WorldWideScience

Sample records for synchrotron x-ray beam

  1. Stabilization of synchrotron radiation x-ray beam by MOSTAB

    CERN Document Server

    Kudo, T P; Tanida, H; Furukawa, Y; Hirono, T; Ishikawa, T; Nishino, Y

    2003-01-01

    Monochromator stabilization (MOSTAB) is a feedback control system to stabilize an x-ray beam of synchrotron radiation. It applies a feedback voltage to a piezo electric transducer attached to a double-crystal monochromator. We developed MOSTAB modules and examined their performances using SPring-8 beamlines. The x-ray beam position stabilization using MOSTAB was realized simultaneously with the x-ray beam intensity stabilization. As an example of its application, we performed EXAFS measurement with MOSTAB. (author)

  2. A submicron synchrotron X-ray beam generated by capillary optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engstroem, P.; Larsson, S.; Rindby, A.; Buttkewitz, A.; Garbe, S.; Gaul, G.; Knoechel, A.; Lechtenberg, F.; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron

    1991-01-01

    A novel capillary optics technique for focusing synchrotron X-ray beams has been applied in an experiment performed at the DORIS storage ring at HASYLAB. This new technqiue, which utilizes the total reflection properties of X-rays inside small capillaries, has recently been applied to generate microbeams of X-rays, with a beam size down to about 10 μm using conventional X-ray tubes. The result from our recent experiment shows that capillary optics can also be used to generate a submicron beam of X-rays from a synchrotron light source. A description of the capillary unit, and the alignment procedure is given. The influence of the thermal load on the device caused by the intense flux of synchrotron radiation will be discussed. Future perspectives of the capillary techniques as applied to synchrotron radiation will be discussed. (orig.)

  3. White beam synchrotron x-ray topography of gallium arsenide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, J.M. Jr.; Green, R.E. Jr.; Corak, W.S.

    1988-01-01

    The defect structure of gallium arsenide was investigated using white beam transmission topography. The samples were cut and polished monocrystal substrates from different suppliers. The goal of the work was to determine the viability of the method for documenting various crystallographic defect structures and establishing their effect on the performance of integrated microwave circuits fabricated on the wafers. The principles of the technique, essentially identical to classical Laue x-ray diffraction, are outlined. Two distinct defect structures were determined in the topographs. Reasons for the defect structures were postulated and the application of the method for quality control assessments of manufacturer-supplied gallium arsenide substrates was assessed

  4. Simulations of X-ray synchrotron beams using the EGS4 code system in medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orion, I.; Henn, A.; Sagi, I.; Dilmanian, F.A.; Pena, L.; Rosenfeld, A.B.

    2001-01-01

    X-ray synchrotron beams are commonly used in biological and medical research. The availability of intense, polarized low-energy photons from the synchrotron beams provides a high dose transfer to biological materials. The EGS4 code system, which includes the photoelectron angular distribution, electron motion inside a magnetic field, and the LSCAT package, found to be the appropriate Monte Carlo code for synchrotron-produced X-ray simulations. The LSCAT package was developed in 1995 for the EGS4 code to contain the routines to simulate the linear polarization, the bound Compton, and the incoherent scattering functions. Three medical applications were demonstrated using the EGS4 Monte Carlo code as a proficient simulation code system for the synchrotron low-energy X-ray source. (orig.)

  5. A method for measuring the time structure of synchrotron x-ray beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moses, W.W.; Derenzo, S.E.

    1989-08-01

    We describe a method employing a plastic scintillator coupled to a fast photomultiplier tube to generate a timing pulse from the x-ray bursts emitted from a synchrotron radiation source. This technique is useful for performing synchrotron experiments where detailed knowledge of the timing distribution is necessary, such as time resolved spectroscopy or fluorescence lifetime experiments. By digitizing the time difference between the timing signal generated on one beam crossing with the timing signal generated on the next beam crossing, the time structure of a synchrotron beam can be analyzed. Using this technique, we have investigated the single bunch time structure at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) during pilot runs in January, 1989, and found that the majority of the beam (96%) is contained in one rf bucket, while the remainder of the beam (4%) is contained in satellite rf buckets preceeding and following the main rf bucket by 19 ns. 1 ref., 4 figs

  6. A multiple CCD X-ray detector and its first operation with synchrotron radiation X-ray beam

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, M; Kumasaka, T; Sato, K; Toyokawa, H; Aries, I F; Jerram, P A; Ueki, T

    1999-01-01

    A 4x4 array structure of 16 identical CCD X-ray detector modules, called the multiple CCD X-ray detector system (MCCDX), was submitted to its first synchrotron radiation experiment at the protein crystallography station of the RIKEN beamline (BL45XU) at the SPring-8 facility. An X-ray diffraction pattern of cholesterol powder was specifically taken in order to investigate the overall system performance.

  7. Diamond monochromator for high heat flux synchrotron x-ray beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khounsary, A.M.; Smither, R.K.; Davey, S.; Purohit, A.

    1992-12-01

    Single crystal silicon has been the material of choice for x-ray monochromators for the past several decades. However, the need for suitable monochromators to handle the high heat load of the next generation synchrotron x-ray beams on the one hand and the rapid and on-going advances in synthetic diamond technology on the other make a compelling case for the consideration of a diamond mollochromator system. In this Paper, we consider various aspects, advantage and disadvantages, and promises and pitfalls of such a system and evaluate the comparative an monochromator subjected to the high heat load of the most powerful x-ray beam that will become available in the next few years. The results of experiments performed to evaluate the diffraction properties of a currently available synthetic single crystal diamond are also presented. Fabrication of diamond-based monochromator is within present technical means

  8. National Synchrotron Light Source users manual: Guide to the VUV and x-ray beam lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gmuer, N.F.; White-DePace, S.M.

    1987-08-01

    The success of the National Synchrotron Light Source in the years to come will be based, in large part, on the size of the users community and the diversity of the scientific disciplines represented by these users. In order to promote this philosophy, this National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) Users Manual: Guide to the VUV and X-Ray Beam Lines, has been published. This manual serves a number of purposes. In an effort to attract new research, it will present to the scientific community-at-large the current and projected architecture and capabilities of the various VUV and x-ray beam lines and storage rings. We anticipate that this publication will be updated periodically in order to keep pace with the constant changes at the NSLS

  9. Parallel beam microradiography of dental hard tissue using synchrotron radiation and X-ray image magnification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, S.; Chow, L.C.; Brown, W.E.; Dobbyn, R.C.; Kuriyama, M.

    1984-01-01

    A novel technique utilizing a highly parallel beam of monochromatic synchrotron radiation combined with X-ray image magnification has been used to obtain microradiographs of caries lesions in relatively thick tooth sections. Preliminary results reveal structural features not previously reported. This technique holds the promise of allowing one to follow the structural changes accompanying the formation, destruction and chemical repair of mineralized tissue in real time. (orig.)

  10. Characterisation of microfocused beam for synchrotron powder diffraction using a new X-ray camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, C; Potter, J; Tang, C C; Lennie, A R

    2012-01-01

    The powder diffraction beamline I11, Diamond Light Source, is being continually upgraded as requirements of the user community evolve. Intensities of X-rays from the I11 in-vacuum electron undulator in the 3 GeV synchrotron fall off at higher energies. By focusing higher energy X-rays, we can overcome flux limitations, and open up new diffraction experiments. Here, we describe characterisation of microfocusing using compound refractive lenses (CRL). For a relatively modest outlay, we have developed an experimental setup and a novel X-ray camera with good sensitivity and a resolution specification suitable for characterising these focusing optics. We show that vertical oscillations in the focused beam compromise resolution of the source imaged by the CRL. Nevertheless, we have measured CRL focusing properties, and demonstrate the use of energy scanning to determine lens alignment. Real benefits of the intensity gain are illustrated.

  11. DOE/DMS workshop on future synchrotron VUV and x-ray beam Lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, P.H.

    1992-03-01

    This document contains an overview of the participating DOE Laboratory beam line interests and the projected science to be addressed on these beam lines, both at new and existing synchrotron facilities. The scientific programs associated with present and planned synchrotron research by DOE Laboratories are discussed in chapters titled ''VUV and Soft X-Ray Research'' and ''Hard X-Ray Research.'' This research encompasses a broad range of the nation's scientific and technical research needs from fundamental to applied, in areas including environmental, biological, and physical sciences; new materials; and energy-related technologies. The projected cost of this proposed construction has been provided in tabular form using a uniform format so that anticipated DOE and outside funding agency contributions for construction and for research and development can be determined. The cost figures are, of course, subject to uncertainties of detailed design requirements and the availability of facility-designed generic components and outside vendors. The report also contains a compendium (as submitted by the beam line proposers) of the design capabilities, the anticipated costs, and the scientific programs of projected beam line construction at the four synchrotron facilities. A summary of the projected cost of these beam lines to be requested of DOE is compiled

  12. Combined X-ray fluorescence and absorption computed tomography using a synchrotron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, C

    2013-01-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) and fluorescence X-ray computed tomography (FXCT) using synchrotron sources are both useful tools in biomedical imaging research. Synchrotron CT (SRCT) in its various forms is considered an important technique for biomedical imaging since the phase coherence of SR beams can be exploited to obtain images with high contrast resolution. Using a synchrotron as the source for FXCT ensures a fluorescence signal that is optimally detectable by exploiting the beam monochromaticity and polarisation. The ability to combine these techniques so that SRCT and FXCT images are collected simultaneously, would bring distinct benefits to certain biomedical experiments. Simultaneous image acquisition would alleviate some of the registration difficulties which comes from collecting separate data, and it would provide increased information about the sample: functional X-ray images from the FXCT, with the morphological information from the SRCT. A method is presented for generating simultaneous SRCT and FXCT images. Proof of principle modelling has been used to show that it is possible to recover a fluorescence image of a point-like source from an SRCT apparatus by suitably modulating the illuminating planar X-ray beam. The projection image can be successfully used for reconstruction by removing the static modulation from the sinogram in the normal flat and dark field processing. Detection of the modulated fluorescence signal using an energy resolving detector allows the position of a fluorescent marker to be obtained using inverse reconstruction techniques. A discussion is made of particular reconstruction methods which might be applied by utilising both the CT and FXCT data.

  13. Heat transfer issues in high-heat-load synchrotron x-ray beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khounsary, A.M.; Mills, D.M.

    1994-09-01

    In this paper, a short description of the synchrotron radiation x-ray sources and the associated power loads is given, followed by a brief description of typical synchrotron components and their heat load. It is emphasized that the design goals for most of these components is to limit (a) temperature, (b) stresses, or (c) strains in the system. Each design calls for a different geometry, material selection, and cooling scheme. Cooling schemes that have been utilized so far are primarily single phase and include simple macrochannel cooling, microchannel cooling, contact cooling, pin-post cooling, porous-flow cooling, jet cooling, etc. Water, liquid metals, and various cryogenic coolants have been used. Because the trend in x-ray beam development is towards brighter (i.e., more powerful) beams and assuming that no radical changes in the design of x-ray generating machines occurs in the next few years, it is fair to state that the utilization of various effective cooling schemes and, in particular, two-phase flow (e.g., subcooled boiling) warrants further investigation. This, however, requires a thorough examination of stability and reliability of two-phase flows for high-heat-flux components operating in ultrahigh vacuum with stringent reliability requirements

  14. Optical and x-ray imaging of electron beams using synchrotron emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilke, M.

    1995-01-01

    In the case of very low emittance electron and positron storage ring beams, it is impossible to make intrusive measurements of beam properties without increasing the emittance and possibly disrupting the beam. In cases where electron or positron beams have high average power densities (such as free electron laser linacs), intrusive probes such as wires and optical transition radiation screens or Cherenkov emitting screens can be easily damaged or destroyed. The optical and x-ray emissions from the bends in the storage rings and often from linac bending magnets can be used to image the beam profile to obtain emittance information about the beam. The techniques, advantages and limitations of using both optical and x-ray synchrotron emission to measure beam properties are discussed and the possibility of single bunch imaging is considered. The properties of suitable imagers and converters such as phosphors are described. Examples of previous, existing and planned applications are given where available, including a pinhole imaging system currently being designed for the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory

  15. Optical and x-ray imaging of electron beams using synchrotron emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilke, M.D.

    1994-01-01

    In the case of very low eniittance electron and positron storage ring beams, it is impossible to make intrusive measurements of beam properties without increasing the emittance and possibly disrupting the beam. In cases where electron or positron beams have high average power densities (such as free electron laser linacs), intrusive probes such as wires and optical transition radiation screens or Cherenkov emitting screens can be easily damaged or destroyed. The optical and x-ray emissions from the bends in the storage rings and often from linac bending magnets can be used to image the beam profile to obtain emittance information about the beam. The techniques, advantages and limitations of using both optical and x-ray synchrotron emission to measure beam properties are discussed and the possibility of single bunch imaging is considered. The properties of suitable imagers and converters such as phosphors are described. Examples of previous, existing and planned applications are given where available, including a pinhole imaging system currently being designed for the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory

  16. Energy dispersive detector for white beam synchrotron x-ray fluorescence imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Matthew D., E-mail: Matt.Wilson@stfc.ac.uk; Seller, Paul; Veale, Matthew C. [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Campus,UK (United Kingdom); Connolley, Thomas [Diamond Light Source, I12 Beamline, Harwell Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Dolbnya, Igor P.; Malandain, Andrew; Sawhney, Kawal [Diamond Light Source, B16 Beamline, Harwell Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Grant, Patrick S.; Liotti, Enzo; Lui, Andrew [Department of Materials, University of Oxford Parks Road, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-27

    A novel, “single-shot” fluorescence imaging technique has been demonstrated on the B16 beamline at the Diamond Light Source synchrotron using the HEXITEC energy dispersive imaging detector. A custom made furnace with 200µm thick metal alloy samples was positioned in a white X-ray beam with a hole made in the furnace walls to allow the transmitted beam to be imaged with a conventional X-ray imaging camera consisting of a 500 µm thick single crystal LYSO scintillator, mirror and lens coupled to an AVT Manta G125B CCD sensor. The samples were positioned 45° to the incident beam to enable simultaneous transmission and fluorescence imaging. The HEXITEC detector was positioned at 90° to the sample with a 50 µm pinhole 13 cm from the sample and the detector positioned 2.3m from pinhole. The geometric magnification provided a field of view of 1.1×1.1mm{sup 2} with one of the 80×80 pixels imaging an area equivalent to 13µm{sup 2}. Al-Cu alloys doped with Zr, Ag and Mo were imaged in transmission and fluorescence mode. The fluorescence images showed that the dopant metals could be simultaneously imaged with sufficient counts on all 80x80 pixels within 60 s, with the X-ray flux limiting the fluorescence imaging rate. This technique demonstrated that it is possible to simultaneously image and identify multiple elements on a spatial resolution scale ~10µm or higher without the time consuming need to scan monochromatic energies or raster scan a focused beam of X-rays. Moving to high flux beamlines and using an array of detectors could improve the imaging speed of the technique with element specific imaging estimated to be on a 1 s timescale.

  17. Energy dispersive detector for white beam synchrotron x-ray fluorescence imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, Matthew D.; Seller, Paul; Veale, Matthew C.; Connolley, Thomas; Dolbnya, Igor P.; Malandain, Andrew; Sawhney, Kawal; Grant, Patrick S.; Liotti, Enzo; Lui, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    A novel, “single-shot” fluorescence imaging technique has been demonstrated on the B16 beamline at the Diamond Light Source synchrotron using the HEXITEC energy dispersive imaging detector. A custom made furnace with 200µm thick metal alloy samples was positioned in a white X-ray beam with a hole made in the furnace walls to allow the transmitted beam to be imaged with a conventional X-ray imaging camera consisting of a 500 µm thick single crystal LYSO scintillator, mirror and lens coupled to an AVT Manta G125B CCD sensor. The samples were positioned 45° to the incident beam to enable simultaneous transmission and fluorescence imaging. The HEXITEC detector was positioned at 90° to the sample with a 50 µm pinhole 13 cm from the sample and the detector positioned 2.3m from pinhole. The geometric magnification provided a field of view of 1.1×1.1mm"2 with one of the 80×80 pixels imaging an area equivalent to 13µm"2. Al-Cu alloys doped with Zr, Ag and Mo were imaged in transmission and fluorescence mode. The fluorescence images showed that the dopant metals could be simultaneously imaged with sufficient counts on all 80x80 pixels within 60 s, with the X-ray flux limiting the fluorescence imaging rate. This technique demonstrated that it is possible to simultaneously image and identify multiple elements on a spatial resolution scale ~10µm or higher without the time consuming need to scan monochromatic energies or raster scan a focused beam of X-rays. Moving to high flux beamlines and using an array of detectors could improve the imaging speed of the technique with element specific imaging estimated to be on a 1 s timescale.

  18. Absolute x-ray dosimetry on a synchrotron medical beam line with a graphite calorimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harty, P D; Lye, J E; Ramanathan, G; Butler, D J; Hall, C J; Stevenson, A W; Johnston, P N

    2014-05-01

    The absolute dose rate of the Imaging and Medical Beamline (IMBL) on the Australian Synchrotron was measured with a graphite calorimeter. The calorimetry results were compared to measurements from the existing free-air chamber, to provide a robust determination of the absolute dose in the synchrotron beam and provide confidence in the first implementation of a graphite calorimeter on a synchrotron medical beam line. The graphite calorimeter has a core which rises in temperature when irradiated by the beam. A collimated x-ray beam from the synchrotron with well-defined edges was used to partially irradiate the core. Two filtration sets were used, one corresponding to an average beam energy of about 80 keV, with dose rate about 50 Gy/s, and the second filtration set corresponding to average beam energy of 90 keV, with dose rate about 20 Gy/s. The temperature rise from this beam was measured by a calibrated thermistor embedded in the core which was then converted to absorbed dose to graphite by multiplying the rise in temperature by the specific heat capacity for graphite and the ratio of cross-sectional areas of the core and beam. Conversion of the measured absorbed dose to graphite to absorbed dose to water was achieved using Monte Carlo calculations with the EGSnrc code. The air kerma measurements from the free-air chamber were converted to absorbed dose to water using the AAPM TG-61 protocol. Absolute measurements of the IMBL dose rate were made using the graphite calorimeter and compared to measurements with the free-air chamber. The measurements were at three different depths in graphite and two different filtrations. The calorimetry measurements at depths in graphite show agreement within 1% with free-air chamber measurements, when converted to absorbed dose to water. The calorimetry at the surface and free-air chamber results show agreement of order 3% when converted to absorbed dose to water. The combined standard uncertainty is 3.9%. The good agreement of

  19. Design of x-ray diagnostic beam line for a synchrotron radiation source and measurement results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, Akash Deep, E-mail: akash-deep@rrcat.gov.in; Karnewar, A.K.; Ojha, A.; Shrivastava, B.B.; Holikatti, A.C.; Puntambekar, T.A.; Navathe, C.P.

    2014-08-01

    Indus-2 is a 2.5 GeV synchrotron radiation source (SRS) operational at the Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT) in India. We have designed, developed and commissioned x-ray diagnostic beam line (X-DBL) at the Indus-2. It is based on pinhole array imaging (8–18 keV). We have derived new equations for online measurements of source position and emission angle with pinhole array optics. Measured values are compared with the measurements at an independent x-ray beam position monitor (staggered pair blade monitor) installed in the X-DBL. The measured values are close to the theoretical expected values within ±12 µm (or ±1.5 μrad) for sufficiently wide range of the beam movements. So, beside the beam size and the beam emittance, online information for the vertical position and angle is also used in the orbit steering. In this paper, the various design considerations of the X-DBL and online measurement results are presented.

  20. Heat load studies of a water-cooled minichannel monochromator for synchrotron x-ray beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Andreas K.; Arthur, John R.; Zhang, Lin

    1997-12-01

    We fabricated a water-cooled silicon monochromator crystal with small channels for the special case of a double-crystal fixed-exit monochromator design where the beam walks across the crystal when the x-ray energy is changed. The two parts of the cooled device were assembled using a new technique based on low melting point solder. The bending of the system produced by this technique could be perfectly compensated by mechanical counter-bending. Heat load tests of the monochromator in a synchrotron beam of 75 W total power, 3 mm high and 15 mm wide, generated by a multipole wiggler at SSRL, showed that the thermal slope error of the crystal is 1 arcsec/40 W power, in full agreement with finite element analysis. The cooling scheme is adequate for bending magnet beamlines at the ESRF and present wiggler beamlines at the SSRL.

  1. X-ray study of a test quadrant of the SODART telescopes using the expanded beam x-ray optics facility at the Daresbury synchrotron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; Hornstrup, Allan; Frederiksen, P.

    1994-01-01

    The imaging properties of a test model of the SODART telescopes have been studied using an expanded beam X-ray facility at the Daresbury synchrotron. The encircled power and the point spread function at three energies 6.627 keV, 8.837 keV and 11.046 keV have been measured using 1D and 2D position...

  2. X-ray beam splitting design for concurrent imaging at hard X-ray FELs and synchrotron facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberta, P., E-mail: peter.oberta@rigaku.com [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Na Slovance 2, Praha 8, CZ-18221 (Czech Republic); Rigaku, Novodvorská 994, Praha 4, CZ-14221 (Czech Republic); Mokso, R. [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland)

    2013-11-21

    A new configuration of diffractive–refractive optics for beam splitting is investigated. The set-up can be applied to perform imaging with two beams simultaneously. It brings advantages toward dynamic studies using image guided diffraction or fluorescence spectroscopy. The optimal energy range of operation for the beam-splitter is between 7 keV and 24 keV, reaching best efficiency at an energy of 10 keV. Due to the long focusing distances (several tens of meters) created by the diffractive–refractive optics and the higher refraction efficiency in the softer energy range, the presented set-ups are ideal for hard X-ray FEL sources.

  3. Applications of pixellated GaAs X-ray detectors in a synchrotron radiation beam

    CERN Document Server

    Watt, J; Campbell, M; Mathieson, K; Mikulec, B; O'Shea, V; Passmore, M S; Schwarz, C; Smith, K M; Whitehill, C

    2001-01-01

    Hybrid semiconductor pixel detectors are being investigated as imaging devices for radiography and synchrotron radiation beam applications. Based on previous work in the CERN RD19 and the UK IMPACT collaborations, a photon counting GaAs pixel detector (PCD) has been used in an X-ray powder diffraction experiment. The device consists of a 200 mu m thick SI-LEC GaAs detector patterned in a 64*64 array of 170 mu m pitch square pixels, bump-bonded to readout electronics operating in single photon counting mode. Intensity peaks in the powder diffraction pattern of KNbO/sub 3/ have been resolved and compared with results using the standard scintillator, and a PCD predecessor (the Omega 3). The PCD shows improved speed, dynamic range, 2-D information and comparable spatial resolution to the standard scintillator based systems. It also overcomes the severe dead time limitations of the Omega 3 by using a shutter based acquisition mode. A brief demonstration of the possibilities of the system for dental radiography and...

  4. Investigations of the phase transition in V3O5 using energy dispersive X-ray diffraction and synchrotron radiation white beam X-ray topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asbrink, S.; Gerward, L.; Staun Olsen, J.

    1985-01-01

    The reversible first order phase transition in V 3 O 5 at T t =155 0 C has been studied using a specially constructed oven, where the temperature can be kept constant within a few hundredths of a degree for several hours. Energy dispersive diffraction measurements have beem made in a temperature region around the phase transition with the fixed crystal method and the θ/2θ scanning method. White beam X-ray topographs have been obtained from the same crystal in the same temperature region using synchrotron radiation. The integrated intensities of the strong h 0 0 reflections show anomalies that are correlated with the corresponding X-ray topographs. Thus, an unexpected increase of crystal perfection is observed a few hundredths of a degree below T t . The energy dependence of the intensity maximum at T t for strong reflections has been determined and semi-quantitatively explained on the basis of extinction theory. (orig.)

  5. X-ray beam splitting design for concurrent imaging at hard X-ray FELs and synchrotron facilities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oberta, Peter; Mokso, R.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 729, NOV (2013), s. 85-89 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MPO FR-TI1/412 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : diffractive-refractive optics * hard X-ray FEL * X-ray imaging Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.316, year: 2013 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168900213009613

  6. Transport Measurements and Synchrotron-Based X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Iron Silicon Germanide Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmarhoumi, Nader; Cottier, Ryan; Merchan, Greg; Roy, Amitava; Lohn, Chris; Geisler, Heike; Ventrice, Carl, Jr.; Golding, Terry

    2009-03-01

    Some of the iron-based metal silicide and germanide phases have been predicted to be direct band gap semiconductors. Therefore, they show promise for use as optoelectronic materials. We have used synchrotron-based x-ray absorption spectroscopy to study the structure of iron silicon germanide films grown by molecular beam epitaxy. A series of Fe(Si1-xGex)2 thin films (2000 -- 8000å) with a nominal Ge concentration of up to x = 0.04 have been grown. X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements have been performed on the films. The nearest neighbor co-ordination corresponding to the β-FeSi2 phase of iron silicide provides the best fit with the EXAFS data. Temperature dependent (20 coefficient was calculated. Results suggest semiconducting behavior of the films which is consistent with the EXAFS results.

  7. Application of focused-beam flat-sample method to synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction with anomalous scattering effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, M; Katsuya, Y; Matsushita, Y

    2013-01-01

    The focused-beam flat-sample method (FFM), which is a method for high-resolution and rapid synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction measurements by combination of beam focusing optics, a flat shape sample and an area detector, was applied for diffraction experiments with anomalous scattering effect. The advantages of FFM for anomalous diffraction were absorption correction without approximation, rapid data collection by an area detector and good signal-to-noise ratio data by focusing optics. In the X-ray diffraction experiments of CoFe 2 O 4 and Fe 3 O 4 (By FFM) using X-rays near the Fe K absorption edge, the anomalous scattering effect between Fe/Co or Fe 2+ /Fe 3+ can be clearly detected, due to the change of diffraction intensity. The change of observed diffraction intensity as the incident X-ray energy was consistent with the calculation. The FFM is expected to be a method for anomalous powder diffraction.

  8. Synchrotron x-ray microbeam characteristics for x-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, Atsuo; Noma, Takashi

    1995-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence analysis using a synchrotron x-ray microprobe has become an indispensable technique for non-destructive micro-analysis. One of the most important parameters that characterize the x-ray microbeam system for x-ray fluorescence analysis is the beam size. For practical analysis, however, the photon flux, the energy resolution and the available energy range are also crucial. Three types of x-ray microbeam systems, including monochromatic and continuum excitation systems, were compared with reference to the sensitivity, the minimum detection limit and the applicability to various types of x-ray spectroscopic analysis. 16 refs., 5 figs

  9. Synchrotron X-ray micro-beam studies of ancient Egyptian make-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinetto, P.; Anne, M.; Dooryhee, E.; Drakopoulos, M.; Dubus, M.; Salomon, J.; Simionovici, A.; Walter, Ph.

    2001-01-01

    Vases full of make-up are most often present in the burial furniture of Egyptian tombs dated from the pharaonic period. The powdered cosmetics made of isolated grains are analysed to identify their trace element signature. From this signature we identify the provenance of the mineral ingredients in the make-up and we observe different impurities in products, which have been demonstrated as synthetic substances by previous works. Focused X-ray micro-beam (2x5 μm 2 ) is successively tuned at 11 keV, below the L III absorption edge of Pb, and 31.8 keV for global characterisation of the metal impurities. The fluorescence signal integrated over each single grain is detected against the X-ray micro-diffraction pattern collected in transmission with a bi-dimensional detector. Furthermore, for galena grains rich in Zn, the XANES signal at the K-absorption edge of Zn shows its immediate nearest-neighbour environment

  10. Synchrotron X-ray micro-beam studies of ancient Egyptian make-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinetto, P.; Anne, M.; Dooryhée, E.; Drakopoulos, M.; Dubus, M.; Salomon, J.; Simionovici, A.; Walter, Ph.

    2001-07-01

    Vases full of make-up are most often present in the burial furniture of Egyptian tombs dated from the pharaonic period. The powdered cosmetics made of isolated grains are analysed to identify their trace element signature. From this signature we identify the provenance of the mineral ingredients in the make-up and we observe different impurities in products, which have been demonstrated as synthetic substances by previous works. Focused X-ray micro-beam ( 2×5 μm2) is successively tuned at 11 keV, below the L III absorption edge of Pb, and 31.8 keV for global characterisation of the metal impurities. The fluorescence signal integrated over each single grain is detected against the X-ray micro-diffraction pattern collected in transmission with a bi-dimensional detector. Furthermore, for galena grains rich in Zn, the XANES signal at the K-absorption edge of Zn shows its immediate nearest-neighbour environment.

  11. Synchrotron X-ray micro-beam studies of ancient Egyptian make-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinetto, P; Anne, M; Dooryhee, E; Drakopoulos, M; Dubus, M; Salomon, J; Simionovici, A; Walter, Ph

    2001-07-01

    Vases full of make-up are most often present in the burial furniture of Egyptian tombs dated from the pharaonic period. The powdered cosmetics made of isolated grains are analysed to identify their trace element signature. From this signature we identify the provenance of the mineral ingredients in the make-up and we observe different impurities in products, which have been demonstrated as synthetic substances by previous works. Focused X-ray micro-beam (2x5 {mu}m{sup 2}) is successively tuned at 11 keV, below the L{sub III} absorption edge of Pb, and 31.8 keV for global characterisation of the metal impurities. The fluorescence signal integrated over each single grain is detected against the X-ray micro-diffraction pattern collected in transmission with a bi-dimensional detector. Furthermore, for galena grains rich in Zn, the XANES signal at the K-absorption edge of Zn shows its immediate nearest-neighbour environment.

  12. Synchrotron x-ray fluorescence and extended x-ray absorption fine structure analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.R.; Gordon, B.M.; Hanson, A.L.; Jones, K.W.; Kraner, H.W.; Chao, E.C.T.; Minkin, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    The advent of dedicated synchrotron radiation sources has led to a significant increase in activity in many areas of science dealing with the interaction of x-rays with matter. Synchrotron radiation provides intense, linearly polarized, naturally collimated, continuously tunable photon beams, which are used to determine not only the elemental composition of a complex, polyatomic, dilute material but also the chemical form of the elements with improved accuracy. Examples of the application of synchrotron radiation include experiments in synchrotron x-ray fluorescence (SXRF) analysis and extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis. New synchrotron radiation x-ray microprobes for elemental analysis in the parts per billion range are under construction at several laboratories. 76 references, 24 figures

  13. X-ray beam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koller, T.J.; Randmer, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    A method of minimizing the preferential angular absorption of the divergent beam from an X-ray generator is described. The generator consists of an X-ray shielded housing with an X-ray transmissive window symmetrically placed in radial alignment with a focal spot area on a sloped target surface of an X-ray tube in the housing. The X-ray tube may be of the stationary anode type or of the rotating anode type. (U.K.)

  14. Synchrotron radiation calibration for soft X-ray detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ning, Jiamin; Guo, Cun; Xu, Rongkun; Jiang, Shilun; Xu, Zeping; Chen, Jinchuan; Xia, Guangxin; Xue, Feibiao; Qin, Yi

    2009-04-01

    The calibration experiments were carried out to X-ray film, scintillator and transmission grating by employing the soft X-ray station at 3W1B beam-line in Beijing synchrotron Radiation Facility. The experiments presented the black intensity curve and energy response curve of soft X-ray film. And the experimental results can be used in diagnosis of X-ray radiation characterization of Z-pinch, such as in the measurement of soft X-ray Power Meter, grating spectrometer, pinhole camera and one-dimension imaging system which can ensure precision of Z-pinch results. (authors)

  15. Light source for synchrotron radiation x-ray topography study at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (BSRL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jiyong; Jiang Jianhua; Tian Yulian

    1992-01-01

    Characteristics of the synchrotron radiation source for X-ray topography study at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (BSRL) is described, local geometrical resolution of topographies is discussed, and the diffracting intensities of white beam topography is given

  16. Synchrotron X-Ray Footprinting on Tour

    OpenAIRE

    Bohon, Jen; Ralston, Corie; D'Mello, Rhijuta; Gupta, Sayan; Chance, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    Synchrotron X-ray footprinting resources were investigated at a variety of beamlines and synchrotron facilities to understand their potential for a mobile general user. Results indicate that viable resources exist at each synchrotron investigated such that a prospective user need only provide a simple flow apparatus and sample handling accessories to perform this technique.

  17. X-ray fluorescence in Member States (India): Micro-beam X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy using Indus-2 synchrotron radiation facility: beamline BL-16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, M. K.; Lodha, G. S.; Deb, S.K., E-mail: mktiwari@rrcat.gov.in [Indus Synchrotrons Utilization Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore-452013 (MP) (India)

    2014-02-15

    Indus-1 and Indus-2, are India’s national synchrotron radiation facilities located at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT), Indore. Indus-1 is a 450 MeV electron storage ring which provides synchrotron radiation in the VUV soft x-ray range with a critical wavelength of 61 Å whereas Indus-2 is a 2.5 GeV, 300 mA synchrotron radiation machine with a critical wavelength of 2 Å for its bending magnet source. The Indus-2 is at present operating at 2.5 GeV, 100 mA in round-theclock operation mode. Both synchrotron sources exist in the same premises of RRCAT, Indore and have very good air/rail connectivities with major cities of India. The RRCAT centre also fosters research and development activities in the fields of particle accelerators, Lasers and related advanced technologies like cryogenics, ultra high vacuum, superconducting cavities, RF power, magnet and their application in different fields of science, thus the centre provides a unique platform covering a wide range of experiments for the synchrotron users in the Indian subcontinent.

  18. Simulation of AZ-PN100 resist pattern fluctuation in X-ray lithography, including synchrotron beam polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheckler, E.W.; Ogawa, Taro; Tanaka, Toshihiko; Takeda, Eiji; Oizumi, Hiroaki.

    1993-01-01

    A new simulation model for nanometer-scale pattern fluctuation in X-ray lithography is presented and applied to a study of AZ-PN100 negative chemical amplification resist. The exposure simulation considers polarized photons from a synchrotron radiation (SR) source. Monte Carlo simulation of Auger and photoelectron generation is followed by electron scattering simulation to determine the deposited energy distribution at the nanometer scale, including beam polarization effects. An acid-catalyst random walk model simulates the post-exposure bake (PEB) step. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and developed resist thickness measurements are used to fit PEB and rate models for AZ-PN100. A polymer removal model for development simulation predicts the macroscopic resist shape and pattern roughness. The simulated 3σ linewidth variation is in excess of 24 nm. Simulation also shows a detrimental effect if the beam polarization is perpendicular to the line. Simulation assuming a theoretical ideal exposure yields a 50 nm minimum line for standard process conditions. (author)

  19. X-ray energy-dispersive diffractometry using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buras, B.; Staun Olsen, J.; Gerward, L.

    1977-03-01

    In contrast to bremsstrahlung from X-ray tubes, synchrotron radiation is very intense, has a smooth spectrum, its polarization is well defined, and at DESY the range of useful photon energies can be extended to about 70 keV and higher. In addition the X-ray beam is very well collimated. Thus synchrotron radiation seems to be an ideal X-ray source for energy-dispersive diffractometry. This note briefly describes the experimental set up at DESY, shows examples of results, and presents the underlying 'philosophy' of the research programme. (Auth.)

  20. Hard alpha-keratin degradation inside a tissue under high flux X-ray synchrotron micro-beam: a multi-scale time-resolved study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leccia, Emilie; Gourrier, Aurélien; Doucet, Jean; Briki, Fatma

    2010-04-01

    X-rays interact strongly with biological organisms. Synchrotron radiation sources deliver very intense X-ray photon fluxes within micro- or submicro cross-section beams, resulting in doses larger than the MGy. The relevance of synchrotron radiation analyses of biological materials is therefore questionable since such doses, million times higher than the ones used in radiotherapy, can cause huge damages in tissues, with regard to not only DNA, but also proteic and lipid organizations. Very few data concerning the effect of very high X-ray doses in tissues are available in the literature. We present here an analysis of the structural phenomena which occur when the model tissue of human hair is irradiated by a synchrotron X-ray micro-beam. The choice of hair is supported by its hierarchical and partially ordered keratin structure which can be analysed inside the tissue by X-ray diffraction. To assess the damages caused by hard X-ray micro-beams (1 microm(2) cross-section), short exposure time scattering SAXS/WAXS patterns have been recorded at beamline ID13 (ESRF) after various irradiation times. Various modifications of the scattering patterns are observed, they provide fine insight of the radiation damages at various hierarchical levels and also unexpectedly provide information about the stability of the various hierarchical structural levels. It appears that the molecular level, i.e. the alpha helices which are stabilized by hydrogen bonds and the alpha-helical coiled coils which are stabilized by hydrophobic interactions, is more sensitive to radiation than the supramolecular architecture of the keratin filament and the filament packing within the keratin associated proteins matrix, which is stabilized by disulphide bonds. (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Synchrotron radiation induced x-ray micro analysis: A realistic alternative for electron- and ion beam microscopy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssens, K.; Adams, F. [Universitaire Instelling Antwerpen, Antwerp (Belgium). Dept. of Chemistry; Rivers, M.L.; Jones, K.W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1992-10-01

    Synchrotron Radiation induced X-ray micro Fluorescence analysis ({mu}-SRXRF) is compared with more conventional microanalytical techniques such as Secondary Ion Microscopy (SIMS) and Electron Probe X-ray Microanalysis (EPXMA) for two typical microanalytical applications. SRXRF and EPXMA are employed for the analysis of individual particles, showing the complementary character of both techniques. By means of element mapping of trace constituents in a heterogeneous feldspar, the strong and weak points of SRXRF in comparison to EPXMA and SIMS are illustrated. The most striking difference between SRXRF and the other two microanalytical methods is the ability of SRXRF to probe deep into the investigated Material, whereas SIMS and EPXMA only investigate the upper surface of the material. The possibilities of SRXRF at third generation synchrotron rings is also briefly discussed.

  2. Synchrotron radiation induced x-ray micro analysis: A realistic alternative for electron- and ion beam microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssens, K.; Adams, F. (Universitaire Instelling Antwerpen, Antwerp (Belgium). Dept. of Chemistry); Rivers, M.L.; Jones, K.W. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Synchrotron Radiation induced X-ray micro Fluorescence analysis ([mu]-SRXRF) is compared with more conventional microanalytical techniques such as Secondary Ion Microscopy (SIMS) and Electron Probe X-ray Microanalysis (EPXMA) for two typical microanalytical applications. SRXRF and EPXMA are employed for the analysis of individual particles, showing the complementary character of both techniques. By means of element mapping of trace constituents in a heterogeneous feldspar, the strong and weak points of SRXRF in comparison to EPXMA and SIMS are illustrated. The most striking difference between SRXRF and the other two microanalytical methods is the ability of SRXRF to probe deep into the investigated Material, whereas SIMS and EPXMA only investigate the upper surface of the material. The possibilities of SRXRF at third generation synchrotron rings is also briefly discussed.

  3. Synchrotron radiation induced x-ray micro analysis: A realistic alternative for electron- and ion beam microscopy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssens, K.; Adams, F.

    1992-01-01

    Synchrotron Radiation induced X-ray micro Fluorescence analysis (μ-SRXRF) is compared with more conventional microanalytical techniques such as Secondary Ion Microscopy (SIMS) and Electron Probe X-ray Microanalysis (EPXMA) for two typical microanalytical applications. SRXRF and EPXMA are employed for the analysis of individual particles, showing the complementary character of both techniques. By means of element mapping of trace constituents in a heterogeneous feldspar, the strong and weak points of SRXRF in comparison to EPXMA and SIMS are illustrated. The most striking difference between SRXRF and the other two microanalytical methods is the ability of SRXRF to probe deep into the investigated Material, whereas SIMS and EPXMA only investigate the upper surface of the material. The possibilities of SRXRF at third generation synchrotron rings is also briefly discussed

  4. Synchrotron-Radiation Induced X-Ray Emission (SRIXE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Keith W.

    1999-09-01

    Elemental analysis using emission of characteristic x rays is a well-established scientific method. The success of this analytical method is highly dependent on the properties of the source used to produce the x rays. X-ray tubes have long existed as a principal excitation source, but electron and proton beams have also been employed extensively. The development of the synchrotron radiation x-ray source that has taken place during the past 40 years has had a major impact on the general field of x-ray analysis. Even tier 40 years, science of x-ray analysis with synchrotron x-ray beams is by no means mature. Improvements being made to existing synchrotron facilities and the design and construction of new facilities promise to accelerate the development of the general scientific use of synchrotron x-ray sources for at least the next ten years. The effective use of the synchrotron source technology depends heavily on the use of high-performance computers for analysis and theoretical interpretation of the experimental data. Fortunately, computer technology has advanced at least as rapidly as the x-ray technology during the past 40 years and should continue to do so during the next decade. The combination of these technologies should bring about dramatic advances in many fields where synchrotron x-ray science is applied. It is interesting also to compare the growth and rate of acceptance of this particular research endeavor to the rates for other technological endeavors. Griibler [1997] cataloged the time required for introduction, diffusion,and acceptance of technological, economic, and social change and found mean values of 40 to 50 years. The introduction of the synchrotron source depends on both technical and non-technical factors, and the time scale at which this seems to be occurring is quite compatible with what is seen for other major innovations such as the railroad or the telegraph. It will be interesting to see how long the present rate of technological change

  5. Synchrotron-Radiation Induced X-Ray Emission (SRIXE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Keith W.

    1999-01-01

    Elemental analysis using emission of characteristic x rays is a well-established scientific method. The success of this analytical method is highly dependent on the properties of the source used to produce the x rays. X-ray tubes have long existed as a principal excitation source, but electron and proton beams have also been employed extensively. The development of the synchrotron radiation x-ray source that has taken place during the past 40 years has had a major impact on the general field of x-ray analysis. Even tier 40 years, science of x-ray analysis with synchrotron x-ray beams is by no means mature. Improvements being made to existing synchrotron facilities and the design and construction of new facilities promise to accelerate the development of the general scientific use of synchrotron x-ray sources for at least the next ten years. The effective use of the synchrotron source technology depends heavily on the use of high-performance computers for analysis and theoretical interpretation of the experimental data. Fortunately, computer technology has advanced at least as rapidly as the x-ray technology during the past 40 years and should continue to do so during the next decade. The combination of these technologies should bring about dramatic advances in many fields where synchrotron x-ray science is applied. It is interesting also to compare the growth and rate of acceptance of this particular research endeavor to the rates for other technological endeavors. Griibler [1997] cataloged the time required for introduction, diffusion,and acceptance of technological, economic, and social change and found mean values of 40 to 50 years. The introduction of the synchrotron source depends on both technical and non-technical factors, and the time scale at which this seems to be occurring is quite compatible with what is seen for other major innovations such as the railroad or the telegraph. It will be interesting to see how long the present rate of technological change

  6. Application of synchrotron radiation to X-ray interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, M [King' s Coll., London (UK). Wheatstone Physics Lab.

    1980-05-01

    X-ray interferometry has been attempted with synchrotron radiation at Hamburg and at Orsay. Experiments will start this year at the Storage Ring Source at Daresbury. This review covers work which has already been completed and outlines the likely trends in phase sensitive X-ray polarimetry, high resolution spectroscopy (including real and imaginary-part EXAFS) and novel experiments with many-beam-case interferometers.

  7. Synchrotron x-ray studies of the keel of the short-spined sea urchin lytechinus variegatus: absorption microtomography (microCT) and small beam diffraction mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stock, S.R.; Barss, J.; Dahl, T.; Veis, A.; Almer, J.D.; De Carlo, F.

    2003-01-01

    In sea urchin teeth, the keel plays an important structural role, and this paper reports results of microstructural characterization of the keel of Lytechinus variegatus using two noninvasive synchrotron x-ray techniques: x-ray absorption microtomography (microCT) and x-ray diffraction mapping. MicroCT with 14 keV x-rays mapped the spatial distribution of mineral at the 1.3 microm level in a millimeter-sized fragment of a mature portion of the keel. Two rows of low absorption channels (i.e., primary channels) slightly less than 10 microm in diameter were found running linearly from the flange to the base of the keel and parallel to its sides. The primary channels paralleled the oral edge of the keel, and the microCT slices revealed a planar secondary channel leading from each primary channel to the side of the keel. The primary and secondary channels were more or less coplanar and may correspond to the soft tissue between plates of the carinar process. Transmission x-ray diffraction with 80.8 keV x-rays and a 0.1 mm beam mapped the distribution of calcite crystal orientations and the composition Ca(1-x)Mg(x)CO(3) of the calcite. Unlike the variable Mg concentration and highly curved prisms found in the keel of Paracentrotus lividus, a constant Mg content (x = 0.13) and relatively little prism curvature was found in the keel of Lytechinus variegatus.

  8. Optical and mechanical design of the extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) beam-line at Indus-II synchrotron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, N.C.; Jha, S.N.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Sinha, A.K.; Mishra, V.K.; Verma, Vishnu; Ghosh, A.K.

    2002-11-01

    An extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) beam line for x-ray absorption studies using energy dispersive geometry and position sensitive detector is being designed for the INDUS-II Synchrotron source. The beam line would be used for doing x-ray absorption experiments involving measurements of fme structures above the absorption edge of different species of atoms in a material The results of the above experiments would lead to the determination of different important structural parameters of materials viz.. inter-atomic distance. co-ordination number, degree of disorder and radial distribution function etc. The optical design of the beam line has been completed based on the working principle that a single crystal bent in the shape of an ellipse by a crystal bender would act as a dispersing as well as focusing element. The mechanical design of the beam line including the crystal bender has also been completed and discussed here. Calculations have been done to detennine the temperature profile on the different components of the beam line under exposure to synchrotron radiation and proper cooling channels have been designed to bring down the heat load on the components. (author)

  9. High-intensity laser synchrotron x-ray source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogorelsky, I.V.

    1995-10-01

    A laser interacting with a relativistic electron beam behaves like a virtual wiggler of an extremely short period equal to half of the laser wavelength. This approach opens a route to relatively compact, high-brightness x-ray sources alternative or complementary to conventional synchrotron light sources. Although not new, the Laser Synchrotron Light Source (LSLS) concept is still waiting for a convincing demonstration. Available at the BNL's Accelerator Test Facility (ATF), a high-brightness electron beam and the high-power C0 2 laser may be used as prototype LSLS brick stones. In a feasible demonstration experiment, 10-GW, 100-ps C0 2 laser beam will be brought to a head-on collision with a 10-ps, 0.5-nC, 70 MeV electron bunch. Flashes of well-collimated, up to 9.36-keV (∼ Angstrom) x-rays of 10-ps pulse duration, with a flux of ∼10 19 photons/sec will be produced via linear Compton backscattering. The x-ray spectrum is tunable proportionally to a variable e-beam energy. A natural short-term extension of the proposed experiment would be further enhancement of the x-ray flux to a 10 21 -10 22 photons/sec level, after the ongoing ATF CO 2 laser upgrade to 1 TW peak power and electron bunch shortening to 3 ps. The ATF LSLS x-ray beamline, exceeding by orders of magnitude the peak fluxes attained at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) x-ray storage ring, may become attractive for certain users, e.g., for biological x-ray microscopy. In addition, a terawatt CO 2 laser will enable harmonic multiplication of the x-ray spectrum via nonlinear Compton scattering

  10. Nondestructive mapping of chemical composition and structural qualities of group III-nitride nanowires using submicron beam synchrotron-based X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonanno, P.L., E-mail: plb2@njit.edu [Georgia Institute of Technology/GTL, UMI 2958 Georgia Tech-CNRS, 57070 Metz (France); Gautier, S. [LMOPS + UMI: Laboratoire Matériaux Optiques, Photonique et micro-nano Systèmes, UMR CNRS 7132, Université de Metz et SUPELEC, 2 rue E. Belin, 57070 Metz, France, UMI 2958 Georgia Tech-CNRS, 57070 Metz (France); Gmili, Y.El.; Moudakir, T. [UMI 2958 Georgia Tech-CNRS, 57070 Metz (France); Sirenko, A.A. [Department of Physics, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States); Kazimirov, A. [Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS), Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Cai, Z.-H. [Advanced Photon Source, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Martin, J. [LMOPS + UMI: Laboratoire Matériaux Optiques, Photonique et micro-nano Systèmes, UMR CNRS 7132, Université de Metz et SUPELEC, 2 rue E. Belin, 57070 Metz, France, UMI 2958 Georgia Tech-CNRS, 57070 Metz (France); Goh, W.H. [Georgia Institute of Technology/GTL, UMI 2958 Georgia Tech-CNRS, 57070 Metz (France); Martinez, A.; Ramdane, A.; Le Gratiet, L. [Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures, UPR CNRS 20, Route de Nozay, 91460 Marcoussis (France); Maloufi, N. [Laboratoire d' Etude des Textures et Application aux Matériaux UMR CNRS 7078 Ile du Saulcy 57045 METZ cedex 1 (France); Assouar, M.B. [Laboratoire de Physique des Milieux Ionisés et Applications, Nancy University, CNRS, BP 239, F-54506 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy Cédex (France); Ougazzaden, A. [Georgia Institute of Technology/GTL, UMI 2958 Georgia Tech-CNRS, 57070 Metz (France)

    2013-08-31

    Submicron beam synchrotron-based X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques have been developed and used to accurately and nondestructively map chemical composition and material quality of selectively grown group III-nitride nanowires. GaN, AlGaN, and InGaN multi-quantum-well nanowires have been selectively grown on lattice matched and mismatched substrates, and the challenges associated with obtaining and interpreting submicron beam XRD results are addressed and solved. Nanoscale cathodoluminescence is used to examine exciton behavior, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy is used to verify chemical composition. Scanning transmission electron microscopy is later used to paint a more complete picture. The advantages of submicron beam XRD over other techniques are discussed in the context of this challenging material system. - Highlights: ► We used nano selective area growth to create nanowires of GaN, AlGaN and InGaN/GaN. ► We characterized them by synchrotron-based submicron beam X-ray diffraction (XRD). ► This technique accurately determined chemical and crystallographic properties. ► Challenges of XRD are addressed in the context of this challenging material system. ► Advantages of XRD over other characterization methods are discussed.

  11. A feasibility study of dynamic stress analysis inside a running internal combustion engine using synchrotron X-ray beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baimpas, Nikolaos; Drakopoulos, Michael; Connolley, Thomas; Song, Xu; Pandazaras, Costas; Korsunsky, Alexander M

    2013-03-01

    The present investigation establishes the feasibility of using synchrotron-generated X-ray beams for time-resolved in situ imaging and diffraction of the interior components of an internal combustion engine during its operation. The demonstration experiment was carried out on beamline I12 (JEEP) at Diamond Light Source, UK. The external hutch of the JEEP instrument is a large-scale engineering test bed for complex in situ processing and simulation experiments. The hutch incorporates a large capacity translation and rotation table and a selection of detectors for monochromatic and white-beam diffraction and imaging. These capabilities were used to record X-ray movies of a motorcycle internal combustion engine running at 1850 r.p.m. and to measure strain inside the connecting rod via stroboscopic X-ray diffraction measurement. The high penetrating ability and high flux of the X-ray beam at JEEP allowed the observation of inlet and outlet valve motion, as well as that of the piston, connecting rod and the timing chain within the engine. Finally, the dynamic internal strain within the moving connecting rod was evaluated with an accuracy of ~50 × 10(-6).

  12. Synchrotron X-ray imaging applied to solar photovoltaic silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafford, T A; Villanova, J; Plassat, N; Dubois, S; Camel, D

    2013-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) cell performance is dictated by the material of the cell, its quality and purity, the type, quantity, size and distribution of defects, as well as surface treatments, deposited layers and contacts. A synchrotron offers unique opportunities for a variety of complementary X-ray techniques, given the brilliance, spectrum, energy tunability and potential for (sub-) micron-sized beams. Material properties are revealed within in the bulk and at surfaces and interfaces. X-ray Diffraction Imaging (X-ray Topography), Rocking Curve Imaging and Section Topography reveal defects such as dislocations, inclusions, misorientations and strain in the bulk and at surfaces. Simultaneous measurement of micro-X-Ray Fluorescence (μ-XRF) and micro-X-ray Beam Induced Current (μ-XBIC) gives direct correlation between impurities and PV performance. Together with techniques such as microscopy and Light Beam Induced Current (LBIC) measurements, the correlation between structural properties and photovoltaic performance can be deduced, as well as the relative influence of parameters such as defect type, size, spatial distribution and density (e.g [1]). Measurements may be applied at different stages of solar cell processing in order to follow the evolution of the material and its properties through the manufacturing process. Various grades of silicon are under study, including electronic and metallurgical grades in mono-crystalline, multi-crystalline and mono-like forms. This paper aims to introduce synchrotron imaging to non-specialists, giving example results on selected solar photovoltaic silicon samples.

  13. X-ray diffraction microtomography using synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Barroso, R C; Jesus, E F O; Oliveira, L F

    2001-01-01

    The X-ray diffraction computed tomography technique is based on the interference phenomena of the coherent scatter. For low-momentum transfer, it is most probable that the scattering interaction will be coherent. A selective discrimination of a given element in a scanned specimen can be realized by fixing the Bragg angle which produces an interference peak and then, to carry out the computed tomography in the standard mode. The image reconstructed exalts the presence of this element with respect to other ones in a sample. This work reports the feasibility of a non-destructive synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction imaging technique. This research was performed at the X-ray Diffraction beam line of the National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS) in Brazil. The coherent scattering properties of different tissue and bone substitute materials were evaluated. Furthermore, diffraction patterns of some polycrystalline solids were studied due to industrial and environmental human exposure to these metals. The obtai...

  14. Vertical beam size measurement in the CESR-TA e{sup +}e{sup −} storage ring using x-rays from synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, J.P.; Chatterjee, A.; Conolly, C.; Edwards, E.; Ehrlichman, M.P.; Fontes, E. [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Heltsley, B.K., E-mail: bkh2@cornell.edu [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Hopkins, W.; Lyndaker, A.; Peterson, D.P.; Rider, N.T.; Rubin, D.L.; Savino, J.; Seeley, R.; Shanks, J. [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Flanagan, J.W. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan)

    2014-06-01

    We describe the construction and operation of an X-ray beam size monitor (xBSM), a device measuring e{sup +} and e{sup −} beam sizes in the CESR-TA storage ring using synchrotron radiation. The device can measure vertical beam sizes of 10–100μm on a turn-by-turn, bunch-by-bunch basis at e{sup ±} beam energies of ∼2GeV. At such beam energies the xBSM images X-rays of ϵ≈1–10keV (λ≈0.1–1nm) that emerge from a hard-bend magnet through a single- or multiple-slit (coded aperture) optical element onto an array of 32 InGaAs photodiodes with 50μm pitch. Beamlines and detectors are entirely in-vacuum, enabling single-shot beam size measurement down to below 0.1 mA (2.5×10{sup 9} particles) per bunch and inter-bunch spacing of as little as 4 ns. At E{sub b}=2.1GeV, systematic precision of ∼1μm is achieved for a beam size of ∼12μm; this is expected to scale as ∝1/σ{sub b} and ∝1/E{sub b}. Achieving this precision requires comprehensive alignment and calibration of the detector, optical elements, and X-ray beam. Data from the xBSM have been used to extract characteristics of beam oscillations on long and short timescales, and to make detailed studies of low-emittance tuning, intra-beam scattering, electron cloud effects, and multi-bunch instabilities.

  15. Quantitative X-ray microtomography with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donath, T.

    2007-01-01

    Synchrotron-radiation-based computed microtomography (SR μ CT) is an established method for the examination of volume structures. It allows to measure the x-ray attenuation coefficient of a specimen three-dimensionally with a spatial resolution of about one micrometer. In contrast to conventional x-ray sources (x-ray tubes), the unique properties of synchrotron radiation enable quantitative measurements that do not suffer from beam-hardening artifacts. During this work the capabilities for quantitative SR μ CT measurements have been further improved by enhancements that were made to the SR μ CT apparatus and to the reconstruction chain. For high-resolution SR μ CT an x-ray camera consisting of luminescent screen (x-ray phosphor), lens system, and CCD camera was used. A significant suppression of blur that is caused by reflections inside the luminescent screen could be achieved by application of an absorbing optical coating to the screen surface. It is shown that blur and ring artifacts in the tomographic reconstructions are thereby drastically reduced. Furthermore, a robust and objective method for the determination of the center of rotation in projection data (sinograms) is presented that achieves sub-pixel precision. By implementation of this method into the reconstruction chain, complete automation of the reconstruction process has been achieved. Examples of quantitative SR μ CT studies conducted at the Hamburger Synchrotronstrahlungslabor HASYLAB at the Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY are presented and used for the demonstration of the achieved enhancements. (orig.)

  16. X-ray microscopy using collimated and focussed synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, K.W.; Kwiatek, W.M.; Gordon, B.M.

    1987-01-01

    X-ray microscopy is a field that has developed rapidly in recent years. Two different approaches have been used. Zone plates have been employed to produce focused beams with sizes as low as 0.07 μm for x-ray energies below 1 keV. Images of biological materials and elemental maps for major and minor low Z have been produced using above and below absorption edge differences. At higher energies collimators and focusing mirrors have been used to make small diameter beams for excitation of characteristic K- or L-x rays of all elements in the periodic table. The practicality of a single instrument combining all the features of these two approaches is unclear. The use of high-energy x rays for x-ray microscopy has intrinsic value for characterization of thick samples and determination of trace amounts of most elements. A summary of work done on the X-26 beam line at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) with collimated and focused x rays with energies above 4 keV is given here. 6 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  17. Application of synchrotron radiation to x-ray fluorescence analysis of trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, B.M.; Jones, K.W.; Hanson, A.L.

    1986-08-01

    The development of synchrotron radiation x-ray sources has provided the means to greatly extend the capabilities of x-ray fluorescence analysis for determinations of trace element concentrations. A brief description of synchrotron radiation properties provides a background for a discussion of the improved detection limits compared to existing x-ray fluorescence techniques. Calculated detection limits for x-ray microprobes with micrometer spatial resolutions are described and compared with experimental results beginning to appear from a number of laboratories. The current activities and future plans for a dedicated x-ray microprobe beam line at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) of Brookhaven National Laboratory are presented

  18. Hard X-ray Sources for the Mexican Synchrotron Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes-Herrera, Juan

    2016-01-01

    One of the principal tasks for the design of the Mexican synchrotron was to define the storage ring energy. The main criteria for choosing the energy come from studying the electromagnetic spectrum that can be obtained from the synchrotron, because the energy range of the spectrum that can be obtained will determine the applications available to the users of the future light source. Since there is a public demand of hard X-rays for the experiments in the synchrotron community users from Mexico, in this work we studied the emission spectra from some hard X-ray sources which could be the best options for the parameters of the present Mexican synchrotron design. The calculations of the flux and the brightness for one Bending Magnet and four Insertion Devices are presented; specifically, for a Superconducting Bending Magnet (SBM), a Superconducting Wiggler (SCW), an In Vacuum Short Period Undulator (IV-SPU), a Superconducting Undulator (SCU) and for a Cryogenic Permanent Magnet Undulator (CPMU). Two commonly available synchrotron radiation programs were used for the computation (XOP and SRW). From the results, it can be concluded that the particle beam energy from the current design is enough to have one or more sources of hard X-rays. Furthermore, a wide range of hard X-ray region can be covered by the analyzed sources, and the choice of each type should be based on the specific characteristics of the X-ray beam to perform the experiments at the involved beamline. This work was done within the project Fomix Conacyt-Morelos ”Plan Estrategico para la construccion y operación de un Sincrotron en Morelos” (224392). (paper)

  19. Hard X-ray Sources for the Mexican Synchrotron Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Herrera, Juan

    2016-10-01

    One of the principal tasks for the design of the Mexican synchrotron was to define the storage ring energy. The main criteria for choosing the energy come from studying the electromagnetic spectrum that can be obtained from the synchrotron, because the energy range of the spectrum that can be obtained will determine the applications available to the users of the future light source. Since there is a public demand of hard X-rays for the experiments in the synchrotron community users from Mexico, in this work we studied the emission spectra from some hard X-ray sources which could be the best options for the parameters of the present Mexican synchrotron design. The calculations of the flux and the brightness for one Bending Magnet and four Insertion Devices are presented; specifically, for a Superconducting Bending Magnet (SBM), a Superconducting Wiggler (SCW), an In Vacuum Short Period Undulator (IV-SPU), a Superconducting Undulator (SCU) and for a Cryogenic Permanent Magnet Undulator (CPMU). Two commonly available synchrotron radiation programs were used for the computation (XOP and SRW). From the results, it can be concluded that the particle beam energy from the current design is enough to have one or more sources of hard X-rays. Furthermore, a wide range of hard X-ray region can be covered by the analyzed sources, and the choice of each type should be based on the specific characteristics of the X-ray beam to perform the experiments at the involved beamline. This work was done within the project Fomix Conacyt-Morelos ”Plan Estrategico para la construccion y operación de un Sincrotron en Morelos” (224392).

  20. Techniques for materials research with synchrotron radiation x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, D.K.

    1983-01-01

    A brief introductory survey is presented of the properties and generation of synchrotron radiation and the main techniques developed so far for its application to materials problems. Headings are:synchrotron radiation; X-ray techniques in synchrotron radiation (powder diffraction; X-ray scattering; EXAFS (Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure); X-ray fluorescent analysis; microradiography; white radiation topography; double crystal topography); future developments. (U.K.)

  1. Synchrotron radiation X-ray microfluorescence techniques

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Synchrotron X-ray imaging systems with fluorescence techniques was developed for biomedical researches in Brazilian Synchrotron Laboratory. An X-ray fluorescence microtomography system was implemented to analyse human prostate and breast samples and an X-ray microfluorescence system was implemented to ...

  2. Glancing angle synchrotron X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cernik, R J [Daresbury Lab., Warrington, WA (United States)

    1996-09-01

    This paper describes in basic detail some of the techniques that can be used to study thin films and surfaces. These are all in the X-ray region and cover reflectivity, diffraction form polycrystalline films, textured films and single crystal films. Other effects such as fluorescence and diffuse scattering are mentioned but not discussed in detail. Two examples of the reflectivity from multilayers and the diffraction from iron oxide films are discussed. The advantages of the synchrotron for these studies is stressed and the experimental geometries that can be employed are described i detail. A brief bibliography is provided at the end to accompany this part of the 1996 Frascati school.

  3. Glancing angle synchrotron X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cernik, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes in basic detail some of the techniques that can be used to study thin films and surfaces. These are all in the X-ray region and cover reflectivity, diffraction form polycrystalline films, textured films and single crystal films. Other effects such as fluorescence and diffuse scattering are mentioned but not discussed in detail. Two examples of the reflectivity from multilayers and the diffraction from iron oxide films are discussed. The advantages of the synchrotron for these studies is stressed and the experimental geometries that can be employed are described i detail. A brief bibliography is provided at the end to accompany this part of the 1996 Frascati school

  4. High peak current operation of x-ray free-electron laser multiple beam lines by suppressing coherent synchrotron radiation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Toru; Kondo, Chikara; Inagaki, Takahiro; Togawa, Kazuaki; Fukami, Kenji; Nakazawa, Shingo; Hasegawa, Taichi; Morimoto, Osamu; Yoshioka, Masamichi; Maesaka, Hirokazu; Otake, Yuji; Tanaka, Hitoshi

    2018-04-01

    The parallel operation of multiple beam lines is an important means to expand the opportunity of user experiments at x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) facilities. At SPring-8 Angstrom free-electron laser (SACLA), the multi-beam-line operation had been tested using two beam lines, but transverse coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) effects at a dogleg beam transport severely limited the laser performance. To suppress the CSR effects, a new beam optics based on two double bend achromat (DBA) structures was introduced for the dogleg. After the replacement of the beam optics, high peak current bunches of more than 10 kA are now stably transported through the dogleg and the laser pulse output is increased by a factor of 2-3. In the multi-beam-line operation of SACLA, the electron beam parameters, such as the beam energy and peak current, can be adjusted independently for each beam line. Thus the laser output can be optimized and wide spectral tunability is ensured for all beam lines.

  5. Measuring Cavitation with Synchrotron X-Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Daniel; Kastengren, Alan; Powell, Chris; X-Ray Fuel Spray Group, Energy Systems Division Team

    2012-11-01

    Cavitation plays an important role in the formation of sprays from small nozzles such as those found in fuel injection systems. A sharp-edged inlet from the sac into the nozzle of a diesel fuel injector is shown to inititate a strong sheet-like cavitation along the boundary layer of the nozzle throat, which is difficult to measure and can lead to acoustic damage. To investigate this phenomenon, a diagnostic technique capable of mapping the density field of the nozzle through regions of intense cavitation is required. Available visible-light techniques are limited to qualitative observations of the outer extent of cavitation zones. However, brilliant X-rays from a synchrotron source have negligible refraction and are capable of penetrating the full extent of cavitation zones. We present the early results of a novel application of line-of-sight, time-resolved X-ray radiography on a cavitating model nozzle. Experiments were conducted at Sector 7-BM of the Advanced Photon Source. Density and vapor distribution are measured from the quantitative absorption of monochromatic X-rays. The density field can then be tomographically reconstructed from the projections. The density is then validated against a range of compressible and incompressible numerical simulations. This research was performed at the 7-BM beamline of the Advanced Photon Source. We acknowledge the support of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357 and the DOE Vehicle Technologies Program (DOE-EERE).

  6. Diamond detectors for synchrotron radiation X-ray applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Sio, A. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, INFN, 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Universita di Firenze, L.go E. Fermi 2, 50125 Firenze (Italy)], E-mail: desio@arcetri.astro.it; Pace, E. [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Universita di Firenze, L.go E. Fermi 2, 50125 Firenze (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Firenze, v. G. Sansone 1, Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Cinque, G.; Marcelli, A. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, INFN, 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); Achard, J.; Tallaire, A. [LIMHP-CNRS, University of Paris XIII, 99 Avenue JB Clement, 93430 Villetaneuse (France)

    2007-07-15

    Due to its unique physical properties, diamond is a very appealing material for the development of electronic devices and sensors. Its wide band gap (5.5 eV) endows diamond based devices with low thermal noise, low dark current levels and, in the case of radiation detectors, high visible-to-X-ray signal discrimination (visible blindness) as well as high sensitivity to energies greater than the band gap. Furthermore, due to its radiation hardness diamond is very interesting for applications in extreme environments, or as monitor of high fluency radiation beams. In this work the use of diamond based detectors for X-ray sensing is discussed. On purpose, some photo-conductors based on different diamond types have been tested at the DAFNE-L synchrotron radiation laboratory at Frascati. X-ray sensitivity spectra, linearity and stability of the response of these diamond devices have been measured in order to evidence the promising performance of such devices.

  7. Diamond detectors for synchrotron radiation X-ray applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Sio, A.; Pace, E.; Cinque, G.; Marcelli, A.; Achard, J.; Tallaire, A.

    2007-01-01

    Due to its unique physical properties, diamond is a very appealing material for the development of electronic devices and sensors. Its wide band gap (5.5 eV) endows diamond based devices with low thermal noise, low dark current levels and, in the case of radiation detectors, high visible-to-X-ray signal discrimination (visible blindness) as well as high sensitivity to energies greater than the band gap. Furthermore, due to its radiation hardness diamond is very interesting for applications in extreme environments, or as monitor of high fluency radiation beams. In this work the use of diamond based detectors for X-ray sensing is discussed. On purpose, some photo-conductors based on different diamond types have been tested at the DAFNE-L synchrotron radiation laboratory at Frascati. X-ray sensitivity spectra, linearity and stability of the response of these diamond devices have been measured in order to evidence the promising performance of such devices

  8. An x-ray microprobe using focussing optics with a synchrotron radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, A.C.; Underwood, J.H.; Wu, Y.; Giauque, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    An x-ray microprobe can be used to produce maps of the concentration of elements in a sample. Synchrotron radiation provides x-ray beams with enough intensity and collimation to make possible elemental images with femtogram sensitivity. The use of focussing x-ray mirrors made from synthetic multilayers with a synchrotron x-ray beam allows beam spot sizes of less than 10 μm /times/ 10 μm to be produced. Since minimal sample preparation is required and a vacuum environment is not necessary, there will be a wide variety of applications for such microprobes. 8 refs., 6 figs

  9. Application of X-ray synchrotron microscopy instrumentation in biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasperini, F. M.; Pereira, G. R.; Granjeiro, J. M.; Calasans-Maia, M. D.; Rossi, A. M.; Perez, C. A.; Lopes, R. T.; Lima, I.

    2011-01-01

    X-ray micro-fluorescence imaging technique has been used as a significant tool in order to investigate minerals contents in some kinds of materials. The aim of this study was to evaluate the elemental distribution of calcium and zinc in bone substitute materials (nano-hydroxyapatite spheres) and cortical bones through X-Ray Micro-fluorescence analysis with the increment of Synchrotron Radiation in order to evaluate the characteristics of the newly formed bone and its interface, the preexisting bone and biomaterials by the arrangement of collagen fibers and its birefringence. The elemental mapping was carried out at Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory, Campinas - Sao Paulo, Brazil working at D09-XRF beam line. Based on this study, the results suggest that hydroxyapatite-based biomaterials are biocompatible, promote osteo-conduction and favored bone repair. (authors)

  10. Historical development of synchrotron x-ray diffraction topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawado, Seiji

    2011-01-01

    After a short history of X-ray diffraction topography, from the early stage of laboratory X-ray topography to recent synchrotron-radiation applications, is described, the development of science and technology for the synchrotron X-ray topography and its industrial applications are reviewed in more detail. In addition, the recent trend to synchrotron topography research is clarified on the basis of several data obtained from 256 papers which have been published since 2000. (author)

  11. Stress evaluation in thin films: Micro-focus synchrotron X-ray diffraction combined with focused ion beam patterning for d{sub o} evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baimpas, Nikolaos, E-mail: nikolaos.baimpas@eng.ox.ac.uk [University of Oxford, Dept. of Engineering Science (United Kingdom); Le Bourhis, Eric [University of Poitiers, Institut P' , Laboratoire de Physique des Matériaux, Poitiers (France); Eve, Sophie [ENSICAEN, CRISMAT, Caen (France); Thiaudière, Dominique [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L' Orme des Merisiers Saint-Aubin, Paris (France); Hardie, Christopher [University of Oxford, Materials Department (United Kingdom); Korsunsky, Alexander M. [University of Oxford, Dept. of Engineering Science (United Kingdom)

    2013-12-31

    Nanocrystalline metallic coatings of sub-micron thickness are widely used in modern microelectronic applications. In X-ray diffraction experiments to determine both the residual and applied stresses in nanocrystalline coatings, one difficult challenge that comes up invariably is the determination of the strain-free lattice spacing d{sub o}. The present study addresses this challenge by using the focused ion beam (FIB) to generate a built-in strain-free reference by patterning (milling) a 50 × 50 μm{sup 2} region of the coating to produce an array of small stress-relieved “islands” ∼ 0.8 × 0.8 μm{sup 2} each. Transmission X-ray diffraction setup was used for data collection at DIFFABS beamline (Synchrotron SOLEIL, France). A 150 nm-thick multi-layered W–Cu nano-composite thin film on polyimide (Kapton®) substrate was studied. The samples were loaded incrementally using a compact uniaxial loading device, and micro-beam diffraction data were collected on and away from the reference array. It was shown experimentally that the “island” array remained approximately strain free throughout the experiment, providing an on-board d{sub o} lattice spacing reference. The changing lattice spacing d in the coating was also monitored away from the array, to deduce the elastic strain evolution during deformation. The results and their implications are presented and discussed. - Highlights: • In situ deformation study of laminate polycrystalline W–Cu thin films • Focused ion beam (FIB) patterning of an array of “islands” on thin films surface • X-ray diffraction on island-patterned region • Constant strain on “islands” independently of the deformation of the substrate.

  12. The application of synchrotron radiation to X-ray lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiller, E.; Eastman, D.E.; Feder, R.; Grobman, W.D.; Gudat, W.; Topalian, J.

    1976-06-01

    Synchrotron radiation from the German electron synchrotron DESY in Hamburg has been used for X-ray lithograpgy. Replications of different master patterns (for magnetic bubble devices, fresnel zone plates, etc.) were made using various wavelengths and exposures. High quality lines down to 500 A wide have been reproduced using very soft X-rays. The sensitivities of X-ray resists have been evaluated over a wide range of exposures. Various critical factors (heating, radiation damage, etc.) involved with X-ray lithography using synchrotron radiation have been studied. General considerations of storage ring sources designed as radiation sources for X-ray lithography are discussed, together with a comparison with X-ray tube sources. The general conclusion is that X-ray lithography using synchrotron radiation offers considerable promise as a process for forming high quality sub-micron images with exposure times as short as a few seconds. (orig.) [de

  13. Quantitative X-ray microtomography with synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donath, T. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Materialforschung

    2007-07-01

    Synchrotron-radiation-based computed microtomography (SR{sub {mu}}CT) is an established method for the examination of volume structures. It allows to measure the x-ray attenuation coefficient of a specimen three-dimensionally with a spatial resolution of about one micrometer. In contrast to conventional x-ray sources (x-ray tubes), the unique properties of synchrotron radiation enable quantitative measurements that do not suffer from beam-hardening artifacts. During this work the capabilities for quantitative SR{sub {mu}}CT measurements have been further improved by enhancements that were made to the SR{sub {mu}}CT apparatus and to the reconstruction chain. For high-resolution SR{sub {mu}}CT an x-ray camera consisting of luminescent screen (x-ray phosphor), lens system, and CCD camera was used. A significant suppression of blur that is caused by reflections inside the luminescent screen could be achieved by application of an absorbing optical coating to the screen surface. It is shown that blur and ring artifacts in the tomographic reconstructions are thereby drastically reduced. Furthermore, a robust and objective method for the determination of the center of rotation in projection data (sinograms) is presented that achieves sub-pixel precision. By implementation of this method into the reconstruction chain, complete automation of the reconstruction process has been achieved. Examples of quantitative SR{sub {mu}}CT studies conducted at the Hamburger Synchrotronstrahlungslabor HASYLAB at the Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY are presented and used for the demonstration of the achieved enhancements. (orig.)

  14. On the properties of synchrotron-like X-ray emission from laser wakefield accelerated electron beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuffey, C.; Schumaker, W.; Matsuoka, T.; Chvykov, V.; Dollar, F.; Kalintchenko, G.; Kneip, S.; Najmudin, Z.; Mangles, S. P. D.; Vargas, M.; Yanovsky, V.; Maksimchuk, A.; Thomas, A. G. R.; Krushelnick, K.

    2018-04-01

    The electric and magnetic fields responsible for electron acceleration in a Laser Wakefield Accelerator (LWFA) also cause electrons to radiate x-ray photons. Such x-ray pulses have several desirable properties including short duration and being well collimated with tunable high energy. We measure the scaling of this x-ray source experimentally up to laser powers greater than 100 TW. An increase in laser power allows electron trapping at a lower density as well as with an increased trapped charge. These effects resulted in an x-ray fluence that was measured to increase non-linearly with laser power. The fluence of x-rays was also compared with that produced from K-α emission resulting from a solid target interaction for the same energy laser pulse. The flux was shown to be comparable, but the LWFA x-rays had a significantly smaller source size. This indicates that such a source may be useful as a backlighter for probing high energy density plasmas with ultrafast temporal resolution.

  15. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction using triple-axis spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Als-Nielsen, J.

    1980-12-01

    High resolution X-ray diffraction studies of (i) monolayers of the noble gases Kr and Ar physiosorbed on graphite (ii) smectic A fluctuations in the nematic and the smectic A phases of liquid crystals are described. The apparatus used is a triple axis spectrometer situated at the storage ring DORIS at Hasylab, DESY, Hamburg. A monochromatic, well collimated beam is extracted from the synchrotron radiation spectrum by Bragg reflection from perfect Si or Ge crystals. The direction of the beam scattered from the sample is determined by Bragg reflection from a perfect Si or Ge crystal. High intensities even with resolution extending beyond the wavelength of visible light can be obtained. (Auth.)

  16. Fast synchrotron X-ray tomography study of the rod packing structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Xiaodan; Xia Chengjie; Sun Haohua; Wang Yujie [Department of Physics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dong Chuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2013-06-18

    We present a fast synchrotron X-ray tomography study of the packing structures of rods under tapping. Utilizing the high flux of the X-rays generated from the third-generation synchrotron source, we can complete a tomography scan within several seconds, after which the three-dimensional (3D) packing structure can be obtained for the subsequent structural analysis. Due to the high-energy nature of the X-ray beam, special image processing steps including image phase-retrieval has been implemented. Overall, this study suggests the possibility of acquiring statistically significant static packing structures within a reasonable time scale using high-intensity X-ray sources.

  17. Characterization of Polycrystalline Materials Using Synchrotron X-ray Imaging and Diffraction Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ludwig, Wolfgang; King, A.; Herbig, M.

    2010-01-01

    The combination of synchrotron radiation x-ray imaging and diffraction techniques offers new possibilities for in-situ observation of deformation and damage mechanisms in the bulk of polycrystalline materials. Minute changes in electron density (i.e., cracks, porosities) can be detected using...... propagation based phase contrast imaging, a 3-D imaging mode exploiting the coherence properties of third generation synchrotron beams. Furthermore, for some classes of polycrystalline materials, one may use a 3-D variant of x-ray diffraction imaging, termed x-ray diffraction contrast tomography. X-ray...

  18. Study of moire fringes using synchrotron X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, Jun-ichi

    1992-01-01

    It has recently been shown that X-ray moire fringes are not exactly the projection of the intensity distribution of the wave field on the exit surface of the crystal, but do oscillate along the beam path behind the crystal. Such nonprojectiveness of moire fringes is inexplicable by the conventional understanding of moire fringes, and therefore is of interest from a fundamental viewpoint as well as practical one. In this paper the phenomena of the nonprojectiveness are described on the basis of the latest experimental data obtained by synchrotron radiation. (author)

  19. Thermal management of next-generation contact-cooled synchrotron x-ray mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khounsary, A.

    1999-10-29

    In the past decade, several third-generation synchrotrons x-ray sources have been constructed and commissioned around the world. Many of the major problems in the development and design of the optical components capable of handling the extremely high heat loads of the generated x-ray beams have been resolved. It is expected, however, that in the next few years even more powerful x-ray beams will be produced at these facilities, for example, by increasing the particle beam current. In this paper, the design of a next generation of synchrotron x-ray mirrors is discussed. The author shows that the design of contact-cooled mirrors capable of handing x-ray beam heat fluxes in excess of 500 W/mm{sup 2} - or more than three times the present level - is well within reach, and the limiting factor is the thermal stress rather then thermally induced slope error.

  20. Optoelectronic Picosecond Detection of Synchrotron X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durbin, Stephen M. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2017-08-04

    The goal of this research program was to develop a detector that would measure x-ray time profiles with picosecond resolution. This was specifically aimed for use at x-ray synchrotrons, where x-ray pulse profiles have Gaussian time spreads of 50-100 ps (FWHM), so the successful development of such a detector with picosecond resolution would permit x-ray synchrotron studies to break through the pulse width barrier. That is, synchrotron time-resolved studies are currently limited to pump-probe studies that cannot reveal dynamics faster than ~50 ps, whereas the proposed detector would push this into the physically important 1 ps domain. The results of this research effort, described in detail below, are twofold: 1) the original plan to rely on converting electronic signals from a semiconductor sensor into an optical signal proved to be insufficient for generating signals with the necessary time resolution and sensitivity to be widely applicable; and 2) an all-optical method was discovered whereby the x-rays are directly absorbed in an optoelectronic material, lithium tantalate, which can then be probed by laser pulses with the desired picosecond sensitivity for detection of synchrotron x-rays. This research program has also produced new fundamental understanding of the interaction of x-rays and optical lasers in materials that has now created a viable path for true picosecond detection of synchrotron x-rays.

  1. Time-resolved materials science opportunities using synchrotron x-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, B.C.; Tischler, J.Z.

    1995-06-01

    The high brightness, high intensity, and pulsed time-structure of synchrotron sources provide new opportunities for time-resolved x-ray diffraction investigations. With third generation synchrotron sources coming on line, high brilliance and high brightness are now available in x-ray beams with the highest flux. In addition to the high average flux, the instantaneous flux available in synchrotron beams is greatly enhanced by the pulsed time structure, which consists of short bursts of x-rays that are separated by ∼tens to hundreds of nanoseconds. Time-resolved one- and two-dimensional position sensitive detection techniques that take advantage of synchrotron radiation for materials science x-ray diffraction investigations are presented, and time resolved materials science applications are discussed in terms of recent diffraction and spectroscopy results and materials research opportunities

  2. X-ray fluorescence imaging with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivers, M.L.

    1987-01-01

    The micro-distribution of trace elements is of great interest in fields such as geochemistry, biology and material science. The synchrotron x-ray fluorescence microprobe provides a technique to quantitatively measure trace element compositions at individual points and to construct semiquantitative two dimensional maps of trace element compositions. This paper describes an x-ray fluorescence system used at the National Synchrotron Light Source

  3. Measurement of spherical compound refractive X-ray lens at ANKA synchrotron radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudchik, Yu.I.; Simon, R.; Baumbach, T.

    2007-01-01

    Parameters of compound refractive X-ray lens were measured at ANKA synchrotron radiation source. The lens consists of 224 spherical concave epoxy microlenses formed inside glass capillary. The curvature radius of individual microlens is equal to 100 microns. Measured were: X-ray focal spot, lens focal length and gain in intensity. The energy of X-ray beam was equal to 12 keV and 14 keV. It is shown that when X-ray lens is used, the gain in intensity of the X-ray beam in some cases may exceed value of 100. Tested lens is suitable to focus X-rays into, at least, 2-microns in size spot. (authors)

  4. A synchrotron radiation facility for x-ray astronomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, C.J.; Lewis, R.A.; Christensen, Finn Erland

    1997-01-01

    A proposal for an x-ray optics test facility based at a synchrotron radiation source is presented. The facility would incorporate a clean preparation area, and a large evacuable test area. The advantages of using a synchrotron as the source of the test radiation are discussed. These include the a...

  5. Beam dynamics simulation in the X-ray Compton source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gladkikh, P.; Karnaukhov, I.; Telegin, Yu.; Shcherbakov, A. E-mail: shcherbakov@kipt.kharkov.ua; Zelinsky, A

    2002-05-01

    At the National Science Center 'Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology' the X-ray source based on Compton scattering has been developed. The computer code for simulation of electron beam dynamics with taking into account the Compton scattering effect based on Monte Carlo method is described in this report. The first results of computer simulation of beam dynamics with electron-photon interaction, parameters of electron and photon beams are presented. Calculations were carried out with the lattice of synchrotron light source SRS-800 Ukrainian Synchrotron Center.

  6. Beam dynamics simulation in the X-ray Compton source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladkikh, P.; Karnaukhov, I.; Telegin, Yu.; Shcherbakov, A.; Zelinsky, A.

    2002-01-01

    At the National Science Center 'Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology' the X-ray source based on Compton scattering has been developed. The computer code for simulation of electron beam dynamics with taking into account the Compton scattering effect based on Monte Carlo method is described in this report. The first results of computer simulation of beam dynamics with electron-photon interaction, parameters of electron and photon beams are presented. Calculations were carried out with the lattice of synchrotron light source SRS-800 Ukrainian Synchrotron Center

  7. Beam dynamics simulation in the X-ray Compton source

    CERN Document Server

    Gladkikh, P; Telegin, Yu P; Shcherbakov, A; Zelinsky, A

    2002-01-01

    At the National Science Center 'Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology' the X-ray source based on Compton scattering has been developed. The computer code for simulation of electron beam dynamics with taking into account the Compton scattering effect based on Monte Carlo method is described in this report. The first results of computer simulation of beam dynamics with electron-photon interaction, parameters of electron and photon beams are presented. Calculations were carried out with the lattice of synchrotron light source SRS-800 Ukrainian Synchrotron Center.

  8. Application of X-rays and Synchrotron X Rays to Residual Stress Evaluation Near Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyzalla, Anke

    1999-01-01

    A nondestructive residual stress analysis can be performed using diffraction methods. The easiest accessible radiation is characteristic X radiation that has a penetration depth of ∼10 microm suitable for the determination of the residual stresses in near-surface layers. Special techniques have been developed, e.g., with respect to in situ analyses of the stress state in oxide layers and the residual stress analysis in coarse grained zones of steel welds or annealed Ni-base alloys. Depending on the size of the gauge volume, neutron diffraction can provide information at depths of tens of millimetres of steel and many tens of millimetres of Al. An alternative to the use of the characteristic synchrotron radiation is the use of a high-energy polychromatic beam in an energy dispersive arrangement, which gives access to higher penetration depths at still gauge volumes as small as 100 microm x 100 microm x 1 mm in steel rods of 15-mm diameter. The combination of neutrons with conventional X rays and monochromatic and polychromatic synchrotron radiation allows for a comprehensive investigation of the phase composition, the texture, and the residual stresses

  9. X-ray diffraction using synchrotron radiation on the G.I.L.D.A. beam line at the E.S.R.F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balerna, A [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy); Meneghini, C [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy); [INFM, Genoa (Italy); Bordoni, S [Rome Univ. ` Tor Vergata` (Italy). Dip. di Fisica; Mobilio, S [Rome Univ. III (Italy). Dip. di Fisica ` E. Amaldi`

    1996-09-01

    The aim of this lecture is to make a short introduction on Synchrotron radiation, its history and main properties. The main components of a synchrotron radiation beam line will be described. The Italian beam line, General purpose Italian beam line Line for Diffraction and Absorption (G.I.L.D.A.) at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (E.S.R.F.) in Grenoble will be used as an example. The G.I.L.D.A. diffractometer will be described in detail reporting also some experimental results.

  10. Synchrotron X-ray induced solution precipitation of nanoparticles

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, H J; Hwu, Y; Tsai, W L

    2003-01-01

    By irradiating a solution in electroless Ni deposition using synchrotron X-rays, Ni composite was found to nucleate homogeneously and eventually precipitate in the form of nanoparticles. The size of the nanoparticles precipitated is rather uniform (100-300 nm depending on the applied temperature). By the addition of an organic acid, well-dispersed nanoparticles could be effectively deposited on glass substrate. The hydrated electrons (e sub a sub q sup -), products of radiolysis of water molecules by synchrotron X-rays, may be responsible for the effective reduction of the metal ions, resulting in homogeneous nucleation and nanoparticle formation. Our results suggest that synchrotron X-ray can be used to induce solution precipitation of nanoparticles and therefore lead to a new method of producing nanostructured particles and coating.

  11. 3D synchrotron x-ray microtomography of paint samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Ester S. B.; Boon, Jaap J.; van der Horst, Jerre; Scherrer, Nadim C.; Marone, Federica; Stampanoni, Marco

    2009-07-01

    Synchrotron based X-ray microtomography is a novel way to examine paint samples. The three dimensional distribution of pigment particles, binding media and their deterioration products as well as other features such as voids, are made visible in their original context through a computing environment without the need of physical sectioning. This avoids manipulation related artefacts. Experiments on paint chips (approximately 500 micron wide) were done on the TOMCAT beam line (TOmographic Microscopy and Coherent rAdiology experimenTs) at the Paul Scherrer Institute in Villigen, CH, using an x-ray energy of up to 40 keV. The x-ray absorption images are obtained at a resolution of 350 nm. The 3D dataset was analysed using the commercial 3D imaging software Avizo 5.1. Through this process, virtual sections of the paint sample can be obtained in any orientation. One of the topics currently under research are the ground layers of paintings by Cuno Amiet (1868- 1961), one of the most important Swiss painters of classical modernism, whose early work is currently the focus of research at the Swiss Institute for Art Research (SIK-ISEA). This technique gives access to information such as sample surface morphology, porosity, particle size distribution and even particle identification. In the case of calcium carbonate grounds for example, features like microfossils present in natural chalks, can be reconstructed and their species identified, thus potentially providing information towards the mineral origin. One further elegant feature of this technique is that a target section can be selected within the 3D data set, before exposing it to obtain chemical data. Virtual sections can then be compared with cross sections of the same samples made in the traditional way.

  12. Magnetic X-Ray Scattering with Synchrotron Radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moncton, D. E.; Gibbs, D.; Bohr, Jakob

    1986-01-01

    With the availability of high-brilliance synchrotron radiation from multiple wigglers, magnetic X-ray scattering has become a powerful new probe of magnetic structure and phase transitions. Similar to the well-established magnetic neutron scattering technique, magnetic X-ray scattering methods have...... many complementary advantages. A brief review is presented of the history of magnetic X-ray scattering as well as recent results obtained in studies of the rare-earth magnet holmium with emphasis on instrumentational aspects. In particular, the development of a simple polarization analyzer...... to distinguish charge and magnetic scattering is described....

  13. Performances of synchrotron radiation microbeam focused by monolithic half focusing polycapillary X-ray lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Tianxi; Liu Zhiguo; He Bo; Wei Shiqiang; Xie Yaning; Liu Tao; Hu Tiandou; Ding Xunliang

    2007-01-01

    A monolithic half focusing polycapillary X-ray lens (MHFPXRL) composed of 289,000 capillaries is used to produce a synchrotron radiation microbeam. The energy dependence of the output focal distance, focal spot size, transmission efficiency, vertical beam position, and gain in flux density of this microbeam is studied in detail. There is a slight change in the output focal distance of the MHFPXRL when the X-ray energies change

  14. Ultra-high vacuum compatible optical chopper system for synchrotron x-ray scanning tunneling microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Hao, E-mail: hc000211@ohio.edu [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Nanoscale and Quantum Phenomena Institute, Physics & Astronomy Department, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio 45701 (United States); Cummings, Marvin; Shirato, Nozomi; Stripe, Benjamin; Preissner, Curt; Freeland, John W. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Rosenmann, Daniel [Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Kersell, Heath; Hla, Saw-Wai [Nanoscale and Quantum Phenomena Institute, Physics & Astronomy Department, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio 45701 (United States); Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Rose, Volker, E-mail: vrose@anl.gov [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2016-01-28

    High-speed beam choppers are a crucial part of time-resolved x-ray studies as well as a necessary component to enable elemental contrast in synchrotron x-ray scanning tunneling microscopy (SX-STM). However, many chopper systems are not capable of operation in vacuum, which restricts their application to x-ray studies with high photon energies, where air absorption does not present a significant problem. To overcome this limitation, we present a fully ultra-high vacuum (UHV) compatible chopper system capable of operating at variable chopping frequencies up to 4 kHz. The lightweight aluminum chopper disk is coated with Ti and Au films to provide the required beam attenuation for soft and hard x-rays with photon energies up to about 12 keV. The chopper is used for lock-in detection of x-ray enhanced signals in SX-STM.

  15. X-ray optics, a vital aspect of work with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilderback, D.H.

    1986-01-01

    The kind of optical components that have been developed over the centuries to make use of visible light won't work for x-rays. New ways must be found to manipulate the much shorter-wavelength x-ray beams to produce effects similar to those achieved with such familiar devices as mirrors, lenses, prisms, and gratings. This is the province of the field of x-ray optics. One challenge is to design optical elements that can focus, disperse, or reflect beams in the x-ray region of the electromagnetic spectrum, where wavelengths are about a thousand times shorter than those in the region of visible light. A second problem is encountered in using the intense, high-energy x-radiation from a synchrotron: how to make the desired beam accessible to a user who is conducting an experiment in a shielded enclosure many meters away from the synchrotron storage ring. Depending on the application, one might want to pick out a single wavelength from the broad spectrum available from the synchrotron, or isolate a narrow band of wavelengths. Then the beam must be collimated. When samples to be exposed are of millimeter dimension or smaller, it may be desirable to increase the intensity by focusing the x-ray beam horizontally and vertically. All these manipulations are analogous to those done with visible light, but the shape and form of the optical components can be quite different

  16. Scintillator materials for x-ray detectors and beam monitors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Martin, T.; Koch, A.; Nikl, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 6 (2017), s. 451-456 ISSN 0883-7694 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-15569S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : scintillator * X-ray detector * beam monitor * synchrotron * thin film Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 5.199, year: 2016

  17. Actinide science with soft x-ray synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuh, D.

    2002-01-01

    Several workshops, some dating back more than fifteen years, recognised both the potential scientific impact and opportunities that would be made available by the capability to investigate actinide materials in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV)/soft X-ray region of the synchrotron radiation (SR) spectrum. This spectral region revolutionized the approach to surface materials chemistry and physics nearly two decades ego. The actinide science community was unable to capitalize on these SR methodologies for the study of actinide materials until recently because of radiological safety concerns. ,The Advanced Light Source (ALS) at LBNL is a third-generation light source providing state-of-the-art performance in the VUV/soft X-ray region. Along with corresponding improvements in detector and vacuum technology, the ALS has rendered experiments with small amounts of actinide materials possible. In particular, it has been the emergence and development of micro-spectroscopic techniques that have enabled investigations of actinide materials at the ALS. The primary methods for the experimental investigation of actinide materials in the VUV/soft X-ray region are the complementary photoelectron spectroscopies, near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) and X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) techniques. Resonant photo-emission is capable of resolving the 5f electron contributions to actinide bonding and can be used to characterise the electronic structure of actinide materials. This technique is clearly a most important methodology afforded by the tunable SR source. Core level and valence band photoelectron spectroscopies are valuable for the characterisation of the electronic properties of actinide materials, as well as for general analytical purposes. High-resolution core-level photo-emission and resonant photo-emission measurements from the a (monoclinic) and δ (FCC) allotropic phases of plutonium metal have been collected on beam line 7.0 at the ALS and the spectra show

  18. Soft X-ray diffractometer for synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Gau, T S; Liu, K Y; Chung, C H; Chen, C K; Lai, S C; Shu, C H; Huang, Y S; Chao, C H; Lee, Y R; Chen, C T; Chang, S L

    2001-01-01

    An ultra-high vacuum soft X-ray diffractometer has been constructed and commissioned at the Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (SRRC) to investigate materials structures in mesoscale. The diffractometer, housed in a UHV tank, consists of a 6-circle goniometer, together with the systems for beam-collimation, signal detection, vacuum, and control panels. The kappa-phi (cursive,open) Greek-psi goniostat is adopted for the sample orientation. Crystal samples can be rotated along a given reciprocal lattice vector by using psi scan. Two orthogonal axes, gamma (or 2 theta) and delta, are used to move the detector. The detector is a semiconductor pin diode, which can be used in UHV ambient. This 6-circle goniometer allows for sample scanning of a wide range in the momentum space. The motors used for goniometer rotation and slit selection are UHV compatible. The UHV tank is placed on an XYZ table capable of positioning the center of the goniometer onto the incident beam. Test experiments have been carried on the 1-...

  19. Geoscience Applications of Synchrotron X-ray Computed Microtomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, M. L.

    2009-05-01

    Computed microtomography is the extension to micron spatial resolution of the CAT scanning technique developed for medical imaging. Synchrotron sources are ideal for the method, since they provide a monochromatic, parallel beam with high intensity. High energy storage rings such as the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory produce x-rays with high energy, high brilliance, and high coherence. All of these factors combine to produce an extremely powerful imaging tool for earth science research. Techniques that have been developed include: - Absorption and phase contrast computed tomography with spatial resolution approaching one micron - Differential contrast computed tomography, imaging above and below the absorption edge of a particular element - High-pressure tomography, imaging inside a pressure cell at pressures above 10GPa - High speed radiography, with 100 microsecond temporal resolution - Fluorescence tomography, imaging the 3-D distribution of elements present at ppm concentrations. - Radiographic strain measurements during deformation at high confining pressure, combined with precise x- ray diffraction measurements to determine stress. These techniques have been applied to important problems in earth and environmental sciences, including: - The 3-D distribution of aqueous and organic liquids in porous media, with applications in contaminated groundwater and petroleum recovery. - The kinetics of bubble formation in magma chambers, which control explosive volcanism. - Accurate crystal size distributions in volcanic systems, important for understanding the evolution of magma chambers. - The equation-of-state of amorphous materials at high pressure using both direct measurements of volume as a function of pressure and also by measuring the change x-ray absorption coefficient as a function of pressure. - The formation of frost flowers on Arctic sea-ice, which is important in controlling the atmospheric chemistry of mercury. - The distribution of

  20. Beryllium window flange for synchrotron radiation X-ray beamline fabricated by hot isostatic press method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asaoka, Seiji; Maezawa, Hideki; Nishida, Kiyotoshi; Sakamoto, Naoki.

    1995-01-01

    The synchrotron radiation experimental facilities in National Laboratory for High Energy Physics are the experimental facilities for joint utilization, that possess the positron storage ring of 2.5 GeV exclusively used for synchrotron radiation. Synchrotron radiation is led through a mainstay beam channel to the laboratory, and in the beam line of X-ray, it is used for experiment through the taking-out window made of beryllium. At this time, the function of the taking-out window is to shut off between the ultrahigh vacuum in the mainstay beam channel and the atmosphere, and to cut the low energy component of synchrotron radiation spectra. The experiment using X-ray is carried out mostly in the atmosphere. The design of the efficient cooling water channel which is compatible with the flange construction is important under the high thermal load of synchrotron radiation. The beryllium window flange for synchrotron radiation X-ray was made by HIP method, and the ultrahigh vacuum test, the high pressure water flow test and the actual machine test were carried out by heat cycle. The properties required for the window material, the requirement of the construction, the new development of HIP method, and the experiments for evaluating the manufactured beryllium window are described. (K.I.)

  1. High-energy synchrotron X-ray radiography of shock-compressed materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Michael E.; Chapman, David J.; Collinson, Mark A.; Jones, David R.; Music, Jasmina; Stafford, Samuel J. P.; Tear, Gareth R.; White, Thomas G.; Winters, John B. R.; Drakopoulos, Michael; Eakins, Daniel E.

    2015-06-01

    This presentation will discuss the development and application of a high-energy (50 to 250 keV) synchrotron X-ray imaging method to study shock-compressed, high-Z samples at Beamline I12 at the Diamond Light Source synchrotron (Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory, UK). Shock waves are driven into materials using a portable, single-stage gas gun designed by the Institute of Shock Physics. Following plate impact, material deformation is probed in-situ by white-beam X-ray radiography and complimentary velocimetry diagnostics. The high energies, large beam size (13 x 13 mm), and appreciable sample volumes (~ 1 cm3) viable for study at Beamline I12 compliment existing in-house pulsed X-ray capabilities and studies at the Dynamic Compression Sector. The authors gratefully acknowledge the ongoing support of Imperial College London, EPSRC, STFC and the Diamond Light Source, and AWE Plc.

  2. Real world issues for the new soft x-ray synchrotron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kincaid, B.M.

    1991-05-01

    A new generation of synchrotron radiation light sources covering the VUV, soft x-ray and hard x-ray spectral regions is under construction in several countries. They are designed specifically to use periodic magnetic undulators and low-emittance electron or positron beams to produce high-brightness near-diffraction-limited synchrotron radiation beams. An introduction to the properties of undulator radiation is followed by a discussion of some of the challenges to be faced at the new facilities. Examples of predicted undulator output from the Advanced Light Source, a third generation 1--2 GeV storage ring optimized for undulator use, are used to highlight differences from present synchrotron radiation sources, including high beam power, partial coherence, harmonics, and other unusual spectral and angular properties of undulator radiation. 8 refs., 2 figs

  3. Synchrotron X-ray PIV Technique for Measurement of Blood Flow Velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Guk Bae; Lee, Sang Joon; Je, Jung Ho

    2007-01-01

    Synchrotron X-ray micro-imaging method has been used to observe internal structures of various organisms, industrial devices, and so on. However, it is not suitable to see internal flows inside a structure because tracers typically employed in conventional optical flow visualization methods cannot be detectable with the X-ray micro-imaging method. On the other hand, a PIV (particle image velocimetry) method which has recently been accepted as a reliable quantitative flow visualization technique can extract lots of flow information by applying digital image processing techniques However, it is not applicable to opaque fluids such as blood. In this study, we combined the PIV method and the synchrotron X-ray micro-imaging technique to compose a new X-ray PIV technique. Using the X-ray PIV technique, we investigated the optical characteristics of blood for a coherent synchrotron X-ray beam and quantitatively visualized real blood flows inside an opaque tube without any contrast media. The velocity field information acquired would be helpful for investigating hemorheologic characteristics of the blood flow

  4. X-ray stress measurement by use of synchrotron radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, Yasuo; Matsui, Hisaaki; Moro-oka, Toshimasa; Hasegawa, Ken-ichi; Nakajima, Tetsuo.

    1986-01-01

    In the field of X-ray stress measurement of polycrystalline materials, a diffraction plane at higher Bragg angle has to be selected in order to obtain the precise value of stress. However, the stress measurement on an optional (hkl) plane desired is not always possible because the X-ray beam exited from a metal target has a dispersive wave length. Recently, we have been able to use the synchrotron radiation source (SR) as an excellent X-ray source. In Japan, the facility of synchrotron radiation (Photon Factory, PF) was constructed in the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics (KEK) at Tsukuba academic city. The use of this SR enables the stress measurements on many (hkl) planes with high accuracy in the higher Bragg angle region by providing an X-ray beam having an optional wave length. We have started the X-ray stress analysis by use of the synchrotron radiation source. This paper reports the system of measurement and some results of preliminaly experiments. Since a monochromatic X-ray beam is required for the stress measurement, we used a beam line which consists of a double crystal monochrometer and a focusing mirror. X-rays between 4 KeV (λ = 0.31 nm) and 10 KeV (λ = 0.12 nm) are available with this optical system. We adopted a constant Bragg angle of 2θ = 154 deg for all the diffraction planes. A PSPC having a carbon fiber anode is made and used as a detector with the use of a fast digital signal processor. We could observe the diffraction profiles from (200), (211), (220), (310) and (321) crystal plane of alpha iron, respectively, and the residual stresses in these planes except the (200) plane were measured with high accuracy in a short time. Such feature especially suits the stress analysis of the material which has preferred orientation or stress gradient. (author)

  5. Synchrotron x-ray reflectivity study of oxidation/passivation of copper and silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Y.; Nagy, Z.; Parkhutik, V.; You, H.

    1999-01-01

    Synchrotron x-ray-scattering technique studies of copper and silicon electrochemical interfaces are reported. These two examples illustrate the application of synchrotron x-ray techniques for oxidation, passivation, and dissolution of metals and semiconductors

  6. Synchrotron x-ray reflectivity study of oxidation/passivation of copper and silicon.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Y.; Nagy, Z.; Parkhutik, V.; You, H.

    1999-07-21

    Synchrotron x-ray-scattering technique studies of copper and silicon electrochemical interfaces are reported. These two examples illustrate the application of synchrotron x-ray techniques for oxidation, passivation, and dissolution of metals and semiconductors.

  7. Soft X-ray microscopy and lithography with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudat, W.

    1977-12-01

    Considerable progress in the technique microscopy with soft X-ray radiation has been achieved in particular through the application of synchrotron radiation. Various methods which are currently being studied theoretically or already being used practically will be described briefly. Attention is focussed on the method of contact microscopy. Various biological specimens have been investigated by this method with a resolution as good as 100 A. X-ray lithography which in the technical procedure is very similar to contact microscopy gives promise for the fabrication of high quality submicron structures in electronic device production. Important factors limiting the resolution and determining the performance of contact microscopy and X-ray lithography will be discussed. (orig.) [de

  8. Performance of the IBM synchrotron X-ray source for lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archie, C.

    1993-01-01

    The compact superconducting synchrotron X-ray source at the IBM Advanced Lithography Facility in East Fishkill, New York has been in service to customers since the start of 1992. It availability during scheduled time is greater than 90%, with recent months frequently surpassing 95%. Data on the long-term behavior of the X-ray source properties and subsystem performance are now available. The full system continues to meet all specifications and even to surpass them in key areas. Measured electron beam properties such as beam size, short- and long-term positional stability, and beam life are presented. Lifetimes greater than 20 hours for typical stored beams have significantly simplified operations and increased availability compared to projections. This paper also describes some unique features of this X-ray source and goes beyond a discussion of downtime to describe the efforts behind the scenes to maintain and operate it

  9. Applications of synchrotron X-rays in microelectronics industry research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan-Sweet, Jean L.; Detavernier, Christophe; Lavoie, Christian; Mooney, Patricia M.; Toney, Michael F.

    2005-01-01

    The high flux and density of X-rays produced at synchrotrons provide the microelectronics industry with a powerful probe of the structure and behavior of a wide array of solid materials that are being developed for use in devices of the future. They also are of great use in determining why currently-used materials and processes sometimes fail. This paper describes the X20 X-ray beamline facility operated by IBM at the National Synchrotron Light Source, and presents a series of three industry challenges and results that illustrate the variety of techniques used and problems addressed. The value of this research ranges from solving short-term, technically specific problems to increasing our academic understanding of materials in general. Techniques discussed include high-resolution diffraction, time-resolved diffraction, texture measurements, and grazing-incidence diffraction

  10. Development of compact synchrotron light source LUNA for x-ray lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, M.; Mandai, S.; Hoshi, Y.; Kohno, Y.

    1992-01-01

    A compact synchrotron light source LUNA has been developed by Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd. (IHI), especially for x-ray lithography. It consists of a 45-MeV linac as an electron injector and an 800-MeV synchrotron. The peak wavelength of synchrotron radiation is around 10 A. The installation of LUNA was completed in April 1989 at the Tsuchiura Facility of IHI. The synchrotron radiation was first observed in December 1989. A stored beam current of 50 mA at 800 MeV and a lifetime over 1 h have been achieved. At present, experiments are still continuing to increase the stored current and the lifetime. X-ray lithography testing is scheduled to begin in a clean room in this facility. This paper describes the outline of LUNA and the present status

  11. Effects of synchrotron radiation spectrum energy on polymethyl methacrylate photosensitivity to deep x-ray lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mekaru, Harutaka; Utsumi, Yuichi; Hattori, Tadashi

    2003-01-01

    Since X-ray lithography requires a high photon flux to achieve deep resist exposure, a synchrotron radiation beam, which is not monochromatized, is generally used as a light source. If the synchrotron radiation beam is monochromatized, photon flux will decrease rapidly. Because of this reason, the wavelength dependence of the resist sensitivity has not been investigated for deep X-ray lithography. Measuring the spectrum of a white beam with a Si solid-state detector (SSD) is difficult because a white beam has a high intensity and an SSD has a high sensitivity. We were able to measure the spectrum and the photocurrent of a white beam from a beam line used for deep X-ray lithography by keeping the ring current below 0.05 mA. We evaluated the characteristics of the output beam based on the measured spectrum and photocurrent, and used them to investigate the relationship between the total exposure energy and the dose-processing depth with polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). We found that it is possible to guess the processing depth of PMMA from the total exposure energy in deep X-ray lithography. (author)

  12. Development of a multi-lane X-ray mirror providing variable beam sizes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laundy, D., E-mail: david.laundy@diamond.ac.uk; Sawhney, K.; Nistea, I.; Alcock, S. G.; Pape, I.; Sutter, J.; Alianelli, L.; Evans, G. [Diamond Light Source Ltd., Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)

    2016-05-15

    Grazing incidence mirrors are used on most X-ray synchrotron beamlines to focus, collimate or suppress harmonics. Increasingly beamline users are demanding variable beam shapes and sizes at the sample position. We have now developed a new concept to rapidly vary the beam size and shape of a focused X-ray beam. The surface of an elliptically figured mirror is divided into a number of laterally separated lanes, each of which is given an additional longitudinal height profile calculated to shape the X-ray beam to a top-hat profile in the focal plane. We have now fabricated two prototype mirrors and present the results of metrology tests and measurements made with one of the mirrors focusing the X-rays on a synchrotron beamline. We envisage that such mirrors could be widely applied to rapid beam-size switching on many synchrotron beamlines.

  13. Using acoustic levitation in synchrotron based laser pump hard x-ray probe experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bin; Lerch, Jason; Suthar, Kamlesh; Dichiara, Anthony

    Acoustic levitation provides a platform to trap and hold a small amount of material by using standing pressure waves without a container. The technique has a potential to be used for laser pump x-ray probe experiments; x-ray scattering and laser distortion from the container can be avoided, sample consumption can be minimized, and unwanted chemistry that may occur at the container interface can be avoided. The method has been used at synchrotron sources for studying protein and pharmaceutical solutions using x-ray diffraction (XRD) and small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS). However, pump-probe experiments require homogeneously excited samples, smaller than the absorption depth of the material that must be held stably at the intersection of both the laser and x-ray beams. We discuss 1) the role of oscillations in acoustic levitation and the optimal acoustic trapping conditions for x-ray/laser experiments, 2) opportunities to automate acoustic levitation for fast sample loading and manipulation, and 3) our experimental results using SAXS to monitor laser induced thermal expansion in gold nanoparticles solution. We also performed Finite Element Analysis to optimize the trapping performance and stability of droplets ranging from 0.4 mm to 2 mm. Our early x-ray/laser demonstrated the potential of the technique for time-resolved X-ray science.

  14. Chemical crystallography with pulsed neutrons and synchrotron x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrondo, M.A.; Jeffrey, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    Solid-state chemists and physicists, crystallographers and molecular biologists who are using or who plan to use the special properties of pulsed neutron spallation and synchrotron X-ray sources will find this book invaluable. Those scientists who have not yet gained experience in working with such sources will find the basic physics of the radiations, their production and their scattering properties explained, together with descriptions of the different types of diffraction experiments which use them

  15. Calcified-tissue investigations using synchrotron x-ray microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, K.W.; Spanne, P.; Schidlovsky, G.; Dejun, X.; Bockman, R.S.; Hammond, P.B.; Bornschein, R.L.; Hoeltzel, D.A.

    1990-10-01

    Synchrotron x-ray microscopy (SXRM) in both emission and absorption modes has been used to examine elemental distributions in specimens of rat tibia, human deciduous teeth, and an orthopedic implant phantom. The work was performed with a spatial resolution of 8 μm for the emission work and 25 μm for the absorption work. The results illustrate the usefulness of SXRM for measurements of different types of calcified tissue. 3 figs

  16. Development of confocal micro X-ray fluorescence instrument using two X-ray beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Kouichi; Nakano, Kazuhiko; Ding Xunliang

    2007-01-01

    A new confocal micro X-ray fluorescence instrument was developed. This instrument has two independent micro X-ray tubes with Mo targets. A full polycapillary X-ray lens was attached to each X-ray tube. Another half polycapillary lens was attached to a silicon drift X-ray detector (SDD). The focal spots of the three lenses were adjusted to a common position. The effects of the excitation of two X-ray beams were investigated. The instrument enabled highly sensitive three-dimensional X-ray fluorescence analysis. We confirmed that the X-ray fluorescence intensity from the sample increased by applying the two independent X-ray tubes in confocal configuration. Elemental depth profiling of black wheat was demonstrated with the result that each element in the surface coat of a wheat grain showed unique distribution

  17. Three-dimensional monochromatic x-ray computed tomography using synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Tsuneo; Kudo, Hiroyuki; Takeda, Tohoru; Itai, Yuji; Tokumori, Kenji; Toyofuku, Fukai; Hyodo, Kazuyuki; Ando, Masami; Nishimura, Katsuyuki; Uyama, Chikao

    1998-08-01

    We describe a technique of 3D computed tomography (3D CT) using monochromatic x rays generated by synchrotron radiation, which performs a direct reconstruction of a 3D volume image of an object from its cone-beam projections. For the development, we propose a practical scanning orbit of the x-ray source to obtain complete 3D information on an object, and its corresponding 3D image reconstruction algorithm. The validity and usefulness of the proposed scanning orbit and reconstruction algorithm were confirmed by computer simulation studies. Based on these investigations, we have developed a prototype 3D monochromatic x-ray CT using synchrotron radiation, which provides exact 3D reconstruction and material-selective imaging by using the K-edge energy subtraction technique.

  18. X-ray emission from BL Lac objects: Comparison to the synchrotron self-Compton models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, D.A.; Madejski, G.; Ku, W.H.-M.

    1982-01-01

    As one part of our joint study of the X-ray properties of BL Lac objects, the authors compare the measured X-ray flux densities with those predicted using the synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) formalism (Jones et al. 1974). Naive application of the formalism predicts X-ray fluxes from 10 -3 to 10 5 those observed. They therefore ask what we can learn by simply assuming the SSC mechanism, and looking for ways to reconcile the observed and measured X-ray fluxes. This paper reports investigation of beaming factors due to relativistic ejection of a radiation source which is isotropic in its own rest frame. The authors conclude that large Lorentz factors, GAMMA approximately > 10, do not apply to BL Lac objects as a class. (Auth.)

  19. Fabrication of nested elliptical KB mirrors using profile coating for synchrotron radiation X-ray focusing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chian; Ice, G.E.; Liu, W.; Assoufid, L.; Qian, J.; Shi, B.; Khachatryan, R.; Wieczorek, M.; Zschack, P.; Tischler, J.Z.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes fabrication methods used to demonstrate the advantages of nested or Montel optics for micro/nanofocusing of synchrotron X-ray beams. A standard Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) mirror system uses two separated elliptical mirrors at glancing angles to the X-ray beam and sequentially arranged at 90° to each other to focus X-rays successively in the vertical and horizontal directions. A nested KB mirror system has the two mirrors positioned perpendicular and side-by-side to each other. Compared to a standard KB mirror system, Montel optics can focus a larger divergence and the mirrors can have a shorter focal length. As a result, nested mirrors can be fabricated with improved demagnification factor and ultimately smaller focal spot, than with a standard KB arrangement. The nested system is also more compact with an increased working distance, and is more stable, with reduced complexity of mirror stages. However, although Montel optics is commercially available for laboratory X-ray sources, due to technical difficulties they have not been used to microfocus synchrotron radiation X-rays, where ultra-precise mirror surfaces are essential. The main challenge in adapting nested optics for synchrotron microfocusing is to fabricate mirrors with a precise elliptical surface profile at the very edge where the two mirrors meet and where X-rays scatter. For example, in our application to achieve a sub-micron focus with high efficiency, a surface figure root-mean-square (rms) error on the order of 1 nm is required in the useable area along the X-ray footprint with a ∼0.1 mm-diameter cross section. In this paper we describe promising ways to fabricate precise nested KB mirrors using our profile coating technique and inexpensive flat Si substrates.

  20. The measurement of stress and phase fraction distributions in pre and post-transition Zircaloy oxides using nano-beam synchrotron X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swan, H., E-mail: helen.swan@nnl.co.uk [National Nuclear Laboratory, Building D5, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Blackmur, M.S., E-mail: matthew.s.blackmur@nnl.co.uk [National Nuclear Laboratory, Building D5, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Hyde, J.M., E-mail: jonathan.m.hyde@nnl.co.uk [National Nuclear Laboratory, Building D5, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Laferrere, A., E-mail: alice.laferrere@atkinsglobal.com [W.S.Atkins, The Hub, Aztec West, 500 Park Ave, Almondsbury, Bristol BS32 4RZ (United Kingdom); Ortner, S.R., E-mail: susan.r.ortner@nnl.co.uk [National Nuclear Laboratory, Building D5, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Styman, P.D., E-mail: paul.d.styman@nnl.co.uk [National Nuclear Laboratory, Building D5, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Staines, C., E-mail: cassie.staines@nnl.co.uk [National Nuclear Laboratory, 102B, Stonehouse Park, Stonehouse, Gloucestershire, GL10 3UT (United Kingdom); Gass, M., E-mail: mhairi.gass@amecfw.com [Amec Foster Wheeler Clean Energy Europe, Walton House, Birchwood, WA3 6GA (United Kingdom); Hulme, H., E-mail: helen.hulme@amecfw.com [Amec Foster Wheeler Clean Energy Europe, Walton House, Birchwood, WA3 6GA (United Kingdom); Cole-Baker, A., E-mail: aidan.cole-baker@rolls-royce.com [Rolls-Royce plc, PO Box 2000, Derby, DE21 7XX (United Kingdom); Frankel, P., E-mail: philipp.frankel@manchester.ac.uk [Materials Performance Centre, School of Materials, The University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2016-10-15

    Zircaloy-4 oxide stress profiles and tetragonal:monoclinic oxide phase fraction distributions were studied using nano-beam transmission X-ray diffraction. Continuous stress relief and phase transformation during the first cycle of oxide growth was observed. The in-plane monoclinic stress was shown to relax strongly up to each transition, whereas in-plane tetragonal stress-relief (near the metal-oxide interface) was only observed post transition. The research demonstrates that plasticity in the metal and the development of a band of in-plane cracking both relax the monoclinic in-plane stress. The observations are consistent with a model of transition in which in-plane cracking becomes interlinked prior to transition. These cracks, combined with the development of cracks with a through-thickness component (driven primarily by plasticity in the metal) and/or a porous network of fine cracks (associated with phase transformation), form a percolation path through the oxide layer. The oxidising species can then percolate from the oxide surface to the metal/oxide interface, at which stage transition then ensues. - Highlights: • Measurement of stress in Zr-4 oxides using nano-beam transmission X-ray diffraction. • In-plane monoclinic stress relaxes strongly up to each transition. • In-plane tetragonal stress relaxation is only observed post transition. • Development of band of cracking is related to monoclinic in-plane stress relaxation. • Linking of in-plane cracking with through-plane crack/porosity leads to transition.

  1. Two-dimensional micro-beam imaging of trace elements in a single plankton measured by a synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezoe, Masako; Sasaki, Miho; Hokura, Akiko; Nakai, Izumi; Terada, Yasuko; Yoshinaga, Tatsuki; Tukamoto, Katsumi; Hagiwara, Atsushi

    2002-01-01

    Two-dimensional imaging and a quantitative analysis of trace elements in rotifer, Brachionus plicatilis, belonging to zooplankton, were carried out by a synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence analysis (SR-XRF). The XRF imaging revealed that female rotifers accumulated Fe and Zn in the digestive organ and Fe, Zn, Cu, and Ca in the sexual organs, while the Mn level was high in the head. From a quantitative analysis by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), we found that rotifers eat the chlorella and accumulate the above elements in the body. The result of quantitative analyses of Mn, Cu, and Zn by SR-XRF in a single sample is in fair agreement with the average values determined by ICP-MS analyses, which were obtained by measuring a large number of rotifers, digested by nitric acid. The present study has demonstrated that SR-XRF is an effective tool for the trace element analysis of a single individual of rotifer. (author)

  2. Two-dimensional micro-beam imaging of trace elements in a single plankton measured by a synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezoe, Masako; Sasaki, Miho; Hokura, Akiko; Nakai, Izumi [Tokyo Univ. of Science, Faculty of Science, Tokyo (Japan); Terada, Yasuko [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Inst., Mikazuki, Hyogo (Japan); Yoshinaga, Tatsuki; Tukamoto, Katsumi [Tokyo Univ., Ocean Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan); Hagiwara, Atsushi [Nagasaki Univ., Graduate School of Science and Technology, Bunkyou, Nagasaki (Japan)

    2002-10-01

    Two-dimensional imaging and a quantitative analysis of trace elements in rotifer, Brachionus plicatilis, belonging to zooplankton, were carried out by a synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence analysis (SR-XRF). The XRF imaging revealed that female rotifers accumulated Fe and Zn in the digestive organ and Fe, Zn, Cu, and Ca in the sexual organs, while the Mn level was high in the head. From a quantitative analysis by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), we found that rotifers eat the chlorella and accumulate the above elements in the body. The result of quantitative analyses of Mn, Cu, and Zn by SR-XRF in a single sample is in fair agreement with the average values determined by ICP-MS analyses, which were obtained by measuring a large number of rotifers, digested by nitric acid. The present study has demonstrated that SR-XRF is an effective tool for the trace element analysis of a single individual of rotifer. (author)

  3. SEDIMENTARY FEATURES OF TSUNAMI BACKWASH DEPOSITS AS ASSESSED BY MICRO-BEAM SYNCHROTRON X-RAY FLUORESCENCE (μ-SXRF AT THE SIAM PHOTON LABORATORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siwatt Pongpiachan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years, several attempts have been performed to find alternative “chemical proxies” in order to discriminate “tsunami backwash deposits” from “typical marine sediments”. A wide range of statistical tools has been selected in order to investigate the sediments and/or terrestrial soils transportation mechanism during the tsunami inundation period by using several types of chemical tracers. To relate the physical and chemical characteristics of Typical Marine Sediments (TMS,Tsunami Backwash Deposits (TBD, Onshore Tsunami Deposits (OTD and Coastal Zone Soils (CZS with their synchrotron radiation based micro-X-ray Fluorescence (μ-SXRF spectra, the μ- SXRF spectra were built in the appropriate selected spectra range from 3,000 eV to 8,000 eV. Further challenges were considered by using the first-order derivative μ-SXRF spectra coupled with Probability Distribution Function (PDF, Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA and Principal Component Analysis (PCA in order to investigate the elemental distribution characteristics in various types of terrestrial soils and marine sediments. Dendrographic classifications and multi-dimensional plots of principal components (i.e. bi-polar and three dimensional plots could indicate the impacts of terrestrial soils and/or marine sediments transport on onshore and/or offshore during the tsunami inundation period. Obviously, these advanced statistical analyses are quite useful and provide valuable information and thus shed new light on the study of paleotsunami.

  4. K-Edge Subtraction Angiography with Synchrotron X-Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Giacomini, J C

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to utilize dual energy, monochromatic X-rays produced from synchrotrons radiation in order to obtain noninvasive medical imaging. The application of synchrotrons radiation to medical imaging is based on the principle of iodine dichromography, first described by Bertil Jacobson of the Karolinska Institute in 1953. Medical imaging using synchrotrons radiation and K-edge dichromography was pioneered at Stanford University under the leadership of Dr. Ed Rubenstein, and the late Nobel Laureate in Physics, Dr. Robert Hofstadter. With progressive refinements in hardware, clinical-quality images were obtained of human coronary arteries utilizing peripheral injections of iodinated contrast agent. These images even now are far superior to those being presented by investigators using MRI as an imaging tool for coronary arteries. However, new supplies and instruments in the cardiac catheterization laboratory have served to transform coronary angiography into an outpatient procedure, with r...

  5. Possibilities for x-ray holography using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howells, M.R.

    1983-11-01

    Since the theoretical and experimental demonstrations of the effectiveness of soft x-rays in imaging biological material there has been considerable study given to the prospects for further development of the presently existing techniques. This has been motivated to a large extent by advances in source technology, particularly the use of undulators on electron storage rings and recent improvements in short wavelength lasers. The present author has carried out theoretical evaluations of the possibilities of holographic imaging and has also recorded a number of holograms using the U15 soft x-ray beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) 750 MeV storage ring at Brookhaven. Some of these have been successfully reconstructed using He:Cd laser light. In this paper we first review the physical processes which generate information containing wavefronts when soft x-rays interact with matter. We then briefly describe the holographic method which has been highly developed using visible light lasers and identify holographic geometries which are promising for x-ray applications. We discuss some of the practical and theoretical limitations involved in making holographic images and then give the results of our own experiments

  6. Synchrotron radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM of brachiopod shell interiors for taxonomy: Preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motchurova-Dekova Neda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Synchrotron radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM is a non-destructive technique for the investigation and visualization of the internal features of solid opaque objects, which allows reconstruction of a complete three-dimensional image of internal structures by recording of the differences in the effects on the passage of waves of energy reacting with those structures. Contrary to X-rays, produced in a conventional X-ray tube, the intense synchrotron light beams are sharply focused like a laser beam. We report encouraging results from the use of SRXTM for purely taxonomic purposes in brachiopods: an attempt to find a non-destructive and more efficient alternative to serial sectioning and several other methods of dissection together with the non-destructive method of X-ray computerised micro-tomography. Two brachiopod samples were investigated using SRXTM. In “Rhynchonella” flustracea it was possible to visualise the 3D shape of the crura and dental plates. In Terebratulina imbricata it was possible to reveal the form of the brachidium. It is encouraging that we have obtained such promising results using SRXTM with our very first two fortuitous samples, which had respectively fine-grained limestone and marl as infilling sediment, in contrast to the discouraging results communicated to us by some colleagues who have tested specimens with such infillings using X-ray micro-tomography. In future the holotypes, rare museum specimens or delicate Recent material may be preferentially subjected to this mode of analysis.

  7. Synchrotron X-ray CT characterization of titanium parts fabricated by additive manufacturing. Part I. Morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarlett, Nicola Vivienne Yorke; Tyson, Peter; Fraser, Darren; Mayo, Sheridan; Maksimenko, Anton

    2016-07-01

    Synchrotron X-ray tomography has been applied to the study of titanium parts fabricated by additive manufacturing (AM). The AM method employed here was the Arcam EBM(®) (electron beam melting) process which uses powdered titanium alloy, Ti64 (Ti alloy with approximately 6%Al and 4%V), as the feed and an electron beam for the sintering/welding. The experiment was conducted on the Imaging and Medical Beamline of the Australian Synchrotron. Samples were chosen to examine the effect of build direction and complexity of design on the surface morphology and final dimensions of the piece.

  8. Advanced Nanoscale Characterization of Cement Based Materials Using X-Ray Synchrotron Radiation: A Review

    KAUST Repository

    Chae, Sejung R.

    2013-05-22

    We report various synchrotron radiation laboratory based techniques used to characterize cement based materials in nanometer scale. High resolution X-ray transmission imaging combined with a rotational axis allows for rendering of samples in three dimensions revealing volumetric details. Scanning transmission X-ray microscope combines high spatial resolution imaging with high spectral resolution of the incident beam to reveal X-ray absorption near edge structure variations in the material nanostructure. Microdiffraction scans the surface of a sample to map its high order reflection or crystallographic variations with a micron-sized incident beam. High pressure X-ray diffraction measures compressibility of pure phase materials. Unique results of studies using the above tools are discussed-a study of pores, connectivity, and morphology of a 2,000 year old concrete using nanotomography; detection of localized and varying silicate chain depolymerization in Al-substituted tobermorite, and quantification of monosulfate distribution in tricalcium aluminate hydration using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy; detection and mapping of hydration products in high volume fly ash paste using microdiffraction; and determination of mechanical properties of various AFm phases using high pressure X-ray diffraction. © 2013 The Author(s).

  9. Beam line for experiments with coherent soft x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howells, M.R.; Kirz, J.; Krinsky, S.

    1982-12-01

    The advantages of coherent soft x-rays for three-dimensional imaging of biological specimens are discussed, the x-ray source requirements are described, and the general design of the beam line and its optical system are given

  10. X-ray Synchrotron Radiation in a Plasma Wiggler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shuoquin; /UCLA /SLAC, SSRL

    2005-09-27

    A relativistic electron beam can radiate due to its betatron motion inside an ion channel. The ion channel is induced by the electron bunch as it propagates through an underdense plasma. In the theory section of this thesis the formation of the ion channel, the trajectories of beam electrons inside the ion channel, the radiation power and the radiation spectrum of the spontaneous emission are studied. The comparison between different plasma wiggler schemes is made. The difficulties in realizing stimulated emission as the beam traverses the ion channel are investigated, with particular emphasis on the bunching mechanism, which is important for the ion channel free electron laser. This thesis reports an experiment conducted at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) to measure the betatron X-ray radiations for the first time. They first describe the construction and characterization of the lithium plasma source. In the experiment, the transverse oscillations of the SLAC 28.5 GeV electron beam traversing through a 1.4 meter long lithium plasma source are clearly seen. These oscillations lead to a quadratic density dependence of the spontaneously emitted betatron X-ray radiation. The divergence angle of the X-ray radiation is measured. The absolute photon yield and the spectral brightness at 14.2 KeV photon energy are estimated and seen to be in reasonable agreement with theory.

  11. Variable magnification with Kirkpatrick-Baez optics for synchrotron x-ray microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Jach, T.; Bakulin, A. S.; Durbin, S. M.; Pedulla, J.; Macrander, A.

    2006-01-01

    We describe the distinction between the operation of a short focal length x-ray microscope forming a real image with a laboratory source (convergent illumination) and with a highly collimated intense beam from a synchrotron light source (Kohler illumination). We demonstrate the distinction with a Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope consisting of short focal length multilayer mirrors operating at an energy of 8 keV. In add...

  12. Synchrotron X-ray adaptative monochromator: study and realization of a prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dezoret, D.

    1995-01-01

    This work presents a study of a prototype of a synchrotron X-ray monochromator. The spectral qualities of this optic are sensitive to the heat loads which are particularly important on third synchrotron generation like ESRF. Indeed, powers generated by synchrotron beams can reach few kilowatts and power densities about a few tens watts per square millimeters. The mechanical deformations of the optical elements of the beamlines issue issue of the heat load can damage their spectral efficiencies. In order to compensate the deformations, wa have been studying the transposition of the adaptive astronomical optics technology to the x-ray field. First, we have considered the modifications of the spectral characteristics of a crystal induced by x-rays. We have established the specifications required to a technological realisation. Then, thermomechanical and technological studies have been required to transpose the astronomical technology to an x-ray technology. After these studies, we have begun the realisation of a prototype. This monochromator is composed by a crystal of silicon (111) bonded on a piezo-electric structure. The mechanical control is a loop system composed by a infrared light, a Shack-Hartmann CDD and wave front analyser. This system has to compensate the deformations of the crystal in the 5 kcV to 60 kcV energy range with a power density of 1 watt per square millimeters. (authors)

  13. Characterization of a next-generation piezo bimorph X-ray mirror for synchrotron beamlines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcock, Simon G., E-mail: simon.alcock@diamond.ac.uk; Nistea, Ioana; Sutter, John P.; Sawhney, Kawal [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Fermé, Jean-Jacques; Thellièr, Christophe; Peverini, Luca [Thales-SESO, 305 rue Louis Armand, Pôle d’Activités d’Aix les Milles, Aix-en-Provence (France)

    2015-01-01

    A next-generation bimorph mirror with piezos bonded to the side faces of a monolithic substrate was created. When replacing a first-generation bimorph mirror suffering from the junction effect, the new type of mirror significantly improved the size and shape of the reflected synchrotron X-ray beam. No evidence of the junction effect was observed even after eight months of continuous beamline usage. Piezo bimorph mirrors are versatile active optics used on many synchrotron beamlines. However, many bimorphs suffer from the ‘junction effect’: a periodic deformation of the optical surface which causes major aberrations to the reflected X-ray beam. This effect is linked to the construction of such mirrors, where piezo ceramics are glued directly below the thin optical substrate. In order to address this problem, a next-generation bimorph with piezos bonded to the side faces of a monolithic substrate was developed at Thales-SESO and optimized at Diamond Light Source. Using metrology feedback from the Diamond-NOM, the optical slope error was reduced to ∼0.5 µrad r.m.s. for a range of ellipses. To maximize usability, a novel holder was built to accommodate the substrate in any orientation. When replacing a first-generation bimorph on a synchrotron beamline, the new mirror significantly improved the size and shape of the reflected X-ray beam. Most importantly, there was no evidence of the junction effect even after eight months of continuous beamline usage. It is hoped that this new design will reinvigorate the use of active bimorph optics at synchrotron and free-electron laser facilities to manipulate and correct X-ray wavefronts.

  14. Characterization of a next-generation piezo bimorph X-ray mirror for synchrotron beamlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcock, Simon G.; Nistea, Ioana; Sutter, John P.; Sawhney, Kawal; Fermé, Jean-Jacques; Thellièr, Christophe; Peverini, Luca

    2015-01-01

    A next-generation bimorph mirror with piezos bonded to the side faces of a monolithic substrate was created. When replacing a first-generation bimorph mirror suffering from the junction effect, the new type of mirror significantly improved the size and shape of the reflected synchrotron X-ray beam. No evidence of the junction effect was observed even after eight months of continuous beamline usage. Piezo bimorph mirrors are versatile active optics used on many synchrotron beamlines. However, many bimorphs suffer from the ‘junction effect’: a periodic deformation of the optical surface which causes major aberrations to the reflected X-ray beam. This effect is linked to the construction of such mirrors, where piezo ceramics are glued directly below the thin optical substrate. In order to address this problem, a next-generation bimorph with piezos bonded to the side faces of a monolithic substrate was developed at Thales-SESO and optimized at Diamond Light Source. Using metrology feedback from the Diamond-NOM, the optical slope error was reduced to ∼0.5 µrad r.m.s. for a range of ellipses. To maximize usability, a novel holder was built to accommodate the substrate in any orientation. When replacing a first-generation bimorph on a synchrotron beamline, the new mirror significantly improved the size and shape of the reflected X-ray beam. Most importantly, there was no evidence of the junction effect even after eight months of continuous beamline usage. It is hoped that this new design will reinvigorate the use of active bimorph optics at synchrotron and free-electron laser facilities to manipulate and correct X-ray wavefronts

  15. Optimizing Monocapillary Optics for Synchrotron X-ray Diffraction, Fluorescence Imaging, and Spectroscopy Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilderback, Donald H.; Kazimirov, Alexander; Gillilan, Richard; Cornaby, Sterling; Woll, Arthur; Zha, Chang-Sheng; Huang Rong

    2007-01-01

    A number of synchrotron x-ray applications such as powder diffraction in diamond anvil cells, microbeam protein crystallography, x-ray fluorescence imaging, etc. can benefit from using hollow glass monocapillary optics to improve the flux per square micron on a sample. We currently draw glass tubing into the desired elliptical shape so that only one-bounce under total reflection conditions is needed to bring the x-ray beam to a focus at a 25 to 50 mm distance beyond the capillary tip. For modest focal spot sizes of 10 to 20 microns, we can increase the intensity per square micron by factors of 10 to 1000. We show some of the results obtained at CHESS and Hasylab with capillaries focusing 5 to 40 keV radiation, their properties, and how even better the experimental results could be if more ideal capillaries were fabricated in the future

  16. Synchrotron radiation spectroscopy including X-ray absorption spectroscopy and industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshima, Masaharu

    2016-01-01

    Recent trends of synchrotron radiation spectroscopy, especially X-ray absorption spectroscopy for industrial applications are introduced based on our latest results for energy efficient devices such as magnetic RAM, LSI and organic FET, power generation devices such as fuel cells, and energy storage devices such as Li ion batteries. Furthermore, future prospects of spectroscopy with higher energy resolution, higher spatial resolution, higher temporal resolution and operando spectroscopy taking advantage of much brighter synchrotron radiation beam at low emittance SR rings are discussed from the view point of practical applications. (author)

  17. Controlling X-ray beam trajectory with a flexible hollow glass fibre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Yoshihito, E-mail: yotanaka@riken.jp [RIKEN, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Kwansei Gakuin University, Gakuen, Sanda, Hyogo 669-1337 (Japan); Nakatani, Takashi; Onitsuka, Rena [Kwansei Gakuin University, Gakuen, Sanda, Hyogo 669-1337 (Japan); Sawada, Kei [RIKEN, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Takahashi, Isao [Kwansei Gakuin University, Gakuen, Sanda, Hyogo 669-1337 (Japan)

    2014-01-01

    X-ray beam trajectory control has been performed by using a 1.5 m-long flexible hollow glass fibre. A two-dimensional scan of a synchrotron radiation beam was demonstrated for X-ray absorption mapping. A metre-length flexible hollow glass fibre with 20 µm-bore and 1.5 mm-cladding diameters for transporting a synchrotron X-ray beam and controlling the trajectory has been examined. The large cladding diameter maintains a moderate curvature to satisfy the shallow glancing angle of total reflection. The observed transmission efficiency was more than 20% at 12.4 keV. As a demonstration, a wide-area scan of a synchrotron radiation beam was performed to identify the elements for a fixed metal film through its absorption spectra.

  18. Editorial: Focus on X-ray Beams with High Coherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Ian; Gruebel, Gerhard; Mochrie, Simon

    2010-03-01

    This editorial serves as the preface to a special issue of New Journal of Physics, which collects together solicited papers on a common subject, x-ray beams with high coherence. We summarize the issue's content, and explain why there is so much current interest both in the sources themselves and in the applications to the study of the structure of matter and its fluctuations (both spontaneous and driven). As this collection demonstrates, the field brings together accelerator physics in the design of new sources, particle physics in the design of detectors, and chemical and materials scientists who make use of the coherent beams produced. Focus on X-ray Beams with High Coherence Contents Femtosecond pulse x-ray imaging with a large field of view B Pfau, C M Günther, S Schaffert, R Mitzner, B Siemer, S Roling, H Zacharias, O Kutz, I Rudolph, R Treusch and S Eisebitt The FERMI@Elettra free-electron-laser source for coherent x-ray physics: photon properties, beam transport system and applications E Allaria, C Callegari, D Cocco, W M Fawley, M Kiskinova, C Masciovecchio and F Parmigiani Beyond simple exponential correlation functions and equilibrium dynamics in x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy Anders Madsen, Robert L Leheny, Hongyu Guo, Michael Sprung and Orsolya Czakkel The Coherent X-ray Imaging (CXI) instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) Sébastien Boutet and Garth J Williams Dynamics and rheology under continuous shear flow studied by x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy Andrei Fluerasu, Pawel Kwasniewski, Chiara Caronna, Fanny Destremaut, Jean-Baptiste Salmon and Anders Madsen Exploration of crystal strains using coherent x-ray diffraction Wonsuk Cha, Sanghoon Song, Nak Cheon Jeong, Ross Harder, Kyung Byung Yoon, Ian K Robinson and Hyunjung Kim Coherence properties of the European XFEL G Geloni, E Saldin, L Samoylova, E Schneidmiller, H Sinn, Th Tschentscher and M Yurkov Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging: treatment and analysis of data G J

  19. Beer analysis by synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence (SR-TXRF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Silvana; Vives, Ana Elisa S. de; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio F.; Zucchi, Orgheda L.D.A.

    2005-01-01

    In this work the concentrations of P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Zn and Br in twenty-nine brands of national and international beers were determined by Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence analysis (SR-TXRF). The results were compared with the limits established by the Brazilian Legislation and the nutritive values established by National Agricultural Library (NAL). The measurements were performed at the X-ray Fluorescence Beamline at Synchrotron Light Source Laboratory, in Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil, using a polychromatic beam for excitation. A small volume of 5 μL of sample beers containing just an internal standard, used to correct geometry effects, were analyzed without any pre-treatment. The measuring time was 100 s and the detection limits obtained varied from 1μg.L -1 for Mn and Fe to 15μg.L -1 for P. (author)

  20. Extending synchrotron-based atomic physics experiments into the hard X-ray region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeBrun, T.

    1996-01-01

    The high-brightness, hard x-ray beams available from third-generation synchrotron sources are opening new opportunities to study the deepest inner shells of atoms, an area where little work has been done and phenomena not observed in less tightly bound inner-shells are manifested. In addition scattering processes which are weak at lower energies become important, providing another tool to investigate atomic structure as well as an opportunity to study photon/atom interactions beyond photoabsorption. In this contribution the authors discuss some of the issues related to extending synchrotron-based atomic physics experiments into the hard x-ray region from the physical and the experimental point of view. They close with a discussion of a technique, resonant Raman scattering, that may prove invaluable in determining the spectra of the very highly-excited states resulting from the excitation of deep inner shells

  1. Beer analysis by synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence (SR-TXRF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Silvana [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo. Dept. de Recursos Hidricos]. E-mail: silvana@fec.unicamp.br; Vives, Ana Elisa S. de [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: aesvives@unimep.br; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio F. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear]. E-mail: virgilio@cena.usp.br; Zucchi, Orgheda L.D.A. [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de Ribeirao Preto]. E-mail: olzucchi@fcfrp.usp.br

    2005-07-01

    In this work the concentrations of P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Zn and Br in twenty-nine brands of national and international beers were determined by Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence analysis (SR-TXRF). The results were compared with the limits established by the Brazilian Legislation and the nutritive values established by National Agricultural Library (NAL). The measurements were performed at the X-ray Fluorescence Beamline at Synchrotron Light Source Laboratory, in Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil, using a polychromatic beam for excitation. A small volume of 5 {mu}L of sample beers containing just an internal standard, used to correct geometry effects, were analyzed without any pre-treatment. The measuring time was 100 s and the detection limits obtained varied from 1{mu}g.L{sup -1} for Mn and Fe to 15{mu}g.L{sup -1} for P. (author)

  2. A synchrotron-based X-ray exposure station for radiation biology experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, A.C.; Blakely, E.A.; Bjornstad, K.A.; Chang, P.Y.; Rosen, C.J.; Schwarz, R.I.

    2007-01-01

    Synchrotron X-ray sources enable radiation biology experiments that are difficult with conventional sources. A synchrotron source can easily deliver a monochromatic, tunable energy, highly collimated X-ray beam of well-calibrated intensity. An exposure station at beamline 10.3.1 of the Advanced Light Source (ALS) has been developed which delivers a variable energy (5-20 keV) X-ray fan beam with very sharp edges (10-90% in less than 3 μm). A series of experiments have been done with a four-well slide where a stripe (100 μm widex18 mm long) of cells in each well has been irradiated and the dose varied from well to well. With this facility we have begun a series of experiments to study cells adjacent to irradiated cells and how they respond to the damage of their neighbors. Initial results have demonstrated the advantages of using synchrotron radiation for these experiments

  3. A synchrotron-based X-ray exposure station for radiation biology experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, A.C. [Division of Life Sciences, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Bld. 50A-6120, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)], E-mail: acthompson@lbl.gov; Blakely, E.A.; Bjornstad, K.A. [Division of Life Sciences, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Bld. 50A-6120, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Chang, P.Y. [Division of Life Sciences, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Bld. 50A-6120, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Rosen, C.J.; Schwarz, R.I. [Division of Life Sciences, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Bld. 50A-6120, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2007-11-11

    Synchrotron X-ray sources enable radiation biology experiments that are difficult with conventional sources. A synchrotron source can easily deliver a monochromatic, tunable energy, highly collimated X-ray beam of well-calibrated intensity. An exposure station at beamline 10.3.1 of the Advanced Light Source (ALS) has been developed which delivers a variable energy (5-20 keV) X-ray fan beam with very sharp edges (10-90% in less than 3 {mu}m). A series of experiments have been done with a four-well slide where a stripe (100 {mu}m widex18 mm long) of cells in each well has been irradiated and the dose varied from well to well. With this facility we have begun a series of experiments to study cells adjacent to irradiated cells and how they respond to the damage of their neighbors. Initial results have demonstrated the advantages of using synchrotron radiation for these experiments.

  4. Characterization of a next-generation piezo bimorph X-ray mirror for synchrotron beamlines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcock, Simon G; Nistea, Ioana; Sutter, John P; Sawhney, Kawal; Fermé, Jean Jacques; Thellièr, Christophe; Peverini, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Piezo bimorph mirrors are versatile active optics used on many synchrotron beamlines. However, many bimorphs suffer from the `junction effect': a periodic deformation of the optical surface which causes major aberrations to the reflected X-ray beam. This effect is linked to the construction of such mirrors, where piezo ceramics are glued directly below the thin optical substrate. In order to address this problem, a next-generation bimorph with piezos bonded to the side faces of a monolithic substrate was developed at Thales-SESO and optimized at Diamond Light Source. Using metrology feedback from the Diamond-NOM, the optical slope error was reduced to ∼ 0.5 µrad r.m.s. for a range of ellipses. To maximize usability, a novel holder was built to accommodate the substrate in any orientation. When replacing a first-generation bimorph on a synchrotron beamline, the new mirror significantly improved the size and shape of the reflected X-ray beam. Most importantly, there was no evidence of the junction effect even after eight months of continuous beamline usage. It is hoped that this new design will reinvigorate the use of active bimorph optics at synchrotron and free-electron laser facilities to manipulate and correct X-ray wavefronts.

  5. Optics for protein microcrystallography using synchrotron and laboratory X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varghese, J.N.; Van Donkelaar, A.; Balaic, D.X.; Barnea, Z.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: For protein crystallography, a highly-intense focused beam overcomes a serious constraint in current biological research: the inability of many protein molecules to form crystals larger than a few tens of microns in size. High structure-resolution X-ray diffraction analysis of microcrystals is currently only being studied at synchrotron X-ray sources. We shall examine how this is being carried out, and also report the development of a novel tapered glass monocapillary toroidal-mirror optic, which achieves a high-intensity, low-divergence focused beam from a rotating-anode Xray generator. We have used this optic, which demonstrates an ∼28x intensity gain at the beam focus to solve the structure of a plant exoglucanse/inhibtor complex microcrystal to 2.8 Angstroms, with volume equivalent to a 30-micron-edge cube

  6. Synchrotron X-ray CT of rose peduncles. Evaluation of tissue damage by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herppich, Werner B.; Zabler, Simon; Dawson, Martin; Choinka, Gerard; Manke, Ingo

    2015-01-01

    ''Bent-neck'' syndrome, an important postharvest problem of cut roses, is probably caused by water supply limitations and/or the structural weakness of vascular bundles of the peduncle tissue. For this reason, advanced knowledge about the microstructures of rose peduncles and their cultivar specific variations may lead to a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms. Synchrotron X-ray computed tomography (SXCT), especially phase-based CT, is a highly suitable technique to nondestructively investigate plants' micro anatomy. SXCT with monochromatic X-ray beams of 30, 40 and 50 keV photon energy was used to evaluate the three-dimensional inner structures of the peduncles of 3 rose cultivars that differ greatly in their bent-neck susceptibility. Results indicated that this technique achieves sufficiently high spatial resolution to investigate complex tissues. However, further investigations with chlorophyll fluorescence analysis (CFA) and optical microscope imagery reveal different kinds of heavy damage of the irradiated regions induced by synchrotron X-rays; in a cultivar-specific manner, partial destruction of cell walls occurred a few hours after X-ray irradiation. Furthermore, a delayed inhibition of photosynthesis accompanied by the degradation of chlorophyll was obvious from CFA within hours and days after the end of CT measurements. Although SXCT is certainly well suited for three-dimensional anatomical analysis of rose peduncles, the applied technique is not nondestructive.

  7. Synchrotron X-ray CT of rose peduncles. Evaluation of tissue damage by radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herppich, Werner B. [Leibniz-Institut fuer Agrartechnik Potsdam-Bornim e.V., Potsdam (Germany). Abt. Technik im Gartenbau; Matsushima, Uzuki [Iwate Univ., Morioka (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture; Graf, Wolfgang [Association for Technology and Structures in Agriculture (KTBL), Darmstadt (Germany); Zabler, Simon [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Integrierte Schaltungen (IIS), Wuerzburg (Germany). Project group NanoCT Systems (NCTS); Dawson, Martin [Salford Univ., Greater Manchester (United Kingdom); Choinka, Gerard; Manke, Ingo [Helmholtz Center Berlin for Materials and Energy (HZB), Berlin (Germany)

    2015-02-01

    ''Bent-neck'' syndrome, an important postharvest problem of cut roses, is probably caused by water supply limitations and/or the structural weakness of vascular bundles of the peduncle tissue. For this reason, advanced knowledge about the microstructures of rose peduncles and their cultivar specific variations may lead to a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms. Synchrotron X-ray computed tomography (SXCT), especially phase-based CT, is a highly suitable technique to nondestructively investigate plants' micro anatomy. SXCT with monochromatic X-ray beams of 30, 40 and 50 keV photon energy was used to evaluate the three-dimensional inner structures of the peduncles of 3 rose cultivars that differ greatly in their bent-neck susceptibility. Results indicated that this technique achieves sufficiently high spatial resolution to investigate complex tissues. However, further investigations with chlorophyll fluorescence analysis (CFA) and optical microscope imagery reveal different kinds of heavy damage of the irradiated regions induced by synchrotron X-rays; in a cultivar-specific manner, partial destruction of cell walls occurred a few hours after X-ray irradiation. Furthermore, a delayed inhibition of photosynthesis accompanied by the degradation of chlorophyll was obvious from CFA within hours and days after the end of CT measurements. Although SXCT is certainly well suited for three-dimensional anatomical analysis of rose peduncles, the applied technique is not nondestructive.

  8. Applications of synchrotron x-ray diffraction topography to fractography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilello, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    Fractographs have been taken using a variety of probes each of which produces different types of information. Methods which have been used to examine fracture surfaces include: (a) optical microscopy, particularly interference contrast methods, (b) scanning electron microscopy (SEM), (c) SEM with electron channelling, (d) SEM with selected-area electron channelling, (e) Berg-Barrett (B-B) topography, and now (f) synchrotron x-radiation fractography (SXRF). This review concentrated on the role that x-ray methods can play in such studies. In particular, the ability to nondestructively assess the subsurface microstructure associated with the fracture to depths of the order of 5 to 10 μm becomes an important attribute for observations of a large class of semi-brittle metals, semiconductors and ceramics

  9. X-ray and synchrotron studies of porous silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivkov, V. N., E-mail: svn@dm.komisc.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Komi Scientific Center, Ural Branch (Russian Federation); Lomov, A. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Physical-Technological Institute (Russian Federation); Vasil' ev, A. L. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation); Nekipelov, S. V. [Komi State Pedagogical Institute (Russian Federation); Petrova, O. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Komi Scientific Center, Ural Branch (Russian Federation)

    2013-08-15

    The results of comprehensive studies of layers of porous silicon of different conductivity types, grown by anodizing standard Si(111) substrates in an electrolyte based on fluoric acid and ethanol with the addition of 5% of iodine and kept in air for a long time, are discussed. Measurements are performed by scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution X-ray diffraction, and ultrasoft X-ray spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation. The structural parameters of the layers (thickness, strain, and porosity) and atomic and chemical composition of the porous-silicon surface are determined. It is found that an oxide layer 1.5-2.3-nm thick is formed on the surface of the silicon skeleton. The near-edge fine structure of the Si 2p absorption spectrum of this layer corresponds to the fine structure of the 2p spectrum of well coordinated SiO{sub 2}. In this case, the fine structure in the Si 2p-edge absorption region of the silicon skeleton is identical to that of the 2p absorption spectrum of crystalline silicon.

  10. X-ray pencil beam facility for optics characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumrey, Michael; Cibik, Levent; Müller, Peter; Bavdaz, Marcos; Wille, Eric; Ackermann, Marcelo; Collon, Maximilien J.

    2010-07-01

    The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) has used synchrotron radiation for the characterization of optics and detectors for astrophysical X-ray telescopes for more than 20 years. At a dedicated beamline at BESSY II, a monochromatic pencil beam is used by ESA and cosine Research since the end of 2005 for the characterization of novel silicon pore optics, currently under development for the International X-ray Observatory (IXO). At this beamline, a photon energy of 2.8 keV is selected by a Si channel-cut monochromator. Two apertures at distances of 12.2 m and 30.5 m from the dipole source form a pencil beam with a typical diameter of 100 μm and a divergence below 1". The optics to be investigated is placed in a vacuum chamber on a hexapod, the angular positioning is controlled by means of autocollimators to below 1". The reflected beam is registered at 5 m distance from the optics with a CCD-based camera system. This contribution presents design and performance of the upgrade of this beamline to cope with the updated design for IXO. The distance between optics and detector can now be 20 m. For double reflection from an X-ray Optical Unit (XOU) and incidence angles up to 1.4°, this corresponds to a vertical translation of the camera by 2 m. To achieve high reflectance at this angle even with uncoated silicon, a lower photon energy of 1 keV is available from a pair of W/B4C multilayers. For coated optics, a high energy option can provide a pencil beam of 7.6 keV radiation.

  11. Microfocussing of synchrotron X-rays using X-ray refractive lens

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    X-ray lenses are fabricated in polymethyl methacrylate using deep X-ray lithography beamline of Indus-2. The focussing performance of these lenses is evaluated using Indus-2 and Diamond Light Source Ltd. The process steps for the fabrication of X-ray lenses and microfocussing at 10 keV at moderate and low emittance ...

  12. Sample Environment in Experiments using X-Ray Synchrotron Radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buras, B

    1984-01-01

    beam experiments with wavelength chosen at will from the continuous spectrum. Another type of insertion device, called undulator produces quasi-monochromatic radiation. The insertion devices enable the tailoring of the emitted S.R. to the requirements of the users and can be treated as the first......Modern electron (positron) storage rings are able to emit very intense X-ray radiation with a continuous spectrum extending to 0.1 A, from bending magnets and insertion devices (wavelength shifters and multipole wigglers). It can be used directly for white beam experiments and/or for monochromatic...... optical element of the beam line. This feature is especially important for experiments with samples in special environment because the latter imposes limitations both on scattering and absorption experiments. However, these limitations can be minimized in each case by finding the best match between...

  13. Signatures of Synchrotron: Low-cutoff X-ray emission and the hard X-ray spectrum of Cas A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stage, Michael D.; Fedor, Emily Elizabeth; Martina-Hood, Hyourin

    2018-06-01

    In soft X-rays, bright, young Galactic remnants (Cas A, Kepler, Tycho, etc.) present thermal line emission and bremsstrahlung from ejecta, and synchrotron radiation from the shocks. Their hard X-ray spectra tend to be dominated by power-law sources. However, it can be non-trivial to discriminate between contributions from processes such as synchrotron and bremsstrahlung from nonthermally accelerated electrons, even though the energies of the electrons producing this radiation may be very different. Spatially-resolved spectroscopic analysis of 0.5-10 keV observations with, e.g., Chandracan provide leverage in identifying the processes and their locations. Previously, Stage & Allen (2006), Allen & Stage (2007) and Stage & Allen (2011) identified regions characterized by high-cutoff synchrotron radiation. Extrapolating synchrotron model fits to the emission in the Chandra band, they estimated the synchrotron contribution to the hard X-ray spectrum at about one-third the observed flux, fitting the balance with nonthermal bremsstrahlung emission produced by nonthermal electrons in the ejecta. Although it is unlikely this analysis missed regions of the highest-cutoff synchrotron emission, which supplies the bulk of the synchrotron above 15 keV, it may have missed regions of lower-cutoff emission, especially if they are near bright ejecta and the reverse shock. These regions cannot explain the emission at the highest energies (~50 keV), but may make significant contributions to the hard spectrum at lower energies (~10 keV). Using the technique described in Fedor, Martina-Hood & Stage (this meeting), we revisit the analysis to include regions that may be dominated by low-cutoff synchrotron, located in the interior of the remnant, and/or correlated with the reverse shock. Identifying X-ray emission from accelerated electrons associated with the reverse-shock would have important implications for synchrotron and non-thermal bremsstrahlung radiation above the 10 keV.

  14. Direct observations of cracks and voids in structural materials by X-ray imaging using ultra-bright synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Takenori; Yuse, Fumio; Tsubokawa, Yoshiyuki; Matsui, Junji

    2003-01-01

    Refraction contrast X-ray imaging experiments were conducted on acrylic resin with an artificial cylindrical hole, A7075 aluminum alloy, A6063 aluminum castings, mild steel with cracks or voids, and low alloy steel with inclusions, using a ultra-bright synchrotron radiation X-ray beam in BL24XU hutch C of SPring-8. Conventional absorption contrast X-ray imaging experiments were also done for the comparison. The X-ray beam was controlled to be monochromatic by Si double-crystals and collimated by a slit. The distance between the sample and the detector was changed from 0 to 3 m, and the X-ray energy was 15 to 25 keV. Photographs were taken by X-ray film and/or X-ray CCD camera. As a result, the refraction imaging method gave a much more distinct image of the artificial cylindrical hole in acrylic resin as compared with the absorption method. The fatigue cracks in aluminum alloy and mild steel were also distinctly observed. The X-ray imaging revealed the presence of MnS nonmetallic inclusions in low alloy steel. Void defects in aluminum castings were clearly detected by the imaging. In addition, in-situ observation of tensile fracture of aluminum alloys using a high resolution X-ray CCD camera system wa successfully conducted. The observations by use of asymmetric reflection technique for X-ray imaging experiment were also well performed. From above, the X-ray imaging method using ultra-bright synchrotron radiation is concluded to be very useful for fracture research of materials. (author)

  15. Direct observations of cracks and voids in structural materials by X-ray imaging using ultra-bright synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakayama, Takenori; Yuse, Fumio [Kobe Steel, Ltd., Materials Research Laboratory, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Tsubokawa, Yoshiyuki [Kobelco Research Inst., Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Matsui, Junji [Himeji Inst. of Technology, Kamigori, Hyogo (Japan)

    2003-04-01

    Refraction contrast X-ray imaging experiments were conducted on acrylic resin with an artificial cylindrical hole, A7075 aluminum alloy, A6063 aluminum castings, mild steel with cracks or voids, and low alloy steel with inclusions, using a ultra-bright synchrotron radiation X-ray beam in BL24XU hutch C of SPring-8. Conventional absorption contrast X-ray imaging experiments were also done for the comparison. The X-ray beam was controlled to be monochromatic by Si double-crystals and collimated by a slit. The distance between the sample and the detector was changed from 0 to 3 m, and the X-ray energy was 15 to 25 keV. Photographs were taken by X-ray film and/or X-ray CCD camera. As a result, the refraction imaging method gave a much more distinct image of the artificial cylindrical hole in acrylic resin as compared with the absorption method. The fatigue cracks in aluminum alloy and mild steel were also distinctly observed. The X-ray imaging revealed the presence of MnS nonmetallic inclusions in low alloy steel. Void defects in aluminum castings were clearly detected by the imaging. In addition, in-situ observation of tensile fracture of aluminum alloys using a high resolution X-ray CCD camera system wa successfully conducted. The observations by use of asymmetric reflection technique for X-ray imaging experiment were also well performed. From above, the X-ray imaging method using ultra-bright synchrotron radiation is concluded to be very useful for fracture research of materials. (author)

  16. Synchrotron x-ray sources and new opportunities in the soil and environmental sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze, D.; Anderson, S.; Mattigod, S.

    1990-07-01

    This report contains the following papers: characteristics of the advanced photon source and comparison with existing synchrotron facilities; x-ray absorption spectroscopy: EXAFS and XANES -- A versatile tool to study the atomic and electronic structure of materials; applications of x-ray spectroscopy and anomalous scattering experiments in the soil and environmental sciences; X-ray fluorescence microprobe and microtomography

  17. X-ray and synchrotron methods in studies of cultural heritage sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koval’chuk, M. V.; Yatsishina, E. B.; Blagov, A. E.; Tereshchenko, E. Yu., E-mail: elenatereschenko@yandex.ru; Prosekov, P. A.; Dyakova, Yu. A. [National Research Centre “Kurchatov Institute” (Russian Federation)

    2016-09-15

    X-ray and synchrotron methods that are most widely used in studies of cultural heritage objects (including archaeological sites)—X-ray diffraction analysis, X-ray spectroscopy, and visualization techniques— have been considered. The reported examples show high efficiency and informativeness of natural science studies when solving most diverse problems of archaeology, history, the study of art, museology, etc.

  18. X-ray and synchrotron methods in studies of cultural heritage sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koval’chuk, M. V.; Yatsishina, E. B.; Blagov, A. E.; Tereshchenko, E. Yu.; Prosekov, P. A.; Dyakova, Yu. A.

    2016-01-01

    X-ray and synchrotron methods that are most widely used in studies of cultural heritage objects (including archaeological sites)—X-ray diffraction analysis, X-ray spectroscopy, and visualization techniques— have been considered. The reported examples show high efficiency and informativeness of natural science studies when solving most diverse problems of archaeology, history, the study of art, museology, etc.

  19. Utilization of synchrotron radiation in analytical chemistry. Soft X-ray emission and absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muramatsu, Yasuji

    2015-01-01

    Synchrotron soft X-ray spectroscopy includes three major types of spectroscopy such as X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). This paper takes up XAS and XES of soft X-rays, and briefly describes the principle. XAS is roughly classified into XANES (X-ray absorption near-edge structure) and EXAFS (extended X-ray absorption fine structure), and XANES is mainly used in the analysis based on XAS of soft X-rays. As the examples of the latest soft X-ray analyses, the following are introduced: (1) bandgap of boron implantation diamond and the local structure of boron, (2) catalytic sites in solid fuel cell carbon electrode, and (3) soft X-ray analysis under atmospheric pressure. (A.O.)

  20. Use of a synchrotron radiation x-ray microprobe for elemental analysis at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, B.M.

    1980-01-01

    The National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) is a facility consisting of a 700 MeV and a 2.5 GeV electron storage ring and dedicated to providing synchrotron radiation in the energy range from the vacuum ultraviolet to high energy x rays. Some of the properties of synchrotron radiation that contribute to its usefulness for x-ray fluorescence are: a continuous, tunable energy spectrum, strong collimation in the horizontal plane, high polarization in the storage ring plane, and relatively low energy deposition. The highest priority is for the development of an x-ray microprobe beam line capable of trace analysis in the parts per million range with spatial resolution as low as one micrometer. An eventual capability for bulk sample analysis is also planned with sensitivities in the more favorable cases beings low as 50 parts per billion in dry biological tissue. The microprobe technique has application to a variety of fields including the geological, medical, materials and environmental sciences. Examples of investigations include multielemental trace analysis across grain boundaries for the study of diffusion and cooling processes in geological and materials sciences samples; in leukocytes and other types of individual cells for studying the relationship between trace element concentrations and disease or nutrition; and in individual particles in air pollution samples

  1. Prospects for compact high-intensity laser synchrotron x-ray and gamma sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogorelsky, I.V.

    1996-11-01

    A laser interacting with a relativistic electron beam behaves like a virtual wiggler of an extremely short period equal to half of the laser wavelength. This approach opens a route to relatively compact, high-brightness x-ray sources alternative or complementary to conventional synchrotron light sources. Although not new, the laser synchrotron source (LSS) concept is still waiting for a convincing demonstration. Available at the BNL Accelerator Test Facility (ATF), a high-brightness electron beam and the high-power CO 2 laser may be used as prototype LSS brick stones. In a feasible demonstration experiment, 10-GW, 100-ps CO 2 laser beam will be brought to a head-on collision with a 10-ps, 0.5-nC, 50 MeV electron bunch. Flashes of collimated 4.7 keV (2.6 angstrom) x-rays of 10-ps pulse duration, with a flux of ∼ 10 19 photons/sec, will be produced via linear Compton backscattering. The x-ray spectrum is tunable proportionally to the e-beam energy. A rational short-term extension of the proposed experiment would be further enhancement of the x-ray flux to the 10 22 photons/sec level, after the ongoing ATF CO 2 laser upgrade to 5 TW peak power and electron bunch shortening to 3 ps is realized. In the future, exploiting the promising approach of a high-gradient laser wake field accelerator, a compact ''table-top'' LSS of monochromatic gamma radiation may become feasible

  2. Prospects for compact high-intensity laser synchrotron x-ray and gamma sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogorelsky, I.V.

    1997-01-01

    A laser interacting with a relativistic electron beam behaves like a virtual wiggler of an extremely short period equal to half of the laser wavelength. This approach opens a route to relatively compact, high- brightness x-ray sources alternative or complementary to conventional synchrotron light sources. Although not new, the laser synchrotron source (LSS) concept is still waiting for a convincing demonstration. Available at the BNL Accelerator Test Facility (ATF), a high- brightness electron beam and the high-power C0 2 laser may be used as prototype LSS brick stones. In a feasible demonstration experiment, 10 GW, 100 ps C0 2 laser beam will be brought to a head-on collision with a 10 ps, 0.5 nC, 50 MeV electron bunch. Flashes of collimated 4.7 keV (2.6 A) x-rays of 10-ps pulse duration, with a flux of ∼10 19 photons/sec, will be produced via linear Compton backscattering. The x-ray spectra is tunable proportionally to the e- beam energy. A rational short-term extension of the proposed experiment would be further enhancement of the x-ray flux to the 10 22 photon/sec level, after the ongoing ATF C0 2 laser upgrade to 5 TW peak power and electron bunch shortening to 3 ps is realized. In the future, exploiting the promising approach of a high-gradient laser wake field accelerator, a compact ''table- top'' LSS of monochromatic gamma radiation may become feasible

  3. Time-resolved hard x-ray studies using third-generation synchrotron radiation sources (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, D.M.

    1992-01-01

    The third-generation, high-brilliance, synchrotron radiation sources currently under construction will usher in a new era of x-ray research in the physical, chemical, and biological sciences. One of the most exciting areas of experimentation will be the extension of static x-ray scattering and diffraction techniques to the study of transient or time-evolving systems. The high repetition rate, short-pulse duration, high-brilliance, variable spectral bandwidth, and large particle beam energies of these sources make them ideal for hard x-ray, time-resolved studies. The primary focus of this presentation will be on the novel instrumentation required for time-resolved studies such as optics which can increase the flux on the sample or disperse the x-ray beam, detectors and electronics for parallel data collection, and methods for altering the natural time structure of the radiation. This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, BES-Materials Science, under Contract No. W-31-109-ENG-38

  4. Synchrotron radiation microbeam X-ray fluorescence analysis of zinc concentration in remineralized enamel in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Tsunenori; Ishizaki, Hidetaka; Tanabe, Shuji; Hayashi, Yoshihiko

    2009-05-01

    Remineralization is an indispensable phenomenon during the natural healing process of enamel decay. The incorporation of zinc (Zn) into enamel crystal could accelerate this remineralization. The present study was designed to investigate the concentration and distribution of Zn in remineralized enamel after gum chewing. The experiment was performed at the Photon Factory. Synchrotron radiation was monochromatized and X-rays were focused into a small beam spot. The X-ray fluorescence (XRF) from the sample was detected with a silicon (Si) (lithium (Li)) detector. X-ray beam energy was tuned to detect Zn. The examined samples were small enamel fragments remineralized after chewing calcium phosphate-containing gum in situ. The incorporation of Zn atom into hydroxyapatite (OHAP), the main component of enamel, was measured using Zn K-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) with fluorescence mode at the SPring-8. A high concentration of Zn was detected in a superficial area 10-microm deep of the sectioned enamel after gum chewing. This concentration increased over that in the intact enamel. The atomic distance between Zn and O in the enamel was calculated using the EXAFS data. The analyzed atomic distances between Zn and O in two sections were 0.237 and 0.240 nm. The present experiments suggest that Zn is effectively incorporated into remineralized enamel through the physiological processes of mineral deposition in the oral cavity through gum-chewing and that Zn substitution probably occurred at the calcium position in enamel hydroxyapatite.

  5. Single-shot beam-position monitor for x-ray free electron laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tono, Kensuke; Kudo, Togo; Yabashi, Makina; Tachibana, Takeshi; Feng, Yiping; Fritz, David; Hastings, Jerome; Ishikawa, Tetsuya

    2011-02-01

    We have developed an x-ray beam-position monitor for detecting the radiation properties of an x-ray free electron laser (FEL). It is composed of four PIN photodiodes that detect backscattered x-rays from a semitransparent diamond film placed in the beam path. The signal intensities from the photodiodes are used to compute the beam intensity and position. A proof-of-principle experiment at a synchrotron light source revealed that the error in the beam position is reduced to below 7 μm by using a nanocrystal diamond film prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Owing to high dose tolerance and transparency of the diamond film, the monitor is suitable for routine diagnostics of extremely intense x-ray pulses from the FEL.

  6. Development and commissioning of an x-ray beam alignment flag for NSLS-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosciuk, B., E-mail: bkosciuk@bnl.gov; Hu, Y.; Keister, J.; Seletskiy, S. [National Synchrotron Light Source-II, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)

    2016-07-27

    The NSLS-II Synchrotron Light Source is a 3 GeV electron storage ring recently commissioned and is now entering operations at Brookhaven National Laboratory. One of the major tasks was to commission the six project beamline front ends which required a diagnostic to resolve x-ray beam position for the purpose of beam alignment at low current. Since none of the front ends were outfitted with any x-ray diagnostics in the baseline design, an x-ray beam profile monitor or “flag” that could be easily installed into existing front end vacuum chambers was proposed to satisfy this requirement. Here we present the development of this novel device which utilizes a polycrystalline CVD diamond luminescent screen to produce a visible image of the x-ray beam cross-section and is then captured with a CCD camera.

  7. X-ray beam qualities for dental radiology purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Marcus Aurelio P. dos; Fragoso, Maria da Conceicao de F.; Lima, Ricardo de A.; Hazim, Clovis A.

    2009-01-01

    In order to establish characteristics or properties of equipment for diagnostic radiology, e.g. ion chambers and semiconductor detectors, calibration laboratories offer a set of well-defined radiation conditions, called X-ray qualities, which can be used for many Physics studies and medical purposes. The standardization of radiation qualities has been carried out in several fields of study, but little attention has been given to the area of dental radiology, mainly for medical and physical applications using single-phase units with half-wave rectification. For this reason, a single-phase dental unit with adjustable peak voltage and tube current, called 'variable potential X-ray equipment', was developed aiming to define X-ray beam qualities for test and calibrations purposes. X-ray spectra at 50, 60 and 70 kVp were determined by using a CdTe detector and compared with those obtained for ten commercial X-ray dental units. As a result of this study, a set of X-ray qualities for the variable potential X-ray equipment was determined. The X-ray qualities spectra were utilized as reference for determination of a new set of X-ray qualities characterized for a constant potential X-ray equipment. Thus, sets of X-ray qualities were standardized and implemented in two X-ray laboratories: one with the variable potential X-ray equipment and other with constant potential X-ray equipment. These reference X-ray beam qualities should be used for test and calibration purposes involving scientific studies and services. (author)

  8. High-resolution imaging of coronary calcifications by intense low-energy fluoroscopic X-ray obtained from synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohtsuka, S.; Sugishita, Y.; Takeda, T.; Itai, Y.; Tada, J.; Hyodo, K.; Ando, M. [Inst. of Clinical Medicine, Univ. of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan). Dept. of Cardiology

    2000-07-01

    In order to obtain an intense monochromatic low-energy X-ray from synchrotron radiation (SR) and apply it to detect coronary calcifications, the SR beam was reflected with a silicon crystal to be expanded (150 mm in height and 80 mm in width) and to be monochromatized at an energy level of 37 keV. The X-ray was intermittently irradiated to obtain dynamic imaging of 30 images/s. Images were recorded by a digital fluorography system. The low-energy X-ray from SR sharply visualized calcification of coronary arteries, while conventional X-ray could not visualize coronary calcification. The intense monochromatic low-energy X-ray from SR is sensitive, has high-resolution for imaging coronary calcification and may serve as a screening method for coronary artery disease.

  9. Efficient Analytical Approaches to the Optics of Compound Refractive Lenses for Use with Synchrotron X-rays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Stefan Othmar; Poulsen, Henning Friis

    2014-01-01

    The properties of compound refractive lenses (CRLs) of biconcave parabolic lenses for focusing and imaging synchrotron X-rays have been investigated theoretically by ray transfer matrix analysis and Gaussian beam propagation. We present approximate analytical expressions, that allow fast estimation...

  10. Ion beam induced surface graphitization of CVD diamond for x-ray beam position monitor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chian; Shu, D.; Kuzay, T.M.; Wen, L.; Melendres, C.A.; Argonne National Lab., IL

    1996-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source at ANL is a third-generation synchrotron facility that generates powerful x-ray beams on its undulator beamlines. It is important to know the position and angle of the x- ray beam during experiments. Due to very high heat flux levels, several patented x-ray beam position monitors (XBPM) exploiting chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond have been developed. These XBPMs have a thin layer of low-atomic-mass metallic coating so that photoemission from the x rays generate a minute but measurable current for position determination. Graphitization of the CVD diamond surface creates a very thin, intrinsic and conducting layer that can stand much higher temperatures and minimal x-ray transmission losses compared to the coated metallic layers. In this paper, a laboratory sputter ion source was used to transform selected surfaces of a CVD diamond substrate into graphite. The effect of 1-5 keV argon ion bombardment on CVD diamond surfaces at various target temperatures from 200 to 500 C was studied using Auger electron spectroscopy and in-situ electrical resistivity measurements. Graphitization after the ion bombardment has been confirmed and optimum conditions for graphitization studied. Raman spectroscopy was used to identify the overall diamond structure in the bulk of CVD diamond substrate after the ion bombardments. It was found that target temperature plays an important role in stability and electrical conductivity of the irradiated CVD diamonds

  11. K-Edge Subtraction Angiography with Synchrotron X-Rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giacomini, John C.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to utilize dual energy, monochromatic X-rays produced from synchrotrons radiation in order to obtain noninvasive medical imaging. The application of synchrotrons radiation to medical imaging is based on the principle of iodine dichromography, first described by Bertil Jacobson of the Karolinska Institute in 1953. Medical imaging using synchrotrons radiation and K-edge dichromography was pioneered at Stanford University under the leadership of Dr. Ed Rubenstein, and the late Nobel Laureate in Physics, Dr. Robert Hofstadter. With progressive refinements in hardware, clinical-quality images were obtained of human coronary arteries utilizing peripheral injections of iodinated contrast agent. These images even now are far superior to those being presented by investigators using MRI as an imaging tool for coronary arteries. However, new supplies and instruments in the cardiac catheterization laboratory have served to transform coronary angiography into an outpatient procedure, with relatively little morbidity. We extended the principles learned with coronary angiography to noninvasive imaging of the human bronchial tree. For these images, we utilized xenon as the contrast agent, as it has a K-edge very similar to that of iodine. In this case, there is no true competing diagnostic test, and pulmonary neoplasm is an enormous public health concern. In early experiments, we demonstrated remarkably clear images of the human bronchial tree. These images have been shown internationally; however, funding difficulties primarily with the Department of Energy have not allowed for progression of this promising avenue of research. One potential criticism of the project is that in order to obtain these images, we utilized national laboratories. Some have questioned whether this would lead to a practical imaging modality. However, we have shown that the technology exists to allow for construction of a miniature storage ring, with a superconducting

  12. X-ray beam-position feedback system with easy-to-use beam-position monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae Yeon; Kim, Yesul; Lee, Sangsul; Lim, Jun

    2018-05-01

    X-ray beam-position stability is indispensable in cutting-edge experiments using synchrotron radiation. Here, for the first time, a beam-position feedback system is presented that utilizes an easy-to-use X-ray beam-position monitor incorporating a diamond-fluorescence screen. The acceptable range of the monitor is above 500 µm and the feedback system maintains the beam position within 3 µm. In addition to being inexpensive, the system has two key advantages: it works without a scale factor for position calibration, and it has no dependence on X-ray energy, X-ray intensity, beam size or beam shape.

  13. Probing deformation substructure by synchrotron X-ray diffraction and dislocation dynamics modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsunsky, Alexander M; Hofmann, Felix; Song, Xu; Eve, Sophie; Collins, Steve P

    2010-09-01

    Materials characterization at the nano-scale is motivated by the desire to resolve the structural aspects and deformation behavior at length scales relevant to those mechanisms that define the novel and unusual properties of nano-structured materials. A range of novel techniques has recently become accessible with the help of synchrotron X-ray beams that can be focused down to spot sizes of less than a few microns on the sample. The unique combination of tunability (energy selection), parallelism and brightness of synchrotron X-ray beams allows their use for high resolution diffraction (determination of crystal structure and transformations, analysis of dislocation sub-structures, orientation and texture analysis, strain mapping); small angle X-ray scattering (analysis of nano-scale voids and defects; orientation analysis) and imaging (radiography and tomography). After a brief review of the state-of-the-art capabilities for monochromatic and white beam synchrotron diffraction, we consider the usefulness of these techniques for the task of bridging the gap between experiment and modeling. Namely, we discuss how the experiments can be configured to provide information relevant to the validation and improvement of modeling approaches, and also how the results of various simulations can be post-processed to improve the possibility of (more or less) direct comparison with experiments. Using the example of some recent experiments carried out on beamline 116 at Diamond Light Source near Oxford, we discuss how such experimental results can be interpreted in view and in conjunction with numerical deformation models, particularly those incorporating dislocation effects, e.g., finite-element based pseudo-continuum strain gradient formulations, and discrete dislocation simulations. Post-processing of FE and discrete dislocation simulations is described, illustrating the kind of information that can be extracted from comparisons between modeling and experimental data.

  14. Scattered X-ray beam nondestructive testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harding, G.; Kosanetzky, J.

    1988-01-01

    X-ray scatter interactions generally dominate the linear attenuation coefficient at the photon energies typical of medical and industrial radiography. Specific advantages of X-ray scatter imaging, including a flexible choice of measurement geometry, direct 3D-imaging capability (tomography) and improved information for material characterization, are illustrated with results from Compton and coherent scatter devices. Applications of a Compton backscatter scanner (ComScan) in the aerospace industry and coherent scatter imaging in security screening are briefly considered [pt

  15. Hard X-ray synchrotron light source for industrial and materials research applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehr, H.; Ehrfeld, W.; Moser, H.O.; Schmidt, M.; Herminghaus, H.

    1992-01-01

    The requirements for industrial production or for an industry-related analytical environment is demonstrated for the case of the proposed hard X-ray synchrotron light source. The source is intended to provide radiation mainly for deep X-ray lithography as part of the LIGA-process in microfabrication, and for analytical and diagnostic purposes in materials research and microtechnology. It offers up to 48 bending magnet beamlines with a characteristic wavelength of 2 A. An electron energy of 2.5 GeV and normal conducting magnets will be used. A FODO lattice with a beam emittance of 3x10 -7 m rad and four dispersion-free straight sections to accommodate insertion devices, injection elements and RF structures has been designed. (R.P.) 5 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 tab

  16. Source assemblage types for cratonic diamonds from X-ray synchrotron diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestola, F.; Alvaro, M.; Casati, M. N.; Wilhelm, H.; Kleppe, A. K.; Jephcoat, A. P.; Domeneghetti, M. C.; Harris, J. W.

    2016-11-01

    Three single crystals of clinopyroxene trapped within three different gem-quality diamonds from the Udachnaya kimberlite (Siberia, Russia) were analysed in situ by single-crystal synchrotron X-ray diffraction in order to obtain information on their chemical composition and infer source assemblage type. A non-destructive approach was used with high-energy (≈ 60 keV; λ ≈ 0.206 Å) at I15, the extreme-conditions beamline at Diamond Light Source. A dedicated protocol was used to center the mineral inclusions located deep inside the diamonds in the X-ray beam. Our results reveal that two of the inclusions can be associated with peridotitic paragenesis whereas the third is eclogitic. This study also demonstrates that this non-destructive experimental approach is extremely efficient in evaluating the origin of minerals trapped in their diamond hosts.

  17. Metals determination in wood treated by synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vives, Ana Elisa Sirito de; Medeiros, Jean Gabriel da Silva; Tomazello Filho, Mario

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes the use of X-Ray fluorescence analysis for distribution and quantification of metals in the hardwood (Eucalyptus sp) and softwood (Pinus sp) treated with CCA (copper-chromium-arsenic). The sapwood/heartwood for hardwood sample and the growth-rings for softwood sample were analyzed. The samples were scanned in 320 mm steps in the vertical direction. For excitation of the elements a white beam synchrotron radiation of ∼ 320 x 180 mm was employed and for the X-ray detection a Si(Li) semiconductor detector. The elements K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn and As were determined. Fundamental parameters were used to quantify the elements concentrations. (author)

  18. Metals determination in wood treated by synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vives, Ana Elisa Sirito de [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: aesvives@unimep.br; Silva, Richard Maximiliano da Cunha [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: maxcunha@cena.usp.br; Medeiros, Jean Gabriel da Silva; Tomazello Filho, Mario [Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz]. E-mail: jeangm@esalq.usp.br; mtomazel@esalq.usp.br; Moreira, Silvana [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: Silvana@fec.unicamp.br; Zucchi, Orgheda Luiza Araujo Domingues [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas]. E-mail: olzucchi@fcfrp.usp.br; Barroso, Regina Cely [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: cely@uerj.br

    2005-07-01

    The paper describes the use of X-Ray fluorescence analysis for distribution and quantification of metals in the hardwood (Eucalyptus sp) and softwood (Pinus sp) treated with CCA (copper-chromium-arsenic). The sapwood/heartwood for hardwood sample and the growth-rings for softwood sample were analyzed. The samples were scanned in 320 mm steps in the vertical direction. For excitation of the elements a white beam synchrotron radiation of {approx} 320 x 180 mm was employed and for the X-ray detection a Si(Li) semiconductor detector. The elements K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn and As were determined. Fundamental parameters were used to quantify the elements concentrations. (author)

  19. Development of confocal X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microscopy at the Cornell high energy synchrotron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woll, A.R.; Huang, R.; Mass, J.; Bisulca, C.; Bilderback, D.H.; Gruner, S.; Gao, N.

    2006-01-01

    A confocal X-ray fluorescence microscope was built at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS) to obtain compositional depth profiles of historic paintings. The microscope consists of a single-bounce, borosilicate monocapillary optic to focus the incident beam onto the painting and a commercial borosilicate polycapillary lens to collect the fluorescent X-rays. The resolution of the microscope was measured by scanning a variety of thin metal films through this confocal volume while monitoring the fluorescence signal. The capabilities of the technique were then probed using test paint microstructures with up to four distinct layers, each having a thickness in the range of 10-80 microns. Results from confocal XRF were compared with those from stand-alone XRF and visible light microscopy of the paint cross-sections. A large area, high-resolution scanner is currently being built to perform 3D scans on moderately sized paintings. (orig.)

  20. Synchrotron X-ray CT characterization of titanium parts fabricated by additive manufacturing. Part II. Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarlett, Nicola Vivienne Yorke; Tyson, Peter; Fraser, Darren; Mayo, Sheridan; Maksimenko, Anton

    2016-07-01

    Synchrotron X-ray tomography (SXRT) has been applied to the study of defects within three-dimensional printed titanium parts. These parts were made using the Arcam EBM(®) (electron beam melting) process which uses powdered titanium alloy, Ti64 (Ti alloy with approximately 6%Al and 4%V) as the feed and an electron beam for the sintering/welding. The experiment was conducted on the Imaging and Medical Beamline of the Australian Synchrotron. The samples represent a selection of complex shapes with a variety of internal morphologies. Inspection via SXRT has revealed a number of defects which may not otherwise have been seen. The location and nature of such defects combined with detailed knowledge of the process conditions can contribute to understanding the interplay between design and manufacturing strategy. This fundamental understanding may subsequently be incorporated into process modelling, prediction of properties and the development of robust methodologies for the production of defect-free parts.

  1. The fundamental parameter method applied to X-ray fluorescence analysis with synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantenburg, F. J.; Beier, T.; Hennrich, F.; Mommsen, H.

    1992-05-01

    Quantitative X-ray fluorescence analysis applying the fundamental parameter method is usually restricted to monochromatic excitation sources. It is shown here, that such analyses can be performed as well with a white synchrotron radiation spectrum. To determine absolute elemental concentration values it is necessary to know the spectral distribution of this spectrum. A newly designed and tested experimental setup, which uses the synchrotron radiation emitted from electrons in a bending magnet of ELSA (electron stretcher accelerator of the university of Bonn) is presented. The determination of the exciting spectrum, described by the given electron beam parameters, is limited due to uncertainties in the vertical electron beam size and divergence. We describe a method which allows us to determine the relative and absolute spectral distributions needed for accurate analysis. First test measurements of different alloys and standards of known composition demonstrate that it is possible to determine exact concentration values in bulk and trace element analysis.

  2. Analysis of signal to background ratio in synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Kenji; Gohshi, Yohichi; Iida, Atsuo.

    1988-01-01

    The signal to background (S/B) ratio in energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence using synchrotron radiation (SR) was quantitatively analyzed. The S/B ratio, which has been significantly improved by taking advantage of the polarized nature of SR, was found to be strongly dependent on geometrical factors of the measurement system. From the analysis on the origin of the scattered background, the dependence of the S/B ratio on the geometry was quantitatively explained, mainly by the polarization properties of SR. Experimental conditions could be optimized by adjusting the degree of polarization of the incident beam and the detector solid angle. (author)

  3. An unique synchrotron beamline for fine X ray characterizations of nuclear fuel cycle materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitaud, B.; Lequien, S.

    2004-01-01

    A beamline dedicated to the study of highly radioactive samples up to 18.5 GBq will be constructed on the new third generation synchrotron SOLEIL. Based on the use of X ray beam of very high flux, this beamline named MARS will give true opportunities for new studies of chemistry and physics on fuel cycle materials with the respect of safety conditions. Complementary investigations should be carried out on different experimental stations. The three main techniques will be the micro fluorescence, the micro absorption and the high resolution diffraction. The MARS beamline should be up and working for the international community by the beginning of 2007. (authors)

  4. An unique synchrotron beamline for fine X ray characterizations of nuclear fuel cycle materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sitaud, B.; Lequien, S

    2004-07-01

    A beamline dedicated to the study of highly radioactive samples up to 18.5 GBq will be constructed on the new third generation synchrotron SOLEIL. Based on the use of X ray beam of very high flux, this beamline named MARS will give true opportunities for new studies of chemistry and physics on fuel cycle materials with the respect of safety conditions. Complementary investigations should be carried out on different experimental stations. The three main techniques will be the micro fluorescence, the micro absorption and the high resolution diffraction. The MARS beamline should be up and working for the international community by the beginning of 2007. (authors)

  5. Fluorescent scanning x-ray tomography with synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Tohoru; Maeda, Toshikazu; Yuasa, Tetsuya; Akatsuka, Takao; Ito, Tatsuo; Kishi, Kenichi; Wu, Jin; Kazama, Masahiro; Hyodo, Kazuyuki; Itai, Yuji

    1995-02-01

    Fluorescent scanning (FS) x-ray tomography was developed to detect nonradioactive tracer materials (iodine and gadolinium) in a living object. FS x-ray tomography consists of a silicon (111) channel cut monochromator, an x-ray shutter, an x-ray slit system and a collimator for detection, a scanning table for the target organ, and an x-ray detector with pure germanium. The minimal detectable dose of iodine in this experiment was 100 ng in a volume of 2 mm3 and a linear relationship was shown between the photon counts of a fluorescent x ray and the concentration of iodine contrast material. A FS x-ray tomographic image was clearly obtained with a phantom.

  6. Quantitative cone beam X-ray luminescence tomography/X-ray computed tomography imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Dongmei; Zhu, Shouping; Chen, Xueli; Chao, Tiantian; Cao, Xu; Zhao, Fengjun; Huang, Liyu; Liang, Jimin

    2014-01-01

    X-ray luminescence tomography (XLT) is an imaging technology based on X-ray-excitable materials. The main purpose of this paper is to obtain quantitative luminescence concentration using the structural information of the X-ray computed tomography (XCT) in the hybrid cone beam XLT/XCT system. A multi-wavelength luminescence cone beam XLT method with the structural a priori information is presented to relieve the severe ill-posedness problem in the cone beam XLT. The nanophosphors and phantom experiments were undertaken to access the linear relationship of the system response. Then, an in vivo mouse experiment was conducted. The in vivo experimental results show that the recovered concentration error as low as 6.67% with the location error of 0.85 mm can be achieved. The results demonstrate that the proposed method can accurately recover the nanophosphor inclusion and realize the quantitative imaging

  7. Theoretical analysis of the background intensity distribution in X-ray Birefringence Imaging using synchrotron bending-magnet radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, John P.; Dolbnya, Igor P.; Collins, Stephen P.; Harris, Kenneth D. M.; Edwards-Gau, Gregory R.; Palmer, Benjamin A.

    2015-04-01

    In the recently developed technique of X-ray Birefringence Imaging, molecular orientational order in anisotropic materials is studied by exploiting the birefringence of linearly polarized X-rays with energy close to an absorption edge of an element in the material. In the experimental setup, a vertically deflecting high-resolution double-crystal monochromator is used upstream from the sample to select the appropriate photon energy, and a horizontally deflecting X-ray polarization analyzer, consisting of a perfect single crystal with a Bragg reflection at Bragg angle of approximately 45°, is placed downstream from the sample to measure the resulting rotation of the X-ray polarization. However, if the experiment is performed on a synchrotron bending-magnet beamline, then the elliptical polarization of the X-rays out of the electron orbit plane affects the shape of the output beam. Also, because the monochromator introduces a correlation between vertical position and photon energy to the X-ray beam, the polarization analyzer does not select the entire beam, but instead selects a diagonal stripe, the slope of which depends on the Bragg angles of the monochromator and the polarization analyzer. In the present work, the final background intensity distribution is calculated analytically because the phase space sampling methods normally used in ray traces are too inefficient for this setup. X-ray Birefringence Imaging data measured at the Diamond Light Source beamline B16 agree well with the theory developed here.

  8. Theoretical analysis of the background intensity distribution in X-ray Birefringence Imaging using synchrotron bending-magnet radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutter, John P., E-mail: john.sutter@diamond.ac.uk; Dolbnya, Igor P.; Collins, Stephen P. [Diamond Light Source Ltd., Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Harris, Kenneth D. M.; Edwards-Gau, Gregory R. [School of Chemistry, Cardiff University, Park Place, Cardiff CF10 3AT, Wales (United Kingdom); Palmer, Benjamin A. [Department of Structural Biology, Weizmann Institute of Science, 234 Herzl St., Rehovot 7610001 (Israel)

    2015-04-28

    In the recently developed technique of X-ray Birefringence Imaging, molecular orientational order in anisotropic materials is studied by exploiting the birefringence of linearly polarized X-rays with energy close to an absorption edge of an element in the material. In the experimental setup, a vertically deflecting high-resolution double-crystal monochromator is used upstream from the sample to select the appropriate photon energy, and a horizontally deflecting X-ray polarization analyzer, consisting of a perfect single crystal with a Bragg reflection at Bragg angle of approximately 45°, is placed downstream from the sample to measure the resulting rotation of the X-ray polarization. However, if the experiment is performed on a synchrotron bending-magnet beamline, then the elliptical polarization of the X-rays out of the electron orbit plane affects the shape of the output beam. Also, because the monochromator introduces a correlation between vertical position and photon energy to the X-ray beam, the polarization analyzer does not select the entire beam, but instead selects a diagonal stripe, the slope of which depends on the Bragg angles of the monochromator and the polarization analyzer. In the present work, the final background intensity distribution is calculated analytically because the phase space sampling methods normally used in ray traces are too inefficient for this setup. X-ray Birefringence Imaging data measured at the Diamond Light Source beamline B16 agree well with the theory developed here.

  9. Measurement of X-ray mass attenuation coefficient of nickel around the K-edge using synchrotron radiation based X-ray absorption study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Bunty Rani; Rajput, Parasmani; Jha, S.N.; Nageswara Rao, A.S.

    2015-01-01

    The work presents the X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) technique for measuring the X-ray mass attenuation coefficient of nickel metal foil in the X-ray energy range of 8271.2–8849.4 eV using scanning XAFS beam line (BL-09) at Indus-2 synchrotron radiation source facility, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT) at Indore, India. The result represents the X-ray mass attenuation coefficient data for 0.02 mm thick Ni metal foil in the XAFS region of Ni K-edge. However, the results are compared to theoretical values using X-COM. There is a maximum deviation which is found exactly near the K-edge jump and decreases as we move away from the absorption edge. Oscillatory structure appears just above the observed absorption edge i.e., 8348.7 eV and is confined to around 250 eV above the edge. - Highlights: • Mass attenuation coefficient measurements of nickel using synchrotron radiation. • The measurements were taken exactly near the Ni K-edge at an energy step of 1 eV. • A maximum deviation is found near the K-edge

  10. X-ray topography using the forward transmitted beam under multiple-beam diffraction conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsusaka, Y., E-mail: tsusaka@sci.u-hyogo.ac.jp; Takano, H. [Graduate School of Material Science, University of Hyogo, 3-2-1, Kouto, Kamigori, Hyogo 678-1297 (Japan); Takeda, S. [SPring-8 Service Co., Ltd., 1-20-5, Kouto, Shingu, Tatsuno, Hyogo 679-5165 (Japan); Yokoyama, K.; Matsui, J. [Synchrotron Radiation Nanotechnology Center, University of Hyogo, 1-490-2, Kouto, Shingu, Tatsuno, Hyogo 679-5165 (Japan); Kagoshima, Y. [Graduate School of Material Science, University of Hyogo, 3-2-1, Kouto, Kamigori, Hyogo 678-1297 (Japan); Synchrotron Radiation Nanotechnology Center, University of Hyogo, 1-490-2, Kouto, Shingu, Tatsuno, Hyogo 679-5165 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    X-ray topographs are taken for a sapphire wafer with the [0001] surface normal, as an example, by forward transmitted synchrotron x-ray beams combined with two-dimensional electronic arrays in the x-ray detector having a spatial resolution of 1 μm. They exhibit no shape deformation and no position shift of the dislocation lines on the topographs. Since the topography is performed under multiple-beam diffraction conditions, the topographic images of a single diffraction (two-wave approximation condition) or plural diffractions (six-wave approximation condition) can be recorded without large specimen position changes. As usual Lang topographs, it is possible to determine the Burgers vector of each dislocation line. Because of high parallelism of the incoming x-rays and linear sensitivity of the electronic arrays to the incident x-rays, the present technique can be used to visualize individual dislocations in single crystals of the dislocation density as high as 1 × 10{sup 5} cm{sup −2}.

  11. Synchrotron X-ray measurement techniques for thermal barrier coated cylindrical samples under thermal gradients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddiqui, Sanna F.; Knipe, Kevin; Manero, Albert; Raghavan, Seetha [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States); Meid, Carla; Wischek, Janine; Bartsch, Marion [German Aerospace Center (DLR), Institute of Materials Research, 51147 Cologne (Germany); Okasinski, John; Almer, Jonathan [X-Ray Science Division, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Karlsson, Anette M. [Cleveland State University, 2121 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 44115 (United States)

    2013-08-15

    Measurement techniques to obtain accurate in situ synchrotron strain measurements of thermal barrier coating systems (TBCs) applied to hollow cylindrical specimens are presented in this work. The Electron Beam Physical Vapor Deposition coated specimens with internal cooling were designed to achieve realistic temperature gradients over the TBC coated material such as that occurring in the turbine blades of aeroengines. Effects of the circular cross section on the x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements in the various layers, including the thermally grown oxide, are investigated using high-energy synchrotron x-rays. Multiple approaches for beam penetration including collection, tangential, and normal to the layers, along with variations in collection parameters are compared for their ability to attain high-resolution XRD data from the internal layers. This study displays the ability to monitor in situ, the response of the internal layers within the TBC, while implementing a thermal gradient across the thickness of the coated sample. The thermal setup maintained coating surface temperatures in the range of operating conditions, while monitoring the substrate cooling, for a controlled thermal gradient. Through variation in measurement location and beam parameters, sufficient intensities are obtained from the internal layers which can be used for depth resolved strain measurements. Results are used to establish the various techniques for obtaining XRD measurements through multi-layered coating systems and their outcomes will pave the way towards goals in achieving realistic in situ testing of these coatings.

  12. Cone-beam x-ray luminescence computed tomography based on x-ray absorption dosage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tianshuai; Rong, Junyan; Gao, Peng; Zhang, Wenli; Liu, Wenlei; Zhang, Yuanke; Lu, Hongbing

    2018-02-01

    With the advances of x-ray excitable nanophosphors, x-ray luminescence computed tomography (XLCT) has become a promising hybrid imaging modality. In particular, a cone-beam XLCT (CB-XLCT) system has demonstrated its potential in in vivo imaging with the advantage of fast imaging speed over other XLCT systems. Currently, the imaging models of most XLCT systems assume that nanophosphors emit light based on the intensity distribution of x-ray within the object, not completely reflecting the nature of the x-ray excitation process. To improve the imaging quality of CB-XLCT, an imaging model that adopts an excitation model of nanophosphors based on x-ray absorption dosage is proposed in this study. To solve the ill-posed inverse problem, a reconstruction algorithm that combines the adaptive Tikhonov regularization method with the imaging model is implemented for CB-XLCT reconstruction. Numerical simulations and phantom experiments indicate that compared with the traditional forward model based on x-ray intensity, the proposed dose-based model could improve the image quality of CB-XLCT significantly in terms of target shape, localization accuracy, and image contrast. In addition, the proposed model behaves better in distinguishing closer targets, demonstrating its advantage in improving spatial resolution.

  13. High energy x-ray synchrotron radiation analysis of residual stress distribution of shot-peened steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Keisuke; Akiniwa, Yoshiaki; Kimachi, Hirohisa; Suzuki, Kenji; Yanase, Etsuya; Nishio, Kouji; Kusumi, Yukihiro

    2001-01-01

    A high energy X-ray beam from synchrotron radiation source SPring-8 was used to determine the residual stress distribution beneath the shot-peened surface of carbon steel plates. By using the monochromatic X-ray beam with an energy of 72 keV, the relation between 2θ and sin 2 ψ was obtained by the side-inclination method upto sin 2 ψ = 0.9. The distribution of the residual stress was determined from the non-linearity of the relation between 2θ and sin 2 ψ. (author)

  14. A water-cooled x-ray monochromator for using off-axis undulator beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khounsary, A.; Maser, J.

    2000-01-01

    Undulator beamlines at third-generation synchrotrons x-ray sources are designed to use the high-brilliance radiation that is contained in the central cone of the generated x-ray beams. The rest of the x-ray beam is often unused. Moreover, in some cases, such as in the zone-plate-based microfocusing beamlines, only a small part of the central radiation cone around the optical axis is used. In this paper, a side-station branch line at the Advanced Photon Source that takes advantage of some of the unused off-axis photons in a microfocusing x-ray beamline is described. Detailed information on the design and analysis of a high-heat-load water-cooled monochromator developed for this beamline is provided

  15. X-ray optics developments at the APS for third-generation synchrotron radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, D.M.

    1996-09-01

    High brilliance third-generation synchrotron radiation sources simultaneously provide both a need and an opportunity for the development of new x-ray optical components. The high power and power densities of the x-ray beams produced by insertion devices have forced researchers to consider novel, and what may seem like exotic, approaches to the mitigation of thermal distortions that can dilute the beam brilliance delivered to the experiment or next optical component. Once the power has been filtered by such high heat load optical elements, specialized components can be employed that take advantage of the high degree of brilliance. This presentation reviews the performance of optical components that have been designed, fabricated, and tested at the Advanced Photon Source, starting with high heat load components and followed by examples of several specialized devices such as a milli-eV resolution (in-line) monochromator, a high energy x-ray phase retarder, and a phase zone plate with submicron focusing capability

  16. Microbial biofilm study by synchrotron X-ray microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennafirme, S.; Lima, I.; Bitencourt, J.A.; Crapez, M.A.C.; Lopes, R.T.

    2015-01-01

    Microbial biofilm has already being used to remove metals and other pollutants from wastewater. In this sense, our proposal was to isolate and cultivate bacteria consortia from mangrove’s sediment resistant to Zn (II) and Cu (II) at 50 mg L −1 and to observe, through synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microscopy (microXRF), whether the biofilm sequestered the metal. The biofilm area analyzed was 1 mm 2 and a 2D map was generated (pixel size 20×20 μm 2 , counting time 5 s/point). The biofilm formation and retention followed the sequence Zn>Cu. Bacterial consortium zinc resistant formed dense biofilm and retained 63.83% of zinc, while the bacterial consortium copper resistant retained 3.21% of copper, with lower biofilm formation. Dehydrogenase activity of Zn resistant bacterial consortium was not negatively affect by 50 mg ml −1 zinc input, whereas copper resistant bacterial consortium showed a significant decrease on dehydrogenase activity (50 mg mL −1 of Cu input). In conclusion, biofilm may protect bacterial cells, acting as barrier against metal toxicity. The bacterial consortia Zn resistant, composed by Nitratireductor spp. and Pseudomonas spp formed dense biofilm and sequestered metal from water, decreasing the metal bioavailability. These bacterial consortia can be used in bioreactors and in bioremediation programs. - Highlights: • We studied bacterial bioremediation by microXRF. • Dense biofilm may act sequestering metal while protecting bacterial metabolism. • Nitratireductor spp. and Pseudomonas spp decreased seawater metal bioavailability. • Bacterial consortia from polluted areas may be used in bioremediation programs.

  17. Total and available metal contents in sediments by synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Silvana; Sobrinho, Gilmar A.; Jesus, Edgar F.O. de; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2002-01-01

    In this work the total and available contents of Al, Si, Cl, K, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Zr, Ba, Ce and Pb in sediments from river Atibaia were determined by Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence technique. The detection limits for K series varies from 200 ng.mL -1 for Al to 2 ng.mL -1 for Zn while for L series the value varies from 20 ng.mL -1 for Ba to 10 ng.mL -1 for Pb. The samples were submitted to two different processes, in order to obtain the total and biological available metal contents. The information about metal content is a important parameter for a correct evaluation about the hydrologic cycle in Piracicaba basin. All the measure were carried out at the National Synchrotron Light Laboratory, Campinas, SP, Brazil, using a white beam for excitation. (author)

  18. UV-Visible Absorption Spectroscopy Enhanced X-ray Crystallography at Synchrotron and X-ray Free Electron Laser Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Aina E; Doukov, Tzanko; Soltis, Michael S

    2016-01-01

    This review describes the use of single crystal UV-Visible Absorption micro-Spectrophotometry (UV-Vis AS) to enhance the design and execution of X-ray crystallography experiments for structural investigations of reaction intermediates of redox active and photosensitive proteins. Considerations for UV-Vis AS measurements at the synchrotron and associated instrumentation are described. UV-Vis AS is useful to verify the intermediate state of an enzyme and to monitor the progression of reactions within crystals. Radiation induced redox changes within protein crystals may be monitored to devise effective diffraction data collection strategies. An overview of the specific effects of radiation damage on macromolecular crystals is presented along with data collection strategies that minimize these effects by combining data from multiple crystals used at the synchrotron and with the X-ray free electron laser.

  19. X-ray-ultraviolet beam splitters for the Michelson interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delmotte, Franck; Ravet, Marie-Francoise; Bridou, Francoise; Varniere, Francoise; Zeitoun, Philippe; Hubert, Sebastien; Vanbostal, Laurent; Soullie, Gerard

    2002-01-01

    With the aim of realizing a Michelson interferometer working at 13.9 nm, we have developed a symmetrical beam splitter with multilayers deposited on the front and back sides of a silicon nitride membrane. On the basis of the experimental optical properties of the membrane, simulations have been performed to define the multilayer structure that provides the highest reflectivity-transmission product. Optimized Mo-Si multilayers have been successfully deposited on both sides of the membrane by use of the ion-beam sputtering technique, with a thickness-period reproducibility of 0.1 nm. Measurements by means of synchrotron radiation at 13.9 nm and at an angle of 45 deg. provide a reflectivity of 14.2% and a transmission of 15.2% for a 60% s-polarized light, close to the simulated values. Such a beam splitter has been used for x-ray laser Michelson interferometry at 13.9 nm. The first interferogram is discussed

  20. X-ray-ultraviolet beam splitters for the Michelson interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmotte, Franck; Ravet, Marie-Françoise; Bridou, Françoise; Varnière, Françoise; Zeitoun, Philippe; Hubert, Sébastien; Vanbostal, Laurent; Soullie, Gérard

    2002-10-01

    With the aim of realizing a Michelson interferometer working at 13.9 nm, we have developed a symmetrical beam splitter with multilayers deposited on the front and back sides of a silicon nitride membrane. On the basis of the experimental optical properties of the membrane, simulations have been performed to define the multilayer structure that provides the highest reflectivity-transmission product. Optimized Mo-Si multilayers have been successfully deposited on both sides of t he membrane by use of the ion-beam sputtering technique, with a thickness-period reproducibility of 0.1 nm. Measurements by means of synchrotron radiation at 13.9 nm and at an angle of 45 degrees provide a reflectivity of 14.2% and a transmission of 15.2% for a 60% s-polarized light, close to the simulated values. Such a beam splitter has been used for x-ray laser Michelson interferometry at 13.9 nm. The first interferogram is discussed.

  1. Nanoparticle-Assisted Scanning Focusing X-Ray Therapy with Needle Beam X Rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, R Andrew; Guo, Ting

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we show a new therapeutic approach using 40-120 keV X rays to deliver a radiation dose at the isocenter located many centimeters below the skin surface several hundred times greater than at the skin and how this dose enhancement can be augmented with nanomaterials to create several thousand-fold total dose enhancement effect. This novel approach employs a needle X-ray beam directed at the isocenter centimeters deep in the body while continuously scanning the beam to cover a large solid angle without overlapping at the skin. A Monte Carlo method was developed to simulate an X-ray dose delivered to the isocenter filled with X-ray absorbing and catalytic nanoparticles in a water phantom. An experimental apparatus consisting of a moving plastic phantom irradiated with a stationary 1 mm needle X-ray beam was built to test the theoretical predictions. X-ray films were used to characterize the dose profiles of the scanning X-ray apparatus. Through this work, it was determined that the X-ray dose delivered to the isocenter in a treatment voxel (t-voxel) underneath a 5 cm deep high-density polyethylene (HDPE) phantom was 295 ± 48 times greater than the surface dose. This measured value was in good agreement with the theoretical predicted value of 339-fold. Adding X-ray-absorbing nanoparticles, catalytic nanoparticles or both into the t-voxel can further augment the dose enhancement. For example, we predicted that adding 1 weight percentage (wp) of gold into water could increase the effective dose delivered to the target by onefold. Dose enhancement using 1 mm X-ray beam could reach about 1,600-fold in the t-voxel when 7.5 wp of 88 nm diameter silica-covered gold nanoparticles were added, which we showed in a previously published study can create a dose enhancement of 5.5 ± 0.46-fold without scanning focusing enhancement. Based on the experimental data from that study, mixing 0.02 wp 2.5 nm diameter small tetrakis hydroxymethyl phosphonium chloride (THPC

  2. Synchrotron radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM) of brachiopod shell interiors for taxonomy: Preliminary report

    OpenAIRE

    Motchurova-Dekova Neda; Harper David A.T.

    2010-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM) is a non-destructive technique for the investigation and visualization of the internal features of solid opaque objects, which allows reconstruction of a complete three-dimensional image of internal structures by recording of the differences in the effects on the passage of waves of energy reacting with those structures. Contrary to X-rays, produced in a conventional X-ray tube, the intense synchrot...

  3. Report of the workshop on transferring X-ray Lithography Synchrotron (XLS) technology to industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcuse, W.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reports on plans to develop an x-ray synchrotron for use in lithography. The primary concern of the present paper is technology transfer from national laboratories to private industry. (JDH)

  4. A preliminary study of synchrotron light sources for x-ray lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, C.R.; Bigham, C.B.; Ebrahim, N.A.; Sawicki, J.A.; Taylor, T.

    1989-02-01

    A preliminary study of synchrotron light sources has been made, primarily oriented toward x-ray lithography. X-ray lithography is being pursued vigorously in several countries, with a goal of manufacturing high-density computer chips (0.25 μm feature sizes), and may attain commercial success in the next decade. Many other applications of soft x-rays appear worthy of investigation as well. The study group visited synchrotron radiation facilities and had discussions with members of the synchrotron radiation community, particularly Canadians. It concluded that accelerator technology for a conventional synchrotron light source appropriate for x-ray lithography is well established and is consistent with skills and experience at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories. Compact superconducting systems are being developed also. Their technical requirements overlap with capabilities at Chalk River. (32 refs)

  5. Advanced Nanoscale Characterization of Cement Based Materials Using X-Ray Synchrotron Radiation: A Review

    KAUST Repository

    Chae, Sejung R.; Moon, Juhyuk; Yoon, Seyoon; Bae, Sungchul; Levitz, Pierre; Winarski, Robert; Monteiro, Paulo J. M.

    2013-01-01

    We report various synchrotron radiation laboratory based techniques used to characterize cement based materials in nanometer scale. High resolution X-ray transmission imaging combined with a rotational axis allows for rendering of samples in three

  6. X-ray studies on electrochemical systems. Synchrotron methods for energy materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, Artur [Empa. Eidgenoessische Materialpruefungs- und Forschungsanstalt, Duebendorf (Switzerland)

    2017-07-01

    This book is your graduate level entrance into battery, fuel cell and solar cell research at synchrotron X-ray sources. Materials scientists find numerous examples for the combination of electrochemical experiments with simple and with highly complex X-ray scattering and spectroscopy methods. Physicists and chemists can link applied electrochemistry with fundamental concepts of condensed matter physics, physical chemistry and surface science.

  7. Iron overload of human colon adenocarcinoma cells studied by synchrotron-based X-ray techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mihucz, Victor G.; Meirer, Florian; Polgári, Zsófia; Réti, Andrea; Pepponi, Giancarlo; Ingerle, Dieter; Szoboszlai, Norbert; Streli, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Fast- and slow-proliferating human adenocarcinoma colorectal cells, HT-29 and HCA-7, respectively, overloaded with transferrin (Tf), Fe(III) citrate, Fe(III) chloride and Fe(II) sulfate were studied by synchrotron radiation total-reflection X-ray spectrometry (TXRF), TXRF-X-ray absorption near edge

  8. X-ray spectrometry with synchrotron radiation; Roentgenspektrometrie mit Synchrotronstrahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Matthias [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Berlin (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe ' Roentgen- und IR-Spektrometrie' ; Gerlach, Martin; Holfelder, Ina; Hoenicke, Philipp; Lubeck, Janin; Nutsch, Andreas; Pollakowski, Beatrix; Streeck, Cornelia; Unterumsberger, Rainer; Weser, Jan; Beckhoff, Burkhard

    2014-12-15

    The X-ray spectrometry of the PTB at the BESSY II storage ring with radiation in the range from 78 eV to 10.5 keV is described. After a description of the instrumentation development reference-sample free X-ray fluorescence analysis, the determination of fundamental atomic parameters, X-ray fluorescence analysis under glance-angle incidence, highly-resolving absorption spectrometry, and emission spectrometry are considered. Finally liquid cells and in-situ measurement techniques are described. (HSI)

  9. Microfocussing of synchrotron X-rays using X-ray refractive lens ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-07-02

    Jul 2, 2014 ... together. The first refractive lenses for hard X-rays were fabricated and tested by Snigirev et al [3]. ... using silicon and diamond refractive lens materials [4]. Many groups ... PMMA has lower radiation resistance com- pared to ...

  10. X-ray diffraction and imaging with a coherent beam: application to X-ray optical elements and to crystals exhibiting phase inhomogeneities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masiello, F.

    2011-05-01

    The exceptional properties of synchrotron light sources have been exploited in very different disciplines, from archaeology to chemistry, from material science to biology, from medicine to physics. Among these properties it is important to mention the high brilliance, continuum spectrum, high degree of polarization, time structure, small source size and divergence of the beam, the last resulting in a high transversal coherence of the produced radiation. This high transversal coherence of the synchrotron sources has permitted the development of new techniques, e.g. phase contrast imaging, X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy and coherent X-ray diffraction imaging (CXDI). This thesis work will consist essentially of three parts. In the first part it will be presented the work done as a member of the X-ray Optics Group of ESRF in the characterization of high quality diamond crystals foreseen as X-ray optical elements. The characterization has been done using different complementary X-ray techniques, such as high resolution diffraction, topography, grazing incidence diffraction, reflectivity and measurements of the coherence preservation using the Talbot effect. In the second part, I will show the result obtained in the study of the temperature behaviours of the domain in periodically poled ferroelectrics crystals. This type of measurements, based on Bragg-Fresnel diffraction, are possible only thanks to the high degree of coherence of the beam. In the third part, I will present the results obtained in the characterization of diamonds foreseen for applications other than X-ray optical elements. (author)

  11. Fluorescent X-ray computed tomography using synchrotron radiation for imaging nonradioactive tracer materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiba, Masahiro; Yuasa, Tetsuya; Uchida, Akira; Akatsuka, Takao [Yamagata Univ., Yonezawa (Japan). Electrical and Information of Engineering; Takeda, Tohoru; Hyodo, Kazuyuki; Itai, Yuji

    1997-09-01

    We describe a system of fluorescent X-ray computed tomography using synchrotron radiation (SR-FXCT) to image nonradioactive contrast materials. The system operates on the basis of computed tomography (CT) scanned by the pencil beam. In the previous experiment, we have imaged an acrylic cylindrical phantom with cross-shaped channel, filled with a diluted iodine-based tracer material of 200 {mu}g/ml. This research is aimed to improve image quality, to select the optimum energy of the incident X-ray, to confirm quantitative evaluation of the image, and to demonstrate FXCT image for living body. First, we simulated output energy profile by the Monte Carlo simulation and confirmed to predetermine the incident X-ray energy at 37 keV, in order to separate the fluorescent photons from background scattering components. Next, the imaging experiment was performed by using conventional CT algorithm under the optimum parameter at the Tristan Accumulation Ring, KEK, Japan. An acrylic phantom containing five paraxial channels of 5 and 4 mm in diameter, could be imaged; where each channel was respectively filled with diluted iodine-based contrast materials of 50, 100, 200 and 500 {mu}g/ml. From the reconstructed image, we confirmed quantitativity in the FXCT image. Finally, a rat`s brain was imaged in vitro by FXCT and monochromatic transmission CT. The comparison between these results showed that the iodine-rich region in the FXCT image corresponded with that in the monochromatic transmission CT image. (author)

  12. Synchrotron x-ray diffraction study of liquid surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Pershan, P.S.

    1983-01-01

    A spectrometer for X-ray diffraction and refraction studies of horizontal, free surfaces of liquids is described. As an illustration smetic-A layering at the surface of a liquid crystal is presented.......A spectrometer for X-ray diffraction and refraction studies of horizontal, free surfaces of liquids is described. As an illustration smetic-A layering at the surface of a liquid crystal is presented....

  13. Synchrotron radiation sources: their properties and applications for VUV and X-ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, E.E.

    1976-09-01

    Synchrotron radiation from accelerators and storage rings offers far reaching possibilities for many fields of basic and applied physics. The properties of synchrotron radiation, existing and planned synchrotron radiation facilities, as well as instrumental aspects are discussed. In order to illustrate the usefulness of the synchrotron radiation sources a few highlights from atomic, molelucar, and solid state spectroscopy are presented and examples from x-ray experiments and from the field of applied physics are given. (orig.) [de

  14. Synchrotron Vacuum Ultraviolet Light and Soft X-Ray Radiation Effects on Aluminized Teflon FEP Investigated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dever, Joyce A.; Townsend, Jacqueline A.; Gaier, James R.; Jalics, Alice I.

    1999-01-01

    Since the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) was deployed in low Earth orbit in April 1990, two servicing missions have been conducted to upgrade its scientific capabilities. Minor cracking of second-surface metalized Teflon FEP (DuPont; fluorinated ethylene propylene) surfaces from multilayer insulation (MLI) was first observed upon close examination of samples with high solar exposure retrieved during the first servicing mission, which was conducted 3.6 years after deployment. During the second HST servicing mission, 6.8 years after deployment, astronaut observations and photographic documentation revealed significant cracks in the Teflon FEP layer of the MLI on both the solar- and anti-solar-facing surfaces of the telescope. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center directed the efforts of the Hubble Space Telescope MLI Failure Review Board, whose goals included identifying the low-Earth-orbit environmental constituent(s) responsible for the cracking and embrittling of Teflon FEP which was observed during the second servicing mission. The NASA Lewis Research Center provided significant support to this effort. Because soft x-ray radiation from solar flares had been considered as a possible cause for the degradation of the mechanical properties of Teflon FEP (ref. 1), the effects of soft xray radiation and vacuum ultraviolet light on Teflon FEP were investigated. In this Lewisled effort, samples of Teflon FEP with a 100-nm layer of vapor-deposited aluminum (VDA) on the backside were exposed to synchrotron radiation of various vacuum ultraviolet and soft x-ray wavelengths between 18 nm (69 eV) and 0.65 nm (1900 eV). Synchrotron radiation exposures were conducted using the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Samples of FEP/VDA were exposed with the FEP surface facing the synchrotron beam. Doses and fluences were compared with those estimated for the 20-yr Hubble Space Telescope mission.

  15. Evaluation of osteoporotic bone structure through synchrotron radiation X-ray microfluorescence images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, I. [Nuclear Engineering Program/COPPE/UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, Av. Horacio Macedo 2030, Sala I-133, Cidade Universitaria, 21941-914 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: inaya@lin.ufrj.br; Anjos, M.J. [Nuclear Engineering Program/COPPE/UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, Av. Horacio Macedo 2030, Sala I-133, Cidade Universitaria, 21941-914 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Physics Institute, UERJ (Brazil); Farias, M.L.F. [University Hospital, UFRJ (Brazil); Pantaleao, T.U.; Correa da Costa, V.M. [Biophysics Institute, UFRJ (Brazil); Lopes, R.T. [Nuclear Engineering Program/COPPE/UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, Av. Horacio Macedo 2030, Sala I-133, Cidade Universitaria, 21941-914 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-12-15

    The abnormal accumulation or deficiency of trace elements may theoretically impair the formation of bone and contribute to osteoporosis. In this context, the knowledge of major and trace elements is very important in order to clarify many issues regarding diseases of the bone, such as osteoporosis, that remain unresolved. Several kinds of imaging techniques can be useful to access morphology and the minerals present in osteoporotic bones. In this work, synchrotron radiation X-ray microfluorescence was used as an X-ray imaging technique to investigate bone structures. Therefore, this research aims to improve the knowledge about some aspects of bone quality. The measurements were carried out at the Brazilian Synchrotron Laboratory Light Laboratory, in Brazil. A white beam with an energy range of 4-23 keV, a 45 deg./45 deg. geometry and a capillary optics were used. It was demonstrated that bone quality can and must be evaluated not only by considering the architecture of bones but also by taking into account the concentration and the distribution of minerals. Our results showed that the elemental distributions in bone zones on a micron scale were very helpful to understand functions in those structures.

  16. UHV photoelectron x-ray beam position monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.D.; Oversluizen, T.

    1989-01-01

    As part of our research program to develop viable beam position monitors for both the X-ray and VUV beamlines at the NSLS, we have constructed vertical photon beam position monitors which are presently mounted in two front-ends in the X-ray ring. These area-type detectors are located before the safety shutters and are, therefore, able to monitor the beam position even during injection. The features of this type of monitor which contribute to its long-term stability, position sensitivity, and immunity to horizontal beam motion have been examined and will be discussed. 6 refs., 4 figs

  17. Introduction. From a first-generation synchrotron radiation to an x-ray free electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuki, Jun'ichiro

    2013-01-01

    The fruitful and remarkable research results in materials science during the past more than ten years have been continuously obtained by the advent of synchrotron radiation (SR) sources, especially the third-generation SR source. This is easily understood by considering that the SR beams provide not only five to ten orders of magnitude brilliance more in the continuum vacuum ultraviolet and X-ray regions of the electromagnetic spectrum than conventional sources, but also natural collimation, high polarization, pulsed time structure and high stability. In this paper we present a brief history of SR sources, especially in Japan to know how the SR sources developed, and a view of the future research direction regarding the use of SR beams. (author)

  18. Incoherent-scatter computed tomography with monochromatic synchrotron x ray: feasibility of multi-CT imaging system for simultaneous measurement-of fluorescent and incoherent scatter x rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuasa, T.; Akiba, M.; Takeda, T.; Kazama, M.; Hoshino, A.; Watanabe, Y.; Hyodo, K.; Dilmanian, F. A.; Akatsuka, T.; Itai, Y.

    1997-10-01

    We describe a new system of incoherent scatter computed tomography (ISCT) using monochromatic synchrotron X rays, and we discuss its potential to be used in in vivo imaging for medical use. The system operates on the basis of computed tomography (CT) of the first generation. The reconstruction method for ISCT uses the least squares method with singular value decomposition. The research was carried out at the BLNE-5A bending magnet beam line of the Tristan Accumulation Ring in KEK, Japan. An acrylic cylindrical phantom of 20-mm diameter containing a cross-shaped channel was imaged. The channel was filled with a diluted iodine solution with a concentration of 200 /spl mu/gI/ml. Spectra obtained with the system's high purity germanium (HPGe) detector separated the incoherent X-ray line from the other notable peaks, i.e., the iK/sub /spl alpha// and K/sub /spl beta/1/ X-ray fluorescent lines and the coherent scattering peak. CT images were reconstructed from projections generated by integrating the counts In the energy window centering around the incoherent scattering peak and whose width was approximately 2 keV. The reconstruction routine employed an X-ray attenuation correction algorithm. The resulting image showed more homogeneity than one without the attenuation correction.

  19. Data and videos for ultrafast synchrotron X-ray imaging studies of metal solidification under ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the paper entitled ‘Ultrafast synchrotron X-ray imaging studies of microstructure fragmentation in solidification under ultrasound’ [Wang et al., Acta Mater. 144 (2018 505-515]. This data article provides further supporting information and analytical methods, including the data from both experimental and numerical simulation, as well as the Matlab code for processing the X-ray images. Six videos constructed from the processed synchrotron X-ray images are also provided.

  20. A new beamstop for microfocus X-ray capillary beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Englich, Ulrich, E-mail: ue22@cornell.edu [Cornell University, Macromolecular Diffraction at CHESS (MacCHESS), Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source, 200L Wilson Laboratory, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Revesz, Peter [Cornell University, Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Miller, William [Cornell University, Macromolecular Diffraction at CHESS (MacCHESS), Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source, 200L Wilson Laboratory, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2011-09-01

    In order to accurately measure the photon flux and to assist in aligning the beam, we have designed a modified beamstop device based on a photo diode integrated with the beamstop. The beamstop contains a small CdWO{sub 4} crystal that completely stops the X-rays and at the same time produces photoluminescence proportional to the X-ray flux. The light is then guided to a photosensitive diode using a flexible light pipe to monitor the flux. With this device we achieve the goal of stopping the primary X-ray beam and simultaneously monitoring the X-ray intensity, thus eliminating the need for integrating ion-chambers into the capillary or collimator mount.

  1. An x-ray technique for precision laser beam synchronization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landen, O.L.; Lerche, R.A.; Hay, R.G.; Hammel, B.A.; Kalantar, D.; Cable, M.D.

    1994-01-01

    A new x-ray technique for recording the relative arrival times of multiple laser beams at a common target with better than ± 10 ps accuracy has been implemented at the Nova laser facility. 100 ps, 3ω Nova beam are focused to separate locations on a gold ribbon target viewed from the side. The measurement consists of using well characterized re-entrant x-ray streak cameras for 1-dimensional streaked imaging of the > 3 keV x-rays emanating from these isolated laser plasmas. After making the necessary correction for the differential laser, x-ray and electron transit times involved, timing offsets as low as ± 7 ps are resolved, and on subsequent shots, corrected for, verified and independently checked. This level of synchronization proved critical in meeting the power balance requirements for indirectly-driven pulse-shaped Nova implosions

  2. In situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction study on epitaxial-growth dynamics of III–V semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahasi, Masamitu

    2018-05-01

    The application of in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) to the molecular-beam epitaxial (MBE) growth of III–V semiconductors is overviewed along with backgrounds of the diffraction theory and instrumentation. X-rays are sensitive not only to the surface of growing films but also to buried interfacial structures because of their large penetration depth. Moreover, a spatial coherence length up to µm order makes X-rays widely applicable to the characterization of low-dimensional structures, such as quantum dots and wires. In situ XRD studies during growth were performed using an X-ray diffractometer, which was combined with an MBE chamber. X-ray reciprocal space mapping at a speed matching a typical growth rate was achieved using intense X-rays available from a synchrotron light source and an area detector. The importance of measuring the three-dimensional distribution of XRD intensity in a reciprocal space map is demonstrated for the MBE growth of two-, one-, and zero-dimensional structures. A large amount of information about the growth process of two-dimensional InGaAs/GaAs(001) epitaxial films has been provided by three-dimensional X-ray reciprocal mappings, including the anisotropic strain relaxation, the compositional inhomogeneity, and the evolution of surface and interfacial roughness. For one-dimensional GaAs nanowires grown in a Au-catalyzed vapor-liquid–solid mode, the relationship between the diameter of the nanowires and the formation of polytypes has been suggested on the basis of in situ XRD measurements. In situ three-dimensional X-ray reciprocal space mapping is also shown to be useful for determining the lateral and vertical sizes of self-assembled InAs/GaAs(001) quantum dots as well as their internal strain distributions during growth.

  3. Performance study of monochromatic synchrotron X-ray computed tomography using a linear array detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazama, Masahiro; Takeda, Tohoru; Itai, Yuji [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Clinical Medicine; Akiba, Masahiro; Yuasa, Tetsuya; Hyodo, Kazuyuki; Ando, Masami; Akatsuka, Takao

    1997-09-01

    Monochromatic x-ray computed tomography (CT) using synchrotron radiation (SR) is being developed for detection of non-radioactive contrast materials at low concentration for application in clinical diagnosis. A new SR-CT system with improved contrast resolution, was constructed using a linear array detector which provides wide dynamic ranges and a double monochromator. The performance of this system was evaluated in a phantom and a rat model of brain ischemia. This system consists of a silicon (111) double crystal monochromator, an x-ray shutter, an ionization chamber, x-ray slits, a scanning table for the target organ, and an x-ray linear array detector. The research was carried out at the BLNE-5A bending magnet beam line of the Tristan Accumulation Ring in KEK, Japan. In this experiment, the reconstructed image of the spatial-resolution phantom clearly showed the 1 mm holes. At 1 mm slice thickness, the above K-edge image of the phantom showed contrast resolution at the concentration of 200 {mu}g/ml iodine-based contrast materials whereas the K-edge energy subtraction image showed contrast resolution at the concentration of 500 {mu}g/ml contrast materials. The cerebral arteries filled with iodine microspheres were clearly revealed, and the ischemic regions at the right temporal lobe and frontal lobe were depicted as non-vascular regions. The measured minimal detectable concentration of iodine on the above K-edge image is about 6 times higher than the expected value of 35.3 {mu}g/ml because of the high dark current of this detector. Thus, the use of a CCD detector which is cooled by liquid nitrogen to improve the dynamic range of the detector, is being under construction. (author)

  4. Advances in kilovoltage x-ray beam dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Robin; Healy, Brendan; Holloway, Lois; Kuncic, Zdenka; Thwaites, David; Baldock, Clive

    2014-03-01

    This topical review provides an up-to-date overview of the theoretical and practical aspects of therapeutic kilovoltage x-ray beam dosimetry. Kilovoltage x-ray beams have the property that the maximum dose occurs very close to the surface and thus, they are predominantly used in the treatment of skin cancers but also have applications for the treatment of other cancers. In addition, kilovoltage x-ray beams are used in intra operative units, within animal irradiators and in on-board imagers on linear accelerators and kilovoltage dosimetry is important in these applications as well. This review covers both reference and relative dosimetry of kilovoltage x-ray beams and provides recommendations for clinical measurements based on the literature to date. In particular, practical aspects for the selection of dosimeter and phantom material are reviewed to provide suitable advice for medical physicists. An overview is also presented of dosimeters other than ionization chambers which can be used for both relative and in vivo dosimetry. Finally, issues related to the treatment planning and the use of Monte Carlo codes for solving radiation transport problems in kilovoltage x-ray beams are presented.

  5. Ring artifact reduction in synchrotron X-ray tomography through helical acquisition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.M. Pelt (Daniël); D.Y. Parkinson (Dilworth)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractIn synchrotron X-ray tomography, systematic defects in certain detector elements can result in arc-shaped artifacts in the final reconstructed image of the scanned sample. These ring artifacts are commonly found in many applications of synchrotron tomography, and can make

  6. A novel monochromator for high heat-load synchrotron x-ray radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khounsary, A.M.

    1992-01-01

    The high heat load associated with the powerful and concentrated x-ray beams generated by the insertion devices at a number of present and many of the future (planned or under construction) synchrotron radiation facilities pose a formidable engineering challenge in the designer of the monochromators and other optical devices. For example, the Undulator A source on the Advanced Photon Source (APS) ring (being constructed at the Argonne National Laboratory) will generate as much as 10 kW of heat deposited on a small area (about 1 cm 2 ) of the first optics located some 24 m from the source. The peak normal incident heat flux can be as high as 500 W/mm 2 . Successful utilization of the intense x-ray beams from insertion devices critically depends on the development, design, and availability of optical elements that provide acceptable performance under high heat load. Present monochromators can handle, at best, heat load levels that are an order of magnitude lower than those generated by such sources. The monochromator described here and referred to as the open-quote inclinedclose quotes monochromator can provide a solution to high heat-load problems

  7. Report on the fifth workshop on synchrotron x ray lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, G. P.; Godel, J. B.; Brown, G. S.; Liebmann, W.

    Semiconductors comprise a greater part of the United States economy than the aircraft, steel, and automobile industries combined. In future the semiconductor manufacturing industry will be forced to switch away from present optical manufacturing methods in the early to mid 1990s. X ray lithography has emerged as the leading contender for continuing production below the 0.4 micron level. Brookhaven National Laboratory began a series of workshops on x ray lithography in 1986 to examine key issues and in particular to enable United States industry to take advantage of the technical base established in this field. Since accelerators provide the brightest sources for x ray lithography, most of the research and development to date has taken place at large accelerator-based research centers such as Brookhaven, the University of Wisconsin, and Stanford. The goals of this Fifth Brookhaven Workshop were to review progress and goals since the last workshop and to establish a blueprint for the future. The meeting focused on the exposure tool, that is, a term defined as the source plus beamline and stepper. In order to assess the appropriateness of schedules for the development of this tool, other aspects of the required technology such as masks, resists and inspection and repair were also reviewed. To accomplish this, two working groups were set up, one to review the overall aspects of x ray lithography and set a time frame, the other to focus on sources.

  8. Synchrotron X-ray studies of liquid-vapor interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage

    1986-01-01

    The density profile ρ(z) across a liquid-vapor interface may be determined by the reflectivity R(θ) of X-rays at grazing angle incidence θ. The relation between R(θ) and ρ(z) is discussed, and experimental examples illustrating thermal roughness of simple liquids and smectic layering of liquid...

  9. A tunable x-ray microprobe using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Y.; Thompson, A.C.; Underwood, J.H.; Giauque, R.D.; Chapman, K.; Rivers, M.L.; Jones, K.W.

    1989-08-01

    We describe an x-ray microprobe using multilayer mirrors. Previously, we had demonstrated a Kirkpatrick-Baez type focusing system working at both 8 and 10 keV and successfully applied it to a variety of applications, including the determination of elemental contents in fluid inclusions. In this paper, we show that the usable excitation energy for this microprobe is not restricted to between 8 and 10 keV, and furthermore, it can be simply tuned in operation. A 10-keV x-ray fluorescence microprobe can be used to measure the concentration of the elements form potassium (Z = 19) to zinc (Z = 30) using K x-ray lines, and from cadmium (Z = 48) to erbium (Z = 68) using L x-ray lines. There are a number of geologically important elements in the gap between gallium (Z = 31) and silver(Z = 47) and also with Z > 68. In order to cover this range, a higher excitation energy is required. On the other hand, for samples that contain major elements with absorption edges lower than the excitation energy, it would be hard to detect other mirror elements because of the strong signal from the major elements and the background they produce. In this case, a tunable x-ray source can be used to avoid the excitation of the major elements. We demonstrate that, with the existing setup, it is possible to tune the excitation energy from 6 keV to 14 keV, in this range, the intensity does not decrease by more than one order of magnitude. As an illustration, a geological sample was examined by using two different excitation energy range as well as the possibility of improving the intensity. 11 refs., 5 figs

  10. Elemental Composition of Mars Return Samples Using X-Ray Fluorescence Imaging at the National Synchrotron Light Source II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieme, J.; Hurowitz, J. A.; Schoonen, M. A.; Fogelqvist, E.; Gregerson, J.; Farley, K. A.; Sherman, S.; Hill, J.

    2018-04-01

    NSLS-II at BNL provides a unique and critical capability to perform assessments of the elemental composition and the chemical state of Mars returned samples using synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence imaging and X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

  11. From synchrotron radiation to lab source: advanced speckle-based X-ray imaging using abrasive paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongchang; Kashyap, Yogesh; Sawhney, Kawal

    2016-02-01

    X-ray phase and dark-field imaging techniques provide complementary and inaccessible information compared to conventional X-ray absorption or visible light imaging. However, such methods typically require sophisticated experimental apparatus or X-ray beams with specific properties. Recently, an X-ray speckle-based technique has shown great potential for X-ray phase and dark-field imaging using a simple experimental arrangement. However, it still suffers from either poor resolution or the time consuming process of collecting a large number of images. To overcome these limitations, in this report we demonstrate that absorption, dark-field, phase contrast, and two orthogonal differential phase contrast images can simultaneously be generated by scanning a piece of abrasive paper in only one direction. We propose a novel theoretical approach to quantitatively extract the above five images by utilising the remarkable properties of speckles. Importantly, the technique has been extended from a synchrotron light source to utilise a lab-based microfocus X-ray source and flat panel detector. Removing the need to raster the optics in two directions significantly reduces the acquisition time and absorbed dose, which can be of vital importance for many biological samples. This new imaging method could potentially provide a breakthrough for numerous practical imaging applications in biomedical research and materials science.

  12. Angle-resolved X-ray fluorescence spectrometry using synchrotron radiation at ELSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, W.; Rothe, J.; Hormes, J.; Gries, W.H.

    1994-01-01

    Measurements on the centroid depth of ion-implanted phosphorus-in-silicon specimen by the method of angle-resolved, self-ratio X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (AR/SR/XFS) have been carried out using 'white' synchrotron radiation (SR). The measurements were performed using a modified wavelength-dispersive fluorescence spectrometer. Problems due to the use of SR, like carbonaceous specimen contamination and sample heating were overcome by flooding the specimen chamber with helium and by pre-absorbing the non-exciting parts of the incident SR with suitable filters, respectively. The decaying primary intensity was monitored by measuring the compensation current of the photoelectrons emitted from a tungsten wire stretched across the primary beam. Results have been obtained for specimen with dose density levels of 10 16 cm -2 and 3x10 15 cm -2 . (orig.)

  13. The APS x-ray undulator photon beam position monitor and tests at CHESS and NSLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, D.; Rodricks, B.; Barraza, J.; Sanchez, T.; Kuzay, T.M.

    1992-01-01

    The advent of third generation synchrotron radiation sources, like the Advanced Photon Source (APS), will provide significant increases in brilliance over existing synchrotron sources. The APS x-ray undulators will increase the brilliance in the 3-40 KeV range by several orders of magnitude. Thus, the design of the photon beam position monitor is a challenging engineering task. The beam position monitors must withstand the high thermal load, be able to achieve sub-micron spatial resolution while maintaining their stability, and be compatible with both undulators and wigglers. A preliminary APS prototype photon beam position monitor consisting of a CVD-diamond-based, tungsten-coated blade was tested on the APS/CHESS undulator at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Radiation Source (CHESS) and on the NSLS X-13 undulator beamline. Results from these tests, as well as the design of this prototype APS photon beam position monitor, will be discussed in this paper

  14. The APS X-ray undulator photon beam position monitor and tests at CHESS and NSLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, D.; Rodricks, B.; Barraza, J.; Sanchez, T.; Kuzay, T.M.

    1992-01-01

    The advent of thirs generation synchrotron sources, like the Advanced Photon Source (APS), will provide significant increases in brilliance over existing synchrotron sources. The APS X-ray undulators will increase the brilliance in the 3-40 keV range by several orders of magnitude. Thus, the design of the photon beam position monitor is a challenging engineering task. The beam position monitors must withstand the high thermal load, be able to achieve submicron spatial resolution while maintaining their stability, and be compatible with both undulators and wigglers. A preliminary APS prototype photon beam position monitor consisting of a CVD-diamond-based, tungsten-coated blade was tested on the APS/CHESS undulator at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Radiation Source (CHESS) and on the NSLS X-13 undulator beamline. Results from these tests, as well as the design of this prototype APS photon beam position monitor, will be discussed in this paper. (orig.)

  15. An X-ray beam position monitor based on the photoluminescence of helium gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revesz, Peter; White, Jeffrey A.

    2005-03-01

    A new method for white beam position monitoring for both bend magnet and wiggler synchrotron X-ray radiation has been developed. This method utilizes visible light luminescence generated as a result of ionization by the intense X-ray flux. In video beam position monitors (VBPMs), the luminescence of helium gas at atmospheric pressure is observed through a view port using a CCD camera next to the beam line. The beam position, profile, integrated intensity and FWHM are calculated from the distribution of luminescence intensity in each captured image by custom software. Misalignment of upstream apertures changes the image profile making VBPMs helpful for initial alignment of upstream beam line components. VBPMs can thus provide more information about the X-ray beam than most beam position monitors (BPMs). A beam position calibration procedure, employing a tilted plane-parallel glass plate placed in front of the camera lens, has also been developed. The accuracy of the VBPM system was measured during a bench-top experiment to be better than 1 μm. The He-luminescence-based VBPM system has been operative on three CHESS beam lines (F hard-bend and wiggler, A-line wiggler and G-line wiggler) for about a year. The beam positions are converted to analog voltages and used as feedback signals for beam stabilization. In our paper we discuss details of VBPM construction and describe further results of its performance.

  16. Simulations of X-ray diffraction of shock-compressed single-crystal tantalum with synchrotron undulator sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, M X; Zhang, Y Y; E, J C; Luo, S N

    2018-05-01

    Polychromatic synchrotron undulator X-ray sources are useful for ultrafast single-crystal diffraction under shock compression. Here, simulations of X-ray diffraction of shock-compressed single-crystal tantalum with realistic undulator sources are reported, based on large-scale molecular dynamics simulations. Purely elastic deformation, elastic-plastic two-wave structure, and severe plastic deformation under different impact velocities are explored, as well as an edge release case. Transmission-mode diffraction simulations consider crystallographic orientation, loading direction, incident beam direction, X-ray spectrum bandwidth and realistic detector size. Diffraction patterns and reciprocal space nodes are obtained from atomic configurations for different loading (elastic and plastic) and detection conditions, and interpretation of the diffraction patterns is discussed.

  17. Simulations of X-ray diffraction of shock-compressed single-crystal tantalum with synchrotron undulator sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, M. X.; Zhang, Y. Y.; E, J. C.; Luo, S. N.

    2018-04-24

    Polychromatic synchrotron undulator X-ray sources are useful for ultrafast single-crystal diffraction under shock compression. Here, simulations of X-ray diffraction of shock-compressed single-crystal tantalum with realistic undulator sources are reported, based on large-scale molecular dynamics simulations. Purely elastic deformation, elastic–plastic two-wave structure, and severe plastic deformation under different impact velocities are explored, as well as an edge release case. Transmission-mode diffraction simulations consider crystallographic orientation, loading direction, incident beam direction, X-ray spectrum bandwidth and realistic detector size. Diffraction patterns and reciprocal space nodes are obtained from atomic configurations for different loading (elastic and plastic) and detection conditions, and interpretation of the diffraction patterns is discussed.

  18. Design status of the 2.5 GeV National Synchrotron Light Source x-ray ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krinsky, S.; Blumberg, L.; Bittner, J.; Galayda, J.; Heese, R.; Schuchman, J.C.; van Steenbergen, A.

    1979-01-01

    The present state of the design of the 2.5 GeV electron storage ring for the National Synchrotron Light Source is described. This ring will serve as a dedicated source of synchrotron radiation in the wavelength range 0.1 A to 30 A. While maintaining the basic high brigtness features of the eariler developed lattice structure, recent work resulted in a more economical magnet system, is simplified chromaticity corrections, and improved distribution of the X-ray beam lines. In addition, the adequacy of the dynamic aperture for stable betatron oscillations has been verified for a variety of betatron tunes

  19. A gas microstrip wide angle X-ray detector for application in synchrotron radiation experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Bateman, J E; Derbyshire, G E; Duxbury, D M; Lipp, J; Mir, J A; Simmons, J E; Spill, E J; Stephenson, R; Dobson, B R; Farrow, R C; Helsby, W I; Mutikainen, R; Suni, I

    2002-01-01

    The Gas Microstrip Detector has counting rate capabilities several orders of magnitude higher than conventional wire proportional counters while providing the same (or better) energy resolution for X-rays. In addition the geometric flexibility provided by the lithographic process combined with the self-supporting properties of the substrate offers many exciting possibilities for X-ray detectors, particularly for the demanding experiments carried out on Synchrotron Radiation Sources. Using experience obtained in designing detectors for Particle Physics we have developed a detector for Wide Angle X-ray Scattering studies. The detector has a fan geometry which makes possible a gas detector with high detection efficiency, sub-millimetre spatial resolution and good energy resolution over a wide range of X-ray energy. The detector is described together with results of experiments carried out at the Daresbury Laboratory Synchrotron Radiation Source.

  20. Noninvasive 3D Structural Analysis of Arthropod by Synchrotron X-Ray Phase Contrast Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, S.; Zong, Y.; Fan, J.; Sun, Z.; Jiang, H.

    2015-01-01

    X-ray imaging techniques significantly advanced our understanding of materials and biology, among which phase contrast X-ray microscopy has obvious advantages in imaging biological specimens which have low contrast by conventional absorption contrast microscopy. In this paper, three-dimensional microstructure of arthropod with high contrast has been demonstrated by synchrotron X-ray in-line phase contrast tomography. The external morphology and internal structures of an earthworm were analyzed based upon tomographic reconstructions with and without phase retrieval. We also identified and characterized various fine structural details such as the musculature system, the digestive system, the nervous system, and the circulatory system. This work exhibited the high efficiency, high precision, and wide potential applications of synchrotron X-ray phase contrast tomography in nondestructive investigation of low-density materials and biology.

  1. X-ray trace element analysis with positive ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, R.H.

    1973-01-01

    A new trace element analysis having the advantage that many elements may be detected in a single measurement, based on positive charged particle induced X-ray florescence and on the production of X-rays by heavy ions, is described. Because of the large cross-sections for the production of discrete X-ray and the low yield of continuum radiation, positive charged particle X-ray florescence is a competitive, fast, analytic tool. In the experiment a beam of positive charged particles from an accelerator was directed toward a target. X-rays induced by the bombardment were detected by a Si(Li) detector the ouput from which was amplified and sorted in a multichannel analyzer. For rapid data handling and analysis, the multichannel analyzer or ADC unit was connected to an on-line computer. A large variety of targets prepared in collaboration with the oceanographers have been studied and spectra obtained for different particles having the same velocity are presented to show that the yield of discrete X-rays increases at least as rapidly as Z 2 . While protons of several MeV appear to be already competitive further advantage may be gained by heavy ions at lower energies since the continuum is reduced while the peak ''signals'' retain strength due to the Z 2 dependence. (S.B.)

  2. Anomalous x-ray radiation of beam plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrov, S.K.; Zavyalov, M.A.; Mikhin, S.G.; Tarasenkov, V.A.; Telkovskij, V.G.; Khrabrov, V.A.

    1985-01-01

    The properties of non-equilibrium stationary plasma under the conditions of the planned plasma-chemical reactors based on beam-plasma discharge were investigated. The x-ray spectrum of the beam-plasma was measured and anomalous spectral properties were analyzed. Starting with some critical pressure the anomalous radiation was added to the classical bremsstrahlung spectrum. The occurrence of anomalous radiation can be used to diagnose the condition of beam transportation in such systems. (D.Gy.)

  3. Highly porous nanoberyllium for X-ray beam speckle suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goikhman, Alexander, E-mail: agoikhman@ymail.com; Lyatun, Ivan; Ershov, Petr [Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, Nevskogo str. 14, Kaliningrad 236041 (Russian Federation); Snigireva, Irina [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, 38043 Grenoble (France); Wojda, Pawel [Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, Nevskogo str. 14, Kaliningrad 236041 (Russian Federation); Gdańsk University of Technology, 11/12 G. Narutowicza, Gdańsk 80-233 (Poland); Gorlevsky, Vladimir; Semenov, Alexander; Sheverdyaev, Maksim; Koletskiy, Viktor [A. A. Bochvar High-Technology Scientific Research Institute for Inorganic Materials, Rogova str. 5a, Moscow 123098 (Russian Federation); Snigirev, Anatoly [Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, Nevskogo str. 14, Kaliningrad 236041 (Russian Federation); European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, 38043 Grenoble (France)

    2015-04-09

    A speckle suppression device containing highly porous nanoberyllium is proposed for manipulating the spatial coherence length and removing undesirable speckle structure during imaging experiments. This paper reports a special device called a ‘speckle suppressor’, which contains a highly porous nanoberyllium plate squeezed between two beryllium windows. The insertion of the speckle suppressor in an X-ray beam allows manipulation of the spatial coherence length, thus changing the effective source size and removing the undesirable speckle structure in X-ray imaging experiments almost without beam attenuation. The absorption of the nanoberyllium plate is below 1% for 1 mm thickness at 12 keV. The speckle suppressor was tested on the ID06 ESRF beamline with X-rays in the energy range from 9 to 15 keV. It was applied for the transformation of the phase–amplitude contrast to the pure amplitude contrast in full-field microscopy.

  4. Highly porous nanoberyllium for X-ray beam speckle suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goikhman, Alexander; Lyatun, Ivan; Ershov, Petr; Snigireva, Irina; Wojda, Pawel; Gorlevsky, Vladimir; Semenov, Alexander; Sheverdyaev, Maksim; Koletskiy, Viktor; Snigirev, Anatoly

    2015-01-01

    A speckle suppression device containing highly porous nanoberyllium is proposed for manipulating the spatial coherence length and removing undesirable speckle structure during imaging experiments. This paper reports a special device called a ‘speckle suppressor’, which contains a highly porous nanoberyllium plate squeezed between two beryllium windows. The insertion of the speckle suppressor in an X-ray beam allows manipulation of the spatial coherence length, thus changing the effective source size and removing the undesirable speckle structure in X-ray imaging experiments almost without beam attenuation. The absorption of the nanoberyllium plate is below 1% for 1 mm thickness at 12 keV. The speckle suppressor was tested on the ID06 ESRF beamline with X-rays in the energy range from 9 to 15 keV. It was applied for the transformation of the phase–amplitude contrast to the pure amplitude contrast in full-field microscopy

  5. Advanced simulations of x-ray beam propagation through CRL transfocators using ray-tracing and wavefront propagation methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baltser, Jana; Bergbäck Knudsen, Erik; Vickery, Anette

    2011-01-01

    Compound refractive lenses (CRL) are widely used to manipulate synchrotron radiation beams. Accurate modelling of X-ray beam propagation through individual lenses and through "transfocators" composed of a large number of CRLs is of high importance, since it allows for comprehensive optimization...

  6. Model experiment of in vivo synchrotron X-ray diffraction of human kidney stones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ancharov, A.I. [Institute of Solid State Chemistry and Mechanochemistry SB RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: ancharov@mail.ru; Potapov, S.S. [Institute of Mineralogy UB RAS, Miass (Russian Federation); Moiseenko, T.N. [The State Regional Clinical Hospital, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Feofilov, I.V. [The State Regional Clinical Hospital, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Nizovskii, A.I. [Boreskov Institute of Catalysis SB RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2007-05-21

    The diffraction of synchrotron radiation (SR) was used to explore the phase composition of kidney stones placed into a specific object phantom, which imitated the human body. As an imitation of the patient breath, the kidney stone was moved vertically and rotated to an angle of 15{sup o} during the recording of the X-ray pattern. It was shown that rotation and displacement did not distort the X-ray pattern.

  7. Model experiment of in vivo synchrotron X-ray diffraction of human kidney stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ancharov, A.I.; Potapov, S.S.; Moiseenko, T.N.; Feofilov, I.V.; Nizovskii, A.I.

    2007-01-01

    The diffraction of synchrotron radiation (SR) was used to explore the phase composition of kidney stones placed into a specific object phantom, which imitated the human body. As an imitation of the patient breath, the kidney stone was moved vertically and rotated to an angle of 15 o during the recording of the X-ray pattern. It was shown that rotation and displacement did not distort the X-ray pattern

  8. Development of fast parallel multi-technique scanning X-ray imaging at Synchrotron Soleil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medjoubi, K.; Leclercq, N.; Langlois, F.; Buteau, A.; Lé, S.; Poirier, S.; Mercère, P.; Kewish, C. M.; Somogyi, A.

    2013-10-01

    A fast multimodal scanning X-ray imaging scheme is prototyped at Soleil Synchrotron. It permits the simultaneous acquisition of complementary information on the sample structure, composition and chemistry by measuring transmission, differential phase contrast, small-angle scattering, and X-ray fluorescence by dedicated detectors with ms dwell time per pixel. The results of the proof of principle experiments are presented in this paper.

  9. Performance of synchrotron x-ray monochromators under heat load: How reliable are the predictions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freund, A.K.; Hoszowska, J.; Migliore, J.-S.; Mocella, V.; Zhang, L.; Ferrero, C.

    2000-01-01

    With the ongoing development of insertion devices with smaller gaps the heat load generated by modern synchrotron sources increases continuously. To predict the overall performance of experiments on beam lines it is of crucial importance to be able to predict the efficiency of x-ray optics and in particular that of crystal monochromators. We report on a detailed comparison between theory and experiment for a water-cooled silicon crystal exposed to bending magnet radiation of up to 237 W total power and 1.3 W/mm2 power density. The thermal deformation has been calculated by the code ANSYS and its output has been injected into a finite difference code based on the Takagi-Taupin diffraction theory for distorted crystals. Several slit settings, filters and reflection orders were used to vary the geometrical conditions and the x-ray penetration depth in the crystal. In general, good agreement has been observed between the calculated and the observed values for the rocking curve width

  10. Visualization of ultrasound induced cavitation bubbles using the synchrotron x-ray Analyzer Based Imaging technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izadifar, Zahra; Izadifar, Mohammad; Izadifar, Zohreh; Chapman, Dean; Belev, George

    2014-01-01

    Observing cavitation bubbles deep within tissue is very difficult. The development of a method for probing cavitation, irrespective of its location in tissues, would improve the efficiency and application of ultrasound in the clinic. A synchrotron x-ray imaging technique, which is capable of detecting cavitation bubbles induced in water by a sonochemistry system, is reported here; this could possibly be extended to the study of therapeutic ultrasound in tissues. The two different x-ray imaging techniques of Analyzer Based Imaging (ABI) and phase contrast imaging (PCI) were examined in order to detect ultrasound induced cavitation bubbles. Cavitation was not observed by PCI, however it was detectable with ABI. Acoustic cavitation was imaged at six different acoustic power levels and six different locations through the acoustic beam in water at a fixed power level. The results indicate the potential utility of this technique for cavitation studies in tissues, but it is time consuming. This may be improved by optimizing the imaging method. (paper)

  11. Generating picosecond x-ray pulses in synchrotron light sources using dipole kickers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Guo

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The duration of the x-ray pulse generated at a synchrotron light source is typically tens of picoseconds. Shorter pulses are highly desired by the users. In electron storage rings, the vertical beam size is usually orders of magnitude less than the bunch length due to radiation damping; therefore, a shorter pulse can be obtained by slitting the vertically tilted bunch. Zholents proposed tilting the bunch using rf deflection. We found that tilted bunches can also be generated by a dipole magnet kick. A vertical tilt is developed after the kick in the presence of nonzero chromaticity. The tilt was successfully observed and a 4.2-ps pulse was obtained from a 27-ps electron bunch at the Advanced Photon Source. Based on this principle, we propose a short-pulse generation scheme that produces picosecond x-ray pulses at a repetition rate of 1–2 kHz, which can be used for pump-probe experiments.

  12. Visualization of ultrasound induced cavitation bubbles using the synchrotron x-ray Analyzer Based Imaging technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadifar, Zahra; Belev, George; Izadifar, Mohammad; Izadifar, Zohreh; Chapman, Dean

    2014-12-07

    Observing cavitation bubbles deep within tissue is very difficult. The development of a method for probing cavitation, irrespective of its location in tissues, would improve the efficiency and application of ultrasound in the clinic. A synchrotron x-ray imaging technique, which is capable of detecting cavitation bubbles induced in water by a sonochemistry system, is reported here; this could possibly be extended to the study of therapeutic ultrasound in tissues. The two different x-ray imaging techniques of Analyzer Based Imaging (ABI) and phase contrast imaging (PCI) were examined in order to detect ultrasound induced cavitation bubbles. Cavitation was not observed by PCI, however it was detectable with ABI. Acoustic cavitation was imaged at six different acoustic power levels and six different locations through the acoustic beam in water at a fixed power level. The results indicate the potential utility of this technique for cavitation studies in tissues, but it is time consuming. This may be improved by optimizing the imaging method.

  13. Time-resolved X-ray studies using third generation synchrotron radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, D.M.

    1991-10-01

    The third generation, high-brilliance, hard x-ray, synchrotron radiation (SR) sources currently under construction (ESRF at Grenoble, France; APS at Argonne, Illinois; and SPring-8 at Harima, Japan) will usher in a new era of x-ray experimentation for both physical and biological sciences. One of the most exciting areas of experimentation will be the extension of x-ray scattering and diffraction techniques to the study of transient or time-evolving systems. The high repetition rate, short-pulse duration, high brilliance, and variable spectral bandwidth of these sources make them ideal for x-ray time-resolved studies. The temporal properties (bunch length, interpulse period, etc.) of these new sources will be summarized. Finally, the scientific potential and the technological challenges of time-resolved x-ray scattering from these new sources will be described. 13 refs., 4 figs

  14. Report of the second workshop on synchrotron radiation sources for x-ray lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, M.Q.; Craft, B.; Williams, G.P.

    1986-01-01

    The reported workshop is part of an effort to implement a US-based x-ray lithography program. Presentations include designs for three storage rings (one superconducting and two conventional) and an overview of a complete lithography program. The background of the effort described, the need for synchrotron radiation, and the international competition in the area are discussed briefly. The technical feasibility of x-ray lithography is discussed, and synchrotron performance specifications and construction options are given, as well as a near-term plan. It is recommended that a prototype synchrotron source be built as soon as possible, and that a research and development plan on critical technologies which could improve cost effectiveness of the synchrotron source be established. It is further recommended that a small number of second generation prototype synchrotrons be distributed to IC manufacturing centers to expedite commercialization

  15. Fabrication of the multilayer beam splitters with large area for soft X-ray laser interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhanshan; Zhang Zhong; Wang Fengli; Wu Wenjuan; Wang Hongchang; Qin Shuji; Chen Lingyan

    2004-01-01

    The soft X-ray laser Mach-Zehnder interferometer is an important tool to measure the electron densities of a laser-produced plasma near the critical surface. The design of a multilayer beam splitter at 13.9 nm for soft X-ray laser Mach-Zehnder interferometer is completed based on the standard of maximizing product of reflectivity and transmission of the beam splitter. The beam splitters which is Mo/Si multilayers on 10 mm x 10 mm area Si 3 N 4 membrane are fabricated using the magnetron sputtering. The figure error of the beam splitter has reached the deep nanometer magnitude by using optical profiler and the product of reflectivity and transmission measured by synchrotron radiation is up to to 4%. (authors)

  16. Gas scintillation proportional counters for x-ray synchrotron applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.; Bavdaz, M.

    1992-01-01

    Gas scintillation proportional counters (GSPCs) as x-ray detectors provide some advantages and disadvantages compared with proportional counters. In this paper the various configurations of xenon filled GSPC are described including both imaging and nonimaging devices. It is intended that this work be used to configure a GSPC for a particular application and predict its general performance characteristics. The general principles of operation are described and the performance characteristics are then separately considered. A high performance, imaging, driftless GSPC is described in which a single intermediate window is used between the PMT and gas cell

  17. Developments in gas detectors for synchrotron x-ray radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, J.; Radeka, V.; Smith, G.C.

    1985-09-01

    New results on the physical limitations to position resolution in gas detectors for x-rays (approx. =3 to 20 keV) due to the range of photoelectrons and Auger electrons are discussed. These results were obtained with a small gap detector in which position readout was accomplished by using a very low noise centroid finding technique. A description is given of position sensitive detectors for medium rates (a few x 10 5 photons per second), using delay line readout, and for very high rates (approx. =10 8 photons per second), using fast signal shaping on the output of each anode wire

  18. A new miniature microchannel plate X-ray detector for synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosemeier, R.G.; Green, R.E. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    A state-of-the-art microchannel plate detector has been developed which allows real time X-ray imaging of X-ray diffraction as well as radiographic phenomenon. Advantages of the device include a 50 mm X-ray input, length less than 4'', and a weight of less than 1 lb. Since the use of synchrotron radiation is greatly facilitated by the capability of remote viewing of X-ray diffraction or radiographic images in real time, a prototype electro-optical system has been designed which couples the X-ray microchannel plate detector with a solid state television camera. Advantages of the miniature, lightweight, X-ray synchrotron camera include a large 50 mm X-ray input window, an output signal that is available in both analog format for display on a television monitor and in digital format for computer processing, and a completely modular design which allows all the components to be exchanged for other components optimally suited for the desired applications. (orig.)

  19. Synchrotron X-ray adaptative monochromator: study and realization of a prototype; Monochromateur adaptatif pour rayonnement X synchrotron: etude et realisation d`un prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dezoret, D.

    1995-12-12

    This work presents a study of a prototype of a synchrotron X-ray monochromator. The spectral qualities of this optic are sensitive to the heat loads which are particularly important on third synchrotron generation like ESRF. Indeed, powers generated by synchrotron beams can reach few kilowatts and power densities about a few tens watts per square millimeters. The mechanical deformations of the optical elements of the beamlines issue issue of the heat load can damage their spectral efficiencies. In order to compensate the deformations, wa have been studying the transposition of the adaptive astronomical optics technology to the x-ray field. First, we have considered the modifications of the spectral characteristics of a crystal induced by x-rays. We have established the specifications required to a technological realisation. Then, thermomechanical and technological studies have been required to transpose the astronomical technology to an x-ray technology. After these studies, we have begun the realisation of a prototype. This monochromator is composed by a crystal of silicon (111) bonded on a piezo-electric structure. The mechanical control is a loop system composed by a infrared light, a Shack-Hartmann CDD and wave front analyser. This system has to compensate the deformations of the crystal in the 5 kcV to 60 kcV energy range with a power density of 1 watt per square millimeters. (authors).

  20. Characterization and quantification of cerebral edema induced by synchrotron x-ray microbeam radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serduc, Raphael; Looij, Yohan van de; Francony, Gilles; Verdonck, Olivier; Sanden, Boudewijn van der; Farion, Regine; Segebarth, Christoph; Remy, Chantal; Lahrech, Hana [INSERM, U836, F-38043 Grenoble (France); Laissue, Jean [Institute of Pathology, University of Bern (Switzerland); Braeuer-Krisch, Elke; Siegbahn, Erik Albert; Bravin, Alberto; Prezado, Yolanda [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, F-38043 Grenoble (France)], E-mail: serduc@esrf.fr

    2008-03-07

    Cerebral edema is one of the main acute complications arising after irradiation of brain tumors. Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT), an innovative experimental radiotherapy technique using spatially fractionated synchrotron x-rays, has been shown to spare radiosensitive tissues such as mammal brains. The aim of this study was to determine if cerebral edema occurs after MRT using diffusion-weighted MRI and microgravimetry. Prone Swiss nude mice's heads were positioned horizontally in the synchrotron x-ray beam and the upper part of the left hemisphere was irradiated in the antero-posterior direction by an array of 18 planar microbeams (25 mm wide, on-center spacing 211 mm, height 4 mm, entrance dose 312 Gy or 1000 Gy). An apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was measured at 7 T 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after irradiation. Eventually, the cerebral water content (CWC) was determined by microgravimetry. The ADC and CWC in the irradiated (312 Gy or 1000 Gy) and in the contralateral non-irradiated hemispheres were not significantly different at all measurement times, with two exceptions: (1) a 9% ADC decrease (p < 0.05) was observed in the irradiated cortex 1 day after exposure to 312 Gy, (2) a 0.7% increase (p < 0.05) in the CWC was measured in the irradiated hemispheres 1 day after exposure to 1000 Gy. The results demonstrate the presence of a minor and transient cellular edema (ADC decrease) at 1 day after a 312 Gy exposure, without a significant CWC increase. One day after a 1000 Gy exposure, the CWC increased, while the ADC remained unchanged and may reflect the simultaneous presence of cellular and vasogenic edema. Both types of edema disappear within a week after microbeam exposure which may confirm the normal tissue sparing effect of MRT. For more information on this article, see medicalphysicsweb.org.

  1. Thermal, structural, and fabrication aspects of diamond windows for high power synchrotron x-ray beamlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khounsary, A.M.; Phillips, W.

    1992-01-01

    Recent advances in chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technology have made it possible to produce thin free-standing diamond foils that can be used as the window material in high heat load, synchrotron beamlines. Numerical simulations suggest that these windows can offer an attractive and at times the only altemative to beryllium windows for use in third generation x-ray synchrotron radiation beamlines. Utilization, design, and fabrication aspects of diamond windows for high heat load x-ray beamlines are discussed, as are the microstructure characteristics bearing on diamond's performance in this role. Analytic and numerical results are also presented to provide a basis for the design and testing of such windows

  2. Micro-structural characterization of materials using synchrotron hard X-ray imaging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawal, Ashish; Singh, Balwant; Kashyap, Yogesh; Sarkar, P. S.; Shukla, Mayank; Sinha, Amar

    2015-01-01

    X-ray imaging has been an important tool to study the materials microstructure with the laboratory based sources however the advent of third generation synchrotron sources has introduced new concepts in X-ray imaging such as phase contrast imaging, micro-tomography, fluorescence imaging and diffraction enhance imaging. These techniques are being used to provide information of materials about their density distribution, porosity, geometrical and morphological characteristics at sub-micron scalewith improved contrast. This paper discusses the development of various imaging techniques at synchrotron based imaging beamline Indus-2 and few recent experiments carried out at this facility

  3. A CCD-based area detector for X-ray crystallography using synchrotron and laboratory sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, W.C.; Li Youli; Stanton, M.; Xie Yuanhui; O'Mara, D.; Kalata, K.

    1993-01-01

    The design and characteristics of a CCD-based area detector suitable for X-ray crystallographic studies using both synchrotron and laboratory sources are described. The active area is 75 mm in diameter, the FWHM of the point response function is 0.20 mm, and for Bragg peaks the dynamic range is 900 and the DQE ∼0.3. The 1320x1035-pixel Kodak CCD is read out into an 8 Mbyte memory system in 0.14 s and digitized to 12 bits. X-ray crystallographic data collected at the NSLS synchrotron from cubic insulin crystals are presented. (orig.)

  4. Soft X-ray beam induced current technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watts, B; Ade, H [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Queen, D; Hellman, F [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Kilcoyne, A L D; Tyliszczak, T, E-mail: benjamin.watts@gmail.co [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley Nat. Lab., Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2009-09-01

    Direct mapping of the charge transport efficiency of polymer solar cell devices using a soft X-ray beam induced current (SoXBIC) method is described. By fabricating a polymer solar cell on an x-ray transparent substrate, we demonstrate the ability to map polymer composition and nanoscale structure within an operating solar cell device and to simultaneously measure the local charge transport efficiency via the short-circuit current. A simple model is calculated and compared to experimental SoXBIC data of a PFB:F8BT bulk-heterojunction device in order to gain greater insight into the device operation and physics.

  5. Accelerators for E-beam and X-ray processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auslender, V.L. E-mail: auslen@inp.nsk.su; Bryazgin, A.A.; Faktorovich, B.L.; Gorbunov, V.A.; Kokin, E.N.; Korobeinikov, M.V.; Krainov, G.S.; Lukin, A.N.; Maximov, S.A.; Nekhaev, V.E.; Panfilov, A.D.; Radchenko, V.N.; Tkachenko, V.O.; Tuvik, A.A.; Voronin, L.A

    2002-03-01

    During last years the demand for pasteurization and desinsection of various food products (meat, chicken, sea products, vegetables, fruits, etc.) had increased. The treatment of these products in industrial scale requires the usage of powerful electron accelerators with energy 5-10 MeV and beam power at least 50 kW or more. The report describes the ILU accelerators with energy range up to 10 MeV and beam power up to 150 kW.The different irradiation schemes in electron beam and X-ray modes for various products are described. The design of the X-ray converter and 90 deg. beam bending system are also given.

  6. CCD detectors for X-ray synchrotron radiation application

    CERN Document Server

    Fedotov, M G

    2000-01-01

    In this paper the possibility of the application of some types of CCDs for the study of fast processes (by recording an image formed by a short flash of synchrotron radiation) is considered. The first results of model experiments are also described.

  7. Effects of synchrotron x-rays on PVD deposited and ion implanted α-Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, K.M.; Wang, L.; Walukiewicz, W.; Muto, S.; McCormick, S.; Abelson, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    The authors have studied the effects of intense X-ray irradiation on the structure of amorphous Si films. The films were obtained by either physical vapor deposition or by implantation of high energy ions into crystalline Si. They were exposed to different total doses of synchrotron X-rays. From the EXAFS and EXELFS measurements they find that an exposure to X-rays increases the Si coordination number. Also in the PVD films a prolonged X-ray exposure enlarges, by about 2%, the Si-Si bond length. Raman spectroscopy shows that Si amorphized with high energy ions contains small residual amounts of crystalline material. Irradiation of such films with X-rays annihilates those crystallites resulting in homogeneously amorphous layer with a close to four-fold coordination of Si atoms. This rearrangement of the local structure has a pronounced effect on the crystallization process of the amorphous films. Thermal annealing of X-ray irradiated ion amorphized films leads to nearly defect free solid phase epitaxy at 500 C. Also they observe a delay in the onset of the crystallization process in X-ray irradiated PVD films. They associate this with a reduced concentration of nucleation centers in the x-ray treated materials

  8. X-ray beam monitor made by thin-film CVD single-crystal diamond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinelli, Marco; Milani, E; Prestopino, G; Verona, C; Verona-Rinati, G; Angelone, M; Pillon, M; Kachkanov, V; Tartoni, N; Benetti, M; Cannatà, D; Di Pietrantonio, F

    2012-11-01

    A novel beam position monitor, operated at zero bias voltage, based on high-quality chemical-vapor-deposition single-crystal Schottky diamond for use under intense synchrotron X-ray beams was fabricated and tested. The total thickness of the diamond thin-film beam monitor is about 60 µm. The diamond beam monitor was inserted in the B16 beamline of the Diamond Light Source synchrotron in Harwell (UK). The device was characterized under monochromatic high-flux X-ray beams from 6 to 20 keV and a micro-focused 10 keV beam with a spot size of approximately 2 µm × 3 µm square. Time response, linearity and position sensitivity were investigated. Device response uniformity was measured by a raster scan of the diamond surface with the micro-focused beam. Transmissivity and spectral responsivity versus beam energy were also measured, showing excellent performance of the new thin-film single-crystal diamond beam monitor.

  9. LAMBDA 2M GaAs—A multi-megapixel hard X-ray detector for synchrotrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennicard, D.; Smoljanin, S.; Pithan, F.; Sarajlic, M.; Rothkirch, A.; Yu, Y.; Liermann, H. P.; Morgenroth, W.; Winkler, B.; Jenei, Z.; Stawitz, H.; Becker, J.; Graafsma, H.

    2018-01-01

    Synchrotrons can provide very intense and focused X-ray beams, which can be used to study the structure of matter down to the atomic scale. In many experiments, the quality of the results depends strongly on detector performance; in particular, experiments studying dynamics of samples require fast, sensitive X-ray detectors. "LAMBDA" is a photon-counting hybrid pixel detector system for experiments at synchrotrons, based on the Medipix3 readout chip. Its main features are a combination of comparatively small pixel size (55 μm), high readout speed at up to 2000 frames per second with no time gap between images, a large tileable module design, and compatibility with high-Z sensors for efficient detection of higher X-ray energies. A large LAMBDA system for hard X-ray detection has been built using Cr-compensated GaAs as a sensor material. The system is composed of 6 GaAs tiles, each of 768 by 512 pixels, giving a system with approximately 2 megapixels and an area of 8.5 by 8.5 cm2. While the sensor uniformity of GaAs is not as high as that of silicon, its behaviour is stable over time, and it is possible to correct nonuniformities effectively by postprocessing of images. By using multiple 10 Gigabit Ethernet data links, the system can be read out at the full speed of 2000 frames per second. The system has been used in hard X-ray diffraction experiments studying the structure of samples under extreme pressure in diamond anvil cells. These experiments can provide insight into geological processes. Thanks to the combination of high speed readout, large area and high sensitivity to hard X-rays, it is possible to obtain previously unattainable information in these experiments about atomic-scale structure on a millisecond timescale during rapid changes of pressure or temperature.

  10. Adaptation of spectral distribution of synchrotron radiation to X-ray depth lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maid, B.; Ehrfeld, W.; Hormes, J.; Mohr, J.; Muenchmeyer, D.

    1989-05-01

    Plastic microstructures with extremly high aspect ratios can be fabricated by X-ray depth lithography with synchrotron radiation. In order to minimize the expenditure in terms of irradiation the spectrum of the synchrotron radiation source has to be adapted to the irradiation task. It is characterized by the height of the microstructure and the maximum admissible dose ratio permitting the resist to develop in the depth without destruction of the surface as a result of radiation damage. Expenditure in terms of irradiation is minimum if an ideal sharp cutoff filter, profiting from the maximum permissible dose ratio, filters out the long-waved portion of the spectrum without attenuating the intensity of the short-waved portion of the spectrum. By the example of a typical resist-developer system the location of the filter edge was determined at different structural heights for the Bonn synchrotron and the ELSA electron stretching facility (Bonn). To be capable of building the ideal sharp cutoff filter, the thickness of an absorber was adapted for different materials in such a way that the maximum permissible dose ratio was obtained. If a thin reflector foil is used which is hit by glazing radiation, the expenditure in terms of irradiation can be reduced because of the steeper filter characteristic of resists with small maximum dose ratios. The short-waved transmitted beam is used for irradiation, with the filter edge set by the angle between the foil and the beam. The technical feasibility of a reflection filter was demonstrated on the model of a reflector foil consisting of 30 nm titanium on 7.5 μm polyimide substrate by transmission measurements performed at different angles. (orig./HP) [de

  11. Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy for Microcontamination Analysis on Silicon Wafer Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takaura, Norikatsu

    1997-10-01

    As dimensions in state-of-the-art CMOS devices shrink to less than 0.1 pm, even low levels of impurities on wafer surfaces can cause device degradation. Conventionally, metal contamination on wafer surfaces is measured using Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (TXRF). However, commercially available TXRF systems do not have the necessary sensitivity for measuring the lower levels of contamination required to develop new CMOS technologies. In an attempt to improve the sensitivity of TXRF, this research investigates Synchrotron Radiation TXRF (SR TXRF). The advantages of SR TXRF over conventional TXRF are higher incident photon flux, energy tunability, and linear polarization. We made use of these advantages to develop an optimized SR TXRF system at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL). The results of measurements show that the Minimum Detection Limits (MDLs) of SR TXRF for 3-d transition metals are typically at a level-of 3x10{sup 8} atoms/cm{sup 2}, which is better than conventional TXRF by about a factor of 20. However, to use our SR TXRF system for practical applications, it was necessary to modify a commercially available Si (Li) detector which generates parasitic fluorescence signals. With the modified detector, we could achieve true MDLs of 3x10{sup 8} atoms/cm{sup 2} for 3-d transition metals. In addition, the analysis of Al on Si wafers is described. Al analysis is difficult because strong Si signals overlap the Al signals. In this work, the Si signals are greatly reduced by tuning the incident beam energy below the Si K edge. The results of our measurements show that the sensitivity for Al is limited by x-ray Raman scattering. Furthermore, we show the results of theoretical modeling of SR TXRF backgrounds consisting of the bremsstrahlung generated by photoelectrons, Compton scattering, and Raman scattering. To model these backgrounds, we extended conventional theoretical models by taking into account several aspects particular

  12. Using Synchrotron X-ray Fluorescence Microprobes in the Study of Metal Homeostasis in Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punshon, T.; Guerinot, M.; Lanzirotti, A.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims: This Botanical Briefing reviews the application of synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) microprobes to the plant sciences; how the technique has expanded our knowledge of metal(loid) homeostasis, and how it can be used in the future. Scope: The use of SXRF microspectroscopy and microtomography in research on metal homeostasis in plants is reviewed. The potential use of SXRF as part of the ionomics toolbox, where it is able to provide fundamental information on the way that plants control metal homeostasis, is recommended. Conclusions: SXRF is one of the few techniques capable of providing spatially resolved in-vivo metal abundance data on a sub-micrometre scale, without the need for chemical fixation, coating, drying or even sectioning of samples. This gives researchers the ability to uncover mechanisms of plant metal homeostasis that can potentially be obscured by the artefacts of sample preparation. Further, new generation synchrotrons with smaller beam sizes and more sensitive detection systems will allow for the imaging of metal distribution within single living plant cells. Even greater advances in our understanding of metal homeostasis in plants can be gained by overcoming some of the practical boundaries that exist in the use of SXRF analysis.

  13. Combining operando synchrotron X-ray tomographic microscopy and scanning X-ray diffraction to study lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietsch, Patrick; Hess, Michael; Ludwig, Wolfgang; Eller, Jens; Wood, Vanessa

    2016-06-01

    We present an operando study of a lithium ion battery combining scanning X-ray diffraction (SXRD) and synchrotron radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM) simultaneously for the first time. This combination of techniques facilitates the investigation of dynamic processes in lithium ion batteries containing amorphous and/or weakly attenuating active materials. While amorphous materials pose a challenge for diffraction techniques, weakly attenuating material systems pose a challenge for attenuation-contrast tomography. Furthermore, combining SXRD and SRXTM can be used to correlate processes occurring at the atomic level in the crystal lattices of the active materials with those at the scale of electrode microstructure. To demonstrate the benefits of this approach, we investigate a silicon powder electrode in lithium metal half-cell configuration. Combining SXRD and SRXTM, we are able to (i) quantify the dissolution of the metallic lithium electrode and the expansion of the silicon electrode, (ii) better understand the formation of the Li15Si4 phase, and (iii) non-invasively probe kinetic limitations within the silicon electrode. A simple model based on the 1D diffusion equation allows us to qualitatively understand the observed kinetics and demonstrates why high-capacity electrodes are more prone to inhomogeneous lithiation reactions.

  14. Combining operando synchrotron X-ray tomographic microscopy and scanning X-ray diffraction to study lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietsch, Patrick; Hess, Michael; Ludwig, Wolfgang; Eller, Jens; Wood, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    We present an operando study of a lithium ion battery combining scanning X-ray diffraction (SXRD) and synchrotron radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM) simultaneously for the first time. This combination of techniques facilitates the investigation of dynamic processes in lithium ion batteries containing amorphous and/or weakly attenuating active materials. While amorphous materials pose a challenge for diffraction techniques, weakly attenuating material systems pose a challenge for attenuation-contrast tomography. Furthermore, combining SXRD and SRXTM can be used to correlate processes occurring at the atomic level in the crystal lattices of the active materials with those at the scale of electrode microstructure. To demonstrate the benefits of this approach, we investigate a silicon powder electrode in lithium metal half-cell configuration. Combining SXRD and SRXTM, we are able to (i) quantify the dissolution of the metallic lithium electrode and the expansion of the silicon electrode, (ii) better understand the formation of the Li15Si4 phase, and (iii) non-invasively probe kinetic limitations within the silicon electrode. A simple model based on the 1D diffusion equation allows us to qualitatively understand the observed kinetics and demonstrates why high-capacity electrodes are more prone to inhomogeneous lithiation reactions. PMID:27324109

  15. Observation of X-ray shadings in synchrotron radiation-total reflection X-ray fluorescence using a color X-ray camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fittschen, Ursula Elisabeth Adriane, E-mail: ursula.fittschen@chemie.uni-hamburg.de [Institut für Anorganische und Angewandte Chemie, Universität Hamburg, Martin-Luther-King-Platz 6, 20146 Hamburg (Germany); Menzel, Magnus [Institut für Anorganische und Angewandte Chemie, Universität Hamburg, Martin-Luther-King-Platz 6, 20146 Hamburg (Germany); Scharf, Oliver [IfG Institute for Scientific Instruments GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Radtke, Martin; Reinholz, Uwe; Buzanich, Günther [BAM Federal Institute of Materials Research and Testing, Berlin (Germany); Lopez, Velma M.; McIntosh, Kathryn [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Streli, Christina [Atominstitut, TU Wien, Vienna (Austria); Havrilla, George Joseph [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Absorption effects and the impact of specimen shape on TXRF analysis has been discussed intensively. Model calculations indicated that ring shaped specimens should give better results in terms of higher counts per mass signals than filled rectangle or circle shaped specimens. One major reason for the difference in signal is shading effects. Full field micro-XRF with a color X-ray camera (CXC) was used to investigate shading, which occurs when working with small angles of excitation as in TXRF. The device allows monitoring the illuminated parts of the sample and the shaded parts at the same time. It is expected that sample material hit first by the primary beam shade material behind it. Using the CXC shading could be directly visualized for the high concentration specimens. In order to compare the experimental results with calculation of the shading effect the generation of controlled specimens is crucial. This was achieved by “drop on demand” technology. It allows generating uniform, microscopic deposits of elements. The experimentally measured shadings match well with those expected from calculation. - Highlights: • Use of a color X-ray camera and drop on demand printing to diagnose X-ray shading • Specimens were obtained uniform and well-defined in shape and concentration by printing. • Direct visualization and determination of shading in such specimens using the camera.

  16. Observation of X-ray shadings in synchrotron radiation-total reflection X-ray fluorescence using a color X-ray camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fittschen, Ursula Elisabeth Adriane; Menzel, Magnus; Scharf, Oliver; Radtke, Martin; Reinholz, Uwe; Buzanich, Günther; Lopez, Velma M.; McIntosh, Kathryn; Streli, Christina; Havrilla, George Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Absorption effects and the impact of specimen shape on TXRF analysis has been discussed intensively. Model calculations indicated that ring shaped specimens should give better results in terms of higher counts per mass signals than filled rectangle or circle shaped specimens. One major reason for the difference in signal is shading effects. Full field micro-XRF with a color X-ray camera (CXC) was used to investigate shading, which occurs when working with small angles of excitation as in TXRF. The device allows monitoring the illuminated parts of the sample and the shaded parts at the same time. It is expected that sample material hit first by the primary beam shade material behind it. Using the CXC shading could be directly visualized for the high concentration specimens. In order to compare the experimental results with calculation of the shading effect the generation of controlled specimens is crucial. This was achieved by “drop on demand” technology. It allows generating uniform, microscopic deposits of elements. The experimentally measured shadings match well with those expected from calculation. - Highlights: • Use of a color X-ray camera and drop on demand printing to diagnose X-ray shading • Specimens were obtained uniform and well-defined in shape and concentration by printing. • Direct visualization and determination of shading in such specimens using the camera

  17. Soft X-ray synchrotron radiation investigations of actinide materials systems utilizing X-ray emission spectroscopy and resonant inelastic X-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuh, D.K.; Butorin, S.M.; Guo, J.-H.; Nordgren, J.

    2004-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation (SR) methods have been utilized with increasing frequency over the past several years to study topics in actinide science, ranging from those of a fundamental nature to those that address a specifically-targeted technical need. In particular, the emergence of microspectroscopic and fluorescence-based techniques have permitted investigations of actinide materials at sources of soft x-ray SR. Spectroscopic techniques with fluorescence-based detection are useful for actinide investigations since they are sensitive to small amounts of material and the information sampling depth may be varied. These characteristics also serve to simplify both sample preparation and safety considerations. Examples of investigations using these fluorescence techniques will be described along with their results, as well as the prospects for future investigations utilizing these methodologies

  18. Hard X-ray emission spectroscopy with pink beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvashnina, Kristina O.; Rossberg, Andre; Exner, Joerg; Scheinost, Andreas C. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Molecular Structures

    2017-06-01

    Valence-band X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) with a ''pink beam'', i.e. a beam with large energy bandwidth produced by a double-multilayer monochromator, is introduced here to overcome the weak count rate of monochromatic beams produced by conventional double-crystal monochromators. Our results demonstrate that - in spite of the large bandwidth in the order of 100 eV - the high spectral resolution of the Johann-type spectrometer is maintained, while the two orders of magnitude higher flux greatly reduces the required counting time. The short working distance Johann-type X-ray emission spectrometer and multilayer monochromator is available at ROBL.

  19. X-ray monochromators for high-power synchrotron radiation sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Michael

    1990-11-01

    Exact solutions to the problems of power flow from a line source of heat into a semicylinder and of uniform heat flow normal to a flat surface are discussed. These lead to bounds on feasible designs and the boundary layer problem can be placed in proper perspective. While finite element calculations are useful if the sample boundaries are predefined, they are much less help in establishing design principles. Previous work on hot beam X-ray crystal optics has emphasised the importance of coolant hydraulics and boundary layer heat transfer. Instead this paper emphasises the importance of the elastic response of crystals to thermal strainfields and the importance of maintaining the Darwin reflectivity. The conclusions of this design study are that the diffracting crystal region should be thin, but not very thin, similar in area to the hot beam footprint, part of a thin-walked buckling crystal box and remote from the support to which the crystal is rigidly clamped. Prototype 111 and 220 cooled silicon crystals tested at the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven have almost perfect rocking curves under a beam heat load of {1}/{3}kW.

  20. Preliminary study on X-ray phase contrast imaging using synchrotron radiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Zhuang; Wang Jianhua; Yu Yongqiang; Jiang Shiping; Chen Yang; Tian Yulian

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the methodology of X-ray phase contrast imaging using synchrotron radiation, and evaluate the quality of phase contrast images. Methods: Several experiments to obtain phase contrast images and absorption contrast images of various biological samples were conducted in Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF), and then these images were interpreted to find out the difference between the two kinds of imaging methods. Results: Satisfactory phase contrast images of these various samples were obtained, and the quality of these images was superior to that obtained with absorption contrast imaging. The phase contrast formation is based on the phenomenon of fresnel diffraction which transforms phase shifts into intensity variations upon a simple act of free-space propagation, so it requires highly coherent X-rays and appropriate distance between sample and detector. This method of imaging is very useful in imaging of low-absorption objects or objects with little absorption variation, and its resolution is far higher than that of the conventional X-ray imaging. The photographs obtained showed very fine inner microstructure of the biological samples, and the smallest microstructure to be distinguished is within 30-40 μm. There is no doubt that phase contrast imaging has a practical applicability in medicine. Moreover, it improves greatly the efficiency and the resolution of the existing X-ray diagnostic techniques. Conclusions: X-ray phase contrast imaging can be performed with synchrotron radiation source and has some advantages over the conventional absorption contrast imaging. (authors)

  1. Development of synchrotron x-ray micro-spectroscopic techniques and application to problems in low temperature geochemistry. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    The focus of the technical development effort has been the development of apparatus and techniques for the utilization of X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) and X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) spectroscopies in a microprobe mode. The present XRM uses white synchrotron radiation (3 to 30 keV) from a bending magnet for trace element analyses using the x-ray fluorescence technique Two significant improvements to this device have been recently implemented. Focusing Mirror: An 8:1 ellipsoidal mirror was installed in the X26A beamline to focus the incident synchrotron radiation and thereby increase the flux on the sample by about a factor of 30. Incident Beam Monochromator: The monochromator has been successfully installed and commissioned in the X26A beamline upstream of the mirror to permit analyses with focused monochromatic radiation. The monochromator consists of a channel-cut silicon (111) crystal driven by a Klinger stepping motor translator. We have demonstrated the operating range of this instrument is 4 and 20 keV with 0.01 eV steps and produces a beam with a {approximately}10{sup {minus}4} energy bandwidth. The primary purpose of the monochromator is for x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) measurements but it is also used for selective excitation in trace element microanalysis. To date, we have conducted XANES studies on Ti, Cr, Fe, Ce and U, spanning the entire accessible energy range and including both K and L edge spectra. Practical detection limits for microXANES are 10--100 ppM for 100 {mu}m spots.

  2. Synchrotron radiation and free-electron lasers principles of coherent X-ray generation

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Kwang-Je; Lindberg, Ryan

    2017-01-01

    Learn about the latest advances in high-brightness X-ray physics and technology with this authoritative text. Drawing upon the most recent theoretical developments, pre-eminent leaders in the field guide readers through the fundamental principles and techniques of high-brightness X-ray generation from both synchrotron and free-electron laser sources. A wide range of topics is covered, including high-brightness synchrotron radiation from undulators, self-amplified spontaneous emission, seeded high-gain amplifiers with harmonic generation, ultra-short pulses, tapering for higher power, free-electron laser oscillators, and X-ray oscillator and amplifier configuration. Novel mathematical approaches and numerous figures accompanied by intuitive explanations enable easy understanding of key concepts, whilst practical considerations of performance-improving techniques and discussion of recent experimental results provide the tools and knowledge needed to address current research problems in the field. This is a comp...

  3. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction analysis for quantitative defect evaluation in GaP/Si nanolayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen Thanh, T.; Robert, C. [Université Européenne de Bretagne, INSA, FOTON, UMR 6082, F-35708 RENNES (France); Létoublon, A., E-mail: Antoine.letoublon@insa-rennes.fr [Université Européenne de Bretagne, INSA, FOTON, UMR 6082, F-35708 RENNES (France); Cornet, C. [Université Européenne de Bretagne, INSA, FOTON, UMR 6082, F-35708 RENNES (France); Quinci, T. [Université Européenne de Bretagne, INSA, FOTON, UMR 6082, F-35708 RENNES (France); CEA LCP, INES, 50 av. du Lac Léman, Savoie Technolac, 73375 Le Bourget du Lac (France); Giudicelli, E.; Almosni, S. [Université Européenne de Bretagne, INSA, FOTON, UMR 6082, F-35708 RENNES (France); Boudet, N. [CRG-D2AM, ESRF and Inst. Néel, CNRS-UJF, 25 Av des Martyrs, 38042 Grenoble (France); Ponchet, A. [CEMES, CNRS, Université de Toulouse, 29 rue J. Marvig BP 94347, 31055 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Kuyyalil, J. [Université Européenne de Bretagne, INSA, FOTON, UMR 6082, F-35708 RENNES (France); Danila, M. [National Institute for Research and Development in Microtechnologies (IMT), 126A Erou Iancu Nicolae Street, 077190, Bucharest (Romania); Durand, O.; Bertru, N.; Le Corre, A. [Université Européenne de Bretagne, INSA, FOTON, UMR 6082, F-35708 RENNES (France)

    2013-08-31

    In the context of III–V monolithic integration on silicon, synchrotron X-ray diffraction has been employed in this study using a bi-dimensional large area hybrid pixel detector (XPAD third generation) to characterize defects in the GaP layers. Despite a very coherent interface (low plastic relaxation) of GaP/Si, 2 types of defect are detected. Micro-twins contributions are evidenced and quantitatively evaluated from additional reflections analysis. Antiphase domains are evidenced using the Williamson-Hall-like plot method applied to transverse scans extracted directly from single XPAD images taken on specular GaP reflections. - Highlights: ► Antiphase domain evidence and characterization in GaP/Si using X-ray diffraction ► Microtwin evidence and characterization ► Synchrotron diffraction ► Large area X-ray hybrid pixel detector.

  4. Recent advances in synchrotron-based hard x-ray phase contrast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Nelson, J.; Holzner, C.; Andrews, J. C.; Pianetta, P.

    2013-12-01

    Ever since the first demonstration of phase contrast imaging (PCI) in the 1930s by Frits Zernike, people have realized the significant advantage of phase contrast over conventional absorption-based imaging in terms of sensitivity to ‘transparent’ features within specimens. Thus, x-ray phase contrast imaging (XPCI) holds great potential in studies of soft biological tissues, typically containing low Z elements such as C, H, O and N. Particularly when synchrotron hard x-rays are employed, the favourable brightness, energy tunability, monochromatic characteristics and penetration depth have dramatically enhanced the quality and variety of XPCI methods, which permit detection of the phase shift associated with 3D geometry of relatively large samples in a non-destructive manner. In this paper, we review recent advances in several synchrotron-based hard x-ray XPCI methods. Challenges and key factors in methodological development are discussed, and biological and medical applications are presented.

  5. Recent advances in synchrotron-based hard x-ray phase contrast imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y; Nelson, J; Andrews, J C; Pianetta, P; Holzner, C

    2013-01-01

    Ever since the first demonstration of phase contrast imaging (PCI) in the 1930s by Frits Zernike, people have realized the significant advantage of phase contrast over conventional absorption-based imaging in terms of sensitivity to ‘transparent’ features within specimens. Thus, x-ray phase contrast imaging (XPCI) holds great potential in studies of soft biological tissues, typically containing low Z elements such as C, H, O and N. Particularly when synchrotron hard x-rays are employed, the favourable brightness, energy tunability, monochromatic characteristics and penetration depth have dramatically enhanced the quality and variety of XPCI methods, which permit detection of the phase shift associated with 3D geometry of relatively large samples in a non-destructive manner. In this paper, we review recent advances in several synchrotron-based hard x-ray XPCI methods. Challenges and key factors in methodological development are discussed, and biological and medical applications are presented. (paper)

  6. X-ray diffraction on nanoparticles chromium and nickel oxides obtained by gelatin using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes, Alan Silva de; Medeiros, Angela Maria de Lemos; Miranda, Marcus Aurelio Ribeiro; Almeida, Juliana Marcela Abraao; Remedios, Claudio Marcio Rocha; Silva, Lindomar R.D. da; Gouveia, S.T.; Sasaki, Jose Marcos; Jardim, P.M.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Cr 2 O 3 nanoparticles has many applications like green pigments, wear resistance, and coating materials for thermal protection. Several methods to produce chromium oxide nanoparticles have already been studied, gas condensation, laser induced pyrolysis, microwave plasma, sol-gel and gamma radiation methods. Many applications for this kind of material can be provide concerning the particle size. For instance, particle size approximately of 200 nm are preferable as pigment due to its opacity and below 50 nm can be used as transparent pigment. In this work we have demonstrated that chromium and nickel oxide nanoparticles can be prepared by gelatin method. X-Ray diffraction (XRD) show that mean particle size for chromium oxide of 15-150 nm and nickel oxide of 90 nm were obtained for several temperature of sintering. The X-Ray powder diffraction pattern were performed using Synchrotron Radiation X-Ray source at XRD1 beamline in National Laboratory of Light Synchrotron (LNLS). (author)

  7. Integrated image presentation of transmission and fluorescent X-ray CT using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeniya, T.; Takeda, T. E-mail: ttakeda@md.tsukuba.ac.jp; Yu, Q.; Hasegawa, Y.; Hyodo, K.; Yuasa, T.; Hiranaka, Y.; Itai, Y.; Akatsuka, T

    2001-07-21

    We have developed a computed tomography (CT) system with synchrotron radiation (SR) to detect fluorescent X-rays and transmitted X-rays simultaneously. Both SR transmission X-ray CT (SR-TXCT) and SR fluorescent X-ray CT (SR-FXCT) can describe cross-sectional images with high spatial and contrast resolutions as compared to conventional CT. TXCT gives morphological information and FXCT gives functional information of organs. So, superposed display system for SR-FXCT and SR-TXCT images has been developed for clinical diagnosis with higher reliability. Preliminary experiment with brain phantom was carried out and the superposition of both images was performed. The superposed SR-CT image gave us both functional and morphological information easily with high reliability, thus demonstrating the usefulness of this system.

  8. Integrated image presentation of transmission and fluorescent X-ray CT using synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeniya, T.; Takeda, T.; Yu, Q.; Hasegawa, Y.; Hyodo, K.; Yuasa, T.; Hiranaka, Y.; Itai, Y.; Akatsuka, T.

    2001-07-01

    We have developed a computed tomography (CT) system with synchrotron radiation (SR) to detect fluorescent X-rays and transmitted X-rays simultaneously. Both SR transmission X-ray CT (SR-TXCT) and SR fluorescent X-ray CT (SR-FXCT) can describe cross-sectional images with high spatial and contrast resolutions as compared to conventional CT. TXCT gives morphological information and FXCT gives functional information of organs. So, superposed display system for SR-FXCT and SR-TXCT images has been developed for clinical diagnosis with higher reliability. Preliminary experiment with brain phantom was carried out and the superposition of both images was performed. The superposed SR-CT image gave us both functional and morphological information easily with high reliability, thus demonstrating the usefulness of this system.

  9. Atomic physics with hard X-rays from high brilliance synchrotron light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Southworth, S.; Gemmell, D.

    1996-08-01

    A century after the discovery of x rays, the experimental capability for studying atomic structure and dynamics with hard, bright synchrotron radiation is increasing remarkably. Tempting opportunities arise for experiments on many-body effects, aspects of fundamental photon-atom interaction processes, and relativistic and quantum-electrodynamic phenomena. Some of these possibilities are surveyed in general terms

  10. Fracture mechanics by three-dimensional crack-tip synchrotron X-ray microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withers, P J

    2015-03-06

    To better understand the relationship between the nucleation and growth of defects and the local stresses and phase changes that cause them, we need both imaging and stress mapping. Here, we explore how this can be achieved by bringing together synchrotron X-ray diffraction and tomographic imaging. Conventionally, these are undertaken on separate synchrotron beamlines; however, instruments capable of both imaging and diffraction are beginning to emerge, such as ID15 at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility and JEEP at the Diamond Light Source. This review explores the concept of three-dimensional crack-tip X-ray microscopy, bringing them together to probe the crack-tip behaviour under realistic environmental and loading conditions and to extract quantitative fracture mechanics information about the local crack-tip environment. X-ray diffraction provides information about the crack-tip stress field, phase transformations, plastic zone and crack-face tractions and forces. Time-lapse CT, besides providing information about the three-dimensional nature of the crack and its local growth rate, can also provide information as to the activation of extrinsic toughening mechanisms such as crack deflection, crack-tip zone shielding, crack bridging and crack closure. It is shown how crack-tip microscopy allows a quantitative measure of the crack-tip driving force via the stress intensity factor or the crack-tip opening displacement. Finally, further opportunities for synchrotron X-ray microscopy are explored.

  11. Energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction beamline at Indus-2 synchrotron ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction beamline has been designed, developed and commissioned at BL-11 bending magnet port of the Indian synchrotron source, Indus-2. The performance of this beamline has been benchmarked by measuring diffraction patterns from various elemental metals and standard inorganic ...

  12. Assessment of a synchrotron X-ray method for quantitative analysis of calcium hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, P. Jason; Biernacki, Joseph J.; Bai Jianming; Rawn, Claudia J.

    2003-01-01

    Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and quantitative X-ray diffraction (QXRD) are widely used to determine the calcium hydroxide (CH) content in cementitious systems containing blends of Portland cement, fly ash, blast furnace slag, silica fume and other pozzolanic and hydraulic materials. These techniques, however, are destructive to cement samples and subject to various forms of error. While precise weight losses can be measured by TGA, extracting information from samples with multiple overlapping thermal events is difficult. And, however, while QXRD can offer easier deconvolution, the accuracy for components below about 5 wt.% is typically poor when a laboratory X-ray source is used. Furthermore, the destructive nature of both techniques prevents using them to study the in situ hydration of a single contiguous sample for kinetic analysis. In an attempt to overcome these problems, the present research evaluated the use of synchrotron X-rays for quantitative analysis of CH. A synchrotron X-ray source was used to develop calibration data for quantification of the amount of CH in mixtures with fly ash. These data were compared to conventional laboratory XRD data for like samples. While both methods were found to offer good quantification, synchrotron XRD (SXRD) provided a broader range of detectability and higher accuracy than laboratory diffraction and removed the subjectivity as compared to TGA analysis. Further, the sealed glass capillaries used with the synchrotron source provided a nondestructive closed, in situ environment for tracking hydrating specimens from zero to any desired age

  13. High-pressure phases of uranium monophosphide studied by synchrotron x-ray diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, J. Staun; Gerward, Leif; Benedict, U.

    1988-01-01

    X-ray diffraction studies have been performed on UP powder for pressures up to 51 GPa using synchrotron radiation and a diamond-anvil cell. At ambient pressure UP has the rocksalt structure. The bulk modulus has been determined to B0=102(4) GPa and its pressure derivative to B0’=4.0(8). The cubic...

  14. Hut clusters on Ge(001) surfaces studied by STM and synchrotron X-ray diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M.; Smilgies, D.-M.; Feidenhans'l, R.

    1996-01-01

    Nanoscale hut clusters formed on Ge(001) surfaces by depositing one monolayer of indium and annealing at temperatures between 350 and 500 degrees C were studied by scanning tunnelling microscopy and synchrotron X-ray diffraction. It was found that the hut clusters form regular arrays over...

  15. Synchrotron-based X-ray microscopic studies for bioeffects of nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ying; Cai, Xiaoqing; Li, Jiang; Zhong, Zengtao; Huang, Qing; Fan, Chunhai

    2014-04-01

    There have been increasing interests in studying biological effects of nanomaterials, which are nevertheless faced up with many challenges due to the nanoscale dimensions and unique chemical properties of nanomaterials. Synchrotron-based X-ray microscopy, an advanced imaging technology with high spatial resolution and excellent elemental specificity, provides a new platform for studying interactions between nanomaterials and living systems. In this article, we review the recent progress of X-ray microscopic studies on bioeffects of nanomaterials in several living systems including cells, model organisms, animals and plants. We aim to provide an overview of the state of the art, and the advantages of using synchrotron-based X-ray microscopy for characterizing in vitro and in vivo behaviors and biodistribution of nanomaterials. We also expect that the use of a combination of new synchrotron techniques should offer unprecedented opportunities for better understanding complex interactions at the nano-biological interface and accounting for unique bioeffects of nanomaterials. Synchrotron-based X-ray microscopy is a non-destructive imaging technique that enables high resolution spatial mapping of metals with elemental level detection methods. This review summarizes the current use and perspectives of this novel technique in studying the biology and tissue interactions of nanomaterials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. CCD [charge-coupled device] sensors in synchrotron x-ray detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, M.G.; Naday, I.; Sherman, I.S.; Kraimer, M.R.; Westbrook, E.M.; Zaluzec, N.J.

    1987-01-01

    The intense photon flux from advanced synchrotron light sources, such as the 7-GeV synchrotron being designed at Argonne, require integrating-type detectors. Charge-coupled devices (CCDs) are well suited as synchrotron x-ray detectors. When irradiated indirectly via a phosphor followed by reducing optics, diffraction patterns of 100 cm 2 can be imaged on a 2 cm 2 CCD. With a conversion efficiency of ∼1 CCD electron/x-ray photon, a peak saturation capacity of >10 6 x rays can be obtained. A programmable CCD controller operating at a clock frequency of 20 MHz has been developed. The readout rate is 5 x 10 6 pixels/s and the shift rate in the parallel registers is 10 6 lines/s. The test detector was evaluated in two experiments. In protein crystallography diffraction patterns have been obtained from a lysozyme crystal using a conventional rotating anode x-ray generator. Based on these results we expect to obtain at a synchrotron diffraction images at the rate of ∼1 frame/s or a complete 3-dimensional data set from a single crystal in ∼2 min. 16 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs

  17. SYNCHROTRON X-RAY OBSERVATIONS OF A MONOLAYER TEMPLATE FOR MINERALIZATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimasi, E.; Gower, L.B.

    2000-01-01

    Mineral nucleation at a Langmuir film interface has been studied by synchrotron x-ray scattering. Diluted calcium bicarbonate solutions were used as subphases for arachidic and stearic acid monolayers, compressed in a Langmuir trough. Self-assembly of the monolayer template is observed directly, and subsequent crystal growth monitored in-situ

  18. Atomic physics with hard X-rays from high brilliance synchrotron light sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southworth, S.; Gemmell, D.

    1996-08-01

    A century after the discovery of x rays, the experimental capability for studying atomic structure and dynamics with hard, bright synchrotron radiation is increasing remarkably. Tempting opportunities arise for experiments on many-body effects, aspects of fundamental photon-atom interaction processes, and relativistic and quantum-electrodynamic phenomena. Some of these possibilities are surveyed in general terms.

  19. Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence analysis in environmental and earth sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adams F.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Compared to other microscopic analytical tools X-ray microscopy techniques have the advantage that the large penetration depth of X-rays in matter allows one to investigate the interior of an object without destructive sample preparation. In combination with X-ray fluorescence tomography, analytical information from inside of a specimen can be obtained. Different X-ray analytical techniques can be used to produce contrast, X-ray absorption, fluorescence, and diffraction, to yield chemical, elemental, and structural information about the sample. Scanning microscopy on the basis of various lens systems in synchrotron radiation sources provides a routine spatial resolution of now about 100 nanometer but in the foreseeable future a 10–20 nanometer spatial resolution can be expected. X-ray absorption spectrometry can also provide chemical (speciation information on the sample. All this makes X-ray microscopy attractive to many fields of science. In this paper the techniques are briefly reviewed and a number of applications in the earth, planetary and cosmos sciences are illustrated with state-of-the art examples, while applications in the environmental sciences and biology are also briefly discussed.

  20. Method for reducing x-ray background signals from insertion device x-ray beam position monitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn Decker

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available A method is described that provides a solution to the long-standing problem of stray radiation-induced signals on photoemission-based x-ray beam position monitors (BPMs located on insertion device x-ray beam lines. The method involves the introduction of a chicane into the accelerator lattice that directs unwanted x radiation away from the photosensitive x-ray BPM blades. This technique has been implemented at the Advanced Photon Source, and experimental confirmation of the technique is provided.

  1. Synchrotron X-ray studies of epitaxial ferroelectric thin films and nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klug, Jeffrey A.

    The study of ferroelectric thin films is a field of considerable scientific and technological interest. In this dissertation synchrotron x-ray techniques were applied to examine the effects of lateral confinement and epitaxial strain in ferroelectric thin films and nanostructures. Three materials systems were investigated: laterally confined epitaxial BiFeO3 nanostructures on SrTiO3 (001), ultra-thin commensurate SrTiO 3 films on Si (001), and coherently strained films of BaTiO3 on DyScO3 (110). Epitaxial films of BiFeO3 were deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering on SrRuO3 coated SrTiO 3 (001) substrates. Laterally confined nanostructures were fabricated using focused ion-beam processing and subsequently characterized with focused beam x-ray nanodiffraction measurements with unprecedented spatial resolution. Results from a series of rectangular nanostructures with lateral dimensions between 500 nm and 1 mum and a comparably-sized region of the unpatterned BiFeO3 film revealed qualitatively similar distributions of local strain and lattice rotation with a 2-3 times larger magnitude of variation observed in those of the nanostructures compared to the unpatterned film. This indicates that lateral confinement leads to enhanced variation in the local strain and lattice rotation fields in epitaxial BiFeO3 nanostructures. A commensurate 2 nm thick film of SrTiO3 on Si was characterized by the x-ray standing wave (XSW) technique to determine the Sr and Ti cation positions in the strained unit cell in order to verify strain-induced ferroelectricity in SrTiO3/Si. A Si (004) XSW measurement at 10°C indicated that the average Ti displacement from the midpoint between Sr planes was consistent in magnitude to that predicted by a density functional theory (DFT) calculated ferroelectric structure. The Ti displacement determined from a 35°C measurement better matched a DFT-predicted nonpolar structure. The thin film extension of the XSW technique was employed to

  2. Experimental characterization of X-ray transverse coherence in the presence of beam transport optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chubar, O.; Fluerasu, A.; Chu, Y.S.

    2013-01-01

    A simple Boron fiber based interference scheme [1] and other similar schemes are currently routinely used for X-ray coherence estimation at 3rd generation synchrotron radiation sources. If such a scheme is applied after a perfect monochromator and without any focusing / transport optics...... in the optical path, the interpretation of the measured interference pattern is relatively straightforward and can be done in terms of the basic parameters of the source [2]. However, if the interference scheme is used after some focusing optics, e.g. close to the X-ray beam waist, the visibility of fringes can...... be significantly affected by the new shape of the focused beam phase-space. At the same time, optical element imperfections still have a negative impact on the transverse coherence. In such situations, which are frequently encountered in experiments at beamlines, the quantitative interpretation of a measured...

  3. Sagittal x-ray beam deviation at asymmetric inclined diffractors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Korytár, D.; Hrdý, Jaromír; Artemiev, Nikolai; Ferrari, C.; Freund, A.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 8, - (2001), s. 1136-1139 ISSN 0909-0495 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OK 305; GA MPO PZ-CH/22 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : x-ray optics * Si(111) W/grooved crystals * inclined diffraction * out-of-diffraction-plane beams * sagittal focusing Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.519, year: 2001

  4. Broad beam X-rays attenuation in silicum glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risticj, Dj.; Vukovicj, S.; Markovicj, P.

    1987-01-01

    Using broad beam geometry the attenuation for domestic silicum glass have been studied for constant X-ray potentials from 50 to 150 kV. The density of the silicium glass was 2,5x10 3 kg/m 3 . From the attenuation curves the half value layers were obtained. The use of this glass as the biological shield is pointed out. (author). 2 refs.; 2 tabs.; 2 figs

  5. Evaluating scintillator performance in time-resolved hard X-ray studies at synchrotron light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutherford, Michael E.; Chapman, David J.; White, Thomas G.; Drakopoulos, Michael; Rack, Alexander; Eakins, Daniel E.

    2016-01-01

    Scintillator performance in time-resolved, hard, indirect detection X-ray studies on the sub-microsecond timescale at synchrotron light sources is reviewed, modelled and examined experimentally. LYSO:Ce is found to be the only commercially available crystal suitable for these experiments. The short pulse duration, small effective source size and high flux of synchrotron radiation is ideally suited for probing a wide range of transient deformation processes in materials under extreme conditions. In this paper, the challenges of high-resolution time-resolved indirect X-ray detection are reviewed in the context of dynamic synchrotron experiments. In particular, the discussion is targeted at two-dimensional integrating detector methods, such as those focused on dynamic radiography and diffraction experiments. The response of a scintillator to periodic synchrotron X-ray excitation is modelled and validated against experimental data collected at the Diamond Light Source (DLS) and European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). An upper bound on the dynamic range accessible in a time-resolved experiment for a given bunch separation is calculated for a range of scintillators. New bunch structures are suggested for DLS and ESRF using the highest-performing commercially available crystal LYSO:Ce, allowing time-resolved experiments with an interframe time of 189 ns and a maximum dynamic range of 98 (6.6 bits)

  6. Evaluating scintillator performance in time-resolved hard X-ray studies at synchrotron light sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutherford, Michael E.; Chapman, David J.; White, Thomas G. [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); Drakopoulos, Michael [Diamond Light Source, I12 Joint Engineering, Environmental, Processing (JEEP) Beamline, Didcot, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Rack, Alexander [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France); Eakins, Daniel E., E-mail: d.eakins@imperial.ac.uk [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-24

    Scintillator performance in time-resolved, hard, indirect detection X-ray studies on the sub-microsecond timescale at synchrotron light sources is reviewed, modelled and examined experimentally. LYSO:Ce is found to be the only commercially available crystal suitable for these experiments. The short pulse duration, small effective source size and high flux of synchrotron radiation is ideally suited for probing a wide range of transient deformation processes in materials under extreme conditions. In this paper, the challenges of high-resolution time-resolved indirect X-ray detection are reviewed in the context of dynamic synchrotron experiments. In particular, the discussion is targeted at two-dimensional integrating detector methods, such as those focused on dynamic radiography and diffraction experiments. The response of a scintillator to periodic synchrotron X-ray excitation is modelled and validated against experimental data collected at the Diamond Light Source (DLS) and European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). An upper bound on the dynamic range accessible in a time-resolved experiment for a given bunch separation is calculated for a range of scintillators. New bunch structures are suggested for DLS and ESRF using the highest-performing commercially available crystal LYSO:Ce, allowing time-resolved experiments with an interframe time of 189 ns and a maximum dynamic range of 98 (6.6 bits)

  7. Beam synchronous detection techniques for X-Ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goujon, Gérard; Rogalev, Andreï; Goulon, José; Feite, Serge; Wilhelm, Fabrice

    2013-01-01

    The Photo diode detectors combine a set of properties that make them most appropriate, in particular, for X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism (XMCD) experiments. Under standard operating conditions, the detection bandwidth is primarily limited by the transimpedance preamplifier that converts the very low ac photocurrent into a voltage. On the other hand, when the photodiode is reverse biased, its finite shunt resistance will cause an undesirable, temperature dependent DC dark current. The best strategy to get rid of it is to use synchronous detection techniques. A classical implementation is based on the use of a chopper modulating the X-ray beam intensity at rather low frequencies (typically below 1 kHz). Here we report on the recent development of a fast Xray detection which has the capability to fully exploit the frequency structure of the ESRF X-ray beam (355 KHz and its harmonics). The availability of new wide band preamplifiers allowed us to extend the working frequency range up to a few MHz. A beam synchronous data processing was implemented in large FPGAs. Performances of the new detection system implemented at the ESRF beamline ID12 are illustrated with detection of the Fe K-edge XMCD spectra in garnets, using 4 bunches operation mode with modulation frequency of 1.4 MHz.

  8. Non-destructive trace element microanalysis of as-received cometary nucleus samples using synchrotron x ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, S.R.

    1989-01-01

    The Synchrotron X ray Fluorescence (SXRF) microprobe at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), Brookhaven National Laboratory, will be an excellent instrument for non-destructive trace element analyses of cometary nucleus samples. Trace element analyses of as-received cometary nucleus material will also be possible with this technique. Bulk analysis of relatively volatile elements will be important in establishing comet formation conditions. However, as demonstrated for meteorites, microanalyses of individual phases in their petrographic context are crucial in defining the histories of particular components in unequilibrated specimens. Perhaps most informative in comparing cometary material with meteorites will be the halogens and trace metals. In-situ, high spatial resolution microanalyses will be essential in establishing host phases for these elements and identifying terrestrial (collection/processing) overprints. The present SXRF microprobe is a simple, yet powerful, instrument in which specimens are excited with filtered, continuum synchrotron radiation from a bending magnet on a 2.5 GeV electron storage ring. A refrigerated cell will be constructed to permit analyses at low temperatures. The cell will consist essentially of an air tight housing with a cold stage. Kapton windows will be used to allow the incident synchrotron beam to enter the cell and fluorescent x rays to exit it. The cell will be either under vacuum or continuous purge by ultrapure helium during analyses. Several other improvements of the NSLS microprobe will be made prior to the cometary nucleus sample return mission that will greatly enhance the sensitivity of the technique

  9. Fabrication of an 8:1 ellipsoidal mirror for a synchrotron x-ray microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, K.W.; Takacs, P.Z.; Hastings, J.B.; Casstevens, J.M.; Pionke, C.D.

    1987-01-01

    The fabrication of an 8:1 demagnifying ellipsoidal mirror to be used for an x-ray microprobe at the National Synchrotron Light Source X-26 beam port is described. The design aim was to produce a mirror that could be used over the photon energy range from about 3 to 17 keV. The 300-mm long mirror was required to operate at a grazing angle of 5 mr. The semimajor axis was 4500 mm and the semiminor axis 14.142 mm. Surface roughness of 1 nm or less and slope errors of 1 arc second parallel to the long axis and 200 arc seconds parallel to the short direction were specified. Production of the first electroless nickel-coated aluminum mirror using a diamond-turning technique has been completed. The mirror meets the 1 arc sec surface figure specification except for areas near the ends of the mirror. The reasons for these deviations arise from subtle details of the diamond-turning process which have not been fully incorporated in to the computer program that controls the diamond-turning machines. Further work in computer correction of repeatable errors of the diamond-turning machine can eliminate the waviness at the ends of the mirror. The diamond-turned mirror surface was not fully polished under this effort and therefore does not meet the roughness specification; however, surface smoothness of a fully polished cylindrical mirror manufactured using the same techniques does not meet the specification. It can be concluded that it is now technically feasible to meet the required specifications for the mirror and that the x-ray microprobe based on its use can be achieved

  10. Measurement of x-ray scattering cross sections of hydrogen and helium with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ice, G.E.

    1977-01-01

    Total x-ray scattering is a two-electron expectation value. The prominence of the electron correlation effect was demonstrated in recent theoretical work. Only one measurement of x-ray scattering from H 2 has been reported heretofore, nearly fifty years ago. New measurements were carried out using the virtually monochromatic, intense flux of synchrotron radiation in the SSRP EXAFS line. The targets, at 1 atm pressure, were UHP He and ultrapure H 2 that had been passed through a hot Pd--Ag alloy diffusion purifier. The scattered-photon spectra were measured with a Xe-filled proportional counter and fast multichannel analyzer. The incident flux was monitored with a parallel-plate ion chamber, calibrated by direct counting of the absorber-attenuated beam. Measurements were performed at 5, 6, and 7 keV photon energy, as a function of scattering angle (60, 90, and 135 deg) and azimuthal angle (i.e., polarization). The relative total differential photon scattering cross sections for H 2 over the range 3.0 less than or equal to x = 4πsin (theta/2)lambda less than or equal to 5.6 A -1 agree to within approx. 1% with the correlated calculations of Bentley and Stewart. The ratios of measured cross sections for H 2 to those for He at x = 3.0 and 5.6 A -1 agree to within 1% with the ratios of the Bentley--Stewart H 2 cross sections to the correlated wave-function calculations of Brown for He

  11. In situ surface/interface x-ray diffractometer for oxide molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. H.; Freeland, J. W.; Hong, Hawoong, E-mail: hhong@aps.anl.gov [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Tung, I. C. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Chang, S.-H.; Bhattacharya, A.; Fong, D. D. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    In situ studies of oxide molecular beam epitaxy by synchrotron x-ray scattering has been made possible by upgrading an existing UHV/molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) six-circle diffractometer system. For oxide MBE growth, pure ozone delivery to the chamber has been made available, and several new deposition sources have been made available on a new 12 in. CF (ConFlat, a registered trademark of Varian, Inc.) flange. X-ray diffraction has been used as a major probe for film growth and structures for the system. In the original design, electron diffraction was intended for the secondary diagnostics available without the necessity of the x-ray and located at separate positions. Deposition of films was made possible at the two diagnostic positions. And, the aiming of the evaporation sources is fixed to the point between two locations. Ozone can be supplied through two separate nozzles for each location. Also two separate thickness monitors are installed. Additional features of the equipment are also presented together with the data taken during typical oxide film growth to illustrate the depth of information available via in situ x-ray techniques.

  12. In situ surface/interface x-ray diffractometer for oxide molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. H.; Freeland, J. W.; Hong, Hawoong; Tung, I. C.; Chang, S.-H.; Bhattacharya, A.; Fong, D. D.

    2016-01-01

    In situ studies of oxide molecular beam epitaxy by synchrotron x-ray scattering has been made possible by upgrading an existing UHV/molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) six-circle diffractometer system. For oxide MBE growth, pure ozone delivery to the chamber has been made available, and several new deposition sources have been made available on a new 12 in. CF (ConFlat, a registered trademark of Varian, Inc.) flange. X-ray diffraction has been used as a major probe for film growth and structures for the system. In the original design, electron diffraction was intended for the secondary diagnostics available without the necessity of the x-ray and located at separate positions. Deposition of films was made possible at the two diagnostic positions. And, the aiming of the evaporation sources is fixed to the point between two locations. Ozone can be supplied through two separate nozzles for each location. Also two separate thickness monitors are installed. Additional features of the equipment are also presented together with the data taken during typical oxide film growth to illustrate the depth of information available via in situ x-ray techniques

  13. X-ray phase contrast imaging: From synchrotrons to conventional sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivo, A.; Castelli, E.

    2014-01-01

    Phase-based approaches can revolutionize X-ray imaging and remove its main limitation: poor image contrast arising from low attenuation differences. They exploit the unit decrement of the real part of the refractive index, typically 1000 times larger than the imaginary part driving attenuation. This increases the contrast of all details, and enables the detection of features classically considered 'X-ray invisible'. Following pioneering experiments dating back to the mid-sixties, X-ray phase contrast imaging 'exploded' in the mid-nineties, when third generation synchrotron sources became more widely available. Applications were proposed in fields as diverse as material science, palaeontology, biology, food science, cultural heritage preservation, and many others. Among these applications, medicine has been constantly considered the most important; among medical applications, mammography is arguably the one that attracted most attention. Applications to mammography were pioneered by the SYRMEP (SYnchrotron Radiation for MEdical Physics) group in Trieste, which was already active in the area through a combination of innovative ways to do imaging at synchrotrons and development of novel X-ray detectors. This pioneering phase led to the only clinical experience of phase contrast mammography on human patients, and spawned a number of ideas as to how these advances could be translated into clinical practice.

  14. Synchrotron x-ray imaging of acoustic cavitation bubbles induced by acoustic excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Sung Yong; Park, Han Wook; Park, Sung Ho; Lee, Sang Joon

    2017-01-01

    The cavitation induced by acoustic excitation has been widely applied in various biomedical applications because cavitation bubbles can enhance the exchanges of mass and energy. In order to minimize the hazardous effects of the induced cavitation, it is essential to understand the spatial distribution of cavitation bubbles. The spatial distribution of cavitation bubbles visualized by the synchrotron x-ray imaging technique is compared to that obtained with a conventional x-ray tube. Cavitation bubbles with high density in the region close to the tip of the probe are visualized using the synchrotron x-ray imaging technique, however, the spatial distribution of cavitation bubbles in the whole ultrasound field is not detected. In this study, the effects of the ultrasound power of acoustic excitation and working medium on the shape and density of the induced cavitation bubbles are examined. As a result, the synchrotron x-ray imaging technique is useful for visualizing spatial distributions of cavitation bubbles, and it could be used for optimizing the operation conditions of acoustic cavitation. (paper)

  15. Antiferroelectric surface layers in a liquid crystal as observed by synchrotron x-ray scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gramsbergen, E. F.; de Jeu, W. H.; Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage

    1986-01-01

    The X-ray reflectivity form the surface of a liquid crystal with terminally polar (cyano substituted) molecules has been studied using a high-resolution triple-axis X-ray spectrometer in combination with a synchrotron source. It is demonstrated that at the surface of the smectic Al phase a few...... antiferroelectric double layers develop that can be distinguished from the bulk single layer structure. A model is developed that separates the electron density in a contribution from the molecular form factor, and from the structure factor of the mono- and the bilayers, respectively. It shows that (i) the first...

  16. The recent development of an X-ray grating interferometer at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Haohua; Kou Bingquan; Xi Yan; Qi Juncheng; Sun Jianqi; Mohr, Juergen; Boerner, Martin; Zhao Jun; Xu, Lisa X.; Xiao Tiqiao; Wang Yujie [Department of Physics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); School of Biomedical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China) and Med-X Research Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200040 (China); Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Microstructure Technology (IMT), Hermannvon-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2012-07-31

    An X-ray grating interferometer has been installed at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF). Three sets of phase gratings were designed to cover the wide X-ray energy range needed for biological and soft material imaging capabilities. The performance of the grating interferometer has been evaluated by a tomography study of a PMMA particle packing and a new born mouse chest. In the mouse chest study, the carotid artery and carotid vein inside the mouse can be identified in situ without contrast agents.

  17. The recent development of an X-ray grating interferometer at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Haohua; Kou Bingquan; Xi Yan; Qi Juncheng; Sun Jianqi; Mohr, Jürgen; Börner, Martin; Zhao Jun; Xu, Lisa X.; Xiao Tiqiao; Wang Yujie

    2012-01-01

    An X-ray grating interferometer has been installed at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF). Three sets of phase gratings were designed to cover the wide X-ray energy range needed for biological and soft material imaging capabilities. The performance of the grating interferometer has been evaluated by a tomography study of a PMMA particle packing and a new born mouse chest. In the mouse chest study, the carotid artery and carotid vein inside the mouse can be identified in situ without contrast agents.

  18. X-ray detectors for diffraction studies and their use with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milch, J.

    1976-02-01

    All techniques for X-ray diffraction studies on biological materials exhibit certain limitations. The characteristics of several X-ray detection systems, namely film, multiwire proportional counter and image intensified TV, are discussed and compared for application to specific biological studies. For the high count-rate situation existing at a synchrotron, it is shown that film is a good choice, but that the image intensified TV exhibits significant advantages. The details of such a system now being used at Princeton with a low intensity source are given and current results presented

  19. Status of the Nanoscopium Scanning Hard X-ray Nanoprobe Beamline of Synchrotron Soleil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, A.; Kewish, C. M.; Ribbens, M.; Moreno, T.; Polack, F.; Baranton, G.; Desjardins, K.; Samama, J. P.

    2013-10-01

    The Nanoscopium 155 m-long scanning hard X-ray nanoprobe beamline of Synchrotron Soleil (St Aubin, France) is dedicated to quantitative multi-modal 2D/3D imaging. The beamline aims to reach down to 30 nm spatial resolution in the 5-20 keV energy range. Two experimental stations working in consecutive operation mode will be dedicated to coherent diffractive imaging and scanning X-ray nanoprobe techniques. The beamline is in the construction phase, the first user experiments are expected in 2014. The main characteristics of the beamline and an overview of its status are given in this paper.

  20. Status of the Nanoscopium Scanning Hard X-ray Nanoprobe Beamline of Synchrotron Soleil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somogyi, A; Kewish, C M; Ribbens, M; Moreno, T; Polack, F; Baranton, G; Desjardins, K; Samama, J P

    2013-01-01

    The Nanoscopium 155 m-long scanning hard X-ray nanoprobe beamline of Synchrotron Soleil (St Aubin, France) is dedicated to quantitative multi-modal 2D/3D imaging. The beamline aims to reach down to 30 nm spatial resolution in the 5–20 keV energy range. Two experimental stations working in consecutive operation mode will be dedicated to coherent diffractive imaging and scanning X-ray nanoprobe techniques. The beamline is in the construction phase, the first user experiments are expected in 2014. The main characteristics of the beamline and an overview of its status are given in this paper

  1. Energy Dependence of Synchrotron X-Ray Rims in Tycho's Supernova Remnant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Aaron; Williams, Brian J.; Petre, Robert; Ressler, Sean M.; Reynolds, Stephen P.

    2015-01-01

    Several young supernova remnants exhibit thin X-ray bright rims of synchrotron radiation at their forward shocks. Thin rims require strong magnetic field amplification beyond simple shock compression if rim widths are only limited by electron energy losses. But, magnetic field damping behind the shock could produce similarly thin rims with less extreme field amplification. Variation of rim width with energy may thus discriminate between competing influences on rim widths. We measured rim widths around Tycho's supernova remnant in 5 energy bands using an archival 750 ks Chandra observation. Rims narrow with increasing energy and are well described by either loss-limited or damped scenarios, so X-ray rim width-energy dependence does not uniquely specify a model. But, radio counterparts to thin rims are not loss-limited and better reflect magnetic field structure. Joint radio and X-ray modeling favors magnetic damping in Tycho's SNR with damping lengths approximately 1-5% of remnant radius and magnetic field strengths approximately 50-400 micron G assuming Bohm diffusion. X-ray rim widths are approximately 1% of remnant radius, somewhat smaller than inferred damping lengths. Electron energy losses are important in all models of X-ray rims, suggesting that the distinction between loss-limited and damped models is blurred in soft X-rays. All loss-limited and damping models require magnetic fields approximately greater than 20 micron G, arming the necessity of magnetic field amplification beyond simple compression.

  2. Synchrotron X-Ray Radiation and Deformation Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fæster Nielsen, Søren

    and diffracted beam. For materials science investigations of local strain and texture properties this leads to very slow data acquisition rates, especially when characterisation is performed on the level of the individual grains. To circumvent this problem a conical slit was manufactured by wire electrodischarge...... be ob-tained regarding the texture and strain properties of the material within this particular gauge volume. The capacity of the conical slit for depth profiling is demonstrated by scanning the gauge volume within the bulk of a polycrystalline copper sample, obtaining a two-dimensional map of the grain...

  3. Photodynamic synchrotron x-ray therapy in Glioma cell using superparamagnetic iron nanoparticle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hong-Tae; Kim, Ki-Hong; Choi, Gi-Hwan; Jheon, Sanghoon; Park, Sung-Hwan; Kim, Bong-Il; Hyodo, Kazuyuki; Ando, Masami; Kim, Jong-Ki

    2009-06-01

    In order to evaluate cytotoxic effects of secondary Auger electron emission(Photon Activation Therapy:PAT) from alginate-coated iron nanoparticles(Alg-SNP), Alg-SNP-uptaken C6 glioma cell lines were irradiated with 6.89/7.2 Kev synchrotron X-ray. 0-125 Gy were irradiated on three experimental groups including No-SNP group incubating without SNP as control group, 6hr-SNP group incubating with SNP for 6hr and ON-SNP group incubating with SNP overnight. Irradiated cells were stained with Acridine Orange(AO) and Edithium Bromide(EB) to count their viability with fluorescent microscopy in comparison with control groups. AO stained in damaged DNA, giving FL color change in X-ray plus SNP group. EB did not or less enter inside the cell nucleus of control group. In contrast, EB entered inside the cell nucleus of Alg-SNP group which means more damage compared with Control groups. The results of MTT assay demonstrated a X-ray dose-dependent reduction generally in cell viability in the experimental groups. 3 or 9 times increase in cell survival loss rate was observed at 6hr-SNP and ON-SNP groups, respectively compared to No-SNP control group in first experiment that was done to test cell survival rate at relatively lower dose, from 0 to 50 Gy. In second experiment X-ray dose was increased to 125 Gy. Survival loss was sharply decreased in a relatively lower dose from 5 to 25 Gy, and then demonstrated an exponentially decreasing behavior with a convergence until 125 Gy for each group. This observation suggests PAT effects on the cell directly by X-ray in the presence of Alg-SNP occurs within lower X-ray dose, and conventional X-ray radiation effect becomes dominant in higher X-ray dose. The cell viability loss of ON-SNP group was three times higher compared with that of 6hr-SNP group. In conclusion, it is possible to design photodynamic X-ray therapy study using a monochromatic x-ray energy and metal nanoparticle as x-ray sensitizer, which may enable new X-ray PDT to

  4. Plastic deformation in Al (Cu) interconnects stressed by electromigration and studied by synchrotron polychromatic X-ray microdiffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Advanced Light Source; UCLA; Chen, Kai; Chen, Kai; Tamura, Nobumichi; Valek, Bryan C.; Tu, King-Ning

    2008-05-14

    We report here an in-depth synchrotron radiation based white beam X-ray microdiffraction study of plasticity in individual grains of an Al (Cu) interconnect during the early stage of electromigration. The study shows a rearrangement of the geometrically necessary dislocations (GND) in bamboo typed grains during that stage. We find that about 90percent of the GNDs are oriented so that their line direction is the closest to the current flow direction. In non-bamboo typed grains, the Laue peak positions shift, indicating that the grains rotate. An analysis in terms of force directions has been carried out and is consistent with observed electromigration induced grain rotation and bending.

  5. Microfocussing of synchrotron X-rays using X-ray refractive lens developed at Indus-2 deep X-ray lithography beamline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhamgaye, V.P.; Tiwari, M.K.; Lodha, G.S.; Sawhney, K.J.S.

    2014-01-01

    X-ray lenses are fabricated in polymethyl methacrylate using deep X-ray lithography beamline of Indus-2. The focussing performance of these lenses is evaluated using Indus-2 and Diamond Light Source Ltd. The process steps for the fabrication of X-ray lenses and microfocussing at 10 keV at moderate and low emittance sources are compared. (author)

  6. A new high-speed X-ray beam chopper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPherson, A.; Wang, J.; Lee, P. L.; Mills, D. M.

    1999-01-01

    A new high-speed x-ray beam chopper using laser scanner technology has been developed and tested on the SRI-CAT sector 1 beamline at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring (1). As illustrated in figure 1, it is compact in size and has two sets of transmission windows: BK-7 glass for visible light transmission and 0.23-mm-thick Be for the transmission of x-rays. The rotor is made of aluminum and has a diameter of 50.8 mm. A 0.5-mm-wide and 2.29-mm-tall slit is cut through the center of the rotor. The circumference of the rotor has a coating of 1-mm-thick Ni, which gives an attenuation of 10 8 at 30 keV. Turning at nearly 80000 RPM, this beam chopper has an opening time window of 2450 ns, corresponding to 67% of the revolution time of the APS storage ring. The primary feature in selecting laser scanner technology to develop into an x-ray beam chopper was the high level of rotational speed control of the rotor that makes up the beam chopper element (2). By using an optical feedback circuit to sample the rotational speed four times each revolution, the jitter in the position of the transmission open time window is only 3 ns at the 3 standard deviation level. The APS storage ring orbital frequency, supplied by the control room, is divided down to provide the appropriate drive frequency for the beam chopper motor controller. By this means, both the storage ring and the beam chopper are operating off the same master clock. After a turn-on time of about 15 to 20 seconds, the rotational precision of the motor results in immediate phase locking to the temporal structure of the APS storage ring. By inserting a Stanford delay generator between the frequency divider and the beam chopper motor controller, the phase between the storage ring temporal structure and the beam chopper rotation can be adjusted to position the transmission time window of the beam chopper on any desired part of the storage ring fill pattern. If an asymmetric fill pattern is used in the APS storage

  7. Workshop on the coupling of synchrotron radiation IR and X-rays with tip based scanning probe microscopies X-TIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comin, F.; Martinez-Criado, G.; Mundboth, K.; Susini, J. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), 38 - Grenoble (France); Purans, J.; Sammelselg, V. [Tartu Univ. (Estonia); Chevrier, J.; Huant, S. [Universite Joseph-Fourier, Grenoble I, LEPES, 38 (France); Hamilton, B. [School of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, Manchester (United Kingdom); Saito, A. [Osaka Univ., RIKEN/SPring8 (Japan); Dhez, O. [OGG, INFM/CNR, 38 - Grenoble (France); Brocklesby, W.S. [Southampton Univ., Optoelectronics Research Centre (United Kingdom); Alvarez-Prado, L.M. [Ovieado, Dept. de Fisica (Spain); Kuzmin, A. [Institute of Solid State Physics - Riga (Latvia); Pailharey, D. [CRMC-N - CNRS, 13 - Marseille (France); Tonneau, D. [CRMCN - Faculte des sciences de Luminy, 13 - Marseille (France); Chretien, P. [Laboratoire de Genie Electrique de Paris, 75 - Paris (France); Cricenti, A. [ISM-CNR, Rome (Italy); DeWilde, Y. [ESPCI, 75 - Paris (France)

    2005-07-01

    The coupling of scanning probe microscopy (SPM) with synchrotron radiation is attracting increasing attention from nano-science community. By combining these 2 tools one can visualize, for example, the sample nano-structure prior to any X-ray characterization. Coupled with focusing devices or independently, SPM can provide spatial resolution below the optical limits. Furthermore, the possibility of employing SPM to manipulate nano-objects under X-ray beams is another exciting perspective. This document gathers the transparencies of 6 of the presentations made at the workshop: 1) the combination of atomic force microscopy and X-ray beam - experimental set-up and objectives; 2) the combination of scanning probe microscope and X-rays for detection of electrons; 3) towards soft X-ray scanning microscopy using tapered capillaries and laser-based high harmonic sources; 4) near-field magneto-optical microscopy; 5) near-field scanning optical microscopy - a brief overview -; and 6) from aperture-less near-field optical microscopy to infra-red near-field night vision. 4 posters entitled: 1) development of laboratory setup for X-ray/AFM experiments, 2) towards X-ray diffraction on single islands, 3) nano-XEOL using near-field detection, and 4) local collection with a STM tip of photoelectrons emitted by a surface irradiated by visible of UV laser beam, are included in the document.

  8. Workshop on the coupling of synchrotron radiation IR and X-rays with tip based scanning probe microscopies X-TIP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comin, F.; Martinez-Criado, G.; Mundboth, K.; Susini, J.; Purans, J.; Sammelselg, V.; Chevrier, J.; Huant, S.; Hamilton, B.; Saito, A.; Dhez, O.; Brocklesby, W.S.; Alvarez-Prado, L.M.; Kuzmin, A.; Pailharey, D.; Tonneau, D.; Chretien, P.; Cricenti, A.; DeWilde, Y.

    2005-01-01

    The coupling of scanning probe microscopy (SPM) with synchrotron radiation is attracting increasing attention from nano-science community. By combining these 2 tools one can visualize, for example, the sample nano-structure prior to any X-ray characterization. Coupled with focusing devices or independently, SPM can provide spatial resolution below the optical limits. Furthermore, the possibility of employing SPM to manipulate nano-objects under X-ray beams is another exciting perspective. This document gathers the transparencies of 6 of the presentations made at the workshop: 1) the combination of atomic force microscopy and X-ray beam - experimental set-up and objectives; 2) the combination of scanning probe microscope and X-rays for detection of electrons; 3) towards soft X-ray scanning microscopy using tapered capillaries and laser-based high harmonic sources; 4) near-field magneto-optical microscopy; 5) near-field scanning optical microscopy - a brief overview -; and 6) from aperture-less near-field optical microscopy to infra-red near-field night vision. 4 posters entitled: 1) development of laboratory setup for X-ray/AFM experiments, 2) towards X-ray diffraction on single islands, 3) nano-XEOL using near-field detection, and 4) local collection with a STM tip of photoelectrons emitted by a surface irradiated by visible of UV laser beam, are included in the document

  9. National Synchrotron Light Source user's manual: Guide to the VUV and x-ray beamlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gmuer, N.F.

    1993-04-01

    The success of the National Synchrotron Light Source is based, in large part, on the size of the user community and the diversity of the scientific and technical disciplines represented by these users. As evidence of this success, the VUV Ring has just celebrated its 10th anniversary and the X-ray Ring will do the same in 1995. In order to enhance this success, the NSLS User's Manual: Guide to the VUV and X-Ray Beamlines - Fifth Edition, is being published. This Manual presents to the scientific community-at-large the current and projected architecture, capabilities and research programs of the various VUV and X-ray beamlines. Also detailed is the research and computer equipment a General User can expect to find and use at each beamline when working at the NSLS. The Manual is updated periodically in order to keep pace with the constant changes on these beamlines

  10. Synchrotron-Radiation X-Ray Investigation of Li+/Na+ Intercalation into Prussian Blue Analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Moritomo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Prussian blue analogies (PBAs are promising cathode materials for lithium ion (LIB and sodium ion (SIB secondary batteries, reflecting their covalent and nanoporous host structure. With use of synchrotron-radiation (SR X-ray source, we investigated the structural and electronic responses of the host framework of PBAs against Li+ and Na+ intercalation by means of the X-ray powder diffraction (XRD and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS. The structural investigation reveals a robust nature of the host framework against Li+ and Na+ intercalation, which is advantageous for the stability and lifetime of the batteries. The spectroscopic investigation identifies the redox processes in respective plateaus in the discharge curves. We further compare these characteristics with those of the conventional cathode materials, such as, LiCoO2, LiFePO4, and LiMn2O4.

  11. Control of synchrotron x-ray diffraction by means of standing acoustic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolotoyabko, E.; Quintana, J.P.

    2004-01-01

    Synchrotron x-ray diffraction measurements in quartz crystals of different thickness excited by standing acoustic waves were carried out at the Advanced Photon Source of Argonne National Laboratory. We demonstrated the ability to significantly modify the quartz rocking curves for 20-25 keV x rays by changing the shear wave parameters in the frequency range between 15 and 105 MHz. Dynamic deformation introduced into the crystal lattice by acoustic waves resulted in a remarkable broadening of the rocking curves. The broadening effect strongly depends on the strength of the ultrasound, which can be easily regulated by changing the acoustic amplitude or frequency near the resonance. The maximum rocking curve broadening reached 17 times, which corresponds to the wavelength band, Δλ/λ=4x10 -3 , when used as a monochromator or analyzer for 20-25 keV x rays. The initial rocking curve shape is restored by sweeping the acoustic frequency within a 50-100 kHz range near the resonance. The tunable broadening effect allows effective manipulation of x-ray intensities in time domain. Time-resolved x-ray diffraction measurements under a 19.6 MHz acoustic wave excitation were performed by synchronizing the acoustic wave and x-ray burst periodicity. We used the fact that twice per period the standing wave produces a zero net deformation across the crystal thickness. By introducing an oscillating delay to the acoustic excitation, we were able to effectively change the phase of the acoustic wave relative to the x-ray burst periodicity. The x-ray diffraction intensity was strongly affected by tuning the timing of the x-ray arrivals to the minimum or maximum acoustic deformation. A deep modulation of x rays was observed in a wide frequency range between 0.1 Hz and 1 MHz, which certifies that acoustically excited quartz crystals can potentially be used as slow and fast x-ray modulators with high duty cycle

  12. X-ray micro-beam characterization of a small pixel spectroscopic CdTe detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, M. C.; Bell, S. J.; Seller, P.; Wilson, M. D.; Kachkanov, V.

    2012-07-01

    A small pixel, spectroscopic, CdTe detector has been developed at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) for X-ray imaging applications. The detector consists of 80 × 80 pixels on a 250 μm pitch with 50 μm inter-pixel spacing. Measurements with an 241Am γ-source demonstrated that 96% of all pixels have a FWHM of better than 1 keV while the majority of the remaining pixels have FWHM of less than 4 keV. Using the Diamond Light Source synchrotron, a 10 μm collimated beam of monochromatic 20 keV X-rays has been used to map the spatial variation in the detector response and the effects of charge sharing corrections on detector efficiency and resolution. The mapping measurements revealed the presence of inclusions in the detector and quantified their effect on the spectroscopic resolution of pixels.

  13. Reduction of variable-truncation artifacts from beam occlusion during in situ x-ray tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Leise; Jørgensen, Jakob Sauer; Frikel, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    Many in situ x-ray tomography studies require experimental rigs which may partially occlude the beam and cause parts of the projection data to be missing. In a study of fluid flow in porous chalk using a percolation cell with four metal bars drastic streak artifacts arise in the filtered...... and artifact-reduction methods are designed in context of FBP reconstruction motivated by computational efficiency practical for large, real synchrotron data. While a specific variable-truncation case is considered, the proposed methods can be applied to general data cut-offs arising in different in situ x-ray...... backprojection (FBP) reconstruction at certain orientations. Projections with non-trivial variable truncation caused by the metal bars are the source of these variable-truncation artifacts. To understand the artifacts a mathematical model of variable-truncation data as a function of metal bar radius and distance...

  14. Nondestructive analysis of silver in gold foil using synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasamatsu, Masaaki; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Suzuki, Shinichi; Nakanishi, Toshio; Shimoda, Osamu; Nishiwaki, Yoshinori; Miyamoto, Naoki

    2005-01-01

    Small particles of gold foil detached from an indoor decoration might be important evidence to associate a suspect with a crime scene. We have investigated the application of elemental analysis using synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence spectrometry to discriminate small particles of gold foil. Eight kinds of gold foil samples collected in Japan were used in the experiments. As a result of synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, only two elements, gold and silver, were detected from all gold foil samples. The intensity ratios of AgK α /AuL α showed good correlation with the content ratios of Ag/Au. The variation of intensity ratio within a same sample was sufficiently small compared with those of different samples. Therefore the comparison of this intensity ratio can be an effective method to discriminate small particles originating from different types of gold foil. (author)

  15. High resolution hard x-ray microscope on a second generation synchrotron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Yangchao; Li Wenjie; Chen Jie; Liu Longhua; Liu Gang; Tian Jinping; Xiong Ying; Tkachuk, Andrei; Gelb, Jeff; Hsu, George; Yun Wenbing

    2008-01-01

    A full-field, transmission x-ray microscope (TXM) operating in the energy range of 7-11 keV has been installed at the U7A beamline at the National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, a second generation synchrotron source operating at 0.8 GeV. Although the photon flux at sample position in the operating energy range is significantly low due to its relatively large emittance, the TXM can get high quality x-ray images with a spatial resolution down to 50 nm with acceptable exposure time. This TXM operates in either absorption or Zernike phase contrast mode with similar resolution. This TXM is a powerful analytical tool for a wide range of scientific areas, especially studies on nanoscale phenomena and structural imaging in biology, materials science, and environmental science. We present here the property of the x-ray source, beamline design, and the operation and key optical components of the x-ray TXM. Plans to improve the throughput of the TXM will be discussed.

  16. Image alignment for tomography reconstruction from synchrotron X-ray microscopic images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Chieh Cheng

    Full Text Available A synchrotron X-ray microscope is a powerful imaging apparatus for taking high-resolution and high-contrast X-ray images of nanoscale objects. A sufficient number of X-ray projection images from different angles is required for constructing 3D volume images of an object. Because a synchrotron light source is immobile, a rotational object holder is required for tomography. At a resolution of 10 nm per pixel, the vibration of the holder caused by rotating the object cannot be disregarded if tomographic images are to be reconstructed accurately. This paper presents a computer method to compensate for the vibration of the rotational holder by aligning neighboring X-ray images. This alignment process involves two steps. The first step is to match the "projected feature points" in the sequence of images. The matched projected feature points in the x-θ plane should form a set of sine-shaped loci. The second step is to fit the loci to a set of sine waves to compute the parameters required for alignment. The experimental results show that the proposed method outperforms two previously proposed methods, Xradia and SPIDER. The developed software system can be downloaded from the URL, http://www.cs.nctu.edu.tw/~chengchc/SCTA or http://goo.gl/s4AMx.

  17. Progress in Cell Marking for Synchrotron X-ray Computed Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Christopher; Sturm, Erica; Schultke, Elisabeth; Arfelli, Fulvia; Menk, Ralf-Hendrik; Astolfo, Alberto; Juurlink, Bernhard H. J.

    2010-07-01

    Recently there has been an increase in research activity into finding ways of marking cells in live animals for pre-clinical trials. Development of certain drugs and other therapies crucially depend on tracking particular cells or cell types in living systems. Therefore cell marking techniques are required which will enable longitudinal studies, where individuals can be examined several times over the course of a therapy or study. The benefits of being able to study both disease and therapy progression in individuals, rather than cohorts are clear. The need for high contrast 3-D imaging, without harming or altering the biological system requires a non-invasive yet penetrating imaging technique. The technique will also have to provide an appropriate spatial and contrast resolution. X-ray computed tomography offers rapid acquisition of 3-D images and is set to become one of the principal imaging techniques in this area. Work by our group over the last few years has shown that marking cells with gold nano-particles (GNP) is an effective means of visualising marked cells in-vivo using x-ray CT. Here we report the latest results from these studies. Synchrotron X-ray CT images of brain lesions in rats taken using the SYRMEP facility at the Elettra synchrotron in 2009 have been compared with histological examination of the tissues. Some deductions are drawn about the visibility of the gold loaded cells in both light microscopy and x-ray imaging.

  18. Image alignment for tomography reconstruction from synchrotron X-ray microscopic images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chang-Chieh; Chien, Chia-Chi; Chen, Hsiang-Hsin; Hwu, Yeukuang; Ching, Yu-Tai

    2014-01-01

    A synchrotron X-ray microscope is a powerful imaging apparatus for taking high-resolution and high-contrast X-ray images of nanoscale objects. A sufficient number of X-ray projection images from different angles is required for constructing 3D volume images of an object. Because a synchrotron light source is immobile, a rotational object holder is required for tomography. At a resolution of 10 nm per pixel, the vibration of the holder caused by rotating the object cannot be disregarded if tomographic images are to be reconstructed accurately. This paper presents a computer method to compensate for the vibration of the rotational holder by aligning neighboring X-ray images. This alignment process involves two steps. The first step is to match the "projected feature points" in the sequence of images. The matched projected feature points in the x-θ plane should form a set of sine-shaped loci. The second step is to fit the loci to a set of sine waves to compute the parameters required for alignment. The experimental results show that the proposed method outperforms two previously proposed methods, Xradia and SPIDER. The developed software system can be downloaded from the URL, http://www.cs.nctu.edu.tw/~chengchc/SCTA or http://goo.gl/s4AMx.

  19. Fast photoconductor CdTe detectors for synchrotron x-ray studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Sung Shik; Faurie, J.P.; Huang Qiang; Rodricks, B.

    1993-09-01

    The Advanced Photon Source will be that brightest source of synchrotron x-rays when it becomes operational in 1996. During normal operation, the ring will be filled with 20 bunches of positrons with an interbunch spacing of 177 ns and a bunch width of 119 ps. To perform experiments with x-rays generated by positrons on these time scales one needs extremely high speed detectors. To achieve the necessary high speed, we are developing MBE-grown CdTe-base photoconductive position sensitive array detectors. The arrays fabricated have 64 pixels with a gap of 100 μm between pixels. The high speed response of the devices was tested using a short pulse laser. X-ray static measurements were performed using an x-ray tube and synchrotron radiation to study the device's response to flux and wavelength changes. This paper presents the response of the devices to some of these tests and discusses different physics aspects to be considered when designing high speed detectors

  20. Advances in indirect detector systems for ultra high-speed hard X-ray imaging with synchrotron light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olbinado, M. P.; Grenzer, J.; Pradel, P.; De Resseguier, T.; Vagovic, P.; Zdora, M.-C.; Guzenko, V. A.; David, C.; Rack, A.

    2018-04-01

    We report on indirect X-ray detector systems for various full-field, ultra high-speed X-ray imaging methodologies, such as X-ray phase-contrast radiography, diffraction topography, grating interferometry and speckle-based imaging performed at the hard X-ray imaging beamline ID19 of the European Synchrotron—ESRF. Our work highlights the versatility of indirect X-ray detectors to multiple goals such as single synchrotron pulse isolation, multiple-frame recording up to millions frames per second, high efficiency, and high spatial resolution. Besides the technical advancements, potential applications are briefly introduced and discussed.

  1. Synchrotron radiation phase-contrast X-ray CT imaging of acupuncture points

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Dongming; Yan, Xiaohui; Zhang, Xinyi [Fudan University, Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics and Department of Physics, Shanghai (China); Liu, Chenglin [Physics Department of Yancheng Teachers' College, Yancheng (China); Dang, Ruishan [The Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Xiao, Tiqiao [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Shanghai (China); Zhu, Peiping [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China)

    2011-08-15

    Three-dimensional (3D) topographic structures of acupuncture points were investigated by using synchrotron radiation in-line X-ray phase contrast computerized tomography. Two acupuncture points, named Zhongji (RN3) and Zusanli (ST36), were studied. We found an accumulation of microvessels at each acupuncture point region. Images of the tissues surrounding the acupuncture points do not show such kinds of structure. This is the first time that 3D images have revealed the specific structures of acupuncture points. (orig.)

  2. Synchrotron radiation phase-contrast X-ray CT imaging of acupuncture points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Dongming; Yan, Xiaohui; Zhang, Xinyi; Liu, Chenglin; Dang, Ruishan; Xiao, Tiqiao; Zhu, Peiping

    2011-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) topographic structures of acupuncture points were investigated by using synchrotron radiation in-line X-ray phase contrast computerized tomography. Two acupuncture points, named Zhongji (RN3) and Zusanli (ST36), were studied. We found an accumulation of microvessels at each acupuncture point region. Images of the tissues surrounding the acupuncture points do not show such kinds of structure. This is the first time that 3D images have revealed the specific structures of acupuncture points. (orig.)

  3. Synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence (SR-TXRF) for evaluation of food contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vives, A.E.S.; Brienza, S.M.B.; Moreira, S.; Zucchi, O.L.A.; Nascimento Filho, V.F.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to use synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis (SR-TXRF) for the determination of metals and other elements in food available to the population in commercial establishments, in order to evaluate the risks of contamination by these products. The analyzed species were vegetables, leafy vegetables, fruits, cereal and grain. The results indicated that some species were contaminated by Cr, Cu, Zn and Pb with concentrations much higher than the reference values. (author)

  4. Hard synchrotron radiation scattering from a nonideal surface grating from multilayer X-ray mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punegov, V.I.; Nesterets, Ya.I.; Mytnichenko, S.V.; Kovalenko, N.V.; Chernov, V.A.

    2003-01-01

    The hard synchrotron radiation scattering from a multilayer surface grating is theoretically and experimentally investigated. The numerical calculations of angular distribution of scattering intensity from X-ray mirror Ni/C are executed with use of recurrence formulae and statistical dynamical theory of diffraction. It is shown, that the essential role in formation of a diffraction pattern plays a diffuse scattering caused by structure imperfection of a multilayer grating [ru

  5. Synchrotron X-ray Investigations of Mineral-Microbe-Metal Interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemner, Kenneth M.; O'Loughlin, Edward J.; Kelly, Shelly D.; Boyanov, Maxim I.

    2005-01-01

    Interactions between microbes and minerals can play an important role in metal transformations (i.e. changes to an element's valence state, coordination chemistry, or both), which can ultimately affect that element's mobility. Mineralogy affects microbial metabolism and ecology in a system; microbes, in turn, can affect the system's mineralogy. Increasingly, synchrotron-based X-ray experiments are in routine use for determining an element's valence state and coordination chemistry, as well as for examining the role of microbes in metal transformations.

  6. Time-resolved measurements of supersonic fuel sprays using synchrotron x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, C.F.; Yue, Y.; Poola, R.; Wang, J.

    2000-11-01

    A time-resolved radiographic technique has been developed for probing the fuel distribution close to the nozzle of a high-pressure single-hole diesel injector. The measurement was made using X-ray absorption of monochromatic synchrotron-generated radiation, allowing quantitative determination of the fuel distribution in this optically impenetrable region with a time resolution of better than 1 μs. These quantitative measurements constitute the most detailed near-nozzle study of a fuel spray to date

  7. Time-resolved measurements of supersonic fuel sprays using synchrotron X-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, C F; Yue, Y; Poola, R; Wang, J

    2000-11-01

    A time-resolved radiographic technique has been developed for probing the fuel distribution close to the nozzle of a high-pressure single-hole diesel injector. The measurement was made using X-ray absorption of monochromatic synchrotron-generated radiation, allowing quantitative determination of the fuel distribution in this optically impenetrable region with a time resolution of better than 1 micros. These quantitative measurements constitute the most detailed near-nozzle study of a fuel spray to date.

  8. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis with synchrotron radiation monochromatized by multilayer structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieder, R.; Wobrauschek, P.; Ladisich, W.; Streli, C.; Aiginger, H.; Garbe, S.; Gaul, G.; Knoechel, A.; Lechtenberg, F.

    1995-01-01

    To achieve lowest detection limits in total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis (TXRF) synchrotron radiation has been monochromatized by a multilayer structure to obtain a relative broad energy band compared to Bragg single crystals for an efficient excitation. The energy has been set to 14 keV, 17.5 keV, 31 keV and about 55 keV. Detection limits of 20 fg and 150 fg have been achieved for Sr and Cd, respectively. ((orig.))

  9. Mapping of trace elements with photon microprobes: x-ray fluorescence with focussed synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, A.L.; Jones, K.W.; Gordon, B.M.; Pounds, J.G.; Rivers, M.L.; Schidlovsky, G.

    1985-04-01

    High energy electron synchrotron storage rings provide copious quantities of polarized photons that make possible the mapping of many trace elements with sensitivities at the parts per billion (ppB) level with spatial resolutions in the micrometer range. The brightness of the x-ray ring of the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), presently being commissioned, will be five orders of magnitude larger than that of the bremsstrahlung spectrum of state-of-the-art rotating anode tubes. We will discuss mapping trace elements with a photon microprobe presently being constructed for use at the NSLS. This microprobe will have micrometer spatial resolution

  10. Examination for optimization of synchrotron radiation spectrum for the x ray depth lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dany, Raimund

    1992-06-01

    The effect of reducing the vertical distribution of synchrotron radiation on its spectral distribution is examined through resin irradiation. The resulting filter effect is compared to that of absorption filters. Transmission coefficients of titanium, gold, and polyamide were calculated from linear absorption coefficients with the Beer law. The use of a diaphragm in X-ray depth lithography, which is the first step of the LIGA (Lithography Galvanoforming Molding) process, is discussed. A calorimetric device for determining the synchrotron radiation power and distribution was developed and tested. Measurements at the ELSA storage ring show a strong dependence of the vertical emittance on the electron current.

  11. High-energy synchrotron radiation x-ray microscopy: Present status and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, K.W.; Gordon, B.M.; Spanne, P.; Rivers, M.L.; Sutton, S.R.

    1991-01-01

    High-energy radiation synchrotron x-ray microscopy is used to characterize materials of importance to the chemical and materials sciences and chemical engineering. The x-ray microscope (XRM) forms images of elemental distributions fluorescent x rays or images of mass distributions by measurement of the linear attenuation coefficient of the material. Distributions of sections through materials are obtained non-destructively using the technique of computed microtomography. The energy range of the x rays used for the XRM ranges from a few keV at the minimum value to more than 100 keV, which is sufficient to excite the K-edge of all naturally occurring elements. The work in progress at the Brookhaven NSLS X26 and X17 XRM is described in order to show the current status of the XRM. While there are many possible approaches to the XRM instrumentation, this instrument gives state-of-the-art performance in most respects and serves as a reasonable example of the present status of the instrumentation in terms of the spatial resolution and minimum detection limits obtainable. The examples of applications cited give an idea of the types of research fields that are currently under investigation. They can be used to illustrate how the field of x-ray microscopy will benefit from the use of bending magnets and insertion devices at the Advanced Photon Source. 8 refs., 5 figs

  12. High-energy synchrotron radiation x-ray microscopy: Present status and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, K.W.; Gordon, B.M.; Spanne, P.; Rivers, M.L.; Sutton, S.R.

    1991-01-01

    High-energy radiation synchrotron x-ray microscopy is used to characterize materials of importance to the chemical and materials sciences and chemical engineering. The x-ray microscope (XRM) forms images of elemental distributions fluorescent x rays or images of mass distributions by measurement of the linear attenuation coefficient of the material. Distributions of sections through materials are obtained non-destructively using the technique of computed microtomography (CMT). The energy range of the x rays used for the XRM ranges from a few keV at the minimum value to more than 100 keV, which is sufficient to excite the K-edge of all naturally occurring elements. The work in progress at the Brookhaven NSLS X26 and X17 XRM is described in order to show the current status of the XRM. While there are many possible approaches to the XRM instrumentation, this instrument gives state-of-the-art performance in most respects and serves as a reasonable example of the present status of the instrumentation in terms of the spatial resolution and minimum detection limits (MDLs) obtainable. The examples of applications cited give an idea of the types of research fields that are currently under investigation. They can be used to illustrate how the field of x-ray microscopy will benefit from the use of bending magnets and insertion devices at the Advanced Photon Source (APS)

  13. Versatile, reprogrammable area pixel array detector for time-resolved synchrotron x-ray applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruner, Sol [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2010-05-01

    The final technical report for DOE grant DE-SC0004079 is presented. The goal of the grant was to perform research, development and application of novel imaging x-ray detectors so as to effectively utilize the high intensity and brightness of the national synchrotron radiation facilities to enable previously unfeasible time-resolved x-ray research. The report summarizes the development of the resultant imaging x-ray detectors. Two types of detector platforms were developed: The first is a detector platform (called a Mixed-Mode Pixel Array Detector, or MM-PAD) that can image continuously at over a thousand images per second while maintaining high efficiency for wide dynamic range signals ranging from 1 to hundreds of millions of x-rays per pixel per image. Research on an even higher dynamic range variant is also described. The second detector platform (called the Keck Pixel Array Detector) is capable of acquiring a burst of x-ray images at a rate of millions of images per second.

  14. Visualizing and measuring flow in shale matrix using in situ synchrotron X-ray microtomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohli, A. H.; Kiss, A. M.; Kovscek, A. R.; Bargar, J.

    2017-12-01

    Natural gas production via hydraulic fracturing of shale has proliferated on a global scale, yet recovery factors remain low because production strategies are not based on the physics of flow in shale reservoirs. In particular, the physical mechanisms and time scales of depletion from the matrix into the simulated fracture network are not well understood, limiting the potential to optimize operations and reduce environmental impacts. Studying matrix flow is challenging because shale is heterogeneous and has porosity from the μm- to nm-scale. Characterizing nm-scale flow paths requires electron microscopy but the limited field of view does not capture the connectivity and heterogeneity observed at the mm-scale. Therefore, pore-scale models must link to larger volumes to simulate flow on the reservoir-scale. Upscaled models must honor the physics of flow, but at present there is a gap between cm-scale experiments and μm-scale simulations based on ex situ image data. To address this gap, we developed a synchrotron X-ray microscope with an in situ cell to simultaneously visualize and measure flow. We perform coupled flow and microtomography experiments on mm-scale samples from the Barnett, Eagle Ford and Marcellus reservoirs. We measure permeability at various pressures via the pulse-decay method to quantify effective stress dependence and the relative contributions of advective and diffusive mechanisms. Images at each pressure step document how microfractures, interparticle pores, and organic matter change with effective stress. Linking changes in the pore network to flow measurements motivates a physical model for depletion. To directly visualize flow, we measure imbibition rates using inert, high atomic number gases and image periodically with monochromatic beam. By imaging above/below X-ray adsorption edges, we magnify the signal of gas saturation in μm-scale porosity and nm-scale, sub-voxel features. Comparing vacuumed and saturated states yields image

  15. Apparatus development for high-pressure X-ray diffraction using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, L.G.; Orlando, M.T.D.; Rossi, J.L.; Passamai Junior, J.L.; Melo, F.C.L.; Ferreira, F.F.

    2006-01-01

    Some phenomena in the field of condensed matter physics can be studied when the matter is submitted to extreme conditions of pressure, magnetic fields or temperatures. Once submitted to these conditions it is generally necessary to measure the properties of the matter in situ. The existence of a synchrotron light laboratory in Brazil opens up the chance of studying materials in extreme conditions by techniques like X-ray diffraction and absorption. However, when compared to high-energy synchrotrons accelerators, the Brazilian source offers a narrower energy range and lower flux. These facts impose limitation to perform diffraction experiments by energy dispersion and, consequently, the use of pressure cells with denser anvils like diamond. However, for a lower-pressure range, preliminary studies showed the viability of measurements in an angular dispersion configuration. This allows the use of silicon carbide anvils B 4C . In this work it is described the development of a hydrostatic pressure cell suitable for X-rays diffraction measurements in the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory using materials and technologies developed by the institutions and researchers involved in this project (IPEN, UFES, CTA and LNLS). This development can provide the scientific community with the possibility of performing X-ray diffraction measurements under hydrostatic pressure, initially up to 2 GPa, with possibilities of increasing the maximum pressure to higher values, with or without application of magnetic fields and high or low temperatures. (author)

  16. Research at big facilities on actinides: How neutrons and synchrotron x-rays can help our understanding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lander, G.H.

    2014-01-01

    Neutron scattering was a by-product of the Manhattan Project, as it started by using neutron beams emerging from the reactors produced by that project. Seventy years later, neutron scattering is a tool used by many scientists, across many different disciplines, to try to understand the microscopic properties of materials. It can also give unique answers to problems involving actinides. ; X-rays, of course, date even further back, but it was not until the 1970s that synchrotron radiation was widely available. Now synchrotron radiation is a tool widely used in the study of actinides across a variety of different fields. ; The basic properties of these two probes will be presented and contrasted. Some of the ways these techniques have helped us understand the actinides will be presented

  17. Conventional and Synchrotron X-Ray Topography of Defects in the Core Region of SrLaGaO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinowska, A.; Lefeld-Sosnowska, M.; Wieteska, K.; Wierzchowski, W.; Pajaczkowska, A.; Graeff, W.

    2008-01-01

    SrLaGaO 4 single crystals are perspective substrate materials for high temperature superconductors thin films, elements of thermal radiation receivers and other electronic devices. The defect structure of the Czochralski grown SrLaGaO 4 crystal was investigated by means of X-ray topography exploring both conventional and synchrotron sources. The crystal lattice defects in the core region of the crystal were investigated. The regular network of defects arranged in rows only in direction was observed. Owing to high resolution of synchrotron radiation white beam back reflection topographs one can distinguish individual spots forming the lines of the rows. It can be supposed that these elongated rod-like volume defects are located in f100g lattice planes forming a kind of walls. They are built approximately of the same phase as crystal but crystallize at a different moment than a rest of the crystal due to the constitutional supercooling. (authors)

  18. Individual particle analysis of coarse air suspended particulate material by synchrotron radiation X-ray micro fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Silvana; Melo Junior, Ariston; Vives, Ana Elisa S. de; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio F.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this work is evaluate the size of individual particles present in the air suspended particulate material collected in Campinas, Sao Paulo State, and analyze quantitatively the particles using the synchrotron radiation X-ray micro fluorescence (μ-SRXRF) associated with the fundamental parameter method to correct attenuation/absorption effects by the matrix. The particles analyzed have size between 50-10 μm and to perform the spatial distribution a white beam of synchrotron radiation condensed by a conical capillary (13 μm diameter) was used. For the quantitative analysis punctual measures in thin films standards in Mylar subtract were performed. The elements detected were Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ba and Pb. (author)

  19. Individual particle analysis of coarse air suspended particulate material by synchrotron radiation X-ray micro fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Silvana; Melo Junior, Ariston [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo. Dept. de Recursos Hidricos]. E-mail: silvana@fec.unicamp.br; Perez, Carlos Alberto [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (LNLS), Campinas, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: perez@lnls.br; Vives, Ana Elisa S. de [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: aesvives@unimep.br; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio F. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear]. E-mail: virgilio@cena.usp.br

    2005-07-01

    The purpose of this work is evaluate the size of individual particles present in the air suspended particulate material collected in Campinas, Sao Paulo State, and analyze quantitatively the particles using the synchrotron radiation X-ray micro fluorescence ({mu}-SRXRF) associated with the fundamental parameter method to correct attenuation/absorption effects by the matrix. The particles analyzed have size between 50-10 {mu}m and to perform the spatial distribution a white beam of synchrotron radiation condensed by a conical capillary (13 {mu}m diameter) was used. For the quantitative analysis punctual measures in thin films standards in Mylar subtract were performed. The elements detected were Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ba and Pb. (author)

  20. X-ray emission as a diagnostic from pseudospark-sourced electron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowes, D., E-mail: david.bowes@strath.ac.uk [Department of Physics, SUPA, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Yin, H.; He, W.; Zhang, L.; Cross, A.W.; Ronald, K.; Phelps, A.D.R. [Department of Physics, SUPA, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Chen, D.; Zhang, P. [Computed Tomography Lab, School of Mathematical Sciences, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048 (China); Chen, X.; Li, D. [Department of Electronic Engineering, Queen Mary University of London, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-15

    X-ray emission has been achieved using an electron beam generated by a pseudospark low-pressure discharge and utilised as a diagnostic for beam detection. A 300 A, 34 kV PS-sourced electron beam pulse of 3 mm diameter impacting on a 0.1 mm-thick molybdenum target generated X-rays which were detected via the use of a small, portable X-ray detector. Clear X-ray images of a micro-sized object were captured using an X-ray photodetector. This demonstrates the inducement of proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) not only as an indicator of beam presence but also as a future X-ray source for small-spot X-ray imaging of materials.

  1. Measurement of X-ray beam emittance using crystal optics at an X-ray undulator beamline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohmura, Yoshiki; Suzuki, Yoshio; Awaji, Mitsuhiro; Tanaka, Takashi; Hara, Toru; Goto, Shunji; Ishikawa, Tetsuya

    2000-01-01

    We present a method of using crystal optics to measure the emittance of the X-ray source. Two perfect crystals set in (++) configuration work as a high-resolution collimator. The phase-space diagram (i.e. beam cross-section and angular distribution) could be determined without any assumptions on the light source. When the measurement is done at short wavelength radiation from undulator, the electron beam emittance is larger than the diffraction limit of the X-rays. Therefore, the electron beam emittance could be estimated. The measurement was done with the hard X-rays of 18.5 and 55 keV from an undulator beamline, BL 47XU, of SPring-8. The horizontal emittance of the X-ray beam was estimated to be about 7.6 nmrad, close to the designed electron beam emittance of the storage ring (7 nmrad). Some portions of the instrumental functions, such as the scattering by filters and windows along the beamline and the slight bent of the crystal planes of the monochromator, could not be precisely evaluated, but an upper limit for the vertical emittance of the electron beam could be obtained as 0.14 nmrad

  2. Evaluating scintillator performance in time-resolved hard X-ray studies at synchrotron light sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Michael E; Chapman, David J; White, Thomas G; Drakopoulos, Michael; Rack, Alexander; Eakins, Daniel E

    2016-05-01

    The short pulse duration, small effective source size and high flux of synchrotron radiation is ideally suited for probing a wide range of transient deformation processes in materials under extreme conditions. In this paper, the challenges of high-resolution time-resolved indirect X-ray detection are reviewed in the context of dynamic synchrotron experiments. In particular, the discussion is targeted at two-dimensional integrating detector methods, such as those focused on dynamic radiography and diffraction experiments. The response of a scintillator to periodic synchrotron X-ray excitation is modelled and validated against experimental data collected at the Diamond Light Source (DLS) and European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). An upper bound on the dynamic range accessible in a time-resolved experiment for a given bunch separation is calculated for a range of scintillators. New bunch structures are suggested for DLS and ESRF using the highest-performing commercially available crystal LYSO:Ce, allowing time-resolved experiments with an interframe time of 189 ns and a maximum dynamic range of 98 (6.6 bits).

  3. Study Of Soot Growth And Nucleation By A Time-Resolved Synchrotron Radiation Based X-Ray Absorption Method

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mitchell, Judith I

    2001-01-01

    This report results from a contract tasking University of Rennes I as follows: The contractor will perform a study of soot growth and nucleation by a time-resolved synchrotron radiation based x-ray absorption method...

  4. Errors in dual x-ray beam differential absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolin, F.; Preuss, L.; Gilbert, K.; Bugenis, C.

    1977-01-01

    Errors pertinent to the dual beam absorptiometry system have been studied and five areas are given in detail: (1) scattering, in which a computer analysis of multiple scattering shows little error due to this effect; (2) geometrical configuration effects, in which the slope of the sample is shown to influence the accuracy of the measurement; (3) Poisson variations, wherein it is shown that a simultaneous reduction can be obtained in both dosage and statistical error; (4) absorption coefficients, in which the effect of variation in absorption coefficient compilations is shown to have a critical effect on the interpretations of experimental data; and (5) filtering, wherein is shown the need for filters on dual beam systems using a characteristic x-ray output. A zero filter system is outlined

  5. Measurement of X-ray beam emittance using crystal optics at an X-ray undulator beamline

    CERN Document Server

    Kohmura, Y; Awaji, M; Tanaka, T; Hara, T; Goto, S; Ishikawa, T

    2000-01-01

    We present a method of using crystal optics to measure the emittance of the X-ray source. Two perfect crystals set in (++) configuration work as a high-resolution collimator. The phase-space diagram (i.e. beam cross-section and angular distribution) could be determined without any assumptions on the light source. When the measurement is done at short wavelength radiation from undulator, the electron beam emittance is larger than the diffraction limit of the X-rays. Therefore, the electron beam emittance could be estimated. The measurement was done with the hard X-rays of 18.5 and 55 keV from an undulator beamline, BL 47XU, of SPring-8. The horizontal emittance of the X-ray beam was estimated to be about 7.6 nmrad, close to the designed electron beam emittance of the storage ring (7 nmrad). Some portions of the instrumental functions, such as the scattering by filters and windows along the beamline and the slight bent of the crystal planes of the monochromator, could not be precisely evaluated, but an upper li...

  6. Diagnostic tools used in the calibration and verification of protein crystallography synchrotron beam lines and apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotella, F.J.; Alkire, R.W.; Duke, N.E.C.; Molitsky, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Diagnostic tools have been developed for use at the Structural Biology Center beam lines at the Advanced Photon Source. These tools are used in the calibration and operating verification of these synchrotron X-ray beam lines and constituent equipment.

  7. The nature of ancient Egyptian copper-containing carbon inks is revealed by synchrotron radiation based X-ray microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Christiansen , Thomas; Cotte , Marine; Loredo-Portales , René; Lindelof , Poul ,; Mortensen , Kell; Ryholt , Kim; Larsen , Sine

    2017-01-01

    International audience; For the first time it is shown that carbon black inks on ancient Egyptian papyri from different time periods and geographical regions contain copper. The inks have been investigated using synchrotron-based micro X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and micro X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy (XANES) at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). The composition of the copper-containing carbon inks showed no significant differences that could be related to t...

  8. X-ray beam transfer between hollow fibers for long-distance transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Yoshihito; Matsushita, Ryuki; Shiraishi, Ryutaro; Hasegawa, Takayuki; Ishikawa, Kiyoshi; Sawada, Kei; Kohmura, Yoshiki; Takahashi, Isao

    2016-01-01

    Fiber optics for controlling the x-ray beam trajectory has been examined at the synchrotron facility of SPring-8. Up to now, we have achieved beam deflection by several tens of milli-radian and axis shift of around 75 mm with a 1.5 m-long flexible hollow glass capillary. The achievable beam deflecting angle, axis shift, and timing delay are, in principle, proportional to the length, the square of length and the cube of length, respectively. Thus, for further applications, requiring larger beam shift and pulse delay, longer fibers are indispensable. In order to achieve long-distance transport using the fiber, we thus examined the connection transferring x-rays between fibers in an experimental hutch. The acceptance angle at the input end and the throughput efficiency of the second fiber is consistent with the consideration of the output beam divergence of the first fiber. The enhancement of the transfer efficiency is also discussed for the cases of a closer joint and the use of a refractive lens as a coupler.

  9. X-ray beam transfer between hollow fibers for long-distance transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Yoshihito, E-mail: tanaka@sci.u-hyogo.ac.jp; Matsushita, Ryuki; Shiraishi, Ryutaro; Hasegawa, Takayuki; Ishikawa, Kiyoshi [Graduate School of Material Science, University of Hyogo, 3-2-1 Kouto, Kamigori-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 678-1297 (Japan); Sawada, Kei; Kohmura, Yoshiki [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Takahashi, Isao [Department of Physics, School of Science and Technology, Kwansei Gakuin University, 2-1 Gakuen, Sanda, Hyogo 669-1337 Japan (Japan)

    2016-07-27

    Fiber optics for controlling the x-ray beam trajectory has been examined at the synchrotron facility of SPring-8. Up to now, we have achieved beam deflection by several tens of milli-radian and axis shift of around 75 mm with a 1.5 m-long flexible hollow glass capillary. The achievable beam deflecting angle, axis shift, and timing delay are, in principle, proportional to the length, the square of length and the cube of length, respectively. Thus, for further applications, requiring larger beam shift and pulse delay, longer fibers are indispensable. In order to achieve long-distance transport using the fiber, we thus examined the connection transferring x-rays between fibers in an experimental hutch. The acceptance angle at the input end and the throughput efficiency of the second fiber is consistent with the consideration of the output beam divergence of the first fiber. The enhancement of the transfer efficiency is also discussed for the cases of a closer joint and the use of a refractive lens as a coupler.

  10. Conical geometry for sagittal focusing as applied to X rays from synchrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ice, G.E.; Sparks, C.J.

    1993-06-01

    The authors describe a method for simultaneously focusing and monochromatization of X rays from a fan of radiation having up to 15 mrad divergence in one dimension. This geometry is well suited to synchrotron radiation sources at magnifications of one-fifth to two and is efficient for X-ray energies between 3 and 40 keV (0.48 and 6.4 fJ). The method uses crystals bent to part of a cone for sagittal focusing and allows for the collection of a larger divergence with less mixing of the horizontal into the vertical divergence than is possible with X-ray mirrors. They describe the geometry required to achieve the highest efficiency when a conical crystal follows a flat crystal in a nondispersive two-crystal monochromator. At a magnification of one-third, the geometry is identical to a cylindrical focusing design described previously. A simple theoretical calculation is shown to agree well with ray-tracing results. Minimum aberrations are observed at magnifications near one. Applications of the conical focusing geometry to existing and future synchrotron radiation facilities are discussed

  11. Improving packaged food quality and safety. Part 1: synchrotron X-ray analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Rubio, A; Hernandez-Muñoz, P; Catala, R; Gavara, R; Lagarón, J M

    2005-10-01

    The objective was to demonstrate, as an example of an application, the potential of synchrotron X-ray analysis to detect morphological alterations that can occur in barrier packaging materials and structures. These changes can affect the packaging barrier characteristics when conventional food preservation treatments are applied to packaged food. The paper presents the results of a number of experiments where time-resolved combined wide-angle X-ray scattering and small-angle X-ray scattering analysis as a function of temperature and humidity were applied to ethylene-vinyl alcohol co-polymers (EVOH), polypropylene (PP)/EVOH/PP structures, aliphatic polyketone terpolymer (PK) and amorphous polyamide (aPA) materials. A comparison between conventional retorting and high-pressure processing treatments in terms of morphologic alterations are also presented for EVOH. The impact of retorting on the EVOH structure contrasts with the good behaviour of the PK during this treatment and with that of aPA. However, no significant structural changes were observed by wide-angle X-ray scattering in the EVOH structures after high-pressure processing treatment. These structural observations have also been correlated with oxygen permeability measurements that are of importance when guaranteeing the intended levels of safety and quality of packaged food.

  12. NSLS [National Synchrotron Light Source] X-19A beamline performance for x-ray absorption measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C.Y.; Penner-Hahn, J.E.; Stefan, P.M.

    1989-01-01

    Characterization of the X-19A beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) is described. The beamline is designed for high resolution x-ray absorption spectroscopy over a wide energy range. All of the beamline optical components are compatible with ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) operation. This permits measurements to be made in a window-less mode, thereby facilitating lower energy (<4 KeV) studies. To upgrade the beamline performance, several possible improvements in instrumentation and practice are discussed to increase photon statistics with an optimum energy resolution, while decreasing the harmonic contamination and noise level. A special effort has been made to improve the stability and UHV compatibility of the monochromator system. Initial x-ray absorption results demonstrate the capabilities of this beamline for x-ray absorption studies of low Z elements (e.g. S) in highly dilute systems. The future use of this beamline for carrying out various x-ray absorption experiments is presented. 10 refs., 4 figs

  13. Capillary based Li-air batteries for in situ synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Mie Møller; Johnsen, Rune E.; Younesi, Reza

    2015-01-01

    For Li-air batteries to reach their full potential as energy storage system, a complete understanding of the conditions and reactions in the battery during operation is needed. To follow the reactions in situ a capillary-based Li-O2 battery has been developed for synchrotron-based in situ X......-ray powder diffraction (XRPD). In this article, we present the results for the analysis of 1st and 2nd deep discharge and charge for a cathode being cycled between 2 and 4.6 V. The crystalline precipitation of Li2O2 only is observed in the capillary battery. However, there are indications of side reactions...... of constant exposure of X-ray radiation to the electrolyte and cathode during charge of the battery was also investigated. X-ray exposure during charge leads to changes in the development of the intensity and the FWHM of the Li2O2 diffraction peaks. The X-ray diffraction results are supported by ex situ X...

  14. Synthesis of nanoparticles through x-ray radiolysis using synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, A.; Okada, I.; Fukuoka, T.; Ishihara, M.; Sakurai, I.; Utsumi, Y.

    2016-09-01

    The synthesis and deposition of nanoparticles consisting of Cu and Au in a CuSO4 solution with some kinds of alcohol and electroplating solution containing gold (I) trisodium disulphite under synchrotron X-ray radiation was investigated. The functional group of alcohol plays an important in nucleation, growth and aggregation process of copper and cupric oxide particles. We found that the laboratory X-ray source also enables us to synthesize the NPs from the metallic solution. As increasing X-ray exposure time, the full length at half width of particle size distribution is broader and higher-order nanostructure containing NPs clusters is formed. The surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) of 4, 4'-bipyridine (4bpy) in aqueous solution was measured using higher-order nanostructure immobilized on silicon substrates under systematically-varied X-ray exposure. This demonstration provide a clue to develop a three-dimensional printing and sensor for environmental analyses and molecular detection through simple SERS measurements.

  15. Taking snapshots of photoexcited molecules in disordered media using pulsed synchrotron x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, L.X.

    2004-01-01

    Photoexcited molecules are quintessential reactants in photochemistry. Structures of these photoexcited molecules in disordered media in which a majority of photochemical reactions take place remained elusive for decades owing to a lack of suitable X-ray sources, despite their importance in understanding fundamental aspects in photochemistry. As new pulsed X-ray sources become available, short-lived excited-state molecular structures in disordered media can now be captured by using laser-pulse pump, X-ray pulse-probe techniques of third-generation synchrotron sources with time resolutions of 30-100 ps, as demonstrated by examples in this review. These studies provide unprecedented information on structural origins of molecular properties in the excited states. By using other ultrafast X-ray facilities that will be completed in the near future, time-resolution for the excited-state structure measurements should reach the femtosecond timescales, which will make 'molecular movies' of bond breaking or formation, and vibrational relaxation, a reality.

  16. Reflectometer end station for synchrotron calibrations of Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility flight optics and for spectrometric research applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graessle, D.E.; Fitch, J.J.; Ingram, R.; Zhang Juda, J.; Blake, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    Preparations have been underway to construct and test a facility for grazing incidence reflectance calibrations of flat mirrors at the National Synchrotron Light Source. The purpose is to conduct calibrations on witness flats to the coating process of the flight mirrors for NASA's Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF). The x-ray energy range required is 50 eV--12 keV. Three monochromatic beamlines (X8C, X8A, U3A) will provide energy tunability over this entire range. The goal is to calibrate the AXAF flight mirrors with uncertainties approaching 1%. A portable end station with a precision-positioning reflectometer has been developed for this work. We have resolved the vacuum cleanliness requirements to preserve the coating integrity of the flats with the strict grazing-angle certainty requirements placed on the rotational control system of the reflectometer. A precision positioning table permits alignment of the system to the synchrotron beam to within 10 arcsec; the reflectometer's rotational control system can then produce grazing angle accuracy to within less than 2 arcsec, provided that the electron orbit is stable. At 10--12 keV, this degree of angular accuracy is necessary to achieve the calibration accuracy required for AXAF. However the most important energy regions for the synchrotron calibration are in the 2000--3200 eV range, where the M-edge absorption features of the coating element, iridium, appear, and the 300--700 eV range of the Ir N edges. The detail versus energy exhibited in these features cannot be traced adequately without a tunable energy source, which necessitates a synchrotron for this work. We present the mechanical designs, motion control systems, detection and measurement capabilities, and selected procedures for our measurements, as well as reflectance data

  17. Microbeam X-ray fluorescence mapping of Cu and Fe in human prostatic carcinoma cell lines using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, K.M.J.; Leitao, R.G.; Oliveira-Barros, E.G.; Oliveira, M.A.; Canellas, C.G.L.; Anjos, M.J.; Nasciutti, L.E.; Lopes, R.T., E-mail: kjose@nuclear.ufrj.br, E-mail: marcelin@lin.ufrj.br, E-mail: ricardo@lin.ufrj.br, E-mail: roberta@lin.ufrj.br, E-mail: eligouveab@gmail.com, E-mail: maria_aparecida_ufrj@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: luiz.nasciutti@histo.ufrj.br, E-mail: roberta.leitao@uerj.br, E-mail: marcelin@uerj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Laboratorio de Instrumentacao Nuclear; Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas; Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica

    2017-11-01

    Cancer is a worldwide public health problem and prostate cancer continues to be one of the most common fatal cancers in men. Copper plays an important role in the aetiology and growth of tumours however, whether intratumoral copper is actually elevated in prostate cancer patients has not been established. Iron, an important trace element, plays a vital function in oxygen metabolism, oxygen uptake, and electron transport in mitochondria, energy metabolism, muscle function, and hematopoiesis. The X-ray microfluorescence technique (μXRF) is a rapid and non-destructive method of elemental analysis that provides useful elemental information about samples without causing damage or requiring extra sample preparations. This study investigated the behavior of cells in spheroids of human prostate cells, tumour cell line (DU145) and normal cell line (RWPE-1), after supplementation with zinc chloride by 24 hours using synchrotron X-ray microfluorescence (μSRXRF). The measurements were performed with a standard geometry of 45 deg of incidence, excited by a white beam using a pixel of 25 μm and a time of 300 ms/pixel at the XRF beamline at the Synchrotron Light National Laboratory (Campinas, Brazil). The results by SRμXRF showed non-uniform Cu and Fe distributions in all the spheroids analyzed. (author)

  18. Microbeam X-ray fluorescence mapping of Cu and Fe in human prostatic carcinoma cell lines using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, K.M.J.; Leitao, R.G.; Oliveira-Barros, E.G.; Oliveira, M.A.; Canellas, C.G.L.; Anjos, M.J.; Nasciutti, L.E.; Lopes, R.T.; Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro; Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro

    2017-01-01

    Cancer is a worldwide public health problem and prostate cancer continues to be one of the most common fatal cancers in men. Copper plays an important role in the aetiology and growth of tumours however, whether intratumoral copper is actually elevated in prostate cancer patients has not been established. Iron, an important trace element, plays a vital function in oxygen metabolism, oxygen uptake, and electron transport in mitochondria, energy metabolism, muscle function, and hematopoiesis. The X-ray microfluorescence technique (μXRF) is a rapid and non-destructive method of elemental analysis that provides useful elemental information about samples without causing damage or requiring extra sample preparations. This study investigated the behavior of cells in spheroids of human prostate cells, tumour cell line (DU145) and normal cell line (RWPE-1), after supplementation with zinc chloride by 24 hours using synchrotron X-ray microfluorescence (μSRXRF). The measurements were performed with a standard geometry of 45 deg of incidence, excited by a white beam using a pixel of 25 μm and a time of 300 ms/pixel at the XRF beamline at the Synchrotron Light National Laboratory (Campinas, Brazil). The results by SRμXRF showed non-uniform Cu and Fe distributions in all the spheroids analyzed. (author)

  19. In situ synchrotron x-ray characterization of microstructure formation in solidification processing of Al-based metallic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billia, Bernard; Nguyen-Thi, Henri; Mangelinck-Noel, Nathalie

    2010-01-01

    The microstructure formed during the solidification step has a major influence on the properties of materials processed by major techniques (casting, welding ...). In situ and real-time characterization by synchrotron X-ray imaging is the method of choice to unveil the dynamical formation of the solidification microstructure in metallic alloys, and thus provide precise data for the critical validation of the theoretical predictions that is needed for sound advancement of modeling and numerical simulation. After a description of the experimental procedure used at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), dynamical phenomena in the formation of the grain structure and dendritic or equiaxed solidification microstructure in Al-based alloys are presented. Beyond fluid flow interaction, earth gravity induces stresses, deformation and fragmentation in the dendritic mush. Settling of dendrite arms and equiaxed grains thus occurs, in particular in the columnar to equiaxed transition. Other types of stresses and strains are caused by the mere formation of the solidification microstructure itself. In white-beam X-ray topography, stresses and strains are manifested by specific contrasts and breaking of the Laue images into several pieces. Finally, quantitative analysis of the grey level in radiographs enables the analysis of solute segregation, which noticeably results in solutal poisoning of growth when equiaxed grains are interacting. (author)

  20. X-ray metrology of an array of active edge pixel sensors for use at synchrotron light sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plackett, R.; Arndt, K.; Bortoletto, D.; Horswell, I.; Lockwood, G.; Shipsey, I.; Tartoni, N.; Williams, S.

    2018-01-01

    We report on the production and testing of an array of active edge silicon sensors as a prototype of a large array. Four Medipix3RX.1 chips were bump bonded to four single chip sized Advacam active edge n-on-n sensors. These detectors were then mounted into a 2 by 2 array and tested on B16 at Diamond Light Source with an x-ray beam spot of 2um. The results from these tests, compared with optical metrology demonstrate that this type of sensor is sensitive to the physical edge of the silicon, with only a modest loss of efficiency in the final two rows of pixels. We present the efficiency maps recorded with the microfocus beam and a sample powder diffraction measurement. These results give confidence that this sensor technology can be used effectively in larger arrays of detectors at synchrotron light sources.

  1. In situ laser heating and radial synchrotron X-ray diffraction ina diamond anvil cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunz, Martin; Caldwell, Wendel A.; Miyagi, Lowell; Wenk,Hans-Rudolf

    2007-06-29

    We report a first combination of diamond anvil cell radialx-ray diffraction with in situ laser heating. The laser-heating setup ofALS beamline 12.2.2 was modified to allow one-sided heating of a samplein a diamond anvil cell with an 80 W yttrium lithium fluoride laser whileprobing the sample with radial x-ray diffraction. The diamond anvil cellis placed with its compressional axis vertical, and perpendicular to thebeam. The laser beam is focused onto the sample from the top while thesample is probed with hard x-rays through an x-ray transparentboron-epoxy gasket. The temperature response of preferred orientation of(Fe,Mg)O is probed as a test experiment. Recrystallization was observedabove 1500 K, accompanied by a decrease in stress.

  2. Synchrotron hard X-ray imaging of shock-compressed metal powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Michael E.; Chapman, David J.; Collinson, Mark A.; Jones, David R.; Music, Jasmina; Stafford, Samuel J. P.; Tear, Gareth R.; White, Thomas G.; Winters, John B. R.; Drakopoulos, Michael; Eakins, Daniel E.

    2015-06-01

    This poster will present the application of a new, high-energy (50 to 250 keV) synchrotron X-ray radiography technique to the study of shock-compressed granular materials. Following plate-impact loading, transmission radiography was used to quantitatively observe the compaction and release processes in a range of high-Z metal powders (e.g. Fe, Ni, Cu). By comparing the predictions of 3D numerical models initialized from X-ray tomograms-captured prior to loading-with experimental results, this research represents a new approach to refining mesoscopic compaction models. The authors gratefully acknowledge the ongoing support of Imperial College London, EPSRC, STFC and the Diamond Light Source, and AWE Plc.

  3. Elucidating oxygen electrocatalysis with synchrotron X-rays: PEM fuel cells and electrolyzers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Filsøe

    In this thesis electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) have been investigated using synchrotron based X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy methods. The catalysts are based on Pt alloys and RuO2 for ORR and OER, respectively...... stability measurements showed that the in-plane compression relaxes during the first 2000-3000 cycles, explaining the loss of activity primarily in this range of cycling. For OER mass-selected nanoparticles of metallic Ru and thermally oxidized RuO2 were fabricated. Both materials are highly active for OER......, although the metallic Ru nanoparticles exceptionally so. However this comes as a trade-off in stability, as the metallic particles dissolves rapidly at OER conditions. In an in-situ XAS experiment the oxidation state of the nanoparticles were tracked as a function of potential. It was found...

  4. Nanostructure of protective rust layer on weathering steel examined using synchrotron radiation x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Masato; Uchida, Hitoshi; Konishi, Hiroyuki; Mizuki, Jun'ichiro

    2004-01-01

    The X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectrum of pure goethite around the Fe K absorption edge and that of the protective rust layer formed on weathering steel exposed for 17 years in an atmospheric environment around the Cr K edge, have been examined using synchrotron radiation X-rays. It was found that the rust layer on the weathering steel mainly consisted of Cr-goethite. By examining the fine structure at the Cr K edge and the Fe K edge, we concluded that Cr 3+ in the rust layer is coordinated with O 2- and is positioned in the double chains of vacant sites in the network of FeO 3 (OH) 3 octahedra in the goethite crystal. This Cr 3+ site indicates that the protective effect of the rust layer is due to the dense aggregation of fine crystals of Cr-goethite with cation selectivity. (author)

  5. Simultaneous, single-pulse, synchrotron x-ray imaging and diffraction under gas gun loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, D.; Luo, S. N., E-mail: sluo@pims.ac.cn [The Peac Institute of Multiscale Sciences, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies of Materials, Ministry of Education, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Huang, J. W.; Zeng, X. L.; Li, Y.; E, J. C.; Huang, J. Y. [The Peac Institute of Multiscale Sciences, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Sun, T.; Fezzaa, K. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Wang, Z. [Physics Division P-25, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    We develop a mini gas gun system for simultaneous, single-pulse, x-ray diffraction and imaging under high strain-rate loading at the beamline 32-ID of the Advanced Photon Source. In order to increase the reciprocal space covered by a small-area detector, a conventional target chamber is split into two chambers: a narrowed measurement chamber and a relief chamber. The gas gun impact is synchronized with synchrotron x-ray pulses and high-speed cameras. Depending on a camera’s capability, multiframe imaging and diffraction can be achieved. The proof-of-principle experiments are performed on single-crystal sapphire. The diffraction spots and images during impact are analyzed to quantify lattice deformation and fracture; fracture is dominated by splitting cracks followed by wing cracks, and diffraction peaks are broadened likely due to mosaic spread. Our results demonstrate the potential of such multiscale measurements for studying high strain-rate phenomena at dynamic extremes.

  6. Synchrotron x-ray methods in studies of thin organic film structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentle, I.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In recent years, the study of the structures of organic films as thin as a single monolayer has been revolutionized by methods that take advantage of the characteristics of synchrotron radiation. In particular, the methods of grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD) and X-ray reflectivity have led to a number of valuable insights into structural aspects of thin films at molecular resolution. Our group has been studying films formed at the air/water interface as insoluble monolayers and subsequently transferred to solid substrates using either the vertical (Langmuir-Blodgett) or horizontal (Langmuir-Schaeffer) methods. The main aim of these experiments is to exert control over film structure in the direction parallel to the substrate surface. This is highly desirable in order to design devices that exploit the optical and electrooptical properties of functional materials, but is difficult to do. By varying the chemical structure of the film materials and controlling deposition conditions a degree of control is possible, but only using synchrotron methods can it be easily verified. We have also developed a novel method of rapidly collecting data from GIXD measurements by the application of area detection (imaging plates), which has made possible measurements of dynamic processes such as in-situ annealing. Such measurements are not possible using traditional scanning methods. One area of current interest is films composed of porphyrins as functional materials, either alone or as mixed films with fatty acids. We have been investigating ways of assembling porphyrins in such a way as to overcome the tendency to aggregate, and to produce patterning and ordered structures in the plane of the interface. Examples will be given of how film composition and deposition method affects the final structure, and of how X-ray methods can be used to elucidate both the structures and the mechanisms. Copyright (2002) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

  7. Smart x-ray beam position monitor system for the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, D.; Kuzay, T.

    1996-01-01

    In third-generation synchrotron radiation sources, such as the Advanced Photon Source (APS), the sensitivity and reliability requirements for the x-ray beam position monitors (XBPMs) are much higher than for earlier systems. Noise and contamination signals caused by radiation emitted from the bending magnet become a major problem. The regular XBPM calibration process can only provide signal correction for one set of conditions for the insertion devices (ID). During normal operation, parameters affecting the ID-emitted beam, such as the gap of the ID magnets and the beam current, are the variables. A new smart x-ray beam position monitor system (SBPM) has been conceived and designed for the APS. It has a built in self-learning structure with EEPROM memory that is large enough to open-quote open-quote remember close-quote close-quote a complete set of calibration data covering all the possible operating conditions. During the self-learning mode, the monitor system initializes a series of automatic scan motions with information for different ID setups and records them into the database array. During normal operation, the SBPM corrects the normalized output according to the ID setup information and the calibration database. So that, with this novel system, the SBPM is always calibrating itself with the changing ID set up conditions. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  8. A new fixed-target approach for serial crystallography at synchrotron light sources and X-ray free electron lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roedig, Philip

    2017-07-15

    In the framework of this thesis, a new method for high-speed fixed-target serial crystallography experiments and its applicability to biomacromolecular crystallography at both synchrotron light sources and X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) is presented. The method is based on a sample holder, which can carry up to 20,000 microcrystals and which is made of single-crystalline silicon. Using synchrotron radiation, the structure of Operophtera brumata cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus type 18 polyhedrin, lysozyme and cubic insulin was determined by collecting X-ray diffraction data from multiple microcrystals. Data collection was shown to be possible at both cryogenic and ambient conditions. For room-temperature measurements, both global and specific indications of radiation damage were investigated and characterized. Due to the sieve-like structure of the chip, the microcrystals tend to arrange themselves according to the micropore pattern, which allows for efficient sampling of the sample material. In combination with a high-speed scanning stage, the sample holder was furthermore shown to be highly suitable for serial femtosecond crystallography experiments. By fast raster scanning of the chip through the pulsed X-ray beam of an XFEL, structure determination of a virus, using the example of bovine enterovirus type 2, has been demonstrated at an XFEL for the first time. Hit rates of up to 100% were obtained by the presented method, which refers to a reduction in sample consumption by at least three orders of magnitude with respect to common liquid-jet injection methods used for sample delivery. In this way, the typical time needed for data collection in serial femtosecond crystallography is significantly decreased. The presented technique for sample loading of the chip is easy to learn and results in efficient removal of the surrounding mother liquor, thereby reducing the generated background signal. Since the chip is made of single-crystalline silicon, in principle no

  9. Estimation of soft X-ray and EUV transition radiation power emitted from the MIRRORCLE-type tabletop synchrotron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyosugi, N; Yamada, H; Minkov, D; Morita, M; Yamaguchi, T; Imai, S

    2007-03-01

    The tabletop synchrotron light sources MIRRORCLE-6X and MIRRORCLE-20SX, operating at electron energies E(el) = 6 MeV and E(el) = 20 MeV, respectively, can emit powerful transition radiation (TR) in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and the soft X-ray regions. To clarify the applicability of these soft X-ray and EUV sources, the total TR power has been determined. A TR experiment was performed using a 385 nm-thick Al foil target in MIRRORCLE-6X. The angular distribution of the emitted power was measured using a detector assembly based on an NE102 scintillator, an optical bundle and a photomultiplier. The maximal measured total TR power for MIRRORCLE-6X is P(max) approximately equal 2.95 mW at full power operation. Introduction of an analytical expression for the lifetime of the electron beam allows calculation of the emitted TR power by a tabletop synchrotron light source. Using the above measurement result, and the theoretically determined ratio between the TR power for MIRRORCLE-6X and MIRRORCLE-20SX, the total TR power for MIRRORCLE-20SX can be obtained. The one-foil TR target thickness is optimized for the 20 MeV electron energy. P(max) approximately equal 810 mW for MIRRORCLE-20SX is obtained with a single foil of 240 nm-thick Be target. The emitted bremsstrahlung is negligible with respect to the emitted TR for optimized TR targets. From a theoretically known TR spectrum it is concluded that MIRRORCLE-20SX can emit 150 mW of photons with E > 500 eV, which makes it applicable as a source for performing X-ray lithography. The average wavelength, \\overline\\lambda = 13.6 nm, of the TR emission of MIRRORCLE-20SX, with a 200 nm Al target, could provide of the order of 1 W EUV.

  10. A new fixed-target approach for serial crystallography at synchrotron light sources and X-ray free electron lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roedig, Philip

    2017-07-01

    In the framework of this thesis, a new method for high-speed fixed-target serial crystallography experiments and its applicability to biomacromolecular crystallography at both synchrotron light sources and X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) is presented. The method is based on a sample holder, which can carry up to 20,000 microcrystals and which is made of single-crystalline silicon. Using synchrotron radiation, the structure of Operophtera brumata cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus type 18 polyhedrin, lysozyme and cubic insulin was determined by collecting X-ray diffraction data from multiple microcrystals. Data collection was shown to be possible at both cryogenic and ambient conditions. For room-temperature measurements, both global and specific indications of radiation damage were investigated and characterized. Due to the sieve-like structure of the chip, the microcrystals tend to arrange themselves according to the micropore pattern, which allows for efficient sampling of the sample material. In combination with a high-speed scanning stage, the sample holder was furthermore shown to be highly suitable for serial femtosecond crystallography experiments. By fast raster scanning of the chip through the pulsed X-ray beam of an XFEL, structure determination of a virus, using the example of bovine enterovirus type 2, has been demonstrated at an XFEL for the first time. Hit rates of up to 100% were obtained by the presented method, which refers to a reduction in sample consumption by at least three orders of magnitude with respect to common liquid-jet injection methods used for sample delivery. In this way, the typical time needed for data collection in serial femtosecond crystallography is significantly decreased. The presented technique for sample loading of the chip is easy to learn and results in efficient removal of the surrounding mother liquor, thereby reducing the generated background signal. Since the chip is made of single-crystalline silicon, in principle no

  11. L X-ray intensity ratio measurements using selective L sub-shell photo-ionisation on synchrotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Himani; Tiwari, M. K.; Mittal, Raj

    2017-10-01

    Lα/Lℓ, Lβ /Lℓ and Lγ/Lℓ intensity ratios have been measured for elements in the range 66≤Z≤83 at tuned photon energies on synchrotron beam line-16 at Indus-2, India. For each element, three incident energies Ei were E3; EL3 EL1 where ELi are Li absorption edge energies of the element. Emitted L X-ray spectrum of an element constitutes a number of X-ray lines generally grouped into four main groups due to limited resolution of available detectors as Lℓ(L3-M1), Lα(L3-M4,5), Lβ(L1-M2,3,4,5,N4; L2-M3,4; L3-N1,4,5,O1,4,5) and Lγ(L2-N1,4,O1,4; L1-N2,3,5,O3,2). Lα and Lℓ both comprise only the lines feeding L3 level and Lβ group comprises X-ray lines feeding all the three sub-shells where as Lγ involves contribution from L1 and L2 feedings. Only E3 excitation gives the ratios free from intra sub-shell Coster-Kronig (CK) transitions while excitations E2 and E1 give CK affected Lβ/Lℓ and Lγ/Lℓ X-ray intensity ratios and Lα/Lℓ still remains free from CKs. The pattern of intensity ratios at three excitation energies of elements was well interpreted in terms of on/off of CK transitions (Bambynek et al., 1972; Campbell, 2003) and outer shell electron filling configuration (Scofield, 1973).

  12. Fluorescence imaging of reactive oxygen species by confocal laser scanning microscopy for track analysis of synchrotron X-ray photoelectric nanoradiator dose: X-ray pump-optical probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jae Kun; Han, Sung Mi; Kim, Jong Ki

    2016-09-01

    Bursts of emissions of low-energy electrons, including interatomic Coulomb decay electrons and Auger electrons (0-1000 eV), as well as X-ray fluorescence produced by irradiation of large-Z element nanoparticles by either X-ray photons or high-energy ion beams, is referred to as the nanoradiator effect. In therapeutic applications, this effect can damage pathological tissues that selectively take up the nanoparticles. Herein, a new nanoradiator dosimetry method is presented that uses probes for reactive oxygen species (ROS) incorporated into three-dimensional gels, on which macrophages containing iron oxide nanoparticles (IONs) are attached. This method, together with site-specific irradiation of the intracellular nanoparticles from a microbeam of polychromatic synchrotron X-rays (5-14 keV), measures the range and distribution of OH radicals produced by X-ray emission or superoxide anions ({\\rm{O}}_2^-) produced by low-energy electrons. The measurements are based on confocal laser scanning of the fluorescence of the hydroxyl radical probe 2-[6-(4'-amino)phenoxy-3H-xanthen-3-on-9-yl] benzoic acid (APF) or the superoxide probe hydroethidine-dihydroethidium (DHE) that was oxidized by each ROS, enabling tracking of the radiation dose emitted by the nanoradiator. In the range 70 µm below the irradiated cell, ^\\bullet{\\rm{OH}} radicals derived mostly from either incident X-ray or X-ray fluorescence of ION nanoradiators are distributed along the line of depth direction in ROS gel. In contrast, {\\rm{O}}_2^- derived from secondary electron or low-energy electron emission by ION nanoradiators are scattered over the ROS gel. ROS fluorescence due to the ION nanoradiators was observed continuously to a depth of 1.5 mm for both oxidized APF and oxidized DHE with relatively large intensity compared with the fluorescence caused by the ROS produced solely by incident primary X-rays, which was limited to a depth of 600 µm, suggesting dose enhancement as well as more

  13. Constancy check of beam quality in conventional diagnostic X-ray equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Alessandro M.; Badin, Romulo S.; Leite, Marina S.; Caldas, Linda V.E.

    2008-01-01

    A tandem ionization chamber was developed for quality control programs of X-ray equipment used in conventional radiography and mammography. A methodology for the use of the tandem chamber in the constancy check of diagnostic X-ray beam qualities was established. The application at a medical X-ray imaging facility of this established methodology is presented. The use of the tandem chamber in the constancy check of diagnostic X-ray beam qualities is a useful method to control the performance of the X-ray equipment

  14. Effect of epoxy impregnation on strain distribution of materials in Bi2223 superconducting coils by using synchrotron X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Xinzhe, E-mail: xinzhe.jin@riken.jp [Center for Life Science Technologies, RIKEN, Yokohama-shi, Kanagawa 230-0045 (Japan); Osamura, Kozo [Research Institute for Applied Sciences, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8202 (Japan); Machiya, Shutaro [Daido University, Minami-ku, Nagoya 457-8530 (Japan); Kajiwara, Kentaro [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Shobu, Takahisa [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Maeda, Hideaki [Center for Life Science Technologies, RIKEN, Yokohama-shi, Kanagawa 230-0045 (Japan)

    2015-11-25

    Synchrotron X-rays have been used to observe strain distributions in composite materials such as superconducting wires with a thickness of less than about 2 mm. In applications that employ wound coils of superconducting wire, it is necessary to understand the strain distribution within the coiled wire. Superconducting wires such as Bi2223 and REBCO wires approximately 4–5 mm wide are commercially available. Coiled wires of this width are too thick to easily measure using conventional X-ray techniques, especially the inner strain, because the penetration depth tends to be around 2 mm. Therefore, the beam penetration must be improved, and it is known that the penetration depth of an X-ray beam depends upon the beam energy, beam intensity, measurement material, and measurement method. In this study, we used a white X-ray diffractometer at SPring-8 to develop a method of observing the strain distribution in Bi2223 superconducting coils winded by a 4.5 mm wide Bi2223 wire. We successfully observed a clear (400) peak of the Bi2223 phase by an appropriate measurement condition, and then observed the strains of each material in the Bi2223 coils with and without epoxy impregnation. This is the first time that we have obtained the strain of a Bi2223 phase in coiled wire using synchrotron X-ray diffraction. Further synchrotron-based study of superconducting coils will be useful in the development of advanced high-field magnets. The appropriate measurement method and the obtained measurement results are presented in this paper. - Highlights: • We successfully obtained clear peaks of Bi2223 phase in 4.5 mm thick coils. • The strain behaviors of materials in the coil correspond to a three turn cycle model. • A uniform strain distribution of the Bi2223 phase was obtained by epoxy impregnation.

  15. Raphide crystal structure in agave tequilana determined by x-ray originating from synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadokoro, Makoto; Ozawa, Yoshiki; Mitsumi, Minoru; Toriumi, Kohshiro; Ogura, Tetsuya

    2005-01-01

    The first single crystal structure of small natural raphides in an agave plant is completely determined using an intense X-ray originating from a synchrotron radiation. The SEM image shows that the tip of the crystal is approximately hundreds of nanometer in width sharply grow to stick to the tissue of herbivorous vermin. Furthermore, the crystal develops cracks that propagate at an inclination of approximately 45deg towards the direction of crystal growth such that the crystal easily splits into small pieces in the tissue. (author)

  16. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of synchrotron radiation irradiation of a polytetrafluoroethylene surface

    CERN Document Server

    Haruyama, Y; Matsui, S; Ideta, T; Ishigaki, H

    2003-01-01

    The effect of synchrotron radiation (SR) irradiation of a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) surface was investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). After the SR irradiation, the relative intensity of the F ls peak to the C ls peak decreased markedly. The chemical composition ratio to the F atoms to C atoms was estimated to be 0.29. From the curve fitting analysis of C ls and F ls XPS spectra, the chemical components and their intensity ratio were determined. The reason for the chemical composition change by the SR irradiation was discussed. (author)

  17. Synchrotron total reflection X-ray fluorescence at BL-16 microfocus beamline of Indus-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, M. K., E-mail: mktiwari@rrcat.gov.in; Singh, A. K., E-mail: mktiwari@rrcat.gov.in; Das, Gangadhar, E-mail: mktiwari@rrcat.gov.in; Chowdhury, Anupam, E-mail: mktiwari@rrcat.gov.in; Lodha, G. S., E-mail: mktiwari@rrcat.gov.in [Indus Synchrotrons Utilisation Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore-452013 (India)

    2014-04-24

    Determination of ultra trace elements is important in many disciplines both in basic and applied sciences. Numerous applications show their importance in medical science, environmental science, materials science, food processing and semiconductor industries and in maintaining the quality control of ultra pure chemicals and reagents. We report commissioning of a synchrotron based total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF) facility on the BL-16 microfocus beamline of Indus-2. This paper describes the performance of the BL-16 TXRF spectrometer and the detailed description of its capabilities through examples of measured results.

  18. Texture of poled tetragonal PZT detected by synchrotron X-ray diffraction and micromechanics analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, D.A.; Steuwer, A.; Cherdhirunkorn, B.; Withers, P.J.; Mori, T.

    2005-01-01

    The texture and lattice elastic strain due to electrical poling of tetragonal PZT (lead zirconate titanate) ceramics have been measured using high energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction. It is shown that XRD peak intensity ratios associated with crystal planes of the form {002}, {112} and {202} exhibit a linear dependence on cos-bar 2 Ψ, where Ψ represents the orientation angle between the plane normal and the macroscopic poling axis. The observed dependence of texture and lattice strain on the grain orientation can be understood on the basis that the macroscopic strain due to poling is the average of the poling strains of all the individual grains

  19. Investigation of hepatic fibrosis with synchrotron X-ray diffraction enhanced imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hui; Beijing Univ., Health Science Center, Beijing; Wang Xueyan; Zhao Tao; Hu Chunhong; Lu Weiyuan; Luo Shuqian; Wang Tailing; Wang Baoen; Zhao Xinyan; Zhu Peiping; Huang Wanxia; Yuan Qingxi; Wang Junyue

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, imaging investigation of hepatic fibrosis in rats induced by human albumin with hard X-ray diffraction enhanced imaging (DEI) is reported. The experiments were performed at 4W1A beamline of Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF). The results show that great differences can be observed in DEI images between the normal and diseased rats in different stages of liver fibrosis. The difference can also be revealed by the profile curve and texture measurements on regions of interest. The results show that DEI may be a potential way for diagnosis of hepatic fibrosis. (authors)

  20. Load transfer in bovine plexiform bone determined by synchrotron x-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, R.; Daymond, M.; Almer, J.; Mummery, P.; The Univ. of Manchester; Queen's Univ.

    2008-01-01

    High-energy synchrotron x-ray diffraction (XRD) has been used to quantify load transfer in bovine plexiform bone. By using both wide-angle and small-angle XRD, strains in the mineral as well as the collagen phase of bone were measured as a function of applied compressive stress. We suggest that a greater proportion of the load is borne by the more mineralized woven bone than the lamellar bone as the applied stress increases. With a further increase in stress, load is shed back to the lamellar regions until macroscopic failure occurs. The reported data fit well with reported mechanisms of microdamage accumulation in bovine plexiform bone

  1. Non-destructive synchrotron X-ray diffraction mapping of a Roman painting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dooryhee, E.; Anne, M.; Hodeau, J.-L.; Martinetto, P.; Rondot, S.; Bardies, I.; Salomon, J.; Walter, P.; Vaughan, G.B.M.

    2005-01-01

    The history and the properties of materials are deduced not only from their elemental and molecular signatures, but also from their exact phase compositions, and from the structures and the defects of their constituents. Here we implement a non-destructive synchrotron X-ray based method, which combines both the quantitative structural content of diffraction and the imaging mode. As a demonstration case, the pigments of a Roman wall painting are examined. The joined elemental and mineral maps mimic the major features of the painting. Different structural phases made of common atomic elements are differentiated. Textures and graininess are measured and related to the artist's know-how. (orig.)

  2. Computer simulation for synchrotron radiation based X-ray fluorescent microtomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Biao; Yu Xiaohan; Xu Hongjie

    2007-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation based fluorescent microtomography (SR-XFMT) is a nondestructive technique for detecting elemental composition and distribution inside a specimen with high spatial resolution and sensitivity, and will be an optional experimental technique at SSRF hard X-ray micro-focusing beamline now under construction. In this paper, the principles and developments of SR-XFMT are briefly introduced. Computer simulation of SR-XFMT experiment is performed. The image of the simulated sample is reconstructed using Filtered Back Projection (FBP), Algebraic Reconstruction Techniques (ART) and modified FBP with absorption correction. The qualities of the reconstructed images are analyzed and compared. The validity of these reconstruction techniques is discussed. (authors)

  3. An adaptive crystal bender for high power synchrotron radiation beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berman, L.E.; Hastings, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    Perfect crystal monochromators cannot diffract x-rays efficiently, nor transmit the high source brightness available at synchrotron radiation facilities, unless surface strains within the beam footprint are maintained within a few arcseconds. Insertion devices at existing synchrotron sources already produce x-ray power density levels that can induce surface slope errors of several arcseconds on silicon monochromator crystals at room temperature, no matter how well the crystal is cooled. The power density levels that will be produced by insertion devices at the third-generation sources will be as much as a factor of 100 higher still. One method of restoring ideal x-ray diffraction behavior, while coping with high power levels, involves adaptive compensation of the induced thermal strain field. The design and performance, using the X25 hybrid wiggler beam line at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), of a silicon crystal bender constructed for this purpose are described

  4. Multielemental analysis in Brazilian cigarettes using total reflection X-ray fluorescence with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serpa, Renata F.B.; Jesus, Edgar F.O. de; Lopes, Ricardo T.; Moreira, Silvana

    2005-01-01

    In order to identify major and trace elements in conventional and light Brazilian cigarettes, Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence with Synchrotron Radiation (SR-TXRF) was used. The fluorescence measurements were carried out at Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory, Campinas - Sao Paulo. This technique enables detection limit is in the ngg -1 range, which is very useful in elemental tobacco smoke analysis, since it presents most of its elements at a trace level. The major elements identified in tobacco samples were: S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe and Cd, and the trace elements were: Ti, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr and Ba. However in tobacco smoke samples, there were only two major elements: K and Ca, the others were present a trace level. The rate transfer of tobacco to tobacco smoke was about 2.5 % for all elements studied. (author)

  5. Extending the possibilities in phase space analysis of synchrotron radiation x-ray optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Claudio; Smilgies, Detlef-Matthias; Riekel, Christian; Gatta, Gilles; Daly, Peter

    2008-08-01

    A simple analytical approach to phase space analysis of the performance of x-ray optical setups (beamlines) combining several elements in position-angle-wavelength space is presented. The mathematical description of a large class of optical elements commonly used on synchrotron beamlines has been reviewed and extended with respect to the existing literature and is reported in a revised form. Novel features are introduced, in particular, the possibility to account for imperfections on mirror surfaces and to incorporate nanofocusing devices like refractive lenses in advanced beamline setups using the same analytical framework. Phase space analysis results of the simulation of an undulator beamline with focusing optics at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility compare favorably with results obtained by geometric ray-tracing methods and, more importantly, with experimental measurements. This approach has been implemented into a simple and easy-to-use program toolkit for optical calculations based on the Mathematica software package.

  6. Synchrotron X-ray Scattering of ZnO Nanorods: Periodic Ordering and Lattice Size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Z.; Andelman, T.; Yin, M.; Chen, T.; Ehrlich, S.; O'Brien, S.; Osgood, Jr. R.

    2005-01-01

    We demonstrate that synchrotron x-ray powder diffraction (XRD) is a powerful technique for studying the structure and self-organization of zinc-oxide nanostructures. Zinc-oxide nanorods were prepared by a solution-growth method that resulted in uniform nanorods with 2-nm diameter and lengths in the range 10-50 nm. These nanorods were structurally characterized by a combination of small-angle and wide-angle synchrotron XRD and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Small-angle XRD and TEM were used to investigate nanorod self-assembly and the influence of surfactant/precursor ratio on self-assembly. Wide-angle XRD was used to study the evolution of nanorod growth as a function of synthesis time and surfactant/precursor ratio

  7. Investigation of mineral distribution in bone by synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microscopy after tibolone therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, I. [Rio de Janeiro State Univ., Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Energy; Federal Univ. of Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Nuclear Instrumentation Lab. - COPPE; Carvalho, A.C.B.; Henriques, H.N.; Guzman-Silva, M.A. [Fluminense Federal Univ., Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Lab. of Experimental Pathology; Sales, E.; Lopes, R.T. [Federal Univ. of Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Nuclear Instrumentation Lab. - COPPE; Granjeiro, J.M. [Fluminense Federal Univ., Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Cellular and Molecular Biology

    2011-07-01

    Tibolone is a synthetic steroid with estrogenic, androgenic, and progestagenic properties used for the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis and treatment of climacteric symptoms. Tibolone shows almost no action on breast and endometrium, which are target-organs for estrogens and progesterone activity. The aim of this work was to investigate the spatial distribution of calcium and zinc minerals in the femoral head of ovariectomized rat in order to evaluate the effects of the long-term administration of tibolone. For that purpose X-ray microfluorescence was used with synchrotron radiation imaging technique which was performed at Brazilian Light Synchrotron Laboratory, Campinas, SP. Minerals were not homogeneously distributed in trabecular bone areas; a higher concentration of calcium in the trabecular regions at femoral heads was found in ovariectomized and tibolone-treated rats compared to ovariectomized and control groups. (orig.)

  8. In Situ High Resolution Synchrotron X-Ray Powder Diffraction Studies of Lithium Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amri, Mahrez; Fitch, Andy; Norby, Poul

    2015-01-01

    allowing diffraction information to be obtained from only the active material during battery operation [2]. High resolution synchrotron x-ray powder diffraction technique has been undertaken to obtain detailed structural and compositional information during lithiation/delithiation of commercial LiFePO4...... materials [3]. We report results from the first in situ time resolved high resolution powder diffraction experiments at beamline ID22/31 at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, ESRF. We follow the structural changes during charge of commercial LiFePO4 based battery materials using the Rietveld...... method. Conscientious Rietveld analysis shows slight but continuous deviation of lattice parameters from those of the fully stoichiometric end members LiFePO4 and FePO4 indicating a subsequent variation of stoichiometry during cathode delithiation. The application of an intermittent current pulses during...

  9. Time-resolved soft x-ray absorption setup using multi-bunch operation modes at synchrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stebel, L.; Sigalotti, P.; Ressel, B.; Cautero, G.; Malvestuto, M.; Capogrosso, V.; Bondino, F.; Magnano, E.; Parmigiani, F.

    2011-01-01

    Here, we report on a novel experimental apparatus for performing time-resolved soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy in the sub-ns time scale using non-hybrid multi-bunch mode synchrotron radiation. The present setup is based on a variable repetition rate Ti:sapphire laser (pump pulse) synchronized with the ∼500 MHz x-ray synchrotron radiation bunches and on a detection system that discriminates and singles out the significant x-ray photon pulses by means of a custom made photon counting unit. The whole setup has been validated by measuring the time evolution of the L 3 absorption edge during the melting and the solidification of a Ge single crystal irradiated by an intense ultrafast laser pulse. These results pave the way for performing synchrotron time-resolved experiments in the sub-ns time domain with variable repetition rate exploiting the full flux of the synchrotron radiation.

  10. Coherent scattering X-ray imaging at the Brazilian National Synchrotron Laboratory: Preliminary breast images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, C.R.F. [Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory-COPPE/UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, Rio de Janeiro 21945-970 (Brazil); Barroso, R.C. [Physics Institute-University of Rio de Janeiro State, Rio de Janeiro 20559-900 (Brazil)]. E-mail: cely@uerij.br; Oliveira, L.F. de [Physics Institute-University of Rio de Janeiro State, Rio de Janeiro 20559-900 (Brazil); Lopes, R.T. [Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory-COPPE/UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, Rio de Janeiro 21945-970 (Brazil)

    2005-08-11

    The angular distribution of coherent scatter (low-momentum transfer) carries information about atomic structures, resulting in a pattern, which can be used to reconstruct a series of images. Coherent-scatter computed tomography is a novel imaging method developed to produce cross-sectional images based on the X-ray diffraction properties of an object. A different approach to coherent X-ray imaging is possible by fixing the detector at a given scatter angle {theta}, which produces an interference peak and then, carried out a tomography in the standard way. The cross-sectional images obtained allow determining the spatial dependence of coherent scatter cross-section of selected volume elements of inhomogeneous, extend objects for a single predetermined value of {theta} of interest, leading to a simplification of the data processing and the complexity of the apparatus. This work presents preliminary coherent scattering images carried out at the X-ray Diffraction beamline of the National Synchrotron Light Laboratory in Campinas, Brazil. The specimens were excised human breast tissues fixed in formaline. No frozen procedure was used in order to minimize preferred orientation during sample preparation. About 1mm thick slices cut from each of the fresh samples were mounted in frames without windows and placed on a translator to allow acquisition of scattering spectra. Cylinders containing healthy and cancerous (infiltrating ductal carcinoma) breast tissues were imagined at the characteristic angle for adipose tissue. Transmission and coherent scatter images are compared.

  11. Absorption and Phase Contrast X-Ray Imaging in Paleontology Using Laboratory and Synchrotron Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bidola, Pidassa; Stockmar, Marco; Achterhold, Klaus; Pfeiffer, Franz; Pacheco, Mirian L.A.F.; Soriano, Carmen; Beckmann, Felix; Herzen, Julia

    2015-10-01

    X-ray micro-computed tomography (CT) is commonly used for imaging of samples in biomedical or materials science research. Owing to the ability to visualize a sample in a nondestructive way, X-ray CT is perfectly suited to inspect fossilized specimens, which are mostly unique or rare. In certain regions of the world where important sedimentation events occurred in the Precambrian geological time, several fossilized animals are studied to understand questions related to their origin, environment, and life evolution. This article demonstrates the advantages of applying absorption and phase-contrast CT on the enigmatic fossil Corumbella werneri, one of the oldest known animals capable of building hard parts, originally discovered in Corumba (Brazil). Different tomographic setups were tested to visualize the fossilized inner structures: a commercial laboratory-based CT device, two synchrotron-based imaging setups using conventional absorption and propagation-based phase contrast, and a commercial X-ray microscope with a lens-coupled detector system, dedicated for radiography and tomography. Based on our results we discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the different imaging setups for paleontological studies.

  12. New X-ray beam position monitors with submicron resolution utilizing imaging of scattered X-rays at CHESS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revesz, Peter; Temnykh, Alexander B.; Pauling, Alan K.

    2011-01-01

    At CHESS' A, F and G wiggler beam lines three new video beam position monitors (VBPMs) have been commissioned. These new VBPMs utilize X-rays scattered from the graphite filter (A and F line) or from a beryllium window (G-line) as the white wiggler beam passes through them. As the X-rays scatter in all directions from the scattering medium, a slit camera creates an image of the beam's footprint on a fluorescent screen. This image is then viewed by a CCD camera and analyzed using a computer program to calculate the intensity centroid, the beam profile and integrated intensity. These data are delivered to the CHESS signal archiving system for storage and display. The new systems employ digital cameras. These cameras are free of the noise inherent to the analog systems with long video signal connections. As a result, the beam position data delivered by the new systems are more reliable and accurate as shown by beam position traces using different beam position monitors on the same beam line.

  13. New X-ray beam position monitors with submicron resolution utilizing imaging of scattered X-rays at CHESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revesz, Peter, E-mail: pr20@cornell.edu [Cornell University, Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source, Ithaca 14850, NY (United States); Temnykh, Alexander B. [Cornell University, Laboratory for Elem-Particle Physics, Ithaca 14850, NY (United States); Pauling, Alan K. [Cornell University, Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source, Ithaca 14850, NY (United States)

    2011-09-01

    At CHESS' A, F and G wiggler beam lines three new video beam position monitors (VBPMs) have been commissioned. These new VBPMs utilize X-rays scattered from the graphite filter (A and F line) or from a beryllium window (G-line) as the white wiggler beam passes through them. As the X-rays scatter in all directions from the scattering medium, a slit camera creates an image of the beam's footprint on a fluorescent screen. This image is then viewed by a CCD camera and analyzed using a computer program to calculate the intensity centroid, the beam profile and integrated intensity. These data are delivered to the CHESS signal archiving system for storage and display. The new systems employ digital cameras. These cameras are free of the noise inherent to the analog systems with long video signal connections. As a result, the beam position data delivered by the new systems are more reliable and accurate as shown by beam position traces using different beam position monitors on the same beam line.

  14. The quality of high-energy X-ray beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaRiviere, P.D.

    1989-01-01

    Supplement 17 of the British Journal of Radiology is a survey of central-axis depth doses for radiotherapy machines, patterned largely on BJR Supplement 11 (1972). Inspection of high-energy X-ray depth doses for a 10 x 10 cm field at an SSD of 100 cm disclosed large differences between the two sets of data, especially for qualities above 8 MV, e.g. a depth dose of 80% at 10 cm is rated at about 19 MV according to BJR Supplement 11, and 23 MV according to BJR Supplement 17. It was found that Supplement 17 depth-dose data above 8 MV were erratic, but Supplement 11 data could be represented by an analytical expression, providing a unique means of assigning MV quality. It was also found that dose-weighted average energy of the filtered beam plotted smoothly against depth dose. For dosimetric purposes, it is suggested that this parameter be used as a true measure of beam quality, removing discrepancies introduced by the use of nominal MV for this purpose. (author)

  15. Analysis of synchrotron X-ray diffraction patterns from fluorotic enamel samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Ana P.G.; Braz, Delson, E-mail: anapaulagalmeida@gmail.co [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear; Colaco, Marcos V.; Barroso, Regina C., E-mail: cely@uerj.b [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Porto, Isabel M., E-mail: belporto@ig.com.b [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia; Gerlach, Raquel F., E-mail: rfgerlach@forp.usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia; Droppa Junior, Roosevelt, E-mail: rdroppa@lnls.b [Associacao Brasileira de Tecnologia de Luz Sincrotron (ABTLuS), Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    With the introduction of fluoride as the main anticaries agent used in preventive dentistry, and perhaps an increase in fluoride in our food chain, dental fluorosis has become an increasing world-wide problem. Visible signs of fluorosis begin to become obvious on the enamel surface as opacities, implying some porosity in the tissue. The mechanisms that conduct the formation of fluorotic enamel are unknown, but should involve modifications in the basics physical-chemistry reactions of demineralisation and remineralisation of the enamel of the teeth, which is the same reaction of formation of the enamel's hydroxyapatite (HAp) in the maturation phase. The increase of the amount of fluoride inside of the apatite will result in gradual increase of the lattice parameters. The hexagonal symmetry seems to work well with the powder diffraction data, and the crystal structure of HAp is usually described in space group P63/m. The aim of this work is to characterize the healthy and fluorotic enamel in human tooth using technique Synchrotron X-ray diffraction in order to determine the crystal structure and crystallinity of on fluoroapatite (FAp) crystal present in fluoritic enamel. All the scattering profile measurements was carried out at the X-ray diffraction beamline (XRD1) at the National Synchrotron Light Laboratory - LNLS, Campinas, Brazil. (author)

  16. Mapping Metal Elements of Shuangbai Dinosaur Fossil by Synchrotron X-ray Fluorescence Microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.; Qun, Y.; Ablett, J.

    2008-01-01

    The metal elements mapping of Shuangbai dinosaur fossil, was obtained by synchrotron x-ray fluorescence (SXRF). Eight elements, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Y and Sr were determined. Elements As and Y were detected for the first time in the dinosaur fossil. The data indicated that metal elements are asymmetrical on fossil section. This is different from common minerals. Mapping metals showed that metal element As is few. The dinosaur most likely belongs to natural death. This is different from Zigong dinosaurs which were found dead from poisoning. This method has been used to find that metals Fe and Mn are accrete, and the same is true for Sr and Y. This study indicated that colloid granule Fe and Mn, as well as Sr and Y had opposite electric charges in lithification process of fossils. By this analysis, compound forms can be ascertained. Synchrotron light source x-ray fluorescence is a complementary method that shows mapping of metal elements at the dinosaur fossil, and is rapid, exact and intuitionist. This study shows that dinosaur fossil mineral imaging has a potential in reconstructing the paleoenvironment and ancient geology.

  17. Analysis of synchrotron X-ray diffraction patterns from fluorotic enamel samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Ana P.G.; Braz, Delson

    2009-01-01

    With the introduction of fluoride as the main anticaries agent used in preventive dentistry, and perhaps an increase in fluoride in our food chain, dental fluorosis has become an increasing world-wide problem. Visible signs of fluorosis begin to become obvious on the enamel surface as opacities, implying some porosity in the tissue. The mechanisms that conduct the formation of fluorotic enamel are unknown, but should involve modifications in the basics physical-chemistry reactions of demineralisation and remineralisation of the enamel of the teeth, which is the same reaction of formation of the enamel's hydroxyapatite (HAp) in the maturation phase. The increase of the amount of fluoride inside of the apatite will result in gradual increase of the lattice parameters. The hexagonal symmetry seems to work well with the powder diffraction data, and the crystal structure of HAp is usually described in space group P63/m. The aim of this work is to characterize the healthy and fluorotic enamel in human tooth using technique Synchrotron X-ray diffraction in order to determine the crystal structure and crystallinity of on fluoroapatite (FAp) crystal present in fluoritic enamel. All the scattering profile measurements was carried out at the X-ray diffraction beamline (XRD1) at the National Synchrotron Light Laboratory - LNLS, Campinas, Brazil. (author)

  18. ENDIX. A computer program to simulate energy dispersive X-ray and synchrotron powder diffraction diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hovestreydt, E.; Karlsruhe Univ.; Parthe, E.; Benedict, U.

    1987-01-01

    A Fortran 77 computer program is described which allows the simulation of energy dispersive X-ray and synchrotron powder diffraction diagrams. The input consists of structural data (space group, unit cell dimensions, atomic positional and displacement parameters) and information on the experimental conditions (chosen Bragg angle, type of X-ray tube and applied voltage or operating power of synchrotron radiation source). The output consists of the normalized intensities of the diffraction lines, listed by increasing energy (in keV), and of an optional intensity-energy plot. The intensities are calculated with due consideration of the wave-length dependence of both the anomalous dispersion and the absorption coefficients. For a better agreement between observed and calculated spectra provision is made to optionally superimpose, on the calculated diffraction line spectrum, all additional lines such as fluorescence and emission lines and escape peaks. The different effects which have been considered in the simulation are discussed in some detail. A sample calculation of the energy dispersive powder diffraction pattern of UPt 3 (Ni 3 Sn structure type) is given. Warning: the user of ENDIX should be aware that for a successful application it is necessary to adapt the program to correspond to the actual experimental conditions. Even then, due to the only approximately known values of certain functions, the agreement between observed and calculated intensities will not be as good as for angle dispersive diffraction methods

  19. Crystal plasticity in Cu damascene interconnect lines undergoing electromigration as revealed by synchrotron x-ray microdiffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiman, A. S.; Nix, W. D.; Tamura, N.; Valek, B. C.; Gadre, K.; Maiz, J.; Spolenak, R.; Patel, J. R.

    2006-06-01

    Plastic deformation was observed in damascene Cu interconnect test structures during an in situ electromigration experiment and before the onset of visible microstructural damage (voiding, hillock formation). We show here, using a synchrotron technique of white beam x-ray microdiffraction, that the extent of this electromigration-induced plasticity is dependent on the linewidth. In wide lines, plastic deformation manifests itself as grain bending and the formation of subgrain structures, while only grain rotation is observed in the narrower lines. The deformation geometry leads us to conclude that dislocations introduced by plastic flow lie predominantly in the direction of electron flow and may provide additional easy paths for the transport of point defects. Since these findings occur long before any observable voids or hillocks are formed, they may have direct bearing on the final failure stages of electromigration.

  20. X-ray diffraction studies on single and mixed confectionery fats using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacMillan, S.C.; Roberts, K.J.; Wells, M.; Polgreen, M.; Smith, I.

    1999-01-01

    and stirring rate (shear rate). The X-rays used are from a high intensity synchrotron radiation source, enabling polymorphic phase transformations for a variety of fat mixtures to observed. Copyright (1999) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

  1. X-ray diffraction studies on single and mixed confectionery fats using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacMillan, S.C.; Roberts, K.J.; Wells, M.; Polgreen, M.; Smith, I. [Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, (United Kingdom). Department of Mechanical and Chemical Engineering, Centre for Molecular and Interface Engineering

    1999-12-01

    and stirring rate (shear rate). The X-rays used are from a high intensity synchrotron radiation source, enabling polymorphic phase transformations for a variety of fat mixtures to observed. Copyright (1999) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc.

  2. Quantification of phosphorus in single cells using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Núñez-Milland, Daliángelis R. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Baines, Stephen B. [Department of Ecology and Evolution, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11755 (United States); Vogt, Stefan [Experimental Facilities Division, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States); Twining, Benjamin S., E-mail: btwining@bigelow.org [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Phosphorus abundance was quantified in individual phytoplankton cells by synchrotron X-ray fluorescence and compared with bulk spectrophotometric measurements to confirm accuracy of quantification. Figures of merit for P quantification on three different types of transmission electron microscopy grids are compared to assess possible interferences. Phosphorus is required for numerous cellular compounds and as a result can serve as a useful proxy for total cell biomass in studies of cell elemental composition. Single-cell analysis by synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) enables quantitative and qualitative analyses of cell elemental composition with high elemental sensitivity. Element standards are required to convert measured X-ray fluorescence intensities into element concentrations, but few appropriate standards are available, particularly for the biologically important element P. Empirical P conversion factors derived from other elements contained in certified thin-film standards were used to quantify P in the model diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana, and the measured cell quotas were compared with those measured in bulk by spectrophotometry. The mean cellular P quotas quantified with SXRF for cells on Au, Ni and nylon grids using this approach were not significantly different from each other or from those measured spectrophotometrically. Inter-cell variability typical of cell populations was observed. Additionally, the grid substrates were compared for their suitability to P quantification based on the potential for spectral interferences with P. Nylon grids were found to have the lowest background concentrations and limits of detection for P, while background concentrations in Ni and Au grids were 1.8- and 6.3-fold higher. The advantages and disadvantages of each grid type for elemental analysis of individual phytoplankton cells are discussed.

  3. Computed tomography for light materials using a monochromatic X-ray beam produced by parametric X-ray radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, Y., E-mail: yahayak@lebra.nihon-u.ac.jp [Laboratory for Electron Beam Research and Application, Nihon University, Narashinodai 7-24-1, Funabashi 274-8501 (Japan); Hayakawa, K.; Inagaki, M. [Laboratory for Electron Beam Research and Application, Nihon University, Narashinodai 7-24-1, Funabashi 274-8501 (Japan); Kaneda, T. [Nihon University School of Dentistry at Matsudo, Sakaecho-Nishi 2-870-1, Matsudo 271-8587 (Japan); Nakao, K.; Nogami, K. [Laboratory for Electron Beam Research and Application, Nihon University, Narashinodai 7-24-1, Funabashi 274-8501 (Japan); Sakae, T. [Nihon University School of Dentistry at Matsudo, Sakaecho-Nishi 2-870-1, Matsudo 271-8587 (Japan); Sakai, T.; Sato, I. [Laboratory for Electron Beam Research and Application, Nihon University, Narashinodai 7-24-1, Funabashi 274-8501 (Japan); Takahashi, Y. [Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Oho, Tsukuba 305-8501 (Japan); Tanaka, T. [Laboratory for Electron Beam Research and Application, Nihon University, Narashinodai 7-24-1, Funabashi 274-8501 (Japan)

    2013-08-15

    Computed tomography (CT) for light materials such as soft biological tissues was performed using a monochromatic X-ray beam provided by a parametric X-ray radiation (PXR) source at the Laboratory for Electron Beam Research and Application (LEBRA) of Nihon University. Using a high-efficiency flat panel detector (FPD), each projection image for CT was taken with exposure times of 5 or 10 s, and 60–360 projection images in each run were obtained with total measurement time of 5 min to 1 h. CT images were obtained from the projection images using the conventional calculation method. The typical tomograms obtained had sharp outlines, which are likely attributable to the propagation-based phase contrast.

  4. On the response of electronic personal dosimeters in constant potential and pulsed X-ray beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Margarete C.; Silva, Teogenes; Silva, Claudete R.E., E-mail: margaretecristinag@gmail.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Oliveira, Paulo Marcio C. de [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Anatomia e Imagem

    2015-07-01

    Electronic personal dosimeters (EPDs) based on solid state detectors have widely been used but some deficiencies in their response in pulsed radiation beams have been reported. Nowadays, there is not an international standard for pulsed X-ray beams for calibration or type testing of dosimeters. Irradiation conditions for testing the response of EPDs in both the constant potential and pulsed X-ray beams were established in CDTN. Three different types of EPDs were tested in different conditions in similar ISO and IEC X-ray qualities. Results stressed the need of performing additional checks before using EPDs in constant potential or pulsed X-rays. (author)

  5. X-radiation damage of hydrated lecithin membranes detected by real-time X-ray diffraction using wiggler-enhanced synchrotron radiation as the ionizing radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caffrey, M.; Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY

    1984-01-01

    Radiation damage of hydrated lecithin membranes brought about by exposure to wiggler-derived synchrotron radiation at 8.3 keV (1.5 A) is reported. Considerable damage was observed with exposures under 1 h at an incident flux density of 3 x 10 10 photons s -1 mm -2 , corresponding to a cumulative radiation dose of <= 10 MRad. Damage was so dramatic as to be initially observed while making real-time X-ray diffraction measurements on the sample. The damaging effects of 8.3 keV X-rays on dispersions of dipalmitoyllecithin and lecithin derived from hen egg yolk are as follows: (1) marked changes were noted in the X-ray diffraction behaviour, indicating disruption of membrane stacking. (2) Chemical breakdown of lecithin was observed. (3) The X-ray beam visibly damaged the sample and changed the appearance of the lipid dispersion, when viewed under the light microscope. Considering the importance of X-ray diffraction as a structural probe and the anticipated use of synchrotron radiation in studies involving membranes, the problem of radiation damage must be duly recognized. Furthermore, since dipalmitoyllecithin, the major lipid used in the present study, is a relatively stable compound, it is not unreasonable to expect that X-ray damage may be a problem with other less stable biological and non-biological materials. These results serve to emphasize that whenever a high intensity X-ray source is used, radiation damage can be a problem and that the sensitivity of the sample must always be evaluated under the conditions of measurement. (orig.)

  6. Application of synchrotron-radiation-based x-ray microprobe techniques for the analysis of recombination activity of metals precipitated at Si/SiGe misfit dislocations

    CERN Document Server

    Vyvenko, O F; Istratov, A A; Weber, E R; Kittler, M; Seifert, W

    2002-01-01

    In this study we report application of synchrotron-radiation-based x-ray microprobe techniques (the x-ray-beam-induced current (XBIC) and x-ray fluorescence (mu-XRF) methods) to the analysis of the recombination activity and space distribution of copper and iron in the vicinity of dislocations in silicon/silicon-germanium structures. A combination of these two techniques enables one to study the chemical nature of the defects and impurities and their recombination activity in situ and to map metal clusters with a micron-scale resolution. XRF analysis revealed that copper formed clearly distinguishable precipitates along the misfit dislocations. A proportional dependence between the XBIC contrast and the number of copper atoms in the precipitates was established. In hydrogen-passivated iron-contaminated samples we observed clusters of iron precipitates which had no recombination activity detectable by the XBIC technique as well as iron clusters which were not completely passivated.

  7. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements of internal stresses during loading of steel-based metal matrix composites reinforced with TiB2 particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacon, D.H.; Edwards, L.; Moffatt, J.E.; Fitzpatrick, M.E.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Synchrotron X-ray diffraction was used to measure internal stresses in Fe-TiB 2 MMCs. → Samples of the MMCs were loaded to failure in situ in the X-ray beam. → The results show good elastic load transfer from the matrix to the reinforcement. → There is good agreement with the predicted elastic stresses from Eshelby modeling. → During plastic deformation there is increasing load transfer to the reinforcement. - Abstract: High-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction was used to measure the internal strain evolution in the matrix and reinforcement of steel-based metal matrix composites reinforced with particulate titanium diboride (TiB 2 ). Two systems were studied: a 316L matrix with 25% TiB 2 by volume and a W1.4418 matrix with 10% reinforcement. In situ loading experiments were performed, where the materials were loaded uniaxially in the X-ray beam. The results show the strain partitioning between the phases in the elastic regime, and the evolution of the strain partitioning once plasticity occurs. The results are compared with results from Eshelby modelling, and very good agreement is seen between the measured and modelled response for elastic loading of the material. Heat treatment of the 316-based material did not affect the elastic internal strain response.

  8. Possibility of coherent hard x-ray production by pumping with synchrotron radiation and low energy photons. Period covered: November 17, 1976--August 16, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csonka, P.L.

    1977-01-01

    Coherent x-rays in the keV range could be produced by pumping a suitable gas with synchrotron radiation in combination with low energy photon beams in the presence of appropriately arranged mirrors. With a wiggler magnet placed in the low beta section of the PEP machine to be constructed at Stanford, 1020 eV coherent photons could be produced from Ne. Appropriate synchrotron radiation will produce a highly ionized cool gas. Low energy photons modify the outer electron structure of ions to enhance lasing: they modify the lifetime of the inverted state, counterbalance unwanted collisionally induced transitions, reduce Stark line broadening

  9. 3D Synchrotron μ-x-ray fluorescence analysis on human bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoeger, N.; Wobrauschek, P.; Streli, C.; Chinea-Cano, E.; Wegrzynek, D.; Roschger, P.; Simon, R.; Staub, S.; Falkenberg, G.

    2004-01-01

    A comparison between μ-x-ray fluorescence tomography and confocal μ-x-ray fluorescence analysis (μ-XRF) will be presented. These techniques were used to study the three dimensional (3D) elemental distribution in human bone. Since bone shows very strong inhomogeneities in structure as well as in distribution of the chemical elements, two dimensional (2D) analysis (element mapping) of the samples always led to difficulties in interpreting the results and assigning elemental distributions to microscopic structures. Tomography scans in fluorescence and absorption mode have been carried out simultaneously at the fluo-topo beamline at ANKA, Karlsruhe, to determine the distribution of the elements over the depth of the previously prepared sample from human patella. A monochromatized x-ray beam (17 keV) from a bending magnet station focused by a compound refractive lens to a beamsize of 10 x 5 μm was used to perform the measurements. The transmitted beam signal measured with the SD detector was utilized to apply a simplified absorption correction to XRF tomographic images. Based on the XRF sinograms the elemental distribution within the object cross-section was reconstructed by means of filtered backprojection. The same section of human bone has been analyzed by confocal μ-XRF at HASYLAB, Hamburg, Germany beamline L. With this experiment two polycapillary half lenses were used; one for focusing the previously monochromatized primary x-ray beam onto the sample and the second half lens in front of a Si(Li) detector to get a small inspected area. By overlapping the two foci of the lenses a very well defined volume of investigation could be defined. Scanning the sample up- and downstream it was possible to determine the elemental distribution in depth of the sample. An absorption correction has been applied to get a corrected fluorescence image of the sample. Both methods showed consistent results and allowed a precise localization of the elements of interest. (author)

  10. Optical systems for synchrotron radiation: lecture 4. Soft x-ray imaging systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howells, M.R.

    1986-04-01

    The history and present techniques of soft x-ray imaging are reviewed briefly. The physics of x-ray imaging is described, including the temporal and spatial coherence of x-ray sources. Particular technologies described are: contact x-ray microscopy, zone plate imaging, scanned image zone plate microscopy, scanned image reflection microscopy, and soft x-ray holography and diffraction

  11. Nanoscale examination of microdamage in sheep cortical bone using synchrotron radiation transmission x-ray microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry R Brock

    Full Text Available Microdamage occurs in bone through repeated and excessive loading. Accumulation of microdamage weakens bone, leading to a loss of strength, stiffness and energy dissipation in the tissue. Imaging techniques used to examine microdamage have typically been limited to the microscale. In the current study microdamage was examined at the nanoscale using transmission x-ray microscopy with an x-ray negative stain, lead-uranyl acetate. Microdamage was generated in notched and unnotched beams of sheep cortical bone (2×2×20 mm, with monotonic and fatigue loading. Bulk sections were removed from beams and stained with lead-uranyl acetate to identify microdamage. Samples were sectioned to 50 microns and imaged using transmission x-ray microscopy producing projection images of microdamage with nanoscale resolution. Staining indicated microdamage occurred in both the tensile and compressive regions. A comparison between monotonic and fatigue loading indicated a statistically significant greater amount of stain present in fatigue loaded sections. Microdamage occurred in three forms: staining to existing bone structures, cross hatch damage and a single crack extending from the notch tip. Comparison to microcomputed tomography demonstrated differences in damage morphology and total damage between the microscale and nanoscale. This method has future applications for understanding the underlying mechanisms for microdamage formation as well as three-dimensional nanoscale examination of microdamage.

  12. Future prospect of the research study using intense and bright synchrotron radiation in VUV and soft x-ray region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Kenichiro; Miyahara, Tsuneaki

    1987-02-01

    This report is the summary of the contents of the study meeting 'Future prospect of the research study using intense and bright synchrotron radiation in VUV and soft x-ray region' sponsored by PF, held on October 20 and 21, 1986. This study meeting was held by inviting those who are particularly interested in the basic field among the users of VUV and soft x-ray region, and the research on the application field was excluded. The objective of the discussion of this study meeting was to talk about the dream that if a high luminance light source which is 100 - 1000 times more intense in terms of luminous flux intensity is completed, what can we do with it. Three sessions on the themes 'How the existing research fields will develop', 'What the possible new research fields are' and 'Comment from the technical aspect' were held. More than seven years elapsed since the beginning of construction of the Photon Factory. Many excellent results have been obtained. As of October, 1986, the beam lines available for experiment are 11, the themes of common utilization experiment in progress are 300, and the number of registered researchers exceeded 1000. The development of a new light emission source is to be undertaken. (Kako, I.)

  13. Synchrotron radiation induced X-ray emission studies of the antioxidant mechanism of the organoselenium drug ebselen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, Jade B; Lay, Peter A; Duong, T T Hong; Aran, Roshanak; Witting, Paul K; Harris, Hugh H; Lai, Barry; Vogt, Stefan; Giles, Gregory I

    2012-04-01

    Synchrotron radiation induced X-ray emission (SRIXE) spectroscopy was used to map the cellular uptake of the organoselenium-based antioxidant drug ebselen using differentiated ND15 cells as a neuronal model. The cellular SRIXE spectra, acquired using a hard X-ray microprobe beam (12.8-keV), showed a large enhancement of fluorescence at the K(α) line for Se (11.2-keV) following treatment with ebselen (10 μM) at time periods from 60 to 240 min. Drug uptake was quantified and ebselen was shown to induce time-dependent changes in cellular elemental content that were characteristic of oxidative stress with the efflux of K, Cl, and Ca species. The SRIXE cellular Se distribution map revealed that ebselen was predominantly localized to a discreet region of the cell which, by comparison with the K and P elemental maps, is postulated to correspond to the endoplasmic reticulum. On the basis of these findings, it is hypothesized that a major outcome of ebselen redox catalysis is the induction of cellular stress. A mechanism of action of ebselen is proposed that involves the cell responding to drug-induced stress by increasing the expression of antioxidant genes. This hypothesis is supported by the observation that ebselen also regulated the homeostasis of the transition metals Mn, Cu, Fe, and Zn, with increases in transition metal uptake paralleling known induction times for the expression of antioxidant metalloenzymes. © SBIC 2012

  14. Monitoring elastic strain and damage by neutron and synchrotron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Withers, P.J.

    2001-01-01

    Large-scale neutron and synchrotron X-ray facilities have been providing important information for physicists and chemists for many decades. Increasingly, materials engineers are finding that they can also provide them with important information non-destructively. Highly penetrating neutron and X-ray synchrotron beams provide the materials engineer with a means of obtaining information about the state of stress and damage deep within materials. In this paper the principles underlying the elastic strain measurement and damage characterization techniques are introduced. (orig.)

  15. SU-F-I-76: Fluoroscopic X-Ray Beam Profiles for Spectra Incorporating Copper Filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wunderle, K [Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH (United States); Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI (United States); Godley, A; Shen, Z; Dong, F [Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH (United States); Rakowski, J [Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this investigation is to characterize and quantify X-ray beam profiles for fluoroscopic x-ray beam spectra incorporating spectral (copper) filtration. Methods: A PTW (Freiburg, Germany) type 60016 silicon diode detector and PTW MP3 water tank were used to measure X-ray beam profiles for 60, 80, 100 and 120 kVp x-ray beams at five different copper filtration thicknesses ranging from 0–0.9 mm at 22 and 42 cm fields of view and depths of 1, 5, and 10 cm in both the anode-cathode axis (inplane) and cross-plane directions. All measurements were acquired on a Siemens (Erlangen, Germany) Artis ZeeGo fluoroscope inverted from the typical orientation providing an x-ray beam originating from above the water surface with the water level set at 60 cm from the focal spot. Results: X-ray beam profiles for beam spectra without copper filtration compared well to previously published data by Fetterly et al. [Med Phys, 28, 205 (2001)]. Our data collection benefited from the geometric orientation of the fluoroscope, providing a beam perpendicular to the tank water surface, rather than through a thin side wall as did the previously mentioned study. Profiles for beams with copper filtration were obtained which have not been previously investigated and published. Beam profiles in the anode-cathode axis near the surface and at lower x-ray energy exhibited substantial heel effect, which became less pronounced at greater depth. At higher energy with copper filtration in the beam, the dose falloff out-of-field became less pronounced, as would be anticipated given higher scatter photon energy. Conclusion: The x-ray beam profile data for the fluoroscopic x-ray beams incorporating copper filtration are intended for use as reference data for estimating doses to organs or soft tissue, including fetal dose, involving similar beam qualities or for comparison with mathematical models.

  16. Generation of relativistic electron bunches in plasma synchrotron Gyrac-x for hard x-ray production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreev, V.V.; Umnov, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    Experiment performed on plasma synchrotron Gyrac-X operating on synchrotron gyromagnetic autoresonance (SGA) is described. Gyrac-X is a compact plasma x-ray source in which kinetic energy of relativistic electrons obtained under SGA converts into x-ray by falling e-bunches on to a heavy metal target. The plasma synchrotron acts in a regime of a magnetic field pulse packet under constant level of microwave power. Experiments and numerical modeling of the process showed that such a regime allowed obtaining dense short lived relativistic electron bunches with average electron energy of 500 keV - 4.5 MeV. Parameters of the relativistic electron bunch (energy, density and volume) and dynamics of the electron bunches can be controlled by varying the parameters of the SGA process. Possibilities of x-ray intensity increase are also discussed

  17. A structural study of bone changes in knee osteoarthritis by synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence and X-ray absorption spectroscopy techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindhupakorn, Bura; Thienpratharn, Suwittaya; Kidkhunthod, Pinit

    2017-10-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by degeneration of articular cartilage and thickening of subchondral bone. The present study investigated the changing of biochemical components of cartilage and bone compared between normal and OA people. Using Synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence (SR-XRF) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) techniquesincluding X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) were employed for the bone changes in kneeosteoarthritisstudies. The bone samples were collected from various osteoarthritis patients with both male and female in the ages range between 20 and 74 years old. SR-XRF results excited at 4240 eV for Ca elements show a majority three main groups, based on their XRF intensities, 20-36 years, 40-60 years and over 70 years, respectively. By employing XAS techniques, XANES features can be used to clearly explain in term of electronic transitions occurring in bone samples which are affected from osteoarthritis symptoms. Moreover, a structural change around Ca ions in bone samples is obviously obtained by EXAFS results indicating an increase of Ca-amorphous phase when the ages increase.

  18. X-ray analysis of a single aerosol particle with combination of scanning electron microscope and synchrotron radiation X-ray microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyoda, Masatoshi; Kaibuchi, Kazuki; Nagasono, Mitsuru; Terada, Yasuko; Tanabe, Teruo; Hayakawa, Shinjiro; Kawai, Jun

    2004-01-01

    We developed a microscope by a combination of synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SR-XRF) microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM) with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX). SR-XRF is appropriate to detect trace and micro amount of elements and sensitive to heavy elements in an analyte but it cannot observe the real time image. SEM-EDX can observe the secondary electron image of a single particle in real time and is appropriate to detect lighter elements. This combination microscope can ensure the identification of the XRF spectrum to the SEM image without transferring the sample. For aerosol analysis, it is important to analyze each particle. The present method makes feasible to analyze not only the average elemental composition as the total particles but also elemental composition of each particle, which is dependent on the particle shape and size. The microscope was applied to an individual aerosol particle study. The X-ray spectra were different among the particles, but also different between SR-XRF and SEM-EDX for the same particle, due to the difference in fluorescence yields between X-ray excitation and electron excitation

  19. X-ray imaging with monochromatic synchrotron radiation. Fluorescent and phase-contrast method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Tohoru; Itai, Yuji [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Clinical Medicine

    2002-05-01

    To obtain the high sensitive x-ray images of biomedical object, new x-ray imaging techniques using fluorescent x-ray and phase-contrast x-ray are being developed in Japan. Fluorescent x-ray CT can detect very small amounts of specific elements in the order of ppm at one pixel, whereas phase-contrast x-ray imaging with interferometer can detect minute differences of biological object. Here, our recent experimental results are presented. (author)

  20. X-ray beam-shaping via deformable mirrors: Analytical computation of the required mirror profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiga, Daniele; Raimondi, Lorenzo; Svetina, Cristian; Zangrando, Marco

    2013-01-01

    X-ray mirrors with high focusing performances are in use in both mirror modules for X-ray telescopes and in synchrotron and FEL (Free Electron Laser) beamlines. A degradation of the focus sharpness arises in general from geometrical deformations and surface roughness, the former usually described by geometrical optics and the latter by physical optics. In general, technological developments are aimed at a very tight focusing, which requires the mirror profile to comply with the nominal shape as much as possible and to keep the roughness at a negligible level. However, a deliberate deformation of the mirror can be made to endow the focus with a desired size and distribution, via piezo actuators as done at the EIS-TIMEX beamline of FERMI@Elettra. The resulting profile can be characterized with a Long Trace Profilometer and correlated with the expected optical quality via a wavefront propagation code. However, if the roughness contribution can be neglected, the computation can be performed via a ray-tracing routine, and, under opportune assumptions, the focal spot profile (the Point Spread Function, PSF) can even be predicted analytically. The advantage of this approach is that the analytical relation can be reversed; i.e., from the desired PSF the required mirror profile can be computed easily, thereby avoiding the use of complex and time-consuming numerical codes. The method can also be suited in the case of spatially inhomogeneous beam intensities, as commonly experienced at synchrotrons and FELs. In this work we expose the analytical method and the application to the beam shaping problem

  1. In-Situ Synchrotron X-ray Study of the Phase and Texture Evolution of Ceria and Superconductor Films Deposited by Chemical Solution Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yue, Zhao; Grivel, Jean-Claude; He, Dong

    2012-01-01

    In situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction is used to study the phase and texture formation of ceria based films and superconductor films deposited by the chemical solution method on technical substrates. Combined analysis using in situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry/differential ther......In situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction is used to study the phase and texture formation of ceria based films and superconductor films deposited by the chemical solution method on technical substrates. Combined analysis using in situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry...

  2. Characterization of a synthetic single crystal diamond detector for dosimetry in spatially fractionated synchrotron x-ray fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livingstone, Jayde, E-mail: Jayde.Livingstone@synchrotron.org.au; Häusermann, Daniel [Imaging and Medical Beamline, Australian Synchrotron, Clayton, Victoria 3168 (Australia); Stevenson, Andrew W. [Imaging and Medical Beamline, Australian Synchrotron, Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia and CSIRO Manufacturing, Clayton South, Victoria 3169 (Australia); Butler, Duncan J. [Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency, Yallambie, Victoria 3085 (Australia); Adam, Jean-François [Equipe d’accueil Rayonnement Synchrotron et Recherche Médicale, Université Grenoble Alpes, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility - ID17, Grenoble 38043, France and Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Grenoble, Grenoble 38043 (France)

    2016-07-15

    Purpose: Modern radiotherapy modalities often use small or nonstandard fields to ensure highly localized and precise dose delivery, challenging conventional clinical dosimetry protocols. The emergence of preclinical spatially fractionated synchrotron radiotherapies with high dose-rate, sub-millimetric parallel kilovoltage x-ray beams, has pushed clinical dosimetry to its limit. A commercially available synthetic single crystal diamond detector designed for small field dosimetry has been characterized to assess its potential as a dosimeter for synchrotron microbeam and minibeam radiotherapy. Methods: Experiments were carried out using a synthetic diamond detector on the imaging and medical beamline (IMBL) at the Australian Synchrotron. The energy dependence of the detector was characterized by cross-referencing with a calibrated ionization chamber in monoenergetic beams in the energy range 30–120 keV. The dose-rate dependence was measured in the range 1–700 Gy/s. Dosimetric quantities were measured in filtered white beams, with a weighted mean energy of 95 keV, in broadbeam and spatially fractionated geometries, and compared to reference dosimeters. Results: The detector exhibits an energy dependence; however, beam quality correction factors (k{sub Q}) have been measured for energies in the range 30–120 keV. The k{sub Q} factor for the weighted mean energy of the IMBL radiotherapy spectrum, 95 keV, is 1.05 ± 0.09. The detector response is independent of dose-rate in the range 1–700 Gy/s. The percentage depth dose curves measured by the diamond detector were compared to ionization chambers and agreed to within 2%. Profile measurements of microbeam and minibeam arrays were performed. The beams are well resolved and the full width at halfmaximum agrees with the nominal width of the beams. The peak to valley dose ratio (PVDR) calculated from the profiles at various depths in water agrees within experimental error with PVDR calculations from Gafchromic film data

  3. Laboratory X-ray Studies with Trapped Highly Charged Ions Using Synchrotrons and Free-electron Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo López-Urrutia, José R.

    2018-06-01

    Laboratory studies on highly charged ions (HCI) using electron beam ion traps (EBITs) can cover all charge states and chemical elements found in astrophysical sources. Since their introduction in 1986, a wealth of emission measurements from the optical to the x-ray range has been carried out by different groups. In most of the work, electron-impact excitation was the driving mechanism, and high resolution spectrometers were used for the diagnostic of the emitted radiation. Other recent studies included x-ray emission following charge exchange, a mechanism which is present in many astrophysical environments and can help explain some of the unknown spectral features at 3.55 keV.In the last decade, excitation and photoionization have also been investigated by exposing HCI trapped in an EBIT to intense, monochromatic radiation from free-electron lasers and synchrotron sources. Here, advanced monochromators in powerful undulator beamlines allowed us to work at photon energies from 50 eV to 15 keV while resolving the natural linewidths of x-ray transitions like the Kα complex of Fe up to the highest charge states, and to measure the oscillator strengths of, e. g., the neonlike Fe16+ spectrum. Photoionization studies have been performed for those species as well. Very recently, our novel compact EBIT with an off-axis electron gun allows for simultaneously using the photon beam downstream, enabling exact wavelength determinations referenced to HCI with accurately calculable transitions. We have performed a recalibration of the molecular and atomic oxygen soft x-ray absorption lines in the 500 eV range with an uncertainty estimate of 30 meV. This revealed a 600 meV calibration error that propagated through the literature for decades with the consequence of a 200 km/s misfit of the velocity in interstellar oxygen absorbers. Other possibilities for the compact EBIT are investigations of resonant photorecombination processes with excellent energy resolution. With the

  4. Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence studies of a bromine-labelled cyclic RGD peptide interacting with individual tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheridan, Erin J.; Austin, Christopher J. D.; Aitken, Jade B.; Vogt, Stefan; Jolliffe, Katrina A.; Harris, Hugh H.; Rendina, Louis M.

    2013-01-01

    The first example of synchrotron X-ray fluorescence imaging of cultured mammalian cells in cyclic peptide research is reported. The study reports the first quantitative analysis of the incorporation of a bromine-labelled cyclic RGD peptide and its effects on the biodistribution of endogenous elements (for example, K and Cl) within individual tumor cells. The first example of synchrotron X-ray fluorescence imaging of cultured mammalian cells in cyclic peptide research is reported. The study reports the first quantitative analysis of the incorporation of a bromine-labelled cyclic RGD peptide and its effects on the biodistribution of endogenous elements (for example, K and Cl) within individual tumor cells

  5. Protein folding and protein metallocluster studies using synchrotron small angler X-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliezer, D.

    1994-06-01

    Proteins, biological macromolecules composed of amino-acid building blocks, possess unique three dimensional shapes or conformations which are intimately related to their biological function. All of the information necessary to determine this conformation is stored in a protein's amino acid sequence. The problem of understanding the process by which nature maps protein amino-acid sequences to three-dimensional conformations is known as the protein folding problem, and is one of the central unsolved problems in biophysics today. The possible applications of a solution are broad, ranging from the elucidation of thousands of protein structures to the rational modification and design of protein-based drugs. The scattering of X-rays by matter has long been useful as a tool for the characterization of physical properties of materials, including biological samples. The high photon flux available at synchrotron X-ray sources allows for the measurement of scattering cross-sections of dilute and/or disordered samples. Such measurements do not yield the detailed geometrical information available from crystalline samples, but do allow for lower resolution studies of dynamical processes not observable in the crystalline state. The main focus of the work described here has been the study of the protein folding process using time-resolved small-angle x-ray scattering measurements. The original intention was to observe the decrease in overall size which must accompany the folding of a protein from an extended conformation to its compact native state. Although this process proved too fast for the current time-resolution of the technique, upper bounds were set on the probable compaction times of several small proteins. In addition, an interesting and unexpected process was detected, in which the folding protein passes through an intermediate state which shows a tendency to associate. This state is proposed to be a kinetic molten globule folding intermediate

  6. Exposure reduction in general dental practice using digital x-ray imaging system for intraoral radiography with additional x-ray beam filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibuya, Hitoshi; Mori, Toshimichi; Hayakawa, Yoshihiko; Kuroyanagi, Kinya; Ota, Yoshiko

    1997-01-01

    To measure exposure reduction in general dental practice using digital x-ray imaging systems for intraoral radiography with additional x-ray beam filter. Two digital x-ray imaging systems, Pana Digital (Pana-Heraus Dental) and CDR (Schick Technologies), were applied for intraoral radiography in general dental practice. Due to the high sensitivity to x-rays, additional x-ray beam filters for output reduction were used for examination. An Orex W II (Osada Electric Industry) x-ray generator was operated at 60 kVp, 7 mA. X-ray output (air-kerma; Gy) necessary for obtaining clinically acceptable images was measured at 0 to 20 cm in 5 cm steps from the cone tip using an ionizing chamber type 660 (Nuclear Associates) and compared with those for Ektaspeed Plus film (Eastman Kodak). The Pana Digital system was used with the optional filter supplied by Pana-Heraus Dental which reduced the output to 38%. The exposure necessary to obtain clinically acceptable images was only 40% of that for the film. The CDR system was used with the Dental X-ray Beam Filter Kit (Eastman Kodak) which reduced the x-ray output to 30%. The exposure necessary to obtain clinically acceptable images was only 20% of that for the film. The two digital x-ray imaging systems, Pana Digital and CDR, provided large dose savings (60-80%) compared with Ektaspeed Plus film when applied for intraoral radiography in general dental practice. (author)

  7. X-ray luminescence computed tomography imaging via multiple intensity weighted narrow beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Bo; Gao, Feng; Zhao, Huijuan; Zhang, Limin; Li, Jiao; Zhou, Zhongxing

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this work is to introduce and study a novel x-ray beam irradiation pattern for X-ray Luminescence Computed Tomography (XLCT), termed multiple intensity-weighted narrow-beam irradiation. The proposed XLCT imaging method is studied through simulations of x-ray and diffuse lights propagation. The emitted optical photons from X-ray excitable nanophosphors were collected by optical fiber bundles from the right-side surface of the phantom. The implementation of image reconstruction is based on the simulated measurements from 6 or 12 angular projections in terms of 3 or 5 x-ray beams scanning mode. The proposed XLCT imaging method is compared against the constant intensity weighted narrow-beam XLCT. From the reconstructed XLCT images, we found that the Dice similarity and quantitative ratio of targets have a certain degree of improvement. The results demonstrated that the proposed method can offer simultaneously high image quality and fast image acquisition.

  8. X-RAY IRRADIATION OF H{sub 2}O + CO ICE MIXTURES WITH SYNCHROTRON LIGHT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiménez-Escobar, A.; Ciaravella, A.; Micela, G.; Cecchi-Pestellini, C. [INAF–Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo, P.za Parlamento 1, I-90134 Palermo (Italy); Chen, Y.-J.; Huang, C.-H., E-mail: jimenezea@astropa.inaf.it, E-mail: ciarave@astropa.inaf.it, E-mail: giusi@astropa.inaf.it, E-mail: cecchi-pestellini@astropa.inaf.it, E-mail: asperchen@phy.ncu.edu.tw, E-mail: 101222023@cc.ncu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Central University, Jhongli District, Taoyuan City 32054, Taiwan (China)

    2016-03-20

    We irradiated a (4:1) mixture of water and carbon monoxide with soft X-rays of energies up to 1.2 keV. The experiments were performed using the spherical grating monochromator beamline at National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center in Taiwan. Both monochromatic (300 and 900 eV) and broader energy fluxes (250–1200 eV) were employed. During the irradiation, the H{sub 2}O + CO mixture was ionized, excited, and fragmented, producing a number of reactive species. The composition of the ice has been monitored throughout both the irradiation and warm-up phases. We identified several products, which can be related through a plausible chemical reaction scheme. Such chemistry is initiated by the injection of energetic photoelectrons that produce multiple ionization events generating a secondary electron cascade. The results have been discussed in light of a model for protoplanetary disks around young solar-type stars.

  9. Synchrotron X-ray scattering studies at mineral-water interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiarello, R.P.; Sturchio, N.C.

    1995-01-01

    Synchrotron X-ray scattering techniques provide a powerful tool for the in situ study of atomic scale processes occurring at solid-liquid interfaces. We have applied these techniques to characterize and study reactions at mineral-water interfaces. Here we present two examples. The first is the characterization of the calcite (CaCO 3 ) (10 bar 14) cleavage surface, in equilibrium with deionized water, by crystal truncation rod measurements. The second is the in situ study of the heteroepitaxial growth of otavite (CdCO 3 ) on the calcite (10 bar 14) cleavage surface. The results of such studies will lead to significant progress in understanding mineral-water interface geochemistry

  10. Characterization of metal additive manufacturing surfaces using synchrotron X-ray CT and micromechanical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantzos, C. A.; Cunningham, R. W.; Tari, V.; Rollett, A. D.

    2018-05-01

    Characterizing complex surface topologies is necessary to understand stress concentrations created by rough surfaces, particularly those made via laser power-bed additive manufacturing (AM). Synchrotron-based X-ray microtomography (μ XCT) of AM surfaces was shown to provide high resolution detail of surface features and near-surface porosity. Using the CT reconstructions to instantiate a micromechanical model indicated that surface notches and near-surface porosity both act as stress concentrators, while adhered powder carried little to no load. Differences in powder size distribution had no direct effect on the relevant surface features, nor on stress concentrations. Conventional measurements of surface roughness, which are highly influenced by adhered powder, are therefore unlikely to contain the information relevant to damage accumulation and crack initiation.

  11. High-pressure synchrotron x-ray diffraction and infrared microspectroscopy: applications to dense hydrous phases

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Z; Yang, H; Mao Ho Kwang; Hemley, R J

    2002-01-01

    Synchrotron x-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared (IR) absorption spectra of hydrous and 'anhydrous' forms of phase X were measured to 30 GPa at room temperature. Three OH stretching modes were found in the hydrous phase, and surprisingly one sharp OH mode was observed in the previously characterized anhydrous phase. All OH stretching modes soften and broaden with increasing pressure and become very weak above approx 20 GPa. XRD indicates that the crystal structure remains stable up to 30 GPa. Combining IR absorption and XRD results, the behaviour is attributed to pressure-induced distortion of the Si sub 2 O sub 7 groups and disorder of the hydrogen atoms. The bulk moduli of the hydrous and 'anhydrous' phases are in the region of 74 GPa.

  12. High pressure phases of uranium monophosphide studied by synchrotron X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staun Olson, J.; Gerward, L.; Benedict, U.; Dabos, S.; Vogt, O.

    1988-01-01

    X-ray diffraction studies have been performed on UP powder for pressures up to 51 GPa using synchrotron radiation and a diamond anvil cell. At ambient pressure UP has the rocksalt structure. The bulk modulus has been determined to B 0 = 102(4) GPa and its pressure derivative to B 0 ' = 4.0(8). The cubic phase has been found to transform to a new phase, UP II, at about 10 GPa. UP II can be characterized by a rhombohedral Bravais lattice. UP II transforms to an orthorhombic phase, UP III, at 28 GPa. No volume change has been observed at the two transitions. The influence of the 5f electrons on the transformations is discussed. (orig.)

  13. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction and imaging of ancient Chinese bronzes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, M.L.; Dunand, D.C.; Casadio, F.; Schnepp, S.; Almer, J.; Haeffner, D.R.

    2006-01-01

    High-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction and imaging experiments were performed at the Advanced Photon Source on two ancient Chinese bronzes from the Art Institute of Chicago with the goal to nondestructively study their microstructure. The first object, a bronze fragment from an early Western Zhou dynasty vessel (Hu, 11th/10th century B.C.), was investigated with spatially-resolved diffraction to reveal the depth and composition of the surface corrosion layer as well as the composition and grain size of the underlying bronze core. The second object, a bronze dagger-axe (Ge, 3rd/2nd century B.C.) with a silver-inlaid sheath, was studied under both diffraction and imaging conditions. It was found to have been cast as a single object, answering longstanding scholars' questions on whether the ceremonial object concealed an interior blade. (orig.)

  14. Porosity characterization of fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composite using synchrotron X-ray computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, C.; Li, B.; Zhang, C.; Wang, S.; Marrow, T.J.; Reinhard, C.

    2016-01-01

    The pore structure and porosity of a continuous fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composite has been characterized using high-resolution synchrotron X-ray computed tomography (XCT). Segmentation of the reconstructed tomograph images reveals different types of pores within the composite, the inter-fiber bundle open pores displaying a 'node-bond' geometry, and the intra-fiber bundle isolated micropores showing a piping shape. The 3D morphology of the pores is resolved and each pore is labeled. The quantitative filtering of the pores measures a total porosity 8.9% for the composite, amid which there is about 7.1∼ 9.3% closed micropores

  15. Synchrotron X-Ray Microdiffraction Studies of Electromigration in Interconnect lines at the Advanced Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, Nobumichi; Chen, Kai; Kunz, Martin

    2009-12-01

    Synchrotron polychromatic X-ray microdiffraction is a particularly suitable technique to study in situ the effect of electromigration in metal interconnects as add spatial resolution to grain orientation and strain sensitivity. This technique has been extensively used at the Advanced Light Source to monitor changes in aluminum and copper interconnect test structures while high-density current is passed into them during accelerated tests at elevated temperature. One of the principal findings is the observation of electromigration-induced plasticity in the metal lines that appear during the very early stages of electromigration. In some of the lines, high density of geometrically necessary dislocation are formed leading to additional diffusion paths causing an enhancement of electromigration effect at test temperature.

  16. High-pressure X-ray diffraction experiments on US using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, J.S.; Steenstrup, S.

    1983-12-01

    High-pressure X-ray diffraction studies have been performed on US up to 40 GPa using synchrotron radiation and a diamond anvil cell. The measured value of the bulk modulus B 0 = 92 GPa is in reasonable agreement with calculations. The high-pressure behaviour indicates a phase transformation to US III at about 15 GPa. The transformation is a smooth deformation process, which starts with a tetragonal structure asub(tetr) = asub(cub)/√2, csub(tetr) = 2asub(cub) and continues with an orthorhombic structure with a = 375(3)pm, b = 345(3)pm, c = 1069 (24)pm at 35 GPa; it is of second order nature within experimental errors and it should involve some contributions from uranium f electrons. (orig.)

  17. K-edge subtraction synchrotron X-ray imaging in bio-medical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomlinson, W; Elleaume, H; Porra, L; Suortti, P

    2018-05-01

    High contrast in X-ray medical imaging, while maintaining acceptable radiation dose levels to the patient, has long been a goal. One of the most promising methods is that of K-edge subtraction imaging. This technique, first advanced as long ago as 1953 by B. Jacobson, uses the large difference in the absorption coefficient of elements at energies above and below the K-edge. Two images, one taken above the edge and one below the edge, are subtracted leaving, ideally, only the image of the distribution of the target element. This paper reviews the development of the KES techniques and technology as applied to bio-medical imaging from the early low-power tube sources of X-rays to the latest high-power synchrotron sources. Applications to coronary angiography, functional lung imaging and bone growth are highlighted. A vision of possible imaging with new compact sources is presented. Copyright © 2018 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of Cobalt Fillers on Polyurethane Segmentations Investigated by Synchrotron Small Angle X-Ray Scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krit Koyvanich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The segmentation between rigid and rubbery chains in polyurethanes (PUs influences polymeric properties and implementations. Several models have successfully been proposed to visualize the configuration between the hard segment (HS and soft segment (SS. For particulate PU composites, the arrangement of HS and SS is more complicated because the fillers tend to disrupt the chain formation and segmentation. In this work, the effect of ferromagnetic cobalt (Co powders (average diameter 2 μm on PU synthesized from a reaction between polyether polyol (soft segment and diphenylmethane-4,4′-diisocyanate (hard segment was studied with varying loadings (0, 20, 40, and 60 wt.%. The 300 μm thick PU/Co samples were tape-casted and then received heat treatment at 80°C for 180 min. From synchrotron small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS, the plot of the X-ray scattering intensity (I against the scattering vector (q exhibited a typical single peak of PU whose intensity was reduced by the increase in the Co loading. Characteristic SAXS peaks in the case of 0-20 wt.% Co agreed well with the scattering by globular hard segment domains according to Zernike-Prins and Percus-Yevick models. The higher Co loadings led to larger deviations from all theoretical models.

  19. Spatially resolved synchrotron radiation induced X-ray fluorescence analyses of rare Rembrandt silverpoint drawings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiche, I.; Radtke, M.; Berger, A.; Goerner, W.; Merchel, S.; Riesemeier, H.; Bevers, H.

    2006-01-01

    New analyses of a series of very rare silverpoint drawings that were executed by Rembrandt Harmensz. van Rijn (1606-1669) which are kept today in the Kupferstichkabinett (Museum of Prints and Drawings) of the State Museums of Berlin are reported here. Analysis of these drawings requires particular attention because the study has to be fully non-destructive and extremely sensitive. The metal alloy on the paper does not exceed some hundreds of μg/cm 2 . Therefore, synchrotron radiation induced X-ray fluorescence (SR-XRF) is - together with external micro-proton-induced X-ray emission - the only well-suited method for the analyses of metalpoint drawings. In some primary work, about 25 German and Flemish metalpoint drawings were investigated using spatially resolved SR-XRF analysis at the BAMline at BESSY. This study enlarges the existing French-German database of metalpoint drawings dating from the 15th and 16th centuries, as these Rembrandt drawings originate from the 17th century where this graphical technique was even rarer and already obsolete. It also illustrates how SR-XRF analysis can reinforce art historical assumptions on the dating of drawings and their connection. (orig.)

  20. Study of gold nanoparticle synthesis by synchrotron x-ray diffraction and fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhongying; Wang, Xiao; Yu, Le; Moeendarbari, Sina; Hao, Yaowu; Cai, Zhonghou; Cheng, Xuemei

    Gold nanoparticles have a wide range of potential applications, including therapeutic agent delivery, catalysis, and electronics. Recently a new process of hollow nanoparticle synthesis was reported, the mechanism of which was hypothesized to involve electroless deposition around electrochemically evolved hydrogen bubbles. However, the growth mechanism still needs experimental evidence. We report investigation of this synthesis process using synchrotron x-ray diffraction and fluorescence measurements performed at beamline 2-ID-D of the Advanced Photon Source (APS). A series of gold nanoparticle samples with different synthesis time (50-1200 seconds) were deposited using a mixture electrolyte solution of Na3Au(SO3)2 and H4N2NiO6S2 on anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes. The 2D mapping of fluorescence intensity and comparison of x-ray diffraction peaks of the samples have provided valuable information on the growth mechanism. Work at Bryn Mawr College and University of Texas at Arlington is supported by NSF Grants (1207085 and 1207377) and use of the APS at Argonne National Laboratory is supported by the U. S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  1. Synchrotron X-Ray Microdiffraction Studies of Electromigration in Interconnect lines at the Advanced Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Nobumichi; Chen, Kai; Kunz, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Synchrotron polychromatic X-ray microdiffraction is a particularly suitable technique to study in situ the effect of electromigration in metal interconnects as add spatial resolution to grain orientation and strain sensitivity. This technique has been extensively used at the Advanced Light Source to monitor changes in aluminum and copper interconnect test structures while high-density current is passed into them during accelerated tests at elevated temperature. One of the principal findings is the observation of electromigration-induced plasticity in the metal lines that appear during the very early stages of electromigration. In some of the lines, high density of geometrically necessary dislocation are formed leading to additional diffusion paths causing an enhancement of electromigration effect at test temperature. This paper presents an overview of the principal results obtained from X-ray microdiffraction studies of electromigration effects on aluminum and copper interconnects at the ALS throughout continuous efforts that spanned over a decade (1998-2008) from approximately 40 weeks of combined beamtime.

  2. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Chemical Crystallography with Pulsed Neutrons and Synchrotron X-Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Jeffrey, George

    1988-01-01

    X-ray and neutron crystallography have played an increasingly impor­ tant role in the chemical and biochemical sciences over the past fifty years. The principal obstacles in this methodology, the phase problem and com­ puting, have been overcome. The former by the methods developed in the 1960's and just recognised by the 1985 Chemistry Nobel Prize award to Karle and Hauptman, the latter by the dramatic advances that have taken place in computer technology in the past twenty years. Within the last decade, two new radiation sources have been added to the crystallographer's tools. One is synchrotron X-rays and the other is spallation neutrons. Both have much more powerful fluxes than the pre­ vious sources and they are pulsed rather than continuos. New techniques are necessary to fully exploit the intense continuos radiation spectrum and its pulsed property. Both radiations are only available from particular National Laboratories on a guest-user basis for scientists outside these Na­ tional Laboratories. Hi...

  3. Synchrotron X-Ray Microdiffraction Studies of Electromigration in Interconnect lines at the Advanced Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, Nobumichi; Chen, Kai; Kunz, Martin

    2009-05-01

    Synchrotron polychromatic X-ray microdiffraction is a particularly suitable technique to study in situ the effect of electromigration in metal interconnects as add spatial resolution to grain orientation and strain sensitivity. This technique has been extensively used at the Advanced Light Source to monitor changes in aluminum and copper interconnect test structures while high-density current is passed into them during accelerated tests at elevated temperature. One of the principal findings is the observation of electromigration-induced plasticity in the metal lines that appear during the very early stages of electromigration. In some of the lines, high density of geometrically necessary dislocation are formed leading to additional diffusion paths causing an enhancement of electromigration effect at test temperature. This paper presents an overview of the principal results obtained from X-ray microdiffraction studies of electromigration effects on aluminum and copper interconnects at the ALS throughout continuous efforts that spanned over a decade (1998-2008) from approximately 40 weeks of combined beamtime.

  4. High resolution X-ray detector for synchrotron-based microtomography

    CERN Document Server

    Stampanoni, M; Wyss, P; Abela, R; Patterson, B; Hunt, S; Vermeulen, D; Rueegsegger, P

    2002-01-01

    Synchrotron-based microtomographic devices are powerful, non-destructive, high-resolution research tools. Highly brilliant and coherent X-rays extend the traditional absorption imaging techniques and enable edge-enhanced and phase-sensitive measurements. At the Materials Science Beamline MS of the Swiss Light Source (SLS), the X-ray microtomographic device is now operative. A high performance detector based on a scintillating screen optically coupled to a CCD camera has been developed and tested. Different configurations are available, covering a field of view ranging from 715x715 mu m sup 2 to 7.15x7.15 mm sup 2 with magnifications from 4x to 40x. With the highest magnification 480 lp/mm had been achieved at 10% modulation transfer function which corresponds to a spatial resolution of 1.04 mu m. A low-noise fast-readout CCD camera transfers 2048x2048 pixels within 100-250 ms at a dynamic range of 12-14 bit to the file server. A user-friendly graphical interface gives access to the main parameters needed for ...

  5. Timepix3 as X-ray detector for time resolved synchrotron experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousef, Hazem, E-mail: hazem.yousef@diamond.ac.uk; Crevatin, Giulio; Gimenez, Eva N.; Horswell, Ian; Omar, David; Tartoni, Nicola

    2017-02-11

    The Timepix3 ASIC can be used very effectively for time resolved experiments at synchrotron facilities. We have carried out characterizations with the synchrotron beam in order to determine the time resolution and other characteristics such as the energy resolution, charge sharing and signals overlapping. The best time resolution achieved is 19 ns FWHM for 12 keV photons and 350 V bias voltage. The time resolution shows dependency on the photon energy as well as on the chip and acquisition parameters. - Highlights: • An estimate time resolution of the Timepix3 is produced based on the arrival time. • At high resolution, the time structure of the DLS synchrotron beam is resolved. • The arrival time information improves combining the charge split events. • The results enable performing a wide range of time resolved experiments.

  6. Timepix3 as X-ray detector for time resolved synchrotron experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousef, Hazem; Crevatin, Giulio; Gimenez, Eva N.; Horswell, Ian; Omar, David; Tartoni, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    The Timepix3 ASIC can be used very effectively for time resolved experiments at synchrotron facilities. We have carried out characterizations with the synchrotron beam in order to determine the time resolution and other characteristics such as the energy resolution, charge sharing and signals overlapping. The best time resolution achieved is 19 ns FWHM for 12 keV photons and 350 V bias voltage. The time resolution shows dependency on the photon energy as well as on the chip and acquisition parameters. - Highlights: • An estimate time resolution of the Timepix3 is produced based on the arrival time. • At high resolution, the time structure of the DLS synchrotron beam is resolved. • The arrival time information improves combining the charge split events. • The results enable performing a wide range of time resolved experiments.

  7. Design of parallel dual-energy X-ray beam and its performance for security radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kwang Hyun; Myoung, Sung Min; Chung, Yong Hyun

    2011-01-01

    A new concept of dual-energy X-ray beam generation and acquisition of dual-energy security radiography is proposed. Erbium (Er) and rhodium (Rh) with a copper filter were positioned in front of X-ray tube to generate low- and high-energy X-ray spectra. Low- and high-energy X-rays were guided to separately enter into two parallel detectors. Monte Carlo code of MCNPX was used to derive an optimum thickness of each filter for improved dual X-ray image quality. It was desired to provide separation ability between organic and inorganic matters for the condition of 140 kVp/0.8 mA as used in the security application. Acquired dual-energy X-ray beams were evaluated by the dual-energy Z-map yielding enhanced performance compared with a commercial dual-energy detector. A collimator for the parallel dual-energy X-ray beam was designed to minimize X-ray beam interference between low- and high-energy parallel beams for 500 mm source-to-detector distance.

  8. A spectrometer for X-ray energy-dispersive diffraction using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buras, B.; Gerward, L.; Staun Olsen, J.; Steenstrup, S.

    1981-10-01

    The paper describes a white-beam X-ray energy dispersive diffractometer using the synchroton radiation from the DORIS ESR. The following features of the instrument are discussed: Horizontal or vertical scattering plane, collimators, sample environment, remote control of gonimeter, data acquisition, energy-sensitive detectors using small-area and large-area detector crystals, modes of operation, powder and single crystal diffraction. An example is given from a high-pressure study of YbH 2 using a diamond anvil cell. (orig./HP)

  9. Absorbed dose determination in kilovoltage X-ray synchrotron radiation using alanine dosimeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, D J; Lye, J E; Wright, T E; Crossley, D; Sharpe, P H G; Stevenson, A W; Livingstone, J; Crosbie, J C

    2016-12-01

    Alanine dosimeters from the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) in the UK were irradiated using kilovoltage synchrotron radiation at the imaging and medical beam line (IMBL) at the Australian Synchrotron. A 20 × 20 mm 2 area was irradiated by scanning the phantom containing the alanine through the 1 mm × 20 mm beam at a constant velocity. The polychromatic beam had an average energy of 95 keV and nominal absorbed dose to water rate of 250 Gy/s. The absorbed dose to water in the solid water phantom was first determined using a PTW Model 31014 PinPoint ionization chamber traceable to a graphite calorimeter. The alanine was read out at NPL using correction factors determined for 60 Co, traceable to NPL standards, and a published energy correction was applied to correct for the effect of the synchrotron beam quality. The ratio of the doses determined by alanine at NPL and those determined at the synchrotron was 0.975 (standard uncertainty 0.042) when alanine energy correction factors published by Waldeland et al. (Waldeland E, Hole E O, Sagstuen E and Malinen E, Med. Phys. 2010, 37, 3569) were used, and 0.996 (standard uncertainty 0.031) when factors by Anton et al. (Anton M, Büermann L., Phys Med Biol. 2015 60 6113-29) were used. The results provide additional verification of the IMBL dosimetry.

  10. Investigation of the structure of human dental tissue at multiple length scales using high energy synchrotron X-ray SAXS/WAXS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Tan; Landini, Gabriel; Korsunsky, Alexander M.

    2011-10-01

    High energy (>50keV) synchrotron X-ray scattering experiments were carried out on beamline I12 JEEP at the Diamond Light Source (DLS, Oxford, UK). Although a complete human tooth could be studied, in the present study attention was focused on coupons from the region of the Dentin-Enamel Junction (DEJ). Simultaneous high energy SAXS/WAXS measurements were carried out. Quantitative analysis of the results allows multiple length scale characterization of the nano-crystalline structure of dental tissues. SAXS patterns analysis provide insight into the mean thickness and orientation of hydroxyapatite particles, while WAXS (XRD) patterns allow the determination of the crystallographic unit cell parameters of the hydroxyapatite phase. It was found that the average particle thickness determined from SAXS interpretation varies as a function of position in the vicinity of the DEJ. Most mineral particles are randomly orientated within dentin, although preferred orientation emerges and becomes stronger on approach to the enamel. Within the enamel, texture is stronger than anywhere in the dentin, and the determination of lattice parameters can be accomplished by Pawley refinement of the multiple peak diffraction pattern. The results demonstrate the feasibility of using high energy synchrotron X-ray beams for the characterization of human dental tissues. This opens up the opportunity of studying thick samples (e.g., complete teeth) in complex sample environments (e.g., under saline solution). This opens new avenues for the application of high energy synchrotron X-ray scattering to dental research.

  11. Generation of linearly polarized resonant transition radiation X-ray beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yajima, Kazuaki; Awata, Takaaki; Ikeda, Mitsuharu; Ikeda, Kenichi; Yogo, Akifumi; Itoh, Akio; Imanishi, Nobutsugu

    2000-01-01

    We have proposed a method to generate almost linearly polarized resonant transition radiation X rays by using a rectangular slit placed on an electron beam axis. Our calculation predicted that the linearity is 93.5% for the resonant transition radiation X-ray beam extracted through a slit of 0.5 mrad long and 0.2 mrad wide in case of 1-GeV electron beam irradiating a 7.5-μm thick Kapton foil stack. (author)

  12. Generation of linearly polarized resonant transition radiation X-ray beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yajima, Kazuaki; Awata, Takaaki; Ikeda, Mitsuharu; Ikeda, Kenichi; Yogo, Akifumi; Itoh, Akio; Imanishi, Nobutsugu [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    2000-03-01

    We have proposed a method to generate almost linearly polarized resonant transition radiation X rays by using a rectangular slit placed on an electron beam axis. Our calculation predicted that the linearity is 93.5% for the resonant transition radiation X-ray beam extracted through a slit of 0.5 mrad long and 0.2 mrad wide in case of 1-GeV electron beam irradiating a 7.5-{mu}m thick Kapton foil stack. (author)

  13. Chemical Mapping of Paleontological and Archeological Artifacts with Synchrotron X-Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Uwe; Manning, Phillip L.; Wogelius, Roy A.

    2012-07-01

    The application of the recently developed synchrotron rapid scanning X-ray fluorescence (SRS-XRF) technique to the mapping of large objects is the focus of this review. We discuss the advantages of SRS-XRF over traditional systems and the use of other synchrotron radiation (SR) techniques to provide corroborating spectroscopic and diffraction analyses during the same analytical session. After reviewing routine techniques used to analyze precious specimens, we present several case studies that show how SR-based methods have been successfully applied in archeology and paleontology. For example, SRS-XRF imaging of a seventh-century Qur'ān palimpsest and an overpainted original opera score from Luigi Cherubini is described. We also review the recent discovery of soft-tissue residue in fossils of Archaeopteryx and an ancient reptile, as well as work that has successfully resolved the remnants of pigment in Confuciusornis sanctus, a 120-million-year-old fossil of the oldest documented bird with a fully derived avian beak.

  14. Synchrotron radiation total reflection x-ray fluorescence analysis; of polymer coated silicon wafers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brehm, L.; Kregsamer, P.; Pianetta, P.

    2000-01-01

    It is well known that total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF) provides an efficient method for analyzing trace metal contamination on silicon wafer surfaces. New polymeric materials used as interlayer dielectrics in microprocessors are applied to the surface of silicon wafers by a spin-coating process. Analysis of these polymer coated wafers present a new challenge for TXRF analysis. Polymer solutions are typically analyzed for bulk metal contamination prior to application on the wafer using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Questions have arisen about how to relate results of surface contamination analysis (TXRF) of a polymer coated wafer to bulk trace analysis (ICP-MS) of the polymer solutions. Experiments were done to explore this issue using synchrotron radiation (SR) TXRF. Polymer solutions were spiked with several different concentrations of metals. These solutions were applied to silicon wafers using the normal spin-coating process. The polymer coated wafers were then measured using the SR-TXRF instrument set-up at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL). Several methods of quantitation were evaluated. The best results were obtained by developing calibration curves (intensity versus ppb) using the spiked polymer coated wafers as standards. Conversion of SR-TXRF surface analysis results (atoms/cm 2 ) to a volume related concentration was also investigated. (author)

  15. Accelerated Synchrotron X-ray Diffraction Data Analysis on a Heterogeneous High Performance Computing System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, J; Bauer, M A, E-mail: qin.jinhui@gmail.com, E-mail: bauer@uwo.ca [Computer Science Department, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 5B7 (Canada)

    2010-11-01

    The analysis of synchrotron X-ray Diffraction (XRD) data has been used by scientists and engineers to understand and predict properties of materials. However, the large volume of XRD image data and the intensive computations involved in the data analysis makes it hard for researchers to quickly reach any conclusions about the images from an experiment when using conventional XRD data analysis software. Synchrotron time is valuable and delays in XRD data analysis can impact decisions about subsequent experiments or about materials that they are investigating. In order to improve the data analysis performance, ideally to achieve near real time data analysis during an XRD experiment, we designed and implemented software for accelerated XRD data analysis. The software has been developed for a heterogeneous high performance computing (HPC) system, comprised of IBM PowerXCell 8i processors and Intel quad-core Xeon processors. This paper describes the software and reports on the improved performance. The results indicate that it is possible for XRD data to be analyzed at the rate it is being produced.

  16. Accelerated Synchrotron X-ray Diffraction Data Analysis on a Heterogeneous High Performance Computing System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, J; Bauer, M A

    2010-01-01

    The analysis of synchrotron X-ray Diffraction (XRD) data has been used by scientists and engineers to understand and predict properties of materials. However, the large volume of XRD image data and the intensive computations involved in the data analysis makes it hard for researchers to quickly reach any conclusions about the images from an experiment when using conventional XRD data analysis software. Synchrotron time is valuable and delays in XRD data analysis can impact decisions about subsequent experiments or about materials that they are investigating. In order to improve the data analysis performance, ideally to achieve near real time data analysis during an XRD experiment, we designed and implemented software for accelerated XRD data analysis. The software has been developed for a heterogeneous high performance computing (HPC) system, comprised of IBM PowerXCell 8i processors and Intel quad-core Xeon processors. This paper describes the software and reports on the improved performance. The results indicate that it is possible for XRD data to be analyzed at the rate it is being produced.

  17. Analyses of Interaction Phases of U Mo Dispersion Fuel by Synchrotron X ray Diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Woo Jeong; Nam, Ji Min; Ryu, Ho Jin; Park, Jong Man [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Herve, Palancher; Charollais, Francois [Saint Paul Lez Durance Cedex, Rhone (France); Bonnin, Anne; Honkimaeki, Veijo [Grenoble Cedex, Grenoble (France); Patrick Lemoined [Gif sur Yvette, Paris (France)

    2012-10-15

    Gamma phase U Mo alloys are one of the promising candidates to be used as advanced high uranium density fuel for high power research reactors due to their excellent irradiation performance. However, formation of interaction layers between the U Mo particles and Al matrix degrades the irradiation performance of U Mo dispersion fuel. One of the remedies to the interaction problem is a Si addition to the Al matrix. Recent irradiation tests have shown that the use of Al (2{approx}5wt%)Si matrices retarded the growth of interaction layers effectively during irradiation. Recently, KAERI has proposed silicide or nitride coated U Mo fuel for the minimization of the interaction layer growth. The silicide or nitride coatings are expected to act as interdiffusion barriers and their out of pile tests showed the improved diffusion barrier performances of the silicide and nitride layers. In order to characterize constituent phases in the coated layers on U Mo particles and the interaction layers of coated U Mo particle dispersed fuel, synchrotron X ray diffraction experiments have been performed at the ESRF (European Synchrotron Radiation Facility), France as a KAERI CEA cooperation program.

  18. Pore-scale evaporation-condensation dynamics resolved by synchrotron x-ray tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahraeeni, Ebrahim; Or, Dani

    2012-01-01

    Capillary processes greatly influence vapor mediated transport dynamics and associated changes in liquid phase content of porous media. Rapid x-ray synchrotron tomography measurements were used to resolve liquid-vapor interfacial dynamics during evaporation and condensation within submillimetric pores forming between sintered glass bead samples subjected to controlled ambient temperature and relative humidity. Evolution of gas-liquid interfacial shapes were in agreement with predictions based on our analytical model for interfacial dynamics in confined wedge-shaped pores. We also compared literature experimental data at the nanoscale to illustrate the capability of our model to describe early stages of condensation giving rise to the onset of capillary forces between rough surfaces. The study provides high resolution, synchrotron-based observations of capillary evaporation-condensation dynamics at the pore scale as the confirmation of the pore scale analytical model for capillary condensation in a pore and enables direct links with evolution of macroscopic vapor gradients within a sintered glass bead sample through their effect on configuration and evolution of the local interfaces. Rapid condensation processes play a critical role in the onset of capillary-induced friction affecting mechanical behavior of physical systems and industrial applications.

  19. Multielemental analysis in cigarettes using total reflection X-ray fluorescence with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, R.F.; Anjos, M.J. dos; Jesus, E.F.O. de; Lopes, R.T.; Moreira, S.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: It is well known that trace elements have important ejects in the life processes. Some of these elements are toxic for the human even at a very low level of intake. It is known that tobacco plant easily absorbs the heavy metals from the soil, especially Cd and Ni, accumulating them in its leaves. Part of these metals are transferred from tobacco to human body where they will be accumulated and damage some organs, mainly kidneys and liver. In this way, cigarettes are responsible for the death of millions of people in the world, about one death every eight seconds. The aim of this work was to determine the elemental concentrations of ten different elements in tobacco of Brazilian cigarettes used Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence with Synchrotron Radiation method. The fluorescence measurements were carried out at Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory, Campinas - Sao Paulo. A qualitative analysis of spectral peaks showed that the samples contained potassium, calcium, titanium, chromium, manganese, iron, copper, rubidium and strontium. Among these elements, calcium, potassium and iron presented the highest concentrations. There was a wide range in the elemental concentrations in the tobacco, due various factors, such as agricultural practices, soil characteristics, climatic conditions and plant varieties. Our results are in good concern with the results reported by the scientific literature

  20. Evaluation device of diagnostic X-ray beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pela, Carlos Alberto; Paula, Eldereis de; Bruco, Jose Luiz; Ghilardi Netto, Thomaz

    1996-01-01

    A device developed to determine the physical parameters useful to the evaluation of both dental and medical X-ray equipment is presented. Nine detectors connected each one to a signal amplifier are used. The amplifiers output has being connected to an analog to digital interface plugged in a PC-AT microcomputer. The X-ray pass through filters before reaching the detectors. The data collected by microcomputer are used to calculate the kVp and other factors as total tube filtration, waveform, half-value layer, exposure rate and exposure time

  1. Evaluation of the Beam Quality of Intraoral X-ray Equipment using Intraoral Standard Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Sub; Kwon, Hyok Rak; Sim, Woo Hyoun; Oh, Seung Hyoun; Lee, Ji Youn; Jeon, Kug Jin; Kim, Kee Deog; Park, Chang Seo

    2000-01-01

    This study was to evaluate the beam quality of intraoral X-ray equipment used at Yonsei University Dental Hospital (YUDH) using the half value layer (HVL) and the characteristic curve of intraoral standard X-ray film. The study was done using the intraoral X-ray equipment used at each clinical department at YUDH. Aluminum filter was used to determine the HVL. Intraoral standard film was used to get the characteristic curve of each intraoral X-ray equipment. Most of the HVLs of intraoral X-ray equipment were higher than the least recommended thickness, but the REX 601 model used at the operative dentistry department and the X-707 model used at the pediatric dentistry department had HVLs lower than the recommended thickness. The slopes of the characteristic curves of films taken using the PANPAS 601 model and REX 601 model at operative dentistry department, the X-70S model of prosthodontic dentistry department, and the REX 601 model at the student clinic were relatively low. HVL and the characteristic curve of X-ray film can be used to evaluate the beam quality of intraoral X-ray equipment. In order to get the best X-ray films with the least radiation exposure to patients and best diagnostic information in clinical dentistry, X-ray equipment should be managed in the planned and organized fashion.

  2. Atomic physics with high-brightness synchrotron x-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, K.W.; Johnson, B.M.; Meron, M.

    1985-11-01

    A description of atomic physics experiments that we intend to carry out at the National Synchrotron Light Source is given. Emphasis is given to work that investigates the properties of multiply charged ions. The use of a synchrotron storage ring for highly charged heavy ions is proposed as a way to produce high current beams which will make possible experiments to study the photoexcitation and ionization of multiply charged ions for the first time. Experiments along the same lines which are feasible at the proposed Advanced Light Source are considered briefly. 7 refs., 2 figs

  3. High resolution hard X-ray photoemission using synchrotron radiation as an essential tool for characterization of thin solid films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.J.; Ikenaga, E.; Kobata, M.; Takeuchi, A.; Awaji, M.; Makino, H.; Chen, P.P.; Yamamoto, A.; Matsuoka, T.; Miwa, D.; Nishino, Y.; Yamamoto, T.; Yao, T.; Kobayashi, K.

    2006-01-01

    Recently, we have shown that hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy using undulator X-rays at SPring-8 is quite feasible with both high resolution and high throughput. Here we report an application of hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy to the characterization of electronic and chemical states of thin solid films, for which conventional PES is not applicable. As a typical example, we focus on the problem of the scatter in the reported band-gap values for InN. We show that oxygen incorporation into the InN film strongly modifies the valence and plays a crucial role in the band gap problem. The present results demonstrate the powerful applicability of high resolution photoemission spectroscopy with hard X-rays from a synchrotron source

  4. Multispecies Biofilms Transform Selenium Oxyanions into Elemental Selenium Particles: Studies Using Combined Synchrotron X-ray Fluorescence Imaging and Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Soo In; George, Graham N.; Lawrence, John R.; Kaminskyj, Susan G. W.; Dynes, James J.; Lai, Barry; Pickering, Ingrid J.

    2016-10-04

    Selenium (Se) is an element of growing environmental concern, because low aqueous concentrations can lead to biomagnification through the aquatic food web. Biofilms, naturally occurring microbial consortia, play numerous important roles in the environment, especially in biogeochemical cycling of toxic elements in aquatic systems. The complexity of naturally forming multispecies biofilms presents challenges for characterization because conventional microscopic techniques require chemical and physical modifications of the sample. Here, multispecies biofilms biotransforming selenium oxyanions were characterized using X-ray fluorescence imaging (XFI) and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM). These complementary synchrotron techniques required minimal sample preparation and were applied correlatively to the same biofilm areas. Sub-micrometer XFI showed distributions of Se and endogenous metals, while Se K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy indicated the presence of elemental Se (Se0). Nanoscale carbon K-edge STXM revealed the distributions of microbial cells, extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), and lipids using the protein, saccharide, and lipid signatures, respectively, together with highly localized Se0 using the Se LIII edge. Transmission electron microscopy showed the electron-dense particle diameter to be 50–700 nm, suggesting Se0 nanoparticles. The intimate association of Se0 particles with protein and polysaccharide biofilm components has implications for the bioavailability of selenium in the environment.

  5. Synchrotron X-Ray Study of Melting in Submonolayer Ar and other Rare-Gas Films on Graphite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McTague, J. P.; Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Bohr, Jakob

    1982-01-01

    Synchrotron x-ray diffraction studies of the (10) peak of Ar on the (001) surface of ZYX graphite show a sharp but continuous broadening of the Bragg peak with increasing temperature. Below a coverage of ∼ 1 Ar atom per six surface carbon atoms (ρ=1) the onset of this transition occurs...

  6. Methodology for in situ synchrotron X-ray studies in the laser-heated diamond anvil cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mezouar, M.; Giampaoli, R.; Garbarino, G.

    2017-01-01

    A review of some important technical challenges related to in situ diamond anvil cell laser heating experimentation at synchrotron X-ray sources is presented. The problem of potential chemical reactions between the sample and the pressure medium or the carbon from the diamond anvils is illustrated...

  7. Studies of protein structure in solution and protein folding using synchrotron small-angle x-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Lingling [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Synchrotron small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) has been applied to the structural study of several biological systems, including the nitrogenase complex, the heat shock cognate protein (hsc70), and lysozyme folding. The structural information revealed from the SAXS experiments is complementary to information obtained by other physical and biochemical methods, and adds to our knowledge and understanding of these systems.

  8. The epitaxial growth and interfacial strain study of VO{sub 2}/MgF{sub 2} (001) films by synchrotron based grazing incidence X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, L.L. [Key Laboratory for Advanced Technology in Environmental Protection of Jiangsu Province, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Yancheng 224051 (China); National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230029 (China); Chen, S. [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230029 (China); Liu, Q.H. [Science and Technology on Electro-optical Information Security Control Laboratory, Tianjin 300300 (China); Liao, G.M.; Chen, Y.L.; Ren, H. [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230029 (China); Zou, C.W., E-mail: czou@ustc.edu.cn [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230029 (China)

    2016-09-05

    High quality VO{sub 2} films with different thickness were epitaxially grown on MgF{sub 2} (001) substrates by oxide molecular beam epitaxy method. The evolution of interfacial strain was investigated by synchrotron based grazing incidence X-ray diffraction. By adjusting the incidence angles, the penetration depth of X-ray in VO{sub 2} film could be controlled and the thickness-depend lattice distortion in the epitaxial VO{sub 2} film was investigated. Due to the lattice mismatching, the pronounced tensile strain was observed in ultra-thin VO{sub 2} film. As the film thickness increasing, the interfacial strain relaxed gradually and became fully relaxed for thick VO{sub 2} films. Combined with the electric transport measurement, it was revealed that the phase transition temperature of ultra-thin VO{sub 2} film decreased greatly. The effect of interfacial strain induced phase transition modulation and the intrinsic mechanism was systematically discussed. - Highlights: • We prepared high quality VO{sub 2} epitaxial films on MgF{sub 2} (001) substrates by oxide molecular beam epitaxy method. • Synchrotron radiation grazing incidence X-ray diffraction was employed to detect evolution of strain along depth profile. • Based on a classic band structure model, the mechanism of strain controlled phase transition of VO{sub 2} was discussed.

  9. An MCNP-based model of a medical linear accelerator x-ray photon beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajaj, F A; Ghassal, N M

    2003-09-01

    The major components in the x-ray photon beam path of the treatment head of the VARIAN Clinac 2300 EX medical linear accelerator were modeled and simulated using the Monte Carlo N-Particle radiation transport computer code (MCNP). Simulated components include x-ray target, primary conical collimator, x-ray beam flattening filter and secondary collimators. X-ray photon energy spectra and angular distributions were calculated using the model. The x-ray beam emerging from the secondary collimators were scored by considering the total x-ray spectra from the target as the source of x-rays at the target position. The depth dose distribution and dose profiles at different depths and field sizes have been calculated at a nominal operating potential of 6 MV and found to be within acceptable limits. It is concluded that accurate specification of the component dimensions, composition and nominal accelerating potential gives a good assessment of the x-ray energy spectra.

  10. Instrumentation of x-ray diffraction and materials research on the National Synchrotron Light Source. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liedl, G.L.

    1984-11-01

    MATRIX was organized in 1980 to formulate a research team to design and construct a beam line at NSLS for x-ray diffraction studies of materials. A versatile system was designed to allow a full range of experimental capabilities for wide angle x-ray scattering experiments including surface diffraction studies. The design and construction of the system has been completed. Testing of parts of the system was completed at CHESS and with x-ray sources or other equipment at member institutions. Installation of the beam line at NSLS is in progress and will proceed in parallel with the commissioning of the x-ray ring at NSLS. Full operation of the beam line is expected to be ready by December 1, 1984 being limited only by the source power of NSLS at that time. Useful experiments could be started if the power is at least 2 GeV and 100ma. The MATRIX beam line was one of the first x-ray beam lines to see light in the beam line in early spring of 1984. In July of 1984, the MATRIX beam line as the first port at NSLS to have a monochromatic beam and to scan part of the spectrum from the source. As part of this contract, six publications have resulted from the various projects. Three publications are concerned directly with the beam line and/or its operation while the other three publications are the result of research associated with the project

  11. Micro-beam X-ray fluorescence and absorption imaging techniques at the IAEA Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wegrzynek, Dariusz; Markowicz, A.; Bamford, S.; Chinea-Cano, E.; Bogovac, M.

    2005-01-01

    X-ray tube based, micro-beam X-ray fluorescence scanning spectrometer has been equipped with two energy dispersive X-ray detectors. The two-detector configuration allows for simultaneous collection of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and transmitted X-ray beam signals with a spatial resolution in the range of 10-50 μm, depending on the X-ray focussing element in use. The XRF signal is collected with a standard, liquid nitrogen cooled Si(Li) detector. The X-ray beam transmitted through the sample is acquired with a thermoelectrically cooled, silicon drift (SD) detector. The data acquisition is carried out in a fully automatic way under control of the SPECTOR-LOCATOR software. The software controls the scanning procedure and X-ray spectra acquisition during the scan. The energy dispersive X-ray spectra collected at every 'pixel' are stored for off-line processing. For selected regions of interest (ROI's), the element maps are constructed and displayed on-line. The spectrometer has been used for mapping elemental distributions and for performing 2D- and 3D-tomograpic imaging of minute objects in X-ray absorption and in X-ray fluorescence mode. A unique feature of the described system is simultaneous utilization of the two detectors, Si(Li) and SD, which adds new options for quantitative analysis and data interpretation. Examples of elemental mapping and 3D tomographic imaging as well as the advanced features of the SPECTOR-LOCATOR measurement control and data acquisition software are presented in this work

  12. (EXAFS) X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craievich, A.F.

    1983-01-01

    The technique EXAFS (Extended X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure) is presented and its applications using the synchrotron radiation as an incidente beam in Science of Materials and Biophysics are shown. (L.C.) [pt

  13. Development of an in situ temperature stage for synchrotron X-ray spectromicroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, R., E-mail: rupak@alum.mit.edu, E-mail: buonassisi@mit.edu; Serdy, J.; Culpepper, M. L.; Buonassisi, T., E-mail: rupak@alum.mit.edu, E-mail: buonassisi@mit.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); West, B.; Stuckelberger, M.; Bertoni, M. I. [School of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Lai, B.; Maser, J. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    In situ characterization of micro- and nanoscale defects in polycrystalline thin-film materials is required to elucidate the physics governing defect formation and evolution during photovoltaic device fabrication and operation. X-ray fluorescence spectromicroscopy is particularly well-suited to study defects in compound semiconductors, as it has a large information depth appropriate to study thick and complex materials, is sensitive to trace amounts of atomic species, and provides quantitative elemental information, non-destructively. Current in situ methods using this technique typically require extensive sample preparation. In this work, we design and build an in situ temperature stage to study defect kinetics in thin-film solar cells under actual processing conditions, requiring minimal sample preparation. Careful selection of construction materials also enables controlled non-oxidizing atmospheres inside the sample chamber such as H{sub 2}Se and H{sub 2}S. Temperature ramp rates of up to 300 °C/min are achieved, with a maximum sample temperature of 600 °C. As a case study, we use the stage for synchrotron X-ray fluorescence spectromicroscopy of CuIn{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}Se{sub 2} (CIGS) thin-films and demonstrate predictable sample thermal drift for temperatures 25–400 °C, allowing features on the order of the resolution of the measurement technique (125 nm) to be tracked while heating. The stage enables previously unattainable in situ studies of nanoscale defect kinetics under industrially relevant processing conditions, allowing a deeper understanding of the relationship between material processing parameters, materials properties, and device performance.

  14. Multiple energy computed tomography for neuroradiology with monochromatic x-rays from the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilmanian, F.A.; Garrett, R.F.; Thomlinson, W.C.; Berman, L.E.; Chapman, L.D.; Gmuer, N.F.; Lazarz, N.M.; Moulin, H.R.; Oversluizen, T.; Slatkin, D.N.; Stojanoff, V.; Volkow, N.D.; Zeman, H.D.; Luke, P.N.; Thompson, A.C.

    1990-01-01

    Monochromatic and tunable 33--100 keV x-rays from the X17 superconducting wiggler of the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) will be used for computed tomography (CT) of the human head and neck. The CT configuration will be one of a fixed horizontal fan-shaped beam and a seated rotating subject. The system, which is under development, will employ a two-crystal monochromator with an energy bandwidth of about 0.1%, and high-purity germanium linear array detector with 0.5 mm element width and 200 mm total width. Narrow energy bands not only eliminate beam hardening but are ideal for carrying out the following dial-energy methods: (a) dual-photon absorptiometry CT, that provides separate images of the low-Z and the intermediate-Z elements; and (b) K-edge subtraction CT of iodine and perhaps of heavier contrast elements. As a result, the system should provide ∼10-fold improvement in image contrast resolution and in quantitative precision over conventional CT. A prototype system for a 45 mm subject diameter will be ready in 1991, which will be used for studies with phantoms and small animals. The human imaging system will have a field of view of 200 mm. The in-plane spatial resolution in both systems will be 0.5 mm FWHM. 34 refs., 6 figs

  15. Dose fractionation in synchrotron radiation x-ray phase micro-tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frachon, Thibaut; Weber, Loriane; Hesse, Bernhard; Rit, Simon; Dong, Pei; Olivier, Cecile; Peyrin, Françoise; Langer, Max

    2015-01-01

    Phase sensitive x-ray imaging expands the applicability of standard attenuation based techniques by offering several orders of magnitude of increase in sensitivity. Due to the short wavelength, x-ray phase is not directly measurable, but has to be put in evidence by the use of phase contrast techniques. The phase can then be reconstructed from one or several phase contrast images. In this study, we consider synchrotron x-ray phase micro-computed tomography (μCT) based on free space propagation for heterogeneous and strongly absorbing objects. This technique generally relies on acquiring several scans of the sample at different detector distances. It is also generally believed that multi-distance phase μCT needs a higher dose input than single distance phase μCT. The purpose of this work is to study the impact of different means of dose fractionation on the reconstructed image quality. We define different acquistion schemes in multi-distance in-line phase μCT. Previously, the exposure time at each sample-to-detector distance was usually kept the same. Here, we let not only the number of distances vary but also the fraction of exposure time at each distance, the total exposure time being kept constant. Phase retrieval is performed with the mixed approach algorithm. The reconstructed μCT images are compared in terms of accuracy, precision and resolution. In addition, we also compare the result of dose fractionated multi distance phase μCT to single distance phase μCT using the same total radiation dose. In the multi-distance approach, we find that using different exposure times on each distance improves the image quality in the reconstructed image. Further, we show that, despite having the same total dose delivery, the multi distance imaging method gives better image quality than the single distance method, at the cost of an additional overhead from camera displacements and reference images. We show that by optimizing the acquistion parameters in terms of

  16. Beam monitor system for an x-ray free electron laser and compact laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Otake

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A beam-monitor system for XFEL/SPring 8, “SACLA,” has been constructed. In order to maintain a stable self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE interaction, the straightness and overlap of the axes to within 3  μm between the electron beams and the radiated x rays for an undulator section of about 100 m length is necessary. This straightness means relative alignment to an experimental target sample. Furthermore, a temporal stability of 30 fs in order to maintain a constant peak beam current is also necessary to conduct stable SASE lasing. The monitor system was developed to satisfy these spatial and temporal stability and resolution criteria. The system comprises spatial monitors, such as cavity-type beam-position monitors and screen monitors, as well as temporal measurement instruments, such as current monitors, waveguide spectrometers, coherent synchrotron-radiation detectors, a streak camera, and an rf deflector. Commissioning of SACLA started from March 2011, and the monitors performed sufficient roles to tune the beams for lasing. The achieved overall performances of the system, including data acquisition, are: the beam position monitor has a spatial resolution of 600 nm in rms; the bunch-length monitors show ability to observe bunch lengths from 1 ns in an injector with velocity bunching to less than 30 fs after three-stage bunch compressors. The less than 3  μm spatial resolution of the screen monitor was also confirmed during practical beam operation. Owing to these fulfilled performances, such as the high spatial and temporal resolutions, stable lasing of SACLA has been achieved.

  17. Effect of X-ray suppression system upon parameters of electrostatic accelerator ion beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. G. Ignat'ev

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Experimental study results are presented for a beam profile and emittance of an electrostatic accelerator “Sokol” before and after being equipped with magnet X-ray suppression system.

  18. Time- and position-resolved synchrotron x-ray scattering for structure research on biological connective tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zizak, I.

    2000-03-01

    Different experiments on connective tissue using synchrotron radiation were performed during the course of this thesis. The accent was on collagen containing connective tissue, such as tendon, bone and cartilage. The high brilliance of synchrotron radiation was used to perform the experiments with high temporal or spatial resolution. In particular, a device for scanning small-angle scattering was developed for the use at synchrotron radiation sources, and used to study the interface between bone and cartilage. Tensile experiments on tendons: Tendons are highly hierarchically structured tissue consisting mostly of collagen. Complex organization on all levels results in a complicated visco-elastic mechanical behavior. Stretched to small amounts, tendon is easily deformed. However, if the stress grows, the stress strain curve bends upwards and finally the fibers show linear stress-strain dependence. Due to the complex structure of the tissue, the processes that control these bio-mechanical properties are not known in detail yet. Thus, it is very important to determine the hierarchical levels at which the viscous and elastic processes occur. We concentrated our studies to rat tail tendons, which consist mostly of collagen fibers. By investigating this system, we could gain some fundamental information about the way of assembling the collagen molecules in the fibers, as well as the interfibrillar connections. Tensile measurements on tendons give insight into the stress-strain characteristic of the tendon. Simultaneous acquisition of the structure function in a scattering experiment provides information on the processes at the molecular level, particularly the stretching of the collagen fibrils. To perform these two kinds of measurements simultaneously, a special device was used. Due to the speed of the processes, relative fast x-ray detectors and high intensity of the x-ray beam were required. Thus, the experiments were performed at the synchrotron radiation source

  19. Fluorescent x-ray computed tomography with synchrotron radiation using fan collimator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Tohoru; Akiba, Masahiro; Yuasa, Tetsuya; Kazama, Masahiro; Hoshino, Atsunori; Watanabe, Yuuki; Hyodo, Kazuyuki; Dilmanian, F. Avraham; Akatsuka, Takao; Itai, Yuji

    1996-04-01

    We describe a new system of fluorescent x-ray computed tomography applied to image nonradioactive contrast materials in vivo. The system operates on the basis of computed tomography (CT) of the first generation. The experiment was also simulated using the Monte Carlo method. The research was carried out at the BLNE-5A bending-magnet beam line of the Tristan Accumulation Ring in Kek, Japan. An acrylic cylindrical phantom containing five paraxial channels of 5 and 4 mm diameters was imaged. The channels were filled with a diluted iodine-based contrast material, with iodine concentrations of 2 mg/ml and 500 (mu) g/ml. Spectra obtained with the system's high purity germanium (HPGe) detector separated clearly the K(alpha ) and K(beta 1) x-ray fluorescent lines, and the Compton scattering. CT images were reconstructed from projections generated by integrating the counts in these spectral lines. The method had adequate sensitivity and detection power, as shown by the experiment and predicted by the simulations, to show the iodine content of the phantom channels, which corresponded to 1 and 4 (mu) g iodine content per pixel in the reconstructed images.

  20. Indentation size effects in single crystal copper as revealed by synchrotron x-ray microdiffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, G.; Budiman, A. S.; Nix, W. D.; Tamura, N.; Patel, J. R.

    2008-08-01

    For a Cu single crystal, we find that indentation hardness increases with decreasing indentation depth, a phenomenon widely observed before and called the indentation size effect (ISE). To understand the underlying mechanism, we measure the lattice rotations in indentations of different sizes using white beam x-ray microdiffraction (μXRD); the indentation-induced lattice rotations are directly measured by the streaking of x-ray Laue spots associated with the indentations. The magnitude of the lattice rotations is found to be independent of indentation size, which is consistent with the basic tenets of the ISE model. Using the μXRD data together with an ISE model, we can estimate the effective radius of the indentation plastic zone, and the estimate is consistent with the value predicted by a finite element analysis. Using these results, an estimate of the average dislocation densities within the plastic zones has been made; the findings are consistent with the ISE arising from a dependence of the dislocation density on the depth of indentation.