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Sample records for synchrotron-light telescope bsrt

  1. Synchrotron light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    'Synchrotron Light' is an interactive and detailed introduction to the physics and technology of the generation of coherent radiation from accelerators as well as to its widespread high-tech applications in science, medicine and engineering. The topics covered are the interaction of light and matter, the technology of synchrotron light sources, spectroscopy, imaging, scattering and diffraction of X-rays, and applications to materials science, biology, biochemistry, medicine, chemistry, food and pharmaceutical technology. All synchrotron light facilities are introduced with their home-page addresses. 'Synchrotron Light' provides an instructive and comprehensive multimedia learning tool for students, experienced practitioners and novices wishing to apply synchrotron radiation in their future work. Its multiple-entry points permit an easy exploration of the CD-Rom according to the users knowledge and interest. 2-D and 3-D animations and virtual reconstruction with computer-generated images guide visitors into the scientific and technical world of a synchrotron and into the applications of synchrotron radiation. This bilingual (English and French) CD-Rom can be used for self-teaching and in courses at various levels in physics, chemistry, engineering, and biology. (author)

  2. National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulbert, S.L.; Lazarz, N.M.

    1991-04-01

    This report discussion research being conducted at the National Synchrotron light source. In particular, this report contains operations summaries; symposia, workshops, and projects; NSLS highlights; and abstracts of science at the NSLS

  3. Analysis of BSRT Profiles in the LHC at Injection

    CERN Document Server

    Fitterer, M; Papadopoulou, S; Papaphilippou, Y; Redaelli, S

    2017-01-01

    The beam synchrotron radiation telescope (BSRT) at the LHC allows to take profiles of the transverse beam distribution, which can provide useful additional insight in the evolution of the transverse beam distribution. A python class has been developed [1], which allows to read in the BSRT profiles, usually stored in binary format, run different analysis tools and generate plots of the statistical parameters and profiles as well as videos of the the profiles. The detailed analysis will be described in this note. The analysis is based on the data obtained at injection energy (450 GeV) during MD1217 [2] and MD1415 [3] which will be also used as illustrative example. A similar approach is also taken with a MATLAB based analysis described in [4].

  4. National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Steenbergen, A.

    1979-01-01

    The National Synchrotron Light Source comprises two high intensity electron storage rings for the generation of intense fluxes of synchrotron radiation in the vuv wavelength domain (700 MeV e - ring) and in the x-ray wavelength domain (2.5 GeV e - ring). A description is presented of the basic facility and the characteristics of the synchrotron radiation sources. The present plans for specific beam lines will be enumerated and the planned use of beam wigglers and undulators will be discussed

  5. Synchrotron light beam and a synchrotron light experiment facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Masami

    1980-01-01

    In the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics, about two years ago, the requirements of synchrotron light beam in respective measuring instruments were discussed. Then, also the arrangement (lattice) of a storage ring, the nature of synchrotron light beam, a synchrotron light experiment facility and the arrangement of the beam lines were studied. During the period of two years since then, due to the changes in the circumstances, the design of the lattice was altered. Accordingly, the arrangement of the beam lines and of measuring instruments were largely changed. At this point, the results of discussions in various meetings are described, though they may still be subject to future changes, with due consideration to beam, environment and beam lines required for the design of the measuring instruments: (1) storage ring and synchrotron light beam, (2) requirements on small beam size and beam stability, (3) a synchrotron light experiment facility. (J.P.N.)

  6. Synchrotron light source data book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, J.

    1989-01-01

    The ''Synchrotron Light Source Data Book'' is as its name implies a collection of data on existing and planned synchrotron light sources. The intention was to provide a compendium of tools for the design of electron storage rings as synchrotron radiation sources. The slant is toward the accelerator physicist as other booklets such as the X-ray Data Booklet, edited by D. Vaughan (LBL PUB-490), address the 'use' of synchrotron radiation. It is hoped that the booklet serves as a pocket sized reference to facilitate back of the envelope type calculations. It contains some useful formulae in 'practical units' and a brief description of many of the existing and planned light source lattices

  7. The synchrotron light source ROSY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einfeld, D.; Buettig, H.; Dienel, S.; Glaeser, W.; Goetz, T.; Guratzsch, H.; Hartmann, B.; Janssen, D.; Krug, H.; Linnemann, J.; Matz, W.; Murphy, J.B.; Neumann, W.; Oehme, W.; Picard, M.; Plesko, M.; Proehl, D.; Schlenk, R.; Tomassini, D.; Tyrroff, H.

    1994-01-01

    ROSY, a 3rd generation synchrotron light source, has been proposed to be built at the Research Center Rossendorf/Dresden in Germany. With its low emittance and optimized space for installing insertion devices ROSY will be the first synchrotron radiation source in the 3 GeV range in Europe, dedicated to materials research and industrial application. The critical wavelength of the synchrotron radiation spectra was designed to be 0.15 nm corresponding to a critical photon energy of 8.4 keV. It is proposed to use a ''modified multiple bend achromat'' (MBA) lattice in order to get a compact machine as well as a low emittance. For 3 GeV an emittance smaller than 30π nm rad can be obtained. With a fourfold symmetry and two larger straight sections within the achromatic arcs the circumference is 148 m. 23% of the circumference can be used for installing insertion devices. (orig.)

  8. Australian synchrotron light source - (boomerang)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boldeman, J.

    2001-01-01

    The Australian National Synchrotron Light Source - (Boomerang) is to be installed at the Monash University in Victoria. This report provides some background to the proposed facility and discusses aspects of a prospective design. Recently, significant effort was devoted to refining the in principle design and a lattice providing an emittance od 18 nm rad was obtained with a distributed dispersion in the straight section of 0.29m. Exhaustive studies have been made of the economic benefits that would accrue to Australia to Australia following the installation of this facility. This design is a refinement of the design concept presented to the SRI -2000, Berlin (Boldeman, Einfeld et al), to the meeting of the 4th Asian Forum and the Preliminary Design Study presented to the Australian Synchrotron Research Program

  9. National Synchrotron Light Source annual report 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulbert, S.; Lazarz, N.; Williams, G. (eds.)

    1988-01-01

    This report discusses the experiment done at the National Synchrotron Light Source. Most experiments discussed involves the use of the x-ray beams to study physical properties of solid materials. (LSP)

  10. Synchrotron light sources in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mtingwa, Sekazi K.; Winick, Herman

    2018-03-01

    We discuss the role that synchrotron light sources, such as SESAME, could play in improving the socioeconomic conditions in developing countries. After providing a brief description of a synchrotron light source, we discuss the important role that they played in the development of several economically emerging countries. Then we describe the state of synchrotron science in South Africa and that country’s leadership role in founding the African Light Source initiative. Next, we highlight a new initiative called Lightsources for Africa, the Americas & Middle East Project, which is a global initiative led by the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics and the International Union of Crystallography, with initial funding provided by the International Council for Science. Finally, we comment on a new technology called the multibend achromat that has launched a new paradigm for the design of synchrotron light sources that should be attractive for construction in developing countries.

  11. Ideas for future synchrotron light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, A.; Hassenzahl, W.; Meddahi, M.

    1992-03-01

    Synchrotron light sources have advanced in the past two-to-three decades through three ''generations,'' from irritating parasitic sources on high-energy physics accelerators to dedicated electron and position storage rings of unprecedented low emittance, utilizing undulator and wiggler magnets. The evolution through these three generations followed a predicable, science-driven, course towards brighter beams of VUV- and x-radiation. The requirements of future light sources is not so clear. The limit on how emittance has certainly not been reached, and diffraction-limited sources at shorter wavelengths would be the natural progression from previous generations. However, scientists are now looking at other radiation characteristics that might better serve their needs, for example, more coherent power, fast switching polarization, ultra-short (sub-picosecond) time structure, and synchronized beams for pump-probe experiments. This paper discusses some current ideas that might drive the fourth-generation synchrotron light source

  12. High resolution synchrotron light analysis at ELSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Switka, Michael; Zander, Sven; Hillert, Wolfgang [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Elektronen-Stretcher Anlage ELSA-Facility (ELSA)

    2013-07-01

    The pulse stretcher ring ELSA provides polarized electrons with energies up to 3.5 GeV for external hadron experiments. In order to suffice the need of stored beam intensities towards 200 mA, advanced beam instability studies need to be carried out. An external diagnostic beamline for synchrotron light analysis has been set up and provides the space for multiple diagnostic tools including a streak camera with time resolution of <1 ps. Beam profile measurements are expected to identify instabilities and reveal their thresholds. The effect of adequate countermeasures is subject to analysis. The current status of the beamline development is presented.

  13. Electron beam spectrum monitor using synchrotron light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reagan, D.; Hostetler, T.E.

    1979-03-01

    This instrument shows the positions, widths, and shapes of momentum spectra of SLAC beams. It uses synchrotron light produced when the beam is deflected by a magnet. Some of the light is focused on the face of an image splitter consisting of acrylic light pipes. The light pipes illuminate twelve photomultiplier tubes. Pulses from the PM tubes are integrated, multiplexed, and displayed on an oscilloscope. The resolution of the instrument is usually better than 0.2%. It has some advantages over the secondary emitter foil spectrum monitors (SEM's) currently in use at SLAC. It need never be put out of service to avoid disturbing the beam. It is as sensitive as the most sensitive SLAC SEM. (Its performance has been optimized for high-current beams; it can easily be made much more sensitive.) It provides information on a pulse-to-pulse basis and, with better cables, could indicate electron beam pulse shapes

  14. Ferroelectrics under the Synchrotron Light: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-Cobas, Luis E.; Montero-Cabrera, María E.; Pardo, Lorena; Fuentes-Montero, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Currently, an intensive search for high-performance lead-free ferroelectric materials is taking place. ABO3 perovskites (A = Ba, Bi, Ca, K and Na; B = Fe, Nb, Ti, and Zr) appear as promising candidates. Understanding the structure–function relationship is mandatory, and, in this field, the roles of long- and short-range crystal orders and interactions are decisive. In this review, recent advances in the global and local characterization of ferroelectric materials by synchrotron light diffraction, scattering and absorption are analyzed. Single- and poly-crystal synchrotron diffraction studies allow high-resolution investigations regarding the long-range average position of ions and subtle global symmetry break-downs. Ferroelectric materials, under the action of electric fields, undergo crystal symmetry, crystallite/domain orientation distribution and strain condition transformations. Methodological aspects of monitoring these processes are discussed. Two-dimensional diffraction clarify larger scale ordering: polycrystal texture is measured from the intensities distribution along the Debye rings. Local order is investigated by diffuse scattering (DS) and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) experiments. DS provides information about thermal, chemical and displacive low-dimensional disorders. XAFS investigation of ferroelectrics reveals local B-cation off-centering and oxidation state. This technique has the advantage of being element-selective. Representative reports of the mentioned studies are described. PMID:28787814

  15. Ferroelectrics under the Synchrotron Light: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E. Fuentes-Cobas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, an intensive search for high-performance lead-free ferroelectric materials is taking place. ABO3 perovskites (A = Ba, Bi, Ca, K and Na; B = Fe, Nb, Ti, and Zr appear as promising candidates. Understanding the structure–function relationship is mandatory, and, in this field, the roles of long- and short-range crystal orders and interactions are decisive. In this review, recent advances in the global and local characterization of ferroelectric materials by synchrotron light diffraction, scattering and absorption are analyzed. Single- and poly-crystal synchrotron diffraction studies allow high-resolution investigations regarding the long-range average position of ions and subtle global symmetry break-downs. Ferroelectric materials, under the action of electric fields, undergo crystal symmetry, crystallite/domain orientation distribution and strain condition transformations. Methodological aspects of monitoring these processes are discussed. Two-dimensional diffraction clarify larger scale ordering: polycrystal texture is measured from the intensities distribution along the Debye rings. Local order is investigated by diffuse scattering (DS and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS experiments. DS provides information about thermal, chemical and displacive low-dimensional disorders. XAFS investigation of ferroelectrics reveals local B-cation off-centering and oxidation state. This technique has the advantage of being element-selective. Representative reports of the mentioned studies are described.

  16. National Synchrotron Light Source 2008 Activity Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasta, K.

    2009-01-01

    Funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Basic Energy Sciences, the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) is a national user facility that operates two electron storage rings: X-Ray (2.8 GeV, 300 mA) and Vacuum Ultraviolet (VUV) (800 mev, 1.0A). These two rings provide intense light spanning the electromagnetic spectrum -- from very long infrared rays to ultraviolet light and super-short x-rays -- to analyze very small or highly dilute samples. The properties of this light, and the specially designed experimental stations, called beamlines, allow scientists in many diverse disciplines of research to perform experiments not possible at their own laboratories. Each year, about 2,200 scientists from more than 400 universities and companies use the NSLS for research in such diverse fields as biology, physics, chemistry, geology, medicine, and environmental and materials sciences. For example, researchers have used the NSLS to examine the minute details of computer chips, decipher the structures of viruses, probe the density of bone, determine the chemical composition of moon rocks, and reveal countless other mysteries of science. The facility has 65 operating beamlines, with 51 beamlines on the X-Ray Ring and 14 beamlines on the VUV-Infrared Ring. It runs seven days a week, 24 hours a day throughout the year, except during periods of maintenance and studies. Researchers are not charged for beam time, provided that the research results are published in open literature. Proprietary research is conducted on a full-cost-recovery basis. With close to 1,000 publications per year, the NSLS is one of the most prolific scientific facilities in the world. Among the many accolades given to its users and staff, the NSLS has won nine R and D 100 Awards for innovations ranging from a closed orbit feedback system to the first device able to focus a large spread of high-energy x-rays. In addition, a visiting NSLS researcher shared the 2003 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for

  17. National Synchrotron Light Source 2008 Activity Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasta,K.

    2009-05-01

    Funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Basic Energy Sciences, the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) is a national user facility that operates two electron storage rings: X-Ray (2.8 GeV, 300 mA) and Vacuum Ultraviolet (VUV) (800 mev, 1.0A). These two rings provide intense light spanning the electromagnetic spectrum -- from very long infrared rays to ultraviolet light and super-short x-rays -- to analyze very small or highly dilute samples. The properties of this light, and the specially designed experimental stations, called beamlines, allow scientists in many diverse disciplines of research to perform experiments not possible at their own laboratories. Each year, about 2,200 scientists from more than 400 universities and companies use the NSLS for research in such diverse fields as biology, physics, chemistry, geology, medicine, and environmental and materials sciences. For example, researchers have used the NSLS to examine the minute details of computer chips, decipher the structures of viruses, probe the density of bone, determine the chemical composition of moon rocks, and reveal countless other mysteries of science. The facility has 65 operating beamlines, with 51 beamlines on the X-Ray Ring and 14 beamlines on the VUV-Infrared Ring. It runs seven days a week, 24 hours a day throughout the year, except during periods of maintenance and studies. Researchers are not charged for beam time, provided that the research results are published in open literature. Proprietary research is conducted on a full-cost-recovery basis. With close to 1,000 publications per year, the NSLS is one of the most prolific scientific facilities in the world. Among the many accolades given to its users and staff, the NSLS has won nine R&D 100 Awards for innovations ranging from a closed orbit feedback system to the first device able to focus a large spread of high-energy x-rays. In addition, a visiting NSLS researcher shared the 2003 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for

  18. National Synchrotron Light Source: vacuum system for National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuchman, J.C.; Godel, J.B.; Jordan, W.; Oversluizen, T.

    1978-01-01

    The National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), a 24 million dollar project under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), is a research facility dedicated to the production of synchrotron radiation. Synchrotron radiation is that radiation produced by the acceleration of charged particles at near the speed of light. This facility will provide a continuous spectrum of radiation from the vacuum ultraviolet to the hard x-ray range. The radiation will be highly intense, 100% polarized, extremely well collimated and will have a pulsed time structure. The radiation will be produced in two electron storage rings at energies of 700 MeV and 2.5 GeV, respectively. A maximum of one ampere at 2 GeV, or one-half ampere at 2.5 GeV, of electron beam will be stored

  19. National Synchrotron Light Source 2010 Activity Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowe, M.; Snyder, K.J.

    2010-01-01

    This is a very exciting period for photon sciences at Brookhaven National Laboratory. It is also a time of unprecedented growth for the Photon Sciences Directorate, which operates the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) and is constructing NSLS-II, both funded by the Department of Energy's Office of Science. Reflecting the quick pace of our activities, we chose the theme 'Discovery at Light Speed' for the directorate's 2010 annual report, a fiscal year bookended by October 2009 and September 2010. The year began with the news that NSLS users Venki Ramakrishnan of Cambridge University (also a former employee in Brookhaven's biology department) and Thomas A. Steitz of Yale University were sharing the 2009 Nobel Prize in Chemistry with Ada E. Yonath of the Weizmann Institute of Science. Every research project has the potential for accolades. In 2010, NSLS users and staff published close to 900 papers, with about 170 appearing in premiere journals. Those are impressive stats for a facility nearly three decades old, testament to the highly dedicated team keeping NSLS at peak performance and the high quality of its user community. Our NSLS users come from a worldwide community of scientists using photons, or light, to carry out research in energy and environmental sciences, physics, materials science, chemistry, biology and medicine. All are looking forward to the new capabilities enabled by NSLS-II, which will offer unprecedented resolution at the nanoscale. The new facility will produce x-rays more than 10,000 times brighter than the current NSLS and host a suite of sophisticated instruments for cutting-edge science. Some of the scientific discoveries we anticipate at NSLS-II will lead to major advances in alternative energy technologies, such as hydrogen and solar. These discoveries could pave the way to: (1) catalysts that split water with sunlight for hydrogen production; (2) materials that can reversibly store large quantities of electricity or hydrogen; (3

  20. National Synchrotron Light Source 2010 Activity Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, M.; Snyder, K. J.

    2010-12-29

    This is a very exciting period for photon sciences at Brookhaven National Laboratory. It is also a time of unprecedented growth for the Photon Sciences Directorate, which operates the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) and is constructing NSLS-II, both funded by the Department of Energy's Office of Science. Reflecting the quick pace of our activities, we chose the theme 'Discovery at Light Speed' for the directorate's 2010 annual report, a fiscal year bookended by October 2009 and September 2010. The year began with the news that NSLS users Venki Ramakrishnan of Cambridge University (also a former employee in Brookhaven's biology department) and Thomas A. Steitz of Yale University were sharing the 2009 Nobel Prize in Chemistry with Ada E. Yonath of the Weizmann Institute of Science. Every research project has the potential for accolades. In 2010, NSLS users and staff published close to 900 papers, with about 170 appearing in premiere journals. Those are impressive stats for a facility nearly three decades old, testament to the highly dedicated team keeping NSLS at peak performance and the high quality of its user community. Our NSLS users come from a worldwide community of scientists using photons, or light, to carry out research in energy and environmental sciences, physics, materials science, chemistry, biology and medicine. All are looking forward to the new capabilities enabled by NSLS-II, which will offer unprecedented resolution at the nanoscale. The new facility will produce x-rays more than 10,000 times brighter than the current NSLS and host a suite of sophisticated instruments for cutting-edge science. Some of the scientific discoveries we anticipate at NSLS-II will lead to major advances in alternative energy technologies, such as hydrogen and solar. These discoveries could pave the way to: (1) catalysts that split water with sunlight for hydrogen production; (2) materials that can reversibly store large quantities of

  1. NATIONAL SYNCHROTRON LIGHT SOURCE ACTIVITY REPORT 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MILLER, L.

    2005-01-01

    for the environmental science community, is also very important, as it will help to satisfy the large over subscription rate for this technique at the NSLS. Two other important upgrades that were initiated this past year are the replacement of the X25 wiggler with an undulator and the construction of the X9 undulator beamline for small-angle scattering, with an emphasis on nanoscience research. Another key activity that will benefit all users was the restoration of the x-ray ring lattice symmetry, which reduced the horizontal emittance and made the operational lattice more robust. Similarly, all users will benefit from the introduction of the PASS (Proposal Allocation Safety Scheduling) system this past year, which has greatly improved the process of proposal submission, review, allocation, and scheduling. This coming year we will work to add Rapid Access to the capabilities of PASS. Overall, the success of these and the many other projects that space does not permit listing is a testament to the dedication, hard work, and skill of the NSLS staff. Safety has always been an important issue at a large, complex scientific facility like the NSLS and in 2004 it received renewed attention. Safety is our highest priority and we spent a great deal of time reviewing and refining our safety practices and procedures. A new 'Safety Highlights' web page was created for safety news, and a large number of safety meetings and discussions were held. These reviews and meetings generated many ideas on how the NSLS might improve its safety practices, and we are committed to putting these in place and improving our already very good safety program. We had no lost-time accidents in 2004, which is a notable accomplishment. Our goal is to be best in class and I'm confident that by working together we can achieve that status. Several activities took place this past year to advance our proposal to replace the NSLS with a new National Synchrotron Light Source-II facility. These included a major

  2. National synchrotron light source basic design and project status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Steenbergen, A.

    1981-01-01

    A summary description and the basic design parameters of the National Synchrotron Light Source, a facility for the generation of intense synchrotron radiation in the vuv and x-ray range is presented, the parameters of the sources are given, the presently planned facility beam lines are tabulated and the status of the project is indicated

  3. Research by industry at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    The world's foremost facility for research using x-rays and ultraviolet and infrared radiation, is operated by the National Synchrotron Light Source dept. This pamphlet described the participating research teams that built most of the beam lines, various techniques for studying materials, treatment of materials, and various industrial research (catalysis, pharmaceuticals, etc.)

  4. Status of the National Synchrotron Light Source project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heese, R.N.

    1981-01-01

    The National Synchrotron Light Source is in its final stages of construction, and as the turn-on time for the 700 MeV vuv storage ring draws near, an overview of the project is presented. Emphasis is placed on the linac and booster synchrotron performance and the status of major subsystems

  5. The national synchrotron light source and its applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, G.P.

    1989-01-01

    We describe the National Synchrotron Light Source facility including its beamlines and operational characteristics. Research results on selected beamlines on the VUV ring which highlight new experimental capabilities are described since they are more relevant to the program at HESYRL. Examples chosen are spin-polarized photoemission, infra-red surface science, high resolution core level spectroscopy, X- Ray lithography, photoelectron/Auger coincidence spectroscopy and high electron momentum resolution surface studies. 7 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Minimum emittance of isochronus rings for synchrotron light source

    CERN Document Server

    Shoji, Y

    1999-01-01

    Theoretically achievable minimum emittances of isochronus rings for synchrotron light source are calculated. The rings discussed in this paper consist of isochronus and achromatic bending cells, isochronus TBA (triple bend achromat) cells with negative dispersion, isochronus TBA cells with inverse bends or isochronus QBA (four bend achromat) cells. We show that the minimum emittances of these rings are roughly 2 or 3 times of those of the optimized non-isochronus rings.

  7. Status of the National Synchrotron Light Source upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culwick, B.B.; Smith, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    The demands for real-time control, data acquisition and display from accelerators of the National Synchrotron Light Source have exceeded the capabilities of the computer control system designed in 1978. In January 1985, a workshop on control systems was held at Brookhaven, one of the purposes of which was to provide impetus and design goals for an upgrade of the NSLS control system. The resulting design is described and its status reported

  8. Current schemes for National Synchrotron Light Source UV beamlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, G.P.; Howells, M.R.; McKinney, W.R.

    1979-01-01

    We describe in some detail four beamlines proposed for the National Synchrotron Light Source uv ring at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Three grazing-incidence instruments, one of the plane grating Mijake type and two with toroidal gratings at grazing angles of 2-1/2 0 and 15 0 are described. Two normal incidence instruments, one using the source as entrance slit and accepting 75 milliradians horizontally are also discussed. In each case we have estimated the output fluxes expected from such beamlines

  9. National Synchrotron Light Source safety-analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batchelor, K.

    1982-07-01

    This document covers all of the safety issues relating to the design and operation of the storage rings and injection system of the National Synchrotron Light Source. The building systems for fire protection, access and egress are described together with air and other gaseous control or venting systems. Details of shielding against prompt bremstrahlung radiation and synchrotron radiation are described and the administrative requirements to be satisfied for operation of a beam line at the facility are given

  10. Phase II beam lines at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomlinson, W.

    1984-06-01

    The expansion of the National Synchrotron Light Source has been funded by the US Department of Energy. The Phase II program consists of both increased conventional facilities and six new beam lines. In this paper, an overview of the six beam lines which will be constructed during Phase II is presented. For five of the lines special radiation sources are necessary and the designs of four of the devices are complete. The relevant parameters of the insertion devices under construction and development are presented

  11. Singapore Synchrotron Light Source - Status, first results, program

    CERN Document Server

    Moser, H O; Kempson, V C; Kong, J R; Li, Z W; Nyunt, T; Qian, H J; Rossmanith, R; Tor, P H; Wilhelmi, O; Yang, P; Zheng, H W; Underhay, I J

    2003-01-01

    The Singapore Synchrotron Light Source is a general-purpose synchrotron radiation facility serving research organisations and industry. Beamlines active or coming up within 2002 include lithography for micro/nanofabrication, phase contrast imaging, surface science, and X-ray diffraction and absorption. An infrared spectro/microscopy beamline is expected to become operational in 2003. Further beamlines are under discussion with user groups. The Microtron Undulator Radiation Facility (MURF) is under development to provide brilliant VUV radiation and to prepare for subsequent development of an EUV and X-ray FEL.

  12. Stability and vibration control in synchrotron light source buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godel, J.B.

    1991-01-01

    Synchrotron light sources have undergone three generations of development in the last two decades. The National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory has two second generation'' storage rings that currently provide the world's most intense sources of photons in the VUV and X-ray spectral ranges. There are almost 90 beam lines serving a community of 2600 scientists from 370 institutions. They are engaged in basic and applied research in physics, chemistry, biology, medicine, materials science and various technologies. When design of the NSLS began in 1977, emphasis was given to the stability of the concrete slab on which the storage rings and experimental beam lines were placed. Stability is the result of controlling: vibration from sources internal and external to the building, thermal effects of air and water temperature variations, foundation settlement and contact between the slab and underlying subsoil. With the advent of new research where highly focused beams of x-rays must be placed on increasingly smaller targets located 35 meters or more from the source, and the development of x-ray lithography with resolutions approaching 0.1 micron at chip exposure stations, even greater attention to stability is required in building designs. This paper will review the results of the successful NSLS experience and give an integrated design approach that includes elements which contribute to instabilities, and the means available to reduce them to acceptable levels.

  13. Stability and vibration control in synchrotron light source buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godel, J.B.

    1991-12-31

    Synchrotron light sources have undergone three generations of development in the last two decades. The National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory has two ``second generation`` storage rings that currently provide the world`s most intense sources of photons in the VUV and X-ray spectral ranges. There are almost 90 beam lines serving a community of 2600 scientists from 370 institutions. They are engaged in basic and applied research in physics, chemistry, biology, medicine, materials science and various technologies. When design of the NSLS began in 1977, emphasis was given to the stability of the concrete slab on which the storage rings and experimental beam lines were placed. Stability is the result of controlling: vibration from sources internal and external to the building, thermal effects of air and water temperature variations, foundation settlement and contact between the slab and underlying subsoil. With the advent of new research where highly focused beams of x-rays must be placed on increasingly smaller targets located 35 meters or more from the source, and the development of x-ray lithography with resolutions approaching 0.1 micron at chip exposure stations, even greater attention to stability is required in building designs. This paper will review the results of the successful NSLS experience and give an integrated design approach that includes elements which contribute to instabilities, and the means available to reduce them to acceptable levels.

  14. Phase 2 safety analysis report: National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefan, P.

    1989-06-01

    The Phase II program was established in order to provide additional space for experiments, and also staging and equipment storage areas. It also provides additional office space and new types of advanced instrumentation for users. This document will deal with the new safety issues resulting from this extensive expansion program, and should be used as a supplement to BNL Report No. 51584 ''National Synchrotron Light Source Safety Analysis Report,'' July 1982 (hereafter referred to as the Phase I SAR). The initial NSLS facility is described in the Phase I SAR. It comprises two electron storage rings, an injection system common to both, experimental beam lines and equipment, and office and support areas, all of which are housed in a 74,000 sq. ft. building. The X-ray Ring provides for 28 primary beam ports and the VUV Ring, 16. Each port is capable of division into 2 or 3 separate beam lines. All ports receive their synchrotron light from conventional bending magnet sources, the magnets being part of the storage ring lattice. 4 refs

  15. Stability and vibration control in synchrotron light source buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godel, J.B.

    1991-01-01

    Synchrotron light sources have undergone three generations of development in the last two decades. The National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory has two ''second generation'' storage rings that currently provide the world's most intense sources of photons in the VUV and X-ray spectral ranges. There are almost 90 beam lines serving a community of 2600 scientists from 370 institutions. They are engaged in basic and applied research in physics, chemistry, biology, medicine, materials science and various technologies. When design of the NSLS began in 1977, emphasis was given to the stability of the concrete slab on which the storage rings and experimental beam lines were placed. Stability is the result of controlling: vibration from sources internal and external to the building, thermal effects of air and water temperature variations, foundation settlement and contact between the slab and underlying subsoil. With the advent of new research where highly focused beams of x-rays must be placed on increasingly smaller targets located 35 meters or more from the source, and the development of x-ray lithography with resolutions approaching 0.1 micron at chip exposure stations, even greater attention to stability is required in building designs. This paper will review the results of the successful NSLS experience and give an integrated design approach that includes elements which contribute to instabilities, and the means available to reduce them to acceptable levels

  16. Research using synchrotron radiation at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomlinson, W.

    1982-01-01

    The National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) is now becoming operational with synchrotron radiation experiments beginning on the 700 MeV VUV electron storage ring. Commissioning of the 2.5 GeV x-ray storage ring has also begun with the experimental program expected to begin in 1983. The current status of the experimental program and instrumentation and the plans for future developments, will be discussed. Although some early results have been obtained on VUV beam lines no attempt will be made in this paper to describe them. Instead, an overview of the beam line characteristics will be given, with an indication of those already operational. In the oral presentation some initial experimental results will be discussed

  17. A NEW THERMIONIC RF ELECTRON GUN FOR SYNCHROTRON LIGHT SOURCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutsaev, Sergey; Agustsson, R.; Hartzell, J; Murokh, A.; Nassiri, A.; Savin, E.; Smirnov, A.V.; Smirnov, A. Yu; Sun, Y.; Verma, A; Waldschmidt, Geoff; Zholents, A.

    2017-06-02

    A thermionic RF gun is a compact and efficient source of electrons used in many practical applications. RadiaBeam Systems and the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory collaborate in developing of a reliable and robust thermionic RF gun for synchrotron light sources which would offer substantial improvements over existing thermionic RF guns and allow stable operation with up to 1A of beam peak current at a 100 Hz pulse repetition rate and a 1.5 μs RF pulse length. In this paper, we discuss the electromagnetic and engineering design of the cavity and report the progress towards high power tests of the cathode assembly of the new gun.

  18. National synchrotron light source medical personnel protection interlock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buda, S.; Gmur, N.F.; Larson, R.; Thomlinson, W.

    1998-01-01

    This report is founded on reports written in April 1987 by Robert Hettel for angiography operations at the Stanford Synchrotron Research Laboratory (SSRL) and a subsequent report covering angiography operations at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS); BNL Informal Report 47681, June 1992. The latter report has now been rewritten in order to accurately reflect the design and installation of a new medical safety system at the NSLS X17B2 beamline Synchrotron Medical Research Facility (SMERF). Known originally as the Angiography Personnel Protection Interlock (APPI), this system has been modified to incorporate other medical imaging research programs on the same beamline and thus the name has been changed to the more generic Medical Personnel Protection Interlock (MPPI). This report will deal almost exclusively with the human imaging (angiography, bronchography, mammography) aspects of the safety system, but will briefly explain the modular aspects of the system allowing other medical experiments to be incorporated

  19. Single bunch transfer system for the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheehan, J.; Singh, O.; Rambo, W.

    1983-01-01

    The accelerator system at the National Synchrotron Light Source consists of an S-band 85 MeV linac and three synchrotron rings. The electron beam from the linac is accelerated by the booster ring to 600 MeV and transferred to one of the two storage rings. The smaller of the two rings operates between 300 and 800 MeV emtting photons in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV), while the larger storage ring operates up to 2.5 GeV and emits photons in the x-ray spectrum. A system is described for loading the storage rings by filling a single-phase space bunch in the booster ring and transferring it at the end of each booster cycle into a selected bucket in one of the storage rings. By controlling the timing of the transfer on successive transfer cycles, many fill patterns may be obtained

  20. Synchrotron light sources: A powerful tool for science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlachter, F.; Robinson, A.

    1996-01-01

    A new generation of synchrotron light sources is producing extremely bright beams of vacuum-ultraviolet and x-ray radiation, poweful new tools for research in a wide variety of basic and applied sciences. Spectromicroscopy using high spectral and spatial resolution is a new way of seeing, offering many opportunities in the study of matter. Development of a new light source provides the country or region of the world in which the light source is located many new opportunities: a focal point for research in many scientific and technological areas, a means of upgrading the technology infrastructure of the country, a means of training students, and a potential service to industry. A light source for Southeast Asia would thus be a major resource for many years. Scientists and engineers from light sources around the world look forward to providing assistance to make this a reality in Southeast Asia

  1. Synchrotron light sources: A powerful tool for science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlachter, F.; Robinson, A.

    1996-01-01

    A new generation of synchrotron light sources is producing extremely bright beams of vacuum-ultraviolet and x-ray radiation, powerful new tools for research in a wide variety of basic and applied sciences. Spectromicroscopy using high spectral and spatial resolution is a new way of seeing, offering many opportunities in the study of matter. Development of a new light source provides the country or region of the world in which the light source is located many new opportunities: a focal point for research in many scientific and technological areas, a means of upgrading the technology infrastructure of the country, a means of training students, and a potential service to industry. A light source for Southeast Asia would thus be a major resource for many years. Scientists and engineers from light sources around the world look forward to providing assistance to make this a reality in Southeast Asia

  2. NATIONAL SYNCHROTRON LIGHT SOURCE MEDICAL PERSONNEL PROTECTION INTERLOCK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BUDA,S.; GMUR,N.F.; LARSON,R.; THOMLINSON,W.

    1998-11-03

    This report is founded on reports written in April 1987 by Robert Hettel for angiography operations at the Stanford Synchrotron Research Laboratory (SSRL) and a subsequent report covering angiography operations at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS); BNL Informal Report 47681, June 1992. The latter report has now been rewritten in order to accurately reflect the design and installation of a new medical safety system at the NSLS X17B2 beamline Synchrotron Medical Research Facility (SMERF). Known originally as the Angiography Personnel Protection Interlock (APPI), this system has been modified to incorporate other medical imaging research programs on the same beamline and thus the name has been changed to the more generic Medical Personnel Protection Interlock (MPPI). This report will deal almost exclusively with the human imaging (angiography, bronchography, mammography) aspects of the safety system, but will briefly explain the modular aspects of the system allowing other medical experiments to be incorporated.

  3. Swiss synchrotron light source at the Paul Scherrer Institute at Villigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    The brochure describes the Swiss project for a synchrotron light source to be built at the Paul Scherrer Institute at Villigen. According to the project the synchrotron light source shall be realized up to the year 2001 at costs of 165 Million Swiss Francs. figs., tabs

  4. Construction and commissioning of the national synchrotron light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galayda, J.N.; Blume, M.

    1985-01-01

    The road from conception to completion of a large facility like the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) is a long and tortuous one. More than fifteen years have passed since the first discussions of a synchrotron radiation source at BNL, and there have been many twists and turns in the process. In putting together an accelerator project like this, there are many critical skills that must be assembled, and budgets, schedules and organizations must be properly examined. The lessons learned in design and commissioning of the NSLS rings may be summarized as follows: (1) the damped emittances expected of a Chasman-Green lattice are attainable at high current, if ion trapping problems can be circumvented; (2) there have been no unexpected effects from the rather strong sextupoles required to correct the chromaticities in this type of lattice; (3) the most important beam instabilities are coupled-bunch, and can be counteracted; and (4) commissioning the NSLS rings was mostly an effort to bring the hardware into conformation with the original ring design; achievement of the specified magnetic fields, injection timing, vacuum, RF voltages, etc. led to ring performance which was easily good enough to begin operation

  5. National synchrotron light source guidelines for the conduct of operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckley, M.

    1998-01-01

    To improve the quality and uniformity of operations at the Department of Energy's facilities, the DOE issued Order 5480.19 ''Conduct of Operations Requirements at DOE facilities.'' This order recognizes that the success of a facility's mission critically depends upon a high level of performance by its personnel and equipment. This performance can be severely impaired if the facility's Conduct of Operations pays inadequate attention to issues of organization, safety, health, and the environment. These guidelines are Brookhaven National Laboratory's and the National Synchrotron Light Source's acknowledgement of the principles of Conduct of Operations and the response to DOE Order 5480.19. These guidelines cover the following areas: (1) operations organization and administration; (2) shift routines and operating practices; (3) control area activities; (4) communications; (5) control of on-shift training; (6) investigation of abnormal events; (7) notifications; (8) control of equipment and system studies; (9) lockouts and tagouts; (10) independent verification; (11) log-keeping; (12) operations turnover; (13) operations aspects of facility process control (14) required reading; (15) timely orders to operators; (16) operations procedures; (17) operator aid posting; and (18) equipment sizing and labeling

  6. Biological infrared microspectroscopy at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Lisa M.; Carr, G. Lawrence; Williams, Gwyn P.; Sullivan, Michael; Chance, Mark R.

    2000-01-01

    Beamline U2B at the National Synchrotron Light Source has been designed and built as an infrared beamline dedicated to the study of biomedical problems. In 1997, the horizontal and vertical acceptances of Beamline U2B were increased in order to increase the overall flux of the beamline. A wedged, CVD diamond window separates the UHV vacuum of the VUV ring from the rough vacuum of the beamline. The endstation consists of a Nicolet Magna 860 step-scan FTIR and a NicPlan infrared microscope. The spectrometer is equipped with beamsplitter/detector combinations that permit data collection in the mid-and far-infrared regions. We have also made provisions for mounting an external detector (e.g. bolometer) for far infrared microspectroscopy. Thus far, Beamline U2B has been used to (1) perform chemical imaging of bone tissue and brain cells to address issues related to bone disease and epilepsy, respectively, and (2) examine time-resolved protein structure in the sub-millisecond folding of cytochrome c

  7. Ozone production at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weilandics, C.; Rohrig, N.; Gmur, N.F.

    1987-01-01

    Ozone production by synchrotron radiation as a function of power density in air was investigated using a white beam at the BNL National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) x-ray ring. Power densities were calculated from the energy spectrum at 2.52 GeV. Ozone concentrations in small beam pipes were measured for power densities between I = 10 12 and 10 15 eV . cm -3 . sec -1 . The measured ozone half-life was 37 +- 2 min. The measured G-value was 2.69 +- 0.14 mol/100 eV and the ozone destruction factor k was less than 7 x 10 -19 cm 3 . eV -1 . The random uncertainties stated are approximately one standard error. The large departure of the values for G and k from previous values suggest that some undiscovered systematic error may exist in the experiment. Ozone concentration in excess of the 0.1 ppM ACGIH TLV can be generated in the experimental hutches but can readily be controlled. Industrial hygiene aspects of operation and possible control measures will be discussed. 19 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  8. Industrial research enhancement program at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jun; Nasta, Kathleen; Kao, Chi-Chang

    2011-01-01

    Industrial research has attracted more and more attention recently at synchrotron facilities. Bringing the state-of-the-art research capabilities provided by these facilities to the industrial user community will help this community to improve their products and processing methods, to foster competition and build the economy. The National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) has a long and celebrated history in research partnerships with industry since its inception more than 25 years ago, and both industry and the facility have benefited tremendously from these partnerships. Over the years, the ways in which industrial research is conducted at synchrotron facilities have evolved significantly, and a new paradigm of collaboration between industry and facilities is clearly needed to address this changing situation. In this presentation, the discussion will focus on an enhancement plan recently implemented at the NSLS to address industrial users' concerns and needs. The goal of NSLS Industrial Program Enhancement plan is to encourage greater use of synchrotron tools by industry researchers, improve access to NSLS beamlines by industrial researchers and facilitate research collaborations between industrial researchers and NSLS staff as well as researchers from university and government laboratories. Examples of recent developments in these areas will be presented.

  9. Review of third and next generation synchrotron light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilderback, Donald H; Elleaume, Pascal; Weckert, Edgar

    2005-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation (SR) is having a very large impact on interdisciplinary science and has been tremendously successful with the arrival of third generation synchrotron x-ray sources. But the revolution in x-ray science is still gaining momentum. Even though new storage rings are currently under construction, even more advanced rings are under design (PETRA III and the ultra high energy x-ray source) and the uses of linacs (energy recovery linac, x-ray free electron laser) can take us further into the future, to provide the unique synchrotron light that is so highly prized for today's studies in science in such fields as materials science, physics, chemistry and biology, for example. All these machines are highly reliant upon the consequences of Einstein's special theory of relativity. The consequences of relativity account for the small opening angle of synchrotron radiation in the forward direction and the increasing mass an electron gains as it is accelerated to high energy. These are familiar results to every synchrotron scientist. In this paper we outline not only the origins of SR but discuss how Einstein's strong character and his intuition and excellence have not only marked the physics of the 20th century but provide the foundation for continuing accelerator developments into the 21st century

  10. National Synchrotron Light Source medical personnel protection interlock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buda, S.; Gmuer, N.F.; Larson, R.; Thomlinson, W.

    1998-11-01

    This report is founded on reports written in April 1987 by Robert Hettel for angiography operations at the Stanford Synchrotron Research Laboratory (SSRL) and a subsequent report covering angiography operations at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS); BNL Informal Report 47681, June 1992. The latter report has now been rewritten in order to accurately reflect the design and installation of a new medical safety system at the NSLS X17B2 beamline Synchrotron Medical Research Facility (SMERF). Known originally as the Angiography Personnel Protection Interlock (APPI), this system has been modified to incorporate other medical imaging research programs on the same beamline and thus the name has been changed to the more generic Medical Personnel Protection Interlock (MPPI). This report will deal almost exclusively with the human imaging (angiography, bronchography, mammography) aspects of the safety system, but will briefly explain the modular aspects of the system allowing other medical experiments to be incorporated. This MPPI report is organized such that the level of detail changes from a general overview to detailed engineering drawings of the hardware system. The general overview is presented in Section 1.0, MPPI Operational Mode and Procedures. The various MPPI components are described in detail in Section 2.0. Section 3.0 presents some simplified logic diagrams and accompanying text. This section was written to allow readers to become familiar with the logic system without having to work through the entire set of detailed engineering drawings listed in the Appendix. Detailed logic specifications are given in Section 4.0. The Appendix also contains copies of the current MPPI interlock test procedures for Setup and Patient Modes.

  11. Design and Optimisation Strategies of Nonlinear Dynamics for Diffraction Limited Synchrotron Light Source

    CERN Document Server

    Bartolini, R.

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces the most recent achievements in the control of nonlinear dynamics in electron synchrotron light sources, with special attention to diffraction limited storage rings. Guidelines for the design and optimization of the magnetic lattice are reviewed and discussed.

  12. The three-dimensional microstructure of polycrystalline materials unravelled by synchrotron light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ludwig, W.; King, A.; Herbig, M.

    2011-01-01

    The three-dimensional microstructure of polycrystalline materials unravelled by synchrotron light Synchrotron radiation X-ray imaging and diffraction techniques offer new possibilities for non-destructive bulk characterization of polycrystalline materials. Minute changes in electron density (diff...

  13. National synchrotron light source. [Annual report], October 1, 1992--September 30, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothman, E.Z.; Hulbert, S.L.; Lazarz, N.M.

    1994-04-01

    This report contains brief discussions on the research being conducted at the National Synchrotron Light source. Some of the topics covered are: X-ray spectroscopy; nuclear physics; atomic and molecular science; meetings and workshops; operations; and facility improvements

  14. National synchrotron light source. [Annual report], October 1, 1992--September 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothman, E.Z.; Hulbert, S.L.; Lazarz, N.M. [eds.

    1994-04-01

    This report contains brief discussions on the research being conducted at the National Synchrotron Light source. Some of the topics covered are: X-ray spectroscopy; nuclear physics; atomic and molecular science; meetings and workshops; operations; and facility improvements.

  15. Operational experience with synchrotron light interferometers for CEBAF experimental beam lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavel Chevtsov

    2006-10-24

    Beam size and energy spread monitoring systems based on Synchrotron Light Interferometers (SLI) have been in operations at Jefferson Lab for several years. A non-invasive nature and a very high (a few mm) resolution of SLI make these instruments valuable beam diagnostic tools for the CEBAF accelerator. This presentation describes the evolution of the Synchrotron Light Interferometer at Jefferson Lab and highlights our extensive experience in the installation and operation of the SLI for CEBAF experimental beam lines.

  16. Future Synchrotron Light Sources Based on Ultimate Storage Rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Yunhai

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this talk is to describe how far one might push the state of the art in storage ring design. The talk will start with an overview of the latest developments and advances in the design of synchrotron light sources based on the concept of an 'ultimate' storage ring. The review will establish how bright a ring based light source might be, where the frontier of technological challenges are, and what the limits of accelerator physics are. Emphasis will be given to possible improvements in accelerator design and developments in technology toward the goal of achieving an ultimate storage ring. An ultimate storage ring (USR), defined as an electron ring-based light source having an emittance in both transverse planes at the diffraction limit for the range of X-ray wavelengths of interest for a scientific community, would provide very high brightness photons having high transverse coherence that would extend the capabilities of X-ray imaging and probe techniques beyond today's performance. It would be a cost-effective, high-coherence 4th generation light source, competitive with one based on energy recovery linac (ERL) technology, serving a large number of users studying material, chemical, and biological sciences. Furthermore, because of the experience accumulated over many decades of ring operation, it would have the great advantage of stability and reliability. In this paper we consider the design of an USR having 10-pm-rad emittance. It is a tremendous challenge to design a storage ring having such an extremely low emittance, a factor of 100 smaller than those in existing light sources, especially such that it has adequate dynamic aperture and beam lifetime. In many ultra-low emittance designs, the injection acceptances are not large enough for accumulation of the electron beam, necessitating on-axis injection where stored electron bunches are completely replaced with newly injected ones. Recently, starting with the MAX-IV 7-bend achromatic cell, we

  17. Future Synchrotron Light Sources Based on Ultimate Storage Rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Yunhai; /SLAC

    2012-04-09

    The main purpose of this talk is to describe how far one might push the state of the art in storage ring design. The talk will start with an overview of the latest developments and advances in the design of synchrotron light sources based on the concept of an 'ultimate' storage ring. The review will establish how bright a ring based light source might be, where the frontier of technological challenges are, and what the limits of accelerator physics are. Emphasis will be given to possible improvements in accelerator design and developments in technology toward the goal of achieving an ultimate storage ring. An ultimate storage ring (USR), defined as an electron ring-based light source having an emittance in both transverse planes at the diffraction limit for the range of X-ray wavelengths of interest for a scientific community, would provide very high brightness photons having high transverse coherence that would extend the capabilities of X-ray imaging and probe techniques beyond today's performance. It would be a cost-effective, high-coherence 4th generation light source, competitive with one based on energy recovery linac (ERL) technology, serving a large number of users studying material, chemical, and biological sciences. Furthermore, because of the experience accumulated over many decades of ring operation, it would have the great advantage of stability and reliability. In this paper we consider the design of an USR having 10-pm-rad emittance. It is a tremendous challenge to design a storage ring having such an extremely low emittance, a factor of 100 smaller than those in existing light sources, especially such that it has adequate dynamic aperture and beam lifetime. In many ultra-low emittance designs, the injection acceptances are not large enough for accumulation of the electron beam, necessitating on-axis injection where stored electron bunches are completely replaced with newly injected ones. Recently, starting with the MAX-IV 7-bend

  18. 1994 Activity Report, National Synchrotron Light Source. Annual report, October 1, 1993-September 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothman, E.Z. [ed.

    1995-05-01

    This report is a summary of activities carried out at the National Synchrotron Light Source during 1994. It consists of sections which summarize the work carried out in differing scientific disciplines, meetings and workshops, operations experience of the facility, projects undertaken for upgrades, administrative reports, and collections of abstracts and publications generated from work done at the facility.

  19. 1994 Activity Report, National Synchrotron Light Source. Annual report, October 1, 1993-September 30, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothman, E.Z.

    1995-05-01

    This report is a summary of activities carried out at the National Synchrotron Light Source during 1994. It consists of sections which summarize the work carried out in differing scientific disciplines, meetings and workshops, operations experience of the facility, projects undertaken for upgrades, administrative reports, and collections of abstracts and publications generated from work done at the facility

  20. A 1.5 GeV high brilliance synchrotron light source with combined function lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, M.; Lindgren, L.J.; Andersson, Aa.; Roejsel, P.; Werin, S.

    1988-01-01

    A 1.5 GeV synchrotron light source with a combined function lattice is studied. The light source will offer X-ray radiation with λc=1.0 angstrom from a superconducting wiggler and high brilliance VUV-radiation from undulators. The magnet lattice, magnet design and ring performance is discussed. (authors)

  1. Study of Laser Wakefield Accelerators as injectors for Synchrotron light sources

    CERN Document Server

    Hillenbrand, Steffen; Müller, Anke-Susanne; Jansen, Oliver; Judin, Vitali; Pukhov, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Laser WakeField Accelerators (LWFA) feature short bunch lengths and high peak currents, combined with a small facility footprint. This makes them very interesting as injectors for Synchrotron light sources. Using the ANKA Synchrotron as an example, we investigate the possibility to inject a LWFA bunch into an electron storage ring. Particular emphasis is put on the longitudinal evolution of the bunch.

  2. A preliminary study of synchrotron light sources for x-ray lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, C.R.; Bigham, C.B.; Ebrahim, N.A.; Sawicki, J.A.; Taylor, T.

    1989-02-01

    A preliminary study of synchrotron light sources has been made, primarily oriented toward x-ray lithography. X-ray lithography is being pursued vigorously in several countries, with a goal of manufacturing high-density computer chips (0.25 μm feature sizes), and may attain commercial success in the next decade. Many other applications of soft x-rays appear worthy of investigation as well. The study group visited synchrotron radiation facilities and had discussions with members of the synchrotron radiation community, particularly Canadians. It concluded that accelerator technology for a conventional synchrotron light source appropriate for x-ray lithography is well established and is consistent with skills and experience at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories. Compact superconducting systems are being developed also. Their technical requirements overlap with capabilities at Chalk River. (32 refs)

  3. Conceptual design of the Argonne 6-GeV synchrotron light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Y.; Crosbie, E.; Khoe, T.

    1985-01-01

    The Argonne National Laboratory Synchrotron Light Source Storage Ring is designed to have a natural emittance of 6.5 x 10 -9 m for circulating 6-GeV positrons. Thirty of the 32 long straight sections, each 6.5-m long, will be available for synchrotron light insertion devices. A circulating positron current of 300 mA can be injected in about 8 min. from a booster synchrotron operating with a repetition time of 1.2 sec. The booster synchrotron will contain two different RF systems. The lower frequency system (38.97 MHz) will accept positrons from a 360-MeV linac and will accelerate them to 2.25 GeV. The higher frequency system (350.76 MHz) will accelerate the positrons to 6 GeV. The positrons will be produced from a 300-MeV electron beam on a tungsten target. A conceptual layout is shown

  4. Conceptual design of the Argonne 6-GeV synchrotron light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Y.; Crosbie, E.; Khoe, T.

    1985-01-01

    The Argonne National Laboratory Synchrotron Light Source Storage Ring is designed to have a natural emittance of 6.5 X 10 -9 m for circulating 6-GeV positrons. Thirty of the 32 long straight sections, each 6.5-m long, will be available for synchrotron light insertion devices. A circulating positron current of 300 mA can be injected in about 8 min. from a booster synchrotron operating with a repetition time of 1.2 sec. The booster synchrotron will contain two different rf systems. The lower frequency system (38.97 MHz) will accept positrons from a 360-MeV linac and will accelerate them to 2.25 GeV. The higher frequency system (350.76 MHz) will accelerate the positrons to 6 GeV. The positrons will be produced from a 300-MeV electron beam on a tungsten target

  5. National Synchrotron Light Source users manual: Guide to the VUV and x-ray beam lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gmuer, N.F.; White-DePace, S.M.

    1987-08-01

    The success of the National Synchrotron Light Source in the years to come will be based, in large part, on the size of the users community and the diversity of the scientific disciplines represented by these users. In order to promote this philosophy, this National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) Users Manual: Guide to the VUV and X-Ray Beam Lines, has been published. This manual serves a number of purposes. In an effort to attract new research, it will present to the scientific community-at-large the current and projected architecture and capabilities of the various VUV and x-ray beam lines and storage rings. We anticipate that this publication will be updated periodically in order to keep pace with the constant changes at the NSLS

  6. Project planning workshop 6-GeV synchrotron light source: Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    A model 6 GeV synchrotron light source is described, and the costs, schedule, and manpower associated with producing such a synthrotron light source are summarized. A program consisting of a two-year pre-construction phase, a five-year construction phase, and a three-year post-construction phase and costing a total of $379.6 million is assumed

  7. Time-resolved far-infrared experiments at the National Synchrotron Light Source. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanner, D.B.; Reitze, D.H.; Carr, G.L.

    1999-01-01

    A facility for time-resolved infrared and far-infrared spectroscopy has been built and commissioned at the National Synchrotron Light Source. This facility permits the study of time dependent phenomena over a frequency range from 2-8000cm -1 (0.25 meV-1 eV). Temporal resolution is approximately 200 psec and time dependent phenomena in the time range out to 100 nsec can be investigated

  8. National Synchrotron Light Source annual report 1989 (for the period of October 1, 1988--September 30, 1989)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulbert, S.L.; Lazarz, N.; Williams, G.P.

    1990-04-01

    This report discusses research at the National Synchrotron Light Source for the year 1989. Included in this report are operations summaries, symposia, workshops and projects, NSLS committees and administration information; informational guides; and abstracts from paper release during the year

  9. Ultra-high vacuum system of the Brookhaven National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerster, C.L.

    1995-01-01

    The rings of the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) have been supplying light to numerous users for approximately a decade and recently a fully conditioned machine vacuum at design currents was obtained. A brief description of the x-ray storage ring, the VUV storage ring and their current supply is given along with some of their features. The ultra-high vacuum system employed for the storage rings and their advantages for the necessary stored beam environments are discussed including, a brief history of time. 15 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs

  10. Synchrotron light source data book: Version 4, Revision 05/96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, J.B.

    1996-05-01

    This book is as its name implies a collection of data on existing and planned synchrotron light sources. The intention was to provide a compendium of tools for the design of electron storage rings as synchrotron radiation sources. The slant is toward the accelerator physicist as other booklets such as the X-Ray Data Booklet address the use of synchrotron radiation. It is hoped that the booklet serves as a pocket sized reference to facilitate back of the envelope type calculations. It contains some useful formulae in practical units and a brief description of many of the existing and planned light source lattices

  11. Synchrotron light source data book: Version 4, Revision 05/96

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, J.B.

    1996-05-01

    This book is as its name implies a collection of data on existing and planned synchrotron light sources. The intention was to provide a compendium of tools for the design of electron storage rings as synchrotron radiation sources. The slant is toward the accelerator physicist as other booklets such as the X-Ray Data Booklet address the use of synchrotron radiation. It is hoped that the booklet serves as a pocket sized reference to facilitate back of the envelope type calculations. It contains some useful formulae in practical units and a brief description of many of the existing and planned light source lattices.

  12. SUNY beamline facilities at the National Synchrotron Light Source (Final Report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppens, Philip

    2003-01-01

    The DOE sponsored SUNY synchrotron project has involved close cooperation among faculty at several SUNY campuses. A large number of students and postdoctoral associates have participated in its operation which was centered at the X3 beamline of the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Four stations with capabilities for Small Angle Scattering, Single Crystal and Powder and Surface diffraction and EXAFS were designed and operated with capability to perform experiments at very low as well as elevated temperatures and under high vacuum. A large amount of cutting-edge science was performed at the facility, which in addition provided excellent training for students and postdoctoral scientists in the field

  13. SUNY beamline facilities at the National Synchrotron Light Source (Final Report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coppens, Philip

    2003-06-22

    The DOE sponsored SUNY synchrotron project has involved close cooperation among faculty at several SUNY campuses. A large number of students and postdoctoral associates have participated in its operation which was centered at the X3 beamline of the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Four stations with capabilities for Small Angle Scattering, Single Crystal and Powder and Surface diffraction and EXAFS were designed and operated with capability to perform experiments at very low as well as elevated temperatures and under high vacuum. A large amount of cutting-edge science was performed at the facility, which in addition provided excellent training for students and postdoctoral scientists in the field.

  14. Far infrared spectroscopy of high-Tc superconductors at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkowitz, S.; Williams, G.P.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports the first far infrared transmission spectra for micron-thick films of high-T c rare-earth superconductors such as DyBaCuO, with implications for the superconducting gap. Spectra were obtained at Brookhaven's National Synchrotron Light Source, a new high-intensity, broad-band millimeter to infrared source. The National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory, known for powerful X-ray and UV output, is also a high-intensity (10 to 1000 times above a black body), high-brightness (intensity per solid angle), broad-band, picosecond, millimeter to infrared source. These features make it valuable for far-infrared condensed matter experiments, especially those in highly absorbing or extremely small systems. A first application has been to measure very small infrared transmissions through thick bulk-like high-T c superconducting films. Preliminary measurements through films of the conventional superconductor Nb 3 Ge established techniques. These were followed by the first measurements (to the author's knowledge) through micron-thick films of high-T c rare-earth superconductors such as DyBaCuO over 10-300 cm -1 , which includes the superconducting gap according to BCS or moderately strong-coupled theory. The authors discuss the transmission evidence bearing on the existence of a gap and other important features of high-T c superconductors, and describe the synchrotron and instrumentation features which make possible these unusual measurements

  15. The Synchrotron Topography Project (STP) at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilello, J.C.; Hmelo, A.B.; Liu, J.M.; Herley, P.J.; Chen, H.; Birnbaum, H.K.; Illinois Univ., Urbana; Green, R.E. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The collaborators have participated in the Synchrotron Topography Project (STP) which has designed and developed instrumentation for an X-ray topography station at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The two principle instruments constructed consist of a White Beam Camera (WBC) and a Multiple Crystal Camera (MCC) with high planar collimation and wide area image coverage. It is possible to perform in situ studies in a versatile environmental chamber equipped with a miniature mechanical testing stage for both the WBC and MCC systems. Real-time video imaging plus a rapid feed cassette holder for high resolution photographic plates is available for recording topographs. Provisions are made for other types of photon detection as well as spectroscopy. The facilities for the entire station have been designed for remote operation using a LSI-11/23 plus suitable interfacing. These instruments will be described briefly and the current status of the program will be reviewed. (orig.)

  16. Insertion devices and beamlines for the proposed Australian synchrotron light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, R.F.; Boldeman, J.W.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: The proposed Australian synchrotron light source, Boomerang, is a third generation 3 GeV storage ring which is designed to provide for the great majority of Australian requirements for synchrotron radiation well into the next century. The storage ring could accommodate up to 60 experimental stations, including beamlines from 9 insertion devices, which far exceeds the projected Australian requirements over the life of the facility. Undulator radiation will be available up to 20 keV. The first phase construction of Boomerang includes funding for 9 beamlines, comprising 5 bending magnet and 4 insertion device beamlines. The beamline complement has been chosen to cater for approximately 95% of the current and projected Australian demand for synchrotron radiation over the first 5 years operation of the facility. Details will be shown of the performance of the proposed insertion devices, and the initial beamline complement will be presented

  17. Design of a compact synchrotron light source for medical applications at NIRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torikoshi, M.; Endo, M.; Kumada, M.; Noda, K.; Yamada, S.; Kawachi, K.

    1998-01-01

    A synchrotron light source dedicated to medical applications is required to be compact for installation in limited spaces at hospitals. The NIRS storage ring, with a circumference of 44.8 m, is designed to accelerate electrons up to 1.8 GeV and to store a beam of 400 mA. The ring is composed of superconducting bending magnets for downsizing. A beam of 300 MeV is injected into the ring from a microtron operated at an L-band RF frequency. There are two superconducting multipole wigglers with nine poles and a maximum field of 8 T, which can produce a photon flux of about 1.4 x 10 13 photons s -1 mrad -1 (0.1% bandwidth) -1 at 33 keV used for coronary angiography

  18. Materials research and beam line operation utilizing NSLS [National Synchrotron Light Source]: Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liedl, G.L.

    1987-10-01

    MATRIX is a group of scientists who have common interests in utilizing x-ray synchrotron radiation for materials research. This group has developed a specialized beam line (X-18A) for x-ray scattering studies at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). The beam line was designed to optimize experimental conditions for diffuse scattering and surface/interface studies. An extension of diffuse scattering to provide better quantitative data has been shown as well as a unique application to the solution of the phase problem. In the x-ray surface scattering area the first reported experiment to illustrate the capabilities for studying monolayers on water was performed. Current beam line upgrade projects are also described. In addition to a change to a UHV system and improvements dictated by operational experience, two new systems are described, a unique small angle scattering chamber (SAXS) for dynamic studies of nucleation and growth and a surface scattering chamber. 5 figs

  19. Hard X-ray synchrotron light source for industrial and materials research applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehr, H.; Ehrfeld, W.; Moser, H.O.; Schmidt, M.; Herminghaus, H.

    1992-01-01

    The requirements for industrial production or for an industry-related analytical environment is demonstrated for the case of the proposed hard X-ray synchrotron light source. The source is intended to provide radiation mainly for deep X-ray lithography as part of the LIGA-process in microfabrication, and for analytical and diagnostic purposes in materials research and microtechnology. It offers up to 48 bending magnet beamlines with a characteristic wavelength of 2 A. An electron energy of 2.5 GeV and normal conducting magnets will be used. A FODO lattice with a beam emittance of 3x10 -7 m rad and four dispersion-free straight sections to accommodate insertion devices, injection elements and RF structures has been designed. (R.P.) 5 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 tab

  20. Storage Rings for Science with: Electron-Positron Collisions, Hadron Collisions and Synchrotron Light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, S.

    2009-01-01

    The author is honored to receive the 2009 Robert Wilson Prize and the recognition that comes with it. The citation for the prize reads, 'For his outstanding contribution to the design and construction of accelerators that has led to the realization of major machines for fundamental science on two continents and his promotion of international collaboration.' In this article, he will discuss the two construction projects, which he led, one (TRISTAN e + e - Collider at KEK) in Japan and the other (RHIC at BNL) in the USA, covering project issues and lessons learned from these projects. Although both of them were built on separate continents, it is interesting to note that they are both built on long off-shore islands. He will also add comments on his recent engagement in the development of the Conceptual Design for the National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II).

  1. Consideration of a non-baked start-up of a synchrotron light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, Y.; Kobayashi, M.

    1996-01-01

    Vacuum baking of large complex uhv devices, such as synchrotron light sources, requires both careful design and consideration of potential problems regarding the operation and maintenance of the device. Intense synchrotron irradiation can be utilized for degassing; it is indeed necessary to achieve the required operating pressure in most light sources. To examine a non-baked start-up, the outgassing of non-baked chambers by SR irradiation was measured. Also, a non-baked start-up was carried out at the Photon Factory ring. Both results demonstrate the feasibility of a non-baked start-up of a light source. The experiments and results are described, together with several other problems which must be solved for a non-baked start-up. (Author)

  2. National Synchrotron Light Source user's manual: Guide to the VUV and x-ray beamlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gmuer, N.F.

    1993-04-01

    The success of the National Synchrotron Light Source is based, in large part, on the size of the user community and the diversity of the scientific and technical disciplines represented by these users. As evidence of this success, the VUV Ring has just celebrated its 10th anniversary and the X-ray Ring will do the same in 1995. In order to enhance this success, the NSLS User's Manual: Guide to the VUV and X-Ray Beamlines - Fifth Edition, is being published. This Manual presents to the scientific community-at-large the current and projected architecture, capabilities and research programs of the various VUV and X-ray beamlines. Also detailed is the research and computer equipment a General User can expect to find and use at each beamline when working at the NSLS. The Manual is updated periodically in order to keep pace with the constant changes on these beamlines

  3. Sesame Synchrotron Light for Experimental Sciences and Application in the Middle East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Khalafawy, T.A.

    2003-01-01

    Anew international center for synchrotron radiation for research excellence for scientists from throughout the Middle East as well as other parts of the world could do for science what CERN has done for science in Europe. SESAME Project (Synchrotron Light for Experimental Sciences and Application in the Middle East ) under the umbrella for UNESCO establish the first major international research center as a cooperative venture by the scientists and governments of the Middle East, opened to all qualified scientists. It will be propeller for the regional economy while promoting the peaceful development of science and technology in the Middle East. SESAME will have as its centerpiece a synchrotron radiation based on a gift from Germany of the 0.8 GeV BESSYI storage ring and injector system which stopped operation at the end of November 1999

  4. National synchrotron light source. Activity report, October 1, 1994--September 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothman, E.Z.; Hastings, J. [eds.

    1996-05-01

    This report discusses research conducted at the National Synchrotron Light Source in the following areas: atomic and molecular science; energy dispersive diffraction; lithography, microscopy, and tomography; nuclear physics; scattering and crystallography studies of biological materials; time resolved spectroscopy; UV photoemission and surface science; x-ray absorption spectroscopy; x-ray scattering and crystallography; x-ray topography; the 1995 NSLS annual users` meeting; 17th international free electron laser conference; micro bunches workshop; VUV machine; VUV storage ring parameters; beamline technical improvements; x-ray beamlines; x-ray storage ring parameters; the NSLS source development laboratory; the accelerator test facility (ATF); NSLS facility improvements; NSLS advisory committees; NSLS staff; VUV beamline guide; and x-ray beamline guide.

  5. Development of compact synchrotron light source LUNA for x-ray lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, M.; Mandai, S.; Hoshi, Y.; Kohno, Y.

    1992-01-01

    A compact synchrotron light source LUNA has been developed by Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd. (IHI), especially for x-ray lithography. It consists of a 45-MeV linac as an electron injector and an 800-MeV synchrotron. The peak wavelength of synchrotron radiation is around 10 A. The installation of LUNA was completed in April 1989 at the Tsuchiura Facility of IHI. The synchrotron radiation was first observed in December 1989. A stored beam current of 50 mA at 800 MeV and a lifetime over 1 h have been achieved. At present, experiments are still continuing to increase the stored current and the lifetime. X-ray lithography testing is scheduled to begin in a clean room in this facility. This paper describes the outline of LUNA and the present status

  6. Environmental Remediation Science at Beamline X26A at the National Synchrotron Light Source- Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertsch, Paul [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    2013-11-07

    The goal of this project was to provide support for an advanced X-ray microspectroscopy facility at the National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory. This facility is operated by the University of Chicago and the University of Kentucky. The facility is available to researchers at both institutions as well as researchers around the globe through the general user program. This facility was successfully supported during the project period. It provided access to advanced X-ray microanalysis techniques which lead to fundamental advances in understanding the behavior of contaminants and geochemistry that is applicable to environmental remediation of DOE legacy sites as well as contaminated sites around the United States and beyond.

  7. National synchrotron light source. Activity report, October 1, 1994--September 30, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothman, E.Z.; Hastings, J.

    1996-05-01

    This report discusses research conducted at the National Synchrotron Light Source in the following areas: atomic and molecular science; energy dispersive diffraction; lithography, microscopy, and tomography; nuclear physics; scattering and crystallography studies of biological materials; time resolved spectroscopy; UV photoemission and surface science; x-ray absorption spectroscopy; x-ray scattering and crystallography; x-ray topography; the 1995 NSLS annual users' meeting; 17th international free electron laser conference; micro bunches workshop; VUV machine; VUV storage ring parameters; beamline technical improvements; x-ray beamlines; x-ray storage ring parameters; the NSLS source development laboratory; the accelerator test facility (ATF); NSLS facility improvements; NSLS advisory committees; NSLS staff; VUV beamline guide; and x-ray beamline guide

  8. SESAME — A 3rd Generation Synchrotron Light Source for the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Å°lkü, Dinçer; Rahighi, Javad; Winick, Herman

    2007-01-01

    SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East) will be the Middle East's first international research center. It is a cooperative venture by the scientists and governments of the region with founding members Bahrain, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestine Authority, and Turkey. Iran is in the process of finalizing its formal membership. Other countries (Cyprus, Morocco, and the United Arab Emirates) are also expected to join. The permanent Council of member states has full responsibility for the project. Members provide the annual operating budget. Observer countries are Germany, Greece, Italy, Kuwait, Portugal, Russian Federation, Sweden, the UK, and the US. SESAME is being developed under the umbrella of UNESCO. Jordan was selected as the building site. SESAME will offer excellent opportunities for training of Middle East scientists and attract those working abroad to consider returning. SESAME will be a 2.5GeV 3rd Generation light source (emittance 26nm-rad, circumference ˜133m), providing excellent performance for structural molecular biology, molecular environmental science, surface and interface science, microelectromechanical devices, x-ray imaging, archaeological microanalysis, and materials characterization. It will cover a broad spectral range from the infrared to hard x-rays and will have 12 straight sections for insertion devices (average length 2.75m). The injector will be the BESSY I 0.8 GeV booster synchrotron which has been given as a gift from Germany. Four committees advise the Council and assist in developing the technical design, beam lines, user community, and scientific Program. The SESAME building, now in construction with funds and a site provided by Jordan, is scheduled for completion in late 2006 after which the BESSY I injector will be installed. First stored beam in the new 2.5 GeV ring is planned for 2009 with six initial beamlines planned. Some beamlines will be built by member countries

  9. SESAME - A 3rd Generation Synchrotron Light Source for the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    U˝Lkü, Dinçer; Rahighi, Javad; Winick, Herman

    2007-01-01

    SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East) will be the Middle East's first international research center. It is a cooperative venture by the scientists and governments of the region with founding members Bahrain, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestine Authority, and Turkey. Iran is in the process of finalizing its formal membership. Other countries (Cyprus, Morocco, and the United Arab Emirates) are also expected to join. The permanent Council of member states has full responsibility for the project. Members provide the annual operating budget. Observer countries are Germany, Greece, Italy, Kuwait, Portugal, Russian Federation, Sweden, the UK, and the US. SESAME is being developed under the umbrella of UNESCO. Jordan was selected as the building site. SESAME will offer excellent opportunities for training of Middle East scientists and attract those working abroad to consider returning. SESAME will be a 2.5GeV 3rd Generation light source (emittance 26nm-rad, circumference ~133m), providing excellent performance for structural molecular biology, molecular environmental science, surface and interface science, microelectromechanical devices, x-ray imaging, archaeological microanalysis, and materials characterization. It will cover a broad spectral range from the infrared to hard x-rays and will have 12 straight sections for insertion devices (average length 2.75m). The injector will be the BESSY I 0.8 GeV booster synchrotron which has been given as a gift from Germany. Four committees advise the Council and assist in developing the technical design, beam lines, user community, and scientific Program. The SESAME building, now in construction with funds and a site provided by Jordan, is scheduled for completion in late 2006 after which the BESSY I injector will be installed. First stored beam in the new 2.5 GeV ring is planned for 2009 with six initial beamlines planned. Some beamlines will be built by member countries

  10. SESAME - A 3rd Generation Synchrotron Light Source for the Middle East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulkue, Dincer; Rahighi, Javad; Winick, Herman

    2007-01-01

    SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East) will be the Middle East's first international research center. It is a cooperative venture by the scientists and governments of the region with founding members Bahrain, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestine Authority, and Turkey. Iran is in the process of finalizing its formal membership. Other countries (Cyprus, Morocco, and the United Arab Emirates) are also expected to join. The permanent Council of member states has full responsibility for the project. Members provide the annual operating budget. Observer countries are Germany, Greece, Italy, Kuwait, Portugal, Russian Federation, Sweden, the UK, and the US. SESAME is being developed under the umbrella of UNESCO. Jordan was selected as the building site. SESAME will offer excellent opportunities for training of Middle East scientists and attract those working abroad to consider returning. SESAME will be a 2.5GeV 3rd Generation light source (emittance 26nm-rad, circumference ∼133m), providing excellent performance for structural molecular biology, molecular environmental science, surface and interface science, microelectromechanical devices, x-ray imaging, archaeological microanalysis, and materials characterization. It will cover a broad spectral range from the infrared to hard x-rays and will have 12 straight sections for insertion devices (average length 2.75m). The injector will be the BESSY I 0.8 GeV booster synchrotron which has been given as a gift from Germany. Four committees advise the Council and assist in developing the technical design, beam lines, user community, and scientific Program. The SESAME building, now in construction with funds and a site provided by Jordan, is scheduled for completion in late 2006 after which the BESSY I injector will be installed. First stored beam in the new 2.5 GeV ring is planned for 2009 with six initial beamlines planned. Some beamlines will be built by member countries

  11. Ultra-high vacuum system of the Brookhaven National Synchrotron Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foerster, C.L.

    1995-12-31

    The rings of the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) have been supplying light to numerous users for approximately a decade and we recently enjoyed a fully conditioned machine vacuum at design currents. A brief description of the X-Ray storage ring, the VUV storage ring and their current supply is given along with some of their features. The ultra-high vacuum system employed for the storage rings and their advantages for the necessary stored beam environments are discussed including, a brief history of time. After several hundred amp hours of stored beam current operation, very little improvement in machine performance was seen due to conditioning. Sections of the rings were vented, to dry nitrogen and replacement components were pre-baked and pre-argon glow conditioned prior to installation. Very little machine conditioning was needed to return to operation after recovering vacuum due to well established conditioning procedures. All straight sections in the X-Ray ring and the VUV ring have been filled with various insertion devices and most are fully operational. Each storage ring has a computer controlled total pressure and partial pressure monitoring system for the ring and its beam ports, to insure good vacuum.

  12. Evaluating scintillator performance in time-resolved hard X-ray studies at synchrotron light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutherford, Michael E.; Chapman, David J.; White, Thomas G.; Drakopoulos, Michael; Rack, Alexander; Eakins, Daniel E.

    2016-01-01

    Scintillator performance in time-resolved, hard, indirect detection X-ray studies on the sub-microsecond timescale at synchrotron light sources is reviewed, modelled and examined experimentally. LYSO:Ce is found to be the only commercially available crystal suitable for these experiments. The short pulse duration, small effective source size and high flux of synchrotron radiation is ideally suited for probing a wide range of transient deformation processes in materials under extreme conditions. In this paper, the challenges of high-resolution time-resolved indirect X-ray detection are reviewed in the context of dynamic synchrotron experiments. In particular, the discussion is targeted at two-dimensional integrating detector methods, such as those focused on dynamic radiography and diffraction experiments. The response of a scintillator to periodic synchrotron X-ray excitation is modelled and validated against experimental data collected at the Diamond Light Source (DLS) and European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). An upper bound on the dynamic range accessible in a time-resolved experiment for a given bunch separation is calculated for a range of scintillators. New bunch structures are suggested for DLS and ESRF using the highest-performing commercially available crystal LYSO:Ce, allowing time-resolved experiments with an interframe time of 189 ns and a maximum dynamic range of 98 (6.6 bits)

  13. Evaluating scintillator performance in time-resolved hard X-ray studies at synchrotron light sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutherford, Michael E.; Chapman, David J.; White, Thomas G. [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); Drakopoulos, Michael [Diamond Light Source, I12 Joint Engineering, Environmental, Processing (JEEP) Beamline, Didcot, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Rack, Alexander [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France); Eakins, Daniel E., E-mail: d.eakins@imperial.ac.uk [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-24

    Scintillator performance in time-resolved, hard, indirect detection X-ray studies on the sub-microsecond timescale at synchrotron light sources is reviewed, modelled and examined experimentally. LYSO:Ce is found to be the only commercially available crystal suitable for these experiments. The short pulse duration, small effective source size and high flux of synchrotron radiation is ideally suited for probing a wide range of transient deformation processes in materials under extreme conditions. In this paper, the challenges of high-resolution time-resolved indirect X-ray detection are reviewed in the context of dynamic synchrotron experiments. In particular, the discussion is targeted at two-dimensional integrating detector methods, such as those focused on dynamic radiography and diffraction experiments. The response of a scintillator to periodic synchrotron X-ray excitation is modelled and validated against experimental data collected at the Diamond Light Source (DLS) and European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). An upper bound on the dynamic range accessible in a time-resolved experiment for a given bunch separation is calculated for a range of scintillators. New bunch structures are suggested for DLS and ESRF using the highest-performing commercially available crystal LYSO:Ce, allowing time-resolved experiments with an interframe time of 189 ns and a maximum dynamic range of 98 (6.6 bits)

  14. A scanning photoelectron microscope (SPEM) at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ade, H.; Kirz, J.; Hulbert, S.; Johnson, E.; Anderson, E.; Kern, D.; Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA; International Business Machines Corp., Yorktown Heights, NY

    1989-01-01

    We are in the process of developing and commissioning a scanning photoelectron microscope (SPEM) at the X1A beamline of the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). It is designed to make use of the Soft X-ray Undulator (SXU) at the NSLS. This high brightness source illuminates a Fresnel zone plate, which forms a focused probe, ≤ 0.2μm in size, on the specimen surface. A grating monochromator selects the photon energy in the 400-800 eV range with an energy resolution of better than 1 eV. The expected flux in the focus is in the 5 x 10 7 - 10 9 photons/s range. A single pass Cylindrical Mirror Analyzer (CMA) is used to record photoemission spectra, or to form an image within a fixed electron energy bandwidth as the specimen is mechanically scanned. As a first test, a 1000 mesh Au grid was successfully imaged with a resolution of about 1μm and the CMA tuned to the Au 4 f photoelectron peak. Once it is commissioned, a program is planned which will utilize the microscope to study beam sensitive systems, such as thin oxide/sub-oxide films of alumina and silica, and ultimately various adsorbates on these films. 14 refs., 4 figs

  15. Latest experience on insertion devices at the National Synchrotron Light Source-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Toshiya; Cappadoro, Peter; Corwin, Todd

    2016-01-01

    National Synchrotron Light Source-II (NSLS-II) is the latest storage ring of 3 GeV energy with the horizontal emittance of the electron beam being 0.9 nm.rad. Nine In-Vacuum Undulators (IVUs) are utilized at the NSLS-II as of February 2016. All IVUs have a unique side window derived from the experience from the CHESS facility in Cornell University. An R and D activity called 'Vacuum Seal Test' was conducted to ensure the viability of aluminum wire seal. Another R and D activity to develop a measurement system for Cryogenic Permanent Magnet Undulator (CPMU) was also performed. Other in-air devices, namely damping wigglers (DWs) and elliptically polarizing undulators (EPUs) utilize extruded aluminum chambers with Non-Evaporable Getter (NEG) coating. The beam-based integral estimates were obtained from the virtual kicks at the upstream and downstream of the undulator that best fit the measured orbit distortion in a model lattice with Tracy. In some cases, there are fairly large discrepancies between magnetic measurement data and observed integrals by the beam. Beam studies were carried out to explain the discrepancies mentioned earlier. The latest experiences on ID development and commissioning are discussed in conjunction with related activities in the world. (author)

  16. High-pressure synchrotron infrared spectroscopy at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemley, R.J.; Goncharov, A.F.; Lu, R.; Struzhkin, V.V.; Li, M.; Mao, H.K.

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes a synchrotron infrared facility for high-pressure spectroscopy and microspectroscopy at the National Synchrotron Light-Source (NSLS). Located at beamline U2B on the VUV ring of the NSLS, the facility utilizes a commercial FT-IR together with custom-built microscope optics designed for a variety of diamond anvil cell experiments, including low- and high- temperature studies. The system contains an integrated laser optical/grating spectrometer for concurrent optical experiments. The facility has been used to characterize a growing number of materials to ultrahigh pressure and has been instrumental of new high-pressure phenomena. Experiments on dense hydrogen to >200 GPa have led to the discovery of numerous unexpected properties of this fundamental system. The theoretically predicted molecular-atomic transition of H 2 O ice to the symmetric hydrogen-bonded structure has been identified, and new classes of high-density clathrates and molecular compounds have been characterized. Experiments on natural and synthetic mineral samples have been performed to study hydrogen speciation, phase transformations, and microscopic inclusions in multiphase assemblages. Detailed information on the behavior of new materials, including novel high-pressure glasses and ceramics, has also been obtained

  17. New Perspectives for Advanced Science at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolentino, Helio C.N.

    2003-01-01

    The LNLS (Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron) is a national laboratory in Brazil that operates a 1.37 GeV storage ring for synchrotron light users since July 1997. Eleven bending magnet beamlines are open to a wide range of possibilities for research in ultra-violet and X-ray spectroscopy, single crystal and powder diffraction, magnetic and anomalous scattering, protein crystallography, X-ray fluorescence, X-ray lithography and small angle X-ray scattering. The recent conclusion of the booster injector opened the way for insertion devices to be accommodated in the four straight sections available. A multipolar wiggler, for protein crystallography using the MAD technique, is the first planned to be installed during 2003. The construction of the first LNLS undulator, for the vaccum ultra-violet and soft X-ray domain, has already started and will expand the possibilities in atomic, molecular and surface physics, as well as in catalysis and magnetism. LNLS has expanded its infra-structure as an open multidisciplinary research laboratory into complementary areas, such as electron and scanning probe microscopy, nanostructure synthesis and molecular biology. Many technological and scientific achievements have been attained in these last five years. Some of them will be highlighted here, with emphasis in the area of nanostructured and magnetic materials

  18. Ne, Ar, Fe, and Cu Auger-electron production at National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.H.; Johnson, B.M.; Jones, K.W.; Guardala, N.A.; Price, J.L.; Stumborg, M.F.; Glass, G.A.

    1992-01-01

    Energetic K and L Auger electrons produced by focussed, filtered, broad-band synchrotron radiation have been measured at the x-ray ring of the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). The x-ray beam was used to study inner-shell photoionization of Ne and Ar gas and Fe and Cu solid film targets. The Auger electrons were analyzed by means of a semi-hemispherical electrostatic electron spectrometer at the energy resolution of ∼ 3 %. The electrons were detected at both 90 degree and 0 degree with respect to the photon beam direction. Broad distributions of the inner-shell photoelectrons were also observed, reflecting the incoming photon flux distribution. The Fe and Cu K Auger electron spectra were found to be very similar to the Ar K Auger electron spectra. This was expected, since deep inner-shell Auger processes are not affected by the outer valence electrons. Above 3 keV in electron energy, there have been few previous Auger electron measurements. 2 figs., 13 refs

  19. Induced Radioactivity in Lead Shielding at the National Synchrotron Light Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Vinita J; Schaefer, Charles; Kahnhauser, Henry

    2017-06-01

    The National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory was shut down in September 2014. Lead bricks used as radiological shadow shielding within the accelerator were exposed to stray radiation fields during normal operations. The FLUKA code, a fully integrated Monte Carlo simulation package for the interaction and transport of particles and nuclei in matter, was used to estimate induced radioactivity in this shielding and stainless steel beam pipe from known beam losses. The FLUKA output was processed using MICROSHIELD® to estimate on-contact exposure rates with individually exposed bricks to help design and optimize the radiological survey process. This entire process can be modeled using FLUKA, but use of MICROSHIELD® as a secondary method was chosen because of the project's resource constraints. Due to the compressed schedule and lack of shielding configuration data, simple FLUKA models were developed. FLUKA activity estimates for stainless steel were compared with sampling data to validate results, which show that simple FLUKA models and irradiation geometries can be used to predict radioactivity inventories accurately in exposed materials. During decommissioning 0.1% of the lead bricks were found to have measurable levels of induced radioactivity. Post-processing with MICROSHIELD® provides an acceptable secondary method of estimating residual exposure rates.

  20. NSLS [National Synchrotron Light Source] X-19A beamline performance for x-ray absorption measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C.Y.; Penner-Hahn, J.E.; Stefan, P.M.

    1989-01-01

    Characterization of the X-19A beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) is described. The beamline is designed for high resolution x-ray absorption spectroscopy over a wide energy range. All of the beamline optical components are compatible with ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) operation. This permits measurements to be made in a window-less mode, thereby facilitating lower energy (<4 KeV) studies. To upgrade the beamline performance, several possible improvements in instrumentation and practice are discussed to increase photon statistics with an optimum energy resolution, while decreasing the harmonic contamination and noise level. A special effort has been made to improve the stability and UHV compatibility of the monochromator system. Initial x-ray absorption results demonstrate the capabilities of this beamline for x-ray absorption studies of low Z elements (e.g. S) in highly dilute systems. The future use of this beamline for carrying out various x-ray absorption experiments is presented. 10 refs., 4 figs

  1. Generating picosecond x-ray pulses in synchrotron light sources using dipole kickers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Guo

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The duration of the x-ray pulse generated at a synchrotron light source is typically tens of picoseconds. Shorter pulses are highly desired by the users. In electron storage rings, the vertical beam size is usually orders of magnitude less than the bunch length due to radiation damping; therefore, a shorter pulse can be obtained by slitting the vertically tilted bunch. Zholents proposed tilting the bunch using rf deflection. We found that tilted bunches can also be generated by a dipole magnet kick. A vertical tilt is developed after the kick in the presence of nonzero chromaticity. The tilt was successfully observed and a 4.2-ps pulse was obtained from a 27-ps electron bunch at the Advanced Photon Source. Based on this principle, we propose a short-pulse generation scheme that produces picosecond x-ray pulses at a repetition rate of 1–2 kHz, which can be used for pump-probe experiments.

  2. Operation of general purpose stepping motor controllers at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stubblefield, F.W.

    1986-10-01

    A prototype and four copies of a general purpose subsystem for mechanical positioning of detectors, samples, and beam line optical elements which constitute experiments at the National Synchrotron Light Source facility of Brookhaven National Laboratory have been constructed and placed into operation. Construction of a sixth subsystem is nearing completion. The subsystems effect mechanical positioning by controlling a set of stepping motors and their associated position encoders. The units are general purpose in the sense that they receive commands over a standard 9600 baud asynchronous serial line compatible with the RS-232-C electrical signal standard, generate TTL-compatible streams of stepping pulses which can be used with a wide variety of stepping motors, and read back position values from a number of different types and models of position encoder. The basic structure of the motor controller subsystem will be briefly reviewed. Short descriptions of the positioning apparatus actuated at each of the test and experiment stations employing a motor control unit are given. Additions and enhancements to the subsystem made in response to problems indicated by actual operation of the four installed units are described in more detail

  3. Industrial applications of micro/nanofabrication at Singapore Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jian, L K; Casse, B D F; Heussler, S P; Kong, J R; Saw, B T; Mahmood, Shahrain bin; Moser, H O

    2006-01-01

    SSLS (Singapore Synchrotron Light Source) has set up a complete one-stop shop for micro/nanofabrication in the framework of the LIGA process. It is dubbed LiMiNT for Lithography for Micro and Nanotechnology and allows complete prototyping using the integral cycle of the LIGA process for producing micro/nanostructures from mask design/fabrication over X-ray lithography to electroplating in Ni, Cu, or Au, and, finally, hot embossing in a wide variety of plastics as one of the capabilities to cover a wide range of application fields and to go into higher volume production. The process chain also includes plasma cleaning and sputtering as well as substrate preparation processes including metal buffer layers, plating bases, and spin coating, polishing, and dicing. Furthermore, metrology using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), optical profilometry, and optical microscopy is available. LiMiNT is run as a research lab as well as a foundry. In this paper, several industrial applications will be presented, in which LiMiNT functions as a foundry to provide external customers the micro/nano fabrication services. These services include the fabrication of optical or X-ray masks, of micro/nano structures from polymers or from metals and of moulds for hot embossing or injection moulding

  4. Operation of general purpose stepping motor controllers at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stubblefield, F.W.

    1987-01-01

    A prototype and four copies of a general purpose subsystem for mechanical positioning of detectors, samples, and beam line optical elements which constitute experiments at the National Synchrotron Light Source facility of Brookhaven National Laboratory have been constructed and placed into operation. Construction of a sixth subsystem is nearing completion. The subsystems effect mechanical positioning by controlling a set of stepping motors and their associated position encoders. The units are general purpose in the sense that they receive commands over a standard 9600 baud asynchronous serial line compatible with the RS-232-C electrical signal standard, generate TTL-compatible streams of stepping pulses which can be used with a wide variety of stepping motors, and read back position values from a number of different types and models of position encoder. The basic structure of the motor controller subsystem is briefly reviewed. Short descriptions of the positioning apparatus actuated at each of the test and experiment stations employing a motor control unit are given. Additions and enhancements to the sub-system made in response to problems indicated by actual operation of the four installed units are described in more detail

  5. Radiation monitoring in a synchrotron light source facility using magnetically levitated electrode ionization chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichiki, Hirofumi; Kawaguchi, Toshirou; Utsunomiya, Yoshitomo; Ishibashi, Kenji; Ikeda, Nobuo; Korenaga, Kazuhito

    2009-01-01

    We developed a highly accurate differential-type automatic radiation dosimeter to measure very low radiation doses. The dosimeter had two ionization chambers, each of which had a magnetically levitated electrode and it was operated in a repetitive-time integration mode. We first installed the differential-type automatic radiation dosimeter with MALICs at a high-energy electron accelerator facility (Kyushu Synchrotron Light Research Center Facility) and measured the background and ionizing radiations in the facility as well as the gaseous radiation in air. In the background dose measurements, the accuracy of the repetitive-time integration-type dosimeter was three times better than that of a commercial ionization chamber. When the radiation dose increased momentarily at the electron injection from the linac to the operating storage ring, the dosimeter with repetitive-time integral mode gave a successful response to the actual dose variation. The gaseous radiation dose in the facility was at the same level as that in Fukuoka City. We confirmed that the dosimeter with magnetically levitated electrode ionization chambers was usable in the accelerator facility, in spite of its limited response when operated in the repetitive-time integration mode. (author)

  6. National Synchrotron Light Source Facility Manual Maintenance Management Program. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fewell, N.

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of this program s to meet the policy and objectives for the management and performance of cost-effective maintenance and repair of the National Synchrotron Light Source, as required by the US Department of Energy order DOE 433O.4A. It is the DOE`s policy that: The maintenance management program for the NSLS be consistent with this Order and that NSLS property is maintained in a manner which promotes operational safety, worker health, environmental protection and compliance, property preservation, and cost-effectiveness while meeting the NSLS`s programmatic mission. Structures, components and systems (active and passive) that are imporant to safe operation of the NSLS shall be subject to a maintenance program to ensure that they meet or exceed their design requirements throughout the life of the NSLS. Periodic examination of structures, systems components and equipment be performed to determine deterioration or technical obsolescence which may threaten performance and/or safety. Primary responsibility, authority, and accountability for the direction and management of the maintenance program at the NSLS reside with the line management assigned direct programmatic responsibility. Budgeting and accounting for maintenance programs are consistent with DOE Orders guidance.

  7. Using synchrotron light to accelerate EUV resist and mask materials learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naulleau, Patrick; Anderson, Christopher N.; Baclea-an, Lorie-Mae; Denham, Paul; George, Simi; Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Jones, Gideon; McClinton, Brittany; Miyakawa, Ryan; Mochi, Iacopo; Montgomery, Warren; Rekawa, Seno; Wallow, Tom

    2011-03-01

    As commercialization of extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) progresses, direct industry activities are being focused on near term concerns. The question of long term extendibility of EUVL, however, remains crucial given the magnitude of the investments yet required to make EUVL a reality. Extendibility questions are best addressed using advanced research tools such as the SEMATECH Berkeley microfield exposure tool (MET) and actinic inspection tool (AIT). Utilizing Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's Advanced Light Source facility as the light source, these tools benefit from the unique properties of synchrotron light enabling research at nodes generations ahead of what is possible with commercial tools. The MET for example uses extremely bright undulator radiation to enable a lossless fully programmable coherence illuminator. Using such a system, resolution enhancing illuminations achieving k1 factors of 0.25 can readily be attained. Given the MET numerical aperture of 0.3, this translates to an ultimate resolution capability of 12 nm. Using such methods, the SEMATECH Berkeley MET has demonstrated resolution in resist to 16-nm half pitch and below in an imageable spin-on hard mask. At a half pitch of 16 nm, this material achieves a line-edge roughness of 2 nm with a correlation length of 6 nm. These new results demonstrate that the observed stall in ultimate resolution progress in chemically amplified resists is a materials issue rather than a tool limitation. With a resolution limit of 20-22 nm, the CAR champion from 2008 remains as the highest performing CAR tested to date. To enable continued advanced learning in EUV resists, SEMATECH has initiated a plan to implement a 0.5 NA microfield tool at the Advanced Light Source synchrotron facility. This tool will be capable of printing down to 8-nm half pitch.

  8. Monochromator for synchrotron light with temperature controlled by electrical current on silicon crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cusatis, Cesar; Souza, Paulo E.N. [Universidade Federal do Parana (LORXI/UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica. Lab. de Optica de Raios X e Instrumentacao; Franco, Margareth Kobayaski; Kakuno, Edson [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincroton (LNLS), Campinas, SP (Brazil); Gobbi, Angelo; Carvalho Junior, Wilson de [Centro de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento em Telecomunicacoes (CPqD), Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full text. doped silicon crystal was used simultaneously as a monochromator, sensor and actuator in such way that its temperature could be controlled. Ohmic contacts allowed resistance measurements on a perfect silicon crystal, which were correlated to its temperature. Using the ohmic contacts, an electrical current caused Joule heating on the monochromator that was used to control its temperature. A simple stand-alone electronic box controlled the system. The device was built and tested with white beam synchrotron light on the double crystal monochromator of the XRD line of LNLS, Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron, Campinas. The first crystal of a double crystal monochromator determines the energy that is delivered to a synchrotron experimental station and its temperature instability is a major source of energy and intensity instability. If the (333) silicon monochromator is at theta Bragg near 45 degree the variation of the diffraction angle is around one second of arc per degree Kelvin. It may take several minutes for the first crystal temperature to stabilize at the beginning of the station operation when the crystal and its environment are cold. With water refrigeration, the average overall temperature of the crystal may be constant, but the temperature of the surface changes with and without the white beam. The time used to wait for stabilization of the beam energy/intensity is lost unless the temperature of the crystal surface is kept constant. One solution for keeping the temperature of the monochromator and its environment constant or nearly constant is Joule heating it with a controlled small electrical current flowing on the surface of a doped perfect crystal. When the white beam is on, this small amount of extra power will be more concentrated at the beam footpath because the resistance is lower in this region due to the higher temperature. In addition, if the crystal itself is used to detect the temperature variation by measuring the electrical

  9. National synchrotron light source. Activity report, October 1, 1995--September 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothman, E.Z.; Hastings, J.B. [eds.

    1997-05-01

    The hard work done by the synchrotron radiation community, in collaboration with all those using large-scale central facilities during 1995, paid off in FY 1996 through the DOE`s Presidential Scientific Facilities Initiative. In comparison with the other DOE synchrotron radiation facilities, the National Synchrotron Light Source benefited least in operating budgets because it was unable to increase running time beyond 100%-nevertheless, the number of station hours was maintained. The major thrust at Brookhaven came from a 15% increase in budget which allowed the recruitment of seven staff in the beamlines support group and permitted a step increment in the funding of the extremely long list of upgrades; both to the sources and to the beamlines. During the December 1995 shutdown, the VUV Ring quadrant around U10-U12 was totally reconstructed. New front ends, enabling apertures up to 90 mrad on U10 and U12, were installed. During the year new PRTs were in formation for the infrared beamlines, encouraged by the investment the lab was able to commit from the initiative funds and by awards from the Scientific Facilities Initiative. A new PRT, specifically for small and wide angle x-ray scattering from polymers, will start work on X27C in FY 1997 and existing PRTs on X26C and X9B working on macromolecular crystallography will be joined by new members. Plans to replace aging radio frequency cavities by an improved design, originally a painfully slow six or eight year project, were brought forward so that the first pair of cavities (half of the project for the X-Ray Ring) will now be installed in FY 1997. Current upgrades to 350 mA initially and to 438 mA later in the X-Ray Ring were set aside due to lack of funds for the necessary thermally robust beryllium windows. The Scientific Facilities Initiative allowed purchase of all 34 windows in FY 1996 so that the power upgrade will be achieved in FY 1997.

  10. Design status of the 2.5 GeV National Synchrotron Light Source x-ray ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krinsky, S.; Blumberg, L.; Bittner, J.; Galayda, J.; Heese, R.; Schuchman, J.C.; van Steenbergen, A.

    1979-01-01

    The present state of the design of the 2.5 GeV electron storage ring for the National Synchrotron Light Source is described. This ring will serve as a dedicated source of synchrotron radiation in the wavelength range 0.1 A to 30 A. While maintaining the basic high brigtness features of the eariler developed lattice structure, recent work resulted in a more economical magnet system, is simplified chromaticity corrections, and improved distribution of the X-ray beam lines. In addition, the adequacy of the dynamic aperture for stable betatron oscillations has been verified for a variety of betatron tunes

  11. NSLS 2007 Activity Report (National Synchrotron Light Source Activity Report 2007)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller ,L.; Nasta, K.

    2008-05-01

    The National Synchrotron Light Source is one of the world's most productive and cost-effective user facilities. With 2,219 individual users, about 100 more than last year, and a record-high 985 publications, 2007 was no exception. In addition to producing an impressive array of science highlights, which are included in this Activity Report, many NSLS users were honored this year for their scientific accomplishments. Throughout the year, there were major strides in the development of the scientific programs by strengthening strategic partnerships with major research resources and with the Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN). Of particular note, the Consortium for Materials Properties Research in Earth Sciences (COMPRES) received renewed funding for the next five years through the National Science Foundation. COMPRES operates four high-pressure NSLS beamlines--X17B2, X17B3, X17C, and U2A--and serves the earth science community as well as the rapidly expanding segment of researchers using high-pressure techniques in materials, chemical, and energy-related sciences. A joint appointment was made between the NSLS and Stony Brook University to further enhance interactions with COMPRES. There was major progress on two key beamline projects outlined in the Five-Year Strategic Plan: the X25 beamline upgrade and the construction of the X9 small angle scattering (SAXS) beamline. The X25 overhaul, which began with the installation of the in-vacuum mini-gap undulator (MGU) in January 2006, is now complete. X25 is once again the brightest beamline for macromolecular crystallography at the NSLS, and in tandem with the X29 undulator beamline, it will keep the NSLS at the cutting edge in this important area of research. Upgrade work associated with the new MGU and the front end for the X9 SAXS beamline--jointly developed by the NSLS and the CFN--also was completed. Beamline X9 will host the SAXS program that currently exists at beamline X21 and will provide new microbeam

  12. X-ray metrology of an array of active edge pixel sensors for use at synchrotron light sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plackett, R.; Arndt, K.; Bortoletto, D.; Horswell, I.; Lockwood, G.; Shipsey, I.; Tartoni, N.; Williams, S.

    2018-01-01

    We report on the production and testing of an array of active edge silicon sensors as a prototype of a large array. Four Medipix3RX.1 chips were bump bonded to four single chip sized Advacam active edge n-on-n sensors. These detectors were then mounted into a 2 by 2 array and tested on B16 at Diamond Light Source with an x-ray beam spot of 2um. The results from these tests, compared with optical metrology demonstrate that this type of sensor is sensitive to the physical edge of the silicon, with only a modest loss of efficiency in the final two rows of pixels. We present the efficiency maps recorded with the microfocus beam and a sample powder diffraction measurement. These results give confidence that this sensor technology can be used effectively in larger arrays of detectors at synchrotron light sources.

  13. Operation of a general purpose stepping motor-encoder positioning subsystem at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stubblefield, F.W.

    1985-11-01

    Four copies of a general purpose subsystem for mechanical positioning of detectors, samples, and beam line optical elements which constitute experiments at the National Synchrotron Light Source facility of Brookhaven National Laboratory have been constructed and placed into operation. Construction of a fifth subsystem unit is nearing completion. The subsystems affect mechanical positioning by controlling a set of stepping motor-encoder pairs. The units are general purpose in the sense that they receive commands over a 9600 baud asynchronous serial line compatible with the RS-232-C electrical signal standard, generate TTL-compatible streams of stepping pulses which can be used with a wide variety of stepping motors, and read back position values from a number of different types and models of position encoder. The basic structure of the motor controller subsystem is briefly reviewed. Additions to the subsystem made in response to problems indicated by actual operation of the four installed units are described in more detail

  14. Data acquisition and experiment control system for high-data-rate experiments at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberi, J.L.; Stubblefield, F.W.

    1981-11-01

    A data acquisition and experiment control system for experiments at the Biology Small-Angle X-ray Scattering Station at the National Synchrotron Light Source has been developed based on a multiprocessor, functionally distributed architecture. The system controls an x-ray monochromator and spectrometer and acquires data from any one of three position-sensitive x-ray detectors. The average data rate from the position-sensitive detector is approx. 10 6 events/sec. Data is stored in a one megaword histogramming memory. The experiments at this Station require that x-ray diffraction patterns be correlated with timed stimuli at the sample. Therefore, depending on which detector is in use, up to 10 3 time-correlated diffraction patterns may be held in the system memory simultaneously. The operation of the system is functionally distributed over four processors communicating via a multiport memory

  15. Construction and maintenance of SUNY facilities at the National Synchrotron Light Source. Progress report, 1 October 1981-1 July 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigeleisen, J.

    1982-01-01

    Development of the SUNY beam line at the National Synchrotron Light Source is described. The line now includes monochromator/mirror optics with tandem arrangement of experiments. The beamline computer system is now working with CAMAC data acquisition, and a four-circle diffractometer, a small-angle-scattering bench, and a fluorescence EXAFS apparatus should be ready soon

  16. Construction and maintenance of SUNY facilities at the National Synchrotron Light Source. Progress report, 1 July 1982-1 July 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigeleisen, J.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental facilities on the X-21 beam line at the National Synchrotron Light Source are described, and synchrotron radiation experiments performed by PRT members are discussed. The report includes a description of the beam line development stages and the experimental equipment

  17. Use of a synchrotron radiation x-ray microprobe for elemental analysis at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, B.M.

    1980-01-01

    The National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) is a facility consisting of a 700 MeV and a 2.5 GeV electron storage ring and dedicated to providing synchrotron radiation in the energy range from the vacuum ultraviolet to high energy x rays. Some of the properties of synchrotron radiation that contribute to its usefulness for x-ray fluorescence are: a continuous, tunable energy spectrum, strong collimation in the horizontal plane, high polarization in the storage ring plane, and relatively low energy deposition. The highest priority is for the development of an x-ray microprobe beam line capable of trace analysis in the parts per million range with spatial resolution as low as one micrometer. An eventual capability for bulk sample analysis is also planned with sensitivities in the more favorable cases beings low as 50 parts per billion in dry biological tissue. The microprobe technique has application to a variety of fields including the geological, medical, materials and environmental sciences. Examples of investigations include multielemental trace analysis across grain boundaries for the study of diffusion and cooling processes in geological and materials sciences samples; in leukocytes and other types of individual cells for studying the relationship between trace element concentrations and disease or nutrition; and in individual particles in air pollution samples

  18. Multiple energy computed tomography for neuroradiology with monochromatic x-rays from the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilmanian, F.A.; Garrett, R.F.; Thomlinson, W.C.; Berman, L.E.; Chapman, L.D.; Gmuer, N.F.; Lazarz, N.M.; Moulin, H.R.; Oversluizen, T.; Slatkin, D.N.; Stojanoff, V.; Volkow, N.D.; Zeman, H.D.; Luke, P.N.; Thompson, A.C.

    1990-01-01

    Monochromatic and tunable 33--100 keV x-rays from the X17 superconducting wiggler of the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) will be used for computed tomography (CT) of the human head and neck. The CT configuration will be one of a fixed horizontal fan-shaped beam and a seated rotating subject. The system, which is under development, will employ a two-crystal monochromator with an energy bandwidth of about 0.1%, and high-purity germanium linear array detector with 0.5 mm element width and 200 mm total width. Narrow energy bands not only eliminate beam hardening but are ideal for carrying out the following dial-energy methods: (a) dual-photon absorptiometry CT, that provides separate images of the low-Z and the intermediate-Z elements; and (b) K-edge subtraction CT of iodine and perhaps of heavier contrast elements. As a result, the system should provide ∼10-fold improvement in image contrast resolution and in quantitative precision over conventional CT. A prototype system for a 45 mm subject diameter will be ready in 1991, which will be used for studies with phantoms and small animals. The human imaging system will have a field of view of 200 mm. The in-plane spatial resolution in both systems will be 0.5 mm FWHM. 34 refs., 6 figs

  19. Free electron laser facilities employing a 150-MeV linac injector for Saga synchrotron light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomimasu, T.; Yasumoto, M.; Ochiai, Y.; Ishibashi, M.; Murayama, T.

    1999-01-01

    Free electron laser (FEL) facilities as the FELI FEL Facility are proposed, for which a 150-MeV linac type injector for a Saga synchrotron light source (SLS) is employed in FEL mode. The linac has two operating modes; short macropulse mode a 1 μs at 150 MeV for injection to a 1 - 1.3-GeV third generation type storage ring and long macropulse mode of 12 μs at 100 MeV for four FEL Facilities. The macropulse beam consists of a train of several ps, 0.6 nC microbunches (peak current 100 A) repeating at 89.25 MHz. We are aiming to supply high power level photon beams covering an attractive wavelength range from 0.05 nm (25 keV) to 200 μm (0.006 eV) for scientific researches, bio-medical and industrial applications, using the Saga third generation type SLS with a superconducting wiggler and the proposed four FEL Facilities. (author)

  20. THE Low-level Radio Frequency System for the superconducting cavities of National Synchrotron Light Source II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, H.; Rose, J.; Holub, B.; Cupolo, J.; Oliva, J.; Sikora, R.; Yeddulla, M.

    2011-01-01

    A digital low-level radio frequency (LLRF) field controller has been developed for the storage ring of The National Synchrotron Light Source-II (NSLS-II). The primary performance goal for the LLRF is to support the required RF operation of the superconducting cavities with a beam current of 500mA and a 0.14 degree or better RF phase stability. The digital field controller is FPGA-based, in a standard format 19-inch/I-U chassis. It has an option of high-level control support with MATLAB running on a local host computer through a USB2.0 port. The field controller has been field tested with the high-power superconducting RF (SRF) at Canadian light Source, and successfully stored a high beam current of 250 mA. The test results show that required specifications for the cavity RF field stability are met. This digital field controller is also currently being used as a development platform for other functional modules in the NSLS-II RF systems.

  1. Ultra high-speed x-ray imaging of laser-driven shock compression using synchrotron light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olbinado, Margie P.; Cantelli, Valentina; Mathon, Olivier; Pascarelli, Sakura; Grenzer, Joerg; Pelka, Alexander; Roedel, Melanie; Prencipe, Irene; Laso Garcia, Alejandro; Helbig, Uwe; Kraus, Dominik; Schramm, Ulrich; Cowan, Tom; Scheel, Mario; Pradel, Pierre; De Resseguier, Thibaut; Rack, Alexander

    2018-02-01

    A high-power, nanosecond pulsed laser impacting the surface of a material can generate an ablation plasma that drives a shock wave into it; while in situ x-ray imaging can provide a time-resolved probe of the shock-induced material behaviour on macroscopic length scales. Here, we report on an investigation into laser-driven shock compression of a polyurethane foam and a graphite rod by means of single-pulse synchrotron x-ray phase-contrast imaging with MHz frame rate. A 6 J, 10 ns pulsed laser was used to generate shock compression. Physical processes governing the laser-induced dynamic response such as elastic compression, compaction, pore collapse, fracture, and fragmentation have been imaged; and the advantage of exploiting the partial spatial coherence of a synchrotron source for studying low-density, carbon-based materials is emphasized. The successful combination of a high-energy laser and ultra high-speed x-ray imaging using synchrotron light demonstrates the potentiality of accessing complementary information from scientific studies of laser-driven shock compression.

  2. National Synchrotron Light Source: Annual report 1986 for the period of October 1, 1985 through September 30, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White-DePace, S.; Gmur, N.

    1986-10-01

    The National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) is the nation's largest facility dedicated solely to the production of synchrotron radiation. The facility has two electron storage rings: a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) ring which operates at an electron energy of 750 MeV designed for optimum radiation at energies from 10 eV to 1 keV, and an x-ray ring which operates at 2.5 GeV to optimize radiation from 1 keV to 20 keV. A total of 44 beam ports emanate from these rings. Each beam port is capable of supporting one to four experiments. The VUV and x-ray rings presently accommodate over 800 scientists representing over 71 universities, industries, and government laboratories. Both basic and applied research are being done at the NSLS by groups from a variety of disciplines which include physics, chemistry, materials science, metallurgy, biology, and medicine. Among the techniques used are EXAFS (extended x-ray absorption fine structure), scattering, diffraction, topography, fluorescence, gas phase spectroscopy, lithography, tomography, microscopy, and circular dichroism

  3. A new fixed-target approach for serial crystallography at synchrotron light sources and X-ray free electron lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roedig, Philip

    2017-07-15

    In the framework of this thesis, a new method for high-speed fixed-target serial crystallography experiments and its applicability to biomacromolecular crystallography at both synchrotron light sources and X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) is presented. The method is based on a sample holder, which can carry up to 20,000 microcrystals and which is made of single-crystalline silicon. Using synchrotron radiation, the structure of Operophtera brumata cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus type 18 polyhedrin, lysozyme and cubic insulin was determined by collecting X-ray diffraction data from multiple microcrystals. Data collection was shown to be possible at both cryogenic and ambient conditions. For room-temperature measurements, both global and specific indications of radiation damage were investigated and characterized. Due to the sieve-like structure of the chip, the microcrystals tend to arrange themselves according to the micropore pattern, which allows for efficient sampling of the sample material. In combination with a high-speed scanning stage, the sample holder was furthermore shown to be highly suitable for serial femtosecond crystallography experiments. By fast raster scanning of the chip through the pulsed X-ray beam of an XFEL, structure determination of a virus, using the example of bovine enterovirus type 2, has been demonstrated at an XFEL for the first time. Hit rates of up to 100% were obtained by the presented method, which refers to a reduction in sample consumption by at least three orders of magnitude with respect to common liquid-jet injection methods used for sample delivery. In this way, the typical time needed for data collection in serial femtosecond crystallography is significantly decreased. The presented technique for sample loading of the chip is easy to learn and results in efficient removal of the surrounding mother liquor, thereby reducing the generated background signal. Since the chip is made of single-crystalline silicon, in principle no

  4. A new fixed-target approach for serial crystallography at synchrotron light sources and X-ray free electron lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roedig, Philip

    2017-07-01

    In the framework of this thesis, a new method for high-speed fixed-target serial crystallography experiments and its applicability to biomacromolecular crystallography at both synchrotron light sources and X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) is presented. The method is based on a sample holder, which can carry up to 20,000 microcrystals and which is made of single-crystalline silicon. Using synchrotron radiation, the structure of Operophtera brumata cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus type 18 polyhedrin, lysozyme and cubic insulin was determined by collecting X-ray diffraction data from multiple microcrystals. Data collection was shown to be possible at both cryogenic and ambient conditions. For room-temperature measurements, both global and specific indications of radiation damage were investigated and characterized. Due to the sieve-like structure of the chip, the microcrystals tend to arrange themselves according to the micropore pattern, which allows for efficient sampling of the sample material. In combination with a high-speed scanning stage, the sample holder was furthermore shown to be highly suitable for serial femtosecond crystallography experiments. By fast raster scanning of the chip through the pulsed X-ray beam of an XFEL, structure determination of a virus, using the example of bovine enterovirus type 2, has been demonstrated at an XFEL for the first time. Hit rates of up to 100% were obtained by the presented method, which refers to a reduction in sample consumption by at least three orders of magnitude with respect to common liquid-jet injection methods used for sample delivery. In this way, the typical time needed for data collection in serial femtosecond crystallography is significantly decreased. The presented technique for sample loading of the chip is easy to learn and results in efficient removal of the surrounding mother liquor, thereby reducing the generated background signal. Since the chip is made of single-crystalline silicon, in principle no

  5. National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulbert, S.L.; Lazarz, N.M.

    1993-04-01

    This report contains seven sections discussing the following: (1) scientific research at the NSLS; (2) symposia and workshops held at the NSLS; (3) a facility report; (4) NSLS projects; (5) NSLS operational highlights; (6) informational guides to the VUV and X-ray beamlines; and (7) appendices which include abstracts on projects carried out at the VUV and X-ray beamlines

  6. Molecular Chemical Structure of Barley Proteins Revealed by Ultra-Spatially Resolved Synchrotron Light Sourced FTIR Microspectroscopy: Comparison of Barley Varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, P.

    2007-01-01

    Barley protein structure affects the barley quality, fermentation, and degradation behavior in both humans and animals among other factors such as protein matrix. Publications show various biological differences among barley varieties such as Valier and Harrington, which have significantly different degradation behaviors. The objectives of this study were to reveal the molecular structure of barley protein, comparing various varieties (Dolly, Valier, Harrington, LP955, AC Metcalfe, and Sisler), and quantify protein structure profiles using Gaussian and Lorentzian methods of multi-component peak modeling by using the ultra-spatially resolved synchrotron light sourced Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (SFTIRM). The items of the protein molecular structure revealed included protein structure α-helices, β-sheets, and others such as β-turns and random coils. The experiment was performed at the National Synchrotron Light Source in Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL, US Department of Energy, NY). The results showed that with the SFTIRM, the molecular structure of barley protein could be revealed. Barley protein structures exhibited significant differences among the varieties in terms of proportion and ratio of model-fitted α-helices, β-sheets, and others. By using multi-component peaks modeling at protein amide I region of 1710-1576 cm -1 , the results show that barley protein consisted of approximately 18-34% of α-helices, 14-25% of β-sheets, and 44-69% others. AC Metcalfe, Sisler, and LP955 consisted of higher (P 0.05). The ratio of α-helices to others (0.3 to 1.0, P < 0.05) and that of β-sheets to others (0.2 to 0.8, P < 0.05) were different among the barley varieties. It needs to be pointed out that using a multi-peak modeling for protein structure analysis is only for making relative estimates and not exact determinations and only for the comparison purpose between varieties. The principal component analysis showed that protein amide I Fourier

  7. Synchrotron light and its uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blewett, J.P.

    1978-01-01

    It was known for a century that charged particles radiate when accelerated and that relativistic electrons in the energy range between 100 MeV and several GeV and constrained to travel in circular orbits emit concentrated, intense beams with broad continuous spectra that can cover the electromagnetic spectrum from infrared through hard x-rays. Recently the possible applications of this radiation were appreciated and electron synchrotrons and electron storage rings are now being used in many centers for studies of the properties of matter in the solid, liquid and gaseous states. 10 references

  8. Neutrino Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelin Baldo, Milla

    2009-01-01

    The present volume contains the proceedings of the 13. International Workshop on 'Neutrino Telescope', 17. of the series 'Un altro modo di guardare il cielo', held in Venice at the 'Istituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti' from March 10 to March 13, 2009. This series started in Venice 21 years ago, in 1988, motivated by the growing interest in the exciting field of the neutrino physics and astrophysics, with the aim to bring together experimentalists and theorists and encourage discussion on the most recent results and to chart the direction of future researchers.

  9. Notes on the design of experiments and beam diagnostics with synchrotron light detected by a gated photomultiplier for the Fermilab superconducting electron linac and for the Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stancari, Giulio [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Romanov, Aleksandr [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Ruan, Jinhao [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Santucci, James [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Thurman-Keup, Randy [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Valishev, Alexander [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2017-11-08

    We outline the design of beam experiments for the electron linac at the Fermilab Accelerator Science and Technology (FAST) facility and for the Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA), based on synchrotron light emitted by the electrons in bend dipoles, detected with gated microchannel-plate photomultipliers (MCP-PMTs). The system can be used both for beam diagnostics (e.g., beam intensity with full dynamic range, turn-by-turn beam vibrations, etc.) and for scientific experiments, such as the direct observation of the time structure of the radiation emitted by single electrons in a storage ring. The similarity between photon pulses and spectrum at the downstream end of the electron linac and in the IOTA ring allows one to test the apparatus during commissioning of the linac.

  10. Virtual Telescope Alignment System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Next-generation space telescopes require two spacecraft to fly in a coordinated fashion in space forming a virtual telescope. Achieving and maintaining this precise...

  11. ATST telescope mount: telescope of machine tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffers, Paul; Stolz, Günter; Bonomi, Giovanni; Dreyer, Oliver; Kärcher, Hans

    2012-09-01

    The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) will be the largest solar telescope in the world, and will be able to provide the sharpest views ever taken of the solar surface. The telescope has a 4m aperture primary mirror, however due to the off axis nature of the optical layout, the telescope mount has proportions similar to an 8 meter class telescope. The technology normally used in this class of telescope is well understood in the telescope community and has been successfully implemented in numerous projects. The world of large machine tools has developed in a separate realm with similar levels of performance requirement but different boundary conditions. In addition the competitive nature of private industry has encouraged development and usage of more cost effective solutions both in initial capital cost and thru-life operating cost. Telescope mounts move relatively slowly with requirements for high stability under external environmental influences such as wind buffeting. Large machine tools operate under high speed requirements coupled with high application of force through the machine but with little or no external environmental influences. The benefits of these parallel development paths and the ATST system requirements are being combined in the ATST Telescope Mount Assembly (TMA). The process of balancing the system requirements with new technologies is based on the experience of the ATST project team, Ingersoll Machine Tools who are the main contractor for the TMA and MT Mechatronics who are their design subcontractors. This paper highlights a number of these proven technologies from the commercially driven machine tool world that are being introduced to the TMA design. Also the challenges of integrating and ensuring that the differences in application requirements are accounted for in the design are discussed.

  12. Liverpool Telescope and Liverpool Telescope 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copperwheat, C. M.; Steele, I. A.; Barnsley, R. M.; Bates, S. D.; Clay, N. R.; Jermak, H.; Marchant, J. M.; Mottram, C. J.; Piascik, A.; Smith, R. J.

    2016-12-01

    The Liverpool Telescope is a fully robotic optical/near-infrared telescope with a 2-metre clear aperture, located at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos on the Canary Island of La Palma. The telescope is owned and operated by Liverpool John Moores University, with financial support from the UK's Science and Technology Facilities Council. The telescope began routine science operations in 2004 and is a common-user facility with time available through a variety of committees via an open, peer reviewed process. Seven simultaneously mounted instruments support a broad science programme, with a focus on transient follow-up and other time domain topics well suited to the characteristics of robotic observing. Development has also begun on a successor facility, with the working title `Liverpool Telescope 2', to capitalise on the new era of time domain astronomy which will be brought about by the next generation of survey facilities such as LSST. The fully robotic Liverpool Telescope 2 will have a 4-metre aperture and an improved response time. In this paper we provide an overview of the current status of both facilities.

  13. National Synchrotron Light Source annual report 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulbert, S.L.; Lazarz, N.M.

    1992-04-01

    This report discusses the following research conducted at NSLS: atomic and molecular science; energy dispersive diffraction; lithography, microscopy and tomography; nuclear physics; UV photoemission and surface science; x-ray absorption spectroscopy; x-ray scattering and crystallography; x-ray topography; workshop on surface structure; workshop on electronic and chemical phenomena at surfaces; workshop on imaging; UV FEL machine reviews; VUV machine operations; VUV beamline operations; VUV storage ring parameters; x-ray machine operations; x-ray beamline operations; x-ray storage ring parameters; superconducting x-ray lithography source; SXLS storage ring parameters; the accelerator test facility; proposed UV-FEL user facility at the NSLS; global orbit feedback systems; and NSLS computer system

  14. Proposal for a national synchrotron light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blewett, J.P.

    1977-02-01

    Since 1971 discussions have been held at Brookhaven National Laboratory on the desirability of construction of a storage ring which would be used exclusively for production of intense beams of photons with wavelengths in the ultraviolet and X-ray ranges. A proposal is given which discusses in detail the machine, its characteristics, and its expected uses. The proposal includes: (1) characteristics of synchrotron radiation; (2) scientific justification for a synchrotron radiation facility; (3) facility design; (4) wiggler magnets; (5) experimental facilities; (6) buildings and utilities; (7) construction schedules, costs, and manpower; and (8) environmental assessment

  15. National synchrotron light source VUV storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumberg, L.; Bittner, J.; Galayda, J.; Heese, R.; Krinsky, S.; Schuchman, J.; van Steenbergen, A.

    1979-01-01

    A 700 MeV electron storage ring designed for synchrotron radiation applications is described. Lattice and stability calculations are presented and the vacuum, correction and injection systems are discussed

  16. Status of the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heese, R.

    1987-04-01

    An overview of the present capabilities of the NSLS 750 MeV VUV ring and the 2.5 GeV x-ray ring is presented. Emphasis is placed on performance of the now operational facility, the efforts to improve this performance, a description of the ''Phase II'' upgrade, and outlook for the future

  17. National Synchrotron Light Source. Annual report 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulbert, S.L.; Lazarz, N.M. [eds.

    1993-04-01

    This report contains seven sections discussing the following: (1) scientific research at the NSLS; (2) symposia and workshops held at the NSLS; (3) a facility report; (4) NSLS projects; (5) NSLS operational highlights; (6) informational guides to the VUV and X-ray beamlines; and (7) appendices which include abstracts on projects carried out at the VUV and X-ray beamlines.

  18. PHOTOACOUSTIC SPECTROSCOPY USING A SYNCHROTRON LIGHT SOURCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JACKSON, R.S.; MICHAELIAN, K.H.; HOMES, C.C.

    2001-01-01

    We have investigated the use of a synchrotron as a source for infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy. A synchrotron has an intrinsically high radiance, which is beneficial when photoacoustic spectroscopy is applied to small samples, especially at long wavelengths

  19. National Synchrotron Light Source annual report 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulbert, S.L.; Lazarz, N.M. (eds.)

    1992-04-01

    This report discusses the following research conducted at NSLS: atomic and molecular science; energy dispersive diffraction; lithography, microscopy and tomography; nuclear physics; UV photoemission and surface science; x-ray absorption spectroscopy; x-ray scattering and crystallography; x-ray topography; workshop on surface structure; workshop on electronic and chemical phenomena at surfaces; workshop on imaging; UV FEL machine reviews; VUV machine operations; VUV beamline operations; VUV storage ring parameters; x-ray machine operations; x-ray beamline operations; x-ray storage ring parameters; superconducting x-ray lithography source; SXLS storage ring parameters; the accelerator test facility; proposed UV-FEL user facility at the NSLS; global orbit feedback systems; and NSLS computer system.

  20. The great Melbourne telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Gillespie, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Erected at Melbourne Observatory in 1869, the telescope was the second largest in the world, designed to explore the nature of the nebulae in the southern skies. Richard Gillespie, head of the History and Technology department at the Melbourne museum has written an entertaining account of the telescope's extraordinary history and tells the story through an amazing cast of characters whose lives intersected with the telescope.

  1. Observing the Sun with Coronado telescopes telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Pugh, Philip

    2007-01-01

    The Sun provides amateur astronomers with one of the few opportunities for daytime astronomy. In order to see the major features of our nearest star, special telescopes that have a very narrow visible bandwidth are essential. The bandwidth has to be as narrow as 1 A- 10-10 m (1 Angstrom) and centred on the absorption line of neutral hydrogen. This makes many major features of the Suna (TM)s chromosphere visible to the observer. Such narrow-band "Fabry-Perot etalon filters" are high technology, and until the introduction of the Coronado range of solar telescopes, were too expensive for amateur use. The entry-level Coronado telescope, the PST (Personal Solar Telescope) costs under 500. Solar prominences (vast columns of plasma, best seen at the edge of the solar disk), filaments, flares, sunspots, plage and active regions are all visible and can be imaged to produce spectacular solar photographs. Philip Pugh has assembled a team of contributors who show just how much solar work can be done with Coronado telesco...

  2. Ghost telescope and ghost Fourier telescope with thermal light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Wenlin; Han Shensheng

    2011-01-01

    As important observation tools, telescopes are very useful in remote observations. We report a proof-of-principle experimental demonstration of ghost telescope scheme and show that, by measuring the intensity correlation of two light fields and only changing the position of the detector in the reference path, ghost telescope and ghost Fourier telescope can be obtained even if a single-pixel detector is fixed in Fresnel region of the object. Differences between conventional telescope and ghost telescope are also discussed.

  3. The large binocular telescope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, John M

    2010-06-01

    The Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) Observatory is a collaboration among institutions in Arizona, Germany, Italy, Indiana, Minnesota, Ohio, and Virginia. The telescope on Mount Graham in Southeastern Arizona uses two 8.4 m diameter primary mirrors mounted side by side. A unique feature of the LBT is that the light from the two Gregorian telescope sides can be combined to produce phased-array imaging of an extended field. This cophased imaging along with adaptive optics gives the telescope the diffraction-limited resolution of a 22.65 m aperture and a collecting area equivalent to an 11.8 m circular aperture. This paper describes the design, construction, and commissioning of this unique telescope. We report some sample astronomical results with the prime focus cameras. We comment on some of the technical challenges and solutions. The telescope uses two F/15 adaptive secondaries to correct atmospheric turbulence. The first of these adaptive mirrors has completed final system testing in Firenze, Italy, and is planned to be at the telescope by Spring 2010.

  4. Goddard Robotic Telescope (GRT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Since it is not possible to predict when a Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) occurs, the follow-up ground telescopes must be distributed as uniform as possible all over the...

  5. Automatic Photoelectric Telescope Service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genet, R.M.; Boyd, L.J.; Kissell, K.E.; Crawford, D.L.; Hall, D.S.; BDM Corp., McLean, VA; Kitt Peak National Observatory, Tucson, AZ; Dyer Observatory, Nashville, TN)

    1987-01-01

    Automatic observatories have the potential of gathering sizable amounts of high-quality astronomical data at low cost. The Automatic Photoelectric Telescope Service (APT Service) has realized this potential and is routinely making photometric observations of a large number of variable stars. However, without observers to provide on-site monitoring, it was necessary to incorporate special quality checks into the operation of the APT Service at its multiple automatic telescope installation on Mount Hopkins. 18 references

  6. Robotic and Survey Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woźniak, Przemysław

    Robotic telescopes are revolutionizing the way astronomers collect their dataand conduct sky surveys. This chapter begins with a discussion of principles thatguide the process of designing, constructing, and operating telescopes andobservatories that offer a varying degree of automation, from instruments remotelycontrolled by observers to fully autonomous systems requiring no humansupervision during their normal operations. Emphasis is placed on designtrade-offs involved in building end-to-end systems intended for a wide range ofscience applications. The second part of the chapter contains descriptions ofseveral projects and instruments, both existing and currently under development.It is an attempt to provide a representative selection of actual systems thatillustrates state of the art in technology, as well as important ideas and milestonesin the development of the field. The list of presented instruments spans the fullrange in size starting from small all-sky monitors, through midrange robotic andsurvey telescopes, and finishing with large robotic instruments and surveys.Explosive growth of telescope networking is enabling entirely new modesof interaction between the survey and follow-up observing. Increasingimportance of standardized communication protocols and software is stressed.These developments are driven by the fusion of robotic telescope hardware,massive storage and databases, real-time knowledge extraction, and datacross-correlation on a global scale. The chapter concludes with examplesof major science results enabled by these new technologies and futureprospects.

  7. The South Pole Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruhl, J.E.; Ade, P.A.R.; Carlstrom, J.E.; Cho, H.M.; Crawford,T.; Dobbs, M.; Greer, C.H.; Halverson, N.W.; Holzapfel, W.L.; Lanting,T.M.; Lee, A.T.; Leitch, E.M.; Leong, J.; Lu, W.; Lueker, M.; Mehl, J.; Meyer, S.S.; Mohr, J.J.; Padin, S.; Plagge, T.; Pryke, C.; Runyan, M.C.; Schwan, D.; Sharp, M.K.; Spieler, H.; Staniszewski, Z.; Stark, A.A.

    2004-11-04

    A new 10 meter diameter telescope is being constructed for deployment at the NSF South Pole research station. The telescope is designed for conducting large-area millimeter and sub-millimeter wave surveys of faint, low contrast emission, as required to map primary and secondary anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background. To achieve the required sensitivity and resolution, the telescope design employs an off-axis primary with a 10 m diameter clear aperture. The full aperture and the associated optics will have a combined surface accuracy of better than 20 microns rms to allow precision operation in the submillimeter atmospheric windows. The telescope will be surrounded with a large reflecting ground screen to reduce sensitivity to thermal emission from the ground and local interference. The optics of the telescope will support a square degree field of view at 2mm wavelength and will feed a new 1000-element micro-lithographed planar bolometric array with superconducting transition-edge sensors and frequency-multiplexed readouts. The first key project will be to conduct a survey over 4000 degrees for galaxy clusters using the Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect. This survey should find many thousands of clusters with a mass selection criteria that is remarkably uniform with redshift. Armed with redshifts obtained from optical and infrared follow-up observations, it is expected that the survey will enable significant constraints to be placed on the equation of state of the dark energy.

  8. Telescopes and Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Kitchin, C R

    2013-01-01

    Telescopes and Techniques has proved itself in its first two editions, having become probably one of the most widely used astronomy texts, both for amateur astronomers and astronomy and astrophysics undergraduates. Both earlier editions of the book were widely used for introductory practical astronomy courses in many universities. In this Third Edition the author guides the reader through the mathematics, physics and practical techniques needed to use today's telescopes (from the smaller models to the larger instruments installed in many colleges) and how to find objects in the sky. Most of the physics and engineering involved is described fully and requires little prior knowledge or experience. Both visual and electronic imaging techniques are covered, together with an introduction to how data (measurements) should be processed and analyzed. A simple introduction to radio telescopes is also included. Brief coverage of the more advanced topics of photometry and spectroscopy are included, but mainly to enable ...

  9. Amateur Telescope Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkin, Stephen

    Many amateur astronomers make their own instruments, either because of financial considerations or because they are just interested. Amateur Telescope Making offers a variety of designs for telescopes, mounts and drives which are suitable for the home-constructor. The designs range from simple to advanced, but all are within the range of a moderately well-equipped home workshop. The book not only tells the reader what he can construct, but also what it is sensible to construct given what time is available commercially. Thus each chapter begins with reasons for undertaking the project, then looks at theoretical consideration before finishing with practical instructions and advice. An indication is given as to the skills required for the various projects. Appendices list reputable sources of (mail order) materials and components. The telescopes and mounts range from "shoestring" (very cheap) instruments to specialist devices that are unavailable commercially.

  10. Exploring Galileo's Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straulino, Samuele; Terzuoli, Alessandra

    2010-01-01

    In the first months of 2009, the International Year of Astronomy, the authors developed an educational project for middle-level students connected with the first astronomical discoveries that Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) made 400 years ago. The project included the construction of a basic telescope and the observation of the Moon. The project, if…

  11. Taiwan Automated Telescope Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean-Yi Chou

    2010-01-01

    can be operated either interactively or fully automatically. In the interactive mode, it can be controlled through the Internet. In the fully automatic mode, the telescope operates with preset parameters without any human care, including taking dark frames and flat frames. The network can also be used for studies that require continuous observations for selected objects.

  12. The Falcon Telescope Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, F.; Tippets, R.; Dearborn, M.; Gresham, K.; Freckleton, R.; Douglas, M.

    2014-09-01

    The Falcon Telescope Network (FTN) is a global network of small aperture telescopes developed by the Center for Space Situational Awareness Research in the Department of Physics at the United States Air Force Academy (USAFA). Consisting of commercially available equipment, the FTN is a collaborative effort between USAFA and other educational institutions ranging from two- and four-year colleges to major research universities. USAFA provides the equipment (e.g. telescope, mount, camera, filter wheel, dome, weather station, computers and storage devices) while the educational partners provide the building and infrastructure to support an observatory. The user base includes USAFA along with K-12 and higher education faculty and students. Since the FTN has a general use purpose, objects of interest include satellites, astronomical research, and STEM support images. The raw imagery, all in the public domain, will be accessible to FTN partners and will be archived at USAFA in the Cadet Space Operations Center. FTN users will be able to submit observational requests via a web interface. The requests will then be prioritized based on the type of user, the object of interest, and a user-defined priority. A network wide schedule will be developed every 24 hours and each FTN site will autonomously execute its portion of the schedule. After an observational request is completed, the FTN user will receive notification of collection and a link to the data. The Falcon Telescope Network is an ambitious endeavor, but demonstrates the cooperation that can be achieved by multiple educational institutions.

  13. The big data telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finkel, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    On a flat, red mulga plain in the outback of Western Australia, preparations are under way to build the most audacious telescope astronomers have ever dreamed of - the Square Kilometre Array (SKA). Next-generation telescopes usually aim to double the performance of their predecessors. The Australian arm of SKA will deliver a 168-fold leap on the best technology available today, to show us the universe as never before. It will tune into signals emitted just a million years after the Big Bang, when the universe was a sea of hydrogen gas, slowly percolating with the first galaxies. Their starlight illuminated the fledgling universe in what is referred to as the “cosmic dawn”.

  14. Radio telescope control

    CERN Document Server

    Schraml, J

    1972-01-01

    An on-line computer control process developed for the 100-m radio telescope of the Max-Planck-Institut fur Radioastronomie in Bonn is described. The instrument is the largest fully steerable antenna in the world. Its operation started on May 31st 1972. It is controlled by a Ferranti Argus 500 on-line computer. The first part of the paper deals with the process itself, the radio telescope and its operation, and the demands resulting for the control program. The second part briefly describes the computer and its hardware. The final part introduces the architecture of the executive program in general, which has been tailored to meet the demands of the process and the hardware. The communication between the observer and the system, the format of data on magnetic tape and an on-line reduction of position measurements are considered. (0 refs).

  15. [Galileo and his telescope].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strebel, Christoph

    2006-01-01

    Galileo's publication of observations made with his newly reinvented telescope provoked a fierce debate. In April 1610 Martinus Horky, a young Bohemian astronomer, had an opportunity to make his own observations with Galileo's telescope in the presence of Antonio Magini and other astronomers. Horky and the other witnesses denied the adequacy of Galileo's telescope and therefore the bona fides of his discoveries. Kepler conjectured Horky as well as all his witnesses to be myopic. But Kepler's objection could not stop the publication of Horky's Peregrinatio contra nuncium sidereum (Modena, 1610), the first printed refutation of Galileo's Sidereus nuncius. In his treatise, Horky adresses four questions: 1) Do the four newly observed heavenly bodies actually exist? Horky denies their existence on various grounds: a) God, as every astronomer teaches, has created only seven moveable heavenly bodies and astronomical knowledge originates in God, too. b) Heavenly bodies are either stars or planets. Galileo's moveable heavenly bodies fit into neither category. c) If they do exist, why have they not already been observed by other scholars? Horky concludes that there are no such heavenly bodies. 2) What are these phenomena? They are purely artefactual, and produced by Galileo's telescope. 3) How are they like? Galileo's "stars" are so small as to be almost invisible. Galileo claims that he has measured their distances from each other. This however is impossible due to their diminutive size and other observational problems. Hence, Galileo's claim is a further proof that he is a fraud. 4) Why are they? For Galileo they are a chance to earn money but for astronomers like Horky they are a reason to offer thanks and honour to God. Horky's treatise was favourably received by the enemies of Galileo. But Kepler's critique was devastating. After calling on Kepler in Prague, Horky had to revoke the contents of his book.

  16. Workshop: Neutrino telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Despite being the most elusive of the known particles, neutrinos provide vital new physics insights. Most neutrino knowledge so far has come from studies using beams from reactors and accelerators, but in recent years important new contributions have resulted from investigation of natural neutrinos from cosmic rays, nearby stars (the sun), or distant sources, such as the 1987 supernova. The supernova observations marked the start of a new era in neutrino astronomy, but neutrino telescopes were anyway assured of an important ongoing role

  17. Workshop: Neutrino telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1990-05-15

    Despite being the most elusive of the known particles, neutrinos provide vital new physics insights. Most neutrino knowledge so far has come from studies using beams from reactors and accelerators, but in recent years important new contributions have resulted from investigation of natural neutrinos from cosmic rays, nearby stars (the sun), or distant sources, such as the 1987 supernova. The supernova observations marked the start of a new era in neutrino astronomy, but neutrino telescopes were anyway assured of an important ongoing role.

  18. Fast Fourier transform telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tegmark, Max; Zaldarriaga, Matias

    2009-01-01

    We propose an all-digital telescope for 21 cm tomography, which combines key advantages of both single dishes and interferometers. The electric field is digitized by antennas on a rectangular grid, after which a series of fast Fourier transforms recovers simultaneous multifrequency images of up to half the sky. Thanks to Moore's law, the bandwidth up to which this is feasible has now reached about 1 GHz, and will likely continue doubling every couple of years. The main advantages over a single dish telescope are cost and orders of magnitude larger field-of-view, translating into dramatically better sensitivity for large-area surveys. The key advantages over traditional interferometers are cost (the correlator computational cost for an N-element array scales as Nlog 2 N rather than N 2 ) and a compact synthesized beam. We argue that 21 cm tomography could be an ideal first application of a very large fast Fourier transform telescope, which would provide both massive sensitivity improvements per dollar and mitigate the off-beam point source foreground problem with its clean beam. Another potentially interesting application is cosmic microwave background polarization.

  19. The Planck Telescope reflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stute, Thomas

    2004-09-01

    The mechanical division of EADS-Astrium GmbH, Friedrichshafen is currently engaged with the development, manufacturing and testing of the advanced dimensionally stable composite reflectors for the ESA satellite borne telescope Planck. The objective of the ESA mission Planck is to analyse the first light that filled the universe, the cosmic microwave background radiation. Under contract of the Danish Space Research Institute and ESA EADS-Astrium GmbH is developing the all CFRP primary and secondary reflectors for the 1.5-metre telescope which is the main instrument of the Planck satellite. The operational frequency ranges from to 25 GHz to 1000 GHz. The demanding high contour accuracy and surface roughness requirements are met. The design provides the extreme dimensional stability required by the cryogenic operational environment at around 40 K. The elliptical off-axis reflectors display a classical lightweight sandwich design with CFRP core and facesheets. Isostatic mounts provide the interfaces to the telescope structure. Protected VDA provides the reflecting surface. The manufacturing is performed at the Friedrichshafen premises of EADS-Space Transportation GmbH, the former Dornier composite workshops. Advanced manufacturing technologies like true angle lay-up by CNC fibre placement and filament winding are utilized. The protected coating is applied at the CAHA facilities at the Calar Alto Observatory, Spain. The exhaustive environmental testing is performed at the facilities of IABG, Munich (mechanical testing) and for the cryo-optical tests at CSL Liege. The project is in advanced state with both Qualification Models being under environmental testing. The flight models will be delivered in 2004. The paper gives an overview over the requirements and the main structural features how these requirements are met. Special production aspects and available test results are reported.

  20. Deep space telescopes

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2006-01-01

    The short series of seminars will address results and aims of current and future space astrophysics as the cultural framework for the development of deep space telescopes. It will then present such new tools, as they are currently available to, or imagined by, the scientific community, in the context of the science plans of ESA and of all major world space agencies. Ground-based astronomy, in the 400 years since Galileo’s telescope, has given us a profound phenomenological comprehension of our Universe, but has traditionally been limited to the narrow band(s) to which our terrestrial atmosphere is transparent. Celestial objects, however, do not care about our limitations, and distribute most of the information about their physics throughout the complete electromagnetic spectrum. Such information is there for the taking, from millimiter wavelengths to gamma rays. Forty years astronomy from space, covering now most of the e.m. spectrum, have thus given us a better understanding of our physical Universe then t...

  1. Antares Reference Telescope System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viswanathan, V.K.; Kaprelian, E.; Swann, T.; Parker, J.; Wolfe, P.; Woodfin, G.; Knight, D.

    1983-01-01

    Antares is a 24-beam, 40-TW carbon-dioxide laser-fusion system currently nearing completion at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The 24 beams will be focused onto a tiny target (typically 300 to 1000 μm in diameter) located approximately at the center of a 7.3-m-diameter by 9.3-m-long vacuum (10 - 6 torr) chamber. The design goal is to position the targets to within 10 μm of a selected nominal position, which may be anywhere within a fixed spherical region 1 cm in diameter. The Antares Reference Telescope System is intended to help achieve this goal for alignment and viewing of the various targets used in the laser system. The Antares Reference Telescope System consists of two similar electro-optical systems positioned in a near orthogonal manner in the target chamber area of the laser. Each of these consists of four subsystems: (1) a fixed 9X optical imaging subsystem which produces an image of the target at the vidicon; (2) a reticle projection subsystem which superimposes an image of the reticle pattern at the vidicon; (3) an adjustable front-lighting subsystem which illuminates the target; and (4) an adjustable back-lighting subsystem which also can be used to illuminate the target. The various optical, mechanical, and vidicon design considerations and trade-offs are discussed. The final system chosen (which is being built) and its current status are described in detail

  2. SNAP Telescope Latest Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampton, M.; SNAP Collaboration

    2004-12-01

    The coming era of precision cosmology imposes new demands on space telescopes with regard to spectrophotometric accuracy and image stability. To meet these requirements for SNAP we have developed an all reflecting two-meter-class space telescope of the three-mirror anastigmat type. Our design features a large flat annular field (1.5 degrees = 580mm diameter) and a telephoto advantage of 6, delivering a 22m focal length within an optical package length of only 3.5 meters. The use of highly stable materials (Corning ULE glass and carbon-fiber reinforced cyanate ester resin for the metering structure) combined with agressive distributed thermal control and an L2 orbit location will lead to unmatched figure stability. Owing to our choice of rigid structure with nondeployable solar panels, finite-element models show no structural resonances below 10Hz. An exhaustive stray light study has been completed. Beginning in 2005, two industry studies will develop plans for fabrication, integration and test, bringing SNAP to a highly realistic level of definition. SNAP is supported by the Office of Science, US DoE, under contract DE-AC03-76SF00098.

  3. Origins Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooray, Asantha; Origins Space Telescope Study Team

    2018-01-01

    The Origins Space Telescope (OST) is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, a study in development by NASA in preparation for the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey. Origins is planned to be a large aperture, actively-cooled telescope covering a wide span of the mid- to far-infrared spectrum. Its spectrographs will enable 3D surveys of the sky that will discover and characterize the most distant galaxies, Milky-Way, exoplanets, and the outer reaches of our Solar system. Origins will enable flagship-quality general observing programs led by the astronomical community in the 2030s. The Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) would like to hear your science needs and ideas for this mission. The team can be contacted at firsurveyor_info@lists.ipac.caltech.edu. This presentation will provide a summary of the OST STDT, our completed first mission concept and an introduction to the second concept that will be studied at the study center in 2018. This presentation will also summarize key science drivers and the key study milestones between 2018 and 2020.

  4. Cost Modeling for Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2011-01-01

    Parametric cost models are an important tool for planning missions, compare concepts and justify technology investments. This paper presents on-going efforts to develop single variable and multi-variable cost models for space telescope optical telescope assembly (OTA). These models are based on data collected from historical space telescope missions. Standard statistical methods are used to derive CERs for OTA cost versus aperture diameter and mass. The results are compared with previously published models.

  5. Status of the MAGIC telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colin, Pierre; Carmona, Emiliano; Schweizer, Thomas; Sitarek, Julian [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Werner-Heisenberg Institut, Muenchen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    MAGIC is a system of two 17-m Cherenkov telescopes located on La Palma (Canary islands),sensitive to gamma-rays above 30 GeV. It has been recently upgraded by a second telescope which strongly improves the sensitivity, particularly at low energy. Here we present the status of the MAGIC telescopes and an overview of the recent results obtained in single or stereoscopic mode. We also discuss the real performance of the new stereoscopic system based on Crab Nebula observations.

  6. Silicon Telescope Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Gurov, Yu B; Sandukovsky, V G; Yurkovski, J

    2005-01-01

    The results of research and development of special silicon detectors with a large active area ($> 8 cm^{2}$) for multilayer telescope spectrometers (fulfilled in the Laboratory of Nuclear Problems, JINR) are reviewed. The detector parameters are listed. The production of totally depleted surface barrier detectors (identifiers) operating under bias voltage two to three times higher than depletion voltage is described. The possibility of fabrication of lithium drifted counters with a very thin entrance window on the diffusion side of the detector (about 10--20 $\\mu$m) is shown. The detector fabrication technique has allowed minimizing detector dead regions without degradation of their spectroscopic characteristics and reliability during long time operation in charge particle beams.

  7. Single particle detecting telescope system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, I.; Tomiyama, T.; Iga, Y.; Komatsubara, T.; Kanada, M.; Yamashita, Y.; Wada, T.; Furukawa, S.

    1981-01-01

    We constructed the single particle detecting telescope system for detecting a fractionally charged particle. The telescope consists of position detecting counters, wall-less multi-cell chambers, single detecting circuits and microcomputer system as data I/0 processor. Especially, a frequency of double particle is compared the case of the single particle detecting with the case of an ordinary measurement

  8. Building the Hubble Space Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'dell, C.R.

    1989-01-01

    The development of the design for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is discussed. The HST optical system is described and illustrated. The financial and policy issues related to the development of the HST are considered. The actual construction of the HST optical telescope is examined. Also, consideration is given to the plans for the HST launch

  9. Infrared up-conversion telescope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    There is presented to an up-conversion infrared telescope (110) arranged for imaging an associated scene (130), wherein the up-conversion infrared telescope (110) comprises a non-linear crystal (120) arranged for up-conversion of infrared electromagnetic radiation, and wherein a first optical...

  10. Seismic Imager Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidick, Erkin; Coste, Keith; Cunningham, J.; Sievers,Michael W.; Agnes, Gregory S.; Polanco, Otto R.; Green, Joseph J.; Cameron, Bruce A.; Redding, David C.; Avouac, Jean Philippe; hide

    2012-01-01

    A concept has been developed for a geostationary seismic imager (GSI), a space telescope in geostationary orbit above the Pacific coast of the Americas that would provide movies of many large earthquakes occurring in the area from Southern Chile to Southern Alaska. The GSI movies would cover a field of view as long as 300 km, at a spatial resolution of 3 to 15 m and a temporal resolution of 1 to 2 Hz, which is sufficient for accurate measurement of surface displacements and photometric changes induced by seismic waves. Computer processing of the movie images would exploit these dynamic changes to accurately measure the rapidly evolving surface waves and surface ruptures as they happen. These measurements would provide key information to advance the understanding of the mechanisms governing earthquake ruptures, and the propagation and arrest of damaging seismic waves. GSI operational strategy is to react to earthquakes detected by ground seismometers, slewing the satellite to point at the epicenters of earthquakes above a certain magnitude. Some of these earthquakes will be foreshocks of larger earthquakes; these will be observed, as the spacecraft would have been pointed in the right direction. This strategy was tested against the historical record for the Pacific coast of the Americas, from 1973 until the present. Based on the seismicity recorded during this time period, a GSI mission with a lifetime of 10 years could have been in position to observe at least 13 (22 on average) earthquakes of magnitude larger than 6, and at least one (2 on average) earthquake of magnitude larger than 7. A GSI would provide data unprecedented in its extent and temporal and spatial resolution. It would provide this data for some of the world's most seismically active regions, and do so better and at a lower cost than could be done with ground-based instrumentation. A GSI would revolutionize the understanding of earthquake dynamics, perhaps leading ultimately to effective warning

  11. Lightweighted ZERODUR for telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerhoff, T.; Davis, M.; Hartmann, P.; Hull, T.; Jedamzik, R.

    2014-07-01

    The glass ceramic ZERODUR® from SCHOTT has an excellent reputation as mirror blank material for earthbound and space telescope applications. It is known for its extremely low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) at room temperature and its excellent CTE homogeneity. Recent improvements in CNC machining at SCHOTT allow achieving extremely light weighted substrates up to 90% incorporating very thin ribs and face sheets. In 2012 new ZERODUR® grades EXPANSION CLASS 0 SPECIAL and EXTREME have been released that offer the tightest CTE grades ever. With ZERODUR® TAILORED it is even possible to offer ZERODUR® optimized for customer application temperature profiles. In 2013 SCHOTT started the development of a new dilatometer setup with the target to drive the industrial standard of high accuracy thermal expansion metrology to its limit. In recent years SCHOTT published several paper on improved bending strength of ZERODUR® and lifetime evaluation based on threshold values derived from 3 parameter Weibull distribution fitted to a multitude of stress data. ZERODUR® has been and is still being successfully used as mirror substrates for a large number of space missions. ZERODUR® was used for the secondary mirror in HST and for the Wolter mirrors in CHANDRA without any reported degradation of the optical image quality during the lifetime of the missions. Some years ago early studies on the compaction effects of electron radiation on ZERODUR® were re analyzed. Using a more relevant physical model based on a simplified bimetallic equation the expected deformation of samples exposed in laboratory and space could be predicted in a much more accurate way. The relevant ingredients for light weighted mirror substrates are discussed in this paper: substrate material with excellent homogeneity in its properties, sufficient bending strengths, space radiation hardness and CNC machining capabilities.

  12. Advanced Athermal Telescopes, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposed innovative athermal telescope design uses advanced lightweight and high-stiffness material of Beryllium-Aluminum (Be-38Al). Peregrine's expertise with...

  13. The JCMT Telescope Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilanus, Remo P. J.; Jenness, Tim; Economou, Frossie; Cockayne, Steve

    Established telescopes often face a challenge when trying to incorporate new software standards and utilities into their existing real-time control system. At the JCMT we have successfully added important new features such as a Relational Database (the Telescope Management System---TMS), an online data Archive, and WWW based utilities to an, in part, 10-year old system. The new functionality was added with remarkably few alterations to the existing system. We are still actively expanding and exploring these new capabilities.

  14. Alt-Az Spacewatch Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrels, Tom

    1997-01-01

    This grant funded about one third of the cost of the construction of a telescope with an aperture 1.8 meters in diameter to discover asteroids and comets and investigate the statistics of their populations and orbital distributions. This telescope has been built to the PI's specifications and installed in a dome on Kitt Peak mountain in Arizona. Funds for the dome and building were provided entirely by private sources. The dome building and telescope were dedicated in a ceremony at the site on June 7, 1997. The attached abstract describes the parameters of the telescope. The telescope is a new item of capital property. It is permanently located in University of Arizona building number 910 in the Steward Observatory compound on Kitt Peak mountain in the Tohono O'odham Nation, Arizona. fts property tag number is A252107. This grant did not include funds for the coma corrector lens, instrument derotator, CCD detector, detector electronics, or computers to acquire or process the data. It also did not include funds to operate the telescope or conduct research with it. Funds for these items and efforts are pending from NASA and other sources.

  15. The Submillimeter Telescope (SMT) project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.N.; Baars, J.W.M.

    1990-01-01

    To exploit the potential of submillimeter astronomy, the Submillimeter Telescope (SMT) will be located at an altitude of 3178 meters on Emerald Peak 75 miles northeast of Tucson in Southern Arizona. The instrument is an altazimuth mounted f/13.8 Cassegrain homology telescope with two Nasmyth and bent Cassegrain foci. It will have diffraction limited performance at a wavelength of 300 microns and an operating overall figure accuracy of 15 microns rms. An important feature of the SMT is the construction of the primary and secondary reflectors out of aluminum-core CFRP face sheet sandwich panels, and the reflector backup structure and secondary support out of CFRP structural elements. This modern technology provides both a means for reaching the required precision of the SMT for both night and day operation (basically because of the low coefficient of thermal expansion and high strength-to-weight ratio of CFRP) and a potential route for the realization of lightweight telescopes of even greater accuracy in the future. The SMT will be the highest accuracy radio telescope ever built (at least a factor of 2 more accurate than existing telescopes). In addition, the SMT will be the first 10 m-class submillimeter telescope with a surface designed for efficient measurements at the important 350 microns wavelength atmospheric window. 9 refs

  16. Alignment and phasing of deployable telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolf, N. J.; Ulich, B. L.

    1983-01-01

    The experiences in coaligning and phasing the Multi-Mirror Telescope (MMT), together with studies in setting up radio telescopes, are presented. These experiences are discussed, and on the basis they furnish, schemes are suggested for coaligning and phasing four large future telescopes with complex primary mirror systems. These telescopes are MT2, a 15-m-equivalent MMT, the University of California Ten Meter Telescope, the 10 m sub-mm wave telescope of the University of Arizona and the Max Planck Institute for Radioastronomy, and the Large Deployable Reflector, a future space telescope for far-IR and sub-mm waves.

  17. Trick or Treat and Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buratti, Bonnie J.; Meinke, Bonnie K.; Schmude, Richard W.

    2017-10-01

    Based on an activity that DPS member Richard Schmude Jr. has been doing for years, with over 5000 children reached, DPS initiated in 2016 a pilot program entitled “Trick-or-Treat and Telescopes.” DPS encouraged its members to put out their telescopes during trick-or-treat time on Halloween, in their own lawns or in a neighbor’s lawn with better viewing (or more traffic). The program will be continued in 2017. This year should offer good viewing with a waxing gibbous moon and Saturn visible. The program was also advertised though the Night Sky Network, a consortium of astronomy clubs. The following website gives advice and connections to resources.https://dps.aas.org/education/trick-or-treat-and-telescopes acknowledged.

  18. Scientific management of Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odell, C. R.

    1981-01-01

    A historical summay is given on the science management of the Space Telescope, the inception of which began in 1962, when scientists and engineers first recommended the development of a nearly diffraction limited substantial-size optical telescope. Phase A, the feasibility requirements generation phase, began in 1971 and consisted largely of NASA scientists and a NASA design. Phase B, the preliminary design phase, established a tiered structure of scientists, led by the Large Space Telescope operations and Management Work Group. A Mission Operations Working Group headed six instrument definition teams to develop the essential instrument definitions. Many changes took place during Phase B, before design and development, which began in 1978 and still continues today.

  19. Space Telescope maintenance and refurbishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trucks, H. F.

    1983-01-01

    The Space Telescope (ST) represents a new concept regarding spaceborne astronomical observatories. Maintenance crews will be brought to the orbital worksite to make repairs and replace scientific instruments. For major overhauls the telescope can be temporarily returned to earth with the aid of the Shuttle. It will, thus, be possible to conduct astronomical studies with the ST for two decades or more. The five first-generation scientific instruments used with the ST include a wide field/planetary camera, a faint object camera, a faint object spectrograph, a high resolution spectrograph, and a high speed photometer. Attention is given to the optical telescope assembly, the support systems module, aspects of mission and science operations, unscheduled maintenance, contingency orbital maintenance, planned on-orbit maintenance, ground maintenance, ground refurbishment, and ground logistics.

  20. LSST telescope and site status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gressler, William J.

    2016-07-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) Project1 received its construction authorization from the National Science Foundation in August 2014. The Telescope and Site (T and S) group has made considerable progress towards completion in subsystems required to support the scope of the LSST science mission. The LSST goal is to conduct a wide, fast, deep survey via a 3-mirror wide field of view optical design, a 3.2-Gpixel camera, and an automated data processing system. The summit facility is currently under construction on Cerro Pachón in Chile, with major vendor subsystem deliveries and integration planned over the next several years. This paper summarizes the status of the activities of the T and S group, tasked with design, analysis, and construction of the summit and base facilities and infrastructure necessary to control the survey, capture the light, and calibrate the data. All major telescope work package procurements have been awarded to vendors and are in varying stages of design and fabrication maturity and completion. The unique M1M3 primary/tertiary mirror polishing effort is completed and the mirror now resides in storage waiting future testing. Significant progress has been achieved on all the major telescope subsystems including the summit facility, telescope mount assembly, dome, hexapod and rotator systems, coating plant, base facility, and the calibration telescope. In parallel, in-house efforts including the software needed to control the observatory such as the scheduler and the active optics control, have also seen substantial advancement. The progress and status of these subsystems and future LSST plans during this construction phase are presented.

  1. A monolithic silicon detector telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardella, G.; Amorini, F.; Cabibbo, M.; Di Pietro, A.; Fallica, G.; Franzo, G.; Figuera, P.; Papa, M.; Pappalardo, G.; Percolla, G.; Priolo, F.; Privitera, V.; Rizzo, F.; Tudisco, S.

    1996-01-01

    An ultrathin silicon detector (1 μm) thick implanted on a standard 400 μm Si-detector has been built to realize a monolithic telescope detector for simultaneous charge and energy determination of charged particles. The performances of the telescope have been tested using standard alpha sources and fragments emitted in nuclear reactions with different projectile-target colliding systems. An excellent charge resolution has been obtained for low energy (less than 5 MeV) light nuclei. A multi-array lay-out of such detectors is under construction to charge identify the particles emitted in reactions induced by low energy radioactive beams. (orig.)

  2. Artificial Intelligence in Autonomous Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, William; Thanjavur, Karun

    2011-03-01

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) is key to the natural evolution of today's automated telescopes to fully autonomous systems. Based on its rapid development over the past five decades, AI offers numerous, well-tested techniques for knowledge based decision making essential for real-time telescope monitoring and control, with minimal - and eventually no - human intervention. We present three applications of AI developed at CFHT for monitoring instantaneous sky conditions, assessing quality of imaging data, and a prototype for scheduling observations in real-time. Closely complementing the current remote operations at CFHT, we foresee further development of these methods and full integration in the near future.

  3. The synchrotron light source as a tool for microtechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Harvey, E C

    2002-01-01

    We are all familiar with lathes and milling machines for shaping parts in machine shops and factories. But what if the parts we need to make are significantly smaller than a millimetre, and featuring details even smaller? Semiconductor chip manufacturers have faced these problems and have learnt to use new ways to make devices. No longer are transistors made one at a time, but rather are 'printed' millions at a time, together with their interconnection wiring in a process called photolithography. Light from an excimer laser is directed through masks that incorporate the patterns required and photoexposes surfaces positioned behind the masks. This form of photolithography is today a standard process in semiconductor FAB plants and has several critical advantages in terms of cost, reproducibility, reliability and its ability to scale towards ever smaller and more complex systems

  4. Every OGT Is Illuminated … by Fluorescent and Synchrotron Lights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Miggiano

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available O6-DNA-alkyl-guanine-DNA-alkyl-transferases (OGTs are evolutionarily conserved, unique proteins that repair alkylation lesions in DNA in a single step reaction. Alkylating agents are environmental pollutants as well as by-products of cellular reactions, but are also very effective chemotherapeutic drugs. OGTs are major players in counteracting the effects of such agents, thus their action in turn affects genome integrity, survival of organisms under challenging conditions and response to chemotherapy. Numerous studies on OGTs from eukaryotes, bacteria and archaea have been reported, highlighting amazing features that make OGTs unique proteins in their reaction mechanism as well as post-reaction fate. This review reports recent functional and structural data on two prokaryotic OGTs, from the pathogenic bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus, respectively. These studies provided insight in the role of OGTs in the biology of these microorganisms, but also important hints useful to understand the general properties of this class of proteins.

  5. Distributed control system for the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batchelor, K.; Culwick, B.B.; Goldstick, J.; Sheehan, J.; Smith, J.

    1979-01-01

    Until recently, accelerator and similar control systems have used modular interface hardware such as CAMAC or DATACON which translated digital computer commands transmitted over some data link into hardware device status and monitoring variables. Such modules possessed little more than local buffering capability in the processing of commands and data. The advent of the micro-processor has made available low cost small computers of significant computational capability. This paper describes how micro-computers including such micro-processors and associated memory, input/output devices and interrupt facilities have been incorporated into a distributed system for the control of the NSLS

  6. Progress with ELETTRA, the synchrotron light source in Trieste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puglisi, M.; Wrulich, A.

    1991-01-01

    ELETTRA, the 3rd generation synchrotron radiation source under construction in Trieste has passed the design phase. The present schedule calls for a start of commissioning by the second half of 1993. The buildings are under construction and prototypes for all main components of the accelerator complex have been constructed and industrial production has started. A high power cavity fully equipped with cooling circuit and input coupling loop, as well as mechanical tuning system, has been tested and measured. Prototype cavities equipped with higher order mode suppressors are under development. In-house prototypes for each magnet type have been built and magnetic measurements have been performed. The vacuum chamber prototype has been baked under vacuum and tested with its pumping system. A prototype pure permanent magnet undulator has been assembled and measured. The first 100 MeV sections of the 1.5 GeV injection linac will go in operation in August 1990

  7. Dipole power supply for National Synchrotron Light Source Booster upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, R.; Dabrowski, J.; Murray, J.

    1992-01-01

    The booster at the NSLS is being upgraded from .75 to 2 pulses per second. To accomplish this, new power supplies for the dipole, quadrupole, and sextupole magnets have been designed and are being constructed. This paper will outline the design of the dipole power supply and control system, and will present results obtained thus far

  8. Nanoparticles and synchrotron light for brain tumors therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taupin, Florence

    2013-01-01

    Gliomas treatment is still a serious challenge in medicine. Available treatments are mainly palliative and patients' survival is increased by a few months only. An original radiotherapy technique consists in increasing the dose delivered to the tumor by loading it with high Z atoms before an irradiation with low energy X-rays (50-100 keV). Preclinical studies have been conducted using iodine contrast agent (CA) (Z=53) and 50 keV X-rays. The increase of the animals' survival leads today to the beginning of clinical trials (phases I and II) at the medical beamline of the European synchrotron, where the available monochromatic and intense photons beam is well suited for this treatment. The use of intravenously injected CA is however insufficient for curing rat's bearing glioma. Indeed, the contrast agent's accumulation is limited by the presence of the BBB and it remains extracellular. Metallic nanoparticles (NPs) appear interesting for improving the treatment efficacy. During this work, three different types of NPs have been studied: GdNPs (3 nm), AuNPs (13 nm) and PtNPs (6 nm). Their toxicity and internalization have been evaluated in vitro on F98 rodent glioma cells. Cells' survival has also been measured after different irradiation conditions in presence of these NPs and with monochromatic photons beams. Several mechanisms implicated in the treatment have been highlighted by the study of the cells' response dependence to the incident particles energy and to the sub cellular NPs distribution during irradiation. For identical concentrations, NPs were more efficient in cells killing than CA, illustrating their microdosimetric potential. The effect was also preferential for low energy X-rays, indicating that photoactivation of heavy atoms plays a role in the cells' death. GdNPs and PtNPs have also lead to an effect in combination to high energy photons (1.25 MeV), indicating that another mechanism may also increase the cell sensitivity to radiations with such NPs. Preclinical trials, performed on rats bearing F98 glioma, have shown that the complete tumor overlap with NPs is a key point for the success of this treatment. Dual energy computed tomography (CT) has been developed at the synchrotron medical beamline and evaluated during this PhD thesis. The study has allowed quantitatively and simultaneously imaging the tumor (highlighted by iodinated CA) and the GdNPs distribution injected intra-cerebrally in rodents bearing glioma. The comparison between the CA distribution and the tumor volume has also been performed using high spatial resolutions imaging methods (MRI, X-rays phase contrast tomography and histology). (author) [fr

  9. National Synchrotron Light Source angiography personnel protection interlock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gmuer, N.; Larson, R.; Thomlinson, W.

    1992-06-01

    This document has been written to describe the safety system operation at the NSLS X17B2 beamline Synchrotron Medical Research Facility (SMERF). The angiography exposure process involves scanning a patient up and down through dual fixed-position x-ray beams; exposure is controlled by opening and closing a fast-acting Safety Shutter mechanism at precise times in relation to the up and down motion of the scan chair. The fast-acting Safety Shutter mechanism is the primary radiation-stopping element protecting the patient while the chair is at rest and while it is reversing directions during the scan. Its fail-safe and fast operation is essential for the safety of the patient. Operation of X17B2 as a human subject angiography station necessitates the implementation of a personnel protection interlock system that, in conjunction with the Safety Shutters: permits safe access to the patient exposure area while the synchrotron radiation beam is illuminating the upstream dual energy monochromator; allows a patient to be imaged by the monochromatized beam under the supervision of a Responsible Physician, with scan chair motion and precision shutter actuation regulated by an angiography control computer, while providing a suitable number of safeguards against accidental radiation exposure; has different modes of operation to accommodate equipment set-up, test, and calibration; and patient exposure; and ensures the quick extinction of the beam if a potentially unsafe condition is detected. The interlock system which performs these safety functions is called the Angiography Personnel Protection Interlock (APPI). The APPI Document is organized such that the level of detail changes from a general overview to detailed engineering drawings of the hardware system

  10. Materials research utilizing NSLS [National Synchrotron Light Source]: Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liedl, G.L.

    1986-08-01

    Research was conducted using NSLS synchrotron radiation on the following: decomposition kinetics of a supersaturated Ni-Si alloy, hexane monolayers on graphite, layering of Fe(CO) 5 on graphite, charge density waves, aging of Al-Li, superlattices in ternary MBE-grown semiconductor films, phase transformation in Cu-Be and Al-Zn, microstructural changes in complex alloys, diffuse x-ray scattering, ion conduction in Ag-Ge-Se glass, organic monolayers of the Langmuir Blodgett type, and residual stress in coating

  11. National Synchrotron Light Source guidelines for the conduct of operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fewell, N.

    1990-03-01

    This report briefly discusses the following topics: NSLS operations organization and administration; shift routines and operating practices; NSLS control room activities; communications; control of on-shift training; investigation of abnormal events; notifications; control of equipment and system status; lock-out tagout; independent verification; logkeeping; shift turnover; required reading; shift orders; equipment operations guides; operator aid postings; and equipment labeling

  12. Synchrotron light: A success story over six decades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margaritondo, G.

    2017-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation research continues to be a major factor in the progress of science and technology, as it has been for more than half a century. We present different aspects of its history, starting with an unconventional approach: a fictional version, which should bring to light the reasons that make this field so broadly important. Then, we narrate the real history from three different points of view: the progress of electron accelerators, the evolution of synchrotron-based experiments, and the human factors. Finally, we discuss the present situation, characterized by the arrival of a new generation of sources with exceptional performances: the x-ray free electron lasers (x-FEL's).

  13. Synchrotron light science: from flux to brightness to coherence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margaritondo, G.

    1998-01-01

    One century after their discovery and first application to radiology, X-rays are finally achieving coherence. The potential impact on radiological imaging is extremely important, with significant social repercussions. These exciting developments are the final product of a revolution initiated in the late 1960's by Gianfranco Chiarotti and a few other pioneers, who first dreamed of using electron accelerators as superior X-rays sources, and then transformed this dream into reality

  14. Synchrotron light sources: The search for quantum chaos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlachter, Fred

    2001-01-01

    A storage ring is a specialized synchrotron in which a stored beam of relativistic electrons produces radiation in the vuv and x-ray regions of the spectrum. High-brightness radiation is used at the ALS to study doubly excited autoionizing states of the helium atom in the search for quantum chaos

  15. BNL National Synchrotron Light Source activity report 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-05-01

    During FY 1997 Brookhaven National Laboratory celebrated its 50th Anniversary and 50 years of outstanding achievement under the management of Associated Universities, Inc. This progress report is divided into the following sections: (1) introduction; (2) science highlights; (3) meetings and workshops; (4) operations; (5) projects; (6) organization; and (7) abstracts and publications

  16. Fast ferrite tuner for the BNL synchrotron light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pivit, E.; Hanna, S.M.; Keane, J.

    1991-01-01

    A new type of ferrite tuner has been tested at the BNL. The ferrite tuner uses garnet slabs partially filling a stripline. One of the important features of the tuner is that the ferrite is perpendicularly biased for operation above FMR, thus reducing the magnetic losses. A unique design was adopted to achieve the efficient cooling. The principle of operation of the tuner as well as our preliminary results on tuning a 52 MHz cavity are reported. Optimized conditions under which we demonstrated linear tunability of 80 KHz are described. The tuner's losses and its effect on higher-order modes in the cavity are discussed. 2 refs., 8 figs

  17. SUNY beamline facilities at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppens, P.

    1993-01-01

    This document presents information concerning: crystallography (single crystal studies); crystallography (powder diffraction); crystallography (surface structure); exafs and interface studies; and small angle scattering

  18. SUNY beam line X3, National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses: beamline change and upgrades at NSLS; crystallography; surface structure; small angle scattering; EXAFS, glazing angle and fluorescence studies; and high temperature superconductors. (LSP)

  19. [SUNY beamline facilities at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppens, P.

    1992-01-01

    This report contains short discussions on the following topics which mainly deal with superconductors: crystallography; surface structure; scattering and EXAFS studies; small angle scattering of x-rays

  20. Science research with high-brilliance synchrotron light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanyal, Milan K.

    2013-01-01

    Synchrotron-science has changed dramatically since the development of high brilliance electron accelerator-based light sources in 1990s. In the last twenty years or so, several such facilities have come up, particularly in developed countries, as material characterizations in relevant atmosphere and protein crystallography with tiny-crystals have strong implications in industrial competitiveness. Moreover several new techniques have been developed recently over the entire spectral range of emitted light, from infra-red to high energy X-rays, which have altered our basic understanding of various materials like biomaterials, nanomaterials, soft-matter and semiconductor quantum structures. In addition, rapid development of various X-ray imaging techniques for nondestructive evaluation of compositional/structural homogeneity of engineering materials with nanometer resolution will have tremendous impact in manufacturing industries. As India becomes a developed country, it must have access to such an advanced synchrotron facility in the country that enables knowledge generation in the ever-expanding fields of design-characterization-production of advanced materials and modern medicines. Development of such state-of-the art facility will also enable us to carry out frontier-basic-research in our own country and help us to retain and bring back Indian talents to India. Here we shall discuss briefly the characteristics of a high brilliance synchrotron source and outline the nature of basic and applied science research that can be done with such a state-of-the-art facility. (author)

  1. Development trends for insertion devices of future synchrotron light sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. Hwang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The in-vacuum undulator with a permanent magnet at room temperature is a mature technology and is widely used; with a short period length in a medium-energy facility, it can enhance photon brilliance in the hard x-ray region. A cryogenic permanent magnet has been investigated as an in-vacuum undulator; this undulator will become the best prospective device to satisfy the requirements of a photon source with great brilliance in the hard x-ray region. For the further hard x-ray region, a superconducting wiggler can provide great flux with a continuous spectrum, whereas a superconducting undulator will provide great brilliance with a discrete spectrum. High-temperature superconducting wires are highly promising for use in the development of superconducting undulators; unique algorithms for their development with an extremely short period in a small-magnet gap have been devised. Some out-of-vacuum planar undulators with special functions must also be fabricated to enable diverse applications in various light-source facilities. This article describes current and future developments for insertion devices in storage-ring and free-electron-laser facilities and discusses their feasibility for use therein.

  2. Rf power systems for the national synchrotron light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickinson, T.; Rheaume, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    The booster synchrotron and the two storage rings at the NSLS are provided with rf power systems of 3 kW, 50 kW, and 500 kW nominal output power, all at 53 MHz. This power is supplied by grounded grid tetrode amplifiers designed for television broadcast service. These amplifiers and associated power supplies, control and interlock systems, rf controls, and computer interface are described

  3. Storage ring development at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krinsky, S.; Bittner, J.; Fauchet, A.M.; Johnson, E.D.; Keane, J.; Murphy, J.; Nawrocky, R.J.; Rogers, J.; Singh, O.V.; Yu, L.H.

    1991-09-01

    This report contains papers on the following topics: Transverse Beam Profile Monitor; Bunch Length Measurements in the VUV Storage Ring; Photoelectric Effect Photon Beam Position Monitors; RF Receivers for Processing Electron Beam Pick-up Electrode Signals; Real-Time Global Orbit Feedback Systems; Local Orbit Feedback; Active Interlock System for High Power Insertion Devices in the X-ray Ring; Bunch Lengthening Cavity for the VUV Ring; SXLS Storage Ring Design

  4. The tomography beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilmanian, F.A.; Wu, X.Y.; Parsons, E.C. [and others

    1996-12-31

    We compared the image contrast of a monochromatic CT, Multiple Energy Computed Tomography (MECT), and conventional CT scanner using phantoms. The experimental results indicate that monochromatic CT, with beam energy tuned just above the iodine K-edge, has about a 3 fold advantage in iodine contrast over conventional CT with a 120 kVp beam. Modeling using the same beams at a 3 rad dose and 3 mm slice height on an 18 cm diameter acrylic phantom, the simulations show a noise of 1.2 HU for MECT and 1.9 HU for CCT. Furthermore, despite the Cupping-effect corrections the bone contrast is lower in CCT and varies by 24 HU moving from the phantom`s center to the edge; this indicates an advantage for MECT in detecting and quantifying lesions differing from surrounding tissue by their mean atomic number.

  5. Progress and prospects at the national synchrotron light source (NSLS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howells, M.R.

    1981-07-01

    This report discusses the NSLS project from inception until the present. The commencement and motivation for the program are considered from the viewpoint of the needs of various experiments and the concepts of the Basic Source is introduced. The Basic Source has high brightness and tunability within the ranges 0 to 0.3 keV and 3 to 20 keV. The inclusion of tunability implies the use of monochromators and the role of these is discussed. The Basic Source is important because it satisfies a very large proportion of users. The strategy of NSLS in providing a good Basic Source and special devices (monochromators and wigglers) to allow coverage of the energy ranges outside those of the Basic Source is described. The response of the NSLS to various other general and special needs of experimental users is described. Turning to the Free Electron Laser Project, a brief description of that device is given followed by a progress report of the overall NSLS construction program. The broad conclusion is that the NSLS facility will be completed within 2 to 3 months of its scheduled timescale and within its budget. This is considered to be a highly successful conclusion to the construction program

  6. Fast valve for the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oversluizen, T.

    1981-01-01

    A prototype fast closing, all metal, UHV-compatible valve has been built to protect the NSLS storage rings from sudden vacuum failures which may occur in the experimental beamlines. When triggered, an area of 10 x 140 mm is covered by a spring-driven, guillotine type blade, which forms a high impedance to the inrushing gas. This fast closure assures the protection of the ring vacuum from contamination before the slower UHV valve can be sealed off. Closing times on the order of 3 to 5 msec have been measured. The valve is triggered by a commercial solenoid, powered by a 16,800 μF capacitor bank at 100 volts. Because the valve is situated in a high radiation area, it is remotely resettable

  7. Compton profile with synchrotron light - application to Y-123 superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De, Udayan

    2005-01-01

    Electron beam accelerated to 6 GeV in the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) at Grenoble, France, can deliver highly mono-energetic, intense (10 12 photons/sec at sample at 100 mA ring current) and fine photon beam reaching x-ray and γ energies. So photons of 57 keV from this synchrotron has been used for Compton Profile or CP experiment (at different temperatures down to 70 K) on our YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 or Y-123 single crystals with T c = 91 K. Photons, Compton scattered even at a definite angle, θ, show a distribution (called Compton Profile) of energy and hence of momentum reflecting the EMD or electron momentum distribution in the solid. The temperature variation of S-parameter, defined as the fraction of low momentum electrons, has been found from preliminary CP data. It confirmed the surprising double minimum found from Doppler broadening of positron annihilation radiation lineshape (DBPARL). The CP set-up at the synchrotron including the detectors and cryogenics as well as the new results are outlined. (author)

  8. National Synchrotron Light Source angiography personnel protection interlock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gmuer, N.; Larson, R.; Thomlinson, W.

    1992-06-01

    This document has been written to describe the safety system operation at the NSLS X17B2 beamline Synchrotron Medical Research Facility (SMERF). The angiography exposure process involves scanning a patient up and down through dual fixed-position x-ray beams; exposure is controlled by opening and closing a fast-acting Safety Shutter mechanism at precise times in relation to the up and down motion of the scan chair. The fast-acting Safety Shutter mechanism is the primary radiation-stopping element protecting the patient while the chair is at rest and while it is reversing directions during the scan. Its fail-safe and fast operation is essential for the safety of the patient. Operation of X17B2 as a human subject angiography station necessitates the implementation of a personnel protection interlock system that, in conjunction with the Safety Shutters: permits safe access to the patient exposure area while the synchrotron radiation beam is illuminating the upstream dual energy monochromator; allows a patient to be imaged by the monochromatized beam under the supervision of a Responsible Physician, with scan chair motion and precision shutter actuation regulated by an angiography control computer, while providing a suitable number of safeguards against accidental radiation exposure; has different modes of operation to accommodate equipment set-up, test, and calibration; and patient exposure; and ensures the quick extinction of the beam if a potentially unsafe condition is detected. The interlock system which performs these safety functions is called the Angiography Personnel Protection Interlock (APPI). The APPI Document is organized such that the level of detail changes from a general overview to detailed engineering drawings of the hardware system.

  9. (SUNY beamline facilities at the National Synchrotron Light Source)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coppens, P.

    1992-01-01

    This report contains short discussions on the following topics which mainly deal with superconductors: crystallography; surface structure; scattering and EXAFS studies; small angle scattering of x-rays. (LSP)

  10. SUNY beam line X3, National Synchrotron Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses: beamline change and upgrades at NSLS; crystallography; surface structure; small angle scattering; EXAFS, glazing angle and fluorescence studies; and high temperature superconductors. (LSP).

  11. Undulator based scanning microscope at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rarback, H.; Shu, D.; Ade, H.; Jacobsen, C.; Kirz, J.; McNulty, I.; Rosser, R.

    1986-01-01

    A second generation scanning soft x-ray microscope is under construction, designed to utilize the dramatic increase in source bightness available at the soft x-ray undulator. The new instrument is expected to reduce image acquisition time by a factor of about 100, and to improve resolution, stability, and reproducibility

  12. Mechanical Design of the HER Synchrotron Light Monitor Primary Mirror

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daly, Edward F.; /SLAC; Fisher, Alan S.; Kurita, Nadine R.; Langton, J.; /SLAC

    2011-09-14

    This paper describes the mechanical design of the primary mirror that images the visible portion of the synchrotron radiation (SR) extracted from the High Energy Ring (HER) of the PEP-II B-Factory. During off-axis operation, the water-cooled GlidCop mirror is subjected to a heat flux in excess of 2000 W/cm2. When on-axis imaging occurs, the heat flux due to scattered SR, resistive wall losses and Higher-Order-Mode (HOM) heating is estimated at 1 W/cm2. The imaging surface is plated with Electroless Nickel to improve its optical characteristics. The design requirements for the primary mirror are listed and discussed. Calculated mechanical distortions and stresses experienced by the mirror during on-axis and off-axis operation will be presented.

  13. High precision power supplies for the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, R.; Langenbach, H.

    1987-04-01

    Since beam stability depends to a considerable degree on the stability of the magnet power supplies, and it is desired to push for 3 GeV operation, it was required that new power supplies be obtained for the quadrupoles and sextupoles. These power supplies were to have the lowest ripple that could be reasonably achieved, and were to have a current regulation of better than 10 PPM. In addition, since they operate over a 5 : 1 voltage range, it was considered desirable to ensure that they operated with a good power factor over the operating range. The dipole power supply was modified to use the techniques employed in the smaller supplies

  14. LNLS - Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory Activity Report 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This activity report highlight the activities as follows: atomic local order of hafnium and silicon in dielectric films; development of bio absorbent for arsenite; insights into enzyme-substrate interaction; investigation of metastable phases in zirconia-ceria nano-ceramics by synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction; lattice distortion effects on magneto-structural phase transition of Mn As; mechanism of orbital ordering in transition-metal oxides; organic molecules in star-forming regions; spatially ordered In P dots grown on compositionally modulated In Ga P layers; structural insights into {beta}-Xylosidase from Trichoderma reesei, and surface random alloys studied by synchrotron based photoelectron diffraction.

  15. The Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, 20 years of synchrotron light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantwell, K.

    1993-08-01

    The Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) is now operating as a fully dedicated light source with low emittance electron optics, delivering high brightness photon beams to 25 experimental stations six to seven months per year. On October 1, 1993 SSRL became a Division of the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, rather than an Independent Laboratory of Stanford University, so that high energy physics and synchrotron radiation now function under a single DOE contract. The SSRL division of SLAC has responsibility for operating, maintaining and improving the SPEAR accelerator complex, which includes the storage ring and a 3 GeV injector. SSRL has thirteen x-ray stations and twelve VUV/Soft x-ray stations serving its 600 users. Recently opened to users is a new spherical grating monochromator (SGM) and a multiundulator beam line. Circularly polarized capabilities are being exploited on a second SGM line. New YB 66 crystals installed in a vacuum double-crystal monochromator line have sparked new interest for Al and Mg edge studies. One of the most heavily subscribed stations is the rotation camera, which has been recently enhanced with a MAR imaging plate detector system for protein crystallography on a multipole wiggler. Under construction is a new wiggler-based structural molecular biology beam line with experimental stations for crystallography, small angle scattering and x-ray absorption spectroscopy. Plans for new developments include wiggler beam lines and associated facilities specialized for environmental research and materials processing

  16. NBS SURF 11: A small versatile synchrotron light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakowsky, G.

    1981-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation sources do not have to be large multi-megadollar installations. SURF II is based on a compact electron storage ring with a radius of only 0.84 m, an operating energy of 250 MeV, and useful light output down to 5 nm. Small beam size, high brightness and wide-angle light ports give SURF II unique capabilities. Presently five beamlines are instrumented and operational, supporting experiments in atomic and molecular physics, surface science and materials studies, as well as providing optical calibration services. Nearing completion is a large facility for calibrating optical instruments, especially those intended for space flight. The capability of determining the absolute light flux emitted by SURF II has recently been improved and is now operational. The technique employs ultralinear silicon photodiodes to detect and count individual electrons in the stored beam. Other user conveniences include close access to the machine, flexible scheduling and close interaction with the operations staff. The machine's simplicity contributes to reliability and a high ratio of beamtime to downtime

  17. Shielding synchrotron light sources: Advantages of circular shield walls tunnels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, S.L. [Design and Accelerator Operations Consulting, 568 Wintergreen Ct Ridge, NY 11961 (United States); Ghosh, V.J.; Breitfeller, M. [NSLS-II, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2016-08-11

    Third generation high brightness light sources are designed to have low emittance and high current beams, which contribute to higher beam loss rates that will be compensated by Top-Off injection. Shielding for these higher loss rates will be critical to protect the projected higher occupancy factors for the users. Top-Off injection requires a full energy injector, which will demand greater consideration of the potential abnormal beam miss-steering and localized losses that could occur. The high energy electron injection beam produce significantly higher neutron component dose to the experimental floor than lower energy injection and ramped operations. High energy neutrons produced in the forward direction from thin target beam losses are a major component of the dose rate outside the shield walls of the tunnel. The convention has been to provide thicker 90° ratchet walls to reduce this dose to the beam line users. We present an alternate circular shield wall design, which naturally and cost effectively increases the path length for this forward radiation in the shield wall and thereby substantially decreasing the dose rate for these beam losses. This shield wall design will greatly reduce the dose rate to the users working near the front end optical components but will challenge the beam line designers to effectively utilize the longer length of beam line penetration in the shield wall. Additional advantages of the circular shield wall tunnel are that it's simpler to construct, allows greater access to the insertion devices and the upstream in tunnel beam line components, as well as reducing the volume of concrete and therefore the cost of the shield wall.

  18. BNL National Synchrotron Light Source activity report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    During FY 1997 Brookhaven National Laboratory celebrated its 50th Anniversary and 50 years of outstanding achievement under the management of Associated Universities, Inc. This progress report is divided into the following sections: (1) introduction; (2) science highlights; (3) meetings and workshops; (4) operations; (5) projects; (6) organization; and (7) abstracts and publications.

  19. Control of Dynamic Aperture for Synchrotron Light Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Bengtsson, Johan

    2005-01-01

    Given the following frameworks: "A Hamiltonian-Free Description of Single Particle Dynamics for Hopelessly Complex Periodic Systems" (Forest, 1990), "Normal Form Methods for Complicated Periodic Systems" (Forest, Berz, Irwin, 1989), "The Correct Local Description for Tracking in Rings" (Forest, 1994), "The C++ Programming Language" (Stroustrup, 1985), we have designed a compact object oriented beam dynamics class by re-using existing FORTRAN libraries for: Truncated Power Series Algebra (Berz, SSC, 1988), and Map Normal Rorm (Forest, CBP, LBNL, 1990). In other words, implemented a numerical- and analytical model for: 6-dim phase space tracking, with classical radiation, and evaluation of equilibrium emittance, driving terms, amplitude dependent tune shifts, chromaticity, momentum compaction, etc., to arbitrary order, with self-consistent treatment of magnet errors. The tool was developed for the lattice design of NSLS-II.

  20. Neutrino telescopes in the World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernenwein, J.-P.

    2007-01-01

    Neutrino astronomy has rapidly developed these last years, being the only way to get specific and reliable information about astrophysical objects still poorly understood.Currently two neutrino telescopes are operational in the World: BAIKAL, in the lake of the same name in Siberia, and AMANDA, in the ices of the South Pole. Two telescopes of the same type are under construction in the Mediterranean Sea: ANTARES and NESTOR. All these telescopes belong to a first generation, with an instrumented volume smaller or equal to 0.02 km3. Also in the Mediterranean Sea, the NEMO project is just in its starting phase, within the framework of a cubic kilometer size neutrino telescope study. Lastly, the ICECUBE detector, with a volume reaching about 1 km3, is under construction on the site of AMANDA experiment, while an extension of the BAIKAL detector toward km3 is under study. We will present here the characteristics of these experiments, as well as the results of their observations

  1. Push-To Telescope Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teets, Donald

    2012-01-01

    Two coordinate systems are related here, one defined by the earth's equator and north pole, the other by the orientation of a telescope at some location on the surface of the earth. Applying an interesting though somewhat obscure property of orthogonal matrices and using the cross-product simplifies this relationship, revealing that a surprisingly…

  2. GISOT: a giant solar telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerschlag, Robert H.; von der Lühe, Oskar F.; Bettonvil, Felix C.; Jägers, Aswin P.; Snik, Frans

    2004-10-01

    A concept is presented for an extremely large high-resolution solar telescope with an aperture of 11 m and diffraction limited for visual wavelengths. The structure of GISOT will be transparent to wind and placed on a transparent stiff tower. For efficient wind flushing, all optics, including the primary mirror, will be located above the elevation axis. The aperture will be of the order of 11 m, not rotatively symmetrical, but of an elongated shape with dimensions 11 x 4 m. It consists of a central on-axis 4 m mirror with on both sides 3 pieces of 2 m mirrors. The optical layout will be kept simple to guarantee quality and minimize stray light. A Coudé room for instruments is planned below the telescope. The telescope will not be housed in a dome-like construction, which interferes with the open principle. Instead the telescope will be protected by a foldable tent construction with a diameter of the order of 30 m, which doesn"t form any obstruction during observations, but can withstand the severe weather circumstances on mountain sites. Because of the nature of the solar scene, extremely high resolution in only one dimension is sufficient to solve many exciting problems in solar physics and in this respect the concept of GISOT is very promising.

  3. The Thirty-Meter Telescope

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... The Thirty-Meter Telescope international observatory will enable transformational observations over the full cosmic timeline all the way from the first luminous objects in the Universe to the planets and moons of our own solar system. To realize its full scientific potential, TMT will be equipped with a powerful ...

  4. Monster telescope hunts blue planets

    CERN Multimedia

    Leake, J

    2003-01-01

    BRITAIN is to back a project to build the world's biggest telescope - so powerful that it could see life-bearing planets in other solar systems. It will need the largest mirror ever built at about 100 metres in diameter (1/2 page).

  5. Overdenture dengan Pegangan Telescopic Crown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pambudi Santoso

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Kaitan presisi merupakan alat retensi mekanis yang menghubungkan antara satu atau lebih pegangan gigi tiruan, yang bertujuan untuk menambah retensi dan/atau stabilisasi. Kaitan presisi dapat digunakan secara luas pada gigi tiruan cekat, gigi tiruan sebagian lepasan, overdenture, implant untuk retensi overdenture, dan protesa maksilo fasial. Overdenture dengan kaitan presisi dapat membantu dalam pembagian beban kunyah, meminimalkan trauma pada gigi pegangan dan jaringan lunak, meminimalkan resorbsi tulang, dan meningkatkan estetik dan pengucapan suara. Salah satu jenis dari kaitan presisi adalah telescopic crown, terdiri dari 2 macam mahkota, yaitu mahkota primer yang melekat secara permanen pada gigi penyangga, dan mahkota sekunder yang melekat pada gigi tiruan. Tujuan pemaparan kasus ini adalah untuk memberikan informasi tentang rehabilitasi pasien edentulous sebagian rahang atas dengan telescopic crown..  Pasien wanita berusia 45 tahun datang ke klinik prostodonsia RSGM Prof.Soedomo dengan keluhan ingin dibuatkan gigi tiruan. Pasien kehilangan gigi 11 12 15 16 17 21 22 24 25 26 dan 27 yang diindikasikan untuk pembuatan overdenture gigi tiruan sebagian lepasan (GTS kerangka logam dengan pegangan telescopic crown pada gigi 13 dan 14 dengan sistem parallel-sided crown. Tahap-tahap pembuatan telescopic crown yaitu mencetak model study dengan catatan gigit pendahuluan. Perawatan saluran dilakukan pada akar gigi 13, dilanjutkan pemasangan pasak fiber serta rewalling dinding bukal. Gigi 13 dan 14 dilakukan preparasi mahkota penuh, dilanjutkan dengan pencetakan model kerja untuk coping primer dan kerangka logam dengan metode double impression. Coping primer disementasi pada gigi penyangga, dilanjutkan pasang coba coping sekunder beserta kerangka logam. Selanjutnya dilakukan pencatatan gigit, pencetakan model kerja, penyusunan gigi dan pasang coba penyusunan gigi pada pasien. Prosedur dilanjutkan dengan proses di laboratorium, serta insersi pada

  6. The Dutch Open Telescope: History, Status, Prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    After many years of persistent telescope design and telescope construction, R.H. Hammerschlag has installed his Dutch Open Telescope (DOT) on La Palma. I brie y review its history and design. The future of optical solar physics at Utrecht hinges on a recently-funded three- year DOT science

  7. Focusing Telescopes in Nuclear Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Ballmoos, Peter von

    2007-01-01

    This volume is the first of its kind on focusing gamma-ray telescopes. Forty-eight refereed papers provide a comprehensive overview of the scientific potential and technical challenges of this nascent tool for nuclear astrophysics. The book features articles dealing with pivotal technologies such as grazing incident mirrors, multilayer coatings, Laue- and Fresnel-lenses - and even an optic using the curvature of space-time. The volume also presents an overview of detectors matching the ambitious objectives of gamma ray optics, and facilities for operating such systems on the ground and in space. The extraordinary scientific potential of focusing gamma-ray telescopes for the study of the most powerful sources and the most violent events in the Universe is emphasized in a series of introductory articles. Practicing professionals, and students interested in experimental high-energy astrophysics, will find this book a useful reference

  8. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Robert J.; Atacama Cosmology Telescope Team

    2010-01-01

    The 6-meter Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) is making detailed maps of the Cosmic Microwave Background at Cerro Toco in northern Chile. In this talk, I focus on the design and operation of the telescope and its commissioning instrument, the Millimeter Bolometer Array Camera. The camera contains three independent sets of optics that operate at 148 GHz, 217 GHz, and 277 GHz with arcminute resolution, each of which couples to a 1024-element array of Transition Edge Sensor (TES) bolometers. I will report on the camera performance, including the beam patterns, optical efficiencies, and detector sensitivities. Under development for ACT is a new polarimeter based on feedhorn-coupled TES devices that have improved sensitivity and are planned to operate at 0.1 K.

  9. RHCV Telescope System Operations Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-05

    KRISTOFFER A. SMITH-RODRIGUEZ, LTCOL, USAF Chief, Warfighter Interface Division Airman Systems Directorate This report is published in the...other system components via ASCOM protocols. 1. Start the MaxImDL application using the desktop shortcut (a) Start Observatory dialog, (b...the desktop shortcut (a) Select “Connect Telescope” from Startup menu in Telescope tab (b) Select “Look Up” icon on ribbon menu at the top right of

  10. Telescopic Overdenture: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Shruthi, C. S.; Poojya, R.; Ram, Swati; Anupama,

    2017-01-01

    Patient: This report describes the case of a 68 year old female patient who presented with the chief complaint of difficulty in chewing and poor aesthetics due to missing teeth. The patient was interested in saving the remaining natural teeth and desired minimal tissue coverage from the prosthesis. After consideration of all the factors involved, it was deemed advisable to resort to a palate free maxillary telescopic complete denture and a mandibular removable partial denture. Discussion: Con...

  11. Telescopic mine roof-support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piscitelli, A

    1989-05-17

    A mining roof support which includes a main body consisting of a pair of telescopically associated elongated members and which slide relative to each other to extend the support, engaging one of the members. A locking plate which is movable into engagement with the member by means of a lever operated cam causes tilting of the plate to engage the member and then to raise the member and lock it in the raised position. 1 fig.

  12. Telescopic Overdenture: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shruthi, C. S.; Poojya, R.; Ram, Swati; Anupama

    2017-01-01

    Patient: This report describes the case of a 68 year old female patient who presented with the chief complaint of difficulty in chewing and poor aesthetics due to missing teeth. The patient was interested in saving the remaining natural teeth and desired minimal tissue coverage from the prosthesis. After consideration of all the factors involved, it was deemed advisable to resort to a palate free maxillary telescopic complete denture and a mandibular removable partial denture. Discussion: Considering the age of the patient and the cost involved, implant supported prosthesis was ruled out as a treatment option for the patient. A telescopic denture was chosen as a favourable treatment option since it overcomes many of the problems posed by conventional complete dentures like progressive bone loss, lower stability and retention, loss of periodontal proprioception and low masticatory efficiency. It also provides minimal tissue coverage and better distribution of forces. Evaluation of occlusion, esthetics, phonetics and comfort after 24 hours, 1 week and 1 month of treatment showed that the patient was happy with the prosthesis and was able to speak and chew well. Conclusion: Telescopic overdentures have better retention and stability as compared to conventional complete dentures. They improve the chewing efficiency, patient comfort and also decrease the alveolar bone resorption. As such they are an excellent alternative to conventional complete denture treatment. PMID:28533736

  13. Black holes at neutrino telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalski, M.; Ringwald, A.; Tu, H.

    2002-01-01

    In scenarios with extra dimensions and TeV-scale quantum gravity, black holes are expected to be produced in the collision of light particles at center-of-mass energies above the fundamental Planck scale with small impact parameters. Black hole production and evaporation may thus be studied in detail at the large hadron collider (LHC). But even before the LHC starts operating, neutrino telescopes such as AMANDA/IceCube, ANTARES, Baikal, and RICE have an opportunity to search for black hole signatures. Black hole production in the scattering of ultrahigh energy cosmic neutrinos on nucleons in the ice or water may initiate cascades and through-going muons with distinct characteristics above the Standard Model rate. In this Letter, we investigate the sensitivity of neutrino telescopes to black hole production and compare it to the one expected at the Pierre Auger Observatory, an air shower array currently under construction, and at the LHC. We find that, already with the currently available data, AMANDA and RICE should be able to place sensible constraints in black hole production parameter space, which are competitive with the present ones from the air shower facilities Fly's Eye and AGASA. In the optimistic case that a ultrahigh energy cosmic neutrino flux significantly higher than the one expected from cosmic ray interactions with the cosmic microwave background radiation is realized in nature, one even has discovery potential for black holes at neutrino telescopes beyond the reach of LHC. (orig.)

  14. Academic Training: Deep Space Telescopes

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2006-01-01

    2005-2006 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 20, 21, 22, 23, 24 February from 11:00 to 12:00 - Council Chamber on 20, 21, 23, 24 February, TH Auditorium, bldg 4 - 3-006, on 22 February Deep Space Telescopes G. BIGNAMI / CNRS, Toulouse, F & Univ. di Pavia, I The short series of seminars will address results and aims of current and future space astrophysics as the cultural framework for the development of deep space telescopes. It will then present such new tools, as they are currently available to, or imagined by, the scientific community, in the context of the science plans of ESA and of all major world space agencies. Ground-based astronomy, in the 400 years since Galileo's telescope, has given us a profound phenomenological comprehension of our Universe, but has traditionally been limited to the narrow band(s) to which our terrestrial atmosphere is transparent. Celestial objects, however, do not care about our limitations, and distribute most of the information about their physics thro...

  15. EUSO-TA prototype telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisconti, Francesca, E-mail: francesca.bisconti@kit.edu

    2016-07-11

    EUSO-TA is one of the prototypes developed for the JEM-EUSO project, a space-based large field-of-view telescope to observe the fluorescence light emitted by cosmic ray air showers in the atmosphere. EUSO-TA is a ground-based prototype located at the Telescope Array (TA) site in Utah, USA, where an Electron Light Source and a Central Laser Facility are installed. The purpose of the EUSO-TA project is to calibrate the prototype with the TA fluorescence detector in presence of well-known light sources and cosmic ray air showers. In 2015, the detector started the first measurements and tests using the mentioned light sources have been performed successfully. A first cosmic ray candidate has been observed, as well as stars of different magnitude and color index. Since Silicon Photo-Multipliers (SiPMs) are very promising for fluorescence telescopes of next generation, they are under consideration for the realization of a new prototype of EUSO Photo Detector Module (PDM). The response of this sensor type is under investigation through simulations and laboratory experimentation.

  16. The NASA Spitzer Space Telescope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrz, R D; Roellig, T L; Werner, M W; Fazio, G G; Houck, J R; Low, F J; Rieke, G H; Soifer, B T; Levine, D A; Romana, E A

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Spitzer Space Telescope (formerly the Space Infrared Telescope Facility) is the fourth and final facility in the Great Observatories Program, joining Hubble Space Telescope (1990), the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (1991-2000), and the Chandra X-Ray Observatory (1999). Spitzer, with a sensitivity that is almost three orders of magnitude greater than that of any previous ground-based and space-based infrared observatory, is expected to revolutionize our understanding of the creation of the universe, the formation and evolution of primitive galaxies, the origin of stars and planets, and the chemical evolution of the universe. This review presents a brief overview of the scientific objectives and history of infrared astronomy. We discuss Spitzer's expected role in infrared astronomy for the new millennium. We describe pertinent details of the design, construction, launch, in-orbit checkout, and operations of the observatory and summarize some science highlights from the first two and a half years of Spitzer operations. More information about Spitzer can be found at http://spitzer.caltech.edu/.

  17. Telescopic Overdenture: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shruthi, C S; Poojya, R; Ram, Swati; Anupama

    2017-03-01

    This report describes the case of a 68 year old female patient who presented with the chief complaint of difficulty in chewing and poor aesthetics due to missing teeth. The patient was interested in saving the remaining natural teeth and desired minimal tissue coverage from the prosthesis. After consideration of all the factors involved, it was deemed advisable to resort to a palate free maxillary telescopic complete denture and a mandibular removable partial denture. Considering the age of the patient and the cost involved, implant supported prosthesis was ruled out as a treatment option for the patient. A telescopic denture was chosen as a favourable treatment option since it overcomes many of the problems posed by conventional complete dentures like progressive bone loss, lower stability and retention, loss of periodontal proprioception and low masticatory efficiency. It also provides minimal tissue coverage and better distribution of forces. Evaluation of occlusion, esthetics, phonetics and comfort after 24 hours, 1 week and 1 month of treatment showed that the patient was happy with the prosthesis and was able to speak and chew well. Telescopic overdentures have better retention and stability as compared to conventional complete dentures. They improve the chewing efficiency, patient comfort and also decrease the alveolar bone resorption. As such they are an excellent alternative to conventional complete denture treatment.

  18. EUSO-TA prototype telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisconti, Francesca; JEM-EUSO Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    EUSO-TA is one of the prototypes developed for the JEM-EUSO project, a space-based large field-of-view telescope to observe the fluorescence light emitted by cosmic ray air showers in the atmosphere. EUSO-TA is a ground-based prototype located at the Telescope Array (TA) site in Utah, USA, where an Electron Light Source and a Central Laser Facility are installed. The purpose of the EUSO-TA project is to calibrate the prototype with the TA fluorescence detector in presence of well-known light sources and cosmic ray air showers. In 2015, the detector started the first measurements and tests using the mentioned light sources have been performed successfully. A first cosmic ray candidate has been observed, as well as stars of different magnitude and color index. Since Silicon Photo-Multipliers (SiPMs) are very promising for fluorescence telescopes of next generation, they are under consideration for the realization of a new prototype of EUSO Photo Detector Module (PDM). The response of this sensor type is under investigation through simulations and laboratory experimentation.

  19. Twin-Telescope Wettzell (TTW)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hase, H.; Dassing, R.; Kronschnabl, G.; Schlüter, W.; Schwarz, W.; Lauber, P.; Kilger, R.

    2007-07-01

    Following the recommendations made by the VLBI2010 vision report of the IVS, a proposal has been made to construct a Twin Telescope for the Fundamental Station Wettzell in order to meet the future requirements of the next VLBI generation. The Twin Telescope consists of two identical radiotelescopes. It is a project of the Federal Agency for Cartography and Geodesy (BKG). This article summarizes the project and some design ideas for the Twin-Telescope. %ZALMA (2005). Technical Specification for Design, Manufacturing, Transport and Integration on Site of the ALMA ANTENNAS, Doc. ALMA-34.00.00.00.006-BSPE. Behrend, D. (2006). VLBI2010 Antenna Specs, Data sheet. DeBoer, D. (2001). The ATA Offset Gregorian Antenna, ATA Memo #16, February 10. Imbriale, W.A. (2006). Design of a Wideband Radio Telescope, Jet Propulsion Laboratory and S. Weinreb and H. Mandi, California Institute of Technology. Kilger, R. (2007). TWIN-Design studies, Presentation for the IVS board members (internal document),Wettzell. Kronschnabl, G. (2006). Subject: Memo from Bill Petrachenko, E-mail to the Twin-Working Group (in German), July. Lindgren, ETS-Lindgren (2005). The Model 3164-05 Open Boundary Quadridge Horn, Data Sheet. Niell, A., A. Whitney, W. Petrachenko, W. Schlüter, N. Vandenberg, H.Hase, Y. Koyama, C. Ma, H. Schuh, G. Tucari (2006). in: IVS Annual Report 2005, pg. 13-40, NASA/TP-2006-214136, April. Olsson, R., Kildal, P.-S., and Weinreb, S. (2006). IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 54, No. 2, February. Petrachenko, B. (2006). The Case For and Against Multiple Antennas at a Site, IVS Memorandum, 2006-019v01. Petrachenko, B. (2006). IVS Memorandum, 2006-016v01. RFSpin (2004). Double Ridged Waveguide Horn-Model DRH20, Antenna Specifications, Data Sheet. Rohde&Schwarz (2004). SHF Antennas Crossed Log- Periodic Antennas HL024A1/S1, Data Sheet. Rohde&Schwarz (2004). SHF Antennas Log-Periodic Antennas HL050/HL050S1, Data Sheet. Rogers, A.E.E. (2006). Simulations of broadband

  20. Hubble Space Telescope: The Telescope, the Observations & the Servicing Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-11-01

    Today the HST Archives contain more than 260 000 astronomical observations. More than 13 000 astronomical objects have been observed by hundreds of different groups of scientists. Direct proof of the scientific significance of this project is the record-breaking number of papers published : over 2400 to date. Some of HST's most memorable achievements are: * the discovery of myriads of very faint galaxies in the early Universe, * unprecedented, accurate measurements of distances to the farthest galaxies, * significant improvement in the determination of the Hubble constant and thus the age of the Universe, * confirmation of the existence of blacks holes, * a far better understanding of the birth, life and death of stars, * a very detailed look at the secrets of the process by which planets are created. Europe and HST ESA's contribution to HST represents a nominal investment of 15%. ESA provided one of the two imaging instruments - the Faint Object Camera (FOC) - and the solar panels. It also has 15 scientists and computer staff working at the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore (Maryland). In Europe the astronomical community receives observational assistance from the Space Telescope European Coordinating Facility (ST-ECF) located in Garching, Munich. In return for ESA's investment, European astronomers have access to approximately 15% of the observing time. In reality the actual observing time competitively allocated to European astronomers is closer to 20%. Looking back at almost ten years of operation, the head of ST-ECF, European HST Project Scientist Piero Benvenuti states: "Hubble has been of paramount importance to European astronomy, much more than the mere 20% of observing time. It has given the opportunity for European scientists to use a top class instrument that Europe alone would not be able to build and operate. In specific areas of research they have now, mainly due to HST, achieved international leadership." One of the major reasons for

  1. The Northwest Indiana Robotic Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Shawn D.; Rengstorf, A. W.; Aros, J. C.; Segally, W. B.

    2011-01-01

    The Northwest Indiana Robotic (NIRo) Telescope is a remote, automated observing facility recently built by Purdue University Calumet (PUC) at a site in Lowell, IN, approximately 30 miles from the PUC campus. The recently dedicated observatory will be used for broadband and narrowband optical observations by PUC students and faculty, as well as pre-college students through the implementation of standards-based, middle-school modules developed by PUC astronomers and education faculty. The NIRo observatory and its web portal are the central technical elements of a project to improve astronomy education at Purdue Calumet and, more broadly, to improve science education in middle schools of the surrounding region. The NIRo Telescope is a 0.5-meter (20-inch) Ritchey-Chrétien design on a Paramount ME robotic mount, featuring a seven-position filter wheel (UBVRI, Hα, Clear), Peltier (thermoelectrically) cooled CCD camera with 3056 x 3056, square, 12 μm pixels, and off-axis guiding. It provides a coma-free imaging field of 0.5 degrees square, with a plate scale of 0.6 arcseconds per pixel. The observatory has a wireless internet connection, local weather station which publishes data to an internet weather site, and a suite of CCTV security cameras on an IP-based, networked video server. Control of power to every piece of instrumentation is maintained via internet-accessible power distribution units. The telescope can be controlled on-site, or off-site in an attended fashion via an internet connection, but will be used primarily in an unattended mode of automated observation, where queued observations will be scheduled daily from a database of requests. Completed observational data from queued operation will be stored on a campus-based server, which also runs the web portal and observation database. Partial support for this work was provided by the National Science Foundation's Course, Curriculum, and Laboratory Improvement (CCLI) program under Award No. 0736592.

  2. History of Robotic and Remotely Operated Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genet, Russell M.

    2011-03-01

    While automated instrument sequencers were employed on solar eclipse expeditions in the late 1800s, it wasn't until the 1960s that Art Code and associates at Wisconsin used a PDP minicomputer to automate an 8-inch photometric telescope. Although this pioneering project experienced frequent equipment failures and was shut down after a couple of years, it paved the way for the first space telescopes. Reliable microcomputers initiated the modern era of robotic telescopes. Louis Boyd and I applied single board microcomputers with 64K of RAM and floppy disk drives to telescope automation at the Fairborn Observatory, achieving reliable, fully robotic operation in 1983 that has continued uninterrupted for 28 years. In 1985 the Smithsonian Institution provided us with a suburb operating location on Mt. Hopkins in southern Arizona, while the National Science Foundation funded additional telescopes. Remote access to our multiple robotic telescopes at the Fairborn Observatory began in the late 1980s. The Fairborn Observatory, with its 14 fully robotic telescopes and staff of two (one full and one part time) illustrates the potential for low operating and maintenance costs. As the information capacity of the Internet has expanded, observational modes beyond simple differential photometry opened up, bringing us to the current era of real-time remote access to remote observatories and global observatory networks. Although initially confined to smaller telescopes, robotic operation and remote access are spreading to larger telescopes as telescopes from afar becomes the normal mode of operation.

  3. New discoveries with radio telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, J.

    1985-01-01

    The author describes in a simple fashion the results obtained by astronomers from ETH Zurich using the broadband 7-m radio telescope in Switzerland to observe the sun over a period of six years. He explains the results in terms of our present understanding of the sun's workings. The astronomers found that a solar eruption is not a single event but consists of tens of thousands of small eruptions or spikes each only 200 km high and producing a burst of radio waves 10-100 times as intense as the background. (T.J.R.A.)

  4. Imaging monolithic silicon detector telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorini, F.; Sipala, V.; Cardella, G.; Boiano, C.; Carbone, B.; Cosentino, L.; Costa, E.; Di Pietro, A.; Emanuele, U.; Fallica, G.; Figuera, P.; Finocchiaro, P.; La Guidara, E.; Marchetta, C.; Pappalardo, A.; Piazza, A.; Randazzo, N.; Rizzo, F.; Russo, G.V.; Russotto, P.

    2008-01-01

    We show the results of some test beams performed on a new monolithic strip silicon detector telescope developed in collaboration with the INFN and ST-microelectronics. Using an appropriate design, the induction on the ΔE stages, generated by the charge released in the E stage, was used to obtain the position of the detected particle. The position measurement, together with the low threshold for particle charge identification, allows the new detector to be used for a large variety of applications due to its sensitivity of only a few microns measured in both directions

  5. Advances in telescope mirror cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanken, Maarten F.; Chopping, Alan K.; Dee, Kevin M.

    2004-09-01

    Metrology and cleaning techniques for telescope mirrors are generally well established. CO2 cleaning and water washing are mainly used. Water washing has proven to be the best method of removing oil and water stains and restoring the aluminium to nearly fresh values. The risk of water getting to unwanted places such as electronics or other optics prevents this method from being employed more often. Recently the Isaac Newton Group introduced a new cleaning technique for their telescope mirrors, which reduces the risks discussed above. This technique uses water vapour instead of water to wash the mirror. The advantage of this method is that the amount of water needed is drastically reduced. In addition the pressure of the vapour will blow away any large dust particles on the mirror and the temperature shock between the vapour and the mirror will help to de-bond the dust particles. Adding a soapy solution will help to clean oil and watermarks of the mirror. This paper describes the vapour cleaning method, tests that have been done and the overall findings.

  6. Origins Space Telescope: Study Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayyeri, Hooshang; Cooray, Asantha; Origins Space Telescope Study Team

    2018-01-01

    The Origins Space Telescope (OST) is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, a study in development by NASA in preparation for the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey. Origins is planned to be a large aperture, actively-cooled telescope covering a wide span of the mid- to far-infrared spectrum. Its spectrographs will enable 3D surveys of the sky that will discover and characterize the most distant galaxies, Milky-Way, exoplanets, and the outer reaches of our Solar system. Origins will enable flagship-quality general observing programs led by the astronomical community in the 2030s. The Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) would like to hear your science needs and ideas for this mission. The team can be contacted at firsurveyor_info@lists.ipac.caltech.edu. This presentation will provide a summary of the OST STDT, the OST Study Team based at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, study partners, and the advisory panel to the study. This presentation will also summarize recent activities, including the process used to reach a decision on the mission architecture, the identification of key science drivers, and the key study milestones between 2017 and 2020.

  7. Telescoping phenomenon in pathological gambling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Mooney, Marc E

    2012-01-01

    The course of pathological gambling (PG) in women has been described as having a later age of initiation but a shorter time to problematic gambling ("telescoped"). This study examined evidence for telescoping and its relationship with comorbidities. Seventy-one treatment-seeking individuals with PG...... underwent a diagnostic interview to examine gambling behaviors, age at initiation of gambling, and time from initiation to meeting criteria for PG. The women had a higher mean age at gambling initiation compared with that of the men (mean [SD] age, 31.3 [13.0] years, compared with 22.4 [7.9] years; p = 0.......0003) and a significantly shorter time from initiation of gambling to meeting the criteria for PG (8.33 [8.7] years compared with 11.97 [9.1] years; p = 0.0476) after controlling for demographic and clinical variables. This study presents evidence for a gender-specific course of PG unrelated to psychiatric comorbidities...

  8. ANTARES: An Undersea Neutrino telescope

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The ANTARES (Astronomy with a Neutrino Telescope and ${Abyss}$ environmental RESearch) deep-sea neutrino telescope is designed to search for neutrinos of astrophysical origin. Neutrinos are unique probes of the high energy universe; being neutral they are not deflected by magnetic fields and interacting weakly they can readily escape from the densest regions of the universe. Potential sources of neutrino are galactic (e.g supernova remnants, micro-quasars) and extra-galactic (e.g active galactic nuclei, gamma-ray bursters). Annihilation of dark matter particles in the Sun or Galactic Centre is another well motivated potential source of extra terrestrial neutrinos. The ANTARES detector is located 40 km off the coast of Toulon (France) at a depth of 2475m in the Mediterranean Sea. Being located in the Northern hemisphere it studies the Southern sky and in particular has the Galactic Centre in its field of view. Since 2006, the detector has operated continuously in a partial configuration. The detector was compl...

  9. Merz telescopes a global heritage worth preserving

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book comprises a fascinating collection of contributions on the Merz telescopes in Italy that collectively offer the first survey on historical large refracting telescopes in the country, drawing on original documents and photographs. It opens with a general introduction on the importance of Merz telescopes in the history of astronomy and analyses of the local and international contexts in which the telescopes were made. After examination of an example of the interaction between the maker and the astronomer in the construction and maintenance of these refractors, the history of the Merz telescopes at the main Italian observatories in the nineteenth century is described in detail. Expert testimony is also provided on how these telescopes were successfully used until the second half of the twentieth century for research purposes, thus proving their excellent optical qualities.

  10. Review of lunar telescope studies at MSFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilchey, John D.; Nein, Max E.

    1993-09-01

    In the near future astronomers can take advantage of the lunar surface as the new 'high ground' from which to study the universe. Optical telescopes placed and operated on the lunar surface would be successors to NASA's Great Observatories. Four telescopes, ranging in aperture from a 16-m, IR/Vis/UV observatory down to a 1-m, UV 'transit' instrument, have been studied by the Lunar Telescope Working Group and the LUTE (lunar telescope ultraviolet experiment) Task Team of the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). This paper presents conceptual designs of the telescopes, provides descriptions of the telescope subsystem options selected for each concept, and outlines the potential evolution of their science capabilities.

  11. ANTARES: The first undersea neutrino telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ageron, M.; Aguilar, J. A.; Al Samarai, I.; Albert, A.; Ameli, F.; André, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Arnaud, K.; Aslanides, E.; Assis Jesus, A. C.; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J.-J.; Auer, R.; Barbarito, E.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Bazzotti, M.; Becherini, Y.; Beltramelli, J.; Bersani, A.; Bertin, V.; Beurthey, S.; Biagi, S.; Bigongiari, C.; Billault, M.; Blaes, R.; Bogazzi, C.; de Botton, N.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Boudahef, B.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Brown, A. M.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Caillat, L.; Calzas, A.; Camarena, F.; Capone, A.; Caponetto, L.; Cârloganu, C.; Carminati, G.; Carmona, E.; Carr, J.; Carton, P. H.; Cassano, B.; Castorina, E.; Cecchini, S.; Ceres, A.; Chaleil, Th.; Charvis, Ph.; Chauchot, P.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Compère, C.; Coniglione, R.; Coppolani, X.; Cosquer, A.; Costantini, H.; Cottini, N.; Coyle, P.; Cuneo, S.; Curtil, C.; D'Amato, C.; Damy, G.; van Dantzig, R.; de Bonis, G.; Decock, G.; Decowski, M. P.; Dekeyser, I.; Delagnes, E.; Desages-Ardellier, F.; Deschamps, A.; Destelle, J.-J.; di Maria, F.; Dinkespiler, B.; Distefano, C.; Dominique, J.-L.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti, Q.; Drogou, J.-F.; Drouhin, D.; Druillole, F.; Durand, D.; Durand, R.; Eberl, T.; Emanuele, U.; Engelen, J. J.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Escoffier, S.; Falchini, E.; Favard, S.; Fehr, F.; Feinstein, F.; Ferri, M.; Ferry, S.; Fiorello, C.; Flaminio, V.; Folger, F.; Fritsch, U.; Fuda, J.-L.; Galatá, S.; Galeotti, S.; Gay, P.; Gensolen, F.; Giacomelli, G.; Gojak, C.; Gómez-González, J. P.; Goret, Ph.; Graf, K.; Guillard, G.; Halladjian, G.; Hallewell, G.; van Haren, H.; Hartmann, B.; Heijboer, A. J.; Heine, E.; Hello, Y.; Henry, S.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Herold, B.; Hößl, J.; Hogenbirk, J.; Hsu, C. C.; Hubbard, J. R.; Jaquet, M.; Jaspers, M.; de Jong, M.; Jourde, D.; Kadler, M.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karkar, S.; Karolak, M.; Katz, U.; Keller, P.; Kestener, P.; Kok, E.; Kok, H.; Kooijman, P.; Kopper, C.; Kouchner, A.; Kretschmer, W.; Kruijer, A.; Kuch, S.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lachartre, D.; Lafoux, H.; Lagier, P.; Lahmann, R.; Lahonde-Hamdoun, C.; Lamare, P.; Lambard, G.; Languillat, J.-C.; Larosa, G.; Lavalle, J.; Le Guen, Y.; Le Provost, H.; Levansuu, A.; Lefèvre, D.; Legou, T.; Lelaizant, G.; Lévéque, C.; Lim, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Louis, F.; Lucarelli, F.; Lyashuk, V.; Magnier, P.; Mangano, S.; Marcel, A.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martinez-Mora, J. A.; Masullo, R.; Mazéas, F.; Mazure, A.; Meli, A.; Melissas, M.; Migneco, E.; Mongelli, M.; Montaruli, T.; Morganti, M.; Moscoso, L.; Motz, H.; Musumeci, M.; Naumann, C.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Neff, M.; Niess, V.; Nooren, G. J. L.; Oberski, J. E. J.; Olivetto, C.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Palioselitis, D.; Papaleo, R.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Payet, K.; Payre, P.; Peek, H.; Petrovic, J.; Piattelli, P.; Picot-Clemente, N.; Picq, C.; Piret, Y.; Poinsignon, J.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Presani, E.; Prono, G.; Racca, C.; Raia, G.; van Randwijk, J.; Real, D.; Reed, C.; Réthoré, F.; Rewiersma, P.; Riccobene, G.; Richardt, C.; Richter, R.; Ricol, J. S.; Rigaud, V.; Roca, V.; Roensch, K.; Rolin, J.-F.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rottura, A.; Roux, J.; Rujoiu, M.; Ruppi, M.; Russo, G. V.; Salesa, F.; Salomon, K.; Sapienza, P.; Schmitt, F.; Schöck, F.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schüssler, F.; Sciliberto, D.; Shanidze, R.; Shirokov, E.; Simeone, F.; Sottoriva, A.; Spies, A.; Spona, T.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Streeb, K.; Sulak, L.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Tao, C.; Tasca, L.; Terreni, G.; Tezier, D.; Toscano, S.; Urbano, F.; Valdy, P.; Vallage, B.; van Elewyck, V.; Vannoni, G.; Vecchi, M.; Venekamp, G.; Verlaat, B.; Vernin, P.; Virique, E.; de Vries, G.; van Wijk, R.; Wijnker, G.; Wobbe, G.; de Wolf, E.; Yakovenko, Y.; Yepes, H.; Zaborov, D.; Zaccone, H.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2011-11-01

    The ANTARES Neutrino Telescope was completed in May 2008 and is the first operational Neutrino Telescope in the Mediterranean Sea. The main purpose of the detector is to perform neutrino astronomy and the apparatus also offers facilities for marine and Earth sciences. This paper describes the design, the construction and the installation of the telescope in the deep sea, offshore from Toulon in France. An illustration of the detector performance is given.

  12. ANTARES: The first undersea neutrino telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ageron, M.; Aguilar, J.A.; Al Samarai, I.; Albert, A.; Ameli, F.; Andre, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Arnaud, K.; Aslanides, E.; Assis Jesus, A.C.; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J.-J.; Auer, R.; Barbarito, E.; Baret, B.

    2011-01-01

    The ANTARES Neutrino Telescope was completed in May 2008 and is the first operational Neutrino Telescope in the Mediterranean Sea. The main purpose of the detector is to perform neutrino astronomy and the apparatus also offers facilities for marine and Earth sciences. This paper describes the design, the construction and the installation of the telescope in the deep sea, offshore from Toulon in France. An illustration of the detector performance is given.

  13. European Extremely Large Telescope: progress report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamai, R.; Spyromilio, J.

    2014-07-01

    The European Extremely Large Telescope is a project of the European Southern Observatory to build and operate a 40-m class optical near-infrared telescope. The telescope design effort is largely concluded and construction contracts are being placed with industry and academic/research institutes for the various components. The siting of the telescope in Northern Chile close to the Paranal site allows for an integrated operation of the facility providing significant economies. The progress of the project in various areas is presented in this paper and references to other papers at this SPIE meeting are made.

  14. GRANITE- A steroscopic imaging Chernkov telescope system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shubnell, M.; Akerlof, C.W.; Cawley, M.F.; Chantell, M.; Fegan, D.J.; Fennell, S.; O'Flaherty, K.S.; Freeman, S.; Frishman, D.; Gaidos, J.A.; Hagan, J.; Harris, K.; Hillas, A.M.; Kerrick, A.D.; Lamb, R.C.; Lappin, T.; Lawrence, M.A.; Levy, H.; Lewis, D.A.; Meyer, D.I.; Mohanty, G.; Punch, M.; Reynolds, P.T.; Rovero, A.C.; Sembroski, G.; Weaverdyck, C.; Weekes, T.C.; Whitaker, T.; Wilson, C.

    1993-01-01

    A second 10 meter class imaging telescope was constructed on Mt. Hopkins, Arizona, the site of the original 10 meter Whipple Cherenkov telescope. The twin telescope system with a 140 meter base line will allow both a reduction in the energy threshold and an improvement in the rejection of the hardonic background. The new telescope started operation in December 1991. With the final completion of the first installation stage (GRANITE I) during spring 92, it is now operating simultaneously with the orginal reflector. We describe in this paper design and construction of the new instrument and demonstrate the capability of the experiment to record coincident events

  15. Preliminary Cost Model for Space Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Prince, F. Andrew; Smart, Christian; Stephens, Kyle; Henrichs, Todd

    2009-01-01

    Parametric cost models are routinely used to plan missions, compare concepts and justify technology investments. However, great care is required. Some space telescope cost models, such as those based only on mass, lack sufficient detail to support such analysis and may lead to inaccurate conclusions. Similarly, using ground based telescope models which include the dome cost will also lead to inaccurate conclusions. This paper reviews current and historical models. Then, based on data from 22 different NASA space telescopes, this paper tests those models and presents preliminary analysis of single and multi-variable space telescope cost models.

  16. Diffractive X-Ray Telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, G.K.; Skinner, G.K

    2010-01-01

    Diffractive X-ray telescopes using zone plates, phase Fresnel lenses, or related optical elements have the potential to provide astronomers with true imaging capability with resolution several orders of magnitude better than available in any other waveband. Lenses that would be relatively easy to fabricate could have an angular resolution of the order of micro arc seconds or even better, that would allow, for example, imaging of the distorted spacetime in the immediate vicinity of the supermassive black holes in the center of active galaxies What then is precluding their immediate adoption Extremely long focal lengths, very limited bandwidth, and difficulty stabilizing the image are the main problems. The history and status of the development of such lenses is reviewed here and the prospects for managing the challenges that they present are discussed atmospheric absorption

  17. Can Radio Telescopes Find Axions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-08-01

    axions. Now scientists Katharine Kelley and Peter Quinn at ICRAR, University of Western Australia, have explored how we might use next-generation radio telescopes to search for photons that were created by axions interacting with the magnetic fields of our galaxy.Hope for Next-Gen TelescopesPotential axion coupling strengths vs. mass (click for a closer look). The axion mass is thought to lie between a eV and a meV; two theoretical models are shown with dashed lines. The plot shows the sensitivity of the upcoming SKA and its precursors, ASKAP and MEERKAT. [KelleyQuinn 2017]By using a simple galactic halo model and reasonable assumptions for the central galactic magnetic field even taking into account the time dependence of the field Kelley and Quinn estimate the radio-frequency power density that we would observe at Earth from axions being converted to photons within the Milky Ways magnetic field.The authors then compare this signature to the detection capabilities of upcoming radio telescope arrays. They show that the upcoming Square Kilometer Array and its precursors should have the capability to detect signs of axions across large parts of parameter space.Kelley and Quinn conclude that theres good cause for optimism about future radio telescopes ability to detect axions. And if we did succeed in making a detection, it would be a triumph for both particle physics and astrophysics, finally providing an explanation for the universes dark matter.CitationKatharine Kelley and P. J. Quinn 2017 ApJL 845 L4. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/aa808d

  18. NESTOR Deep Sea Neutrino Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggouras, G.; Anassontzis, E.G.; Ball, A.E.; Bourlis, G.; Chinowsky, W.; Fahrun, E.; Grammatikakis, G.; Green, C.; Grieder, P.; Katrivanos, P.; Koske, P.; Leisos, A.; Markopoulos, E.; Minkowsky, P.; Nygren, D.; Papageorgiou, K.; Przybylski, G.; Resvanis, L.K.; Siotis, I.; Sopher, J.; Staveris-Polikalas, A.; Tsagli, V.; Tsirigotis, A.; Tzamarias, S.; Zhukov, V.A.

    2006-01-01

    One module of NESTOR, the Mediterranean deep-sea neutrino telescope, was deployed at a depth of 4000m, 14km off the Sapienza Island, off the South West coast of Greece. The deployment site provides excellent environmental characteristics. The deployed NESTOR module is constructed as a hexagonal star like latticed titanium star with 12 Optical Modules and an one-meter diameter titanium sphere which houses the electronics. Power and data were transferred through a 30km electro-optical cable to the shore laboratory. In this report we describe briefly the detector and the detector electronics and discuss the first physics data acquired and give the zenith angular distribution of the reconstructed muons

  19. Proxy magnetometry with the Dutch Open Telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, R.J.; Hammerschlag, R.H.; Sütterlin, P.; Bettonvil, F.C.M.

    1999-01-01

    Superb movies from the Dutch Open Telescope (DOT) on La Palma have proven the validity of the open concept of this innovative telescope for high-resolution imaging of the solar atmosphere. A five- camera speckle-burst registration system is being installed that should permit consistent and

  20. ANTARES : The first undersea neutrino telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ageron, M.; Aguilar, J. A.; Al Samarai, I.; Albert, A.; Ameli, F.; Andre, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Arnaud, K.; Aslanides, E.; Jesus, A. C. Assis; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J. -J.; Auer, R.; Barbarito, E.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Bazzotti, M.; Becherini, Y.; Beltramelli, J.; Bersani, A.; Bertin, V.; Beurthey, S.; Biagi, S.; Bigongiari, C.; Billault, M.; Blaes, R.; Bogazzi, C.; de Botton, N.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Boudahef, B.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Brown, A. M.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Caillat, L.; Calzas, A.; Camarena, F.; Capone, A.; Caponetto, L.; Carloganu, C.; Carminati, G.; Carmona, E.; Carr, J.; Carton, P. H.; Cassano, B.; Castorina, E.; Cecchini, S.; Ceres, A.; Chaleil, Th; Charvis, Ph; Chauchot, P.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Compere, C.; Coniglione, R.; Coppolani, X.; Cosquer, A.; Costantini, H.; Cottini, N.; Coyle, P.; Cuneo, S.; Curtil, C.; D'Amato, C.; Damy, G.; van Dantzig, R.; De Bonis, G.; Decock, G.; Decowski, M. P.; Dekeyser, I.; Delagnes, E.; Desages-Ardellier, F.; Deschamps, A.; Destelle, J. -J.; Di Maria, F.; Dinkespiler, B.; Distefano, C.; Dominique, J. -L.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti, Q.; Drogou, J. -F.; Drouhin, D.; Druillole, F.; Durand, D.; Durand, R.; Eberl, T.; Emanuele, U.; Engelen, J. J.; Ernenwein, J. -P.; Escoffier, S.; Falchini, E.; Favard, S.; Fehr, F.; Feinstein, F.; Ferri, M.; Ferry, S.; Fiorello, C.; Flaminio, V.; Folger, F.; Fritsch, U.; Fuda, J. -L.; Galata, S.; Galeotti, S.; Gay, P.; Gensolen, F.; Giacomelli, G.; Gojak, C.; Gomez-Gonzalez, J. P.; Goret, Ph.; Graf, K.; Guillard, G.; Halladjian, G.; Hallewell, G.; van Haren, H.; Hartmann, B.; Heijboer, A. J.; Heine, E.; Hello, Y.; Henry, S.; Hernandez-Rey, J. J.; Herold, B.; Hoessl, J.; Hogenbirk, J.; Hsu, C. C.; Hubbard, J. R.; Jaquet, M.; Jaspers, M.; de Jong, M.; Jourde, D.; Kadler, M.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karkar, S.; Karolak, M.; Katz, U.; Keller, P.; Kestener, P.; Kok, E.; Kok, H.; Kooijman, P.; Kopper, C.; Kouchner, A.; Kretschmer, W.; Kruijer, A.; Kuch, S.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lachartre, D.; Lafoux, H.; Lagier, P.; Lahmann, R.; Lahonde-Hamdoun, C.; Lamare, P.; Lambard, G.; Languillat, J-C; Larosa, G.; Lavalle, J.; Le Guen, Y.; Le Provost, H.; LeVanSuu, A.; Lefevre, D.; Legou, T.; Lelaizant, G.; Leveque, C.; Lim, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Louis, F.; Lucarelli, F.; Lyashuk, V.; Magnier, P.; Mangano, S.; Marcel, A.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martinez-Mora, J. A.; Masullo, R.; Mazeas, F.; Mazure, A.; Meli, A.; Melissas, M.; Migneco, E.; Mongelli, M.; Montaruli, T.; Morganti, M.; Moscoso, L.; Motz, H.; Musumeci, M.; Naumann, C.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Neff, M.; Niess, V.; Nooren, G. J. L.; Oberski, J. E. J.; Olivetto, C.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Patioselitis, D.; Papaleo, R.; Pavalas, G. E.; Payet, K.; Payre, P.; Peek, H.; Petrovic, J.; Piattelli, P.; Picot-Clemente, N.; Picq, C.; Piret, Y.; Poinsignon, J.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Presani, E.; Prono, G.; Racca, C.; Raia, G.; van Randwijk, J.; Real, D.; Reed, C.; Rethore, F.; Rewiersma, P.; Riccobene, G.; Richardt, C.; Richter, R.; Ricol, J. S.; Rigaud, V.; Roca, V.; Roensch, K.; Rolin, J. -F.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rottura, A.; Roux, J.; Rujoiu, M.; Ruppi, M.; Russo, G. V.; Salesa, F.; Salomon, K.; Sapienza, P.; Schmitt, F.; Schoeck, F.; Schuller, J. -P.; Schuessler, F.; Sciliberto, D.; Shanidze, R.; Shirokov, E.; Simeone, F.; Sottoriva, A.; Spies, A.; Spona, T.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, Th; Streeb, K.; Sulak, L.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Tao, C.; Tasca, L.; Terreni, G.; Tezier, D.; Toscano, S.; Urbano, F.; Valdy, P.; Vallage, B.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vannoni, G.; Vecchi, M.; Venekamp, G.; Verlaat, B.; Vernin, P.; Virique, E.; de Vries, G.; Wijnker, G.; Wobbe, G.; de Wolf, E.; Yakovenko, Y.; Yepes, H.; Zaborov, D.; Zaccone, H.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zuniga, J.; van Wijk, R.

    2011-01-01

    The ANTARES Neutrino Telescope was completed in May 2008 and is the first operational Neutrino Telescope in the Mediterranean Sea. The main purpose of the detector is to perform neutrino astronomy and the apparatus also offers facilities for marine and Earth sciences. This paper describes the

  1. Hard x-ray telescope mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorenstein, P.; Worrall, D.; Joensen, K.D.

    1996-01-01

    The Hard X-Ray Telescope was selected for study as a possible new intermediate size mission for the early 21st century. Its principal attributes are: (1) multiwavelength observing with a system of focussing telescopes that collectively observe from the UV to over 1 MeV, (2) much higher sensitivity...

  2. The Gemini 8-Meter Telescopes Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroson, Todd A.

    1995-05-01

    The Gemini 8-Meter Telescopes Project is an international partnership to build and operate two 8-meter telescopes, one on Mauna Kea, Hawaii, and one on Cerro Pachon, Chile. The telescopes will be international facilities, open to the scientific communities of the six member countries, the United States (50%), the United Kingdom (25%), Canada (15%), Chile (5%), Argentina (2.5%), and Brazil (2.5%). The telescopes are designed to exploit the best atmospheric conditions at these excellent sites. Near diffraction limited performance will be delivered at 2.2 microns and longward, with minimal degradation of the best seeing conditions at shorter wavelengths. The telescopes and facilities are designed to achieve emissivity opportunity. First light for the Mauna Kea telescope is expected in late 1998, and for the Cerro Pachon telescope in mid-2000. This talk will report on construction progress, the instrumental capabilities, and operations strategies being considered. The Gemini 8-meter Telescopes Project is managed by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc. under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation which serves as executive agency for the Gemini partner countries. U.S. participation in the project is through the U.S. Gemini Program, a division of the National Optical Astronomy Observatories. NOAO is operated by AURA, Inc. under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation.

  3. Southern Fireworks above ESO Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-05-01

    New Insights from Observations of Mysterious Gamma-Ray Burst International teams of astronomers are now busy working on new and exciting data obtained during the last week with telescopes at the European Southern Observatory (ESO). Their object of study is the remnant of a mysterious cosmic explosion far out in space, first detected as a gigantic outburst of gamma rays on May 10. Gamma-Ray Bursters (GRBs) are brief flashes of very energetic radiation - they represent by far the most powerful type of explosion known in the Universe and their afterglow in optical light can be 10 million times brighter than the brightest supernovae [1]. The May 10 event ranks among the brightest one hundred of the over 2500 GRB's detected in the last decade. The new observations include detailed images and spectra from the VLT 8.2-m ANTU (UT1) telescope at Paranal, obtained at short notice during a special Target of Opportunity programme. This happened just over one month after that powerful telescope entered into regular service and demonstrates its great potential for exciting science. In particular, in an observational first, the VLT measured linear polarization of the light from the optical counterpart, indicating for the first time that synchrotron radiation is involved . It also determined a staggering distance of more than 7,000 million light-years to this GRB . The astronomers are optimistic that the extensive observations will help them to better understand the true nature of such a dramatic event and thus to bring them nearer to the solution of one of the greatest riddles of modern astrophysics. A prime example of international collaboration The present story is about important new results at the front-line of current research. At the same time, it is also a fine illustration of a successful collaboration among several international teams of astronomers and the very effective way modern science functions. It began on May 10, at 08:49 hrs Universal Time (UT), when the Burst

  4. A virtual reality environment for telescope operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Luis A.; Villarreal, José L.; Ángeles, Fernando; Bernal, Abel

    2010-07-01

    Astronomical observatories and telescopes are becoming increasingly large and complex systems, demanding to any potential user the acquirement of great amount of information previous to access them. At present, the most common way to overcome that information is through the implementation of larger graphical user interfaces and computer monitors to increase the display area. Tonantzintla Observatory has a 1-m telescope with a remote observing system. As a step forward in the improvement of the telescope software, we have designed a Virtual Reality (VR) environment that works as an extension of the remote system and allows us to operate the telescope. In this work we explore this alternative technology that is being suggested here as a software platform for the operation of the 1-m telescope.

  5. Remote secure observing for the Faulkes Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert J.; Steele, Iain A.; Marchant, Jonathan M.; Fraser, Stephen N.; Mucke-Herzberg, Dorothea

    2004-09-01

    Since the Faulkes Telescopes are to be used by a wide variety of audiences, both powerful engineering level and simple graphical interfaces exist giving complete remote and robotic control of the telescope over the internet. Security is extremely important to protect the health of both humans and equipment. Data integrity must also be carefully guarded for images being delivered directly into the classroom. The adopted network architecture is described along with the variety of security and intrusion detection software. We use a combination of SSL, proxies, IPSec, and both Linux iptables and Cisco IOS firewalls to ensure only authenticated and safe commands are sent to the telescopes. With an eye to a possible future global network of robotic telescopes, the system implemented is capable of scaling linearly to any moderate (of order ten) number of telescopes.

  6. A telescope with augmented reality functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Qichao; Cheng, Dewen; Wang, Qiwei; Wang, Yongtian

    2016-10-01

    This study introduces a telescope with virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) functions. In this telescope, information on the micro-display screen is integrated to the reticule of telescope through a beam splitter and is then received by the observer. The design and analysis of telescope optical system with AR and VR ability is accomplished and the opto-mechanical structure is designed. Finally, a proof-of-concept prototype is fabricated and demonstrated. The telescope has an exit pupil diameter of 6 mm at an eye relief of 19 mm, 6° field of view, 5 to 8 times visual magnification , and a 30° field of view of the virtual image.

  7. Simulation and Track Reconstruction for Beam Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Maqbool, Salman

    2017-01-01

    Beam telescopes are an important tool to test new detectors under development in a particle beam. To test these novel detectors and determine their properties, the particle tracks need to be reconstructed from the known detectors in the telescope. Based on the reconstructed track, its predicted position on the Device under Test (DUT) are compared with the actual hits on the DUT. Several methods exist for track reconstruction, but most of them do not account for the effects of multiple scattering. General Broken Lines is one such algorithm which incorporates these effects during reconstruction. The aim of this project was to simulate the beam telescope and extend the track reconstruction framework for the FE-I4 telescope, which takes these effects into account. Section 1 introduces the problem, while section 2 focuses on beam telescopes. This is followed by the Allpix2 simulation framework in Section 3. And finally, Section 4 introduces the Proteus track reconstruction framework along with the General Broken ...

  8. ALMA Telescope Reaches New Heights

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    ball at a distance of nine miles, and to keep their smooth reflecting surfaces accurate to less than the thickness of a human hair. Once the transporter reached the high plateau it carried the antenna to a concrete pad -- a docking station with connections for power and fiber optics -- and positioned it with an accuracy of a small fraction of an inch. The transporter is guided by a laser steering system and, just like some cars, also has ultrasonic collision detectors. These sensors ensure the safety of the state-of-the-art antennas as the transporter drives them across what will soon be a rather crowded plateau. Ultimately, ALMA will have at least 66 antennas distributed over about 200 pads, spread over distances of up to 11.5 miles and operating as a single, giant telescope. Even when ALMA is fully operational, the transporters will be used to move the antennas between pads to reconfigure the telescope for different kinds of observations. This first ALMA antenna at the high site will soon be joined by others, and the ALMA team looks forward to making their first observations from the Chajnantor plateau. They plan to link three antennas by early 2010, and to make the first scientific observations with ALMA in the second half of 2011. ALMA will help astronomers answer important questions about our cosmic origins. The telescope will observe the Universe using light with millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths, between infrared light and radio waves in the electromagnetic spectrum. Light at these wavelengths comes from some of the coldest, and from some of the most distant objects in the cosmos. These include cold clouds of gas and dust where new stars are being born, or remote galaxies towards the edge of the observable universe. The Universe is relatively unexplored at submillimeter wavelengths, as the telescopes need extremely dry atmospheric conditions, such as those at Chajnantor, and advanced detector technology. The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array

  9. The Origins Space Telescope (OST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staguhn, Johannes

    2018-01-01

    The Origins Space Telescope is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, one of the four science and technology definition studies to be submitted by NASA Headquarters to the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal survey. The observatory will provide orders of magnitude improvements in sensitivity over prior missions, in particular for spectroscopy, enabling breakthrough science across astrophysics. The observatory will cover a wavelength range between 5 μm and 600 μm in order to enable the study of the formation of proto-planetary disks, detection of bio-signatures from extra-solar planet's atmospheres, characterization of the first galaxies in the universe, and many more. The five instruments that are currently studied are two imaging far-infrared spectrometers using incoherent detectors, providing up to R 10^5 spectral resolution, one far-infrared infrared heterodyne instrument for even higher spectral resolving powers, one far-infrared continuum imager and polarimeter, plus a mid-infrared coronagraph with imaging and spectroscopy mode. I will describe the scientific and technical capabilities of the observatory with focus on the expected synergies with AtLAST.

  10. Prospects for γ-ray imaging telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, J.N.; Dean, A.J.; Ramsden, D.

    1981-01-01

    Apart from the requirement for a new, high angular-resolution gamma-ray telescope for the more precise location of known COS-B gamma-ray sources, there is also a need for another instrument that can be used in a search for the gamma-ray emission from specific X-ray-emitting objects. If there is to be any hope of relating gamma ray emission to specific candidate X-ray objects, then an angular resolution of typically a few minutes of arc is required to resolve adjacent sources in crowded regions of the sky such as the galactic centre. Efforts to improve the angular resolution of track-chamber telescopes are compared. For energies close to 1 MeV telescopes have either used collimators to restrict the field of view or have made use of the kinematics of the Compton scattering process to determine the direction of the incident photon. The use of coded aperture techniques in high angular resolution X-ray astronomy telescopes is reviewed. A practical telescope for astronomy at high energies described by Carter is mentioned. At low energies an imaging telescope could be constructed by making use of position-sensitive detectors initially developed for use in medical physics. Such a telescope is outlined in general terms and its benefits and uses given. (U.K.)

  11. Parametric Cost Models for Space Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Henrichs, Todd; Dollinger, Courtney

    2010-01-01

    Multivariable parametric cost models for space telescopes provide several benefits to designers and space system project managers. They identify major architectural cost drivers and allow high-level design trades. They enable cost-benefit analysis for technology development investment. And, they provide a basis for estimating total project cost. A survey of historical models found that there is no definitive space telescope cost model. In fact, published models vary greatly [1]. Thus, there is a need for parametric space telescopes cost models. An effort is underway to develop single variable [2] and multi-variable [3] parametric space telescope cost models based on the latest available data and applying rigorous analytical techniques. Specific cost estimating relationships (CERs) have been developed which show that aperture diameter is the primary cost driver for large space telescopes; technology development as a function of time reduces cost at the rate of 50% per 17 years; it costs less per square meter of collecting aperture to build a large telescope than a small telescope; and increasing mass reduces cost.

  12. Parametric cost models for space telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Henrichs, Todd; Dollinger, Courtnay

    2017-11-01

    Multivariable parametric cost models for space telescopes provide several benefits to designers and space system project managers. They identify major architectural cost drivers and allow high-level design trades. They enable cost-benefit analysis for technology development investment. And, they provide a basis for estimating total project cost. A survey of historical models found that there is no definitive space telescope cost model. In fact, published models vary greatly [1]. Thus, there is a need for parametric space telescopes cost models. An effort is underway to develop single variable [2] and multi-variable [3] parametric space telescope cost models based on the latest available data and applying rigorous analytical techniques. Specific cost estimating relationships (CERs) have been developed which show that aperture diameter is the primary cost driver for large space telescopes; technology development as a function of time reduces cost at the rate of 50% per 17 years; it costs less per square meter of collecting aperture to build a large telescope than a small telescope; and increasing mass reduces cost.

  13. Telescoping cylindrical piezoelectric fiber composite actuator assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Sidney G. (Inventor); Shams, Qamar A. (Inventor); Fox, Robert L. (Inventor); Fox, legal representative, Christopher L. (Inventor); Fox Chattin, legal representative, Melanie L. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A telescoping actuator assembly includes a plurality of cylindrical actuators in a concentric arrangement. Each cylindrical actuator is at least one piezoelectric fiber composite actuator having a plurality of piezoelectric fibers extending parallel to one another and to the concentric arrangement's longitudinal axis. Each cylindrical actuator is coupled to concentrically-adjacent ones of the cylindrical actuators such that the plurality of cylindrical actuators can experience telescopic movement. An electrical energy source coupled to the cylindrical actuators applies actuation energy thereto to generate the telescopic movement.

  14. Ground-Based Telescope Parametric Cost Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Rowell, Ginger Holmes

    2004-01-01

    A parametric cost model for ground-based telescopes is developed using multi-variable statistical analysis, The model includes both engineering and performance parameters. While diameter continues to be the dominant cost driver, other significant factors include primary mirror radius of curvature and diffraction limited wavelength. The model includes an explicit factor for primary mirror segmentation and/or duplication (i.e.. multi-telescope phased-array systems). Additionally, single variable models based on aperture diameter are derived. This analysis indicates that recent mirror technology advances have indeed reduced the historical telescope cost curve.

  15. The ATHENA telescope and optics status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavdaz, Marcos; Wille, Eric; Ayre, Mark; Ferreira, Ivo; Shortt, Brian; Fransen, Sebastiaan; Collon, Maximilien; Vacanti, Giuseppe; Barriere, Nicolas; Landgraf, Boris; Haneveld, Jeroen; van Baren, Coen; Zuknik, Karl-Heintz; Della Monica Ferreira, Desiree; Massahi, Sonny; Christensen, Finn; Krumrey, Michael; Burwitz, Vadim; Pareschi, Giovanni; Spiga, Daniele; Valsecchi, Giuseppe; Vernani, Dervis; Oliver, Paul; Seidel, André

    2017-08-01

    The work on the definition and technological preparation of the ATHENA (Advanced Telescope for High ENergy Astrophysics) mission continues to progress. In parallel to the study of the accommodation of the telescope, many aspects of the X-ray optics are being evolved further. The optics technology chosen for ATHENA is the Silicon Pore Optics (SPO), which hinges on technology spin-in from the semiconductor industry, and uses a modular approach to produce large effective area lightweight telescope optics with a good angular resolution. Both system studies and the technology developments are guided by ESA and implemented in industry, with participation of institutional partners. In this paper an overview of the current status of the telescope optics accommodation and technology development activities is provided.

  16. EDUCATIONAL ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATIONS ON REMOTE ACCESS TELESCOPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan P. Kriachko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to show the way of overcoming one of the major problems of astronomy teaching methods in upper secondary school – organization of educational astronomical observations. Nowadays it became possible to perform such observations on remote access telescopes. By using up-to-date informational and communicational technologies, having an opportunity to work with robotic telescopes allows us to organize a unique cognitive and research oriented activities for students while conducting their specialized astronomical studies. Below here is given a brief description of the most significant robotic telescopes and the way of the usage of open remote access telescopic network which was created by professors and scientists of Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, USA.

  17. Possible GRB Observation with the MAGIC Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastieri, D.; Bigongiari, C.; Mariotti, M.; Peruzzo, L.; Saggion, A.

    2001-08-01

    The MAGIC Telescope, with its reflecting parabolic dish of 17 m of diameter and its careful design of a robust, lightweight, alto-azimuthal mount, is an ideal detector for GRB phenomena. The telescope is an air Cherenkov telescope that, even in the first phase, equipped with standard PMTs, can reach an energy threshold below 30 GeV. The threshold is going to drop well below 10 GeV in the envisaged second phase, when chamber PMTs will be substituted by high quantum efficiency APDs. The telescope can promptly respond to GRB alerts coming, for instance, from GCN, and can reposition itself in less than 30 seconds, 20 seconds being the time to turn half a round for the azimuth bearing. In this report, the effective area of the detector as a function of energy and zenith angle is taken into account, in order to evaluate the expected yearly occurrence and the response to different kinds of GRBs.

  18. Direct illumination LED calibration for telescope photometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrelet, E.; Juramy, C.

    2008-01-01

    A calibration method for telescope photometry, based on the direct illumination of a telescope with a calibrated light source regrouping multiple LEDs, is proposed. Its purpose is to calibrate the instrument response. The main emphasis of the proposed method is the traceability of the calibration process and a continuous monitoring of the instrument in order to maintain a 0.2% accuracy over a period of years. Its specificity is to map finely the response of the telescope and its camera as a function of all light ray parameters. This feature is essential to implement a computer model of the instrument representing the variation of the overall light collection efficiency of each pixel for various filter configurations. We report on hardware developments done for SNDICE, the first application of this direct illumination calibration system which will be installed in Canada France Hawaii telescope (CFHT) for its leading supernova experiment (SNLS)

  19. Proposed National Large Solar Telescope Jagdev Singh

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    proposed to design, fabricate and install a 2-meter class solar telescope at a suitable site in India to ... which can facilitate simultaneous measurements of the solar atmospheric parameters and of the vector ... Intensity variation of. 1% or less.

  20. A 16-m Telescope for the Advanced Technology Large Aperture Telescope (ATLAST) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillie, Charles F.; Dailey, D. R.; Polidan, R. S.

    2010-01-01

    Future space observatories will require increasingly large telescopes to study the earliest stars and galaxies, as well as faint nearby objects. Technologies now under development will enable telescopes much larger than the 6.5-meter diameter James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) to be developed at comparable costs. Current segmented mirror and deployable optics technology enables the 6.5 meter JWST telescope to be folded for launch in the 5-meter diameter Ariane 5 payload fairing, and deployed autonomously after reaching orbit. Late in the next decade, when the Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle payload fairing becomes operational, even larger telescope can be placed in orbit. In this paper we present our concept for a 16-meter JWST derivative, chord-fold telescope which could be stowed in the 10-m diameter Ares V fairing, plus a description of the new technologies that enable ATLAST to be developed at an affordable price.

  1. The ARC (Astrophysical Research Consortium) telescope project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, K. S.

    A consortium of universities intends to construct a 3.5 meter optical-infrared telescope at a site in south-central New Mexico. The use of innovative mirror technology, a fast primary, and an alt-azimuth mounting results in a compact and lightweight instrument. This telescope will be uniquely well-suited for addressing certain observational programs by virtue of its capability for fully remote operation and rapid instrument changes.

  2. The ATHENA telescope and optics status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bavdaz, Marcos; Wille, Eric; Ayre, Mark

    2017-01-01

    chosen for ATHENA is the Silicon Pore Optics (SPO), which hinges on technology spin-in from the semiconductor industry, and uses a modular approach to produce large effective area lightweight telescope optics with a good angular resolution. Both system studies and the technology developments are guided...... by ESA and implemented in industry, with participation of institutional partners. In this paper an overview of the current status of the telescope optics accommodation and technology development activities is provided....

  3. CLIC Telescope optimization with ALLPIX simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Qi, Wu

    2015-01-01

    A simulation study of CLIC-EUDET telescope resolution with MIMOSA 26 as reference sensors under DESY (5.6 GeV electron beam) and CERN-SPS (120-180 GeV pion^{-} beam) conditions. During the study, a virtual DUT sensor with cylindrical sensing area was defined and used with ALLPIX software. By changing the configuration of telescope, some results for DESY's setup were found agreeing with the theoretical calculation.

  4. LYCORIS - A Large Area Strip Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Krämer, U; Stanitzki, M; Wu, M

    2018-01-01

    The LYCORIS Large Area Silicon Strip Telescope for the DESY II Test Beam Facility is presented. The DESY II Test Beam Facility provides elec- tron and positron beams for beam tests of up to 6 GeV. A new telescope with a large 10 × 20 cm2 coverage area based on a 25 μm pitch strip sensor is to be installed within the PCMAG 1 T solenoid. The current state of the system is presented.

  5. New infrared telescopic observation of Vesta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomba, E.; D'Aversa, E.; Sato, T.; Longobardo, A.; Aoki, S.; Sindoni, G.; Oliva, F.

    2017-09-01

    In this work we present new telescopic observations of the Vesta asteroid made at the Subaru Telescope by using the COMICS IR spectrometer. We were able to obtain 5 different observations in 5 day, at two different epochs. The obtained spectra do not exhibit Reststrahlen bands and show only weak features attributable to the Christiansen peak and to the transparency feature compatible with a fine grain size regolith.

  6. Hartman Testing of X-Ray Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Timo T.; Biskasch, Michael; Zhang, William W.

    2013-01-01

    Hartmann testing of x-ray telescopes is a simple test method to retrieve and analyze alignment errors and low-order circumferential errors of x-ray telescopes and their components. A narrow slit is scanned along the circumference of the telescope in front of the mirror and the centroids of the images are calculated. From the centroid data, alignment errors, radius variation errors, and cone-angle variation errors can be calculated. Mean cone angle, mean radial height (average radius), and the focal length of the telescope can also be estimated if the centroid data is measured at multiple focal plane locations. In this paper we present the basic equations that are used in the analysis process. These equations can be applied to full circumference or segmented x-ray telescopes. We use the Optical Surface Analysis Code (OSAC) to model a segmented x-ray telescope and show that the derived equations and accompanying analysis retrieves the alignment errors and low order circumferential errors accurately.

  7. SCIENTIFIC EFFICIENCY OF GROUND-BASED TELESCOPES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abt, Helmut A.

    2012-01-01

    I scanned the six major astronomical journals of 2008 for all 1589 papers that are based on new data obtained from ground-based optical/IR telescopes worldwide. Then I collected data on numbers of papers, citations to them in 3+ years, the most-cited papers, and annual operating costs. These data are assigned to four groups by telescope aperture. For instance, while the papers from telescopes with an aperture >7 m average 1.29 more citations than those with an aperture of 2 to 7 m) telescopes. I wonder why the large telescopes do so relatively poorly and suggest possible reasons. I also found that papers based on archival data, such as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, produce 10.6% as many papers and 20.6% as many citations as those based on new data. Also, the 577.2 papers based on radio data produced 36.3% as many papers and 33.6% as many citations as the 1589 papers based on optical/IR telescopes.

  8. The DAG project, a 4m class telescope: the telescope main structure performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiori, G.; Busatta, A.; Ghedin, L.; Marcuzzi, E.; Manfrin, C.; Battistel, C.; Pirnay, O.; Flebus, Carlo; Yeşilyaprak, C.; Keskin, O.; Yerli, S.

    2016-07-01

    Dogu Anatolu Gözlemevi (DAG-Eastern Anatolia Observatory) Project is a 4m class optical, near-infrared Telescope and suitable enclosure which will be located at an altitude of 3.170m in Erzurum, Turkey. The DAG telescope is a project fully funded by Turkish Ministry of Development and the Atatürk University of Astrophysics Research Telescope - ATASAM. The Project is being developed by the Belgian company AMOS (project leader), which is also the optics supplier and EIE GROUP, the Telescope Main Structure supplier and responsible for the final site integration. The design of the Telescope Main Structure fits in the EIE TBO Program which aims at developing a Dome/Telescope systemic optimization process for both performances and competitive costs based on previous project commitments like NTT, VLT, VST and ASTRI. The optical Configuration of the DAG Telescope is a Ritchey-Chretien with two Nasmyth foci and a 4m primary thin mirror controlled in shape and position by an Active Optic System. The main characteristics of the Telescope Main Structure are an Altitude-Azimuth light and rigid structure system with Direct Drive Systems for both axis, AZ Hydrostatic Bearing System and Altitude standard bearing system; both axes are equipped with Tape Encoder System. An innovative Control System characterizes the telescope performance.

  9. Open principle for large high-resolution solar telescopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammerschlag, R.H.; Bettonvil, F.C.M.; Jägers, A.P.L.; Sliepen, G.

    2009-01-01

    Vacuum solar telescopes solve the problem of image deterioration inside the telescope due to refractive index fluctuations of the air heated by the solar light. However, such telescopes have a practical diameter limit somewhat over 1 m. The Dutch Open Telescope (DOT) was the pioneering demonstrator

  10. Hubble Space Telescope, Faint Object Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    This drawing illustrates Hubble Space Telescope's (HST's), Faint Object Camera (FOC). The FOC reflects light down one of two optical pathways. The light enters a detector after passing through filters or through devices that can block out light from bright objects. Light from bright objects is blocked out to enable the FOC to see background images. The detector intensifies the image, then records it much like a television camera. For faint objects, images can be built up over long exposure times. The total image is translated into digital data, transmitted to Earth, and then reconstructed. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST detects objects 25 times fainter than the dimmest objects seen from Earth and provides astronomers with an observable universe 250 times larger than visible from ground-based telescopes, perhaps as far away as 14 billion light-years. The HST views galaxies, stars, planets, comets, possibly other solar systems, and even unusual phenomena such as quasars, with 10 times the clarity of ground-based telescopes. The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Cornecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors.

  11. Simulation and track reconstruction for beam telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Maqbool, Salman

    2017-01-01

    Beam telescopes are used for testing new detectors under development. Sensors are placed and a particle beam is passed through them. To test these novel detectors and determine their properties, the particle tracks need to be reconstructed from the known detectors in the telescope. Based on the reconstructed track, it’s predicted hits on the Device under Test (DUT) are compared with the actual hits on the DUT. Several methods exist for track reconstruction, but most of them don’t account for the effects of multiple scattering. General Broken Lines is one such algorithm which incorporates these effects during reconstruction. The aim of this project was to simulate the beam telescope and extend the track reconstruction framework for the FE-I4 telescope, which takes these effects into account. Section 1 introduces the problem, while section 2 focuses on beam telescopes. This is followed by the Allpix2 simulation framework in Section 3. And finally, Section 4 introduces the Proteus track reconstruction framew...

  12. Habitable Exoplanet Imager Optical Telescope Concept Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H Philip

    2017-01-01

    The Habitable Exoplanet Imaging Mission (HabEx) is one of four missions under study for the 2020 Astrophysics Decadal Survey. Its goal is to directly image and spectroscopically characterize planetary systems in the habitable zone of Sun-like stars. Additionally, HabEx will perform a broad range of general astrophysics science enabled by 100 to 2500 nm spectral range and 3 x 3 arc-minute FOV. Critical to achieving the HabEx science goals is a large, ultra-stable UV/Optical/Near-IR (UVOIR) telescope. The baseline HabEx telescope is a 4-meter off-axis unobscured three-mirror-anastigmatic, diffraction limited at 400 nm with wavefront stability on the order of a few 10s of picometers. This paper summarizes the opto-mechanical design of the HabEx baseline optical telescope assembly, including a discussion of how science requirements drive the telescope's specifications, and presents analysis that the baseline telescope structure meets its specified tolerances.

  13. Liverpool Telescope 2: beginning the design phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copperwheat, Christopher M.; Steele, Iain A.; Barnsley, Robert M.; Bates, Stuart D.; Bode, Mike F.; Clay, Neil R.; Collins, Chris A.; Jermak, Helen E.; Knapen, Johan H.; Marchant, Jon M.; Mottram, Chris J.; Piascik, Andrzej S.; Smith, Robert J.

    2016-07-01

    The Liverpool Telescope is a fully robotic 2-metre telescope located at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos on the Canary Island of La Palma. The telescope began routine science operations in 2004, and currently seven simultaneously mounted instruments support a broad science programme, with a focus on transient followup and other time domain topics well suited to the characteristics of robotic observing. Work has begun on a successor facility with the working title `Liverpool Telescope 2'. We are entering a new era of time domain astronomy with new discovery facilities across the electromagnetic spectrum, and the next generation of optical survey facilities such as LSST are set to revolutionise the field of transient science in particular. The fully robotic Liverpool Telescope 2 will have a 4-metre aperture and an improved response time, and will be designed to meet the challenges of this new era. Following a conceptual design phase, we are about to begin the detailed design which will lead towards the start of construction in 2018, for first light ˜2022. In this paper we provide an overview of the facility and an update on progress.

  14. Calibration strategies for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaug, Markus; Berge, David; Daniel, Michael; Doro, Michele; Förster, Andreas; Hofmann, Werner; Maccarone, Maria C.; Parsons, Dan; de los Reyes Lopez, Raquel; van Eldik, Christopher

    2014-08-01

    The Central Calibration Facilities workpackage of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) observatory for very high energy gamma ray astronomy defines the overall calibration strategy of the array, develops dedicated hardware and software for the overall array calibration and coordinates the calibration efforts of the different telescopes. The latter include LED-based light pulsers, and various methods and instruments to achieve a calibration of the overall optical throughput. On the array level, methods for the inter-telescope calibration and the absolute calibration of the entire observatory are being developed. Additionally, the atmosphere above the telescopes, used as a calorimeter, will be monitored constantly with state-of-the-art instruments to obtain a full molecular and aerosol profile up to the stratosphere. The aim is to provide a maximal uncertainty of 10% on the reconstructed energy-scale, obtained through various independent methods. Different types of LIDAR in combination with all-sky-cameras will provide the observatory with an online, intelligent scheduling system, which, if the sky is partially covered by clouds, gives preference to sources observable under good atmospheric conditions. Wide-field optical telescopes and Raman Lidars will provide online information about the height-resolved atmospheric extinction, throughout the field-of-view of the cameras, allowing for the correction of the reconstructed energy of each gamma-ray event. The aim is to maximize the duty cycle of the observatory, in terms of usable data, while reducing the dead time introduced by calibration activities to an absolute minimum.

  15. The Telescope: Outline of a Poetic History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocchi, M. P.

    2011-06-01

    Amongst the first editions of Galileo's books, only the Saggiatore has on its frontispiece the image of the telescope. Indeed, the telescope is not pictured on the very emphatic frontispieces of the other books in which Galileo was presenting and defending the results achieved by his celestial observations, such as the Sidereus Nuncius. Many contemporary scientists denied the reliability of the telescope, and some even refused to look into the eyepiece. In the 16th and 17th century, the lenses, mirrors, and optical devices of extraordinary complexity did not have the main task of leading to the objective truth but obtaining the deformation of the reality by means of amazing effects of illusion. The Baroque art and literature had the aim of surprising, and the artists gave an enthusiastic support to the telescope. The poems in praise of Galileo's telescopic findings were quite numerous, including Adone composed by Giovanni Battista Marino, one of the most renowned poets of the time. The Galilean discoveries were actually accepted by the poets as ideologically neutral contributions to the "wonder" in spite they were rejected or even condemned by the scientists, philosophers, and theologians.

  16. Habitable exoplanet imager optical telescope concept design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2017-09-01

    The Habitable Exoplanet Imaging Mission (HabEx) is one of four missions under study for the 2020 Astrophysics Decadal Survey. Its goal is to directly image and spectroscopically characterize planetary systems in the habitable zone of Sunlike stars. Additionally, HabEx will perform a broad range of general astrophysics science enabled by 100 to 2500 nm spectral range and 3 x 3 arc-minute FOV. Critical to achieving the HabEx science goals is a large, ultra-stable UV/Optical/Near-IR (UVOIR) telescope. The baseline HabEx telescope is a 4-meter off-axis unobscured three-mirroranastigmatic, diffraction limited at 400 nm with wavefront stability on the order of a few 10s of picometers. This paper summarizes the opto-mechanical design of the HabEx baseline optical telescope assembly, including a discussion of how science requirements drive the telescope's specifications, and presents analysis that the baseline telescope structure meets its specified tolerances.

  17. A free market in telescope time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etherton, Jason; Steele, Iain A.; Mottram, Christopher J.

    2004-09-01

    As distributed systems are becoming more and more diverse in application there is a growing need for more intelligent resource scheduling. eSTAR Is a geographically distributed network of Grid-enabled telescopes, using grid middleware to provide telescope users with an authentication and authorisation method, allowing secure, remote access to such resources. The eSTAR paradigm is based upon this secure, single sign-on, giving astronomers or their agent proxies direct access to these telescopes. This concept, however, involves the complex issue of how to schedule observations stored within physically distributed media, on geographically distributed resources. This matter is complicated further by the varying degrees of constraints placed upon observations such as timeliness, atmospheric and meteorological conditions, and sky brightness to name a few. This paper discusses a free market approach to this scheduling problem, where astronomers are given credit, instead of time, from their respective TAGs to spend on telescopes as they see fit. This approach will ultimately provide a community-driven schedule, genuine indicators of the worth of specific telescope time and promote a more efficient use of that time, as well as demonstrating a 'survival of the fittest' type selection.

  18. Development and Performances of the Magic Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastieri, D.; Bigongiari, C.; Dazzi, F.; Mariotti, M.; Moralejo, A.; Peruzzo, L.; Saggion, A.; Tonello, N.

    2002-11-01

    The MAGIC Collaboration is building an imaging Čerenkov telescope at La Palma site (2200 m a.s.l.), in the Canary Islands, to observe gamma rays in the hundred-GeV region. The MAGIC telescope, with its reflecting parabolic dish, 17 m in diameter, and a two-level pattern trigger designed to cope with severe trigger rates, is the Čerenkov telescope with the lowest envisaged energy threshold. Due to its lightweight alto-azimuthal mounting, MAGIC can be repositioned in less than 30 seconds, becoming the only detector, with an adequate effective area, capable to observe GRB phenomena above 30 GeV. MAGIC telescope is characterised by a 30 GeV energy threshold and a sensitivity of 6×l0-11 cm-2s-1 for a 5σ-detection in 50-hours of observation. In this report, some future scientific goals for MAGIC will be highlighted and the technical development for the main elements of the telescope will be detailed. Special emphasis will be given to the construction of the individual metallic mirrors which form the reflecting surface and the development of the fast pattern-recognition trigger.

  19. An innovative telescope control system architecture for SST-GATE telescopes at the CTA Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasola, Gilles; Mignot, Shan; Laporte, Philippe; Abchiche, Abdel; Buchholtz, Gilles; Jégouzo, Isabelle

    2014-07-01

    SST-GATE (Small Size Telescope - GAmma-ray Telescope Elements) is a 4-metre telescope designed as a prototype for the Small Size Telescopes (SST) of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), a major facility for the very high energy gamma-ray astronomy of the next three decades. In this 100-telescope array there will be 70 SSTs, involving a design with an industrial view aiming at long-term service, low maintenance effort and reduced costs. More than a prototype, SST-GATE is also a fully functional telescope that shall be usable by scientists and students at the Observatoire de Meudon for 30 years. The Telescope Control System (TCS) is designed to work either as an element of a large array driven by an array controller or in a stand-alone mode with a remote workstation. Hence it is built to be autonomous with versatile interfacing; as an example, pointing and tracking —the main functions of the telescope— are managed onboard, including astronomical transformations, geometrical transformations (e.g. telescope bending model) and drive control. The core hardware is a CompactRIO (cRIO) featuring a real-time operating system and an FPGA. In this paper, we present an overview of the current status of the TCS. We especially focus on three items: the pointing computation implemented in the FPGA of the cRIO —using CORDIC algorithms— since it enables an optimisation of the hardware resources; data flow management based on OPCUA with its specific implementation on the cRIO; and the use of an EtherCAT field-bus for its ability to provide real-time data exchanges with the sensors and actuators distributed throughout the telescope.

  20. LOBSTER - New Space X-Ray telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudec, R.; Pina, L.; Simon, V.; Sveda, L.; Inneman, A.; Semencova, V.; Skulinova, M.

    2007-01-01

    We discuss the technological and scientific aspects of fully innovative very wide-field X-ray telescopes with high sensitivity. The prototypes of Lobster telescopes designed, developed and tested are very promising, allowing the proposals for space projects with very wide-field Lobster Eye X-ray optics to be considered for the first time. The novel telescopes will monitor the sky with unprecedented sensitivity and angular resolution of order of 1 arcmin. They are expected to contribute essentially to study of various astrophysical objects such as AGN, SNe, Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), X-ray flashes (XRFs), galactic binary sources, stars, CVs, X-ray novae, various transient sources, etc. For example, the Lobster optics based X-ray All Sky Monitor is capable to detect around 20 GRBs and 8 XRFs yearly and this will surely significantly contribute to the related science

  1. The SPIRIT Telescope Initiative: six years on

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckas, Paul

    2017-06-01

    Now in its sixth year of operation, the SPIRIT initiative remains unique in Australia, as a robust web-enabled robotic telescope initiative funded for education and outreach. With multiple modes of operation catering for a variety of usage scenarios and a fully supported education program, SPIRIT provides free access to contemporary astronomical tools for students and educators in Western Australia and beyond. The technical solution itself provides an excellent model for low cost robotic telescope installations, and the education program has evolved over time to include a broad range of student experiences-from engagement activities to authentic science. This paper details the robotic telescope solution, student interface and educational philosophy, summarises achievements and lessons learned and examines the possibilities for future enhancement including spectroscopy.

  2. Hubble Space Telescope via the Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dea, Christopher P.

    The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) makes available a wide variety of information concerning the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) via the Space Telescope Electronic Information Service (STEIS). STEIS is accessible via anonymous ftp, gopher, WAIS, and WWW. The information on STEIS includes how to propose for time on the HST, the current status of HST, reports on the scientific instruments, the observing schedule, data reduction software, calibration files, and a set of publicly available images in JPEG, GIF and TIFF format. STEIS serves both the astronomical community as well as the larger Internet community. WWW is currently the most widely used interface to STEIS. Future developments on STEIS are expected to include larger amounts of hypertext, especially HST images and educational material of interest to students, educators, and the general public, and the ability to query proposal status.

  3. Observatories and Telescopes of Modern Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leverington, David

    2016-11-01

    Preface; Part I. Optical Observatories: 1. Palomar Mountain Observatory; 2. The United States Optical Observatory; 3. From the Next Generation Telescope to Gemini and SOAR; 4. Competing primary mirror designs; 5. Active optics, adaptive optics and other technical innovations; 6. European Northern Observatory and Calar Alto; 7. European Southern Observatory; 8. Mauna Kea Observatory; 9. Australian optical observatories; 10. Mount Hopkins' Whipple Observatory and the MMT; 11. Apache Point Observatory; 12. Carnegie Southern Observatory (Las Campanas); 13. Mount Graham International Optical Observatory; 14. Modern optical interferometers; 15. Solar observatories; Part II. Radio Observatories: 16. Australian radio observatories; 17. Cambridge Mullard Radio Observatory; 18. Jodrell Bank; 19. Early radio observatories away from the Australian-British axis; 20. The American National Radio Astronomy Observatory; 21. Owens Valley and Mauna Kea; 22. Further North and Central American observatories; 23. Further European and Asian radio observatories; 24. ALMA and the South Pole; Name index; Optical observatory and telescope index; Radio observatory and telescope index; General index.

  4. Simulation of the Simbol-X Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauvin, M.; Roques, J. P.

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a simulation tool for a Wolter I telescope operating in formation flight. The aim is to understand and predict the behavior of the Simbol-X instrument. As the geometry is variable, formation flight introduces new challenges and complex implications. Our code, based on Monte Carlo ray tracing, computes the full photon trajectories up to the detector plane, along with the relative drifts of the two spacecrafts. It takes into account angle and energy dependent interactions of the photons with the mirrors and applies to any grazing incidence telescope. The resulting images of simulated sources from 0.1 keV to 100 keV allow us to optimize the configuration of the instrument and to assess the performance of the Simbol-X telescope.

  5. Simulation of the Simbol-X Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvin, M.; Roques, J. P.

    2009-05-01

    We have developed a simulation tool for a Wolter I telescope operating in formation flight. The aim is to understand and predict the behavior of the Simbol-X instrument. As the geometry is variable, formation flight introduces new challenges and complex implications. Our code, based on Monte Carlo ray tracing, computes the full photon trajectories up to the detector plane, along with the relative drifts of the two spacecrafts. It takes into account angle and energy dependent interactions of the photons with the mirrors and applies to any grazing incidence telescope. The resulting images of simulated sources from 0.1 keV to 100 keV allow us to optimize the configuration of the instrument and to assess the performance of the Simbol-X telescope.

  6. Deployable reflector configurations. [for space telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinel, A. B.; Meinel, M. P.; Woolf, N. J.

    1983-01-01

    Both the theoretical reasons for considering a non-circular format for the Large Deployable Reflector, and a potentially realizable concept for such a device, are discussed. The optimum systems for diffraction limited telescopes with incoherent detection have either a single filled aperture, or two such apertures as an interferometer to synthesize a larger aperture. For a single aperture of limited area, a reflector in the form of a slot can be used to give increased angular resolution. It is shown how a 20 x 8 meter telescope can be configured to fit the Space Shuttle bay, and deployed with relatively simple operations. The relationship between the sunshield design and the inclination of the orbit is discussed. The possible use of the LDR as a basic module to permit the construction of supergiant space telescopes and interferometers both for IR/submm studies and for the entire ultraviolet through mm wave spectral region is discussed.

  7. Neutrino telescopes sensitivity to dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albuquerque, I.F.M.; Lamoureux, J.; Smoot, G.F.

    2002-01-01

    The nature of the dark matter of the Universe is yet unknown and most likely is connected with new physics. The search for its composition is underway through direct and indirect detection. Fundamental physical aspects such as energy threshold, geometry and location are taken into account to investigate proposed neutrino telescopes of km3 volume sensitivities to dark matter. These sensitivities are just sufficient to test a few weakly interacting massive particle scenarios. Telescopes of km3 volume, such as IceCube, can definitely discover or exclude superheavy (M>1010 GeV) strong interacting massive particles (simpzillas). Smaller neutrino telescopes such as ANTARES, AMANDA-II and NESTOR can probe a large region of simpzilla parameter space

  8. Template analysis for the MAGIC telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, Uta [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Collaboration: MAGIC-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The MAGIC telescopes are two 17-m-diameter Imaging Air Cherenkov Telescopes located on the Canary island of La Palma. They record the Cherenkov light from air showers induced by very high energy photons. The current data analysis uses a parametrization of the two shower images (including Hillas parameters) to determine the characteristics of the primary particle. I am implementing an advanced analysis method that compares shower images on a pixel basis with template images based on Monte Carlo simulations. To reduce the simulation effort the templates contain only pure shower images that are convolved with the telescope response later in the analysis. The primary particle parameters are reconstructed by maximizing the likelihood of the template. By using all the information available in the shower images, the performance of MAGIC is expected to improve. In this presentation I will explain the general idea of a template-based analysis and show the first results of the implementation.

  9. The VTIE telescope resource management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busschots, B.; Keating, J. G.

    2005-06-01

    The VTIE Telescope Resource Management System (TRMS) provides a frame work for managing a distributed group of internet telescopes as a single "Virtual Observatory". The TRMS provides hooks which allow for it to be connected to any Java Based web portal and for a Java based scheduler to be added to it. The TRMS represents each telescope and observatory in the system with a software agent and then allows the scheduler and web portal to communicate with these distributed resources in a simple transparent way, hence allowing the scheduler and portal designers to concentrate only on what they wish to do with these resources rather than how to communicate with them. This paper outlines the structure and implementation of this frame work.

  10. The ultraviolet telescope on the Astron satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyarchuk, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    On 23 March 1983 in the USSR, the Astron astrophysical satellite, with the largest ultraviolet telescope (the UVT) in the world (main mirror diameter 80 cm) and a set of X-ray instruments on board was placed in a high-apogee orbit. The design of the ultraviolet telescope and the results of some of the observations carried out with it are described here. The X-ray instruments are discussed in a separate article. The ultraviolet telescope on the Astron astrophysical satellite is a result of the joint efforts of scientists and engineers at the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory (Academy of Sciences of the USSR), the Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory (Academy of Sciences of the Armenian USSR), and several industrial enterprises in our country. The Laboratoire d'Astronomie Spatiale (CNRS, Marseille, France) played a large role in building the spectrometer for the UVT

  11. MROI Array telescopes: the relocatable enclosure domes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiori, G.; Busatta, A.; Payne, I.

    2016-07-01

    The MROI - Magdalena Ridge Interferometer is a project which comprises an array of up to 10 1.4m diameter mirror telescopes arranged in a "Y" configuration. Each of these telescopes will be housed inside a Unit Telescope Enclosure (UTE) which are relocatable onto any of 28 stations. EIE GROUP Srl, Venice - Italy, was awarded the contract for the design, the construction and the erection on site of the MROI by the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology. The close-pack array of the MROI - including all 10 telescopes, several of which are at a relative distance of less than 8m center to center from each other - necessitated an original design for the Unit Telescope Enclosure (UTE). This innovative design enclosure incorporates a unique dome/observing aperture system to be able to operate in the harsh environmental conditions encountered at an altitude of 10,460ft (3,188m). The main characteristics of this Relocatable Enclosure Dome are: a Light insulated Steel Structure with a dome made of composites materials (e.g. glass/carbon fibers, sandwich panels etc.), an aperture motorized system for observation, a series of louvers for ventilation, a series of electrical and plants installations and relevant auxiliary equipment. The first Enclosure Dome is now under construction and the completion of the mounting on site id envisaged by the end of 2016. The relocation system utilizes a modified reachstacker (a transporter used to handle freight containers) capable of maneuvering between and around the enclosures, capable of lifting the combined weight of the enclosure with the telescope (30tons), with minimal impacts due to vibrations.

  12. Construction of the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimmele, T. R.; Keil, S.; McMullin, J.; Knölker, M.; Kuhn, J. R.; Goode, P. R.; Rosner, R.; Casini, R.; Lin, H.; Tritschler, A.; Wöger, F.; ATST Team

    2012-12-01

    The 4m Advance Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) will be the most powerful solar telescope and the world's leading ground-based resource for studying solar magnetism that controls the solar wind, flares, coronal mass ejections and variability in the Sun's output. The project has entered its construction phase. Major subsystems have been contracted. As its highest priority science driver ATST shall provide high resolution and high sensitivity observations of the dynamic solar magnetic fields throughout the solar atmosphere, including the corona at infrared wavelengths. With its 4m aperture, ATST will resolve features at 0.″03 at visible wavelengths and obtain 0.″1 resolution at the magnetically highly sensitive near infrared wavelengths. A high order adaptive optics system delivers a corrected beam to the initial set of state-of-the-art, facility class instrumentation located in the Coudé laboratory facility. The initial set of first generation instruments consists of five facility class instruments, including imagers and spectro-polarimeters. The high polarimetric sensitivity and accuracy required for measurements of the illusive solar magnetic fields place strong constraints on the polarization analysis and calibration. Development and construction of a four-meter solar telescope presents many technical challenges, including thermal control of the enclosure, telescope structure and optics and wavefront control. A brief overview of the science goals and observational requirements of the ATST will be given, followed by a summary of the design status of the telescope and its instrumentation, including design status of major subsystems, such as the telescope mount assembly, enclosure, mirror assemblies, and wavefront correction

  13. The TACTIC atmospheric Cherenkov imaging telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koul, R.; Tickoo, A.K.; Kaul, S.K.; Kaul, S.R.; Kumar, N.; Yadav, K.K.; Bhatt, N.; Venugopal, K.; Goyal, H.C.; Kothari, M.; Chandra, P.; Rannot, R.C.; Dhar, V.K.; Koul, M.K.; Kaul, R.K.; Kotwal, S.; Chanchalani, K.; Thoudam, S.; Chouhan, N.; Sharma, M.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Sahayanathan, S.

    2007-01-01

    The TACTIC (TeV Atomospheric Cherenkov Telescope with Imaging Camera) γ-ray telescope, equipped with a light collector of area ∼9.5m 2 and a medium resolution imaging camera of 349 pixels, has been in operation at Mt. Abu, India, since 2001. This paper describes the main features of its various subsystems and its overall performance with regard to (a) tracking accuracy of its two-axes drive system, (b) spot size of the light collector, (c) back-end signal processing electronics and topological trigger generation scheme, (d) data acquisition and control system and (e) relative and absolute gain calibration methodology. Using a trigger field-of-view of 11x11 pixels (∼3.4 a tx3.4 a t), the telescope records a cosmic ray event rate of ∼2.5Hz at a typical zenith angle of 15 a t. Monte Carlo simulation results are also presented in the paper for comparing the expected performance of the telescope with actual observational results. The consistent detection of a steady signal from the Crab Nebula above ∼1.2TeV energy, at a sensitivity level of ∼5.0σ in ∼25h, along with excellent matching of its energy spectrum with that obtained by other groups, reassures that the performance of the TACTIC telescope is quite stable and reliable. Furthermore, encouraged by the detection of strong γ-ray signals from Mrk 501 (during 1997 and 2006 observations) and Mrk 421 (during 2001 and 2005-2006 observations), we believe that there is considerable scope for the TACTIC telescope to monitor similar TeV γ-ray emission activity from other active galactic nuclei on a long-term basis

  14. Cosmic inquirers: Modern telescopes and their makers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tucker, W.; Tucker, K.

    1986-01-01

    An historical account is given of major, telescopic instrument-related advancements in 20th-century astronomy, with attention to the roles played by leading figures in the various fields of astronomical research involved. These biographical treatments encompass David Heeshen and the development of the VLA; Riccardo Giacconi and the X-ray astronomy Uhuru, High Energy Astronomy Observatory, and X-ray Explorer, and Einstein Observatory satellites; Allan Jacobson and the Gamma Ray Observatory satellite; the involvements of Frank Low and Gerry Neugebauer in the development of the IR Astronomy Satellite; and C. R. O'Dell's organization of the NASA Space Telescope program. 62 references

  15. Autonomous Dome for a Robotic Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A.; Sengupta, A.; Ganesh, S.

    2016-12-01

    The Physical Research Laboratory operates a 50 cm robotic observatory at Mount Abu (Rajsthan, India). This Automated Telescope for Variability Studies (ATVS) makes use of the Remote Telescope System 2 (RTS2) for autonomous operations. The observatory uses a 3.5 m dome from Sirius Observatories. We have developed electronics using Arduino electronic circuit boards with home grown logic and software to control the dome operations. We are in the process of completing the drivers to link our Arduino based dome controller with RTS2. This document is a short description of the various phases of the development and their integration to achieve the required objective.

  16. LOBSTER: new space x-ray telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudec, R.; Sveda, L.; Pína, L.; Inneman, A.; Semencova, V.; Skulinova, M.

    2017-11-01

    The LOBSTER telescopes are based on the optical arrangement of the lobster eye. The main difference from classical X-ray space telescopes in wide use is the very large field of view while the use of optics results in higher efficiency if compared with detectors without optics. Recent innovative technologies have enabled to design, to develop and to test first prototypes. They will provide deep sensitive survey of the sky in X-rays for the first time which is essential for both long-term monitoring of celestial high-energy sources as well as in understanding transient phenomena. The technology is now ready for applications in space.

  17. DESTINY, The Dark Energy Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquale, Bert A.; Woodruff, Robert A.; Benford, Dominic J.; Lauer, Tod

    2007-01-01

    We have proposed the development of a low-cost space telescope, Destiny, as a concept for the NASA/DOE Joint Dark Energy Mission. Destiny is a 1.65m space telescope, featuring a near-infrared (0.85-1.7m) survey camera/spectrometer with a moderate flat-field field of view (FOV). Destiny will probe the properties of dark energy by obtaining a Hubble diagram based on Type Ia supernovae and a large-scale mass power spectrum derived from weak lensing distortions of field galaxies as a function of redshift.

  18. Status of the GroundBIRD Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J.; Génova-Santos, R.; Hattori, M.; Hazumi, M.; Ishitsuka, H.; Kanno, F.; Karatsu, K.; Kiuchi, K.; Koyano, R.; Kutsuma, H.; Lee, K.; Mima, S.; Minowa, M.; Nagai, M.; Nagasaki, T.; Naruse, M.; Oguri, S.; Okada, T.; Otani, C.; Rebolo, R.; Rubiño-Martín, J.; Sekimoto, Y.; Suzuki, J.; Taino, T.; Tajima, O.; Tomita, N.; Uchida, T.; Won, E.; Yoshida, M.

    2018-01-01

    Our understanding of physics at very early Universe, as early as 10-35 s after the Big Bang, relies on the scenario known as the inflationary cosmology. Inflation predicts a particular polarization pattern in the cosmic microwave background, known as the B-mode yet the strength of such polarization pattern is extremely weak. To search for the B-mode of the polarization in the cosmic microwave background, we are constructing an off-axis rotating telescope to mitigate systematic effects as well as to maximize the sky coverage of the observation. We will discuss the present status of the GroundBIRD telescope.

  19. The Status of the Telescope Array experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokuno, H; Azuma, R [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo (Japan); Abu-Zayyad, T; Allen, M; Barcikowski, E; Belz, J W; Blake, S A; Brusova, O; Cady, R [University of Utah, High Energy Astrophysics Institute, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States); Aida, R [University of Yamanashi, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medicine and Engineering, Kofu, Yamanashi (Japan); Benno, T; Chikawa, M; Doura, K [Kinki University, Higashi Osaka, Osaka (Japan); Bergman, D R [Rutgers University, Piscataway (United States); Cheon, B G; Cho, E J [Hanyang University, Seongdong-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chiba, J [Tokyo University of Science, Noda, Chiba (Japan); Cho, L S; Cho, W R [Yonsei University, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cohen, F, E-mail: htokuno@cr.phys.titech.ac.jp [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan)

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of The Telescope Array experiment is to identify origin of the ultra high energy cosmic rays. The Telescope Array is a hybrid detector consists of a surface detector array and air fluorescence detectors. This hybrid detector is observing extensive air showers to measure the energy spectrum, anisotropy and composition of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays. The detector construction has been completed in March 2008, and the hybrid observation with the full configuration has been running since that time. In this talk, the status of observation and our prospects are described.

  20. The Telescope Array experiment: status and prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokuno, H; Cohen, F [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa (Japan); Abbasi, R U; Abu-Zayyad, T; Belz, J W; Blake, S A; Brusova, O; Cady, R; Cao, Z [University of Utah, Salt Lake City (United States); Azuma, R [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Benno, T; Chikawa, M; Doura, K [Kinki University, Osaka (Japan); Bergman, D R [Rutgers University, Piscataway (United States); Cheon, B G [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chiba, J [Tokyo University of Science, Noda (Japan); Cho, I S [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, T [Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Doyle, T [Utah State University, Logan (United States); Endo, A [Saitama University, Saitama (Japan)], E-mail: htokuno@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp (and others)

    2008-07-15

    Telescope Array (TA) is a hybrid detector of a surface detector array and fluorescence telescopes. This hybrid detector will measure the energy spectrum, anisotropy and composition of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) to identify their origin. The almost construction of the detector has been completed in May 2007, and the detector is running under test and adjustments. The first hybrid observation with the full configuration is planned in beginning of 2008. In this paper the status and prospects of TA detector is described.

  1. Status of the GroundBIRD Telescope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi J.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Our understanding of physics at very early Universe, as early as 10−35 s after the Big Bang, relies on the scenario known as the inflationary cosmology. Inflation predicts a particular polarization pattern in the cosmic microwave background, known as the B-mode yet the strength of such polarization pattern is extremely weak. To search for the B-mode of the polarization in the cosmic microwave background, we are constructing an off-axis rotating telescope to mitigate systematic effects as well as to maximize the sky coverage of the observation. We will discuss the present status of the GroundBIRD telescope.

  2. Revisiting the Effectiveness of Large Optical Telescopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Sychev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To create large-size optical telescopes, various design concepts have been used. Each concept inevitably faced the challenge to optimize technical characteristics and parameters of the telescope. There was always a question: what concept to choose, how to estimate efficiency of such telescopes and by what criteria and how to estimate expediency of this or that project of the large-size telescope. It is, obviously, insufficient to make a resolution-based estimation. An estimate by the angular field size is inappropriate too. Well, it may be also an estimate by the stellar magnitude. All these criteria are related to each other. Improvement of one of these parameters inevitably leads to deterioration of the others. Obviously, the certain generalized criterion considering all parameters and features of the design concept of the large-size telescope is necessary here. As such can serve the criterion of informational content of the telescope.The article offers a complex criterion allowing not only to estimate efficiency of large-size optical telescopes, but also to compare their conceptual and technological level among themselves in terms of obtaining information.The article suggests a new term, i.e. the informational content invariant to characterize informative capacities of the chosen concept and of the realizing technology. It will allow us to avoid unjustified complications of technical solutions, wrong accents in designing and excess material inputs when developing the project.The informational content criterion-based analysis of the existing projects of large-size telescopes has been convincingly shown that, conceptually, there are three best telescopes, namely: GSMT, CELT, and ACT-25. And, in terms of informational content, the АCТ-25 is 10 times more than GSMT and CELT, and the existing Keck-telescope exceeds by 30 times. Hence, it is hard to escape a conclusion that it is more favourable to implement one ACT-25, than to do 10 GSMT or CELT

  3. James Webb Space Telescope Optical Telescope Element Mirror Development History and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinber, Lee D.; Clampin, Mark; Keski-Kuha, Ritva; Atkinson, Charlie; Texter, Scott; Bergeland, Mark; Gallagher, Benjamin B.

    2012-01-01

    In a little under a decade, the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) program has designed, manufactured, assembled and tested 21 flight beryllium mirrors for the James Webb Space Telescope Optical Telescope Element. This paper will summarize the mirror development history starting with the selection of beryllium as the mirror material and ending with the final test results. It will provide an overview of the technological roadmap and schedules and the key challenges that were overcome. It will also provide a summary or the key tests that were performed and the results of these tests.

  4. Commissioning and first tests of the MAGIC telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baixeras, C.; Bastieri, D.; Bigongiari, C.; Blanch, O.; Blanchot, G.; Bock, R.; Bretz, T.; Chilingarian, A.; Coarasa, J. A.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. C.; Corti, D.; Cortina, J.; Domingo, C.; Domingo, E.; Ferenc, D.; Fernández, E.; Flix, J.; Fonseca, V.; Font, L.; Galante, N.; Gaug, M.; Garczarczyk, M.; Gebauer, J.; Giller, M.; Goebel, F.; Hengstebeck, T.; Jacone, P.; de Jager, O. C.; Kalekin, O.; Kestel, M.; Kneiske, T.; Laille, A.; López, M.; López, J.; Lorenz, E.; Mannheim, K.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mase, K.; Merck, M.; Meucci, M.; Miralles, L.; Mirzoyan, R.; Moralejo, A.; Wilhelmi, E. Oña; Orduña, R.; Paneque, D.; Paoletti, R.; Pascoli, D.; Pavel, N.; Pegna, R.; Peruzzo, L.; Piccioli, A.; Roberts, A.; Reyes, R.; Saggion, A.; Sánchez, A.; Sartori, P.; Scalzotto, V.; Schweizer, T.; Sillanpaa, A.; Sobczynska, D.; Stamerra, A.; Stepanian, A.; Stiehler, R.; Takalo, L.; Teshima, M.; Tonello, N.; Torres, A.; Turini, N.; Vitale, V.; Volkov, S.; Wagner, R. M.; Wibig, T.; Wittek, W.

    2004-02-01

    Major Atmospheric Gamma Imaging Cherenkov telescope is starting its operations with a set of engineering runs to tune the telescope subsystem elements to be ready for the first physics campaign. Many technical improvements have been developed and implemented in several elements of the telescope to reach the lowest energy threshold ever obtained by an Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescope. A general description of the telescope is presented. The commissioning of the telescope's elements is described and the expected performances are reviewed with the final detector set-up.

  5. Modeling and control of antennas and telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Gawronski, Wodek

    2008-01-01

    The book shows, step-by-step, the design, implementation, and testing of the antenna/telescope control system, from the design stage (analytical model) to fine tuning of the RF beam pointing (monopulse and conscan). It includes wide use of Matlab and Simulink..

  6. The telescopic tourist's guide to the Moon

    CERN Document Server

    May, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Whether you’re interested in visiting Apollo landing sites or the locations of classic sci-fi movies, this is the tourist guide for you! This tourist guide has a twist – it is a guide to a whole different world, which you can visit from the comfort of your backyard with the aid of nothing more sophisticated than an inexpensive telescope. It tells you the best times to view the Moon, the most exciting sights to look out for, and the best equipment to use, allowing you to snap stunning photographs as well as view the sights with your own eyes. Have you ever been inspired by stunning images from the Hubble telescope, or the magic of sci-fi special effects, only to look through a small backyard telescope at the disappointing white dot of a planet or faint blur of a galaxy? Yet the Moon is different. Seen through even a relatively cheap telescope, it springs into life like a real place, with mountains and valleys and rugged craters. With a bit of imagination, you can even picture yourself as a sightseeing visi...

  7. Functional check of telescoping transfer pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharpe, C.L.

    1994-01-01

    Activities are defined which constitute a functional check of a telescoping transfer pump (TTP). This report is written to the Procedures group of HLW and particularly applies to those TTP's which are the sole means of emergency transfer from a HLW waste tank

  8. Laser Truss Sensor for Segmented Telescope Phasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Duncan T.; Lay, Oliver P.; Azizi, Alireza; Erlig, Herman; Dorsky, Leonard I.; Asbury, Cheryl G.; Zhao, Feng

    2011-01-01

    A paper describes the laser truss sensor (LTS) for detecting piston motion between two adjacent telescope segment edges. LTS is formed by two point-to-point laser metrology gauges in a crossed geometry. A high-resolution (distribution can be optimized using the range-gated metrology (RGM) approach.

  9. Hydrodynamic experiments on dacryoconarid shell telescoping

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hladil, Jindřich; Šimčík, Miroslav; Růžička, Marek; Kulaviak, Lukáš; Lisý, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 3 (2014), s. 376-396 ISSN 0024-1164 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP210/10/2351 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 ; RVO:67985858 Keywords : dacryoconarid shells * experimental fluid mechanics * narrow cones * Palaeozoic * telescoping Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy; CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering (UCHP-M) Impact factor: 1.454, year: 2014

  10. The 3.5-Meter Telescope Enclosure

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-04-01

    and acoustic vibrations, and the enclosure cannot be stopped quickly in an emergency. Also, the work of Zago indicates that open-air operation of the...enclosure. This capability is useful during operational testing and maintenance of the telescope. ’ Zago , L., "Design and Performance of Large

  11. FACT. Bokeh alignment for Cherenkov telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Sebastian Achim [ETH Zurich (Switzerland); Buss, Jens [TU Dortmund (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs) need fast and large imaging optics to map the faint Cherenkov light emitted in cosmic ray air showers onto their image sensors. Segmented reflectors are inexpensive, lightweight and offer good image quality. However, alignment of the mirror facets remains a challenge. A good alignment is crucial in IACT observations to separate gamma rays from hadronic cosmic rays. We present a simple, yet extendable method, to align segmented reflectors using their Bokeh. Bokeh alignment does not need a star or good weather nights but can be done anytime, even during the day. Bokeh alignment optimizes the facet orientations by comparing the segmented reflector's Bokeh to a predefined template. The Bokeh is observed using the out of focus image of a nearby point like light source in a distance of about ten times the focal lengths. We introduce Bokeh alignment on segmented reflectors and present its use on the First Geiger-mode Avalanche Cherenkov Telescope (FACT) on Canary Island La Palma, as well as on the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) Medium Size Telescope (MST) prototype in Berlin Adlershof.

  12. Space Telescope Pointing Control System software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, H.; Rodoni, C.; Rossini, R.; Tompetrini, K.; Nakashima, A.; Bradley, A.

    1982-01-01

    The Space Telescope Pointing Control System software is in the advanced development stage, having been tested on both the airbearing and the static simulator. The overall structure of the software is discussed, along with timing and sizing evaluations. The interaction between the controls analysts and software designer is described.

  13. Calibration strategies for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaug, M.; Berge, D.; Daniel, M.; Doro, M.; Förster, A.; Hofmann, W.; Maccarone, M.C.; Parsons, D.; de los Reyes Lopez, R.; van Eldik, C.

    2014-01-01

    The Central Calibration Facilities workpackage of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) observatory for very high energy gamma ray astronomy defines the overall calibration strategy of the array, develops dedicated hardware and software for the overall array calibration and coordinates the calibration

  14. Choosing and Using a Refracting Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    English, Neil

    2011-01-01

    The refracting telescope has a long and illustrious past. Here’s what the author says about early telescopes and today’s refractors: “Four centuries ago, a hitherto obscure Italian scientist turned a home-made spyglass towards the heavens. The lenses he used were awful by modern standards, inaccurately figured and filled with the scars of their perilous journey from the furnace to the finishing workshop. Yet, despite these imperfections, they allowed him to see what no one had ever seen before – a universe far more complex and dynamic than anyone had dared imagine. But they also proved endlessly useful in the humdrum of human affairs. For the first time ever, you could spy on your neighbor from a distance, or monitor the approach of a war-mongering army, thus deciding the fate of nations. “The refractor is without doubt the prince of telescopes. Compared with all other telescopic designs, the unobstructed view of the refractor enables it to capture the sharpest, highest contrast images and the wides...

  15. Go-To Telescopes Under Suburban Skies

    CERN Document Server

    Monks, Neale

    2010-01-01

    For the last four centuries stargazers have turned their telescopes to the night skies to look at its wonders, but only in this age of computers has it become possible to let the telescope find for you the object you are looking for! So-called “go-to” telescopes are programmed with the locations of thousands of objects, including dazzling distant Suns, stunning neighboring galaxies, globular and open star clusters, the remnants of past supernovae, and many other breathtaking sights. This book does not tell you how to use your Go-to telescope. Your manual will help you do that. It tells you what to look for in the deep sky and why, and what equipment to best see it with. Organized broadly by what is best for viewing in the northern hemisphere in different seasons, Monks further divides the sights of each season into groupings such as “Showpiece Objects,” “Interesting Deep Sky Objects,” and “Obscure and Challenging Deep Sky Objects.” He also tells what objects are visible even in light-polluted ...

  16. The Southern African Large Telescope project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, David A. H.; Charles, Philip A.; Nordsieck, Kenneth H.; O'Donoghue, Darragh

    The recently completed Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) is a low cost, innovative, 10 m class optical telescope, which began limited scientific operations in August 2005, just 5 years after ground-breaking. This paper describes the design and construction of SALT, including the first-light instruments, SALTICAM and the Robert Stobie Spectrograph (RSS). A rigorous systems engineering approach has ensured that SALT was built to specification, on budget, close to the original schedule and using a relatively small project team. The design trade-offs, which include an active spherical primary mirror array and a fixed altitude telescope with a prime focus tracker, although restrictive in comparison to conventional telescopes, have resulted in an affordable 10 m class telescope for South Africa and its ten partners. Coupled with an initial set of two seeing-limited instruments that concentrate on the UV-visible region (320 - 900 nm) and featuring some niche observational capabilities, SALT will have an ability to conduct some unique science. This includes high time resolution studies, for which some initial results have already been obtained. Many of the versatile modes available with the RSS - which is currently being commissioned - are unique and provide unparallelled opportunities for imaging polarimetry and spectropolarimetry. Likewise, Multi-Object Spectroscopy (with slit masks) and imaging spectroscopy with the RSS, the latter using Fabry-Perot étalons and interference filters, will extend the multiplex advantage over resolutions from 300 to 9000 and fields of view of 2 to 8 arcminutes. Future instrumentation plans include an extremely stable, fibre-fed, high resolution échelle spectrograph and a near-IR (to between 1.5 to 1.7 μm) extension to the RSS. Future development possibilities include phasing the primary mirror and AO. Finally, extrapolations of the SALT/HET designs to ELT proportions remain viable and are surely more affordable than conventional

  17. Completion of the Southern African Large Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, D. A. H.; Charles, P. A.; O'Donoghue, D.; Nordsieck, K. H.

    2006-08-01

    The Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) is a low cost (19.7M), innovative, 10-m class optical telescope, which was inaugurated on 10 November 2005, just 5 years after ground-breaking. SALT and its first-light instruments are currently being commissioned, and full science operations are expected to begin later this year. This paper describes the design and construction of SALT, including the first-light instruments, SALTICAM and the Robert Stobie Spectrograph (RSS). A rigorous Systems Engineering approach was adopted to ensure that SALT was built to specification, on budget, close to the original schedule and using a relatively small project team. The design trade-offs, which include an active spherical primary mirror array in a fixed altitude telescope with a prime focus tracker, although restrictive in comparison to conventional telescopes, have resulted in an affordable and capable 10-m class telescope for South Africa and its ten partners. Coupled with an initial set of two seeing-limited instruments that concentrate on the UV-visible region (320 - 900nm) and featuring some unique observational capabilities, SALT will have an ability to conduct a wide range of science programs. These will include high time resolution studies, for which some initial results have already been obtained and are presented here. Many of the versatile modes available with the RSS will provide unparalleled opportunities for imaging polarimetry and spectropolarimetry. Likewise, Multi-Object Spectroscopy (using laser cut graphite slit masks) and imaging spectroscopy with the RSS, the latter using Fabry-Perot etalons and interference filters, will extend the multiplex advantage over resolutions from R = 300 to 9000 over fields of view of 2 to 8 arcminutes. Future instrumentation plans include an extremely stable, fibre-fed, high resolution échelle spectrograph and a near-IR (possibly to 1.7 μm) extension to the RSS. Future development possibilities include phasing the primary mirror

  18. OVERVIEW OF THE ATACAMA COSMOLOGY TELESCOPE: RECEIVER, INSTRUMENTATION, AND TELESCOPE SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swetz, D. S.; Devlin, M. J.; Dicker, S. R.; Ade, P. A. R.; Amiri, M.; Battistelli, E. S.; Burger, B.; Halpern, M.; Hasselfield, M.; Appel, J. W.; Essinger-Hileman, T.; Fisher, R. P.; Fowler, J. W.; Hincks, A. D.; Jarosik, N.; Chervenak, J.; Doriese, W. B.; Hilton, G. C.; Irwin, K. D.; Duenner, R.

    2011-01-01

    The Atacama Cosmology Telescope was designed to measure small-scale anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background and detect galaxy clusters through the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect. The instrument is located on Cerro Toco in the Atacama Desert, at an altitude of 5190 m. A 6 m off-axis Gregorian telescope feeds a new type of cryogenic receiver, the Millimeter Bolometer Array Camera. The receiver features three 1000-element arrays of transition-edge sensor bolometers for observations at 148 GHz, 218 GHz, and 277 GHz. Each detector array is fed by free space millimeter-wave optics. Each frequency band has a field of view of approximately 22' x 26'. The telescope was commissioned in 2007 and has completed its third year of operations. We discuss the major components of the telescope, camera, and related systems, and summarize the instrument performance.

  19. Overview of the Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Receiver, Instrumentation, and Telescope Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swetz, D. S.; Ade, P. A. R.; Amiri, M.; Appel, J. W.; Battistelli, E. S.; Burger, B.; Chervenak, J.; Devlin, M. J.; Dicker, S. R.; Doriese, W. B.; Dünner, R.; Essinger-Hileman, T.; Fisher, R. P.; Fowler, J. W.; Halpern, M.; Hasselfield, M.; Hilton, G. C.; Hincks, A. D.; Irwin, K. D.; Jarosik, N.; Kaul, M.; Klein, J.; Lau, J. M.; Limon, M.; Marriage, T. A.; Marsden, D.; Martocci, K.; Mauskopf, P.; Moseley, H.; Netterfield, C. B.; Niemack, M. D.; Nolta, M. R.; Page, L. A.; Parker, L.; Staggs, S. T.; Stryzak, O.; Switzer, E. R.; Thornton, R.; Tucker, C.; Wollack, E.; Zhao, Y.

    2011-06-01

    The Atacama Cosmology Telescope was designed to measure small-scale anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background and detect galaxy clusters through the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect. The instrument is located on Cerro Toco in the Atacama Desert, at an altitude of 5190 m. A 6 m off-axis Gregorian telescope feeds a new type of cryogenic receiver, the Millimeter Bolometer Array Camera. The receiver features three 1000-element arrays of transition-edge sensor bolometers for observations at 148 GHz, 218 GHz, and 277 GHz. Each detector array is fed by free space millimeter-wave optics. Each frequency band has a field of view of approximately 22' × 26'. The telescope was commissioned in 2007 and has completed its third year of operations. We discuss the major components of the telescope, camera, and related systems, and summarize the instrument performance.

  20. Mechanical design of SST-GATE, a dual-mirror telescope for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dournaux, Jean-Laurent; Huet, Jean-Michel; Amans, Jean-Philippe; Dumas, Delphine; Laporte, Philippe; Sol, Hélène; Blake, Simon

    2014-07-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) project aims to create the next generation Very High Energy (VHE) gamma-ray telescope array. It will be devoted to the observation of gamma rays over a wide band of energy, from a few tens of GeV to more than 100 TeV. Two sites are foreseen to view the whole sky where about 100 telescopes, composed of three different classes, related to the specific energy region to be investigated, will be installed. Among these, the Small Size class of Telescopes, SSTs, are devoted to the highest energy region, to beyond 100 TeV. Due to the large number of SSTs, their unit cost is an important parameter. At the Observatoire de Paris, we have designed a prototype of a Small Size Telescope named SST-GATE, based on the dual-mirror Schwarzschild-Couder optical formula, which has never before been implemented in the design of a telescope. Over the last two years, we developed a mechanical design for SST-GATE from the optical and preliminary mechanical designs made by the University of Durham. The integration of this telescope is currently in progress. Since the early stages of mechanical design of SST-GATE, finite element method has been used employing shape and topology optimization techniques to help design several elements of the telescope. This allowed optimization of the mechanical stiffness/mass ratio, leading to a lightweight and less expensive mechanical structure. These techniques and the resulting mechanical design are detailed in this paper. We will also describe the finite element analyses carried out to calculate the mechanical deformations and the stresses in the structure under observing and survival conditions.

  1. NASA 3D Models: James Webb Space Telescope

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will be a large infrared telescope with a 6.5-meter primary mirror. The project is working to a 2018 launch date. The JWST will...

  2. Scientific Performance Analysis of the SYZ Telescope Design versus the RC Telescope Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Donglin; Cai, Zheng

    2018-02-01

    Recently, Su et al. propose an innovative design, referred as the “SYZ” design, for China’s new project of a 12 m optical-infrared telescope. The SYZ telescope design consists of three aspheric mirrors with non-zero power, including a relay mirror below the primary mirror. SYZ design yields a good imaging quality and has a relatively flat field curvature at Nasmyth focus. To evaluate the science-compatibility of this three-mirror telescope, in this paper, we thoroughly compare the performance of SYZ design with that of Ritchey–Chrétien (RC) design, a conventional two-mirror telescope design. Further, we propose the Observing Information Throughput (OIT) as a metric for quantitatively evaluating the telescopes’ science performance. We find that although a SYZ telescope yields a superb imaging quality over a large field of view, a two-mirror (RC) telescope design holds a higher overall throughput, a better diffraction-limited imaging quality in the central field of view (FOV < 5‧) which is better for the performance of extreme Adaptive Optics (AO), and a generally better scientific performance with a higher OIT value. D. Ma & Z. Cai contributed equally to this paper.

  3. 21 CFR 886.5870 - Low-vision telescope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Low-vision telescope. 886.5870 Section 886.5870...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5870 Low-vision telescope. (a) Identification. A low-vision telescope is a device that consists of an arrangement of lenses or mirrors intended for...

  4. Eyes on the sky a spectrum of telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Graham-Smith, Francis

    2016-01-01

    Astronomy is experiencing a golden age, with a new generation of innovative telescopes yielding a flood of information on the Universe. This book traces the development of telescopes from Galileo to the present day, and explains the basic principles of telescopes that operate in different parts of electromagnetic spectrum.

  5. San Pedro Martir Telescope: Mexican design endeavor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo-Ramirez, Gengis K.; Bringas-Rico, Vicente; Reyes, Noe; Uribe, Jorge; Lopez, Aldo; Tovar, Carlos; Caballero, Xochitl; Del-Llano, Luis; Martinez, Cesar; Macias, Eduardo; Lee, William; Carramiñana, Alberto; Richer, Michael; González, Jesús; Sanchez, Beatriz; Lucero, Diana; Manuel, Rogelio; Segura, Jose; Rubio, Saul; Gonzalez, German; Hernandez, Obed; García, Mary; Lazaro, Jose; Rosales-Ortega, Fabian; Herrera, Joel; Sierra, Gerardo; Serrano, Hazael

    2016-08-01

    The Telescopio San Pedro Martir (TSPM) is a new ground-based optical telescope project, with a 6.5 meters honeycomb primary mirror, to be built in the Observatorio Astronomico Nacional on the Sierra San Pedro Martir (OAN-SPM) located in Baja California, Mexico. The OAN-SPM has an altitude of 2830 meters above sea level; it is among the best location for astronomical observation in the world. It is located 1830 m higher than the atmospheric inversion layer with 70% of photometric nights, 80% of spectroscopic nights and a sky brightness up to 22 mag/arcsec2. The TSPM will be suitable for general science projects intended to improve the knowledge of the universe established on the Official Mexican Program for Science, Technology and Innovation 2014-2018. The telescope efforts are headed by two Mexican institutions in name of the Mexican astronomical community: the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico and the Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica. The telescope has been financially supported mainly by the Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACYT). It is under development by Mexican scientists and engineers from the Center for Engineering and Industrial Development. This development is supported by a Mexican-American scientific cooperation, through a partnership with the University of Arizona (UA), and the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO). M3 Engineering and Technology Corporation in charge of enclosure and building design. The TSPM will be designed to allow flexibility and possible upgrades in order to maximize resources. Its optical and mechanical designs are based upon those of the Magellan and MMT telescopes. The TSPM primary mirror and its cell will be provided by the INAOE and UA. The telescope will be optimized from the near ultraviolet to the near infrared wavelength range (0.35-2.5 m), but will allow observations up to 26μm. The TSPM will initially offer a f/5 Cassegrain focal station. Later, four folded Cassegrain and

  6. Computerization of a telescope at secondary education

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Santiago, A.; Martos Jumillas, J.

    2017-03-01

    The work we are presenting in this paper is the computerization of a refractor telescope on an EQ3 type equatorial mount through Arduino. The control of the mount is done via three different interfaces: Stellarium, an Android interface for mobile phones and a second interface for PC made with Processing. The aforementioned work was done by the authors with a double purpose: presenting the interest in astronomy in the Mathematics department, and the development of applications within the subject of Technology in 4th ESO. So, it is a collaborative project between both departments. Except for the telescope and the mount, all the resources we have used can be found in any high school: free software (Guadalinex v9), App Inventor and Processing.The project was carried out under the principle of reducing all possible costs given the economic possibilities of the institution.

  7. ANTARES: A High Energy Neutrino Undersea Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, J.J.

    1999-01-01

    Neutrinos can reveal a brand new Universe at high energies. The ANTARES collaboration, formed in 1996, works towards the building and deployment of a neutrino telescope. This detector could observe and study high energy astrophysical sources such as X-ray binary systems, young supernova remnants or Active Galactic Nuclei and help to discover or set exclusion limits on some of the elementary particles and objects that have been put forward as candidates to fill the Universe (WIMPS, neutralinos, topological defects, Q-balls, etc.). A neutrino telescope will certainly open a new observational window and can shed light on the most energetic phenomena of the Universe. A review of the progress made by the ANTARES collaboration to achieve this goal is presented. (author)

  8. Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) science instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, R.; Hing, S.M.; Leidich, C.A.; Fazio, G.; Houck, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    Concepts of scientific instruments designed to perform infrared astronomical tasks such as imaging, photometry, and spectroscopy are discussed as part of the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) project under definition study at NASA/Ames Research Center. The instruments are: the multiband imaging photometer, the infrared array camera, and the infrared spectograph. SIRTF, a cryogenically cooled infrared telescope in the 1-meter range and wavelengths as short as 2.5 microns carrying multiple instruments with high sensitivity and low background performance, provides the capability to carry out basic astronomical investigations such as deep search for very distant protogalaxies, quasi-stellar objects, and missing mass; infrared emission from galaxies; star formation and the interstellar medium; and the composition and structure of the atmospheres of the outer planets in the solar sytem. 8 refs

  9. A planetary telescope at the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korablev, O.; Moroz, V.; Avanesov, G.; Rodin, V.; Bellucci, G.; Vid Machenko, A.; Tejfel, V.

    We present the development of a 40-cm telescope to be deployed at the Russian segment of International Space Station (ISS) dedicated to the observations of planets of Solar system, which primary goal will be tracking climate-related changes and other variable phenomena on planets. The most effective will be the observations of Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, and comets, while other interesting targets will be certainly considered. This space-based observatory will perform monitoring of Solar System objects on regular basis The observatory includes the 40-cm narrow-field (f:20) telescope at a pointing platform with guidance system assuring pointing accuracy of ~10", and an internal tracking system with an accuracy inferior to 1" during tens of minutes. Four focal plane instruments, a camera, two spectrometers and a spectropolarimeter, will perform imaging and spectral observations in the range from ~200 nm to ~3 μm.

  10. Preliminary Multivariable Cost Model for Space Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2010-01-01

    Parametric cost models are routinely used to plan missions, compare concepts and justify technology investments. Previously, the authors published two single variable cost models based on 19 flight missions. The current paper presents the development of a multi-variable space telescopes cost model. The validity of previously published models are tested. Cost estimating relationships which are and are not significant cost drivers are identified. And, interrelationships between variables are explored

  11. CFRP solutions for the innovative telescopes design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampini, Francesco; Marchiori, Gianpietro

    2006-02-01

    The new frontiers of the research in the astronomic field require the use of more and more advanced high-performance structures. Only an adequate technological innovation of conventional telescopes and radio-telescopes allow to obtain structures able to meet the new specification of the projects. Besides, technological innovation is founded not only on the identification of more and more sophisticated mechanisms and optical instruments, but also on the development of new materials and manufacturing processes for the entire structure that constitute an instrument such as a telescope or a radio-telescope. Among these materials, the use of the carbon fibre is highly important. This material, which is already widely used in the aerospace and automotive fields, shall join also the astronomic field for ground instruments. Thanks to the experience acquired with instruments like ALMA, the industry of composites is now able to guarantee different solutions at relatively low costs that allow the instruments of new generation to move extremely important steps in the development of scientific research. Not just materials, but also processes, through which the materials are worked and manufactured, are extremely important. The use of technologies, such as hand lay-up vacuum bag, compression moulding, table rolling of composite tubes, filament winding, poltrusion and Resin Transfer Moulding (RTM), allow to identify the ideal solution both for big dimension objects, such as backup structure, main mirror structure of quadripod legs, and relatively small objects, such as actuators, adjusters system, etc. The wide choice, concerning the use of composite materials, and their techniques of production, allow the technicians to satisfy the exigencies of astronomers be they addressed to simple control of the weights or of the stiffness of the structures, or to specific thermal behaviour of the piece itself.

  12. Time to Revisit the Heterogeneous Telescope Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessman, F. V.

    The "Heterogeneous Telescope Network" (HTN) was founded in 2005 as a loose collaboration of people somehow associated with robotic telescopes and/or projects interested in the transient universe. Other than being a very interesting forum for the exchange of ideas, the only lasting contribution of the HTN was a proposed protocol for the operation of a loose e-market for the exchange of telescope time (Allan et al. 2006; White & Allan 2007). Since the last formal meeting in 2007, the HTN has gone into a "Dornröschenschlaf" (a better word than "hibernation") : the players and interest are there, but the public visibility and activity is not. Although the participants knew and know that global networking is the way of the future for many types of science, various things have kept the HTN from taking the idea and actually implementing it: work on simply getting one's own system to work (e.g. myself), career paths of major players (e.g. Allan), dealing with the complexity of ones' own network (TALONS, RoboNet, LCO), and - most importantly - no common science driver big enough to push the participants to try it in earnest. Things have changed, however: robotic telescopes have become easier to create and operate, private networks have matured, large-scale consortia have become more common, event reporting using VOEvent has become the global standard and has a well-defined infrastructure, and large-scale sources of new objects and events are operating or will soon be operating (OGLE, CSS, Pan-STARRs, GAIA). I will review the scientific and sociological prospects for re-invigorating the HTN idea and invite discussion.

  13. Chinese large solar telescopes site survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu

    2017-04-01

    In order to observe the solar surface with unprecedentedly higher resolution, Chinse solar physics society decided to launch their solar site survey project in 2010 as the first step to look for the best candidate sites for the Chinese next-generation large-aperture solar telescopes, i.e., the 5-8 meter Chinese Giant Solar Telescope, and the 1 meter level coronagraph. We have built two long-term monitoring sites in Daocheng, with altitudes of around 4800 meters above the sea level located in the large Shangri-La mountain area, and we have collected systematic site data since 2014. Clear evidence, including the key parameters of seeing factor, sky brightness and water vapor content, has indicated that the large Shangri-La area owns the potential conditions of excellent seeing level and sufficient amount of clear-sky hours suitable for developing large solar telescopes. We will review the site survey progress and present the preliminary statistical results in this talk.

  14. UV/Visible Telescope with Hubble Disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benford, Dominic J.

    2013-01-01

    Submission Overview: Our primary objective is to convey a sense of the significant advances possible in astrophysics investigations for major Cosmic Origins COR program goals with a 2.4m telescope asset outfitted with one or more advanced UV visible instruments. Several compelling science objectives were identified based on community meetings these science objectives drove the conceptual design of instruments studied by the COR Program Office during July September 2012. This RFI submission encapsulates the results of that study, and suggests that a more detailed look into the instrument suite should be conducted to prove viability and affordability to support the demonstrated scientific value. This study was conducted in the context of a larger effort to consider the options available for a mission to dispose safely of Hubble hence, the overall architecture considered for the mission we studied for the 2.4m telescope asset included resource sharing. This mitigates combined cost and risk and provides naturally for a continued US leadership role in astrophysics with an advanced, general-purpose UV visible space telescope.

  15. Science with the solar optical telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, S. D.; Hogan, G. D.

    1984-01-01

    The Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) is designed to provide the solar physics community with the data necessary for solving several fundamental problems in the energetics and dynamics of the solar atmosphere. Among these problems are questions on the origin and evolution of the sun's magnetic field, heating of the outer solar atmosphere, and sources of the solar wind in the lower lying regions of the outer atmosphere. The SOT will be built under the management of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, with science instruments provided by teams led by Principal Investigators. The telescope will be built by the Perkin-Elmer Corporation, and the science instruments selected for the first flight will be provided by the Lockheed Palo Alto Research Laboratory (LPARL) and the California Institute of Technology, with actual construction of a combined science instrument taking place at the LPARL. The SOT has a 1.3-meter-diameter primary mirror that will be capable of achieving diffraction-limited viewing in the visible of 0.1 arc-second. This dimension is less than a hydrodynamic scale-height or a mean-free-path of a continuum photon in the solar atmosphere. Image stability will be achieved by a control system in the telescope, which moves both the primary and tertiary mirrors in tandem, and will be further enhanced by a correlation tracker in the combined science instrument. The SOT Facility is currently scheduled for its first flight on Spacelab at the beginning of the 1990's.

  16. The Swift Ultra-Violet/Optical Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roming, Peter; Hunsberger, S.D.; Nousek, John; Mason, Keith

    2001-01-01

    The Ultra-Violet/Optical Telescope (UVOT) provides the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Explorer with the capability of quickly detecting and characterizing the optical and ultraviolet properties of gamma ray burst counterparts. The UVOT design is based on the design of the Optical Monitor on XMM-Newton. It is a Ritchey-Chretien telescope with microchannel plate intensified charged-coupled devices (MICs) that deliver sub-arcsecond imaging. These MICs are photon-counting devices, capable of detecting low intensity signal levels. When flown above the atmosphere, the UVOT will have the sensitivity of a 4m ground based telescope, attaining a limiting magnitude of 24 for a 1000 second observation in the white light filter. A rotating filter wheel allows sensitive photometry in six bands spanning the UV and visible, which will provide photometric redshifts of objects in the 1-3.5z range. For bright counterparts, such as the 9th magnitude GRB990123, or for fainter objects down to 17th magnitude, two grisms provide low-resolution spectroscopy

  17. A Cosmic Ray Telescope For Educational Purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voulgaris, G.; Kazanas, S.; Chamilothoris, I.

    2010-01-01

    Cosmic ray detectors are widely used, for educational purposes, in order to motivate students to the physics of elementary particles and astrophysics. Using a 'telescope' of scintillation counters, the directional characteristics, diurnal variation, correlation with solar activity, can be determined, and conclusions about the composition, origin and interaction of elementary particles with the magnetic field of earth can be inferred. A telescope was built from two rectangular scintillator panels with dimensions: 91.6x1.9x3.7 cm 3 . The scintillators are placed on top of each other, separated by a fixed distance of 34.6 cm. They are supported by a wooden frame which can be rotated around a horizontal axis. Direction is determined by the coincidence of the signals of the two PMTs. Standard NIM modules are used for readout. This device is to be used in the undergraduate nuclear and particle physics laboratory. The design and construction of the telescope as well as some preliminary results are presented.

  18. Measuring Visual Double Stars with Robotic Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Pat; Boyce, Grady; Genet, Russell M.; Faisal Al-Zaben, Dewei Li, Yongyao Li, Aren Dennis, Zhixin Cao, Junyao Li, Steven Qu, Jeff Li, Michael Fene, Allen Priest, Stephen Priest, Rex Qiu, , and, Bill Riley

    2016-06-01

    The Astronomy Research Seminars introduce students to scientific research by carrying out the entire process: planning a scientific research project, writing a research proposal, gathering and analyzing observational data, drawing conclusions, and presenting the research results in a published paper and presentation.In 2015 Cuesta College and Russell Genet sponsored a new hybrid format for the seminar enabling distance learning. Boyce Research Initiatives and Education Foundation (BRIEF) conducted the course at The Army and Navy Academy (ANA) in Carlsbad, California, in the spring and fall of 2015.The course objective is to complete the research and publish the paper within one semester. Our program schedule called for observations to be performed within a two week period. Measurement of visual binary stars was chosen because sufficient observations could be made in just two evenings of good weather. We quickly learned that our location by the ocean did not provide reliable weather to use local telescopes.The iTelescope network of robotic telescopes located in Australia, Spain and the U.S. solved the problem. Reservations for these systems are booked online and include date, time, exposure and filters. The high quality telescopes range from 4" to 27" in size with excellent cameras. By watching the weather forecasts for the sites, we were able to schedule our observations within the two week time frame required.Timely and reliable data reduction was the next hurdle. The students were using widely varying equipment (PCs, MACs, tablets, smart phones) with incompatible software. After wasting time trying to be computer technicians, we settled a on standard set of software relying on Mirametrics' Mira Pro x64. We installed the software on an old laptop, downloaded the iTelescope data files, gave the students remote access using GoToMyPC.These efficiencies enabled us to meet the demanding one semester schedule and assure a better learning experience. We have been able to

  19. Classic Telescopes A Guide to Collecting, Restoring, and Using Telescopes of Yesteryear

    CERN Document Server

    English, Neil

    2013-01-01

    Classic Telescopes explores the exciting world of telescopes past, as well as the possibilities involved in acquiring these instruments. What are classic telescopes? First, the book takes a look at the more traditional telescopes built by the great instrument makers of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries and the dynastic houses founded by the likes of John Dollond, Alvan Clark, Thomas Cooke & Sons and Carl Zeiss, plus some lesser-known luminaries, including John Brashear, John Calver, and Henry Fitz. Instruments constructed from the 1950s until as recently as the early 1990s are now also considered 'classic.' There is thus a very active market for buying and selling these 'modern' classics. The author examines some of the most talked about instruments on the amateur Internet forums, including the Unitron refractors, the Questar 90, a classic 6-inch reflector, the RV-6; a 3-inch F/15 achromat by Fullerscopes; the time-honored AstroScan Richfield reflector; and many, many more. Classic telescopes are of...

  20. Development of a mid-sized Schwarzschild-Couder Telescope for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, Robert A.

    2012-06-28

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is a ground-based observatory for very high-energy (10 GeV to 100 TeV) gamma rays, planned for operation starting in 2018. It will be an array of dozens of optical telescopes, known as Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (ACTs), of 8 m to 24 m diameter, deployed over an area of more than 1 square km, to detect flashes of Cherenkov light from showers initiated in the Earth's atmosphere by gamma rays. CTA will have improved angular resolution, a wider energy range, larger fields of view and an order of magnitude improvement in sensitivity over current ACT arrays such as H.E.S.S., MAGIC and VERITAS. Several institutions have proposed a research and development program to eventually contribute 36 medium-sized telescopes (9 m to 12 m diameter) to CTA to enhance and optimize its science performance. The program aims to construct a prototype of an innovative, Schwarzschild-Couder telescope (SCT) design that will allow much smaller and less expensive cameras and much larger fields of view than conventional Davies-Cotton designs, and will also include design and testing of camera electronics for the necessary advances in performance, reliability and cost. We report on the progress of the mid-sized SCT development program.

  1. Analysis of polarization introduced due to the telescope optics of the Thirty Meter Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anche, Ramya Manjunath; Sen, Asoke Kumar; Anupama, Gadiyara Chakrapani; Sankarasubramanian, Kasiviswanathan; Skidmore, Warren

    2018-01-01

    An analytical model has been developed to estimate the polarization effects, such as instrumental polarization (IP), crosstalk (CT), and depolarization, due to the optics of the Thirty Meter Telescope. These are estimated for the unvignetted field-of-view and the wavelengths of interest. The model estimates an IP of 1.26% and a CT of 44% at the Nasmyth focus of the telescope at the wavelength of 0.6 μm at field angle zero with the telescope pointing to zenith. Mueller matrices have been estimated for the primary, secondary, and Nasmyth mirrors. It is found that some of the Mueller matrix elements of the primary and secondary mirrors show a fourfold azimuthal antisymmetry, which indicates that the polarization at the Cassegrain focus is negligible. At the inclined Nasmyth mirror, there is no azimuthal antisymmetry in the matrix elements, and this results in nonzero values for IP and CT, which would negatively impact the polarization measurements at the telescope focus. The averaged Mueller matrix is estimated at the Nasmyth focus at different instrument ports and various zenith angles of the telescope. The variation in the Mueller matrix elements for different coatings is also estimated. The impact of this polarization effect on the science case requirements has been discussed. This analysis will help in achieving precise requirements for future instruments with polarimetric capability.

  2. Closing remarks: A prespective from the advanced synchrotron light source conference on the vacuum design of advanced and compact synchrotron light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.D.

    1988-01-01

    The scope and breadth of the conference are reviewed from the personal perspective of the author. The need for additional desorption data and more rapid development and testing of proptotype vacuum system components for the next generation facilities are highlighted

  3. Advanced Source Deconvolution Methods for Compton Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoglauer, Andreas

    The next generation of space telescopes utilizing Compton scattering for astrophysical observations is destined to one day unravel the mysteries behind Galactic nucleosynthesis, to determine the origin of the positron annihilation excess near the Galactic center, and to uncover the hidden emission mechanisms behind gamma-ray bursts. Besides astrophysics, Compton telescopes are establishing themselves in heliophysics, planetary sciences, medical imaging, accelerator physics, and environmental monitoring. Since the COMPTEL days, great advances in the achievable energy and position resolution were possible, creating an extremely vast, but also extremely sparsely sampled data space. Unfortunately, the optimum way to analyze the data from the next generation of Compton telescopes has not yet been found, which can retrieve all source parameters (location, spectrum, polarization, flux) and achieves the best possible resolution and sensitivity at the same time. This is especially important for all sciences objectives looking at the inner Galaxy: the large amount of expected sources, the high background (internal and Galactic diffuse emission), and the limited angular resolution, make it the most taxing case for data analysis. In general, two key challenges exist: First, what are the best data space representations to answer the specific science questions? Second, what is the best way to deconvolve the data to fully retrieve the source parameters? For modern Compton telescopes, the existing data space representations can either correctly reconstruct the absolute flux (binned mode) or achieve the best possible resolution (list-mode), both together were not possible up to now. Here we propose to develop a two-stage hybrid reconstruction method which combines the best aspects of both. Using a proof-of-concept implementation we can for the first time show that it is possible to alternate during each deconvolution step between a binned-mode approach to get the flux right and a

  4. The first telescope of the HEGRA air Cherenkov imaging telescope array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirzoyan, R.; Kankanian, R.; Krennrich, F.; Mueller, N.; Sander, H.; Sawallisch, P.; Aharonian, F.; Akhperjanian, A.; Beglarian, A.; Fernandez, J.; Fonseca, V.; Grewe, W.; Heusler, A.; Konopelko, A.K.; Lorenz, E.; Merck, M.; Plyasheshnikov, A.V.; Renker, D.; Samorski, M.; Sauerland, K.; Smarsch, E.; Stamm, W.; Ulrich, M.; Wiedner, C.A.; Wirth, H.

    1994-01-01

    In search of VHE γ ray emission from cosmic point sources a system of imaging Cherenkov telescopes is constructed at present on the Canarian island of La Palma; the first telescope has been operational since 1992. The Cherenkov light from air shower particles is collected by a 5 m 2 reflector. The camera at the focus contains 37 photomultipliers which sample the images of the Cherenkov flashes. The subsequent image analysis allows the discrimination of γ ray induced events from the much more abundant charged cosmic ray induced showers. The telescope has an effective energy threshold for γ showers of about 1.5 TeV. During the first year of operation a signal from the Crab nebula was detected. ((orig.))

  5. Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope [WFIRST]: telescope design and simulated performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goullioud, R.; Content, D. A.; Kuan, G. M.; Moore, J. D.; Chang, Z.; Sunada, E. T.; Villalvazo, J.; Hawk, J. P.; Armani, N. V.; Johnson, E. L.; Powell, C. A.

    2012-09-01

    The Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) mission concept was ranked first in new space astrophysics missions by the Astro2010 Decadal Survey, incorporating the Joint Dark Energy Mission payload concept and multiple science white papers. This mission is based on a space telescope at L2 studying exoplanets [via gravitational microlensing], probing dark energy, and surveying the near infrared sky. Since the release of the Astro2010 Decadal Survey, the team has been working with the WFIRST Science Definition Team to refine mission and payload concepts. We present the current interim reference mission point design of the payload, based on the use of a 1.3m unobscured aperture three mirror anastigmat form, with focal imaging and slit-less spectroscopy science channels. We also present the first results of Structural/Thermal/Optical performance modeling of the telescope point design.

  6. First results of the Test-Bed Telescopes (TBT) project: Cebreros telescope commissioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocaña, Francisco; Ibarra, Aitor; Racero, Elena; Montero, Ángel; Doubek, Jirí; Ruiz, Vicente

    2016-07-01

    The TBT project is being developed under ESA's General Studies and Technology Programme (GSTP), and shall implement a test-bed for the validation of an autonomous optical observing system in a realistic scenario within the Space Situational Awareness (SSA) programme of the European Space Agency (ESA). The goal of the project is to provide two fully robotic telescopes, which will serve as prototypes for development of a future network. The system consists of two telescopes, one in Spain and the second one in the Southern Hemisphere. The telescope is a fast astrograph with a large Field of View (FoV) of 2.5 x 2.5 square-degrees and a plate scale of 2.2 arcsec/pixel. The tube is mounted on a fast direct-drive mount moving with speed up to 20 degrees per second. The focal plane hosts a 2-port 4K x 4K back-illuminated CCD with readout speeds up to 1MHz per port. All these characteristics ensure good survey performance for transients and fast moving objects. Detection software and hardware are optimised for the detection of NEOs and objects in high Earth orbits (objects moving from 0.1-40 arcsec/second). Nominal exposures are in the range from 2 to 30 seconds, depending on the observational strategy. Part of the validation scenario involves the scheduling concept integrated in the robotic operations for both sensors. Every night it takes all the input needed and prepares a schedule following predefined rules allocating tasks for the telescopes. Telescopes are managed by RTS2 control software, that performs the real-time scheduling of the observation and manages all the devices at the observatory.1 At the end of the night the observing systems report astrometric positions and photometry of the objects detected. The first telescope was installed in Cebreros Satellite Tracking Station in mid-2015. It is currently in the commissioning phase and we present here the first results of the telescope. We evaluate the site characteristics and the performance of the TBT Cebreros

  7. Simulation of the Simbol-X telescope: imaging performance of a deformable x-ray telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvin, Maxime; Roques, Jean-Pierre

    2009-08-01

    We have developed a simulation tool for a Wolter I telescope subject to deformations. The aim is to understand and predict the behavior of Simbol-X and other future missions (NuSTAR, Astro-H, IXO, ...). Our code, based on Monte-Carlo ray-tracing, computes the full photon trajectories up to the detector plane, along with the deformations. The degradation of the imaging system is corrected using metrology. This tool allows to perform many analyzes in order to optimize the configuration of any of these telescopes.

  8. Performance of the MAGIC telescopes under moonlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahnen, M. L.; Ansoldi, S.; Antonelli, L. A.; Arcaro, C.; Babić, A.; Banerjee, B.; Bangale, P.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Barrio, J. A.; Becerra González, J.; Bednarek, W.; Bernardini, E.; Berti, A.; Bhattacharyya, W.; Biasuzzi, B.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bonnefoy, S.; Bonnoli, G.; Carosi, R.; Carosi, A.; Chatterjee, A.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Covino, S.; Cumani, P.; Da Vela, P.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Lotto, B.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Di Pierro, F.; Doert, M.; Domínguez, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Einecke, S.; Eisenacher Glawion, D.; Elsaesser, D.; Engelkemeier, M.; Fallah Ramazani, V.; Fernández-Barral, A.; Fidalgo, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Fruck, C.; Galindo, D.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Gaug, M.; Giammaria, P.; Godinović, N.; Gora, D.; Griffiths, S.; Guberman, D.; Hadasch, D.; Hahn, A.; Hassan, T.; Hayashida, M.; Herrera, J.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Hughes, G.; Ishio, K.; Konno, Y.; Kubo, H.; Kushida, J.; Kuveždić, D.; Lelas, D.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; Longo, F.; López, M.; Maggio, C.; Majumdar, P.; Makariev, M.; Maneva, G.; Manganaro, M.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Menzel, U.; Minev, M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Moralejo, A.; Moreno, V.; Moretti, E.; Neustroev, V.; Niedzwiecki, A.; Nievas Rosillo, M.; Nilsson, K.; Ninci, D.; Nishijima, K.; Noda, K.; Nogués, L.; Paiano, S.; Palacio, J.; Paneque, D.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Paredes-Fortuny, X.; Pedaletti, G.; Peresano, M.; Perri, L.; Persic, M.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Puljak, I.; Garcia, J. R.; Reichardt, I.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Rugliancich, A.; Saito, T.; Satalecka, K.; Schroeder, S.; Schweizer, T.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Šnidarić, I.; Sobczynska, D.; Stamerra, A.; Strzys, M.; Surić, T.; Takalo, L.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Torres, D. F.; Torres-Albà, N.; Treves, A.; Vanzo, G.; Vazquez Acosta, M.; Vovk, I.; Ward, J. E.; Will, M.; Zarić, D.

    2017-09-01

    MAGIC, a system of two imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes, achieves its best performance under dark conditions, i.e. in absence of moonlight or twilight. Since operating the telescopes only during dark time would severely limit the duty cycle, observations are also performed when the Moon is present in the sky. Here we develop a dedicated Moon-adapted analysis to characterize the performance of MAGIC under moonlight. We evaluate energy threshold, angular resolution and sensitivity of MAGIC under different background light levels, based on Crab Nebula observations and tuned Monte Carlo simulations. This study includes observations taken under non-standard hardware configurations, such as reducing the camera photomultiplier tubes gain by a factor ∼1.7 (reduced HV settings) with respect to standard settings (nominal HV) or using UV-pass filters to strongly reduce the amount of moonlight reaching the cameras of the telescopes. The Crab Nebula spectrum is correctly reconstructed in all the studied illumination levels, that reach up to 30 times brighter than under dark conditions. The main effect of moonlight is an increase in the analysis energy threshold and in the systematic uncertainties on the flux normalization. The sensitivity degradation is constrained to be below 10%, within 15-30% and between 60 and 80% for nominal HV, reduced HV and UV-pass filter observations, respectively. No worsening of the angular resolution was found. Thanks to observations during moonlight, the maximal duty cycle of MAGIC can be increased from ∼18%, under dark nights only, to up to ∼40% in total with only moderate performance degradation.

  9. PORFIDO: Oceanographic data for neutrino telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordelli, Marco; Martini, Agnese; Habel, Roberto; Trasatti, Luciano

    2011-01-01

    PORFIDO (Physical Oceanography by RFID Outreach) is a system designed to be installed in the optical modules of the NEMO experiment and possibly, in future underwater neutrino telescopes to gather oceanographic data with a minimum of disturbance to the main project and a very limited budget. The system gathers oceanographic data (temperature, etc.) from passive RFID tags (WISPs) attached to the outside of the NEMO optical modules with an RF reader situated inside the glass sphere, without the need of connectors or penetrators, which are very expensive and offer low reliability. Ten PORFIDOs will be deployed with the NEMO Phase 2 tower in 2011.

  10. Supernova Remnants with Fermi Large Area Telescope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caragiulo M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Large Area Telescope (LAT, on-board the Fermi satellite, proved to be, after 8 years of data taking, an excellent instrument to detect and observe Supernova Remnants (SNRs in a range of energies running from few hundred MeV up to few hundred GeV. It provides essential information on physical processes that occur at the source, involving both accelerated leptons and hadrons, in order to understand the mechanisms responsible for the primary Cosmic Ray (CR acceleration. We show the latest results in the observation of Galactic SNRs by Fermi-LAT.

  11. The CERN axion solar telescope (CAST)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aalseth, C.E.; Arik, E.; Autiero, D.; Avignone, F.T.; Barth, K.; Bowyer, S.M.; Brauninger, H.; Brodzinski, R.L.; Carmona, J.M.; Cebrian, S.; Celebi, G.; Cetin, S.; Collar, J.I.; Creswick, R.; Delbart, A.; Delattre, M.; DiLella, L.; De Oliveira, R.; Eleftheriadis, Ch.; Erdutan, N.; Fanourakis, G.; Farach, H.A.; Fiorini, C.; Geralis, Th.; Giomataris, I.; Girard, T.A.; Gninenko, S.N.; Golubev, N.A.; Hasinoff, M.; Hoffmann, D.; Irastorza, I.G.; Jacoby, J.; Jeanneau, F.; Knopf, M.A.; Kovzelev, A.V.; Kotthaus, R.; Krcmar, M.; Krecak, Z.; Lakic, B.; Liolios, A.; Ljubicic, A.; Lutz, G.; Longoni, A.; Luzon, G.; Mailov, A.; Matveev, V.A.; Miley, H.S.; Morales, A.; Morales, J.; Mutterer, M.; Nikolaidis, A.; Nussinov, S.; Ortiz, A.; Pitts, W.K.; Placci, A.; Postoev, V.E.; Raffelt, G.G.; Riege, H.; Sampieto, M.; Sarsa, M.; Savvidis, I.; Stipcevic, M.; Thomas, C.W.; Thompson, R.C.; Valco, P.; Villar, J.A.; Villierme, B.; Walckiers, L.; Wilcox, W.; Zachariadou, K.; Zioutas, K.

    2002-01-01

    A decommissioned LHC test magnet is being prepared as the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) experiment. The magnet has a field of 9.6 Tesla and length of 10 meters. It is being mounted on a platform to track the sun over ±8 deg. vertically and ±45 deg. , horizontally. A sensitivity in axion-photon coupling gαγγ -11 GeV -1 can be reached for m α ≤ 10 -2 eV, and with a gas filled tube-can reach gαγγ ≤ 10 -10 GeV -1 for axion masses m α < 2eV

  12. Galileo's Instruments of Credit Telescopes, Images, Secrecy

    CERN Document Server

    Biagioli, Mario

    2006-01-01

    In six short years, Galileo Galilei went from being a somewhat obscure mathematics professor running a student boarding house in Padua to a star in the court of Florence to the recipient of dangerous attention from the Inquisition for his support of Copernicanism. In that brief period, Galileo made a series of astronomical discoveries that reshaped the debate over the physical nature of the heavens: he deeply modified the practices and status of astronomy with the introduction of the telescope and pictorial evidence, proposed a radical reconfiguration of the relationship between theology and a

  13. Muon imaging of volcanoes with Cherenkov telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Daniele; Catalano, Osvaldo; Cusumano, Giancarlo; Del Santo, Melania; La Parola, Valentina; La Rosa, Giovanni; Maccarone, Maria Concetta; Mineo, Teresa; Pareschi, Giovanni; Sottile, Giuseppe; Zuccarello, Luciano

    2017-04-01

    The quantitative understanding of the inner structure of a volcano is a key feature to model the processes leading to paroxysmal activity and, hence, to mitigate volcanic hazards. To pursue this aim, different geophysical techniques are utilized, that are sensitive to different properties of the rocks (elastic, electrical, density). In most cases, these techniques do not allow to achieve the spatial resolution needed to characterize the shallowest part of the plumbing system and may require dense measurements in active zones, implying a high level of risk. Volcano imaging through cosmic-ray muons is a promising technique that allows to overcome the above shortcomings. Muons constantly bombard the Earth's surface and can travel through large thicknesses of rock, with an energy loss depending on the amount of crossed matter. By measuring the absorption of muons through a solid body, one can deduce the density distribution inside the target. To date, muon imaging of volcanic structures has been mainly achieved with scintillation detectors. They are sensitive to noise sourced from (i) the accidental coincidence of vertical EM shower particles, (ii) the fake tracks initiated from horizontal high-energy electrons and low-energy muons (not crossing the target) and (iii) the flux of upward going muons. A possible alternative to scintillation detectors is given by Cherenkov telescopes. They exploit the Cherenkov light emitted when charged particles (like muons) travel through a dielectric medium, with velocity higher than the speed of light. Cherenkov detectors are not significantly affected by the above noise sources. Furthermore, contrarily to scintillator-based detectors, Cherenkov telescopes permit a measurement of the energy spectrum of the incident muon flux at the installation site, an issue that is indeed relevant for deducing the density distribution inside the target. In 2014, a prototype Cherenkov telescope was installed at the Astrophysical Observatory of Serra

  14. "HUBBLE, the astronomer, the telescope, the results"

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2011-01-01

    The fundamental discoveries made by Edwin Hubble in the first quarter of the last century will be presented. The space telescope bearing his name will be introduced, as well as the strategy put in place by NASA and the European Space Agency for its operation and its maintenance on-orbit. The personal experience of the speaker having participated in two of five servicing mission will be exposed and illustrated by pictures taken on-orbit. Finally, the main results obtained by the orbital observatory will be presented, in particular the ones related to the large scale structure of the Universe and its early history

  15. Extragalactic observations with the MAGIC telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shore, S.N.

    2014-01-01

    The MAGIC imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes, both as a single detector and now used in stereo mode, have been observing a variety of active galaxies and galactic clusters for almost a decade. This review provides a brief summary of some of the most recent results for blazars observed in the energy range > 50 GeV to tens of TeV. The very high energy emission observed with MAGIC is essential for disentangling the various contributions and timescales to the observed spectra and variability. (author)

  16. ARTIP: Automated Radio Telescope Image Processing Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ravi; Gyanchandani, Dolly; Kulkarni, Sarang; Gupta, Neeraj; Pathak, Vineet; Pande, Arti; Joshi, Unmesh

    2018-02-01

    The Automated Radio Telescope Image Processing Pipeline (ARTIP) automates the entire process of flagging, calibrating, and imaging for radio-interferometric data. ARTIP starts with raw data, i.e. a measurement set and goes through multiple stages, such as flux calibration, bandpass calibration, phase calibration, and imaging to generate continuum and spectral line images. Each stage can also be run independently. The pipeline provides continuous feedback to the user through various messages, charts and logs. It is written using standard python libraries and the CASA package. The pipeline can deal with datasets with multiple spectral windows and also multiple target sources which may have arbitrary combinations of flux/bandpass/phase calibrators.

  17. Astrobiology with Robotic Telescopes at CAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Cuesta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The key objectives of RTRCAB are the identification of new exoplanets and especially the characterization of the known exoplanets by observing photometric and systematic monitoring of their transits. These telescopes, equipped with advanced technology, optimized control programs, and optical and technical characteristics adequate for this purpose, are ideal to make the observations that are required to carry out these programs. The achievement of these goals is ensured by the existence of three separated geographical stations. In this sense, there are several planned missions that have the same objectives among their scientific goals, like Kepler, CoRoT, GAIA, and PLATO.

  18. Telescopic Partial Dentures-Concealed Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagat, Tushar Vitthalrao; Walke, Ashwini Nareshchandra

    2015-09-01

    The ideal goal of good dentist is to restore the missing part of oral structure, phonetics, his look and the most important is restored the normal health of the patient, which is hampered due to less or insufficient intake of food. Removable partial denture (RPD) treatment option is considered as a notion, which precludes the inevitability of "floating plastic" in edentulous mouth, that many times fail to fulfill the above essential of the patients. In modern dentistry, though the dental implants or fixed partial denture is the better options, but they have certain limitations. However, overdentures and particularly telescopic denture is the overlooked technology in dentistry that would be a boon for such needy patients. Telescopic denture is especially indicated in the distal edentulous area with minimum two teeth bilaterally present with a good amount of periodontal support. This treatment modality is sort of preventive prosthodontics remedy, which in a conservative manner preserve the remaining teeth and helps in conservation of alveolar bone ultimately. There are two tenets related to this option, one is constant conservation edentulous ridge around the retained tooth and the most important is the endless existence of periodontal sensory action that directs and monitor gnathodynamic task. In this option the primary coping or inner coping are cemented on the prepared tooth, and a similar removable outer or inner telescopic crown placed tightly by using a mechanism of tenso-friction, this is firmly attached to a removable RPD in place without moving or rocking of the prosthesis, which is the common compliant of almost all patients of RPD. Copings are also protecting the abutment from tooth decay and also offers stabilization and maintaining of the outer crown. The outer crown engages the inner coping and gives as an anchor for the remainder of the dentition. This work is the review of telescopic prosthesis which is well supported by the case discussion, and

  19. Space Telescope Control System science user operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, H. J.; Rossini, R.; Simcox, D.; Bennett, N.

    1984-01-01

    The Space Telescope science users will have a flexible and efficient means of accessing the capabilities provided by the ST Pointing Control System, particularly with respect to managing the overal acquisition and pointing functions. To permit user control of these system functions - such as vehicle scanning, tracking, offset pointing, high gain antenna pointing, solar array pointing and momentum management - a set of special instructions called 'constructs' is used in conjuction with command data packets. This paper discusses the user-vehicle interface and introduces typical operational scenarios.

  20. PORFIDO: Oceanographic data for neutrino telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordelli, Marco; Martini, Agnese; Habel, Roberto [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Via E. Fermi 40, I-00044 Frascati (Italy); Trasatti, Luciano, E-mail: luciano.trasatti@gmail.co [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Via E. Fermi 40, I-00044 Frascati (Italy)

    2011-01-21

    PORFIDO (Physical Oceanography by RFID Outreach) is a system designed to be installed in the optical modules of the NEMO experiment and possibly, in future underwater neutrino telescopes to gather oceanographic data with a minimum of disturbance to the main project and a very limited budget. The system gathers oceanographic data (temperature, etc.) from passive RFID tags (WISPs) attached to the outside of the NEMO optical modules with an RF reader situated inside the glass sphere, without the need of connectors or penetrators, which are very expensive and offer low reliability. Ten PORFIDOs will be deployed with the NEMO Phase 2 tower in 2011.

  1. Burst Alert Robotic Telescope and Optical Afterglows

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nekola, Martin; Hudec, René; Jelínek, M.; Kubánek, P.; Polášek, Cyril; Štrobl, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 18, 3/4 (2009), s. 374-378 ISSN 1392-0049. [INTEGRAL/BART workshop 2009. Karlovy Vary, 26.03.2009-29.03.2009] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/1207 Grant - others:ESA(XE) ESA-PECS project No. 98023; Spanish Ministry of Education and Science(ES) AP2003-1407 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : gamma rays bursts, * observations * robotic telescopes Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 1.032, year: 2009

  2. Operating performance of the gamma-ray Cherenkov telescope: An end-to-end Schwarzschild–Couder telescope prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dournaux, J.L., E-mail: jean-laurent.dournaux@obspm.fr [GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Université Paris Diderot, Place J. Janssen, 92190 Meudon (France); De Franco, A. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Laporte, P. [GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Université Paris Diderot, Place J. Janssen, 92190 Meudon (France); White, R. [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Greenshaw, T. [University of Liverpool, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, P.O. Box 147, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 3BX (United Kingdom); Sol, H. [LUTH, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Université Paris Diderot, Place J. Janssen, 92190 Meudon (France); Abchiche, A. [CNRS, Division technique DT-INSU, 1 Place Aristide Briand, 92190 Meudon (France); Allan, D. [Department of Physics and Centre for Advanced Instrumentation, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Amans, J.P. [GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Université Paris Diderot, Place J. Janssen, 92190 Meudon (France); Armstrong, T.P. [Department of Physics and Centre for Advanced Instrumentation, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Balzer, A.; Berge, D. [GRAPPA, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Boisson, C. [LUTH, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Université Paris Diderot, Place J. Janssen, 92190 Meudon (France); and others

    2017-02-11

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) consortium aims to build the next-generation ground-based very-high-energy gamma-ray observatory. The array will feature different sizes of telescopes allowing it to cover a wide gamma-ray energy band from about 20 GeV to above 100 TeV. The highest energies, above 5 TeV, will be covered by a large number of Small-Sized Telescopes (SSTs) with a field-of-view of around 9°. The Gamma-ray Cherenkov Telescope (GCT), based on Schwarzschild–Couder dual-mirror optics, is one of the three proposed SST designs. The GCT is described in this contribution and the first images of Cherenkov showers obtained using the telescope and its camera are presented. These were obtained in November 2015 in Meudon, France.

  3. Care of astronomical telescopes and accessories a manual for the astronomical observer and amateur telescope maker

    CERN Document Server

    Pepin, M Barlow

    2005-01-01

    Commercially-made astronomical telescopes are better and less expensive than ever before, and their optical and mechanical performance can be superb. When a good-quality telescope fails to perform as well as it might, the reason is quite probably that it needs a little care and attention! Here is a complete guide for anyone who wants to understand more than just the basics of astronomical telescopes and accessories, and how to maintain them in the peak of condition. The latest on safely adjusting, cleaning, and maintaining your equipment is combined with thoroughly updated methods from the old masters. Here, too, are details of choosing new and used optics and accessories, along with enhancements you can make to extend their versatility and useful lifetime. This book is for you. Really. Looking after an astronomical telescope isn't only for the experts - although there are some things that only an expert should attempt - and every serious amateur astronomer will find invaluable information here, gleaned from ...

  4. Using ISS to develop telescope technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenz-Otero, Alvar; Miller, David W.

    2005-08-01

    Future space telescope missions concepts have introduced new technologies such as precision formation flight, optical metrology, and segmented mirrors. These new technologies require demonstration and validation prior to deployment in final missions such as the James Webb Space Telescope, Terrestrial Planet Finder, and Darwin. Ground based demonstrations do not provide the precision necessary to obtain a high level of confidence in the technology; precursor free flyer space missions suffer from the same problems as the final missions. Therefore, this paper proposes the use of the International Space Station as an intermediate research environment where these technologies can be developed, demonstrated, and validated. The ISS provides special resources, such as human presence, communications, power, and a benign atmosphere which directly reduce the major challenges of space technology maturation: risk, complexity, cost, remote operations, and visibility. Successful design of experiments for use aboard the space station, by enabling iterative research and supporting multiple scientists, can further reduce the effects of these challenges of space technology maturation. This paper presents results of five previous MIT Space Systems Laboratory experiments aboard the Space Shuttle, MIR, and the ISS to illustrate successful technology maturation aboard these facilities.

  5. The Advanced Telescope for High Energy Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guainazzi, Matteo

    2017-08-01

    Athena (the Advanced Telescope for High Energy Astrophysics) is a next generation X-ray observatory currently under study by ESA for launch in 2028. Athena is designed to address the Hot and Energetic Universe science theme, which addresses two key questions: 1) How did ordinary matter evolve into the large scale structures we see today? 2) How do black holes grow and shape the Universe. To address these topics Athena employs an innovative X-ray telescope based on Silicon Pore Optics technology to deliver extremely light weight and high throughput, while retaining excellent angular resolution. The mirror can be adjusted to focus onto one of two focal place instruments: the X-ray Integral Field Unit (X-IFU) which provides spatially-resolved, high resolution spectroscopy, and the Wide Field Imager (WFI) which provides spectral imaging over a large field of view, as well as high time resolution and count rate tolerance. Athena is currently in Phase A and the study status will be reviewed, along with the scientific motivations behind the mission.

  6. Results from the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spurio M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ANTARES is the largest neutrino telescope in the Northern hemisphere, running in its final configuration since 2008. After the discovery of a cosmic neutrino diffuse flux by the IceCube detector, the search for its origin has become a key mission in high-energy astrophysics. The ANTARES sensitivity is large enough to constrain the origin of the IceCube excess from regions extended up to 0.2 sr in the Southern sky. The Southern sky has been studied searching for point-like objects, for extended regions of emission (as the Galactic plane and for signal from transient objects selected through multimessenger observations. Upper limits are presented assuming different spectral indexes for the energy spectrum of neutrino sources. In addition, ANTARES provides results on studies of the sky in combination with different multimessenger experiments, on atmospheric neutrinos, on the searches for rare particles in the cosmic radiation (such as magnetic monopoles and nuclearites, and on Earth and Sea science. Particularly relevant are the searches for Dark Matter: the limits obtained for the spin-dependent WIMP-nucleon cross section overcome that of existing direct-detection experiments. The recent results, widely discussed in dedicated presentations during the 7th edition of the Very Large Volume Neutrino Telescope Workshop (VLVνT-2015, are highlighted in this paper.

  7. The James Webb Space Telescope Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonneborn, George

    2010-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large aperture, cryogenic, infrared-optimized space observatory under development by NASA for launch in 2014. The European and Canadian Space Agencies are mission partners. JWST will find and study the first galaxies that formed in the early universe, peer through dusty clouds to see AGN environments and stars forming planetary systems at high spatial resolution. The breakthrough capabilities of JWST will enable new studies of star formation and evolution in the Milky Way, including the Galactic Center, nearby galaxies, and the early universe. JWST's instruments are designed to work primarily in the infrared range of 1 - 28 microns, with some capability in the visible. JWST will have a segmented primary mirror, approximately 6.5 meters in diameter, and will be diffraction-limited at wavelength of 2 microns (0.1 arcsec resolution). The JWST observatory will be placed in a L2 orbit by an Ariane 5 launch vehicle provided by ESA. The observatory is designed for a 5-year prime science mission, with propellant for 10 years of science operations. The instruments will provide broad- and narrow-band imaging, coronography, and multi-object and integral-field spectroscopy (spectral resolution of 100 to 3,000) across the 1 - 28 micron wavelength range. Science and mission operations will be conducted from the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, Maryland.

  8. The "Very Cool" James Webb Space Telescope!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teague, Peter J. B.

    2018-01-01

    For over twenty years, scientists, engineers, technicians, and other personnel have been working on the next generation space telescope. As a partnership between NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration), CSA (Canadian Space Agency), and ESA (European Space Angency), the James Webb Space Telescope will complement the previous research performed by the Hubble by utilizing a larger primary mirror, which will also be optimized for infrared wavelengths. This combination will allow JWST to collect data and take images of light having traveled over 13.7 billion light years. This presentation will focus on the mission, as well as the contamination control challenges during the integration and testing in the NASA Goddard Spacecraft Systems Development and Integration Facility (SSDIF), one of the largest cleanrooms in the world. Additional information will be presented regarding space simulation testing down to a cool 20 degrees Kelvin [-424 degrees Fahrenheit] that will occur at Johnson Space Center in Houston, TX, and more testing and integration to happen at Northrop Grumman Corp., in Redondo Beach, CA. Launch of the JWST is currently scheduled for the spring of 2019 at Ariane Spaceport in French Guiana, South America.

  9. Toward Adaptive X-Ray Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Atkins, Carolyn; Button, Tim W.; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Davis, William N.; Doel, Peer; Feldman, Charlotte H.; Freeman, Mark D.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Kolodziejczak, Jeffrey J.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Future x-ray observatories will require high-resolution (less than 1 inch) optics with very-large-aperture (greater than 25 square meter) areas. Even with the next generation of heavy-lift launch vehicles, launch-mass constraints and aperture-area requirements will limit the surface areal density of the grazing-incidence mirrors to about 1 kilogram per square meter or less. Achieving sub-arcsecond x-ray imaging with such lightweight mirrors will require excellent mirror surfaces, precise and stable alignment, and exceptional stiffness or deformation compensation. Attaining and maintaining alignment and figure control will likely involve adaptive (in-space adjustable) x-ray optics. In contrast with infrared and visible astronomy, adaptive optics for x-ray astronomy is in its infancy. In the middle of the past decade, two efforts began to advance technologies for adaptive x-ray telescopes: The Generation-X (Gen-X) concept studies in the United States, and the Smart X-ray Optics (SXO) Basic Technology project in the United Kingdom. This paper discusses relevant technological issues and summarizes progress toward adaptive x-ray telescopes.

  10. Neutron spectrometry with a monolithic silicon telescope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosteo, S; D'Angelo, G; Fazzi, A; Para, A Foglio; Pola, A; Zotto, P

    2007-01-01

    A neutron spectrometer was set-up by coupling a polyethylene converter with a monolithic silicon telescope, consisting of a DeltaE and an E stage-detector (about 2 and 500 microm thick, respectively). The detection system was irradiated with monoenergetic neutrons at INFN-Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (Legnaro, Italy). The maximum detectable energy, imposed by the thickness of the E stage, is about 8 MeV for the present detector. The scatter plots of the energy deposited in the two stages were acquired using two independent electronic chains. The distributions of the recoil-protons are well-discriminated from those due to secondary electrons for energies above 0.350 MeV. The experimental spectra of the recoil-protons were compared with the results of Monte Carlo simulations using the FLUKA code. An analytical model that takes into account the geometrical structure of the silicon telescope was developed, validated and implemented in an unfolding code. The capability of reproducing continuous neutron spectra was investigated by irradiating the detector with neutrons from a thick beryllium target bombarded with protons. The measured spectra were compared with data taken from the literature. Satisfactory agreement was found.

  11. The X-ray Telescope of CAST

    CERN Document Server

    Kuster, M.; Cebrian, S.; Davenport, M.; Elefteriadis, C.; Englhauser, J.; Fischer, H.; Franz, J.; Friedrich, P.; Hartmann, R.; Heinsius, F.H.; Hoffmann, D.H.H.; Hoffmeister, G.; Joux, J.N.; Kang, D.; Konigsmann, Kay; Kotthaus, R.; Papaevangelou, T.; Lasseur, C.; Lippitsch, A.; Lutz, G.; Morales, J.; Rodriguez, A.; Struder, L.; Vogel, J.; Zioutas, K.

    2007-01-01

    The Cern Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) is in operation and taking data since 2003. The main objective of the CAST experiment is to search for a hypothetical pseudoscalar boson, the axion, which might be produced in the core of the sun. The basic physics process CAST is based on is the time inverted Primakoff effect, by which an axion can be converted into a detectable photon in an external electromagnetic field. The resulting X-ray photons are expected to be thermally distributed between 1 and 7 keV. The most sensitive detector system of CAST is a pn-CCD detector combined with a Wolter I type X-ray mirror system. With the X-ray telescope of CAST a background reduction of more than 2 orders off magnitude is achieved, such that for the first time the axion photon coupling constant g_agg can be probed beyond the best astrophysical constraints g_agg < 1 x 10^-10 GeV^-1.

  12. The x-ray telescope of CAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuster, M [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, IKP, Schlossgartenstrasse 9, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Braeuninger, H [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Cebrian, S [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear y Altas Energias, Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain)] (and others)

    2007-06-15

    The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) has been in operation and taking data since 2003. The main objective of the CAST experiment is to search for a hypothetical pseudoscalar boson, the axion, which might be produced in the core of the sun. The basic physics process CAST is based on is the time inverted Primakoff effect, by which an axion can be converted into a detectable photon in an external electromagnetic field. The resulting x-ray photons are expected to be thermally distributed between 1 and 7 keV. The most sensitive detector system of CAST is a pn-CCD detector combined with a Wolter I type x-ray mirror system. With the x-ray telescope of CAST a background reduction of more than 2 orders of magnitude is achieved, such that for the first time the axion photon coupling constant g{sub a{gamma}}{sub {gamma}} can be probed beyond the best astrophysical constraints g{sub a{gamma}}{sub {gamma}} < 1 x 10{sup -10} GeV{sup -1}.

  13. The ROTSE-IIIa telescope system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.; Akerlof, C.; Kehoe, R.; McKay, T.; Rykoff, E.; Ashley, M.C.B.; Phillips, M.A.; Casperson, D.; Gisler, G.; McGowan, K.; Vestrand, W.T.; Wozniak, P.; Wren, J.; Marshall, S.

    2003-01-01

    We report on the current operating status of the ROTSE-IIIa telescope, currently undergoing testing at Los Alamos National Laboratories in New Mexico. It will be shipped to Siding Spring Observatory, Australia, in first quarter 2002. ROTSE-IIIa has been in automated observing mode since early October, 2001, after completing several weeks of calibration and check-out observations. Calibrated lists of objects in ROTSE-IIIa sky patrol data are produced routinely in an automated pipeline, and we are currently automating analysis procedures to compile these lists, eliminate false detections, and automatically identify transient and variable objects. The manual application of these procedures has already led to the detection of a nova that rose over six magnitudes in two days to a maximum detected brightness of mR ∼ 13.9 and then faded two magnitudes in two weeks. We also readily identify variable stars, includings those suspected to be variables from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We report on our system to allow public monitoring of the telescope operational status in real time over the WWW

  14. High energy neutrino astronomy and its telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halzen, F.

    1995-01-01

    Doing astronomy with photons of energies in excess of a GeV has turned out to be extremely challenging. Efforts are underway to develop instruments that may push astronomy to wavelengths smaller than 10 -14 cm by mapping the sky using high energy neutrinos instead. Neutrino astronomy, born with the identification of thermonuclear fusion in the sun and the particle processes controlling the fate of a nearby supernova, will reach outside the galaxy and make measurements relevant to cosmology. The field is immersed in technology in the domains of particle physics to which many of its research goals are intellectually connected. To mind come the search for neutrino mass, cold dark matter (supersymmetric particles?) and the monopoles of the Standard Model. While a variety of collaborations are pioneering complementary methods by building telescopes with effective area in excess of 0.01 km 2 , we show here that the natural scale of a high energy neutrino telescope is 1 km 2 . With several thousand optical modules and a price tag unlikely to exceed 100 million dollars, the scope of a kilometer-scale instrument is similar to that of experiments presently being commissioned such as the SNO neutrino observatory in Canada and the Superkamiokande experiment in Japan

  15. Simulators, Remote Labs and Robotic Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folhas, Alvaro

    2015-04-01

    There is an increasing gap between students of the twenty-first century and the teaching methodology still stuck in the past century. The myriad stimuli that involve our students, immediate consumption of information, and the availability of resources, should cast the teacher in search methodologies that encourage the student to learn. The simulators, virtual laboratories and remote controlled robotic equipment are examples of high didactic potential resources, created by scientific organizations and universities, to be used in education, providing a direct interaction with science and motivating our students to a future career in science. It is up to us to take advantage of that work, and those resources, to light the sparkle in the eyes of our students. In Astronomy Club I've developed with high school students some practical projects in science, using, over the web, the robotic telescopes through which the students are studying and photographing deep sky objects; or the European network of radio telescope, measuring the speed of the arms of our galaxy in our galactic dance, their temperatures showing where it is more likely to form new stars. Students use these tools, engaging in their own knowledge construction, and forego their Friday afternoons without a hurry to go home for the weekend. That's the spirit we want for the school.

  16. Undergraduate Education with the WIYN 0.9-m Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilachowski, Catherine A.

    2017-01-01

    Several models have been explored at Indiana University Bloomington for undergraduate student engagement in astronomy using the WIYN 0.9-m telescope at Kitt Peak. These models include individual student research projects using the telescope, student observations as part of an observational techniques course for majors, and enrichment activities for non-science majors in general education courses. Where possible, we arrange for students to travel to the telescope. More often, we are able to use simple online tools such as Skype and VNC viewers to give students an authentic observing experience. Experiences with the telescope motivate students to learn basic content in astronomy, including the celestial sphere, the electromagnetic spectrum, telescopes and detectors, the variety of astronomical objects, date reduction processes, image analysis, and color image creation and appreciation. The WIYN 0.9-m telescope is an essential tool for our program at all levels of undergraduate education

  17. The Associate Principal Astronomer for AI Management of Automatic Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Gregory W.

    1998-01-01

    This research program in scheduling and management of automatic telescopes had the following objectives: 1. To field test the 1993 Automatic Telescope Instruction Set (ATIS93) programming language, which was specifically developed to allow real-time control of an automatic telescope via an artificial intelligence scheduler running on a remote computer. 2. To develop and test the procedures for two-way communication between a telescope controller and remote scheduler via the Internet. 3. To test various concepts in Al scheduling being developed at NASA Ames Research Center on an automatic telescope operated by Tennessee State University at the Fairborn Observatory site in southern Arizona. and 4. To develop a prototype software package, dubbed the Associate Principal Astronomer, for the efficient scheduling and management of automatic telescopes.

  18. VLT Unit Telescopes Named at Paranal Inauguration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-03-01

    This has been a busy, but also a very successful and rewarding week for the European Southern Observatory and its staff. While "First Light" was achieved at the second 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescope (UT2) ahead of schedule, UT1 produced its sharpest image so far. This happened at a moment of exceptional observing conditions in the night between March 4 and 5, 1999. During a 6-min exposure of the majestic spiral galaxy, NGC 2997 , stellar images of only 0.25 arcsec FWHM (full-width half-maximum) were recorded. This and two other frames of nearly the same quality have provided the base for the beautiful colour-composite shown above. At this excellent angular resolution, individual star forming regions are well visible along the spiral arms. Of particular interest is the peculiar, twisted shape of the long spiral arm to the right. The Paranal Inauguration The official inauguration of the Paranal Observatory took place in the afternoon of March 5, 1999, in the presence of His Excellency, the President of the Republic of Chile, Don Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle, and ministers of his cabinet, as well the Ambassadors to Chile of the ESO member states and many other distinguished guests. The President of the ESO Council, Mr. Henrik Grage, and the ESO Director General, Professor Riccardo Giacconi, were the foremost representatives of the ESO organisation; most members of the ESO Council and ESO staff also participated. A substantial number of media representatives from Europe and Chile were present and reported - often live - from Paranal during the afternoon and evening. The guests were shown the impressive installations at the new observatory, including the first and second 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescopes; the latter having achieved "First Light" just four days before. A festive ceremony took place in the dome of UT2, under the large telescope structure that had been tilted towards the horizon to make place for the numerous participants. After an introductory address by the ESO Director

  19. Thermal emissivity analysis of a GEMINI 8-meter telescopes design

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Clair Dinger, Ann

    1993-01-01

    The GEMINI 8-meter Telescopes Project is designing twin 8-meter telescopes to be located in Hawaii and Chile. The GEMINI telescopes will have interchangeable secondary mirrors for use in the visible and IR. The APART/PADE program is being used to evaluate the effective IR emissivity of the IR configuration plus enclosure as a function of mirror contamination at three IR wavelengths. The goal is to design a telescope whose effective IR emissivity is no more than 2 percent when the mirrors are clean.

  20. A new concept of imaging system: telescope windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgenot, Cyril; Cowie, Euan; Young, Laura; Love, Gordon; Girkin, John; Courtial, Johannes

    2018-02-01

    A Telescope window is a novel concept of transformation-optics consisting of an array of micro-telescopes, in our configuration, of a Galilean type. When the array is considered as one multifaceted device, it acts as a traditional Galilean telescope with distinctive and attractive properties such as compactness and modularity. Each lenslet, can in principle, be independently designed for a specific optical function. In this paper, we report on the design, manufacture and prototyping, by diamond precision machining, of 2 concepts of telescope windows, and discuss both their performances and limitations with a view to use them as potential low vision aid devices to support patients with macular degeneration.

  1. Technological Aspects of Creating Large-size Optical Telescopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Sychev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A concept of the telescope creation, first of all, depends both on a choice of the optical scheme to form optical radiation and images with minimum losses of energy and information and on a choice of design to meet requirements for strength, stiffness, and stabilization characteristics in real telescope operation conditions. Thus, the concept of creating large-size telescopes, certainly, involves the use of adaptive optics methods and means.The level of technological capabilities to realize scientific and engineering ideas define a successful development of large-size optical telescopes in many respects. All developers pursue the same aim that is to raise an amount of information by increasing a main mirror diameter of the telescope.The article analyses the adaptive telescope designs developed in our country. Using a domestic ACT-25 telescope as an example, it considers creation of large-size optical telescopes in terms of technological aspects. It also describes the telescope creation concept features, which allow reaching marginally possible characteristics to ensure maximum amount of information.The article compares a wide range of large-size telescopes projects. It shows that a domestic project to create the adaptive ACT-25 super-telescope surpasses its foreign counterparts, and there is no sense to implement Euro50 (50m and OWL (100m projects.The considered material gives clear understanding on a role of technological aspects in development of such complicated optic-electronic complexes as a large-size optical telescope. The technological criteria of an assessment offered in the article, namely specific informational content of the telescope, its specific mass, and specific cost allow us to reveal weaknesses in the project development and define a reserve regarding further improvement of the telescope.The analysis of results and their judgment have shown that improvement of optical largesize telescopes in terms of their maximum

  2. The NESTOR underwater neutrino telescope project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapidis, Petros A. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, National Center for Scientific Research ' Demokritos' , Athens 15310 (Greece)], E-mail: rapidis@inp.demokritos.gr

    2009-04-11

    The NESTOR collaboration is continuing its efforts towards deploying an underwater neutrino telescope. Further site studies (e.g. water light transmission measurements, sedimentation rates, etc.) are being carried out within the context of characterizing a site that may host the proposed KM3NeT infrastructure. In addition, following the successful deployment of a single floor of a NESTOR tower in 2003, five floors are now in the final stages of preparation. The use of these five floors in a form of a truncated tower together with four autonomous strings to be located some 300 m away from the tower is being contemplated. This arrangement, named NuBE (for Neutrino Burst Experiment), that may allow the detection neutrinos in coincidence with Gamma Ray Bursts, will be described.

  3. Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) Instrument Response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, A.; Barthelmy, S.; Cummings, J.; Gehrels, N.; Hullinger, D.; Krimm, H.; Markwardt, C.; Tueller, J.; Fenimore, E.; Palmer, D.; Sato, G.; Takahashi, T.; Nakazawa, K.; Okada, Y.; Takahashi, H.; Suzuki, M.; Tashiro, M.

    2004-01-01

    The Burst Alert Telescope (BAT), a large coded aperture instrument with a wide field-of-view (FOV), provides the gamma-ray burst triggers and locations for the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Explorer. In addition to providing this imaging information, BAT will perform a 15 keV - 150 keV all-sky hard x-ray survey based on the serendipitous pointings resulting from the study of gamma-ray bursts, and will also monitor the sky for transient hard x-ray sources. For BAT to provide spectral and photometric information for the gamma-ray bursts, the transient sources and the all-sky survey, the BAT instrument response must be determined to an increasingly greater accuracy. This paper describes the spectral models and the ground calibration experiments used to determine the BAT response to an accuracy suitable for gamma-ray burst studies

  4. Electrostatically telescoping nanotube nonvolatile memory device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Jeong Won; Jiang Qing

    2007-01-01

    We propose a nonvolatile memory based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) serving as the key building blocks for molecular-scale computers and investigate the dynamic operations of a double-walled CNT memory element by classical molecular dynamics simulations. The localized potential energy wells achieved from both the interwall van der Waals energy and CNT-metal binding energy make the bistability of the CNT positions and the electrostatic attractive forces induced by the voltage differences lead to the reversibility of this CNT memory. The material for the electrodes should be carefully chosen to achieve the nonvolatility of this memory. The kinetic energy of the CNT shuttle experiences several rebounds induced by the collisions of the CNT onto the metal electrodes, and this is critically important to the performance of such an electrostatically telescoping CNT memory because the collision time is sufficiently long to cause a delay of the state transition

  5. Selected results from the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouhou, B.

    2014-01-01

    ANTARES uses sea water as as a detection medium to observe cosmic neutrinos. The ANTARES neutrino telescope is taking data with its complete configuration since 2008. Its main goal is the detection of cosmic neutrinos from the Southern hemisphere sky, coming from Galactic and extragalactic sources. Recently, the ANTARES collaboration has published many results from data collected from 2007 to 2010 using detector configurations containing between 5 to 12 detection strings. Among those, search of point sources and diffuse flux from high energy cosmic neutrinos, both resulted in stringent and competitive upper limits for the flux of cosmic neutrinos. In addition, ANTARES is involved in multi-messenger projects looking for correlations between neutrinos and gamma rays or gravitational wave emitted by sources like Gamma-Ray bursts. In this paper we report on some recent results published by the ANTARES collaboration

  6. The Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisawitz, David T.

    2014-01-01

    The far-infrared astrophysics community is eager to follow up Spitzer and Herschel observations with sensitive, high-resolution imaging and spectroscopy, for such measurements are needed to understand merger-driven star formation and chemical enrichment in galaxies, star and planetary system formation, and the development and prevalence of water-bearing planets. The Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT) is a wide field-of-view space-based spatio-spectral interferometer designed to operate in the 25 to 400 micron wavelength range. This talk will summarize the SPIRIT mission concept, with a focus on the science that motivates it and the technology that enables it. Without mentioning SPIRIT by name, the astrophysics community through the NASA Astrophysics Roadmap Committee recently recommended this mission as the first in a series of space-based interferometers. Data from a laboratory testbed interferometer will be used to illustrate how the spatio-spectral interferometry technique works.

  7. Adaptive optics system application for solar telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukin, V. P.; Grigor'ev, V. M.; Antoshkin, L. V.; Botugina, N. N.; Emaleev, O. N.; Konyaev, P. A.; Kovadlo, P. G.; Krivolutskiy, N. P.; Lavrionova, L. N.; Skomorovski, V. I.

    2008-07-01

    The possibility of applying adaptive correction to ground-based solar astronomy is considered. Several experimental systems for image stabilization are described along with the results of their tests. Using our work along several years and world experience in solar adaptive optics (AO) we are assuming to obtain first light to the end of 2008 for the first Russian low order ANGARA solar AO system on the Big Solar Vacuum Telescope (BSVT) with 37 subapertures Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor based of our modified correlation tracker algorithm, DALSTAR video camera, 37 elements deformable bimorph mirror, home made fast tip-tip mirror with separate correlation tracker. Too strong daytime turbulence is on the BSVT site and we are planning to obtain a partial correction for part of Sun surface image.

  8. Automation of Hubble Space Telescope Mission Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burley, Richard; Goulet, Gregory; Slater, Mark; Huey, William; Bassford, Lynn; Dunham, Larry

    2012-01-01

    On June 13, 2011, after more than 21 years, 115 thousand orbits, and nearly 1 million exposures taken, the operation of the Hubble Space Telescope successfully transitioned from 24x7x365 staffing to 815 staffing. This required the automation of routine mission operations including telemetry and forward link acquisition, data dumping and solid-state recorder management, stored command loading, and health and safety monitoring of both the observatory and the HST Ground System. These changes were driven by budget reductions, and required ground system and onboard spacecraft enhancements across the entire operations spectrum, from planning and scheduling systems to payload flight software. Changes in personnel and staffing were required in order to adapt to the new roles and responsibilities required in the new automated operations era. This paper will provide a high level overview of the obstacles to automating nominal HST mission operations, both technical and cultural, and how those obstacles were overcome.

  9. Searching for dark matter with neutrino telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooper, Dan; Silk, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    One of the most interesting mysteries of astrophysics is the puzzle of dark matter. Although numerous techniques have been explored and developed to detect this elusive substance, its nature remains unknown. One such method uses large high-energy neutrino telescopes to look for the annihilation products of dark matter annihilations. In this paper, we briefly review this technique. We describe the calculations used to find the rate of capture of WIMPs in the Sun or Earth and the spectrum of neutrinos produced in the resulting dark matter annihilations. We will discuss these calculations within the context of supersymmetry and models with universal extra dimensions, the lightest supersymmetric particle and lightest Kaluza-Klein particle providing the WIMP candidate in these cases, respectively. We will also discuss the status of some of the experiments relevant to these searches: AMANDA, IceCube and ANTARES

  10. Hubble Space Telescope electrical power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitt, Thomas H.; Bush, John R., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) electrical power system (EPS) is supplying between 2000 and 2400 W of continuous power to the electrical loads. The major components of the EPS are the 5000-W back surface field reflector solar array, the six nickel-hydrogen (NiH2) 22-cell 88-Ah batteries, and the charge current controllers, which, in conjunction with the flight computer, control battery charging. The operation of the HST EPS and the results of the HST NiH2 six-battery test are discussed, and preliminary flight data are reviewed. The HST NiH2 six-battery test is a breadboard of the HST EPS on test at Marshall Space Flight Center.

  11. A 25 m Live Optics Telescope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ardeberg, Arne; Andersen, Torben; Owner-Petersen, Mette

    1996-01-01

    A 25 m four mirror live optics telescope is studied. M1 is spherical with 141 segments and f/0.96. M1 is reimaged onto M4 also with 141 segments. Image FWHM is 20 arc min. A horseshoe solution with a simple azimuth platform is applied. M1 segments are supported by a fine...... meniscus form truss structure, tied to the horseshoe by a coarser mesh. A FEM with 10^4 dof was developed and applied. Live optics control M1 and M4 segments (the latter with potential high bandwidth). Correction signals in tilt, coma and defocus are traced. A correlation tracker and a lase guide star...... dynamic effects and image quality resulting from the 141 segment spots. Automatic segment control at a bandwidth of only 1 Hz gives excellent image quality. We foresee to reach a bandwidth > 50 Hz, securing a system partly adaptive, with effects of atmospheric wave front tilt removed through M4 segment...

  12. Backyard Telescopes Watch an Expanding Binary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-01-01

    What can you do with a team of people armed with backyard telescopes and a decade of patience? Test how binary star systems evolve under Einsteins general theory of relativity!Unusual VariablesCataclysmic variables irregularly brightening binary stars consisting of an accreting white dwarf and a donor star are a favorite target among amateur astronomers: theyre detectable even with small telescopes, and theres a lot we can learn about stellar astrophysics by observing them, if were patient.Diagram of a cataclysmic variable. In an AM CVn, the donor is most likely a white dwarf as well, or a low-mass helium star. [Philip D. Hall]Among the large family of cataclysmic variables is one unusual type: the extremely short-period AM Canum Venaticorum (AM CVn) stars. These rare variables (only 40 are known) are unique in having spectra dominated by helium, suggesting that they contain little or no hydrogen. Because of this, scientists have speculated that the donor stars in these systems are either white dwarfs themselves or very low-mass helium stars.Why study AM CVn stars? Because their unusual configuration allows us to predict the behavior of their orbital evolution. According to the general theory of relativity, the two components of an AM CVn will spiral closer and closer as the system loses angular momentum to gravitational-wave emission. Eventually they will get so close that the low-mass companion star overflows its Roche lobe, beginning mass transfer to the white dwarf. At this point, the orbital evolution will reverse and the binary orbit will expand, increasing its period.CBA member Enrique de Miguel, lead author on the study, with his backyard telescope in Huelva, Spain. [Enrique de Miguel]Backyard Astronomy Hard at WorkMeasuring the evolution of an AM CVns orbital period is the best way to confirm this model, but this is no simple task! To observe this evolution, we first need a system with a period that can be very precisely measured best achieved with an

  13. JUDE: An Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, J.; Rahna, P. T.; Sutaria, F.; Safonova, M.; Gudennavar, S. B.; Bubbly, S. G.

    2017-07-01

    The Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UVIT) was launched as part of the multi-wavelength Indian AstroSat mission on 28 September, 2015 into a low Earth orbit. A 6-month performance verification (PV) phase ended in March 2016, and the instrument is now in the general observing phase. UVIT operates in three channels: visible, near-ultraviolet (NUV) and far-ultraviolet (FUV), each with a choice of broad and narrow band filters, and has NUV and FUV gratings for low-resolution spectroscopy. We have written a software package (JUDE) to convert the Level 1 data from UVIT into scientifically useful photon lists and images. The routines are written in the GNU Data Language (GDL) and are compatible with the IDL software package. We use these programs in our own scientific work, and will continue to update the programs as we gain better understanding of the UVIT instrument and its performance. We have released JUDE under an Apache License.

  14. Detectors for the Atacama Cosmology Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriage, Tobias Andrew

    The Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) will make measurements of the brightness temperature anisotropy in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) on degree to arcminute angular scales. The ACT observing site is located 5200 m near the top of Cerro Toco in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile. This thesis presents research on the detectors which capture the image of the CMB formed at ACT's focal plane. In the first chapter, the primary brightness temperature fluctuations in the Cosmic Microwave Background are reviewed. In Chapter 2, a calculation shows how the CMB brightness is translated by ACT to an input power to the detectors. Chapter 3 describes the ACT detectors in detail and presents the response and sensitivity of the detectors to the input power computed in Chapter 2. Chapter 4 describes the detector fabrication at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Chapter 5 summarizes experiments which characterize the ACT detector performance.

  15. The Lifferth Dome for Small Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, B. L.; Olsen, C. S.; Iverson, E. P.; Paget, A.; Lifferth, W.; Brown, P. J.; Moody, J. W.

    2004-12-01

    The Lifferth Dome is a pull-off roof designed for small telescopes and other observational equipment. It was specifically designed for the needs of the ROVOR project. The roof itself is completely removed from the observatory housing walls and cranked off to the side below the optical horizon. This is done using two swing arms on either side of the observatory that work in unison to lift the roof off the structure and rotate down and away into a cleared location. The torque is provided by a threaded rod connected to an electric motor at the back of the building. As the motor rotates, the threads turn through a threaded sleeve connected directly to the support arms. Advantages to this design are no lost horizon, no roller surfaces to keep clean, low power and simple limit switches. Operation is by computer control using by National Instruments LabVIEW via the internet. We present its design and construction.

  16. Radio Telescopes Reveal Unseen Galactic Cannibalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    Radio-telescope images have revealed previously-unseen galactic cannibalism -- a triggering event that leads to feeding frenzies by gigantic black holes at the cores of galaxies. Astronomers have long suspected that the extra-bright cores of spiral galaxies called Seyfert galaxies are powered by supermassive black holes consuming material. However, they could not see how the material is started on its journey toward the black hole. Optical/Radio Comparison Visible-light (left) and radio (right) image of galaxy pair: Radio image shows gas streaming between galaxies. CREDIT: Kuo et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF Click on image for more graphics. One leading theory said that Seyfert galaxies have been disturbed by close encounters with neighboring galaxies, thus stirring up their gas and bringing more of it within the gravitational reach of the black hole. However, when astronomers looked at Seyferts with visible-light telescopes, only a small fraction showed any evidence of such an encounter. Now, new images of hydrogen gas in Seyferts made using the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope show the majority of them are, in fact, disturbed by ongoing encounters with neighbor galaxies. "The VLA lifted the veil on what's really happening with these galaxies," said Cheng-Yu Kuo, a graduate student at the University of Virginia. "Looking at the gas in these galaxies clearly showed that they are snacking on their neighbors. This is a dramatic contrast with their appearance in visible starlight," he added. The effect of the galactic encounters is to send gas and dust toward the black hole and produce energy as the material ultimately is consumed. Black holes, concentrations of matter so dense that not even light can escape their gravitational pull, reside at the cores of many galaxies. Depending on how rapidly the black hole is eating, the galaxy can show a wide range of energetic activity. Seyfert galaxies have the mildest version of this activity, while

  17. Wave Telescope Technique for MMS Magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Y.; Plaschke, F.; Nakamura, R.; Baumjojann, W.; Magnes, W.; Fischer, D.; Voros, Z.; Torbert, R. B.; Russell, C. T.; Strangeway, R. J.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Multipoint measurements are a powerful method in studying wavefields in space plasmas.The wave telescope technique is tested against magnetic field fluctuations in the terrestrial magnetosheath measured by the four Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) spacecraft on a spatial scale of about 20 km.The dispersion relation diagram and the wave vector distribution are determined for the first time in the ion-kinetic range. Moreover, the dispersion relation diagram is determined in a proxy plasma restframe by regarding the low-frequency dispersion relation as a Doppler relation and compensating for the apparent phase velocity. Fluctuations are highly compressible, and the wave vectors have an angle of about 60 from the mean magnetic field. We interpret that the measured fluctuations represent akinetic-drift mirror mode in the magnetosheath which is dispersive and in a turbulent state accompanied by a sideband formation.

  18. XSPECT telescopes on the SRG: optical performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Niels Jørgen Stenfeldt; Polny, Josef; Christensen, Finn Erland

    1994-01-01

    The XSPECT, thin foil, multiply nested telescope on SRG has been designed to achieve a large effective area at energies between 6 and 15 keV. The design goal for the angular resolution is 2 arcmin (HPD). Results of foil figure error measurements are presented. A ray tracing analysis was performed...... including results of earlier scattering measurements and the foil determination. The results of the analysis are compared with test measurements with X rays and show that there is a larger spread in the PSF than the model can account for. The decrease in effective area due to scattering is estimated...... to be 30% when the photons that scatter more than 6 arcmin are regarded as lost. The vignetting at off-axis angles leads to an effective area at the edge of the FOV which is 15% of that of an on-axis source....

  19. The NESTOR underwater neutrino telescope project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapidis, Petros A.

    2009-01-01

    The NESTOR collaboration is continuing its efforts towards deploying an underwater neutrino telescope. Further site studies (e.g. water light transmission measurements, sedimentation rates, etc.) are being carried out within the context of characterizing a site that may host the proposed KM3NeT infrastructure. In addition, following the successful deployment of a single floor of a NESTOR tower in 2003, five floors are now in the final stages of preparation. The use of these five floors in a form of a truncated tower together with four autonomous strings to be located some 300 m away from the tower is being contemplated. This arrangement, named NuBE (for Neutrino Burst Experiment), that may allow the detection neutrinos in coincidence with Gamma Ray Bursts, will be described.

  20. High Energy Antimatter Telescope (HEAT) Balloon Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, J. J.

    1995-01-01

    This grant supported our work on the High Energy Antimatter Telescope(HEAT) balloon experiment. The HEAT payload is designed to perform a series of experiments focusing on the cosmic ray positron, electron, and antiprotons. Thus far two flights of the HEAT -e+/- configuration have taken place. During the period of this grant major accomplishments included the following: (1) Publication of the first results of the 1994 HEAT-e+/- flight in Physical Review Letters; (2) Successful reflight of the HEAT-e+/- payload from Lynn Lake in August 1995; (3) Repair and refurbishment of the elements of the HEAT payload damaged during the landing following the 1995 flight; and (4) Upgrade of the ground support equipment for future flights of the HEAT payload.

  1. Telescopic multi-resolution augmented reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jeffrey; Frenchi, Christopher; Szu, Harold

    2014-05-01

    To ensure a self-consistent scaling approximation, the underlying microscopic fluctuation components can naturally influence macroscopic means, which may give rise to emergent observable phenomena. In this paper, we describe a consistent macroscopic (cm-scale), mesoscopic (micron-scale), and microscopic (nano-scale) approach to introduce Telescopic Multi-Resolution (TMR) into current Augmented Reality (AR) visualization technology. We propose to couple TMR-AR by introducing an energy-matter interaction engine framework that is based on known Physics, Biology, Chemistry principles. An immediate payoff of TMR-AR is a self-consistent approximation of the interaction between microscopic observables and their direct effect on the macroscopic system that is driven by real-world measurements. Such an interdisciplinary approach enables us to achieve more than multiple scale, telescopic visualization of real and virtual information but also conducting thought experiments through AR. As a result of the consistency, this framework allows us to explore a large dimensionality parameter space of measured and unmeasured regions. Towards this direction, we explore how to build learnable libraries of biological, physical, and chemical mechanisms. Fusing analytical sensors with TMR-AR libraries provides a robust framework to optimize testing and evaluation through data-driven or virtual synthetic simulations. Visualizing mechanisms of interactions requires identification of observable image features that can indicate the presence of information in multiple spatial and temporal scales of analog data. The AR methodology was originally developed to enhance pilot-training as well as `make believe' entertainment industries in a user-friendly digital environment We believe TMR-AR can someday help us conduct thought experiments scientifically, to be pedagogically visualized in a zoom-in-and-out, consistent, multi-scale approximations.

  2. FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE FIRST SOURCE CATALOG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Antolini, E.; Bonamente, E.; Atwood, W. B.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bisello, D.; Baughman, B. M.; Belli, F.

    2010-01-01

    We present a catalog of high-energy gamma-ray sources detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT), the primary science instrument on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi), during the first 11 months of the science phase of the mission, which began on 2008 August 4. The First Fermi-LAT catalog (1FGL) contains 1451 sources detected and characterized in the 100 MeV to 100 GeV range. Source detection was based on the average flux over the 11 month period, and the threshold likelihood Test Statistic is 25, corresponding to a significance of just over 4σ. The 1FGL catalog includes source location regions, defined in terms of elliptical fits to the 95% confidence regions and power-law spectral fits as well as flux measurements in five energy bands for each source. In addition, monthly light curves are provided. Using a protocol defined before launch we have tested for several populations of gamma-ray sources among the sources in the catalog. For individual LAT-detected sources we provide firm identifications or plausible associations with sources in other astronomical catalogs. Identifications are based on correlated variability with counterparts at other wavelengths, or on spin or orbital periodicity. For the catalogs and association criteria that we have selected, 630 of the sources are unassociated. Care was taken to characterize the sensitivity of the results to the model of interstellar diffuse gamma-ray emission used to model the bright foreground, with the result that 161 sources at low Galactic latitudes and toward bright local interstellar clouds are flagged as having properties that are strongly dependent on the model or as potentially being due to incorrectly modeled structure in the Galactic diffuse emission.

  3. Volcanoes muon imaging using Cherenkov telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catalano, O.; Del Santo, M.; Mineo, T.; Cusumano, G.; Maccarone, M.C.; Pareschi, G.

    2016-01-01

    A detailed understanding of a volcano inner structure is one of the key-points for the volcanic hazards evaluation. To this aim, in the last decade, geophysical radiography techniques using cosmic muon particles have been proposed. By measuring the differential attenuation of the muon flux as a function of the amount of rock crossed along different directions, it is possible to determine the density distribution of the interior of a volcano. Up to now, a number of experiments have been based on the detection of the muon tracks crossing hodoscopes, made up of scintillators or nuclear emulsion planes. Using telescopes based on the atmospheric Cherenkov imaging technique, we propose a new approach to study the interior of volcanoes detecting of the Cherenkov light produced by relativistic cosmic-ray muons that survive after crossing the volcano. The Cherenkov light produced along the muon path is imaged as a typical annular pattern containing all the essential information to reconstruct particle direction and energy. Our new approach offers the advantage of a negligible background and an improved spatial resolution. To test the feasibility of our new method, we have carried out simulations with a toy-model based on the geometrical parameters of ASTRI SST-2M, i.e. the imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope currently under installation onto the Etna volcano. Comparing the results of our simulations with previous experiments based on particle detectors, we gain at least a factor of 10 in sensitivity. The result of this study shows that we resolve an empty cylinder with a radius of about 100 m located inside a volcano in less than 4 days, which implies a limit on the magma velocity of 5 m/h.

  4. Volcanoes muon imaging using Cherenkov telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catalano, O. [INAF, Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica cosmica di Palermo, via U. La Malfa 153, I-90146 Palermo (Italy); Del Santo, M., E-mail: melania@ifc.inaf.it [INAF, Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica cosmica di Palermo, via U. La Malfa 153, I-90146 Palermo (Italy); Mineo, T.; Cusumano, G.; Maccarone, M.C. [INAF, Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica cosmica di Palermo, via U. La Malfa 153, I-90146 Palermo (Italy); Pareschi, G. [INAF Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Via E. Bianchi 46, I-23807, Merate (Italy)

    2016-01-21

    A detailed understanding of a volcano inner structure is one of the key-points for the volcanic hazards evaluation. To this aim, in the last decade, geophysical radiography techniques using cosmic muon particles have been proposed. By measuring the differential attenuation of the muon flux as a function of the amount of rock crossed along different directions, it is possible to determine the density distribution of the interior of a volcano. Up to now, a number of experiments have been based on the detection of the muon tracks crossing hodoscopes, made up of scintillators or nuclear emulsion planes. Using telescopes based on the atmospheric Cherenkov imaging technique, we propose a new approach to study the interior of volcanoes detecting of the Cherenkov light produced by relativistic cosmic-ray muons that survive after crossing the volcano. The Cherenkov light produced along the muon path is imaged as a typical annular pattern containing all the essential information to reconstruct particle direction and energy. Our new approach offers the advantage of a negligible background and an improved spatial resolution. To test the feasibility of our new method, we have carried out simulations with a toy-model based on the geometrical parameters of ASTRI SST-2M, i.e. the imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope currently under installation onto the Etna volcano. Comparing the results of our simulations with previous experiments based on particle detectors, we gain at least a factor of 10 in sensitivity. The result of this study shows that we resolve an empty cylinder with a radius of about 100 m located inside a volcano in less than 4 days, which implies a limit on the magma velocity of 5 m/h.

  5. Origins Space Telescope: Cosmology and Reionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Joaquin Daniel; Origins Space Telescope

    2018-01-01

    The Origins Space Telescope (OST) is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, a study in development by NASA in preparation for the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey. Origins is planned to be a large aperture, actively-cooled telescope covering a wide span of the mid- to far-infrared spectrum. Its imagers and spectrographs will enable a variety of surveys of the sky that will discover and characterize the most distant galaxies, Milky-Way, exoplanets, and the outer reaches of our Solar system. Origins will enable flagship-quality general observing programs led by the astronomical community in the 2030s. The Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) would like to hear your science needs and ideas for this mission. The team can be contacted at firsurveyor_info@lists.ipac.caltech.edu.A core science goal of the OST mission is to study the the cosmological history of star, galaxy, and structure formation into the epoch of reionization (EoR). OST will probe the birth of galaxies through warm molecular hydrogen emission during the cosmic dark ages. Utilizing the unique power of the infrared fine-structure emission lines, OST will trace the rise of metals from the first galaxies until today. It will quantify the dust enrichment history of the Universe, uncover its composition and physical conditions, reveal the first cosmic sources of dust, and probe the properties of the earliest star formation. OST will provide a detailed astrophysical probe into the condition of the intergalactic medium at z > 6 and the galaxies which dominate the epoch of reionization.

  6. Origins Space Telescope: Breaking the Confusion Limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Edward L.; Origins Space Telescope Science and Technology Definition Team

    2018-01-01

    The Origins Space Telescope (OST) is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, one of the four science and technology definition studies of NASA Headquarters for the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal survey. Origins will enable flagship-quality general observing programs led by the astronomical community in the 2030s.OST will have a background-limited sensitivity for a background 27,000 times lower than the Herschel background caused by thermal emission from Herschel's warm telescope. For continuum observations the confusion limit in a diffraction-limited survey can be reached in very short integration times at longer far-infrared wavelengths. But the confusion limit can be pierced for both the nearest and the farthest objects to be observed by OST. For outer the Solar System the targets' motion across the sky will provide a clear signature in surveys repeated after an interval of days to months. This will provide a size-frequency distribution of TNOs that is not biased toward high albedo objects.For the distant Universe the first galaxies and the first metals will provide a third dimension of spectral information that can be measured with a long-slit, medium resolution spectrograph. This will allow 3Dmapping to measure source densities as a function of redshift. The continuum shape associated with sourcesat different redshifts can be derived from correlation analyses of these 3D maps.Fairly large sky areas can be scanned by moving the spacecraft at a constant angular rate perpendicular to the orientation of the long slit of the spectrograph, avoiding the high overhead of step-and-stare surveying with a large space observatory.We welcome you to contact the Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) with your science needs and ideas by emailing us at ost_info@lists.ipac.caltech.edu

  7. Update on the Status of the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph onboard the Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Svea; Aloisi, A.; Bostroem, K. A.; Cox, C.; Debes, J. H.; DiFelice, A.; Roman-Duval, J.; Hodge, P.; Holland, S.; Lindsay, K.; Lockwood, S. A.; Mason, E.; Oliveira, C. M.; Penton, S. V.; Proffitt, C. R.; Sonnentrucker, P.; Taylor, J. M.; Wheeler, T.

    2013-06-01

    The Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) has been on orbit for approximately 16 years as one of the 2nd generation instruments on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Its operations were interrupted by an electronics failure in 2004, but STIS was successfully repaired in May 2009 during Service Mission 4 (SM4) allowing it to resume science observations. The Instrument team continues to monitor its performance and work towards improving the quality of its products. Here we present updated information on the status of the FUV and NUV MAMA and the CCD detectors onboard STIS and describe recent changes to the STIS calibration pipeline. We also discuss the status of efforts to apply a pixel-based correction for charge transfer inefficiency (CTI) effects to STIS CCD data. These techniques show promise for ameliorating the effects of ongoing radiation damage on the quality of STIS CCD data.

  8. Aperture and counting rate of rectangular telescopes for single and multiple parallel particles. [Spark chamber telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Ettorre Piazzoli, B; Mannocchi, G [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Turin (Italy). Lab. di Cosmo-Geofisica; Melone, S [Istituto di Fisica dell' Universita, Ancona, Italy; Picchi, P; Visentin, R [Comitato Nazionale per l' Energia Nucleare, Frascati (Italy). Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati

    1976-06-01

    Expressions for the counting rate of rectangular telescopes in the case of single as well as multiple particles are given. The aperture for single particles is obtained in the form of a double integral and analytical solutions are given for some cases. The intensity for different multiplicities of parallel particles is related to the geometry of the detectors and to the features of the radiation. This allows an absolute comparison between the data recorded by different devices.

  9. Telescope Construction: A Hands-On Approach to Astronomy Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrazine, Angela R.; Albin, E.

    2009-01-01

    We report on a popular semester-long telescope making course offered at Fernbank Science Center in Atlanta, GA. The program is tailored for junior / senior level high school students and incorporates the current educational performance standards for the state of Georgia. This course steps out of the traditional classroom environment and allows students to explore optics and astronomical concepts by constructing their own telescopes. Student telescopes follow the classic six-inch f/8 Newtonian reflector design, which has proven to be a good compromise between portability and aperture. Participants meet for a few hours, twice weekly, to build their telescopes. Over the course of the semester, raw one-inch thick Pyrex mirror blanks are ground, polished, and figured by hand into precision telescope objectives. Along the way, students are introduced to the Ronchi and Foucault methods for testing optics and once figured, completed mirrors are then chemically silvered. A plywood Dobsonian-style base is built and eventually mated with an optical tube made from a standard eight-inch concrete form tube or sonotube. An evening of star testing the optics and observation is planned at the end of the semester to insure the proper operation of each telescope. In summary, we believe that a hands-on approach to the understanding and use of optical telescopes is a great way not only to instill enthusiasm among students for the night sky, but may perhaps inspire the next generation of professional telescope makers.

  10. Active control of the Chinese Giant Solar Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yichun; Yang, Dehua; Jin, Zhenyu; Liu, Zhong; Qin, Wei

    2014-07-01

    The Chinese Giant Solar Telescope (CGST) is the next generation solar telescope of China with diameter of 8 meter. The unique feature of CGST is that its primary is a ring, which facilitates the polarization detection and thermal control. In its present design and development phase, two primary mirror patterns are considered. For one thing, the primary mirror is expected to construct with mosaic mirror with 24 trapezoidal (or petal) segments, for another thing, a monolithic mirror is also a candidate for its primary mirror. Both of them depend on active control technique to maintain the optical quality of the ring mirror. As a solar telescope, the working conditions of the CGST are quite different from those of the stellar telescopes. To avoid the image deterioration due to the mirror seeing and dome seeing, especially in the case of the concentration of flux in a solar telescope, large aperture solar projects prefer to adopt open telescopes and open domes. In this circumstance, higher wind loads act on the primary mirror directly, which will cause position errors and figure errors of the primary with matters worse than those of the current 10-meter stellar telescopes with dome protect. Therefore, it gives new challenges to the active control capability, telescope structure design, and wind shielding design. In this paper, the study progress of active control of CGST for its mosaic and monolithic mirror are presented, and the wind effects on such two primary mirrors are also investigated.

  11. Engineering and science highlights of the KAT-7 radio telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foley, A. R.; Alberts, T.; Armstrong, R. P.; Barta, A.; Bauermeister, E. F.; Bester, H.; Blose, S.; Booth, R. S.; Botha, D. H.; Buchner, S. J.; Carignan, C.; Cheetham, T.; Cloete, K.; Coreejes, G.; Crida, R. C.; Cross, S. D.; Curtolo, F.; Dikgale, A.; de Villiers, M. S.; du Toit, L. J.; Esterhuyse, S. W. P.; Fanaroff, B.; Fender, R. P.; Fijalkowski, M.; Fourie, D.; Frank, B.; George, D.; Gibbs, P.; Goedhart, S.; Grobbelaar, J.; Gumede, S. C.; Herselman, P.; Hess, K. M.; Hoek, N.; Horrell, J.; Jonas, J. L.; Jordaan, J. D. B.; Julie, R.; Kapp, F.; Kotzé, P.; Kusel, T.; Langman, A.; Lehmensiek, R.; Liebenberg, D.; Liebenberg, I. J. V.; Loots, A.; Lord, R. T.; Lucero, D. M.; Ludick, J.; Macfarlane, P.; Madlavana, M.; Magnus, L.; Magozore, C.; Malan, J. A.; Manley, J. R.; Marais, L.; Marais, N.; Marais, S. J.; Maree, M.; Martens, A.; Mokone, O.; Moss, V.; Mthembu, S.; New, W.; Nicholson, G. D.; van Niekerk, P. C.; Oozeer, N.; Passmoor, S. S.; Peens-Hough, A.; Pińska, A. B.; Prozesky, P.; Rajan, S.; Ratcliffe, S.; Renil, R.; Richter, L. L.; Rosekrans, D.; Rust, A.; Schröder, A. C.; Schwardt, L. C.; Seranyane, S.; Serylak, M.; Shepherd, D. S.; Siebrits, R.; Sofeya, L.; Spann, R.; Springbok, R.; Swart, P. S.; Thondikulam, Venkatasubramani L.; Theron, I. P.; Tiplady, A.; Toruvanda, O.; Tshongweni, S.; van den Heever, L.; van der Merwe, C.; van Rooyen, R.; Wakhaba, S.; Walker, A. L.; Welz, M.; Williams, L.; Wolleben, M.; Woudt, P. A.; Young, N. J.; Zwart, J. T. L.

    2016-01-01

    The construction of the seven-dish Karoo Array Telescope (KAT-7) array in the Karoo region of the Northern Cape in South Africa was intended primarily as an engineering prototype for technologies and techniques applicable to the MeerKAT telescope. This paper looks at the main engineering and

  12. A coded mask telescope for the Spacelab 2 mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willmore, A.P.; Skinner, G.K.; Eyles, C.J.; Ramsey, B.

    1984-01-01

    A dual coded mask telescope for the Spacelab 2 mission is now in the final stages of preparation at Birmingham University. It is due for launch in late 1984/early 1985 and will be by far the largest and most sophisticated such instrument to be flown in this time-frame. The design and capabilities of the telescope will be described. (orig.)

  13. Deployment of a Pair of 3 M telescopes in Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finnegan, G; Adams, B; Butler, K; Cardoza, J; Colin, P; Hui, C M; Kieda, D; Kirkwood, D; Kress, D; Kress, M; LeBohec, S; McGuire, C; Newbold, M; Nunez, P; Pham, K [University of Utah, Department of Physics, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States)

    2008-12-24

    Two 3 m telescopes are being installed in Grantsville Utah. They are intended for the testing of various approaches to the implementation of intensity interferometry using Cherenkov Telescopes in large arrays as receivers as well as for the testing of novel technology cameras and electronics for ground based gamma-ray astronomy.

  14. Large fully retractable telescope enclosures still closable in strong wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettonvil, Felix C. M.; Hammerschlag, Robert H.; Jägers, Aswin P. L.; Sliepen, Guus

    2008-07-01

    Two prototypes of fully retractable enclosures with diameters of 7 and 9 m have been built for the high-resolution solar telescopes DOT (Dutch Open Telescope) and GREGOR, both located at the Canary Islands. These enclosures protect the instruments for bad weather and are fully open when the telescopes are in operation. The telescopes and enclosures also operate in hard wind. The prototypes are based on tensioned membrane between movable but stiff bows, which fold together to a ring when opened. The height of the ring is small. The prototypes already survived several storms, with often snow and ice, without any damage, including hurricane Delta with wind speeds up to 68 m/s. The enclosures can still be closed and opened with wind speeds of 20 m/s without any problems or restrictions. The DOT successfully demonstrated the open, wind-flushing concept for astronomical telescopes. It is now widely recognized that also large future telescopes benefit from wind-flushing and retractable enclosures. These telescopes require enclosures with diameters of 30 m until roughly 100 m, the largest sizes for the ELTs (Extreme Large Telescopes), which will be built in the near future. We discuss developments and required technology for the realization of these large sizes.

  15. Lightweight Inexpensive Ozone Lidar Telescope Using a Plastic Fresnel Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeYoung, Russell J.; Notari, Anthony; Carrion, William; Pliutau, Denis

    2014-01-01

    An inexpensive lightweight ozone lidar telescope was designed, constructed and operated during an ozone lidar field campaign. This report summarizes the design parameters and performance of the plastic Fresnel lens telescope and shows the ozone lidar performance compared to Zemax calculations.

  16. Development of Slewing Mirror Telescope Optical System for the UFFO-pathfinder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, S.; Nam, J.W.; Ahn, K.-B.

    2013-01-01

    The Slewing Mirror Telescope (SMT) is the UV/optical telescope of UFFO-pathfinder. The SMT optical system is a Ritchey-Chrétien (RC) telescope of 100 mm diameter pointed by means of a gimbal-mounted flat mirror in front of the telescope. The RC telescope has a 17 × 17arcmin2 in Field of View and ...

  17. Space telescopes capturing the rays of the electromagnetic spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    English, Neil

    2017-01-01

    Space telescopes are among humankind’s greatest scientific achievements of the last fifty years. This book describes the instruments themselves and what they were designed to discover about the Solar System and distant stars. Exactly how these telescopes were built and launched and the data they provided is explored. Only certain kinds of radiation can penetrate our planet's atmosphere, which limits what we can observe. But with space telescopes all this changed. We now have the means to "see" beyond Earth using ultraviolet, microwave, and infrared rays, X-rays and gamma rays. In this book we meet the pioneers and the telescopes that were built around their ideas. This book looks at space telescopes not simply chronologically but also in order of the electromagnetic spectrum, making it possible to understand better why they were made.

  18. An optics education program designed around experiments with small telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompea, Stephen M.; Sparks, Robert T.; Walker, Constance E.; Dokter, Erin F. C.

    2010-08-01

    The National Optical Astronomy Observatory has led the development of a new telescope kit for kids as part of a strategic plan to interest young children in science. This telescope has been assembled by tens of thousands of children nationwide, who are now using this high-quality telescope to conduct optics experiments and to make astronomical observations. The Galileoscope telescope kit and its associated educational program are an outgrowth of the NSF sponsored "Hands-On Optics" (HOO) project, a collaboration of the SPIE, the Optical Society of America, and NOAO. This project developed optics kits and activities for upper elementary students and has reached over 20,000 middle school kids in afterschool programs. HOO is a highly flexible educational program and was featured as an exemplary informal science program by the National Science Teachers Association. Our new "Teaching with Telescopes" program builds on HOO, the Galileoscope and other successful optical education projects.

  19. Rise to SUMMIT: the Sydney University Multiple-Mirror Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Anna M.; Davis, John

    2000-07-01

    The Sydney University Multiple Mirror Telescope (SUMMIT) is a medium-sized telescope designed specifically for high resolution stellar spectroscopy. Throughout the design emphasis has been placed on high efficiency at low cost. The telescope consists of four 0.46 m diameter mirrors mounted on a single welded steel frame. Specially designed mirror cells support and point each mirror, allowing accurate positioning of the images on optical fibers located at the foci of the mirrors. Four fibers convey the light to the future location of a high resolution spectrograph away from the telescope in a stable environment. An overview of the commissioning of the telescope is presented, including the guidance and automatic mirror alignment and focussing systems. SUMMIT is located alongside the Sydney University Stellar Interferometer at the Paul Wild Observatory, near Narrabri, Northern New South Wales.

  20. Optical Design for a Survey X-Ray Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Timo T.; Zhang, William W.; McClelland, Ryan S.

    2014-01-01

    Optical design trades are underway at the Goddard Space Flight Center to define a telescope for an x-ray survey mission. Top-level science objectives of the mission include the study of x-ray transients, surveying and long-term monitoring of compact objects in nearby galaxies, as well as both deep and wide-field x-ray surveys. In this paper we consider Wolter, Wolter-Schwarzschild, and modified Wolter-Schwarzschild telescope designs as basic building blocks for the tightly nested survey telescope. Design principles and dominating aberrations of individual telescopes and nested telescopes are discussed and we compare the off-axis optical performance at 1.0 KeV and 4.0 KeV across a 1.0-degree full field-of-view.

  1. Observations of Anomalous Refraction with Co-housed Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Malinda S.; McGraw, J. T.; Zimmer, P. C.

    2013-01-01

    Anomalous refraction is described as a low frequency, large angular scale motion of the entire image plane with respect to the celestial coordinate system as observed and defined by previous astrometric catalogs. These motions of typically several tenths of an arcsecond with timescales on the order of ten minutes are ubiquitous to drift-scan ground-based astrometric measurements regardless of location or telescopes used and have been attributed to meter scale slowly evolving coherent dynamical structures in the boundary-layer below 60 meters. The localized nature of the effect and general inconsistency of the motions seen by even closely spaced telescopes in individual domes has led to the hypothesis that the dome or other type of telescope housing may be responsible. This hypothesis is tested by observing anomalous refraction using two telescopes housed in a single roll-off roof observatory building with the expected outcome that the two telescopes will see correlated anomalous refraction induced motions.

  2. Radio Telescopes Reveal Youngest Stellar Corpse

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    Astronomers using a global combination of radio telescopes to study a stellar explosion some 30 million light-years from Earth have likely discovered either the youngest black hole or the youngest neutron star known in the Universe. Their discovery also marks the first time that a black hole or neutron star has been found associated with a supernova that has been seen to explode since the invention of the telescope nearly 400 years ago. M51 An artist's impression of Supernova 1986J. The newly discovered nebula around the black hole or neutron star in the center is shown in blue, and is in the center of the expanding, fragmented shell of material thrown off in the supernova explosion, which is shown in red. CREDIT: Norbert Bartel and Michael F. Bietenholz, York University; Artist: G. Arguner (Click on image for larger version) Image Files Artist's Conception (above image, 836K) Galaxy and Supernova (47K) A VLA image (left) of the galaxy NGC 891, showing the bright supernova explosion below the galaxy's center. At right, a closer view of the supernova, made with a global array of radio telescopes. CREDIT: Miguel A. Perez-Torres, Antxon Alberdi and Lucas Lara, Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia - CSIC, Spain, Jon Marcaide and Jose C. Guirado, Universidad de Valencia, Spain Franco Mantovani, IRA-CNR, Italy, Eduardo Ros, MPIfR, Germany, and Kurt W. Weiler, Naval Research Laboratory, USA Multi-Frequency Closeup View (201K) Blue and white area shows the nebula surrounding the black hole or neutron star lurking in the center of the supernova. This nebula is apparent at a higher radio frequency (15 GHz). The red and also the contours show the distorted, expanding shell of material thrown off in the supernova explosion. This shell is seen at a lower radio frequency (5 GHz). CREDIT: Michael F. Bietenholz and Norbert Bartel, York University, Michael Rupen, NRAO, NRAO/AUI/NSF A supernova is the explosion of a massive star after it exhausts its supply of nuclear fuel and

  3. Optical Design of the STAR-X Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Timo T.; Zhang, William W.; McClelland, Ryan S.

    2017-01-01

    Top-level science goals of the Survey and Time-domain Astrophysical Research eXplorer (STAR-X) include: investigations of most violent explosions in the universe, study of growth of black holes across cosmic time and mass scale, and measure how structure formation heats majority of baryons in the universe. To meet these goals, the field-of-view of the telescope should be about 1 square-degree, the angular resolution should be 5 arc-seconds or below across large part of the field-of-view. The on-axis effective area at 1 KeV should be about 2,000 sq cm. Payload cost and launch considerations limit the outer diameter, focal length, and mass to 1.3 meters, 5 meters, and 250 kilograms, respectively. Telescope design is based on a segmented meta-shell approach we have developed at Goddard Space Flight Center for the STAR-X telescope. The telescope shells are divided into 30-degree segments. Individual telescopes and meta-shells are nested inside each other to meet the effective area requirements in 0.5 - 6.0 KeV range. We consider Wolter-Schwarzschild, and Modified-Wolter-Schwarzschild telescope designs as basic building blocks of the nested STAR-X telescope. These designs offer an excellent resolution over a large field of views. Nested telescopes are vulnerable to stray light problems. We have designed a multi-component baffle system to eliminate direct and single-reflection light paths inside the telescopes. Large number of internal and external baffle vane structures are required to prevent stray rays from reaching the focal plane. We have developed a simple ray-trace based tool to determine the dimensions and locations of the baffles. In this paper, we present the results of our trade studies, baffle design studies, and optical performance analyses of the STAR-X telescope.

  4. Performance of the Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array. III - Optical characteristics of the Ritchey-Chretien and Cassegrain telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.; Baker, Phillip C.; Hadaway, James B.; Johnson, R. B.; Peterson, Cynthia; Gabardi, David R.; Walker, Arthur B., Jr.; Lindblom, J. F.; Deforest, Craig; O'Neal, R. H.

    1991-12-01

    The Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array (MSSTA), which is a sounding-rocket-borne observatory for investigating the sun in the soft X-ray/EUV and FUV regimes of the electromagnetic spectrum, utilizes single reflection multilayer coated Herschelian telescopes for wavelengths below 100 A, and five doubly reflecting multilayer coated Ritchey-Chretien and two Cassegrain telescopes for selected wavelengths in the EUV region between 100 and 1000 A. The paper discusses the interferometric alignment, testing, focusing, visible light testing, and optical performance characteristics of the Ritchey-Chretien and Cassegrain telescopes of MSSTA. A schematic diagram of the MSSTA Ritchey-Chretien telescope is presented together with diagrams of the system autocollimation testing.

  5. The Liverpool Telescope: rapid follow-up observation of targets of opportunity with a 2 m robotic telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomboc, Andreja; Bode, Michael F.; Carter, David; Mundell, Carol G.; Newsam, Andrew; Smith, Robert J.; Steele, Iain A.

    2004-01-01

    The Liverpool Telescope, situated at Roque de los Muchachos Observatory, La Palma, Canaries, is the first 2-m, fully instrumented robotic telescope. It recently began observations. Among Liverpool Telescope's primary scientific goals is to monitor variable objects on all timescales from seconds to years. An additional benefit of its robotic operation is rapid reaction to unpredictable phenomena and their systematic follow up, simultaneous or coordinated with other facilities. The Target of Opportunity Programme of the Liverpool Telescope includes the prompt search for and observation of GRB and XRF counterparts. A special over-ride mode implemented for GRB/XRF follow-up enables observations commencing less than a minute after the alert, including optical and near infrared imaging and spectroscopy. In particular, the moderate aperture and rapid automated response make the Liverpool Telescope excellently suited to help solving the mystery of optically dark GRBs and for the investigation of currently unstudied short bursts and XRFs

  6. No Telescoping Effect with Dual Tendon Vibration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Bellan

    Full Text Available The tendon vibration illusion has been extensively used to manipulate the perceived position of one's own body part. However, findings from previous research do not seem conclusive sregarding the perceptual effect of the concurrent stimulation of both agonist and antagonist tendons over one joint. On the basis of recent data, it has been suggested that this paired stimulation generates an inconsistent signal about the limb position, which leads to a perceived shrinkage of the limb. However, this interesting effect has never been replicated. The aim of the present study was to clarify the effect of a simultaneous and equal vibration of the biceps and triceps tendons on the perceived location of the hand. Experiment 1 replicated and extended the previous findings. We compared a dual tendon stimulation condition with single tendon stimulation conditions and with a control condition (no vibration on both 'upward-downward' and 'towards-away from the elbow' planes. Our results show a mislocalisation towards the elbow of the position of the vibrated arm during dual vibration, in line with previous results; however, this did not clarify whether the effect was due to arm representation contraction (i.e., a 'telescoping' effect. Therefore, in Experiment 2 we investigated explicitly and implicitly the perceived arm length during the same conditions. Our results clearly suggest that in all the vibration conditions there was a mislocalisation of the entire arm (including the elbow, but no evidence of a contraction of the perceived arm length.

  7. Choosing and using a Dobsonian telescope

    CERN Document Server

    English, Neil

    2011-01-01

    In the 1980’s, on the sidewalks of San Francisco, amateur astronomer John Dobson began showing throngs of people how to build and use large aperture scopes, often from scraps. The Dobsonian,‘Dobs,’ are now the best-selling large telescopes in the world. There are a great variety of different Dob styles, ranging from elaborate and decorative creations to simple mass market designs, and new models appear all the time. In this title, Neil English presents the ultimate guide to buying and using a commercial Dobsonian for recreational astronomy. He provides in-depth accounts of the various models (plus accessories) on the market – both economy and premium – together with describing the wealth of innovations that amateurs have made to their Dobs to optimize their performance in the field. Even after thirty years of innovation, the Dobsonian Revolution shows no signs of abating. Find out where the future lies for these large aperture ‘scopes and the exciting avenues John Dobson’s vision will take us ...

  8. TeV gravity at neutrino telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illana, J.I.; Masip, M.; Meloni, D.

    2005-01-01

    Cosmogenic neutrinos reach the Earth with energies around 10 9 GeV, and their interactions with matter will be measured in upcoming experiments (Auger, IceCube). Models with extra dimensions and the fundamental scale at the TeV could imply signals in these experiments. In particular, the production of microscopic black holes by cosmogenic neutrinos has been extensively studied in the literature. Here we make a complete analysis of gravity-mediated interactions at larger distances, where they can be calculated in the eikonal approximation. In these processes a neutrino of energy E ν interacts elastically with a parton inside a nucleon, loses a small fraction y of its energy, and starts a hadronic shower of energy yE ν ν . We analyze the ultraviolet dependence and the relevance of graviton emission in these processes, and show that they are negligible. We also study the energy distribution of cosmogenic events in AMANDA and IceCube and the possibility of multiple-bang events. For any neutrino flux, the observation of an enhanced rate of neutral current events above 100 TeV in neutrino telescopes could be explained by TeV-gravity interactions. The values of the fundamental scale of gravity that IceCube could reach are comparable to those to be explored at the LHC

  9. Buried plastic scintillator muon telescope (BATATA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfaro, R.; De Donato, C.; D'Olivo, J.C.; Guzman, A.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Moreno Barbosa, E.; Paic, G.; Patino Salazar, E.; Salazar Ibarguen, H.; Sanchez, F.A.; Supanitsky, A.D.; Valdes-Galicia, J.F.; Vargas Trevino, A.D.; Vergara Limon, S.; Villasenor, L.M.

    2010-01-01

    Muon telescopes have multiple applications in the area of cosmic ray research. We are currently building such a detector with the objective of comparing the ground penetration of muon vs. electron-gamma signals originated in cosmic ray showers. The detector is composed by a set of three parallel dual-layer scintillator planes, buried at fixed depths ranging from 120 to 600g/cm 2 . Each layer is 4m 2 and is composed by 49 rectangular strips of 4cmx2m, oriented at a 90 0 angle with respect to its companion layer, which gives an xy-coincidence pixel of 4x4cm 2 . The scintillators are MINOS extruded polystyrene strips, with an embedded Bicron BC92 wavelength shifting (WLS) fibers, of 1.5 mm in diameter. Light is collected by Hamamatsu H7546B multi-anode PMTs of 64 pixels. The front-end (FE) electronics works in counting mode and signals are transmitted to the surface DAQ stage using low-voltage differential signaling (LVDS). Any strip signal above threshold opens a GPS-tagged 2μs data collection window. Data, including signal and background, are acquired by a system of FPGA (Spartan 2E) boards and a single-board computer (TS7800).

  10. Scrutinizing supergravity models through neutrino telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Gandhi, R; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V; Yuan, K; Zichichi, Antonino; Gandhi, Raj; Lopez, Jorge L.; Yuan, Kajia

    1994-01-01

    Galactic halo neutralinos ($\\chi$) captured by the Sun or Earth produce high-energy neutrinos as end-products of various annihilation modes. These neutrinos can travel from the Sun or Earth cores to the neighborhood of underground detectors (``neutrino telescopes") where they can interact and produce upwardly-moving muons. We compute these muon fluxes in the context of the minimal $SU(5)$ supergravity model, and the no-scale and dilaton $SU(5)\\times U(1)$ supergravity models. At present, with the Kamiokande 90\\% C.L. upper limits on the flux, only a small fraction of the parameter space of the $SU(5)\\times U(1)$ models is accessible for $m_\\chi\\sim m_{\\rm Fe}$, which in turn implies constraints for the lightest chargino mass around 100 GeV for a range of $\\tan\\beta$ values. We also delineate the regions of parameter space that would be accessible with the improvements of experimental sensitivity expected in the near future at Gran Sasso, Super-Kamiokande, and other facilities such as DUMAND and AMANDA, curren...

  11. Buried plastic scintillator muon telescope (BATATA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfaro, R. [Inst. de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F., C.P. 04510 (Mexico); De Donato, C.; D' Olivo, J.C.; Guzman, A.; Medina-Tanco, G. [Inst. de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F., C.P. 04510 (Mexico); Moreno Barbosa, E. [Fac. de Ciencias Fisico Matematicas, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Puebla (Mexico); Paic, G.; Patino Salazar, E. [Inst. de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F., C.P. 04510 (Mexico); Salazar Ibarguen, H. [Fac. de Ciencias Fisico Matematicas, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Puebla (Mexico); Sanchez, F.A., E-mail: federico.sanchez@nucleares.unam.m [Inst. de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F., C.P. 04510 (Mexico); Supanitsky, A.D. [Inst. de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F., C.P. 04510 (Mexico); Valdes-Galicia, J.F. [Inst. de Geofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F., C.P. 04510 (Mexico); Vargas Trevino, A.D.; Vergara Limon, S. [Fac. de Ciencias de la Electronica, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Puebla (Mexico); Villasenor, L.M. [Inst. de Fisica y Matematicas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas Hidalgo Morelia (Mexico); Observatorio Pierre Auger, Av. San Martin Norte 304 (5613) Malarguee, Prov. Mendoza (Argentina)

    2010-05-21

    Muon telescopes have multiple applications in the area of cosmic ray research. We are currently building such a detector with the objective of comparing the ground penetration of muon vs. electron-gamma signals originated in cosmic ray showers. The detector is composed by a set of three parallel dual-layer scintillator planes, buried at fixed depths ranging from 120 to 600g/cm{sup 2}. Each layer is 4m{sup 2} and is composed by 49 rectangular strips of 4cmx2m, oriented at a 90{sup 0} angle with respect to its companion layer, which gives an xy-coincidence pixel of 4x4cm{sup 2}. The scintillators are MINOS extruded polystyrene strips, with an embedded Bicron BC92 wavelength shifting (WLS) fibers, of 1.5 mm in diameter. Light is collected by Hamamatsu H7546B multi-anode PMTs of 64 pixels. The front-end (FE) electronics works in counting mode and signals are transmitted to the surface DAQ stage using low-voltage differential signaling (LVDS). Any strip signal above threshold opens a GPS-tagged 2{mu}s data collection window. Data, including signal and background, are acquired by a system of FPGA (Spartan 2E) boards and a single-board computer (TS7800).

  12. Results from the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Losa Agustín Sánchez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The ANTARES detector is an underwater neutrino telescope, the largest in the Northern Hemisphere and the first one ever built under the sea, located in the Mediterranean Sea 40 km off the Southern coast of France, at a depth of 2.5 km. It comprises 885 photomultiplier tubes distributed along twelve detection lines. The signal due to neutrinos is searched by reconstructing the tracks of secondary particles produced in the surroundings of the detector. The detector is in data taking with its final configuration since 2008. It is aimed at identifying the sources, either steady or flaring, of cosmic neutrinos, and is also suitable for detection of dark matter within the Sun and/or Galactic Centre. ANTARES can contribute in the confirmation of the cosmic neutrino flux observed by IceCube, being particularly competitive for the Galactic Centre, and in general for galactic sources, due its latitude and at lower energies and softer spectra due its configuration. Several multi-messenger analyses have been also attempted, including the search of coincidence signals of neutrinos with gravitational-waves. Additional topics include neutrino oscillations or the search of exotic particles, like nuclearites and magnetic monopoles. Results from the latest analyses are presented.

  13. Recent results from the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Elewyck, Véronique

    2014-01-01

    The ANTARES neutrino telescope is currently the largest operating water Cherenkov detector and the largest neutrino detector in the Northern Hemisphere. Its main scientific target is the detection of high-energy (TeV and beyond) neutrinos from cosmic accelerators, as predicted by hadronic interaction models, and the measurement of the diffuse neutrino flux. Its location allows for surveying a large part of the Galactic Plane, including the Galactic Centre. In addition to the standalone searches for point-like and diffuse high-energy neutrino signals, ANTARES has developed a range of multi-messenger strategies to exploit the close connection between neutrinos and other cosmic messengers such as gamma-rays, charged cosmic rays and gravitational waves. This contribution provides an overview of the recently conducted analyses, including a search for neutrinos from the Fermi bubbles region, searches for optical counterparts with the TAToO program, and searches for neutrinos in correlation with gamma-ray bursts, blazars, and microquasars. Further topics of investigation, covering e.g. the search for neutrinos from dark matter annihilation, searches for exotic particles and the measurement of neutrino oscillations, are also reviewed

  14. Efficient Mosaicking of Spitzer Space Telescope Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Joseph; Makovoz, David; Eisenhardt, Peter

    2007-01-01

    A parallel version of the MOPEX software, which generates mosaics of infrared astronomical images acquired by the Spitzer Space Telescope, extends the capabilities of the prior serial version. In the parallel version, both the input image space and the output mosaic space are divided among the available parallel processors. This is the only software that performs the point-source detection and the rejection of spurious imaging effects of cosmic rays required by Spitzer scientists. This software includes components that implement outlier-detection algorithms that can be fine-tuned for a particular set of image data by use of a number of adjustable parameters. This software has been used to construct a mosaic of the Spitzer Infrared Array Camera Shallow Survey, which comprises more than 17,000 exposures in four wavelength bands from 3.6 to 8 m and spans a solid angle of about 9 square degrees. When this software was executed on 32 nodes of the 1,024-processor Cosmos cluster computer at NASA s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a speedup of 8.3 was achieved over the serial version of MOPEX. The performance is expected to improve dramatically once a true parallel file system is installed on Cosmos.

  15. Aerosol Measurements with the FRAM Telescope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebr Jan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Precision stellar photometry using a telescope equipped with a CCD camera is an obvious way to measure the total aerosol content of the atmosphere as the apparent brightness of every star is affected by scattering. Achieving high precision in the vertical aerosol optical depth (at the level of 0.01 presents a series of interesting challenges. Using 3.5 years of data taken by the FRAM instrument at the Pierre Auger Observatory, we have developed a set of methods and tools to overcome most of these challenges. We use a wide-field camera and measure stars over a large span in airmass to eliminate the need for absolute calibration of the instrument. The main issues for data processing include camera calibration, source identification in curved field, catalog deficiencies, automated aperture photometry in rich fields with lens distortion and corrections for star color. In the next step, we model the airmass-dependence of the extinction and subtract the Rayleigh component of scattering, using laboratory measurements of spectral sensitivity of the device. In this contribution, we focus on the caveats and solutions found during the development of the methods, as well as several issues yet to be solved. Finally, future outlooks, such as the possibility for precision measurements of wavelength dependence of the extinction are discussed.

  16. Gamma Large Area Silicon Telescope (GLAST)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godfrey, G.L.

    1993-11-01

    The recent discoveries and excitement generated by EGRET have prompted an investigation into modern technologies ultimately leading to the next generation space-based gamma ray telescope. The goal is to design a detector that will increase the data acquisition rate by almost two orders of magnitude beyond EGRET, while at the same time improving on the angular resolution, the energy measurement of reconstructed gamma rays, and the triggering capability of the instrument. The GLAST proposal is based on the assertion that silicon particle detectors are the technology of choice for space application: no consumables, no gas volume, robust (versus fragile), long lived, and self triggering. The GLAST detector is roughly modeled after EGRET in that a tracking module precedes a calorimeter. The GLAST Tracker has planes of thin radiatior interspersed with planes of crossed-strip (x,y) 300-μm-pitch silicon detectors to measure the coordinates of converted electron-positron pairs. The gap between the layers (∼5 cm) provides a lever arm in track fitting resulting in an angular resolution of 0.1 degree at high energy (the low energy angular resolution at 100 MeV would be about 2 degree, limited by multiple scattering). A possible GLAST calorimeter is made of a mosaic of Csl crystals of order 10 r.l. in depth, with silicon photodiodes readout. The increased depth of the GLAST calorimeter over EGRET's extends the energy range to about 300 GeV

  17. Submillimeter heterodyne receiver for the CSO telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulkis, S.

    1988-01-01

    This task is to build a cryogenically cooled 620 to 700 GHz astronomical receiver that will be used as a facility instrument at the CalTech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. The receiver will have applications as a very high resolution spectrometer to investigate spectral lines in planetary and satellite atmospheres, and comets. The receiver will also be used to make continuum measurements of planets, satellites, and asteroids. During FY88, a scale model (200 GHz) SIS mixer radiometer was built and intrgrated into a cryostat designed for use on the CSO telescope. This system will serve as a model to guide the work on the higher frequency mixer. A solid state local oscillator source that covers two bands in the 600 to 700 GHz has been developed under contract JPL and will be delivered before the end of the year. Work has continued on the SIS materials needed for the 620 to 700 GHz mixer. Test hardware has been developed which allow the 1 to 5 curves for SIS material to be easily measured

  18. Galileo and 400 Years of Telescopic Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Grego, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Imagine yourself living 400 years ago, right before the telescope was first used by Galileo to look up into the skies and find unforeseen wonders. You probably believed, with most of the known world, that Earth was at the center of the magnificent parade of planets and stars above you, and the Sun’s purpose in journeying across the sky was to give Earth daylight and warmth. Suddenly, though, your world is turned upside down. The Church, all powerful in its doctrines and teachings of the times, continues to support theories that don’t fit the facts presented by scientists. Scientists in their quest for truth must hide their findings or risk the harsh penalties imposed by the Church. We have gone from a comforting Earth-centered universe to a tiny floating spec in a gigantic cosmos, barely a comma in a lengthy treatise. And we have gone there in a blink of an eye. We may have lost our central position in the universe, but Grego and Mannion show us how much we have gained in understanding the universe around...

  19. Atomic physics with hard X-rays from high brilliance synchrotron light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Southworth, S.; Gemmell, D.

    1996-08-01

    A century after the discovery of x rays, the experimental capability for studying atomic structure and dynamics with hard, bright synchrotron radiation is increasing remarkably. Tempting opportunities arise for experiments on many-body effects, aspects of fundamental photon-atom interaction processes, and relativistic and quantum-electrodynamic phenomena. Some of these possibilities are surveyed in general terms

  20. Developing EnviroSuite Resources at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul Northrup; Jeffrey Fitts; Mark Fuhrmann; Paul Kalb

    2006-01-01

    The objective of Brookhaven National Laboratory's EnviroSuite Initiative is to develop the facilities, user support infrastructure, and techniques necessary to conduct world-class molecular environmental science research at the NSLS. This is intended to benefit the research of ERSD-supported scientists, both through direct access and assistance and through the indirect benefits of a broader network of environmental scientists as collaborators and users. Much of the EnviroSuite research involves close collaboration with members of the Center for Environmental Molecular Science (CEMS), an EMSI based at BNL and nearby Stony Brook University and jointly supported by ERSD (Project 1023761, P. Kalb) and NSF. This offers unique opportunities to benefit from both national laboratory facilities and university resources. Other collaborators, from around the US and the world, investigate various aspects of the underlying molecular-scale processes in complex natural systems. In general, synchrotron techniques are ideal for studying the molecular-scale structures, chemical/physical interactions, and transformations that govern the macroscopic properties and processes (e.g. transport, bioavailability) of contaminants in the environment. These techniques are element-specific, non-destructive, and sensitive to the very low concentrations found in real-world samples

  1. Beam heat load investigations with a cold vacuum chamber for diagnostics in a synchrotron light source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voutta, Robert

    2016-04-22

    The beam heat load is a crucial input parameter for the cryogenic design of superconducting insertion devices. To understand the discrepancies between the predicted heat load of an electron beam to a cold bore and the heat load observed in superconducting devices, a cold vacuum chamber for diagnostics has been built. Extensive beam heat load measurements were performed at the Diamond light source. They are analysed systematically and combined with complementary impedance bench measurements.

  2. NSLS 2005 ACTIVITY REPORT (NATIONAL SYNCHROTRON LIGHT SOURCE ACTIVITY REPORT 2005)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MILLER, L.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, the NSLS proved itself, once again, to be a center of scientific excellence. This remarkable facility, commissioned in the early 1980s, is still attracting some of the world's best researchers in almost every scientific field, who produce more than seven hundred scientific papers every year using the NSLS. The 'Science Highlights' and 'Feature Highlights' sections of this report are just a small sampling of the many, many impressive research projects conducted at the NSLS in 2005. For example, a user group synthesized and studied zinc-oxide nanowires, which have applications in many optical and electrical devices. Another user group studied how strontium and uranium are removed from high-level radioactive waste. And in another interesting study, users deciphered the basis for antibiotic resistance. However, as always, the success of these projects depends on the performance of the facility. Again this year, the rings were in top form--reliability was 96 percent for the x-ray ring and 99 percent for the VUV-IR ring. Additionally, to keep the NSLS as productive as possible and to continue to attract users, many beamline upgrade projects were completed this year. One of the highlights of these upgrades is the new mini-gap undulator installed at beamline X25. This insertion device is providing a much brighter x-ray source for the program at X25. In the always important area of safety, several noteworthy activities took place this year. In particular, NSLS staff made a major commitment to labeling and inspecting electrical equipment. And perhaps the best news is what didn't happen--there were no reportable occurrences related to environmental, safety, or health issues in 2005, and no injuries that resulted in restricted or lost time. We all owe thanks to the dedicated NSLS staff and users who have ensured that the NSLS remains a reliable, safe, up-to-date research facility. As 2005 came to an end, I stepped down as NSLS Chairman in order to focus my primary efforts on NSLS-II, the world-leading third-generation synchrotron planned for construction at BNL. NSLS-II passed a critical milestone in 2005 with the approval by the Department of Energy of CD-0. BNL has established the NSLS-II Project Organization within the Light Sources Directorate to put in place the management systems and infrastructure necessary to execute this complex undertaking. I will serve as NSLS-II Project Director and also retain my position as Associate Laboratory Director for Light Sources, with the NSLS reporting to me. Another exciting development is the planned establishment of the Joint Photon Sciences Institute (JPSI). JPSI will be devoted to cultivating and fostering collaborative, interdisciplinary R and D in areas of the physical sciences, engineering, and the life sciences that are united in employing synchrotron-based methods. JPSI will also develop new methods and applications that exploit the unique capabilities of NSLS-II and will serve as a gateway for NSLS-II users. JPSI will be a partnership between the Department of Energy and New York State, and I am delighted that New York State Governor George Pataki has pledged $30 million for the construction of the JPSI building. The building will be located adjacent to NSLS-II and will contain offices, meeting rooms, and specialized laboratories. The operating expenses of JPSI and funding for its research programs will be provided by the federal government. Until a permanent NSLS Director is selected, NSLS User Science Division Associate Chair Chi-Chang Kao will serve as the Interim NSLS Director. I couldn't be leaving the facility in more capable hands. Chi-Chang will lead NSLS staff and users this year in the development of a five-year strategic plan for the NSLS, scheduled for completion by the end of summer 2006. The plan will outline the course for the future operation and development of the NSLS, and will help ensure that the future of the NSLS remains as bright as its past

  3. The low emittance 2.5 GeV synchrotron light source LISA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einfeld, D.; Hormes, J.; Husmann, D.

    1992-01-01

    LISA, a Light source for Industrial and Scientific Applications, has been proposed. Due to the intention to use the source above all for the LIGA (Lithographie, Galvanik, Abformtechnik) method to produce micromechanical structures, the critical wavelength of the synchrotron radiation spectrum is foreseen to be 0.2 nm. Therefore, the electron energy and the field strength of the ring dipoles have been chosen to be 2.5 GeV and 1.5 T, respectively. It is proposed to make use of a modified 'quadrupole ben achromat' (QBA) lattice. The novel feature of this lattice is the application of two types of bending magnets of different lengths, i.e. different bending angels. (author) 9 refs.; 6 figs.; 1 tab

  4. Evaluating scintillator performance in time-resolved hard X-ray studies at synchrotron light sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Michael E; Chapman, David J; White, Thomas G; Drakopoulos, Michael; Rack, Alexander; Eakins, Daniel E

    2016-05-01

    The short pulse duration, small effective source size and high flux of synchrotron radiation is ideally suited for probing a wide range of transient deformation processes in materials under extreme conditions. In this paper, the challenges of high-resolution time-resolved indirect X-ray detection are reviewed in the context of dynamic synchrotron experiments. In particular, the discussion is targeted at two-dimensional integrating detector methods, such as those focused on dynamic radiography and diffraction experiments. The response of a scintillator to periodic synchrotron X-ray excitation is modelled and validated against experimental data collected at the Diamond Light Source (DLS) and European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). An upper bound on the dynamic range accessible in a time-resolved experiment for a given bunch separation is calculated for a range of scintillators. New bunch structures are suggested for DLS and ESRF using the highest-performing commercially available crystal LYSO:Ce, allowing time-resolved experiments with an interframe time of 189 ns and a maximum dynamic range of 98 (6.6 bits).

  5. Calculation of coupled bunch effects in the synchrotron light source BESSY VSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruprecht, Martin

    2016-02-22

    In the scope of this thesis, the strength of coupled bunch instabilities (CBIs) driven by longitudinal monopole higher order modes (HOMs) and transverse dipole and quadrupole HOMs is evaluated for the upgrade project BESSY Variable Pulse Length Storage Ring (BESSY VSR) at Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH (HZB), based on analytic calculations and tracking simulations, and compared to the performance of an active bunch-by-bunch feedback (BBFB). Algorithms for tracking codes are derived, and a semi-empirical formula for the estimation of transverse quadrupole CBIs is presented. CBI studies are an integral part of the benchmarking of the cavity models for BESSY VSR and have been accompanying and influencing their entire design process. Based on the BESSY VSR cavity model with highly advanced HOM damping, beam stability is likely to be reached with a BBFB system, independent of the bunch fill pattern. Additionally, measurements of CBIs have been performed at BESSY II and the Metrology Light Source of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (MLS), where the longitudinal long range impedance was characterized. Transient beam loading is evaluated by means of analytic formulas and new experimentally verified tracking codes. For the baseline bunch fill pattern of BESSY VSR, it is shown that the particular setup of cavity frequencies amplifies the transient effect on the long bunch, limiting its elongation and potentially resulting in increased Touschek losses.

  6. X-RAY IRRADIATION OF H{sub 2}O + CO ICE MIXTURES WITH SYNCHROTRON LIGHT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiménez-Escobar, A.; Ciaravella, A.; Micela, G.; Cecchi-Pestellini, C. [INAF–Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo, P.za Parlamento 1, I-90134 Palermo (Italy); Chen, Y.-J.; Huang, C.-H., E-mail: jimenezea@astropa.inaf.it, E-mail: ciarave@astropa.inaf.it, E-mail: giusi@astropa.inaf.it, E-mail: cecchi-pestellini@astropa.inaf.it, E-mail: asperchen@phy.ncu.edu.tw, E-mail: 101222023@cc.ncu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Central University, Jhongli District, Taoyuan City 32054, Taiwan (China)

    2016-03-20

    We irradiated a (4:1) mixture of water and carbon monoxide with soft X-rays of energies up to 1.2 keV. The experiments were performed using the spherical grating monochromator beamline at National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center in Taiwan. Both monochromatic (300 and 900 eV) and broader energy fluxes (250–1200 eV) were employed. During the irradiation, the H{sub 2}O + CO mixture was ionized, excited, and fragmented, producing a number of reactive species. The composition of the ice has been monitored throughout both the irradiation and warm-up phases. We identified several products, which can be related through a plausible chemical reaction scheme. Such chemistry is initiated by the injection of energetic photoelectrons that produce multiple ionization events generating a secondary electron cascade. The results have been discussed in light of a model for protoplanetary disks around young solar-type stars.

  7. Informal proposal for an Atomic Physics Facility at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, K.W.; Johnson, B.M.; Meron, M.

    1986-01-01

    An Atomic Physics Facility (APF) for experiments that will use radiation from a superconducting wiggler on the NSLS X-13 port is described. The scientific justification for the APF is given and the elements of the facility are discussed. It is shown that it will be possible to conduct a uniquely varied set of experiments that can probe most aspects of atomic physics. A major component of the proposal is a heavy-ion storage ring capable of containing ions with energies of about 10 MeV/nucleon. The ring can be filled with heavy ions produced at the BNL MP Tandem Laboratory or from independent ion-source systems. A preliminary cost estimate for the facility is presented.

  8. Synchrotron light techniques for the investigation of advanced nuclear reactor structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouchon, M.A.; Froideval, A.; Degueldre, C.; Gavillet, D.; Hoffelner, W.

    2008-01-01

    In the frame of the Generation IV initiative, different structural material candidates are investigated at the Paul Scherrer Institute. These are oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels, intermetallic materials and ceramic composite materials. The response of the material to different potential loads (irradiation, temperature...) is addressed in a multi-scale approach, both, modelling wise and also experimentally. The investigation of each scale delivers at least a qualitative understanding of possibly evolving damage in the material and also delivers a validation of the corresponding scale on the modelling side. From the experimental side, the lower end of the scale, the atomistic and structural level, can be investigated by conventional techniques, as for example transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). However, the use of synchrotron radiation techniques offers an ideal, complementary way to investigate the material structure and other properties. This paper presents applications in the field of the ODS research, where the structural behaviour of the nano-scopic dispersoids can selectively be investigated, although only being present with roughly 5 wt % in the matrix. A study showing the structural behaviour of these oxide particles as a function of irradiation illustrates the potential of the extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) technique. Using X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD), which is a difference-signal of two X-ray absorption spectra recorded for positive and negative helicities of the beam, the magnetic structure and some magnetic parameters, can be resolved. An example shows, how this can be applied to understand (Fe,Cr) systems, which is the base alloy of the investigated ODS steel. The results deliver an important cross-check for modelling. Beside the presentation of these techniques, this paper shows how beamline techniques can serve nuclear research, with possibly activated materials. At the Paul Scherrer Institute, a sample holder for highly active materials has been developed, and has already served for EXAFS measurements at the Swiss Light Source (SLS). The set-up of this sample holder is briefly presented here. (authors)

  9. The three-dimensional microstructure of polycrystalline materials unravelled by synchrotron light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, W.; Herbig, M.; Ludwig, W.; King, A; Reischig, P.; Marrow, J.; Babout, L.; Mejdal Lauridsen, E.; Proudhon, H.

    2011-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation X-ray imaging and diffraction techniques offer new possibilities for non-destructive bulk characterization of polycrystalline materials. Minute changes in electron density (different crystallographic phases, cracks, porosities) can be detected using 3D imaging modes exploiting Fresnel diffraction and the coherence properties of third generation synchrotron beams. X-ray diffraction contrast tomography, a technique based on Bragg diffraction imaging, provides access to the 3D shape, orientation and elastic strain state of the individual grains from polycrystalline sample volumes containing several hundred up to a few thousand grains. Combining both imaging modalities allows a comprehensive description of the microstructure of the material at the micrometer length scale. Repeated observations during (interrupted) mechanical tests provide unprecedented insight into crystallographic and grain microstructure related aspects of polycrystal deformation and degradation mechanisms in materials, fulfilling some conditions on grain size and deformation state. (authors)

  10. Operational Radiation Protection in Synchrotron Light and Free Electron Laser Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, James C.; Rokni, Sayed H.; /SLAC; Vylet, Vaclav; /Jefferson Lab

    2009-12-11

    The 3rd generation synchrotron radiation (SR) facilities are storage ring based facilities with many insertion devices and photon beamlines, and have low injection beam power (< few tens of watts), but extremely high stored beam power ({approx} 1 GW). The 4th generation x-ray free electron laser (FEL) facilities are based on an electron Linac with a long undulator and have high injection beam power (a few kW). Due to its electron and photon beam characteristics and modes of operation, storage ring and photon beamlines have unique safety aspects, which are the main subjects of this paper. The shielding design limits, operational modes, and beam losses are first reviewed. Shielding analysis (source terms and methodologies) and interlocked safety systems for storage ring and photon beamlines (including SR and gas bremsstrahlung) are described. Specific safety issues for storage ring top-off injection operation and FEL facilities are discussed. The operational safety program, e.g., operation authorization, commissioning, training, and radiation measurements, for SR facilities is also presented.

  11. NSLS 2003 ACTIVITY REPORT (NATIONAL SYNCHROTRON LIGHT SOURCE ACTIVITY REPORT 2003)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MILLER, L.

    2004-01-01

    The scientific productivity of the NSLS continues to be outstanding and the research conducted here has high impact. 2003 was no exception and some of the many highlights from this year's research activity are included in this Activity Report. We are especially pleased that one of our users, Professor Roderick MacKinnon (Rockefeller University), was the co-recipient of the 2003 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for work, much of which was done at the NSLS, explaining how proteins known as ion channels help to generate nerve impulses. It is also a particular pleasure to note that NSLS accelerator physicist Li Hua Yu was awarded the 2003 International Free Electron Laser Prize in recognition of his outstanding achievements, especially demonstrating High Gain Harmonic Generation (HGHG) at the DUV-FEL. Our vision for the NSLS in the next five to 10 years is for it to continue to serve as a vital resource for the nation and especially for the strong Northeast research community. To accomplish this, we are working to preserve and enhance its outstanding scientific productivity by providing increased user support and upgrading beamline and endstation instrumentation. For example, this past year we collaborated with scientists from the Albert Einstein College of Medicine and the BNL Biology Department to develop a new undulator beamline, X29, to meet the needs of macromolecular crystallography for high brightness x-rays. A new endstation on the undulator beamline X13B is being equipped with optics and instrumentation for microdiffraction and microprobe experiments. The wiggler beamline, X21, is being upgraded to provide high intensity and increased capacity for small angle x-ray scattering experiments on nanotemplated soft matter, biomaterials, and other systems. We are collaborating with the BNL Center for Functional Nanomaterials to develop a beamline for LEEM/PEEM studies, which will add important new capabilities for nanoscience and catalysis research. A new high-speed, high-resolution curved position sensitive detector for powder diffraction was also developed and made available to users to enable time-resolved studies of reaction mechanisms, phase transformations, chemical kinetics, and material dynamics. At the DUV-FEL, this past year saw the achievement of HGHG light at 266 nm, with a substantial third harmonic at 89 nm. User science experiments were initiated and published in Physical Review Letters and a successful workshop was held to identify the new scientific opportunities in the chemical sciences enabled by this unique light source. These and many other important projects are described more fully in the Facility Report

  12. Support for the Advanced Polymers Beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsiao, Benjamin S. [State Univ. of New York (SUNY), Stonybrook, NY (United States)

    2008-10-01

    The primary focus of the X27C beamline is to investigate frontier polymer science and engineering problems with emphasis on real-time studies of structures, morphologies and dynamics from atomic, nanoscopic, microscopic to mesoscopic scales using simultaneous small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) techniques. The scientific merit of this project is as follows. Currently, many unique sample chambers for in-situ synchrotron studies, developed by the PI (B. Hsiao) and Co-PI (B. Chu), are available for general users of X27C at NSLS. These instruments include a gel/melt spinning apparatus, a continuous fiber drawing apparatus, a tensile stretching apparatus, a high pressure X-ray cell using supercritical carbon dioxide, a parallel plate strain-controlled shear stage and a dynamic rheometer for small-strain oscillatory deformation study. Based on the use of these instruments in combination with synchrotron X-rays, many new insights into the relationships between processing and structure have been obtained in recent years. The broader impact of this project is as follows. The X27C beamline is the first synchrotron facility in the United States dedicated to chemistry/materials research (with emphasis on polymers). The major benefit of this facility to the materials community is that no extensive synchrotron experience and equipment preparation are required from general users to carry out cutting-edge experiments.

  13. Synchrotron light sources and free-electron lasers accelerator physics, instrumentation and science applications

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Shaukat; Schneider, Jochen; Hastings, Jerome

    2016-01-01

    Hardly any other discovery of the nineteenth century did have such an impact on science and technology as Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen’s seminal find of the X-rays. X-ray tubes soon made their way as excellent instruments for numerous applications in medicine, biology, materials science and testing, chemistry and public security. Developing new radiation sources with higher brilliance and much extended spectral range resulted in stunning developments like the electron synchrotron and electron storage ring and the freeelectron laser. This handbook highlights these developments in fifty chapters. The reader is given not only an inside view of exciting science areas but also of design concepts for the most advanced light sources. The theory of synchrotron radiation and of the freeelectron laser, design examples and the technology basis are presented. The handbook presents advanced concepts like seeding and harmonic generation, the booming field of Terahertz radiation sources and upcoming brilliant light sources dri...

  14. In-situ shearing interferometry of National Synchrotron Light Source mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian, S.N.; Rarback, H.; Shu, D.; Takacs, P.Z.

    1987-01-01

    In situ mirror distortion measurements were made with a lateral shearing interferometer on three mirrors in beam line X17T at the National Syn203hrotron Light Source. Lateral shearing interference is insensitive to vibrational motion in five of the six degrees of freedom, so it is well-suited for investigations in the synchrotron radiation (SR) environment. No distortion was seen in an uncooled silicon carbide mirror and in a colled copper alloy mirror on X17TB, but a change in the radius of an uncooled electroless nickel-plated aluminium cylinder mirror of about 6.2% was observed on X17TA. Angular vibrations in the 2 to 3 arc second range were easily observed on one of the beam lines, as was an overall mirror rotation in the arc second range

  15. Assessment of In Situ Time Resolved Shock Experiments at Synchrotron Light Sources*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belak, J.; Ilavsky, J.; Hessler, J. P.

    2005-07-01

    Prior to fielding in situ time resolved experiments of shock wave loading at the Advanced Photon Source, we have performed feasibility experiments assessing a single photon bunch. Using single and poly-crystal Al, Ti, V and Cu shock to incipient spallation on the gas gun, samples were prepared from slices normal to the spall plane of thickness 100-500 microns. In addition, single crystal Al of thickness 500 microns was shocked to incipient spallation and soft recovered using the LLNL e-gun mini-flyer system. The e-gun mini-flyer impacts the sample target producing a 10's ns flat-top shock transient. Here, we present results for imaging, small-angle scattering (SAS), and diffraction. In particular, there is little SAS away from the spall plane and significant SAS at the spall plane, demonstrating the presence of sub-micron voids. * Use of the Advanced Photon Source was supported by the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, under Contract No. W-31-109-Eng-38 and work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract W-7405-Eng-48.

  16. NSLS 2002 ACTIVITY REPORT (NATIONAL SYNCHROTRON LIGHT SOURCE ACTIVITY REPORT 2002)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MILLER, L.

    2003-01-01

    The year 2002 has been another highly productive year at the NSLS and an impressive array of highlights from this scientific activity is included in this Activity Report. They have taken significant steps this past year toward better supporting beamlines and users. The number of user science support staff has been increased by about ten positions. They have also worked with their users, DOE, and the other DOE synchrotron facilities to develop a new, more flexible user access policy. Doing things safely remains a top priority, and they are reviewing their training and safety requirements to ensure they are thorough and everyone fully understands the necessity of abiding by them. A major development this past year was approval from DOE for BNL to begin the conceptual design of the Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN). The CFN will have a dramatic impact on nanoscience in the Northeast, facilitating the synthesis, characterization and scientific exploration of new classes of novel nanostructured materials. It will be located adjacent to the NSLS and a number of NSLS beamlines will be optimized to serve the needs of the nanoscience community. The NSLS and CFN user programs will be coordinated to facilitate easy access to both in a single visit. The VUV and X-Ray rings operated with excellent reliability as a result of continued attention to aging critical systems. The DUV-FEL achieved several important milestones this year, including production of Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE) laser light at 400 nm and 266 nm, laser seeded saturation at 266 nm, and the first observation of High Gain Harmonic Generation (HGHG) light at 266 nm, with a third harmonic at 89 nm. Light from the DUV-FEL is now enabling user science experiments in ion pair imaging and they look forward to an expanding user program and a continued series of pioneering accelerator physics studies. In 2002, they continued to work with their user community to develop a plan to upgrade the capabilities of the NSLS. In the short term, they have a number of projects ongoing to upgrade insertion devices and beamlines to provide new and enhanced capabilities to their users. In the long term, recognizing the importance of meeting the future needs of their user community, they are working with DOE to formulate a plan for construction of a new state-of-the-art third-generation storage ring at NSLS to provide world class capabilities to their large and outstandingly productive user community

  17. CAS - CERN Accelerator School and ALBA Synchrotron Light Facility : Course on Vacuum in Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Vacuum in Accelerators

    2007-01-01

    These proceedings present the lectures given at the twentieth specialized course organized by the CERN Accelerator School (CAS), the topic being Vacuum in Accelerators. The course was held in Platja d’Aro, Spain, from 16 to 24 May 2006. A similar course took place in Snekersten, Denmark, in 1999, with proceedings published as CERN 99-05. After an interval of seven years, the aim of this course was to present a review of the actual state of the art and to highlight the latest developments in the field. The lectures start with a general overview of vacuum, accelerators and cryogenics followed by a more detailed review of the basic principles concerning thermal and non-thermal outgassing. More specialized lectures are then proposed on gas dynamics, on the interaction of energetic particles with matter, and on beam–gas collisions. The production and measurement of vacuum is addressed in subsequent lectures on pumps and vacuum gauges which present a detailed view of the materials currently used in accelerators...

  18. NSLS 2006 ACTIVITY REPORT (NATIONAL SYNCHROTRON LIGHT SOURCE ACTIVITY REPORT 2006)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MILLER, L.

    2006-01-01

    This past year has seen both challenges and fantastic new opportunities for the user community at the NSLS. The fantastic new opportunities are clear and abundant. We now have a five-year strategic plan for new development and continued operation of the NSLS. The NSLS continues to be an extremely productive facility, and the UEC is delighted at how NSLS Chair Chi-Chang Kao has consulted widely within the user community to develop a five-year plan for strategic upgrades and continued operation of the facility. The NSLS-II project, led by Associate Lab Director Steve Dierker, has done very well in its Department of Energy (DOE) reviews and will hopefully soon receive Critical Decision-1 (CD-1) approval, which in DOE lingo gives a go-ahead to launch the detailed design of the facility. We also held the first joint user meeting between the NSLS and Brookhaven's Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN), for which the building is near completion. The joint user meeting is an important step toward the close collaboration of the two facilities. The CFN, led by Emilio Mendez, promises to provide capabilities and research foci that are complementary to those at the NSLS. Together, all of these developments give a clear path to an exciting future of synchrotron radiation research at Brookhaven. However, with opportunities come challenges. One of the largest of these faced in the past year involved congressional support for scientific research in general, and DOE user facilities in particular. As you likely know, Congress did not complete its usual budget process in 2006, with the exceptions of the departments of Defense and Homeland Security. This left science funding at the budget levels enacted in late 2005 for FY2006, and unfortunately, FY2006 was not a particularly memorable vintage for science support. The good news is that you, the user community, have spoken up with unprecedented vigor about this, and Congress appears to be listening. As we look at the FY2007 budget and the years to follow, we need to continue to educate our elected representatives about the benefits that are provided to our society and our economy by scientific investigation including research done at DOE user facilities like the NSLS. We face another interesting challenge as the NSLS-II project progresses: the formation of scientific research teams associated with particular beamlines at the new facility. In early 2007, the final draft of the conceptual design report will be available, which will describe the projected capabilities of NSLS-II, and we can expect a workshop in mid-2007 to launch the process leading to letters of intent for beamlines. This process will include lots of discussion about access modes, as we seek ways to allow scientific and technical innovators from the user community to play significant roles at NSLS-II

  19. NSLS 2006 ACTIVITY REPORT (NATIONAL SYNCHROTRON LIGHT SOURCE ACTIVITY REPORT 2006)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MILLER, L. (EDITOR)

    2006-12-31

    This past year has seen both challenges and fantastic new opportunities for the user community at the NSLS. The fantastic new opportunities are clear and abundant. We now have a five-year strategic plan for new development and continued operation of the NSLS. The NSLS continues to be an extremely productive facility, and the UEC is delighted at how NSLS Chair Chi-Chang Kao has consulted widely within the user community to develop a five-year plan for strategic upgrades and continued operation of the facility. The NSLS-II project, led by Associate Lab Director Steve Dierker, has done very well in its Department of Energy (DOE) reviews and will hopefully soon receive Critical Decision-1 (CD-1) approval, which in DOE lingo gives a go-ahead to launch the detailed design of the facility. We also held the first joint user meeting between the NSLS and Brookhaven's Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN), for which the building is near completion. The joint user meeting is an important step toward the close collaboration of the two facilities. The CFN, led by Emilio Mendez, promises to provide capabilities and research foci that are complementary to those at the NSLS. Together, all of these developments give a clear path to an exciting future of synchrotron radiation research at Brookhaven! However, with opportunities come challenges! One of the largest of these faced in the past year involved congressional support for scientific research in general, and DOE user facilities in particular. As you likely know, Congress did not complete its usual budget process in 2006, with the exceptions of the departments of Defense and Homeland Security. This left science funding at the budget levels enacted in late 2005 for FY2006, and unfortunately, FY2006 was not a particularly memorable vintage for science support. The good news is that you, the user community, have spoken up with unprecedented vigor about this, and Congress appears to be listening. As we look at the FY2007 budget and the years to follow, we need to continue to educate our elected representatives about the benefits that are provided to our society and our economy by scientific investigation including research done at DOE user facilities like the NSLS. We face another interesting challenge as the NSLS-II project progresses: the formation of scientific research teams associated with particular beamlines at the new facility. In early 2007, the final draft of the conceptual design report will be available, which will describe the projected capabilities of NSLS-II, and we can expect a workshop in mid-2007 to launch the process leading to letters of intent for beamlines. This process will include lots of discussion about access modes, as we seek ways to allow scientific and technical innovators from the user community to play significant roles at NSLS-II.

  20. Design of a 6 Tesla wiggler for the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, H.; Krinsky, S.; Luccio, A.; van Steenbergen, A.

    1981-01-01

    A 6-pole, 6 Tesla wiggler with Nb-Ti superconducting windings has been designed, to be installed in a straight section of the 2.5 GeV x-ray storage ring of the NSLS. The technical problems of this magnet are discussed, in particular the optimization of the two-layer magnetic windings and the mechanical structure designed to counteract the strong magnetic forces. The effects of the insertion of the wiggler in the storage ring lattice are also studied

  1. Physics and technology challenges of ultra low emittance synchrotron light sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krinsky, S.

    1991-01-01

    There is a great activity throughout the world in the development of synchrotron radiation facilities to serve as sources for basic and applied research. We discuss some of the the opportunities and challenges presented by the development of ever higher brightness synchrotron radiation sources. 39 refs.

  2. Intense, broadband, pulsed I-R source at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, G.P.

    1984-01-01

    We describe a broadband (1 μm to 1 mm) synchrotron radiation infrared source, pulsed each 20 to 180 nseconds and delivering about 10 15 photons/sec/1% bandpass into f10 optics. The source size is diffraction limited. This source is thus 100 to 1000 times brighter than a 2000 0 K black body, very stable and capable of being used for calibration

  3. National synchrotron light source. Annual report 1985, October 1, 1984-September 30, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomlinson, W.; White-DePace, S.

    1985-10-01

    The NSLS has made great strides in the past year. Both storage rings are now in full operational status. The users have assembled a most impressive array of beam lines and are making creative use of them. This report outlines the status, describes the facility, and discusses some of the science which is being produced. The facility represents not only a large increase in the national capacity to do synchrotron research, but a new level of capability, with further gains occurring rapidly

  4. Operational Radiation Protection in Synchrotron Light and Free Electron Laser Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, James C.; Rokni, Sayed H.; Vylet, Vaclav

    2009-01-01

    The 3rd generation synchrotron radiation (SR) facilities are storage ring based facilities with many insertion devices and photon beamlines, and have low injection beam power (< few tens of watts), but extremely high stored beam power (∼ 1 GW). The 4th generation x-ray free electron laser (FEL) facilities are based on an electron Linac with a long undulator and have high injection beam power (a few kW). Due to its electron and photon beam characteristics and modes of operation, storage ring and photon beamlines have unique safety aspects, which are the main subjects of this paper. The shielding design limits, operational modes, and beam losses are first reviewed. Shielding analysis (source terms and methodologies) and interlocked safety systems for storage ring and photon beamlines (including SR and gas bremsstrahlung) are described. Specific safety issues for storage ring top-off injection operation and FEL facilities are discussed. The operational safety program, e.g., operation authorization, commissioning, training, and radiation measurements, for SR facilities is also presented.

  5. X-ray holographic microscopy experiments at the Brookhaven synchrotron light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howells, M.R.; Iarocci, M.; Kenney, J.; Kirz, J.; Rarback, H.

    1983-01-01

    Soft x-ray holographic microscopy is discussed from an experimental point of view. Three series of measurements have been carried out using the Brookhaven 750 MeV storage ring as an x-ray source. Young slits fringes, Gabor (in line) holograms and various data pertaining to the soft x-ray performance of photographic plates are reported. The measurements are discussed in terms of the technique for recording them and the experimental limitations in effect. Some discussion is also given of the issues involved in reconstruction using visible light

  6. Photoionization mass spectrometer for studies of flame chemistry with a synchrotron light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cool, Terrill A.; McIlroy, Andrew; Qi, Fei; Westmoreland, Phillip R.; Poisson, Lionel; Peterka, Darcy S.; Ahmed, Musahid

    2005-01-01

    A flame-sampling molecular-beam photoionization mass spectrometer, recently designed and constructed for use with a synchrotron-radiation light source, provides significant improvements over previous molecular-beam mass spectrometers that have employed either electron-impact ionization or vacuum ultraviolet laser photoionization. These include superior signal-to-noise ratio, soft ionization, and photon energies easily and precisely tunable [E/ΔE(FWHM)≅250-400] over the 7.8-17-eV range required for quantitative measurements of the concentrations and isomeric compositions of flame species. Mass resolution of the time-of-flight mass spectrometer is m/Δm=400 and sensitivity reaches ppm levels. The design of the instrument and its advantages for studies of flame chemistry are discussed

  7. Spectrometer control subsystem with high level functionality for use at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberi, J.L.; Stubblefield, F.W.

    1980-11-01

    We have developed a subsystem capable of controlling stepping motors in a wide variety of vuv and x-ray spectrometers to be used at the National Sychrotron Light Source. The subsystem is capable of controlling up to 15 motors with encoder readback and ramped acceleration/deceleration. Both absolute and incremental encoders may be used in any mixture. Function commands to the subsystem are communicated via ASCII characters over an asynchronous serial link in a well-defined protocol in decipherable English. Thus the unit can be controlled via write statements in a high-level language. Details of hardware implementation will be presented

  8. Vacuum system of Synchrotron Light National Laboratory (LNLS) linear accelerator: project and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, L.R.B.; Gomes, P.A.P.

    1990-01-01

    The LINAC, electron linear accelerator used as injector for storage ring in production of synchrotron radiation at Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (LNLS) is described. The LINAC basic parameters, the dimension calculations of vacuum system and the final project with all components are presented. The vacuum system for electron gun tests and accelerator structure tests is described. (M.C.K.)

  9. Vacuum system for the Argonne 6 GeV synchrotron light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehrle, R.; Moenich, J.

    1985-01-01

    The ANL vacuum system for the 6 GeV light source storage ring features non-evaporable strip getter pumps for uniform pumping around the ring within a gas desorption antechamber, and it also features lumped getter pumping directly under and above crotch radiation absorbers that are positioned after each bending magnet. Based on experiments at ANL in 1980 and by others, the technical and economical advantages have been established for the use of the distributed NeG pumps of non-magnetic strips coated with a non-evaporable Zr Al getter matrix. The NeG strip pump lifetime approaches ten years. The antechamber improves the isolation of the gas desorption process from the main beam chamber and beam. The combination of these vacuum techniques; the NeG strip getter pumps, the gas desorption antechambers, and the lumped ion and lumped getter pumping provide a unique and reliable system for maintaining long beam lifetime

  10. Structural properties of calcogenic thin films and alloys subjected to synchrotron light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura, P.R.; Almeida, D.P.; Lima, J.C. de; Campos, C.E.M.; Ponciano, C.R.

    2009-01-01

    Results on structural characterization of Sb 50 Te 50 and Te 24 In 38 Sb 38 alloys prepared as powder and after deposited as a thin films are presented. For that x ray diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence were used. The nanocrystalline phases Sb 2 Te 2 and Sb 24 Te 9 were nucleated in both Sb 50 Te 50 and Te 24 In 38 Sb 38 alloys, respectively. The thin films of both binary and ternary alloys are mainly amorphous. According to X-ray fluorescence results the chemical composition inside the ultraviolet irradiated region on one of the binary thin film become different than that outside irradiation marks, suggesting Sb migration. (author)

  11. Atomic physics with hard X-rays from high brilliance synchrotron light sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southworth, S.; Gemmell, D.

    1996-08-01

    A century after the discovery of x rays, the experimental capability for studying atomic structure and dynamics with hard, bright synchrotron radiation is increasing remarkably. Tempting opportunities arise for experiments on many-body effects, aspects of fundamental photon-atom interaction processes, and relativistic and quantum-electrodynamic phenomena. Some of these possibilities are surveyed in general terms.

  12. National Synchrotron Light Source annual report 1991. Volume 1, October 1, 1990--September 30, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulbert, S.L.; Lazarz, N.M. [eds.

    1992-04-01

    This report discusses the following research conducted at NSLS: atomic and molecular science; energy dispersive diffraction; lithography, microscopy and tomography; nuclear physics; UV photoemission and surface science; x-ray absorption spectroscopy; x-ray scattering and crystallography; x-ray topography; workshop on surface structure; workshop on electronic and chemical phenomena at surfaces; workshop on imaging; UV FEL machine reviews; VUV machine operations; VUV beamline operations; VUV storage ring parameters; x-ray machine operations; x-ray beamline operations; x-ray storage ring parameters; superconducting x-ray lithography source; SXLS storage ring parameters; the accelerator test facility; proposed UV-FEL user facility at the NSLS; global orbit feedback systems; and NSLS computer system.

  13. Preliminary studies of enhanced contrast radiography in anatomy and embryology of insects with Elettra synchrotron light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoennicke, M.G.; Foerster, L.A.; Navarro-Silva, M.A.; Menk, R.-H.; Rigon, L.; Cusatis, C.

    2005-01-01

    Enhanced contrast X-ray imaging is achieved by exploiting the real part of the refraction index, which is responsible for the phase shifts, in addition to the imaginary part, which is responsible for the absorption. Such techniques are called X-ray phase contrast imaging. An analyzer-based X-ray phase contrast imaging set-up with Diffraction Enhanced Imaging processing (DEI) were used for preliminary studies in anatomy and embryology of insects. Parasitized stinkbug and moth eggs used as control agents of pests in vegetables and adult stinkbugs and mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti) were used as samples. The experimental setup was mounted in the SYRMEP beamline at ELETTRA. Images were obtained using a high spatial resolution CCD detector (pixel size 14x14μm 2 ) coupled with magnifying optics. Analyzer-based X-ray phase contrast images (PCI) and edge detection images show contrast and details not observed with conventional synchrotron radiography and open the possibility for future study in the embryonic development of insects

  14. Bringing Physics, Synchrotron Light and Probing Neutrons to the Public: A Collaborative Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micklavzina, Stanley; Almqvist, Monica; Sörensen, Stacey L.

    2014-01-01

    Stanley Micklavzina, a US physics educator on sabbatical, teams up with a Swedish national research laboratory, a synchrotron radiation experimental group and a university science centre to develop and create educational and public outreach projects. Descriptions of the physics, science centre displays and public demonstrations covering the…

  15. VLTI auxiliary telescopes: a full object-oriented approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiozzi, Gianluca; Duhoux, Philippe; Karban, Robert

    2000-06-01

    The Very Large Telescope (VLT) Telescope Control Software (TCS) is a portable system. It is now in use or will be used in a whole family of ESO telescopes VLT Unit Telescopes, VLTI Auxiliary Telescopes, NTT, La Silla 3.6, VLT Survey Telescope and Astronomical Site Monitors in Paranal and La Silla). Although it has been developed making extensive usage of Object Oriented (OO) methodologies, the overall development process chosen at the beginning of the project used traditional methods. In order to warranty a longer lifetime to the system (improving documentation and maintainability) and to prepare for future projects, we have introduced a full OO process. We have taken as a basis the United Software Development Process with the Unified Modeling Language (UML) and we have adapted the process to our specific needs. This paper describes how the process has been applied to the VLTI Auxiliary Telescopes Control Software (ATCS). The ATCS is based on the portable VLT TCS, but some subsystems are new or have specific characteristics. The complete process has been applied to the new subsystems, while reused code has been integrated in the UML models. We have used the ATCS on one side to tune the process and train the team members and on the other side to provide a UML and WWW based documentation for the portable VLT TCS.

  16. The Timepix3 Telescope for LHCb Upgrade RD 1 measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Saunders, Daniel Martin

    2016-01-01

    The Timepix3 telescope is a high rate, data driven beam telescope created for LHCb upgrade studies, such as sensor performance for prototypes of the vertex locator (VELO) upgrade. When testing VELO prototypes the readout is identical to the telescope, and additionally, a simple way to integrate triggers from other detectors is also provided, allowing tracks to be synchronised offline with other devices under test. Examples of LHCb upgrade detectors which have been qualified with the Timepix3 telescope are the Upstream Tracker (UT), Scintillating Fibres (SciFi), Ring Imaging CHerenkov (RICH), and Time Of internally Reflected CHerenkov light (TORCH). The telescope was installed in the SPS North hall at CERN. It consists of 8 planes with 300 μ m p-on-n silicon sensors read out by Timepix3 ASICs. Tracks measured with the telescope have excellent temporal ( ∼ 1 ns) and spatial resolution ( 2 μ m). The telescope has been operated with a rate of tracks written to disk up to 5 MHz - limited only by conditions at ...

  17. Carbon Fiber Mirror for a CubeSat Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Soo; Jang, Jeong Gyun; Kim, Jihun; Nam, Uk Won

    2017-08-01

    Telescope mirrors made by carbon fibers have been increasingly used especially for space applications, and they may replace the traditional glass mirrors. Glass mirrors are easy to fabricate, but needed to be carefully handled as they are brittle. Other materials have also been considered for telescope mirrors, such as metals, plastics, and liquids even. However glass and glass ceramics are still commonly and dominantly used.Carbon fiber has mainly been used for mechanical supports like truss structure and telescope tubes, as it is stiff and light-weight. It can also be a good material for telescope mirrors, as it has additional merits of non-brittle and very low thermal expansion. Therefore, carbon fiber mirror would be suitable for space telescopes which should endure the harsh vibration conditions during launch.A light-weight telescope made by carbon fiber has been designed for a small satellite which would have much less weight than conventional ones. In this poster, mirror materials are reviewed, and a design of carbon fiber telescope is presented and discussed.

  18. Infrared Astronomy Professional Development for K-12 Educators: WISE Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borders, Kareen; Mendez, B. M.

    2010-01-01

    K-12 educators need effective and relevant astronomy professional development. WISE Telescope (Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer) and Spitzer Space Telescope Education programs provided an immersive teacher professional development workshop at Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico during the summer of 2009. As many common misconceptions involve scale and distance, teachers worked with Moon/Earth scale, solar system scale, and distance of objects in the universe. Teachers built and used basic telescopes, learned about the history of telescopes, explored ground and satellite based telescopes, and explored and worked on models of WISE Telescope. An in-depth explanation of WISE and Spitzer telescopes gave participants background knowledge for infrared astronomy observations. We taught the electromagnetic spectrum through interactive stations. The stations included an overview via lecture and power point, the use of ultraviolet beads to determine ultraviolet exposure, the study of WISE lenticulars and diagramming of infrared data, listening to light by using speakers hooked up to photoreceptor cells, looking at visible light through diffraction glasses and diagramming the data, protocols for using astronomy based research in the classroom, and infrared thermometers to compare environmental conditions around the observatory. An overview of LIDAR physics was followed up by a simulated LIDAR mapping of the topography of Mars. We will outline specific steps for K-12 infrared astronomy professional development, provide data demonstrating the impact of the above professional development on educator understanding and classroom use, and detail future plans for additional K-12 professional development. Funding was provided by WISE Telescope, Spitzer Space Telescope, Starbucks, Arecibo Observatory, the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, and the Washington Space Grant Consortium.

  19. Processing of data from innovative parabolic strip telescope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosejk, Vladislav; Novy, J.; Chadzitaskos, Goce

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents an innovative telescope design based on the usage of a parabolic strip fulfilling the function of an objective. Isaac Newton was the first to solve the problem of chromatic aberration, which is caused by a difference in the refractive index of lenses. This problem was solved by a new kind of telescope with a mirror used as an objective. There are many different kinds of telescopes. The most basic one is the lens telescope. This type of a telescope uses a set of lenses. Another type is the mirror telescope, which employs the concave mirror, spherical parabolic mirror or hyperbolically shaped mirror as its objective. The lens speed depends directly on the surface of a mirror. Both types can be combined to form a telescope composed of at least two mirrors and a set of lenses. The light is reflected from the primary mirror to the secondary one and then to the lens system. This type is smaller-sized, with a respectively reduced lens speed. The telescope design presented in this paper uses a parabolic strip fulfilling the function of an objective. Observed objects are projected as lines in a picture plane. Each of the lines of a size equal to the size of the strip corresponds to the sum of intensities of the light coming perpendicular to the objective from an observed object. A series of pictures taken with a different rotation and processed by a special reconstruction algorithm is needed to get 2D pictures. The telescope can also be used for fast detection of objects. In this mode, the rotation and multiple pictures are not needed, just one picture in the focus of a mirror is required to be taken.

  20. A retrospective of the GREGOR solar telescope in scientific literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denker, C.; von der Lühe, O.; Feller, A.; Arlt, K.; Balthasar, H.; Bauer, S.-M.; Bello González, N.; Berkefeld, Th.; Caligari, P.; Collados, M.; Fischer, A.; Granzer, T.; Hahn, T.; Halbgewachs, C.; Heidecke, F.; Hofmann, A.; Kentischer, T.; Klva{ňa, M.; Kneer, F.; Lagg, A.; Nicklas, H.; Popow, E.; Puschmann, K. G.; Rendtel, J.; Schmidt, D.; Schmidt, W.; Sobotka, M.; Solanki, S. K.; Soltau, D.; Staude, J.; Strassmeier, K. G.; Volkmer, R.; Waldmann, T.; Wiehr, E.; Wittmann, A. D.; Woche, M.

    2012-11-01

    In this review, we look back upon the literature, which had the GREGOR solar telescope project as its subject including science cases, telescope subsystems, and post-focus instruments. The articles date back to the year 2000, when the initial concepts for a new solar telescope on Tenerife were first presented at scientific meetings. This comprehensive bibliography contains literature until the year 2012, i.e., the final stages of commissioning and science verification. Taking stock of the various publications in peer-reviewed journals and conference proceedings also provides the ``historical'' context for the reference articles in this special issue of Astronomische Nachrichten/Astronomical Notes.