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Sample records for synchrotron radiation-based microtomography

  1. Analysis of wood microstructure by synchrotron radiation-based x-ray microtomography (SRμCT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautner, Silke; Beckmann, Felix

    2012-10-01

    Wood is a versatile tissue complex composed of different cell types such as tracheids, fibers, vessels and parenchyma cells, that each fulfills specific tasks within the woody body of a tree. However, even within a tree genus wood structure can differ significantly due to either biotic or abiotic stress factors occurring during the growth season, or due to cultivar specific growth characteristics. Typical tools for structural analysis of wood so far are scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and light microscopy, allowing measurements of sectional planes. However, the detection of boundary surfaces between neighboring cells and interconnectivity can only be observed in a restricted dimension. In our investigations at DESY, Hamburg, we applied SRμCT for characterization of small wood samples of poplar (Populus trichocarpa) to gain a three dimensional image of a small scale sample that allows us to visualize size, volume, form and interconnectivity of the cells in a non-destructive way. Dependent on sample size, high resolution of micro-structure can be gained. This technique is appropriate to calculate volumes, e.g. of water transported in vessel cells. Since it is possible to reconstruct the vessel network within a stem section, effects of wounding or other environmental stresses on the xylem structure in general, and particularly on the water transport system, might be detected and visualized in 3D by synchrotron radiation-based microtomography. Hence this method is a most promising tool for future investigations in the field of plant physiology.

  2. Comparison of conventional and synchrotron-radiation-based microtomography of bone around dental implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Paolo M.; Dalstra, Michel; Beckmann, Felix; Donath, Tilman; Melsen, Birte

    2004-10-01

    This study explores the application of conventional micro tomography (μCT) and synchrotron radiation (SR) based μCT to evaluate the bone around titanium dental implants. The SR experiment was performed at beamline W2 of HASYLAB at DESY using a monochromatic X-ray beam of 50 keV. The testing material consisted of undecalcified bone segments harvested from the upper jaw of a macaca fascicularis monkey each containing a titanium dental implant. The results from the two different techniques were qualitatively compared with conventional histological sections examined under light microscopy. The SR-based μCT produced images that, especially at the bone-implant interface, are less noisy and sharper than the ones obtained with conventional μCT. For the proper evaluation of the implant-bone interface, only the SR-based μCT technique is able to display the areas of bony contact and visualize the true 3D structure of bone around dental implants correctly. This investigation shows that both conventional and SR-based μCT scanning techniques are non-destructive methods, which provide detailed images of bone. However with SR-based μCT it is possible to obtain an improved image quality of the bone surrounding dental implants, which display a level of detail comparable to histological sections. Therefore, SR-based μCT scanning could represent a valid, unbiased three-dimensional alternative to evaluate osseointegration of dental implants

  3. High density resolution synchrotron radiation based x-ray microtomography (SR μCT) for quantitative 3D-morphometrics in zoological sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickel, Michael; Hammel, Jörg U.; Herzen, Julia; Bullinger, Eric; Beckmann, Felix

    2008-08-01

    Zoological sciences widely rely on morphological data to reconstruct and understand body structures of animals. The best suitable methods like tomography allow for a direct representation of 3D-structures. In recent years, synchrotron radiation based x-ray microtomography (SR μCT) placed high resolutions to the disposal of morphologists. With the development of highly brilliant and collimated third generation synchrotron sources, phase contrast SR μCT became widely available. A number of scientific contributions stressed the superiority of phase contrast over absorption contrast. However, here we demonstrate the power of high density resolution methods based on absorption-contrast SRμCT for quantitative 3D-measurements of tissues and other delicate bio-structures in zoological sciences. We used beamline BW2 at DORIS III (DESY, Hamburg, Germany) to perform microtomography on tissue and mineral skeletons of marine sponges (Porifera) which were shock frozen and/or fixed in a glutamate osmium tetroxide solution, followed by critical point drying. High density resolution tomographic reconstructions allowed running quantitative 3D-image analyses in Matlab and ImageJ. By applying contrast and shape rule based algorithms we semi-automatically extracted and measured sponge body structures like mineral spicules, elements of the canal system or tissue structures. This lead to a better understanding of sponge biology: from skeleton functional morphology and internal water flow regimes to body contractility. Our high density resolution based quantitative approach can be applied to a wide variety of biological structures. However, two prerequisites apply: (1) maximum density resolution is necessary; (2) edge effects as seen for example in phase outline contrast SR μCT must not be present. As a consequence, to allow biological sciences to fully exploit the power of SR μCT further increase of density resolution in absorption contrast methods is desirable.

  4. Histology and synchrotron radiation-based microtomography of the inner ear in a molecularly confirmed case of CHARGE syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glueckert, Rudolf; Rask-Andersen, Helge; Sergi, Consolato; Schmutzhard, Joachim; Mueller, Bert; Beckmann, Felix; Rittinger, Olaf; Hoefsloot, Lies H; Schrott-Fischer, Anneliese; Janecke, Andreas R

    2010-03-01

    CHARGE (Coloboma of the iris or retina, heart defects, atresia of the choanae, retardation of growth and/or development, genital anomalies, ear anomalies) syndrome (OMIM #214800) affects about 1 in 10,000 children and is most often caused by chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein-7 (CHD7) mutations. Inner ear defects and vestibular abnormalities are particularly common. Specifically, semicircular canal (SCC) hypoplasia/aplasia and the presence of a Mondini malformation can be considered pathognomonic in the context of congenital malformations of the CHARGE syndrome. We obtained a temporal bone (TB) of a patient with CHARGE syndrome who died from bacteremia at 3 months of age. The clinical diagnosis was confirmed in the patient by direct DNA sequencing and the detection of a de novo, truncating CHD7 mutation, c.6169dup (p.R2057fs). We assessed changes of the TB and the degree of neural preservation, which may influence the potential benefit of cochlear implantation. The TB was analyzed using synchrotron radiation-based micro computed tomography, and by light microscopy. The vestibular partition consisted of a rudimentary vestibule with agenesis of the SCCs. The cochlea was hypoplastic with poor or deficient interscaling and shortened (Mondini dysplasia). The organ of Corti had near normal structure and innervation. Modiolus and Rosenthal's canal were hypoplastic with perikarya displaced along the axon bundles into the internal acoustic meatus, which may be explained by the arrest or limited migration and translocation of the cell nuclei into the cochlear tube during development. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Quantitative X-ray microtomography with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donath, T.

    2007-01-01

    Synchrotron-radiation-based computed microtomography (SR μ CT) is an established method for the examination of volume structures. It allows to measure the x-ray attenuation coefficient of a specimen three-dimensionally with a spatial resolution of about one micrometer. In contrast to conventional x-ray sources (x-ray tubes), the unique properties of synchrotron radiation enable quantitative measurements that do not suffer from beam-hardening artifacts. During this work the capabilities for quantitative SR μ CT measurements have been further improved by enhancements that were made to the SR μ CT apparatus and to the reconstruction chain. For high-resolution SR μ CT an x-ray camera consisting of luminescent screen (x-ray phosphor), lens system, and CCD camera was used. A significant suppression of blur that is caused by reflections inside the luminescent screen could be achieved by application of an absorbing optical coating to the screen surface. It is shown that blur and ring artifacts in the tomographic reconstructions are thereby drastically reduced. Furthermore, a robust and objective method for the determination of the center of rotation in projection data (sinograms) is presented that achieves sub-pixel precision. By implementation of this method into the reconstruction chain, complete automation of the reconstruction process has been achieved. Examples of quantitative SR μ CT studies conducted at the Hamburger Synchrotronstrahlungslabor HASYLAB at the Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY are presented and used for the demonstration of the achieved enhancements. (orig.)

  6. Quantitative X-ray microtomography with synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donath, T. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Materialforschung

    2007-07-01

    Synchrotron-radiation-based computed microtomography (SR{sub {mu}}CT) is an established method for the examination of volume structures. It allows to measure the x-ray attenuation coefficient of a specimen three-dimensionally with a spatial resolution of about one micrometer. In contrast to conventional x-ray sources (x-ray tubes), the unique properties of synchrotron radiation enable quantitative measurements that do not suffer from beam-hardening artifacts. During this work the capabilities for quantitative SR{sub {mu}}CT measurements have been further improved by enhancements that were made to the SR{sub {mu}}CT apparatus and to the reconstruction chain. For high-resolution SR{sub {mu}}CT an x-ray camera consisting of luminescent screen (x-ray phosphor), lens system, and CCD camera was used. A significant suppression of blur that is caused by reflections inside the luminescent screen could be achieved by application of an absorbing optical coating to the screen surface. It is shown that blur and ring artifacts in the tomographic reconstructions are thereby drastically reduced. Furthermore, a robust and objective method for the determination of the center of rotation in projection data (sinograms) is presented that achieves sub-pixel precision. By implementation of this method into the reconstruction chain, complete automation of the reconstruction process has been achieved. Examples of quantitative SR{sub {mu}}CT studies conducted at the Hamburger Synchrotronstrahlungslabor HASYLAB at the Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY are presented and used for the demonstration of the achieved enhancements. (orig.)

  7. Computerized microtomography using synchrotron radiation from the NSLS [National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spanne, P.; Rivers, M.L.

    1986-09-01

    Results of microtomography experiments that employ filtered radiation from the National Synchrotron Light Source X-26 Microprobe beam line are presented. These experiments have yielded images of a freeze-dried caterpillar with a spatial resolution of the order of 30 μm and show that the limit on the spatial resolution with the present apparatus will be 1 to 10 μm. Directions for improvement in synchrotron microtomography techniques and some possible applications are discussed. 14 refs., 3 figs

  8. Summary of the satellite workshop on synchrotron computed microtomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spanne, P.; Jones, K.W.

    1995-01-01

    Synchrotron computed microtomography is a field that has developed rapidly over the last ten years. The next few years should bring about further rapid advances because of the introduction of third-generation synchrotron x-ray sources, rapid improvements in the computer hardware and software used for the reconstructions and display of the data, and improvements in x-ray detector technology. The purpose of the workshop was to look at the status of current technology and applications and to present some ideas about future improvements in the technology. Brief summaries of the presentations are given in the following sections

  9. Determination of polymerization particle morphology using synchrotron computed microtomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, K.W.; Spanne, P.; Lindquist, W.B.; Conner, W.C.; Ferrero, M.

    1991-10-01

    Polymerization of monomers over heterogeneous catalysts results in the fragmentation of the catalysts and subsequent transport in the polymer particles that are produced. Characterization of the process using nondestructive synchrotron computed microtomography techniques makes possible measurement of the distribution of the catalyst fragments in an individual particle and, in addition, gives an estimate of the particle porosity and surface area. The present experiment was carried out using the x-ray microscopy facility at the Brookhaven National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) X26 beam line. The tomographic sections were analyzed using autocorrelation techniques to determine porosity and surface area values. The results are compared to values obtained using conventional methods. This procedure makes possible the extraction of quantitative information about porosity and specific area from the tomograms. 9 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  10. Analytical research using synchrotron radiation based techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, Shambhu Nath

    2015-01-01

    There are many Synchrotron Radiation (SR) based techniques such as X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS), X-ray Fluorescence Analysis (XRF), SR-Fourier-transform Infrared (SRFTIR), Hard X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (HAXPS) etc. which are increasingly being employed worldwide in analytical research. With advent of modern synchrotron sources these analytical techniques have been further revitalized and paved ways for new techniques such as microprobe XRF and XAS, FTIR microscopy, Hard X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (HAXPS) etc. The talk will cover mainly two techniques illustrating its capability in analytical research namely XRF and XAS. XRF spectroscopy: XRF spectroscopy is an analytical technique which involves the detection of emitted characteristic X-rays following excitation of the elements within the sample. While electron, particle (protons or alpha particles), or X-ray beams can be employed as the exciting source for this analysis, the use of X-ray beams from a synchrotron source has been instrumental in the advancement of the technique in the area of microprobe XRF imaging and trace level compositional characterisation of any sample. Synchrotron radiation induced X-ray emission spectroscopy, has become competitive with the earlier microprobe and nanoprobe techniques following the advancements in manipulating and detecting these X-rays. There are two important features that contribute to the superb elemental sensitivities of microprobe SR induced XRF: (i) the absence of the continuum (Bremsstrahlung) background radiation that is a feature of spectra obtained from charged particle beams, and (ii) the increased X-ray flux on the sample associated with the use of tunable third generation synchrotron facilities. Detection sensitivities have been reported in the ppb range, with values of 10 -17 g - 10 -14 g (depending on the particular element and matrix). Keeping in mind its demand, a microprobe XRF beamline has been setup by RRCAT at Indus-2 synchrotron

  11. New Developments and Geoscience Applications of Synchrotron Computed Microtomography (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, M. L.; Wang, Y.; Newville, M.; Sutton, S. R.; Yu, T.; Lanzirotti, A.

    2013-12-01

    Computed microtomography is the extension to micron spatial resolution of the CAT scanning technique developed for medical imaging. Synchrotron sources are ideal for the method, since they provide a monochromatic, parallel beam with high intensity. High energy storage rings such as the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory produce x-rays with high energy, high brilliance, and high coherence. All of these factors combine to produce an extremely powerful imaging tool for earth science research. Techniques that have been developed include: - Absorption and phase contrast computed tomography with spatial resolution below one micron. - Differential contrast computed tomography, imaging above and below the absorption edge of a particular element. - High-pressure tomography, imaging inside a pressure cell at pressures above 10GPa. - High speed radiography and tomography, with 100 microsecond temporal resolution. - Fluorescence tomography, imaging the 3-D distribution of elements present at ppm concentrations. - Radiographic strain measurements during deformation at high confining pressure, combined with precise x-ray diffraction measurements to determine stress. These techniques have been applied to important problems in earth and environmental sciences, including: - The 3-D distribution of aqueous and organic liquids in porous media, with applications in contaminated groundwater and petroleum recovery. - The kinetics of bubble formation in magma chambers, which control explosive volcanism. - Studies of the evolution of the early solar system from 3-D textures in meteorites - Accurate crystal size distributions in volcanic systems, important for understanding the evolution of magma chambers. - The equation-of-state of amorphous materials at high pressure using both direct measurements of volume as a function of pressure and also by measuring the change x-ray absorption coefficient as a function of pressure. - The location and chemical speciation of toxic

  12. Geoscience Applications of Synchrotron X-ray Computed Microtomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, M. L.

    2009-05-01

    Computed microtomography is the extension to micron spatial resolution of the CAT scanning technique developed for medical imaging. Synchrotron sources are ideal for the method, since they provide a monochromatic, parallel beam with high intensity. High energy storage rings such as the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory produce x-rays with high energy, high brilliance, and high coherence. All of these factors combine to produce an extremely powerful imaging tool for earth science research. Techniques that have been developed include: - Absorption and phase contrast computed tomography with spatial resolution approaching one micron - Differential contrast computed tomography, imaging above and below the absorption edge of a particular element - High-pressure tomography, imaging inside a pressure cell at pressures above 10GPa - High speed radiography, with 100 microsecond temporal resolution - Fluorescence tomography, imaging the 3-D distribution of elements present at ppm concentrations. - Radiographic strain measurements during deformation at high confining pressure, combined with precise x- ray diffraction measurements to determine stress. These techniques have been applied to important problems in earth and environmental sciences, including: - The 3-D distribution of aqueous and organic liquids in porous media, with applications in contaminated groundwater and petroleum recovery. - The kinetics of bubble formation in magma chambers, which control explosive volcanism. - Accurate crystal size distributions in volcanic systems, important for understanding the evolution of magma chambers. - The equation-of-state of amorphous materials at high pressure using both direct measurements of volume as a function of pressure and also by measuring the change x-ray absorption coefficient as a function of pressure. - The formation of frost flowers on Arctic sea-ice, which is important in controlling the atmospheric chemistry of mercury. - The distribution of

  13. DEVELOPMENTS IN SYNCHROTRON X-RAY COMPUTED MICROTOMOGRAPHY AT THE NATIONAL SYNCHROTRON LIGHT SOURCE.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOWD,B.A.

    1999-07-23

    Last year, the X27A beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) became dedicated solely to X-Ray Computed Microtomography (XCMT). This is a third-generation instrument capable of producing tomographic volumes of 1-2 micron resolution over a 2-3mm field of view. Recent enhancements will be discussed. These have focused on two issues: the desire for real-time data acquisition and processing and the need for highly monochromatic beam (.1 % energy bandpass). The latter will permit k-edge subtraction studies and will provide improved image contrast from below the Cr (6 keV) up to the Cs (36 keV) k-edge. A range of applications that benefit from these improvements will be discussed as well. These two goals are somewhat counterproductive, however; higher monochromaticity yields a lower flux forcing longer data acquisition times. To balance the two, a more efficient scintillator for X-ray conversion is being developed. Some testing of a prototype scintillator has been performed; preliminary results will be presented here. In the meantime, data reconstruction times have been reduced, and the entire tomographic acquisition, reconstruction and volume rendering process streamlined to make efficient use of synchrotron beam time. A Fast Filtered Back Transform (FFBT) reconstruction program recently developed helped to reduce the time to reconstruct a volume of 150 x 150 x 250 pixels{sup 3} (over 5 million voxels) from the raw camera data to 1.5 minutes on a dual R10,000 CPU. With these improvements, one can now obtain a ''quick look'' of a small tomographic volume ({approximately}10{sup 6}voxels) in just over 15 minutes from the start of data acquisition.

  14. Histomorphometric quantification of human pathological bones from synchrotron radiation 3D computed microtomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira, Liebert P.; Braz, Delson

    2011-01-01

    Conventional bone histomorphometry is an important method for quantitative evaluation of bone microstructure. X-ray computed microtomography is a noninvasive technique, which can be used to evaluate histomorphometric indices in trabecular bones (BV/TV, BS/BV, Tb.N, Tb.Th, Tb.Sp). In this technique, the output 3D images are used to quantify the whole sample, differently from the conventional one, in which the quantification is performed in 2D slices and extrapolated for 3D case. In this work, histomorphometric quantification using synchrotron 3D X-ray computed microtomography was performed to quantify pathological samples of human bone. Samples of human bones were cut into small blocks (8 mm x 8 mm x 10 mm) with a precision saw and then imaged. The computed microtomographies were obtained at SYRMEP (Synchrotron Radiation for MEdical Physics) beamline, at ELETTRA synchrotron radiation facility (Italy). The obtained 3D images yielded excellent resolution and details of intra-trabecular bone structures, including marrow present inside trabeculae. Histomorphometric quantification was compared to literature as well. (author)

  15. X-ray diffraction microtomography using synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Barroso, R C; Jesus, E F O; Oliveira, L F

    2001-01-01

    The X-ray diffraction computed tomography technique is based on the interference phenomena of the coherent scatter. For low-momentum transfer, it is most probable that the scattering interaction will be coherent. A selective discrimination of a given element in a scanned specimen can be realized by fixing the Bragg angle which produces an interference peak and then, to carry out the computed tomography in the standard mode. The image reconstructed exalts the presence of this element with respect to other ones in a sample. This work reports the feasibility of a non-destructive synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction imaging technique. This research was performed at the X-ray Diffraction beam line of the National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS) in Brazil. The coherent scattering properties of different tissue and bone substitute materials were evaluated. Furthermore, diffraction patterns of some polycrystalline solids were studied due to industrial and environmental human exposure to these metals. The obtai...

  16. Phase-contrast computed microtomography with 50 keV synchrotron x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raven, C.; Snigirev, A.; Snigireva, I.; Spanne, P.; Suvorov, A.

    1996-01-01

    The possibilities to determine the internal structure of low density materials by a simple microtomography setup with high energy synchrotron x-rays are demonstrated experimentally. The coherent properties of a 50 keV x-ray beam at the ESRF wiggler beamline are used to observe phase-contrast images of a boron fiber, which has negligible absorption in this energy range. Images of the boron fiber are recorded with a high-resolution x-ray film at various distances up to 2 m. For microtomography studies, 61 images are taken over an angular range of 180 degrees. In the reconstructed cross sections, the hollow, 15-mm-diameter core of the fiber is clearly visible. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  17. Analysis of cortical bone porosity using synchrotron radiation microtomography to evaluate the effects of chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessio, R.; Nogueira, L. P.; Salata, C.; Mantuano, A.; Almeida, A. P.; Braz, D.; de Almeida, C. E.; Tromba, G.; Barroso, R. C.

    2015-11-01

    Microporosities play important biologic and mechanical roles on health. One of the side effects caused by some chemotherapy drugs is the induction of amenorrhea, temporary or not, in premenopausal women, with a consequent decrease in estrogen production, which can lead to cortical bone changes. In the present work, the femur diaphysis of rats treated with chemotherapy drugs were evaluated by 3D morphometric parameters using synchrotron radiation microtomography. Control animals were also evaluated for comparison. The 3D tomographic images were obtained at the SYRMEP (SYnchrotron Radiation for MEdical Physics) beamline at the ELETTRA Synchrotron Laboratory in Trieste, Italy. Results showed significant differences in morphometric parameters measured from the 3D images of femur diaphysis of rats.

  18. 3D histomorphometric quantification of trabecular bones by computed microtomography using synchrotron radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, L P; Braz, D; Barroso, R C; Oliveira, L F; Pinheiro, C J G; Dreossi, D; Tromba, G

    2010-12-01

    Conventional bone histomorphometry is an important method for quantitative evaluation of bone microstructure. X-ray computed microtomography is a non-invasive technique, which can be used to evaluate histomorphometric indices in trabecular bones (BV/TV, BS/BV, Tb.N, Tb.Th, Tb.Sp). In this technique, 3D images are used to quantify the whole sample, differently from the conventional one, in which the quantification is performed in 2D slices and extrapolated for 3D case. In this work, histomorphometric quantification using synchrotron 3D X-ray computed microtomography was performed to quantify the bone structure at different skeletal sites as well as to investigate the effects of bone diseases on quantitative understanding of bone architecture. The images were obtained at Synchrotron Radiation for MEdical Physics (SYRMEP) beamline, at ELETTRA synchrotron radiation facility, Italy. Concerning the obtained results for normal and pathological bones from same skeletal sites and individuals, from our results, a certain declining bone volume fraction was achieved. The results obtained could be used in forming the basis for comparison of the bone microarchitecture and can be a valuable tool for predicting bone fragility. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Synchrotron radiation microtomography of musical instruments: a non-destructive monitoring technique for insect infestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Bentivoglio-Ravasio

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available X-ray computed tomography is becoming a common technique for the structural analysis of samples of cultural relevance, providing luthiers, art historians, conservators and restorators with a unique tool for the characterization of musical instruments. Synchrotron-radiation phase-contrast microtomography is an ideal technique for the non-destructive 3D analysis of samples where small lowabsorbing details such as larvae and eggs can be detected. We report results from the first feasibility studies performed at the Elettra synchrotron laboratory, where the 1494 organ by Lorenzo Gusnasco da Pavia has been studied. Together with important information about the structural conditions, the presence of xylophages could be detected and characterized.

  20. Characterization of methane hydrate host sediments using synchrotron-computed microtomography (CMT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Keith W. [Laboratory for Earth and Environmental Sciences, Environmental Sciences Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Feng, Huan [Department of Earth and Environmental Studies, Montclair State University, Upper Montclair, NJ 07043 (United States); Tomov, Stanmire [Information Technology Division, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Winters, William J. [U.S. Geological Survey, Woods Hole Science Center, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States); Prodanovic, Masa [Department of Applied Mathematics and Statistics, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3600 (United States); Mahajan, Devinder [Energy Sciences and Technology Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 USA, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-2275 (United States)

    2007-03-15

    The hydrate-sediment interaction is an important aspect of gas hydrate studies that needs further examination. We describe here the applicability of the computed microtomography (CMT) technique that utilizes an intense X-ray synchrotron source to characterize sediment samples, two at various depths from the Blake Ridge area (a well-known hydrate-prone region) and one from Georges Bank, that once contained methane trapped as hydrates. Detailed results of the tomographic analysis performed on the deepest sample (667 m) from Blake Ridge are presented as 2-D and 3-D images which show several mineral constituents, the internal grain/pore microstructure, and, following segmentation into pore and grain space, a visualization of the connecting pathways through the pore-space of the sediment. Various parameters obtained from the analysis of the CMT data are presented for all three sediment samples. The micro-scale porosity values showed decreasing trend with increasing depth for all three samples that is consistent with the previously reported bulk porosity data. The 3-D morphology, pore-space pathways, porosity, and permeability values are also reported for all three samples. The application of CMT is now being expanded to the laboratory-formed samples of hydrate in sediments as well as field samples of methane hydrate bearing sediments. (author)

  1. Characterization of methane hydrate host sediments using synchrotron-computed microtomography (CMT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, K.W.; Feng, H.; Tomov, S.; Winters, W.J.; Prodanovic, M.; Mahajan, D.

    2007-01-01

    The hydrate-sediment interaction is an important aspect of gas hydrate studies that needs further examination. We describe here the applicability of the computed microtomography (CMT) technique that utilizes an intense X-ray synchrotron source to characterize sediment samples, two at various depths from the Blake Ridge area (a well-known hydrate-prone region) and one from Georges Bank, that once contained methane trapped as hydrates. Detailed results of the tomographic analysis performed on the deepest sample (667??m) from Blake Ridge are presented as 2-D and 3-D images which show several mineral constituents, the internal grain/pore microstructure, and, following segmentation into pore and grain space, a visualization of the connecting pathways through the pore-space of the sediment. Various parameters obtained from the analysis of the CMT data are presented for all three sediment samples. The micro-scale porosity values showed decreasing trend with increasing depth for all three samples that is consistent with the previously reported bulk porosity data. The 3-D morphology, pore-space pathways, porosity, and permeability values are also reported for all three samples. The application of CMT is now being expanded to the laboratory-formed samples of hydrate in sediments as well as field samples of methane hydrate bearing sediments.

  2. Synchrotron X-ray computed microtomography study on gas hydrate decomposition in a sedimentary matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Falenty, Andrzej; Chaouachi, Marwen; Haberthür, David; Kuhs, Werner F.

    2016-09-01

    In-situ synchrotron X-ray computed microtomography with sub-micrometer voxel size was used to study the decomposition of gas hydrates in a sedimentary matrix. Xenon-hydrate was used instead of methane hydrate to enhance the absorption contrast. The microstructural features of the decomposition process were elucidated indicating that the decomposition starts at the hydrate-gas interface; it does not proceed at the contacts with quartz grains. Melt water accumulates at retreating hydrate surface. The decomposition is not homogeneous and the decomposition rates depend on the distance of the hydrate surface to the gas phase indicating a diffusion-limitation of the gas transport through the water phase. Gas is found to be metastably enriched in the water phase with a concentration decreasing away from the hydrate-water interface. The initial decomposition process facilitates redistribution of fluid phases in the pore space and local reformation of gas hydrates. The observations allow also rationalizing earlier conjectures from experiments with low spatial resolutions and suggest that the hydrate-sediment assemblies remain intact until the hydrate spacers between sediment grains finally collapse; possible effects on mechanical stability and permeability are discussed. The resulting time resolved characteristics of gas hydrate decomposition and the influence of melt water on the reaction rate are of importance for a suggested gas recovery from marine sediments by depressurization.

  3. Homogenization of sample absorption for the imaging of large and dense fossils with synchrotron microtomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Sophie; Fernandez, Vincent; Pierce, Stephanie E; Tafforeau, Paul

    2013-09-01

    Propagation phase-contrast synchrotron radiation microtomography (PPC-SRμCT) has proved to be very successful for examining fossils. Because fossils range widely in taphonomic preservation, size, shape and density, X-ray computed tomography protocols are constantly being developed and refined. Here we present a 1-h procedure that combines a filtered high-energy polychromatic beam with long-distance PPC-SRμCT (sample to detector: 4-16 m) and an attenuation protocol normalizing the absorption profile (tested on 13-cm-thick and 5.242 g cm(-3) locally dense samples but applicable to 20-cm-thick samples). This approach provides high-quality imaging results, which show marked improvement relative to results from images obtained without the attenuation protocol in apparent transmission, contrast and signal-to-noise ratio. The attenuation protocol involves immersing samples in a tube filled with aluminum or glass balls in association with a U-shaped aluminum profiler. This technique therefore provides access to a larger dynamic range of the detector used for tomographic reconstruction. This protocol homogenizes beam-hardening artifacts, thereby rendering it effective for use with conventional μCT scanners.

  4. High-resolution synchrotron radiation-based phase tomography of the healthy and epileptic brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikis, Christos; Janz, Philipp; Schulz, Georg; Schweighauser, Gabriel; Hench, Jürgen; Thalmann, Peter; Deyhle, Hans; Chicherova, Natalia; Rack, Alexander; Khimchenko, Anna; Hieber, Simone E.; Mariani, Luigi; Haas, Carola A.; Müller, Bert

    2016-10-01

    Phase-contrast micro-tomography using synchrotron radiation has yielded superior soft tissue visualization down to the sub-cellular level. The isotropic spatial resolution down to about one micron is comparable to the one of histology. The methods, however, provide different physical quantities and are thus complementary, also allowing for the extension of histology into the third dimension. To prepare for cross-sectional animal studies on epilepsy, we have standardized the specimen's preparation and scanning procedure for mouse brains, so that subsequent histology remains entirely unaffected and scanning of all samples (n = 28) is possible in a realistic time frame. For that, we have scanned five healthy and epileptic mouse brains at the ID19 beamline, ESRF, Grenoble, France, using grating- and propagation-based phase contrast micro-tomography. The resulting datasets clearly show the cortex, ventricular system, thalamus, hypothalamus, and hippocampus. Our focus is on the latter, having planned kainate-induced epilepsy experiments. The cell density and organization in the dentate gyrus and Ammon's horn region were clearly visualized in control animals. This proof of principle was required to initiate experiment. The resulting three-dimensional data have been correlated to histology. The goal is a brain-wide quantification of cell death or structural reorganization associated with epilepsy as opposed to histology alone that represents small volumes of the total brain only. Thus, the proposed technique bears the potential to correlate the gold standard in analysis with independently obtained data sets. Such an achievement also fuels interest for other groups in neuroscience research to closely collaborate with experts in phase micro-tomography.

  5. Application of Synchrotron Radiation-based Methods for Environmental Biogeochemistry: Introduction to the Special Section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hettiarachchi, Ganga M.; Donner, Erica; Doelsch, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    To understand the biogeochemistry of nutrients and contaminants in environmental media, their speciation and behavior under different conditions and at multiple scales must be determined. Synchrotron radiation-based X-ray techniques allow scientists to elucidate the underlying mechanisms responsible for nutrient and contaminant mobility, bioavailability, and behavior. The continuous improvement of synchrotron light sources and X-ray beamlines around the world has led to a profound transformation in the field of environmental biogeochemistry and, subsequently, to significant scientific breakthroughs. Following this introductory paper, this special collection includes 10 papers that either present targeted reviews of recent advancements in spectroscopic methods that are applicable to environmental biogeochemistry or describe original research studies conducted on complex environmental samples that have been significantly enhanced by incorporating synchrotron radiation-based X-ray technique(s). We believe that the current focus on improving the speciation of ultra-dilute elements in environmental media through the ongoing optimization of synchrotron technologies (e.g., brighter light sources, improved monochromators, more efficient detectors) will help to significantly push back the frontiers of environmental biogeochemistry research. As many of the relevant techniques produce extremely large datasets, we also identify ongoing improvements in data processing and analysis (e.g., software improvements and harmonization of analytical methods) as a significant requirement for environmental biogeochemists to maximize the information that can be gained using these powerful tools.

  6. Synchrotron radiation X-ray microtomography and histomorphometry for evaluation of chemotherapy effects in trabecular bone structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessio, R.; Nogueira, L. P.; Almeida, A. P.; Colaço, M. V.; Braz, D.; Andrade, C. B. V.; Salata, C.; Ferreira-Machado, S. C.; de Almeida, C. E.; Tromba, G.; Barroso, R. C.

    2014-04-01

    Three-dimensional microtomography has the potential to examine complete bones of small laboratory animals with very high resolution in a non-invasive way. One of the side effects caused by some chemotherapy drugs is the induction of amenorrhea, temporary or not, in premenopausal women, with a consequent decrease in estrogen production, which can lead to bone changes. In the present work, the femur heads of rats treated with chemotherapy drugs were evaluated by 3D histomorphometry using synchrotron radiation microcomputed tomography. Control animals were also evaluated for comparison. The 3D tomographic images were obtained at the SYRMEP (SYnchrotron Radiation for MEdical Physics) beamline at the Elettra Synchrotron Laboratory in Trieste, Italy. Results showed significant differences in morphometric parameters measured from the 3D images of femur heads of rats in both analyzed groups.

  7. Synchrotron radiation X-ray microtomography and histomorphometry for evaluation of chemotherapy effects in trabecular bone structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alessio, R; Almeida, A P; Braz, D; Nogueira, L P; Colaço, M V; Barroso, R C; Andrade, C B V; Salata, C; De Almeida, C E; Ferreira-Machado, S C; Tromba, G

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional microtomography has the potential to examine complete bones of small laboratory animals with very high resolution in a non-invasive way. One of the side effects caused by some chemotherapy drugs is the induction of amenorrhea, temporary or not, in premenopausal women, with a consequent decrease in estrogen production, which can lead to bone changes. In the present work, the femur heads of rats treated with chemotherapy drugs were evaluated by 3D histomorphometry using synchrotron radiation microcomputed tomography. Control animals were also evaluated for comparison. The 3D tomographic images were obtained at the SYRMEP (SYnchrotron Radiation for MEdical Physics) beamline at the Elettra Synchrotron Laboratory in Trieste, Italy. Results showed significant differences in morphometric parameters measured from the 3D images of femur heads of rats in both analyzed groups.

  8. Synchrotron x-ray microtomography of the interior microstructure of chocolate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lügger, Svenja K.; Wilde, Fabian; Dülger, Nihan; Reinke, Lennart M.; Kozhar, Sergii; Beckmann, Felix; Greving, Imke; Vieira, Josélio; Heinrich, Stefan; Palzer, Stefan

    2016-10-01

    The structure of chocolate, a multicomponent food product, was analyzed using microtomography. Chocolate consists of a semi-solid cocoa butter matrix and a dense network of suspended particles. A detailed analysis of the microstructure is needed to understand mass transport phenomena. Transport of lipids from e.g. a filling or liquid cocoa butter is responsible for major problems in the confectionery industry such as formation of chocolate bloom, which is the formation of visible white spots or a grayish haze on the chocolate surface and leads to consumer rejections and thus large sales losses for the confectionery industry. In this study it was possible to visualize the inner structure of chocolate and clearly distinguish the particles from the continuous phase by taking advantage of the high density contrast of synchrotron radiation. Consequently, particle arrangement and cracks within the sample were made visible. The cracks are several micrometers thick and propagate throughout the entire sample. Images of pure cocoa butter, chocolate without any particles, did not show any cracks and thus confirmed that cracks are a result of embedded particles. They arise during the manufacturing process. Thus, the solidification process, a critical manufacturing step, was simulated with finite element methods in order to understand crack formation during this step. The simulation showed that cracks arise because of significant contraction of cocoa butter, the matrix phase, without any major change of volume of the suspended particles. Tempering of the chocolate mass prior to solidification is another critical step for a good product quality. We found that samples which solidified in an uncontrolled manner are less homogeneous than tempered samples. In summary, our study visualized for the first time the inner microstructure of tempered and untempered cocoa butter as well as chocolate without sample destruction and revealed cracks, which might act as transport pathways.

  9. HIGH-PERFORMANCE COMPUTING FOR THE STUDY OF EARTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE MATERIALS USING SYNCHROTRON X-RAY COMPUTED MICROTOMOGRAPHY.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FENG,H.; JONES,K.W.; MCGUIGAN,M.; SMITH,G.J.; SPILETIC,J.

    2001-10-12

    Synchrotron x-ray computed microtomography (CMT) is a non-destructive method for examination of rock, soil, and other types of samples studied in the earth and environmental sciences. The high x-ray intensities of the synchrotron source make possible the acquisition of tomographic volumes at a high rate that requires the application of high-performance computing techniques for data reconstruction to produce the three-dimensional volumes, for their visualization, and for data analysis. These problems are exacerbated by the need to share information between collaborators at widely separated locations over both local and tide-area networks. A summary of the CMT technique and examples of applications are given here together with a discussion of the applications of high-performance computing methods to improve the experimental techniques and analysis of the data.

  10. 3D spectral imaging with synchrotron Fourier transform infrared spectro-microtomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael C. Martin; Charlotte Dabat-Blondeau; Miriam Unger; Julia Sedlmair; Dilworth Y. Parkinson; Hans A. Bechtel; Barbara Illman; Jonathan M. Castro; Marco Keiluweit; David Buschke; Brenda Ogle; Michael J. Nasse; Carol J. Hirschmugl

    2013-01-01

    We report Fourier transform infrared spectro-microtomography, a nondestructive three-dimensional imaging approach that reveals the distribution of distinctive chemical compositions throughout an intact biological or materials sample. The method combines mid-infrared absorption contrast with computed tomographic data acquisition and reconstruction to enhance chemical...

  11. Quantitative analysis of flow processes in a sand using synchrotron-based X-ray microtomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildenschild, Dorthe; Hopmans, J.W.; Rivers, M.L.

    2005-01-01

    Pore-scale multiphase flow experiments were developed to nondestructively visualize water flow in a sample of porous material using X-ray microtomography. The samples were exposed to similar boundary conditions as in a previous investigation, which examined the effect of initial flow rate...... by qualitative comparison and quantitative analysis in the form of a nearest neighbor analysis, that the dynamic effects seen in previous experiments are likely due to the fast and preferential drainage of large pores in the sample. Once a continuous drained path has been established through the sample, further...... drainage of the remaining pores, which have been disconnected from the main flowing water continuum, is prevented....

  12. X-ray Synchrotron Microtomography of a silicified Jurassic Cheirolepidiaceae (Conifer cone: histology and morphology of Pararaucaria collinsonae sp. nov.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C. Steart

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We document a new species of ovulate cone (Pararaucaria collinsonae on the basis of silicified fossils from the Late Jurassic Purbeck Limestone Group of southern England (Tithonian Stage: ca. 145 million years. Our description principally relies on the anatomy of the ovuliferous scales, revealed through X-ray synchrotron microtomography (SRXMT performed at the Diamond Light Source (UK. This study represents the first application of SRXMT to macro-scale silicified plant fossils, and demonstrates the significant advantages of this approach, which can resolve cellular structure over lab-based X-ray computed microtomography (XMT. The method enabled us to characterize tissues and precisely demarcate their boundaries, elucidating organ shape, and thus allowing an accurate assessment of affinities. The cones are broadly spherical (ca. 1.3 cm diameter, and are structured around a central axis with helically arranged bract/scale complexes, each of which bares a single ovule. A three-lobed ovuliferous scale and ovules enclosed within pocket-forming tissue, demonstrate an affinity with Cheirolepidiaceae. Details of vascular sclerenchyma bundles, integument structure, and the number and attachment of the ovules indicate greatest similarity to P. patagonica and P. carrii. This fossil develops our understanding of the dominant tree element of the Purbeck Fossil Forest, providing the first evidence for ovulate cheirolepidiaceous cones in Europe. Alongside recent discoveries in North America, this significantly extends the known palaeogeographic range of Pararaucaria, supporting a mid-palaeolatitudinal distribution in both Gondwana and Laurasia during the Late Jurassic. Palaeoclimatic interpretations derived from contemporaneous floras, climate sensitive sediments, and general circulation climate models indicate that Pararaucaria was a constituent of low diversity floras in semi-arid Mediterranean-type environments.

  13. X-ray Synchrotron Microtomography of a silicified Jurassic Cheirolepidiaceae (Conifer) cone: histology and morphology of Pararaucaria collinsonae sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steart, David C; Spencer, Alan R T; Garwood, Russell J; Hilton, Jason; Munt, Martin C; Needham, John; Kenrick, Paul

    2014-01-01

    We document a new species of ovulate cone (Pararaucaria collinsonae) on the basis of silicified fossils from the Late Jurassic Purbeck Limestone Group of southern England (Tithonian Stage: ca. 145 million years). Our description principally relies on the anatomy of the ovuliferous scales, revealed through X-ray synchrotron microtomography (SRXMT) performed at the Diamond Light Source (UK). This study represents the first application of SRXMT to macro-scale silicified plant fossils, and demonstrates the significant advantages of this approach, which can resolve cellular structure over lab-based X-ray computed microtomography (XMT). The method enabled us to characterize tissues and precisely demarcate their boundaries, elucidating organ shape, and thus allowing an accurate assessment of affinities. The cones are broadly spherical (ca. 1.3 cm diameter), and are structured around a central axis with helically arranged bract/scale complexes, each of which bares a single ovule. A three-lobed ovuliferous scale and ovules enclosed within pocket-forming tissue, demonstrate an affinity with Cheirolepidiaceae. Details of vascular sclerenchyma bundles, integument structure, and the number and attachment of the ovules indicate greatest similarity to P. patagonica and P. carrii. This fossil develops our understanding of the dominant tree element of the Purbeck Fossil Forest, providing the first evidence for ovulate cheirolepidiaceous cones in Europe. Alongside recent discoveries in North America, this significantly extends the known palaeogeographic range of Pararaucaria, supporting a mid-palaeolatitudinal distribution in both Gondwana and Laurasia during the Late Jurassic. Palaeoclimatic interpretations derived from contemporaneous floras, climate sensitive sediments, and general circulation climate models indicate that Pararaucaria was a constituent of low diversity floras in semi-arid Mediterranean-type environments.

  14. Investigation of the microstructure and mineralogical composition of urinary calculi fragments by synchrotron radiation X-ray microtomography: a feasibility study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaiser, J.; Holá, M.; Galiová, M.; Novotný, K.; Kanický, V.; Martinec, Petr; Ščučka, Jiří; Brun, F.; Sodini, N.; Tromba, G.; Mancini, L.; Kořistková, T.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 4 (2011), s. 259-267 ISSN 0300-5623 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/09/1394 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : computed microtomography * synchrotron radiation * urinary calculi Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.233, year: 2011 http://www.springerlink.com/content/y244643574072rk3/fulltext.pdf

  15. Chemical reactions on platinum-group metal surfaces studied by synchrotron-radiation-based spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondoh, Hiroshi; Nakai, Ikuyo; Nagasaka, Masanari; Amemiya, Kenta; Ohta, Toshiaki

    2009-01-01

    A new version of synchrotron-radiation-based x-ray spectroscopy, wave-length-dispersive near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure (dispersive-NEXAFS), and fast x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy have been applied to mechanistic studies on several surface catalytic reactions on platinum-group-metal surfaces. In this review, our approach using above techniques to understand the reaction mechanism and actual application studies on three well-known catalytic surface reactions, CO oxidation on Pt(111) and Pd(111), NO reduction on Rh(111), and H 2 O formation on Pt(111), are introduced. Spectroscopic monitoring of the progress of the surface reactions enabled us to detect reaction intermediates and analyze the reaction kinetics quantitatively which provides information on reaction order, rate constant, pre-exponential factor, activation energy and etc. Such quantitative analyses combined with scanning tunneling microscopy and kinetic Monte Carlo simulations revealed significant contribution of the adsorbate configurations and their dynamic changes to the reaction mechanisms of the above fundamental catalytic surface reactions. (author)

  16. Accessing developmental information of fossil hominin teeth using new synchrotron microtomography-based visualization techniques of dental surfaces and interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Cabec, Adeline; Tang, Nancy; Tafforeau, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Quantification of dental long-period growth lines (Retzius lines in enamel and Andresen lines in dentine) and matching of stress patterns (internal accentuated lines and hypoplasias) are used in determining crown formation time and age at death in juvenile fossil hominins. They yield the chronology employed for inferences of life history. Synchrotron virtual histology has been demonstrated as a non-destructive alternative to conventional invasive approaches. Nevertheless, fossil teeth are sometimes poorly preserved or physically inaccessible, preventing observation of the external expression of incremental lines (perikymata and periradicular bands). Here we present a new approach combining synchrotron virtual histology and high quality three-dimensional rendering of dental surfaces and internal interfaces. We illustrate this approach with seventeen permanent fossil hominin teeth. The outer enamel surface and enamel-dentine junction (EDJ) were segmented by capturing the phase contrast fringes at the structural interfaces. Three-dimensional models were rendered with Phong's algorithm, and a combination of directional colored lights to enhance surface topography and the pattern of subtle variations in tissue density. The process reveals perikymata and linear enamel hypoplasias on the entire crown surface, including unerupted teeth. Using this method, highly detailed stress patterns at the EDJ allow precise matching of teeth within an individual's dentition when virtual histology is not sufficient. We highlight that taphonomical altered enamel can in particular cases yield artificial subdivisions of perikymata when imaged using X-ray microtomography with insufficient resolution. This may complicate assessments of developmental time, although this can be circumvented by a careful analysis of external and internal structures in parallel. We further present new crown formation times for two unerupted canines from South African Australopiths, which were found to form over

  17. Accessing developmental information of fossil hominin teeth using new synchrotron microtomography-based visualization techniques of dental surfaces and interfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeline Le Cabec

    Full Text Available Quantification of dental long-period growth lines (Retzius lines in enamel and Andresen lines in dentine and matching of stress patterns (internal accentuated lines and hypoplasias are used in determining crown formation time and age at death in juvenile fossil hominins. They yield the chronology employed for inferences of life history. Synchrotron virtual histology has been demonstrated as a non-destructive alternative to conventional invasive approaches. Nevertheless, fossil teeth are sometimes poorly preserved or physically inaccessible, preventing observation of the external expression of incremental lines (perikymata and periradicular bands. Here we present a new approach combining synchrotron virtual histology and high quality three-dimensional rendering of dental surfaces and internal interfaces. We illustrate this approach with seventeen permanent fossil hominin teeth. The outer enamel surface and enamel-dentine junction (EDJ were segmented by capturing the phase contrast fringes at the structural interfaces. Three-dimensional models were rendered with Phong's algorithm, and a combination of directional colored lights to enhance surface topography and the pattern of subtle variations in tissue density. The process reveals perikymata and linear enamel hypoplasias on the entire crown surface, including unerupted teeth. Using this method, highly detailed stress patterns at the EDJ allow precise matching of teeth within an individual's dentition when virtual histology is not sufficient. We highlight that taphonomical altered enamel can in particular cases yield artificial subdivisions of perikymata when imaged using X-ray microtomography with insufficient resolution. This may complicate assessments of developmental time, although this can be circumvented by a careful analysis of external and internal structures in parallel. We further present new crown formation times for two unerupted canines from South African Australopiths, which were

  18. Processing of Bi-2212 and Nb$_3$Sn studied in situ by high energy synchrotron diffraction and micro-tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Kadar, Julian

    Next generation superconducting wires have been studied to obtain more information on the evolution of phase growth, crystallite size and strain state during wire processing. The high energy scattering beam line ID15 at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility provides a very high flux of high energy photons for very fast in situ X-ray diffraction and micro-tomography studies of Bi-2212/Ag and Nb$_3$S/Cu wire samples. The typical wire processing conditions could be imitated in the X-ray transparent furnace at ID15 for diffraction and tomography studies. Efficient data analysis is mandatory in order to handle the very fast data acquisition rate. For this purpose an Excel-VBA based program was developed that allows a semi-automated fitting and tracking of peaks with pre-set constraints. With this method, more than one thousand diffraction patterns have been analysed to extract d-spacing, peak intensity and peak width values. X ray absorption micro tomograms were recorded simultaneously with the X-ray diffrac...

  19. Microstructural investigation using synchrotron radiation X-ray microtomography reveals taste-masking mechanism of acetaminophen microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhen; Yin, Xianzhen; Liu, Congbiao; Wu, Li; Zhu, Weifeng; Shao, Qun; York, Peter; Patterson, Laurence; Zhang, Jiwen

    2016-02-29

    The structure of solid drug delivery systems has considerable influence on drug release behaviors from particles and granules and also impacts other properties relevant to release characteristics such as taste. In this study, lipid-based microspheres of acetaminophen were prepared to mask the undesirable taste of drug and therefore to identify the optimal formulation for drug release. Synchrotron radiation X-ray computed microtomography (SR-μCT) was used to investigate the fine structural architectures of microspheres non-destructively at different sampling times during drug release test, which were simultaneously determined to quantitatively correlate the structural data with drug release behaviors. The results demonstrated that the polymeric formulation component, namely, cationic polymethacrylate (Eudragit E100), was the key factor to mask the bitter taste of acetaminophen by inhibiting immediate drug release thereby reducing the interaction intensity of the bitter material with the oral cavity taste buds. The structure and morphology of the microspheres were found to be influenced by the shape and particle size of the drug, which was also an important factor for taste-masking performance. The quantitative analysis generated detailed structural information which was correlated well with drug release behaviors. Thus, SR-μCT has been proved as a powerful tool to investigate the fine microstructure of particles and provides a new approach in the design of particles for taste masking. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Biodegradable magnesium-based implants in bone studied by synchrotron radiation microtomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosmann, Julian; Zeller-Plumhoff, Berit; Wieland, D. C. Florian; Galli, Silvia; Krüger, Diana; Dose, Thomas; Burmester, Hilmar; Wilde, Fabian; Bech, Martin; Peruzzi, Niccolò; Wiese, Björn; Hipp, Alexander; Beckmann, Felix; Hammel, Jörg; Willumeit-Römer, Regine

    2017-09-01

    Permanent implants made of titanium or its alloys are the gold standard in many orthopedic and traumatological applications due to their good biocompatibility and mechanical properties. However, a second surgical intervention is required for this kind of implants as they have to be removed in the case of children that are still growing or on patient's demand. Therefore, magnesium-based implants are considered for medical applications as they are degraded under physiological conditions. The major challenge is tailoring the degradation in a manner that is suitable for a biological environment and such that stabilization of the bone is provided for a controlled period. In order to understand failure mechanisms of magnesium-based implants in orthopedic applications and, further, to better understand the osseointegration, screw implants in bone are studied under mechanical load by means of a push-out device installed at the imaging beamline P05 of PETRA III at DESY. Conventional absorption contrast microtomography and phasecontrast techniques are applied in order to monitor the bone-to-implant interface under increasing load conditions. In this proof-of-concept study, first results from an in situ push-out experiment are presented.

  1. Synchrotron radiation microtomography of Taylor bubbles in capillary two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boden, Stephan; Santos Rolo, Tomy dos; Baumbach, Tilo; Hampel, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    We report on a study to measure the three-dimensional shape of Taylor bubbles in capillaries using synchrotron radiation in conjunction with ultrafast radiographic imaging. Moving Taylor bubbles in 2-mm round and square capillaries were radiographically scanned with an ultrahigh frame rate of up to 36,000 fps and 5.6-μm pixel separation. Consecutive images were properly processed to yield 2D transmission radiographs of high contrast-to-noise ratio. Application of 3D tomographic image reconstruction disclosed the 3D bubble shape. The results provide a reference data base for development of sophisticated interface resolving CFD computations. (orig.)

  2. Microscopy and elemental analysis in tissue samples using computed microtomography with synchrotron x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spanne, P.; Rivers, M.L.

    1988-01-01

    The initial development shows that CMT using synchrotron x-rays can be developed to μm spatial resolution and perhaps even better. This creates a new microscopy technique which is of special interest in morphological studies of tissues, since no chemical preparation or slicing of the sample is necessary. The combination of CMT with spatial resolution in the μm range and elemental mapping with sensitivity in the ppM range results in a new tool for elemental mapping at the cellular level. 7 refs., 1 fig

  3. Method for obtaining silver nanoparticle concentrations within a porous medium via synchrotron X-ray computed microtomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Ian L; Willson, Clinton S; O'Carroll, Denis M; Rivers, Mark L; Gerhard, Jason I

    2014-01-21

    Attempts at understanding nanoparticle fate and transport in the subsurface environment are currently hindered by an inability to quantify nanoparticle behavior at the pore scale (within and between pores) within realistic pore networks. This paper is the first to present a method for high resolution quantification of silver nanoparticle (nAg) concentrations within porous media under controlled experimental conditions. This method makes it possible to extract silver nanoparticle concentrations within individual pores in static and quasi-dynamic (i.e., transport) systems. Quantification is achieved by employing absorption-edge synchrotron X-ray computed microtomography (SXCMT) and an extension of the Beer-Lambert law. Three-dimensional maps of X-ray mass linear attenuation are converted to SXCMT-determined nAg concentration and are found to closely match the concentrations determined by ICP analysis. In addition, factors affecting the quality of the SXCMT-determined results are investigated: 1) The acquisition of an additional above-edge data set reduced the standard deviation of SXCMT-determined concentrations; 2) X-ray refraction at the grain/water interface artificially depresses the SXCMT-determined concentrations within 18.1 μm of a grain surface; 3) By treating the approximately 20 × 10(6) voxels within each data set statistically (i.e., averaging), a high level of confidence in the SXCMT-determined mean concentrations can be obtained. This novel method provides the means to examine a wide range of properties related to nanoparticle transport in controlled laboratory porous medium experiments.

  4. Phase-contrast synchrotron microtomography reveals the internal morphology of a new fossil species of the Corticaria-sylvicola-group (Coleoptera: Latridiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reike, Hans-Peter; Bukejs, Andris; Arlt, Tobias; Kardjilov, Nikolay; Manke, Ingo

    2017-03-13

    Corticaria amberica sp. nov. (Coleoptera: Latridiidae) from Baltic amber is described and illustrated using the features of the male genitalia. To study these features, phase-contrast synchrotron microtomography was used for the first time with a member of this family. A literature-based checklist of fossil and subfossil Latridiidae is provided. The following new synonymy is established: Latridius alexeevi Bukejs, Kirejtshuk & Rücker, 2011 = Latridius usovae Sergi & Perkovsky, 2014 syn. nov. New fossil records for the species Latridius alexeevi Bukejs, Kirejtshuk & Rücker, Latridius jantaricus Borowiec, Revelieria groehni Sergi, Perkovsky & Reike, and Corticarina palaeominuta Reike are also presented.

  5. Characterization of enamel caries lesions in rat molars using synchrotron X-ray microtomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Free, R.D.; DeRocher, K.; Stock, S.R.; Keane, D.; Scott-Anne, K.; Bowen, W.H.; Joester, D. (Rochester); (NWU)

    2017-08-18

    Dental caries is a ubiquitous infectious disease with a nearly 100% lifetime prevalence. Rodent caries models are widely used to investigate the etiology, progression and potential prevention or treatment of the disease. To explore the suitability of these models for deeper investigations of intact surface zones during enamel caries, the structures of early-stage carious lesions in rats were characterized and compared with previous reports on white spot enamel lesions in humans. Synchrotron X-ray microcomputed tomography non-destructively mapped demineralization in carious rat molar specimens across a range of caries severity, identifying 52 lesions across the 30 teeth imaged. Of these lesions, 13 were shown to have intact surface zones. Depth profiles of fractional mineral density were qualitatively similar to lesions in human teeth. However, the thickness of the surface zone in the rat model ranges from 10 to 58 µm, and is therefore significantly thinner than in human enamel. These results indicate that a fraction of lesions in rat caries possess an intact surface zone and are qualitatively similar to human lesions at the micrometer scale. This suggests that rat caries models may be a suitable analog through which to investigate the structure of surface zone enamel and its role during dental caries.

  6. Quantification of synthesized hydration products using synchrotron microtomography and spectral analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deboodt, Tyler; Ideker, Jason H.; Isgor, O. Burkan; Wildenschild, Dorthe

    2017-12-01

    The use of x-ray computed tomography (CT) as a standalone method has primarily been used to characterize pore structure, cracking and mechanical damage in cementitious systems due to low contrast in the hydrated phases. These limitations have resulted in the inability to extract quantifiable information on such phases. The goal of this research was to address the limitations caused by low contrast and improving the ability to distinguish the four primary hydrated phases in portland cement; C-S-H, calcium hydroxide, monosulfate, and ettringite. X-ray CT on individual layers, binary mixtures of phases, and quaternary mixtures of phases to represent a hydrated portland cement paste were imaged with synchrotron radiation. Known masses of each phase were converted to a volume and compared to the segmented image volumes. It was observed that adequate contrast in binary mixing of phases allowed for segmentation, and subsequent image analysis indicated quantifiable volumes could be extracted from the tomographic volume. However, low contrast was observed when C-S-H and monosulfate were paired together leading to difficulties segmenting in an unbiased manner. Quantification of phases in quaternary mixtures included larger errors than binary mixes due to histogram overlaps of monosulfate, C-S-H, and calcium hydroxide.

  7. High resolution X-ray detector for synchrotron-based microtomography

    CERN Document Server

    Stampanoni, M; Wyss, P; Abela, R; Patterson, B; Hunt, S; Vermeulen, D; Rueegsegger, P

    2002-01-01

    Synchrotron-based microtomographic devices are powerful, non-destructive, high-resolution research tools. Highly brilliant and coherent X-rays extend the traditional absorption imaging techniques and enable edge-enhanced and phase-sensitive measurements. At the Materials Science Beamline MS of the Swiss Light Source (SLS), the X-ray microtomographic device is now operative. A high performance detector based on a scintillating screen optically coupled to a CCD camera has been developed and tested. Different configurations are available, covering a field of view ranging from 715x715 mu m sup 2 to 7.15x7.15 mm sup 2 with magnifications from 4x to 40x. With the highest magnification 480 lp/mm had been achieved at 10% modulation transfer function which corresponds to a spatial resolution of 1.04 mu m. A low-noise fast-readout CCD camera transfers 2048x2048 pixels within 100-250 ms at a dynamic range of 12-14 bit to the file server. A user-friendly graphical interface gives access to the main parameters needed for ...

  8. Three-dimensional imaging of drill core samples using synchrotron computed microtomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindquist, B.; Coker, D.; Lee, S.

    1993-01-01

    Fundamental theories of rock structure are limited by the absence of high resolution, pore level, three dimensional images which could be used for statistical analysis. The ability to produce such images in a non-destructive manner would also allow for repeated measurements of dynamic processes such as fluid motion which could be correlated to the medium properties. One aspect of this funded work is the production of cross sectional images of rock drill core samples with one micron resolution. This work is being done by Keith Jones and Per Spanne of Brookhaven National Laboratory using beam lines X-17 and X-26 of the National Synchrotron Light Source. Jones's annual report will provide a description of the year one progress in this area. The second aspect of this work is the topological and statistical analysis of the pore structure of the three dimensional images provided by our BNL collaborators. We report here on the progress in this area that has been made in year one. Year one effort has focused on the problem of definition of pore space in any given slice (image filtering), analysis of the filtered images via 2-point correlation structure, and on the development of software to trace the connectivity of pores throughout the cross sectional images. The report is divided into the following sections: 2 - a description of the 3D data sets that have been provided by our BNL collaborators; 3 data filtering; 4 - 2-point correlation function analysis; 5 - development of connectivity tracing software; and 6 - proposed work for year two.

  9. Three-dimensional imaging of drill core samples using synchrotron computed microtomography. Year one progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindquist, B.; Coker, D.; Lee, S.

    1993-03-01

    Fundamental theories of rock structure are limited by the absence of high resolution, pore level, three dimensional images which could be used for statistical analysis. The ability to produce such images in a non-destructive manner would also allow for repeated measurements of dynamic processes such as fluid motion which could be correlated to the medium properties. One aspect of this funded work is the production of cross sectional images of rock drill core samples with one micron resolution. This work is being done by Keith Jones and Per Spanne of Brookhaven National Laboratory using beam lines X-17 and X-26 of the National Synchrotron Light Source. Jones`s annual report will provide a description of the year one progress in this area. The second aspect of this work is the topological and statistical analysis of the pore structure of the three dimensional images provided by our BNL collaborators. We report here on the progress in this area that has been made in year one. Year one effort has focused on the problem of definition of pore space in any given slice (image filtering), analysis of the filtered images via 2-point correlation structure, and on the development of software to trace the connectivity of pores throughout the cross sectional images. The report is divided into the following sections: 2 - a description of the 3D data sets that have been provided by our BNL collaborators; 3 data filtering; 4 - 2-point correlation function analysis; 5 - development of connectivity tracing software; and 6 - proposed work for year two.

  10. Spherulites growth in trachytic melts: a textural quantitative study from synchrotron X-ray microtomography and SEM data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzilli, Fabio; Mancini, Lucia; Giuli, Gabriele; Cicconi, Maria Rita; Voltolini, Marco; Carroll, Michael R.

    2013-04-01

    This study shows the first textural data on synthetic alkali-feldspar spherulites grown in trachytic melts during cooling and decompression experiments with water-saturated conditions. Previous textural studies have shown the shape evolution and the growth process of spherulites as a function of undercooling (T) and water content, although just in basaltic and rhyolitic melts [1-3]. Spherulites are spherical clusters of polycrystalline aggregates that occur commonly in rhyolitic melts under highly non-equilibrium conditions [3-4]. Cooling and decompression experiments have been carried out on trachytic melts in order to investigate crystallization kinetics of alkali feldspars and the implications for magma dynamics during the ascent towards the surface. Experiments have been conducted using cold seal pressure vessel apparatus at pressure range of 30 - 200 MPa, temperature of 750 - 850 °C and time of 2 - 16 hours, thereby reproducing pre- and syn-eruptive conditions of the Campi Flegrei volcanoes. This study presents quantitative data on spherulite morphologies obtained both by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and synchrotron X-ray microtomography. Size, aspect ratio, number and crystallographic misorientation of alkali feldspar crystals will be measured. Furthermore, experiments performed at different durations could allow us to follow the growth and the evolution of spherulites. The shape of spherulites changes as a function of ΔT and experimental durations. Two kind of spherulites occured during experiments: open spherulites and close spherulites. The open spherulites are characterized by an structure with large (generally rectangular prismatic), widely spaced fibers with main axis converging towards a central nucleus, in agreement with previous observations [5-6]. Instead, the close spherulites consist of acicular and tiny fibers radially aggregated around a nucleus and single crystals are hardly distinguishable. First preliminary results show: a

  11. Histology and synchrotron radiation-based microtomography of the inner ear in a molecularly confirmed case of CHARGE syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glueckert, R.; Rask-Andersen, H.; Sergi, C.; Schmutzhard, J.; Mueller, B.; Beckmann, F.; Rittinger, O.; Hoefsloot, L.H.; Schrott-Fischer, A.; Janecke, A.R.

    2010-01-01

    CHARGE (Coloboma of the iris or retina, heart defects, atresia of the choanae, retardation of growth and/or development, genital anomalies, ear anomalies) syndrome (OMIM #214800) affects about 1 in 10,000 children and is most often caused by chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein-7 (CHD7)

  12. Mechanistic insights into nanotoxicity determined by synchrotron radiation-based Fourier-transform infrared imaging and multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riding, Matthew J; Trevisan, Júlio; Hirschmugl, Carol J; Jones, Kevin C; Semple, Kirk T; Martin, Francis L

    2012-12-01

    Our ability to identify the mechanisms by which carbon-based nanomaterials (CBNs) exert toxicity in cells is constrained by the lack of standardized methodologies to assay endpoint effects. Herein we describe a method of mechanistically identifying the effects of various CBN types in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells using multi-beam synchrotron radiation-based Fourier-transform infrared imaging (SR-FTIRI) at diffraction-limited resolution. This technique overcomes many of the inherent difficulties of assaying nanotoxicity and demonstrates exceptional sensitivity in identifying the effects of CBNs in cells at environmentally-relevant concentrations. We identify key mechanisms of nanotoxicity as the alteration of Amide and lipid biomolecules, but propose more specific bioactivity of CBNs occurs as a result of specific interactions between CBN structural conformation and cellular characteristics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Probing Intracellular Element Concentration Changes during Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Formation Using Synchrotron Radiation Based X-Ray Fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemiec, Maria J.; Laforce, Brecht; Garrevoet, Jan; Vergucht, Eva; De Rycke, Riet; Cloetens, Peter; Urban, Constantin F.; Vincze, Laszlo

    2016-01-01

    High pressure frozen (HPF), cryo-substituted microtome sections of 2 μm thickness containing human neutrophils (white blood cells) were analyzed using synchrotron radiation based X-ray fluorescence (SR nano-XRF) at a spatial resolution of 50 nm. Besides neutrophils from a control culture, we also analyzed neutrophils stimulated for 1–2 h with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), a substance inducing the formation of so-called Neutrophil Extracellular Traps (or NETs), a defense system again pathogens possibly involving proteins with metal chelating properties. In order to gain insight in metal transport during this process, precise local evaluation of elemental content was performed reaching limits of detection (LODs) of 1 ppb. Mean weight fractions within entire neutrophils, their nuclei and cytoplasms were determined for the three main elements P, S and Cl, but also for the 12 following trace elements: K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Br, Sr and Pb. Statistical analysis, including linear regression provided objective analysis and a measure for concentration changes. The nearly linear Ca and Cl concentration changes in neutrophils could be explained by already known phenomena such as the induction of Ca channels and the uptake of Cl under activation of NET forming neutrophils. Linear concentration changes were also found for P, S, K, Mn, Fe, Co and Se. The observed linear concentration increase for Mn could be related to scavenging of this metal from the pathogen by means of the neutrophil protein calprotectin, whereas the concentration increase of Se may be related to its antioxidant function protecting neutrophils from the reactive oxygen species they produce against pathogens. We emphasize synchrotron radiation based nanoscopic X-ray fluorescence as an enabling analytical technique to study changing (trace) element concentrations throughout cellular processes, provided accurate sample preparation and data-analysis. PMID:27812122

  14. Synchrotron radiation based on laser-plasma interaction in the relativistic range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albert, F.

    2007-12-01

    This work illustrates the experimental characterization of a new compact X-ray source: the Betatron X-ray source. It is the first time that collimated hard X-ray source is produced by laser. Through the focusing of an ultra-intense laser radiation (30 TW, 30 fs) on a helium plasma, the ponderomotive force linked to the light intensity gradient expels the plasma electrons forming an accelerating cavity in the wake of the laser plasma. Some electrons trapped in the back of this structure, are accelerated and oscillate to produce X-radiation. This document is composed of 8 chapters. The first one is a presentation of the topic. The second chapter gives an account of the physics behind the laser-plasma interaction in the relativistic range and for ultra-short pulses. The third chapter presents the theoretical characteristics of the Betatron X-ray source. This chapter begins with an analogy with current synchrotron radiation and the radiation emitted by an electron undergoing Betatron oscillations is described in terms of power, spectral intensity and photon flux. The fourth chapter is dedicated to the numerical simulation of the Betatron radiation. The trajectories of the electrons are computed from the equation of motion, taking into account longitudinal and transverse forces. The radiation emission term is then computed from the radiation equation detailed in the previous chapter. The fifth chapter presents the experimental setting to produce Betatron X-rays. The sixth chapter gives the experimental characterization of the source (size, divergence and spectrum) on one hand, and on the other hand studies how source flux and spectra vary when laser and plasma parameters change. The seventh chapter presents experimental methods used to characterize the electrons trajectories in the plasma wiggler. The last chapter draws some perspectives on this source in terms of improvement and uses. (A.C.)

  15. Synchrotron radiation-based micro computed tomography in the assessment of dentin de- and re-mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernen, Florian; Waltimo, Tuomas; Deyhle, Hans; Beckmann, Felix; Stark, Wendelin; Müller, Bert

    2008-08-01

    Synchrotron radiation-based micro computed tomography (SRμCT) is well established to determine the degree of mineralization in bony tissue. The present study demonstrates that the method can be likewise used for three-dimensional analyses of dentin de- and remineralization. Four dentin discs about 4 mm in diameter and 0.8 mm thick were prepared from freshly extracted human third molars. In order to study the de- and re-mineralization, three of them were treated with 10% citric acid for the period of 10 min. Nano-particulate bioactive glass made of SiO2, P2O5, CaO, Na2O served for the re-mineralization in physiological saline. This process was carried out at the incubation temperature of 37 °C for 1 and 7 d, respectively. The native and the treated discs were comparatively examined by SRμCT in absorption contrast mode. Already the visual inspection of the tomograms obtained reveals remarkable differences related to the mean X-ray absorption and internal microstructure. The de-mineralization led to a surface morphology characteristic for the treated dentin collagen matrix. The re-mineralized discs show a dependence on the period of the treatment with the bio-active glass suspension. Initial signs of the remineralization were clearly present already after 24 h of incubation. The disc incubated for 7 d exhibits a degree of mineralization comparable to the native control disc. Thus, SRμCT is a powerful non-destructive technique for the analysis of dentin de- and re-mineralization.

  16. Computational fluid dynamics of cerebral aneurysm coiling using high-resolution and high-energy synchrotron X-ray microtomography: comparison with the homogeneous porous medium approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Michael R; Barbour, Michael C; Rolland du Roscoat, Sabine; Geindreau, Christian; Chivukula, Venkat K; McGah, Patrick M; Nerva, John D; Morton, Ryan P; Kim, Louis J; Aliseda, Alberto

    2017-08-01

    Computational modeling of intracranial aneurysms provides insights into the influence of hemodynamics on aneurysm growth, rupture, and treatment outcome. Standard modeling of coiled aneurysms simplifies the complex geometry of the coil mass into a homogeneous porous medium that fills the aneurysmal sac. We compare hemodynamics of coiled aneurysms modeled from high-resolution imaging with those from the same aneurysms modeled following the standard technique, in an effort to characterize sources of error from the simplified model. Physical models of two unruptured aneurysms were created using three-dimensional printing. The models were treated with coil embolization using the same coils as those used in actual patient treatment and then scanned by synchrotron X-ray microtomography to obtain high-resolution imaging of the coil mass. Computational modeling of each aneurysm was performed using patient-specific boundary conditions. The coils were modeled using the simplified porous medium or by incorporating the X-ray imaged coil surface, and the differences in hemodynamic variables were assessed. X-ray microtomographic imaging of coils and incorporation into computational models were successful for both aneurysms. Porous medium calculations of coiled aneurysm hemodynamics overestimated intra-aneurysmal flow, underestimated oscillatory shear index and viscous dissipation, and over- or underpredicted wall shear stress (WSS) and WSS gradient compared with X-ray-based coiled computational fluid dynamics models. Computational modeling of coiled intracranial aneurysms using the porous medium approach may inaccurately estimate key hemodynamic variables compared with models incorporating high-resolution synchrotron X-ray microtomographic imaging of complex aneurysm coil geometry. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. Measurement of fibre-fibre contact in three-dimensional images of fibrous materials obtained from X-ray synchrotron microtomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malmberg, F.; Lindblad, J.; Ostlund, C.; Almgren, K.M.; Gamstedt, E.K.

    2011-01-01

    A series of wood-fibre mats was investigated using high-resolution phase-contrast microtomography at the beamline ID 19 of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in Grenoble, France. A method for data reduction to quantify the degree of fibre-fibre contact has been derived. The degree of fibre-fibre contact and bonding plays a fundamental role in the mechanical properties of cellulose-fibre mats, paper materials and cellulose-fibre composites. The proposed computerised automated method consists of two parts. First, fibre lumens are segmented using a watershed based method. This information is then used to identify fibre-fibre contacts in projections along the z-axis of the material. The method is tested on microtomographic images of mats made of wood pulp fibres, and is shown to successfully detect differences in the amount of fibre-fibre contact between samples. The degree of fibre-fibre contact correlates well with measured out-of-plane strength of the fibrous material.

  18. Study of the Histology of Leafy Axes and Male Cones of Glenrosa carentonensis sp. nov. (Cenomanian Flints of Charente-Maritime, France Using Synchrotron Microtomography Linked with Palaeoecology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-David Moreau

    Full Text Available We report exceptionally well-preserved plant remains ascribed to the extinct conifer Glenrosa J. Watson et H.L. Fisher emend. V. Srinivasan inside silica-rich nodules from the Cenomanian of the Font-de-Benon quarry, Charente-Maritime, western France. Remains are preserved in three dimensions and mainly consist of fragmented leafy axes. Pollen cones of this conifer are for the first time reported and in some cases remain connected to leafy stems. Histology of Glenrosa has not previously been observed; here, most of internal tissues and cells are well-preserved and allow us to describe a new species, Glenrosa carentonensis sp. nov., using propagation phase-contrast X-ray synchrotron microtomography, a non-destructive technique. Leafy axes consist of characteristic helically arranged leaves bearing stomatal crypts. Glenrosa carentonensis sp. nov. differs from the other described species in developing a phyllotaxy 8/21, claw-shaped leaves, a thicker cuticle, a higher number of papillae and stomata per crypt. Pollen cones consist of peltate, helically arranged microsporophylls, each of them bearing 6-7 pollen sacs. The new high resolution tomographic approach tested here allows virtual palaeohistology on plants included inside a dense rock to be made. Most tissues of Glenrosa carentonensis sp. nov. are described. Lithological and palaeontological data combined with xerophytic features of Glenrosa carentonensis sp. nov. suggest that this conifer has been adapted to survive in harsh and instable environments such as coastal area exposed to hot, dry conditions.

  19. A novel technique combining high-resolution synchrotron x-ray microtomography and x-ray diffraction for characterization of micro particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merrifield, David R; Ramachandran, Vasuki; Roberts, Kevin J; Armour, Wesley; Axford, Danny; Basham, Mark; Connolley, Thomas; Evans, Gwyndaf; McAuley, Katherine E; Owen, Robin L; Sandy, James

    2011-01-01

    The processing of solids, such as crystals, is strongly influenced by the surface properties of the material. In recent years the pharmaceutical industry has shown great interest in identifying, or chemically speciating, the molecular components of crystal faces. Formerly, characterization of the molecular identity of crystal faces was restricted to the study of large single crystals. This would have been primarily for structure determination as part of the drug registration process. Diamond Light Source in Oxfordshire is a new synchrotron facility in the UK, having 18 operational beamlines with 4 more in the construction phase. Beamlines at this medium energy light source enable the study of micron-sized objects in great detail. It is well known that x-ray microtomography (XMT) can be used to investigate the external morphology of a crystal whereas x-ray diffraction (XRD) is used to study the molecular orientation, structure and packing within the crystal. The objective of this research is to assess the feasibility of, and thereby develop a new methodology for, characterizing the molecular identity of a particular face of a crystalline particle at a scale of scrutiny of 20–50 µm by combining these two powerful techniques. This work demonstrates the application of XMT and XRD to investigate respectively the shape and crystalline phase/orientation of relevant test crystals. This research has applications in the pharmaceutical industry in that when the exact molecular nature of a particular face is known, the important physico-pharmaceutical properties stemming from that can be better understood. Some initial data are presented and discussed

  20. Evaluating the Effect of Processing Parameters on Porosity in Electron Beam Melted Ti-6Al-4V via Synchrotron X-ray Microtomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Ross; Narra, Sneha P.; Ozturk, Tugce; Beuth, Jack; Rollett, A. D.

    2016-03-01

    Electron beam melting (EBM) is one of the subsets of direct metal additive manufacturing (AM), an emerging manufacturing method that fabricates metallic parts directly from a three-dimensional (3D) computer model by the successive melting of powder layers. This family of technologies has seen significant growth in recent years due to its potential to manufacture complex components with shorter lead times, reduced material waste and minimal post-processing as a "near-net-shape" process, making it of particular interest to the biomedical and aerospace industries. The popular titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V has been the focus of multiple studies due to its importance to these two industries, which can be attributed to its high strength to weight ratio and corrosion resistance. While previous research has found that most tensile properties of EBM Ti-6Al-4V meet or exceed conventional manufacturing standards, fatigue properties have been consistently inferior due to a significant presence of porosity. Studies have shown that adjusting processing parameters can reduce overall porosity; however, they frequently utilize methods that give insufficient information to properly characterize the porosity (e.g., Archimedes' method). A more detailed examination of the result of process parameter adjustments on the size and spatial distribution of gas porosity was performed utilizing synchrotron-based x-ray microtomography with a minimum feature resolution of 1.5 µm. Cross-sectional melt pool area was varied systematically via process mapping. Increasing melt pool area through the speed function variable was observed to significantly reduce porosity in the part.

  1. Quantification of swelling and erosion in the controlled release of a poorly water-soluble drug using synchrotron X-ray computed microtomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xianzhen; Li, Haiyan; Guo, Zhen; Wu, Li; Chen, Fangwei; de Matas, Marcel; Shao, Qun; Xiao, Tiqiao; York, Peter; He, You; Zhang, Jiwen

    2013-10-01

    The hydration layer plays a key role in the controlled drug release of gel-forming matrix tablets. For poorly water-soluble drugs, matrix erosion is considered as the rate limiting step for drug release. However, few investigations have reported on the quantification of the relative importance of swelling and erosion in the release of poorly soluble drugs, and three-dimensional (3D) structures of the hydration layer are poorly understood. Here, we employed synchrotron radiation X-ray computed microtomography with 9-μm resolution to investigate the hydration dynamics and to quantify the relative importance of swelling and erosion on felodipine release by a statistical model. The 3D structures of the hydration layer were revealed by the reconstructed 3D rendering of tablets. Twenty-three structural parameters related to the volume, the surface area (SA), and the specific surface area (SSA) for the hydration layer and the tablet core were calculated. Three dominating parameters, including SA and SSA of the hydration layer (SA hydration layer and SSA hydration layer ) and SA of the glassy core (SA glassy core ), were identified to establish the statistical model. The significance order of independent variables was SA hydration layer > SSA hydration layer > SA glassy core , which quantitatively indicated that the release of felodipine was dominated by a combination of erosion and swelling. The 3D reconstruction and structural parameter calculation methods in our study, which are not available from conventional methods, are efficient tools to quantify the relative importance of swelling and erosion in the controlled release of poorly soluble drugs from a structural point of view.

  2. Exploring the interactions and binding sites between Cd and functional groups in soil using two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy and synchrotron radiation based spectromicroscopies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Fusheng; Polizzotto, Matthew L.; Guan, Dongxing; Wu, Jun; Shen, Qirong; Ran, Wei; Wang, Boren; Yu, Guanghui

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The interactions and binding between Cd and functional groups are essential for their fates. • Two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy can identify Cd binding to functional groups in soils. • Synchrotron radiation based spectromicroscopy shows the micro-scale distribution of Cd in soils. • Soil functional groups controlling Cd binding can be modified by fertilization treatments. - Abstract: Understanding how heavy metals bind and interact in soils is essential for predicting their distributions, reactions and fates in the environment. Here we propose a novel strategy, i.e., combining two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D COS) and synchrotron radiation based spectromicroscopies, for identifying heavy metal binding to functional groups in soils. The results showed that although long-term (23 yrs) organic fertilization treatment caused the accumulation of Cd (over 3 times) in soils when compared to no fertilization and chemical fertilization treatments, it significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the Cd concentration in wheat grain. The 2D COS analyses demonstrated that soil functional groups controlling Cd binding were modified by fertilization treatments, providing implications for the reduced bioavailability of heavy metals in organic fertilized soils. Furthermore, correlative micro X-ray fluorescence spectromicroscopy, electron probe micro-analyzer mapping, and synchrotron-radiation-based FTIR spectromicroscopy analysis showed that Cd, minerals, and organic functional groups were heterogeneously distributed at the micro-scale in soil colloids. Only minerals, rather than organic groups, had a similar distribution pattern with Cd. Together, this strategy has a potential to explore the interactions and binding sites among heavy metals, minerals and organic components in soil.

  3. Exploring the interactions and binding sites between Cd and functional groups in soil using two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy and synchrotron radiation based spectromicroscopies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Fusheng [Jiangsu Provincial Key Lab for Organic Solid Waste Utilization and National Engineering Research Center for Organic-Based Fertilizers, College of Resources & Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Department of Soil Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Polizzotto, Matthew L. [Department of Soil Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Guan, Dongxing [Key Laboratory of Surficial Geochemistry, Ministry of Education, School of Earth Sciences and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210026 (China); Wu, Jun [College of Environment, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014 (China); Shen, Qirong; Ran, Wei [Jiangsu Provincial Key Lab for Organic Solid Waste Utilization and National Engineering Research Center for Organic-Based Fertilizers, College of Resources & Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Wang, Boren [Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081 (China); Yu, Guanghui, E-mail: yuguanghui@njau.edu.cn [Jiangsu Provincial Key Lab for Organic Solid Waste Utilization and National Engineering Research Center for Organic-Based Fertilizers, College of Resources & Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • The interactions and binding between Cd and functional groups are essential for their fates. • Two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy can identify Cd binding to functional groups in soils. • Synchrotron radiation based spectromicroscopy shows the micro-scale distribution of Cd in soils. • Soil functional groups controlling Cd binding can be modified by fertilization treatments. - Abstract: Understanding how heavy metals bind and interact in soils is essential for predicting their distributions, reactions and fates in the environment. Here we propose a novel strategy, i.e., combining two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D COS) and synchrotron radiation based spectromicroscopies, for identifying heavy metal binding to functional groups in soils. The results showed that although long-term (23 yrs) organic fertilization treatment caused the accumulation of Cd (over 3 times) in soils when compared to no fertilization and chemical fertilization treatments, it significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the Cd concentration in wheat grain. The 2D COS analyses demonstrated that soil functional groups controlling Cd binding were modified by fertilization treatments, providing implications for the reduced bioavailability of heavy metals in organic fertilized soils. Furthermore, correlative micro X-ray fluorescence spectromicroscopy, electron probe micro-analyzer mapping, and synchrotron-radiation-based FTIR spectromicroscopy analysis showed that Cd, minerals, and organic functional groups were heterogeneously distributed at the micro-scale in soil colloids. Only minerals, rather than organic groups, had a similar distribution pattern with Cd. Together, this strategy has a potential to explore the interactions and binding sites among heavy metals, minerals and organic components in soil.

  4. Using new hetero-spectral two-dimensional correlation analyses and synchrotron-radiation-based spectromicroscopy to characterize binding of Cu to soil dissolved organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fusheng; Li, Yaqing; Wang, Xiang; Chi, Zhilai; Yu, Guanghui

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the binding characteristics of copper (Cu) to different functional groups in soil dissolved organic matter (DOM) is important to explore Cu toxicity, bioavailability and ultimate fate in the environment. However, the methods used to explore such binding characteristics are still limited. Here, two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2DCOS) integrated with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), 29 Si nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), 27 Al NMR, and synchrotron-radiation-based FTIR spectromicroscopy were used to explore the binding characteristics of Cu to soil DOM as part of a long-term (23 years) fertilization experiment. Compared with no fertilization and inorganic fertilization (NPK), long-term pig manure fertilization (M) treatment significantly increased the concentration of total and bioavailable Cu in soils. Furthermore, hetero-spectral 2DCOS analyses demonstrated that the binding characteristics of Cu onto functional groups in soil DOM were modified by fertilization regimes. In the NPK treatment, Cu was bound to aliphatic C, whereas in the manure treatment SiO groups had higher affinity toward Cu than aliphatic C. Also, the sequence of binding of functional groups to Cu was modified by the fertilization treatments. Moreover, synchrotron-radiation-based FTIR spectromicroscopy showed that Cu, clay minerals and sesquioxides, and C functional groups were heterogeneously distributed at the micro-scale. Specifically, clay-OH as well as mineral elements had a distribution pattern similar to Cu, but certain (but not all) C forms showed a distribution pattern inconsistent with that of Cu. The combination of synchrotron radiation spectromicroscopy and 2DCOS is a useful tool in exploring the interactions among heavy metals, minerals and organic components in soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Synchrotron radiation based cross-sectional scanning photoelectron microscopy and spectroscopy of n-ZnO:Al/p-GaN:Mg heterojunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kai-Hsuan; Chen, Chia-Hao [Nano Science Group, National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsin-Ann Rd. 101, 30076 Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Chang, Ping-Chuan [Department of Electro-Optical Engineering, Kun Shan University, Dawan Rd. 949, 71003 Tainan, Taiwan (China); Chen, Tse-Pu; Chang, Sheng-Po; Chang, Shoou-Jinn [Institute of Microelectronics and Department of Electrical Engineering, Center for Micro/Nano Science and Technology, Advanced Optoelectronic Technology Center, National Cheng Kung University, University Rd. 1, 70101 Tainan, Taiwan (China); Shiu, Hung-Wei; Chang, Lo-Yueh [Nano Science Group, National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsin-Ann Rd. 101, 30076 Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Kuang-Fu Rd. 101, 30013 Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)

    2013-02-18

    Al-doped ZnO (AZO) deposited by radio frequency co-sputtering is formed on epitaxial Mg-doped GaN template at room temperature to achieve n-AZO/p-GaN heterojunction. Alignment of AZO and GaN bands is investigated using synchrotron radiation based cross-sectional scanning photoelectron microscopy and spectroscopy on the nonpolar side-facet of a vertically c-axis aligned heterostructure. It shows type-II band configuration with valence band offset of 1.63 {+-} 0.1 eV and conduction band offset of 1.61 {+-} 0.1 eV, respectively. Rectification behavior is clearly observed, with a ratio of forward-to-reverse current up to six orders of magnitude when the bias is applied across the p-n junction.

  6. Application of synchrotron-radiation-based x-ray microprobe techniques for the analysis of recombination activity of metals precipitated at Si/SiGe misfit dislocations

    CERN Document Server

    Vyvenko, O F; Istratov, A A; Weber, E R; Kittler, M; Seifert, W

    2002-01-01

    In this study we report application of synchrotron-radiation-based x-ray microprobe techniques (the x-ray-beam-induced current (XBIC) and x-ray fluorescence (mu-XRF) methods) to the analysis of the recombination activity and space distribution of copper and iron in the vicinity of dislocations in silicon/silicon-germanium structures. A combination of these two techniques enables one to study the chemical nature of the defects and impurities and their recombination activity in situ and to map metal clusters with a micron-scale resolution. XRF analysis revealed that copper formed clearly distinguishable precipitates along the misfit dislocations. A proportional dependence between the XBIC contrast and the number of copper atoms in the precipitates was established. In hydrogen-passivated iron-contaminated samples we observed clusters of iron precipitates which had no recombination activity detectable by the XBIC technique as well as iron clusters which were not completely passivated.

  7. Synchrotron radiation based STXM analysis and micro-XRF mapping of differential expression of extracellular thiol groups by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans grown on Fe(2+) and S(0).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jin-Lan; Liu, Hong-Chang; Nie, Zhen-Yuan; Peng, An-An; Zhen, Xiang-Jun; Yang, Yun; Zhang, Xiu-Li

    2013-09-01

    The differential expression of extracellular thiol groups by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans grown on substrates Fe(2+) and S(0) was investigated by using synchrotron radiation based scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) imaging and microbeam X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) mapping. The extracellular thiol groups (SH) were first alkylated by iodoacetic acid forming Protein-SCH2COOH and then the P-SCH2COOH was marked by calcium ions forming P-SCH2COOCa. The STXM imaging and μ-XRF mapping of SH were based on analysis of SCH2COO-bonded Ca(2+). The results indicated that the thiol group content of A. ferrooxidans grown on S(0) is 3.88 times to that on Fe(2+). Combined with selective labeling of SH by Ca(2+), the STXM imaging and μ-XRF mapping provided an in situ and rapid analysis of differential expression of extracellular thiol groups. © 2013.

  8. Evidence for Degradation of the Chrome Yellows in Van Gogh's Sunflowers: A Study Using Noninvasive In Situ Methods and Synchrotron-Radiation-Based X-ray Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monico, Letizia; Janssens, Koen; Hendriks, Ella; Vanmeert, Frederik; Van der Snickt, Geert; Cotte, Marine; Falkenberg, Gerald; Brunetti, Brunetto Giovanni; Miliani, Costanza

    2015-11-16

    This paper presents firm evidence for the chemical alteration of chrome yellow pigments in Van Gogh's Sunflowers (Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam). Noninvasive in situ spectroscopic analysis at several spots on the painting, combined with synchrotron-radiation-based X-ray investigations of two microsamples, revealed the presence of different types of chrome yellow used by Van Gogh, including the lightfast PbCrO4 and the sulfur-rich PbCr1-x Sx O4 (x≈0.5) variety that is known for its high propensity to undergo photoinduced reduction. The products of this degradation process, i.e., Cr(III) compounds, were found at the interface between the paint and the varnish. Selected locations of the painting with the highest risk of color modification by chemical deterioration of chrome yellow are identified, thus calling for careful monitoring in the future. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. The nature of ancient Egyptian copper-containing carbon inks is revealed by synchrotron radiation based X-ray microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas; Cotte, Marine; Loredo-Portales, René

    2017-01-01

    throughout Egypt for a period spanning at least 300 years. It is argued that the black pigment material (soot) for these inks was obtained as by-products of technical metallurgy. The copper (Cu) can be correlated with the following three main components: cuprite (Cu2O), azurite (Cu3[CO3]2[OH]2) and malachite...... (XANES) at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). The composition of the copper-containing carbon inks showed no significant differences that could be related to time periods or the geographical locations. This renders it probable that the same technology for ink production was used...

  10. Correlating electronic and geometric structures of organic films and interfaces by means of synchrotron radiation based techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamane, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    The electronic structure of organic thin films and interfaces plays a crucial role in the performance of optoelectronic devices using organic semiconductors, and is seriously dominated by the geometric film/interface structure due to the anisotropic spatial distribution of molecular orbitals. This paper briefly reviews the recent progress of the examination of correlating electronic structure and geometric structure of archetypal organic semiconductor thin films and interfaces by using spectroscopic experiments with synchrotron radiation such as angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy, x-ray absorption spectroscopy, and x-ray standing wave. (author)

  11. X-ray micro-tomography for investigations of brain tissues on cellular level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khimchenko, Anna; Schulz, Georg; Deyhle, Hans; Thalmann, Peter; Zanette, Irene; Zdora, Marie-Christine; Bikis, Christos; Hipp, Alexander; Hieber, Simone E.; Schweighauser, Gabriel; Hench, Jürgen; Müller, Bert

    2016-10-01

    X-ray imaging in absorption contrast mode is well established for hard tissue visualization. However, performance for lower density materials is limited due to a reduced contrast. Our aim is three-dimensional (3D) characterization of micro-morphology of human brain tissues down to (sub-)cellular resolution within a laboratory environment. Using the laboratory-based microtomography (μCT) system nanotom m (GE Sensing and Inspection Technologies GmbH, Wunstorf, Germany) and synchrotron radiation at the Diamond-Manchester Imaging Branchline I13-2 (Diamond Light Source, Didcot, UK), we have acquired 3D data with a resolution down to 0.45 μm for visualization of a human cerebellum specimen down to cellular level. We have shown that all selected modalities, namely laboratory-based absorption contrast micro-tomography (LBμCT), synchrotron radiation based in-line single distance phase contrast tomography (SDPR) and synchrotron radiation based single-grating interferometry (GI), can reach cellular resolution for tissue samples with a size in the mm-range. The results are discussed qualitatively in comparison to optical microscopy of haematoxylin and eosin (HE) stained sections. As phase contrast yields to a better data quality for soft tissues and in order to overcome restrictions of limited beamline access for phase contrast measurements, we have equipped the μCT system nanotom m with a double-grating phase contrast set-up. Preliminary experimental results of a knee sample consisting of a bony part and a cartilage demonstrate that phase contrast data exhibits better quality compared to absorption contrast. Currently, the set-up is under adjustment. It is expected that cellular resolution would also be achieved. The questions arise (1) what would be the quality gain of laboratory-based phase contrast in comparison to laboratory-based absorption contrast tomography and (2) could laboratory-based phase contrast data provide comparable results to synchrotron radiation based

  12. Enhancement of the photo-electric effect with pharmacological agents in synchrotron radiation based anti-cancer radiotherapy: a methodological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corde, Stephanie

    2002-01-01

    Anti-cancer therapy rests on three main principles: 1) anatomic confinement of irradiation; 2) temporal fractioning of treatment; 3) treatment of tissues that are more sensitive to radiation than surrounding healthy tissue. Under those principles hides the goal of radiotherapy: to deposit more of the X-ray energy in the tumor while preserving the surrounding healthy tissues. This goal is hard to reach since one of the causes of the failures in radiotherapy is the continuing evolution of the tumor. Could synchrotron radiation be more effective as an X-ray source for radiotherapy? The variation of the radiation-matter interaction cross-sections as a function of X-ray energy and atomic number of the medium show that certain energies and certain elements are more suitable to obtain the largest number of interactions and the largest amount of deposited energy. Synchrotron radiation allows to select precisely those energies because of its high spectral intensity. Its spectral characteristics (energy of the photons between 10 and 100 keV) allow to trigger the photoelectric effect with a maximum of probability on heavy elements introduced close to cancerous cells. It has been shown that: 1) synchrotron radiation based tomodensitometry is a quantitative imaging technique, potentially powerful for radiotherapy since it insures in-vivo the measurement of intra-tumoral concentration of contrast agent (I or Gd); 2) in the presence of iodinated contrast agent the lethal effect of X-rays on cell survival is increased and the gain in radio sensitivity depends on X-ray energy; 3) at the cellular scale the lethality of irradiation can be optimised again by transporting heavy atoms (I, Pt) inside the DNA, which is the biological target of the irradiation. This reinforcement of the killing efficiency of low energy X-rays using a physical mechanism aimed at a pharmacological agent is an original concept in anti-cancer radiotherapy. (author) [fr

  13. Pore formation during dehydration of polycrystalline gypsum observed and quantified in a time-series synchrotron radiation based X-ray micro-tomography experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusseis, F.; Schrank, C.; Liu, J.; Karrech, A.; Llana-Fúnez, S.; Xiao, X.; Regenauer-Lieb, K.

    2011-10-01

    We conducted an in-situ X-ray micro-computed tomography heating experiment at the Advanced Photon Source (USA) to dehydrate an unconfined 2.3 mm diameter cylinder of Volterra Gypsum. We used a purpose-built X-ray transparent furnace to heat the sample to 388 K for a total of 310 min to acquire a three-dimensional time-series tomography dataset comprising nine time steps. The voxel size of 2.2 μm3 proved sufficient to pinpoint reaction initiation and the organization of drainage architecture in space and time. We observed that dehydration commences across a narrow front, which propagates from the margins to the centre of the sample in more than four hours. The advance of this front can be fitted with a square-root function, implying that the initiation of the reaction in the sample can be described as a diffusion process. Novel parallelized computer codes allow quantifying the geometry of the porosity and the drainage architecture from the very large tomographic datasets (6.4 × 109 voxel each) in unprecedented detail. We determined position, volume, shape and orientation of each resolvable pore and tracked these properties over the duration of the experiment. We found that the pore-size distribution follows a power law. Pores tend to be anisotropic but rarely crack-shaped and have a preferred orientation, likely controlled by a pre-existing fabric in the sample. With on-going dehydration, pores coalesce into a single interconnected pore cluster that is connected to the surface of the sample cylinder and provides an effective drainage pathway. Our observations can be summarized in a model in which gypsum is stabilized by thermal expansion stresses and locally increased pore fluid pressures until the dehydration front approaches to within about 100 μm. Then, the internal stresses are released and dehydration happens efficiently, resulting in new pore space. Pressure release, the production of pores and the advance of the front are coupled in a feedback loop. We discuss our findings in the context of previous studies.

  14. Phase transformations in Ni/Ti multilayers investigated by synchrotron radiation-based x-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavaleiro, A.J., E-mail: andre.cavaleiro@dem.uc.pt [CEMUC, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Coimbra, R. Luís Reis Santos, 3030-788 Coimbra (Portugal); Ramos, A.S. [CEMUC, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Coimbra, R. Luís Reis Santos, 3030-788 Coimbra (Portugal); Martins, R.M.S. [CENIMAT/I3N, Department of Materials Science, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); LATR/IST/CTN – Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10 ao km 139.7, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Fernandes, F.M. Braz [CENIMAT/I3N, Department of Materials Science, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Morgiel, J. [Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Polish Academy of Sciences, Reymonta 25, 30-059 Cracow (Poland); Baehtz, C. [Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden Rossendorf HZDR, Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, D-01314 Dresden (Germany); Vieira, M.T. [CEMUC, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Coimbra, R. Luís Reis Santos, 3030-788 Coimbra (Portugal)

    2015-10-15

    X-ray diffraction using synchrotron radiation was used for real-time investigation of the phase evolution of Ni/Ti multilayer thin films during annealing. These multilayers were deposited onto Ti–6Al–4V substrates by dc magnetron sputtering from pure Ni and Ti targets. The deposition parameters were adjusted in order to obtain a near equiatomic chemical composition and modulation periods (Λ) below 25 nm. Along the entire thickness of the films, well-defined structures with alternate Ni- and Ti-rich layers are observed, even for Λ = 4 nm. In this case, a halo characteristic of an amorphous structure is obtained, while for Λ of 12 and 25 nm the as-deposited thin films are nanocrystalline being possible to identify the (111) Ni and (002) Ti diffraction peaks. The nanolayered structure vanishes during annealing due to interdiffusion followed by reaction. The reaction between Ni and Ti to produce NiTi in the cubic B2 structure occurs in a short delay of time and within a narrow temperature range. For Λ of 25, 12 and 4 nm, the reaction temperature is close to 320, 350 and 385 °C, respectively. For higher temperatures, in addition to the austenitic phase, the NiTi{sub 2} phase is identified. The diffusion of Ti from the substrate and Ni towards the substrate could favour the precipitation of NiTi{sub 2}. - Highlights: • Alternate Ni- and Ti-rich layers are observed, even for short periods. • Phase evolution was studied using synchrotron radiation XRD during annealing. • Ni and Ti reacted at ∼300–400 °C to form B2–NiTi in a single step. • The higher the period the lower the reaction temperature. • At higher temperatures NiTi{sub 2} was detected due to Ni diffusion towards Ti{sub 6}Al{sub 4}V.

  15. Anatomy of the murine and human cochlea visualized at the cellular level by synchrotron-radiation-based micro-computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, B.; Lareida, A.; Beckmann, F.; Diakov, G. M.; Kral, F.; Schwarm, F.; Stoffner, R.; Gunkel, A. R.; Glueckert, R.; Schrott-Fischer, A.; Fischer, J.; Andronache, A.; Freysinger, W.

    2006-08-01

    Diseases of the hearing organ and impairment affect a significant fraction of population. Therefore, the hearing organ embedded as a helical structure in the cochlea within the hardest human osseous structure inside the petrous bone is intensively investigated. Currently, studies of the cochlea with true micrometer resolution or better are destructive. Membranes and three-dimensional vessel structures of post-mortem explanted human cochlea were only visualized with limited spatial resolution or deformed anatomical features resulting from preparation artifacts. We have applied a preparation and staining protocol developed for electron microscopy, which allows the visualization and quantification of a great variety of soft-tissue structures including the Reissner's membrane, the tectorial membrane, basilar membrane, modiolus, lamina radialis, and Nuel's space by the use of synchrotron-radiation-based micro computed tomography at the beamline BW 2 (HASYLAB at DESY). The level of detail can be even improved by the application of sophisticated computer vision tools, which enables the extraction of the vascular tree down to the capillaries and of the course of nerve fibers as well as the topology of the osseous lamina radialis, which assembles the nerve fibers from the hair-cells to the ganglia in the center of the cochlea, the modiolus. These non-destructively obtained three-dimensional data are principal for the refined understanding of the hearing process by membranes morphologies and further anatomical features at the cellular level and for teaching purposes in medical curricula.

  16. Preliminary studies of the effects of psychological stress on circulating lymphocytes analyzed by synchrotron radiation based-Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Caraveo, Alejandra; Castillo-Michel, Hiram; Mejia-Carmona, Gloria Erika; Pérez-Ishiwara, David Guillermo; Cotte, Marine; Martínez-Martínez, Alejandro

    2014-07-01

    Psychological stress is a condition that not only generates behavioral disorders but also disrupts homeostasis and immune activity that can exacerbate or lead to inflammatory diseases. The aim of this work was to study biochemical changes in circulating immune cells from rats under psychological stress by using vibrational spectroscopy. A stress model was used, where exposure to a stressor was repeated for 5 days. Subsequently, circulating lymphocytes were examined for their biomolecular vibrational fingerprints with synchrotron radiation based-Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy. The results showed an increased absorption at the ester lipid region (1720-1755 cm-1) in lymphocytes from stressed rats, suggesting lipid peroxidation. Statistical significant changes in wavenumber peak position and absorbance in the nucleic acid region were also observed (915-950 cm-1 Z-DNA, 1090-1150 cm-1 symmetric stretching of Psbnd Osbnd C, 1200-1260 cm-1 asymmetric PO2 and 1570-1510 cm-1 methylated nucleotides) which suggest a reduction of transcriptional activity in lymphocytes from stressed rat. These results unravel part of the mechanisms by which psychological stress may affect the immune system leading to systemic consequences.

  17. In vivo and in situ synchrotron radiation-based μ-XRF reveals elemental distributions during the early attachment phase of barnacle larvae and juvenile barnacles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senkbeil, Tobias; Mohamed, Tawheed; Simon, Rolf; Batchelor, David; Di Fino, Alessio; Aldred, Nick; Clare, Anthony S; Rosenhahn, Axel

    2016-02-01

    Barnacles are able to establish stable surface contacts and adhere underwater. While the composition of adult barnacle cement has been intensively studied, far less is known about the composition of the cement of the settlement-stage cypris larva. The main challenge in studying the adhesives used by these larvae is the small quantity of material available for analysis, being on the order of nanograms. In this work, we applied, for the first time, synchrotron radiation-based μ-X-ray fluorescence analysis (SR-μ-XRF) for in vivo and in situ analysis of young barnacles and barnacle cyprids. To obtain biologically relevant information relating to the body tissues, adhesives, and shell of the organisms, an in situ sample environment was developed to allow direct microprobe investigation of hydrated specimens without pretreatment of the samples. In 8-day-old juvenile barnacles (Balanus improvisus), the junctions between the six plates forming the shell wall showed elevated concentrations of calcium, potassium, bromine, strontium, and manganese. Confocal measurements allowed elemental characterization of the adhesive interface of recently attached cyprids (Balanus amphitrite), and substantiated the accumulation of bromine both at the point of initial attachment as well as within the cyprid carapace. In situ measurements of the cyprid cement established the presence of bromine, chlorine, iodine, sulfur, copper, iron, zinc, selenium, and nickel for both species. The previously unrecognized presence of bromine, iron, and selenium in the cyprid permanent adhesive will hopefully inspire further biochemical investigations of the function of these substances.

  18. Synchrotron radiation based micro X-ray fluorescence analysis of the calibration samples used in surface sensitive total reflection and grazing emission X-ray fluorescence techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubala-Kukuś, A.; Banaś, D.; Pajek, M.; Szlachetko, J.; Jagodziński, P.; Susini, J.; Salomé, M.

    2013-12-01

    Total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) and grazing emission X-ray fluorescence (GEXRF) are surface sensitive techniques and can be used for detailed surface studies of different materials, including ultra-low concentration contamination or the lateral and depth distributions of elements. The calibration procedure typically used involves placing a micro-droplet (˜μl) of the standard solution onto a silicon wafer (or quartz backing). After evaporation of the solvent, the residual amount of elements is used as a reference standard. Knowledge of the distribution of residue material on the substrate surface is crucial for precise quantification. In the present work the investigation of the lateral distribution of elements in the multielemental calibrating samples, containing the 23 most commonly studied elements, by using the synchrotron radiation based micro X-ray fluorescence is presented. The goal of this project was the study of a uniformity of the elemental distributions and determination of the residual elements morphology depending on the temperature of the drying process. The X-ray images were compared with optical and SEM images. Paper presents in details the experimental setup, sample preparation procedures, measurements and results. In the analysis of the X-ray images of the sample dried in high temperature the censoring approach was applied improving the quality of statistical analysis. The information on the elements distribution in the calibrating samples can be useful for developing more accurate calibration procedures applied in quantitative analysis of surface sensitive TXRF and GEXRF techniques.

  19. Isolating stem cells in the inter-follicular epidermis employing synchrotron radiation-based Fourier-transform infrared microspectroscopy and focal plane array imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Imran I; Harrison, Wesley J; Kerns, Jemma G; Filik, Jacob; Wehbe, Katia; Carmichael, Paul L; Scott, Andrew D; Philpott, Mike P; Frogley, Mark D; Cinque, Gianfelice; Martin, Francis L

    2012-10-01

    Normal function and physiology of the epidermis is maintained by the regenerative capacity of this tissue via adult stem cells (SCs). However, definitive identifying markers for SCs remain elusive. Infrared (IR) spectroscopy exploits the ability of cellular biomolecules to absorb in the mid-IR region (λ = 2.5-25 μm), detecting vibrational transitions of chemical bonds. In this study, we exploited the cell's inherent biochemical composition to discriminate SCs of the inter-follicular skin epidermis based on IR-derived markers. Paraffin-embedded samples of human scalp skin (n = 4) were obtained, and 10-μm thick sections were mounted for IR spectroscopy. Samples were interrogated in transmission mode using synchrotron radiation-based Fourier-transform IR (FTIR) microspectroscopy (15 × 15 μm) and also imaged employing globar-source FTIR focal plane array (FPA) imaging (5.4 × 5.4 μm). Dependent on the location of derived spectra, wavenumber-absorbance/intensity relationships were examined using unsupervised principal component analysis. This approach showed clear separation and spectral differences dependent on cell type. Spectral biomarkers concurrently associated with segregation of SCs, transit-amplifying cells and terminally-differentiated cells of epidermis were primarily PO(2)(-) vibrational modes (1,225 and 1,080 cm(-1)), related to DNA conformational alterations. FPA imaging coupled with hierarchical cluster analysis also indicated the presence of specific basal layer cells potentially originating from the follicular bulge, suggested by co-clustering of spectra. This study highlights PO (2) (-) vibrational modes as potential putative SC markers.

  20. Synchrotron radiation-based multi-analytical approach for studying underglaze color: The microstructure of Chinese Qinghua blue decors (Ming dynasty)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, T. [CEMES, CNRS, Toulouse University, Toulouse (France); Zhu, T.Q., E-mail: zhutq@mail.sysu.edu.cn [School of Sociology and Anthropology of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Feng, Z.Y. [School of Sociology and Anthropology of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Fayard, B. [Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, Université Paris-Sud, CNRS – UMR 8502, 91405 Orsay (France); Pouyet, E. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, 38000 Grenoble (France); Cotte, M. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, 38000 Grenoble (France); Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS, UMR 8220, Laboratoire d' archéologie moléculaire et structurale (LAMS), 4 place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); De Nolf, W.; Salomé, M. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, 38000 Grenoble (France); Sciau, Ph., E-mail: philippe.sciau@cemes.fr [CEMES, CNRS, Toulouse University, Toulouse (France)

    2016-07-20

    In this paper, we develop a methodological approach combining macro-X-ray fluorescence and synchrotron radiation-based techniques (μXRF, full-field XANES and μXRD) to determine the composition and microstructure of underglaze decors of Qinghua porcelains (Ming dynasty). Various transition metal elements (Fe, Mn, Co) are present in the blue decoration of these ceramics and the approach proposed allows for establishing the feature of each. Thus it shows that Fe ions are distributed homogeneously over the whole glaze without any significant difference in blue and white parts. They do not play a significant role in the color. In contrast, Co ions exhibit a heterogeneous distribution with CoAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} particles close to the body/glaze interphase. These particles play a key role in the blue color and, the hue variations seem in greater part to link to their density and repartition. Co dispersed in the glassy matrix is also bivalent and mainly in tetragonal coordination, leading also to a blue color. Mn ion distribution is similar to the one of Co but without presenting local high concentrations associated to Mn based particles. Mn affects the darkness of the color and for the sample without CoAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} particle; it is the main color contribution. The presence of CoAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} crystals was confirmed by μXRD, which revealed, in addition, a variation of cell parameters certainly linking to a Co partial substitution. - Highlights: • A new methodological approach to describe and determine the underglaze porcelain decors is proposed. • SR-μXRF and FF-XANES allow identifying the speciation of colorant ions and mapping their distribution. • Co in tetragonal coordination is the main cause of blue color of Qinghua porcelains. • The density and the repartition of CoAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} particles define the density of blue color. • Mn ions have an influence on the color darkness.

  1. Proceedings of the workshop on X-ray computed microtomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-02-01

    This report consists of vugraphs from the nine presentations at the conference. Titles of the presentations are: CMT: Applications and Techniques; Computer Microtomography Using X-rays from Third Generation Synchrotron X-ray; Approaches to Soft-X-ray Nanotomography; Diffraction Enhanced Tomography; X-ray Computed Microtomography Applications at the NSLS; XCMT Applications in Forestry and Forest Products; 3DMA: Investigating Three Dimensional Pore Geometry from High Resolution Images; X-ray Computed Microtomography Studies of Volcanic Rock; and 3-D Visualization of Tomographic Volumes

  2. Proceedings of the workshop on X-ray computed microtomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    This report consists of vugraphs from the nine presentations at the conference. Titles of the presentations are: CMT: Applications and Techniques; Computer Microtomography Using X-rays from Third Generation Synchrotron X-ray; Approaches to Soft-X-ray Nanotomography; Diffraction Enhanced Tomography; X-ray Computed Microtomography Applications at the NSLS; XCMT Applications in Forestry and Forest Products; 3DMA: Investigating Three Dimensional Pore Geometry from High Resolution Images; X-ray Computed Microtomography Studies of Volcanic Rock; and 3-D Visualization of Tomographic Volumes.

  3. Development of quantitative x-ray microtomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deckman, H.W.; Dunsmuir, J.A.; D'Amico, K.L.; Ferguson, S.R.; Flannery, B.P.

    1990-01-01

    The authors have developed several x-ray microtomography systems which function as quantitative three dimensional x-ray microscopes. In this paper the authors describe the evolutionary path followed from making the first high resolution experimental microscopes to later generations which can be routinely used for investigating materials. Developing the instrumentation for reliable quantitative x-ray microscopy using synchrotron and laboratory based x-ray sources has led to other imaging modalities for obtaining temporal and spatial two dimensional information

  4. The strain-dependent spatial evolution of garnet in a high- P ductile shear zone from the Western Gneiss Region (Norway): a synchrotron X-ray microtomography study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macente, A. [School of Geosciences, University of Edinburgh, The King' s Building James Hutton Road Edinburgh EH9 3FE UK; Fusseis, F. [School of Geosciences, University of Edinburgh, The King' s Building James Hutton Road Edinburgh EH9 3FE UK; Menegon, L. [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Plymouth University, Fitzroy Drake Circus Plymouth Devon PL4 8AA UK; Xianghui, X. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave Building 431-B003 Argonne IL USA; John, T. [Institut für Geologische Wissenschaften, Freie Universität Berlin, Malteserstr. 74-100 12249 Berlin Germany

    2017-03-27

    Reaction and deformation microfabrics provide key information to understand the thermodynamic and kinetic controls of tectono-metamorphic processes, however they are usually analysed in two dimensions, omitting important information regarding the third spatial dimension. We applied synchrotron-based X-ray microtomography to document the evolution of a pristine olivine gabbro into a deformed omphacite-garnet eclogite in four dimensions, where the 4th dimension is represented by the degree of strain. In the investigated samples, which cover a strain gradient into a shear zone from the Western Gneiss Region (Norway), we focused on the spatial transformation of garnet coronas into elongated clusters of garnets with increasing strain. Our microtomographic data allowed quantification of garnet volume, shape and spatial arrangement evolution with increasing strain. We combined microtomographic observations with light microscope- and backscatter electron images as well as electron microprobe- (EMPA) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis to correlate mineral composition and orientation data with the X-ray absorption signal of the same mineral grains. With increasing deformation, the garnet volume almost triples. In the low strain domain, garnets form a well interconnected large garnet aggregate that develops throughout the entire Page 1 of 52 sample. We also observed that garnet coronas in the gabbros never completely encapsulate olivine grains. In the most highly deformed eclogites, the oblate shapes of garnet clusters reflect a deformational origin of the microfabrics. We interpret the aligned garnet aggregates to direct synkinematic fluid flow and consequently influence the transport of dissolved chemical components. EBSD analyses reveal that garnet show a near-random crystal preferred orientation that testifies no evidence for crystal plasticity. There is, however evidence for minor fracturing, neo-nucleation and overgrowth. Microprobe chemical analysis

  5. Synchrotron radiation-based experimental determination of the optimal energy for cell radiotoxicity enhancement following photoelectric effect on stable iodinated compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corde, S; Joubert, A; Adam, J F; Charvet, A M; Le Bas, J F; Estève, F; Elleaume, H; Balosso, J

    2004-08-02

    This study was designed to experimentally evaluate the optimal X-ray energy for increasing the radiation energy absorbed in tumours loaded with iodinated compounds, using the photoelectric effect. SQ20B human cells were irradiated with synchrotron monochromatic beam tuned at 32.8, 33.5, 50 and 70 keV. Two cell treatments were compared to the control: cells suspended in 10 mg ml(-1) of iodine radiological contrast agent or cells pre-exposed with 10 microM of iodo-desoxyuridine (IUdR) for 48 h. Our radiobiological end point was clonogenic cell survival. Cells irradiated with both iodine compounds exhibited a radiation sensitisation enhancement. Moreover, it was energy dependent, with a maximum at 50 keV. At this energy, the sensitisation calculated at 10% survival was equal to 2.03 for cells suspended in iodinated contrast agent and 2.60 for IUdR. Cells pretreated with IUdR had higher sensitisation factors over the energy range than for those suspended in iodine contrast agent. Also, their survival curves presented no shoulder, suggesting complex lethal damages from Auger electrons. Our results confirm the existence of the 50 keV energy optimum for a binary therapeutic irradiation based on the presence of stable iodine in tumours and an external irradiation. Monochromatic synchrotron radiotherapy concept is hence proposed for increasing the differential effect between healthy and cancerous tissue irradiation.

  6. In situ measurement of electromigration-induced transient stress in Pb-free Sn-Cu solder joints by synchrotron radiation based X-ray polychromatic microdiffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Kai; Tamura, Nobumichi; Kunz, Martin; Tu, King-Ning; Lai, Yi-Shao

    2009-12-01

    Electromigration-induced hydrostatic elastic stress in Pb-free SnCu solder joints was studied by in situ synchrotron X-ray white beam microdiffraction. The elastic stresses in two different grains with similar crystallographic orientation, one located at the anode end and the other at the cathode end, were analyzed based on the elastic anisotropy of the Beta-Sn crystal structure. The stress in the grain at the cathode end remained constant except for temperature fluctuations, while the compressive stress in the grain at the anode end was built-up as a function of time during electromigration until a steady state was reached. The measured compressive stress gradient between the cathode and the anode is much larger than what is needed to initiate Sn whisker growth. The effective charge number of Beta-Sn derived from the electromigration data is in good agreement with the calculated value.

  7. In situ measurement of electromigration-induced transient stress in Pb-free Sn-Cu solder joints by synchrotron radiation based X-ray polychromatic microdiffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Kai; Tamura, Nobumichi; Kunz, Martin; Tu, King-Ning; Lai, Yi-Shao

    2009-05-15

    Electromigration-induced hydrostatic elastic stress in Pb-free SnCu solder joints was studied by in situ synchrotron X-ray white beam microdiffraction. The elastic stresses in two different grains with similar crystallographic orientation, one located at the anode end and the other at the cathode end, were analyzed based on the elastic anisotropy of the {beta}-Sn crystal structure. The stress in the grain at the cathode end remained constant except for temperature fluctuations, while the compressive stress in the grain at the anode end was built-up as a function of time during electromigration until a steady state was reached. The measured compressive stress gradient between the cathode and the anode is much larger than what is needed to initiate Sn whisker growth. The effective charge number of {beta}-Sn derived from the electromigration data is in good agreement with the calculated value.

  8. Phase-contrast X-ray microtomography of mouse fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Hoshino

    2012-02-01

    A phase-contrast X-ray microtomography system using the Talbot imaging has been built at the SPring-8 synchrotron radiation facility. This system has much higher density resolution than absorption-based X-ray microtomography. The tomographic sections of formalin-fixed mouse fetuses obtained with this method clearly depict various organs without any staining at a pixel resolution of up to 5 µm. Since this technique allows us to obtain three-dimensional structural information without sectioning, it will be particularly useful to examine anomalies that take place during development. It can be also used to quantitatively measure volume and mass of organs during development.

  9. Characterization of calcium and zinc spatial distributions at the fibrocartilage zone of bone–tendon junction by synchrotron radiation-based micro X-ray fluorescence analysis combined with backscattered electron imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Hongbin; Chen, Can; Wang, Zhanwen; Qu, Jin; Xu, Daqi [Department of Sports Medicine, Research Center of Sports Medicine, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410008 (China); Wu, Tianding; Cao, Yong [Department of Spine Surgery, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410008 (China); Zhou, Jingyong; Zheng, Cheng [Department of Sports Medicine, Research Center of Sports Medicine, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410008 (China); Hu, Jianzhong, E-mail: jianzhonghu@hotmail.com [Department of Sports Medicine, Research Center of Sports Medicine, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410008 (China); Department of Spine Surgery, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410008 (China)

    2015-09-01

    Tendon attaches to bone through a functionally graded fibrocartilage zone, including uncalcified fibrocartilage (UF), tidemark (TM) and calcified fibrocartilage (CF). This transition zone plays a pivotal role in relaxing load transfer between tendon and bone, and serves as a boundary between otherwise structurally and functionally distinct tissue types. Calcium and zinc are believed to play important roles in the normal growth, mineralization, and repair of the fibrocartilage zone of bone–tendon junction (BTJ). However, spatial distributions of calcium and zinc at the fibrocartilage zone of BTJ and their distribution–function relationship are not totally understood. Thus, synchrotron radiation-based micro X-ray fluorescence analysis (SR-μXRF) in combination with backscattered electron imaging (BEI) was employed to characterize the distributions of calcium and zinc at the fibrocartilage zone of rabbit patella–patellar tendon complex (PPTC). For the first time, the unique distributions of calcium and zinc at the fibrocartilage zone of the PPTC were clearly mapped by this method. The distributions of calcium and zinc at the fibrocartilage zone of the PPTC were inhomogeneous. A significant accumulation of zinc was exhibited in the transition region between UF and CF. The highest zinc content (3.17 times of that of patellar tendon) was found in the TM of fibrocartilage zone. The calcium content began to increase near the TM and increased exponentially across the calcified fibrocartilage region towards the patella. The highest calcium content (43.14 times of that of patellar tendon) was in the transitional zone of calcified fibrocartilage region and the patella, approximately 69 μm from the location with the highest zinc content. This study indicated, for the first time, that there is a differential distribution of calcium and zinc at the fibrocartilage zone of PPTC. These observations reveal new insights into region-dependent changes across the fibrocartilage

  10. Characterization of calcium and zinc spatial distributions at the fibrocartilage zone of bone–tendon junction by synchrotron radiation-based micro X-ray fluorescence analysis combined with backscattered electron imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Hongbin; Chen, Can; Wang, Zhanwen; Qu, Jin; Xu, Daqi; Wu, Tianding; Cao, Yong; Zhou, Jingyong; Zheng, Cheng; Hu, Jianzhong

    2015-01-01

    Tendon attaches to bone through a functionally graded fibrocartilage zone, including uncalcified fibrocartilage (UF), tidemark (TM) and calcified fibrocartilage (CF). This transition zone plays a pivotal role in relaxing load transfer between tendon and bone, and serves as a boundary between otherwise structurally and functionally distinct tissue types. Calcium and zinc are believed to play important roles in the normal growth, mineralization, and repair of the fibrocartilage zone of bone–tendon junction (BTJ). However, spatial distributions of calcium and zinc at the fibrocartilage zone of BTJ and their distribution–function relationship are not totally understood. Thus, synchrotron radiation-based micro X-ray fluorescence analysis (SR-μXRF) in combination with backscattered electron imaging (BEI) was employed to characterize the distributions of calcium and zinc at the fibrocartilage zone of rabbit patella–patellar tendon complex (PPTC). For the first time, the unique distributions of calcium and zinc at the fibrocartilage zone of the PPTC were clearly mapped by this method. The distributions of calcium and zinc at the fibrocartilage zone of the PPTC were inhomogeneous. A significant accumulation of zinc was exhibited in the transition region between UF and CF. The highest zinc content (3.17 times of that of patellar tendon) was found in the TM of fibrocartilage zone. The calcium content began to increase near the TM and increased exponentially across the calcified fibrocartilage region towards the patella. The highest calcium content (43.14 times of that of patellar tendon) was in the transitional zone of calcified fibrocartilage region and the patella, approximately 69 μm from the location with the highest zinc content. This study indicated, for the first time, that there is a differential distribution of calcium and zinc at the fibrocartilage zone of PPTC. These observations reveal new insights into region-dependent changes across the fibrocartilage

  11. Synchrotron radiation X-ray microfluorescence techniques

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Synchrotron X-ray imaging systems with fluorescence techniques was developed for biomedical researches in Brazilian Synchrotron Laboratory. An X-ray fluorescence microtomography system was implemented to analyse human prostate and breast samples and an X-ray microfluorescence system was implemented to ...

  12. Synchrotron radiation X-ray microfluorescence techniques and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Synchrotron X-ray imaging systems with fluorescence techniques was developed for biomedical researches in Brazilian Synchrotron Laboratory. An X-ray fluorescence microtomography system was implemented to analyse human prostate and breast samples and an X-ray microfluorescence system was implemented to ...

  13. X-ray microtomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunsmuir, J.H.; Ferguson, S.R.; D'Amico, K.L.; Stokes, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper the authors describe the application of a new high-resolution X-ray tomographic microscope to the study of porous media. The microscope was designed to exploit the properties of a synchrotron X-ray source to perform three dimensional tomography on millimeter sized objects with micron resolution and has been used in materials science studies with both synchrotron and conventional and synchrotron sources will be compared. In this work the authors have applied the microscope to measure the three dimensional structure of fused bead packs and berea sandstones with micron resolution and have performed preliminary studies of flow in these media with the microscope operated in a digital subtraction radiography mode. Computer graphics techniques have been applied to the data to visually display the structure of the pore body system. Tomographic imaging after flow experiments should detect the structure of the oil-water interface in the pore network and this work is ongoing

  14. The emerging role of 4D synchrotron X-ray micro-tomography for climate and fossil energy studies: five experiments showing the present capabilities at beamline 8.3.2 at the Advanced Light Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voltolini, Marco; Haboub, Abdelmoula; Dou, Shan; Kwon, Tae Hyuk; MacDowell, Alastair A; Parkinson, Dilworth Y; Ajo-Franklin, Jonathan

    2017-11-01

    Continuous improvements at X-ray imaging beamlines at synchrotron light sources have made dynamic synchrotron X-ray micro-computed tomography (SXR-µCT) experiments more routinely available to users, with a rapid increase in demand given its tremendous potential in very diverse areas. In this work a survey of five different four-dimensional SXR-µCT experiments is presented, examining five different parameters linked to the evolution of the investigated system, and tackling problems in different areas in earth sciences. SXR-µCT is used to monitor the microstructural evolution of the investigated sample with the following variables: (i) high temperature, observing in situ oil shale pyrolysis; (ii) low temperature, replicating the generation of permafrost; (iii) high pressure, to study the invasion of supercritical CO 2 in deep aquifers; (iv) uniaxial stress, to monitor the closure of a fracture filled with proppant, in shale; (v) reactive flow, to observe the evolution of the hydraulic properties in a porous rock subject to dissolution. For each of these examples, it is shown how dynamic SXR-µCT was able to provide new answers to questions related to climate and energy studies, highlighting the significant opportunities opened recently by the technique.

  15. A mesoscale quantification method of cavitation in semicrystalline polymers using X-ray microtomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, E. [IFP Energies nouvelles, 1 et 4 avenue de Bois Preau, 92852 Rueil-Malmaison Cedex (France); Brusselle-Dupend, N., E-mail: nadege.brusselle@ifpen.fr [IFP Energies nouvelles, 1 et 4 avenue de Bois Preau, 92852 Rueil-Malmaison Cedex (France); Epsztein, T. [TECHNIP, rue Jean Hure, 76580 Le Trait (France)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} X-ray microtomography to quantify cavitation in strained semicrystalline polymers. {yields} Method based on correlation of the linear attenuation coefficient with 3-D porosity. {yields} Validation of the mesoscale quantification method. {yields} Application: cavitation process investigation in PVF2 from unloaded specimens. {yields} Effect of the triaxiality ratio and of the stretching degree on cavitation process. - Abstract: The ability of X-ray microtomography to quantify the cavitation in highly strained semicrystalline polymers is investigated on polyvinylidene fluoride. The cavitation phenomenon is studied on Circumferentially Notched Round Bars tested in tension. The tensile deformation induces void formation as attested by the whitening of the notch and SEM observations. The aim of this paper is to highlight the interest of a non destructive method based on X-ray microtomography in order to quantify the developed porosity in the cavited area and to follow step by step after relaxation, or continuously the evolution of the porosity during a tensile test. As voids may have a submicrometric size, as attested by SEM images in PVF2, the X-ray microtomography does not intend to image all the voids but to quantify them as a whole, including the non resolved voids. The method is designed to be used either with a laboratory microtomograph or with a synchrotron microtomography device. The quantification uses the correlation between the attenuation coefficient of the material and the porosity developed in the material. The measure is first validated on synchrotron images. Then the method is adapted to the laboratory microtomography prone to beam hardening artefacts. The results obtained with both devices are compared to each other and compared to the results obtained from local SEM analysis. Finally, the analysis of notched tensile specimens with varying notch root radius is investigated after interrupted tests. The analyses of the in situ tensile

  16. Synchrotron light; Lumiere synchrotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    'Synchrotron Light' is an interactive and detailed introduction to the physics and technology of the generation of coherent radiation from accelerators as well as to its widespread high-tech applications in science, medicine and engineering. The topics covered are the interaction of light and matter, the technology of synchrotron light sources, spectroscopy, imaging, scattering and diffraction of X-rays, and applications to materials science, biology, biochemistry, medicine, chemistry, food and pharmaceutical technology. All synchrotron light facilities are introduced with their home-page addresses. 'Synchrotron Light' provides an instructive and comprehensive multimedia learning tool for students, experienced practitioners and novices wishing to apply synchrotron radiation in their future work. Its multiple-entry points permit an easy exploration of the CD-Rom according to the users knowledge and interest. 2-D and 3-D animations and virtual reconstruction with computer-generated images guide visitors into the scientific and technical world of a synchrotron and into the applications of synchrotron radiation. This bilingual (English and French) CD-Rom can be used for self-teaching and in courses at various levels in physics, chemistry, engineering, and biology. (author)

  17. Compact synchrotron light sources

    CERN Document Server

    Weihreter, Ernst

    1996-01-01

    This book covers a new niche in circular accelerator design, motivated by the promising industrial prospects of recent micromanufacturing methods - X-ray lithography, synchrotron radiation-based micromachining and microanalysis techniques. It describes the basic concepts and the essential challenges for the development of compact synchrotron radiation sources from an accelerator designer's point of view and gives an outline of the actual state of the art. The volume is intended as an introduction and as a reference for physicists, engineers and managers involved in this rapidly developing fiel

  18. Interest of synchrotron radiation for the characterization of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riekel, C.

    1996-01-01

    After a review of the principles of synchrotron radiation generation and of the apparatus employed for related experiences (monochromators and mirrors), several applications of synchrotron radiation in the field of materials characterization are presented: real-time diffraction for the monitoring of a phase transition or a chemical reaction, microbeam and central micro-scattering for the local study of the structure and morphology of materials, absorption spectroscopy (EXAFS), microtomography (high resolution tomography)

  19. Nanoscale plasmonic phenomena in CVD-grown MoS(2) monolayer revealed by ultra-broadband synchrotron radiation based nano-FTIR spectroscopy and near-field microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patoka, Piotr; Ulrich, Georg; Nguyen, Ariana E; Bartels, Ludwig; Dowben, Peter A; Turkowski, Volodymyr; Rahman, Talat S; Hermann, Peter; Kästner, Bernd; Hoehl, Arne; Ulm, Gerhard; Rühl, Eckart

    2016-01-25

    Nanoscale plasmonic phenomena observed in single and bi-layers of molybdenum disulfide (MoS(2)) on silicon dioxide (SiO(2)) are reported. A scattering type scanning near-field optical microscope (s-SNOM) with a broadband synchrotron radiation (SR) infrared source was used. We also present complementary optical mapping using tunable CO(2)-laser radiation. Specifically, there is a correlation of the topography of well-defined MoS(2) islands grown by chemical vapor deposition, as determined by atomic force microscopy, with the infrared (IR) signature of MoS(2). The influence of MoS(2) islands on the SiO(2) phonon resonance is discussed. The results reveal the plasmonic character of the MoS(2) structures and their interaction with the SiO(2) phonons leading to an enhancement of the hybridized surface plasmon-phonon mode. A theoretical analysis shows that, in the case of monolayer islands, the coupling of the MoS(2) optical plasmon mode to the SiO(2) surface phonons does not affect the infrared spectrum significantly. For two-layer MoS(2), the coupling of the extra inter-plane acoustic plasmon mode with the SiO(2) surface transverse phonon leads to a remarkable increase of the surface phonon peak at 794 cm(-1). This is in agreement with the experimental data. These results show the capability of the s-SNOM technique to study local multiple excitations in complex non-homogeneous structures.

  20. Exploring Hominin and Non-hominin Primate Dental Fossil Remains with Neutron Microtomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanolli, Clément; Schillinger, Burkhard; Beaudet, Amélie; Kullmer, Ottmar; Macchiarelli, Roberto; Mancini, Lucia; Schrenk, Friedemann; Tuniz, Claudio; Vodopivec, Vladimira

    Fossil dental remains are an archive of unique information for paleobiological studies. Computed microtomography based on X-ray microfocus sources (X-μCT) and Synchrotron Radiation (SR-μCT) allow subtle quantification at the micron and sub-micron scale of the meso- and microstructural signature imprinted in the mineralized tissues, such as enamel and dentine, through high-resolution ;virtual histology;. Nonetheless, depending on the degree of alterations undergone during fossilization, X-ray analyses of tooth tissues do not always provide distinct imaging contrasts, thus preventing the extraction of essential morphological and anatomical details. We illustrate here by three examples the successful application of neutron microtomography (n-μCT) in cases where X-rays have previously failed to deliver contrasts between dental tissues of fossilized specimen.

  1. Neutron microtomography of voids in gold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Trtik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pilot attempt of the neutron microtomography of voids in gold carried out using the Neutron Microscope instrument is presented in the paper. The paper demonstrates that neutron microtomography provides viable alternative to X-ray imaging for the assessment of porosity in high atomic number materials. The model sample based on gold with artificially induced void system reveals segmented porosity with 5.4 micrometres voxel size and the spatial resolution close to 10 micrometres.

  2. Element specific X-ray fluorescene microtomography

    OpenAIRE

    Günzler, Til Florian

    2003-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence is widely known as an element-specific scanning analytic tool. It is used in many fields of science and technology and has given major new insights into different problems. The relatively large penetration depth of x rays into matter makes them ideally suited for tomography. The combination of x-ray fluorescence analysis and scanning microtomography, hereafter called x-ray fluorescence microtomography, has been further developed and improved in this work. Employing the newl...

  3. In situ microradioscopy and microtomography of fatigue-loaded dental two-piece implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiest, Wolfram; Zabler, Simon; Rack, Alexander; Fella, Christian; Balles, Andreas; Nelson, Katja; Schmelzeisen, Rainer; Hanke, Randolf

    2015-01-01

    Results of a novel in situ microradiography and microtomography setup for the study of fatigue processes are presented. This setup is optimized for the requirements of dental implants and use at synchrotron imaging beamlines. Synchrotron real-time radioscopy and in situ microtomography are the only techniques providing direct visible information on a micrometre scale of local deformation in the implant–abutment connection (IAC) during and after cyclic loading. The microgap formation at the IAC has been subject to a number of studies as it has been proposed to be associated with long-term implant success. The next step in this scientific development is to focus on the in situ fatigue procedure of two-component dental implants. Therefore, an apparatus has been developed which is optimized for the in situ fatigue analysis of dental implants. This report demonstrates both the capability of in situ radioscopy and microtomography at the ID19 beamline for the study of cyclic deformation in dental implants. The first results show that it is possible to visualize fatigue loading of dental implants in real-time radioscopy in addition to the in situ fatigue tomography. For the latter, in situ microtomography is applied during the cyclic loading cycles in order to visualize the opening of the IAC microgap. These results concur with previous ex situ studies on similar systems. The setup allows for easily increasing the bending force, to simulate different chewing situations, and is, therefore, a versatile tool for examining the fatigue processes of dental implants and possibly other specimens

  4. In situ microradioscopy and microtomography of fatigue-loaded dental two-piece implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiest, Wolfram; Zabler, Simon, E-mail: simon.zabler@physik.uni-wuerzburg.de [University of Würzburg (Germany); Rack, Alexander [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (France); Fella, Christian; Balles, Andreas [University of Würzburg (Germany); Nelson, Katja; Schmelzeisen, Rainer [Medical Centre – University of Freiburg (Germany); Hanke, Randolf [University of Würzburg (Germany); Fraunhofer EZRT, Fürth (Germany)

    2015-10-09

    Results of a novel in situ microradiography and microtomography setup for the study of fatigue processes are presented. This setup is optimized for the requirements of dental implants and use at synchrotron imaging beamlines. Synchrotron real-time radioscopy and in situ microtomography are the only techniques providing direct visible information on a micrometre scale of local deformation in the implant–abutment connection (IAC) during and after cyclic loading. The microgap formation at the IAC has been subject to a number of studies as it has been proposed to be associated with long-term implant success. The next step in this scientific development is to focus on the in situ fatigue procedure of two-component dental implants. Therefore, an apparatus has been developed which is optimized for the in situ fatigue analysis of dental implants. This report demonstrates both the capability of in situ radioscopy and microtomography at the ID19 beamline for the study of cyclic deformation in dental implants. The first results show that it is possible to visualize fatigue loading of dental implants in real-time radioscopy in addition to the in situ fatigue tomography. For the latter, in situ microtomography is applied during the cyclic loading cycles in order to visualize the opening of the IAC microgap. These results concur with previous ex situ studies on similar systems. The setup allows for easily increasing the bending force, to simulate different chewing situations, and is, therefore, a versatile tool for examining the fatigue processes of dental implants and possibly other specimens.

  5. Synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Kunz, C

    1974-01-01

    The production of synchrotron radiation as a by-product of circular high-energy electron (positron) accelerators or storage rings is briefly discussed. A listing of existing or planned synchrotron radiation laboratories is included. The following properties are discussed: spectrum, collimation, polarization, and intensity; a short comparison with other sources (lasers and X-ray tubes) is also given. The remainder of the paper describes the experimental installations at the Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY) and DORIS storage rings, presents a few typical examples out of the fields of atomic, molecular, and solid-state spectroscopy, and finishes with an outlook on the use of synchrotron radiation in molecular biology. (21 refs).

  6. Synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nave, C.; Quinn, P.; Blake, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    The paper on Synchrotron Radiation contains the appendix to the Daresbury Annual Report 1987/88. The appendix is mainly devoted to the scientific progress reports on the work at the Synchrotron Radiation Source in 1987/8. The parameters of the Experimental Stations and the index to the Scientific Reports are also included in the appendix. (U.K.)

  7. In situ microradioscopy and microtomography of fatigue-loaded dental two-piece implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiest, Wolfram; Zabler, Simon; Rack, Alexander; Fella, Christian; Balles, Andreas; Nelson, Katja; Schmelzeisen, Rainer; Hanke, Randolf

    2015-11-01

    Synchrotron real-time radioscopy and in situ microtomography are the only techniques providing direct visible information on a micrometre scale of local deformation in the implant-abutment connection (IAC) during and after cyclic loading. The microgap formation at the IAC has been subject to a number of studies as it has been proposed to be associated with long-term implant success. The next step in this scientific development is to focus on the in situ fatigue procedure of two-component dental implants. Therefore, an apparatus has been developed which is optimized for the in situ fatigue analysis of dental implants. This report demonstrates both the capability of in situ radioscopy and microtomography at the ID19 beamline for the study of cyclic deformation in dental implants. The first results show that it is possible to visualize fatigue loading of dental implants in real-time radioscopy in addition to the in situ fatigue tomography. For the latter, in situ microtomography is applied during the cyclic loading cycles in order to visualize the opening of the IAC microgap. These results concur with previous ex situ studies on similar systems. The setup allows for easily increasing the bending force, to simulate different chewing situations, and is, therefore, a versatile tool for examining the fatigue processes of dental implants and possibly other specimens.

  8. Novel portable press for synchrotron time-resolved 3-D micro-imagining under extreme conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philippe, J.; Le Godec, Y., E-mail: yann.legodec@impmc.upmc.fr; Bergame, F.; Morand, M. [IMPMC, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France); Mezouar, M.; Bauchau, S.; Alvarez-Murga, M. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France); Perrillat, J. P. [Laboratoire de Géologie de Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon1, Lyon (France); Bromiley, G.; Berg, M. [School of GeoSciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); King, A.; Guignot, N.; Itié, J. P. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, St Aubin France (France); Atwood, Robert [Diamond Light Source Ltd., Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-27

    Here we present the instrumental development to extend the synchrotron X-ray microtomography techniques to in situ studies under static compression (HP) or shear stress or the both conditions at high temperatures (HT). To achieve this, a new rotating tomography Paris-Edinburgh cell (rotoPEc) has been developed. This ultra-compact portable device, easily and successfully adapted to various multi-modal synchrotron experimental set-up at ESRF, SOLEIL and DIAMOND is explained in detail.

  9. Synchrotron light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    'Synchrotron Light' is an interactive and detailed introduction to the physics and technology of the generation of coherent radiation from accelerators as well as to its widespread high-tech applications in science, medicine and engineering. The topics covered are the interaction of light and matter, the technology of synchrotron light sources, spectroscopy, imaging, scattering and diffraction of X-rays, and applications to materials science, biology, biochemistry, medicine, chemistry, food and pharmaceutical technology. All synchrotron light facilities are introduced with their home-page addresses. 'Synchrotron Light' provides an instructive and comprehensive multimedia learning tool for students, experienced practitioners and novices wishing to apply synchrotron radiation in their future work. Its multiple-entry points permit an easy exploration of the CD-Rom according to the users knowledge and interest. 2-D and 3-D animations and virtual reconstruction with computer-generated images guide visitors into the scientific and technical world of a synchrotron and into the applications of synchrotron radiation. This bilingual (English and French) CD-Rom can be used for self-teaching and in courses at various levels in physics, chemistry, engineering, and biology. (author)

  10. Synchrotron x-ray sources and new opportunities in the soil and environmental sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze, D. (Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (USA)); Anderson, S. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (USA)); Mattigod, S. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA))

    1990-07-01

    This report contains the following papers: characteristics of the advanced photon source and comparison with existing synchrotron facilities; x-ray absorption spectroscopy: EXAFS and XANES -- A versatile tool to study the atomic and electronic structure of materials; applications of x-ray spectroscopy and anomalous scattering experiments in the soil and environmental sciences; X-ray fluorescence microprobe and microtomography.

  11. Synchrotron x-ray sources and new opportunities in the soil and environmental sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze, D.; Anderson, S.; Mattigod, S.

    1990-07-01

    This report contains the following papers: characteristics of the advanced photon source and comparison with existing synchrotron facilities; x-ray absorption spectroscopy: EXAFS and XANES -- A versatile tool to study the atomic and electronic structure of materials; applications of x-ray spectroscopy and anomalous scattering experiments in the soil and environmental sciences; X-ray fluorescence microprobe and microtomography

  12. Synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helliwell, J.R.; Walker, R.P.

    1985-01-01

    A detailed account of the research work associated with the Synchrotron Radiation Source at Daresbury Laboratory, United Kingdom, in 1984/85, is presented in the Appendix to the Laboratory's Annual Report. (U.K.)

  13. Synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, D.; Walker, R.P.; Durham, P.J.; Ridley, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    The paper on synchrotron radiation is the appendix to the Daresbury (United Kingdom) annual report, 1985/86. The bulk of the volume is made up of the progress reports for the work carried out during the year under review using the Synchrotron Radiation Source (SRS) at Daresbury. The Appendix also contains: the scientific programmes at the the SRS, progress on beamlines, instrumentation and computing developments, and activities connected with accelerator development. (U.K.)

  14. Synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poole, M.W.; Lea, K.R.

    1982-01-01

    A report is given on the work involving the Synchrotron Radiation Division of the Daresbury Laboratory during the period January 1981 - March 1982. Development of the source, beamlines and experimental stations is described. Progress reports from individual investigators are presented which reveal the general diversity and interdisciplinary nature of the research which benefits from access to synchrotron radiation and the associated facilities. Information is given on the organisation of the Division and publications written by the staff are listed. (U.K.)

  15. Microtomography of the human middle and inner ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Uwe; Beckmann, Felix; Zahnert, Thomas; Bonse, Ulrich

    2002-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation and x-ray microtomography based on absorption contrast (performed at HASYLAB at DESY/Hamburg and BAM/Berlin) have been used for imaging of temporal bones and various internal components in situ at spatial resolution down to 7 micrometers with potential enhancement into the submicron range. Due to the volume imaging approach, several hidden structures (e.g., intra-ossicular channels) were revealed. Using several 3D-image processing techniques all data have been segmented into objects (e.g., bony ossicles, ligaments, fluids, air spaces) and subsequently transformed into vectorized data models. Because they are based on the original voxel resolution their content of vector primitives (e.g., polygons) is huge compared to recent models. Therefore they became polygon-reduced to fit into current computation limitations. So far individual data models of the entire hearing apparatus from tympanic membrane to cochlea out of intact specimen, including separate models of ossicles, ligaments and other components have been obtained, provided, in interchangeable data formats (e.g. vector-based: IGES, STL, VRML) and introduced into FEA for modeling of acousto-mechanic transfer characteristics of the middle ear. Their pseudo and real 3D- visualizations (rendering, autosteroscopic display, enlarged solid models) allow easy understanding of the anatomy and pathology of the human hearing organ and may support patient and student education in the field of otology and audiology.

  16. A computed microtomography method for understanding epiphyseal growth plate fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staines, Katherine A.; Madi, Kamel; Javaheri, Behzad; Lee, Peter D.; Pitsillides, Andrew A.

    2017-12-01

    The epiphyseal growth plate is a developmental region responsible for linear bone growth, in which chondrocytes undertake a tightly regulated series of biological processes. Concomitant with the cessation of growth and sexual maturation, the human growth plate undergoes progressive narrowing, and ultimately disappears. Despite the crucial role of this growth plate fusion ‘bridging’ event, the precise mechanisms by which it is governed are complex and yet to be established. Progress is likely hindered by the current methods for growth plate visualisation; these are invasive and largely rely on histological procedures. Here we describe our non-invasive method utilising synchrotron x-ray computed microtomography for the examination of growth plate bridging, which ultimately leads to its closure coincident with termination of further longitudinal bone growth. We then apply this method to a dataset obtained from a benchtop microcomputed tomography scanner to highlight its potential for wide usage. Furthermore, we conduct finite element modelling at the micron-scale to reveal the effects of growth plate bridging on local tissue mechanics. Employment of these 3D analyses of growth plate bone bridging is likely to advance our understanding of the physiological mechanisms that control growth plate fusion.

  17. Machine learning for micro-tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Dilworth Y.; Pelt, Daniël. M.; Perciano, Talita; Ushizima, Daniela; Krishnan, Harinarayan; Barnard, Harold S.; MacDowell, Alastair A.; Sethian, James

    2017-09-01

    Machine learning has revolutionized a number of fields, but many micro-tomography users have never used it for their work. The micro-tomography beamline at the Advanced Light Source (ALS), in collaboration with the Center for Applied Mathematics for Energy Research Applications (CAMERA) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, has now deployed a series of tools to automate data processing for ALS users using machine learning. This includes new reconstruction algorithms, feature extraction tools, and image classification and recommen- dation systems for scientific image. Some of these tools are either in automated pipelines that operate on data as it is collected or as stand-alone software. Others are deployed on computing resources at Berkeley Lab-from workstations to supercomputers-and made accessible to users through either scripting or easy-to-use graphical interfaces. This paper presents a progress report on this work.

  18. Synchrotron Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asfour, F.I

    2000-01-01

    Synchrotron light is produced by electron accelerators combined with storage rings. This light is generated over a wide spectral region; from infra-red (IR) through the visible and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV), and into the X-ray region. For relativistic electrons (moving nearly with the speed of light), most radiation is concentrated in a small cone with an opening angle of 1/gamma(some 0.1 to 1 milliradian),where gamma is the electron energy in units of rest energy (typically 10 3 -10 4 ). In synchrotron radiation sources (storage rings) highly relativistic electrons are stored to travel along a circular path for many hours. Radiation is caused by transverse acceleration due to magnetic forces(bending magnets). The radiation is emitted in pulses of 10-20 picosecond, separated by some 2 nanosecond or longer separation

  19. Synchrotron sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulbert, S.L.

    1999-12-13

    Synchrotron radiation is a very bright, broadband, polarized, pulsed source of electromagnetic radiation extending from the infrared to the x-ray region. Brightness, defined as flux per unit area per unit solid angle, is normally a more important quantity than flux or intensity, particularly in throughput limited applications which include those in which monochromators are used. The authors have attempted to compile the formulae needed to calculate the flux, brightness, polarization and power produced by the three standard storage ring synchrotron radiation sources: bending magnets, wigglers and undulators. Where necessary, these formulae have contained reference to the emittance of the electron beam, as well as to the electron beam size and its divergence. For all three type sources, the source phase space area, i.e. the spatial and angular extent of the effective (real) source, is a convolution of its electron and photon components.

  20. HIGH RESOLUTION MICROTOMOGRAPHY FOR DENSITY AND SPATIAL INFORMATION ABOUT WOOD STRUCTURES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ILLMAN,B.

    1999-07-22

    Microtomography has successfully been used to characterize loss of structural integrity of wood. Tomographic images were generated with the newly developed third generation x-ray computed microtomography (XCMT) instrument at the X27A beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). The beamline is equipped with high-flux x-ray monochromator based on multilayer optics developed for this application. The sample is mounted on a translation stage with which to center the sample rotation, a rotation stage to perform the rotation during data collection and a motorized goniometer head for small alignment motions. The absorption image is recorded by a single-crystal scintillator, an optical microscope and a cooled CCD array detector. Data reconstruction has provided three-dimensional geometry of the heterogeneous wood matrix in microtomographic images. Wood is a heterogeneous material composed of long lignocellulose vessels. Although wood is a strong natural product, fungi have evolved chemical systems that weaken the strength properties of wood by degrading structural vessels. Tomographic images with a resolution of three microns were obtained nonintrusively to characterize the compromised structural integrity of wood. Computational tools developed by Lindquist et al (1996) applied to characterize the microstructure of the tomographic volumes.

  1. The uses of synchrotron radiation sources for elemental and chemical microanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.R.; Chao, E.C.T.; Minkin, J.A.; Back, J.M.; Jones, K.W.; Rivers, M.L.; Sutton, S.R.

    1989-08-01

    Synchrotron radiation sources offer important features for the analysis of a material. Among these features is the ability to determine both the elemental composition of the material and the chemical state of its elements. For microscopic analysis synchrotron x-ray fluorescence (SXRF) microprobes now offer spatial resolutions of 10μm with minimum detection limits in the 1--10 ppM range depending on the nature of the sample and the synchrotron source used. This paper describes the properties of synchrotron radiation and their importance for elemental analysis, existing synchrotron facilities and those under construction that are optimum for SXRF microanalysis, and a number of applications including the high energy excitation of the K lines of heavy elements, microtomography, and XANES and EXAFS spectroscopies. 45 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  2. Microtomography of partially molten rocks: three-dimensional melt distribution in mantle peridotite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenlu; Gaetani, Glenn A; Fusseis, Florian; Montési, Laurent G J; De Carlo, Francesco

    2011-04-01

    The permeability of the upper mantle controls melt segregation beneath spreading centers. Reconciling contradictory geochemical and geophysical observations at ocean ridges requires a better understanding of transport properties in partially molten rocks. Using x-ray synchrotron microtomography, we obtained three-dimensional data on melt distribution for mantle peridotite with various melt fractions. At melt fractions as low as 0.02, triple junctions along grain edges dominated the melt network; there was no evidence of an abrupt change in the fundamental character of melt extraction as melt fraction increased to 0.2. The porosity of the partially molten region beneath ocean ridges is therefore controlled by a balance between viscous compaction and melting rate, not by a change in melt topology.

  3. 3D imaging of transition metals in the zebrafish embryo by X-ray fluorescence microtomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourassa, Daisy; Gleber, Sophie-Charlotte; Vogt, Stefan; Yi, Hong; Will, Fabian; Richter, Heiko; Shin, Chong Hyun; Fahrni, Christoph J

    2014-09-01

    Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) microtomography has emerged as a powerful technique for the 3D visualization of the elemental distribution in biological samples. The mechanical stability, both of the instrument and the specimen, is paramount when acquiring tomographic projection series. By combining the progressive lowering of temperature method (PLT) with femtosecond laser sectioning, we were able to embed, excise, and preserve a zebrafish embryo at 24 hours post fertilization in an X-ray compatible, transparent resin for tomographic elemental imaging. Based on a data set comprised of 60 projections, acquired with a step size of 2 μm during 100 hours of beam time, we reconstructed the 3D distribution of zinc, iron, and copper using the iterative maximum likelihood expectation maximization (MLEM) reconstruction algorithm. The volumetric elemental maps, which entail over 124 million individual voxels for each transition metal, revealed distinct elemental distributions that could be correlated with characteristic anatomical features at this stage of embryonic development.

  4. Synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pattison, P.; Quinn, P.

    1990-01-01

    This report details the activities in synchrotron radiation and related areas at Daresbury Laboratory during 1989/90. The number and scope of the scientific reports submitted by external users and in-house staff is a reflection of the large amount of scheduled beamtime and high operating efficiency achieved at the Synchrotron Radiation Source (SRS) during the past year. Over 4000 hours of user beam were available, equivalent to about 80% of the total scheduled time. Many of the reports collected here illustrate the increasing technical complexity of the experiments now being carried out at Daresbury. Provision of the appropriate technical and scientific infrastructure and support is a continuing challenge. The development of the Materials Science Laboratory together with the existing Biological Support Laboratory will extend the range of experiments which can be carried out on the SRS. This will particularly facilitate work in which the sample must be prepared or characterised immediately before or during an experiment. The year 1989/90 has also seen a substantial upgrade of several stations, especially in the area of x-ray optics. Many of the advantages of the High Brightness Lattice can only be exploited effectively with the use of focusing optics. As the performance of these stations improves, the range of experiments which are feasible on the SRS will be extended significantly. (author)

  5. X-ray cone beam microtomography for quantitative assessment of tracheal and pharyngeal volumes of Rhodnius prolixus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Izabella Soares de

    2017-01-01

    In the past decade microcomputerized tomography imaging using synchrotron radiation has become a powerful technique to generate high resolution images of Rhodinus prolixus. Images of soft tissues (protocerebrum and muscles) and dense structures (pharynx, trachea and esophagus) of R. prolixus head have been obtained using synchrotron radiation microtomography in mono and polychromatic configuration, respectively. Advancements in conventional microtomography have increased the achievable resolution and contrast, making this relatively inexpensive and widely available technology potentially useful for studies of insect internal morphology. The main goal of this work was to provide a new set of high quality microtomographic images of R. prolixus achieved by means of a desktop X-ray microtomograph. It allows the three-dimensional visualization of important chitinized structures: pharynx and tracheae. Pharyngeal and tracheal volumes were quantitatively evaluated at different days (1, 4, 10, 15 and 20) after feeding. The results suggest that variation of average volumes could be attributed to insect hormone 20-hydroxy-ecdysone (20-OH-Ec) pulse at 11 days after feeding. Pharyngeal volumes decrease 3.80 times. On the other hand, tracheal volumes increase 1.78 times. Head total volume showed similar trends than trachea. (author)

  6. An X-ray microprobe facility using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, B.M.; Jones, K.W.; Hanson, A.L.; Pounds, J.G.; Rivers, M.L.; Sutton, S.R.; Spanne, P.

    1990-01-01

    An X-ray microprobe for trace elemental analysis at micrometer spatial resolutions, using synchrotron radiation (SR), is under development. The facility consists of two beamlines, one including a 1:1 focusing mirror and the other an 8:1 ellipsoidal mirror. At present, open-quotes white lightclose quotes is used for excitation of the characteristic X-ray fluorescence lines. Sensitivities in thin biological samples are in the range of 2-20 fg in 100 μm 2 areas in 5 min irradiation times. Scanning techniques, as well as microtomography and chemical speciation, are discussed. Application to a specific biomedical study is included

  7. Identification of ginseng root using quantitative X-ray microtomography

    OpenAIRE

    Linlin Ye; Yanling Xue; Yudan Wang; Juncheng Qi; Tiqiao Xiao

    2017-01-01

    Background: The use of X-ray phase-contrast microtomography for the investigation of Chinese medicinal materials is advantageous for its nondestructive, in situ, and three-dimensional quantitative imaging properties. Methods: The X-ray phase-contrast microtomography quantitative imaging method was used to investigate the microstructure of ginseng, and the phase-retrieval method is also employed to process the experimental data. Four different ginseng samples were collected and investigated...

  8. Overview of Industrial Synchrotron Radiation Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laderman, Stephen S.

    1996-03-01

    Relevant, reliable and accessible synchrotron radiation methods can play an important role in industrial activities. To date, the application of synchrotron radiation based materials characterization methods by industrial concerns has followed the path of laboratory based x-ray methods: early adoption, continuous improvement, and a high degree of specialization to meet specific goals, which may change over time. Like all x-ray methods, their applicability to segments of the biotechnology, chemical, electronics, medical and metallurgical industries arises from a need to develop sophisticated processes for precisely controlling microstructures. An increasing number of those processes are being developed in ways which can, in principle, be more effectively studied if synchrotron radiation based analyses are performed. Technical limitations confined the efforts of early synchrotron radiation users to long-range research investigations. Nowadays, progress in data collection methods, analysis algorithims, accelerator performance, and worker training, have removed many constraints. However, commercial technologies are being improved at steadily higher rates, shortening the time between research, development and manufacturing and, in many cases, blurring their distinctions. Certainly, rapid rates of innovation increase the opportunities for synchrotron radiation techniques to bring competitive advantage since they can be used to shrink development times, to maintain yields and, perhaps, as part of advanced manufacturing. At the same time, rapid rates of innovation also impose stringent criteria on the reliability and timeliness of the supporting methods. Successful conventional x-ray methods have resulted from efforts to create useful new capabilities that effectively balance such forces. Currently, synchrotron radiation users throughout the world are pursuing analogous goals.

  9. Synchrotron-radiation research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    The use of radiation from synchrotron sources has started a renaissance in materials, physics, chemistry, and biology. Synchrotron radiation has advantages over conventional x rays in that its source brightness is a thousand times greater throughout a continuous energy spectrum, and resonances are produced with specific electron energy levels. Two major synchrotron radiation sources are operated by DOE: the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory at SLAC, and the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven

  10. Synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seddon, E.A.; Reid, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    Work at the Daresbury SRS has of necessity been interrupted this year (1991/92) due to the incorporation of Wiggler II. However, considerable beamtime was awarded before the shutdown and the major part of this appendix is concerned with the progress reports of the research undertaken then. The reports have been organised under the following broad headings: Molecular Science (19 papers), Surface and Materials Science (169 papers), Biological Science (85 papers), Instrumental and Technique Developments (13 papers) and Accelerator Physics (3 papers). It is hoped that in time the number of contributions on accelerator physics will grow to reflect the in-house activity on, for example, accelerator improvement and design. The research reports are preceded by the Annual Report of the Synchrotron Radiation Facilities Committee, which outlines the research highlights identified by that Committee (also included are details of the current membership of the SRFC and the chairmen of the Beamtime Allocation Panels). Following the reports are the specifications for the beamlines and stations. This year Section 3 contains 289 reports (nearly 100 more than last year) and the number of publications, generated by scientists and engineers who have used or are associated with Daresbury Laboratory facilities, has topped 500 for the first time. (author)

  11. Synchrotron radiation: earth, environmental and materials sciences applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, G.; Baker, D.R.

    2002-01-01

    Mineralogical Association of Canada Short Course 30 called Synchrotron Radiation: Earth, Environmental and Materials Sciences Applications was held in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan in 2002. This short course attempts to introduce to the general earth science community some of the basics of synchrotron radiation-based research. It is not intended as a review of all aspects of every synchrotron-based technique, although it does include the important literature into which knowledge of more specific areas can be gained. Instead, it covers the basics of synchrotron research at a level suitable for those interested in beginning to use synchrotron radiation in their research. Chapter 1 covers the physics of synchrotron radiation and synchrotron storage rings in general. Chapter 2 details what the Canadian Light Source is, what it will be capable of, and the types of experiments that will be able to be performed on the beamlines. Chapter 3 covers the basics of synchrotron-based diffraction studies including both powder and single crystal studies. Chapter 4 introduces the novice user to X-ray absorption spectroscopy (EXAFS/XANES) and includes details on how to correctly reduce the data. Chapter 5 outlines the capabilities of the X-ray microprobe for chemical analyses, micro-EXAFS/XANES and imaging of geological samples. Chapter 6 gives a detailed overview of synchrotron-based X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy with application to mineralogical and geochemical studies. Finally, chapter 7 introduces the types of experiments within the geological community that are commonly performed on amorphous materials

  12. The Australian synchrotron; Le synchrotron australien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhi, R

    2005-06-15

    This document recalls the historical aspects of the Australian Synchrotron which will be implemented in 2007. It presents then the objectives of this program, the specifications of the ring and the light lines. (A.L.B.)

  13. Identification of ginseng root using quantitative X-ray microtomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlin Ye

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: This study is the first to provide evidence of the distribution characteristics of COCCs to identify four types of ginseng, with regard to species authentication and age identification, by X-ray phase-contrast microtomography quantitative imaging. This method is also expected to reveal important relationships between COCCs and the occurrence of the effective medicinal components of ginseng.

  14. Imaging of forced-imbibition in carbonate rocks using synchrotron X-ray micro-tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, K.; Menke, H. P.; Andrew, M. G.; Lin, Q.; Saif, T.; Al-Khulaifi, Y.; Reynolds, C. A.; Bijeljic, B.; Rau, C.; Blunt, M. J.

    2016-12-01

    We have investigated the pore-scale behavior of brine-oil systems and oil trapping during forced-imbibition in a water-wet carbonate rock in a capillary-dominated flow regime at reservoir pressure conditions. To capture the dynamics of the brine-oil front progression and snap-off process, real-time tomograms with a time resolution of 38 s (24 s for imaging and 14 s for recording the data) and a spatial resolution of 3.28 µm were acquired at Diamond Light Source (UK). The data were first analyzed at global scale (complete imaged rock) for overall front behavior. From the saturation profiles, we obtain the location of the tail of the desaturation front that progresses with a velocity of 13 µm/min. This velocity is smaller than average flow velocity 16.88 µm/min, which explains why it needs slightly more than 1 pore volume of brine injection to reach the residual saturation of oil in a water-wet rock. The data were further analyzed at local scale to investigate the pore-scale mechanisms of oil trapping during brine flooding. We isolated various trapping events which resulted in the creation of discrete oil ganglia occupying one to several pore bodies. We perform pore-scale curvature analysis of brine-oil interfaces to obtain local capillary pressure that will be related to the shape and the size of throats in which ganglia were trapped.

  15. SYNCHROTRON X-RAY ABSORPTION-EDGE COMPUTED MICROTOMOGRAPHY IMAGING OF THALLIUM COMPARTMENTALIZATION IN IBERIS INTERMEDIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thallium (TI) is an extremely toxic metal which, due to its similarities to K, is readily taken up by plants. Thallium is efficiently hyperaccumulated in Iberis intermedia as TI(I). Distribution and compartmentalization of TI in I. intermedia is highes...

  16. Synchrotron-Radiation Induced X-Ray Emission (SRIXE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Keith W.

    1999-09-01

    and increase in scientific use can be maintained for the synchrotron x-ray source. A short summary of the present state of the synchrotron radiation-induced x-ray emission (SRIXE) method is presented here. Basically, SRIXE experiments can include any that depend on the detection. of characteristic x-rays produced by the incident x-ray beam born the synchrotron source as they interact with a sample. Thus, experiments done to measure elemental composition, chemical state, crystal, structure, and other sample parameters can be considered in a discussion of SRIXE. It is also clear that the experimentalist may well wish to use a variety of complementary techniques for study of a given sample. For this reason, discussion of computed microtomography (CMT) and x-ray diffraction is included here. It is hoped that this present discussion will serve as a succinct introduction to the basic ideas of SRIXE for those not working in the field and possibly help to stimulate new types of work by those starting in the field as well as by experienced practitioners of the art. The topics covered include short descriptions of (1) the properties of synchrotron radiation, (2) a description of facilities used for its production, (3) collimated microprobe, (4) focused microprobes, (5) continuum and monoenergetic excitation, (6) detection limits, (7) quantitation, (8) applications of SRIXE, (9) computed microtomography (CMT), and (10)chemical speciation using x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS). An effort has been made to cite a wide variety of work from different laboratories to show the vital nature of the field.

  17. Synchrotron radiation facilities

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    Particularly in the past few years, interest in using the synchrotron radiation emanating from high energy, circular electron machines has grown considerably. In our February issue we included an article on the synchrotron radiation facility at Frascati. This month we are spreading the net wider — saying something about the properties of the radiation, listing the centres where synchrotron radiation facilities exist, adding a brief description of three of them and mentioning areas of physics in which the facilities are used.

  18. Image processing of multiphase images obtained via X-ray microtomography: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlüter, S.; Sheppard, A.; Brown, K.; Wildenschild, D. (Oregon State U.)

    2014-04-25

    Easier access to X-ray microtomography (μCT) facilities has provided much new insight from high-resolution imaging for various problems in porous media research. Pore space analysis with respect to functional properties usually requires segmentation of the intensity data into different classes. Image segmentation is a nontrivial problem that may have a profound impact on all subsequent image analyses. This review deals with two issues that are neglected in most of the recent studies on image segmentation: (i) focus on multiclass segmentation and (ii) detailed descriptions as to why a specific method may fail together with strategies for preventing the failure by applying suitable image enhancement prior to segmentation. In this way, the presented algorithms become very robust and are less prone to operator bias. Three different test images are examined: a synthetic image with ground-truth information, a synchrotron image of precision beads with three different fluids residing in the pore space, and a μCT image of a soil sample containing macropores, rocks, organic matter, and the soil matrix. Image blur is identified as the major cause for poor segmentation results. Other impairments of the raw data like noise, ring artifacts, and intensity variation can be removed with current image enhancement methods. Bayesian Markov random field segmentation, watershed segmentation, and converging active contours are well suited for multiclass segmentation, yet with different success to correct for partial volume effects and conserve small image features simultaneously.

  19. Application of x-ray microtomography to environmental fluid flow problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wildenschild, D.; Culligan, K.A.; Christensen, B.S.B.

    2005-01-01

    Many environmental processes are controlled by the micro-scale interaction of water and air with the solid phase (soils, sediments, rock) in pore spaces within the subsurface. The distribution in time and space of fluids in pores ultimately controls subsurface flow and contaminant transport relevant to groundwater resource management, contaminant remediation, and agriculture. Many of these physical processes operative at the pore-scale cannot be directly investigated using conventional hydrologic techniques, however recent developments in synchrotron-based micro-imaging have made it possible to observe and quantify pore-scale processes non-invasively. Micron-scale resolution makes it possible to track fluid flow within individual pores and therefore facilitates previously unattainable measurements. We report on experiments performed at the GSECARS** (Advanced Photon Source) microtomography facility and have measured properties such as porosity, fluid saturation and distribution within the pore space, as well as interfacial characteristics of the fluids involved (air, water, contaminant). Different image processing techniques were applied following mathematical reconstruction to produce accurate measurements of the physical flow properties. These new micron-scale measurements make it possible to test existing and new theory, as well as emerging numerical modeling schemes aimed at the pore scale.

  20. Microtomography and pore-scale modeling of two-phase Fluid Distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silin, D.; Tomutsa, L.; Benson, S.; Patzek, T.

    2010-10-19

    Synchrotron-based X-ray microtomography (micro CT) at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) line 8.3.2 at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory produces three-dimensional micron-scale-resolution digital images of the pore space of the reservoir rock along with the spacial distribution of the fluids. Pore-scale visualization of carbon dioxide flooding experiments performed at a reservoir pressure demonstrates that the injected gas fills some pores and pore clusters, and entirely bypasses the others. Using 3D digital images of the pore space as input data, the method of maximal inscribed spheres (MIS) predicts two-phase fluid distribution in capillary equilibrium. Verification against the tomography images shows a good agreement between the computed fluid distribution in the pores and the experimental data. The model-predicted capillary pressure curves and tomography-based porosimetry distributions compared favorably with the mercury injection data. Thus, micro CT in combination with modeling based on the MIS is a viable approach to study the pore-scale mechanisms of CO{sub 2} injection into an aquifer, as well as more general multi-phase flows.

  1. Synchrotron radiation sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Steenbergen, A.

    1979-01-01

    As a result of the exponential growth of the utilization of synchrotron radiation for research in the domain of the material sciences, atomic and molecular physics, biology and technology, a major construction activity has been generated towards new dedicated electron storage rings, designed optimally for synchrotron radiation applications, also, expansion programs are underway at the existing facilities, such as DORIS, SPEAR, and VEPP. In this report the basic properties of synchrotron radiation will be discussed, a short overview will be given of the existing and new facilities, some aspects of the optimization of a structure for a synchrotron radiation source will be discussed and the addition of wigglers and undulators for spectrum enhancement will be described. Finally, some parameters of an optimized synchrotron radiation source will be given.

  2. Synchrotron radiation from protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutt, S.K.

    1992-12-01

    Synchrotron radiation from protons, though described by the same equations as the radiation from electrons, exhibits a number of interesting features on account of the parameters reached in praxis. In this presentation, we shall point out some of the features relating to (i) normal synchrotron radiation from dipoles in proton machines such as the High Energy Booster and the Superconducting Super Collider; (ii) synchrotron radiation from short dipoles, and its application to light monitors for proton machines, and (iii) synchrotron radiation from undulators in the limit when, the deflection parameter is much smaller than unity. The material for this presentation is taken largely from the work of Hofmann, Coisson, Bossart, and their collaborators, and from a paper by Kim. We shall emphasize the qualitative aspects of synchrotron radiation in the cases mentioned above, making, when possible, simple arguments for estimating the spectral and angular properties of the radiation. Detailed analyses can be found in the literature

  3. Ion microtomography using ion time-of-flight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, M.L.; Heikkinen, D.W.; Proctor, I.D.; Pontau, A.E.; Olona, G.T.; Felter, T.E.; Morse, D.H.; Hess, B.V.

    1992-01-01

    We have developed and are in the process of testing an ion time-of-flight (TOF) detector system for use in our ion microtomography measurements. Using TOF, ion energy is determined by measurement of the ion's flight time over a certain path length. For ion microtomography, the principle advantage of TOF analysis is that ion count rates of several hundred thousand counts per second can be achieved as compared to a limit of about ten thousand ions per second when using a solid-state silicon surface barrier detector and associated electronics. This greater than 10 fold increase in count rate correspondingly shortens sample analysis time or increases the amount of data that can be collected on a given sample. Details of the system and progress to date are described

  4. Identification of ginseng root using quantitative X-ray microtomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Linlin; Xue, Yanling; Wang, Yudan; Qi, Juncheng; Xiao, Tiqiao

    2017-07-01

    The use of X-ray phase-contrast microtomography for the investigation of Chinese medicinal materials is advantageous for its nondestructive, in situ , and three-dimensional quantitative imaging properties. The X-ray phase-contrast microtomography quantitative imaging method was used to investigate the microstructure of ginseng, and the phase-retrieval method is also employed to process the experimental data. Four different ginseng samples were collected and investigated; these were classified according to their species, production area, and sample growth pattern. The quantitative internal characteristic microstructures of ginseng were extracted successfully. The size and position distributions of the calcium oxalate cluster crystals (COCCs), important secondary metabolites that accumulate in ginseng, are revealed by the three-dimensional quantitative imaging method. The volume and amount of the COCCs in different species of the ginseng are obtained by a quantitative analysis of the three-dimensional microstructures, which shows obvious difference among the four species of ginseng. This study is the first to provide evidence of the distribution characteristics of COCCs to identify four types of ginseng, with regard to species authentication and age identification, by X-ray phase-contrast microtomography quantitative imaging. This method is also expected to reveal important relationships between COCCs and the occurrence of the effective medicinal components of ginseng.

  5. National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulbert, S.L.; Lazarz, N.M.

    1991-04-01

    This report discussion research being conducted at the National Synchrotron light source. In particular, this report contains operations summaries; symposia, workshops, and projects; NSLS highlights; and abstracts of science at the NSLS

  6. The World of Synchrotrons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    -particles when .... ence, high-vacuum environment, etc.) make synchrotron radiation a very powerful tool for a variety of .... one of the leading countries along with the United States and the European Union in accelerator-based science re-.

  7. European Synchrotron Radiation Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buras, B.

    1985-01-01

    How a European Synchrotron Radiation Facility has developed into a detailed proposal recently accepted as the basis for construction of the facility at Grenoble is discussed. In November 1977, the General Assembly of the European Science Foundation (ESF) approved the report of the ESF working party on synchrotron radiation entitled Synchrotron Radiation - a Perspective View for Europe. This report contained as one of its principal recommendations that work should commence on a feasibility study for a European synchrotron radiation laboratory having a dedicated hard X-ray storage ring and appropriate advanced instrumentation. In order to prepare a feasibility study the European Science Foundation set up the Ad-hoc Committee on Synchrotron Radiation, which in turn formed two working groups: one for the machine and another for instrumentation. This feasibility study was completed in 1979 with the publication of the Blue Book describing in detail the so called 1979 European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The heart of the facility was a 5 GeV electron storage ring and it was assumed that mainly the radiation from bending magnets will be used. The facility is described

  8. Future Synchrotron Radiation Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Winick, Herman

    2003-01-01

    Sources of synchrotron radiation (also called synchrotron light) and their associated research facilities have experienced a spectacular growth in number, performance, and breadth of application in the past two to three decades. In 1978 there were eleven electron storage rings used as light sources. Three of these were small rings, all below 500 mega-electron volts (MeV), dedicated to this purpose; the others, with energy up to 5 giga-electron volts (GeV), were used parasitically during the operation of the ring for high energy physics research. In addition, at that time synchrotron radiation from nine cyclic electron synchrotrons, with energy up to 5 GeV, was also used parasitically. At present no cyclic synchrotrons are used, while about 50 electron storage rings are in operation around the world as fully dedicated light sources for basic and applied research in a wide variety of fields. Among these fields are structural molecular biology, molecular environmental science, materials, analytic chemistry, micr...

  9. Australian synchrotron radiation science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, J.W.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: The Australian Synchrotron Radiation Program, ASRP, has been set up as a major national research facility to provide facilities for scientists and technologists in physics, chemistry, biology and materials science who need access to synchrotron radiation. Australia has a strong tradition in crystallography and structure determination covering small molecule crystallography, biological and protein crystallography, diffraction science and materials science and several strong groups are working in x-ray optics, soft x-ray and vacuum ultra-violet physics. A number of groups whose primary interest is in the structure and dynamics of surfaces, catalysts, polymer and surfactant science and colloid science are hoping to use scattering methods and, if experience in Europe, Japan and USA can be taken as a guide, many of these groups will need third generation synchrotron access. To provide for this growing community, the Australian National Beamline at the Photon Factory, Tsukuba, Japan, has been established since 1990 through a generous collaboration with Japanese colleagues, the beamline equipment being largely produced in Australia. This will be supplemented in 1997 with access to the world's most powerful synchrotron x-ray source at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, USA. Some recent experiments in surface science using neutrons as well as x-rays from the Australian National Beamline will be used to illustrate one of the challenges that synchrotron x-rays may meet

  10. Synchrotron radiation based multi-scale structural characterization of CoPt{sub 3} colloidal nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zargham, Ardalan

    2010-08-05

    Bimetallic CoPt{sub 3} nanoparticles represent a category of colloidal nanoparticles with high application potentials in, e.g., heterogeneous catalysis, sensor technology, and magnetic storage media. Deposition of this system on functionalized supports delivers opportunities for controlled immobilization of the nanoparticles. In this work, self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of n-alkanethiol molecules served as functionalizing material for the Au covered Si substrates. Deposition of the ligand-terminated nanoparticles took place by means of spin and dip coating and has been optimized for each of the mentioned methods so that monolayers of nanoparticles on supports were fabricated with a well-controlled coverage The morphology of the nanoparticle film arranged is addressed by grazing-incidence small angle x-ray scattering (GISAXS). This together with x-ray standing waves in total external reflection (TER-XSW) enables a 3D structural characterization of such nanoparticle films, so that the mean particle size, mean distance of the arranged nanoparticle films to the substrate, as well as the mean particle-particle distance in lateral direction have been determined. TER-XSW, being an element-specific position-sensitive method, also reveals the elemental distribution of the particles which complementary provides a fundamental understanding of their internal structure. The CoPt{sub 3} nanoparticles investigated here exhibit a core-shell-like structure with cores of CoPt{sub 3} and shells mainly comprise Co. The results regarding the internal structure of the nanoparticles were then verified by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements. (orig.)

  11. Synchrotron radiation based high–resolution grazing emission X–ray fluorescence

    OpenAIRE

    Kayser, Yves; Dousse, Jean-Claude

    2011-01-01

    Des expériences par fluorescence X sensibles à la région près de la surface de l’échantillon peuvent être réalisées de différentes manières. Une possibilité, connue sous les noms de TXRF (Total Reflection X–ray Fluorescence – fluorescence X par réflexion totale) ou GIXRF (Grazing Incidence X–ray Fluorescence – fluorescence X sous incidence rasante) consiste à irradier l’échantillon avec un faisceau de rayons X collimé sous des angles d’incidence très petits (entre 0 et 2 degrés). Une autre al...

  12. In vivo time-resolved microtomography reveals the mechanics of the blowfly flight motor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon M Walker

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Dipteran flies are amongst the smallest and most agile of flying animals. Their wings are driven indirectly by large power muscles, which cause cyclical deformations of the thorax that are amplified through the intricate wing hinge. Asymmetric flight manoeuvres are controlled by 13 pairs of steering muscles acting directly on the wing articulations. Collectively the steering muscles account for <3% of total flight muscle mass, raising the question of how they can modulate the vastly greater output of the power muscles during manoeuvres. Here we present the results of a synchrotron-based study performing micrometre-resolution, time-resolved microtomography on the 145 Hz wingbeat of blowflies. These data represent the first four-dimensional visualizations of an organism's internal movements on sub-millisecond and micrometre scales. This technique allows us to visualize and measure the three-dimensional movements of five of the largest steering muscles, and to place these in the context of the deforming thoracic mechanism that the muscles actuate. Our visualizations show that the steering muscles operate through a diverse range of nonlinear mechanisms, revealing several unexpected features that could not have been identified using any other technique. The tendons of some steering muscles buckle on every wingbeat to accommodate high amplitude movements of the wing hinge. Other steering muscles absorb kinetic energy from an oscillating control linkage, which rotates at low wingbeat amplitude but translates at high wingbeat amplitude. Kinetic energy is distributed differently in these two modes of oscillation, which may play a role in asymmetric power management during flight control. Structural flexibility is known to be important to the aerodynamic efficiency of insect wings, and to the function of their indirect power muscles. We show that it is integral also to the operation of the steering muscles, and so to the functional flexibility of the

  13. In vivo time-resolved microtomography reveals the mechanics of the blowfly flight motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Simon M; Schwyn, Daniel A; Mokso, Rajmund; Wicklein, Martina; Müller, Tonya; Doube, Michael; Stampanoni, Marco; Krapp, Holger G; Taylor, Graham K

    2014-03-01

    Dipteran flies are amongst the smallest and most agile of flying animals. Their wings are driven indirectly by large power muscles, which cause cyclical deformations of the thorax that are amplified through the intricate wing hinge. Asymmetric flight manoeuvres are controlled by 13 pairs of steering muscles acting directly on the wing articulations. Collectively the steering muscles account for flight muscle mass, raising the question of how they can modulate the vastly greater output of the power muscles during manoeuvres. Here we present the results of a synchrotron-based study performing micrometre-resolution, time-resolved microtomography on the 145 Hz wingbeat of blowflies. These data represent the first four-dimensional visualizations of an organism's internal movements on sub-millisecond and micrometre scales. This technique allows us to visualize and measure the three-dimensional movements of five of the largest steering muscles, and to place these in the context of the deforming thoracic mechanism that the muscles actuate. Our visualizations show that the steering muscles operate through a diverse range of nonlinear mechanisms, revealing several unexpected features that could not have been identified using any other technique. The tendons of some steering muscles buckle on every wingbeat to accommodate high amplitude movements of the wing hinge. Other steering muscles absorb kinetic energy from an oscillating control linkage, which rotates at low wingbeat amplitude but translates at high wingbeat amplitude. Kinetic energy is distributed differently in these two modes of oscillation, which may play a role in asymmetric power management during flight control. Structural flexibility is known to be important to the aerodynamic efficiency of insect wings, and to the function of their indirect power muscles. We show that it is integral also to the operation of the steering muscles, and so to the functional flexibility of the insect flight motor.

  14. A proposal of microtomography evaluation for restoration interface gaps

    OpenAIRE

    Deborah Meleo; Licia Manzon; Raffaella Pecci; Francesca Zuppante; Rossella Bedini

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, several adhesive systems are used in dental restoration and they’re evaluated by clinical research. In vitro evaluations are often made by means of traditional observation techniques (for example scanning electron microscope (SEM), while 3D cone-beam microtomography technique (3D micro-CT), that can be able to generate 3D sample images without any sample treatment during acquisition data, is going to be used a lot in the next few years. In dental cavity restored with composite, it i...

  15. X-ray microtomography application in pore space reservoir rock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, M F S; Lima, I; Borghi, L; Lopes, R T

    2012-07-01

    Characterization of porosity in carbonate rocks is important in the oil and gas industry since a major hydrocarbons field is formed by this lithology and they have a complex media porous. In this context, this research presents a study of the pore space in limestones rocks by x-ray microtomography. Total porosity, type of porosity and pore size distribution were evaluated from 3D high resolution images. Results show that carbonate rocks has a complex pore space system with different pores types at the same facies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. SYNCHROTRON RADIATION SOURCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HULBERT,S.L.; WILLIAMS,G.P.

    1998-07-01

    Synchrotron radiation is a very bright, broadband, polarized, pulsed source of light extending from the infrared to the x-ray region. It is an extremely important source of Vacuum Ultraviolet radiation. Brightness is defined as flux per unit area per unit solid angle and is normally a more important quantity than flux alone particularly in throughput limited applications which include those in which monochromators are used. It is well known from classical theory of electricity and magnetism that accelerating charges emit electromagnetic radiation. In the case of synchrotron radiation, relativistic electrons are accelerated in a circular orbit and emit electromagnetic radiation in a broad spectral range. The visible portion of this spectrum was first observed on April 24, 1947 at General Electric's Schenectady facility by Floyd Haber, a machinist working with the synchrotron team, although the first theoretical predictions were by Lienard in the latter part of the 1800's. An excellent early history with references was presented by Blewett and a history covering the development of the utilization of synchrotron radiation was presented by Hartman. Synchrotron radiation covers the entire electromagnetic spectrum from the infrared region through the visible, ultraviolet, and into the x-ray region up to energies of many 10's of kilovolts. If the charged particles are of low mass, such as electrons, and if they are traveling relativistically, the emitted radiation is very intense and highly collimated, with opening angles of the order of 1 milliradian. In electron storage rings there are three possible sources of synchrotron radiation; dipole (bending) magnets; wigglers, which act like a sequence of bending magnets with alternating polarities; and undulators, which are also multi-period alternating magnet systems but in which the beam deflections are small resulting in coherent interference of the emitted light.

  17. A New Technique for In Situ X-ray Microtomography Under High Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, T.; Wang, Y.; Westferro, F.; Gebhardt, J.; Rivers, M. L.; Sutton, S. R.

    2004-12-01

    We have developed a new technique for in situ synchrotron microtomography to study texture evolution in multi-phase specimens under high pressure and temperature. Two critical issues in performing tomography experiments under pressure are (1) the limited X-ray access to the sample because of the highly absorbing materials, such as tungsten carbide and tool steel, typically used in the pressure vessel and (2) a high pressure compatible rotation mechanism to collect projections of the sample continuously from 0 to 180° . We addressed these issues by (1) employing an opposed-anvil high pressure cell, known as the Drickamer cell, with an X-ray transparent containment ring, to allow panoramic X-ray access, and (2) rotating the Dricakmer cell by Harmonic DriveTM gear reducers, with thrust bearings supporting the hydraulic load. The design of the rotation mechanism benefited from the rotational deformation apparatus developed by Yamazaki and Karato (Rev. Sci. Instrum., 72, 4207, 2001). We report results obtained from a test run performed under pressure with monochromatic synchrotron radiation. A sapphire sphere (1.0 mm dia.) was embedded in a powdered mixture of Fe and 9 wt.% S alloy. The diameter of the sample chamber was 2 mm. Under pressure, the entire Drickamer cell was rotated to collect radiographs of the sample at various angles from 0 to 179.5° in 0.5° step size. Computational reconstruction of these projections provided three dimensional (3D) distribution of linear attenuation coefficient of the sample with a spatial resolution of 6 microns. The shape change in the sapphire sphere during compression was clearly observed. Using the program Blob3d, reconstructed 3D images of the sphere were separated from the surrounding Fe-S alloy. Volumes of the sphere were then accurately determined from the extracted images, by carefully defining the image intensity threshold. The errors in the volume measurement are about 0.3 to 0.7%, mostly due to shadowing by anvil

  18. Properties of synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Materlik, G.

    1982-01-01

    This paper forms the introductory chapter to a book concerning the use of synchrotron radiation for investigation of the structure and mechanism of biological macromolecules. After a historical section, the physics of synchrotron radiation is summarized so that the most promising experiments may be extrapolated. Irradiated power and intensity, polarization and angular distribution, brilliance of a real source, and developments such as wigglers and undulators are briefly dealt with. The paper includes a tabulated compilation of proposed and operating machines in 1982, with some of their characteristics. (U.K.)

  19. Microstructural characterization of reservoir rocks by X-ray microtomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Jaquiel Salvi; Appoloni, Carlos Roberto

    2007-01-01

    The evaluation of microstructural parameters from reservoir rocks is of great importance for petroleum industries. This work presents measurements of total porosity and pore size distribution of a sandstone sample from Tumblagooda geological formation, extracted from the Kalbari National Park in Australia. X-ray microtomography technique was used for determining porosity and pore size distribution. Other techniques, such as mercury intrusion porosimetry and Archimedes method have also been applied for those determinations but since they are regarded destructive techniques, samples cannot usually be used for further analyses. X-ray microtomography, besides allowing future analyses of a sample already evaluated, also provides tridimensional images of the sample. The experimental configuration included a SkysCan 1172 from CENPES-PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The spatial resolution of this equipment is 2.9 μm. Images have been reconstructed using NRecon software and analysed with the IMAGO software developed by the Laboratory of Porous Materials and Thermophysical Properties of the Department of Mechanical Engineering / Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, Brazil

  20. Characterization of ceramic archaeological by high resolution X ray microtomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, Alessandra C.; Freitas, Renato; Calza, Cristiane F.; Lopes, Ricardo T.; Lima, Inaya; Carvalho, Daniele D.; Gaspar, Maria D.

    2013-01-01

    Characterization of ceramic fragments is a very important area of research in art and archeometry area because it enables a greater understanding of how ancient civilizations behave and what were their traditions and customs. Petrography and chemical analyses are commonly used, but these techniques are destructive, which is not interesting for this type of sample. Through the exchange of multidisciplinary scientific knowledge and new partnerships, high resolution X-ray microtomography has been introduced in archaeological area as a great possibility of 3D inspection in a non-destructive way. The goal of this work is to investigate the internal microstructures of four samples of archeological ceramic, from the Archaeological Site of Macacu - RJ. The X-ray microtomography were performed in a high resolution setup, and can be used to infer the nature of organic temper even with all plant remains completely burnt out during the firing process and also to ensure the homogeneity of samples envisaged for geochemical analyses, especially with respect to the distribution of chemically diverse fabric compounds. In this way this study intends to contribute to our understanding of the archaeological and historical formations of this region. (author)

  1. Coherent synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agoh, Tomonori

    2006-01-01

    This article presents basic properties of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) with numerical examples and introduces the reader to important aspects of CSR in future accelerators with short bunches. We show interesting features of the single bunch instability due to CSR in storage rings and discuss the longitudinal CSR field via the impedance representation. (author)

  2. Reflectometry with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumrey, Michael; Cibik, Levent; Fischer, Andreas; Gottwald, Alexander; Kroth, Udo; Scholze, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The measurement of the reflectivity for VUV, XUV, and X-radiation at the PTB synchrotron radiation sources is described. The corresponding data of the used beams are presented. Results of experiments on a Cu-Ni double-layer, SiO 2 , Si, and MgF 2 are presented. (HSI)

  3. The World of Synchrotrons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Charged-particles when accelerated radiateelectromag- netic energy. This interesting physical phenomenon, now known by the name synchrotron radiation had its theoretical beginnings, a long time ago, at the time of classical electrodynamics. These theoretical studies had to wait for about half a century till the ...

  4. The World of Synchrotrons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 11. The World of Synchrotrons. Sameen Ahmed Khan. General Article Volume 6 Issue 11 November 2001 pp 77-84. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/006/11/0077-0084 ...

  5. Characteristics of synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, G.S.

    1984-01-01

    The characteristics and production of synchrotron radiation are qualitatively discussed. The spectral properties of wigglers and undulators are briefly described. Possible applications in condensed matter physics are outlined. These include atomic and molecular studies, crystallography, impurities in solids and radiographic imaging

  6. Synchrotron radiation research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markus, N.

    1995-01-01

    In the many varied application fields of accelerators, synchrotron radiation ranks as one of the most valuable and widely useful tools. Synchrotron radiation is produced in multi-GeV electron synchrotrons and storage rings, and emerges tangentially in a narrow vertical fan. Synchrotron radiation has been used extensively for basic studies and, more recently, for applied research in the chemical, materials, biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries. Initially, the radiation was a byproduct of high energy physics laboratories but the high demand soon resulted in the construction of dedicated electron storage rings. The accelerator technology is now well developed and a large number of sources have been constructed, with energies ranging from about 1.5 to 8 GeV including the 6 GeV European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) source at Grenoble, France. A modern third-generation synchrotron radiation source has an electron storage ring with a complex magnet lattice to produce ultra-low emittance beams, long straights for 'insertion devices', and 'undulator' or 'wiggler' magnets to generate radiation with particular properties. Large beam currents are necessary to give high radiation fluxes and long beam lifetimes require ultra high vacuum systems. Industrial synchrotron radiation research programmes use either Xray diffraction or spectroscopy to determine the structures of a wide range of materials. Biological and pharmaceutical applications study the functions of various proteins. With this knowledge, it is possible to design molecules to change protein behaviour for pharmaceuticals, or to configure more active proteins, such as enzymes, for industrial processes. Recent advances in molecular biology have resulted in a large increase in protein crystallography studies, with researchers using crystals which, although small and weakly diffracting, benefit from the high intensity. Examples with commercial significance include the study of

  7. CORNELL: Synchrotron 25

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    A recent celebration marked the twenty-fifth anniversary of the Cornell Electron Synchrotron. The major milestone in the commissioning of the synchrotron was on October 11, 1967 when Helen Edwards, Boyce McDaniel, and Maury Tigner achieved a 7 GeV beam, a worldrecord energy for electron synchrotrons at that time. Like so many advances in experimental physics, this occurred early in the morning - 3 a.m.! The transition from accelerator commissioning to high energy physics operation was extremely rapid; 7 GeV operation for data collection was routine just five weeks later. Throughout its life as a source of photon and electron beams for fixed target experiments, the synchrotron maintained energy leadership for circular electron machines. Originally designed for operation at 10 GeV, eventually it consistently provided beams for experiments at energies up to 11.6 GeV. It now operates at 5 GeV, serving as the injector for the CESR electron-positron storage ring. Robert Wilson was director of the laboratory during the design and most of the construction of the machine. He left near the end of the construction to become the first director of Fermilab and was replaced by Boyce McDaniel, who guided the laboratory from the completion of the synchrotron to the construction and early operation of CESR. Wilson recalled how the laboratory had originally proposed a 3 GeV turnkey machine to be built entirely by industry and would fit in the space previously occupied by earlier Cornell accelerators. However, members of the laboratory realized that 3 GeV would not open new physics frontiers, that the construction of the accelerator was much of the fun of doing high energy physics experiments, and that a more challenging project was needed. This led to the proposal for the 10 GeV synchrotron which was built in the ''Cornell Style'' with many of the components fabricated and nearly all of the assembly done at Cornell

  8. A versatile x-ray microtomography station for biomedical imaging and materials research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lussani, Fernando Cesar; Vescovi, Rafael Ferreira da Costa; de Souza, Thaís Diniz; Leite, Carlos A P; Giles, Carlos

    2015-06-01

    An x-ray microtomography station implemented at the X-ray Applied Crystallography Laboratory of the State University of Campinas is described. The station is based on a propagation based phase contrast imaging setup with a microfocus source and digital x-ray area detectors. Due to its simplicity, this setup is ideal for fast, high resolution imaging and microtomography of small biological specimens and materials research samples. It can also be coupled to gratings to use and develop new techniques as the harmonic spatial coherent imaging, which allow scattering contrast imaging. Details of the experimental setup, equipment, and software integration are described. Test microtomography for setup commissioning and characterization is shown. We conclude that phase contrast enhanced x-ray imaging and microtomography with resolution below 5 μm voxel size are possible and data sets as wide as 2000 × 2000 × 2000 voxels are obtained with this instrumentation.

  9. Equally sloped X-ray microtomography of living insects with low radiation dose and improved resolution capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Shengkun; Fan, Jiadong; Zong, Yunbing; Sun, Zhibin; Zhang, Jianhua; Jiang, Huaidong, E-mail: hdjiang@sdu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); He, You; Zhou, Guangzhao; Xiao, Tiqiao [Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Huang, Qingjie [School of Information Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2016-03-21

    Three-dimensional X-ray imaging of living specimens is challenging due to the limited resolution of conventional absorption contrast X-ray imaging and potential irradiation damage of biological specimens. In this letter, we present microtomography of a living specimen combining phase-contrast imaging and a Fourier-based iterative algorithm termed equally sloped tomography. Non-destructive 3D imaging of an anesthetized living yellow mealworm Tenebrio molitor was demonstrated with a relatively low dose using synchrotron generated X-rays. Based on the high-quality 3D images, branching tracheoles and different tissues of the insect in a natural state were identified and analyzed, demonstrating a significant advantage of the technique over conventional X-ray radiography or histotomy. Additionally, the insect survived without problem after a 1.92-s X-ray exposure and subsequent absorbed radiation dose of ∼1.2 Gy. No notable physiological effects were observed after reviving the insect from anesthesia. The improved static tomographic method demonstrated in this letter shows advantage in the non-destructive structural investigation of living insects in three dimensions due to the low radiation dose and high resolution capability, and offers many potential applications in biological science.

  10. Recent developments in X-ray projection microscopy and X-ray microtomography applied to materials science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cazaux, J.; Erre, D.; Mouze, D.; Patat, J.M.; Rondot, S.; Sasov, A.; Trebbia, P.; Zolfaghari, A.

    1993-01-01

    After a long period of sleeping, there is recently a spectacular revival of X-ray microscopy due to the progress in X-ray sources (synchrotron radiation), X-ray optics, and X-ray detectors. However most of the attempts in this field concern the use of soft X-rays to observe, with an improved resolution, biological specimens in their wet environment. In opposition to these trends, we try to demonstrate in this paper the interest of using X-ray microscopy to materials science by applying the old principle of shadow microscopy (but with modern detectors such as CCD cameras) with harder X-rays. The excellent linearity, speed of acquisition and large dynamic of CCD cameras combined to the intrinsic advantage of X-rays ''to see'' inside thick specimens allows one to obtain digital images (for quantification), to follow dynamic processes (such as solid / solid diffusion) and to perform 3 - dimensional reconstruction of the object by X-ray microtomography. The performance of this renewed technique is indicated and illustrated by various examples. (orig.)

  11. Synchrotron-based FTIR spectromicroscopy: Cytotoxicity and heating considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holman, Hoi-Ying N.; Martin, Michael C.; McKinney, Wayne R.

    2002-12-13

    Synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infrared (SR-FTIR) spectromicroscopy is a newly emerging bioanalytical and imaging tool. This unique technique provides mid-infrared (IR) spectra, hence chemical information, with high signal-to-noise at spatial resolutions as fine as 3 to 10 microns. Thus it enables researchers to locate, identify, and track specific chemical events within an individual living mammalian cell. Mid-IR photons are too low in energy (0.05 - 0.5 eV) to either break bonds or to cause ionization. In this review, we show that the synchrotron IR beam has no detectable effects on the short- and long-term viability, reproductive integrity, cell-cycle progression, and mitochondrial metabolism in living human cells, and produces only minimal sample heating (< 0.5 degrees C). These studies have established an important foundation for SR-FTIR spectromicroscopy in biological and biomedical research.

  12. Study of spear as a dedicated source of synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerino, J.; Golde, A.; Hastings, J.; Lindau, I.; Salsburg, B.; Winick, H.; Lee, M.; Morton, P.; Garren, A.

    1977-11-01

    A study was made of the potential of SPEAR as a dedicated source of synchrotron radiation, based on the expectation that SPEAR will become increasingly available for this purpose as PEP, the 18-GeV colliding-beam storage ring now under construction by LBL and SLAC, becomes operational. A synchrotron radiation research program has been underway since May, 1974. Two beam ports capable of serving 9 simultaneous users are now operational. In single-beam multi-bunch operation high currents are possible (225 mA has been achieved and > approximately 300 mA is expected) and the electron beam emittance can be made smaller, resulting in higher source point brightness. Descriptions are given of SPEAR capabilities and of plans to expand the research capability by adding beam runs and by inserting wiggler magnets in SPEAR straight sections

  13. Synchrotron-based FTIR spectromicroscopy Cytotoxicity and heating considerations

    CERN Document Server

    Holman, H Y N; McKinney, W R

    2002-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infrared (SR-FTIR) spectromicroscopy is a newly emerging bioanalytical and imaging tool. This unique technique provides mid-infrared (IR) spectra, hence chemical information, with high signal-to-noise at spatial resolutions as fine as 3 to 10 microns. Thus it enables researchers to locate, identify, and track specific chemical events within an individual living mammalian cell. Mid-IR photons are too low in energy (0.05 - 0.5 eV) to either break bonds or to cause ionization. In this review, we show that the synchrotron IR beam has no detectable effects on the short- and long-term viability, reproductive integrity, cell-cycle progression, and mitochondrial metabolism in living human cells, and produces only minimal sample heating (< 0.5 degrees C). These studies have established an important foundation for SR-FTIR spectromicroscopy in biological and biomedical research.

  14. X-ray energy optimisation in computed microtomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spanne, P.

    1989-01-01

    Expressions describing the absorbed dose and the number of incident photons necessary for the detection of a contrasting detail in x-ray transmission CT imaging of a circular phantom are derived as functions of the linear attenuation coefficients of the materials comprising the object and the detail. A shell of a different material can be included to allow simulation of CT imaging of the skulls of small laboratory animals. The equations are used to estimate the optimum photon energy in x-ray transmission computed microtomography. The optimum energy depends on whether the number of incident photons or the absorbed dose at a point in the object is minimised. For a water object of 300 mm diameter the two optimisation criteria yield optimum photon energies differing by an order of magnitude. (author)

  15. Advances in x-ray computed microtomography at the NSLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowd, B.A.; Andrews, A.B.; Marr, R.B.; Siddons, D.P.; Jones, K.W.; Peskin, A.M.

    1998-08-01

    The X-Ray Computed Microtomography workstation at beamline X27A at the NSLS has been utilized by scientists from a broad range of disciplines from industrial materials processing to environmental science. The most recent applications are presented here as well as a description of the facility that has evolved to accommodate a wide variety of materials and sample sizes. One of the most exciting new developments reported here resulted from a pursuit of faster reconstruction techniques. A Fast Filtered Back Transform (FFBT) reconstruction program has been developed and implemented, that is based on a refinement of the gridding algorithm first developed for use with radio astronomical data. This program has reduced the reconstruction time to 8.5 sec for a 929 x 929 pixel 2 slice on an R10,000 CPU, more than 8x reduction compared with the Filtered Back-Projection method

  16. High temperature x-ray micro-tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDowell, Alastair A., E-mail: aamacdowell@lbl.gov; Barnard, Harold; Parkinson, Dilworth Y.; Gludovatz, Bernd [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Haboub, Abdel [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); current –Lincoln Univ., Jefferson City, Missouri, 65101 (United States); Larson, Natalie; Zok, Frank [University California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara CA 93106 (United States); Panerai, Francesco; Mansour, Nagi N. [NASA Ames Research Centre, Moffett Field, CA, 94035 (United States); Bale, Hrishikesh [University California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); current - Carl Zeiss X-ray Microscopy, 4385 Hopyard Rd #100, Pleasanton, CA 94588 (United States); Acevedo, Claire [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); University California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 (United States); Liu, Dong [University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TH (United Kingdom); Ritchie, Robert O. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); University California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2016-07-27

    There is increasing demand for 3D micro-scale time-resolved imaging of samples in realistic - and in many cases extreme environments. The data is used to understand material response, validate and refine computational models which, in turn, can be used to reduce development time for new materials and processes. Here we present the results of high temperature experiments carried out at the x-ray micro-tomography beamline 8.3.2 at the Advanced Light Source. The themes involve material failure and processing at temperatures up to 1750°C. The experimental configurations required to achieve the requisite conditions for imaging are described, with examples of ceramic matrix composites, spacecraft ablative heat shields and nuclear reactor core Gilsocarbon graphite.

  17. 3D/4D analyses of damage and fracture behaviours in structural materials via synchrotron X-ray tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, Hiroyuki

    2014-11-01

    technique to the deformation behavior of a polycrystalline aluminium alloy will be demonstrated in the presentation [6].The synchrotron-based microtomography has been mainly utilized to light materials due to their good X-ray transmission. In the present talk, the application of the synchrotron-based microtomography to steels will be also introduced. Degradation of contrast and spatial resolution due to forward scattering could be avoided by selecting appropriate experimental conditions in order to obtain superior spatial resolution close to the physical limit even in ferrous materials [7]. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japanese Society of Microscopy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Gas bubble network formation in irradiated beryllium pebbles monitored by X-Ray micro-tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolier, E; Ferrero, C. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Zimer 203, Gebaeude 451, Abteilung HVT-TL (Germany); Moslang, A. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, FZK, Karlsruhe (Germany); Pieritz, R.A. [CNRS, Lab. de Glaciologie et Geophysique de l' Environnement, 38 - Saint Martin d' Heres (France)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: The efficient and safe operation of helium cooled ceramic breeder blankets requires among others an efficient tritium release during operation at blanket relevant temperatures. In the past out-of-pile thermal desorption studies on low temperature neutron irradiated beryllium have shown that tritium and helium release peaks occur together. This phenomenon can be interpreted in terms of growth and coalescence of helium bubbles and tritium that either is trapped inside the helium bubbles in form of T{sub 2} molecules or in their strain field. With increasing temperature the bubble density and size at grain interfaces increase together with the probability of interconnected porosities and channel formation to the outer surface, leading to simultaneous helium and tritium release peaks in TDS. For a reliable prediction of gas release up to end-of-life conditions at blanket relevant temperatures, knowledge of the dynamics of bubble growth and coalescence as well as the 3D distribution of bubble network formation is indispensable. Such data could also be used to experimentally validate any future model predictions of tritium and helium release rates. A high resolution computer aided micro-tomography (CMT) setup has been developed at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility which allowed reconstructing 3-D images of beryllium pebbles without damaging them. By postprocessing the data a 3D rendering of inner surfaces and of interconnected channel networks can be obtained, thus allowing the identification of open porosities in neutron irradiated and tempered beryllium pebbles. In our case Beryllium pebbles of 2 mm diameter had been neutron irradiated in the 'Beryllium' experiment at 770 K with 1.24 x 10{sup 25} nxm{sup -2} resulting in 480 appm He and 12 appm Tritium. After annealing at 1500 K CMT was performed on the pebbles with 4.9 and 1.4 {mu}m voxel resolution, respectively, followed by morphological and topological post

  19. Compact synchrotron radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, N.; Wang, T.; Tian, J.; Lin, Y.; Chen, S.; He, W.; Hu, Y.; Li, Q.

    1985-01-01

    A compact 800 MeV synchrotron radiation source is discussed. The storage ring has a circumference of 30.3 m, two 90 degree and four 45 degree bending magnet sections, two long straight sections and four short straight sections. The radius of the bending magnet is 2.224m. The critical wave length is 24A. The injector is a 15 Mev Microtron Electrons are accelerated from 15 Mev to 800 Mev by ramping the field of the ring. The expected stored current will be around 100 ma

  20. The synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevallier, P.

    1994-01-01

    Synchrotron Radiation is a fantastic source of electromagnetic radiation the energy spectrum of which spreads continuously from the far infrared to hard X-rays. For this reason a wide part of the scientific community, fundamentalists as well as industry, is concerned by its use. We shall describe here the main properties of this light source and give two examples of application in the field of characterization of materials: EXAFS (Extended X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure) and X-ray fluorescence. (author). 8 figs., 21 refs

  1. Synchrotron radiation and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nenner, I.; Dexpert, H.; Bessiere, M.

    1989-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation gives a very large wavelength spectra from infrared to X-rays. The continuous spectra in the far ultraviolet and X rays and also the brightness of the source enlarge the studies of structural and electronic properties of matter. In a brief review of main applications, the paper presents more particularly absorption, diffusion and diffraction phenomena. Examples taken in inorganic chemistry and condensed matter physics show the power of X-ray aborption spectroscopy and electron spectroscopy methods (angular analysis of photoelectrons and mass spectroscopy) for the study of surfaces and solids. 51 refs [fr

  2. Synchrotron Moessbauer reflectometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagy, D.L.; Bottyan, L.; Deak, L.; Szilagyi, E. [KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics (Hungary); Spiering, H. [Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie (Germany); Dekoster, J.; Langouche, G. [K.U. Leuven, Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica (Belgium)

    2000-07-15

    Grazing incidence nuclear resonant scattering of synchrotron radiation can be applied to perform depth-selective phase analysis and to determine the isotopic and magnetic structure of thin films and multilayers. Principles and recent experiments of this new kind of reflectometry are briefly reviewed. Methodological aspects are discussed. Model calculations demonstrate how the orientations of the sublattice magnetisation in ferro- and antiferromagnetic multilayers affect time-integral and time-differential spectra. Experimental examples show the efficiency of the method in investigating finite-stacking, in-plane and out-of-plane anisotropy and spin-flop effects in magnetic multilayers.

  3. Recent Research and Progress in Food, Feed and Nutrition with Advanced Synchrotron-based SR-IMS and DRIFT Molecular Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Na; Yu, Peiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Ultraspatially resolved synchrotron radiation based infrared microspectroscopy is able to detect the structure features of a food or feed tissue at cellular and molecular levels. However, to date, this advanced synchrotron-based technique is almost unknown to food and feed scientists. The objective of this article was to introduce this novel analytical technology, ultra-spatially resolved synchrotron radiation based infrared microspectroscopy (SR-IMS) to food, feed, conventional nutrition, and molecular nutrition scientists. The emphasis of this review focused on the following areas: (1) Principles of molecular spectroscopy for food and feed structure research, such as protein molecular structure, carbohydrate conformation, heating induced protein structure changes, and effect of gene-transformation on food and feed structure; (2) Molecular spectral analysis methodology; (3) Biological applications of synchrotron SR-IMS and DRIFT spectroscopy; and (4) Recent progress in food, feed and nutrition research program. The information described in this article gives better insight in food structure research progress and update.

  4. Experience with synchrotron radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krinsky, S.

    1987-01-01

    The development of synchrotron radiation sources is discussed, emphasizing characteristics important for x-ray microscopy. Bending magnets, wigglers and undulators are considered as sources of radiation. Operating experience at the national Synchrotron Light Source on the VUV and XRAY storage rings is reviewed, with particular consideration given to achieved current and lifetime, transverse bunch dimensions, and orbit stability. 6 refs., 3 figs

  5. Synchrotron Elettra. Status and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remec, I.

    1992-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation and the possibilities for its applications are shortly presented. Elettra, the third generation synchrotron, now under construction in Trieste, Italy, is briefly described and its main characteristics are given. Current activities in Slovenia, related to Elettra, are presented. (author) [sl

  6. X-ray Micro-Tomography of Ablative Heat Shield Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panerai, Francesco; Ferguson, Joseph; Borner, Arnaud; Mansour, Nagi N.; Barnard, Harold S.; MacDowell, Alastair A.; Parkinson, Dilworth Y.

    2016-01-01

    X-ray micro-tomography is a non-destructive characterization technique that allows imaging of materials structures with voxel sizes in the micrometer range. This level of resolution makes the technique very attractive for imaging porous ablators used in hypersonic entry systems. Besides providing a high fidelity description of the material architecture, micro-tomography enables computations of bulk material properties and simulations of micro-scale phenomena. This presentation provides an overview of a collaborative effort between NASA Ames Research Center and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, aimed at developing micro-tomography experiments and simulations for porous ablative materials. Measurements are carried using x-rays from the Advanced Light Source at Berkeley Lab on different classes of ablative materials used in NASA entry systems. Challenges, strengths and limitations of the technique for imaging materials such as lightweight carbon-phenolic systems and woven textiles are discussed. Computational tools developed to perform numerical simulations based on micro-tomography are described. These enable computations of material properties such as permeability, thermal and radiative conductivity, tortuosity and other parameters that are used in ablator response models. Finally, we present the design of environmental cells that enable imaging materials under simulated operational conditions, such as high temperature, mechanical loads and oxidizing atmospheres.Keywords: Micro-tomography, Porous media, Ablation

  7. Use of synchrotron tomography to image naturalistic anatomy in insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socha, John J.; De Carlo, Francesco

    2008-08-01

    Understanding the morphology of anatomical structures is a cornerstone of biology. For small animals, classical methods such as histology have provided a wealth of data, but such techniques can be problematic due to destruction of the sample. More importantly, fixation and physical slicing can cause deformation of anatomy, a critical limitation when precise three-dimensional data are required. Modern techniques such as confocal microscopy, MRI, and tabletop x-ray microCT provide effective non-invasive methods, but each of these tools each has limitations including sample size constraints, resolution limits, and difficulty visualizing soft tissue. Our research group at the Advanced Photon Source (Argonne National Laboratory) studies physiological processes in insects, focusing on the dynamics of breathing and feeding. To determine the size, shape, and relative location of internal anatomy in insects, we use synchrotron microtomography at the beamline 2-BM to image structures including tracheal tubes, muscles, and gut. Because obtaining naturalistic, undeformed anatomical information is a key component of our studies, we have developed methods to image fresh and non-fixed whole animals and tissues. Although motion artifacts remain a problem, we have successfully imaged multiple species including beetles, ants, fruit flies, and butterflies. Here we discuss advances in biological imaging and highlight key findings in insect morphology.

  8. X-Ray microtomography analysis of the impact of pCO2 on serpentinization reactions: A reactive percolation experimental approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escario, Sofia; Godard, Marguerite; Gouze, Philippe; Smal, Pavel; Rodriguez, Olivier; Leprovost, Richard

    2017-04-01

    Serpentinization is the main hydrothermal process driving the alteration of the mantle lithosphere by seawater at ridges. It consists in the alteration of olivine to serpentine and is associated to processes such as oxidation as well as carbonation when CO2 is present. The sustainability and efficiency of the reaction requires penetration and renewal of fluids at the mineral-fluid interface. Yet the secondary low density minerals can fill the porous network, clogging flow paths efficiently. This study aims at better understanding the coupled hydrodynamic and chemical processes driving the earliest stages of alteration of the ultramafic basement, when seawater-derived hydrothermal fluids penetrate and interact with exposed mantle rocks at slow spreading ridges. We investigate the structural changes of the rock in relation to dissolution-precipitation reactions triggered by the injection CO2-rich seawater using an experimental approach. The experiments simulate open conditions and were performed using the reactive percolation bench ICARE Lab 3 - Géosciences Montpellier. ICARE 3 allows to continuously measuring permeability changes during experiments and sampling the outlet fluids passing through the sample. We analysed the reacted samples before and after the experiments using a combination of geochemical (TGA-MS) and high resolution X-Ray microtomography (ESRF ID19 synchrotron beamline, Grenoble) approaches. A series of experiments was carried out at 190°C and 25 MPa. CO2 enriched natural seawater (XCO2 5.24 mmol/kg) was injected into Titanium capsules (2 mm diameter, 6 mm length) filled by pressed powdered San Carlos olivine (Fo90; grains 150-200 µm). The outlet section of the samples were analysed at 0.65 µm resolution using microtomography before and after the experiments. The reacted powdered sample was analysed by TGA-MS. Comparison of microtomography images of reacted and unreacted samples shows evidences of olivine dissolution and secondary minerals

  9. Three dimensional computerized microtomography in the analysis of sculpture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badde, Aurelia; Illerhaus, Bernhard

    2008-01-01

    The Alte Nationalgalerie, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin (SMB) and the Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM) tested the accomplishment of the three dimensional computerized microtomography (3D-microCT)-a new flat panel detector computerized tomography (CT) system at the BAM with extended energy range, with high voltage X-ray tubes (330 and 225 kV), with micrometer focal spot size and micrometer resolution and enlarged object size (up to 70 cm diameter)-for examining plaster statues. The high spatial and density resolution of the tomograph enable detailed insights into the individual work processes of the investigated cast plaster statues. While initiated in support of the conservation process, computed tomography (CT) analysis has assisted in revealing relative chronologies within the series of the cast works of art, thus serving as a valuable tool in the art-historical appraisal of the oeuvres. The image-processing systems visualize the voids and cracks within and the cuts through the original cast works. Internal structures, armoring, sculptural reworking as well as restorative interventions are virtually reconstructed. The authors are currently employing the 3D-microCT systems at the BAM into the detection of defects in Carrara marble sculpture. Microcracks, fractures, and material flaws are visualized at spatial resolution down to 10 microm. Computerized reconstruction of ultrasound tomography is verified by analyzing correlations in the results obtained from the complementary application of these two non-destructive testing (NDT) methods of diagnosis.

  10. High-contrast x-ray microtomography in dental research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Graham; Mills, David

    2017-09-01

    X-ray microtomography (XMT) is a well-established technique in dental research. The technique has been used extensively to explore the complex morphology of the root canal system, and to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate root canal instrumentation and filling efficacy in extracted teeth; enabling different techniques to be compared. Densitometric information can be used to identify and map demineralized tissue resulting from tooth decay (caries) and, in extracted teeth, the method can be used to evaluate different methods of excavation. More recently, high contrast XMT is being used to investigate the relationship between external insults to teeth and the pulpal reaction. When such insults occur, fluid may flow through dentinal tubules as a result of cracking or porosity in enamel. Over time, there is an increase in mineralization along the paths of the tubules from the pulp to the damaged region in enamel and this can be visualized using high contrast XMT. The scanner used for this employs time-delay integration to minimize the effects of detector inhomogeneity in order to greatly increase the upper limit on signal-to-noise ratio that can be achieved with long exposure times. When enamel cracks are present in extracted teeth, the presence of these pathways indicates that the cracking occurred prior to extraction. At high contrast, growth lines are occasionally seen in deciduous teeth which may have resulted from periods of maternal illness. Various other anomalies in mineralization resulting from trauma or genetic abnormalities can also be investigated using this technique.

  11. Characterization of metal additive manufacturing surfaces using synchrotron X-ray CT and micromechanical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantzos, C. A.; Cunningham, R. W.; Tari, V.; Rollett, A. D.

    2017-12-01

    Characterizing complex surface topologies is necessary to understand stress concentrations created by rough surfaces, particularly those made via laser power-bed additive manufacturing (AM). Synchrotron-based X-ray microtomography (μ XCT ) of AM surfaces was shown to provide high resolution detail of surface features and near-surface porosity. Using the CT reconstructions to instantiate a micromechanical model indicated that surface notches and near-surface porosity both act as stress concentrators, while adhered powder carried little to no load. Differences in powder size distribution had no direct effect on the relevant surface features, nor on stress concentrations. Conventional measurements of surface roughness, which are highly influenced by adhered powder, are therefore unlikely to contain the information relevant to damage accumulation and crack initiation.

  12. Application of high resolution synchrotron micro-CT radiation in dental implant osseointegration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neldam, Camilla Albeck; Lauridsen, Torsten; Rack, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe a refined method using high-resolution synchrotron radiation microtomography (SRmicro-CT) to evaluate osseointegration and peri-implant bone volume fraction after titanium dental implant insertion. SRmicro-CT is considered gold standard evaluating bone...... microarchitecture. Its high resolution, high contrast, and excellent high signal-to-noise-ratio all contribute to the highest spatial resolutions achievable today. Using SRmicro-CT at a voxel size of 5 μm in an experimental goat mandible model, the peri-implant bone volume fraction was found to quickly increase...... to 50% as the radial distance from the implant surface increased, and levelled out to approximately 80% at a distance of 400 μm. This method has been successful in depicting the bone and cavities in three dimensions thereby enabling us to give a more precise answer to the fraction of the bone-to-implant...

  13. Proton synchrotron accelerator theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, E.J.N.

    1977-01-01

    This is the text of a series of lectures given as part of the CERN Academic Training Programme and primarily intended for young engineers and technicians in preparation for the running-in of the 400 GeV Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS). Following the definition of basic quantities, the problems of betatron motion and the effect of momentum spread and orbital errors on the transverse motion of the beam are reviewed. Consideration is then given to multipole fields, chromaticity and non-linear resonances. After dealing with basic relations governing longitudinal beam dynamics, the space-charge, resistive-wall and other collective effects are treated, with reference to precautions in the SPS to prevent their occurrence. (Auth.)

  14. Testing of x-ray microtomography systems using a traceable geometrical standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmignato, S; Dreossi, D; Mancini, L; Tromba, G; Marinello, F; Savio, E

    2009-01-01

    X-ray computed microtomography is an interesting imaging technique for many applications, and is also very promising in the field of coordinate metrology at the micro scale. The main advantage with respect to traditional tactile-probing or optical coordinate measurement systems is that x-ray tomography can acquire dimensional and geometrical data for both inner and outer surfaces, without accessibility restrictions. However, there are no accepted test procedures available so far and measurement uncertainty is unknown in many cases, due to complex and numerous error sources. The paper presents the first results of a test procedure implemented for determining the errors of indication for length measurements of x-ray microtomography systems, using a new reference standard featuring a regular array of inner and outer cylindrical shapes. The developed test method allows the determination of specific characteristics of x-ray microtomography systems and can be used for the correction of systematic errors

  15. Application of X-ray computed microtomography to soil craters formed by raindrop splash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beczek, Michał; Ryżak, Magdalena; Lamorski, Krzysztof; Sochan, Agata; Mazur, Rafał; Bieganowski, Andrzej

    2018-02-01

    The creation of craters on the soil surface is part of splash erosion. Due to the small size of these craters, they are difficult to study. The main aim of this paper was to test X-ray computed microtomography to investigate craters formed by raindrop impacts. Measurements were made on soil samples moistened to three different levels corresponding with soil water potentials of 0.1, 3.16 and 16 kPa. Using images obtained by X-ray microtomography, geometric parameters of the craters were recorded and analysed. X-ray computed microtomography proved to be a useful and efficient tool for the investigation of craters formed on the soil surface after the impact of water drops. The parameters of the craters changed with the energy of the water drops and were dependent on the initial moisture content of the soil. Crater depth is more dependent on the increased energy of the water drop than crater diameter.

  16. The European Synchrotron Radiation Facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buras, B.; Materlik, G.

    1986-01-01

    In recent years, X-ray synchrotron radiation became a powerful tool for studies of condensed matter, and in view of that a proposal for the construction of a European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) was elaborated in some detail by the European Synchrotron Radiation Project. The heart...... by a great flexibility and a small emittance (7×10−9 rad m) leading to a very high brilliance (1019 photons/(s mm2 mrad2) in a relative bandwidth of 0.1% in case of a 1 Å undulator). The overview, as seen from the users point of view, gives a brief account of the storage ring, emitted radiation...

  17. Synchrotron infrared spectromicroscopy as a novel bioanalytical microprobe for individual living cells: Cytotoxicity considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holman, Hoi-Ying N.; Bjornstad, Kathleen A.; McNamara, Morgan P.; Martin, Michael C.; McKinney, Wayne R.; Blakely, Eleanor A.

    2001-12-12

    Synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infrared (SR-FTIR) spectromicroscopy is a newly emerging analytical tool capable of monitoring the biochemistry within an individual living mammalian cell in real time. This unique technique provides infrared (IR)spectra, hence chemical information, with high signal-to-noise at spatial resolutions as fine as 3 to 10 microns. Mid-IR photons are too low in energy (0.05-0.5 eV) to either break bonds or to cause ionization, and the synchrotron IR beam has been shown to produce minimal sample heating. However, an important question remains, ''Does the intense synchrotron beam induce any cytotoxic effects in living cells?'' In this work, we present the results from a series of standard biological assays to evaluate any short-and/or long-term effects on cells exposed to the synchrotron radiation-based infrared (SR-IR) beam. Cell viability was tested using alcian blue dye-exclusion and colony formation assays. Cell-cycle progression was tested with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) uptake during DNA synthesis. Cell metabolism was tested using an 3-[4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. All control, 5-, 10-, and 20-minute SR-IR exposure tests (267 total and over 1000 controls) show no evidence of cytotoxic effects. Concurrent infrared spectra obtained with each experiment confirm no detectable chemistry changes between control and exposed cells.

  18. Sesame Synchrotron Light for Experimental Sciences and Application in the Middle East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Khalafawy, T.A.

    2003-01-01

    Anew international center for synchrotron radiation for research excellence for scientists from throughout the Middle East as well as other parts of the world could do for science what CERN has done for science in Europe. SESAME Project (Synchrotron Light for Experimental Sciences and Application in the Middle East ) under the umbrella for UNESCO establish the first major international research center as a cooperative venture by the scientists and governments of the Middle East, opened to all qualified scientists. It will be propeller for the regional economy while promoting the peaceful development of science and technology in the Middle East. SESAME will have as its centerpiece a synchrotron radiation based on a gift from Germany of the 0.8 GeV BESSYI storage ring and injector system which stopped operation at the end of November 1999

  19. A proposal of microtomography evaluation for restoration interface gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Meleo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, several adhesive systems are used in dental restoration and they’re evaluated by clinical research. In vitro evaluations are often made by means of traditional observation techniques (for example scanning electron microscope (SEM, while 3D cone-beam microtomography technique (3D micro-CT, that can be able to generate 3D sample images without any sample treatment during acquisition data, is going to be used a lot in the next few years. In dental cavity restored with composite, it is possible to predict the presence of gaps due to polymerization shrinkage; that is the reason this work purpose is to reveal by 3D images and measure by micro-CT analysis the voids generated applying the most used adhesive systems at the moment. By means of microtomographic analysis is proposed an aid to overcome bidimensional SEM investigation limits like random observation of sample surface, sample sectioning (to see inside it with the relative possible structural alterations induced on the same sample and the gold sputtering treatment. For this experimental work, human crown teeth have been selected, all restored with the same composite material, using five adhesive systems. After about 48 hours each tooth has been acquired by means of Skyscan 1072 micro-CT instrument and then processed by 3D reconstruction and micro-CT analyser software. Three adhesive systems have showed 3D micro-CT images with not as much voids as expected, with a very little extent. This kind of micro-CT in vitro evaluation proposal suggests a method to observe and quantify the voids generated after polymerization shrinkage during tooth restoration.

  20. A proposal of microtomography evaluation for restoration interface gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meleo, Deborah; Manzon, Licia; Pecci, Raffaella; Zuppante, Francesca; Bedini, Rossella

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, several adhesive systems are used in dental restoration and they are evaluated by clinical research. In vitro evaluations are often made by means of traditional observation techniques (for example scanning electron microscope (SEM), while 3D cone-beam microtomography technique (3D micro-CT), that can be able to generate 3D sample images without any sample treatment during acquisition data, is going to be used a lot in the next few years. In dental cavity restored with composite, it is possible to predict the presence of gaps due to polymerization shrinkage; that is the reason this work purpose is to reveal by 3D images and measure by micro-CT analysis the voids generated applying the most used adhesive systems at the moment. By means of microtomographic analysis is proposed an aid to overcome bidimensional SEM investigation limits like random observation of sample surface, sample sectioning (to see inside it with the relative possible structural alterations induced on the same sample) and the gold sputtering treatment. For this experimental work, human crown teeth have been selected, all restored with the same composite material, using five adhesive systems. After about 48 hours each tooth has been acquired by means of Skyscan 1072 micro-CT instrument and then processed by 3D reconstruction and micro-CT analyser software. Three adhesive systems have showed 3D micro-CT images with not as much voids as expected, with a very little extent. This kind of micro-CT in vitro evaluation proposal suggests a method to observe and quantify the voids generated after polymerization shrinkage during tooth restoration.

  1. Proceedings of the workshop on high resolution computed microtomography (CMT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    The purpose of the workshop was to determine the status of the field, to define instrumental and computational requirements, and to establish minimum specifications required by possible users. The most important message sent by implementers was the remainder that CMT is a tool. It solves a wide spectrum of scientific problems and is complementary to other microscopy techniques, with certain important advantages that the other methods do not have. High-resolution CMT can be used non-invasively and non-destructively to study a variety of hierarchical three-dimensional microstructures, which in turn control body function. X-ray computed microtomography can also be used at the frontiers of physics, in the study of granular systems, for example. With high-resolution CMT, for example, three-dimensional pore geometries and topologies of soils and rocks can be obtained readily and implemented directly in transport models. In turn, these geometries can be used to calculate fundamental physical properties, such as permeability and electrical conductivity, from first principles. Clearly, use of the high-resolution CMT technique will contribute tremendously to the advancement of current R and D technologies in the production, transport, storage, and utilization of oil and natural gas. It can also be applied to problems related to environmental pollution, particularly to spilling and seepage of hazardous chemicals into the Earth's subsurface. Applications to energy and environmental problems will be far-ranging and may soon extend to disciplines such as materials science--where the method can be used in the manufacture of porous ceramics, filament-resin composites, and microelectronics components--and to biomedicine, where it could be used to design biocompatible materials such as artificial bones, contact lenses, or medication-releasing implants. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  2. Inverse comptonization vs. thermal synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenimore, E.E.; Klebesadel, R.W.; Laros, J.G.

    1983-01-01

    There are currently two radiation mechanisms being considered for gamma-ray bursts: thermal synchrotron and inverse comptonization. They are mutually exclusive since thermal synchrotron requires a magnetic field of approx. 10 12 Gauss whereas inverse comptonization cannot produce a monotonic spectrum if the field is larger than 10 11 and is too inefficient relative to thermal synchrotron unless the field is less than 10 9 Gauss. Neither mechanism can explain completely the observed characteristics of gamma-ray bursts. However, we conclude that thermal synchrotron is more consistent with the observations if the sources are approx. 40 kpc away whereas inverse comptonization is more consistent if they are approx. 300 pc away. Unfortunately, the source distance is still not known and, thus, the radiation mechanism is still uncertain

  3. Regions compete for French synchrotron

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Ten regions in France have placed bids to host the planned national synchrotron Soleil. Leading contenders include a joint bid from Ile-de-France and Essonne for Orsay, offering FF 1 billion towards the construction costs (2 paragraphs).

  4. Proton synchrotrons for cancer therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Coutrakon, G

    2000-01-01

    Synchrotrons offer several advantages over linear accelerators and cyclotrons for cancer treatment. Their compact size, low radiation shielding requirements, and ease of energy control make them ideally suited to this application. In this paper, we examine the requirements for therapy machines and compare the capabilities of linear accelerators, cyclotrons, and synchrotrons, which are currently being used, or are in development, for cancer treatment. At Loma Linda University Medical Center, a 250-MeV proton synchrotron has been in use to treat more than five thousand patients in the last 10 yr. The capabilities of this accelerator will be presented as well as some of the new synchrotrons which are being built or designed for future therapy applications. (0 refs).

  5. Synchrotron light source data book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, J.

    1989-01-01

    The ''Synchrotron Light Source Data Book'' is as its name implies a collection of data on existing and planned synchrotron light sources. The intention was to provide a compendium of tools for the design of electron storage rings as synchrotron radiation sources. The slant is toward the accelerator physicist as other booklets such as the X-ray Data Booklet, edited by D. Vaughan (LBL PUB-490), address the 'use' of synchrotron radiation. It is hoped that the booklet serves as a pocket sized reference to facilitate back of the envelope type calculations. It contains some useful formulae in 'practical units' and a brief description of many of the existing and planned light source lattices

  6. Reshuffle lifts French synchrotron hopes

    CERN Multimedia

    McCabe, H

    2000-01-01

    The sacking of Claude Allegre as research minister has raised doubts over the level of France's promised participation in the construction of Diamond but reawakened French hopes that the synchrotron Soleil may now be built (1 page).

  7. Development of real-time x-ray microtomography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, H; Morikawa, M; Konishi, S; Azuma, H; Shimomura, S; Tsusaka, Y; Kagoshima, Y; Nakano, S; Kosaka, N; Yamamoto, K

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a four-dimensional (4D) x-ray microcomputed tomography (CT) system that can obtain time-lapse CT volumes in real time. The system consists of a high-speed sample rotation system and a high-frame-rate x-ray imager, which are installed at a synchrotron radiation x-ray beamline. As a result of system optimization and introduction of a 'zoom resolution' procedure, a real-time 4D CT movie with a frame rate of 30 was obtained with a voxel size of 2.5 μm using 10 keV x-rays

  8. X-ray cone beam microtomography for quantitative assessment of tracheal and pharyngeal volumes of Rhodnius prolixus; Utilizacao da microtomografia computadorizada com feixe de raios-X conico para a determinacao quantitativa do volume da traqueia e faringe do Rhodnius prolixus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Izabella Soares de

    2017-07-01

    In the past decade microcomputerized tomography imaging using synchrotron radiation has become a powerful technique to generate high resolution images of Rhodinus prolixus. Images of soft tissues (protocerebrum and muscles) and dense structures (pharynx, trachea and esophagus) of R. prolixus head have been obtained using synchrotron radiation microtomography in mono and polychromatic configuration, respectively. Advancements in conventional microtomography have increased the achievable resolution and contrast, making this relatively inexpensive and widely available technology potentially useful for studies of insect internal morphology. The main goal of this work was to provide a new set of high quality microtomographic images of R. prolixus achieved by means of a desktop X-ray microtomograph. It allows the three-dimensional visualization of important chitinized structures: pharynx and tracheae. Pharyngeal and tracheal volumes were quantitatively evaluated at different days (1, 4, 10, 15 and 20) after feeding. The results suggest that variation of average volumes could be attributed to insect hormone 20-hydroxy-ecdysone (20-OH-Ec) pulse at 11 days after feeding. Pharyngeal volumes decrease 3.80 times. On the other hand, tracheal volumes increase 1.78 times. Head total volume showed similar trends than trachea. (author)

  9. Spin echo in synchrotrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander W. Chao

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available As a polarized beam is accelerated through a depolarization resonance, its polarization is reduced by a well-defined calculable reduction factor. When the beam subsequently crosses a second resonance, the final beam polarization is considered to be reduced by the product of the two reduction factors corresponding to the two crossings, each calculated independently of the other. This is a good approximation when the spread of spin precession frequency Δν_{spin} of the beam (particularly due to its energy spread is sufficiently large that the spin precession phases of individual particles smear out completely during the time τ between the two crossings. This approximate picture, however, ignores two spin dynamics effects: an interference-overlap effect and a spin echo effect. This paper is to address these two effects. The interference-overlap effect occurs when Δν_{spin} is too small, or when τ is too short, to complete the smearing process. In this case, the two resonance crossings overlap each other, and the final polarization exhibits constructive or destructive interference patterns depending on the exact value of τ. Typically, the beam’s energy spread is large and this interference-overlap effect does not occur. To study this effect, therefore, it is necessary to reduce the beam energy spread and to consider two resonance crossings very close to each other. The other mechanism, also due to the interplay between two resonance crossings, is spin echo. It turns out that even when the precession phases appear to be completely smeared between the two crossings, there will still be a sudden and short-lived echo signal of beam polarization at a time τ after the second crossing; the magnitude of which can be as large as 57%. This echo signal exists even when the beam has a sizable energy spread and when τ is very large, and could be a sensitive (albeit challenging way to experimentally test the intricate spin dynamics in a synchrotron

  10. Contact microscopy with synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panessa-Warren, B.J.

    1985-10-01

    Soft x-ray contact microscopy with synchrotron radiation offers the biologist and especially the microscopist, a way to morphologically study specimens that could not be imaged by conventional TEM, STEM or SEM methods (i.e. hydrated samples, samples easily damaged by an electron beam, electron dense samples, thick specimens, unstained low contrast specimens) at spatial resolutions approaching those of the TEM, with the additional possibility to obtain compositional (elemental) information about the sample as well. Although flash x-ray sources offer faster exposure times, synchrotron radiation provides a highly collimated, intense radiation that can be tuned to select specific discrete ranges of x-ray wavelengths or specific individual wavelengths which optimize imaging or microanalysis of a specific sample. This paper presents an overview of the applications of x-ray contact microscopy to biological research and some current research results using monochromatic synchrotron radiation to image biological samples. 24 refs., 10 figs.

  11. Using Synchrotron X-ray Fluorescence Microprobes in the Study of Metal Homeostasis in Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punshon, T.; Guerinot, M.; Lanzirotti, A.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims: This Botanical Briefing reviews the application of synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) microprobes to the plant sciences; how the technique has expanded our knowledge of metal(loid) homeostasis, and how it can be used in the future. Scope: The use of SXRF microspectroscopy and microtomography in research on metal homeostasis in plants is reviewed. The potential use of SXRF as part of the ionomics toolbox, where it is able to provide fundamental information on the way that plants control metal homeostasis, is recommended. Conclusions: SXRF is one of the few techniques capable of providing spatially resolved in-vivo metal abundance data on a sub-micrometre scale, without the need for chemical fixation, coating, drying or even sectioning of samples. This gives researchers the ability to uncover mechanisms of plant metal homeostasis that can potentially be obscured by the artefacts of sample preparation. Further, new generation synchrotrons with smaller beam sizes and more sensitive detection systems will allow for the imaging of metal distribution within single living plant cells. Even greater advances in our understanding of metal homeostasis in plants can be gained by overcoming some of the practical boundaries that exist in the use of SXRF analysis.

  12. Synchrotron imaging and Markov Chain Monte Carlo reveal tooth mineralization patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R Green

    Full Text Available The progressive character of tooth formation records aspects of mammalian life history, diet, seasonal behavior and climate. Tooth mineralization occurs in two stages: secretion and maturation, which overlap to some degree. Despite decades of study, the spatial and temporal pattern of elemental incorporation during enamel mineralization remains poorly characterized. Here we use synchrotron X-ray microtomography and Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling to estimate mineralization patterns from an ontogenetic series of sheep molars (n = 45 M1s, 18 M2s. We adopt a Bayesian approach that posits a general pattern of maturation estimated from individual- and population-level mineral density variation over time. This approach converts static images of mineral density into a dynamic model of mineralization, and demonstrates that enamel secretion and maturation waves advance at nonlinear rates with distinct geometries. While enamel secretion is ordered, maturation geometry varies within a population and appears to be driven by diffusive processes. Our model yields concrete expectations for the integration of physiological and environmental signals, which is of particular significance for paleoseasonality research. This study also provides an avenue for characterizing mineralization patterns in other taxa. Our synchrotron imaging data and model are available for application to multiple disciplines, including health, material science, and paleontological research.

  13. Synchrotron radiation and structural proteomics

    CERN Document Server

    Pechkova, Eugenia

    2011-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the current state of research in both synchrotron radiation and structural proteomics from different laboratories worldwide. The book presents recent research results in the most advanced methods of synchrotron radiation analysis, protein micro- and nano crystallography, X-ray scattering and X-ray optics, coherent X-Ray diffraction, and laser cutting and contactless sample manipulation are described in details. The book focuses on biological applications and highlights important aspects such as radiation damage and molecular modeling.

  14. X-ray fluorescence with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raman, S.; Sparks, C.J. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental set-up for x-ray fluorescence analysis with synchrotron radiation was built and installed at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Project. X-ray spectra were taken from numerous and varied samples in order to assess the potential of synchrotron radiation as an excitation source for multielement x-ray fluorescence analysis. For many applications, the synchrotron radiation technique is shown to be superior to other x-ray fluorescence methods, especially those employing electrons and protons as excitation sources

  15. DESY: Synchrotron and storage rings

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    An improvement programme has been under way for several years at the 7.5 GeV électron synchrotron at DESY. In particular it has been designed to increase the accelerated beam intensity, to achieve better quality of the ejected électron beams and photon beams and to improve machine reliability.

  16. Biological physics and synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filhol, J.M.; Chavanne, J. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 38 - Grenoble (France); Weckert, E. [Hasylab at Desy, Hamburg (Germany)] [and others

    2001-07-01

    This conference deals with the applications of synchrotron radiation to current problems in biology and medicine. Seven sessions take stock on the subject: sources and detectors; inelastic scattering and dynamics; muscle diffraction; reaction mechanisms; macromolecular assemblies; medical applications; imaging and spectroscopy. The document presents the papers abstracts. (A.L.B.)

  17. The Australian synchrotron research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, R.F.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The Australian Synchrotron Research Program (ASRP) was established in 1996 under a 5 year grant from the Australian Government, and is managed by ANSTO on behalf of a consortium of Australian universities and research organisations. It has taken over the operation of the Australian National Beamline Facility (ANBF) at the Photon Factory, and has joined two CATS at the Advanced Photon Source: the Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation CAT (SRI-CAT) and the Consortium for Advanced Radiation Sources (CARS). The ASRP thus manages a comprehensive range of synchrotron radiation research facilities for Australian science. The ANBF is a general purpose hard X-ray beamline which has been in operation at the Photon Factory since 1993. It currently caters for about 35 Australian research teams per year. The facilities available at the ANBF will be presented and the research program will be summarised. The ASRP facilities at the APS comprise the 5 sectors operated by SRI-CAT, BioCARS and ChemMatCARS. A brief description will be given of the ASRP research programs at the APS, which will considerably broaden the scope of Australian synchrotron science

  18. Optical systems for synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howells, M.R.

    1985-12-01

    Various fundamental topics which underlie the design and use of optical systems for synchrotron radiation are considered from the viewpoint of linear system theory. These topics include the damped harmonic oscillator, free space propagation of an optical field, electromagnetic theory of optical properties of materials, theory of dispersion, and the Kramers-Kronig relations. 32 refs., 5 figs

  19. Biological physics and synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filhol, J.M.; Chavanne, J.; Weckert, E.

    2001-01-01

    This conference deals with the applications of synchrotron radiation to current problems in biology and medicine. Seven sessions take stock on the subject: sources and detectors; inelastic scattering and dynamics; muscle diffraction; reaction mechanisms; macromolecular assemblies; medical applications; imaging and spectroscopy. The document presents the papers abstracts. (A.L.B.)

  20. Relaxation experiments with synchrotron radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leupold, O; Bernhard, A; Gerdau, E; Jaschke, J; Ruter, HD; Shvydko, Y; Alp, EE; Hession, P; Hu, M; Sturhahn, W; Sutter, J; Toellner, T; Chumakov, AI; Metge, J; Ruffer, R

    1998-01-01

    Relaxation phenomena show up in standard energy domain Mossbauer spectra via line broadening. The evaluation of such spectra is in most cases done by adopting the stochastic theory mainly developed in the 60s and 70s. Due to the time structure and the polarization of the synchrotron radiation

  1. Tandems as injectors for synchrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, A.G.

    1993-01-01

    This is a review on the use of tandem electrostatic accelerators for injection and fitting of synchrotrons to accelerate intense beams of heavy ions to relativistic energies. The paper emphasizes the need of operating the tandems in pulsed mode for this application. It has been experimentally demonstrated that at present this type of accelerator still provides the most reliable and best performance. (orig.)

  2. Synchrotron radiation and biomedical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luccio, A.

    1986-08-01

    In this lecture we describe the characteristics of Synchrotron radiation as a source of X rays. We discuss the properties of SR arc sources, wigglers, undulators and the use of backscattering of laser light. Applications to angiography, X ray microscopy and tomography are reviewed. 16 refs., 23 figs

  3. Identification of the Carbonation Zone in Concrete using X-Ray Microtomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łydżba Dariusz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an application of X-ray microtomography for identification of the carbonation zone in concrete material. A concrete specimen subjected earlier to harsh environmental conditions is investigated. The material is firstly checked with the use of chemical corrosion indicators and then is subjected to microstructural analysis performed with the use of X-ray microtomography. Two different settings of scanning parameters are applied implying the image resolutions of approximately 14 μm per 1 pixel and about 7 μm per 1 pixel, respectively. The results obtained are then compared and analyzed. The depth of the carbonation zone is evaluated based on the attenuation curve. The paper highlights also the significance of the corrosion phenomenon in concrete structures. Details of the deterioration mechanisms in concrete are shortly presented.

  4. Proceedings of the workshop on applications of synchrotron radiation to trace impurity analysis for advanced silicon processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laderman, S [Integrated Circuits Business Div., Hewlett Packard Co., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Pianetta, P [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1993-03-01

    Wafer surface trace impurity analysis is essential for development of competitive Si circuit technologies. Today's grazing incidence x-ray fluorescence techniques with rotating anodes fall short of requirements for the future. Hewlett Packard/Toshiba experiments indicate that with second generation synchrotron sources such as SSRL, the techniques can be extended sufficiently to meet important needs of the leading edge Si circuit industry through nearly all of the 1990's. This workshop was held to identify people interested in use of synchrotron radiation-based methods and to document needs and concerns for further development. Viewgraphs are included for the following presentations: microcontamination needs in silicon technology (M. Liehr), analytical methods for wafer surface contamination (A. Schimazaki), trace impurity analysis of liquid drops using synchrotron radiation (D. Wherry), TRXRF using synchrotron sources (S. Laderman), potential role of synchrotron radiation TRXRF in Si process R D (M. Scott), potenital development of synchrotron radiation facilities (S. Brennan), and identification of goals, needs and concerns (M. Garner).

  5. ANALYSING THE SOIL STRUCTURE UNDER DIFFERENT TILLAGE SYSTEMS USING X-RAY MICROTOMOGRAPHY AND PF CURVES

    OpenAIRE

    Beekkerk van Ruth, Jöran; Degre, Aurore; Aubinet, Marc; Roisin, Christian; Léonard, Angélique; Beckers, Eléonore

    2011-01-01

    Assessing soil structure is primordial when comparing tillage systems. Whilst most conventional techniques characterize global parameters, X-ray microtomography allows a characterization of the poral space at a µm-scale. These results, combined with data from pF curves, can form a solid basis in order to quantify soil physical fertility. Soil samples were taken from the organic topsoil on two Belgian experimental sites implementing both conventional tillage (CT, ploughing) and simplified ...

  6. Strain analysis of trabecular bone using time-resolved X-ray microtomography

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jiroušek, Ondřej; Zlámal, Petr; Kytýř, Daniel; Kroupa, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 633, Suppl. 1 (2011), s. 148-151 ISSN 0168-9002. [International Workshop on Radiation Imaging Detectors /11./. Praha, 28.06.2009-02.07.2009] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP103/07/P483 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : trabecular bone * X-ray microtomography * strain analysis * intrinsic material properties Subject RIV: JB - Sensors, Measurment, Regulation Impact factor: 1.207, year: 2011

  7. Spectroscopic micro-tomography of metallic-organic composites by means of photon-counting detectors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pichotka, Martin; Jakůbek, Jan; Vavřík, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 12 (2015), C12033 ISSN 1748-0221 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1219 Keywords : micro-tomography * photon-counting detectors * metal lic-organic composites Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.310, year: 2015 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1748-0221/10/12/C12033/pdf

  8. Characterization of iron ore green pellets by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microtomography

    OpenAIRE

    Bhuiyan, Iftekhar Uddin

    2011-01-01

    Cryogenic scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM), image analysis (IA) of SEM micrographs and X-ray microtomography (XMT) were used to obtain new information about the morphology of iron ore green pellets in this work. Cryo-SEM and freeze fracturing was used to observe entrapped air bubbles and arrangement of particles around the bubbles and in the matrix of wet green pellets. The observations of samples prepared by plunge and unidirectional freezing indicate that unidirectional freezing fac...

  9. Imaging tissues for biomedical research using the high-resolution micro-tomography system nanotom® m

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyhle, Hans; Schulz, Georg; Khimchenko, Anna; Bikis, Christos; Hieber, Simone E.; Jaquiery, Claude; Kunz, Christoph; Müller-Gerbl, Magdalena; Höchel, Sebastian; Saxer, Till; Stalder, Anja K.; Ilgenstein, Bernd; Beckmann, Felix; Thalmann, Peter; Buscema, Marzia; Rohr, Nadja; Holme, Margaret N.; Müller, Bert

    2016-10-01

    Micro computed tomography (mCT) is well established in virtually all fields of biomedical research, allowing for the non-destructive volumetric visualization of tissue morphology. A variety of specimens can be investigated, ranging from soft to hard tissue to engineered structures like scaffolds. Similarly, the size of the objects of interest ranges from a fraction of a millimeter to several tens of centimeters. While synchrotron radiation-based μCT still offers unrivaled data quality, the ever-improving technology of cathodic tube-based machines offers a valuable and more accessible alternative. The Biomaterials Science Center of the University of Basel operates a nanotomOR m (phoenix|x-ray, GE Sensing and Inspection Technologies GmbH, Wunstorf, Germany), with a 180 kV source and a minimal spot size of about 0.9 μm. Through the adjustable focus-specimen and focus-detector distances, the effective pixel size can be adjusted from below 500 nm to about 80 μm. On the high-resolution side, it is for example possible to visualize the tubular network in sub-millimeter thin dentin specimens. It is then possible to locally extract parameters such as tubule diameter, density, or alignment, giving information on cell movements during tooth formation. On the other side, with a horizontal shift of the 3,072 pixels x 2,400 pixels detector, specimens up to 35 cm in diameter can be scanned. It is possible, for example, to scan an entire human knee, albeit with inferior resolution. Lab source μCT machines are thus a powerful and flexible tool for the advancement of biomedical research, and a valuable and more accessible alternative to synchrotron radiation facilities.

  10. X-ray absorption microtomography (microCT) and small beam diffraction mapping of sea urchin teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, S R; Barss, J; Dahl, T; Veis, A; Almer, J D

    2002-07-01

    Two noninvasive X-ray techniques, laboratory X-ray absorption microtomography (microCT) and X-ray diffraction mapping, were used to study teeth of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus. MicroCT revealed low attenuation regions at near the tooth's stone part and along the carinar process-central prism boundary; this latter observation appears to be novel. The expected variation of Mg fraction x in the mineral phase (calcite, Ca(1-x)Mg(x)CO(3)) cannot account for all of the linear attenuation coefficient decrease in the two zones: this suggested that soft tissue is localized there. Transmission diffraction mapping (synchrotron X-radiation, 80.8 keV, 0.1 x 0.1mm(2) beam area, 0.1mm translation grid, image plate area detector) simultaneously probed variations in 3-D and showed that the crystal elements of the "T"-shaped tooth were very highly aligned. Diffraction patterns from the keel (adaxial web) and from the abaxial flange (containing primary plates and the stone part) differed markedly. The flange contained two populations of identically oriented crystal elements with lattice parameters corresponding to x=0.13 and x=0.32. The keel produced one set of diffraction spots corresponding to the lower x. The compositions were more or less equivalent to those determined by others for camarodont teeth, and the high Mg phase is expected to be disks of secondary mineral epitaxially related to the underlying primary mineral element. Lattice parameter gradients were not noted in the keel or flange. Taken together, the microCT and diffraction results indicated that there was a band of relatively high protein content, of up to approximately 0.25 volume fraction, in the central part of the flange and paralleling its adaxial and abaxial faces. X-ray microCT and microdiffraction data used in conjunction with protein distribution data will be crucial for understanding the properties of various biocomposites and their mechanical functions.

  11. Recent research in flaxseed (oil seed) on molecular structure and metabolic characteristics of protein, heat processing-induced effect and nutrition with advanced synchrotron-based molecular techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doiron, Kevin J; Yu, Peiqiang

    2017-01-02

    Advanced synchrotron radiation-based infrared microspectroscopy is able to reveal feed and food structure feature at cellular and molecular levels and simultaneously provides composition, structure, environment, and chemistry within intact tissue. However, to date, this advanced synchrotron-based technique is still seldom known to food and feed scientists. This article aims to provide detailed background for flaxseed (oil seed) protein research and then review recent progress and development in flaxseed research in ruminant nutrition in the areas of (1) dietary inclusion of flaxseed in rations; (2) heat processing effect; (3) assessing dietary protein; (4) synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy as a tool of nutritive evaluation within cellular and subcellular dimensions; (5) recent synchrotron applications in flaxseed research on a molecular basis. The information described in this paper gives better insight in flaxseed research progress and update.

  12. A program in detector development for the US synchrotron radiation community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, A.; Mills, D.; Naday, S.; Gruner, S.; Siddons, P.; Arthur, J.; Wehlitz, R.; Padmore, H.

    2001-01-01

    There is a clear gulf between the capabilities of modern synchrotrons to deliver high photon fluxes, and the capabilities of detectors to measure the resulting photon, electron or ion signals. While a huge investment has been made in storage ring technology, there has not to date been a commensurate investment in detector systems. With appropriate detector technology, gains in data rates could be 3 to 4 orders of magnitude in some cases. The US community working in detector technology is under-funded and fragmented and works without the long term funding commitment required for development of the most advanced detector systems. It is becoming apparent that the US is falling behind its international competitors in provision of state-of-the-art detector technology for cutting edge synchrotron radiation based experiments

  13. Moessbauer spectroscopy with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, U.

    1994-01-01

    The short pulse nature of synchrotron radiation makes it possible to perform Moessbauer spectroscopy in the time domain, i.e. instead of measuring the transmitted intensity time integrated as a function of source/absorber velocity, the intensity of the scattered radiation is measured time differential. The resulting time spectrum is essentially source independent and complications in the data analysis which are related to the radioactive source are completely removed. Furthermore, the large brightness and well defined polarization of the synchrotron radiation can, e.g., speed up the data collection and facilitate studies of polarization phenomena. To illustrate these new spectroscopic possibilities, measurements of the temperature dependence and polarization dependence of forward scattering from alpha - sup 5 sup 7 Fe nuclei are presented and discussed 26 refs., 5 figs. (author)

  14. Medical applications of synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomlinson, W.

    1991-10-01

    Ever since the first diagnostic x-ray was done in the United States on February 3, 1896, the application of ionizing radiation to the field of medicine has become increasingly important. Both in clinical medicine and basic research the use of x-rays for diagnostic imaging and radiotherapy is now widespread. Radiography, angiography, CAT and PETT scanning, mammography, and nuclear medicine are all examples of technologies developed to image the human anatomy. In therapeutic applications, both external and internal sources of radiation are applied to the battle against cancer. The development of dedicated synchrotron radiation sources has allowed exciting advances to take place in many of these applications. The new sources provide tunable, high-intensity monochromatic beams over a wide range of energies which can be tailored to specific programmatic needs. This paper surveys those areas of medical research in which synchrotron radiation facilities are actively involved

  15. Synchrotron radiation in atomic physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crasemann, B.

    1998-01-01

    Much of present understanding of atomic and molecular structure and dynamics was gained through studies of photon-atom interactions. In particular, observations of the emission, absorption, and scattering of X rays have complemented particle-collision experiments in elucidating the physics of atomic inner shells. Grounded on Max von Laue's theoretical insight and the invention of the Bragg spectrometer, the field's potential underwent a step function with the development of synchrotron-radiation sources. Notably current third-generation sources have opened new horizons in atomic and molecular physics by producing radiation of wide tunability and exceedingly high intensity and polarization, narrow energy bandwidth, and sharp time structure. In this review, recent advances in synchrotron-radiation studies in atomic and molecular science are outlined. Some tempting opportunities are surveyed that arise for future studies of atomic processes, including many-body effects, aspects of fundamental photon-atom interactions, and relativistic and quantum-electrodynamic phenomena. (author)

  16. Medical Applications of Synchrotron Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomlinson, W.

    1991-10-01

    Ever since the first diagnostic x-ray was done in the United States on February 3, 1896, the application of ionizing radiation to the field of medicine has become increasingly important. Both in clinical medicine and basic research the use of x-rays for diagnostic imaging and radiotherapy is now widespread. Radiography, angiography, CAT and PETT scanning, mammography, and nuclear medicine are all examples of technologies developed to image the human anatomy. In therapeutic applications, both external and internal sources of radiation are applied to the battle against cancer. The development of dedicated synchrotron radiation sources has allowed exciting advances to take place in many of these applications. The new sources provide tunable, high-intensity monochromatic beams over a wide range of energies which can be tailored to specific programmatic needs. This paper surveys those areas of medical research in which synchrotron radiation facilities are actively involved.

  17. Australian synchrotron light source - (boomerang)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boldeman, J.

    2001-01-01

    The Australian National Synchrotron Light Source - (Boomerang) is to be installed at the Monash University in Victoria. This report provides some background to the proposed facility and discusses aspects of a prospective design. Recently, significant effort was devoted to refining the in principle design and a lattice providing an emittance od 18 nm rad was obtained with a distributed dispersion in the straight section of 0.29m. Exhaustive studies have been made of the economic benefits that would accrue to Australia to Australia following the installation of this facility. This design is a refinement of the design concept presented to the SRI -2000, Berlin (Boldeman, Einfeld et al), to the meeting of the 4th Asian Forum and the Preliminary Design Study presented to the Australian Synchrotron Research Program

  18. Detecting Structural Features in Metallic Glass via Synchrotron Radiation Experiments Combined with Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu-Qing Guo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Revealing the essential structural features of metallic glasses (MGs will enhance the understanding of glass-forming mechanisms. In this work, a feasible scheme is provided where we performed the state-of-the-art synchrotron-radiation based experiments combined with simulations to investigate the microstructures of ZrCu amorphous compositions. It is revealed that in order to stabilize the amorphous state and optimize the topological and chemical distribution, besides the icosahedral or icosahedral-like clusters, other types of clusters also participate in the formation of the microstructure in MGs. This cluster-level co-existing feature may be popular in this class of glassy materials.

  19. An ion synchrotron design program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Katsuhisa; Ishi, Yoshihiro

    1995-01-01

    Ion synchrotrons have promising applications in medical and other commercial settings as well as in physics research. Mitsubishi Electric has developed a program to facilitate efficiency studies on processes such as ion injection, radio-frequency capture and acceleration, and beam extraction. The integration method used in the particle-orbit calculations maintains the symplectic characteristic of Hamilton dynamics making it possible to simulate long-term phenomena reliably. The article introduces this program and several of its applications. (author)

  20. Synchrotron-based photoelectron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barinov, Alexei; Dudin, Pavel; Gregoratti, Luca; Locatelli, Andrea; Onur Mentes, Tevfik; Angel Nino, Miquel; Kiskinova, Maya

    2009-01-01

    The paper is a brief overview of the operation principles and the potentials of the scanning photoelectron microscopes (SPEM) and X-ray photoemission electron microscopes (XPEEM) operating at synchrotron facilities. Selected results will illustrate the impact of high spatial resolution for micro-characterization of the surface composition and electronic structure, a key issue for analysis of technologically relevant materials and for fundamental understanding of many unexplored surface phenomena.

  1. Threedimensional microfabrication using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrfeld, W.

    1990-01-01

    For fabricating microstructures with extreme structural heights a technology has been developed which is based on deep-etch lithography and subsequent replication processes. A particularly high precision is achieved if the lithographic process is carried out by means of synchrotron radiation. Electroforming and molding processes are used for the replication of microstructures from a large variety of materials. The field of application comprises sensors, electrical and optical microconnectors, components for fluid technology, microfiltration systems and novel composite materials. (author)

  2. Infrared microspectroscopy with synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, G.L.; Williams, G.P. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). National Synchrotron Light Source

    1997-09-01

    Infrared microspectroscopy with a high brightness synchrotron source can achieve a spatial resolution approaching the diffraction limit. However, in order to realize this intrinsic source brightness at the specimen location, some care must be taken in designing the optical system. Also, when operating in diffraction limited conditions, the effective spatial resolution is no longer controlled by the apertures typically used for a conventional (geometrically defined) measurement. Instead, the spatial resolution depends on the wavelength of light and the effective apertures of the microscope`s Schwarzchild objectives. The authors have modeled the optical system from the synchrotron source up to the sample location and determined the diffraction-limited spatial distribution of light. Effects due to the dependence of the synchrotron source`s numerical aperture on wavelength, as well as the difference between transmission and reflection measurement modes, are also addressed. Lastly, they examine the benefits (when using a high brightness source) of an extrinsic germanium photoconductive detector with cone optics as a replacement for the standard MCT detector.

  3. Synchrotron/crystal sample preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. Barry

    1993-01-01

    The Center for Applied Optics (CAO) of the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) prepared this final report entitled 'Synchrotron/Crystal Sample Preparation' in completion of contract NAS8-38609, Delivery Order No. 53. Hughes Danbury Optical Systems (HDOS) is manufacturing the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) mirrors. These thin-walled, grazing incidence, Wolter Type-1 mirrors, varying in diameter from 1.2 to 0.68 meters, must be ground and polished using state-of-the-art techniques in order to prevent undue stress due to damage or the presence of crystals and inclusions. The effect of crystals on the polishing and grinding process must also be understood. This involves coating special samples of Zerodur and measuring the reflectivity of the coatings in a synchrotron system. In order to gain the understanding needed on the effect of the Zerodur crystals by the grinding and polishing process, UAH prepared glass samples by cutting, grinding, etching, and polishing as required to meet specifications for witness bars for synchrotron measurements and for investigations of crystals embedded in Zerodur. UAH then characterized these samples for subsurface damage and surface roughness and figure.

  4. Plant-based food and feed protein structure changes induced by gene-transformation, heating and bio-ethanol processing: a synchrotron-based molecular structure and nutrition research program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Peiqiang

    2010-11-01

    Unlike traditional "wet" analytical methods which during processing for analysis often result in destruction or alteration of the intrinsic protein structures, advanced synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy has been developed as a rapid and nondestructive and bioanalytical technique. This cutting-edge synchrotron-based bioanalytical technology, taking advantages of synchrotron light brightness (million times brighter than sun), is capable of exploring the molecular chemistry or structure of a biological tissue without destruction inherent structures at ultra-spatial resolutions. In this article, a novel approach is introduced to show the potential of the advanced synchrotron-based analytical technology, which can be used to study plant-based food or feed protein molecular structure in relation to nutrient utilization and availability. Recent progress was reported on using synchrotron-based bioanalytical technique synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy and diffused reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy to detect the effects of gene-transformation (Application 1), autoclaving (Application 2), and bio-ethanol processing (Application 3) on plant-based food and feed protein structure changes on a molecular basis. The synchrotron-based technology provides a new approach for plant-based protein structure research at ultra-spatial resolutions at cellular and molecular levels.

  5. Discriminating electromagnetic radiation based on angle of incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamam, Rafif E.; Bermel, Peter; Celanovic, Ivan; Soljacic, Marin; Yeng, Adrian Y. X.; Ghebrebrhan, Michael; Joannopoulos, John D.

    2015-06-16

    The present invention provides systems, articles, and methods for discriminating electromagnetic radiation based upon the angle of incidence of the electromagnetic radiation. In some cases, the materials and systems described herein can be capable of inhibiting reflection of electromagnetic radiation (e.g., the materials and systems can be capable of transmitting and/or absorbing electromagnetic radiation) within a given range of angles of incidence at a first incident surface, while substantially reflecting electromagnetic radiation outside the range of angles of incidence at a second incident surface (which can be the same as or different from the first incident surface). A photonic material comprising a plurality of periodically occurring separate domains can be used, in some cases, to selectively transmit and/or selectively absorb one portion of incoming electromagnetic radiation while reflecting another portion of incoming electromagnetic radiation, based upon the angle of incidence. In some embodiments, one domain of the photonic material can include an isotropic dielectric function, while another domain of the photonic material can include an anisotropic dielectric function. In some instances, one domain of the photonic material can include an isotropic magnetic permeability, while another domain of the photonic material can include an anisotropic magnetic permeability. In some embodiments, non-photonic materials (e.g., materials with relatively large scale features) can be used to selectively absorb incoming electromagnetic radiation based on angle of incidence.

  6. Synchrotron Environmental Science-I Workshop Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Attendees of the Synchrotrons Environmental Science 1 (SES-1) workshop represented a broad spectrum of environmental science research areas and expertise in all of the current synchrotrons techniques (X-ray scattering and diffraction, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and two- and three-dimensional X-ray imaging). These individuals came together to discuss current measurement obstacles in environmental research and, more specifically, ways to overcome such obstacles by applying synchrotrons radiation techniques. Significant obstacles in measurement affect virtually all of the research issues described. Attendees identified synchrotrons approaches of potential value in their research. A number of the environmental research studies discussed are currently being addressed with some success by synchrotron-based approaches. Nevertheless, improvements in low-Z measurement capabilities are needed to facilitate the use of synchrotrons radiation methodologies in environmental research

  7. Synchrotron Environmental Science-I Workshop Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-08

    Attendees of the Synchrotrons Environmental Science 1 (SES-1) workshop represented a broad spectrum of environmental science research areas and expertise in all of the current synchrotrons techniques (X-ray scattering and diffraction, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and two- and three-dimensional X-ray imaging). These individuals came together to discuss current measurement obstacles in environmental research and, more specifically, ways to overcome such obstacles by applying synchrotrons radiation techniques. Significant obstacles in measurement affect virtually all of the research issues described. Attendees identified synchrotrons approaches of potential value in their research. A number of the environmental research studies discussed are currently being addressed with some success by synchrotron-based approaches. Nevertheless, improvements in low-Z measurement capabilities are needed to facilitate the use of synchrotrons radiation methodologies in environmental research.

  8. Light source for synchrotron radiation x-ray topography study at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (BSRL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jiyong; Jiang Jianhua; Tian Yulian

    1992-01-01

    Characteristics of the synchrotron radiation source for X-ray topography study at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (BSRL) is described, local geometrical resolution of topographies is discussed, and the diffracting intensities of white beam topography is given

  9. Synchrotron Radiation in Biology and Medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelka, J.B.

    2008-01-01

    This work is focused on a present status of synchrotron radiation X-ray applications in medicine and biology to imaging, diagnostics, and radio- therapy. Properties of X-ray beams generated by synchrotron sources are compared with radiation produced by classical laboratory X-ray tubes. A list of operating and planned synchrotron facilities applicable to biomedical purposes is given, together with their basic characteristics. A concise overview of typical X-ray synchrotron techniques in biology and medicine is carried out with discussion of their specific properties and examples of typical results. (author)

  10. Atomic physics research with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crasemann, B.; Wuilleumier, F.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter discusses applications of synchrotron light in atomic and molecular physics. Use of the radiation from storage rings has expanded and lent access to new areas of absorption and photoemission spectroscopy and scattering experiments. Techniques applied in connection with synchrotron radiation are discussed including absorption spectroscopy, photoelectron spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy and X-ray scattering. Problem areas that are being studied by the techniques mentioned above are discussed. Synchrotron radiation has provided the means for measuring the threshold-excitation and interference effects that signal the breakdown of the two-step model of atomic excitation/deexcitation. Synchrotron radiation provides more means of excited-state photoionization measurements

  11. Support for Synchrotron Access by Environmental Scientists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daly, Michael; Madden, Andrew; Palumbo, Anthony; Qafoku, N.

    2006-01-01

    To support ERSP-funded scientists in all aspects of synchrotron-based research at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). This support comes in one or more of the following forms: (1) writing proposals to the APS General User (GU) program, (2) providing time at MRCAT/EnviroCAT beamlines via the membership of the Molecular Environmental Science (MES) Group in MRCAT/EnviroCAT, (3) assistance in experimental design and sample preparation, (4) support at the beamline during the synchrotron experiment, (5) analysis and interpretation of the synchrotron data, and (6) integration of synchrotron experimental results into manuscripts

  12. Strengthening and damping of synchrotron oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taratin, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    Resonance strengthening and damping of synchrotron oscillations of collider bunch halo particles was studied by simulation. It was shown that the strengthening of particle synchrotron oscillations can be highly efficient with using a resonance pulse sequence. The resonance damping of particle synchrotron oscillations is only possible when the inverse population of the accelerated bunch halo is realized. Resonance method of synchrotron oscillation strengthening can be used for the extraction of beam halo particles with a bent crystal to improve the background conditions for colliding beam experiments and to fulfill simultaneously some fixed target experiments

  13. Sensitivities in synchrotron radiation TXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pianetta, P.; Baur, K.; Brennan, S.

    2000-01-01

    This work describes the progress we achieved at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) in improving the sensitivity for both the transition metals and light elements such as Al and Na. The transition metal work has matured to the point where a facility exists at SSRL in which semiconductor companies are able to perform industrially relevant measurements at state of the art detection limits. This facility features clean wafer handling and automated data acquisition making routine analytical measurements possible. The best sensitivity demonstrated so far is 3.4 E7 atoms/cm 2 for a 5000 second count time corresponding to 7.6 E7 atoms/cm 2 for a standard 1000 second count time. This is more than a factor of 100 better than what can be achieved with conventional TXRF systems. The detection of light elements such as Al and Na is challenging due to the presence of the h stronger Si fluorescence peak. For traditional energy-dispersive detection only the tunability of synchrotron radiation to excitation energies below the Si-K absorption edge leads to an acceptable sensitivity for Al detection which is limited by a large background due to inelastic x-ray Raman scattering. An alternative approach to overcome the Raman contribution and the strong Si fluorescence is to use a wavelength-dispersive spectrometer for fluorescence detection. The benefits of such a multilayer spectrometer over a solid state detector are its higher energy resolution and greater dynamic range. This strategy allows primary excitation above the Si K absorption edge, eliminating the background due to Raman scattering, and a gracing emission geometry to guarantee high surface sensitivity. Studies testing this concept in combination with high flux synchrotron radiation are underway and first results will be presented. (author)

  14. Vacuum system for HIMAC synchrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanazawa, M.; Sudou, M.; Sato, K.

    1994-01-01

    HIMAC synchrotrons are now under construction, which require vacuum chambers of large aperture and high vacuum of about 10 -9 torr. Wide thin wall vacuum chamber of 0.3 mm thickness reinforced with ribs has been developed as the chamber at dipole magnet. We have just now started to evacuate the lower ring. The obtained average value was about 5x10 -8 torr with turbo-molecular and sputter ion pumps, and 1.1x10 -9 torr after baking. (author)

  15. Synchrotron light and its uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blewett, J.P.

    1978-01-01

    It was known for a century that charged particles radiate when accelerated and that relativistic electrons in the energy range between 100 MeV and several GeV and constrained to travel in circular orbits emit concentrated, intense beams with broad continuous spectra that can cover the electromagnetic spectrum from infrared through hard x-rays. Recently the possible applications of this radiation were appreciated and electron synchrotrons and electron storage rings are now being used in many centers for studies of the properties of matter in the solid, liquid and gaseous states. 10 references

  16. X-ray microtomography of damage in particle-reinforced metal matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mummery, P.M.; Derby, B.; Anderson, P.; Davis, G.; Elliott, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    The damage which occurs on plastic straining of silicon carbide particle-reinforced aluminium alloys has been characterised using x-ray microtomography. The technique is used to provide density measurements as a function of strain in addition to imaging the internal structure with a resolution of ∼15μm. This allows a much more accurate determination of microstructural damage in terms of void growth than is available from measurements of density using buoyancy methods or from elastic modulus decrease. These data can be combined with acoustic emission measurements during straining to allow damage nucleation and growth contributions to be separated. (orig.)

  17. Nondestructive three-dimensional elemental microanalysis by combined helical x-ray microtomographies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golosio, Bruno; Somogyi, Andrea; Simionovici, Alexandre; Bleuet, Pierre; Susini, Jean; Lemelle, Laurence

    2004-01-01

    A nondestructive x-ray technique combining simultaneous transmission, fluorescence, and Compton microtomography has been developed. Simultaneous three-dimensional structural information and three-dimensional internal elemental composition maps down to trace concentration levels have been obtained by a helical scan of the sample through an x-ray microbeam. With this method quantitative three-dimensional chemical distributions can be obtained at (sub)micrometric resolution in a nondestructive and noninvasive way, opening unique possibilities for the microanalysis of rare and fragile samples from several research fields

  18. X-ray Computed Microtomography technique applied for cementitious materials: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Ítalo Batista

    2018-04-01

    The main objective of this article is to present a bibliographical review about the use of the X-ray microtomography method in 3D images processing of cementitious materials microstructure, analyzing the pores microstructure and connectivity network, enabling tthe possibility of building a relationship between permeability and porosity. The use of this technique enables the understanding of physical, chemical and mechanical properties of cementitious materials by publishing good results, considering that the quality and quantity of accessible information were significant and may contribute to the study of cementitious materials development. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. X-ray microtomography of hydrochloric acid propagation in carbonate rocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, A C; Oliveira, T J L; Cruz, F B; Lopes, R T; Lima, I

    2015-02-01

    Acid treatments are used in the oil and gas industry, to increase the permeability of the carbonate reservoirs by creating preferential channels, called wormholes. Channels formation is strongly influenced by acid type and injection rate. The aim of this study is to evaluate some characteristics of the microporous system of carbonate rocks, before and after acidizing. For that purpose X-ray high-resolution microtomography was used. The results show that this technique can be used as a reliable method to analyze microstructural characteristics of the wormholes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Cracking evolution behaviors of lightweight materials based on in situ synchrotron X-ray tomography: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Y.; Wu, S. C.; Hu, Y. N.; Fu, Y. N.

    2018-03-01

    Damage accumulation and failure behaviors are crucial concerns during the design and service of a critical component, leading researchers and engineers to thoroughly identifying the crack evolution. Third-generation synchrotron radiation X-ray computed microtomography can be used to detect the inner damage evolution of a large-density material or component. This paper provides a brief review of studying the crack initiation and propagation inside lightweight materials with advanced synchrotron three-dimensional (3D) X-ray imaging, such as aluminum materials. Various damage modes under both static and dynamic loading are elucidated for pure aluminum, aluminum alloy matrix, aluminum alloy metal matrix composite, and aluminum alloy welded joint. For aluminum alloy matrix, metallurgical defects (porosity, void, inclusion, precipitate, etc.) or artificial defects (notch, scratch, pit, etc.) strongly affect the crack initiation and propagation. For aluminum alloy metal matrix composites, the fracture occurs either from the particle debonding or voids at the particle/matrix interface, and the void evolution is closely related with fatigued cycles. For the hybrid laser welded aluminum alloy, fatigue cracks usually initiate from gas pores located at the surface or sub-surface and gradually propagate to a quarter ellipse or a typical semi-ellipse profile.

  1. Photoemission spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, K.L.I.

    1980-01-01

    It is an epoch making event for photoemission spectroscopy that the light sources of continuous wavelength from vacuum ultra-violet to X-ray region have become available by the advent of synchrotron radiation. Specifically the progress after stable intense light has become obtainable from storage rings is very significant. One of the features of these synchrotron radiation is its extreme polarization of radiating pattern. Though the elementary processes of photoemission out of solids are the basic themes, phenomenalistic 3-stage model is usually applied to the analysis of experiments. In this model, the process of photoemission is considered by dividing into three stages, namely the generation of photoelectrons due to optical transition between electron status -- the transportation of photoelectrons to solid surfaces -- breaking away from the surfaces. The spectrometers, the energy analyzers of photoelectrons, and sample-preparing room used for photoemission spectroscopy are described. Next, energy distribution curves are explained. At the end, photoelectron yield spectroscopy, CFS (constant final energy spectroscopy) and CIS (constant initial energy spectroscopy), Auger yield and interatomic Auger yield, the determination of surface structure by normal emission CIS, and surface EXAFS (extended X-ray absorption fine structure) are described. As seen above, the application specifically to surface physics is promising in the future. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  2. Synchrotron-driven spallation sources

    CERN Document Server

    Bryant, P J

    1996-01-01

    The use of synchrotrons for pulsed neutron spallation sources is an example of scientific and technological spin-off from the accelerator development for particle physics. Accelerator-driven sources provide an alternative to the continuous-flux, nuclear reactors that currently furnish the majority of neutrons for research and development. Although the present demand for neutrons can be adequately met by the existing reactors, this situation is unlikely to continue due to the increasing severity of safety regulations and the declared policies of many countries to close down their reactors within the next decade or so. Since the demand for neutrons as a research tool is, in any case,expected to grow, there has been a corresponding interest in sources that are synchrotron-driven or linac-driven with a pulse compression ring and currently several design studies are being made. These accelerator-driven sources also have the advantage of a time structure with a high peak neutron flux. The basic requirement is for a...

  3. Sirepo for Synchrotron Radiation Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-10-25

    Sirepo is an open source framework for cloud computing. The graphical user interface (GUI) for Sirepo, also known as the client, executes in any HTML5 compliant web browser on any computing platform, including tablets. The client is built in JavaScript, making use of the following open source libraries: Bootstrap, which is fundamental for cross-platform web applications; AngularJS, which provides a model–view–controller (MVC) architecture and GUI components; and D3.js, which provides interactive plots and data-driven transformations. The Sirepo server is built on the following Python technologies: Flask, which is a lightweight framework for web development; Jinja, which is a secure and widely used templating language; and Werkzeug, a utility library that is compliant with the WSGI standard. We use Nginx as the HTTP server and proxy, which provides a scalable event-driven architecture. The physics codes supported by Sirepo execute inside a Docker container. One of the codes supported by Sirepo is the Synchrotron Radiation Workshop (SRW). SRW computes synchrotron radiation from relativistic electrons in arbitrary magnetic fields and propagates the radiation wavefronts through optical beamlines. SRW is open source and is primarily supported by Dr. Oleg Chubar of NSLS-II at Brookhaven National Laboratory.

  4. Synchrotron applications in wood preservation and deterioration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara L. Illman

    2003-01-01

    Several non-intrusive synchrotron techniques are being used to detect and study wood decay. The techniques use high intensity synchrotron-generated X-rays to determine the atomic structure of materials with imaging, diffraction, and absorption. Some of the techniques are X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XFS), X-ray...

  5. High pressure and synchrotron radiation satellite workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, J.; Guignot, N.; Morard, G.; Mezouar, M.; Andrault, D.; Bolfan-Casanova, N.; Sturhahn, W.; Daniel, I.; Reynard, B.; Simionovici, A.; Sanchez Valle, C.; Martinez, I.; Kantor, I.; Dubrovinsky, I.; Mccammon, C.; Dubrovinskaia, N.; Kurnosiv, A.; Kuznetsov, A.; Goncharenko, I.; Loubeyre, P.; Desgreniers, S.; Weck, G.; Yoo, C.S.; Iota, V.; Park, J.; Cynn, H.; Gorelli, F.; Toulemonde, P.; Machon, D.; Merlen, A.; San Miguel, A.; Amboage, M.; Aquilanti, G.; Mathon, O.; Pascarelli, S.; Itie, J.P.; Mcmillan, P.F.; Trapananti, A.; Di Cicco, A.; Panfilis, S. de; Filipponi, A.; Kreisel, J.; Bouvier, P.; Dkhil, B.; Chaabane, B.; Rosner, H.; Koudela, D.; Schwarz, U.; Handestein, A.; Hanfland, M.; Opahle, I.; Koepernik, K.; Kuzmin, M.; Mueller, K.H.; Mydosh, J.; Richter, M.; Hejny, C.; Falconi, S.; Lundegaard, L.F.; Mcmahon, M.I; Loa, I.; Syassen, K.; Wang, X.; Roth, H.; Lorenz, T.; Farber Daniel, I.; Antonangeli Daniele, I.; Krisch, M.; Badro, J.; Fiquet, G.; Occelli, F.; Mao, W.L.; Mao, H.K.; Eng, P.; Kao, C.C.; Shu, J.F.; Hemley, R.J.; Tse, J.S.; Yao, Y.; Deen, P.P.; Paolasini, I.; Braithwaite, D.; Kernavanois, N.; Lapertot, G.; Rupprecht, K.; Leupold, O.; Ponkratz, U.; Wortmann, G.; Beraud, A.; Krisch, M.; Farber, D.; Antonangeli, D.; Aracne, C.; Zarestky, J.L.; Mcqueeney, R.; Mathon, O.; Baudelet, F.; Decremps, F.; Itie, J.P.; Nataf, I.; Pascarelli, S.; Polian, A.

    2006-01-01

    The workshop is dedicated to recent advances on science at high pressure at third generation synchrotron sources. A variety of experiments using synchrotron radiation techniques including X-ray diffraction, EXAFS (extended X-ray absorption fine structure), inelastic X-ray scattering, Compton scattering and Moessbauer spectroscopy of crystalline, liquid or amorphous samples, are reported. This document gathers the abstracts of the presentations

  6. High-Intensity Synchrotron Radiation Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Suetsugu, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Various effects of intense synchrotron radiation on the performance of particle accelerators, especially for storage rings, are discussed. Following a brief introduction to synchrotron radiation, the basic concepts of heat load, gas load, electron emission, and the countermeasures against these effects are discussed.

  7. High pressure and synchrotron radiation satellite workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bass, J.; Guignot, N.; Morard, G.; Mezouar, M.; Andrault, D.; Bolfan-Casanova, N.; Sturhahn, W.; Daniel, I.; Reynard, B.; Simionovici, A.; Sanchez Valle, C.; Martinez, I.; Kantor, I.; Dubrovinsky, I.; Mccammon, C.; Dubrovinskaia, N.; Kurnosiv, A.; Kuznetsov, A.; Goncharenko, I.; Loubeyre, P.; Desgreniers, S.; Weck, G.; Yoo, C.S.; Iota, V.; Park, J.; Cynn, H.; Gorelli, F.; Toulemonde, P.; Machon, D.; Merlen, A.; San Miguel, A.; Amboage, M.; Aquilanti, G.; Mathon, O.; Pascarelli, S.; Itie, J.P.; Mcmillan, P.F.; Trapananti, A.; Di Cicco, A.; Panfilis, S. de; Filipponi, A.; Kreisel, J.; Bouvier, P.; Dkhil, B.; Chaabane, B.; Rosner, H.; Koudela, D.; Schwarz, U.; Handestein, A.; Hanfland, M.; Opahle, I.; Koepernik, K.; Kuzmin, M.; Mueller, K.H.; Mydosh, J.; Richter, M.; Hejny, C.; Falconi, S.; Lundegaard, L.F.; Mcmahon, M.I; Loa, I.; Syassen, K.; Wang, X.; Roth, H.; Lorenz, T.; Farber Daniel, I.; Antonangeli Daniele, I.; Krisch, M.; Badro, J.; Fiquet, G.; Occelli, F.; Mao, W.L.; Mao, H.K.; Eng, P.; Kao, C.C.; Shu, J.F.; Hemley, R.J.; Tse, J.S.; Yao, Y.; Deen, P.P.; Paolasini, I.; Braithwaite, D.; Kernavanois, N.; Lapertot, G.; Rupprecht, K.; Leupold, O.; Ponkratz, U.; Wortmann, G.; Beraud, A.; Krisch, M.; Farber, D.; Antonangeli, D.; Aracne, C.; Zarestky, J.L.; Mcqueeney, R.; Mathon, O.; Baudelet, F.; Decremps, F.; Itie, J.P.; Nataf, I.; Pascarelli, S.; Polian, A

    2006-07-01

    The workshop is dedicated to recent advances on science at high pressure at third generation synchrotron sources. A variety of experiments using synchrotron radiation techniques including X-ray diffraction, EXAFS (extended X-ray absorption fine structure), inelastic X-ray scattering, Compton scattering and Moessbauer spectroscopy of crystalline, liquid or amorphous samples, are reported. This document gathers the abstracts of the presentations.

  8. Funding problems threaten Middle East's synchrotron

    CERN Multimedia

    McCabe, H

    1999-01-01

    Scientists will tour the Middle East to try to raise support for the Synchrotron radiation for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East project. The plan is to dismantle and move a decommissioned synchrotron from Berlin to the Middle East where scientists of any nationality would be able to use it (3 paragraphs).

  9. Protein Data Bank Depositions from Synchrotron Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, J.; Sweet, R.

    2004-01-01

    A survey and analysis of Protein Data Bank (PDB) depositions from international synchrotron radiation facilities, based on the latest released PDB entries, are reported. The results ( ) show that worldwide, every year since 1999, more than 50% of the deposited X-ray structures have used synchrotron facilities, reaching 75% by 2003. In this web-based database, all PDB entries among individual synchrotron beamlines are archived, synchronized with the weekly PDB release. Statistics regarding the quality of experimental data and the refined model for all structures are presented, and these are analysed to reflect the impact of synchrotron sources. The results confirm the common impression that synchrotron sources extend the size of structures that can be solved with equivalent or better quality than home sources

  10. Infrared synchrotron radiation from electron storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, W.D.; Williams, G.P.

    1983-01-01

    Simple and useful approximations, valid at infrared wavelengths, to the equations for synchrotron radiation are presented and used to quantify the brightness and power advantage of current synchrotron radiation light sources over conventional infrared broadband laboratory sources. The Daresbury Synchrotron Radiation Source (SRS) and the Brookhaven National Synchrotron Light Source (vacuum ultraviolet) [NSLS(VUV)] storage rings are used as examples in the calculation of the properties of infrared synchrotron radiation. The pulsed nature of the emission is also discussed, and potential areas of application for the brightness, power, and time structure advantages are presented. The use of infrared free electron lasers and undulators on the next generation of storage ring light sources is briefly considered

  11. Synchrotron-based micro and nanotomographic investigations of soil aggregate microbial and pore structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemner, K. M.; O'Brien, S.; Whiteside, M. D.; Sholto-Douglas, D.; Antipova, O.; Bailey, V.; Boyanov, M.; Dohnalkova, A.; Gursoy, D.; Kovarik, L.; Lai, B.; Roehrig, C.; Vogt, S.

    2017-12-01

    Soil is a highly complex network of pore spaces, minerals, and organic matter (e.g., roots, fungi, and bacteria), making it physically heterogeneous over nano- to macro-scales. Such complexity arises from feedbacks between physical processes and biological activity that generate a dynamic, self-organizing 3D complex. Since we first demonstrated the utility of synchrotron-based transmission tomography to image internal soil aggregate structure [Kemner et al., 1998], we and many other researchers have made use of and have advanced the application of this technique. However, our understanding of how microbes and microbial metabolism are distributed throughout soil aggregates is limited, because no technique is available to image the soil pore network and the life that inhabits it. X-ray transmission microtomography can provide highly detailed 3D renderings of soil structure but cannot distinguish cells from other electron-light material such as air or water. However, the use of CdSe quantum dots (QDs) as a reporter of bacterial presence enables us to overcome this constraint, instilling bacterial cells with enough contrast to detect them and their metabolic functions in their opaque soil habitat, with hard x-rays capable of penetrating 3D soil structures at high resolution. Previous transmission tomographic imaging of soil aggregates with high energy synchrotron x-rays has demonstrated 700 nm3 voxel spatial resolution. These and recent results from nanotomographic x-ray transmission imaging of soil aggregates with 30 nm3 voxel resolution will be presented. In addition, results of submicron voxel-sized x-ray fluorescence 3D imaging to determine microbial distributions within soil aggregates and the critical role to be played by the upgrade of the Advanced Photon Source for 100-1000X increases in hard x-ray brilliance will also be presented. *Kemner, et al., SPIE 3449, 45-53, 1998

  12. High-energy synchrotron radiation x-ray microscopy: Present status and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, K.W.; Gordon, B.M.; Spanne, P.; Rivers, M.L.; Sutton, S.R.

    1991-01-01

    High-energy radiation synchrotron x-ray microscopy is used to characterize materials of importance to the chemical and materials sciences and chemical engineering. The x-ray microscope (XRM) forms images of elemental distributions fluorescent x rays or images of mass distributions by measurement of the linear attenuation coefficient of the material. Distributions of sections through materials are obtained non-destructively using the technique of computed microtomography. The energy range of the x rays used for the XRM ranges from a few keV at the minimum value to more than 100 keV, which is sufficient to excite the K-edge of all naturally occurring elements. The work in progress at the Brookhaven NSLS X26 and X17 XRM is described in order to show the current status of the XRM. While there are many possible approaches to the XRM instrumentation, this instrument gives state-of-the-art performance in most respects and serves as a reasonable example of the present status of the instrumentation in terms of the spatial resolution and minimum detection limits obtainable. The examples of applications cited give an idea of the types of research fields that are currently under investigation. They can be used to illustrate how the field of x-ray microscopy will benefit from the use of bending magnets and insertion devices at the Advanced Photon Source. 8 refs., 5 figs

  13. Cortical Bone Mineralization in the Human Femoral Neck in Cases and Controls from Synchrotron Radiation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan; Zhou, Liangqiang; Bergot, Catherine; Peyrin, Françoise; Bousson, Valérie

    2015-09-01

    To compare the degree and distribution of mineralization in femoral neck cortex from 23 women with hip fractures (age 65-96 years) and 17 female controls (age 72-103 years), we obtained 3D data by synchrotron radiation microtomography (SRμCT). Variables were degree of mineralization of bone (DMB) in total cortex (cDMBSRMEAN), osteons (oDMBSRMEAN), and pure interstitial tissue (intDMBSRMEAN). The cortex on SRμCT images was divided into nine to twelve 50-μm zones from the periosteum to the endosteum; cDMBSRMEAN, oDMBSRMEAN, and intDMBSRMEAN were measured in each zone. We used descriptive statistics and t tests, general linear model analyses to compare DMBSR values across zones and individuals, one-way analysis of variance for within-group comparisons of zones. In patients, the variance of mineral content value was not different than in controls, but mean values of degree of mineralization varied across zones. These cross-sectional data suggest that bone fragility may be related to a greater heterogeneity of the distribution of mineralization in femoral neck cortex.

  14. Synchrotron scanning reveals amphibious ecomorphology in a new clade of bird-like dinosaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cau, Andrea; Beyrand, Vincent; Voeten, Dennis F. A. E.; Fernandez, Vincent; Tafforeau, Paul; Stein, Koen; Barsbold, Rinchen; Tsogtbaatar, Khishigjav; Currie, Philip J.; Godefroit, Pascal

    2017-12-01

    Maniraptora includes birds and their closest relatives among theropod dinosaurs. During the Cretaceous period, several maniraptoran lineages diverged from the ancestral coelurosaurian bauplan and evolved novel ecomorphologies, including active flight, gigantism, cursoriality and herbivory. Propagation X-ray phase-contrast synchrotron microtomography of a well-preserved maniraptoran from Mongolia, still partially embedded in the rock matrix, revealed a mosaic of features, most of them absent among non-avian maniraptorans but shared by reptilian and avian groups with aquatic or semiaquatic ecologies. This new theropod, Halszkaraptor escuilliei gen. et sp. nov., is related to other enigmatic Late Cretaceous maniraptorans from Mongolia in a novel clade at the root of Dromaeosauridae. This lineage adds an amphibious ecomorphology to those evolved by maniraptorans: it acquired a predatory mode that relied mainly on neck hyperelongation for food procurement, it coupled the obligatory bipedalism of theropods with forelimb proportions that may support a swimming function, and it developed postural adaptations convergent with short-tailed birds.

  15. Application of high resolution synchrotron micro-CT radiation in dental implant osseointegration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neldam, Camilla Albeck; Lauridsen, Torsten; Rack, Alexander; Lefolii, Tore Tranberg; Jørgensen, Niklas Rye; Feidenhans'l, Robert; Pinholt, Else Marie

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe a refined method using high-resolution synchrotron radiation microtomography (SRmicro-CT) to evaluate osseointegration and peri-implant bone volume fraction after titanium dental implant insertion. SRmicro-CT is considered gold standard evaluating bone microarchitecture. Its high resolution, high contrast, and excellent high signal-to-noise-ratio all contribute to the highest spatial resolutions achievable today. Using SRmicro-CT at a voxel size of 5 μm in an experimental goat mandible model, the peri-implant bone volume fraction was found to quickly increase to 50% as the radial distance from the implant surface increased, and levelled out to approximately 80% at a distance of 400 μm. This method has been successful in depicting the bone and cavities in three dimensions thereby enabling us to give a more precise answer to the fraction of the bone-to-implant contact compared to previous methods. Copyright © 2015 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. X-ray tomographic and laminographic microscopy (XTM, XLM) using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyss, P.; Obrist, A.; Hofmann, J.; Luethi, T.; Sennhauser, U.; Thurner, P.; Stampanoni, M.; Abela, R.; Patterson, B.; Mueller, R.

    2003-01-01

    Inner structures of composite materials, components or tissues have to be characterised with micrometer and even submicrometer resolution. It is often highly desirable that specimens stay unchanged after a first characterization to allow meaningful subsequent tests. This justifies major efforts for an ongoing improvement of nondestructive radiographical and tomographical methods for morphological characterization. Radiography and tomography as well as laminography can fulfill these requirements. X-ray sources and detectors have been improved. This applies for synchrotron-beamline systems as well as for tube based systems. A novel detector concept has been implemented in the XTM station at the SLS of the PSI in Villigen, Switzerland. This microtomography station at the SLS has started its operation in spring 2002. A selection of results related to industrial and scientific applications is presented in this contribution. Special emphasis will be given to first results of tomography with limited numbers of projections which is comparable to laminography. This method allows to characterise e.g. ribbons of tissue under load

  17. Extinction correction and synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suortti, P.

    1983-01-01

    The primary extinction factor ysub(p) is defined as the ratio of the integrated reflection from a coherently diffracting domain to the integrated kinematical reflection from the same domain. When ysub(p) is larger than 0.5 it may be approximated by ysub(p)= exp[-(αdelta) 2 ], where α is about 0.5 and delta the average size of the coherent domain when measured in units of the extinction length Λ, delta = D/Λ. Transfer equations are applied to symmetrical Laue diffraction, and the reflectivity per unit length, sigma(epsilon) is solved from the measured reflecting ratio as a function of the rocking angle epsilon = theta -thetasub(B). Measurements with conventional x-ray sources are made on single crystal slabs of Be and Si using AgKβ, MoKα 1 and CuKα radiation. The primary extinction factor ysub(p)(epsilon) is solved from a point-by-point comparison of two measurements where the extinction length Λ is changed by varying the polarization and/or wavelength of the x-ray beam. The results show that primary and secondary extinction are strongly correlated, and that the customary assumption of independent size and orientation distributions of crystal mosaics is unjustified. The structure factors for Be and Si show close agreement with other recent measurements and calculations. The limitations of the method are discussed in length, particularly the effects of beam divergences and incoherence of the rays in the crystal. It is concluded that under typical experimental conditions the requirements of the theory are met. Practical limitations arising from the use of characteristic wavelengths and unpolarized radiation prohibit the use of the full potential of the method. The properties of a synchrotron radiation source are compared with a conventional x-ray source, and it is demonstrated that the experimental limitations can be removed by the use of synchrotron radiation. A diffraction experiment with synchrotron radiation is outlined, as well as generalization of the

  18. Scanning transmission ion micro-tomography (STIM-T) of biological specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwertner, Micheal; Sakellariou, Arthur; Reinert, Tilo; Butz, Tilman

    2006-05-01

    Computed tomography (CT) was applied to sets of Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM) projections recorded at the LIPSION ion beam laboratory (Leipzig) in order to visualize the 3D-mass distribution in several specimens. Examples for a test structure (copper grid) and for biological specimens (cartilage cells, cygospore) are shown. Scanning Transmission Micro-Tomography (STIM-T) at a resolution of 260 nm was demonstrated for the first time. Sub-micron features of the Cu-grid specimen were verified by scanning electron microscopy. The ion energy loss measured during a STIM-T experiment is related to the mass density of the specimen. Typically, biological specimens can be analysed without staining. Only shock freezing and freeze-drying is required to preserve the ultra-structure of the specimen. The radiation damage to the specimen during the experiment can be neglected. This is an advantage compared to other techniques like X-ray micro-tomography. At present, the spatial resolution is limited by beam position fluctuations and specimen vibrations.

  19. Scanning transmission ion micro-tomography (STIM-T) of biological specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwertner, Michael; Sakellariou, Arthur; Reinert, Tilo; Butz, Tilman

    2006-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) was applied to sets of Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM) projections recorded at the LIPSION ion beam laboratory (Leipzig) in order to visualize the 3D-mass distribution in several specimens. Examples for a test structure (copper grid) and for biological specimens (cartilage cells, cygospore) are shown. Scanning Transmission Micro-Tomography (STIM-T) at a resolution of 260 nm was demonstrated for the first time. Sub-micron features of the Cu-grid specimen were verified by scanning electron microscopy. The ion energy loss measured during a STIM-T experiment is related to the mass density of the specimen. Typically, biological specimens can be analysed without staining. Only shock freezing and freeze-drying is required to preserve the ultra-structure of the specimen. The radiation damage to the specimen during the experiment can be neglected. This is an advantage compared to other techniques like X-ray micro-tomography. At present, the spatial resolution is limited by beam position fluctuations and specimen vibrations

  20. Effective atomic number and density determination of rocks by X-ray microtomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jussiani, Eduardo Inocente; Appoloni, Carlos Roberto

    2015-03-01

    Microtomography, as a non-destructive technique, has become an important tool in studies of internal properties of materials. Recently, interest using this methodology in characterizing the samples with respect to their compositions, especially rocks, has grown. Two physical properties, density and effective atomic number, are important in determining the composition of rocks. In this work, six samples of materials with densities that varied from 2.42 to 6.84g/cm(3) and effective atomic numbers from 15.0 to 77.3 were studied. The measurements were made using a SkyScan-Bruker 1172 microtomography apparatus operating in voltages at 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100kV with a resolution of 13.1μm. Through micro-CT images, an average gray scale was calculated for the samples and correlation studies of this value with the density and the effective atomic number of samples were made. Linear fits were obtained for each energy value. The obtained functions were tested with samples of Amazonite, Gabbro, Sandstone and Sodalite. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Medical application of Synchrotron Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyodo, Kazuyuki; Nishimura, Katsuyuki.

    1990-01-01

    The number of patients suffering from ischemic heart disease is also increasing rapidly in Japan. The standard method for assessing coronary artery diseases is the coronary angiography. Excellent images are taken by this method, however, it is an invasive method in which a catheter into a peripheral artery. The patients would obtain great benefit if the coronary arteries could be distinguished by intravenous injection of the contrast material. The K-edge subtraction method, which uses the K-edge discontinuity in the attenuation coefficient of the contrast material, is considered to be the most suitable method for coronary angiography by peripheral venous injection. Synchrotron Radiation (SR) is so intense that it allows selection of monochromatic X-rays, and studies on K-edge subtraction using SR has been started at some facilities. Recent activities K-edge subtraction method at the Accumulation Ring are briefly described here. (author)

  2. Rapid cycling superconducting booster synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinev, D.; Agapov, N.; Butenko, A.

    2001-01-01

    The existing set of Nuclotron heavy ion sources, such as duoplasmatron, polarized deuteron, laser and electron beam ion sources permits to have ion beams over a wide range of masses. The main problem for us now is to gain high intensity of accelerator particles. It can be solved by means of multiturn injection of the low current beams into the booster, acceleration up to the intermediate energies, stripping and transferring into the main ring. A design study of this accelerator - the 250 MeV/Amu Nuclotron booster synchrotron at 1 Hz repetition rate and circumference of 84 m, has been completed. The lattice dipole and quadrupole magnets have an iron yoke coils, made of hollow superconductor, are cooled by two-phase Helium flow, as well as the Nuclotron magnets. (authors)

  3. High heat load synchrotron optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, D.M.

    1993-01-01

    Third generation synchrotron radiation sources currently being constructed worldwide will produce x-ray beams of unparalleled power and power density. These high heat fluxes coupled with the stringent dimensional requirements of the x-ray optical components pose a prodigious challenge to designers of x-ray optical elements, specifically x-ray mirrors and crystal monochromators. Although certain established techniques for the cooling of high heat flux components can be directly applied to this problem, the thermal management of high heat load x-ray optical components has several unusual aspects that may ultimately lead to unique solutions. This manuscript attempts to summarize the various approaches currently being applied to this undertaking and to point out the areas of research that require further development

  4. Synchrotron tomography on metallic foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haibel, A.; Banhart, J.

    2003-01-01

    Metallic foams are a class of materials with unique properties. In contrast to most aqueous foams which are stable due to surface active agents, the liquid state of metallic foams can be stabilized by admixing small non-soluble particles. We present the results of our investigations on such materials consisting three different components: an aluminium alloy, silicon carbide particles for foam stabilization, and titanium hydride acting as blowing agent. By means of synchrotron-tomography we visualized the three dimensional distribution of the silicon carbide and the titanium hydride particles in the unfoamed cast solid precursor, in the fully foamed liquid state, and in the solidified final state of the foam. We analyzed the silicon carbide formation in these three foaming stages and its influence of the pore stability

  5. How Can Synchrotron Radiation Techniques Be Applied for Detecting Microstructures in Amorphous Alloys?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu-Qing Guo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, how synchrotron radiation techniques can be applied for detecting the microstructure in metallic glass (MG is studied. The unit cells are the basic structural units in crystals, though it has been suggested that the co-existence of various clusters may be the universal structural feature in MG. Therefore, it is a challenge to detect microstructures of MG even at the short-range scale by directly using synchrotron radiation techniques, such as X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption methods. Here, a feasible scheme is developed where some state-of-the-art synchrotron radiation-based experiments can be combined with simulations to investigate the microstructure in MG. By studying a typical MG composition (Zr70Pd30, it is found that various clusters do co-exist in its microstructure, and icosahedral-like clusters are the popular structural units. This is the structural origin where there is precipitation of an icosahedral quasicrystalline phase prior to phase transformation from glass to crystal when heating Zr70Pd30 MG.

  6. Report of the Synchrotron Radiation Vacuum Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avery, R.T.

    1984-06-01

    The Synchrotron Radiation Vacuum Workshop was held to consider two vacuum-related problems that bear on the design of storage rings and beam lines for synchrotron radiation facilities. These problems are gas desorption from the vacuum chamber walls and carbon deposition on optical components. Participants surveyed existing knowledge on these topics and recommended studies that should be performed as soon as possible to provide more definitive experimental data on these topics. This data will permit optimization of the final design of the Advanced Light Source (ALS) and its associated beam lines. It also should prove useful for other synchrotron radiation facilities as well.

  7. Synchrotron power supply of TARN II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Shin-ichi.

    1991-07-01

    The construction and performance of synchrotron power supply of TARN II are described. The 1.1 GeV synchrotron-cooler TARN II has been constructed at Institute for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo. Constructed power supply for the dipole magnets is 600 V, 2500 A operated in the mode of trapezoid wave form with the repetition cycle of 0.1 Hz. The stability of magnetic field within 10 -3 and tracking error of 10 -4 have been attained with the aid of computer control system. First trial of synchrotron acceleration of He 2+ beam has been done up to 600 MeV in April, 1991. (author)

  8. Report of the Synchrotron Radiation Vacuum Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avery, R.T.

    1984-06-01

    The Synchrotron Radiation Vacuum Workshop was held to consider two vacuum-related problems that bear on the design of storage rings and beam lines for synchrotron radiation facilities. These problems are gas desorption from the vacuum chamber walls and carbon deposition on optical components. Participants surveyed existing knowledge on these topics and recommended studies that should be performed as soon as possible to provide more definitive experimental data on these topics. This data will permit optimization of the final design of the Advanced Light Source (ALS) and its associated beam lines. It also should prove useful for other synchrotron radiation facilities as well

  9. Experimental Demonstration of the Induction Synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takayama, Ken; Nakamura, Eiji; Arakida, Yoshio; Iwashita, Taiki; Kono, Tadaaki; Shimosaki, Yoshito; Wake, Masayoshi; Dixit, Tanuja; Otsuka, Kazunori; Torikai, Kota

    2007-01-01

    We report an experimental demonstration of the induction synchrotron, the concept of which has been proposed as a future accelerator for the second generation of neutrino factory or hadron collider. The induction synchrotron supports a superbunch and a superbunch permits more charge to be accelerated while observing the constraints of the transverse space-charge limit. By using a newly developed induction acceleration system instead of radio-wave acceleration devices, a single proton bunch injected from the 500 MeV booster ring and captured by the barrier bucket created by the induction step voltages was accelerated to 6 GeV in the KEK proton synchrotron

  10. Microstructural characterization of porous materials by X-ray microtomography and gamma ray transmission techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Anderson Camargo

    2006-01-01

    This work presents the application of the X-ray microtomography and gamma ray transmission techniques for the microstructure characterization of different kinds of materials. Total porosity, pore size distribution and the two point correlation functions were measured. The two point correlation function, which allows the reconstruction of 3D models, was carried out for two samples. Seven ceramic tablets of Alumina (Al 2 O 3 ), seven tablets of Boron Carbide (B 4 C), three samples of sedimentary rocks and one sample of Titanium foam were analyzed. The experimental set up for the Gamma Ray Transmission technique consisted of: a 2'' x 2'' crystal NaI(Tl) detector, an 241 Am radioactive source (59,53 keV, 100 mCi), an automatic micrometric table for the sample XZ movement and standard gamma spectrometry electronics. Two microtomography systems were used: a Fein Focus system, constituted by an X-ray tube, operated at 160 kV and 0.3 to 1.1 mA, a CCD camera and the movement sample system, and a Skyscan system, model 1072, with a X-ray tube operated at 100 kV and 100μA, and a CCD camera. The ceramic tablets, analyzed by the gamma ray transmission technique presented results for most of the porosities data with smaller confidence intervals and inside the intervals supplied by the tablets manufacturer. The Titanium porous sample was analyzed by the two techniques, its microtomography images achieved a resolution of 17μm, obtained employing the Fein Focus system. For both techniques, this sample showed high porosity, which allows its application for this purpose. The sandstones samples were analyzed by the Skyscan system, achieving resolutions of 19μm, 11μm and 3.8μm for each sample, respectively. The resolutions of 11μm and 3.8μm were the ones that generated better 2D sections for the respective samples and, consequently, more reliable porosities. The 3.8μm resolution was the one that best quantified the pore size distribution data, showing information not shown by

  11. Spain in quandry over French synchrotron

    CERN Multimedia

    Bosch, X

    2000-01-01

    The French government has invited Spain to participate in the funding and operation of its proposed synchrotron Soleil. This could result though in the end of Spanish scientists' hopes for their own machine (1 page).

  12. National Synchrotron Light Source annual report 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulbert, S.; Lazarz, N.; Williams, G. (eds.)

    1988-01-01

    This report discusses the experiment done at the National Synchrotron Light Source. Most experiments discussed involves the use of the x-ray beams to study physical properties of solid materials. (LSP)

  13. Simulation of synchrotron motion with rf noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leemann, B.T.; Forest, E.; Chattopadhyay, S.

    1986-08-01

    The theoretical formulation is described that is behind an algorithm for synchrotron phase-space tracking with rf noise and some preliminary simulation results of bunch diffusion under rf noise obtained by actual tracking

  14. Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Light Source (SSRL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The SSRL at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory was built in 1974 to take and use for synchrotron studies the intense x-ray beams from the SPEAR storage ring that...

  15. Synchrotron X-ray magnetic scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Stirling, W G

    2003-01-01

    Research on magnetic materials constitutes an increasingly important part of the programmes of most major synchrotron radiation centres. The extremely high brilliance and small spot size of advanced synchrotron beamlines, combined with element-specific resonant effects at certain absorption edges, provide a powerful probe of magnetic structures and phase transitions, with excellent wavevector resolution. Over the last decade a variety of experimental techniques have been developed, exploiting these effects for the study of thin film, multilayer and bulk magnetic materials. In this paper the basic concepts of X-ray magnetic scattering will be introduced, followed by recent examples taken from work at Daresbury Laboratory (UK), the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (Grenoble, France) and the National Synchrotron Light Source (Brookhaven National Laboratory, USA). Investigations of domain patterns in thin magnetic films employing X-ray resonant magnetic scattering (XRMS) will be described, followed by a se...

  16. Molecular photoemission studies using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truesdale, C.M.

    1983-04-01

    The angular distributions of photoelectrons and Auger electrons were measured by electron spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation. The experimental results are compared with theoretical calculations to interpret the electronic behavior of photoionization for molecular systems

  17. Applications of synchrotron radiation in Biophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bemski, G.

    1983-01-01

    A short introduction to the generation of the synchrotron radiation is made. Following, the applications of such a radiation in biophysics with emphasis to the study of the hemoglobin molecule are presented. (L.C.) [pt

  18. Synchrotron radiation applications in medical research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomlinson, W.

    1997-08-01

    Over the past two decades there has been a phenomenal growth in the number of dedicated synchrotron radiation facilities and a corresponding growth in the number of applications in both basic and applied sciences. The high flux and brightness, tunable beams, time structure and polarization of synchrotron radiation provide an ideal x- ray source for many applications in the medical sciences. There is a dual aspect to the field of medical applications of synchrotron radiation. First there are the important in-vitro programs such as structural biology, x-ray microscopy, and radiation cell biology. Second there are the programs that are ultimately targeted at in-vivo applications. The present status of synchrotron coronary angiography, bronchography, multiple energy computed tomography, mammography and radiation therapy programs at laboratories around the world is reviewed.

  19. Fiber structural analysis by synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Kojima, J I; Kikutani, T

    2003-01-01

    Topics of fiber structural analysis by synchrotron radiation are explained. There are only three synchrotron radiation facilities in the world, SPring-8 (Super Photon ring-8) in Japan, APS (Advanced Photon Source) in U.S.A. and ESRF (European Synchrotron Radiation Facility) in France. Online measurement of melt spinning process of PET and Nylon6 is explained in detail. Polypropylene and PBO (poly-p-phenylenebenzobisoxazole) was measured by WAXD (Wide Angle X-ray Diffraction)/SAXS (Small Angle X-ray Scattering) at the same time. Some examples of measure of drawing process of fiber are described. The structure formation process of spider's thread was measured. Micro beam of X-ray of synchrotron facility was improved and it attained to 65nm small angle resolving power by 10 mu m beamsize. (S.Y.)

  20. National synchrotron light source VUV storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumberg, L.; Bittner, J.; Galayda, J.; Heese, R.; Krinsky, S.; Schuchman, J.; van Steenbergen, A.

    1979-01-01

    A 700 MeV electron storage ring designed for synchrotron radiation applications is described. Lattice and stability calculations are presented and the vacuum, correction and injection systems are discussed

  1. Panel backs next-generation synchrotron

    CERN Multimedia

    Service, R F

    1999-01-01

    A key federal panel recommended continued research into development of a fourth-generation synchrotron. It would be capable of creating x-ray pulses billions of times more intense than current designs (1 page).

  2. Plastic deformation in Al (Cu) interconnects stressed by electromigration and studied by synchrotron polychromatic X-ray microdiffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Advanced Light Source; UCLA; Chen, Kai; Chen, Kai; Tamura, Nobumichi; Valek, Bryan C.; Tu, King-Ning

    2008-05-14

    We report here an in-depth synchrotron radiation based white beam X-ray microdiffraction study of plasticity in individual grains of an Al (Cu) interconnect during the early stage of electromigration. The study shows a rearrangement of the geometrically necessary dislocations (GND) in bamboo typed grains during that stage. We find that about 90percent of the GNDs are oriented so that their line direction is the closest to the current flow direction. In non-bamboo typed grains, the Laue peak positions shift, indicating that the grains rotate. An analysis in terms of force directions has been carried out and is consistent with observed electromigration induced grain rotation and bending.

  3. Early British synchrotrons, an informal history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, J.D.

    1997-02-01

    An historical account of the design and construction of early synchrotrons in the United Kingdom, based partly on personal reminiscences, is presented. Material is also drawn from archives at Birmingham and CERN. The document covers the period from plans for the world's first synchrotron at Malvern after the Second World War to work done at Harwell Laboratory for CERN in the period 1951-1953. (UK)

  4. Synchrotron radiation from spherically accreting black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ipser, J.R.; Price, R.H.

    1982-01-01

    Spherical accretion onto a Schwartzchild black hole, of gas with frozen-in magnetic field, is studied numerically and analytically for a range of hole masses and accretion rates in which synchrotron emission is the dominant radiative mechanism. At small radii the equipartition of magnetic, kinetic, and gravitational energy is assumed to apply, and the gas is heated by dissipation of infalling magnetic energy, turbulent energy, etc. The models can be classified into three types: (a) synchrotron cooling negligible, (b) synchrotron cooling important but synchrotron self-absorption negligible, (c) synchrotron cooling and self-absorption important. In the first case gas temperatures become very high near the horizon but luminosity efficiencies (luminosity/mass-energy accretion rate) are low. In cases (b) and (c) the gas flow near the horizon is essentially isothermal and luminosity efficiencies are fairly high. The analysis and results for the isothermal cases (b) and (c) are valid only for moderate dissipative heating and synchrotron self-absorption. If self-absorption is very strong or if dissipated energy is comparable to infall energy, Comptonization effects, not included in the analysis, become important

  5. Starting up the Saturne synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvat, M.

    1958-02-01

    Illustrated by many drawings and graphs, this report describes and comments all operations and measurements to be performed for starting up the Saturne synchrotron until particle acceleration exclusively. The author reports the study of beam as it goes out of the Van de Graaff: experiment of position and stability of the beam axis, study of beam current and geometric characteristics (calibration of the induction probe), experiment of mass separation and proton percentage, and adjustment of regulation and Van de Graaff fall law. In a second part, he reports the optics alignment and the study of optics property (installation of the different sectors, study of inflector end voltage, and influence of inflector position in the chamber). The third part addresses the examination of phenomena associated with injection: injection method and definition of the initial instant, search for injection optimum conditions, study of particle lifetime and of phenomena on the inner probe. The fourth part proposes theoretical additional elements regarding the movement of particles at the injection in the useful area, and phenomena occurring on targets and on the inner probe

  6. Protein microcrystallography using synchrotron radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Yamamoto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The progress in X-ray microbeam applications using synchrotron radiation is beneficial to structure determination from macromolecular microcrystals such as small in meso crystals. However, the high intensity of microbeams causes severe radiation damage, which worsens both the statistical quality of diffraction data and their resolution, and in the worst cases results in the failure of structure determination. Even in the event of successful structure determination, site-specific damage can lead to the misinterpretation of structural features. In order to overcome this issue, technological developments in sample handling and delivery, data-collection strategy and data processing have been made. For a few crystals with dimensions of the order of 10 µm, an elegant two-step scanning strategy works well. For smaller samples, the development of a novel method to analyze multiple isomorphous microcrystals was motivated by the success of serial femtosecond crystallography with X-ray free-electron lasers. This method overcame the radiation-dose limit in diffraction data collection by using a sufficient number of crystals. Here, important technologies and the future prospects for microcrystallography are discussed.

  7. Removal of ring artifacts in microtomography by characterization of scintillator variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vågberg, William; Larsson, Jakob C; Hertz, Hans M

    2017-09-18

    Ring artifacts reduce image quality in tomography, and arise from faulty detector calibration. In microtomography, we have identified that ring artifacts can arise due to high-spatial frequency variations in the scintillator thickness. Such variations are normally removed by a flat-field correction. However, as the spectrum changes, e.g. due to beam hardening, the detector response varies non-uniformly introducing ring artifacts that persist after flat-field correction. In this paper, we present a method to correct for ring artifacts from variations in scintillator thickness by using a simple method to characterize the local scintillator response. The method addresses the actual physical cause of the ring artifacts, in contrary to many other ring artifact removal methods which rely only on image post-processing. By applying the technique to an experimental phantom tomography, we show that ring artifacts are strongly reduced compared to only making a flat-field correction.

  8. Comparison of agricultural soils' structure depending on tillage system using X-ray microtomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckers, Eléonore; Degré, Aurore; Ly, Sarann; Léonard, Angélique

    2010-05-01

    This study aims at characterizing agricultural soils' structure depending on the tillage system: conventional tillage or conservational tillage. Tillage reduction is an increasing practice, but the micro-structural effects on soils and on their hydrodynamic parameters are still not well described. Recent research shows non-converging results. Our point is to highlight fundamental differences in structure through characterization of soils porosity's parameters using X-ray microtomography measurements coupled to image analysis. This attempt is in line with a more integrated experiment of which the aim is to quantify the effects of tillage intensity on lateral flow production, and finally on global water balance. Parameters' measurements consist in a combined approach, based on two different space-time scales of exploration: fundamental scale, with soil sampling campaign for microtomography analysis, and field scale, with continuous flow measurements (plots' dimensions: 18*28 m). For their part, parameters for water balance determination (precipitation, evapotranspiration…) are monitored on the field. All of these measurements have the main objective of hydrological modeling enhancement by taking into account a better lateral flow description. Discussion in this paper will focus on the first results obtained by X-ray microtomography measurements. Our experiment takes place in Gentinnes (Walloon Brabant, Belgium), on a field organized in a split-plot scheme. Since 2004, plots have been cultivated in conventional tillage or in reduced tillage. The latter consists in sowing after stubble ploughing of about 10cm. The crop rotation is sugar beet followed by winter wheat. The soil is mainly composed of silt loam. Soils samples, with a 3 cm diameter and a 5 cm height, were removed from the upper layer (Ap horizon) for both management practices. Samples are scanned by X-ray microtomography using a Skyscan-1172 high-resolution desk-top micro-CT system (Skyscan, Kontich

  9. X-ray phase-contrast micro-tomography and image analysis of wood microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayo, Sheridan; Evans, Robert; Chen, Fiona; Lagerstrom, Ryan

    2009-01-01

    A number of commercially important properties of wood depend on details of the wood micro- and nano- structure. CSIRO Forest Biosciences have developed SilviScan, an analytical instrument which uses a number of high-speed techniques for analyzing these properties. X-ray micro-tomographic analysis of wood samples provides detailed 3D reconstructions of the wood microstructure which can be used to validate results from SilviScan measurements. A series of wood samples was analysed using laboratory-based phase-contrast x-ray micro-tomography. Image analysis techniques were applied to the 3D data sets to extract significant features and statistical properties of the specimens. These data provide a means of verification of results from the more rapid SilviScan techniques, and will clarify the results of micro-diffraction studies of wood microfibrils.

  10. Development of sealed sample containers and high resolution micro-tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uesugi, Kentaro, E-mail: ueken@spring8.or.jp; Takeuchi, Akihisa; Suzuki, Yoshio [Japan synchrotron radiation research institute, JASRI/SPring-8 Kouto 1-1-1, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 Japan (Japan); Uesugi, Masayuki [Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (ISAS/JAXA), Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Hamada, Hiroshi [NTT Advanced technology Corporation, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0124 (Japan)

    2016-01-28

    A sample container and a high resolution micro-tomography system have been developed at BL47XU at SPring-8. The container is made of a SiN membrane in a shape of truncated pyramid, which makes it possible to exclude oxygen and moisture in the air. The sample rotation stage for tomography is set downward to keep the sample in the container without any glue. The spatial resolution and field of view are 300 nm and 110 μm using a Fresnel zone plate objective with an outermost zone width of 100 nm at 8 keV, respectively. The scan time is about 20 minutes for 1800 projections. A 3-D image of an asteroid particle was successfully obtained without adhesive and contamination.

  11. Quantitative microtomography of ultrastructure in bones with 1 μm volumetric resolution (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Barry; Flynn, M. J.; Seifert, H. A.; Cai, Z.; Irving, T. C.

    2002-03-01

    Refractive and diffractive artifacts can dominate the spatial resolution and affect quantitative measurements by microtomography at the micron level. We have recently developed x-ray computed tomography methods that demonstrated 1 μm resolution in three dimension in the final reconstruction. The first method used a Fresnel zone plate to produce a submicron focal spot which was then rastered across the sample see W. Yun et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 2238 (1999). The second method used a collimated beam and a high resolution charge coupled device camera to capture the absorption image of the sample in close proximity see A. Koch et al., J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 1940 (1998). Both methods were applied to study the mineral ultrastructure of individual trabeculae. Using volumetric viewing, the volume, shape, and orientation of osteocyte lacunae and major cannaliculae can be observed. Quantitative measurements and comparison between the two methods will be presented.

  12. Analyzing the compressive behavior of porous Ti6Al4V by X-ray microtomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farias, Iván; Jimenez, Omar; Flores, Martín [Departamento de Ingeniería de Proyectos, Universidad de Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico); Olmos, Luís, E-mail: luisra24@gmail.com [Instituto de Investigaciones en Ciencias de la Tierra (INICIT), Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Michoacán (Mexico); Vergara-Hernández, Héctor Javier; Gárnica, Pedro [Instituto Tecnológico de Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); Bouvard, Didier [Science et Ingénierie des Matériaux et Procédés (SIMaP), Université Grenoble Alpes (France)

    2017-11-15

    Samples with 40% vol. of pores and a pore size distribution between 100 and 500 μm were produced by powder metallurgy from Ti6Al4V alloy powders. Sintering was performed at 1300 °C during one hour in an inert Argon atmosphere in a vertical dilatometer. The compressive strength and the porosity of these samples was investigated before and after compression tests through X-ray microtomography. The values of the elastic modulus (8GPa) and yield strength (80MPa) are within the range of those used in bone implants. Porosity leads to greater deformation whereas fracture of compacts occurs perpendicularly to the applied load. It was determined that the origin of the failure is generated by rupture of interparticle necks and, large pores enhance the propagation of cracks. (author)

  13. Analyzing the compressive behavior of porous Ti6Al4V by X-ray microtomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farias, Iván; Jimenez, Omar; Flores, Martín; Olmos, Luís; Vergara-Hernández, Héctor Javier; Gárnica, Pedro; Bouvard, Didier

    2017-01-01

    Samples with 40% vol. of pores and a pore size distribution between 100 and 500 μm were produced by powder metallurgy from Ti6Al4V alloy powders. Sintering was performed at 1300 °C during one hour in an inert Argon atmosphere in a vertical dilatometer. The compressive strength and the porosity of these samples was investigated before and after compression tests through X-ray microtomography. The values of the elastic modulus (8GPa) and yield strength (80MPa) are within the range of those used in bone implants. Porosity leads to greater deformation whereas fracture of compacts occurs perpendicularly to the applied load. It was determined that the origin of the failure is generated by rupture of interparticle necks and, large pores enhance the propagation of cracks. (author)

  14. Prospects of x-ray microscopy and x-ray microtomography for interface studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erre, D.; Thomas, X.; Mouze, D.; Patat, J.M.; Trebbia, P.; Cazaux, J.

    1992-01-01

    Microfocal x-ray projection microscopy allows the non-destructive investigation of thick specimens with a lateral resolution in the micrometre range. The minimum detectable thickness lies below 100 nm for strongly absorbing materials. For further investigation, x-ray microtomography leads to three-dimensional reconstruction of the specimen. Some applications of x-ray microscopy are connected with the localization and imaging of solid/solid interfaces deeply buried in a matrix. In the future, solid/liquid interfaces and their motion will be of interest. The performance of x-ray microscopy is discussed and x-ray projection images obtained with a simple modified scanning electron microscope are shown. (author)

  15. Development of high energy micro-tomography system at SPring-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uesugi, Kentaro; Hoshino, Masato

    2017-09-01

    A high energy X-ray micro-tomography system has been developed at BL20B2 in SPring-8. The available range of the energy is between 20keV and 113keV with a Si (511) double crystal monochromator. The system enables us to image large or heavy materials such as fossils and metals. The X-ray image detector consists of visible light conversion system and sCMOS camera. The effective pixel size is variable by changing a tandem lens between 6.5 μm/pixel and 25.5 μm/pixel discretely. The format of the camera is 2048 pixels x 2048 pixels. As a demonstration of the system, alkaline battery and a nodule from Bolivia were imaged. A detail of the structure of the battery and a female mold Trilobite were successfully imaged without breaking those fossils.

  16. A simple and robust method for artifacts correction on X-ray microtomography images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofey, Sizonenko; Marina, Karsanina; Dina, Gilyazetdinova; Irina, Bayuk; Kirill, Gerke

    2017-04-01

    X-ray microtomography images of rock material often have some kinds of distortion due to different reasons such as X-ray attenuation, beam hardening, irregularity of distribution of liquid/solid phases. Several kinds of distortion can arise from further image processing and stitching of images from different measurements. Beam-hardening is a well-known and studied distortion which is relative easy to be described, fitted and corrected using a number of equations. However, this is not the case for other grey scale intensity distortions. Shading by irregularity of distribution of liquid phases, incorrect scanner operating/parameters choosing, as well as numerous artefacts from mathematical reconstructions from projections, including stitching from separate scans cannot be described using single mathematical model. To correct grey scale intensities on large 3D images we developed a package Traditional method for removing the beam hardening [1] has been modified in order to find the center of distortion. The main contribution of this work is in development of a method for arbitrary image correction. This method is based on fitting the distortion by Bezier curve using image histogram. The distortion along the image is represented by a number of Bezier curves and one base line that characterizes the natural distribution of gray value along the image. All of these curves are set manually by the operator. We have tested our approaches on different X-ray microtomography images of porous media. Arbitrary correction removes all principal distortion. After correction the images has been binarized with subsequent pore-network extracted. Equal distribution of pore-network elements along the image was the criteria to verify the proposed technique to correct grey scale intensities. [1] Iassonov, P. and Tuller, M., 2010. Application of segmentation for correction of intensity bias in X-ray computed tomography images. Vadose Zone Journal, 9(1), pp.187-191.

  17. Microstructural characterization of industrial foams by gamma ray transmission and X-ray microtomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Luiz Eduardo

    2004-01-01

    This work presents the total porosity measurements of the aluminum and silicon carbide (SiC) foams samples. For porosity determination the gamma ray transmission and X-ray microtomography with conic beam techniques were used. These methods have more advantage than conventional ones, because they are non destructive and provide more details of the analyzed material porous structure. The aluminum foam samples with 10, 20, 30, 40 and 45 ppi (pores per inch) and SiC ceramic foam samples with 20, 30, 45, 60, 75, 80 and 90 ppi were analysed by gamma transmission. The SiC 60, 75 and 90 ppi samples were also analyzed by X-ray microtomography. For the gamma ray transmission measurements it was used an 241 Am source (59.53 keV), a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector, collimators, a XYZ micrometric table and standard gamma spectrometry electronics connected to a multichannel analyzer, at the LFNA/UEL. For the X-ray microtomographic measurements, the Fein Focus X-ray system of the Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory of the COPPE, located at the Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, was used. This equipment provide us images with micrometric resolution (53.48 μm) using a conic X-ray beam and bidimensional detection. The microtomographic images were pre-processed and analyzed by the Imago software, developed at Porous Media and Materials Thermophysical Properties Laboratory (LMPT) of the Mechanical Engineering Department, located at Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC. Employing the The Imago software it was calculated the total porosity, pore size distribution and autocorrelation function C(u) of the binarized microtomographic images of the each sample. The microtomographic 3-D image of each sample was compared with 3-D image reconstructed by the Gaussian truncated method. This method generates a periodic 3-D porous structure by using of the autocorrelation function of one 2-D cross sectional image of the sample. (author)

  18. Radiation-Based Medical Imaging Techniques: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, John O.; Lecoq, Paul

    This chapter will present an overview of two radiation-based medical imaging techniques using radiopharmaceuticals used in nuclear medicine/molecular imaging, namely, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET). The relative merits in terms of radiation sensitivity and image resolution of SPECT and PET will be compared to the main conventional radiologic modalities that are computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Differences in terms of temporal resolution will also be outlined, as well as the other similarities and dissimilarities of these two techniques, including their latest and upcoming multimodality combination. The main clinical applications are briefly described and examples of specific SPECT and PET radiopharmaceuticals are listed. SPECT and PET imaging will be then further detailed in the two subsequent chapters describing in greater depth the basics and future trends of each technique (see Chaps. 37, "SPECT Imaging: Basics and New Trends" 10.1007/978-3-642-13271-1_37 and 38, "PET Imaging: Basics and New Trends" 10.1007/978-3-642-13271-1_38.

  19. In Situ X-ray Microtomography of Stress Corrosion Cracking and Corrosion Fatigue in Aluminum Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sudhanshu S.; Stannard, Tyler J.; Xiao, Xianghui; Chawla, Nikhilesh

    2017-08-01

    Structural materials are subjected to combinations of stress and corrosive environments that work synergistically to cause premature failure. Therefore, studies on the combined effect of stress and corrosive environments on material behavior are required. Existing studies have been performed in two dimensions that are inadequate for full comprehension of the three-dimensional (3D) processes related to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and corrosion-fatigue (CF) behavior. Recently, x-ray synchrotron tomography has evolved as an excellent technique to obtain the microstructure in 3D. Moreover, being nondestructive in nature, x-ray synchrotron tomography is well suited to study the evolution of microstructure with time (4D, or fourth dimension in time). This article presents our recent 4D studies on SCC and CF of Al 7075 alloys using x-ray synchrotron tomography.

  20. Pore formation during dehydration of a polycrystalline gypsum sample observed and quantified in a time-series synchrotron X-ray micro-tomography experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusseis, F.; Schrank, C.; Liu, J.; Karrech, A.; Llana-Fúnez, S.; Xiao, X.; Regenauer-Lieb, K.

    2012-03-01

    We conducted an in-situ X-ray micro-computed tomography heating experiment at the Advanced Photon Source (USA) to dehydrate an unconfined 2.3 mm diameter cylinder of Volterra Gypsum. We used a purpose-built X-ray transparent furnace to heat the sample to 388 K for a total of 310 min to acquire a three-dimensional time-series tomography dataset comprising nine time steps. The voxel size of 2.2 μm3 proved sufficient to pinpoint reaction initiation and the organization of drainage architecture in space and time. We observed that dehydration commences across a narrow front, which propagates from the margins to the centre of the sample in more than four hours. The advance of this front can be fitted with a square-root function, implying that the initiation of the reaction in the sample can be described as a diffusion process. Novel parallelized computer codes allow quantifying the geometry of the porosity and the drainage architecture from the very large tomographic datasets (20483 voxels) in unprecedented detail. We determined position, volume, shape and orientation of each resolvable pore and tracked these properties over the duration of the experiment. We found that the pore-size distribution follows a power law. Pores tend to be anisotropic but rarely crack-shaped and have a preferred orientation, likely controlled by a pre-existing fabric in the sample. With on-going dehydration, pores coalesce into a single interconnected pore cluster that is connected to the surface of the sample cylinder and provides an effective drainage pathway. Our observations can be summarized in a model in which gypsum is stabilized by thermal expansion stresses and locally increased pore fluid pressures until the dehydration front approaches to within about 100 μm. Then, the internal stresses are released and dehydration happens efficiently, resulting in new pore space. Pressure release, the production of pores and the advance of the front are coupled in a feedback loop.

  1. Pore formation during dehydration of a polycrystalline gypsum sample observed and quantified in a time-series synchrotron X-ray micro-tomography experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fusseis

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We conducted an in-situ X-ray micro-computed tomography heating experiment at the Advanced Photon Source (USA to dehydrate an unconfined 2.3 mm diameter cylinder of Volterra Gypsum. We used a purpose-built X-ray transparent furnace to heat the sample to 388 K for a total of 310 min to acquire a three-dimensional time-series tomography dataset comprising nine time steps. The voxel size of 2.2 μm3 proved sufficient to pinpoint reaction initiation and the organization of drainage architecture in space and time.

    We observed that dehydration commences across a narrow front, which propagates from the margins to the centre of the sample in more than four hours. The advance of this front can be fitted with a square-root function, implying that the initiation of the reaction in the sample can be described as a diffusion process.

    Novel parallelized computer codes allow quantifying the geometry of the porosity and the drainage architecture from the very large tomographic datasets (20483 voxels in unprecedented detail. We determined position, volume, shape and orientation of each resolvable pore and tracked these properties over the duration of the experiment. We found that the pore-size distribution follows a power law. Pores tend to be anisotropic but rarely crack-shaped and have a preferred orientation, likely controlled by a pre-existing fabric in the sample. With on-going dehydration, pores coalesce into a single interconnected pore cluster that is connected to the surface of the sample cylinder and provides an effective drainage pathway.

    Our observations can be summarized in a model in which gypsum is stabilized by thermal expansion stresses and locally increased pore fluid pressures until the dehydration front approaches to within about 100 μm. Then, the internal stresses are released and dehydration happens efficiently, resulting in new pore space. Pressure release, the production of pores and the advance of the front are coupled in a feedback loop.

  2. Void and Phase Evolution during the Processing of Bi-2212 Superconducting Wires monitored by combined fast Synchrotron Micro-tomography and X-Ray Diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    Scheuerlein, C; Scheel, M; Jiang, J; Kametani, F; Malagoli, A; Hellstrom, E E; Larbalestier, D C

    2011-01-01

    Recent study of the current-limiting mechanisms in Bi-2212 round wires has suggested that agglomeration of the residual Bi-2212 powder porosity into bubbles of filament-diameter size occurs on melting the Bi-2212 filaments. These pores introduce a major obstacle to current flow, which greatly reduces the critical current density (Jc). Here we present an in situ non-destructive tomographic and diffraction study of the changes occurring during the heat treatment of wires and starting powder, as well as a room temperature study of ex situ processed wires. The in situ through-process study shows that the agglomeration of residual porosity is more complex than previously seen. Filament changes start with coalescence of the quasi-uniform and finely divided powder porosity into lens-shaped defects at about 850 0C when the Bi-2201 impurity phase decomposes before the Bi-2212 starts to melt. These lens-shaped voids grow to bubbles of a filament diameter on melting of the Bi-2212 and continue to lengthen and then to ag...

  3. X-ray microtomography scanner using time-delay integration for elimination of ring artefacts in the reconstructed image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, G.R.; London Univ.; Elliott, J.C.; London Univ.

    1997-01-01

    Most X-ray microtomography scanners work on the same principle as third-generation medical CT scanners, that is, the same point in each projection is measured by the same detector element. This leads to ring artefacts in the reconstructed image if the X-ray sensitivities of the individual detector elements, after any analytical correction, are not all identical. We have developed an X-ray microtomography scanner which uses the time-delay integration method of imaging with a CCD detector to average the characteristics of all the detector elements in each linear projection together. This has the added advantage of allowing specimens which are larger than the detector and X-ray field to be scanned. The device also uses a novel mechanical stage to ''average out'' inhomogeneities in the X-ray field. The results show that ring artefacts in microtomographic images are eliminated using this technique. (orig.)

  4. Nano particle fluidisation in model 2-D and 3-D beds using high speed X-ray imaging and microtomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gundogdu, O.; Jenneson, P. M.; Tuzun, U.

    2007-01-01

    Nanoparticles and nanocomposites have become a major focus of interest in science and technology due to exceptional properties they provide. However, handling and processing of ultra-fine powders is very challenging because they are extremely cohesive. Fluidization is one of techniques available to process powders. It has become increasingly important to understand how these nanoparticles can be handled and processed to benefit from their favourable properties. A high spatial (down to 400 nm) and temporal resolution (down to 1 ms) X-ray imaging apparatus has been designed to study nanoparticles in fluidized beds under different gas flow velocities. The mean volume distribution of the nanoparticle agglomerates was determined with X-ray microtomography. The X-ray microtomography technique provides valuable in situ, non-destructive structural information on the morphological changes that take place during fluidisation of powder samples

  5. Tensile rupture of medial arterial tissue studied by X-ray micro-tomography on stained samples

    OpenAIRE

    Helfenstein-Didier, Clémentine; Taïnoff, Damien; Viville, Julien; Adrien, Jérôme; Maire, Éric; Badel, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Detailed characterization of damage and rupture mechanics of arteries is one the current challenges in vascular biomechanics, which requires developing suitable experimental approaches. This paper introduces an approach using in situ tensile tests in an X-ray micro-tomography setup to observe mechanisms of damage initiation and progression in medial layers of porcine aortic samples. The technique requires the use of sodium polytungstate as a contrast agent, of which the conditions for use are...

  6. Variability in coiling technique in LBK pottery inferred by experiments and pore structure micro-tomography analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Neumannová, Klára; Petřík, J.; Vostrovská, I.; Dvořák, J.; Zikmund, T.; Kaiser, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 2 (2017), s. 172-186 ISSN 0323-1267 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-07062S Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1601; GA ČR(CZ) GA17-11711S Program:LQ; GA Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : forming techniques * micro-tomography * Neolithic * Linear Pottery culture (LBK) Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology OBOR OECD: Archaeology

  7. Metrology of reflection optics for synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takacs, P.Z.

    1985-09-01

    Recent years have seen an almost explosive growth in the number of beam lines on new and existing synchrotron radiation facilities throughout the world. The need for optical components to utilize the unique characteristics of synchrotron radiation has increased accordingly. Unfortunately, the technology to manufacture and measure the large, smooth, exotic optical surfaces required to focus and steer the synchrotron radiation beam has not progressed as rapidly as the operational demands on these components. Most companies do not wish to become involved with a project that requires producing a single, very expensive, aspheric optic with surface roughness and figure tolerances that are beyond their capabilities to measure. This paper will review some of the experiences of the National Synchrotron Light Source in procuring grazing incidence optical components over the past several years. We will review the specification process - how it is related to the function of the optic, and how it relates to the metrology available during the manufacturing process and after delivery to the user's laboratory. We will also discuss practical aspects of our experience with new technologies, such as single point diamond turning of metal mirrors and the use of SiC as a mirror material. Recent advances in metrology instrumentation have the potential to move the measurement of surface figure and finish from the research laboratory into the optical shop, which should stimulate growth and interest in the manufacturing of optics to meet the needs of the synchrotron radiation user community

  8. Synchrotron radiation applications in medical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomlinson, W.

    1995-01-01

    The medical projects employing synchrotron radiation as discussed in this paper are, for the most part, still in their infancies and no one can predict the direction in which they will develop. Both the basic research and applied medical programs are sure to be advanced at the new facilities coming on line, especially the ESRF and Spring- 8. However, success is not guaranteed. There is a lot of competition from advances in conventional imaging with the development of digital angiography, computed tomography, functional magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound. The synchrotron programs will have to provide significant advantages over these modalities in order to be accepted by the medical profession. Advances in image processing and potentially the development of compact sources will be required in order to move the synchrotron developed imaging technologies into the clinical world. In any event, it can be expected that the images produced by the synchrotron technologies will establish ''gold standards'' to be targeted by conventional modalities. A lot more work needs to be done in order to bring synchrotron radiation therapy and surgery to the level of human studies and, subsequently, to clinical applications

  9. Fifth school on Magnetism and Synchrotron Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Beaurepaire, Eric; Scheurer, Fabrice; Kappler, Jean-Paul; Magnetism and Synchrotron Radiation : New Trends

    2010-01-01

    Advances in the synthesis of new materials with often complex, nano-scaled structures require increasingly sophisticated experimental techniques that can probe the electronic states, the atomic magnetic moments and the magnetic microstructures responsible for the properties of these materials. At the same time, progress in synchrotron radiation techniques has ensured that these light sources remain a key tool of investigation, e.g. synchrotron radiation sources of the third generation are able to support magnetic imaging on a sub-micrometer scale. With the Fifth Mittelwihr School on Magnetism and Synchrotron Radiation the tradition of teaching the state-of-the-art on modern research developments continues and is expressed through the present set of extensive lectures provided in this volume. While primarily aimed at postgraduate students and newcomers to the field, this volume will also benefit researchers and lecturers actively working in the field.

  10. Chemical applications of synchrotron radiation: Workshop report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-04-01

    The most recent in a series of topical meetings for Advanced Photon Source user subgroups, the Workshop on Chemical Applications of Synchrotron Radiation (held at Argonne National Laboratory, October 3-4, 1988) dealt with surfaces and kinetics, spectroscopy, small-angle scattering, diffraction, and topography and imaging. The primary objectives were to provide an educational resource for the chemistry community on the scientific research being conducted at existing synchrotron sources and to indicate some of the unique opportunities that will be made available with the Advanced Photon Source. The workshop organizers were also interested in gauging the interest of chemists in the field of synchrotron radiation. Interest expressed at the meeting has led to initial steps toward formation of a Chemistry Users Group at the APS. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases.

  11. Chemical applications of synchrotron radiation: Workshop report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-04-01

    The most recent in a series of topical meetings for Advanced Photon Source user subgroups, the Workshop on Chemical Applications of Synchrotron Radiation (held at Argonne National Laboratory, October 3-4, 1988) dealt with surfaces and kinetics, spectroscopy, small-angle scattering, diffraction, and topography and imaging. The primary objectives were to provide an educational resource for the chemistry community on the scientific research being conducted at existing synchrotron sources and to indicate some of the unique opportunities that will be made available with the Advanced Photon Source. The workshop organizers were also interested in gauging the interest of chemists in the field of synchrotron radiation. Interest expressed at the meeting has led to initial steps toward formation of a Chemistry Users Group at the APS. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases

  12. Synchrotron environmental laboratory (SUL) at Anka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denecke, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    A research facility dedicated to environmental/geochemical research, the Synchrotron Environmental Laboratory (SUL), is planned to be installed and operated at ANKA. ANKA is the new synchrotron facility at the Research Centre Karlsruhe (FZK), Karlsruhe, Germany. ANKA is now in commissioning and planning operations for the fall of 2000. As the Institute for Nuclear Waste Disposal (INE) at FZK conducts a vigorous synchrotron-based research programme, INE was instrumental in the original impetus for installing such a facility at ANKA. These research activities at INE concentrate on actinide speciation in nuclear waste forms, geological media and geochemical model systems. In order for INE to direct their synchrotron research activities to ANKA, equipment and licensing required for performing experiments on actinide-containing samples is required. One great advantage of performing experiments on actinide-containing samples at ANKA is that the INE radiological laboratories lie in the near vicinity of the facility. This will minimise transport hazards and costs and allow experiments to be performed on samples whose characteristics may change with time. Experiments on radioactive samples with activities below the exemption level, according to German regulations, will be possible at ANKA at the start of operations. Licensing for work on higher levels of activity will be applied for in the future. The decades of experience in radiological work at FZK will facilitate development of procedure and equipment as prerequisites to licensing. A consortium of synchrotron radiation-user groups with environmental research interests has specified their requirements and needs for this facility. This scientific case serves as the foundation for the SUL design and is the basis for an application for federal funding. The SUL design reflects the heterogeneity and complexity of challenges facing researchers in the environmental/geochemical sciences. X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS

  13. Challenges and opportunities in synchrotron radiation optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehn, V.

    Design necessities germaine to advances in optics for experimentation with synchrotron radiation are explored. Objectives for development include improved beam-line performance using new mirror materials or coatings, filtering and order-sorting enhancement, and lower surface scattering. A summary is presented of optical systems currently in use, together with requirements imposed by storage rings and experimental design. Advances are recommended in intensity, collimation, focus, and spectral purity of synchrotron beam lines. Any new storage ring mirror is noted to be required to dissipate several hundred watts, something which polished Cu is mentioned as being capable of handling, while standard SiO2 mirrors cannot.

  14. Proposal for a national synchrotron light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blewett, J.P.

    1977-02-01

    Since 1971 discussions have been held at Brookhaven National Laboratory on the desirability of construction of a storage ring which would be used exclusively for production of intense beams of photons with wavelengths in the ultraviolet and X-ray ranges. A proposal is given which discusses in detail the machine, its characteristics, and its expected uses. The proposal includes: (1) characteristics of synchrotron radiation; (2) scientific justification for a synchrotron radiation facility; (3) facility design; (4) wiggler magnets; (5) experimental facilities; (6) buildings and utilities; (7) construction schedules, costs, and manpower; and (8) environmental assessment

  15. 12 Experimental Techniques at Synchrotron Lightsource Beamlines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Peter L [US Department of Energy Office of Science Office Basic Energy Sciences; Rhyne, James J [US Department of Energy Office of Science Office of Basic Energy Sciences

    2015-01-01

    The unique properties of synchrotron radiation are its continuous spectrum, high flux and brightness, and high coherence, which make it an indispensable tool in the exploration of matter. The wavelengths of the emitted photons span a range of dimensions from the atomic level to biological cells, thereby providing incisive probes for advanced research in materials science, physical and chemical sciences, metrology, geosciences, environmental sciences, biosciences, medical sciences, and pharmaceutical sciences. The features of synchrotron radiation are especially well matched to the needs of nanoscience.

  16. Preliminar plan of a machine for the synchrotron radiation production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moscati, G.; Takahashi, J.; Miyao, Y.

    1985-01-01

    A preliminar plan, with all the technical specifications, for the construction of a machine for the synchrotron radiation production to be done by the National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory in Brazil is presented. (L.C.) [pt

  17. What is a synchrotron and why does Australia need one?

    CERN Document Server

    Nugent, K A

    2002-01-01

    Construction of a $157 million synchrotron will soon begin in Melbourne. The author describes what this facility means for Australian science. The Australian synchrotron is a third generation device. The facility would have the capacity to do a wide range of science and technology at the same time. A number of applications, which are the priority for the Australian synchrotron project are briefly described. The huge technological spin-offs of this knowledge have made synchrotrons an attractive proposition to state governments

  18. Spectral Evolution of Synchrotron and Inverse Compton Emission in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and the 0.5–10 keV fluxes for the IC component, and Fig. 2(c) the synchrotron and. IC 0.5–10 keV fluxes are plotted against the total (i.e., synchrotron plus IC) 0.5–10. keV fluxes, respectively. The results can be summarized as follows. The synchrotron spectra appear to harden with larger synchrotron fluxes, whereas the IC ...

  19. Ex vivo and in vitro synchrotron-based micro-imaging of biocompatible materials applied in dental surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rack, A.; Stiller, M.; Nelson, K.; Knabe, C.; Rack, T.; Zabler, S.; Dalügge, O.; Riesemeier, H.; Cecilia, A.; Goebbels, J.

    2010-09-01

    Biocompatible materials such as porous bioactive calcium phosphate ceramics or titanium are regularly applied in dental surgery: ceramics are used to support the local bone regeneration in a given defect, afterwards titanium implants replace lost teeth. The current gold standard for bone reconstruction in implant dentistry is the use of autogenous bone grafts. But the concept of guided bone regeneration (GBR) has become a predictable and well documented surgical approach using biomaterials (bioactive calcium phosphate ceramics) which qualify as bone substitutes for this kind of application as well. We applied high resolution synchrotron microtomography and subsequent 3d image analysis in order to investigate bone formation and degradation of the bone substitute material in a three-dimensional manner, extending the knowledge beyond the limits of classical histology. Following the bone regeneration, titanium-based implants to replace lost teeth call for high mechanical precision, especially when two-piece concepts are used in order to guaranty leak tightness. Here, synchrotron-based radiography in comparison with classical laboratory radiography yields high spatial resolution in combination with high contrast even when exploiting micro-sized features in these kind of highly attenuating objects. Therefore, we could study micro-gap formation at interfaces in two-piece dental implants with the specimen under different mechanical load. We could prove the existence of micro-gaps for implants with conical connections as well as to study the micromechanical behavior of the mating zone of conical implants during loading. The micro-gap is a potential issue of failure, i. e. bacterial leakage which can induce an inflammatory process.

  20. Characterization of porosity in a 19th century painting ground by synchrotron radiation X-ray tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gervais, Claire [Swiss Institute for Art Research (SIK-ISEA), Zuerich (Switzerland); Bern University of the Arts, Bern (Switzerland); Boon, Jaap J. [Swiss Institute for Art Research (SIK-ISEA), Zuerich (Switzerland); JAAP Enterprise for MOLART Advice, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Marone, Federica [Paul Scherrer Institute, Swiss Light Source (SLS), Villigen (Switzerland); Ferreira, Ester S.B. [Swiss Institute for Art Research (SIK-ISEA), Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2013-04-15

    The study of the early oeuvre of the Swiss painter Cuno Amiet (1868-1961) has revealed that, up to 1907, many of his grounds were hand applied and are mainly composed of chalk, bound in protein. These grounds are not only lean and absorbent, but also, as Synchrotron radiation X-ray microtomography has shown, porous. Our approach to the characterization of pore structure and quantity, their connectivity, and homogeneity is based on image segmentation and application of a clustering algorithm to high-resolution X-ray tomographic data. The issues associated with the segmentation of the different components of a ground sample based on X-ray imaging data are discussed. The approach applied to a sample taken from ''Portrait of Max Leu'' (1899) by Amiet revealed the presence of three sublayers within the ground with distinct porosity features, which had not been observed optically in cross-section. The upper and lower layers are highly porous with important connectivity and thus prone to water uptake/storage. The middle layer however shows low and nonconnected porosity at the resolution level of the X-ray tomography images, so that few direct water absorption paths through the entire sample exist. The potential of the method to characterize porosity and to understand moisture-related issues in paint layer degradation are discussed. (orig.)

  1. Characterization of porosity in a 19th century painting ground by synchrotron radiation X-ray tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gervais, Claire; Boon, Jaap J.; Marone, Federica; Ferreira, Ester S.B.

    2013-01-01

    The study of the early oeuvre of the Swiss painter Cuno Amiet (1868-1961) has revealed that, up to 1907, many of his grounds were hand applied and are mainly composed of chalk, bound in protein. These grounds are not only lean and absorbent, but also, as Synchrotron radiation X-ray microtomography has shown, porous. Our approach to the characterization of pore structure and quantity, their connectivity, and homogeneity is based on image segmentation and application of a clustering algorithm to high-resolution X-ray tomographic data. The issues associated with the segmentation of the different components of a ground sample based on X-ray imaging data are discussed. The approach applied to a sample taken from ''Portrait of Max Leu'' (1899) by Amiet revealed the presence of three sublayers within the ground with distinct porosity features, which had not been observed optically in cross-section. The upper and lower layers are highly porous with important connectivity and thus prone to water uptake/storage. The middle layer however shows low and nonconnected porosity at the resolution level of the X-ray tomography images, so that few direct water absorption paths through the entire sample exist. The potential of the method to characterize porosity and to understand moisture-related issues in paint layer degradation are discussed. (orig.)

  2. Reflectometry with synchrotron radiation; Reflektometrie mit Synchrotronstrahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krumrey, Michael [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Berlin (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe ' Roentgenradiometrie' ; Cibik, Levent; Fischer, Andreas; Gottwald, Alexander; Kroth, Udo; Scholze, Frank

    2014-09-15

    The measurement of the reflectivity for VUV, XUV, and X-radiation at the PTB synchrotron radiation sources is described. The corresponding data of the used beams are presented. Results of experiments on a Cu-Ni double-layer, SiO{sub 2}, Si, and MgF{sub 2} are presented. (HSI)

  3. Assessing noise sources at synchrotron infrared ports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerch, Ph.; Dumas, P.; Schilcher, T.; Nadji, A.; Luedeke, A.; Hubert, N.; Cassinari, L.; Boege, M.; Denard, J.-C.; Stingelin, L.; Nadolski, L.; Garvey, T.; Albert, S.; Gough, Ch.; Quack, M.; Wambach, J.; Dehler, M.; Filhol, J.-M.

    2012-01-01

    Low-frequency noise present in the electron and photon beams of two comparable storage rings, SOLEIL and SLS, are carefully compared in the context of IR spectroscopy using the Fourier transform technique. Today, the vast majority of electron storage rings delivering synchrotron radiation for general user operation offer a dedicated infrared port. There is growing interest expressed by various scientific communities to exploit the mid-IR emission in microspectroscopy, as well as the far infrared (also called THz) range for spectroscopy. Compared with a thermal (laboratory-based source), IR synchrotron radiation sources offer enhanced brilliance of about two to three orders of magnitude in the mid-IR energy range, and enhanced flux and brilliance in the far-IR energy range. Synchrotron radiation also has a unique combination of a broad wavelength band together with a well defined time structure. Thermal sources (globar, mercury filament) have excellent stability. Because the sampling rate of a typical IR Fourier-transform spectroscopy experiment is in the kHz range (depending on the bandwidth of the detector), instabilities of various origins present in synchrotron radiation sources play a crucial role. Noise recordings at two different IR ports located at the Swiss Light Source and SOLEIL (France), under conditions relevant to real experiments, are discussed. The lowest electron beam fluctuations detectable in IR spectra have been quantified and are shown to be much smaller than what is routinely recorded by beam-position monitors

  4. Atomic physics research with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crasemann, B.

    1981-01-01

    Applications of synchrotron radiation to research in high-energy atomic physics are summarized. These lie in the areas of photoelectron spectrometry, photon scattering, x-ray absorption spectroscopy, time-resolved measurements, resonance spectroscopy and threshold excitation, and future, yet undefined studies

  5. Overview of United States synchrotron radiation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    There has been considerable activity within the past year involving the creation of new and the improvement of existing capabilities for research with synchrotron light. The purpose of this review is to summarize what has happened within the United States. Being a status report, some of the information necessarily has a date attached to it - the date, in this case, being early September 1983

  6. X-ray spectrometry and X-ray microtomography techniques for soil and geological samples analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubala-Kukuś, A.; Banaś, D.; Braziewicz, J. [Institute of Physics, Jan Kochanowski University, ul. Świetokrzyska 15, 25-406 Kielce (Poland); Holycross Cancer Center, ul. Artwińskiego 3, 25-734 Kielce (Poland); Dziadowicz, M.; Kopeć, E. [Institute of Physics, Jan Kochanowski University, ul. Świetokrzyska 15, 25-406 Kielce (Poland); Majewska, U. [Institute of Physics, Jan Kochanowski University, ul. Świetokrzyska 15, 25-406 Kielce (Poland); Holycross Cancer Center, ul. Artwińskiego 3, 25-734 Kielce (Poland); Mazurek, M.; Pajek, M.; Sobisz, M.; Stabrawa, I. [Institute of Physics, Jan Kochanowski University, ul. Świetokrzyska 15, 25-406 Kielce (Poland); Wudarczyk-Moćko, J. [Holycross Cancer Center, ul. Artwińskiego 3, 25-734 Kielce (Poland); Góźdź, S. [Holycross Cancer Center, ul. Artwińskiego 3, 25-734 Kielce (Poland); Institute of Public Health, Jan Kochanowski University, IX Wieków Kielc 19, 25-317 Kielce (Poland)

    2015-12-01

    A particular subject of X-ray fluorescence analysis is its application in studies of the multielemental sample of composition in a wide range of concentrations, samples with different matrices, also inhomogeneous ones and those characterized with different grain size. Typical examples of these kinds of samples are soil or geological samples for which XRF elemental analysis may be difficult due to XRF disturbing effects. In this paper the WDXRF technique was applied in elemental analysis concerning different soil and geological samples (therapeutic mud, floral soil, brown soil, sandy soil, calcium aluminum cement). The sample morphology was analyzed using X-ray microtomography technique. The paper discusses the differences between the composition of samples, the influence of procedures with respect to the preparation of samples as regards their morphology and, finally, a quantitative analysis. The results of the studies were statistically tested (one-way ANOVA and correlation coefficients). For lead concentration determination in samples of sandy soil and cement-like matrix, the WDXRF spectrometer calibration was performed. The elemental analysis of the samples was complemented with knowledge of chemical composition obtained by X-ray powder diffraction.

  7. Determination of SiC ceramic foams microstructure properties by X-rays microtomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Rodrigo; Appoloni, Carlos Roberto; Fernandes, Jaquiel Salvi

    2009-01-01

    Silicon carbide ceramic foams (SiC) can operate at high temperatures, which allow them to be used as heat exchangers, liquid metal filters, composite of rocket nozzles, etc. For many of these applications it is very important to know the foams' porosity. In this work the porosity of SiC ceramic foams was determined by X-rays microtomography, a powerful non-destructive technique that allows the analysis of the sample's internal structure. The samples have pore densities of 30, 45, 60, 80 and 100 pores per inch (ppi). The spatial resolution obtained was 24.8 μm. The cross sections' reconstruction was performed with a cone beam filtered backprojection algorithm. In the analyses, micropores were observed in the foam's lattice wire of the 30 ppi and 45 ppi samples. Micropores were present in few cross sections of 60 ppi sample too, but it was not found in the 80 ppi and 100 ppi samples. The total porosities obtained were Φ = (88.8 ± 4.3) %, Φ = (85.2 ± 1.4) %, Φ = (82.3 ± 1.8) %, Φ (79.9 ± 1.3) % and Φ = (80.4 ± 1.5) %, for the 30, 45, 60, 80 and 100 ppi samples, respectively. (author)

  8. Quantitative comparison of X-ray fluorescence microtomography setups: Standard and confocal collimator apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chukalina, M. [Institute of Microelectronics Technology RAS, 142432, Chernogolovka, Moscow District (Russian Federation)], E-mail: marina@ipmt-hpm.ac.ru; Simionovici, A. [Laboratoire de Geophysique Interne et Tectonophysique, University of Grenoble, BP 53, 38041, Grenoble (France)], E-mail: alexandre.simionovici@ujf-grenoble.fr; Zaitsev, S. [Institute of Microelectronics Technology RAS, 142432, Chernogolovka, Moscow District (Russian Federation)], E-mail: zaitsev@ipmt-hpm.ac.ru; Vanegas, C.J. [Institute of Microelectronics Technology RAS, 142432, Chernogolovka, Moscow District (Russian Federation)], E-mail: vanegas@ipmt-hpm.ac.ru

    2007-07-15

    Recently, there has been a renewed interest for fluorescence spectroscopy, as provided by modern setups which allow 2D and 3D imaging of elemental distributions. Two directions are currently under development: the SR-based fluorescence tomography in polar scanning geometry, provided by the new generation of X-ray microprobes and the confocal scanning geometry, which can be fielded in both SR and laboratory environments. The new probes bring forth a new age in fluorescence spectrometry: high resolution, high intensity and high sensitivity which allow 3D elemental mapping of volumes. The major task now is the development of these complex tools into fully quantitative probes, reproducible and straightforward for general use. In this work we analyze two X-ray fluorescence microtomography techniques: an apparatus tomography using a confocal collimator for the data collection and a standard first generation Computed Tomography (CT) in the parallel scanning scheme. We calculate the deposited dose (amount of energy deposited and distributed in the sample during the data collection time) and find the conditions for the choice of the tomography scheme.

  9. Application of morphological operations in the X-rays microtomography measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Alessandra C.; Machado, Alessandra S.; Lopes, Ricardo T.; Lima, Inaya, E-mail: alecastro@lin.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear

    2013-07-01

    The extraction of 3D geometry information in digital images can be done by a process called renderization through image processing analysis. As a result a new image with specific information, depending on the desired application is created. The goal of this work is to evaluate the quantification process of geometric parameters such as the volume of a hole made in a carbonate rock when different morphological operations, e.g., opening by reconstruction and closing by reconstruction, are applied in the renderization of microtomographic images, for different pixel matrices. For that purpose it was performed a wormhole structure in one carbonate rock by acidizing process and the sample was scanned with a 3D high energy computed microtomography system. The images were obtained with 130kV voltage, 61μA current, 20 μm pixel size and 2240x2240 pixel matrices. In the process of renderization, the used matrices ranged from 70kP to 5MP. The results obtained show that the application of the morphological operations opening by reconstruction and closing by reconstruction directly interfere in the quantification of the volume of the hole, overestimating or underestimating the results, depending on the applied operation and the used matrix. It can be noted that for smaller matrices the difference in the quantified values to the real values exceeds acceptable values, and for larger matrices there is no loss or gain of significant information. (author)

  10. Heterogeneous vesiculation of 2011 El Hierro xeno-pumice revealed by X-ray computed microtomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, S. E.; Troll, V. R.; Deegan, F. M.; Burchardt, S.; Krumbholz, M.; Mancini, L.; Polacci, M.; Carracedo, J. C.; Soler, V.; Arzilli, F.; Brun, F.

    2016-12-01

    During the first week of the 2011 El Hierro submarine eruption, abundant light-coloured pumiceous, high-silica volcanic bombs coated in dark basanite were found floating on the sea. The composition of the light-coloured frothy material (`xeno-pumice') is akin to that of sedimentary rocks from the region, but the textures resemble felsic magmatic pumice, leaving their exact mode of formation unclear. To help decipher their origin, we investigated representative El Hierro xeno-pumice samples using X-ray computed microtomography for their internal vesicle shapes, volumes, and bulk porosity, as well as for the spatial arrangement and size distributions of vesicles in three dimensions (3D). We find a wide range of vesicle morphologies, which are especially variable around small fragments of rock contained in the xeno-pumice samples. Notably, these rock fragments are almost exclusively of sedimentary origin, and we therefore interpret them as relicts an the original sedimentary ocean crust protolith(s). The irregular vesiculation textures observed probably resulted from pulsatory release of volatiles from multiple sources during xeno-pumice formation, most likely by successive release of pore water and mineral water during incremental heating and decompression of the sedimentary protoliths.

  11. Three dimensional characterization of soil macroporosity by X-ray microtomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passoni, Sabrina; Pires, Luiz Fernando; Rosa, Jadir Aparecido

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of the soil pore system represents an important way of characterizing soil structure. Properties such as the shape and number of pores can be determined through soil pore evaluations. This study presents a three-dimensional (3D) characterization of the shape and number of pores of a sub-tropical soil. To do so, a second generation X-ray microtomography equipped with a plain type detector was employed. A voltage of 120 kV and current of 80 mA was applied to the X-ray tube. The soil samples analyzed were collected at three different depths (0-10, 10-20, and 20-30 cm). The results obtained allowed qualitative (images) and quantitative (3D) analyses of the soil structure, revealing the potential of the microtomographic technique, as well as the study of differences in soil macroporosity at different depths. Macroporosity was 5.14 % in the 0-10 cm layer, 5.10 % in the 10-20 cm layer, and 6.64 % in the 20-30 cm layer. The macroporosity of unclassified pores (UN) was 0.30 % (0-10 and 10-20 cm) and 0.40 % (20-30 cm), while equant pores (EQ) had values of 0.01 % at the three depths under analysis. (author)

  12. Three dimensional characterization of soil macroporosity by X-ray microtomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passoni, Sabrina [Centro de Ensino Superior dos Campos Gerais, Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil); Pires, Luiz Fernando, E-mail: lfpires@uepg.br [Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa (UFPG), Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil). Departamento de Fisica; Heck, Richard [University of Guelph, School of Environmental Sciences, Guelph, Ontario (Canada); Rosa, Jadir Aparecido [Instituto Agronomico do Parana, Polo Regional de Pesquisa de Ponta Grossa, Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil)

    2015-03-15

    Analysis of the soil pore system represents an important way of characterizing soil structure. Properties such as the shape and number of pores can be determined through soil pore evaluations. This study presents a three-dimensional (3D) characterization of the shape and number of pores of a sub-tropical soil. To do so, a second generation X-ray microtomography equipped with a plain type detector was employed. A voltage of 120 kV and current of 80 mA was applied to the X-ray tube. The soil samples analyzed were collected at three different depths (0-10, 10-20, and 20-30 cm). The results obtained allowed qualitative (images) and quantitative (3D) analyses of the soil structure, revealing the potential of the microtomographic technique, as well as the study of differences in soil macroporosity at different depths. Macroporosity was 5.14 % in the 0-10 cm layer, 5.10 % in the 10-20 cm layer, and 6.64 % in the 20-30 cm layer. The macroporosity of unclassified pores (UN) was 0.30 % (0-10 and 10-20 cm) and 0.40 % (20-30 cm), while equant pores (EQ) had values of 0.01 % at the three depths under analysis. (author)

  13. X-ray microtomography study of the spallation response in Ta-W

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Samuel; Cotton, Matthew; Millett, Jeremy; Bourne, Neil; Withers, Philip

    2013-06-01

    The response of metallic materials to high strain-rate (impact) loading is of interest to a number of communities. Traditionally, the largest driver has been the military, in its need to understand armour and resistance to ballistic attack. More recently, industries such as aerospace (foreign object damage, bird strike, etc.), automotive (crash-worthiness) and satellite protection (orbital debris) have all appreciated the necessity of such information. It is therefore important to understand the dynamic tensile or spallation response, and in particular to be able to observe in three-dimensions, and in a non-invasive manner, the physical damage present in the spalled region post-impact. The current study presents plate impact experiments investigating the spallation damage response of recovered targets of the tantalum alloy Ta-2.5%W. Using X-ray microtomography the damage resulting from differing impact conditions (impact velocity/stress, pulse duration) is compared and characterised in 3-D. Combined with free surface velocity measurements, the tensile failure mechanisms during dynamic loading have been identified.

  14. Revealing the 3D internal structure of natural polymer microcomposites using X-ray ultra microtomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakzad, A; Parikh, N; Heiden, P A; Yassar, R S

    2011-07-01

    Properties of composite materials are directly affected by the spatial arrangement of reinforcement and matrix. In this research, partially hydrolysed cellulose microcrystals were used to fabricate polycaprolactone microcomposites. The spatial distribution of cellulose microcrystals was characterized by a newly developed technique of X-ray ultra microscopy and microtomography. The phase and absorption contrast imaging of X-ray ultra microscopy revealed two-dimensional and three-dimensional information on CMC distribution in polymer matrices. The highest contrast and flux (signal-to-noise ratio) were obtained using vanadium foil targets with the accelerating voltage of 30 keV and beam current of >200 nA. The spatial distribution of cellulose microcrystals was correlated to the mechanical properties of the microcomposites. It was observed that heterogeneous distribution and clustering of cellulose microcrystals resulted in degradation of tensile strength and elastic modulus of composites. The utilization of X-ray ultra microscopy can open up new opportunities for composite researchers to explore the internal structure of microcomposites. X-ray ultra microscopy sample preparation is relatively simple in comparison to transmission electron microscopy and the spatial information is gathered at much larger scale. © 2011 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2011 The Royal Microscopical Society.

  15. Total porosity of carbonate reservoir rocks by X-ray microtomography in two different spatial resolutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Rodrigo; Appoloni, Carlos R.; Marques, Leonardo C.; Fernandes, Celso P.

    2011-01-01

    Carbonate reservoir rocks contain more than 50% of world's petroleum. To know carbonate rocks' structural properties is quite important to petroleum extraction. One of their main structural properties is the total porosity, which shows the rock's capacity to stock petroleum. In recent years, the X-ray microtomography had been used to analyze the structural parameters of reservoir rocks. Such nondestructive technique generates images of the samples' internal structure, allowing the evaluation of its properties. The spatial resolution is a measurement parameter that indicates the smallest structure size observable in a sample. It is possible to measure one sample using two or more different spatial resolutions in order to evaluate the samples' pore scale. In this work, two samples of the same sort of carbonate rock were measured, and in each measurement a different spatial resolution (17 μm and 7 μm) was applied. The obtained results showed that with the better resolution it was possible to measure 8% more pores than with the poorer resolution. Such difference provides us with good expectations about such approach to study the pore scale of carbonate rocks. (author)

  16. Microtomography-based CFD analysis of transport in open-cell aluminum metal foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranut, Paola; Nobile, Enrico; Mancini, Lucia

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, the need for developing more effective heat exchange technologies and innovative materials, capable of increasing performances while keeping power consumption, size and cost at reasonable levels, is well recognized. Under this perspective, metal foams have a great potential for enhancing the thermal efficiency of heat transfer devices, while allowing for the use of smaller and lighter equipments. However, for practical applications, it is necessary to compromise between the augmented heat transfer rate and the increased pressure drop induced by the tortuous flow passages. For design purposes, the estimation of the flow permeability and the thermal conductivity of the foam is fundamental, but far from simple. From this perspective, besides classical transport models and correlations, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) at the pore scale, although challenging, is becoming a promising approach, especially if coupled with a realistic description of the foam structure. For precisely recovering the microstructure of the foams, a 3D X-ray computed microtomography (μ-CT) can be adopted. In this work, the results of μ-CT-based CFD simulations performed on different open-cell aluminum foams samples, for laminar flow regime, will be discussed. The results demonstrate that open-cell aluminum foams are effective means for enhancing heat transfer.

  17. Application of microtomography and image analysis to the quantification of fragmentation in ceramics after impact loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forquin, Pascal; Ando, Edward

    2017-01-01

    Silicon carbide ceramics are widely used in personal body armour and protective solutions. However, during impact, an intense fragmentation develops in the ceramic tile due to high-strain-rate tensile loadings. In this work, microtomography equipment was used to analyse the fragmentation patterns of two silicon carbide grades subjected to edge-on impact (EOI) tests. The EOI experiments were conducted in two configurations. The so-called open configuration relies on the use of an ultra-high-speed camera to visualize the fragmentation process with an interframe time set to 1 µs. The so-called sarcophagus configuration consists in confining the target in a metallic casing to avoid any dispersion of fragments. The target is infiltrated after impact so the final damage pattern is entirely scanned using X-ray tomography and a microfocus source. Thereafter, a three-dimensional (3D) segmentation algorithm was tested and applied in order to separate fragments in 3D allowing a particle size distribution to be obtained. Significant differences between the two specimens of different SiC grades were noted. To explain such experimental results, numerical simulations were conducted considering the Denoual-Forquin-Hild anisotropic damage model. According to the calculations, the difference of crack pattern in EOI tests is related to the population of defects within the two ceramics. This article is part of the themed issue 'Experimental testing and modelling of brittle materials at high strain rates'.

  18. 3D Quantitative Analysis of Graphite Morphology in Ductile Cast Iron by X-ray Microtomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yajun; Tu, Zhixin; Zhou, Jianxin; Zhang, Dongqiao; Wang, Min; Guo, Zhao; Liu, Changchang; Chen, Xiang

    2017-08-01

    In this article, X-ray microtomography and color metallographic techniques have been used to perform three-dimensional quantitative characterization of graphite nodule morphology in a step-shaped ductile cast iron casting. Statistical analyses of the graphite nodule count, diameter, sphericity, and spatial distribution have been processed for three samples in detail. The results reveal that graphite nodules in ductile cast iron can be categorized into two categories. The first types are nodules located in eutectic cells (NIECs), and the other one refers to nodules located between the eutectic cells (NBECs). The NIECs possess a larger average diameter but smaller sphericity compared with the NBECs, and the sphericity decreases along with the increasing of diameter. The increasing casting thickness results in an increasing count and percentage of NBECs. In addition, most nodules are NIECs in thin walls instead of NBECs in thick walls. Nonuniform spatial distributions of graphite nodules caused by the existence of NBECs have been found to become more obvious along with the increase of cast thickness.

  19. Measurement of spatial refractive index distributions of fusion spliced optical fibers by digital holographic microtomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Feng; Deng, Yating; Ma, Xichao; Xiao, Wen

    2017-11-01

    Digital holographic microtomography is improved and applied to the measurements of three-dimensional refractive index distributions of fusion spliced optical fibers. Tomographic images are reconstructed from full-angle phase projection images obtained with a setup-rotation approach, in which the laser source, the optical system and the image sensor are arranged on an optical breadboard and synchronously rotated around the fixed object. For retrieving high-quality tomographic images, a numerical method is proposed to compensate the unwanted movements of the object in the lateral, axial and vertical directions during rotation. The compensation is implemented on the two-dimensional phase images instead of the sinogram. The experimental results exhibit distinctly the internal structures of fusion splices between a single-mode fiber and other fibers, including a multi-mode fiber, a panda polarization maintaining fiber, a bow-tie polarization maintaining fiber and a photonic crystal fiber. In particular, the internal structure distortion in the fusion areas can be intuitively observed, such as the expansion of the stress zones of polarization maintaining fibers, the collapse of the air holes of photonic crystal fibers, etc.

  20. X-ray microtomography in the micromorphologic characterization of soil submitted to different management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passoni, Sabrina

    2013-01-01

    The X-ray computed microtomography (CT) represents a non-invasive technique that can be used with success to analyze physical properties by the soil scientists without destroying the structure of the soil. The technique has as advantage over conventional methods the characterization of the soil porous system in three dimensions, which allow morphological property analyses such as connectivity and tortuosity of the pores. However, as the soil is a non-homogeneous and complex system, the CT technique needs specific methodologies for digital image processing, mainly during the segmentation procedure. The objectives of this work were: 1) to develop a methodology for microtomographic digital image processing; 2) to characterize the soil structure by using micromorphology analysis of samples submitted to non-tillage and conventional systems collected in three distinct layers (0-10, 10-20 and 20-30 cm); and 3) to identify possible changes in the porous system of the soil analyzed due to the effect of different management systems. The use of the CT technique and the procedures adopted for microtomographic digital image processing show to be efficient for the micromorphologic characterization of soil porous system. Soil under non-tillage system presented the best results from the agricultural point of view regarding porosity, total number of pores, connectivity and tortuosity in comparison to the conventional tillage. (author)

  1. Real-time analysis, visualization, and steering of microtomography experiments at photon sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laszeski, G. von; Insley, J.A.; Foster, I.; Bresnahan, J.; Kesselman, C.; Su, M.; Thiebaux, M.; Rivers, M.L.; Wang, S.; Tieman, B.; McNulty, I.

    2000-01-01

    A new generation of specialized scientific instruments called synchrotron light sources allow the imaging of materials at very fine scales. However, in contrast to a traditional microscope, interactive use has not previously been possible because of the large amounts of data generated and the considerable computation required translating this data into a useful image. The authors describe a new software architecture that uses high-speed networks and supercomputers to enable quasi-real-time and hence interactive analysis of synchrotron light source data. This architecture uses technologies provided by the Globus computational grid toolkit to allow dynamic creation of a reconstruction pipeline that transfers data from a synchrotron source beamline to a preprocessing station, next to a parallel reconstruction system, and then to multiple visualization stations. Collaborative analysis tools allow multiple users to control data visualization. As a result, local and remote scientists can see and discuss preliminary results just minutes after data collection starts. The implications for more efficient use of this scarce resource and for more effective science appear tremendous

  2. 50 years of synchrotrons. Early synchrotrons in Britain, and early work for CERN. - The CERN synchrotrons. Lectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, J.; Brianti, G.

    1997-01-01

    In the first report, 'Early synchrotrons in Britain, and early work for CERN', John Lawson gives an extended account of the material presented at the John Adams lecture, and at the same time a revised and shortened version of RAL report 97-011, which contains fuller archival references and notes. During the period covered by this report there was extensive work in Russia, where the principle of phase stability had been discovered in 1944 by Veksler. Unfortunately, all experimental work was kept secret until Veksler's talk at the first 'Atoms for Peace' conference at Geneva in August 1955. In the second lecture, 'The CERN Synchrotrons', Giorgio Brianti outlines the history of alternating-gradient synchrotrons from 1953/54 until today. In preparing this lecture he was confronted with a vast amount of material, while the time at his disposal was not even one minute per year, implying a time compression factor close to one million. Therefore, he had to exercise drastic choices, which led him to concentrate on CERN hadron synchrotrons and colliders and leave aside the Large Electron-Positron storage ring (LEP). Indeed, LEP was the subject of the John Adams Memorial Lecture in 1990, and it may be treated again in the future in connection with its energy upgrade. Even with these severe limitations, it was impossible to do justice to the number and variety of events and to the ingenuity of the people who have carved the history of CERN and of particle physics on the magnets, radiofrequency cavities, vacuum etc., and on the record performance of our machines. (orig./WL)

  3. Evaluation of Microstructural Parameters of Reservoir Rocks of the Guarani Aquifer by Analysis of Images Obtained by X- Ray Microtomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, J S; Lima, F A; Vieira, S F; Reis, P J; Appoloni, C R

    2015-01-01

    Microstructural parameters evaluation of porous materials, such as, rocks reservoir (water, petroleum, gas...), it is of great importance for several knowledge areas. In this context, the X-ray microtomography (μ-CT) has been showing a technical one quite useful for the analysis of such rocks (sandstone, limestone and carbonate), object of great interest of the petroleum and water industries, because it facilitates the characterization of important parameters, among them, porosity, permeability, grains or pore size distribution. The X-ray microtomography is a non-destructive method, that besides already facilitating the reuse of the samples analyzed, it also supplies images 2-D and 3-D of the sample. In this work samples of reservoir rock of the Guarani aquifer will be analyzed, given by the company of perforation of wells artesian Blue Water, in the municipal district of Videira, Santa Catarina, Brazil. The acquisition of the microtomographys data of the reservoir rocks was accomplished in a Skyscan 1172 μ-CT scanner, installed in Applied Nuclear Physics Laboratory (LFNA) in the State University of Londrina (UEL), Paraná, Brazil. In this context, this work presents the microstructural characterization of reservoir rock sample of the Guarani aquifer, analyzed for two space resolutions, 2.8 μm and 4.8 μm, where determined average porosity was 28.5% and 21.9%, respectively. Besides, we also determined the pore size distribution for both resolutions. Two 3-D images were generated of this sample, one for each space resolution, in which it is possible to visualize the internal structure of the same ones. (paper)

  4. Evaluation of Microstructural Parameters of Reservoir Rocks of the Guarani Aquifer by Analysis of Images Obtained by X- Ray Microtomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, J. S.; Lima, F. A.; Vieira, S. F.; Reis, P. J.; Appoloni, C. R.

    2015-07-01

    Microstructural parameters evaluation of porous materials, such as, rocks reservoir (water, petroleum, gas...), it is of great importance for several knowledge areas. In this context, the X-ray microtomography (μ-CT) has been showing a technical one quite useful for the analysis of such rocks (sandstone, limestone and carbonate), object of great interest of the petroleum and water industries, because it facilitates the characterization of important parameters, among them, porosity, permeability, grains or pore size distribution. The X-ray microtomography is a non-destructive method, that besides already facilitating the reuse of the samples analyzed, it also supplies images 2-D and 3-D of the sample. In this work samples of reservoir rock of the Guarani aquifer will be analyzed, given by the company of perforation of wells artesian Blue Water, in the municipal district of Videira, Santa Catarina, Brazil. The acquisition of the microtomographys data of the reservoir rocks was accomplished in a Skyscan 1172 μ-CT scanner, installed in Applied Nuclear Physics Laboratory (LFNA) in the State University of Londrina (UEL), Paraná, Brazil. In this context, this work presents the microstructural characterization of reservoir rock sample of the Guarani aquifer, analyzed for two space resolutions, 2.8 μm and 4.8 μm, where determined average porosity was 28.5% and 21.9%, respectively. Besides, we also determined the pore size distribution for both resolutions. Two 3-D images were generated of this sample, one for each space resolution, in which it is possible to visualize the internal structure of the same ones.

  5. Application of X-ray computed micro-tomography to the study of damage and oxidation kinetics of thermostructural composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caty, Olivier, E-mail: caty@lcts.u-bordeaux1.fr [Laboratory of Thermostructural Composites (LCTS), Université de Bordeaux, CNRS, SAFRAN, CEA, 3 Allée La Boétie, 33600 Pessac (France); Ibarroule, Philippe; Herbreteau, Mathieu; Rebillat, Francis [Laboratory of Thermostructural Composites (LCTS), Université de Bordeaux, CNRS, SAFRAN, CEA, 3 Allée La Boétie, 33600 Pessac (France); Maire, Eric [MATEIS Laboratory, INSA Lyon, 7 Avenue Jean Capelle, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Vignoles, Gérard L. [Laboratory of Thermostructural Composites (LCTS), Université de Bordeaux, CNRS, SAFRAN, CEA, 3 Allée La Boétie, 33600 Pessac (France)

    2014-04-01

    Thermostructural composites are three-dimensionally (3D) structured materials. Weakening phenomena (mechanical and chemical) take place inside the material following its 3D structure and are thus hard to describe accurately. X-ray computed micro-tomography (μCT) is a recent solution that allows their experimental investigation. The technique is applied here to the study of failure under tensile loading and to the self healing processes during oxidation. Results are useful data to verify or invalidate hypotheses or estimations made in current models.

  6. Phase contrast X-ray microtomography of the Rhodnius prolixus head: Comparison of direct reconstruction and phase retrieval approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, A. P.; Braz, D.; Nogueira, L. P.; Colaço, M. V.; Soares, J.; Cardoso, S. C.; Garcia, E. S.; Azambuja, P.; Gonzalez, M. S.; Mohammadi, S.; Tromba, G.; Barroso, R. C.

    2014-02-01

    We have used phase-contrast X-ray microtomography (PPC-μCT) to study the head of the blood-feeding bug, Rhodnius prolixus, which is one of the most important insect vector of Trypanosoma cruzi, ethiologic agent of Chagas disease in Latin America. Images reconstructed from phase-retrieved projections processed by ANKA phase are compared to those obtained through direct tomographic reconstruction of the flat-field-corrected transmission radiographs. It should be noted that the relative locations of the important morphological internal structures are observable with a precision that is difficult to obtain without the phase retrieval approach.

  7. SYNCHROTRON EMISSION FROM THE GALACTIC HI LAYER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonggi Kim

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the Galactic magnetic field strength and the gas density has been revisited. A synchrotron continuum emission data at 408 MHz and HI column density provide a good data for such study. But it is difficult to separate the synchrotron emission from the observed 408MHz radio emission, because the 408MHz radio emission has the component from the HI layer, as well as many components from other origins. We have tried to substract the component which is probably not related with HI layer, and present the results. We show that the method presented here is a more refined method than that of Brown & Chang (1983, hearafter BC83 to find the above mentioned relationship, and discuss the existence of such relationship in our Galaxy.

  8. Applications of Indus-1 synchrotron radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandedkar, R.V.

    2003-01-01

    Indus-1 is a 450 MeV electron storage ring. This is a soft X-ray and Vacuum Ultra Violet radiation source with the critical wavelength being 61 A. In this source, the first beam was stored in mid-1999 and was then made available, after initial storage and beam cleaning of the vacuum components, for beamline installation in the early 2000. Two beamlines are commissioned and are working. Other beamlines are in the advanced stage of commissioning. For Indus-1, the injection system consists of a 20 MeV classical microtron as a preinjector and a booster synchrotron that can go up to 700 MeV. For Indus-1, the injection into the storage ring is at full 450 MeV from this booster synchrotron

  9. The relativistic foundations of synchrotron radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaritondo, Giorgio; Rafelski, Johann

    2017-07-01

    Special relativity (SR) determines the properties of synchrotron radiation, but the corresponding mechanisms are frequently misunderstood. Time dilation is often invoked among the causes, whereas its role would violate the principles of SR. Here it is shown that the correct explanation of the synchrotron radiation properties is provided by a combination of the Doppler shift, not dependent on time dilation effects, contrary to a common belief, and of the Lorentz transformation into the particle reference frame of the electromagnetic field of the emission-inducing device, also with no contribution from time dilation. Concluding, the reader is reminded that much, if not all, of our argument has been available since the inception of SR, a research discipline of its own standing.

  10. ANKA - new horizons with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagelstein, M.; Czolk, R.

    2001-01-01

    ANKA GmbH operates a state-of-the-art electron storage ring (2.5 GeV energy, 400 mA maximum current) for the production of high-intensity synchrotron radiation. The produced 'superlight' ranges from the hard X-ray to the infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. To use the light for microfabrication and analysis a number of modern, high quality production and experimental facilities exist on this circular (diameter about 35 m) synchrotron radiation sources. The experimental facilities are consolidated by a young, experienced and highly motivated team of experts. For the patterning of polymers by deep X-ray lithography three end-stations (so-called beamlines) are available. For analytical tasks five beamlines are established where different experiments can be made based on X-ray methods such as X-ray absorption, diffraction and fluorescence spectroscopy as well as IR-spectroscopy. (orig.)

  11. The 400 GeV proton synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-05-01

    A general account is given of the 400-GeV proton synchrotron, known as Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS), of the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) at Geneva. A brief chapter on the history of the project covers the steps leading to the earlier plan for a 300-GeV accelerator at a new CERN laboratory elsewhere in Europe, abandoned in 1971 in favour of the present machine, and the progress of construction of the latter. The general features of the SPS design are outlined, illustrated by an aerial view of the CERN site, a plan of the SPS, and interior views of the SPS ring tunnel and main control room. (WSN)

  12. Ideas for future synchrotron light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, A.; Hassenzahl, W.; Meddahi, M.

    1992-03-01

    Synchrotron light sources have advanced in the past two-to-three decades through three ''generations,'' from irritating parasitic sources on high-energy physics accelerators to dedicated electron and position storage rings of unprecedented low emittance, utilizing undulator and wiggler magnets. The evolution through these three generations followed a predicable, science-driven, course towards brighter beams of VUV- and x-radiation. The requirements of future light sources is not so clear. The limit on how emittance has certainly not been reached, and diffraction-limited sources at shorter wavelengths would be the natural progression from previous generations. However, scientists are now looking at other radiation characteristics that might better serve their needs, for example, more coherent power, fast switching polarization, ultra-short (sub-picosecond) time structure, and synchronized beams for pump-probe experiments. This paper discusses some current ideas that might drive the fourth-generation synchrotron light source

  13. Lattice Design of a Medical Synchrotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Ji Ho; Cho, Yong Sub; Kwon, Hyeok Jung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yong Yung [BNL, New York (United States)

    2010-05-15

    The proton therapy is a fast-growing method for a cancer treatment because it can concentrate proton beams into cancer cells and minimize damage on normal cells by using a Bragg peak. The design study on the synchrotron for the proton therapy is in progress as an R and D for using PEFP (proton engineering frontier project) accelerator technology. The injection energy is 3 MeV which is provided by an RFQ (radio frequency quadrupole). The maximum extraction energy is 250 MeV for treatment of deepest tumors in human body. It includes a slow extraction method through the third order resonance and a single turn extraction option. This brief report summarized the lattice design of the synchrotron

  14. Calculation of coherent synchrotron radiation using mesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Agoh

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available We develop a new method to simulate coherent synchrotron radiation numerically. It is based on the mesh calculation of the electromagnetic field in the frequency domain. We make an approximation in the Maxwell equation which allows a mesh size much larger than the relevant wavelength so that the computing time is tolerable. Using the equation, we can perform a mesh calculation of coherent synchrotron radiation in transient states with shielding effects by the vacuum chamber. The simulation results obtained by this method are compared with analytic solutions. Though, for the comparison with theories, we adopt simplifications such as longitudinal Gaussian distribution, zero-width transverse distribution, horizontal uniform bend, and a vacuum chamber with rectangular cross section, the method is applicable to general cases.

  15. Analysis of Soil Structure Turnover with Garnet Particles and X-Ray Microtomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlüter, Steffen; Vogel, Hans-Jörg

    2016-01-01

    Matter turnover in soil is tightly linked to soil structure which governs the heterogeneous distribution of habitats, reaction sites and pathways in soil. Thereby, the temporal dynamics of soil structure alteration is deemed to be important for essential ecosystem functions of soil but very little is known about it. A major reason for this knowledge gap is the lack of methods to study soil structure turnover directly at microscopic scales. Here we devise a conceptual approach and an image processing workflow to study soil structure turnover by labeling some initial state of soil structure with small garnet particles and tracking their fate with X-ray microtomography. The particles adhere to aggregate boundaries at the beginning of the experiment but gradually change their position relative to the nearest pore as structure formation progresses and pores are destructed or newly formed. A new metric based on the contact distances between particles and pores is proposed that allows for a direct quantification of soil structure turnover rates. The methodology is tested for a case study about soil compaction of a silty loam soil during stepwise increase of bulk density (ρ = {1.1, 1.3, 1.5} g/cm3). We demonstrate that the analysis of mean contact distances provides genuinely new insights about changing diffusion pathways that cannot be inferred neither from conventional pore space attributes (porosity, mean pore size, pore connectivity) nor from deformation analysis with digital image correlation. This structure labeling approach to quantify soil structure turnover provides a direct analogy to stable isotope labeling for the analysis of matter turnover and can be readily combined with each other.

  16. Imaging biofilms in porous media using X-ray computed micro-tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davit, Y.; Debenest, G.; Quintard, M.

    2009-12-01

    In soils and rivers subsurface, bacterial biofilms growth induce modifications of mass and momentum transport dynamics. Evidence for these modifications have been developed essentially by inspection, that is, observation of the reduction of hydraulic conductivity, permeability, changes in porosity and anomalous transport. Deeper understanding of these sessile communities in porous media environments and of the multiscale/multiphase complexity of the system requires 3-D informations concerning the pore-scale/biofilm-scale geometry. Additionnally, breakthroughs in imaging techniques are likely to trigger breakthroughs in the theoretical analysis. In this study, we develop a new technique for direct observation and imaging of unstrained biofilms in porous media using X-ray computed micro-tomography. The biofilms are grown for ten days on polyamide and expanded polystyrene beads placed in small plastic columns. A circulation of water from the river Garonne (France) is imposed using peristaltic pumps. No particular bacterial strain is introduced, the micro-organisms being naturally present in the water from the river. The X-ray acquisition is performed by a Skyscan-1174 micro-CT. A special experimental technique, based on two different contrast agents, has been designed to solve the challenging problem of imaging 3 phases of initial similar absorption coefficients. On the one hand, we use a suspension of barium sulfate to enhance the contrast of the water-phase. On the other hand, the absorption of the biofilm-phase is increased using iodine which diffuses into the polymeric matrix. Examples of reconstructed images are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the method. We demonstrate how to combine the 3-D measurements with upscaling techniques such as volume averaging, by calculating the modifications of the permeability of the system when biofilms grow. At last, we aim to couple these 3-D measurements with upscaled reactive models to describe the Darcy

  17. 3-D IMAGING, ANALYSIS AND MODELLING OF POROUS CEREAL PRODUCTS USING X-RAY MICROTOMOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Van Dalen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Efficient design of multi-component food products containing dry and wet components such as biscuits with a moist fruit filling, is of growing interests for food industry. Technology is needed to prevent or reduce water migration from the moist filling to the dry porous cereal material. This can be done by using moisture barrier systems. Knowledge of the microstructure and its relation to water mobility is necessary to develop stable products. This paper describes a study that uses X-ray microtomography (μCT for the characterisation and visualisation of the 3-D structure of crackers with different porosity, coated biscuit shells and soup inclusions. μCT was used for imaging the inner cellular structure of the cereal matrix or to analyse the integrity of moisture barriers applied on the cereal product. 3-D image analysis methods were developed to obtain quantitative information about the cellular matrix which can be used as input for simulation models for moisture migration. The developed 3-D image analysis method maps the open cellular structure onto a network (graph representation in which the nodes correspond to the pores and the vertices to the pore-topore interconnection. The pores (nodes have properties such as volume, surface area and location whereas the vertices have properties such as direct (open connection and indirect (separated by a single lamella area. To check the segmentation and network description a model for pore to pore resistance was used. The obtained results demonstrate the potential of μCT and 3-D image analysis for extracting structural information which can be used in models for the moisture penetration in a cellular bakery product.

  18. Characterizing analogue caldera collapse with computerized X-ray micro-tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, Sam; Holohan, Eoghan; Boone, Matthieu; Pauwels, Elin; Cnudde, Veerle; Kervyn, Matthieu

    2013-04-01

    Analogue models in the past mainly explored caldera collapse structures by documenting 2D model cross-sections. Kinematic aspects and 3D structures of caldera collapse are less well understood, although they are essential to interpret recent field and monitoring data. We applied high resolution radiography and computerized X-ray micro-tomography (µCT) to image the deformation during analogue fluid withdrawal in small-scale caldera collapse models. The models test and highlight the possibilities and limitations of µCT-scanning to qualitatively image and quantitatively analyse deformation of analogue volcano-tectonic experiments. High resolution interval radiography sequences document '2.5D' surface and internal model geometry, and subsidence kinematics of a collapsing caldera block into an emptying fluid body in an unprecedented way. During the whole drainage process, all subsidence was bound by caldera ring faults. Subsidence was associated with dilatation of the analogue granular material within the collapsing column. The temporal subsidence rate pattern within the subsiding volume comprised three phases: 1) Upward ring fault propagation, 2) Rapid subsidence with the highest subsidence rates within the uppermost subsiding volume, 3) Relatively slower subsidence rates over the whole column with intermittent subsidence rate acceleration. Such acceleration did almost never affect the whole column. By using radiography sequences it is possible in a non-destructive manner to obtain a continuous observation of fault propagation, down sag mechanisms and the subsequent development of collapse structures. Multi-angle µCT scans of the collapse result allow for a full virtual 3D reconstruction of the model. This leads to an unprecedented 3D view on fault geometries. The developed method is a step towards the quantitative documentation of volcano-tectonic models that would render data interpretations immediately comparable to monitoring data available from recent

  19. A quasi-realtime x-ray microtomography system at the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeCarlo, F.; Foster, I.; Insley, J.; Kesselman, C.; Lane, P.; Mancini, D.; McNulty, I.; Su, M.; Tieman, B.; Wang, Y.; Laszewski, G. von

    1999-01-01

    The combination of high-brilliance x-ray sources, fast detector systems, wide-bandwidth networks, and parallel computers can substantially reduce the time required to acquire, reconstruct, and visualize high-resolution three-dimensional tomographic datasets. A quasi-realtime computed x-ray microtomography system has been implemented at the 2-BM beamline at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory. With this system, a complete tomographic data set can be collected in about 15 minutes. Immediately after each projection is obtained, it is rapidly transferred to the Mathematics and Computing Sciences Division where preprocessing and reconstruction calculations are performed concurrently with the data acquisition by a SGI parallel computer. The reconstruction results, once completed, are transferred to a visualization computer that performs the volume rendering calculations. Rendered images of the reconstructed data are available for viewing back at the beamline experiment station minutes after the data acquisition was complete. The fully pipelined data acquisition and reconstruction system also gives us the option to acquire the tomographic data set in several cycles, initially with coarse then with fine angular steps. At present the projections are acquired with a straight-ray projection imaging scheme using 5-20 keV hard x rays in either phase or amplitude contrast mode at a 1-10 pm resolution. In the future, we expect to increase the resolution of the projections to below 100 nm by using a focused x-ray beam at the 2-ID-B beamline and to reduce the combined acquisition and computation time to the 1 min scale with improvements in the detectors, network links, software pipeline, and computation algorithms

  20. Computed Microtomography Quantification of Internal Pore Geometry of Soil Aggregates from Contrasting Land Management Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananyeva, K.; Wang, W.; Smucker, A. J.; Kravchenko, A. N.; Chun, H. C.; Rivers, M. L.

    2010-12-01

    Structure of soil aggregate interiors controls intra-aggregate processes and provides important contributions to the biogeochemical processes of the soil profile. Applications of computed microtomography (CMT) to soil science have enabled the direct and nondestructive analyses of internal aggregate pore structures within soil volumes. The main objective of this study was to employ CMT to examine the internal pore structures of soil aggregates, 4 to 6.3 mm across, sampled at 0-20 cm depths from contrasting long-term land management types. Intra-aggregate pore-size distributions were compared among land management types. Porosity below CMT resolution (tillage, grass vegetation) than that of aggregates managed by conventional tillage (CT) used for agriculture. There was also greater percentage of intra-aggregate pores >400 µm in aggregates from NS than CT or NT management systems. In the range 15-100 µm, however, porosity of CT aggregates exceeded that of NS and NT aggregates. Total intra-aggregate porosities were similar and higher for both CT and NS (34.6 and 34.7%, correspondingly) than the 32.6% for NT aggregates. Although statistically significant, this difference (CT or NS vs. NT) was practically small, requiring at least 48 replications to be detected. These results indicate that long-term differences in management affected intra-aggregate pore size distributions. Increased 15-100 µm porosity in CT aggregates is probably related to their greater fragility. A combination of higher microporosity (400 µm in NS aggregates may generate more favorable conditions for microbial activity through a combination of larger intra-aggregate regions with high water-holding capacities and increased aeration and preferential flow pathways for intra-aggregate solute and gas transport. Our current focus is comparing and relating specifics of internal pore structures in the aggregates from contrasting land management types, to the measurements of solution and microbial flow

  1. Synchrotron radiation sources in the Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapitza, S.P.

    1987-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation (SR) is now recognized to be an important instrument for experimental work in many fields of science. Recently the application of SR in medicine and industry, especially as a light source for microelectronics production have been demonstrated. Thus the development of SR sources has now grown to become a significant and independent dimension for accelerator research and technology. This article describes SR work in the Soviet Union

  2. Characteristics of Injected Beam at HIMAC Synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    Uesugi, Takehiro; Noda, Koji; Shibuya, Shinji

    2005-01-01

    At the HIMAC synchrotron, we have carried out the tune survey with the lifetime measurement in order to obtain the high intensity. Under the relatively high intensity, it was observed that a part of the circulating beam was lost due to the coherent oscillation in both the horizontal and the vertical direction. Taking account of the tune shift and spreads, the working point was optimized so as to avoid resonance line. We will describe the experimental result.

  3. Studying Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence with Synchrotron Polarization Dispersion

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jian-Fu; Lazarian, Alex; Lee, Hyeseung; Cho, Jungyeon

    2016-01-01

    We test a new technique of studying magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence suggested by Lazarian \\& Pogosyan, using synthetic synchrotron polarization observations. This paper focuses on a one-point statistics, which is termed the polarization frequency analysis, that is characterized by the variance of polarized emission as a function of the square of wavelengths along a single line of sight. We adopt a ratio $\\eta$ of the standard deviation of the line-of-sight turbulent magnetic field to the...

  4. The Australian synchrotron - a progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boldeman, J.; Jackson, A.; Seaborne, G.; Hobbs, R.; Garrett, R.

    2003-01-01

    This paper summarises progress with the development of the Australian Synchrotron. The facility is based on the Boomerang Storage Ring which has a DBA structure with 14 superperiods. The design objective was to achieve a low emittance in a relatively compact circumference that had an excellent dynamic aperture and was obust with respect to potential construction aberrations. The potential suite of beamline and instrument stations is discussed and some examples are given

  5. Tabletop synchrotron and its unique features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Hironari

    2002-01-01

    Two synchrotrons, AURORA and MIRRORCLE, were built in Ritsumeikan University. MIRRORCLE-20 is the smallest normal conduction synchrotron (15 cm orbit radius and 1.2 m outer diameter) in the world. It uses 2/3 resonance method for electron beam incidence but is not optimized for X-ray generation. MIRRORCLE-6 shall be optimized for X-ray generation. X-ray generated by MIRRORCLE shows very flat white light, rich in hard X-ray, pulse with width changeable from a few μs to a few ms , wide radiation angle of 25 mrad at MIRRORCLE-20 and 80 mrad at MIRRORCLE-8 and high coherence. The feature such as pulsed light and high coherence is expected to new application which photon radiation cannot practice. Imaging experiments by MIRRORCLE were carried out by Cu plate, Al plate, Teflon and acryl plate. We took a photograph of insect, electric lamp, connector, and cyclotron. New X-ray generation mechanism, X-ray strength, development of tabletop synchrotron and features of X-ray beam are explained. (S.Y.)

  6. Photoemission studies using laboratory and synchrotron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phase, D.M.

    2012-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation sources, providing intense, polarized and stable beams of ultra violet soft and hard X-ray photons, are having great impact on physics, chemistry, biology materials science and other areas research. In particular synchrotron radiation has revolutionized photoelectron spectroscopy by enhancing its capabilities for investigating the electronic properties of solids. The first Indian synchrotron storage ring, Indus- 1 is in operation at RRCAT, Indore. The UGC-DAE CSR with the help of university scientist had designed and developed an angle integrated photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) beamline on this 450 MeV storage ring. A storage ring of this kind is most suitable for investigation in the energy range from few electron volts to around five hundred electron volts. In this lecture we will describe the details of PES beamline and its experimental station. Till date the different university users carried out photoemission measurements on variety of samples. Some of the spectra recorded by users will be presented in order to show the capability of this beamline. In the later part we will report a review of our recent research work carried out on dilute magnetic thin films using this beamline. (author)

  7. Ultrafast molecular dynamics illuminated with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozek, John D.; Miron, Catalin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Ultrafast molecular dynamics probed with synchrotron radiation. • Core-excitation as probe of ultrafast dynamics through core-hole lifetime. • Review of experimental and theoretical methods in ultrafast dynamics using core-level excitation. - Abstract: Synchrotron radiation is a powerful tool for studying molecular dynamics in small molecules in spite of the absence of natural matching between the X-ray pulse duration and the time scale of nuclear motion. Promoting core level electrons to unoccupied molecular orbitals simultaneously initiates two ultrafast processes, nuclear dynamics on the potential energy surfaces of the highly excited neutral intermediate state of the molecule on the one hand and an ultrafast electronic decay of the intermediate excited state to a cationic final state, characterized by a core hole lifetime. The similar time scales of these processes enable core excited pump-probe-type experiments to be performed with long duration X-ray pulses from a synchrotron source. Recent results obtained at the PLIEADES beamline concerning ultrafast dissociation of core excited states and molecular potential energy curve mapping facilitated by changes in the geometry of the short-lived intermediate core excited state are reviewed. High brightness X-ray beams combined with state-of-the art electron and ion-electron coincidence spectrometers and highly sophisticated theoretical methods are required to conduct these experiments and to achieve a full understanding of the experimental results.

  8. 50 Years of synchrotrons Adams' Memorial lecture

    CERN Document Server

    Lawson, J D; CERN. Geneva

    1996-01-01

    Fifty years ago Frank Goward of the Atomic Energy Research Establishment Group at Malvern converted a small American betatron to make the worldÕs first synchrotron. At the same time Marcus Oliphant was planning to build at Birmingham a large proton machine with a ring magnet and variable magnetic field. Ideas for this had come to him during night-shifts tending the electromagnetic separators at Oak Ridge during the war. Some seven years later, in 1953, a group gathered together in Geneva to build the PS. A major contributor to the design work which had made this possible was John Adams. An account of some of the achievements in these eventful years will be presented. CERN has built nine synchrotrons/colliders and two temporary test rings. Eight machines are still running. The review will start with the PS, the first proton synchrotron based on the alternating gradient principle invented in 1952 at BNL. The design work of the PS team, under the enlightened leadership of J.B. Adams, and the construction of the...

  9. Tabletop synchrotron and its unique features

    CERN Document Server

    Yamada, H

    2002-01-01

    Two synchrotrons, AURORA and MIRRORCLE, were built in Ritsumeikan University. MIRRORCLE-20 is the smallest normal conduction synchrotron (15 cm orbit radius and 1.2 m outer diameter) in the world. It uses 2/3 resonance method for electron beam incidence but is not optimized for X-ray generation. MIRRORCLE-6 shall be optimized for X-ray generation. X-ray generated by MIRRORCLE shows very flat white light, rich in hard X-ray, pulse with width changeable from a few mu s to a few ms , wide radiation angle of 25 mrad at MIRRORCLE-20 and 80 mrad at MIRRORCLE-8 and high coherence. The feature such as pulsed light and high coherence is expected to new application which photon radiation cannot practice. Imaging experiments by MIRRORCLE were carried out by Cu plate, Al plate, Teflon and acryl plate. We took a photograph of insect, electric lamp, connector, and cyclotron. New X-ray generation mechanism, X-ray strength, development of tabletop synchrotron and features of X-ray beam are explained. (S.Y.)

  10. Synchrotron-radiation experiments with recoil ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    Studies of atoms, ions and molecules with synchrotron radiation have generally focused on measurements of properties of the electrons ejected during, or after, the photoionization process. Much can also be learned, however, about the atomic or molecular relaxation process by studies of the residual ions or molecular fragments following inner-shell photoionization. Measurements are reported of mean kinetic energies of highly charged argon, krypton, and xenon recoil ions produced by vacancy cascades following inner-shell photoionization using white and monochromatic synchrotron x radiation. Energies are much lower than for the same charge-state ions produced by charged-particle impact. The results may be applicable to design of future angle-resolved ion-atom collision experiments. Photoion charge distributions are presented and compared with other measurements and calculations. Related experiments with synchrotron-radiation produced recoil ion, including photoionization of stored ions and measurement of shakeoff in near-threshold excitation, are briefly discussed. 24 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  11. MICROANALYSIS OF MATERIALS USING SYNCHROTRON RADIATION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JONES,K.W.; FENG,H.

    2000-12-01

    High intensity synchrotron radiation produces photons with wavelengths that extend from the infrared to hard x rays with energies of hundreds of keV with uniquely high photon intensities that can be used to determine the composition and properties of materials using a variety of techniques. Most of these techniques represent extensions of earlier work performed with ordinary tube-type x-ray sources. The properties of the synchrotron source such as the continuous range of energy, high degree of photon polarization, pulsed beams, and photon flux many orders of magnitude higher than from x-ray tubes have made possible major advances in the possible chemical applications. We describe here ways that materials analyses can be made using the high intensity beams for measurements with small beam sizes and/or high detection sensitivity. The relevant characteristics of synchrotron x-ray sources are briefly summarized to give an idea of the x-ray parameters to be exploited. The experimental techniques considered include x-ray fluorescence, absorption, and diffraction. Examples of typical experimental apparatus used in these experiments are considered together with descriptions of actual applications.

  12. High-resolution X-ray tomography of the human inner ear: synchrotron radiation-based study of nerve fibre bundles, membranes and ganglion cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lareida, A; Beckmann, F; Schrott-Fischer, A; Glueckert, R; Freysinger, W; Müller, B

    2009-04-01

    The combination of osmium tetroxide staining and high-resolution tomographic imaging using monochromatic X rays allows visualizing cellular structures of the human inner ear, that is, the organ of Corti, the stria vascularis and further soft tissues of the membranous labyrinth, in three-dimensional space with isotropic micrometre resolution. This approach permits to follow the course of nerve fibre bundles in a major part of the specimen and reveals the detailed three-dimensional arrangement of individual ganglion cells with distinct nuclei by means of X-ray tomography for the first time. The non-destructive neuron cell counting in a selected volume of 125 microm x 800 microm x 600 microm = 0.06 mm(3) gives rise to the estimate that 2000 ganglion cells are present along 1 mm organ of Corti.

  13. Simultaneous probing of phase transformations in Ni-Ti thin film shape memory alloy by synchrotron radiation-based X-ray diffraction and electrical resistivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braz Fernandes, F.M. [CENIMAT/I3N, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Mahesh, K.K., E-mail: kkmahesh@rediffmail.com [CENIMAT/I3N, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Martins, R.M.S. [CENIMAT/I3N, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), P.O. Box 510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany); IST/Instituto Tecnológico e Nuclear (IST/ITN), Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, EN10, 2696-953 Sacavém (Portugal); Centro de Física Nuclear da Universidade de Lisboa (CFNUL), Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Silva, R.J.C. [CENIMAT/I3N, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Baehtz, C.; Borany, J. von [Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), P.O. Box 510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany)

    2013-02-15

    Nickel–Titanium (Ni–Ti) thin film shape memory alloys (SMAs) have been widely projected as novel materials which can be utilized in microdevices. Characterization of their physical properties and its correlation with phase transformations has been a challenging issue. In the present study, X-ray beam diffraction has been utilized to obtain the structural information at different temperatures while cooling. Simultaneously, electrical resistivity (ER) was measured in the phase transformation temperature range. The variation of ER and integral area of the individual diffraction peaks of the different phases as a function of temperature have been compared. A mismatch between the conventional interpretation of ER variation and the results of the XRD data has been clearly identified. - Highlights: ► Phase transformation characterization of Ni–Ti thin film SMA has been carried out. ► Simultaneous monitoring of the XRD and ER with temperature is performed. ► The variation of ER and integral area of the diffraction peaks have been compared. ► A shift of the transformation temperatures obtained by two techniques is discussed.

  14. National Synchrotron Light Source: vacuum system for National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuchman, J.C.; Godel, J.B.; Jordan, W.; Oversluizen, T.

    1978-01-01

    The National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), a 24 million dollar project under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), is a research facility dedicated to the production of synchrotron radiation. Synchrotron radiation is that radiation produced by the acceleration of charged particles at near the speed of light. This facility will provide a continuous spectrum of radiation from the vacuum ultraviolet to the hard x-ray range. The radiation will be highly intense, 100% polarized, extremely well collimated and will have a pulsed time structure. The radiation will be produced in two electron storage rings at energies of 700 MeV and 2.5 GeV, respectively. A maximum of one ampere at 2 GeV, or one-half ampere at 2.5 GeV, of electron beam will be stored

  15. Relativistic Turbulence with Strong Synchrotron and Synchrotron-Self-Compton Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzdensky, D. A.

    2018-03-01

    Many relativistic plasma environments in high-energy astrophysics, including pulsar wind nebulae, hot accretion flows onto black holes, relativistic jets in active galactic nuclei and gamma-ray bursts, and giant radio lobes, are naturally turbulent. The plasma in these environments is often so hot that synchrotron and inverse-Compton (IC) radiative cooling becomes important. In this paper we investigate the general thermodynamic and radiative properties (and hence the observational appearance) of an optically thin relativistically hot plasma stirred by driven magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence and cooled by radiation. We find that if the system reaches a statistical equilibrium where turbulent heating is balanced by radiative cooling, the effective electron temperature tends to attain a universal value θ = kT_e/m_e c^2 ˜ 1/√{τ_T}, where τT = neσTL ≪ 1 is the system's Thomson optical depth, essentially independent of the strength of turbulent driving and hence of the magnetic field. This is because both MHD turbulent dissipation and synchrotron cooling are proportional to the magnetic energy density. We also find that synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) cooling and perhaps a few higher-order IC components are automatically comparable to synchrotron in this regime. The overall broadband radiation spectrum then consists of several distinct components (synchrotron, SSC, etc.), well separated in photon energy (by a factor ˜ τ_T^{-1}) and roughly equal in power. The number of IC peaks is checked by Klein-Nishina effects and depends logarithmically on τT and the magnetic field. We also examine the limitations due to synchrotron self-absorption, explore applications to Crab PWN and blazar jets, and discuss links to radiative magnetic reconnection.

  16. Reservoir core porosity in the Resende formation using 3D high-resolution X-ray computed microtomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Milena F.S.; Lima, Inaya; Lopes, Ricardo T.; Rocha, Paula Lucia F. da

    2009-01-01

    The storage capacity and production of oil are influenced, among other things, by rocks and fluids characteristics. Porosity is one of the most important characteristics to be analyzed in oil industry, mainly in oil prospection because it represents the direct capacity of storage fluids in the rocks. By definition, porosity is the ratio of pore volume to the total bulk volume of the formation, expressed in percentage, being able to be absolute or effective. The aim of this study was to calculate porosity by 3D High-Resolution X-ray Computed Microtomography using core plugs from Resende Formation which were collected in Porto Real, Rio de Janeiro State. This formation is characterized by sandstones and fine conglomerates with associated fine siliciclastic sediments, and the paleoenviroment is interpreted as a braided fluvial system. For acquisitions data, it was used a 3D high resolution microtomography system which has a microfocus X-ray tube (spot size < 5μm) and a 12-bit cooled X-ray camera (CCD fiber-optically coupled to a scintillator) operated at 100 kV and 100 μA. Twenty-two samples taken at different depths from two boreholes were analyzed. A total of 961 slices were performed with a resolution of 14.9 μm. The results demonstrated that μ-CT is a reliable and effective technique. Through the images and data it was possible to quantify the porosity and to view the size and shape of porous. (author)

  17. New synchrotron radiation facility project. Panel on new synchrotron radiation facility project

    CERN Document Server

    Sato, S; Kimura, Y

    2003-01-01

    The project for constructing a new synchrotron radiation facility dedicated to the science in VUV (or EUV) and Soft X-ray (SX) region has been discussed for these two years at the Panel on New Synchrotron Radiation Facility Project. The Panel together with the Accelerator Design Working Group (WG), Beamline Design WG and Research Program WG suggested to the Ministry of Education, Science, Culture and Sports the construction of a 1.8 GeV electron storage ring suitable for 'Top-Up' operation and beamlines and monochromators designed for undulator radiation. The scientific programs proposed by nationwide scientists are summarized with their requirements of the characteristics of the beam. (author)

  18. Medical applications of synchrotron radiation at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomlinson, W.

    1992-01-01

    The overriding features of the synchrotron beams which make them applicable to medical research are their extremely high intensity and broadband energy spectrum. Several orders of magnitude separate the smooth, continuous spectrum of the synchrotron from the sharply peaked characteristic emission spectrum of a conventional source. Basically, the high intensity and tunability allow monochromatic beams to be generated at virtually any energy. The standard problem of beam hardening in both medical imaging and therapy is eliminated by the monochromatic beams since the energy spectrum does not change with passage through tissue. The tunable spectrum allows enhancement of images and therapeutic dose by selection of the most effective energy for a given procedure

  19. Techniques for materials research with synchrotron radiation x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, D.K.

    1983-01-01

    A brief introductory survey is presented of the properties and generation of synchrotron radiation and the main techniques developed so far for its application to materials problems. Headings are:synchrotron radiation; X-ray techniques in synchrotron radiation (powder diffraction; X-ray scattering; EXAFS (Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure); X-ray fluorescent analysis; microradiography; white radiation topography; double crystal topography); future developments. (U.K.)

  20. Impact of synchrotron radiation on macromolecular crystallography: a personal view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauter, Zbigniew; Jaskolski, Mariusz; Wlodawer, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of synchrotron radiation sources almost four decades ago has led to a revolutionary change in the way that diffraction data from macromolecular crystals are being collected. Here a brief history of the development of methodologies that took advantage of the availability of synchrotron sources are presented, and some personal experiences with the utilization of synchrotrons in the early days are recalled. PMID:20567074

  1. Atomic photoelectron-spectroscopy studies using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobrin, P.H.

    1983-02-01

    Photoelectron spectroscopy combined with tunable synchrotron radiation has been used to study the photoionization process in several atomic systems. The time structure of the synchrotron radiation source at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) was used to record time-of-flight (TOF) photoelectron spectra of gaseous Cd, Hg, Ne, Ar, Ba, and Mn. The use of two TOF analyzers made possible the measurement of photoelectron angular distributions as well as branching ratios and partial cross sections

  2. About a method for compressing x-ray computed microtomography data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Lucia; Kourousias, George; Billè, Fulvio; De Carlo, Francesco; Fidler, Aleš

    2018-04-01

    The management of scientific data is of high importance especially for experimental techniques that produce big data volumes. Such a technique is x-ray computed tomography (CT) and its community has introduced advanced data formats which allow for better management of experimental data. Rather than the organization of the data and the associated meta-data, the main topic on this work is data compression and its applicability to experimental data collected from a synchrotron-based CT beamline at the Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste facility (Italy) and studies images acquired from various types of samples. This study covers parallel beam geometry, but it could be easily extended to a cone-beam one. The reconstruction workflow used is the one currently in operation at the beamline. Contrary to standard image compression studies, this manuscript proposes a systematic framework and workflow for the critical examination of different compression techniques and does so by applying it to experimental data. Beyond the methodology framework, this study presents and examines the use of JPEG-XR in combination with HDF5 and TIFF formats providing insights and strategies on data compression and image quality issues that can be used and implemented at other synchrotron facilities and laboratory systems. In conclusion, projection data compression using JPEG-XR appears as a promising, efficient method to reduce data file size and thus to facilitate data handling and image reconstruction.

  3. Development of a compact synchrotron for proton beam therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebina, Futaro; Umezawa, Masumi; Nishiuchi, Hideaki; Aoki, Takamichi; Hiramoto, Kazuo; Matsuda, Koji; Umegaki, Kikuo; Furusaka, Michihiro

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to develop a compact synchrotron dedicated for proton beam therapy using a scanning irradiation method. The effective length and magnetic uniformity of the bending magnets in the synchrotron were analyzed by 3D static magnetic field calculations. The calculation results indicate that the shape of the bending magnet satisfies the specification for beam stability. A push-pull multi-feed driven technique allows shortening the length of the FINEMET RF acceleration cavity for the synchrotron from 600 mm to 450 mm. The circumference of the synchrotron is 18 m, which is the world's most compact size for proton beam therapy. (author)

  4. Planning study for advanced national synchrotron-radiation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    A new generation of synchrotron-radiation sources based on insertion devices offers gains in photon-beam brilliance as large as the gains that present-day synchrotron sources provided over conventional sources. This revolution in synchrotron capability and its impact on science and technology will be as significant as the original introduction of synchrotron radiation. This report recommends that insertion-device technology be pursued as our highest priority, both through the full development of insertion-device potential on existing machines and through the building of new facilities

  5. Accurate 3D modeling of Cable in Conduit Conductor type superconductors by X-ray microtomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiseanu, Ion, E-mail: tiseanu@infim.ro [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics (INFLPR), Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Zani, Louis [CEA/Cadarache – Institut de Recherche sur la Fusion Magnetique, St Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Tiseanu, Catalin-Stefan [University of Bucharest, Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science (Romania); Craciunescu, Teddy; Dobrea, Cosmin [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics (INFLPR), Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Quality controls monitoring of Cable in Conduit Conductor (CICC) by X-ray tomography. • High resolution (≈40 μm) X-ray tomography images of CICC section up to 300 mm long. • Assignment of vast majority of strand trajectories over relevant section of CICC. • Non-invasive accurate measurements of local void fraction statistics. - Abstract: Operation and data acquisition of an X-ray microtomography developed at INFLPR are optimized to produce stacks of 2-D high-resolution tomographic sections of Cable in Conduit Conductor (CICC) type superconductors demanded in major fusion projects. High-resolution images for CCIC samples (486 NbTi&Cu strands of 0.81 mm diameter, jacketed in rectangular stainless steel pipes of 22 × 26 mm{sup 2}) are obtained by a combination of high energy/intensity and small focus spot X-ray source and high resolution/efficiency detector array. The stack of reconstructed slices is then used for quantitative analysis consisting of accurate strand positioning, determination of the local and global void fraction and 3D strand trajectory assignment for relevant fragments of cable (∼300 mm). The strand positioning algorithm is based on the application of Gabor Annular filtering followed by local maxima detection. The local void fraction is extensively mapped by employing local segmentation methods at a space resolution of about 50 sub-cells sized to be relevant to the triplet of triplet twisting pattern. For the strand trajectory assignment part we developed a global algorithm of the linear programing type which provides the vast majority of correct strand trajectories for most practical applications. For carefully manufactured benchmark CCIC samples over 99% of the trajectories are correctly assigned. For production samples the efficiency of the algorithm is around 90%. Trajectory assignment of a high proportion of the strands is a crucial factor for the derivation of statistical properties of the cable

  6. Bystander Effects During Synchrotron Imaging Procedures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schültke, Elisabeth; Bewer, Brian; Wysokinski, Tomasz; Chapman, Dean; Nikkhah, Guido

    2010-07-01

    Using monochromatic beam and synchrotron phase-contrast technique at the biomedical beamline of the Italian synchrotron facility Elettra (SYRMEP), we have shown in a small animal model of malignant brain tumor that it is possible to obtain high-resolution images of very small tumors when they have developed from implanted tumor cells loaded with colloidal gold nanoparticles (GNP). All previous experiments were conducted in post-mortem samples. We have now designed a cell culture experiment to investigate the effects of synchrotron radiation with an energy and dose profile similar to that expected in our first in vivo imaging studies according to the protocol developed at SYRMEP. Materials and Methods: Culture flasks containing either gold-loaded or naïve C6 glioma cells were exposed to a dose of 0.5 Gy at 24 keV. The irradiated medium was aspirated and replaced with fresh growth medium. Twenty-four hours later this non-irradiated medium exposed to irradiated cells was aspirated, then added to non-irradiated C6 cells in order to investigate whether bystander effects are seen under the conditions of our image acquisition protocol. The irradiated medium was added to a number of other non-irradiated cell cultures. Cell counts were followed until 72 hrs after irradiation. Western blots were conducted with H2AX antibodies. This experiment was one of the first biomedical experiments conducted at BMIT, the new biomedical imaging and therapy beamline of the Canadian Light Source. Results: No significant differences in proliferation were seen between cells that were directly irradiated, exposed to irradiated medium or exposed to the non-irradiated 24-hr-medium from the irradiated cells. However, there was a tendency towards a higher number of double strand breaks in previously irradiated cells when they were exposed to non-irradiated medium that had been in contact with irradiated cells for 24 hrs.

  7. Laser synchrotron radiation and beam cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esarey, E.; Sprangle, P.; Ting, A. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The interaction of intense {approx_gt} 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2}, short pulse ({approx_lt} 1 ps) lasers with electron beams and plasmas can lead to the generation of harmonic radiation by several mechanisms. Laser synchrotron radiation may provide a practical method for generating tunable, near monochromatic, well collimated, short pulse x-rays in compact, relatively inexpensive source. The mechanism for the generation of laser synchrotron radiation is nonlinear Thomson scattering. Short wavelengths can be generated via Thomson scattering by two methods, (i) backscattering from relativistic electron beams, in which the radiation frequency is upshifted by the relativistic factor 4{gamma}{sup 2}, and (ii) harmonic scattering, in which a multitude of harmonics are generated with harmonic numbers extending out to the critical harmonic number nc{approx_equal}a{sub 0}{sup 3} {much_gt} 1, where a{sub 0} {approx_equal}10{sup -9}{lambda}I{sup 1/2}, {lambda} is the laser wavelength in {mu}m and I is the laser intensity in W/cm{sup 2}. Laser synchrotron sources are capable of generating short ({approx_lt} ps) x-ray pulses with high peak flux ({approx_gt} 10{sup 21} photons/s) and brightness ({approx_gt}{sup 19} photons/s-mm{sup 2}-mrad{sup 2} 0.1%BW. As the electron beam radiates via Thomson scattering, it can subsequently be cooled, i.e., the beam emittance and energy spread can be reduced. This cooling can occur on rapid ({approximately} ps) time scales. In addition, electron distributions with sufficiently small axial energy spreads can be used to generate coherent XUV radiation via a laser-pumped FEL mechanism.

  8. Imaging of the human tooth cementum ultrastructure of archeological teeth, using hard x-ray microtomography to determine age-at-death and stress periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani-Caplazi, Gabriela; Schulz, Georg; Deyhle, Hans; Hotz, Gerhard; Vach, Werner; Wittwer-Backofen, Ursula; Müller, Bert

    2017-09-01

    Tooth cementum annulation (TCA) is used by anthropologists to decipher age-at-death and stress periods based on yearly deposited incremental lines (ILs). The destructive aspect of the TCA method, which requires cutting the tooth root in sections to display the ILs, using transmission light microscopy, can be problematic for archeological teeth, and so a non-invasive imaging technique is preferred. The purpose of this study is to evaluate conventional micro computed tomography (μCT) and synchrotron radiation-based X-ray micro computed tomography (SRμCT) as a non-destructive technique to explore the tooth cementum ultrastructure and to display ILs. Seven archeological teeth from the Basel- Spitalfriedhof collection (patients died between 1845 and 1868 in the city hospital) were selected for the μCT experiments. This collection is considered a unique worldwide reference series in the anthropological science community, due to the high level of documented life history data in the medical files and the additionally collected and verified birth history by genealogists. The results demonstrate that the conventional μCT is complementary to the SRμCT allowing to prescreen the teeth using conventional μCT to identify the appropriate specimens and areas for the SRμCT measurements. SRμCT displayed cementum ring structure corresponding to the ILs in the microscope view in archeological teeth in a non-invasive fashion with the potential for more accurate assessments of ILs compared to conventional techniques. The ILs were mainly clearly visible, and it was possible to count them for age-at-death assessment and identify qualitatively irregular ILs which could constitute stress markers.

  9. Emittance growth from transient coherent synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohn, C.L.; Li, R.; Bisognano, J.J.

    1996-01-01

    If the energies of individual particles in a bunch change as the bunch traverses a bending system, even if it is achromatic, betatron oscillations can be excited. Consequently, the transverse emittance of the bunch will grow as it moves downstream. Short bunches may be particularly susceptible to emission of coherent synchrotron radiation which can act back on the particles to change their energies and trajectories. Because a bend spans a well-defined length and angle, the bunch-excited wakefield and its effect back on the bunch are inherently transient. We outline a recently developed theory of this effect and apply it to example bending systems

  10. Glancing angle synchrotron X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cernik, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes in basic detail some of the techniques that can be used to study thin films and surfaces. These are all in the X-ray region and cover reflectivity, diffraction form polycrystalline films, textured films and single crystal films. Other effects such as fluorescence and diffuse scattering are mentioned but not discussed in detail. Two examples of the reflectivity from multilayers and the diffraction from iron oxide films are discussed. The advantages of the synchrotron for these studies is stressed and the experimental geometries that can be employed are described i detail. A brief bibliography is provided at the end to accompany this part of the 1996 Frascati school

  11. Activity report of Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-11-01

    The Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SRL) has been promoting the 'Super SOR' project, the new synchrotron radiation facility with an electron storage ring of a third generation type. The University of Tokyo considered the project as one of the most important future academic plans and strongly endorses to construct the new facility in the Kashiwa campus. In 2005, the design of the accelerator system has been slightly modified to obtain stronger support of the people in the field of bio-sciences, such as medicine, pharmacy, agriculture, etc. The energy of the storage ring was increased to 2.4 GeV, which is determined to obtain undulator radiation with sufficient brightness of make protein crystallography experiments in X-ray region. The value was also optimised to avoid considerable degradation of undulator radiation in the VUV and soft X-ray regions. The accelerator group of SRL have been continuing to achieve research and development (R and D) for the Super SOR. The staff members of solid state spectroscopy and instrumentation group has promoted new beamline of the Super SOR project and supported users at the three beamlines in the Photon Factory (PF). The discussion on the research program at the new facility has been continued with supports of nationwide researches using synchrotron radiation. In 2004, three symposia was held for the discussion on the nano-technology, bio-sciences and new frontier and new field of science opened by the third generation synchrotron radiation in VUV and soft X-ray region. It should be remarked that in all symposia, many young scientists have presented their scientific activities and taken part in the discussion on the new opportunities with undulator radiation. This report contains the latest results of R and D of the Super SOR project, which are described in Chap. 2 following to the present status of the three beamlines in PF. The three beamlines at PF, BL18A, 19A and 19B, which are maintained by SRL-ISSP, have been successfully

  12. Synchrotron radiation facilities in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decker, G.

    1996-01-01

    With the successful commissioning and achievement of significant milestones at both the 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source (APS) and the 1.5- GeV Advanced Light Source (ALS) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, synchrotron radiation research capability in the United States holds the promise of many important discoveries in the decade to come. An overview of current accelerator commissioning performance at the American third-generation light sources, state-of-the-art developments at first- and second-generation sources, and a preview of fourth-generation source progress is presented

  13. An overview of synchrotron radiation utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bienenstock, A.

    1991-01-01

    Over the past decade and a half, the availability of synchrotron radiation has become a very important asset for chemical engineering research. As more experimental stations and brighter radiation become available, its use will spread even further. Its value arises presently from the very considerable capabilities it makes possible in the following areas: structure determination; electronic state determination; chemical analysis; imaging; spectroscopy; x-ray lithography. The first four of these areas are discussed in this article. All six are pursued in more detail in the papers which follow

  14. Scanning photoemission microscopy with synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ade, Harald W.

    1992-08-01

    Progress in photoemission spectro-microscopy at various synchrotron radiation facilities is reviewed. Microprobe devices such as MAXIMUM at the SRC in Wisconsin, the X1-SPEM at the NSLS at BNL, as well as the ellipsoidal ring mirror microscope at DESY in Hamburg, recorded first images during the last few years. The present status of these devices which achieve their lateral resolution by focusing X-rays to a small spot is the primary focus of this paper, but work representing other approaches to spectro-microscopy is also discussed.

  15. Variable-Period Undulators for Synchrotron Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shenoy, Gopal; Lewellen, John; Shu, Deming; Vinokurov, Nikolai

    2005-02-22

    A new and improved undulator design is provided that enables a variable period length for the production of synchrotron radiation from both medium-energy and high energy storage rings. The variable period length is achieved using a staggered array of pole pieces made up of high permeability material, permanent magnet material, or an electromagnetic structure. The pole pieces are separated by a variable width space. The sum of the variable width space and the pole width would therefore define the period of the undulator. Features and advantages of the invention include broad photon energy tunability, constant power operation and constant brilliance operation.

  16. Activity report of Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-11-01

    In 2002, we observed a steady progress in the 'super SOR' project for constructing a new synchrotron radiation facility dedicated to sciences in VUV and Soft X-ray (SX) region. The project has been discussed extensively for these two years at the Panel on New Synchrotron Radiation Facility Project organized by the Ministry of Education, Science, Culture and Sports in Japan. In May 2002, based on the reports made by the Review Committee, the Panel suggested to the Ministry the construction of a 1.8 GeV electron storage ring of a third generation type and beamlines and monochromators designed for undulator radiation in VUV and SX regions. The University of Tokyo strongly endorsed the project to construct the proposed new facility in its Kashiwa new campus. The details of the new facility have been discussed and planned by the Accelerator Design Working Group (WG), the Beamline Design WG and the Research Program WG with supports by accelerator scientists and engineers as well as researches using synchrotron radiation. The results of the discussion are summarized as a 'New Synchrotron Radiation Project -Design Report-' in September 2002. The discussions at the WGs are going on at this moment to update the plan. Also, research and developments (R and D) of every part of the accelerator system and beamline have been continuing by the staff members of the SRL-ISSP. This report contains the latest results of R and D of the 'super SOR' project, which are described in Chap. 3 following to the present status of the existing beamlines in the Photon Factory, KEK. At the three beamlines at the Photon factory, BL18A, 19A and 19B, which are maintained by SRL-ISSP, we have made considerable progresses in controlling the beamlines and the date acquisition systems, e.g. a new version of the simultaneous scanning of the undulator and the monochromator, a new data-taking program at ARPES apparatus in BL18A, etc. The progress of the beamlines makes the three beamlines still productive

  17. Glancing angle synchrotron X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cernik, R.J. [Daresbury Lab., Warrington, WA (United States)

    1996-09-01

    This paper describes in basic detail some of the techniques that can be used to study thin films and surfaces. These are all in the X-ray region and cover reflectivity, diffraction form polycrystalline films, textured films and single crystal films. Other effects such as fluorescence and diffuse scattering are mentioned but not discussed in detail. Two examples of the reflectivity from multilayers and the diffraction from iron oxide films are discussed. The advantages of the synchrotron for these studies is stressed and the experimental geometries that can be employed are described i detail. A brief bibliography is provided at the end to accompany this part of the 1996 Frascati school.

  18. In-situ early stage electromigration study in Al line using synchrotron polychromatic X-ray microdiffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Kai; Tamura, Nobumichi; Tu, King-Ning

    2007-10-31

    Electromigration is a phenomenon that has attracted much attention in the semiconductor industry because of its deleterious effects on electronic devices (such as interconnects) as they become smaller and current density passing through them increases. However, the effect of the electric current on the microstructure of interconnect lines during the very early stage of electromigration is not well documented. In the present report, we used synchrotron radiation based polychromatic X-ray microdiffraction for the in-situ study of the electromigration induced plasticity effects on individual grains of an Al (Cu) interconnect test structure. Dislocation slips which are activated by the electric current stressing are analyzed by the shape change of the diffraction peaks. The study shows polygonization of the grains due to the rearrangement of geometrically necessary dislocations (GND) in the direction of the current. Consequences of these findings are discussed.

  19. Quantitative sampling and analysis of trace elements in atmospheric aerosols: impactor characterization and Synchrotron-XRF mass calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Richard

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Identification of trace elements in ambient air can add substantial information to pollution source apportionment studies, although they do not contribute significantly to emissions in terms of mass. A method for quantitative size and time-resolved trace element evaluation in ambient aerosols with a rotating drum impactor and synchrotron radiation based X-ray fluorescence is presented. The impactor collection efficiency curves and size segregation characteristics were investigated in an experiment with oil and salt particles. Cutoff diameters were determined through the ratio of size distributions measured with two particle sizers. Furthermore, an external calibration technique to empirically link fluorescence intensities to ambient concentrations was developed. Solutions of elemental standards were applied with an ink-jet printer on thin films and area concentrations were subsequently evaluated with external wet chemical methods. These customized and reusable reference standards enable quantification of different data sets analyzed under varying experimental conditions.

  20. Use of synchrotron radiation to characterize metals in plants: the case of Cd in the hyperacumulator Arabidopsis halleri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaure, M.; Sarret, G.; Verbruggen, N.

    2010-12-01

    Phytoremediation uses plants to extract (phytoextraction) or stabilize (phytostabilization) metals accumulated in soils, and can be an alternative to invasive physico-chemical remediation techniques. Its development requires the knowledge of the mechanisms involved in metal tolerance and accumulation in plants, and particularly the way that plants transfer and store metals. In that context, synchrotron radiation based techniques such as micro-focused X-Ray Fluorescence (µXRF), and micro-focused X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy, including Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure and X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure, are particularly suited to determine the localization and the chemical forms of metals in the different tissues, cells and sub-cellular compartments. Arabidopsis halleri is a Zn, Cd hyperaccumulating plant, naturally growing on contaminated sites, and is a model plant to investigate metal hyperaccumulation. This work presents the application of µXRF and Cd µXANES to determine the distribution and speciation of Cd in this species. Results showed that Cd was mainly located in the mesophyll and veins of leaves. It is bound to S ligands in some leaves and to O/N ligands in other ones, and the observed variations may be related to the age of the leaves. Cd speciation seems to differ from other metals, and particularly Zn, generally encountered in hyperaccumulators. High local Cd concentrations were also detected at the base of trichomes, epidermal hairs of leaves, associated to O/N ligands, probably to the cell wall. This phenomenon was also observed on non-hyperaccumulators and is clearly not the major sink for Cd, but trichomes might play a role in the detoxification process. This study illustrates the suitability of synchrotron radiation based techniques to investigate metal distribution and speciation in plants.

  1. Undulators as sources of synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krinsky, S.

    1983-01-01

    At the present time the first generation of facilities having electron storage rings designed for and dedicated to synchrotron radiation research are beginning operations in the US, Europe and Japan. The use of wigglers and undulators as enhanced sources of synchrotron radiation plays an important role at all these facilities. Moreover, recently there has been much activity in the design of the next generation machines, which will place even greater, and perhaps exclusive, emphasis on the use of wigglers and undulators. The operation of these insertion devices has been made even more attractive by advances in the design and construction of permanent magnet wigglers and undulators. This reliable and economical technology eliminates the need for more complex superconducting magnets, except to achieve very high magnetic fields for the production of hard photons from relatively low energy rings. We review the spectral properties of the radiation, emphasizing the complementary aspects of time- and frequency-domain analyses. We next study the brightness of the undulator source. Finally, we consider some limitations associated with operating an undulator in a storage ring.

  2. Ferroelectrics under the Synchrotron Light: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E. Fuentes-Cobas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, an intensive search for high-performance lead-free ferroelectric materials is taking place. ABO3 perovskites (A = Ba, Bi, Ca, K and Na; B = Fe, Nb, Ti, and Zr appear as promising candidates. Understanding the structure–function relationship is mandatory, and, in this field, the roles of long- and short-range crystal orders and interactions are decisive. In this review, recent advances in the global and local characterization of ferroelectric materials by synchrotron light diffraction, scattering and absorption are analyzed. Single- and poly-crystal synchrotron diffraction studies allow high-resolution investigations regarding the long-range average position of ions and subtle global symmetry break-downs. Ferroelectric materials, under the action of electric fields, undergo crystal symmetry, crystallite/domain orientation distribution and strain condition transformations. Methodological aspects of monitoring these processes are discussed. Two-dimensional diffraction clarify larger scale ordering: polycrystal texture is measured from the intensities distribution along the Debye rings. Local order is investigated by diffuse scattering (DS and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS experiments. DS provides information about thermal, chemical and displacive low-dimensional disorders. XAFS investigation of ferroelectrics reveals local B-cation off-centering and oxidation state. This technique has the advantage of being element-selective. Representative reports of the mentioned studies are described.

  3. Ferroelectrics under the Synchrotron Light: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-Cobas, Luis E.; Montero-Cabrera, María E.; Pardo, Lorena; Fuentes-Montero, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Currently, an intensive search for high-performance lead-free ferroelectric materials is taking place. ABO3 perovskites (A = Ba, Bi, Ca, K and Na; B = Fe, Nb, Ti, and Zr) appear as promising candidates. Understanding the structure–function relationship is mandatory, and, in this field, the roles of long- and short-range crystal orders and interactions are decisive. In this review, recent advances in the global and local characterization of ferroelectric materials by synchrotron light diffraction, scattering and absorption are analyzed. Single- and poly-crystal synchrotron diffraction studies allow high-resolution investigations regarding the long-range average position of ions and subtle global symmetry break-downs. Ferroelectric materials, under the action of electric fields, undergo crystal symmetry, crystallite/domain orientation distribution and strain condition transformations. Methodological aspects of monitoring these processes are discussed. Two-dimensional diffraction clarify larger scale ordering: polycrystal texture is measured from the intensities distribution along the Debye rings. Local order is investigated by diffuse scattering (DS) and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) experiments. DS provides information about thermal, chemical and displacive low-dimensional disorders. XAFS investigation of ferroelectrics reveals local B-cation off-centering and oxidation state. This technique has the advantage of being element-selective. Representative reports of the mentioned studies are described. PMID:28787814

  4. Synchrotrons for hadron therapy: Part I

    CERN Document Server

    Badano, L; Bryant, P; Crescenti, M; Holy, P; Knaus, P; Maier, A; Pullia, M; Rossi, S

    1999-01-01

    The treatment of cancer with accelerator beams has a long history with betatrons, linacs, cyclotrons and now synchrotrons being exploited for this purpose. Treatment techniques can be broadly divided into the use of spread-out beams and scanned 'pencil' beams. The Bragg-peak behaviour of hadrons makes them ideal candidates for the latter. The combination of precisely focused 'pencil' beams with controllable penetration (Bragg peak) and high, radio-biological efficiency (light ions) opens the way to treating the more awkward tumours that are radio-resistant, complex in shape and lodged against critical organs. To accelerate light ions (probably carbon) with pulse-to-pulse energy variation, a synchrotron is the natural choice. The beam scanning system is controlled via an on-line measurement of the particle flux entering the patient and, for this reason, the beam spill must be extended in time (seconds) by a slow-extraction scheme. The quality of the dose intensity profile ultimately depends on the uniformity o...

  5. Performances of BNL high-intensity synchrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, W.T.

    1998-03-01

    The AGS proton synchrotron was completed in 1960 with initial intensity in the 10 to the 10th power proton per pulse (ppp) range. Over the years, through many upgrades and improvements, the AGS now reached an intensity record of 6.3 x 10 13 ppp, the highest world intensity record for a proton synchrotron on a single pulse basis. At the same time, the Booster reached 2.2 x 10 13 ppp surpassing the design goal of 1.5 x 10 13 ppp due to the introduction of second harmonic cavity during injection. The intensity limitation caused by space charge tune spread and its relationship to injection energy at 50 MeV, 200 MeV, and 1,500 MeV will be presented as well as many critical accelerator manipulations. BNL currently participates in the design of an accumulator ring for the SNS project at Oak Ridge. The status on the issues of halo formation, beam losses and collimation are also presented

  6. Mapping prehistoric ghosts in the synchrotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, N.P.; Wogelius, R.A. [University of Manchester, School of Earth, Atmospheric, and Environmental Sciences, Manchester (United Kingdom); University of Manchester, Williamson Research Centre for Molecular Environmental Science, Manchester (United Kingdom); Bergmann, U. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Linac Coherent Light Source, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Larson, P. [Black Hills Institute of Geological Research, Inc., Hill City, SD (United States); Sellers, W.I. [University of Manchester, Faculty of Life Sciences, Manchester (United Kingdom); Manning, P.L. [University of Manchester, School of Earth, Atmospheric, and Environmental Sciences, Manchester (United Kingdom); University of Manchester, Williamson Research Centre for Molecular Environmental Science, Manchester (United Kingdom); University of Pennsylvania, Department of Earth and Environmental Science, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2013-04-15

    The detailed chemical analysis of fossils has the potential to reveal great insight to the composition, preservation and biochemistry of ancient life. Such analyses would ideally identify, quantify, and spatially resolve the chemical composition of preserved bone and soft tissue structures, but also the embedding matrix. Mapping the chemistry of a fossil in situ can place constraints on mass transfer between the enclosing matrix and the preserved organism(s), and therefore aid in distinguishing taphonomic processes from original chemical zonation remnant within the fossils themselves. Conventional analytical methods, such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) have serious limitations in this case, primarily, an inability to provide large (i.e., decimeter) scale chemical maps. Additionally, vacuum chamber size and the need for destructive sampling preclude analysis of large and precious fossil specimens. However, the recent development of Synchrotron Rapid Scanning X-ray Fluorescence (SRS-XRF) at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource (SSRL) allows the non-destructive chemical analysis and imaging of major, minor, and trace element concentrations of large paleontological and archeological specimens in rapid scanning times. Here we present elemental maps of a fossil reptile produced using the new SRS-XRF method. Our results unequivocally show that preserved biological structures are not simply impressions or carbonized remains, but possess a remnant of the original organismal biochemistry. We show that SRS-XRF is a powerful new tool for the study of paleontological and archaeological samples. (orig.)

  7. Mapping prehistoric ghosts in the synchrotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, N. P.; Wogelius, R. A.; Bergmann, U.; Larson, P.; Sellers, W. I.; Manning, P. L.

    2013-04-01

    The detailed chemical analysis of fossils has the potential to reveal great insight to the composition, preservation and biochemistry of ancient life. Such analyses would ideally identify, quantify, and spatially resolve the chemical composition of preserved bone and soft tissue structures, but also the embedding matrix. Mapping the chemistry of a fossil in situ can place constraints on mass transfer between the enclosing matrix and the preserved organism(s), and therefore aid in distinguishing taphonomic processes from original chemical zonation remnant within the fossils themselves. Conventional analytical methods, such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) have serious limitations in this case, primarily, an inability to provide large (i.e., decimeter) scale chemical maps. Additionally, vacuum chamber size and the need for destructive sampling preclude analysis of large and precious fossil specimens. However, the recent development of Synchrotron Rapid Scanning X-ray Fluorescence (SRS-XRF) at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource (SSRL) allows the non-destructive chemical analysis and imaging of major, minor, and trace element concentrations of large paleontological and archeological specimens in rapid scanning times. Here we present elemental maps of a fossil reptile produced using the new SRS-XRF method. Our results unequivocally show that preserved biological structures are not simply impressions or carbonized remains, but possess a remnant of the original organismal biochemistry. We show that SRS-XRF is a powerful new tool for the study of paleontological and archaeological samples.

  8. Infrared synchrotron radiation instrumentation and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschmugl, Carol

    1992-08-01

    Infrared synchrotron radiation (IRSR) is a blossoming field which has three working beamlines, U41R at the National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory, USA, and two at the Institute of Molecular Sciences in Okasaki, Japan, with extensive research projects. There are also several new beamlines in the planning and development stages, both in the United States and abroad. IRSR offers a unique way to access the far infrared (30 μm to ˜ 1mm), which is a notoriously difficult region to work in. In particular, experiments that demand high brightness are well suited to IRSR just as they are in the X-ray region. The central issue in all of the experiments to date has been good signal to noise, which has been the focus of the instrumentation improvements at the U41R beamline. A commercial Fourier transform instrument was the chosen spectrometer. Then modifications were made in order to expand the usable region of the existing experiments, in both the far and near infrared. As an example of the performance of this beamline, I will focus on the reflection absorption spectroscopy results for adsorbates on clean surfaces in ultrahigh vacuum.

  9. Beam halo collimation in heavy ion synchrotrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Strašík

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a systematic study of the halo collimation of ion beams from proton up to uranium in synchrotrons. The projected Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research synchrotron SIS100 is used as a reference case. The concepts are separated into fully stripped (e.g., ^{238}U^{92+} and partially stripped (e.g., ^{238}U^{28+} ion collimation. An application of the two-stage betatron collimation system, well established for proton accelerators, is intended also for fully stripped ions. The two-stage system consists of a primary collimator (a scattering foil and secondary collimators (bulky absorbers. Interaction of the particles with the primary collimator (scattering, momentum losses, and nuclear interactions was simulated by using fluka. Particle-tracking simulations were performed by using mad-x. Finally, the dependence of the collimation efficiency on the primary ion species was determined. The influence of the collimation system adjustment, lattice imperfections, and beam parameters was estimated. The concept for the collimation of partially stripped ions employs a thin stripping foil in order to change their charge state. These ions are subsequently deflected towards a dump location using a beam optical element. The charge state distribution after the stripping foil was obtained from global. The ions were tracked by using mad–x.

  10. Berkeley Lab's ALS generates femtosecond synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, A L

    2000-01-01

    A team at Berkeley's Advanced Light Source has shown how a laser time-slicing technique provides a path to experiments with ultrafast time resolution. A Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory team has succeeded in generating 300 fs pulses of synchrotron radiation at the ALS synchrotron radiation machine. The team's members come from the Materials Sciences Division (MSD), the Center for Beam Physics in the Accelerator and Fusion Research Division and the Advanced Light Source (ALS). Although this proof-of principle experiment made use of visible light on a borrowed beamline, the laser "time-slicing" technique at the heart of the demonstration will soon be applied in a new bend magnet beamline that was designed specially for the production of femtosecond pulses of X-rays to study long-range and local order in condensed matter with ultrafast time resolution. An undulator beamline based on the same technique has been proposed that will dramatically increase the flux and brightness. The use of X-rays to study the c...

  11. Analytical fits to the synchrotron functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouka, Mourad; Ouichaoui, Saad

    2013-06-01

    Accurate fitting formulae to the synchrotron function, F(x), and its complementary function, G(x), are performed and presented. The corresponding relative errors are less than 0.26% and 0.035% for F(x) and G(x), respectively. To this end we have, first, fitted the modified Bessel functions, K5/3(x) and K2/3(x). For all the fitted functions, the general fit expression is the same, and is based on the well known asymptotic forms for low and large values of x for each function. It consists of multiplying each asymptotic form by a function that tends to unity or zero for low and large values of x. Simple formulae are suggested in this paper, depending on adjustable parameters. The latter have been determined by adopting the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. The proposed formulae should be of great utility and simplicity for computing spectral powers and the degree of polarization for synchrotron radiation, both for laboratory and astrophysical applications.

  12. Synchrotrons for hadron therapy, part 1

    CERN Document Server

    Badano, L; Bryant, P J; Crescenti, M; Holy, P; Knaus, P; Maier, A T; Pullia, M; Rossi, S

    1999-01-01

    The treatment of cancer with accelerator beams has a long history with linacs, cyclotrons and now synchrotrons being exploited for this purpose. Treatment techniques can be broadly divided into the use of spread-out beams and scanned 'pencil' beams. The Bragg-peak behaviour of hadrons makes them ideal candidates for the latter. The combination of precisely focused 'pencil' beams with controllable penetration (Bragg peak) and high, radio-biological efficiency (light ions) opens the way to treating the more awkward tumours that are radio-resistant, complex in shape and lodged against critical organs. To accelerate light ions (probably carbon) with pulse-to-pulse energy variation, a synchrotron is the natural choice. The beam scanning system is controlled via an on-line measurement of the particle flux entering the patient and, for this reason, the beam spill must be extended in time (seconds) by a slow-extraction scheme. The quality of the dose intensity profile ultimately depends on the uniformity of the beam ...

  13. Low frequency interference between short synchrotron radiation sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Méot

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available A recently developed analytical formalism describing low frequency far-field synchrotron radiation (SR is applied to the calculation of spectral angular radiation densities from interfering short sources (edge, short magnet. This is illustrated by analytical calculation of synchrotron radiation from various assemblies of short dipoles, including an “isolated” highest density infrared SR source.

  14. Synchrotron Emission on the Largest Scales: Radio Detection of the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... Abstract. Shocks and turbulence generated during large-scale structure formation are predicted to produce large-scale, low surface-brightness synchrotron emission. On the largest scales, this emission is globally correlated with the thermal baryon distribution, and constitutes the `synchrotron cosmic-web'.

  15. A synchrotron radiation facility for x-ray astronomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, C.J.; Lewis, R.A.; Christensen, Finn Erland

    1997-01-01

    A proposal for an x-ray optics test facility based at a synchrotron radiation source is presented. The facility would incorporate a clean preparation area, and a large evacuable test area. The advantages of using a synchrotron as the source of the test radiation are discussed. These include the a...

  16. National synchrotron light source basic design and project status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Steenbergen, A.

    1981-01-01

    A summary description and the basic design parameters of the National Synchrotron Light Source, a facility for the generation of intense synchrotron radiation in the vuv and x-ray range is presented, the parameters of the sources are given, the presently planned facility beam lines are tabulated and the status of the project is indicated

  17. The Scale Invariant Synchrotron Jet of Flat Spectrum Radio Quasars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... The results are in good agreement with theoretical expectations of Heinz & Sunyaev (2003). Therefore, the jet synchrotron is shown to be scale independent, regardless of the accretion modes. Results in this article thus lend support to the scale invariant model of the jet synchrotron throughout the mass ...

  18. Synchrotron radiation in art and archaeology SRA 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollard, A.M.; Janssens, K.; Artioli, G.; Young, M.L.; Casadio, F.; Schnepp, S.; Marvin, J.; Dunand, D.C.; Almer, J.; Fezzaa, K.; Lee, W.K.; Haeffner, D.R.; Reguer, S.; Dillmann, Ph.; Mirambet, F.; Susini, J.; Lagarde, P.; Pradell, T.; Molera, J.; Brunetti, B.; D'acapito, F.; Maurizio, C.; Mazzoldi, P.; Padovani, S.; Sgamellotti, A.; Garges, F.; Etcheverry, M.P.; Flank, A.M.; Lagarde, P.; Marcus, M.A.; Scheidegger, A.M.; Grolimund, D.; Pallot-Frossard, I.; Smith, A.D.; Jones, M.; Gliozzo, E.; Memmi-Turbanti, I.; Molera, J.; Vendrell, M.; Mcconachie, G.; Skinner, T.; Kirkman, I.W.; Pantos, E.; Wallert, A.; Kanngiesser, B.; Hahn, O.; Wilke, M.; NekaT, B.; Malzer, W.; Erko, A.; Chalmin, E.; Vignaud, C.; Farges, F.; Susini, J.; Menu, M.; Sandstrom, M.; Cotte, M.; Kennedy, C.J.; Wess, T.J.; Muller, M.; Murphy, B.; Roberts, M.A.; Burghammer, M.; Riekel, C.; Gunneweg, J.; Pantos, E.; Dik, J.; Tafforeau, P.; Boistel, R.; Boller, E.; Bravin, A.; Brunet, M.; Chaimanee, Y.; Cloetens, P.; Feist, M.; Hoszowska, J.; Jaeger, J.J.; Kay, R.F.; Lazzari, V.; Marivaux, L.; Nel, A.; Nemoz, C.; Thibault, X.; Vignaud, P.; Zabler, S.; Sciau, P.; Goudeau, P.; Tamura, N.; Doormee, E.; Kockelmann, W.; Adriaens, A.; Ryck, I. de; Leyssens, K.; Hochleitner, B.; Schreiner, M.; Drakopoulos, M.; Snigireva, I.; Snigirev, A.; Sanchez Del Rio, M.; Martinetto, P.; Dooryhee, E.; Suarez, M.; Sodo, A.; Reyes-Valerio, C.; Haro Poniatowski, E.; Picquart, M.; Lima, E.; Reguera, E.; Gunneweg, J.; Reiche, I.; Berger, A.; Bevers, H.; Duval, A.

    2005-01-01

    Materials - bones, artifacts, artwork,.... - lie at the heart of both archaeology and art conservation. Synchrotron radiation techniques provide powerful ways to interrogate these records of our physical and cultural past. In this workshop we will discuss and explore the current and potential applications of synchrotron radiation science to problems in archaeology and art conservation. This document gathers the abstracts of the presentations

  19. Enhancing the accelerated beam current in the booster synchrotron ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Based on these measured beam parameters, beam optics of a transport line was optimized and its results are alsodiscussed in this paper. This beam transport line is used to transport the electron beam from the 20MeV microtron to the booster synchrotron. The booster synchrotron works as a main injector for Indus-1 and ...

  20. First turn simulations in the cooler synchrotron COSY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinev, D.

    1991-07-01

    This paper is devoted to the first turn correction and related problems in particle accelerators of synchrotron type. The paper consists of two parts. The first part is a survey of the existing methods for first turn steering. The second part is entirely devoted to the first turn in the cooler synchrotron COSY which is under assembling in KFA-Julich, Germany. (orig.)

  1. Synchrotron radiation in art and archaeology SRA 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollard, A.M.; Janssens, K.; Artioli, G.; Young, M.L.; Casadio, F.; Schnepp, S.; Marvin, J.; Dunand, D.C.; Almer, J.; Fezzaa, K.; Lee, W.K.; Haeffner, D.R.; Reguer, S.; Dillmann, Ph.; Mirambet, F.; Susini, J.; Lagarde, P.; Pradell, T.; Molera, J.; Brunetti, B.; D' acapito, F.; Maurizio, C.; Mazzoldi, P.; Padovani, S.; Sgamellotti, A.; Garges, F.; Etcheverry, M.P.; Flank, A.M.; Lagarde, P.; Marcus, M.A.; Scheidegger, A.M.; Grolimund, D.; Pallot-Frossard, I.; Smith, A.D.; Jones, M.; Gliozzo, E.; Memmi-Turbanti, I.; Molera, J.; Vendrell, M.; Mcconachie, G.; Skinner, T.; Kirkman, I.W.; Pantos, E.; Wallert, A.; Kanngiesser, B.; Hahn, O.; Wilke, M.; NekaT, B.; Malzer, W.; Erko, A.; Chalmin, E.; Vignaud, C.; Farges, F.; Susini, J.; Menu, M.; Sandstrom, M.; Cotte, M.; Kennedy, C.J.; Wess, T.J.; Muller, M.; Murphy, B.; Roberts, M.A.; Burghammer, M.; Riekel, C.; Gunneweg, J.; Pantos, E.; Dik, J.; Tafforeau, P.; Boistel, R.; Boller, E.; Bravin, A.; Brunet, M.; Chaimanee, Y.; Cloetens, P.; Feist, M.; Hoszowska, J.; Jaeger, J.J.; Kay, R.F.; Lazzari, V.; Marivaux, L.; Nel, A.; Nemoz, C.; Thibault, X.; Vignaud, P.; Zabler, S.; Sciau, P.; Goudeau, P.; Tamura, N.; Doormee, E.; Kockelmann, W.; Adriaens, A.; Ryck, I. de; Leyssens, K.; Hochleitner, B.; Schreiner, M.; Drakopoulos, M.; Snigireva, I.; Snigirev, A.; Sanchez Del Rio, M.; Martinetto, P.; Dooryhee, E.; Suarez, M.; Sodo, A.; Reyes-Valerio, C.; Haro Poniatowski, E.; Picquart, M.; Lima, E.; Reguera, E.; Gunneweg, J.; Reiche, I.; Berger, A.; Bevers, H.; Duval, A

    2005-07-01

    Materials - bones, artifacts, artwork,.... - lie at the heart of both archaeology and art conservation. Synchrotron radiation techniques provide powerful ways to interrogate these records of our physical and cultural past. In this workshop we will discuss and explore the current and potential applications of synchrotron radiation science to problems in archaeology and art conservation. This document gathers the abstracts of the presentations.

  2. Evolution of granule structure and drug content during fluidized bed granulation by X-ray microtomography and confocal Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poutiainen, Sami; Pajander, Jari; Savolainen, Armi; Ketolainen, Jarkko; Järvinen, Kristiina

    2011-12-01

    The distribution of the drug in the granular end product is a critical quality attribute in fluidized bed spray granulation of pharmaceuticals. The evolution of drug content inhomogeneity in a case study was examined as a function of granulation time. Intragranular structure was also investigated using confocal Raman spectroscopy and computerized X-ray microtomography. A principal component analysis was conducted on the results to investigate granule structure-drug content relationships. Inhomogeneity increased at the beginning of the process but later it was found to decrease. Changes in the homogeneity were accompanied by significant changes in the intragranular structure. It was concluded that segregation of the primary components explained the observed inhomogeneity at low saturation levels when the granules grow by layering, but at elevated moisture levels, granule growth is mediated by the coalescence of agglomerates, which promotes homogeneous distribution of the drug particles. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Characterization of test specimens produced in reduced size for X-ray microtomography (µ-CT tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. BERNARDES

    Full Text Available Abstract The need to use reduced sample sizes, in order to attain improved spatial resolution in (µ-CT tests applied in Portland cement composites, makes researchers perform the fractionation of materials to obtain samples with dimensions compatible with the capacity of the scanning equipment, which might cause alterations in the microstructure under analysis. Therefore, a test specimen (TS with dimensions compatible with the scanning capacity of a microtomography system that operates with an X-ray tube and voltage ranging from 20 to 100 kV was proposed. Axial compression strength tests were made and their total porosity was assessed by an apparent density and solid fraction density ratio, which were obtained by means of mercury and helium pycnometry and µ-CT technique, respectively. The adoption of that TS has shown to be viable for providing a sample with a higher level of representation.

  4. Analysis of 3D Prints by X-ray Computed Microtomography and Terahertz Pulsed Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markl, Daniel; Zeitler, J Axel; Rasch, Cecilie

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: A 3D printer was used to realise compartmental dosage forms containing multiple active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) formulations. This work demonstrates the microstructural characterisation of 3D printed solid dosage forms using X-ray computed microtomography (XμCT) and terahertz pulsed...... was characterised by XμCT and TPI on the basis of the computer-aided design (CAD) models of the dosage form (compartmentalised PVA structures were 7.5 ± 0.75% larger than designed; n = 3). CONCLUSIONS: The 3D printer can reproduce specific structures very accurately, whereas the 3D prints can deviate from...... imaging (TPI). METHODS: Printing was performed with either polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) or polylactic acid (PLA). The structures were examined by XμCT and TPI. Liquid self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) formulations containing saquinavir and halofantrine were incorporated into the 3D printed...

  5. Evaluation of the effect of varying the workability in concrete pore structure by using X-ray microtomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Bernardes

    Full Text Available The useful life of concrete is associated with the penetrative ability of aggressive agents on their structures. Structural parameters such as porosity, pore distribution and connectivity have great influence on the properties of mass transport in porous solids. In the present study, the effect of varying the workability of concrete in fresh state, produced through the use of additives, on pore structure and on the mechanical compressive strength of hardened concrete was assessed. The pore structure was analyzed with the aid of X-ray microtomography, and the results obtained were compared to the total pore volume calculated from data derived from helium and mercury pycnometry tests. A good approximation between the porosity values obtained through the two techniques was observed, and it was found that, regardless of concrete consistency, the samples from the surface of the specimens showed a percentage of pores higher than those taken from the more inner layers.

  6. Effects of manual threshold setting on image analysis results of a sandstone sample structural characterization by X-ray microtomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Anderson C.; Fernandes, Celso P.; Fernandes, Jaquiel S.; Marques, Leonardo C.; Appoloni, Carlos R.; Nagata, Rodrigo

    2009-01-01

    X-ray microtomography is a nondestructive nuclear technique widely applied for samples structural characterization. This methodology permits the investigation of materials porous phase, without special sample preparation, generating bidimensional images of the irradiated sample. The images are generated by the linear attenuation coefficient mapping of the sample. In order to do a quantitative characterization, the images have to be binarized, separating porous phase from the material matrix. The choice of the correct threshold in the grey level histogram is an important and discerning procedure for the binary images creation. Slight variations of the threshold level led to substantial variations in physical parameters determination, like porosity and pore size distribution values. The aim of this work is to evaluate these variations based on some manual threshold setting. Employing Imago image analysis software, four operators determined the porosity and pore size distribution of a sandstone sample by image analysis. The microtomography measurements were accomplished with the following scan conditions: 60 kV, 165 μA, 1 mm Al filter, 0.45 deg step size and 180.0 deg total rotation angle with and 3.8 μm and 11 μm spatial resolution. The global average porosity values, determined by the operators, range from 27.8 to 32.4 % for 3.8 μm spatial resolution and 12.3 to 28.3 % for 11 μm spatial resolution. Percentage differences among the pore size distributions were also found. For the same pore size range, 5.5 % and 17.1 %, for 3.8 μm and 11 μm spatial resolutions respectively, were noted. (author)

  7. Determination of structural geometric parameters of industrial ceramic foams by gamma rays transmission and X-rays microtomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, Wilson Roberto Dejato da

    2005-01-01

    In this work, the gamma rays transmission and X-rays microtomography techniques are used for the evaluation of the porosity and the pore size distribution of SiC ceramic foams. It was also accomplished the three-dimensional images after the determination of samples geometric parameters. The geometric parameters were obtained by two-dimensional images analyses, generated by a Microfocus system, with a CCD camera, an images intensifier, a X-rays tube and an automatic system for rotation of the sample. The spatial resolution of the images was about 32 μm. In the gamma rays transmission methodology, a Nal(Tl) scintillation detector, an 241 Am (59.53 keV, 100 mCi) radioactive source and an automatic X-Z micrometric table was used. The analyzed samples had pores density of 30, 45, 60, 80 and 100 ppi (pores per inch). The gamma rays transmission technique was accurate to supply the porosity of the samples, which ranged about 90% and was in agreement with the values supplied by manufacturer of the foams. The 30 and 45 ppi samples analyzed by X-rays microtomography showed porosity results that agree with the average porosity supplied by the manufacturer. In other hand, the 60, 80 and 100 ppi samples systematically showed average porosity about 4%, lower than the average of the manufacturer. The pore size distributions found through the software IMAGO show the presence of smaller pores than those nominated by the manufacturer. The 30 ppi samples had voids inside the solid material of the ceramic foams structure. Gaussian truncated method, used in the three-dimensional reconstruction, was not able to take into the account the voids inside the solid matrix. (author)

  8. X-ray computed microtomography integrated to petrography for the three-dimensional study of rock porosity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis Neto, Joss Manoel dos; Fiori, Alberto Pio; Lopes, Angela Pacheco; Pinto-Coelho, Cristina Valle; Vasconcellos, Eleonora Maria Gouvea; Silva, Gabriel Fischer da; Marchese, Clarice; Secchi, Rodrigo

    2011-01-01

    The porosity contained in rocks is object of study by geoscientists due to the various genetic implications of these features. However, what have been motivating the search for new analytical techniques to study pores are the petrophysical analyses. The experimental techniques for porosity analysis, such as mercury or gas injection, allow a quantitative approach, but do not allow the visualization of the porous framework. Petrographic analysis by optical microscopy allows the visualization and quantification of intergranular pores, but it is restricted to the two-dimensional space and quantifications are less representative. Technological advances in X-ray computed microtomography (micro-CT) allowed three-dimensional analysis of pore geometry in microscale, in addition to automated volume measurements. The analyses of marble, quartzite, sandstone and dolomite breccia represented in this work and performed under the Project Falhas/ PETROBRAS/UFPR, show the shape, size, connectivity, tortuosity, pore volume and distribution in these rocks, demonstrating the differences in the rocks' porous frameworks. The integration of micro-CT to petrography allows the identification of mineral phases with attenuation of contrasting X-rays, placing the incidence of porosity in the mineralogical context in three dimensions, in addition to the contribution to the consistency of the method. Although the resolution is limited in the X-ray microtomography that was used (the Skyscan model 1172), which does not reach the smallest pore size of some rocks, the integration of both techniques provides new information, of extreme importance for the research about micro-features related to the pores in rocks, helping in genetic interpretations and significantly contributing for the analyses of reservoirs. (author)

  9. Excitation of nuclear states by synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olariu, Albert

    2003-01-01

    We study the excitation of nuclear states by gamma ray beams of energy up to 200 keV produced as synchrotron radiation. We consider the possibility to populate an excited state |i> in two steps, from the ground state |g> to an intermediary state |n> which decays by gamma emission or internal conversion to a lower state |i>. The aim of this study is to establish that the probability P 2 of the two-step transition |g> → |n> → |i> should be greater than the probability P 1 of the direct transition |g> → |i>. The probabilities P 1 and P 2 correspond to a radiation pulse of duration equal to the half-time of the state |i>. We have written a computer program in C++ which computes the probability P 2 , the ratio P 2 /P 1 and the rate C 2 of the two-step transitions for any nuclei and different configurations of states. The program uses a database which contains information on the energy levels, half-lives, spins and parities of nuclear states and on the relative intensities of the nuclear transitions. If the half-lives or the relative intensities are not known the program uses the Weisskopf estimates for the transition half-lives. An interpolation program of internal conversion coefficients has also been used. We listed the values obtained for P 2 , P 2 /P 1 and C 2 in a number of cases in which P 2 is significant from the 2900 considered cases. The states |i> and |n> have the energies E i and E n , the corresponding half-lives being t i and t n . The spectral density of the synchrotron radiation has been considered to be 10 12 photons cm -2 s -1 eV -1 . We listed only the cases for which the relative intensities of the transitions from levels |n> and |i> to lower states are known. The calculations carried out in this study allowed us to identify nuclei for which P 2 has relatively great values. In the listed cases P 2 /P 1 >>1, so that the two-step excitation by synchrotron radiation is more efficient than the direct excitation |g> → |i>. For a sample having 10

  10. Synchrotron radiation facilities for chemical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatano, Yoshihiko

    1995-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation (SR) research is of great importance in understanding radiation chemistry, physics, and biology. It is also clearly recognized in the international chemical community that chemical applications of SR are greatly advanced and divided into 1) Molecular Spectroscopy and Dynamics Studies-Gases, Surfaces, and Condensed Matter- , 2) Radiation Chemistry and Photochemistry, 3) X-ray Structural and XAFS Studies-Crystals, Surfaces, and Liquids- , 4) Analytical Chemistry, and 5) Synthesis or R and D of New Materials. In this paper, a survey is given of recent advances in the application of SR to the chemistry of excitation and ionization of molecules, i.e., SR chemistry, in the wavelength region between near-ultraviolet and hard X-rays. The topics will be chosen from those obtained at some leading SR facilities. (J.P.N.)

  11. Plane grating monochromators for synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howells, M.R.

    1979-01-01

    The general background and theoretical basis of plane grating monochromators (PGM's) is reviewed and the particular case of grazing incidence PGM's suitable for use with synchrotron radiation is considered in detail. The theory of reflection filtering is described and the problem of the finite source distance is shown to be of special importance with high brightness storage rings. The design philosophy of previous instruments is discussed and a new scheme proposed, aimed at dealing with the problem of the finite source distance. This scheme, involving a parabolic collimating mirror fabricated by diamond turning, is considered in the context of Wolter-type telescopes and microscopes. Some practical details concerning an instrument presently under construction using the new design are presented

  12. A guide to synchrotron radiation science

    CERN Document Server

    Sato, Shigeru; Munro, Ian; Lodha, G S

    2015-01-01

    Synchrotron Radiation (SR), as a light source is now in use around the world to provide brilliant radiation from the infrared into the soft and hard X-ray regions. It is an indispensible and essential tool to establish the physic-chemical characteristics of materials and surfaces from an atomic and molecular view point. It is being applied to topics which range from mineralogy to protein crystallography, embracing research in areas from the physical to the life sciences. This new guide is a concise yet comprehensive and easily readable introduction to an expanding area of science. It presents in a readily assimilable form the basic concepts of SR science from its generation principles, through source design and operation to the principles of instruments for SR exploitation followed by a survey of its actual applications in selected research fields, including spectroscopy, diffractometry, microanalysis and chemical processing.

  13. Synchrotron radiation total reflection for rainwater analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simabuco, Silvana M.; Matsumoto, Edson

    1999-01-01

    Total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis excited with synchrotron radiation (SR-TXRF) has been used for rainwater trace element analysis. The samples were collected in four different sites at Campinas City, SP. Standard solutions with gallium as internal standard were prepared for the calibration system. Rainwater samples of 10 μl were putted onto Perspex reflector disk, dried on vacuum and analyzed for 100 s measuring time. The detection limits obtained for K-shell varied from 29 ng.ml -1 for sulfur to 1.3 ng.ml -1 for zinc and copper, while for L-shell the values were 4.5 ng.ml -1 for mercury and 7.0 ng.ml -1 for lead. (author)

  14. CVD diamond windows for infrared synchrotron applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sussmann, R.S.; Pickles, C.S.J.; Brandon, J.R.; Wort, C.J.H.; Coe, S.E.; Wasenczuk, A.; Dodge, C.N.; Beale, A.C.; Krehan, A.J.; Dore, P.; Nucara, A.; Calvani, P.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the attributes that make diamond a unique material for infrared synchrotron beam experiments. New developments in diamond synthesised by Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) promise to extend the range of applications which have been hitherto limited by the availability and cost of large-size single-crystal diamond. Polycrystalline CVD diamond components such as large (100 mm) diameter windows with extremely good transparency over a wide spectral range are now commercially available. Properties of CVD diamond of relevance to optical applications, such as mechanical strength, thermal conductivity and absolute bulk absorption, are discussed. It is shown that although some of the properties of CVD diamond (similar to other polycrystalline industrial ceramics) are affected by the grain structure, currently produced CVD diamond optical components have the quality and performance required for numerous demanding applications

  15. 3D Detectors for Synchrotron Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pennicard, D

    2009-01-01

    3D detectors are a novel variety of photodiode radiation detector, invented by Parker, Kenney and Segal (1997). Instead of having n- and p-type contacts on the front and back surfaces of a silicon substrate, like a standard photodiode, they have columns of doped material passing through the thickness of the silicon. This structure means that the detector can combine a reasonable substrate thickness with a very small electrode spacing, resulting in a low depletion voltage, fast charge collection and low charge sharing. These detectors have a couple of promising applications. Their fast charge collection and low depletion voltage should make them very radiation-tolerant. So, they could be used for future particle physics experiments at the Super Large Hadron Collider (SLHC), where high levels of radiation damage are expected. Also, their low charge sharing means they could potentially improve X-ray diffraction measurements at synchrotrons such as Diamond Light Source. This would allow these experiments, for exa...

  16. Silicon Pixel Detectors for Synchrotron Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Stewart, Graeme Douglas

    Recent advances in particle accelerators have increased the demands being placed on detectors. Novel detector designs are being implemented in many different areas including, for example, high luminosity experiments at the LHC or at next generation synchrotrons. The purpose of this thesis was to characterise some of these novel detectors. The first of the new detector types is called a 3D detector. This design was first proposed by Parker, Kenney and Segal (1997). In this design, doped electrodes are created that extend through the silicon substrate. When compared to a traditional photodiode with electrodes on the opposing surfaces, the 3D design can combine a reasonable detector thickness with a small electrode spacing resulting in fast charge collection and limited charge sharing. The small electrode spacing leads to the detectors having lower depletion voltages. This, combined with the fast collection time, makes 3D detectors a candidate for radiation hard applications. These applications include the upgra...

  17. Helical magnetized wiggler for synchrotron radiation laser

    CERN Document Server

    Wang Mei; Hirshfield, J L

    1999-01-01

    A helical magnetized iron wiggler has been built for a novel infrared synchrotron radiation laser (SRL) experiment. The wiggler consists of four periods of helical iron structure immersed in a solenoid field. This wiggler is to impart transverse velocity to a prebunched 6 MeV electron beam, and thus to obtain a desired high orbit pitch ratio for the SRL. Field tapering at beam entrance is considered and tested on a similar wiggler. Analytic and simulated characteristics of wigglers of this type are discussed and the performance of the fabricated wigglers is demonstrated experimentally. A 4.7 kG peak field was measured for a 6.4 mm air gap and a 5.4 cm wiggler period at a 20 kG solenoid field. The measured helical fields compare favorably with the analytical solution. This type of helical iron wigglers has the potential to be scaled to small periods with strong field amplitude.

  18. Helical magnetized wiggler for synchrotron radiation laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Mei; Park, S.Y.; Hirshfield, J.L.

    1999-01-01

    A helical magnetized iron wiggler has been built for a novel infrared synchrotron radiation laser (SRL) experiment. The wiggler consists of four periods of helical iron structure immersed in a solenoid field. This wiggler is to impart transverse velocity to a prebunched 6 MeV electron beam, and thus to obtain a desired high orbit pitch ratio for the SRL. Field tapering at beam entrance is considered and tested on a similar wiggler. Analytic and simulated characteristics of wigglers of this type are discussed and the performance of the fabricated wigglers is demonstrated experimentally. A 4.7 kG peak field was measured for a 6.4 mm air gap and a 5.4 cm wiggler period at a 20 kG solenoid field. The measured helical fields compare favorably with the analytical solution. This type of helical iron wigglers has the potential to be scaled to small periods with strong field amplitude

  19. Shielding and synchrotron radiation in toroidal waveguide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Stupakov

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available We develop a new approach to the calculation of the synchrotron radiation in a toroidal vacuum chamber. Using a small parameter ϵ=sqrt[a/R], where a is the characteristic size of the cross section of the toroid and R is the bending radius, we simplify Maxwell’s equations assuming that the characteristic frequency of the modes ω∼c/aϵ and neglect terms of higher order in ϵ. For a rectangular cross section of the waveguide, we find an analytical solution of the equations and analyze their asymptotics at very high frequency. We then obtain an equation which gives radiation into each synchronous mode. We demonstrate the flexibility of the new method by calculating the frequencies and the loss factors for the lowest modes in square and round waveguides.

  20. Quadrupole magnet for a rapid cycling synchrotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witte, H. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Berg, J. S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-05-03

    Rapid Cycling Synchrotrons (RCS) feature interleaved warm and cold dipole magnets; the field of the warm magnets is used to modulate the average bending field depending on the particle energy. It has been shown that RCS can be an attractive option for fast acceleration of particles, for example, muons, which decay quickly. In previous studies it was demonstrated that in principle warm dipole magnets can be designed which can provide the required ramp rates, which are equivalent to frequencies of about 1 kHz. To reduce the losses it is beneficial to employ two separate materials for the yoke; it was also shown that by employing an optimized excitation coil geometry the eddy current losses are acceptable. In this paper we show that the same principles can be applied to quadrupole magnets targeting 30 T/m with a repetition rate of 1kHz and good field quality.

  1. Synchrotron radiation in solid state chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghigna, Paolo; Pin, Sonia; Spinolo, Giorgio; Newton, Mark A.; Chiara Tarantino, Serena; Zema, Michele

    2011-01-01

    An approach towards the reactivity in the solid state is proposed, primarily based on recognizing the crucial role played by the interfacial free energy and by the topotactical relationship between the two reactants, which in turn control formation of the new phase and its spatial and orientational relationships with respect to the parent phases. Using one of the reactants in the form of film, the ratio between bulk and interfacial free energy can be changed, and the effect of interfacial free energy is maximized. The role of Synchrotron Radiation in such an approach is exemplified by using a new developed technique for μ-XANES mapping with nanometric resolution for studying the reactivity of thin films of NiO onto differently oriented Al 2 O 3 single crystals. The result obtained allowed us to speculate about the rate determining step of the NiO+Al 2 O 3 →NiAl 2 O 4 interfacial reaction.

  2. Exploring actinide materials through synchrotron radiation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wei-Qun; Yuan, Li-Yong; Wang, Cong-Zhi; Wang, Lin; Mei, Lei; Xiao, Cheng-Liang; Zhang, Li; Li, Zi-Jie; Zhao, Yu-Liang; Chai, Zhi-Fang

    2014-12-10

    Synchrotron radiation (SR) based techniques have been utilized with increasing frequency in the past decade to explore the brilliant and challenging sciences of actinide-based materials. This trend is partially driven by the basic needs for multi-scale actinide speciation and bonding information and also the realistic needs for nuclear energy research. In this review, recent research progresses on actinide related materials by means of various SR techniques were selectively highlighted and summarized, with the emphasis on X-ray absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and scattering spectroscopy, which are powerful tools to characterize actinide materials. In addition, advanced SR techniques for exploring future advanced nuclear fuel cycles dealing with actinides are illustrated as well. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Channels in cell membranes and synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Xiaohui; Tian Liang; Zhang Xinyi

    2004-01-01

    For long time a lot of scientists have devoted to study how matter, such as water molecules and K + , Na + , Ca 2+ , Cl - ions, move through cell membranes and complete the matter exchange between the inside and outside of cells. Peter Agre discovered and characterized the first water channel protein in 1988 and Roderick MacKinnon elucidated the structural and mechanistic basis for ion channel function in 1998. These achievements have made it possible for us to 'see' these exquisitely designed molecular machines in action at the atomic level. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry for 2003 is shared between these two scientists. In determining the high resolution 3D structure of these channels, the synchrotron X-ray diffraction plays an important role

  4. Microfabrication of crosslinked PTFE by synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Yasunori; Yamaguchi, Daichi; Oshima, Akihiro; Washio, Masakazu; Katoh, Takanori; Aoki, Yasushi; Ikeda, Shigetoshi; Tanaka, Shigeru

    2003-01-01

    Microfabrication of crosslinked polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) using synchrotron radiation (SR) has been demonstrated for production of micro-components applicable to radiation fields. The method of microfabrication was readily capable of obtaining a microstructure with aspect-ratio of 25 made of crosslinked PTFE. The etching rate of crosslinked PTFE was higher than that of non-crosslinked PTFE. The results show that the etching rate of crosslinked PTFE depends only on the degree of crosslinking. The effect of molecular motion on etching process was discussed from temperature dependence on etching rate. Moreover, in order to examine whether any change of chemical structures and crystallinity would be induced by SR-irradiation on PTFE, SR-irradiated PTFE was measured by NMR spectroscopy and DSC analysis. The results showed that the crosslinking reaction of PTFE would be induced by SR-irradiation in the solid state. (author)

  5. Synchrotron and neutron techniques in biological crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeley, M P; Cianci, M; Helliwell, J R; Rizkallah, P J

    2004-10-20

    Synchrotron radiation (SR) techniques are continuously pushing the frontiers of wavelength range usage, smaller crystal sample size, larger protein molecular weight and complexity, as well as better diffraction resolution. The new research specialism of probing functional states directly in crystals, via time-resolved Laue and freeze trapping structural studies, has been developed, with a range of examples, based on research stretching over some 20 years. Overall, SR X-ray biological crystallography is complemented by neutron protein crystallographic studies aimed at cases where much more complete hydrogen details are needed involving synergistic developments between SR and neutron Laue methods. A big new potential exists in harnessing genome databases for targeting of new proteins for structural study. Structural examples in this tutorial review illustrate new chemistry learnt from biological macromolecules.

  6. Optical substrate materials for synchrotron radiation beamlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howells, M.R.; Paquin, R.A.

    1997-06-01

    The authors consider the materials choices available for making optical substrates for synchrotron radiation beam lines. They find that currently the optical surfaces can only be polished to the required finish in fused silica and other glasses, silicon, CVD silicon carbide, electroless nickel and 17-4 PH stainless steel. Substrates must therefore be made of one of these materials or of a metal that can be coated with electroless nickel. In the context of material choices for mirrors they explore the issues of dimensional stability, polishing, bending, cooling, and manufacturing strategy. They conclude that metals are best from an engineering and cost standpoint while the ceramics are best from a polishing standpoint. They then give discussions of specific materials as follows: silicon carbide, silicon, electroless nickel, Glidcop trademark, aluminum, precipitation-hardening stainless steel, mild steel, invar and superinvar. Finally they summarize conclusions and propose ideas for further research

  7. Optical substrate materials for synchrotron radiation beamlines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howells, M.R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Advanced Light Source; Paquin, R.A. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Optical Sciences Center

    1997-06-01

    The authors consider the materials choices available for making optical substrates for synchrotron radiation beam lines. They find that currently the optical surfaces can only be polished to the required finish in fused silica and other glasses, silicon, CVD silicon carbide, electroless nickel and 17-4 PH stainless steel. Substrates must therefore be made of one of these materials or of a metal that can be coated with electroless nickel. In the context of material choices for mirrors they explore the issues of dimensional stability, polishing, bending, cooling, and manufacturing strategy. They conclude that metals are best from an engineering and cost standpoint while the ceramics are best from a polishing standpoint. They then give discussions of specific materials as follows: silicon carbide, silicon, electroless nickel, Glidcop{trademark}, aluminum, precipitation-hardening stainless steel, mild steel, invar and superinvar. Finally they summarize conclusions and propose ideas for further research.

  8. Liquid metal cooling of synchrotron optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smither, R.K.

    1993-01-01

    The installation of insertion devices at existing synchrotron facilities around the world has stimulated the development of new ways to cool the optical elements in the associated x-ray beamlines. Argonne has been a leader in the development of liquid metal cooling for high heat load x-ray optics for the next generation of synchrotron facilities. The high thermal conductivity, high volume specific heat, low kinematic viscosity, and large working temperature range make liquid metals a very efficient heat transfer fluid. A wide range of liquid metals were considered in the initial phase of this work. The most promising liquid metal cooling fluid identified to date is liquid gallium, which appears to have all the desired properties and the fewest number of undesired features of the liquid metals examined. Besides the special features of liquid metals that make them good heat transfer fluids, the very low vapor pressure over a large working temperature range make liquid gallium an ideal cooling fluid for use in a high vacuum environment. A leak of the liquid gallium into the high vacuum and even into very high vacuum areas will not result in any detectable vapor pressure and may even improve the vacuum environment as the liquid gallium combines with any water vapor or oxygen present in the system. The practical use of a liquid metal for cooling silicon crystals and other high heat load applications depends on having a convenient and efficient delivery system. The requirements for a typical cooling system for a silicon crystal used in a monochromator are pumping speeds of 2 to 5 gpm (120 cc per sec to 600 cc per sec) at pressures up to 100 psi. No liquid metal pump with these capabilities was available commercially when this project was started, so it was necessary to develop a suitable pump in house

  9. European synchrotron radiation facility at Risoe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    The results of the feasibility study on a potential European Synchrotron Radiation Facility site at Risoe, Denmark, can be summarized as follows: The site is located in a geologically stable area. The ground is fairly flat, free from vibrations and earth movements, and the foundation properties are considered generally good. The study is based upon the machine concept and main geometry as presented in the ESF feasibility study of May 1979. However, the proposed site could accomodate a larger machine (e.g. 900 m of circumference) or a multi-facility centre. The site is located in the vicinity of Risoe National Laboratory, a R and D establishment with 850 employees and a well-developed technical and scientific infrastructure, which can provide support to the ESRF during the plant construction and operation. In particular the possible combination of synchrotron radiation with the existing neutron scattering facilities in DR 3 is emphasized. The site is located 35 km west of Copenhagen with easy access to the scientific, technological and industrial organizations in the metropolitan area. The regional infrastructure ensures easy and fast communication between the ESRF and locations in the host country as well as abroad. The site is located 35 minutes drive from Copenhagen International Airport and on a main communication route out of Copenhagen. The estimated time duration for the design, construction and commissioning of ESRF phase 1 - taking into account national regulatory procedures - is consistent with that of the ESF feasibility study, i.e. approx. 6 years. The estimated captal costs associated with site-specific structures are consistent with those of the ESF feasibility study, taking into account price increase between 1979 and 1981. It should be emphasized that the study is based upon technical and scientific assessments only, and does not reflect any official position or approval from appropriate authorities. (author)

  10. XPEEM spectro-microscopy using synchrotron radiation; La spectromicroscopie XPEEM avec le rayonnement synchrotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, N. [CEA Saclay (DSM/IRAMIS/SPCSI), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Renault, O. [CEA Grenoble, Lab. d' Electronique et de Technologie de l' Informatique (LETI), Minatec, 38 (France)

    2009-07-01

    Synchrotron radiation offers new dimensions to photoelectron spectroscopy. Third generation synchrotron radiation sources offer optimization of the photoionization cross-sections and surface sensitivity, as well as the availability of high brilliance photon beams. Angularly resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES) can do band mapping of single crystal electronic structure. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) probes the chemical environment of constituent atoms. With respect to ARPES and XPS, photoelectron emission microscopy (PEEM) conserves the spatial origin of the photoelectrons thanks to electron optics which collect, focus and enlarges the photoelectric signal. The ultimate spatial resolution is determined by electron diffraction and the chromatic and spherical aberrations. Synchrotron radiation is therefore well adapted to finding the necessary compromise between aberration minimization using apertures and the microscope transmission for full spectroscopic PEEM. We present the perspectives for spectral reconstruction of submicron zones of samples having chemical, elemental or electronic inhomogeneities with a spatial resolution between 50 and 100 nm. Several examples will illustrate the potential of the technique: molecular grafting; chemical imaging of single nano-wires and polycrystalline structures. (authors)

  11. Advances and synergy of high pressure sciences at synchrotron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, H.; Ehm, L.; Duffy, T.; Crichton, W.; Aoki, K.

    2009-01-01

    Introductory overview to the special issue papers on high-pressure sciences and synchrotron radiation. High-pressure research in geosciences, materials science and condensed matter physics at synchrotron sources is experiencing growth and development through synergistic efforts around the world. A series of high-pressure science workshops were organized in 2008 to highlight these developments. One of these workshops, on 'Advances in high-pressure science using synchrotron X-rays', was held at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), Brookhaven National Laboratory, USA, on 4 October 2008. This workshop was organized in honour of Drs Jingzhu Hu and Quanzhong Guo in celebration of their retirement after up to 18 years of dedicated service to the high-pressure community as beamline scientists at X17 of NSLS. Following this celebration of the often unheralded role of the beamline scientist, a special issue of the Journal of Synchrotron Radiation on Advances and Synergy of High-Pressure Sciences at Synchrotron Sources was proposed, and we were pleased to invite contributions from colleagues who participated in the workshop as well as others who are making similar efforts at synchrotron sources worldwide.

  12. Characteristics of Soil Humic Substances as Determined by Conventional and Synchrotron Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S.; Song, X. Y.; Wang, N.; Li, C. X.; Wang, W.; Zhang, J. J.

    2014-11-01

    Humic substances (HS) play an important role in soil fertility and carbon sequestration in soil. The structural characteristics of soil HS, extracted from two natural soils and a laboratory-incubated soil, were investigated by conventional beamline-based Fourier transform infrared radiation (CB-FTIR), a common FTIR technique based on a conventional thermal source, and synchrotron radiation-based (SR-FTIR) spectroscopy. The relative area of absorbance peaks that appeared at 2930, 2860, 1711, and 1635 cm-1 were calculated to make a comparison of the absorbance intensities. The absorption of aromatic functional groups of HS was stronger in SR-FTIR spectroscopy than in CB-FTIR spectroscopy. Compared with humic acid extracted with a 0.1 mol/l Na4P2O7 solution, the level of aliphaticity in humic acid extracted with a 0.1 mol/l NaOH solution was higher. The aliphaticity of humin associated with clay (HMc) was higher than that of humin associated with iron (HMi). These results suggest that SR-FTIR spectroscopy is a useful and nondestructive technique to study the structural characteristics of soil humic substances. Sequential extraction of soil humic substances with NaOH and Na4P2O7 solutions may be helpful in providing additional information in cases where differences in the material obtained from different extraction solutions occur. The aliphaticity and complexity of HMc were higher than those of HMi.

  13. Changes to Grain Properties due to Breakage in a Sand Assembly using Synchrotron Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshar, Tabassom; Disfani, Mahdi; Narsilio, Guillermo; Arulrajah, Arul

    2017-06-01

    Grain breakage is of paramount importance for understanding the behaviour of granular materials used in various engineering applications, such as pavements, roads, rail tracks, the oil and gas industry, and mineral processing. Changes to grain properties of a uniformly graded sand specimen stemming from breakage during compression were studied with the aid of three-dimensional Synchrotron Radiation-based Micro-Computed Tomography. The fast scanning and high-resolution 4D imaging were utilised to capture images from the interior body of the granular assembly during loading. The fractal distribution of the sand assembly showed that breakage becomes dominant in smaller grains rather than larger ones, where an increase in the amount of newly generated fine fragments leads to high coordination number surrounding the larger grains. More importantly, the results of morphological changes in the particulate assembly revealed that there is a reversal trend in the grain morphology evolution with increasing stress. The sand grains tended to create more spherical fragments with higher aspect ratio whereas by increasing the stress this trend completely shifted.

  14. Probing biolabels for high throughput biosensing via synchrotron radiation SEIRA technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hornemann, Andrea, E-mail: andrea.hornemann@ptb.de; Hoehl, Arne, E-mail: arne.hoehl@ptb.de; Ulm, Gerhard, E-mail: gerhard.ulm@ptb.de; Beckhoff, Burkhard, E-mail: burkhard.beckhoff@ptb.de [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Abbestr. 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany); Eichert, Diane, E-mail: diane.eichert@elettra.eu [Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., Strada Statale 14, Area Science Park, 34149 Trieste (Italy); Flemig, Sabine, E-mail: sabine.flemig@bam.de [BAM Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und –prüfung, Richard-Willstätter-Str.10, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2016-07-27

    Bio-diagnostic assays of high complexity rely on nanoscaled assay recognition elements that can provide unique selectivity and design-enhanced sensitivity features. High throughput performance requires the simultaneous detection of various analytes combined with appropriate bioassay components. Nanoparticle induced sensitivity enhancement, and subsequent multiplexed capability Surface-Enhanced InfraRed Absorption (SEIRA) assay formats are fitting well these purposes. SEIRA constitutes an ideal platform to isolate the vibrational signatures of targeted bioassay and active molecules. The potential of several targeted biolabels, here fluorophore-labeled antibody conjugates, chemisorbed onto low-cost biocompatible gold nano-aggregates substrates have been explored for their use in assay platforms. Dried films were analyzed by synchrotron radiation based FTIR/SEIRA spectro-microscopy and the resulting complex hyperspectral datasets were submitted to automated statistical analysis, namely Principal Components Analysis (PCA). The relationships between molecular fingerprints were put in evidence to highlight their spectral discrimination capabilities. We demonstrate that robust spectral encoding via SEIRA fingerprints opens up new opportunities for fast, reliable and multiplexed high-end screening not only in biodiagnostics but also in vitro biochemical imaging.

  15. Characterization of anthropogenic sediment particles after a transboundary water pollution of river Tisza using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osan, Janos E-mail: osan@sunserv.kfki.hu; Toeroek, Szabina; Alfoeldy, Balint; Falkenberg, Gerald

    2004-05-21

    At the beginning of 2000, a major mining accident occurred in the Romanian part of the Tisza catchment area due to tailings dam failure releasing huge amounts of heavy metals to the river. Sediment samples were taken from the main riverbed at six sites in Hungary, on March 16, 2000. The objective of this work was to characterize the anthropogenic particles in river sediment previously selected by single-particle electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPMA). The trace element composition, heterogeneity and heavy metal speciation of individual particles was studied using synchrotron radiation-based microbeam X-ray emission and absorption methods. Particles were selected only from samples regarded as polluted sediment. White-beam micro X-ray fluorescence ({mu}-XRF) allowed the quantitative determination of heavy metals such as cadmium in individual particles. The maximum observed concentration of cadmium (>700 {mu}g/g) indicates that this highly toxic heavy metal is concentrated in individual anthropogenic particles. Using the combination of micro X-ray absorption near-edge structure and target-transformation principle component analysis, quantitative chemical speciation of copper and zinc was feasible on individual sediment particles. Heavy metals in most of the particles released from the pollution site remained in the sulfide form resulting in a limited mobility of these metals. Based on the information obtained using microanalytical methods, the estimation of the environmental mobility of heavy metals connected to microparticles becomes possible.

  16. Synchrotron X-ray Applications Toward an Understanding of Elastic Anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanitpanyacharoen, Waruntorn

    technique was applied to characterize LPO and phase proportions of Posidonia Shale collected in the Hils Syncline from Germany, in order to examine the influence of clay content, burial depth, and thermal history. The samples used in this study had experienced different local temperatures during burial and uplifting, as established by the maturity of kerogen (0.68-1.45% vitrinite reflectance, Ro), but their constituent clay minerals, including kaolinite, illite-mica, and illite-smectite, show similar degrees of LPO in all samples, ranging between 3.7 and 6.3 multiple of random distribution (m.r.d.). These observations imply that the difference in local thermal history, which significantly affects the maturity of kerogen, at most marginally influences LPO of clays, as the alignment of clays was established early in the history. In Chapter 4, the SPO of constituents phases in Kimmeridge Shale (North Sea, UK) and Barnett Shale (Gulf of Mexico, USA) was quantified to a resolution of ˜1 mum by using synchrotron X-ray microtomography (SXMT) technique. Measurements were done at different facilities (ALS, APS, and SLS) to characterize 3D microstructures, explore resolution limitations, and develop satisfactory procedures for data quantification. Segmentation images show that the SPO of low density features, including pores, fractures, and kerogen, is mostly anisotropic and oriented parallel to the bedding plane. Small pores are generally dispersed, whereas some large fractures and kerogen have irregular shapes and remain aligned horizontally. In contrast, pyrite exhibits no SPO. The volume fractions and aspect ratios of low density features extracted from three synchrotron sources show excellent agreement with 6.3(6)% for Kimmeridge Shale and 4.5(4)% for Barnett Shale. A small variation is mainly due to differences of optical instruments and technical setups. The SXMT is proven to be a crucial technique to investigate 3D internal structures of fine-grained materials at high

  17. Proceedings of the workshop on LAMPF II synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, R.K.

    1983-01-01

    Topics covered at the workshop include: considerations for a staged approach to synchrotron construction; consideration of energy and cost for a kaon and/or antiproton factory; changing the transition energy in the main ring for the Fermilab antiproton beam; a lattice with 50% undispersed straight sections; bunch width considerations in a stretcher ring; a self-consistent longitudinal distribution; rapid-cycling tuned rf cavity for synchrotron use; considerations on a high-shunt impedance tunable RF cavity; rotating condensers; low extraction from the stretcher ring; an antiproton source for LAMPF II; synchrotron magnet circuit; power supply and ring magnet options; and notes for a kaon factory design

  18. 3 GeV Booster Synchrotron Conceptual Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiedemann, Helmut

    2009-06-02

    Synchrotron light cna be produced from a relativistic particle beam circulating in a storage ring at extremely high intensity and brilliance over a large spectral region reaching from the far infrared regime to hard x-rays. The particles, either electrons or positrons, radiate as they are deflected in the fields of the storage ring bending magnets or of magnets specially optimized for the production of synchrotron light. The synchrotron light being very intense and well collimated in the forward direction has become a major tool in a large variety of research fields in physics, chemistry, material science, biology, and medicine.

  19. Optical systems for synchrotron radiation. Lecture 2. Mirror systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howells, M.R.

    1986-02-01

    The process of reflection of VUV and x-radiation is summarized. The functions of mirrors in synchrotron beamlines are described, which include deflection, filtration, power absorption, formation of a real image, focusing, and collimation. Fabrication of optical surfaces for synchrotron radiation beamlines are described, and include polishing of a near spherical surface as well as bending a cylindrical surface to toroidal shape. The imperfections present in mirrors, aberrations and surface figure inaccuracy, are discussed. Calculation of the thermal load of a mirror in a synchrotron radiation beam and the cooling of the mirror are covered briefly. 50 refs., 7 figs

  20. Linear optics survey of the BESSY II booster synchrotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volz, Paul; Jankowiak, Andreas; Ries, Markus [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Berlin (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The proposed VSR upgrade for the BESSY II storage ring features photon pulses as short as 1.7 ps. The current injection system (linac, booster synchrotron, and transfer line) cannot provide electron bunches short enough to meet the required injection efficiency for TopUp operation. This contribution investigates if the momentum compaction factor of the booster synchrotron can be decreased just by changing the quadrupole strengths in the existing booster synchrotron lattice. It was found that by splitting the two quadrupole families into four the momentum compaction factor can be reduced.

  1. Photoionization studies of atoms and molecules using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindle, D.W.

    1988-01-01

    Photoionization studies of free atoms and molecules have undergone considerable development in the past decade, in large part due to the use of synchrotron radiation. The tunability of synchrotron radiation has permitted the study of photoionization processes near valence-and core-level ionization thresholds for atoms and molecules throught the Periodic Table. A general illustration of these types of study will be presented, with emphasis on a few of the more promising new directions in atomic and molecular physics being pursued with synchrotron radiation. (author) [pt

  2. Power supplies for the injector synchrotron quadrupoles and sextupoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fathizadeh, M.

    1995-01-01

    This light source note will describe the power supplies for the injector synchrotron quadrupole and sextupole magnets. The injector synchrotron has two families of quadrupole magnets. Each family consists of 40 quadrupole magnets connected in series. These magnets are energized by two phase-controlled, 12-pulse power supplies. Therefore, each power supply will be rated to deliver the necessary power to only 40 quadrupole magnets. The two families of sextupole magnets in the injector synchrotron each consists of 32 sextupole magnets connected in series, powered by a phase-controlled power supply. Thus, each power supply shall be capable of delivering power to only 32 sextupole magnets

  3. SYNCHROTRON HEATING BY A FAST RADIO BURST IN A SELF-ABSORBED SYNCHROTRON NEBULA AND ITS OBSERVATIONAL SIGNATURE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yuan-Pei; Dai, Zi-Gao; Zhang, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are mysterious transient sources. If extragalactic, as suggested by their relative large dispersion measures, their brightness temperatures must be extremely high. Some FRB models (e.g., young pulsar model, magnetar giant flare model, or supra-massive neutron star collapse model) suggest that they may be associated with a synchrotron nebula. Here we study a synchrotron-heating process by an FRB in a self-absorbed synchrotron nebula. If the FRB frequency is below the synchrotron self-absorption frequency of the nebula, electrons in the nebula would absorb FRB photons, leading to a harder electron spectrum and enhanced self-absorbed synchrotron emission. In the meantime, the FRB flux is absorbed by the nebula electrons. We calculate the spectra of FRB-heated synchrotron nebulae, and show that the nebula spectra would show a significant hump in several decades near the self-absorption frequency. Identifying such a spectral feature would reveal an embedded FRB in a synchrotron nebula

  4. 12th International School and Symposium on Synchrotron Radiation in Natural Sciences (ISSRNS 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Maciej; Kwiatek, Wojciech M.; Kowalski, Bogdan

    2015-12-01

    Polish Synchrotron Radiation Society (PTPS - Polskie Towarzystwo Promieniowania Synchrotronowego), founded in 1991, is one of the oldest world scientific societies gathering not only active users of synchrotron radiation, but also a large group of those interested in synchrotron techniques (http://www.synchrotron.org.pl)

  5. Formation mechanism of channel segregation in carbon steels by inclusion flotation: X-ray microtomography characterization and multi-phase flow modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Yan Fei; Chen, Yun; Li, Dian Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Recent experimental dissections of steel ingots and multi-scale simulations have led to the discovery of a potential driving force for channel segregation: the flotation of oxide-based inclusion (D. Li et al., Nat. Commun. 5:5572 (2014)). Further experimental analysis and numerical modeling are necessary to clarify this mechanism in detail. In this work, the inclusions in a carbon steel ingot that exhibits severe channel segregations were characterized by the 3D X-ray microtomography, which revealed a significant enrichment and growth of inclusions in the channels. Based on above microtomography characterization, a 2D macrosegregation model encompassing the inclusion flotation was established. In the model, the motions of solid inclusions and liquid were described using the multi-phase flow scheme within the Euler-Lagrange framework. The benchmark simulations showed that sufficient inclusion populations with appropriate sizes are capable of altering the local flow patterns and destabilize the mushy zone, initiating the subsequent channel segregation. The continuous interplay between melt convection, inclusion flotation and solidification eventually causes the formation of macroscale channel. The predicted sizes and volume fraction of inclusions that are able to trigger the channel segregation effectively are consistent with the data obtained via microtomography characterization. The macrosegregation model was then applied to predict the channel segregations in an industrial carbon steel ingot. A rather good agreement of A-segregates was achieved between the simulation and the dissected ingot.

  6. Synchrotron radiation. 4. Analyses of biological samples using synchrotron radiation. 3. Research on radiation damage to DNA using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takakura, Kaoru

    1998-01-01

    This review described how the synchrotron radiation (SR) is used to solve problems unknown hitherto in radiation biology. Historically, the target substance of UV light in bacterial death was suggested to be nucleic acid in 1930. Researches on the radiation damage to DNA were begun at around 1960 and have mainly used UV light, X-ray and γray. Soft X-ray and vacuum UV whose energy covering from several eV to scores of keV have not been used since UV and X-ray lack the energy of this range. This is one of reasons why detailed process leading to radiation-induced death, carcinogenicity and mutation has not been known hitherto. RS possesses wide range of energy, i.e., from UV to hard X-ray, of high intensity, which is helpful for studying the unknown problems. The RS studies were begun in nineteen-seventies. Those include the action spectrum studies and atomic target studies. In the former, the course of the effect, e.g., the mechanism of DNA double strand breakage, can be elucidated. In the latter, photon of known energy can be irradiated to the specified atom like phosphorus in DNA which elucidating the precise physicochemical process of the breakage. Use of RS in these studies is thought still meaningful in future. (K.H.) 62 refs

  7. Activity report of Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-11-01

    Since 1980s, the Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SRL) has been promoting the 'Super-SOR' project, the new synchrotron radiation facility dedicated to sciences in vacuum ultraviolet and soft X-ray regions. The University of Tokyo considered the project as one of the most important future academic plans and strongly endorsed to construct the new facility with an electron storage ring of third generation type in the Kashiwa campus. During last year, the design of the accelerator system was slightly modified to obtain stronger support of the people in the field of bio-sciences, such as medicine, pharmacy, agriculture, etc. The energy of the storage ring was increased to 2.4 GeV, which is determined to obtain undulator radiation with sufficient brightness in X-ray region for the protein crystallography experiments. The value was also optimised to avoid considerable degradation of undulator radiation in the VUV and soft X-ray regions. However, in October last year, the president office of the University found out that the promotion of the project was very difficult for financial reasons. The budget for the new facility project is too big to be supported by a single university. The decision was intensively discussed by the International Review Committee on the Institute for Solid State Physics (ISSP), which was held at ISSP from November 14 to 16. The committee understood that the restructuring of the University system in Japan would overstrain the financial resources of the University of Tokyo and accepted the decision by the University. Presently, SRL has inclined to install beamlines using undulator radiation in other SR facilities instead of constructing a facility with a light source accelerator. At new beamlines, SRL will promote advanced materials sciences utilizing high brilliance and small emittance of synchrotron radiation which have been considered in the Super-SOR project. They are those such as microscopy and time-resolved experiments, which will only be

  8. Activity report of Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-11-01

    After moved from Tanashi to Kashiwa Campus in the spring of 2000, the Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SRL) has been promoting the High-brilliance Light Source project, Super SOR project, in cooperation with the nationwide user group as well as with the users of the University of Tokyo. In May of 2001, the project has met with a dramatic progress. The Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture organized the Advisory Board and started to discuss the future synchrotron radiation facilities in EUV and SX regime in Japan. Based on extensive discussion, they proposed the new facility consisting of a 1.8 GeV storage ring of 3rd generation type. The University of Tokyo approved to construct the proposed facility in the Kashiwa campus. The plan is supported not only by researchers in academic institutions but also bio- and chemical-industries. We strongly hope the plan will be realized in near future. On the other hand, SRL maintains a branch laboratory in the Photon Factory (PF) High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) at Tsukuba with a Revolver undulator, two beamlines and three experimental stations (BL-18A, 19A and 19B), which are and fully opened to the outside users. In the fiscal year of 2001, the operation time of the beamlines was more than 5000 hours and the number of the users was about 200. The main scientific interests and activities in the SRL at KEK-PF are directed to the electronic structures of new materials with new transport, magnetic and optical properties. The electronic structures of solid surfaces and interfaces are also intensively studied by photoelectron spectroscopy and photoelectron microscopy. The accelerator group of SRL is carrying out research works of the accelerator physics and developing the accelerator-related technology, many parts of which will be directly applied to the new light source project. This report contains the activities of the staff members of SRL and users of the three beamlines in FY2001. The status of

  9. Beam extraction control systems of the fast-cycling synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toumanian, A.; Zapolski, N.; Nickogosian, V.; Ananian, A.; Kazarian, A.; Khoetsian, M.; Agababian, A.; Matevosian, A.

    1992-01-01

    A compact system controlling the extraction of different beams (gamma, electron, synchrotron radiation) in single and simultaneous operation modes at high electromagnetic disturbances level based on using one computer of IBM PC/AT type is described. (author)

  10. Synchrotrons and their applications in medical imaging and therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, R.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Australasia's first synchrotron is being built on the campus of Monash University near Melbourne. Is it of any relevance to the medical imaging and radiation therapy communities? The answer is an unequivocal yes. Synchrotrons overcome many of the problems with conventional X-ray sources and as a result make it possible to demonstrate extraordinary advances in both X-ray imaging and indeed in radio-therapy. Synchrotron imaging offers us a window into what is possible and the results are spectacular. Specific examples include lung images that reveal alveolar structure and computed tomography of single cells. For therapy treatments are being pioneered that seem to be effective on high grade gliomas. An overview of the status of medical applications using synchrotrons will be given and the proposed Australian medical imaging and therapy facilities will be described and some of the proposed research highlighted. Copyright (2004) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  11. Analysis and characterization. Nuclear resonant scattering with the synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Ruffer, R

    2003-01-01

    The nuclear resonant scattering using the synchrotron radiation combines the uncommon properties of the Moessbauer spectroscopy and those of the synchrotron radiation. Since its first observation in 1984, this technique and its applications have been developed rapidly. The nuclear resonant scattering is now a standard technique for all the synchrotron radiation sources of the third generation. As the Moessbauer spectroscopy, it is a method of analysis at the atomic scale and a non destructive method. It presents the advantage not to require the use of radioactive sources of incident photons which can be difficult to make, of a lifetime which can be short and of an obviously limited intensity. The current applications are the hyperfine spectroscopy and the structural dynamics. In hyperfine spectroscopy, the nuclear resonant scattering can measure the same size than the Moessbauer spectroscopy. Nevertheless, it is superior in the ranges which exploit the specific properties of the synchrotron radiation, such as...

  12. Clash over demand for more synchrotron sources in Europe

    CERN Multimedia

    Butler, D

    1998-01-01

    French synchrotron staff accused the science minister, Claude Allegre, of misleading the National Assembly over the need to replace LURE, Paris. Allegre believes all big science facilities should be European with national facilities the exception (1 page).

  13. The use of slow-cycling synchrotrons in injection systems

    CERN Multimedia

    1966-01-01

    The PS improvement programme is concerned with increasing the potential of the PS for high energy physics. It involves developing the performance of the proton synchrotron itself and providing major items of experimental equipment to be used on the machine.

  14. Open cell conducting foams for high synchrotron radiation accelerators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Petracca

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The possible use of open cell conductive foams in high synchrotron radiation particle accelerators is considered. Available materials and modeling tools are reviewed, potential pros and cons are discussed, and preliminary conclusions are drawn.

  15. Synchrotron radiation sources: general features and vacuum system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craievich, A.F.

    1985-01-01

    In the last years the electron or positron storage rings, which were until 1970 only used for high energy physics experiments, begun to be built in several countries exclusively as electromagnetic radiation source (synchrotron radiation). The sources are generally made up by injector (linear accelerator or microtron), 'booster' (synchrotron), storage ring, insertions ('Wigglers' and ondulators) and light lines. The interest by these sources are due to the high intensity, large spectrum (from infrared to the X-rays), polarization and pulsed structure of the produced radiation. For the ultra-vacuum obtainement, necessary for the functioning storage rings (p=10 -9 Torr), several special procedures are used. In Brazil the Synchrotron Radiation National Laboratory of the CNPq worked out a conceptual project of synchrotron radiation source, whose execution should begin by the construction of the several components prototypes. (L.C.) [pt

  16. Staff accuse bosses of secrecy over British synchrotron plans

    CERN Multimedia

    Loder, N

    1999-01-01

    Scientific staff at Daresbury who have worked on the Diamond project for many years, believe senior management has kept them in the dark over discussions about the possible siting of the synchrotron at RAL (1 page).

  17. Daresbury senses victory in battle for UK synchrotron

    CERN Multimedia

    Loder, N

    1999-01-01

    Scientists campaigning for the future synchrotron source, Diamond, to be sited at Daresbury rather than RAL, believe they have won their case following a meeting between the Office of Science & Technology and the director of the Welcome Trust (1 pg).

  18. Chromaticity correction of small proton synchrotron for cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumoto, S.; Takada, Y.; Endo, K.; Irie, Y.; Muto, K.

    1992-01-01

    For the 230 MeV proton synchrotron for cancer therapy designed for Proton Medical Research Center (PMRC), the chromaticity correction is investigated for the reduction of the injection loss. It can be performed by using twelve sextupole printed coil magnets installed into the focussing and defocusing quadrupole magnets of the ring. Also it is shown that the chromaticity can be corrected by sextupole magnets inserted into four quadrupoles in the Loma Linda University Medical Center (LLUMC) synchrotron. (author)

  19. National Synchrotron Light Source safety-analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batchelor, K.

    1982-07-01

    This document covers all of the safety issues relating to the design and operation of the storage rings and injection system of the National Synchrotron Light Source. The building systems for fire protection, access and egress are described together with air and other gaseous control or venting systems. Details of shielding against prompt bremstrahlung radiation and synchrotron radiation are described and the administrative requirements to be satisfied for operation of a beam line at the facility are given

  20. On the polarized beam acceleration in medium energy synchrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.Y.

    1992-01-01

    This lecture note reviews physics of spin motion in a synchrotron, spin depolarization mechanisms of spin resonances, and methods of overcoming the spin resonances during acceleration. Techniques used in accelerating polarized ions in the low/medium energy synchrotrons, such as the ZGS, the AGS, SATURNE, and the KEK PS and PS Booster are discussed. Problems related to polarized proton acceleration with snakes or partial snake are also examined