestinal origin during processing. The present study aimed to identify the prevalence of Campylobacter in broiler flocks and meat contamination at retail shops, and determine the influence of semi-automated and wet market processing on Campylobacter contamination of neck skin samples. Samples were collected from semi-automated plants ( n = 102) and wet markets ( n = 25). From each batch of broilers, pooled caecal samples and neck skin samples were tested for Campylobacter . Broiler meat purchased from retail outlets ( n = 37) was also tested. The prevalence of Campylobacter colonized broiler flocks was 67%. The contamination of meat at retail was 59%. Both semi-automated and wet market processing resulted to contaminate the broiler neck skins to the levels of 27.4% and 48%, respectively. When Campylobacter -free broiler flocks were processed in semi-automated facilities 15% (5/33) of neck skin samples became contaminated by the end of processing whereas 25% (2/8) became contaminated after wet market processing. Characterization of isolates revealed a higher proportion of C. coli compared to C. jejuni . Higher proportions of isolates were resistant to important antimicrobials. This study shows the importance of Campylobacter in poultry industry in Sri Lanka and the need for controlling antimicrobial resistance.

  11. Genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance profiles of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni isolated from broiler chicken in farms and at time of slaughter in central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergola, S; Franciosini, M P; Comitini, F; Ciani, M; De Luca, S; Bellucci, S; Menchetti, L; Casagrande Proietti, P

    2017-05-01

    Genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni were investigated along the broiler chicken production chain in central Italy. Campylobacter sp. isolated from cloacal swabs in farms (n = 116) and from the neck skin of chilled and eviscerated carcasses at slaughter (n = 24) were identified as C. coli (n = 99) and C. jejuni (n = 41) by multiplex PCR. Characterization by single amplified fragment length polymorphism (s-AFLP) revealed a specific genotype of Campylobacter for each farm. Minimal inhibitory concentration showed high prevalence of fluoroquinolones (70%), tetracycline (70%) and erythromycin (30%) resistance among C. coli isolates. Campylobacter jejuni isolates showed lower prevalence of fluoroquinolone (39%) and tetracycline (10%) resistance, and all isolates were susceptible to erythromycin. The S-AFLP types of the C. coli and C. jejuni isolates were associated with their antimicrobial resistance profiles (P Campylobacter isolates suggested that a specific genotype was harboured in each farm. A considerable number of C. coli isolates were resistant to erythromycin. Campylobacter coli was detected more frequently than C. jejuni in contrast to common findings for poultry. The high prevalence of 30% resistance to erythromycin in C. coli strains isolated from poultry is worrisome, as this is the first antibiotic of choice to treat human campylobacteriosis. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. Campylobacter in Broiler Chicken and Broiler Meat in Sri Lanka: Influence of Semi-Automated vs. Wet Market Processing on Campylobacter Contamination of Broiler Neck Skin Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottawatta, Kottawattage S. A.; Van Bergen, Marcel A. P.; Abeynayake, Preeni; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; Veldman, Kees T.; Kalupahana, Ruwani S.

    2017-01-01

    Broiler meat can become contaminated with Campylobacter of intestinal origin during processing. The present study aimed to identify the prevalence of Campylobacter in broiler flocks and meat contamination at retail shops, and determine the influence of semi-automated and wet market processing on Campylobacter contamination of neck skin samples. Samples were collected from semi-automated plants (n = 102) and wet markets (n = 25). From each batch of broilers, pooled caecal samples and neck skin samples were tested for Campylobacter. Broiler meat purchased from retail outlets (n = 37) was also tested. The prevalence of Campylobacter colonized broiler flocks was 67%. The contamination of meat at retail was 59%. Both semi-automated and wet market processing resulted to contaminate the broiler neck skins to the levels of 27.4% and 48%, respectively. When Campylobacter-free broiler flocks were processed in semi-automated facilities 15% (5/33) of neck skin samples became contaminated by the end of processing whereas 25% (2/8) became contaminated after wet market processing. Characterization of isolates revealed a higher proportion of C. coli compared to C. jejuni. Higher proportions of isolates were resistant to important antimicrobials. This study shows the importance of Campylobacter in poultry industry in Sri Lanka and the need for controlling antimicrobial resistance. PMID:29186018

  13. Assess the prevalence rate of Campylobacter genus and Campylobacter jejuni species in raw milk collected from the Amol City by Multiplex- Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Dabiri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Campylobacter can be transmitted through the raw milk. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter genus and Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni species in raw milk samples. Materials & Methods: In this study, 72 samples of raw milk were collected of the platforms milk in the Amol city in summer. Phenotypic identification of Campylobacter genus and C. jejuni species using microbiology laboratory methods and molecular identification of this bacterium using Multiplex- Polymerase Chain Reaction (M-PCR were performed. The data was calculated using the SPSS 16.0 software and the Fisher's exact test (p < 0.05. Results: Among the 72 samples, 13.88% of samples were contaminated with C. jejuni and 2.77% were contaminated with Campylobacter genus. The highest prevalence rate for this bacterium was in July (20.83% and the lowest prevalence rate was in September (12.5%. The significant difference between the prevalence of the Campylobacter genus and C. jejuni species in raw milk samples in various months of summer was not observed (p = 0.07. Conclusion: This study showed the raw milk contamination with Campylobacter, and thereby the sanitation in the dairy food production places and the use of fast and accurate method to identify this bacterium is important.

  14. Prevalence of virulence genes and cytolethal distending toxin production in Campylobacter jejuni isolates from diarrheal patients in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talukder, Kaisar A.; Aslam, Mohammad; Islam, Zhahirul; Azmi, Ishrat J.; Dutta, Dilip K.; Hossain, Sabir; Nur-E-Kamal, Alam; Nair, Gopinath B.; Cravioto, Alejandro; Sack, David A.; Endtz, Hubert P.

    From 300 stool samples, 58 Campylobacter strains were isolated by standard microbiological and biochemical methods. Of these, 40 strains were identified as Campylobacter jejuni and 5 as Campylobacter coli. The presence of flaA (100%), cadF (100%), racR (100%), dnaJ (100%), pldA (100%), ciaB (95%),

  15. Therapeutic effects of human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells on the radiation-induced GI syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Se Hwan; Jang, Won Suk; Lee, Sun Joo; Park, Eun Young; Kim, Youn Joo; Jin, Sung Ho; Park, Sun Hoo; Lee, Seung Sook [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is one of the most radiosensitive organ systems in the body. Radiation-induced GI injury is described as destruction of crypt cell, decrease in villous height and number, ulceration, and necrosis of intestinal epithelium. Studies show that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) treatment may be useful in the repair or regeneration of damaged organs including bone, cartilage, or myocardium. MSCs from umbilical cord blood (UCB) have many advantages because of the immature nature of newborn cells compared to bone marrow derived MSCs. Moreover, UCB-MSCs provide no ethical barriers for basic studies and clinical applications. In this study, we explore the regeneration capability of human UCB-MSCs after radiation-induced GI injury

  16. Effectiveness of radiation processing in elimination of Campylobacter from poultry meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raut, Amol D.; Shashidhar, Ravindranath; Bandekar, Jayant R.; Kapadnis, Balu P.

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter, a common poultry intestine commensal, is a well known cause of human gastric illnesses across the globe. Consumption of contaminated poultry meat is a major cause of Campylobacter related infections. In the present study, radiation sensitivity of indigenous strains of C. jejuni and C. coli isolated from poultry was evaluated. The decimal reduction dose (D 10 ) values of different Campylobacter isolates at 0-4 o C in saline and blood broth were in the range of 0.120-0.210 kGy and 0.170-0.234 kGy, respectively. D 10 values in chicken meat homogenate for Campylobacter were in the range of 0.110-0.190 kGy. Chicken meat samples were inoculated with C. jejuni and exposed to gamma radiation to study the effectiveness of radiation treatment in elimination of Campylobacter. Radiation treatment with a dose of 1 kGy could achieve complete elimination of 10 5 CFU of Campylobacter/g in poultry meat samples. No recovery of Campylobacter was observed, even after enrichment and selective plating in 1 kGy treated chicken meat samples stored at 4 o C up to 7 days. Present study shows that irradiation of poultry meat with 1 kGy can ensure safety of poultry meat. - Highlights: → Campylobacter isolates were sensitive to gamma radiation. → Low dose of 1 kGy is effective for 5-log reduction of Campylobacter in chicken meat. → No recovery of Campylobacter in radiation processed samples during storage. → First report on radiation sensitivity of Indian Campylobacter isolates.

  17. Effectiveness of radiation processing in elimination of Campylobacter from poultry meat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raut, Amol D. [Department of Microbiology, University of Pune, Pune, Ganeshkhind 411007 (India); Shashidhar, Ravindranath [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Bandekar, Jayant R., E-mail: jrb@barc.gov.in [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Kapadnis, Balu P. [Department of Microbiology, University of Pune, Pune, Ganeshkhind 411007 (India)

    2012-01-15

    Campylobacter, a common poultry intestine commensal, is a well known cause of human gastric illnesses across the globe. Consumption of contaminated poultry meat is a major cause of Campylobacter related infections. In the present study, radiation sensitivity of indigenous strains of C. jejuni and C. coli isolated from poultry was evaluated. The decimal reduction dose (D{sub 10}) values of different Campylobacter isolates at 0-4 {sup o}C in saline and blood broth were in the range of 0.120-0.210 kGy and 0.170-0.234 kGy, respectively. D{sub 10} values in chicken meat homogenate for Campylobacter were in the range of 0.110-0.190 kGy. Chicken meat samples were inoculated with C. jejuni and exposed to gamma radiation to study the effectiveness of radiation treatment in elimination of Campylobacter. Radiation treatment with a dose of 1 kGy could achieve complete elimination of 10{sup 5} CFU of Campylobacter/g in poultry meat samples. No recovery of Campylobacter was observed, even after enrichment and selective plating in 1 kGy treated chicken meat samples stored at 4 {sup o}C up to 7 days. Present study shows that irradiation of poultry meat with 1 kGy can ensure safety of poultry meat. - Highlights: > Campylobacter isolates were sensitive to gamma radiation. > Low dose of 1 kGy is effective for 5-log reduction of Campylobacter in chicken meat. > No recovery of Campylobacter in radiation processed samples during storage. > First report on radiation sensitivity of Indian Campylobacter isolates.

  18. Identification of a functional type VI secretion system in Campylobacter jejuni conferring capsule polysaccharide sensitive cytotoxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy M C Bleumink-Pluym

    Full Text Available The pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is the principal cause of bacterial food-borne infections. The mechanism(s that contribute to bacterial survival and disease are still poorly understood. In other bacterial species, type VI secretion systems (T6SS are increasingly recognized to contribute to bacterial pathogenesis by toxic effects on host cells or competing bacterial species. Here we report the presence of a functional Type VI secretion system in C. jejuni. Proteome and genetic analyses revealed that C. jejuni strain 108 contains a 17-kb T6SS gene cluster consisting of 13 T6SS-conserved genes, including the T6SS hallmark genes hcp and vgrG. The cluster lacks an ortholog of the ClpV ATPase considered important for T6SS function. The sequence and organization of the C. jejuni T6SS genes resemble those of the T6SS located on the HHGI1 pathogenicity island of Helicobacter hepaticus. The C. jejuni T6SS is integrated into the earlier acquired Campylobacter integrated element CJIE3 and is present in about 10% of C. jejuni isolates including several isolates derived from patients with the rare clinical feature of C. jejuni bacteremia. Targeted mutagenesis of C. jejuni T6SS genes revealed T6SS-dependent secretion of the Hcp needle protein into the culture supernatant. Infection assays provided evidence that the C. jejuni T6SS confers contact-dependent cytotoxicity towards red blood cells but not macrophages. This trait was observed only in a capsule-deficient bacterial phenotype. The unique C. jejuni T6SS phenotype of capsule-sensitive contact-mediated hemolysis represents a novel evolutionary pathway of T6SS in bacteria and expands the repertoire of virulence properties associated with T6SS.

  19. Identification of a functional type VI secretion system in Campylobacter jejuni conferring capsule polysaccharide sensitive cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleumink-Pluym, Nancy M C; van Alphen, Lieke B; Bouwman, Lieneke I; Wösten, Marc M S M; van Putten, Jos P M

    2013-01-01

    The pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is the principal cause of bacterial food-borne infections. The mechanism(s) that contribute to bacterial survival and disease are still poorly understood. In other bacterial species, type VI secretion systems (T6SS) are increasingly recognized to contribute to bacterial pathogenesis by toxic effects on host cells or competing bacterial species. Here we report the presence of a functional Type VI secretion system in C. jejuni. Proteome and genetic analyses revealed that C. jejuni strain 108 contains a 17-kb T6SS gene cluster consisting of 13 T6SS-conserved genes, including the T6SS hallmark genes hcp and vgrG. The cluster lacks an ortholog of the ClpV ATPase considered important for T6SS function. The sequence and organization of the C. jejuni T6SS genes resemble those of the T6SS located on the HHGI1 pathogenicity island of Helicobacter hepaticus. The C. jejuni T6SS is integrated into the earlier acquired Campylobacter integrated element CJIE3 and is present in about 10% of C. jejuni isolates including several isolates derived from patients with the rare clinical feature of C. jejuni bacteremia. Targeted mutagenesis of C. jejuni T6SS genes revealed T6SS-dependent secretion of the Hcp needle protein into the culture supernatant. Infection assays provided evidence that the C. jejuni T6SS confers contact-dependent cytotoxicity towards red blood cells but not macrophages. This trait was observed only in a capsule-deficient bacterial phenotype. The unique C. jejuni T6SS phenotype of capsule-sensitive contact-mediated hemolysis represents a novel evolutionary pathway of T6SS in bacteria and expands the repertoire of virulence properties associated with T6SS.

  20. Generation and characterization of a novel recombinant scFv antibody specific for Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nzuma, Ruramayi M; Liu, Fuquan; Grant, Irene R

    2018-04-07

    Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of foodborne illness worldwide, mainly due to consumption and handling of contaminated raw chicken. Rapid detection methods for C. jejuni are vital for monitoring contamination levels in chicken products and reducing human Campylobacteriosis cases. The 'gold standard' culture-based method of Campylobacter detection takes 3-5 days and is too slow to permit effective intervention. Immuno-based methods are faster, but usually necessitate use of animals or hybridoma technology to produce antibodies; making them difficult and expensive to produce. Here, we report the generation and characterization of recombinant single-chain variable fragment (scFv) antibodies specific for C. jejuni cells, and evaluation of one scFv antibody for an immunomagnetic separation-quantitative PCR (IMS-qPCR) method to rapidly, sensitively, and specifically detect low numbers of C. jejuni. An scFv antibody phage-display library was constructed using spleen mRNA derived from a rabbit immunized with gamma-irradiated C. jejuni cells. This library was screened by surface biopanning against C. jejuni whole cells. Enriched clones were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Two scFv antibodies that strongly and specifically recognized C. jejuni cell were expressed in Escherichia coli. Western blot analysis showed that one antibody, scFv80, was expressed as a soluble protein and retained its specific and strong binding to C. jejuni cells. This recombinant monoclonal scFv antibody was purified and used to covalently coat paramagnetic beads to be used for IMS-qPCR. The IMS-qPCR method was able to specifically and sensitively detect C. jejuni in mixed cultures within 3 h.

  1. Risk factors for Campylobacter infection in Danish broiler chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chowdhury, S; Sandberg, M; Themudo, Goncalo Espregueira Cruz

    2012-01-01

    Data from the Quality Assurance System in Danish Broiler Production (KIK system) were analyzed to identify within farm biosecurity- and management-related risk factors for Campylobacter infection in Danish broiler flocks. In the study, data from 2,835 flocks originating from 187 farms in the time...... period of December 2009 to November 2010 were included. The PCR test results of fecal samples collected on socks revealed that 14% of the Danish broiler flocks were positive to Campylobacter during the study period. Of the positive flocks, 55% were positive during summer time and the positive flocks...... during summer time were related to areas where clustering of infected farms was identified in previous conducted studies. The median number of people working in or entering broiler houses was 2 (from 1 to 7). The median slaughter age of Danish broiler flocks was 35 d (from 31–61 d). A multivariable...

  2. Human risk from thermotolerant Campylobacter on broiler meat in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Louise; Nauta, Maarten; Ribeiro Duarte, Ana Sofia

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a new approach by which changes over time in the relative risk of human campylobacteriosis from broiler meat are evaluated through quantitative microbiological risk assessment modelling. Danish surveillance data collected at retail from 2001 to 2010 on numbers of thermotolerant...... Campylobacter spp. on Danish produced and imported chilled and frozen broiler meat were the basis for the investigation. The aim was to explore if the risk from the different meat categories had changed over time as a consequence of implemented intervention strategies. The results showed a slight decrease from...... 2005 to 2008 in the human risk from Danish produced broiler meat, and a decrease from 2005 to 2010 in the risk from imported chilled meat. This risk reduction coincides with control measures implemented to reduce Campylobacter in Danish and imported chilled broiler meat. The human risk...

  3. Survival and Virulence of Campylobacter spp. in the Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bui, Thanh Xuan

    the epidemiology of recent outbreaks of food-borne diseases from vegetables. During transmission and infection, C. jejuni may encounter many different stresses but little is known about how this bacterium survives and interacts with the protozoa under these conditions. I have investigated the impacts......Campylobacter is the most common cause of food-borne illness in Europe, and this important zoonotic pathogen has been the focus of many research projects and scientific publications in recent years. However, we know less about the biology and pathogenicity of this pathogen than we know about many...... less prevalent pathogens. In this PhD project, I have investigated the survival and virulence of Campylobacter spp. in various matrices such as chicken faeces, swine manure and in co-culture with protozoa. In the first study, using bacterial culture and RT-qPCR methods, I found that viable C. jejuni...

  4. Comparison of the SimPlate™ Campylobacter CI-System with the cultural standard method for the detection of Campylobacter spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Manopas, Aranya Sira Andrea

    2012-01-01

    The suitability of the SimPlate™ Campylobacter CI-System as a rapid test for Campylobacter spp. detection was investigated in comparison with the ISO-MPN-method as stipulated in ISO 10272:1995(E). 116 turkey and chicken meat samples were used for both, preliminary and main experiments. With the ISO-MPN-method system 24 out of 116 meat samples were identified as Campylobacter positive whereas SimPlate™ detected only 6 Campylobacterpositive samples, partly reasoned by the high detection limit o...

  5. Demonstration of Polysaccharide Capsule in Campylobacter jejuni Using Electron Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Karlyshev, Andrey V.; McCrossan, Maria V.; Wren, Brendan W.

    2001-01-01

    Recently, we reported that Campylobacter jejuni, an important gastrointestinal pathogen, has the genetic determinants to produce a capsular polysaccharide (Karlyshev et al., Mol. Microbiol. 35:529–541, 2000). Despite these data, the presence of a capsule in these bacteria has remained controversial. In this study we stain C. jejuni cells with the cationic dye Alcian blue and demonstrate for the first time by electron microscopy that C. jejuni cells produce a polysaccharide capsule that is ret...

  6. Quantification of Campylobacter jejuni contamination on chicken carcasses in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duqué, Benjamin; Daviaud, Samuel; Guillou, Sandrine; Haddad, Nabila; Membré, Jeanne-Marie

    2018-04-01

    Highly prevalent in poultry, Campylobacter is a foodborne pathogen which remains the primary cause of enteritis in humans. Several studies have determined prevalence and contamination level of this pathogen throughout the food chain. However it is generally performed in a deterministic way without considering heterogeneity of contamination level. The purpose of this study was to quantify, using probabilistic tools, the contamination level of Campylobacter spp. on chicken carcasses after air-chilling step in several slaughterhouses in France. From a dataset (530 data) containing censored data (concentration contamination level (3 log 10 or more), strengthening the probabilistic analysis and facilitating result interpretation. The sampling period and sampling area (neck/leg) had a significant effect on Campylobacter contamination level. More precisely, two "seasons" were distinguished: one from January to May, another one from June to December. During the June-to-December season, the mean Campylobacter concentration was estimated to 2.6 [2.4; 2.8] log 10 (CFU/g) and 1.8 [1.5; 2.0] log 10 (CFU/g) for neck and leg, respectively. The probability of having >1000CFU/g (higher limit of European microbial criterion) was estimated to 35.3% and 12.6%, for neck and leg, respectively. In contrast, during January-to-May season, the mean contamination level was estimated to 1.0 [0.6; 1.3] log 10 (CFU/g) and 0.6 [0.3; 0.9] log 10 (CFU/g) for neck and leg, respectively. The probability of having >1000CFU/g was estimated to 13.5% and 2.0% for neck and leg, respectively. An accurate quantification of contamination level enables industrials to better adapt their processing and hygiene practices. These results will also help in refining exposure assessment models. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Quantitative Proteomics of Intracellular Campylobacter jejuni Reveals Metabolic Reprogramming

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xiaoyun; Gao, Beile; Novik, Veronica; Galán, Jorge E.

    2012-01-01

    Author Summary Campylobacter jejuni is one of the most common causes of food-borne illness in the United States and a major cause of diarrheal diseases in developing countries. This pathogen can invade intestinal epithelial cells, which is very important for its ability to cause disease. Once it gains access to epithelial cells, C. jejuni becomes unable to grow under standard growth conditions, although it can grow if pre-incubated under oxygen limiting conditions. This study compares the pro...

  8. Genotypes and antibiotic resistance of canine Campylobacter jejuni isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amar, Chantal; Kittl, Sonja; Spreng, David; Thomann, Andreas; Korczak, Bożena M; Burnens, André P; Kuhnert, Peter

    2014-01-10

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most important cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans. It is a commensal in many wild and domestic animals, including dogs. Whereas genotypes of human and chicken C. jejuni isolates have been described in some detail, only little information on canine C. jejuni genotypes is available. To gain more information on genotypes of canine C. jejuni and their zoonotic potential, isolates from routine diagnostics of diarrheic dogs as well as isolates of a prevalence study in non-diarrheic dogs were analyzed. Prevalence of thermophilic Campylobacter among non-diarrheic dogs was 6.3% for C. jejuni, 5.9% for Campylobacter upsaliensis and 0.7% for Campylobacter coli. The C. jejuni isolates were genotyped by multi locus sequence typing (MLST) and flaB typing. Resistance to macrolides and quinolones was genetically determined in parallel. Within the 134 genotyped C. jejuni isolates 57 different sequence types (ST) were found. Five STs were previously unrecognized. The most common STs were ST-48 (11.2%), ST-45 (10.5%) and ST-21 (6.0%). Whereas no macrolide resistance was found, 28 isolates (20.9%) were resistant to quinolones. ST-45 was significantly more prevalent in diarrheic than in non-diarrheic dogs. Within the common time frame of isolation 94% of the canine isolates had a ST that was also found in human clinical isolates. In conclusion, prevalence of C. jejuni in Swiss dogs is low but there is a large genetic overlap between dog and human isolates. Given the close contact between human and dogs, the latter should not be ignored as a potential source of human campylobacteriosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Metronidazole resistance in Campylobacter jejuni from poultry meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sigrid Rita; Shukri, Naseer Mahmoud; Boel, Jeppe

    2006-01-01

    The occurrence of metronidazole resistance was investigated among Campylobacter jejuni in raw poultry meat collected from supermarkets. MICs were determined by the agar dilution procedure in the testing range of 3 to 60 mu g/ml metronidazole. The MICs showed a bimodal distribution...... with a significant proportion of metronidazole-resistant isolates among C. jejuni from raw broiler and turkey meat. Metronidazole resistance occurred most frequently among turkey meat isolates (P resistance....

  10. Retrospective Study of Campylobacter Infection in a Zoological Collection▿

    OpenAIRE

    Taema, Maged M.; Bull, James C.; Macgregor, Shaheed K.; Flach, Edmund J.; Boardman, Wayne S.; Routh, Andrew D.

    2007-01-01

    Little is known about the epidemiology of Campylobacter spp. in wild animal populations. However, zoological collections can provide valuable insights. Using records from the Zoological Society of London Whipsnade Zoo compiled between 1990 and 2003, the roles of a range of biotic and abiotic factors associated with the occurrence of campylobacteriosis were investigated. The occurrence of campylobacteriosis varied widely across host taxonomic orders. Furthermore, in mammals, a combination of c...

  11. Surveillance for action – managing foodborne Campylobacter in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Hathaway

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In New Zealand, information gathered by the human disease surveillance system has been used to inform its well-documented, science-based Food Safety Risk Management Framework and response to an increasing national public health problem–campylobacteriosis. This paper discusses the use of surveillance data in initial prioritization, goal setting, source attribution and monitoring and review for Campylobacter infection in New Zealand.

  12. [Campylobacter and campylobacteriosis: a view from South America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Heriberto

    2011-03-01

    The thermotolerant species of Campylobacter have become very important in public health, especially as agents of infectious diarrhea in human beings. In this brief revision we present part of the available information generated in South America about epidemiological, clinical and bacteriological aspects of campylobacteriosis and we identify some differences between the observed and documented campylobacteriosis in South America compared to those described in industrialized countries.

  13. Raw milk - boiling protects against infection with Campylobacter

    OpenAIRE

    German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment

    2016-01-01

    It is known that raw milk can contain microorganisms that are harmful to health. In light of the increasing number of machines where raw milk is sold via raw milk vending systems, the Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR) has assessed the risk for food infections with the Campylobacter bacterium resulting from the milk dispensed from these raw milk vending machines. The assessment also addresses the question of whether the more frequent occurrence of outbreaks of illness due to Campylob...

  14. Campylobacter jejuni Bacteremia in a Patient With Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anvarinejad, Mojtaba; Amin Shahidi, Maneli; Pouladfar, Gholam Reza; Dehyadegari, Mohammad Ali; Mardaneh, Jalal

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Campylobacter jejuni is a slender, motile, non-spore-forming, helical-shaped, gram-negative bacterium. It is one of the most common causes of human gastroenteritis in the world. The aim of this study was to present a patient with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), who was infected with Campylobacter jejuni. Case Presentation We describe the medical records of a pediatric ALL patient with bacteremia caused by C. jejuni, who was diagnosed at Amir hospital, Shiraz, Iran. This 14-year-old male visited the emergency department of Amir hospital with night sweats, severe polar high-grade fever, reduced appetite, and nausea in August 2013. Given the suspected presence of an anaerobic or microaerophilic microorganism, aerobic and anaerobic blood cultures were performed using an automated blood cultivator, the BACTEC 9240 system. In order to characterize the isolate, diagnostic biochemical tests were used. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was done with the disk diffusion method. The primary culture was found to be positive for Campylobacter, and the subculture of the solid plate yielded a confluent growth of colonies typical for Campylobacter, which was identified as C. jejuni by morphological and biochemical tests. The isolate was resistant to ciprofloxacin, cefotaxime, cephalexin, piperacillin/tazobactam, nalidixic acid, aztreonam, cefuroxime, cefixime, ceftazidime, and tobramycin. Conclusions C. jejuni should be considered in the differential diagnosis as a potential cause of bacteremia in immunosuppressed patients. In cases where the BACTEC result is positive in aerobic conditions but the organism cannot be isolated, an anaerobic culture medium is suggested, especially in immunocompromised patients. PMID:27621914

  15. Methods to Study Antimicrobial Resistance in Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Orhan; Shen, Zhangqi; Zhang, Qijing

    2017-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a leading bacterial cause of foodborne gastroenteritis worldwide and is increasingly resistant to clinically important antibiotics. Detection of antibiotic resistance in C. jejuni can be performed with both phenotypic and genotypic methods. In this chapter, we describe the most commonly used molecular biology methods for detection of resistance to clinically important antibiotics. These methods can be employed in both clinical and research settings to facilitate clinical therapy and to monitor the emergence and dissemination of antibiotic-resistant C. jejuni.

  16. Promising new vaccine candidates against Campylobacter in broilers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marine Meunier

    Full Text Available Campylobacter is the leading cause of human bacterial gastroenteritis in the European Union. Birds represent the main reservoir of the bacteria, and human campylobacteriosis mainly occurs after consuming and/or handling poultry meat. Reducing avian intestinal Campylobacter loads should impact the incidence of human diseases. At the primary production level, several measures have been identified to reach this goal, including vaccination of poultry. Despite many studies, however, no efficient vaccine is currently available. We have recently identified new vaccine candidates using the reverse vaccinology strategy. This study assessed the in vivo immune and protective potential of six newly-identified vaccine antigens. Among the candidates tested on Ross broiler chickens, four (YP_001000437.1, YP_001000562.1, YP_999817.1, and YP_999838.1 significantly reduced cecal Campylobacter loads by between 2 and 4.2 log10 CFU/g, with the concomitant development of a specific humoral immune response. In a second trial, cecal load reductions results were not statistically confirmed despite the induction of a strong immune response. These vaccine candidates need to be further investigated since they present promising features.

  17. Campylobacter bacteraemia: 16 years of experience in a single centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Khetam; Raz-Pasteur, Ayelet; Shachor-Meyouhas, Yael; Geffen, Yuval; Oren, Ilana; Paul, Mical; Kassis, Imad

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter bacteraemia (CB) is rare and usually occurs in immune-compromised patients. In this study we examined the incidence and epidemiology of CB in one institution over 15.5 years. The medical records of all the consecutive patients with CB admitted to our hospital from 2000 to 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical characteristics, microbiologic and outcome data were collected. During the study period, 65 patients with CB were identified. The majority of the patients were middle aged and immune-compromised. Campylobacter jejuni was the most commonly identified species (33/47, 70%). The main underlying conditions were haematological malignancies (43%) and chronic liver disease (14%). Fifty-seven percent of the patients were receiving immunosuppressive therapy at the time of bacteraemia. The most common presenting symptoms were fever (85%), diarrhoea (40%), abdominal pain (40%), and nausea and vomiting (40%). Of the isolates tested, 97% were susceptible to macrolides, and only 35% were susceptible to quinolones. Susceptibility to quinolones decreased over the years. Most patients did not receive adequate empiric antibiotic treatment (81.5%) and about 20% never received directed therapy. Mortality and relapse rates were low (5% each). There was no association between adequate empirical or definitive antibiotic therapy and adverse outcomes. The main predisposing factor for Campylobacter bacteraemia in our cohort was immunosuppression. Prognosis was generally favourable regardless of appropriateness of antibiotic therapy.

  18. Promising new vaccine candidates against Campylobacter in broilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, Marine; Guyard-Nicodème, Muriel; Vigouroux, Estelle; Poezevara, Typhaine; Beven, Véronique; Quesne, S.; Bigault, Lionel; Amelot, Michel; Dory, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Campylobacter is the leading cause of human bacterial gastroenteritis in the European Union. Birds represent the main reservoir of the bacteria, and human campylobacteriosis mainly occurs after consuming and/or handling poultry meat. Reducing avian intestinal Campylobacter loads should impact the incidence of human diseases. At the primary production level, several measures have been identified to reach this goal, including vaccination of poultry. Despite many studies, however, no efficient vaccine is currently available. We have recently identified new vaccine candidates using the reverse vaccinology strategy. This study assessed the in vivo immune and protective potential of six newly-identified vaccine antigens. Among the candidates tested on Ross broiler chickens, four (YP_001000437.1, YP_001000562.1, YP_999817.1, and YP_999838.1) significantly reduced cecal Campylobacter loads by between 2 and 4.2 log10 CFU/g, with the concomitant development of a specific humoral immune response. In a second trial, cecal load reductions results were not statistically confirmed despite the induction of a strong immune response. These vaccine candidates need to be further investigated since they present promising features. PMID:29176789

  19. Identification of Novel Vaccine Candidates against Campylobacter through Reverse Vaccinology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marine Meunier

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacteriosis is the most prevalent bacterial foodborne gastroenteritis affecting humans in the European Union. Human cases are mainly due to Campylobacter jejuni or Campylobacter coli, and contamination is associated with the handling and/or consumption of poultry meat. In fact, poultry constitutes the bacteria’s main reservoir. A promising way of decreasing the incidence of campylobacteriosis in humans would be to decrease avian colonization. Poultry vaccination is of potential for this purpose. However, despite many studies, there is currently no vaccine available on the market to reduce the intestinal Campylobacter load in chickens. It is essential to identify and characterize new vaccine antigens. This study applied the reverse vaccinology approach to detect new vaccine candidates. The main criteria used to select immune proteins were localization, antigenicity, and number of B-epitopes. Fourteen proteins were identified as potential vaccine antigens. In vitro and in vivo experiments now need to be performed to validate the immune and protective power of these newly identified antigens.

  20. Alternative bacteriophage life cycles: the carrier state of Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siringan, Patcharin; Connerton, Phillippa L; Cummings, Nicola J; Connerton, Ian F

    2014-03-26

    Members of the genus Campylobacter are frequently responsible for human enteric disease, often through consumption of contaminated poultry products. Bacteriophages are viruses that have the potential to control pathogenic bacteria, but understanding their complex life cycles is key to their successful exploitation. Treatment of Campylobacter jejuni biofilms with bacteriophages led to the discovery that phages had established a relationship with their hosts typical of the carrier state life cycle (CSLC), where bacteria and bacteriophages remain associated in equilibrium. Significant phenotypic changes include improved aerotolerance under nutrient-limited conditions that would confer an advantage to survive in extra-intestinal environments, but a lack in motility eliminated their ability to colonize chickens. Under these circumstances, phages can remain associated with a compatible host and continue to produce free virions to prospect for new hosts. Moreover, we demonstrate that CSLC host bacteria can act as expendable vehicles for the delivery of bacteriophages to new host bacteria within pre-colonized chickens. The CSLC represents an important phase in the ecology of Campylobacter bacteriophage.

  1. Towards diagnostic metagenomics of Campylobacter in fecal samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sandra Christine; Kiil, Kristoffer; Harder, Christoffer Bugge

    2017-01-01

    of the challenges in diagnostic metagenomics are, that it requires a great next-generation sequencing depth and unautomated data analysis. DNA from human fecal samples spiked with 7.75 × 101-7.75 × 107 colony forming unit (CFU)/ml Campylobacter jejuni and chicken fecal samples spiked with 1 × 102-1 × 106 CFU....../g Campylobacter jejuni was sequenced and data analysis was done by the metagenomic tools Kraken and CLARK. More hits were obtained at higher spiking levels, however with no significant linear correlations (human samples p = 0.12, chicken samples p = 0.10). Therefore, no definite detection limit could...... be determined, but the lowest spiking levels found positive were 7.75 × 104 CFU/ml in human feces and 103 CFU/g in chicken feces. Eight human clinical fecal samples with estimated Campylobacter infection loads from 9.2 × 104-1.0 × 109 CFU/ml were analyzed using the same methods. It was possible to detect...

  2. Sensitive detection of Campylobacter jejuni using nanoparticles enhanced QCM sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masdor, Noor Azlina; Altintas, Zeynep; Tothill, Ibtisam E

    2016-04-15

    A quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor platform was used to develop an immunosensor for the detection of food pathogen Campylobacter jejuni. Rabbit polyclonal antibodies and commercially available mouse monoclonal antibodies against C. jejuni were investigated to construct direct, sandwich and gold-nanoparticles (AuNPs) amplified sandwich assays. The performance of the QCM immunosensor developed using sandwich assay by utilising the rabbit polyclonal antibody as the capture antibody and conjugated to AuNPs as the detection antibody gave the highest sensitivity. This sensor achieved a limit of detection (LOD) of 150 colony forming unit (CFU)mL(-1) of C. jejuni in solution. The QCM sensor showed excellent sensitivity and specificity for Campylobacter detection with low cross reactivity for other foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella Typhimurium, (7%) Listeria monocytogenes (3%) and Escherichia coli (0%). The development of this biosensor would help in the sensitive detection of Campylobacter which can result in reducing pre-enrichment steps; hence, reducing assay time. This work demonstrates the potential of this technology for the development of a rapid and sensitive detection method for C. jejuni. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Prevalenza di Campylobacter termotolleranti nel pollo da ingrasso in Italia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Migliorati

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In Italia, nel periodo 5 febbraio-15 dicembre 2008, in applicazione della Decisione 516/2007/CE, sono state eseguite le attività di campionamento e analisi previste dal relativo Piano di sorveglianza. Tra gli obiettivi, la rilevazione dell’entità di contaminazione da Campylobacter termotolleranti nel pollo da ingrasso allevato in Italia. Sono stati selezionati 48 mattatoi avicoli, distribuiti in undici regioni italiane, in cui sono stati prelevati intestini ciechi e carcasse di pollo da ingrasso appartenenti a 393 lotti di macellazione. In 284 lotti (72,3% è stato isolato Campylobacter spp.: il 52,1% è risultato contaminato da C. jejuni, il 55,6% da C. coli e l’1,1% da C. lari. Nel 13,0% di quelli positivi (37 lotti sono stati rilevati contemporaneamente C. jejuni e C. coli. Dall’esame degli intestini ciechi, Campylobacter spp. è risultato presente in 251 lotti di macellazione (63,9%, in particolare, C. jejuni nel 48,2%, C. coli nel 50,6% e C. lari nell’1,2%. Le carcasse appartenenti a 182 lotti (46,3% sono risultate contaminate da C. jejuni nel 40,7% e C. coli nel 57,7% dei lotti positivi, C. lari non è stato isolato. I livelli di contaminazione riscontrati nelle carcasse sono risultati compresi tra 10 e 1,6 × 107 UFC/g.

  4. Campylobacter jejuni infection in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, A Singh; Shivaprasad, H L; Schaberg, D; Wier, F; Weber, S; Bandli, D

    2006-03-01

    Day-old, straight-run broiler chickens were procured from a hatchery located in the Pacific Northwest. The chickens were subdivided individually into nine groups of 20 chickens. The chickens were tagged, housed in isolation chambers on wire, fed commercial broiler feed, and given water ad libitum. Three isolates of Campylobacter jejuni of poultry origin and one of human origin were tested in this study. Various C. jejuni cultures were inoculated into 9-day-old chickens by crop gavage. Four groups of 20 chickens were inoculated at a dose level of 0.5 ml of 1 x 10(2) colony-forming units (CFU)/ml. The other four groups were inoculated with 0.5 ml of 1 X 10(4) CFU/ml. One group of 20 chickens was kept as an uninoculated control group. Four randomly selected chickens from each of the inoculated and uninoculated groups were necropsied at 5, 12, and 19 days postinoculation (DPI). The C. jejuni was cultured and enumerated from a composite of the upper and midintestine and the cecum. Body weights of all chicken groups at 7 days of age and at 5, 12, and 19 DPI were measured and statistically analyzed. No significant differences were present in the mean body weights (MBWs) of 7-day-old, 5 DPI, and 12 DPI male and female broiler chickens inoculated with C. jejuni at both dose levels compared with uninoculated controls. Differences in MBWs of the male and female broilers at 19 DPI were observed in some of the groups. Results of the C. jejuni culture enumeration mean (CEM) of composite intestine samples at 5 DPI from all inoculated chicken groups, irrespective of the dose level, ranged from (2.5 +/- 5.0) x 10(2) to (2.8 +/- 4.8) x 10(5) CFU/g (mean +/- SD). Results of cecum C. jejuni CEM at 5 DPI inoculated at both dose levels ranged from (2.5 +/- 5.0) x 10(6) to (1 +/- 0.0) x 10(7) CFU/g in all treatment groups irrespective of the dose level. CEM results from the composite intestine samples at 12 and 19 DPI increased by 1 log unit, or sometimes more. Results of cecum C. jejuni

  5. A case of defibrillator-associated infective endocarditis due to Campylobacter fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sękowska, A; Fabiszak, T; Mikucka, A; Andrzejewska, M; Kruszyńska, E; Gospodarek, E; Klawe, J

    2016-11-01

    Campylobacter spp. are Gram-negative, spiral motile bacteria. Infections caused by Campylobacter fetus are frequently of invasive character, but they are very rare. The described case of infection of a cardioverter defibrillator implantation site was effectively cured with antibiotics, but it required removal of the cardioverter defibrillator.

  6. The ability of select probiotics to reduce enteric Campylobacter colonization in broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter is the leading cause of foodborne illness worldwide and is often associated with consumption and/or mishandling of contaminated poultry products. Probiotic use in poultry has been an effective strategy in reducing other enteric foodborne pathogens but not consistently for Campylobacter...

  7. Prevalence and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Campylobacter species Isolated From Chicken and Beef Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Dabiri

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: To study prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in chicken and beef meat, and determine the drug susceptibility of strains, 450 samples in Tehran, Iran were investigated. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the prevalence and the antimicrobial resistance of entropathogenic Campylobacter strains ,especially C. jejuni isolated from raw chicken and beef meat in Tehran- Iran. Materials and Methods: Out of 250 chickens and 200 beef meats, 121(26.8 % contaminated cases with Campylobacter strains were isolated. Campylobacter was isolated from a significantly larger number of chickens (44% than beef meats (5.5 % (P < 0.05. Results: From all isolated Campylobacter organisms, 93 (76.8% species were identified as C. jejuni and 28 cases (23.1% as C. coli. Susceptibilities of 121 strains (93 C. jejuni and 28 C. coli were determined against 12 antimicrobial drugs using the disk agar diffusion method. Resistance to nalidixic acid (75% and ciprofloxacin (50% was an alarming finding, moreover, 32.6% of isolates was resistant to tetracycline, 10.8% to ampicillin, 29.3% to colisitin and 26.1% to amoxicillin. The highest sensitivity was seen to erythromycin (95 % and gentamicin (96%. Conclusions: These results showed that a high proportion of chicken and beef meat in Iran is contaminated with Campylobacter, particularly with Campylobacter jejuni. The high rate of contamination, especially chicken is a significant public health concern. Most of the isolates were resistant; therefore, human infection with Campylobacter spp. via consumption of these products is possible.

  8. Reduction of campylobacter infections in broiler flocks by application of hygiene measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giessen, A.W. van de; Tilburg, J.J.H.C.; Ritmeester, W.S.; Plas, J. van der

    1998-01-01

    Transmission routes of Campylobacter spp. in broilers and possibilities for prevention of infections were studied on two Dutch broiler farms. The occurrence of Campylobacter spp. was studied in successive broiler flocks, in the environment of the farms and in some of the parent flocks involved.

  9. Prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in poultry meat and meat products imported in Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostova Sandra

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter spp. is leading bacterial cause of diarrhea in human population in all parts of the world. In most of the cases infection with Campylobacter spp. in humans originate from contaminated poultry meat and poultry meat products. This study was designed to estimate prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in meat and meat products imported in Republic of Macedonia. During the period of 8 months (January-August 2008 we tested 56 samples of meat and meat products (poultry meat, MDM, pork meat, beef meat and smoked beef. Samples were submitted to analysis for detection of thermo-tolerant Campylobacter spp. according to ISO 10272:1995. We determined among the analyzed samples highest prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in MDM with 84% positive samples, poultry meat with 81,8%, pork meat with 10%. We didn.t detect any positive samples in beef meat and smoked beef. Overall prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in all tested samples was 55,36%. This study shows that the high prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in tested samples and in correlation with severe symptoms in humans are reasons good enough for the producing and processing poultry meat industry and food business operators so they should take in consideration Campylobacter spp. in their risk assessment and preparation of HACCP plan.

  10. Improved toluidine blue-DNA agar for detection of DNA hydrolysis by campylobacters.

    OpenAIRE

    Lior, H; Patel, A

    1987-01-01

    Our improved toluidine blue-DNA agar was compared with methyl green DNase test agar for the detection of DNA hydrolysis by campylobacters. The toluidine blue-DNA agar gave clear-cut positive and negative reactions with campylobacter strains belonging to several species.

  11. 75 FR 27288 - New Performance Standards for Salmonella and Campylobacter in Young Chicken and Turkey Slaughter...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ... Performance Standards for Salmonella and Campylobacter in Young Chicken and Turkey Slaughter Establishments... micro-organisms Salmonella and Campylobacter for use in young chicken and turkey slaughter... Collection Programs: The Young Chicken Survey and the Young Turkey Survey. The Agency invites comments on the...

  12. Beta-resorcylic acid, a phytophenolic compound, reduces Campylobacter jejuni in post-harvest poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Campylobacter infections, a leading foodborne illness globally, has been linked with the high prevalence of this bacterium on raw retail chicken products. Reduction of Campylobacter counts on poultry products would greatly reduce the risk of subsequent infections in humans. To this end, this s...

  13. Passage of Campylobacter subtypes through 0.45 and 0.65 µm filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction A 0.45 or 0.65 µm filter can be used as a means to separate Campylobacter from complex samples allowing detection on solid plating media. It is unclear what percentage of cells in a Campylobacter suspension pass through a filter and result in visible colonies. Purpose The objective o...

  14. Complete genome sequence of the hippuricase-positive Campylobacter avium type strain LMG 24591

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter avium is a hippurate-positive, thermotolerant campylobacter that has been isolated from poultry. Here we present the genome sequences of two C. avium strains isolated from broiler chickens: strains LMG 24591T (complete genome) and LMG 24592 (draft genome). The C. avium type strain geno...

  15. A role for flies (Diptera) in the transmission of Campylobacter to broilers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Royden, A.; Wedley, A.; Merga, J. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter is the leading cause of bacterial diarrhoeal disease worldwide, with raw and undercooked poultry meat and products the primary source of infection. Colonization of broiler chicken flocks with Campylobacter has proved difficult to prevent, even with high levels of biosecurity. Dipteran...

  16. Description of Campylobacter fetus subsp. testudinum subsp. nov., isolated from humans and reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    A polyphasic study was undertaken to determine the taxonomic position of 13 Campylobacter fetus-like isolates from humans (n=8) and reptiles (n=5). Phenotypic characterization, Genusgenus-specific and sap insertion-PCR initially identified all human isolates as type A Campylobacter fetus. Phylogenet...

  17. Identification, Purification and Characterization of Major Antigenic Proteins of Campylobacter jejuni

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    ptrepairaitiiin was dtttrdhhiiit 2i8)fu5mt.itltlt’tiltt’dIitwtt lI opiltliIized atid reco nst itutited with Itdist ilIledI water andtc desalt ec usinrg...proteins within the membrane intestinal Campylobacters. through electrostatic interaction with negatively charged li- Campylobacter are microaerophilic

  18. Farm and slaughterhouse characteristics affecting the occurrence of Salmonella and Campylobacter in the broiler supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franz, E.; Fels, van der H.J.; Thissen, J.; Asselt, van E.D.

    2012-01-01

    Based on a data set on Campylobacter and Salmonella prevalence in the broiler supply chain, collected during the period 2002 through 2005 in the Netherlands, farm- and slaughterhouse-specific characteristics were tested for their effect on Campylobacter and Salmonella prevalence at different stages

  19. Establishing a campylobacter-free pig population through a top-down approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijtens, M.J.B.M.; Urlings, H.A.P.; Plas, J. van der

    2000-01-01

    Fattening pigs are often infected with campylobacter. To eliminate campylobacter from the pig population, a top-down approach, involving the breeding and reproduction farms, seems appropriate. In order to investigate the effectiveness of a top-down approach, sows' faeces from the following farms

  20. Real-time PCR detection of Campylobacter spp.: A comparison toclassic culturing and enrichment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, P. de; Rahaoui, H.; Leer, R.J.; Montijn, R.C.; Vossen, J.M.B.M. van der

    2015-01-01

    The major disadvantage of the current gold standard for detection of the food pathogen Campylobacter, i.e. culturing, is the lengthy procedure. In this study we assessed the use of real-time PCR for detection of Campylobacter. To this end, 926 poultry samples, taken from transport containers and

  1. Prevalence and types of Campylobacter on poultry farms and in their direct environment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schets, Franciska M; Jacobs-Reitsma, Wilma F; van der Plaats, Rozemarijn Q J; Heer, Lianne Kerkhof-De; van Hoek, Angela H A M; Hamidjaja, Raditijo A; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria; Blaak, Hetty

    2017-01-01

    To study whether broiler and layer farms contribute to the environmental Campylobacter load, environmental matrices at or close to farms, and caecal material from chickens, were examined. Similarity between Campylobacter from poultry and environment was tested based on species identification and

  2. Detection of Resistance to Macrolides in Thermotolerant Campylobacter Species by Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization▿

    OpenAIRE

    Haas, Michaela; Essig, Andreas; Bartelt, Edda; Poppert, Sven

    2008-01-01

    The resistance of enteritis-causing Campylobacter strains to erythromycin is an emerging problem. We therefore evaluated fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for the rapid detection of resistance using 74 campylobacter isolates. FISH showed specificity and sensitivity of 100% for the detection of high-level resistance.

  3. Comparison of Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Campylobacter Strains Isolated from Food Samples and Patients with Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshi, Bita; Naseri, Amin; Alebouyeh, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter infections may lead to serious conditions, including septicemia or other invasive forms of the disease, which require rapid and accurate laboratory diagnosis and subsequently appropriate antimicrobial therapy. The aim of this study was to compare the species distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Campylobacter spp. strains isolated from patients and food samples. Biochemical identification was performed on 15 clinical and 30 food isolates of Campylobacter recovered onto Brucella agar containing 5% sheep blood. PCR was carried out to confirm the identity of Campylobacter spp. using primers for cadF, hipO, and asp genes of Campylobacter. To determine antibiotic sensitivity of isolates, Kirby-Bauer assay was carried out using 16 different antibiotic discs. PCR assay and biochemical tests confirmed all 45 isolates as Campylobacter: 20 (44.44%) as C. jujeni, 10 (22.22%) as C. coli, and 15 (33.34%) as other Campylobacter strains. The maximum resistance was observed to cefotaxime and imipenem (each 86.49%) and the maximum sensitivity to erythromycin (48.65%). C. jujeni is dominant among isolates from clinical and food samples. In addition, tetracycline remains the first-line therapeutic agent against Campylobacter infections in Iran.

  4. Clinical relevance of infections with zoonotic and human oral species of Campylobacter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soomin; Lee, Jeeyeon; Ha, Jimyeong; Choi, Yukyung; Kim, Sejeong; Lee, Heeyoung; Yoon, Yohan; Choi, Kyoung-Hee

    2016-07-01

    Genus Campylobacter has been recognized as a causative bacterial agent of animal and human diseases. Human Campylobacter infections have caused more concern. Campylobacters can be classified into two groups in terms of their original host: zoonotic and human oral species. The major zoonotic species are Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, which mostly reside in the intestines of avian species and are transmitted to humans via consumption of contaminated poultry products, thus causing human gastroenteritis and other diseases as sequelae. The other campylobacters, human oral species, include C. concisus, C. showae, C. gracilis, C. ureolyticus, C. curvus, and C. rectus. These species are isolated from the oral cavity, natural colonization site, but have potential clinical relevance in the periodontal region to varying extent. Two species, C. jejuni and C. coli, are believed to be mainly associated with intestinal diseases, but recent studies suggested that oral Campylobacter species also play a significant role in intestinal diseases. This review offers an outline of the two Campylobacter groups (zoonotic and human oral), their virulence traits, and the associated illnesses including gastroenteritis.

  5. The efficacy of the natural plant extracts, thymol and carvacrol against campylobacter colonization in broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter is a leading cause of foodborne gastroenteritis in the world and consumption of poultry products are a major cause of human infections. The ability to reduce or eliminate Campylobacter colonization in chickens would greatly reduce the risk of human campylobacteriosis. Unfortunately, ...

  6. Campylobacter multi-locus sequence typing subtypes detected on chicken livers available at retail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foodborne campylobacteriosis has been traced to undercooked chicken liver. It is not known what prevalence of Campylobacter to expect on fresh chicken livers available at retail. The objectives of this study were to measure prevalence of Campylobacter associated with chicken livers at retail and d...

  7. Seasonal influence on the prevalence of thermotolerant Campylobacter in retail broiler meat in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Louise; Vigre, Håkan; Rosenquist, Hanne

    2011-01-01

    In Denmark, the incidence of human campylobacteriosis cases, as well as the Campylobacter prevalence in broiler flocks, is strongly influenced by season with a summer peak in July–August. Therefore, it was considered that the prevalence of Campylobacter in broiler meat sold at retail in Denmark...

  8. Expanded MLST genotyping and comparative genomic hybridization evidence for host preferred groups in Campylobacter coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    The majority of previous work on campylobacteriosis has centered on the species Campylobacter jejuni, however, Campylobacter coli, the sister group to C. jejuni, is also a significant problem, but remains a much less studied organism. The purpose of this work was to develop and apply an expanded 16 ...

  9. Contamination of poultry environment with campylobacter Spp. and significance for colonisation of broilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lydekaitiene, Viktorija Legaudaite; Malakauskas, Mindangas; Kudirkiene, Egle

    2016-01-01

    polymorphism analysis of PCR amplified portion of the flagellin-A (flaA) gene. The results revealed that 28.5% out of 752 samples were contaminated with Campylobacter spp. The flaA-RFLP analysis of 263 C. jejuni isolates revealed 21 different flaA genotypes. Each broiler flock had specific Campylobacter...

  10. TIME OF ENTRY OF SALMONELLA AND CAMPYLOBACTER INTO THE TURKEY BROODER HOUSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earlier we reported the prevalence of Campylobacter (> 90%) and Salmonella (33%) in turkeys at slaughter. Herein we describe studies to estimate the time of entry of Campylobacter and Salmonella into the brooder house, which is the first stage of commercial turkey production. In Trial 1, birds (10...

  11. Molecular Detection of Campylobacter spp. in California Gull (Larus californicus) Excreta

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined the prevalence, quantity, and diversity of Campylobacter species in the excreta of 159 California gull samples using PCR and qPCR based detection assays. While Campylobacter prevalence and abundance was relatively high in the gull excreta examined, molecular data ind...

  12. Rapid and sensitive detection of Campylobacter spp. in chicken products by using the polymerase chain reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giesendorf, B A; Quint, W G; Henkens, M H; Stegeman, H; Huf, F A; Niesters, H G

    1992-01-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) after a short enrichment culture was used to detect Campylobacter spp. in chicken products. After the 16S rRNA gene sequence of Campylobacter jejuni was determined and compared with known sequences from other enterobacteria, a primer and probe combination was

  13. Detection of Campylobacter in human and animal field samples in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osbjer, Kristina; Tano, Eva; Chhayheng, Leang; Mac-Kwashie, Akofa Olivia; Fernström, Lise-Lotte; Ellström, Patrik; Sokerya, Seng; Sokheng, Choup; Mom, Veng; Chheng, Kannarath; San, Sorn; Davun, Holl; Boqvist, Sofia; Rautelin, Hilpi; Magnusson, Ulf

    2016-06-01

    Campylobacter are zoonotic bacteria and a leading cause of human gastroenteritis worldwide with Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli being the most commonly detected species. The aim of this study was to detect Campylobacter in humans and livestock (chickens, ducks, pigs, cattle, water buffalo, quail, pigeons and geese) in rural households by routine culturing and multiplex PCR in faecal samples frozen before analysis. Of 681 human samples, 82 (12%) tested positive by PCR (C. jejuni in 66 samples and C. coli in 16), but none by routine culture. Children were more commonly Campylobacter positive (19%) than adult males (8%) and females (7%). Of 853 livestock samples, 106 (12%) tested positive by routine culture and 352 (41%) by PCR. Campylobacter jejuni was more frequent in chickens and ducks and C. coli in pigs. In conclusion, Campylobacter proved to be highly prevalent by PCR in children (19%), ducks (24%), chickens (56%) and pigs (72%). Routine culturing was insufficiently sensitive in detecting Campylobacter in field samples frozen before analysis. These findings suggest that PCR should be the preferred diagnostic method for detection of Campylobacter in humans and livestock where timely culture is not feasible. © 2016 The Authors. APMIS published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Scandinavian Societies for Medical Microbiology and Pathology.

  14. Contact with poultry and animals increases risk of Campylobacter infections in adults of Ardabil province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Ranjbar

    2017-04-01

    Detection of Campylobacter infections by PCR was more sensitive in adults. Investigation of Campylobacter prevalence in Ardabil showed this bacterium should be viewed as one of the possible pathogens in inflammatory diarrheal cases. People having habitual contact with animals should check the health of the animals regularly and not consume food from suspected sources.

  15. Detection of airborne Campylobacter with three bioaerosol samplers for alarming bacteria transmission in broilers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Y.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.; Hagenaars, T.H.J.; Katsma, W.E.A.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2011-01-01

    In an airborne transmission experiment, Campylobacter in the air was sampled by three types of bioaerosol samplers (all-glass impinger AGI-30, Andersen six-stage impactor, and OMNI-3000) in four broiler rooms. In each room, five 14-day- old broilers inoculated with Campylobacter jejuni were kept in

  16. Detection of Campylobacter jejuni in Lizard Faeces from Central Australia Using Quantitative PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Whiley, Harriet; McLean, Ryan; Ross, Kirstin

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, Campylobacter is a significant cause of gastrointestinal illness. It is predominately considered a foodborne pathogen, with human exposure via non-food transmission routes generally overlooked. Current literature has been exploring environmental reservoirs of campylobacteriosis including potential wildlife reservoirs. Given the close proximity between lizards and human habitats in Central Australia, this study examined the presence of Campylobacter jejuni from lizard faeces collect...

  17. Prevalence of Campylobacter-associated diarrhea among patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, F.; Kuijper, E. J.; de Wever, B.; van der Hoek, L.; Danner, S. A.; Dankert, J.

    1997-01-01

    We performed a cross-sectional study at an outpatient AIDS clinic to assess the prevalence of Campylobacter species in stool specimens from 201 consecutive patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We characterized campylobacters phenotypically and genetically by using primers for

  18. An investigation of sources of Campylobacter in a poultry production and packing operation in Barbados.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Suzanne N; Mathison, George E; Lavoie, Marc C

    2008-01-15

    Chicken meat is frequently contaminated with Campylobacter jejuni and is thought to be the major source of organisms causing human Campylobacter enteritis. Genotypic similarities between Campylobacter isolates from chicken meat at retail outlets and patients with gastroenteritis in Barbados suggested that it is a vehicle for infection of humans on the island and prompted this investigation of transmission of Campylobacter in a local poultry operation. Campylobacter testing was conducted at the hatchery, on the broiler farm and in the processing plant for two consecutive production cycles. The genetic relatedness of Campylobacter isolates was determined by RAPD typing with primer OPA 11. Hatchery samples and week-old chicks were negative for Campylobacter. Flocks became colonized as early as three weeks after introduction to the farm. Ten distinct RAPD genotypes were identified among isolates. Some genotypes were similar and may be of clonal origin. There was no evidence of vertical transmission of Campylobacter. The results suggest that the broiler flock was infected from more than one source in the farm environment.

  19. Clinical studies on the ex-vivo expansion of autologous adipose derived stem cells for the functional reconstruction of mucous membrane in empty nose syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang LI

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To analyze and evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of using autologous adipose derived stem cells (ASCs for rebuilding the function of nasal mucosa in patients with empty nose syndrome (ENS. Methods Autologous adipose tissue 15-20ml were obtained from each of 5 ENS patients admitted from Aug. 2013 to Feb. 2014, and from which stem cells were isolated, cultured and expanded in vitro. The phenotype, differentiation, and genetic stability of the third generation of amplified stem cells were identified. For the patients with rudimental turbinate (n=3, ASCs were injected into the damaged nasal mucosa for 4 times (once every 10 days. For the patients with no rudimental turbinate (n=2, autologous pure fat granules 1-5ml were extracted after 3 times of ASCs injection into the damaged nasal mucosa, and mixed with the 3rd-6th generation of ASCs for inferior or middle nasal turbinate angioplasty. Nasal endoscopic examination was performed before treatment and 3, 6 and 9 months after treatment for comparison, and the data of SNOT-20 questionnaire, nasality resistance and nasal mucociliary clearance action were statistically analyzed. Results With injection transplantation of the 3rd-6th generation of ASCs in 2 patients with no rudimental turbinate, and 3, 6 and 9 months after the combined ASCs and fat granules transplantation in 3 patients with rudimental turbinate, nasal endoscopy showed that no obvious absorption in conchoplasty, nasal mucosa was improved significantly, and same as SNOT-20 scores, with statistically significant difference (P0.05. Conclusions The reconstruction of mucosa function by nasal turbinate angioplasty combined with adipose derived stem cells and autologous adipose transplantation may significantly improve the symptoms in patients with ENS with lasting effects. It is a new procedure which is helpful for the mucosal repair in patients with ENS. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.10.11

  20. Toward Personalized Medicine: Using Cardiomyocytes Differentiated From Urine-Derived Pluripotent Stem Cells to Recapitulate Electrophysiological Characteristics of Type 2 Long QT Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouni, Mariam; Si-Tayeb, Karim; Es-Salah-Lamoureux, Zeineb; Latypova, Xenia; Champon, Benoite; Caillaud, Amandine; Rungoat, Anais; Charpentier, Flavien; Loussouarn, Gildas; Baró, Isabelle; Zibara, Kazem; Lemarchand, Patricia; Gaborit, Nathalie

    2015-09-01

    Human genetically inherited cardiac diseases have been studied mainly in heterologous systems or animal models, independent of patients' genetic backgrounds. Because sources of human cardiomyocytes (CMs) are extremely limited, the use of urine samples to generate induced pluripotent stem cell-derived CMs would be a noninvasive method to identify cardiac dysfunctions that lead to pathologies within patients' specific genetic backgrounds. The objective was to validate the use of CMs differentiated from urine-derived human induced pluripotent stem (UhiPS) cells as a new cellular model for studying patients' specific arrhythmia mechanisms. Cells obtained from urine samples of a patient with long QT syndrome who harbored the HERG A561P gene mutation and his asymptomatic noncarrier mother were reprogrammed using the episomal-based method. UhiPS cells were then differentiated into CMs using the matrix sandwich method.UhiPS-CMs showed proper expression of atrial and ventricular myofilament proteins and ion channels. They were electrically functional, with nodal-, atrial- and ventricular-like action potentials recorded using high-throughput optical and patch-clamp techniques. Comparison of HERG expression from the patient's UhiPS-CMs to the mother's UhiPS-CMs showed that the mutation led to a trafficking defect that resulted in reduced delayed rectifier K(+) current (IKr). This phenotype gave rise to action potential prolongation and arrhythmias. UhiPS cells from patients carrying ion channel mutations can be used as novel tools to differentiate functional CMs that recapitulate cardiac arrhythmia phenotypes. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.