WorldWideScience

Sample records for synchrotron light application

  1. Synchrotron light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    'Synchrotron Light' is an interactive and detailed introduction to the physics and technology of the generation of coherent radiation from accelerators as well as to its widespread high-tech applications in science, medicine and engineering. The topics covered are the interaction of light and matter, the technology of synchrotron light sources, spectroscopy, imaging, scattering and diffraction of X-rays, and applications to materials science, biology, biochemistry, medicine, chemistry, food and pharmaceutical technology. All synchrotron light facilities are introduced with their home-page addresses. 'Synchrotron Light' provides an instructive and comprehensive multimedia learning tool for students, experienced practitioners and novices wishing to apply synchrotron radiation in their future work. Its multiple-entry points permit an easy exploration of the CD-Rom according to the users knowledge and interest. 2-D and 3-D animations and virtual reconstruction with computer-generated images guide visitors into the scientific and technical world of a synchrotron and into the applications of synchrotron radiation. This bilingual (English and French) CD-Rom can be used for self-teaching and in courses at various levels in physics, chemistry, engineering, and biology. (author)

  2. The national synchrotron light source and its applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, G.P.

    1989-01-01

    We describe the National Synchrotron Light Source facility including its beamlines and operational characteristics. Research results on selected beamlines on the VUV ring which highlight new experimental capabilities are described since they are more relevant to the program at HESYRL. Examples chosen are spin-polarized photoemission, infra-red surface science, high resolution core level spectroscopy, X- Ray lithography, photoelectron/Auger coincidence spectroscopy and high electron momentum resolution surface studies. 7 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulbert, S.L.; Lazarz, N.M.

    1991-04-01

    This report discussion research being conducted at the National Synchrotron light source. In particular, this report contains operations summaries; symposia, workshops, and projects; NSLS highlights; and abstracts of science at the NSLS

  4. Compton profile with synchrotron light - application to Y-123 superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De, Udayan

    2005-01-01

    Electron beam accelerated to 6 GeV in the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) at Grenoble, France, can deliver highly mono-energetic, intense (10 12 photons/sec at sample at 100 mA ring current) and fine photon beam reaching x-ray and γ energies. So photons of 57 keV from this synchrotron has been used for Compton Profile or CP experiment (at different temperatures down to 70 K) on our YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 or Y-123 single crystals with T c = 91 K. Photons, Compton scattered even at a definite angle, θ, show a distribution (called Compton Profile) of energy and hence of momentum reflecting the EMD or electron momentum distribution in the solid. The temperature variation of S-parameter, defined as the fraction of low momentum electrons, has been found from preliminary CP data. It confirmed the surprising double minimum found from Doppler broadening of positron annihilation radiation lineshape (DBPARL). The CP set-up at the synchrotron including the detectors and cryogenics as well as the new results are outlined. (author)

  5. National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Steenbergen, A.

    1979-01-01

    The National Synchrotron Light Source comprises two high intensity electron storage rings for the generation of intense fluxes of synchrotron radiation in the vuv wavelength domain (700 MeV e - ring) and in the x-ray wavelength domain (2.5 GeV e - ring). A description is presented of the basic facility and the characteristics of the synchrotron radiation sources. The present plans for specific beam lines will be enumerated and the planned use of beam wigglers and undulators will be discussed

  6. Synchrotron applications of pixel and strip detectors at Diamond Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchal, J.; Tartoni, N.; Nave, C.

    2009-01-01

    A wide range of position-sensitive X-ray detectors have been commissioned on the synchrotron X-ray beamlines operating at the Diamond Light Source in UK. In addition to mature technologies such as image-plates, CCD-based detectors, multi-wire and micro-strip gas detectors, more recent detectors based on semiconductor pixel or strip sensors coupled to CMOS read-out chips are also in use for routine synchrotron X-ray diffraction and scattering experiments. The performance of several commercial and developmental pixel/strip detectors for synchrotron studies are discussed with emphasis on the image quality achieved with these devices. Examples of pixel or strip detector applications at Diamond Light Source as well as the status of the commissioning of these detectors on the beamlines are presented. Finally, priorities and ideas for future developments are discussed.

  7. Sesame Synchrotron Light for Experimental Sciences and Application in the Middle East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Khalafawy, T.A.

    2003-01-01

    Anew international center for synchrotron radiation for research excellence for scientists from throughout the Middle East as well as other parts of the world could do for science what CERN has done for science in Europe. SESAME Project (Synchrotron Light for Experimental Sciences and Application in the Middle East ) under the umbrella for UNESCO establish the first major international research center as a cooperative venture by the scientists and governments of the Middle East, opened to all qualified scientists. It will be propeller for the regional economy while promoting the peaceful development of science and technology in the Middle East. SESAME will have as its centerpiece a synchrotron radiation based on a gift from Germany of the 0.8 GeV BESSYI storage ring and injector system which stopped operation at the end of November 1999

  8. Synchrotron light sources and free-electron lasers accelerator physics, instrumentation and science applications

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Shaukat; Schneider, Jochen; Hastings, Jerome

    2016-01-01

    Hardly any other discovery of the nineteenth century did have such an impact on science and technology as Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen’s seminal find of the X-rays. X-ray tubes soon made their way as excellent instruments for numerous applications in medicine, biology, materials science and testing, chemistry and public security. Developing new radiation sources with higher brilliance and much extended spectral range resulted in stunning developments like the electron synchrotron and electron storage ring and the freeelectron laser. This handbook highlights these developments in fifty chapters. The reader is given not only an inside view of exciting science areas but also of design concepts for the most advanced light sources. The theory of synchrotron radiation and of the freeelectron laser, design examples and the technology basis are presented. The handbook presents advanced concepts like seeding and harmonic generation, the booming field of Terahertz radiation sources and upcoming brilliant light sources dri...

  9. The synchrotron light source ROSY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einfeld, D.; Buettig, H.; Dienel, S.; Glaeser, W.; Goetz, T.; Guratzsch, H.; Hartmann, B.; Janssen, D.; Krug, H.; Linnemann, J.; Matz, W.; Murphy, J.B.; Neumann, W.; Oehme, W.; Picard, M.; Plesko, M.; Proehl, D.; Schlenk, R.; Tomassini, D.; Tyrroff, H.

    1994-01-01

    ROSY, a 3rd generation synchrotron light source, has been proposed to be built at the Research Center Rossendorf/Dresden in Germany. With its low emittance and optimized space for installing insertion devices ROSY will be the first synchrotron radiation source in the 3 GeV range in Europe, dedicated to materials research and industrial application. The critical wavelength of the synchrotron radiation spectra was designed to be 0.15 nm corresponding to a critical photon energy of 8.4 keV. It is proposed to use a ''modified multiple bend achromat'' (MBA) lattice in order to get a compact machine as well as a low emittance. For 3 GeV an emittance smaller than 30π nm rad can be obtained. With a fourfold symmetry and two larger straight sections within the achromatic arcs the circumference is 148 m. 23% of the circumference can be used for installing insertion devices. (orig.)

  10. Synchrotron light beam and a synchrotron light experiment facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Masami

    1980-01-01

    In the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics, about two years ago, the requirements of synchrotron light beam in respective measuring instruments were discussed. Then, also the arrangement (lattice) of a storage ring, the nature of synchrotron light beam, a synchrotron light experiment facility and the arrangement of the beam lines were studied. During the period of two years since then, due to the changes in the circumstances, the design of the lattice was altered. Accordingly, the arrangement of the beam lines and of measuring instruments were largely changed. At this point, the results of discussions in various meetings are described, though they may still be subject to future changes, with due consideration to beam, environment and beam lines required for the design of the measuring instruments: (1) storage ring and synchrotron light beam, (2) requirements on small beam size and beam stability, (3) a synchrotron light experiment facility. (J.P.N.)

  11. Design of a compact synchrotron light source for medical applications at NIRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torikoshi, M.; Endo, M.; Kumada, M.; Noda, K.; Yamada, S.; Kawachi, K.

    1998-01-01

    A synchrotron light source dedicated to medical applications is required to be compact for installation in limited spaces at hospitals. The NIRS storage ring, with a circumference of 44.8 m, is designed to accelerate electrons up to 1.8 GeV and to store a beam of 400 mA. The ring is composed of superconducting bending magnets for downsizing. A beam of 300 MeV is injected into the ring from a microtron operated at an L-band RF frequency. There are two superconducting multipole wigglers with nine poles and a maximum field of 8 T, which can produce a photon flux of about 1.4 x 10 13 photons s -1 mrad -1 (0.1% bandwidth) -1 at 33 keV used for coronary angiography

  12. Synchrotron light source data book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, J.

    1989-01-01

    The ''Synchrotron Light Source Data Book'' is as its name implies a collection of data on existing and planned synchrotron light sources. The intention was to provide a compendium of tools for the design of electron storage rings as synchrotron radiation sources. The slant is toward the accelerator physicist as other booklets such as the X-ray Data Booklet, edited by D. Vaughan (LBL PUB-490), address the 'use' of synchrotron radiation. It is hoped that the booklet serves as a pocket sized reference to facilitate back of the envelope type calculations. It contains some useful formulae in 'practical units' and a brief description of many of the existing and planned light source lattices

  13. Industrial applications of micro/nanofabrication at Singapore Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jian, L K; Casse, B D F; Heussler, S P; Kong, J R; Saw, B T; Mahmood, Shahrain bin; Moser, H O

    2006-01-01

    SSLS (Singapore Synchrotron Light Source) has set up a complete one-stop shop for micro/nanofabrication in the framework of the LIGA process. It is dubbed LiMiNT for Lithography for Micro and Nanotechnology and allows complete prototyping using the integral cycle of the LIGA process for producing micro/nanostructures from mask design/fabrication over X-ray lithography to electroplating in Ni, Cu, or Au, and, finally, hot embossing in a wide variety of plastics as one of the capabilities to cover a wide range of application fields and to go into higher volume production. The process chain also includes plasma cleaning and sputtering as well as substrate preparation processes including metal buffer layers, plating bases, and spin coating, polishing, and dicing. Furthermore, metrology using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), optical profilometry, and optical microscopy is available. LiMiNT is run as a research lab as well as a foundry. In this paper, several industrial applications will be presented, in which LiMiNT functions as a foundry to provide external customers the micro/nano fabrication services. These services include the fabrication of optical or X-ray masks, of micro/nano structures from polymers or from metals and of moulds for hot embossing or injection moulding

  14. Hard X-ray synchrotron light source for industrial and materials research applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehr, H.; Ehrfeld, W.; Moser, H.O.; Schmidt, M.; Herminghaus, H.

    1992-01-01

    The requirements for industrial production or for an industry-related analytical environment is demonstrated for the case of the proposed hard X-ray synchrotron light source. The source is intended to provide radiation mainly for deep X-ray lithography as part of the LIGA-process in microfabrication, and for analytical and diagnostic purposes in materials research and microtechnology. It offers up to 48 bending magnet beamlines with a characteristic wavelength of 2 A. An electron energy of 2.5 GeV and normal conducting magnets will be used. A FODO lattice with a beam emittance of 3x10 -7 m rad and four dispersion-free straight sections to accommodate insertion devices, injection elements and RF structures has been designed. (R.P.) 5 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 tab

  15. Australian synchrotron light source - (boomerang)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boldeman, J.

    2001-01-01

    The Australian National Synchrotron Light Source - (Boomerang) is to be installed at the Monash University in Victoria. This report provides some background to the proposed facility and discusses aspects of a prospective design. Recently, significant effort was devoted to refining the in principle design and a lattice providing an emittance od 18 nm rad was obtained with a distributed dispersion in the straight section of 0.29m. Exhaustive studies have been made of the economic benefits that would accrue to Australia to Australia following the installation of this facility. This design is a refinement of the design concept presented to the SRI -2000, Berlin (Boldeman, Einfeld et al), to the meeting of the 4th Asian Forum and the Preliminary Design Study presented to the Australian Synchrotron Research Program

  16. Synchrotron light and its uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blewett, J.P.

    1978-01-01

    It was known for a century that charged particles radiate when accelerated and that relativistic electrons in the energy range between 100 MeV and several GeV and constrained to travel in circular orbits emit concentrated, intense beams with broad continuous spectra that can cover the electromagnetic spectrum from infrared through hard x-rays. Recently the possible applications of this radiation were appreciated and electron synchrotrons and electron storage rings are now being used in many centers for studies of the properties of matter in the solid, liquid and gaseous states. 10 references

  17. National Synchrotron Light Source annual report 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulbert, S.; Lazarz, N.; Williams, G. (eds.)

    1988-01-01

    This report discusses the experiment done at the National Synchrotron Light Source. Most experiments discussed involves the use of the x-ray beams to study physical properties of solid materials. (LSP)

  18. Synchrotron light sources in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mtingwa, Sekazi K.; Winick, Herman

    2018-03-01

    We discuss the role that synchrotron light sources, such as SESAME, could play in improving the socioeconomic conditions in developing countries. After providing a brief description of a synchrotron light source, we discuss the important role that they played in the development of several economically emerging countries. Then we describe the state of synchrotron science in South Africa and that country’s leadership role in founding the African Light Source initiative. Next, we highlight a new initiative called Lightsources for Africa, the Americas & Middle East Project, which is a global initiative led by the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics and the International Union of Crystallography, with initial funding provided by the International Council for Science. Finally, we comment on a new technology called the multibend achromat that has launched a new paradigm for the design of synchrotron light sources that should be attractive for construction in developing countries.

  19. Biomedical applications of synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwiatek, W.M.; Galka, M.; Hanson, A.L.; Paluszkiewicz, Cz.; Cichocki, T.

    2001-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation techniques application in medical diagnostics have been presented especially for: trace element analysis in tissues, elemental mapping, chemical speciation at trace levels, chemical structure determination. Presented techniques are very useful for early cancer discovery

  20. National synchrotron light source VUV storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumberg, L.; Bittner, J.; Galayda, J.; Heese, R.; Krinsky, S.; Schuchman, J.; van Steenbergen, A.

    1979-01-01

    A 700 MeV electron storage ring designed for synchrotron radiation applications is described. Lattice and stability calculations are presented and the vacuum, correction and injection systems are discussed

  1. Research using synchrotron radiation at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomlinson, W.

    1982-01-01

    The National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) is now becoming operational with synchrotron radiation experiments beginning on the 700 MeV VUV electron storage ring. Commissioning of the 2.5 GeV x-ray storage ring has also begun with the experimental program expected to begin in 1983. The current status of the experimental program and instrumentation and the plans for future developments, will be discussed. Although some early results have been obtained on VUV beam lines no attempt will be made in this paper to describe them. Instead, an overview of the beam line characteristics will be given, with an indication of those already operational. In the oral presentation some initial experimental results will be discussed

  2. Ideas for future synchrotron light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, A.; Hassenzahl, W.; Meddahi, M.

    1992-03-01

    Synchrotron light sources have advanced in the past two-to-three decades through three ''generations,'' from irritating parasitic sources on high-energy physics accelerators to dedicated electron and position storage rings of unprecedented low emittance, utilizing undulator and wiggler magnets. The evolution through these three generations followed a predicable, science-driven, course towards brighter beams of VUV- and x-radiation. The requirements of future light sources is not so clear. The limit on how emittance has certainly not been reached, and diffraction-limited sources at shorter wavelengths would be the natural progression from previous generations. However, scientists are now looking at other radiation characteristics that might better serve their needs, for example, more coherent power, fast switching polarization, ultra-short (sub-picosecond) time structure, and synchronized beams for pump-probe experiments. This paper discusses some current ideas that might drive the fourth-generation synchrotron light source

  3. The Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, 20 years of synchrotron light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantwell, K.

    1993-08-01

    The Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) is now operating as a fully dedicated light source with low emittance electron optics, delivering high brightness photon beams to 25 experimental stations six to seven months per year. On October 1, 1993 SSRL became a Division of the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, rather than an Independent Laboratory of Stanford University, so that high energy physics and synchrotron radiation now function under a single DOE contract. The SSRL division of SLAC has responsibility for operating, maintaining and improving the SPEAR accelerator complex, which includes the storage ring and a 3 GeV injector. SSRL has thirteen x-ray stations and twelve VUV/Soft x-ray stations serving its 600 users. Recently opened to users is a new spherical grating monochromator (SGM) and a multiundulator beam line. Circularly polarized capabilities are being exploited on a second SGM line. New YB 66 crystals installed in a vacuum double-crystal monochromator line have sparked new interest for Al and Mg edge studies. One of the most heavily subscribed stations is the rotation camera, which has been recently enhanced with a MAR imaging plate detector system for protein crystallography on a multipole wiggler. Under construction is a new wiggler-based structural molecular biology beam line with experimental stations for crystallography, small angle scattering and x-ray absorption spectroscopy. Plans for new developments include wiggler beam lines and associated facilities specialized for environmental research and materials processing

  4. Medical applications of synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomlinson, W.

    1992-01-01

    Ever since the first diagnostic X-ray was done in the United States on February 3, 1896, the application of ionizing radiation to the field of medicine has become incrasingly important. Both in clinical medicine and basic research the use of X-rays for diagnostic imaging and radiotherapy is now widespread. Radiography, angiography, CAT and PETT scanning, mammography, and nuclear medicine are all examples of technologies developed to image the human anatomy. In therapeutic applications, both external and internal sources of radiation are applied to the battle against cancer. The development of dedicated synchrotron radiation sources has allowed exciting advances to take place in many of these applications. The new sources provide tunable, high-intensity monochromatic beams over a wide range of energies which can be tailored to specific programmatic needs. This paper surveys those areas of medical research in which synchrotron radiation facilities are actively involved. (orig.)

  5. Medical applications of synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomlinson, W.

    1991-10-01

    Ever since the first diagnostic x-ray was done in the United States on February 3, 1896, the application of ionizing radiation to the field of medicine has become increasingly important. Both in clinical medicine and basic research the use of x-rays for diagnostic imaging and radiotherapy is now widespread. Radiography, angiography, CAT and PETT scanning, mammography, and nuclear medicine are all examples of technologies developed to image the human anatomy. In therapeutic applications, both external and internal sources of radiation are applied to the battle against cancer. The development of dedicated synchrotron radiation sources has allowed exciting advances to take place in many of these applications. The new sources provide tunable, high-intensity monochromatic beams over a wide range of energies which can be tailored to specific programmatic needs. This paper surveys those areas of medical research in which synchrotron radiation facilities are actively involved

  6. Electron beam spectrum monitor using synchrotron light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reagan, D.; Hostetler, T.E.

    1979-03-01

    This instrument shows the positions, widths, and shapes of momentum spectra of SLAC beams. It uses synchrotron light produced when the beam is deflected by a magnet. Some of the light is focused on the face of an image splitter consisting of acrylic light pipes. The light pipes illuminate twelve photomultiplier tubes. Pulses from the PM tubes are integrated, multiplexed, and displayed on an oscilloscope. The resolution of the instrument is usually better than 0.2%. It has some advantages over the secondary emitter foil spectrum monitors (SEM's) currently in use at SLAC. It need never be put out of service to avoid disturbing the beam. It is as sensitive as the most sensitive SLAC SEM. (Its performance has been optimized for high-current beams; it can easily be made much more sensitive.) It provides information on a pulse-to-pulse basis and, with better cables, could indicate electron beam pulse shapes

  7. National Synchrotron Light Source: vacuum system for National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuchman, J.C.; Godel, J.B.; Jordan, W.; Oversluizen, T.

    1978-01-01

    The National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), a 24 million dollar project under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), is a research facility dedicated to the production of synchrotron radiation. Synchrotron radiation is that radiation produced by the acceleration of charged particles at near the speed of light. This facility will provide a continuous spectrum of radiation from the vacuum ultraviolet to the hard x-ray range. The radiation will be highly intense, 100% polarized, extremely well collimated and will have a pulsed time structure. The radiation will be produced in two electron storage rings at energies of 700 MeV and 2.5 GeV, respectively. A maximum of one ampere at 2 GeV, or one-half ampere at 2.5 GeV, of electron beam will be stored

  8. High resolution synchrotron light analysis at ELSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Switka, Michael; Zander, Sven; Hillert, Wolfgang [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Elektronen-Stretcher Anlage ELSA-Facility (ELSA)

    2013-07-01

    The pulse stretcher ring ELSA provides polarized electrons with energies up to 3.5 GeV for external hadron experiments. In order to suffice the need of stored beam intensities towards 200 mA, advanced beam instability studies need to be carried out. An external diagnostic beamline for synchrotron light analysis has been set up and provides the space for multiple diagnostic tools including a streak camera with time resolution of <1 ps. Beam profile measurements are expected to identify instabilities and reveal their thresholds. The effect of adequate countermeasures is subject to analysis. The current status of the beamline development is presented.

  9. An introduction to synchrotron radiation techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Willmott, Philip

    2011-01-01

    This book introduces the reader to the basic concepts of the generation and manipulation of synchrotron light, its interaction with matter, and the application of synchrotron light in the “classical” techniques, while including some of the most modern technological developments. As much as possible, complicated mathematical derivations and formulas are avoided. A more heuristic approach is adopted, whereby the general physical reasoning behind the equations is highlighted.

  10. X-ray imaging by partially coherent synchrotron light. Application to metallic alloys, tooth dentin and natural rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabler, Simon Andreas

    2007-10-09

    The hard spectrum which is available on the BAMline at Berlin's synchrotron BESSY offers the rare opportunity to perform high-resolution X-ray imaging experiments with a partially coherent beam. This thesis work reports on the development of a new tomography system, including Fresnel-propagated imaging, and its application to three specific materials science problems from the fields of engineering materials, biology and earth science. Static and dynamic 2D and 3D images were recorded from a variety of aluminum-based alloys. Coarsening of particle agglomerates (at high solid volume fraction) in liquid solution, as well as rheological properties of semi-solid alloys are thus characterized. Dentin is characterized by a quasi-parallel arrangement of micrometer-sized tubules. This work shows how high-resolution 3D images of water-immersed tooth dentin are recorded, and detailed simulations of the optical wave propagation reveal that Fresnel-images contain additional information about the dense cuff of peritubular dentin surrounding the tubules. The cuff thickness can be extrapolated from the interference fringes that form the propagated images of tubules. Absorption and Fresnel-propagated X-ray tomography are applied to measure samples of different rocks before and after mechanical compression nondestructively. In a first approach, limestone and greywacke are investigated, representing two sedimentary rocks of different grain size. Basalt and granite are tested in a second approach to compare different rock types. Development of cracks is observed in all materials, leading to fracture when increasing mechanical load is applied. In this work, relatively small mm-sized samples are used in order to test a classical fracture model wherein micro-flaws initiate the formation of larger cracks. For the first time, Fresnel-propagated imaging is applied to rock samples, highlighting micrometer-sized intergranular porosity as well as different material phases. The latter is

  11. X-ray imaging by partially coherent synchrotron light. Application to metallic alloys, tooth dentin and natural rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zabler, Simon Andreas

    2007-01-01

    The hard spectrum which is available on the BAMline at Berlin's synchrotron BESSY offers the rare opportunity to perform high-resolution X-ray imaging experiments with a partially coherent beam. This thesis work reports on the development of a new tomography system, including Fresnel-propagated imaging, and its application to three specific materials science problems from the fields of engineering materials, biology and earth science. Static and dynamic 2D and 3D images were recorded from a variety of aluminum-based alloys. Coarsening of particle agglomerates (at high solid volume fraction) in liquid solution, as well as rheological properties of semi-solid alloys are thus characterized. Dentin is characterized by a quasi-parallel arrangement of micrometer-sized tubules. This work shows how high-resolution 3D images of water-immersed tooth dentin are recorded, and detailed simulations of the optical wave propagation reveal that Fresnel-images contain additional information about the dense cuff of peritubular dentin surrounding the tubules. The cuff thickness can be extrapolated from the interference fringes that form the propagated images of tubules. Absorption and Fresnel-propagated X-ray tomography are applied to measure samples of different rocks before and after mechanical compression nondestructively. In a first approach, limestone and greywacke are investigated, representing two sedimentary rocks of different grain size. Basalt and granite are tested in a second approach to compare different rock types. Development of cracks is observed in all materials, leading to fracture when increasing mechanical load is applied. In this work, relatively small mm-sized samples are used in order to test a classical fracture model wherein micro-flaws initiate the formation of larger cracks. For the first time, Fresnel-propagated imaging is applied to rock samples, highlighting micrometer-sized intergranular porosity as well as different material phases. The latter is shown

  12. Ferroelectrics under the Synchrotron Light: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-Cobas, Luis E.; Montero-Cabrera, María E.; Pardo, Lorena; Fuentes-Montero, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Currently, an intensive search for high-performance lead-free ferroelectric materials is taking place. ABO3 perovskites (A = Ba, Bi, Ca, K and Na; B = Fe, Nb, Ti, and Zr) appear as promising candidates. Understanding the structure–function relationship is mandatory, and, in this field, the roles of long- and short-range crystal orders and interactions are decisive. In this review, recent advances in the global and local characterization of ferroelectric materials by synchrotron light diffraction, scattering and absorption are analyzed. Single- and poly-crystal synchrotron diffraction studies allow high-resolution investigations regarding the long-range average position of ions and subtle global symmetry break-downs. Ferroelectric materials, under the action of electric fields, undergo crystal symmetry, crystallite/domain orientation distribution and strain condition transformations. Methodological aspects of monitoring these processes are discussed. Two-dimensional diffraction clarify larger scale ordering: polycrystal texture is measured from the intensities distribution along the Debye rings. Local order is investigated by diffuse scattering (DS) and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) experiments. DS provides information about thermal, chemical and displacive low-dimensional disorders. XAFS investigation of ferroelectrics reveals local B-cation off-centering and oxidation state. This technique has the advantage of being element-selective. Representative reports of the mentioned studies are described. PMID:28787814

  13. Ferroelectrics under the Synchrotron Light: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E. Fuentes-Cobas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, an intensive search for high-performance lead-free ferroelectric materials is taking place. ABO3 perovskites (A = Ba, Bi, Ca, K and Na; B = Fe, Nb, Ti, and Zr appear as promising candidates. Understanding the structure–function relationship is mandatory, and, in this field, the roles of long- and short-range crystal orders and interactions are decisive. In this review, recent advances in the global and local characterization of ferroelectric materials by synchrotron light diffraction, scattering and absorption are analyzed. Single- and poly-crystal synchrotron diffraction studies allow high-resolution investigations regarding the long-range average position of ions and subtle global symmetry break-downs. Ferroelectric materials, under the action of electric fields, undergo crystal symmetry, crystallite/domain orientation distribution and strain condition transformations. Methodological aspects of monitoring these processes are discussed. Two-dimensional diffraction clarify larger scale ordering: polycrystal texture is measured from the intensities distribution along the Debye rings. Local order is investigated by diffuse scattering (DS and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS experiments. DS provides information about thermal, chemical and displacive low-dimensional disorders. XAFS investigation of ferroelectrics reveals local B-cation off-centering and oxidation state. This technique has the advantage of being element-selective. Representative reports of the mentioned studies are described.

  14. PHOTOACOUSTIC SPECTROSCOPY USING A SYNCHROTRON LIGHT SOURCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JACKSON, R.S.; MICHAELIAN, K.H.; HOMES, C.C.

    2001-01-01

    We have investigated the use of a synchrotron as a source for infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy. A synchrotron has an intrinsically high radiance, which is beneficial when photoacoustic spectroscopy is applied to small samples, especially at long wavelengths

  15. Medical applications with synchrotron radiation in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, T.; Itai, Y. [Univ. of Tsukuba, Inst. of Clinical Medicine, Tsukuba (Japan); Hyodo, K.; Ando, M. [KEK, Tsukuba (Japan); Akatsuka, T. [Yamagata Univ., Faculty of Engineering, Yamagata (Japan); Uyama, C. [National Cardiovascular Centre, Suita (Japan)

    1998-05-01

    In Japan, various medical applications of synchrotron X-ray imaging, such as angiography, monochromatic X-ray computed tomography (CT), radiography and radiation therapy, are being developed. In particular, coronary arteriography (CAG) is quite an important clinical application of synchrotron radiation. Using a two-dimensional imaging method, the first human intravenous CAG was carried out at KEK in May 1996; however, further improvements of image quality are required in clinical practice. On the other hand, two-dimensional aortographic CAG revealed canine coronary arteries as clearly as those on selective CAG, and coronary arteries less than 0.2 mm in diameter. Among applications of synchrotron radiation to X-ray CT, phase-contrast X-ray CT and fluorescent X-ray CT are expected to be very interesting future applications of synchrotron radiation. For actual clinical applications of synchrotron radiation, a medical beamline and a laboratory are now being constructed at SPring-8 in Harima. 55 refs.

  16. National synchrotron light source basic design and project status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Steenbergen, A.

    1981-01-01

    A summary description and the basic design parameters of the National Synchrotron Light Source, a facility for the generation of intense synchrotron radiation in the vuv and x-ray range is presented, the parameters of the sources are given, the presently planned facility beam lines are tabulated and the status of the project is indicated

  17. Status of the National Synchrotron Light Source project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heese, R.N.

    1981-01-01

    The National Synchrotron Light Source is in its final stages of construction, and as the turn-on time for the 700 MeV vuv storage ring draws near, an overview of the project is presented. Emphasis is placed on the linac and booster synchrotron performance and the status of major subsystems

  18. Application of synchrotron radiation to elemental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, K.W.; Gordon, B.M.; Hanson, A.L.; Hastings, J.B.; Howells, M.R.; Kraner, H.W.; Chen, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    The use of a synchrotron storage ring as a high brightness source for production of monoergic, variable energy, and highly polarized x-ray beams promises to revolutionize the field of elemental analysis. The results of exploratory work using the Cornell synchrotron facility, CHESS, will be described. Design considerations and features of the new X-Ray Microprobe Facility now under construction at the Brookhaven National Synchrotron Light Source will be presented. This facility will be used for bulk analysis and for microanalysis with an initial spatial resolution of the order of 30 μm

  19. Geological applications of synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, C. M. B.; Cressey, G.; Redfern, S. A. T.

    1995-03-01

    Synchrotron-based, Earth sciences research carried out over the last 5 years is reviewed with special attention being given to X-ray absorption studies; X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence microprobe applications are considered more briefly. A comprehensive bibliography is included. The main part of the paper summarizes recent work carried out at the Daresbury SRS. K-edge XAS studies of glasses as models for silicate melts provide information on the local structural environments of Si, Fe 2+ and Fe 3+. By analogy with synthetic "leucites" which contain Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ in tetrahedral framework sites, it seems that many model glasses also contain both oxidation states of Fe in the network, rather than as network modifiers. The structural sites occupied by the minor elements Mn, Zn and Ti in staurolite have been identified using XAFS; Mn and Zn substitute for Fe 2+ in the tetrahedral T2 site, while Ti occupies the distorted M2 octahedral site. L-edge spectroscopy is used to identify the valencies and electronic structures of Mn and Fe in minerals and the Fe 2+:Fe 3+ ratio in a natural spinel is determined. The polarized nature of the synchrotron beam is exploited in determining the Fe X-ray absorption anisotropy in single crystal tourmaline and epidote. XRD powder studies include Rietveld-refinement structure determination and compressibility studies. Synthetic "leucites" having the stoichiometry K 2MgSi 5O 12 have distinctly different structures. The dry-synthesized form is cubic Ia3d with Si and Mg fully disordered on tetrahedral framework sites, while the hydrothermally-synthesized polymorph is monoclinic P2 1/c with Si and Mg fully disordered on, respectively, 10 and 2 tetrahedral sites. The reversible tetragonal to orthorhombic phase transition in gillespite (BaFeSi 4O 10) has been studied in a diamond anvil cell using ED detection and found to occur at 1.2 ± 0.1 GPa. The anomalous compressibility observed has been interpreted in terms of ferroelastic and

  20. National Synchrotron Light Source 2008 Activity Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasta, K.

    2009-01-01

    Funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Basic Energy Sciences, the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) is a national user facility that operates two electron storage rings: X-Ray (2.8 GeV, 300 mA) and Vacuum Ultraviolet (VUV) (800 mev, 1.0A). These two rings provide intense light spanning the electromagnetic spectrum -- from very long infrared rays to ultraviolet light and super-short x-rays -- to analyze very small or highly dilute samples. The properties of this light, and the specially designed experimental stations, called beamlines, allow scientists in many diverse disciplines of research to perform experiments not possible at their own laboratories. Each year, about 2,200 scientists from more than 400 universities and companies use the NSLS for research in such diverse fields as biology, physics, chemistry, geology, medicine, and environmental and materials sciences. For example, researchers have used the NSLS to examine the minute details of computer chips, decipher the structures of viruses, probe the density of bone, determine the chemical composition of moon rocks, and reveal countless other mysteries of science. The facility has 65 operating beamlines, with 51 beamlines on the X-Ray Ring and 14 beamlines on the VUV-Infrared Ring. It runs seven days a week, 24 hours a day throughout the year, except during periods of maintenance and studies. Researchers are not charged for beam time, provided that the research results are published in open literature. Proprietary research is conducted on a full-cost-recovery basis. With close to 1,000 publications per year, the NSLS is one of the most prolific scientific facilities in the world. Among the many accolades given to its users and staff, the NSLS has won nine R and D 100 Awards for innovations ranging from a closed orbit feedback system to the first device able to focus a large spread of high-energy x-rays. In addition, a visiting NSLS researcher shared the 2003 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for

  1. National Synchrotron Light Source 2008 Activity Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasta,K.

    2009-05-01

    Funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Basic Energy Sciences, the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) is a national user facility that operates two electron storage rings: X-Ray (2.8 GeV, 300 mA) and Vacuum Ultraviolet (VUV) (800 mev, 1.0A). These two rings provide intense light spanning the electromagnetic spectrum -- from very long infrared rays to ultraviolet light and super-short x-rays -- to analyze very small or highly dilute samples. The properties of this light, and the specially designed experimental stations, called beamlines, allow scientists in many diverse disciplines of research to perform experiments not possible at their own laboratories. Each year, about 2,200 scientists from more than 400 universities and companies use the NSLS for research in such diverse fields as biology, physics, chemistry, geology, medicine, and environmental and materials sciences. For example, researchers have used the NSLS to examine the minute details of computer chips, decipher the structures of viruses, probe the density of bone, determine the chemical composition of moon rocks, and reveal countless other mysteries of science. The facility has 65 operating beamlines, with 51 beamlines on the X-Ray Ring and 14 beamlines on the VUV-Infrared Ring. It runs seven days a week, 24 hours a day throughout the year, except during periods of maintenance and studies. Researchers are not charged for beam time, provided that the research results are published in open literature. Proprietary research is conducted on a full-cost-recovery basis. With close to 1,000 publications per year, the NSLS is one of the most prolific scientific facilities in the world. Among the many accolades given to its users and staff, the NSLS has won nine R&D 100 Awards for innovations ranging from a closed orbit feedback system to the first device able to focus a large spread of high-energy x-rays. In addition, a visiting NSLS researcher shared the 2003 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for

  2. Applications of synchrotron radiation in Biophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bemski, G.

    1983-01-01

    A short introduction to the generation of the synchrotron radiation is made. Following, the applications of such a radiation in biophysics with emphasis to the study of the hemoglobin molecule are presented. (L.C.) [pt

  3. 3D Detectors for Synchrotron Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pennicard, D

    2009-01-01

    3D detectors are a novel variety of photodiode radiation detector, invented by Parker, Kenney and Segal (1997). Instead of having n- and p-type contacts on the front and back surfaces of a silicon substrate, like a standard photodiode, they have columns of doped material passing through the thickness of the silicon. This structure means that the detector can combine a reasonable substrate thickness with a very small electrode spacing, resulting in a low depletion voltage, fast charge collection and low charge sharing. These detectors have a couple of promising applications. Their fast charge collection and low depletion voltage should make them very radiation-tolerant. So, they could be used for future particle physics experiments at the Super Large Hadron Collider (SLHC), where high levels of radiation damage are expected. Also, their low charge sharing means they could potentially improve X-ray diffraction measurements at synchrotrons such as Diamond Light Source. This would allow these experiments, for exa...

  4. Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Light Source (SSRL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The SSRL at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory was built in 1974 to take and use for synchrotron studies the intense x-ray beams from the SPEAR storage ring that...

  5. Synchrotron radiation applications in biophysics and medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burattini, E.

    1985-01-01

    The peculiar properties of synchrotron radiation are briefly summarized. A short review on the possible applications of synchrotron radiation in two important fields like Biophysics and Medicine is presented. Details are given on experiments both in progress and carried out in many synchrotron radiation facilities, all over the world, using different techniques like X-ray absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence microanalysis, X-ray microscopy and digital subtraction angiography. Some news about the photon-activation therapy are briefly reported too

  6. National Synchrotron Light Source 2010 Activity Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowe, M.; Snyder, K.J.

    2010-01-01

    This is a very exciting period for photon sciences at Brookhaven National Laboratory. It is also a time of unprecedented growth for the Photon Sciences Directorate, which operates the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) and is constructing NSLS-II, both funded by the Department of Energy's Office of Science. Reflecting the quick pace of our activities, we chose the theme 'Discovery at Light Speed' for the directorate's 2010 annual report, a fiscal year bookended by October 2009 and September 2010. The year began with the news that NSLS users Venki Ramakrishnan of Cambridge University (also a former employee in Brookhaven's biology department) and Thomas A. Steitz of Yale University were sharing the 2009 Nobel Prize in Chemistry with Ada E. Yonath of the Weizmann Institute of Science. Every research project has the potential for accolades. In 2010, NSLS users and staff published close to 900 papers, with about 170 appearing in premiere journals. Those are impressive stats for a facility nearly three decades old, testament to the highly dedicated team keeping NSLS at peak performance and the high quality of its user community. Our NSLS users come from a worldwide community of scientists using photons, or light, to carry out research in energy and environmental sciences, physics, materials science, chemistry, biology and medicine. All are looking forward to the new capabilities enabled by NSLS-II, which will offer unprecedented resolution at the nanoscale. The new facility will produce x-rays more than 10,000 times brighter than the current NSLS and host a suite of sophisticated instruments for cutting-edge science. Some of the scientific discoveries we anticipate at NSLS-II will lead to major advances in alternative energy technologies, such as hydrogen and solar. These discoveries could pave the way to: (1) catalysts that split water with sunlight for hydrogen production; (2) materials that can reversibly store large quantities of electricity or hydrogen; (3

  7. National Synchrotron Light Source 2010 Activity Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, M.; Snyder, K. J.

    2010-12-29

    This is a very exciting period for photon sciences at Brookhaven National Laboratory. It is also a time of unprecedented growth for the Photon Sciences Directorate, which operates the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) and is constructing NSLS-II, both funded by the Department of Energy's Office of Science. Reflecting the quick pace of our activities, we chose the theme 'Discovery at Light Speed' for the directorate's 2010 annual report, a fiscal year bookended by October 2009 and September 2010. The year began with the news that NSLS users Venki Ramakrishnan of Cambridge University (also a former employee in Brookhaven's biology department) and Thomas A. Steitz of Yale University were sharing the 2009 Nobel Prize in Chemistry with Ada E. Yonath of the Weizmann Institute of Science. Every research project has the potential for accolades. In 2010, NSLS users and staff published close to 900 papers, with about 170 appearing in premiere journals. Those are impressive stats for a facility nearly three decades old, testament to the highly dedicated team keeping NSLS at peak performance and the high quality of its user community. Our NSLS users come from a worldwide community of scientists using photons, or light, to carry out research in energy and environmental sciences, physics, materials science, chemistry, biology and medicine. All are looking forward to the new capabilities enabled by NSLS-II, which will offer unprecedented resolution at the nanoscale. The new facility will produce x-rays more than 10,000 times brighter than the current NSLS and host a suite of sophisticated instruments for cutting-edge science. Some of the scientific discoveries we anticipate at NSLS-II will lead to major advances in alternative energy technologies, such as hydrogen and solar. These discoveries could pave the way to: (1) catalysts that split water with sunlight for hydrogen production; (2) materials that can reversibly store large quantities of

  8. Proposal for a national synchrotron light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blewett, J.P.

    1977-02-01

    Since 1971 discussions have been held at Brookhaven National Laboratory on the desirability of construction of a storage ring which would be used exclusively for production of intense beams of photons with wavelengths in the ultraviolet and X-ray ranges. A proposal is given which discusses in detail the machine, its characteristics, and its expected uses. The proposal includes: (1) characteristics of synchrotron radiation; (2) scientific justification for a synchrotron radiation facility; (3) facility design; (4) wiggler magnets; (5) experimental facilities; (6) buildings and utilities; (7) construction schedules, costs, and manpower; and (8) environmental assessment

  9. National Synchrotron Light Source safety-analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batchelor, K.

    1982-07-01

    This document covers all of the safety issues relating to the design and operation of the storage rings and injection system of the National Synchrotron Light Source. The building systems for fire protection, access and egress are described together with air and other gaseous control or venting systems. Details of shielding against prompt bremstrahlung radiation and synchrotron radiation are described and the administrative requirements to be satisfied for operation of a beam line at the facility are given

  10. A NEW THERMIONIC RF ELECTRON GUN FOR SYNCHROTRON LIGHT SOURCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutsaev, Sergey; Agustsson, R.; Hartzell, J; Murokh, A.; Nassiri, A.; Savin, E.; Smirnov, A.V.; Smirnov, A. Yu; Sun, Y.; Verma, A; Waldschmidt, Geoff; Zholents, A.

    2017-06-02

    A thermionic RF gun is a compact and efficient source of electrons used in many practical applications. RadiaBeam Systems and the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory collaborate in developing of a reliable and robust thermionic RF gun for synchrotron light sources which would offer substantial improvements over existing thermionic RF guns and allow stable operation with up to 1A of beam peak current at a 100 Hz pulse repetition rate and a 1.5 μs RF pulse length. In this paper, we discuss the electromagnetic and engineering design of the cavity and report the progress towards high power tests of the cathode assembly of the new gun.

  11. A preliminary study of synchrotron light sources for x-ray lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, C.R.; Bigham, C.B.; Ebrahim, N.A.; Sawicki, J.A.; Taylor, T.

    1989-02-01

    A preliminary study of synchrotron light sources has been made, primarily oriented toward x-ray lithography. X-ray lithography is being pursued vigorously in several countries, with a goal of manufacturing high-density computer chips (0.25 μm feature sizes), and may attain commercial success in the next decade. Many other applications of soft x-rays appear worthy of investigation as well. The study group visited synchrotron radiation facilities and had discussions with members of the synchrotron radiation community, particularly Canadians. It concluded that accelerator technology for a conventional synchrotron light source appropriate for x-ray lithography is well established and is consistent with skills and experience at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories. Compact superconducting systems are being developed also. Their technical requirements overlap with capabilities at Chalk River. (32 refs)

  12. Synchrotron radiation and prospects of its applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulipanov, G; Skrinskii, A

    1981-04-01

    Current and prospective applications are described of synchrotron radiation resulting from the motion of high-energy electrons or positrons in a magnetic field and covering a wide spectral range from the infrared to X-ray. The advantages of the synchrotron radiation include a big source luminance, a small angular divergence, the possibility of calculating the absolute intensity and the spectral distribution of the radiation. Special storage rings are most suitable as a source. Synchrotron radiation is applied in X-ray microscopy, energy diffractometry, atomic and molecular spectroscopy, in the structural analysis of microcrystals, very rapid diffractometry of biological objects and crystals, and in Moessbauer spectroscopy. The prospective applications include uses in metrology, medicine, X-ray lithography, elemental analysis, molecular microsurgery, and in radiation technology.

  13. Application of circular polarized synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Tsuneaki; Kawata, Hiroshi

    1988-03-01

    The idea of using the polarizing property of light for physical experiment by controlling it variously has been known from old time, and the Faraday effect and the research by polarizing microscopy are its examples. The light emitted from the electron orbit of an accelerator has the different polarizing characteristics from those of the light of a laboratory light source, and as far as observing it within the electron orbit plane, it becomes linearly polarized light. By utilizing this property well, research is carried out at present in synchrotron experimental facilities. Recently, the technology related to the insert type light cources using permanent magnets has advanced remarkably, and circular polarized light has become to be producible. If the light like this can be obtained with the energy not only in far ultraviolet region but also to x-ray region at high luminance, new possibility should open. At the stage that the design of an insert type light source was finished, and its manufacture was started, the research on the method of evaluating the degree of circular polarization and the research on the utilization of circular polarized synchrotron radiation are earnestly carried out. In this report, the results of researches presented at the study meeting are summarized. Moreover, the design and manufacture of the beam lines for exclusive use will be carried out. (Kako, I.)

  14. Medical application of Synchrotron Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyodo, Kazuyuki; Nishimura, Katsuyuki.

    1990-01-01

    The number of patients suffering from ischemic heart disease is also increasing rapidly in Japan. The standard method for assessing coronary artery diseases is the coronary angiography. Excellent images are taken by this method, however, it is an invasive method in which a catheter into a peripheral artery. The patients would obtain great benefit if the coronary arteries could be distinguished by intravenous injection of the contrast material. The K-edge subtraction method, which uses the K-edge discontinuity in the attenuation coefficient of the contrast material, is considered to be the most suitable method for coronary angiography by peripheral venous injection. Synchrotron Radiation (SR) is so intense that it allows selection of monochromatic X-rays, and studies on K-edge subtraction using SR has been started at some facilities. Recent activities K-edge subtraction method at the Accumulation Ring are briefly described here. (author)

  15. NATIONAL SYNCHROTRON LIGHT SOURCE ACTIVITY REPORT 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MILLER, L.

    2005-01-01

    for the environmental science community, is also very important, as it will help to satisfy the large over subscription rate for this technique at the NSLS. Two other important upgrades that were initiated this past year are the replacement of the X25 wiggler with an undulator and the construction of the X9 undulator beamline for small-angle scattering, with an emphasis on nanoscience research. Another key activity that will benefit all users was the restoration of the x-ray ring lattice symmetry, which reduced the horizontal emittance and made the operational lattice more robust. Similarly, all users will benefit from the introduction of the PASS (Proposal Allocation Safety Scheduling) system this past year, which has greatly improved the process of proposal submission, review, allocation, and scheduling. This coming year we will work to add Rapid Access to the capabilities of PASS. Overall, the success of these and the many other projects that space does not permit listing is a testament to the dedication, hard work, and skill of the NSLS staff. Safety has always been an important issue at a large, complex scientific facility like the NSLS and in 2004 it received renewed attention. Safety is our highest priority and we spent a great deal of time reviewing and refining our safety practices and procedures. A new 'Safety Highlights' web page was created for safety news, and a large number of safety meetings and discussions were held. These reviews and meetings generated many ideas on how the NSLS might improve its safety practices, and we are committed to putting these in place and improving our already very good safety program. We had no lost-time accidents in 2004, which is a notable accomplishment. Our goal is to be best in class and I'm confident that by working together we can achieve that status. Several activities took place this past year to advance our proposal to replace the NSLS with a new National Synchrotron Light Source-II facility. These included a major

  16. Synchrotron radiation applications in medical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomlinson, W.

    1995-01-01

    The medical projects employing synchrotron radiation as discussed in this paper are, for the most part, still in their infancies and no one can predict the direction in which they will develop. Both the basic research and applied medical programs are sure to be advanced at the new facilities coming on line, especially the ESRF and Spring- 8. However, success is not guaranteed. There is a lot of competition from advances in conventional imaging with the development of digital angiography, computed tomography, functional magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound. The synchrotron programs will have to provide significant advantages over these modalities in order to be accepted by the medical profession. Advances in image processing and potentially the development of compact sources will be required in order to move the synchrotron developed imaging technologies into the clinical world. In any event, it can be expected that the images produced by the synchrotron technologies will establish ''gold standards'' to be targeted by conventional modalities. A lot more work needs to be done in order to bring synchrotron radiation therapy and surgery to the level of human studies and, subsequently, to clinical applications

  17. Chemical applications of synchrotron radiation: Workshop report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-04-01

    The most recent in a series of topical meetings for Advanced Photon Source user subgroups, the Workshop on Chemical Applications of Synchrotron Radiation (held at Argonne National Laboratory, October 3-4, 1988) dealt with surfaces and kinetics, spectroscopy, small-angle scattering, diffraction, and topography and imaging. The primary objectives were to provide an educational resource for the chemistry community on the scientific research being conducted at existing synchrotron sources and to indicate some of the unique opportunities that will be made available with the Advanced Photon Source. The workshop organizers were also interested in gauging the interest of chemists in the field of synchrotron radiation. Interest expressed at the meeting has led to initial steps toward formation of a Chemistry Users Group at the APS. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases

  18. Chemical applications of synchrotron radiation: Workshop report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-04-01

    The most recent in a series of topical meetings for Advanced Photon Source user subgroups, the Workshop on Chemical Applications of Synchrotron Radiation (held at Argonne National Laboratory, October 3-4, 1988) dealt with surfaces and kinetics, spectroscopy, small-angle scattering, diffraction, and topography and imaging. The primary objectives were to provide an educational resource for the chemistry community on the scientific research being conducted at existing synchrotron sources and to indicate some of the unique opportunities that will be made available with the Advanced Photon Source. The workshop organizers were also interested in gauging the interest of chemists in the field of synchrotron radiation. Interest expressed at the meeting has led to initial steps toward formation of a Chemistry Users Group at the APS. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases.

  19. Research by industry at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    The world's foremost facility for research using x-rays and ultraviolet and infrared radiation, is operated by the National Synchrotron Light Source dept. This pamphlet described the participating research teams that built most of the beam lines, various techniques for studying materials, treatment of materials, and various industrial research (catalysis, pharmaceuticals, etc.)

  20. Singapore Synchrotron Light Source - Status, first results, program

    CERN Document Server

    Moser, H O; Kempson, V C; Kong, J R; Li, Z W; Nyunt, T; Qian, H J; Rossmanith, R; Tor, P H; Wilhelmi, O; Yang, P; Zheng, H W; Underhay, I J

    2003-01-01

    The Singapore Synchrotron Light Source is a general-purpose synchrotron radiation facility serving research organisations and industry. Beamlines active or coming up within 2002 include lithography for micro/nanofabrication, phase contrast imaging, surface science, and X-ray diffraction and absorption. An infrared spectro/microscopy beamline is expected to become operational in 2003. Further beamlines are under discussion with user groups. The Microtron Undulator Radiation Facility (MURF) is under development to provide brilliant VUV radiation and to prepare for subsequent development of an EUV and X-ray FEL.

  1. National synchrotron light source medical personnel protection interlock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buda, S.; Gmur, N.F.; Larson, R.; Thomlinson, W.

    1998-01-01

    This report is founded on reports written in April 1987 by Robert Hettel for angiography operations at the Stanford Synchrotron Research Laboratory (SSRL) and a subsequent report covering angiography operations at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS); BNL Informal Report 47681, June 1992. The latter report has now been rewritten in order to accurately reflect the design and installation of a new medical safety system at the NSLS X17B2 beamline Synchrotron Medical Research Facility (SMERF). Known originally as the Angiography Personnel Protection Interlock (APPI), this system has been modified to incorporate other medical imaging research programs on the same beamline and thus the name has been changed to the more generic Medical Personnel Protection Interlock (MPPI). This report will deal almost exclusively with the human imaging (angiography, bronchography, mammography) aspects of the safety system, but will briefly explain the modular aspects of the system allowing other medical experiments to be incorporated

  2. NATIONAL SYNCHROTRON LIGHT SOURCE MEDICAL PERSONNEL PROTECTION INTERLOCK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BUDA,S.; GMUR,N.F.; LARSON,R.; THOMLINSON,W.

    1998-11-03

    This report is founded on reports written in April 1987 by Robert Hettel for angiography operations at the Stanford Synchrotron Research Laboratory (SSRL) and a subsequent report covering angiography operations at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS); BNL Informal Report 47681, June 1992. The latter report has now been rewritten in order to accurately reflect the design and installation of a new medical safety system at the NSLS X17B2 beamline Synchrotron Medical Research Facility (SMERF). Known originally as the Angiography Personnel Protection Interlock (APPI), this system has been modified to incorporate other medical imaging research programs on the same beamline and thus the name has been changed to the more generic Medical Personnel Protection Interlock (MPPI). This report will deal almost exclusively with the human imaging (angiography, bronchography, mammography) aspects of the safety system, but will briefly explain the modular aspects of the system allowing other medical experiments to be incorporated.

  3. Review of third and next generation synchrotron light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilderback, Donald H; Elleaume, Pascal; Weckert, Edgar

    2005-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation (SR) is having a very large impact on interdisciplinary science and has been tremendously successful with the arrival of third generation synchrotron x-ray sources. But the revolution in x-ray science is still gaining momentum. Even though new storage rings are currently under construction, even more advanced rings are under design (PETRA III and the ultra high energy x-ray source) and the uses of linacs (energy recovery linac, x-ray free electron laser) can take us further into the future, to provide the unique synchrotron light that is so highly prized for today's studies in science in such fields as materials science, physics, chemistry and biology, for example. All these machines are highly reliant upon the consequences of Einstein's special theory of relativity. The consequences of relativity account for the small opening angle of synchrotron radiation in the forward direction and the increasing mass an electron gains as it is accelerated to high energy. These are familiar results to every synchrotron scientist. In this paper we outline not only the origins of SR but discuss how Einstein's strong character and his intuition and excellence have not only marked the physics of the 20th century but provide the foundation for continuing accelerator developments into the 21st century

  4. Synchrotron radiation: its characteristics and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blewett, J.P.; Chasman, R.; Green, G.K.

    1977-01-01

    It has been known for a century that charged particles radiate when accelerated and that relativistic electrons in the energy range between 100 MeV and several GeV and constrained to travel in circular orbits emit concentrated, intense beams with broad continuous spectra that can cover the electromagnetic spectrum from infrared through hard X-rays. Recently the possible applications of this radiation have been appreciated and electron synchrotrons and electron storage rings are now being used in many centers for studies of the properties of matter in the solid, liquid and gaseous states. A brief history is presented of ''synchrotron radiation'' as it is now called. The basic properties of this radiation are described and the world-wide distribution is indicated of facilities for its production. Particular attention is given to the proposed facility at Brookhaven which will be the first major installation to be dedicated only to the production and use of synchrotron radiation. Finally, typical examples are given of applications in the areas of radiation absorption studies, techniques based on scattering of radiation, and advances based on X-ray lithography

  5. Synchrotron Applications of High Magnetic Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This workshop aims at discussing the scientific potential of X-ray diffraction and spectroscopy in magnetic fields above 30 T. Pulsed magnetic fields in the range of 30 to 40 T have recently become available at Spring-8 and the ESRF (European synchrotron radiation facility). This document gathers the transparencies of the 6 following presentations: 1) pulsed magnetic fields at ESRF: first results; 2) X-ray spectroscopy and diffraction experiments by using mini-coils: applications to valence state transition and frustrated magnet; 3) R{sub 5}(Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1-x}){sub 4}: an ideal system to be studied in X-ray under high magnetic field?; 4) high field studies at the Advanced Photon Source: present status and future plans; 5) synchrotron X-ray diffraction studies under extreme conditions; and 6) projects for pulsed and steady high magnetic fields at the ESRF.

  6. The Synchrotron Topography Project (STP) at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilello, J.C.; Hmelo, A.B.; Liu, J.M.; Herley, P.J.; Chen, H.; Birnbaum, H.K.; Illinois Univ., Urbana; Green, R.E. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The collaborators have participated in the Synchrotron Topography Project (STP) which has designed and developed instrumentation for an X-ray topography station at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The two principle instruments constructed consist of a White Beam Camera (WBC) and a Multiple Crystal Camera (MCC) with high planar collimation and wide area image coverage. It is possible to perform in situ studies in a versatile environmental chamber equipped with a miniature mechanical testing stage for both the WBC and MCC systems. Real-time video imaging plus a rapid feed cassette holder for high resolution photographic plates is available for recording topographs. Provisions are made for other types of photon detection as well as spectroscopy. The facilities for the entire station have been designed for remote operation using a LSI-11/23 plus suitable interfacing. These instruments will be described briefly and the current status of the program will be reviewed. (orig.)

  7. Minimum emittance of isochronus rings for synchrotron light source

    CERN Document Server

    Shoji, Y

    1999-01-01

    Theoretically achievable minimum emittances of isochronus rings for synchrotron light source are calculated. The rings discussed in this paper consist of isochronus and achromatic bending cells, isochronus TBA (triple bend achromat) cells with negative dispersion, isochronus TBA cells with inverse bends or isochronus QBA (four bend achromat) cells. We show that the minimum emittances of these rings are roughly 2 or 3 times of those of the optimized non-isochronus rings.

  8. Status of the National Synchrotron Light Source upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culwick, B.B.; Smith, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    The demands for real-time control, data acquisition and display from accelerators of the National Synchrotron Light Source have exceeded the capabilities of the computer control system designed in 1978. In January 1985, a workshop on control systems was held at Brookhaven, one of the purposes of which was to provide impetus and design goals for an upgrade of the NSLS control system. The resulting design is described and its status reported

  9. Current schemes for National Synchrotron Light Source UV beamlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, G.P.; Howells, M.R.; McKinney, W.R.

    1979-01-01

    We describe in some detail four beamlines proposed for the National Synchrotron Light Source uv ring at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Three grazing-incidence instruments, one of the plane grating Mijake type and two with toroidal gratings at grazing angles of 2-1/2 0 and 15 0 are described. Two normal incidence instruments, one using the source as entrance slit and accepting 75 milliradians horizontally are also discussed. In each case we have estimated the output fluxes expected from such beamlines

  10. Industrial research enhancement program at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jun; Nasta, Kathleen; Kao, Chi-Chang

    2011-01-01

    Industrial research has attracted more and more attention recently at synchrotron facilities. Bringing the state-of-the-art research capabilities provided by these facilities to the industrial user community will help this community to improve their products and processing methods, to foster competition and build the economy. The National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) has a long and celebrated history in research partnerships with industry since its inception more than 25 years ago, and both industry and the facility have benefited tremendously from these partnerships. Over the years, the ways in which industrial research is conducted at synchrotron facilities have evolved significantly, and a new paradigm of collaboration between industry and facilities is clearly needed to address this changing situation. In this presentation, the discussion will focus on an enhancement plan recently implemented at the NSLS to address industrial users' concerns and needs. The goal of NSLS Industrial Program Enhancement plan is to encourage greater use of synchrotron tools by industry researchers, improve access to NSLS beamlines by industrial researchers and facilitate research collaborations between industrial researchers and NSLS staff as well as researchers from university and government laboratories. Examples of recent developments in these areas will be presented.

  11. Synchrotron light sources: A powerful tool for science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlachter, F.; Robinson, A.

    1996-01-01

    A new generation of synchrotron light sources is producing extremely bright beams of vacuum-ultraviolet and x-ray radiation, poweful new tools for research in a wide variety of basic and applied sciences. Spectromicroscopy using high spectral and spatial resolution is a new way of seeing, offering many opportunities in the study of matter. Development of a new light source provides the country or region of the world in which the light source is located many new opportunities: a focal point for research in many scientific and technological areas, a means of upgrading the technology infrastructure of the country, a means of training students, and a potential service to industry. A light source for Southeast Asia would thus be a major resource for many years. Scientists and engineers from light sources around the world look forward to providing assistance to make this a reality in Southeast Asia

  12. Synchrotron light sources: A powerful tool for science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlachter, F.; Robinson, A.

    1996-01-01

    A new generation of synchrotron light sources is producing extremely bright beams of vacuum-ultraviolet and x-ray radiation, powerful new tools for research in a wide variety of basic and applied sciences. Spectromicroscopy using high spectral and spatial resolution is a new way of seeing, offering many opportunities in the study of matter. Development of a new light source provides the country or region of the world in which the light source is located many new opportunities: a focal point for research in many scientific and technological areas, a means of upgrading the technology infrastructure of the country, a means of training students, and a potential service to industry. A light source for Southeast Asia would thus be a major resource for many years. Scientists and engineers from light sources around the world look forward to providing assistance to make this a reality in Southeast Asia

  13. Use of a synchrotron radiation x-ray microprobe for elemental analysis at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, B.M.

    1980-01-01

    The National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) is a facility consisting of a 700 MeV and a 2.5 GeV electron storage ring and dedicated to providing synchrotron radiation in the energy range from the vacuum ultraviolet to high energy x rays. Some of the properties of synchrotron radiation that contribute to its usefulness for x-ray fluorescence are: a continuous, tunable energy spectrum, strong collimation in the horizontal plane, high polarization in the storage ring plane, and relatively low energy deposition. The highest priority is for the development of an x-ray microprobe beam line capable of trace analysis in the parts per million range with spatial resolution as low as one micrometer. An eventual capability for bulk sample analysis is also planned with sensitivities in the more favorable cases beings low as 50 parts per billion in dry biological tissue. The microprobe technique has application to a variety of fields including the geological, medical, materials and environmental sciences. Examples of investigations include multielemental trace analysis across grain boundaries for the study of diffusion and cooling processes in geological and materials sciences samples; in leukocytes and other types of individual cells for studying the relationship between trace element concentrations and disease or nutrition; and in individual particles in air pollution samples

  14. The three-dimensional microstructure of polycrystalline materials unravelled by synchrotron light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ludwig, W.; King, A.; Herbig, M.

    2011-01-01

    The three-dimensional microstructure of polycrystalline materials unravelled by synchrotron light Synchrotron radiation X-ray imaging and diffraction techniques offer new possibilities for non-destructive bulk characterization of polycrystalline materials. Minute changes in electron density (diff...

  15. Science research with high-brilliance synchrotron light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanyal, Milan K.

    2013-01-01

    Synchrotron-science has changed dramatically since the development of high brilliance electron accelerator-based light sources in 1990s. In the last twenty years or so, several such facilities have come up, particularly in developed countries, as material characterizations in relevant atmosphere and protein crystallography with tiny-crystals have strong implications in industrial competitiveness. Moreover several new techniques have been developed recently over the entire spectral range of emitted light, from infra-red to high energy X-rays, which have altered our basic understanding of various materials like biomaterials, nanomaterials, soft-matter and semiconductor quantum structures. In addition, rapid development of various X-ray imaging techniques for nondestructive evaluation of compositional/structural homogeneity of engineering materials with nanometer resolution will have tremendous impact in manufacturing industries. As India becomes a developed country, it must have access to such an advanced synchrotron facility in the country that enables knowledge generation in the ever-expanding fields of design-characterization-production of advanced materials and modern medicines. Development of such state-of-the art facility will also enable us to carry out frontier-basic-research in our own country and help us to retain and bring back Indian talents to India. Here we shall discuss briefly the characteristics of a high brilliance synchrotron source and outline the nature of basic and applied science research that can be done with such a state-of-the-art facility. (author)

  16. Single bunch transfer system for the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheehan, J.; Singh, O.; Rambo, W.

    1983-01-01

    The accelerator system at the National Synchrotron Light Source consists of an S-band 85 MeV linac and three synchrotron rings. The electron beam from the linac is accelerated by the booster ring to 600 MeV and transferred to one of the two storage rings. The smaller of the two rings operates between 300 and 800 MeV emtting photons in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV), while the larger storage ring operates up to 2.5 GeV and emits photons in the x-ray spectrum. A system is described for loading the storage rings by filling a single-phase space bunch in the booster ring and transferring it at the end of each booster cycle into a selected bucket in one of the storage rings. By controlling the timing of the transfer on successive transfer cycles, many fill patterns may be obtained

  17. Synchrotron light: A success story over six decades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margaritondo, G.

    2017-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation research continues to be a major factor in the progress of science and technology, as it has been for more than half a century. We present different aspects of its history, starting with an unconventional approach: a fictional version, which should bring to light the reasons that make this field so broadly important. Then, we narrate the real history from three different points of view: the progress of electron accelerators, the evolution of synchrotron-based experiments, and the human factors. Finally, we discuss the present situation, characterized by the arrival of a new generation of sources with exceptional performances: the x-ray free electron lasers (x-FEL's).

  18. CVD diamond windows for infrared synchrotron applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sussmann, R.S.; Pickles, C.S.J.; Brandon, J.R.; Wort, C.J.H.; Coe, S.E.; Wasenczuk, A.; Dodge, C.N.; Beale, A.C.; Krehan, A.J.; Dore, P.; Nucara, A.; Calvani, P.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the attributes that make diamond a unique material for infrared synchrotron beam experiments. New developments in diamond synthesised by Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) promise to extend the range of applications which have been hitherto limited by the availability and cost of large-size single-crystal diamond. Polycrystalline CVD diamond components such as large (100 mm) diameter windows with extremely good transparency over a wide spectral range are now commercially available. Properties of CVD diamond of relevance to optical applications, such as mechanical strength, thermal conductivity and absolute bulk absorption, are discussed. It is shown that although some of the properties of CVD diamond (similar to other polycrystalline industrial ceramics) are affected by the grain structure, currently produced CVD diamond optical components have the quality and performance required for numerous demanding applications

  19. Synchrotron radiation facilities for chemical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatano, Yoshihiko

    1995-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation (SR) research is of great importance in understanding radiation chemistry, physics, and biology. It is also clearly recognized in the international chemical community that chemical applications of SR are greatly advanced and divided into 1) Molecular Spectroscopy and Dynamics Studies-Gases, Surfaces, and Condensed Matter- , 2) Radiation Chemistry and Photochemistry, 3) X-ray Structural and XAFS Studies-Crystals, Surfaces, and Liquids- , 4) Analytical Chemistry, and 5) Synthesis or R and D of New Materials. In this paper, a survey is given of recent advances in the application of SR to the chemistry of excitation and ionization of molecules, i.e., SR chemistry, in the wavelength region between near-ultraviolet and hard X-rays. The topics will be chosen from those obtained at some leading SR facilities. (J.P.N.)

  20. Application of synchrotron radiation in archaeology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakai, Izumi [Science University of Tokyo, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Chemistry, Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    This paper reports current status of archaeological application of synchrotron radiation (SR). The advantages of SR in archaeological research and various application possibilities of X-ray powder diffraction (XPD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) analyses of objects and materials of cultural heritage value are demonstrated through a number of case studies from literatures. They include XPD characterizations of Egyptian cosmetic powder, Attic Black Gloss, and pigments in Gothic altarpieces, provenance analysis of Old-Kutani china wares by high energy XRF, and XAFS analyses to reveal to origin of red color in Satsuma copper-ruby glass and role of iron in Maya blue. (author)

  1. Silicon Pixel Detectors for Synchrotron Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Stewart, Graeme Douglas

    Recent advances in particle accelerators have increased the demands being placed on detectors. Novel detector designs are being implemented in many different areas including, for example, high luminosity experiments at the LHC or at next generation synchrotrons. The purpose of this thesis was to characterise some of these novel detectors. The first of the new detector types is called a 3D detector. This design was first proposed by Parker, Kenney and Segal (1997). In this design, doped electrodes are created that extend through the silicon substrate. When compared to a traditional photodiode with electrodes on the opposing surfaces, the 3D design can combine a reasonable detector thickness with a small electrode spacing resulting in fast charge collection and limited charge sharing. The small electrode spacing leads to the detectors having lower depletion voltages. This, combined with the fast collection time, makes 3D detectors a candidate for radiation hard applications. These applications include the upgra...

  2. Phase II beam lines at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomlinson, W.

    1984-06-01

    The expansion of the National Synchrotron Light Source has been funded by the US Department of Energy. The Phase II program consists of both increased conventional facilities and six new beam lines. In this paper, an overview of the six beam lines which will be constructed during Phase II is presented. For five of the lines special radiation sources are necessary and the designs of four of the devices are complete. The relevant parameters of the insertion devices under construction and development are presented

  3. High-pressure synchrotron infrared spectroscopy at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemley, R.J.; Goncharov, A.F.; Lu, R.; Struzhkin, V.V.; Li, M.; Mao, H.K.

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes a synchrotron infrared facility for high-pressure spectroscopy and microspectroscopy at the National Synchrotron Light-Source (NSLS). Located at beamline U2B on the VUV ring of the NSLS, the facility utilizes a commercial FT-IR together with custom-built microscope optics designed for a variety of diamond anvil cell experiments, including low- and high- temperature studies. The system contains an integrated laser optical/grating spectrometer for concurrent optical experiments. The facility has been used to characterize a growing number of materials to ultrahigh pressure and has been instrumental of new high-pressure phenomena. Experiments on dense hydrogen to >200 GPa have led to the discovery of numerous unexpected properties of this fundamental system. The theoretically predicted molecular-atomic transition of H 2 O ice to the symmetric hydrogen-bonded structure has been identified, and new classes of high-density clathrates and molecular compounds have been characterized. Experiments on natural and synthetic mineral samples have been performed to study hydrogen speciation, phase transformations, and microscopic inclusions in multiphase assemblages. Detailed information on the behavior of new materials, including novel high-pressure glasses and ceramics, has also been obtained

  4. Stability and vibration control in synchrotron light source buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godel, J.B.

    1991-01-01

    Synchrotron light sources have undergone three generations of development in the last two decades. The National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory has two second generation'' storage rings that currently provide the world's most intense sources of photons in the VUV and X-ray spectral ranges. There are almost 90 beam lines serving a community of 2600 scientists from 370 institutions. They are engaged in basic and applied research in physics, chemistry, biology, medicine, materials science and various technologies. When design of the NSLS began in 1977, emphasis was given to the stability of the concrete slab on which the storage rings and experimental beam lines were placed. Stability is the result of controlling: vibration from sources internal and external to the building, thermal effects of air and water temperature variations, foundation settlement and contact between the slab and underlying subsoil. With the advent of new research where highly focused beams of x-rays must be placed on increasingly smaller targets located 35 meters or more from the source, and the development of x-ray lithography with resolutions approaching 0.1 micron at chip exposure stations, even greater attention to stability is required in building designs. This paper will review the results of the successful NSLS experience and give an integrated design approach that includes elements which contribute to instabilities, and the means available to reduce them to acceptable levels.

  5. Stability and vibration control in synchrotron light source buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godel, J.B.

    1991-12-31

    Synchrotron light sources have undergone three generations of development in the last two decades. The National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory has two ``second generation`` storage rings that currently provide the world`s most intense sources of photons in the VUV and X-ray spectral ranges. There are almost 90 beam lines serving a community of 2600 scientists from 370 institutions. They are engaged in basic and applied research in physics, chemistry, biology, medicine, materials science and various technologies. When design of the NSLS began in 1977, emphasis was given to the stability of the concrete slab on which the storage rings and experimental beam lines were placed. Stability is the result of controlling: vibration from sources internal and external to the building, thermal effects of air and water temperature variations, foundation settlement and contact between the slab and underlying subsoil. With the advent of new research where highly focused beams of x-rays must be placed on increasingly smaller targets located 35 meters or more from the source, and the development of x-ray lithography with resolutions approaching 0.1 micron at chip exposure stations, even greater attention to stability is required in building designs. This paper will review the results of the successful NSLS experience and give an integrated design approach that includes elements which contribute to instabilities, and the means available to reduce them to acceptable levels.

  6. Phase 2 safety analysis report: National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefan, P.

    1989-06-01

    The Phase II program was established in order to provide additional space for experiments, and also staging and equipment storage areas. It also provides additional office space and new types of advanced instrumentation for users. This document will deal with the new safety issues resulting from this extensive expansion program, and should be used as a supplement to BNL Report No. 51584 ''National Synchrotron Light Source Safety Analysis Report,'' July 1982 (hereafter referred to as the Phase I SAR). The initial NSLS facility is described in the Phase I SAR. It comprises two electron storage rings, an injection system common to both, experimental beam lines and equipment, and office and support areas, all of which are housed in a 74,000 sq. ft. building. The X-ray Ring provides for 28 primary beam ports and the VUV Ring, 16. Each port is capable of division into 2 or 3 separate beam lines. All ports receive their synchrotron light from conventional bending magnet sources, the magnets being part of the storage ring lattice. 4 refs

  7. Stability and vibration control in synchrotron light source buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godel, J.B.

    1991-01-01

    Synchrotron light sources have undergone three generations of development in the last two decades. The National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory has two ''second generation'' storage rings that currently provide the world's most intense sources of photons in the VUV and X-ray spectral ranges. There are almost 90 beam lines serving a community of 2600 scientists from 370 institutions. They are engaged in basic and applied research in physics, chemistry, biology, medicine, materials science and various technologies. When design of the NSLS began in 1977, emphasis was given to the stability of the concrete slab on which the storage rings and experimental beam lines were placed. Stability is the result of controlling: vibration from sources internal and external to the building, thermal effects of air and water temperature variations, foundation settlement and contact between the slab and underlying subsoil. With the advent of new research where highly focused beams of x-rays must be placed on increasingly smaller targets located 35 meters or more from the source, and the development of x-ray lithography with resolutions approaching 0.1 micron at chip exposure stations, even greater attention to stability is required in building designs. This paper will review the results of the successful NSLS experience and give an integrated design approach that includes elements which contribute to instabilities, and the means available to reduce them to acceptable levels

  8. Light source for synchrotron radiation x-ray topography study at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (BSRL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jiyong; Jiang Jianhua; Tian Yulian

    1992-01-01

    Characteristics of the synchrotron radiation source for X-ray topography study at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (BSRL) is described, local geometrical resolution of topographies is discussed, and the diffracting intensities of white beam topography is given

  9. National Synchrotron Light Source medical personnel protection interlock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buda, S.; Gmuer, N.F.; Larson, R.; Thomlinson, W.

    1998-11-01

    This report is founded on reports written in April 1987 by Robert Hettel for angiography operations at the Stanford Synchrotron Research Laboratory (SSRL) and a subsequent report covering angiography operations at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS); BNL Informal Report 47681, June 1992. The latter report has now been rewritten in order to accurately reflect the design and installation of a new medical safety system at the NSLS X17B2 beamline Synchrotron Medical Research Facility (SMERF). Known originally as the Angiography Personnel Protection Interlock (APPI), this system has been modified to incorporate other medical imaging research programs on the same beamline and thus the name has been changed to the more generic Medical Personnel Protection Interlock (MPPI). This report will deal almost exclusively with the human imaging (angiography, bronchography, mammography) aspects of the safety system, but will briefly explain the modular aspects of the system allowing other medical experiments to be incorporated. This MPPI report is organized such that the level of detail changes from a general overview to detailed engineering drawings of the hardware system. The general overview is presented in Section 1.0, MPPI Operational Mode and Procedures. The various MPPI components are described in detail in Section 2.0. Section 3.0 presents some simplified logic diagrams and accompanying text. This section was written to allow readers to become familiar with the logic system without having to work through the entire set of detailed engineering drawings listed in the Appendix. Detailed logic specifications are given in Section 4.0. The Appendix also contains copies of the current MPPI interlock test procedures for Setup and Patient Modes.

  10. Synchrotron applications in wood preservation and deterioration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara L. Illman

    2003-01-01

    Several non-intrusive synchrotron techniques are being used to detect and study wood decay. The techniques use high intensity synchrotron-generated X-rays to determine the atomic structure of materials with imaging, diffraction, and absorption. Some of the techniques are X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XFS), X-ray...

  11. Construction and commissioning of the national synchrotron light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galayda, J.N.; Blume, M.

    1985-01-01

    The road from conception to completion of a large facility like the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) is a long and tortuous one. More than fifteen years have passed since the first discussions of a synchrotron radiation source at BNL, and there have been many twists and turns in the process. In putting together an accelerator project like this, there are many critical skills that must be assembled, and budgets, schedules and organizations must be properly examined. The lessons learned in design and commissioning of the NSLS rings may be summarized as follows: (1) the damped emittances expected of a Chasman-Green lattice are attainable at high current, if ion trapping problems can be circumvented; (2) there have been no unexpected effects from the rather strong sextupoles required to correct the chromaticities in this type of lattice; (3) the most important beam instabilities are coupled-bunch, and can be counteracted; and (4) commissioning the NSLS rings was mostly an effort to bring the hardware into conformation with the original ring design; achievement of the specified magnetic fields, injection timing, vacuum, RF voltages, etc. led to ring performance which was easily good enough to begin operation

  12. Ozone production at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weilandics, C.; Rohrig, N.; Gmur, N.F.

    1987-01-01

    Ozone production by synchrotron radiation as a function of power density in air was investigated using a white beam at the BNL National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) x-ray ring. Power densities were calculated from the energy spectrum at 2.52 GeV. Ozone concentrations in small beam pipes were measured for power densities between I = 10 12 and 10 15 eV . cm -3 . sec -1 . The measured ozone half-life was 37 +- 2 min. The measured G-value was 2.69 +- 0.14 mol/100 eV and the ozone destruction factor k was less than 7 x 10 -19 cm 3 . eV -1 . The random uncertainties stated are approximately one standard error. The large departure of the values for G and k from previous values suggest that some undiscovered systematic error may exist in the experiment. Ozone concentration in excess of the 0.1 ppM ACGIH TLV can be generated in the experimental hutches but can readily be controlled. Industrial hygiene aspects of operation and possible control measures will be discussed. 19 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  13. Light fragment production at CERN Super Proton Synchrotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, Yu.B. [National Research Centre ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Moscow (Russian Federation); Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation); Soldatov, A.A. [National Research Centre ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-11-15

    Recent data on the deuteron and {sup 3}He production in central Pb+Pb collisions at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) energies measured by the NA49 Collaboration are analyzed within the model of the three-fluid dynamics (3FD) complemented by the coalescence model for the light-fragment production. The simulations are performed with different equations of state - with and without deconfinement transition. It is found that scenarios with the deconfinement transition are preferable for reproduction rapidity distributions of deuterons and {sup 3}He, the corresponding results well agree with the experimental data. At the same time the calculated transverse-mass spectra at midrapidity do not agree that nicely with the experimental data. The latter apparently indicate that coalescence coefficients should be temperature and/or momentum dependent. (orig.)

  14. Swiss synchrotron light source at the Paul Scherrer Institute at Villigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    The brochure describes the Swiss project for a synchrotron light source to be built at the Paul Scherrer Institute at Villigen. According to the project the synchrotron light source shall be realized up to the year 2001 at costs of 165 Million Swiss Francs. figs., tabs

  15. NBS SURF 11: A small versatile synchrotron light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakowsky, G.

    1981-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation sources do not have to be large multi-megadollar installations. SURF II is based on a compact electron storage ring with a radius of only 0.84 m, an operating energy of 250 MeV, and useful light output down to 5 nm. Small beam size, high brightness and wide-angle light ports give SURF II unique capabilities. Presently five beamlines are instrumented and operational, supporting experiments in atomic and molecular physics, surface science and materials studies, as well as providing optical calibration services. Nearing completion is a large facility for calibrating optical instruments, especially those intended for space flight. The capability of determining the absolute light flux emitted by SURF II has recently been improved and is now operational. The technique employs ultralinear silicon photodiodes to detect and count individual electrons in the stored beam. Other user conveniences include close access to the machine, flexible scheduling and close interaction with the operations staff. The machine's simplicity contributes to reliability and a high ratio of beamtime to downtime

  16. Materials research and beam line operation utilizing NSLS [National Synchrotron Light Source]: Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liedl, G.L.

    1987-10-01

    MATRIX is a group of scientists who have common interests in utilizing x-ray synchrotron radiation for materials research. This group has developed a specialized beam line (X-18A) for x-ray scattering studies at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). The beam line was designed to optimize experimental conditions for diffuse scattering and surface/interface studies. An extension of diffuse scattering to provide better quantitative data has been shown as well as a unique application to the solution of the phase problem. In the x-ray surface scattering area the first reported experiment to illustrate the capabilities for studying monolayers on water was performed. Current beam line upgrade projects are also described. In addition to a change to a UHV system and improvements dictated by operational experience, two new systems are described, a unique small angle scattering chamber (SAXS) for dynamic studies of nucleation and growth and a surface scattering chamber. 5 figs

  17. Far infrared spectroscopy of high-Tc superconductors at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkowitz, S.; Williams, G.P.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports the first far infrared transmission spectra for micron-thick films of high-T c rare-earth superconductors such as DyBaCuO, with implications for the superconducting gap. Spectra were obtained at Brookhaven's National Synchrotron Light Source, a new high-intensity, broad-band millimeter to infrared source. The National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory, known for powerful X-ray and UV output, is also a high-intensity (10 to 1000 times above a black body), high-brightness (intensity per solid angle), broad-band, picosecond, millimeter to infrared source. These features make it valuable for far-infrared condensed matter experiments, especially those in highly absorbing or extremely small systems. A first application has been to measure very small infrared transmissions through thick bulk-like high-T c superconducting films. Preliminary measurements through films of the conventional superconductor Nb 3 Ge established techniques. These were followed by the first measurements (to the author's knowledge) through micron-thick films of high-T c rare-earth superconductors such as DyBaCuO over 10-300 cm -1 , which includes the superconducting gap according to BCS or moderately strong-coupled theory. The authors discuss the transmission evidence bearing on the existence of a gap and other important features of high-T c superconductors, and describe the synchrotron and instrumentation features which make possible these unusual measurements

  18. Study of Laser Wakefield Accelerators as injectors for Synchrotron light sources

    CERN Document Server

    Hillenbrand, Steffen; Müller, Anke-Susanne; Jansen, Oliver; Judin, Vitali; Pukhov, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Laser WakeField Accelerators (LWFA) feature short bunch lengths and high peak currents, combined with a small facility footprint. This makes them very interesting as injectors for Synchrotron light sources. Using the ANKA Synchrotron as an example, we investigate the possibility to inject a LWFA bunch into an electron storage ring. Particular emphasis is put on the longitudinal evolution of the bunch.

  19. SESAME — A 3rd Generation Synchrotron Light Source for the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Å°lkü, Dinçer; Rahighi, Javad; Winick, Herman

    2007-01-01

    SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East) will be the Middle East's first international research center. It is a cooperative venture by the scientists and governments of the region with founding members Bahrain, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestine Authority, and Turkey. Iran is in the process of finalizing its formal membership. Other countries (Cyprus, Morocco, and the United Arab Emirates) are also expected to join. The permanent Council of member states has full responsibility for the project. Members provide the annual operating budget. Observer countries are Germany, Greece, Italy, Kuwait, Portugal, Russian Federation, Sweden, the UK, and the US. SESAME is being developed under the umbrella of UNESCO. Jordan was selected as the building site. SESAME will offer excellent opportunities for training of Middle East scientists and attract those working abroad to consider returning. SESAME will be a 2.5GeV 3rd Generation light source (emittance 26nm-rad, circumference ˜133m), providing excellent performance for structural molecular biology, molecular environmental science, surface and interface science, microelectromechanical devices, x-ray imaging, archaeological microanalysis, and materials characterization. It will cover a broad spectral range from the infrared to hard x-rays and will have 12 straight sections for insertion devices (average length 2.75m). The injector will be the BESSY I 0.8 GeV booster synchrotron which has been given as a gift from Germany. Four committees advise the Council and assist in developing the technical design, beam lines, user community, and scientific Program. The SESAME building, now in construction with funds and a site provided by Jordan, is scheduled for completion in late 2006 after which the BESSY I injector will be installed. First stored beam in the new 2.5 GeV ring is planned for 2009 with six initial beamlines planned. Some beamlines will be built by member countries

  20. SESAME - A 3rd Generation Synchrotron Light Source for the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    U˝Lkü, Dinçer; Rahighi, Javad; Winick, Herman

    2007-01-01

    SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East) will be the Middle East's first international research center. It is a cooperative venture by the scientists and governments of the region with founding members Bahrain, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestine Authority, and Turkey. Iran is in the process of finalizing its formal membership. Other countries (Cyprus, Morocco, and the United Arab Emirates) are also expected to join. The permanent Council of member states has full responsibility for the project. Members provide the annual operating budget. Observer countries are Germany, Greece, Italy, Kuwait, Portugal, Russian Federation, Sweden, the UK, and the US. SESAME is being developed under the umbrella of UNESCO. Jordan was selected as the building site. SESAME will offer excellent opportunities for training of Middle East scientists and attract those working abroad to consider returning. SESAME will be a 2.5GeV 3rd Generation light source (emittance 26nm-rad, circumference ~133m), providing excellent performance for structural molecular biology, molecular environmental science, surface and interface science, microelectromechanical devices, x-ray imaging, archaeological microanalysis, and materials characterization. It will cover a broad spectral range from the infrared to hard x-rays and will have 12 straight sections for insertion devices (average length 2.75m). The injector will be the BESSY I 0.8 GeV booster synchrotron which has been given as a gift from Germany. Four committees advise the Council and assist in developing the technical design, beam lines, user community, and scientific Program. The SESAME building, now in construction with funds and a site provided by Jordan, is scheduled for completion in late 2006 after which the BESSY I injector will be installed. First stored beam in the new 2.5 GeV ring is planned for 2009 with six initial beamlines planned. Some beamlines will be built by member countries

  1. SESAME - A 3rd Generation Synchrotron Light Source for the Middle East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulkue, Dincer; Rahighi, Javad; Winick, Herman

    2007-01-01

    SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East) will be the Middle East's first international research center. It is a cooperative venture by the scientists and governments of the region with founding members Bahrain, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestine Authority, and Turkey. Iran is in the process of finalizing its formal membership. Other countries (Cyprus, Morocco, and the United Arab Emirates) are also expected to join. The permanent Council of member states has full responsibility for the project. Members provide the annual operating budget. Observer countries are Germany, Greece, Italy, Kuwait, Portugal, Russian Federation, Sweden, the UK, and the US. SESAME is being developed under the umbrella of UNESCO. Jordan was selected as the building site. SESAME will offer excellent opportunities for training of Middle East scientists and attract those working abroad to consider returning. SESAME will be a 2.5GeV 3rd Generation light source (emittance 26nm-rad, circumference ∼133m), providing excellent performance for structural molecular biology, molecular environmental science, surface and interface science, microelectromechanical devices, x-ray imaging, archaeological microanalysis, and materials characterization. It will cover a broad spectral range from the infrared to hard x-rays and will have 12 straight sections for insertion devices (average length 2.75m). The injector will be the BESSY I 0.8 GeV booster synchrotron which has been given as a gift from Germany. Four committees advise the Council and assist in developing the technical design, beam lines, user community, and scientific Program. The SESAME building, now in construction with funds and a site provided by Jordan, is scheduled for completion in late 2006 after which the BESSY I injector will be installed. First stored beam in the new 2.5 GeV ring is planned for 2009 with six initial beamlines planned. Some beamlines will be built by member countries

  2. National synchrotron light source guidelines for the conduct of operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckley, M.

    1998-01-01

    To improve the quality and uniformity of operations at the Department of Energy's facilities, the DOE issued Order 5480.19 ''Conduct of Operations Requirements at DOE facilities.'' This order recognizes that the success of a facility's mission critically depends upon a high level of performance by its personnel and equipment. This performance can be severely impaired if the facility's Conduct of Operations pays inadequate attention to issues of organization, safety, health, and the environment. These guidelines are Brookhaven National Laboratory's and the National Synchrotron Light Source's acknowledgement of the principles of Conduct of Operations and the response to DOE Order 5480.19. These guidelines cover the following areas: (1) operations organization and administration; (2) shift routines and operating practices; (3) control area activities; (4) communications; (5) control of on-shift training; (6) investigation of abnormal events; (7) notifications; (8) control of equipment and system studies; (9) lockouts and tagouts; (10) independent verification; (11) log-keeping; (12) operations turnover; (13) operations aspects of facility process control (14) required reading; (15) timely orders to operators; (16) operations procedures; (17) operator aid posting; and (18) equipment sizing and labeling

  3. Biological infrared microspectroscopy at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Lisa M.; Carr, G. Lawrence; Williams, Gwyn P.; Sullivan, Michael; Chance, Mark R.

    2000-01-01

    Beamline U2B at the National Synchrotron Light Source has been designed and built as an infrared beamline dedicated to the study of biomedical problems. In 1997, the horizontal and vertical acceptances of Beamline U2B were increased in order to increase the overall flux of the beamline. A wedged, CVD diamond window separates the UHV vacuum of the VUV ring from the rough vacuum of the beamline. The endstation consists of a Nicolet Magna 860 step-scan FTIR and a NicPlan infrared microscope. The spectrometer is equipped with beamsplitter/detector combinations that permit data collection in the mid-and far-infrared regions. We have also made provisions for mounting an external detector (e.g. bolometer) for far infrared microspectroscopy. Thus far, Beamline U2B has been used to (1) perform chemical imaging of bone tissue and brain cells to address issues related to bone disease and epilepsy, respectively, and (2) examine time-resolved protein structure in the sub-millisecond folding of cytochrome c

  4. Synchrotrons and their applications in medical imaging and therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, R.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Australasia's first synchrotron is being built on the campus of Monash University near Melbourne. Is it of any relevance to the medical imaging and radiation therapy communities? The answer is an unequivocal yes. Synchrotrons overcome many of the problems with conventional X-ray sources and as a result make it possible to demonstrate extraordinary advances in both X-ray imaging and indeed in radio-therapy. Synchrotron imaging offers us a window into what is possible and the results are spectacular. Specific examples include lung images that reveal alveolar structure and computed tomography of single cells. For therapy treatments are being pioneered that seem to be effective on high grade gliomas. An overview of the status of medical applications using synchrotrons will be given and the proposed Australian medical imaging and therapy facilities will be described and some of the proposed research highlighted. Copyright (2004) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  5. Applications of Indus-1 synchrotron radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandedkar, R.V.

    2003-01-01

    Indus-1 is a 450 MeV electron storage ring. This is a soft X-ray and Vacuum Ultra Violet radiation source with the critical wavelength being 61 A. In this source, the first beam was stored in mid-1999 and was then made available, after initial storage and beam cleaning of the vacuum components, for beamline installation in the early 2000. Two beamlines are commissioned and are working. Other beamlines are in the advanced stage of commissioning. For Indus-1, the injection system consists of a 20 MeV classical microtron as a preinjector and a booster synchrotron that can go up to 700 MeV. For Indus-1, the injection into the storage ring is at full 450 MeV from this booster synchrotron

  6. Synchrotron radiation. Basics, methods and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mobilio, Settimio; Meneghini, Carlo; Boscherini, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation is today extensively used for fundamental and applied research in many different fields of science. Its exceptional characteristics in terms of intensity, brilliance, spectral range, time structure and now also coherence pushed many experimental techniques to previously un-reachable limits, enabling the performance of experiments unbelievable only few years ago. The book gives an up-to-date overview of synchrotron radiation research today with a view to the future, starting from its generation and sources, its interaction with matter, illustrating the main experimental technique employed and provides an overview of the main fields of research in which new and innovative results are obtained. The book is addressed to PhD students and young researchers to provide both an introductory and a rather deep knowledge of the field. It will also be helpful to experienced researcher who want to approach the field in a professional way.

  7. Design and Optimisation Strategies of Nonlinear Dynamics for Diffraction Limited Synchrotron Light Source

    CERN Document Server

    Bartolini, R.

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces the most recent achievements in the control of nonlinear dynamics in electron synchrotron light sources, with special attention to diffraction limited storage rings. Guidelines for the design and optimization of the magnetic lattice are reviewed and discussed.

  8. National synchrotron light source. [Annual report], October 1, 1992--September 30, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothman, E.Z.; Hulbert, S.L.; Lazarz, N.M.

    1994-04-01

    This report contains brief discussions on the research being conducted at the National Synchrotron Light source. Some of the topics covered are: X-ray spectroscopy; nuclear physics; atomic and molecular science; meetings and workshops; operations; and facility improvements

  9. National synchrotron light source. [Annual report], October 1, 1992--September 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothman, E.Z.; Hulbert, S.L.; Lazarz, N.M. [eds.

    1994-04-01

    This report contains brief discussions on the research being conducted at the National Synchrotron Light source. Some of the topics covered are: X-ray spectroscopy; nuclear physics; atomic and molecular science; meetings and workshops; operations; and facility improvements.

  10. Operational experience with synchrotron light interferometers for CEBAF experimental beam lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavel Chevtsov

    2006-10-24

    Beam size and energy spread monitoring systems based on Synchrotron Light Interferometers (SLI) have been in operations at Jefferson Lab for several years. A non-invasive nature and a very high (a few mm) resolution of SLI make these instruments valuable beam diagnostic tools for the CEBAF accelerator. This presentation describes the evolution of the Synchrotron Light Interferometer at Jefferson Lab and highlights our extensive experience in the installation and operation of the SLI for CEBAF experimental beam lines.

  11. Synchrotron light source data book: Version 4, Revision 05/96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, J.B.

    1996-05-01

    This book is as its name implies a collection of data on existing and planned synchrotron light sources. The intention was to provide a compendium of tools for the design of electron storage rings as synchrotron radiation sources. The slant is toward the accelerator physicist as other booklets such as the X-Ray Data Booklet address the use of synchrotron radiation. It is hoped that the booklet serves as a pocket sized reference to facilitate back of the envelope type calculations. It contains some useful formulae in practical units and a brief description of many of the existing and planned light source lattices

  12. Synchrotron light source data book: Version 4, Revision 05/96

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, J.B.

    1996-05-01

    This book is as its name implies a collection of data on existing and planned synchrotron light sources. The intention was to provide a compendium of tools for the design of electron storage rings as synchrotron radiation sources. The slant is toward the accelerator physicist as other booklets such as the X-Ray Data Booklet address the use of synchrotron radiation. It is hoped that the booklet serves as a pocket sized reference to facilitate back of the envelope type calculations. It contains some useful formulae in practical units and a brief description of many of the existing and planned light source lattices.

  13. Future Synchrotron Light Sources Based on Ultimate Storage Rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Yunhai

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this talk is to describe how far one might push the state of the art in storage ring design. The talk will start with an overview of the latest developments and advances in the design of synchrotron light sources based on the concept of an 'ultimate' storage ring. The review will establish how bright a ring based light source might be, where the frontier of technological challenges are, and what the limits of accelerator physics are. Emphasis will be given to possible improvements in accelerator design and developments in technology toward the goal of achieving an ultimate storage ring. An ultimate storage ring (USR), defined as an electron ring-based light source having an emittance in both transverse planes at the diffraction limit for the range of X-ray wavelengths of interest for a scientific community, would provide very high brightness photons having high transverse coherence that would extend the capabilities of X-ray imaging and probe techniques beyond today's performance. It would be a cost-effective, high-coherence 4th generation light source, competitive with one based on energy recovery linac (ERL) technology, serving a large number of users studying material, chemical, and biological sciences. Furthermore, because of the experience accumulated over many decades of ring operation, it would have the great advantage of stability and reliability. In this paper we consider the design of an USR having 10-pm-rad emittance. It is a tremendous challenge to design a storage ring having such an extremely low emittance, a factor of 100 smaller than those in existing light sources, especially such that it has adequate dynamic aperture and beam lifetime. In many ultra-low emittance designs, the injection acceptances are not large enough for accumulation of the electron beam, necessitating on-axis injection where stored electron bunches are completely replaced with newly injected ones. Recently, starting with the MAX-IV 7-bend achromatic cell, we

  14. Future Synchrotron Light Sources Based on Ultimate Storage Rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Yunhai; /SLAC

    2012-04-09

    The main purpose of this talk is to describe how far one might push the state of the art in storage ring design. The talk will start with an overview of the latest developments and advances in the design of synchrotron light sources based on the concept of an 'ultimate' storage ring. The review will establish how bright a ring based light source might be, where the frontier of technological challenges are, and what the limits of accelerator physics are. Emphasis will be given to possible improvements in accelerator design and developments in technology toward the goal of achieving an ultimate storage ring. An ultimate storage ring (USR), defined as an electron ring-based light source having an emittance in both transverse planes at the diffraction limit for the range of X-ray wavelengths of interest for a scientific community, would provide very high brightness photons having high transverse coherence that would extend the capabilities of X-ray imaging and probe techniques beyond today's performance. It would be a cost-effective, high-coherence 4th generation light source, competitive with one based on energy recovery linac (ERL) technology, serving a large number of users studying material, chemical, and biological sciences. Furthermore, because of the experience accumulated over many decades of ring operation, it would have the great advantage of stability and reliability. In this paper we consider the design of an USR having 10-pm-rad emittance. It is a tremendous challenge to design a storage ring having such an extremely low emittance, a factor of 100 smaller than those in existing light sources, especially such that it has adequate dynamic aperture and beam lifetime. In many ultra-low emittance designs, the injection acceptances are not large enough for accumulation of the electron beam, necessitating on-axis injection where stored electron bunches are completely replaced with newly injected ones. Recently, starting with the MAX-IV 7-bend

  15. Medical applications of synchrotron radiation. Ch. 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giacomini, J.C.; Gordon, H.J.

    1991-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation has a number of properties which make it uniquely suited for medical diagnostic imaging. The radiation is intense and can be readily monochromatized. With these highly intense, mono-chromatized X-ray beams, iodine K-edge di-chromatography can yield images which greatly enhance the visualization of iodine containing structures. As this technology continues to improve, the possibility of performing diagnostic cardiac, neuroradiological, and other vascular examinations with minimally invasive peripheral venous injections of iodinated contrast agent becomes increasingly practical. (author). 10 refs.; 6 figs

  16. Medical applications of synchrotron radiation in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, R.A.

    2005-01-01

    The Australian synchrotron is being built at Monash University near Melbourne. The 3 GeV machine is well-suited to the mid X-ray region and will have nine beamlines in its initial phase. The high level of biomedical research in Australia has led to the demand for a beamline capable of supporting medical research in both imaging and therapy. The design features for a versatile imaging and hard X-ray beamline capable of operating in the energy range 10-120 keV are outlined here together with a short review of some of the science that is envisaged

  17. Applications of synchrotron radiation to Chemical Engineering Science: Workshop report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    This report contains extended abstracts that summarize presentations made at the Workshop on Applications of Synchrotron Radiation to Chemical Engineering Science held at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL, on April 22--23, 1991. The talks emphasized the application of techniques involving absorption fluorescence, diffraction, and reflection of synchrotron x-rays, with a focus on problems in applied chemistry and chemical engineering, as well as on the use of x-rays in topographic, tomographic, and lithographic procedures. The attendees at the workshop included experts in the field of synchrotron science, scientists and engineers from ANL, other national laboratories, industry, and universities; and graduate and undergraduate students who were enrolled in ANL educational programs at the time of the workshop. Talks in the Plenary and Overview Session described the status of and special capabilities to be offered by the Advanced Photon Source (APS), as well as strategies and opportunities for utilization of synchrotron radiation to solve science and engineering problems. Invited talks given in subsequent sessions covered the use of intense infrared, ultraviolet, and x-ray photon beams (as provided by synchrotrons) in traditional and nontraditional areas of chemical engineering research related to electrochemical and corrosion science, catalyst development and characterization, lithography and imaging techniques, and microanalysis

  18. Applications of synchrotron radiation to Chemical Engineering Science: Workshop report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-07-01

    This report contains extended abstracts that summarize presentations made at the Workshop on Applications of Synchrotron Radiation to Chemical Engineering Science held at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL, on April 22--23, 1991. The talks emphasized the application of techniques involving absorption fluorescence, diffraction, and reflection of synchrotron x-rays, with a focus on problems in applied chemistry and chemical engineering, as well as on the use of x-rays in topographic, tomographic, and lithographic procedures. The attendees at the workshop included experts in the field of synchrotron science, scientists and engineers from ANL, other national laboratories, industry, and universities; and graduate and undergraduate students who were enrolled in ANL educational programs at the time of the workshop. Talks in the Plenary and Overview Session described the status of and special capabilities to be offered by the Advanced Photon Source (APS), as well as strategies and opportunities for utilization of synchrotron radiation to solve science and engineering problems. Invited talks given in subsequent sessions covered the use of intense infrared, ultraviolet, and x-ray photon beams (as provided by synchrotrons) in traditional and nontraditional areas of chemical engineering research related to electrochemical and corrosion science, catalyst development and characterization, lithography and imaging techniques, and microanalysis.

  19. LNLS - Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory Activity Report 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This activity report highlight the activities as follows: atomic local order of hafnium and silicon in dielectric films; development of bio absorbent for arsenite; insights into enzyme-substrate interaction; investigation of metastable phases in zirconia-ceria nano-ceramics by synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction; lattice distortion effects on magneto-structural phase transition of Mn As; mechanism of orbital ordering in transition-metal oxides; organic molecules in star-forming regions; spatially ordered In P dots grown on compositionally modulated In Ga P layers; structural insights into {beta}-Xylosidase from Trichoderma reesei, and surface random alloys studied by synchrotron based photoelectron diffraction.

  20. The low emittance 2.5 GeV synchrotron light source LISA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einfeld, D.; Hormes, J.; Husmann, D.

    1992-01-01

    LISA, a Light source for Industrial and Scientific Applications, has been proposed. Due to the intention to use the source above all for the LIGA (Lithographie, Galvanik, Abformtechnik) method to produce micromechanical structures, the critical wavelength of the synchrotron radiation spectrum is foreseen to be 0.2 nm. Therefore, the electron energy and the field strength of the ring dipoles have been chosen to be 2.5 GeV and 1.5 T, respectively. It is proposed to make use of a modified 'quadrupole ben achromat' (QBA) lattice. The novel feature of this lattice is the application of two types of bending magnets of different lengths, i.e. different bending angels. (author) 9 refs.; 6 figs.; 1 tab

  1. Synchrotron light sources: The search for quantum chaos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlachter, Fred

    2001-01-01

    A storage ring is a specialized synchrotron in which a stored beam of relativistic electrons produces radiation in the vuv and x-ray regions of the spectrum. High-brightness radiation is used at the ALS to study doubly excited autoionizing states of the helium atom in the search for quantum chaos

  2. Dazzling new light source opens at Stanford synchrotron radiation laboratory

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    SPEAR3, the Stanford Positron Electron Asymmetric Ring, was formally opened at a dedication ceremony at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center on Jan. 29. It incorporates the latest technology to make it competitive with the best synchrotron sources in the world (1/2 page)

  3. CCD detectors for X-ray synchrotron radiation application

    CERN Document Server

    Fedotov, M G

    2000-01-01

    In this paper the possibility of the application of some types of CCDs for the study of fast processes (by recording an image formed by a short flash of synchrotron radiation) is considered. The first results of model experiments are also described.

  4. Conceptual design of the Argonne 6-GeV synchrotron light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Y.; Crosbie, E.; Khoe, T.

    1985-01-01

    The Argonne National Laboratory Synchrotron Light Source Storage Ring is designed to have a natural emittance of 6.5 x 10 -9 m for circulating 6-GeV positrons. Thirty of the 32 long straight sections, each 6.5-m long, will be available for synchrotron light insertion devices. A circulating positron current of 300 mA can be injected in about 8 min. from a booster synchrotron operating with a repetition time of 1.2 sec. The booster synchrotron will contain two different RF systems. The lower frequency system (38.97 MHz) will accept positrons from a 360-MeV linac and will accelerate them to 2.25 GeV. The higher frequency system (350.76 MHz) will accelerate the positrons to 6 GeV. The positrons will be produced from a 300-MeV electron beam on a tungsten target. A conceptual layout is shown

  5. Conceptual design of the Argonne 6-GeV synchrotron light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Y.; Crosbie, E.; Khoe, T.

    1985-01-01

    The Argonne National Laboratory Synchrotron Light Source Storage Ring is designed to have a natural emittance of 6.5 X 10 -9 m for circulating 6-GeV positrons. Thirty of the 32 long straight sections, each 6.5-m long, will be available for synchrotron light insertion devices. A circulating positron current of 300 mA can be injected in about 8 min. from a booster synchrotron operating with a repetition time of 1.2 sec. The booster synchrotron will contain two different rf systems. The lower frequency system (38.97 MHz) will accept positrons from a 360-MeV linac and will accelerate them to 2.25 GeV. The higher frequency system (350.76 MHz) will accelerate the positrons to 6 GeV. The positrons will be produced from a 300-MeV electron beam on a tungsten target

  6. Development and trial measurement of synchrotron-radiation-light-illuminated scanning tunneling microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsushima, Takeshi; Okuda, Taichi; Eguchi, Toyoaki; Ono, Masanori; Harasawa, Ayumi; Wakita, Takanori; Kataoka, Akira; Hamada, Masayuki; Kamoshida, Atsushi; Hasegawa, Yukio; Kinoshita, Toyohiko

    2004-01-01

    Scanning tunneling microscope (STM) study is performed under synchrotron-radiation-light illumination. The equipment is designed so as to achieve atomic resolution even under rather noisy conditions in the synchrotron radiation facility. By measuring photoexcited electron current by the STM tip together with the conventional STM tunneling current, Si 2p soft-x-ray absorption spectra are successfully obtained from a small area of Si(111) surface. The results are a first step toward realizing a new element-specific microscope

  7. Plan and present status of synchrotron radiation applications at HESYRL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.; Su, Y.; Qian, S.; Xu, X.; Jiang, D.; Xu, C.

    1985-01-01

    An 800 MeV electron storage ring is being constructed at Hefei, China. It is a dedicated UV synchrotron light source from which 27 beam lines could be extracted to accommodate about 50 experimental stations. Four beam lines and five stations are planned and some instruments have been designed and are under construction for the first five-year plan. The proposed experiments include x-ray lithography, soft x-ray microscopy, photoelectron spectroscopy, time-resolved spectroscopy and photochemistry

  8. A 1.5 GeV high brilliance synchrotron light source with combined function lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, M.; Lindgren, L.J.; Andersson, Aa.; Roejsel, P.; Werin, S.

    1988-01-01

    A 1.5 GeV synchrotron light source with a combined function lattice is studied. The light source will offer X-ray radiation with λc=1.0 angstrom from a superconducting wiggler and high brilliance VUV-radiation from undulators. The magnet lattice, magnet design and ring performance is discussed. (authors)

  9. Rf power systems for the national synchrotron light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickinson, T.; Rheaume, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    The booster synchrotron and the two storage rings at the NSLS are provided with rf power systems of 3 kW, 50 kW, and 500 kW nominal output power, all at 53 MHz. This power is supplied by grounded grid tetrode amplifiers designed for television broadcast service. These amplifiers and associated power supplies, control and interlock systems, rf controls, and computer interface are described

  10. Environmental Remediation Science at Beamline X26A at the National Synchrotron Light Source- Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertsch, Paul [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    2013-11-07

    The goal of this project was to provide support for an advanced X-ray microspectroscopy facility at the National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory. This facility is operated by the University of Chicago and the University of Kentucky. The facility is available to researchers at both institutions as well as researchers around the globe through the general user program. This facility was successfully supported during the project period. It provided access to advanced X-ray microanalysis techniques which lead to fundamental advances in understanding the behavior of contaminants and geochemistry that is applicable to environmental remediation of DOE legacy sites as well as contaminated sites around the United States and beyond.

  11. Nonlinear momentum compaction and coherent synchrotron radiation at the metrology light source. Low-α commissioning and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ries, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Short pulses of synchrotron radiation are becoming an increasingly demanded tool in various fields of science. The generation of short synchrotron radiation pulses can be accomplished by different accelerator-based approaches such as free electron lasers, energy recovery linacs or electron storage rings. Linear accelerator driven free electron lasers are capable of generating intense pulses in the femtosecond regime at moderate repetition rates. In comparison, electron storage rings generate pulses of lower intensity with the advantage of large repetition rates. However, electron storage rings rely on radiation emitted by the same bunch(es) every turn, which are present in an equilibrium state. Thus making the electron storage ring a yet unchallenged source of short synchrotron radiation pulses in terms of stability and reproducibility. In addition, storage rings are capable to serve a large number of users simultaneously. In general, it is possible to distinguish the user community of short pulses at electron storage rings. The first user group is interested in time-resolution applying incoherent synchrotron radiation up to the X-ray regime. The second user group makes use of coherent synchrotron radiation emitted by short bunches at wavelengths large compared to the bunch dimensions, which commonly applies up to the THz-regime. Both user groups are interested in the high average power and stability available at electron storage rings. However, there is a current limitation for stable short bunch operation of electron storage rings, which is due to an instability driven by the emission of coherent synchrotron radiation. The subject of this thesis is the operation of an electron storage ring at a low momentum compaction to generate short electron bunches as a source for coherent synchrotron radiation. For this purpose the Metrology Light Source is ideally suited, as it is the first light source designed with the ability to adjust the three leading orders of the

  12. Synchrotron radiation applications in medical research at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomlinson, W.

    1997-08-01

    In the relatively short time that synchrotrons have been available to the scientific community, their characteristic beams of UV and X-ray radiation have been applied to virtually all areas of medical science which use ionizing radiation. The ability to tune intense monochromatic beams over wide energy ranges clearly differentiates these sources from standard clinical and research tools. The tunable spectrum, high intrinsic collimation of the beams, polarization and intensity of the beams make possible in-vitro and in-vivo research and therapeutic programs not otherwise possible. From the beginning of research operation at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), many programs have been carrying out basic biomedical research. At first, the research was limited to in-vitro programs such as the x-ray microscope, circular dichroism, XAFS, protein crystallography, micro-tomography and fluorescence analysis. Later, as the coronary angiography program made plans to move its experimental phase from SSRL to the NSLS, it became clear that other in-vivo projects could also be carried out at the synchrotron. The development of SMERF (Synchrotron Medical Research Facility) on beamline X17 became the home not only for angiography but also for the MECT (Multiple Energy Computed Tomography) project for cerebral and vascular imaging. The high energy spectrum on X17 is necessary for the MRT (Microplanar Radiation Therapy) experiments. Experience with these programs and the existence of the Medical Programs Group at the NSLS led to the development of a program in synchrotron based mammography. A recent adaptation of the angiography hardware has made it possible to image human lungs (bronchography). Fig. 1 schematically depicts the broad range of active programs at the NSLS

  13. Development of compact synchrotron light source LUNA for x-ray lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, M.; Mandai, S.; Hoshi, Y.; Kohno, Y.

    1992-01-01

    A compact synchrotron light source LUNA has been developed by Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd. (IHI), especially for x-ray lithography. It consists of a 45-MeV linac as an electron injector and an 800-MeV synchrotron. The peak wavelength of synchrotron radiation is around 10 A. The installation of LUNA was completed in April 1989 at the Tsuchiura Facility of IHI. The synchrotron radiation was first observed in December 1989. A stored beam current of 50 mA at 800 MeV and a lifetime over 1 h have been achieved. At present, experiments are still continuing to increase the stored current and the lifetime. X-ray lithography testing is scheduled to begin in a clean room in this facility. This paper describes the outline of LUNA and the present status

  14. Application of Synchrotron Radiation-based Methods for Environmental Biogeochemistry: Introduction to the Special Section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hettiarachchi, Ganga M.; Donner, Erica; Doelsch, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    To understand the biogeochemistry of nutrients and contaminants in environmental media, their speciation and behavior under different conditions and at multiple scales must be determined. Synchrotron radiation-based X-ray techniques allow scientists to elucidate the underlying mechanisms responsible for nutrient and contaminant mobility, bioavailability, and behavior. The continuous improvement of synchrotron light sources and X-ray beamlines around the world has led to a profound transformation in the field of environmental biogeochemistry and, subsequently, to significant scientific breakthroughs. Following this introductory paper, this special collection includes 10 papers that either present targeted reviews of recent advancements in spectroscopic methods that are applicable to environmental biogeochemistry or describe original research studies conducted on complex environmental samples that have been significantly enhanced by incorporating synchrotron radiation-based X-ray technique(s). We believe that the current focus on improving the speciation of ultra-dilute elements in environmental media through the ongoing optimization of synchrotron technologies (e.g., brighter light sources, improved monochromators, more efficient detectors) will help to significantly push back the frontiers of environmental biogeochemistry research. As many of the relevant techniques produce extremely large datasets, we also identify ongoing improvements in data processing and analysis (e.g., software improvements and harmonization of analytical methods) as a significant requirement for environmental biogeochemists to maximize the information that can be gained using these powerful tools.

  15. Passive beam sprending systems and light-weight gentries for synchrotron based hadron therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, A.

    1998-12-01

    Hadron therapy is a promising technique that uses beams of protons or light ions for the treatment of cancer. In order to open this technique to a wider application, dedicated hospital based treatment centers are now needed. The Proton-Ion Medical Machine Study (PIMMS) in CERN is concerned with the design of such a center that would use both protons and light ions. The dual species operation makes it preferable to base the center on a synchrotron. The present thesis is concerned with the beam delivery for the protons. After introducing the basic vocabulary of linear beam optics, the feasibility of a light-weight gantry with passive beam spreading fed by a synchrotron is investigated. The device is a non-linear magnetic structure, which can be described as a magnetic guide or as a proton pipe. Detailed studies show that while it is possible to design an optically stable 270 o section, which would be necessary for a gantry, the properties do not fulfil the requirements of a gantry for medical purposes. It was therefore concluded that a conventional isocentric gantry would be used for protons. The problem of passive beam-spreading is also investigated. A detailed knowledge of multiple scattering is necessary for the design of such a system. The basic principles of multiple scattering following Moliere's theory are mentioned. In addition, a Gaussian approximation of multiple scattering developed by Highland is described. A treatment of multiple scattering for thick and thin scatterers is then developed using the so-called Q-formalism that is frequently used in accelerator optics. This is then used to give a statistical description of the beam with scattering included using the Twiss formalism that is also used widely in accelerator physics. Excellent agreement is demonstrated with Monte-Carlo data. The Twiss-Scatterer relations obtained make it possible to include arbitrary, thick scatterers in accelerator codes. High intensities for protons are less readily available

  16. Applications of synchrotron X-rays in microelectronics industry research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan-Sweet, Jean L.; Detavernier, Christophe; Lavoie, Christian; Mooney, Patricia M.; Toney, Michael F.

    2005-01-01

    The high flux and density of X-rays produced at synchrotrons provide the microelectronics industry with a powerful probe of the structure and behavior of a wide array of solid materials that are being developed for use in devices of the future. They also are of great use in determining why currently-used materials and processes sometimes fail. This paper describes the X20 X-ray beamline facility operated by IBM at the National Synchrotron Light Source, and presents a series of three industry challenges and results that illustrate the variety of techniques used and problems addressed. The value of this research ranges from solving short-term, technically specific problems to increasing our academic understanding of materials in general. Techniques discussed include high-resolution diffraction, time-resolved diffraction, texture measurements, and grazing-incidence diffraction

  17. Application of X-ray synchrotron microscopy instrumentation in biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasperini, F. M.; Pereira, G. R.; Granjeiro, J. M.; Calasans-Maia, M. D.; Rossi, A. M.; Perez, C. A.; Lopes, R. T.; Lima, I.

    2011-01-01

    X-ray micro-fluorescence imaging technique has been used as a significant tool in order to investigate minerals contents in some kinds of materials. The aim of this study was to evaluate the elemental distribution of calcium and zinc in bone substitute materials (nano-hydroxyapatite spheres) and cortical bones through X-Ray Micro-fluorescence analysis with the increment of Synchrotron Radiation in order to evaluate the characteristics of the newly formed bone and its interface, the preexisting bone and biomaterials by the arrangement of collagen fibers and its birefringence. The elemental mapping was carried out at Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory, Campinas - Sao Paulo, Brazil working at D09-XRF beam line. Based on this study, the results suggest that hydroxyapatite-based biomaterials are biocompatible, promote osteo-conduction and favored bone repair. (authors)

  18. Materials research utilizing NSLS [National Synchrotron Light Source]: Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liedl, G.L.

    1986-08-01

    Research was conducted using NSLS synchrotron radiation on the following: decomposition kinetics of a supersaturated Ni-Si alloy, hexane monolayers on graphite, layering of Fe(CO) 5 on graphite, charge density waves, aging of Al-Li, superlattices in ternary MBE-grown semiconductor films, phase transformation in Cu-Be and Al-Zn, microstructural changes in complex alloys, diffuse x-ray scattering, ion conduction in Ag-Ge-Se glass, organic monolayers of the Langmuir Blodgett type, and residual stress in coating

  19. Application of synchrotron radiation in chemical dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heimann, P.; Koike, M.; Kung, A.H.; Ng, C.Y.; White, M.G.; Wodtke, A.

    1993-05-01

    In October 1992, funding was approved to begin construction of a beamline and two end stations to support chemical dynamics experiments at LBL's Advanced Light Source (ALS). This workshop was organized to develop specifications and plans and to select a working team to design and supervise the construction project. Target date for starting the experiments is January 1995. Conclusions of the workshop and representative experiments proposed in earlier workshops to form the basis for beamline plans and end-station designs are summarized in this report. 6 figs

  20. Progress with ELETTRA, the synchrotron light source in Trieste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puglisi, M.; Wrulich, A.

    1991-01-01

    ELETTRA, the 3rd generation synchrotron radiation source under construction in Trieste has passed the design phase. The present schedule calls for a start of commissioning by the second half of 1993. The buildings are under construction and prototypes for all main components of the accelerator complex have been constructed and industrial production has started. A high power cavity fully equipped with cooling circuit and input coupling loop, as well as mechanical tuning system, has been tested and measured. Prototype cavities equipped with higher order mode suppressors are under development. In-house prototypes for each magnet type have been built and magnetic measurements have been performed. The vacuum chamber prototype has been baked under vacuum and tested with its pumping system. A prototype pure permanent magnet undulator has been assembled and measured. The first 100 MeV sections of the 1.5 GeV injection linac will go in operation in August 1990

  1. Mechanical Design of the HER Synchrotron Light Monitor Primary Mirror

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daly, Edward F.; /SLAC; Fisher, Alan S.; Kurita, Nadine R.; Langton, J.; /SLAC

    2011-09-14

    This paper describes the mechanical design of the primary mirror that images the visible portion of the synchrotron radiation (SR) extracted from the High Energy Ring (HER) of the PEP-II B-Factory. During off-axis operation, the water-cooled GlidCop mirror is subjected to a heat flux in excess of 2000 W/cm2. When on-axis imaging occurs, the heat flux due to scattered SR, resistive wall losses and Higher-Order-Mode (HOM) heating is estimated at 1 W/cm2. The imaging surface is plated with Electroless Nickel to improve its optical characteristics. The design requirements for the primary mirror are listed and discussed. Calculated mechanical distortions and stresses experienced by the mirror during on-axis and off-axis operation will be presented.

  2. Development trends for insertion devices of future synchrotron light sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. Hwang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The in-vacuum undulator with a permanent magnet at room temperature is a mature technology and is widely used; with a short period length in a medium-energy facility, it can enhance photon brilliance in the hard x-ray region. A cryogenic permanent magnet has been investigated as an in-vacuum undulator; this undulator will become the best prospective device to satisfy the requirements of a photon source with great brilliance in the hard x-ray region. For the further hard x-ray region, a superconducting wiggler can provide great flux with a continuous spectrum, whereas a superconducting undulator will provide great brilliance with a discrete spectrum. High-temperature superconducting wires are highly promising for use in the development of superconducting undulators; unique algorithms for their development with an extremely short period in a small-magnet gap have been devised. Some out-of-vacuum planar undulators with special functions must also be fabricated to enable diverse applications in various light-source facilities. This article describes current and future developments for insertion devices in storage-ring and free-electron-laser facilities and discusses their feasibility for use therein.

  3. National Synchrotron Light Source angiography personnel protection interlock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gmuer, N.; Larson, R.; Thomlinson, W.

    1992-06-01

    This document has been written to describe the safety system operation at the NSLS X17B2 beamline Synchrotron Medical Research Facility (SMERF). The angiography exposure process involves scanning a patient up and down through dual fixed-position x-ray beams; exposure is controlled by opening and closing a fast-acting Safety Shutter mechanism at precise times in relation to the up and down motion of the scan chair. The fast-acting Safety Shutter mechanism is the primary radiation-stopping element protecting the patient while the chair is at rest and while it is reversing directions during the scan. Its fail-safe and fast operation is essential for the safety of the patient. Operation of X17B2 as a human subject angiography station necessitates the implementation of a personnel protection interlock system that, in conjunction with the Safety Shutters: permits safe access to the patient exposure area while the synchrotron radiation beam is illuminating the upstream dual energy monochromator; allows a patient to be imaged by the monochromatized beam under the supervision of a Responsible Physician, with scan chair motion and precision shutter actuation regulated by an angiography control computer, while providing a suitable number of safeguards against accidental radiation exposure; has different modes of operation to accommodate equipment set-up, test, and calibration; and patient exposure; and ensures the quick extinction of the beam if a potentially unsafe condition is detected. The interlock system which performs these safety functions is called the Angiography Personnel Protection Interlock (APPI). The APPI Document is organized such that the level of detail changes from a general overview to detailed engineering drawings of the hardware system

  4. National Synchrotron Light Source angiography personnel protection interlock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gmuer, N.; Larson, R.; Thomlinson, W.

    1992-06-01

    This document has been written to describe the safety system operation at the NSLS X17B2 beamline Synchrotron Medical Research Facility (SMERF). The angiography exposure process involves scanning a patient up and down through dual fixed-position x-ray beams; exposure is controlled by opening and closing a fast-acting Safety Shutter mechanism at precise times in relation to the up and down motion of the scan chair. The fast-acting Safety Shutter mechanism is the primary radiation-stopping element protecting the patient while the chair is at rest and while it is reversing directions during the scan. Its fail-safe and fast operation is essential for the safety of the patient. Operation of X17B2 as a human subject angiography station necessitates the implementation of a personnel protection interlock system that, in conjunction with the Safety Shutters: permits safe access to the patient exposure area while the synchrotron radiation beam is illuminating the upstream dual energy monochromator; allows a patient to be imaged by the monochromatized beam under the supervision of a Responsible Physician, with scan chair motion and precision shutter actuation regulated by an angiography control computer, while providing a suitable number of safeguards against accidental radiation exposure; has different modes of operation to accommodate equipment set-up, test, and calibration; and patient exposure; and ensures the quick extinction of the beam if a potentially unsafe condition is detected. The interlock system which performs these safety functions is called the Angiography Personnel Protection Interlock (APPI). The APPI Document is organized such that the level of detail changes from a general overview to detailed engineering drawings of the hardware system.

  5. Vavilov-Cherenkov and Synchrotron Radiation Foundations and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Afanasiev, G. N

    2005-01-01

    The theory of the Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation observed by Cherenkov in 1934 was created by Tamm, Frank and Ginsburg who associated the observed blue light with the uniform charge motion of a charge at a velocity greater than the velocity of light in the medium. On the other hand, Vavilov, Cherenkov's teacher, attributed the observed blue light to the deceleration of electrons. This has given rise to the appearance of papers in which the radiation of a charge uniformly moving in a finite space interval was related to the Bremsstrahlung arising at the end points of the motion interval. This monograph is intended for students of the third year and higher, for postgraduates, for professional scientists (both experimentalists and theoreticians) dealing with Vavilov-Cherenkov and synchrotron radiation. An acquaintance with the three volumes of the Landau and Lifshitz course (Quantum Mechanics, Classical Field Theory and Macroscopic Electrodynamics) is sufficient for understanding the text.

  6. Evaluating scintillator performance in time-resolved hard X-ray studies at synchrotron light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutherford, Michael E.; Chapman, David J.; White, Thomas G.; Drakopoulos, Michael; Rack, Alexander; Eakins, Daniel E.

    2016-01-01

    Scintillator performance in time-resolved, hard, indirect detection X-ray studies on the sub-microsecond timescale at synchrotron light sources is reviewed, modelled and examined experimentally. LYSO:Ce is found to be the only commercially available crystal suitable for these experiments. The short pulse duration, small effective source size and high flux of synchrotron radiation is ideally suited for probing a wide range of transient deformation processes in materials under extreme conditions. In this paper, the challenges of high-resolution time-resolved indirect X-ray detection are reviewed in the context of dynamic synchrotron experiments. In particular, the discussion is targeted at two-dimensional integrating detector methods, such as those focused on dynamic radiography and diffraction experiments. The response of a scintillator to periodic synchrotron X-ray excitation is modelled and validated against experimental data collected at the Diamond Light Source (DLS) and European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). An upper bound on the dynamic range accessible in a time-resolved experiment for a given bunch separation is calculated for a range of scintillators. New bunch structures are suggested for DLS and ESRF using the highest-performing commercially available crystal LYSO:Ce, allowing time-resolved experiments with an interframe time of 189 ns and a maximum dynamic range of 98 (6.6 bits)

  7. Evaluating scintillator performance in time-resolved hard X-ray studies at synchrotron light sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutherford, Michael E.; Chapman, David J.; White, Thomas G. [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); Drakopoulos, Michael [Diamond Light Source, I12 Joint Engineering, Environmental, Processing (JEEP) Beamline, Didcot, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Rack, Alexander [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France); Eakins, Daniel E., E-mail: d.eakins@imperial.ac.uk [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-24

    Scintillator performance in time-resolved, hard, indirect detection X-ray studies on the sub-microsecond timescale at synchrotron light sources is reviewed, modelled and examined experimentally. LYSO:Ce is found to be the only commercially available crystal suitable for these experiments. The short pulse duration, small effective source size and high flux of synchrotron radiation is ideally suited for probing a wide range of transient deformation processes in materials under extreme conditions. In this paper, the challenges of high-resolution time-resolved indirect X-ray detection are reviewed in the context of dynamic synchrotron experiments. In particular, the discussion is targeted at two-dimensional integrating detector methods, such as those focused on dynamic radiography and diffraction experiments. The response of a scintillator to periodic synchrotron X-ray excitation is modelled and validated against experimental data collected at the Diamond Light Source (DLS) and European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). An upper bound on the dynamic range accessible in a time-resolved experiment for a given bunch separation is calculated for a range of scintillators. New bunch structures are suggested for DLS and ESRF using the highest-performing commercially available crystal LYSO:Ce, allowing time-resolved experiments with an interframe time of 189 ns and a maximum dynamic range of 98 (6.6 bits)

  8. 1994 Activity Report, National Synchrotron Light Source. Annual report, October 1, 1993-September 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothman, E.Z. [ed.

    1995-05-01

    This report is a summary of activities carried out at the National Synchrotron Light Source during 1994. It consists of sections which summarize the work carried out in differing scientific disciplines, meetings and workshops, operations experience of the facility, projects undertaken for upgrades, administrative reports, and collections of abstracts and publications generated from work done at the facility.

  9. 1994 Activity Report, National Synchrotron Light Source. Annual report, October 1, 1993-September 30, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothman, E.Z.

    1995-05-01

    This report is a summary of activities carried out at the National Synchrotron Light Source during 1994. It consists of sections which summarize the work carried out in differing scientific disciplines, meetings and workshops, operations experience of the facility, projects undertaken for upgrades, administrative reports, and collections of abstracts and publications generated from work done at the facility

  10. Measuring circular dichroism in a capillary cell using the b23 synchrotron radiation CD beamline at diamond light source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jávorfi, Tamás; Hussain, Rohanah; Myatt, Daniel; Siligardi, Giuliano

    2010-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation circular dichroism (SRCD) is a well-established method in structural biology. The first UV-VIS beamline dedicated to circular dichroism at Diamond Light Source, a third generation synchrotron facility in South Oxfordshire, has recently become operational and it is now available for the user community. Herein we present an important application of SRCD: the CD measurement of protein solutions in fused silica rectangular capillary cells. This was achieved without the use of any lens between the photoelastic modulator and the photomultiplier tube detectors by exploiting the high photon flux of the collimated beam that can be as little as half a millimeter squared. Measures to minimize or eliminate vacuum-UV protein denaturation effects are discussed. The CD spectra measured in capillaries is a proof of principle to address CD measurements in microdevice systems using the new B23 SRCD beamline. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Project planning workshop 6-GeV synchrotron light source: Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    A model 6 GeV synchrotron light source is described, and the costs, schedule, and manpower associated with producing such a synthrotron light source are summarized. A program consisting of a two-year pre-construction phase, a five-year construction phase, and a three-year post-construction phase and costing a total of $379.6 million is assumed

  12. SUNY beamline facilities at the National Synchrotron Light Source (Final Report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppens, Philip

    2003-01-01

    The DOE sponsored SUNY synchrotron project has involved close cooperation among faculty at several SUNY campuses. A large number of students and postdoctoral associates have participated in its operation which was centered at the X3 beamline of the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Four stations with capabilities for Small Angle Scattering, Single Crystal and Powder and Surface diffraction and EXAFS were designed and operated with capability to perform experiments at very low as well as elevated temperatures and under high vacuum. A large amount of cutting-edge science was performed at the facility, which in addition provided excellent training for students and postdoctoral scientists in the field

  13. SUNY beamline facilities at the National Synchrotron Light Source (Final Report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coppens, Philip

    2003-06-22

    The DOE sponsored SUNY synchrotron project has involved close cooperation among faculty at several SUNY campuses. A large number of students and postdoctoral associates have participated in its operation which was centered at the X3 beamline of the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Four stations with capabilities for Small Angle Scattering, Single Crystal and Powder and Surface diffraction and EXAFS were designed and operated with capability to perform experiments at very low as well as elevated temperatures and under high vacuum. A large amount of cutting-edge science was performed at the facility, which in addition provided excellent training for students and postdoctoral scientists in the field.

  14. Insertion devices and beamlines for the proposed Australian synchrotron light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, R.F.; Boldeman, J.W.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: The proposed Australian synchrotron light source, Boomerang, is a third generation 3 GeV storage ring which is designed to provide for the great majority of Australian requirements for synchrotron radiation well into the next century. The storage ring could accommodate up to 60 experimental stations, including beamlines from 9 insertion devices, which far exceeds the projected Australian requirements over the life of the facility. Undulator radiation will be available up to 20 keV. The first phase construction of Boomerang includes funding for 9 beamlines, comprising 5 bending magnet and 4 insertion device beamlines. The beamline complement has been chosen to cater for approximately 95% of the current and projected Australian demand for synchrotron radiation over the first 5 years operation of the facility. Details will be shown of the performance of the proposed insertion devices, and the initial beamline complement will be presented

  15. Obtaining laser safety at a synchrotron radiation user facility: The Advanced Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barat, K.

    1996-01-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) is a US national facility for scientific research and development located at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in California. The ALS delivers the world's brightest synchrotron radiation in the far ultraviolet and soft X-ray regions of the spectrum. As a user facility it is available to researchers from industry, academia, and laboratories from around the world. Subsequently, a wide range of safety concerns become involved. This article relates not only to synchrotron facilities but to any user facility. A growing number of US centers are attracting organizations and individuals to use the equipment on site, for a fee. This includes synchrotron radiation and/or free electron facilities, specialty research centers, and laser job shops. Personnel coming to such a facility bring with them a broad spectrum of safety cultures. Upon entering, the guests must accommodate to the host facility safety procedures. This article describes a successful method to deal with that responsibility

  16. The first synchrotron infrared beamlines at the Advanced Light Source: Microspectroscopy and fast timing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, M.C.; McKinney, W.R.

    1998-05-01

    A set of new infrared (IR) beamlines on the 1.4 bending magnet port at the Advanced Light Source, LBNL, are described. Using a synchrotron as an IR source provides considerable brightness advantages, which manifests itself most beneficially when performing spectroscopy on a microscopic length scale. Beamline (BL) 1.4.3 is a dedicated microspectroscopy beamline, where the much smaller focused spot size using the synchrotron source is utilized. This enables an entirely new set of experiments to be performed where spectroscopy on a truly microscopic scale is now possible. BL 1.4.2 consists of a vacuum FTIR bench with a wide spectral range and step-scan capabilities. The fast timing is demonstrated by observing the synchrotron electron storage pattern at the ALS

  17. Nanoparticles and synchrotron light for brain tumors therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taupin, Florence

    2013-01-01

    Gliomas treatment is still a serious challenge in medicine. Available treatments are mainly palliative and patients' survival is increased by a few months only. An original radiotherapy technique consists in increasing the dose delivered to the tumor by loading it with high Z atoms before an irradiation with low energy X-rays (50-100 keV). Preclinical studies have been conducted using iodine contrast agent (CA) (Z=53) and 50 keV X-rays. The increase of the animals' survival leads today to the beginning of clinical trials (phases I and II) at the medical beamline of the European synchrotron, where the available monochromatic and intense photons beam is well suited for this treatment. The use of intravenously injected CA is however insufficient for curing rat's bearing glioma. Indeed, the contrast agent's accumulation is limited by the presence of the BBB and it remains extracellular. Metallic nanoparticles (NPs) appear interesting for improving the treatment efficacy. During this work, three different types of NPs have been studied: GdNPs (3 nm), AuNPs (13 nm) and PtNPs (6 nm). Their toxicity and internalization have been evaluated in vitro on F98 rodent glioma cells. Cells' survival has also been measured after different irradiation conditions in presence of these NPs and with monochromatic photons beams. Several mechanisms implicated in the treatment have been highlighted by the study of the cells' response dependence to the incident particles energy and to the sub cellular NPs distribution during irradiation. For identical concentrations, NPs were more efficient in cells killing than CA, illustrating their microdosimetric potential. The effect was also preferential for low energy X-rays, indicating that photoactivation of heavy atoms plays a role in the cells' death. GdNPs and PtNPs have also lead to an effect in combination to high energy photons (1.25 MeV), indicating that another mechanism may also increase the cell

  18. Nuclear resonant scattering of synchrotron radiation: Applications in magnetism of layered structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlage, Kai; Röhlsberger, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Depth-resolved determination of magnetic spin structures. •Isotopic probe layers allow for probing selected depths in the sample. •High sensitivity to magnetic domain patterns via diffuse scattering. -- Abstract: Nuclear resonant scattering of synchrotron radiation has become an established tool within condensed-matter research. Synchrotron radiation with its outstanding brilliance, transverse coherence and polarization has opened this field for many unique studies, for fundamental research in the field of light-matter interaction as well as for materials science. This applies in particular for the electronic and magnetic structure of very small sample volumes like micro- and nano-structures and samples under extreme conditions of temperature and pressure. This article is devoted to the application of the technique to nanomagnetic systems such as thin films and multilayers. After a basic introduction into the method, a number of our experiments are presented to illustrate how magnetic spin structures within such layer systems can be revealed

  19. Measurements of a prototype synchrotron radiation pumped absorber for future light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, T.S.; Foerster, C.L.; Halama, H.; Lanni, C.

    1988-01-01

    In the new generation of advanced synchrotron light sources, the conventional concept of distributed pumping is no longer suitable for removing the gas load caused by photon stimulated desorption (PSD). A new concept using a combination of photon absorber and pumping station has been designed, constructed, and installed in the U1OB beam line at the VUV ring of the National Synchrotron Light Source. The system consists of an electrically insulated water cooled copper block, a titanium sublimation pump, calibrated BA gauges, a calibrated RGA, and a known conductance. A photon beam 10 milliradian wide and 3.26 milliradian high, having critical energy of 500 eV, is directed on the absorber. PSD yield is studied as a function of total beam dose and absorber surface preparation. The results from this experiment, pump characteristics, design of an absorber pump for future light sources, and the pressure improvement factors will be presented. 5 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  20. Consideration of a non-baked start-up of a synchrotron light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, Y.; Kobayashi, M.

    1996-01-01

    Vacuum baking of large complex uhv devices, such as synchrotron light sources, requires both careful design and consideration of potential problems regarding the operation and maintenance of the device. Intense synchrotron irradiation can be utilized for degassing; it is indeed necessary to achieve the required operating pressure in most light sources. To examine a non-baked start-up, the outgassing of non-baked chambers by SR irradiation was measured. Also, a non-baked start-up was carried out at the Photon Factory ring. Both results demonstrate the feasibility of a non-baked start-up of a light source. The experiments and results are described, together with several other problems which must be solved for a non-baked start-up. (Author)

  1. Application of Synchrotron Radiation in the Geological and Environmental Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Keith W.

    1999-09-01

    A survey of some of the different ways that synchrotrons x-ray beams can be used to study geological materials is presented here. This field developed over a period of about 30 years, and it is clear that the geological community has made major use of the many synchrotrons facilities operating around the world during this time period. This was a time of rapid change in the operational performance of the synchrotrons facilities and this in itself has made it possible for geologists to develop new and more refined types of experiments that have yielded many important results. The advance in experimental techniques has proceeded in parallel with a revolution in computing techniques that has made it possible to cope with the great amount of data accumulated in the experiments. It is reasonable, although risky, to speculate about what might be expected to develop in the field during the next five- to ten-year period. It does seem plausible that the rate of change in the performance of what might now be called conventional x-ray storage rings will slow. There are no new facilities that are superior to the ESRF, ALS, APS, or SPring8 facilities under construction or about to come into operation. Thus, performance increments in the characteristics of the x-ray sources may come through the introduction of specialized devices in existing storage rings. The free electron laser is one example of a developing new technology that should take us into new regions of performance for radiation sources and stimulate new types of experimental applications. It is also likely that major advances will come through the introduction of more sophisticated experimental devices developed for use with the very recently operational undulator or wiggler sources at the newer rings. Improved x-ray optics and x-ray detectors and more powerful computation and high-speed data transmission can bring about more refined experiments and make the synchrotrons facilities more widely available to the

  2. Application of silicon carbide to synchrotron-radiation mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takacs, P.Z.; Hursman, T.L.; Williams, J.T.

    1983-09-01

    Damage to conventional mirror materials exposed to the harsh synchrotron radiation (SR) environment has prompted the SR user community to search for more suitable materials. Next-generation insertion devices, with their attendant flux increases, will make the problem of mirror design even more difficult. A parallel effort in searching for better materials has been underway within the laser community for several years. The technology for dealing with high thermal loads is highly developed among laser manufacturers. Performance requirements for laser heat exchangers are remarkably similar to SR mirror requirements. We report on the application of laser heat exchanger technology to the solution of typical SR mirror design problems. The superior performance of silicon carbide for laser applications is illustrated by various material trades studies, and its superior performance for SR applications is illustrated by means of model calculations

  3. National Synchrotron Light Source users manual: Guide to the VUV and x-ray beam lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gmuer, N.F.; White-DePace, S.M.

    1987-08-01

    The success of the National Synchrotron Light Source in the years to come will be based, in large part, on the size of the users community and the diversity of the scientific disciplines represented by these users. In order to promote this philosophy, this National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) Users Manual: Guide to the VUV and X-Ray Beam Lines, has been published. This manual serves a number of purposes. In an effort to attract new research, it will present to the scientific community-at-large the current and projected architecture and capabilities of the various VUV and x-ray beam lines and storage rings. We anticipate that this publication will be updated periodically in order to keep pace with the constant changes at the NSLS

  4. The synchrotron light source as a tool for microtechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Harvey, E C

    2002-01-01

    We are all familiar with lathes and milling machines for shaping parts in machine shops and factories. But what if the parts we need to make are significantly smaller than a millimetre, and featuring details even smaller? Semiconductor chip manufacturers have faced these problems and have learnt to use new ways to make devices. No longer are transistors made one at a time, but rather are 'printed' millions at a time, together with their interconnection wiring in a process called photolithography. Light from an excimer laser is directed through masks that incorporate the patterns required and photoexposes surfaces positioned behind the masks. This form of photolithography is today a standard process in semiconductor FAB plants and has several critical advantages in terms of cost, reproducibility, reliability and its ability to scale towards ever smaller and more complex systems

  5. Time-resolved far-infrared experiments at the National Synchrotron Light Source. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanner, D.B.; Reitze, D.H.; Carr, G.L.

    1999-01-01

    A facility for time-resolved infrared and far-infrared spectroscopy has been built and commissioned at the National Synchrotron Light Source. This facility permits the study of time dependent phenomena over a frequency range from 2-8000cm -1 (0.25 meV-1 eV). Temporal resolution is approximately 200 psec and time dependent phenomena in the time range out to 100 nsec can be investigated

  6. Synchrotron light science: from flux to brightness to coherence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margaritondo, G.

    1998-01-01

    One century after their discovery and first application to radiology, X-rays are finally achieving coherence. The potential impact on radiological imaging is extremely important, with significant social repercussions. These exciting developments are the final product of a revolution initiated in the late 1960's by Gianfranco Chiarotti and a few other pioneers, who first dreamed of using electron accelerators as superior X-rays sources, and then transformed this dream into reality

  7. The first synchrotron infrared beamlines at the Advanced Light Source: Spectromicroscopy and fast timing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Michael C.; McKinney, Wayne R.

    1999-01-01

    Two recently commissioned infrared beamlines on the 1.4 bending magnet port at the Advanced Light Source, LBNL, are described. Using a synchrotron as an IR source provides three primary advantages: increased brightness, very fast light pulses, and enhanced far-IR flux. The considerable brightness advantage manifests itself most beneficially when performing spectroscopy on a microscopic length scale. Beamline (BL) 1.4.3 is a dedicated FTIR spectromicroscopy beamline, where a diffraction-limited spot size using the synchrotron source is utilized. BL 1.4.2 consists of a vacuum FTIR bench with a wide spectral range and step-scan capability. This BL makes use of the pulsed nature of the synchrotron light as well as the far-IR flux. Fast timing is demonstrated by observing the pulses from the electron bunch storage pattern at the ALS. Results from several experiments from both IR beamlines will be presented as an overview of the IR research currently being done at the ALS

  8. Synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farge, Y.

    1982-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation is produced by electrons accelerated near the velocity of light in storage rings, which are used for high energy Physics experiments. The radiation light exhibits a wide spread continuous spectrum ranging from 01 nanometre to radiofrequency. This radiation is characterized by high power (several kilowatts) and intense brightness. The paper recalls the emission laws and the distinctive properties of the radiation, and gives some of the numerous applications in research, such as molecular spectroscopy, X ray diffraction by heavy proteins and X ray microlithography in LVSI circuit making [fr

  9. Evaluating scintillator performance in time-resolved hard X-ray studies at synchrotron light sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Michael E; Chapman, David J; White, Thomas G; Drakopoulos, Michael; Rack, Alexander; Eakins, Daniel E

    2016-05-01

    The short pulse duration, small effective source size and high flux of synchrotron radiation is ideally suited for probing a wide range of transient deformation processes in materials under extreme conditions. In this paper, the challenges of high-resolution time-resolved indirect X-ray detection are reviewed in the context of dynamic synchrotron experiments. In particular, the discussion is targeted at two-dimensional integrating detector methods, such as those focused on dynamic radiography and diffraction experiments. The response of a scintillator to periodic synchrotron X-ray excitation is modelled and validated against experimental data collected at the Diamond Light Source (DLS) and European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). An upper bound on the dynamic range accessible in a time-resolved experiment for a given bunch separation is calculated for a range of scintillators. New bunch structures are suggested for DLS and ESRF using the highest-performing commercially available crystal LYSO:Ce, allowing time-resolved experiments with an interframe time of 189 ns and a maximum dynamic range of 98 (6.6 bits).

  10. Shielding synchrotron light sources: Advantages of circular shield walls tunnels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, S.L. [Design and Accelerator Operations Consulting, 568 Wintergreen Ct Ridge, NY 11961 (United States); Ghosh, V.J.; Breitfeller, M. [NSLS-II, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2016-08-11

    Third generation high brightness light sources are designed to have low emittance and high current beams, which contribute to higher beam loss rates that will be compensated by Top-Off injection. Shielding for these higher loss rates will be critical to protect the projected higher occupancy factors for the users. Top-Off injection requires a full energy injector, which will demand greater consideration of the potential abnormal beam miss-steering and localized losses that could occur. The high energy electron injection beam produce significantly higher neutron component dose to the experimental floor than lower energy injection and ramped operations. High energy neutrons produced in the forward direction from thin target beam losses are a major component of the dose rate outside the shield walls of the tunnel. The convention has been to provide thicker 90° ratchet walls to reduce this dose to the beam line users. We present an alternate circular shield wall design, which naturally and cost effectively increases the path length for this forward radiation in the shield wall and thereby substantially decreasing the dose rate for these beam losses. This shield wall design will greatly reduce the dose rate to the users working near the front end optical components but will challenge the beam line designers to effectively utilize the longer length of beam line penetration in the shield wall. Additional advantages of the circular shield wall tunnel are that it's simpler to construct, allows greater access to the insertion devices and the upstream in tunnel beam line components, as well as reducing the volume of concrete and therefore the cost of the shield wall.

  11. National Synchrotron Light Source annual report 1989 (for the period of October 1, 1988--September 30, 1989)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulbert, S.L.; Lazarz, N.; Williams, G.P.

    1990-04-01

    This report discusses research at the National Synchrotron Light Source for the year 1989. Included in this report are operations summaries, symposia, workshops and projects, NSLS committees and administration information; informational guides; and abstracts from paper release during the year

  12. Ultra-high vacuum system of the Brookhaven National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerster, C.L.

    1995-01-01

    The rings of the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) have been supplying light to numerous users for approximately a decade and recently a fully conditioned machine vacuum at design currents was obtained. A brief description of the x-ray storage ring, the VUV storage ring and their current supply is given along with some of their features. The ultra-high vacuum system employed for the storage rings and their advantages for the necessary stored beam environments are discussed including, a brief history of time. 15 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs

  13. Synchrotron radiation from protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutt, S.K.

    1992-12-01

    Synchrotron radiation from protons, though described by the same equations as the radiation from electrons, exhibits a number of interesting features on account of the parameters reached in praxis. In this presentation, we shall point out some of the features relating to (i) normal synchrotron radiation from dipoles in proton machines such as the High Energy Booster and the Superconducting Super Collider; (ii) synchrotron radiation from short dipoles, and its application to light monitors for proton machines, and (iii) synchrotron radiation from undulators in the limit when, the deflection parameter is much smaller than unity. The material for this presentation is taken largely from the work of Hofmann, Coisson, Bossart, and their collaborators, and from a paper by Kim. We shall emphasize the qualitative aspects of synchrotron radiation in the cases mentioned above, making, when possible, simple arguments for estimating the spectral and angular properties of the radiation. Detailed analyses can be found in the literature

  14. Diamond detectors for synchrotron radiation X-ray applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Sio, A. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, INFN, 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Universita di Firenze, L.go E. Fermi 2, 50125 Firenze (Italy)], E-mail: desio@arcetri.astro.it; Pace, E. [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Universita di Firenze, L.go E. Fermi 2, 50125 Firenze (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Firenze, v. G. Sansone 1, Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Cinque, G.; Marcelli, A. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, INFN, 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); Achard, J.; Tallaire, A. [LIMHP-CNRS, University of Paris XIII, 99 Avenue JB Clement, 93430 Villetaneuse (France)

    2007-07-15

    Due to its unique physical properties, diamond is a very appealing material for the development of electronic devices and sensors. Its wide band gap (5.5 eV) endows diamond based devices with low thermal noise, low dark current levels and, in the case of radiation detectors, high visible-to-X-ray signal discrimination (visible blindness) as well as high sensitivity to energies greater than the band gap. Furthermore, due to its radiation hardness diamond is very interesting for applications in extreme environments, or as monitor of high fluency radiation beams. In this work the use of diamond based detectors for X-ray sensing is discussed. On purpose, some photo-conductors based on different diamond types have been tested at the DAFNE-L synchrotron radiation laboratory at Frascati. X-ray sensitivity spectra, linearity and stability of the response of these diamond devices have been measured in order to evidence the promising performance of such devices.

  15. Spectrum Analyzer Application for the Proton Synchrotron Wall Current Monitors

    CERN Document Server

    Limpens, Rik

    The Proton Synchrotron (PS) is a key component in CERN's accelerator complex, where it usually accelerates either protons or heavy ions. The new acquisition system for the PS ring wall current monitors has been installed to be able to perform higher frequency measurements of a beam bunch. This is an important improvement, since the oscillating signals are related to losses of a beam bunch. The main goal of this project is to develop a LabVIEW application running on a Real-Time target to perform continuous and triggered spectral acquisition of a PS beam bunch and to provide a data visualization and analysis tool for the operators and users of the machine.

  16. Diamond detectors for synchrotron radiation X-ray applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Sio, A.; Pace, E.; Cinque, G.; Marcelli, A.; Achard, J.; Tallaire, A.

    2007-01-01

    Due to its unique physical properties, diamond is a very appealing material for the development of electronic devices and sensors. Its wide band gap (5.5 eV) endows diamond based devices with low thermal noise, low dark current levels and, in the case of radiation detectors, high visible-to-X-ray signal discrimination (visible blindness) as well as high sensitivity to energies greater than the band gap. Furthermore, due to its radiation hardness diamond is very interesting for applications in extreme environments, or as monitor of high fluency radiation beams. In this work the use of diamond based detectors for X-ray sensing is discussed. On purpose, some photo-conductors based on different diamond types have been tested at the DAFNE-L synchrotron radiation laboratory at Frascati. X-ray sensitivity spectra, linearity and stability of the response of these diamond devices have been measured in order to evidence the promising performance of such devices

  17. Synchrotron Vacuum Ultraviolet Light and Soft X-Ray Radiation Effects on Aluminized Teflon FEP Investigated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dever, Joyce A.; Townsend, Jacqueline A.; Gaier, James R.; Jalics, Alice I.

    1999-01-01

    Since the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) was deployed in low Earth orbit in April 1990, two servicing missions have been conducted to upgrade its scientific capabilities. Minor cracking of second-surface metalized Teflon FEP (DuPont; fluorinated ethylene propylene) surfaces from multilayer insulation (MLI) was first observed upon close examination of samples with high solar exposure retrieved during the first servicing mission, which was conducted 3.6 years after deployment. During the second HST servicing mission, 6.8 years after deployment, astronaut observations and photographic documentation revealed significant cracks in the Teflon FEP layer of the MLI on both the solar- and anti-solar-facing surfaces of the telescope. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center directed the efforts of the Hubble Space Telescope MLI Failure Review Board, whose goals included identifying the low-Earth-orbit environmental constituent(s) responsible for the cracking and embrittling of Teflon FEP which was observed during the second servicing mission. The NASA Lewis Research Center provided significant support to this effort. Because soft x-ray radiation from solar flares had been considered as a possible cause for the degradation of the mechanical properties of Teflon FEP (ref. 1), the effects of soft xray radiation and vacuum ultraviolet light on Teflon FEP were investigated. In this Lewisled effort, samples of Teflon FEP with a 100-nm layer of vapor-deposited aluminum (VDA) on the backside were exposed to synchrotron radiation of various vacuum ultraviolet and soft x-ray wavelengths between 18 nm (69 eV) and 0.65 nm (1900 eV). Synchrotron radiation exposures were conducted using the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Samples of FEP/VDA were exposed with the FEP surface facing the synchrotron beam. Doses and fluences were compared with those estimated for the 20-yr Hubble Space Telescope mission.

  18. A critical experimental test of synchrotron radiation theory with 3rd generation light source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geloni, Gianluca [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    A recent ''beam splitting'' experiment at LCLS apparently demonstrated that after a microbunched electron beam is kicked on a large angle compared to the divergence of the FEL radiation, the microbunching wave front is readjusted along the new direction of motion of the kicked beam. Therefore, coherent radiation from an undulator placed after the kicker is emitted along the kicked direction without suppression. This strong emission of coherent undulator radiation in the kicked direction cannot be explained in the framework of conventional synchrotron radiation theory. In a previous paper we explained this puzzle. We demonstrated that, in accelerator physics, the coupling of fields and particles is based, on the one hand, on the use of results from particle dynamics treated according to the absolute time convention and, on the other hand, on the use of Maxwell equations treated according to the standard (Einstein) synchronization convention. Here lies the misconception which led to the strong qualitative disagreement between theory and experiment. After the ''beam splitting'' experiment at LCLS, it became clear that the conventional theory of synchrotron radiation cannot ensure the correct description of coherent and spontaneous emission from a kicked electron beam, nor the emission from a beam with finite angular divergence, in an undulator or a bending magnet. However, this result requires further experimental confirmation. In this publication we propose an uncomplicated and inexpensive experiment to test synchrotron radiation theory at 3rd generation light sources.

  19. A critical experimental test of synchrotron radiation theory with 3rd generation light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geloni, Gianluca; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni

    2016-05-01

    A recent ''beam splitting'' experiment at LCLS apparently demonstrated that after a microbunched electron beam is kicked on a large angle compared to the divergence of the FEL radiation, the microbunching wave front is readjusted along the new direction of motion of the kicked beam. Therefore, coherent radiation from an undulator placed after the kicker is emitted along the kicked direction without suppression. This strong emission of coherent undulator radiation in the kicked direction cannot be explained in the framework of conventional synchrotron radiation theory. In a previous paper we explained this puzzle. We demonstrated that, in accelerator physics, the coupling of fields and particles is based, on the one hand, on the use of results from particle dynamics treated according to the absolute time convention and, on the other hand, on the use of Maxwell equations treated according to the standard (Einstein) synchronization convention. Here lies the misconception which led to the strong qualitative disagreement between theory and experiment. After the ''beam splitting'' experiment at LCLS, it became clear that the conventional theory of synchrotron radiation cannot ensure the correct description of coherent and spontaneous emission from a kicked electron beam, nor the emission from a beam with finite angular divergence, in an undulator or a bending magnet. However, this result requires further experimental confirmation. In this publication we propose an uncomplicated and inexpensive experiment to test synchrotron radiation theory at 3rd generation light sources.

  20. Proceedings of the Meeting on Techniques and Applications of Synchrotron Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Several techniques and applications of the synchrotron radiation used in Physics, Biophysics and Chemistry are extensively discussed. The major part of the subjects of the works treat with the possible implantation of a national synchrotron radiation laboratory in Brazil. (L.C.) [pt

  1. New developments in the application of synchrotron radiation to material science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, S. K.

    1999-01-01

    Recent developments in the application of synchrotrons radiation to materials science are discussed, using techniques which exploit the high brilliance of the newer synchrotrons sources, such as microbeam techniques and correlation spectroscopy. These include studies of environmental systems, residual stress, slow dynamics of condensed matter systems and studies of liquid surfaces and thin magnetic films

  2. Development of a scanning tunneling microscope combined with a synchrotron radiation light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Yukio; Okuda, Taichi; Eguchi, Toyoaki; Matsushima, Takeshi; Harasawa, Ayumi; Akiyama, Kotone; Kinoshita, Toyohiko

    2005-01-01

    We have developed a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) combined with a synchrotron-radiation light source (SR-STM) aiming at elemental analysis in a spatial resolution of STM. Using SR-STM atomically resolved STM images under the irradiation and also X-ray adsorption spectra clearly showing an adsorption edge of a substrate were successfully obtained by detecting photo-emitted electrons with the STM tip. In order to focus the probing area of the photo-induced current, a glass-coated metal tip sharpened with focused ion beam was used as a probe. The present situation and prospects of the instrument are discussed in this review. (author)

  3. Application of synchrotron radiation to x-ray fluorescence analysis of trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, B.M.; Jones, K.W.; Hanson, A.L.

    1986-08-01

    The development of synchrotron radiation x-ray sources has provided the means to greatly extend the capabilities of x-ray fluorescence analysis for determinations of trace element concentrations. A brief description of synchrotron radiation properties provides a background for a discussion of the improved detection limits compared to existing x-ray fluorescence techniques. Calculated detection limits for x-ray microprobes with micrometer spatial resolutions are described and compared with experimental results beginning to appear from a number of laboratories. The current activities and future plans for a dedicated x-ray microprobe beam line at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) of Brookhaven National Laboratory are presented

  4. The application of synchrotron radiation to X-ray lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiller, E.; Eastman, D.E.; Feder, R.; Grobman, W.D.; Gudat, W.; Topalian, J.

    1976-06-01

    Synchrotron radiation from the German electron synchrotron DESY in Hamburg has been used for X-ray lithograpgy. Replications of different master patterns (for magnetic bubble devices, fresnel zone plates, etc.) were made using various wavelengths and exposures. High quality lines down to 500 A wide have been reproduced using very soft X-rays. The sensitivities of X-ray resists have been evaluated over a wide range of exposures. Various critical factors (heating, radiation damage, etc.) involved with X-ray lithography using synchrotron radiation have been studied. General considerations of storage ring sources designed as radiation sources for X-ray lithography are discussed, together with a comparison with X-ray tube sources. The general conclusion is that X-ray lithography using synchrotron radiation offers considerable promise as a process for forming high quality sub-micron images with exposure times as short as a few seconds. (orig.) [de

  5. Synchrotron radiation shielding design for the Brockhouse sector at the Canadian light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassey, Bassey; Moreno, Beatriz; Gomez, Ariel; Ahmed, Asm Sabbir; Ullrich, Doug; Chapman, Dean

    2014-01-01

    At the Canadian Light Source (CLS), the plans for the construction of three beamlines under the Brockhouse Project are underway. The beamlines, to be classified under the CLS Phase III beamlines, will comprise of a wiggler and an undulator, and will be dedicated to x-ray diffraction and scattering experiments. The energy range of these beamlines will be 7–22 keV (low energy wiggler beamline), 20–94 keV (high energy wiggler beamline), and 5–21 keV (undulator beamline). The beamlines will have a total of five hutches. Presented is the shielding design against target scattered white and monochromatic synchrotron radiations for these beamlines. The shielding design is based on: scatter target material-water, dose object-anthropomorphic phantom of the adult human (anteroposterior-AP geometry), and shielding thicknesses of steel and lead that will drop the radiation leakage from the hutches to below 0.5 μSv/h. - Highlights: • The Brockhouse project will add 3 new beamlines at the Canadian Light Source (CLS). • The shielding design against synchrotron radiation was required for these beamlines. • We have completed the required shielding design. • Our design will reduce radiation leakage to <0.5 μSv/h; CLS requires 1.0 μSv/h

  6. Application of PSA techniques to synchrotron radiation source facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanyasi Rao, V.V.S.; Vinod, G.; Vaze, K.K.; Sarkar, P.K.

    2011-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation sources are increasingly being used in research and medical applications. Various instances of overexposure in these facilities have been reported in literature. These instances have lead to the investigation of the risks associated with them with a view to minimise the risks and thereby increasing the level of safety. In nuclear industry, Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) methods are widely used to assess the risk from nuclear power plants. PSA presents a systematic methodology to evaluate the likelihood of various accident scenarios and their possible consequences using fault/event tree techniques. It is proposed to extend similar approach to analyse the risk associated with synchrotron radiation sources. First step for such an analysis is establishing the failure criteria, considering the regulatory stipulations on acceptable limits of dose due to ionization radiation from normal as well as beam loss scenarios. Some possible scenarios considered in this study are (1) excessive Bremsstrahlung in the ring due to loss of vacuum, (2) Target failure due to excessively focused beam (3) mis-directed/mis-steered beam (4) beam loss and sky shine. Hazard analysis needs to cover the beam transfer line, storage ring and experimental beam line areas. Various safety provisions are in place to minimize the hazards from these facilities such as access control interlock systems, radiation shielding for storage ring and beam lines and safety shutters (for beam lines). Experimental beam line area is the most vulnerable locations that need to be critically analysed. There are multiple beam lines, that have different safety provisions and consequences from postulated beam strikes will also be different and this increases the complexity of analysis. Similar studies conducted for such experimental facilities have identified that the radiation safety interlock system, used to control access to areas inside ring and the hutches of beamline facilities has an

  7. OLEDs for lighting applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Elsbergen, V.; Boerner, H.; Löbl, H.-P.; Goldmann, C.; Grabowski, S. P.; Young, E.; Gaertner, G.; Greiner, H.

    2008-08-01

    Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) provide potential for power-efficient large area light sources that combine revolutionary properties. They are thin and flat and in addition they can be transparent, colour-tuneable, or flexible. We review the state of the art in white OLEDs and present performance data for three-colour hybrid white OLEDs on indexmatched substrates. With improved optical outcoupling 45 lm/W are achieved. Using a half-sphere to collect all the light that is in the substrate results in 80 lm/W. Optical modelling supports the experimental work. For decorative applications features like transparency and colour tuning are very appealing. We show results on transparent white OLEDs and two ways to come to a colour-variable OLED. These are lateral separation of different colours in a striped design and direct vertical stacking of the different emitting layers. For a striped colour tuneable OLED 36 lm/W are achieved in white with improved optical outcoupling.

  8. Using synchrotron light to accelerate EUV resist and mask materials learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naulleau, Patrick; Anderson, Christopher N.; Baclea-an, Lorie-Mae; Denham, Paul; George, Simi; Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Jones, Gideon; McClinton, Brittany; Miyakawa, Ryan; Mochi, Iacopo; Montgomery, Warren; Rekawa, Seno; Wallow, Tom

    2011-03-01

    As commercialization of extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) progresses, direct industry activities are being focused on near term concerns. The question of long term extendibility of EUVL, however, remains crucial given the magnitude of the investments yet required to make EUVL a reality. Extendibility questions are best addressed using advanced research tools such as the SEMATECH Berkeley microfield exposure tool (MET) and actinic inspection tool (AIT). Utilizing Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's Advanced Light Source facility as the light source, these tools benefit from the unique properties of synchrotron light enabling research at nodes generations ahead of what is possible with commercial tools. The MET for example uses extremely bright undulator radiation to enable a lossless fully programmable coherence illuminator. Using such a system, resolution enhancing illuminations achieving k1 factors of 0.25 can readily be attained. Given the MET numerical aperture of 0.3, this translates to an ultimate resolution capability of 12 nm. Using such methods, the SEMATECH Berkeley MET has demonstrated resolution in resist to 16-nm half pitch and below in an imageable spin-on hard mask. At a half pitch of 16 nm, this material achieves a line-edge roughness of 2 nm with a correlation length of 6 nm. These new results demonstrate that the observed stall in ultimate resolution progress in chemically amplified resists is a materials issue rather than a tool limitation. With a resolution limit of 20-22 nm, the CAR champion from 2008 remains as the highest performing CAR tested to date. To enable continued advanced learning in EUV resists, SEMATECH has initiated a plan to implement a 0.5 NA microfield tool at the Advanced Light Source synchrotron facility. This tool will be capable of printing down to 8-nm half pitch.

  9. Synchrotron radiation : characteristics and application in structural studies and phase transformations of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craievich, A.F.

    1984-01-01

    The main characteristics of the synchrotron radiation for studying atomic structure and phase transformations in materials are presented. Some specific applications in alloys, glass and solids are described. (E.G.) [pt

  10. Uses of synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, B.M.

    1982-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence has long been used as a technique for elemental analysis. X-ray fluorescence techniques have a number of features that make them attractive for application to biomedical samples. In the past few years synchrotron radiation x-ray sources have been developed and, because of their properties, their use can improve the sensitivity for trace element analysis by two to three orders of magnitude. Also, synchrotron radiation will make possible an x-ray microprobe with resolution in the micrometer range. The National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), a dedicated synchrotron radiation source recently built at Brookhaven National Laboratory, will have a facility for trace element analysis by x-ray fluorescence and will be available to all interested users

  11. Chemistry with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preses, J.; Grover, J.R.; White, M.G.; Kvick, A.

    1990-01-01

    An accidental by-product of high-energy physics, synchrotron radiation, has emerged as one of the most powerful tools for the understanding of chemical reactions. Advances made by using synchrotron radiation in physical chemistry are reviewed herein. Descriptions of experiments exploiting the many ways that synchrotron radiation can be manipulated are presented. These manipulations include intensification of the radiation and compression or shifting of its spectral structure. Combinations of the use of synchrotron radiation, which provides access to very short wavelengths and is, at the same time, continuously and easily tunable, with laser radiation, which offers much higher resolution and much more intense radiation per pulse, but is difficult to tune in the ultraviolet region of the spectra, gives the chemist a way to map a molecule's potential energy curve, to note the lengths and strengths of chemical bonds, and to predict and explain novel reactions of more complex molecules. The use of diffraction of x-rays to study the spacing of atoms in crystals is discussed. Various applications of synchrotron radiation to studies of the fluorescence of hydrocarbons and to the chiral dichroism studies of other natural products like DNA and RNA are described. Methods for enhancing synchrotron light sources by insertion devices, such as wigglers and undulators, that increase the available photo flux and construction of new sources of synchrotron radiation are mentioned

  12. Synchrotron light techniques for the investigation of advanced nuclear reactor structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouchon, M.A.; Froideval, A.; Degueldre, C.; Gavillet, D.; Hoffelner, W.

    2008-01-01

    In the frame of the Generation IV initiative, different structural material candidates are investigated at the Paul Scherrer Institute. These are oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels, intermetallic materials and ceramic composite materials. The response of the material to different potential loads (irradiation, temperature...) is addressed in a multi-scale approach, both, modelling wise and also experimentally. The investigation of each scale delivers at least a qualitative understanding of possibly evolving damage in the material and also delivers a validation of the corresponding scale on the modelling side. From the experimental side, the lower end of the scale, the atomistic and structural level, can be investigated by conventional techniques, as for example transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). However, the use of synchrotron radiation techniques offers an ideal, complementary way to investigate the material structure and other properties. This paper presents applications in the field of the ODS research, where the structural behaviour of the nano-scopic dispersoids can selectively be investigated, although only being present with roughly 5 wt % in the matrix. A study showing the structural behaviour of these oxide particles as a function of irradiation illustrates the potential of the extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) technique. Using X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD), which is a difference-signal of two X-ray absorption spectra recorded for positive and negative helicities of the beam, the magnetic structure and some magnetic parameters, can be resolved. An example shows, how this can be applied to understand (Fe,Cr) systems, which is the base alloy of the investigated ODS steel. The results deliver an important cross-check for modelling. Beside the presentation of these techniques, this paper shows how beamline techniques can serve nuclear research, with possibly activated materials. At the Paul

  13. Ne, Ar, Fe, and Cu Auger-electron production at National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.H.; Johnson, B.M.; Jones, K.W.; Guardala, N.A.; Price, J.L.; Stumborg, M.F.; Glass, G.A.

    1992-01-01

    Energetic K and L Auger electrons produced by focussed, filtered, broad-band synchrotron radiation have been measured at the x-ray ring of the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). The x-ray beam was used to study inner-shell photoionization of Ne and Ar gas and Fe and Cu solid film targets. The Auger electrons were analyzed by means of a semi-hemispherical electrostatic electron spectrometer at the energy resolution of ∼ 3 %. The electrons were detected at both 90 degree and 0 degree with respect to the photon beam direction. Broad distributions of the inner-shell photoelectrons were also observed, reflecting the incoming photon flux distribution. The Fe and Cu K Auger electron spectra were found to be very similar to the Ar K Auger electron spectra. This was expected, since deep inner-shell Auger processes are not affected by the outer valence electrons. Above 3 keV in electron energy, there have been few previous Auger electron measurements. 2 figs., 13 refs

  14. New Developments and Geoscience Applications of Synchrotron Computed Microtomography (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, M. L.; Wang, Y.; Newville, M.; Sutton, S. R.; Yu, T.; Lanzirotti, A.

    2013-12-01

    Computed microtomography is the extension to micron spatial resolution of the CAT scanning technique developed for medical imaging. Synchrotron sources are ideal for the method, since they provide a monochromatic, parallel beam with high intensity. High energy storage rings such as the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory produce x-rays with high energy, high brilliance, and high coherence. All of these factors combine to produce an extremely powerful imaging tool for earth science research. Techniques that have been developed include: - Absorption and phase contrast computed tomography with spatial resolution below one micron. - Differential contrast computed tomography, imaging above and below the absorption edge of a particular element. - High-pressure tomography, imaging inside a pressure cell at pressures above 10GPa. - High speed radiography and tomography, with 100 microsecond temporal resolution. - Fluorescence tomography, imaging the 3-D distribution of elements present at ppm concentrations. - Radiographic strain measurements during deformation at high confining pressure, combined with precise x-ray diffraction measurements to determine stress. These techniques have been applied to important problems in earth and environmental sciences, including: - The 3-D distribution of aqueous and organic liquids in porous media, with applications in contaminated groundwater and petroleum recovery. - The kinetics of bubble formation in magma chambers, which control explosive volcanism. - Studies of the evolution of the early solar system from 3-D textures in meteorites - Accurate crystal size distributions in volcanic systems, important for understanding the evolution of magma chambers. - The equation-of-state of amorphous materials at high pressure using both direct measurements of volume as a function of pressure and also by measuring the change x-ray absorption coefficient as a function of pressure. - The location and chemical speciation of toxic

  15. X-RAY IRRADIATION OF H{sub 2}O + CO ICE MIXTURES WITH SYNCHROTRON LIGHT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiménez-Escobar, A.; Ciaravella, A.; Micela, G.; Cecchi-Pestellini, C. [INAF–Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo, P.za Parlamento 1, I-90134 Palermo (Italy); Chen, Y.-J.; Huang, C.-H., E-mail: jimenezea@astropa.inaf.it, E-mail: ciarave@astropa.inaf.it, E-mail: giusi@astropa.inaf.it, E-mail: cecchi-pestellini@astropa.inaf.it, E-mail: asperchen@phy.ncu.edu.tw, E-mail: 101222023@cc.ncu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Central University, Jhongli District, Taoyuan City 32054, Taiwan (China)

    2016-03-20

    We irradiated a (4:1) mixture of water and carbon monoxide with soft X-rays of energies up to 1.2 keV. The experiments were performed using the spherical grating monochromator beamline at National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center in Taiwan. Both monochromatic (300 and 900 eV) and broader energy fluxes (250–1200 eV) were employed. During the irradiation, the H{sub 2}O + CO mixture was ionized, excited, and fragmented, producing a number of reactive species. The composition of the ice has been monitored throughout both the irradiation and warm-up phases. We identified several products, which can be related through a plausible chemical reaction scheme. Such chemistry is initiated by the injection of energetic photoelectrons that produce multiple ionization events generating a secondary electron cascade. The results have been discussed in light of a model for protoplanetary disks around young solar-type stars.

  16. Electromagnetic Coupling Between High Intensity LHC Beams and the Synchrotron Radiation Monitor Light Extraction System

    CERN Document Server

    Andreazza, W; Bravin, E; Caspers, F; Garlasch`e, M; Gras, J; Goldblatt, A; Lefevre, T; Jones, R; Metral, E; Nosych, A; Roncarolo_, F; Salvant, B; Trad, G; Veness, R; Vollinger, C; Wendt, M

    2013-01-01

    The CERN LHC is equipped with two Synchrotron Radiation Monitor (BSRT) systems used to characterise transverse and longitudinal beam distributions. Since the end of the 2011 LHC run the light extraction system, based on a retractable mirror, has suffered deformation and mechanical failure that is correlated to the increase in beam intensity. Temperature probes have associated these observations to a strong heating of the mirror support with a dependence on the longitudinal bunch length and shape, indicating the origin as electromagnetic coupling between the beam and the structure. This paper combines all this information with the aim of characterising and improving the system in view of its upgrade during the current LHC shutdown. Beam-based observations are presented along with electromagnetic and thermomechanical simulations and complemented by laboratory measurements, including the study of the RF properties of different mirror bulk and coating materials.

  17. Storage Rings for Science with: Electron-Positron Collisions, Hadron Collisions and Synchrotron Light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, S.

    2009-01-01

    The author is honored to receive the 2009 Robert Wilson Prize and the recognition that comes with it. The citation for the prize reads, 'For his outstanding contribution to the design and construction of accelerators that has led to the realization of major machines for fundamental science on two continents and his promotion of international collaboration.' In this article, he will discuss the two construction projects, which he led, one (TRISTAN e + e - Collider at KEK) in Japan and the other (RHIC at BNL) in the USA, covering project issues and lessons learned from these projects. Although both of them were built on separate continents, it is interesting to note that they are both built on long off-shore islands. He will also add comments on his recent engagement in the development of the Conceptual Design for the National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II).

  18. In-situ shearing interferometry of National Synchrotron Light Source mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian, S.N.; Rarback, H.; Shu, D.; Takacs, P.Z.

    1987-01-01

    In situ mirror distortion measurements were made with a lateral shearing interferometer on three mirrors in beam line X17T at the National Syn203hrotron Light Source. Lateral shearing interference is insensitive to vibrational motion in five of the six degrees of freedom, so it is well-suited for investigations in the synchrotron radiation (SR) environment. No distortion was seen in an uncooled silicon carbide mirror and in a colled copper alloy mirror on X17TB, but a change in the radius of an uncooled electroless nickel-plated aluminium cylinder mirror of about 6.2% was observed on X17TA. Angular vibrations in the 2 to 3 arc second range were easily observed on one of the beam lines, as was an overall mirror rotation in the arc second range

  19. National Synchrotron Light Source user's manual: Guide to the VUV and x-ray beamlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gmuer, N.F.

    1993-04-01

    The success of the National Synchrotron Light Source is based, in large part, on the size of the user community and the diversity of the scientific and technical disciplines represented by these users. As evidence of this success, the VUV Ring has just celebrated its 10th anniversary and the X-ray Ring will do the same in 1995. In order to enhance this success, the NSLS User's Manual: Guide to the VUV and X-Ray Beamlines - Fifth Edition, is being published. This Manual presents to the scientific community-at-large the current and projected architecture, capabilities and research programs of the various VUV and X-ray beamlines. Also detailed is the research and computer equipment a General User can expect to find and use at each beamline when working at the NSLS. The Manual is updated periodically in order to keep pace with the constant changes on these beamlines

  20. Photoionization mass spectrometer for studies of flame chemistry with a synchrotron light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cool, Terrill A.; McIlroy, Andrew; Qi, Fei; Westmoreland, Phillip R.; Poisson, Lionel; Peterka, Darcy S.; Ahmed, Musahid

    2005-01-01

    A flame-sampling molecular-beam photoionization mass spectrometer, recently designed and constructed for use with a synchrotron-radiation light source, provides significant improvements over previous molecular-beam mass spectrometers that have employed either electron-impact ionization or vacuum ultraviolet laser photoionization. These include superior signal-to-noise ratio, soft ionization, and photon energies easily and precisely tunable [E/ΔE(FWHM)≅250-400] over the 7.8-17-eV range required for quantitative measurements of the concentrations and isomeric compositions of flame species. Mass resolution of the time-of-flight mass spectrometer is m/Δm=400 and sensitivity reaches ppm levels. The design of the instrument and its advantages for studies of flame chemistry are discussed

  1. National synchrotron light source. Activity report, October 1, 1994--September 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothman, E.Z.; Hastings, J. [eds.

    1996-05-01

    This report discusses research conducted at the National Synchrotron Light Source in the following areas: atomic and molecular science; energy dispersive diffraction; lithography, microscopy, and tomography; nuclear physics; scattering and crystallography studies of biological materials; time resolved spectroscopy; UV photoemission and surface science; x-ray absorption spectroscopy; x-ray scattering and crystallography; x-ray topography; the 1995 NSLS annual users` meeting; 17th international free electron laser conference; micro bunches workshop; VUV machine; VUV storage ring parameters; beamline technical improvements; x-ray beamlines; x-ray storage ring parameters; the NSLS source development laboratory; the accelerator test facility (ATF); NSLS facility improvements; NSLS advisory committees; NSLS staff; VUV beamline guide; and x-ray beamline guide.

  2. Synchrotron X-Ray Microdiffraction Studies of Electromigration in Interconnect lines at the Advanced Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, Nobumichi; Chen, Kai; Kunz, Martin

    2009-12-01

    Synchrotron polychromatic X-ray microdiffraction is a particularly suitable technique to study in situ the effect of electromigration in metal interconnects as add spatial resolution to grain orientation and strain sensitivity. This technique has been extensively used at the Advanced Light Source to monitor changes in aluminum and copper interconnect test structures while high-density current is passed into them during accelerated tests at elevated temperature. One of the principal findings is the observation of electromigration-induced plasticity in the metal lines that appear during the very early stages of electromigration. In some of the lines, high density of geometrically necessary dislocation are formed leading to additional diffusion paths causing an enhancement of electromigration effect at test temperature.

  3. National synchrotron light source. Activity report, October 1, 1994--September 30, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothman, E.Z.; Hastings, J.

    1996-05-01

    This report discusses research conducted at the National Synchrotron Light Source in the following areas: atomic and molecular science; energy dispersive diffraction; lithography, microscopy, and tomography; nuclear physics; scattering and crystallography studies of biological materials; time resolved spectroscopy; UV photoemission and surface science; x-ray absorption spectroscopy; x-ray scattering and crystallography; x-ray topography; the 1995 NSLS annual users' meeting; 17th international free electron laser conference; micro bunches workshop; VUV machine; VUV storage ring parameters; beamline technical improvements; x-ray beamlines; x-ray storage ring parameters; the NSLS source development laboratory; the accelerator test facility (ATF); NSLS facility improvements; NSLS advisory committees; NSLS staff; VUV beamline guide; and x-ray beamline guide

  4. NSLS 2005 ACTIVITY REPORT (NATIONAL SYNCHROTRON LIGHT SOURCE ACTIVITY REPORT 2005)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MILLER, L.

    2006-01-01

    efforts on NSLS-II, the world-leading third-generation synchrotron planned for construction at BNL. NSLS-II passed a critical milestone in 2005 with the approval by the Department of Energy of CD-0. BNL has established the NSLS-II Project Organization within the Light Sources Directorate to put in place the management systems and infrastructure necessary to execute this complex undertaking. I will serve as NSLS-II Project Director and also retain my position as Associate Laboratory Director for Light Sources, with the NSLS reporting to me. Another exciting development is the planned establishment of the Joint Photon Sciences Institute (JPSI). JPSI will be devoted to cultivating and fostering collaborative, interdisciplinary R and D in areas of the physical sciences, engineering, and the life sciences that are united in employing synchrotron-based methods. JPSI will also develop new methods and applications that exploit the unique capabilities of NSLS-II and will serve as a gateway for NSLS-II users. JPSI will be a partnership between the Department of Energy and New York State, and I am delighted that New York State Governor George Pataki has pledged $30 million for the construction of the JPSI building. The building will be located adjacent to NSLS-II and will contain offices, meeting rooms, and specialized laboratories. The operating expenses of JPSI and funding for its research programs will be provided by the federal government. Until a permanent NSLS Director is selected, NSLS User Science Division Associate Chair Chi-Chang Kao will serve as the Interim NSLS Director. I couldn't be leaving the facility in more capable hands. Chi-Chang will lead NSLS staff and users this year in the development of a five-year strategic plan for the NSLS, scheduled for completion by the end of summer 2006. The plan will outline the course for the future operation and development of the NSLS, and will help ensure that the future of the NSLS remains as bright as its past

  5. Applications of synchrotron radiation in biology and medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khole, V.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the important role of synchrotron radiation in dealing with problems in various branches of biology and medicine, viz. molecular biology, molecular biophysics, biochemistry, cell biology, X-ray microscopy, molecular surgery, medical diagnostics (angiography, X-ray radiography, forensic medicine, element analysis), environmental biology, pollution control and photobiology. (author). 15 refs., 9 figs

  6. Dynamic response analysis of the LBL Advanced Light Source synchrotron radiation storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, K.

    1993-05-01

    This paper presents the dynamic response analysis of the photon source synchrotron radiation storage ring excited by ground motion measured at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory advanced light source building site. The high spectral brilliance requirement the photon beams of the advanced light source storage ring specified displacement of the quadrupole focusing magnets in the order of 1 micron in vertical motion.There are 19 magnets supported by a 430-inch steel box beam girder. The girder and all magnets are supported by the kinematic mount system normally used in optical equipment. The kinematic mount called a six-strut magnet support system is now considered as an alternative system for supporting SSC magnets in the Super Collider. The effectively designed and effectively operated six-strut support system is now successfully operated for the Advanced Light Source (ALS) accelerator at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. This paper will present the method of analysis and results of the dynamic motion study at the center of the magnets under the most critical excitation source as recorded at the LBL site

  7. Synchrotrons: biomedical applications of the most versatile radiation source of all

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, R.

    2003-01-01

    Synchrotrons are the brightest and most versatile sources of radiation that have ever been devised. The spectrum extends from the infra-red to hard X-rays and the application range is just as wide. Applications range from radiotherapy to archaeology and from genomics to mineral identification. For a property of particle accelerators that was for many years seen as a problem, the transformation has been remarkable. There are now more than 50 synchrotron facilities worldwide and the number is still growing rapidly. Some 25 years after the first dedicated machines came into operation, Australia is about to enter the field with a national facility being built at Monash University in Melbourne. The largest impact of synchrotrons has been in the X-ray region of the spectrum where the performance gain over conventional sources is many orders of magnitude. In fact synchrotrons are the only significant improvement in X-ray production since the rotating anode was first marketed in 1929. The possibilities opened up by the availability of monochromatic, tightly collimated beams of enormous intensity has impacted on practically every area of science. Following a brief overview of synchrotron radiation production, the various prominent techniques that synchrotron radiation has made possible will be reviewed. Particular emphasis will be placed on the biomedical applications which include; 1. advanced imaging techniques exploiting X-ray phase contrast 2. radiotherapy using microbeams 3. structural biology 4. elemental, chemical and molecular structure mapping of live wet samples

  8. Smart*Light: A table-top synchrotron for the investigation of art objects

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    Immediately after its discovery in 1895, X-ray radiation started to make an enormous contribution to the study of artwork. X-ray radiography, MA-XRF scanning and X-ray tomography have been of great help in the understanding, preservation, and authentication of works of art. Notwithstanding major developments over the past century, there are three important intrinsic limitations to X-ray tubes - the conventional X-ray sources used in the lab: their relative low intensity, the poor coherence of radiation and the selective availability of X-ray energies. Since the late 1970s synchrotron sources have become available, which offer high-brilliance, coherent and energy-tunable X-rays, but these are only available at a limited number of specialized facilities worldwide, providing scarce beam time – at a high cost – outside the museum lab. This contribution will discuss the future development and application of a revolutionary, compact, affordable and miniaturized alternative to a synchrotron facility – a tabl...

  9. Future Synchrotron Radiation Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Winick, Herman

    2003-01-01

    Sources of synchrotron radiation (also called synchrotron light) and their associated research facilities have experienced a spectacular growth in number, performance, and breadth of application in the past two to three decades. In 1978 there were eleven electron storage rings used as light sources. Three of these were small rings, all below 500 mega-electron volts (MeV), dedicated to this purpose; the others, with energy up to 5 giga-electron volts (GeV), were used parasitically during the operation of the ring for high energy physics research. In addition, at that time synchrotron radiation from nine cyclic electron synchrotrons, with energy up to 5 GeV, was also used parasitically. At present no cyclic synchrotrons are used, while about 50 electron storage rings are in operation around the world as fully dedicated light sources for basic and applied research in a wide variety of fields. Among these fields are structural molecular biology, molecular environmental science, materials, analytic chemistry, micr...

  10. Synchrotron applications in archaeometallurgy: analysis of high zinc brass astrolabes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newbury, B.; Stephenson, B.; Almer, J.; Notis, M.; Cargill, G. S. III; Stephenson, G. B.; Haeffner, D.

    2003-01-01

    Astrolabes represent the ingenious application of mathematics and astronomy in creating a single instrument that was used for both mapping the heavens and solving everyday problems in medieval Europe and Islamic lands. Constructed as a sort of analog computer to map the heavens, astrolabes were widely used for 700 years in Europe and 1000 years in Islamic lands. In this study, 14 astrolabes (5 European and 9 Islamic) have been analyzed non-destructively utilizing a high-energy collimated x-ray beam produced at the Advanced Photon Source synchrotron at Argonne National Laboratories. By impinging a high energy (71 KeV) beam of x-rays capable of transmitting through the brass astrolabes (up to 1 cm thick), metallurgical data can be produced from the bulk of the samples without any harm to them. Diffraction, fluorescence, and radiography experiments were performed on the astrolabes. Diffraction experiments allowed composition of the bulk samples as well as mechanical deformation and forming histories to be determined. X-ray fluorescence experiments allowed the near surface (∼ 20 μm) compositions to be determined, while radiography allowed mapping of the relative thickness. From these experiments and the forming history, it is possible to obtain information about microstructural characteristics and compositions fo the astrolabes that no other non-destructive technique could furnish. These data were used to learn more about technical and metalworking techniques used by the astrolabe manufacturers, as well as to determine if any astrolabe parts wee later (or modern) replacements. Of the Islamic astrolabes studied, a group of four from the Lahore region in current day Pakistan were found to have abnormally high (> 35%) zinc compositions. These astrolabes, signed by Diya al-Din Muhammad and dating from 1637-1662 AD, provide evidence for direct alloying of metallic zinc and copper to form brass. While metallic zinc is believed to have been produced in the region for many

  11. Geoscience Applications of Synchrotron X-ray Computed Microtomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, M. L.

    2009-05-01

    Computed microtomography is the extension to micron spatial resolution of the CAT scanning technique developed for medical imaging. Synchrotron sources are ideal for the method, since they provide a monochromatic, parallel beam with high intensity. High energy storage rings such as the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory produce x-rays with high energy, high brilliance, and high coherence. All of these factors combine to produce an extremely powerful imaging tool for earth science research. Techniques that have been developed include: - Absorption and phase contrast computed tomography with spatial resolution approaching one micron - Differential contrast computed tomography, imaging above and below the absorption edge of a particular element - High-pressure tomography, imaging inside a pressure cell at pressures above 10GPa - High speed radiography, with 100 microsecond temporal resolution - Fluorescence tomography, imaging the 3-D distribution of elements present at ppm concentrations. - Radiographic strain measurements during deformation at high confining pressure, combined with precise x- ray diffraction measurements to determine stress. These techniques have been applied to important problems in earth and environmental sciences, including: - The 3-D distribution of aqueous and organic liquids in porous media, with applications in contaminated groundwater and petroleum recovery. - The kinetics of bubble formation in magma chambers, which control explosive volcanism. - Accurate crystal size distributions in volcanic systems, important for understanding the evolution of magma chambers. - The equation-of-state of amorphous materials at high pressure using both direct measurements of volume as a function of pressure and also by measuring the change x-ray absorption coefficient as a function of pressure. - The formation of frost flowers on Arctic sea-ice, which is important in controlling the atmospheric chemistry of mercury. - The distribution of

  12. Simulations of X-ray synchrotron beams using the EGS4 code system in medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orion, I.; Henn, A.; Sagi, I.; Dilmanian, F.A.; Pena, L.; Rosenfeld, A.B.

    2001-01-01

    X-ray synchrotron beams are commonly used in biological and medical research. The availability of intense, polarized low-energy photons from the synchrotron beams provides a high dose transfer to biological materials. The EGS4 code system, which includes the photoelectron angular distribution, electron motion inside a magnetic field, and the LSCAT package, found to be the appropriate Monte Carlo code for synchrotron-produced X-ray simulations. The LSCAT package was developed in 1995 for the EGS4 code to contain the routines to simulate the linear polarization, the bound Compton, and the incoherent scattering functions. Three medical applications were demonstrated using the EGS4 Monte Carlo code as a proficient simulation code system for the synchrotron low-energy X-ray source. (orig.)

  13. Design status of the 2.5 GeV National Synchrotron Light Source x-ray ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krinsky, S.; Blumberg, L.; Bittner, J.; Galayda, J.; Heese, R.; Schuchman, J.C.; van Steenbergen, A.

    1979-01-01

    The present state of the design of the 2.5 GeV electron storage ring for the National Synchrotron Light Source is described. This ring will serve as a dedicated source of synchrotron radiation in the wavelength range 0.1 A to 30 A. While maintaining the basic high brigtness features of the eariler developed lattice structure, recent work resulted in a more economical magnet system, is simplified chromaticity corrections, and improved distribution of the X-ray beam lines. In addition, the adequacy of the dynamic aperture for stable betatron oscillations has been verified for a variety of betatron tunes

  14. National synchrotron light source. Activity report, October 1, 1995--September 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothman, E.Z.; Hastings, J.B. [eds.

    1997-05-01

    The hard work done by the synchrotron radiation community, in collaboration with all those using large-scale central facilities during 1995, paid off in FY 1996 through the DOE`s Presidential Scientific Facilities Initiative. In comparison with the other DOE synchrotron radiation facilities, the National Synchrotron Light Source benefited least in operating budgets because it was unable to increase running time beyond 100%-nevertheless, the number of station hours was maintained. The major thrust at Brookhaven came from a 15% increase in budget which allowed the recruitment of seven staff in the beamlines support group and permitted a step increment in the funding of the extremely long list of upgrades; both to the sources and to the beamlines. During the December 1995 shutdown, the VUV Ring quadrant around U10-U12 was totally reconstructed. New front ends, enabling apertures up to 90 mrad on U10 and U12, were installed. During the year new PRTs were in formation for the infrared beamlines, encouraged by the investment the lab was able to commit from the initiative funds and by awards from the Scientific Facilities Initiative. A new PRT, specifically for small and wide angle x-ray scattering from polymers, will start work on X27C in FY 1997 and existing PRTs on X26C and X9B working on macromolecular crystallography will be joined by new members. Plans to replace aging radio frequency cavities by an improved design, originally a painfully slow six or eight year project, were brought forward so that the first pair of cavities (half of the project for the X-Ray Ring) will now be installed in FY 1997. Current upgrades to 350 mA initially and to 438 mA later in the X-Ray Ring were set aside due to lack of funds for the necessary thermally robust beryllium windows. The Scientific Facilities Initiative allowed purchase of all 34 windows in FY 1996 so that the power upgrade will be achieved in FY 1997.

  15. Application of synchrotron radiation to X-ray interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, M [King' s Coll., London (UK). Wheatstone Physics Lab.

    1980-05-01

    X-ray interferometry has been attempted with synchrotron radiation at Hamburg and at Orsay. Experiments will start this year at the Storage Ring Source at Daresbury. This review covers work which has already been completed and outlines the likely trends in phase sensitive X-ray polarimetry, high resolution spectroscopy (including real and imaginary-part EXAFS) and novel experiments with many-beam-case interferometers.

  16. A new fixed-target approach for serial crystallography at synchrotron light sources and X-ray free electron lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roedig, Philip

    2017-07-15

    In the framework of this thesis, a new method for high-speed fixed-target serial crystallography experiments and its applicability to biomacromolecular crystallography at both synchrotron light sources and X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) is presented. The method is based on a sample holder, which can carry up to 20,000 microcrystals and which is made of single-crystalline silicon. Using synchrotron radiation, the structure of Operophtera brumata cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus type 18 polyhedrin, lysozyme and cubic insulin was determined by collecting X-ray diffraction data from multiple microcrystals. Data collection was shown to be possible at both cryogenic and ambient conditions. For room-temperature measurements, both global and specific indications of radiation damage were investigated and characterized. Due to the sieve-like structure of the chip, the microcrystals tend to arrange themselves according to the micropore pattern, which allows for efficient sampling of the sample material. In combination with a high-speed scanning stage, the sample holder was furthermore shown to be highly suitable for serial femtosecond crystallography experiments. By fast raster scanning of the chip through the pulsed X-ray beam of an XFEL, structure determination of a virus, using the example of bovine enterovirus type 2, has been demonstrated at an XFEL for the first time. Hit rates of up to 100% were obtained by the presented method, which refers to a reduction in sample consumption by at least three orders of magnitude with respect to common liquid-jet injection methods used for sample delivery. In this way, the typical time needed for data collection in serial femtosecond crystallography is significantly decreased. The presented technique for sample loading of the chip is easy to learn and results in efficient removal of the surrounding mother liquor, thereby reducing the generated background signal. Since the chip is made of single-crystalline silicon, in principle no

  17. A new fixed-target approach for serial crystallography at synchrotron light sources and X-ray free electron lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roedig, Philip

    2017-07-01

    In the framework of this thesis, a new method for high-speed fixed-target serial crystallography experiments and its applicability to biomacromolecular crystallography at both synchrotron light sources and X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) is presented. The method is based on a sample holder, which can carry up to 20,000 microcrystals and which is made of single-crystalline silicon. Using synchrotron radiation, the structure of Operophtera brumata cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus type 18 polyhedrin, lysozyme and cubic insulin was determined by collecting X-ray diffraction data from multiple microcrystals. Data collection was shown to be possible at both cryogenic and ambient conditions. For room-temperature measurements, both global and specific indications of radiation damage were investigated and characterized. Due to the sieve-like structure of the chip, the microcrystals tend to arrange themselves according to the micropore pattern, which allows for efficient sampling of the sample material. In combination with a high-speed scanning stage, the sample holder was furthermore shown to be highly suitable for serial femtosecond crystallography experiments. By fast raster scanning of the chip through the pulsed X-ray beam of an XFEL, structure determination of a virus, using the example of bovine enterovirus type 2, has been demonstrated at an XFEL for the first time. Hit rates of up to 100% were obtained by the presented method, which refers to a reduction in sample consumption by at least three orders of magnitude with respect to common liquid-jet injection methods used for sample delivery. In this way, the typical time needed for data collection in serial femtosecond crystallography is significantly decreased. The presented technique for sample loading of the chip is easy to learn and results in efficient removal of the surrounding mother liquor, thereby reducing the generated background signal. Since the chip is made of single-crystalline silicon, in principle no

  18. Ultra-high vacuum system of the Brookhaven National Synchrotron Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foerster, C.L.

    1995-12-31

    The rings of the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) have been supplying light to numerous users for approximately a decade and we recently enjoyed a fully conditioned machine vacuum at design currents. A brief description of the X-Ray storage ring, the VUV storage ring and their current supply is given along with some of their features. The ultra-high vacuum system employed for the storage rings and their advantages for the necessary stored beam environments are discussed including, a brief history of time. After several hundred amp hours of stored beam current operation, very little improvement in machine performance was seen due to conditioning. Sections of the rings were vented, to dry nitrogen and replacement components were pre-baked and pre-argon glow conditioned prior to installation. Very little machine conditioning was needed to return to operation after recovering vacuum due to well established conditioning procedures. All straight sections in the X-Ray ring and the VUV ring have been filled with various insertion devices and most are fully operational. Each storage ring has a computer controlled total pressure and partial pressure monitoring system for the ring and its beam ports, to insure good vacuum.

  19. Advanced Light Source, a 1-2 GeV synchrotron radiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkner, K.H.

    1985-01-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS), a dedicated synchrotron radiation facility optimized to generate soft x-ray and vacuum ultraviolet (XUV) light using magnetic insertion devices, was proposed by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory in 1982. It consists of a 1.3-GeV injection system, an electron storage ring optimized at 1.3 GeV (with the capability of 1.9-GeV operation), and a number of photon beamlines emanating from twelve 6-meter-long straight sections. In addition, 24 bending-magnet ports will be available for development. The ALS was conceived as a research tool whose range and power would stimulate fundamentally new research in fields from biology to materials science. The conceptual design and associated cost estimate for the ALS have been completed and reviewed by the US Department of Energy (DOE), but Title I activities have not yet begun. The focus in this study is on the history of the ALS as an example of how a technical construction project was conceived, designed, proposed, and validated within the framework of a national laboratory funded largely by the DOE

  20. Historical overview of the synchrotron radiation research in Japan. From the view point of creative works in the development of light sources and related technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamitsubo, Hiromichi

    2007-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation research in Japan started in early 1960's when the first electron synchrotron was commissioned at the Institute of Nuclear Study (INS), University of Tokyo (UT). This review covers the parasite use of the INS electron synchrotron and research works done at the light sources in Japan such as SOR-RING, Photon Factory (KEK-PF) Accumulator Ring (KEK-AR), and SPring-8. History of synchrotron radiation research in Japan was overviewed by paying attention to the creative works in the development of light sources and related technology, as well as the pioneering works on the development of experimental techniques and methods. At present there are more than ten synchrotron radiation sources are in operation and the number of their users, especially users from industries in Japan is increasing very rapidly and the research fields of users are also developing. Accordingly the synchrotron radiation facility becomes more and more indispensable facility in the society in Japan. (author)

  1. Synchrotron-radiation research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    The use of radiation from synchrotron sources has started a renaissance in materials, physics, chemistry, and biology. Synchrotron radiation has advantages over conventional x rays in that its source brightness is a thousand times greater throughout a continuous energy spectrum, and resonances are produced with specific electron energy levels. Two major synchrotron radiation sources are operated by DOE: the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory at SLAC, and the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven

  2. Applications of Synchrotron Radiation Micro Beams in Cell Micro Biology and Medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Ide-Ektessabi, Ari

    2007-01-01

    This book demonstrates the applications of synchrotron radiation in certain aspects of cell microbiology, specifically non-destructive elemental analyses, chemical-state analyses and imaging (distribution) of the elements within a cell. The basics for understanding and applications of synchrotron radiation are also described to make the contents easier to be understood for a wide group of researchers in medical and biological sciences who might not be familiar with the physics of synchrotron radiation. The two main techniques that are discussed in this book are the x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) and the x-ray fine structure analysis (XAFS). Application of these techniques in investigations of several important scientific fields, such as neurodegeneration and other diseases related to cell malfunctioning, are demonstrated in this book.

  3. Synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallmeier, K.H.; Meisel, A.; Ranft, J.

    1982-01-01

    The physical background and the properties of synchrotron radiation are described. The radiation offers many useful applications in the fields of spectroscopy and structural investigations. Some examples are given

  4. Synchrotron radiation spectroscopy including X-ray absorption spectroscopy and industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshima, Masaharu

    2016-01-01

    Recent trends of synchrotron radiation spectroscopy, especially X-ray absorption spectroscopy for industrial applications are introduced based on our latest results for energy efficient devices such as magnetic RAM, LSI and organic FET, power generation devices such as fuel cells, and energy storage devices such as Li ion batteries. Furthermore, future prospects of spectroscopy with higher energy resolution, higher spatial resolution, higher temporal resolution and operando spectroscopy taking advantage of much brighter synchrotron radiation beam at low emittance SR rings are discussed from the view point of practical applications. (author)

  5. Physics and technology challenges of ultra low emittance synchrotron light sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krinsky, S.

    1991-01-01

    There is a great activity throughout the world in the development of synchrotron radiation facilities to serve as sources for basic and applied research. We discuss some of the the opportunities and challenges presented by the development of ever higher brightness synchrotron radiation sources. 39 refs.

  6. Atomic physics research with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crasemann, B.; Wuilleumier, F.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter discusses applications of synchrotron light in atomic and molecular physics. Use of the radiation from storage rings has expanded and lent access to new areas of absorption and photoemission spectroscopy and scattering experiments. Techniques applied in connection with synchrotron radiation are discussed including absorption spectroscopy, photoelectron spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy and X-ray scattering. Problem areas that are being studied by the techniques mentioned above are discussed. Synchrotron radiation has provided the means for measuring the threshold-excitation and interference effects that signal the breakdown of the two-step model of atomic excitation/deexcitation. Synchrotron radiation provides more means of excited-state photoionization measurements

  7. Construction and maintenance of SUNY facilities at the National Synchrotron Light Source. Progress report, 1 July 1982-1 July 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigeleisen, J.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental facilities on the X-21 beam line at the National Synchrotron Light Source are described, and synchrotron radiation experiments performed by PRT members are discussed. The report includes a description of the beam line development stages and the experimental equipment

  8. Infrared synchrotron radiation from electron storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, W.D.; Williams, G.P.

    1983-01-01

    Simple and useful approximations, valid at infrared wavelengths, to the equations for synchrotron radiation are presented and used to quantify the brightness and power advantage of current synchrotron radiation light sources over conventional infrared broadband laboratory sources. The Daresbury Synchrotron Radiation Source (SRS) and the Brookhaven National Synchrotron Light Source (vacuum ultraviolet) [NSLS(VUV)] storage rings are used as examples in the calculation of the properties of infrared synchrotron radiation. The pulsed nature of the emission is also discussed, and potential areas of application for the brightness, power, and time structure advantages are presented. The use of infrared free electron lasers and undulators on the next generation of storage ring light sources is briefly considered

  9. Launch of the I13-2 data beamline at the Diamond Light Source synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodey, A J; Rau, C

    2017-01-01

    Users of the Diamond-Manchester Imaging Branchline I13-2 commonly spend many months analysing the large volumes of tomographic data generated in a single beamtime. This is due to the difficulties inherent in performing complicated, computationally-expensive analyses on large datasets with workstations of limited computing power. To improve productivity, a ‘data beamline’ was launched in January 2016. Users are scheduled for visits to the data beamline in the same way as for regular beamlines, with bookings made via the User Administration System and provision of financial support for travel and subsistence. Two high-performance graphics workstations were acquired, with sufficient RAM to enable simultaneous analysis of several tomographic volumes. Users are given high priority on Diamond’s central computing cluster for the duration of their visit, and if necessary, archived data are restored to a high-performance disk array. Within the first six months of operation, thirteen user visits were made, lasting an average of 4.5 days each. The I13-2 data beamline was the first to be launched at Diamond Light Source and, to the authors’ knowledge, the first to be formalised in this way at any synchrotron. (paper)

  10. Launch of the I13-2 data beamline at the Diamond Light Source synchrotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodey, A. J.; Rau, C.

    2017-06-01

    Users of the Diamond-Manchester Imaging Branchline I13-2 commonly spend many months analysing the large volumes of tomographic data generated in a single beamtime. This is due to the difficulties inherent in performing complicated, computationally-expensive analyses on large datasets with workstations of limited computing power. To improve productivity, a ‘data beamline’ was launched in January 2016. Users are scheduled for visits to the data beamline in the same way as for regular beamlines, with bookings made via the User Administration System and provision of financial support for travel and subsistence. Two high-performance graphics workstations were acquired, with sufficient RAM to enable simultaneous analysis of several tomographic volumes. Users are given high priority on Diamond’s central computing cluster for the duration of their visit, and if necessary, archived data are restored to a high-performance disk array. Within the first six months of operation, thirteen user visits were made, lasting an average of 4.5 days each. The I13-2 data beamline was the first to be launched at Diamond Light Source and, to the authors’ knowledge, the first to be formalised in this way at any synchrotron.

  11. A scanning photoelectron microscope (SPEM) at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ade, H.; Kirz, J.; Hulbert, S.; Johnson, E.; Anderson, E.; Kern, D.; Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA; International Business Machines Corp., Yorktown Heights, NY

    1989-01-01

    We are in the process of developing and commissioning a scanning photoelectron microscope (SPEM) at the X1A beamline of the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). It is designed to make use of the Soft X-ray Undulator (SXU) at the NSLS. This high brightness source illuminates a Fresnel zone plate, which forms a focused probe, ≤ 0.2μm in size, on the specimen surface. A grating monochromator selects the photon energy in the 400-800 eV range with an energy resolution of better than 1 eV. The expected flux in the focus is in the 5 x 10 7 - 10 9 photons/s range. A single pass Cylindrical Mirror Analyzer (CMA) is used to record photoemission spectra, or to form an image within a fixed electron energy bandwidth as the specimen is mechanically scanned. As a first test, a 1000 mesh Au grid was successfully imaged with a resolution of about 1μm and the CMA tuned to the Au 4 f photoelectron peak. Once it is commissioned, a program is planned which will utilize the microscope to study beam sensitive systems, such as thin oxide/sub-oxide films of alumina and silica, and ultimately various adsorbates on these films. 14 refs., 4 figs

  12. Latest experience on insertion devices at the National Synchrotron Light Source-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Toshiya; Cappadoro, Peter; Corwin, Todd

    2016-01-01

    National Synchrotron Light Source-II (NSLS-II) is the latest storage ring of 3 GeV energy with the horizontal emittance of the electron beam being 0.9 nm.rad. Nine In-Vacuum Undulators (IVUs) are utilized at the NSLS-II as of February 2016. All IVUs have a unique side window derived from the experience from the CHESS facility in Cornell University. An R and D activity called 'Vacuum Seal Test' was conducted to ensure the viability of aluminum wire seal. Another R and D activity to develop a measurement system for Cryogenic Permanent Magnet Undulator (CPMU) was also performed. Other in-air devices, namely damping wigglers (DWs) and elliptically polarizing undulators (EPUs) utilize extruded aluminum chambers with Non-Evaporable Getter (NEG) coating. The beam-based integral estimates were obtained from the virtual kicks at the upstream and downstream of the undulator that best fit the measured orbit distortion in a model lattice with Tracy. In some cases, there are fairly large discrepancies between magnetic measurement data and observed integrals by the beam. Beam studies were carried out to explain the discrepancies mentioned earlier. The latest experiences on ID development and commissioning are discussed in conjunction with related activities in the world. (author)

  13. New Perspectives for Advanced Science at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolentino, Helio C.N.

    2003-01-01

    The LNLS (Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron) is a national laboratory in Brazil that operates a 1.37 GeV storage ring for synchrotron light users since July 1997. Eleven bending magnet beamlines are open to a wide range of possibilities for research in ultra-violet and X-ray spectroscopy, single crystal and powder diffraction, magnetic and anomalous scattering, protein crystallography, X-ray fluorescence, X-ray lithography and small angle X-ray scattering. The recent conclusion of the booster injector opened the way for insertion devices to be accommodated in the four straight sections available. A multipolar wiggler, for protein crystallography using the MAD technique, is the first planned to be installed during 2003. The construction of the first LNLS undulator, for the vaccum ultra-violet and soft X-ray domain, has already started and will expand the possibilities in atomic, molecular and surface physics, as well as in catalysis and magnetism. LNLS has expanded its infra-structure as an open multidisciplinary research laboratory into complementary areas, such as electron and scanning probe microscopy, nanostructure synthesis and molecular biology. Many technological and scientific achievements have been attained in these last five years. Some of them will be highlighted here, with emphasis in the area of nanostructured and magnetic materials

  14. Induced Radioactivity in Lead Shielding at the National Synchrotron Light Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Vinita J; Schaefer, Charles; Kahnhauser, Henry

    2017-06-01

    The National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory was shut down in September 2014. Lead bricks used as radiological shadow shielding within the accelerator were exposed to stray radiation fields during normal operations. The FLUKA code, a fully integrated Monte Carlo simulation package for the interaction and transport of particles and nuclei in matter, was used to estimate induced radioactivity in this shielding and stainless steel beam pipe from known beam losses. The FLUKA output was processed using MICROSHIELD® to estimate on-contact exposure rates with individually exposed bricks to help design and optimize the radiological survey process. This entire process can be modeled using FLUKA, but use of MICROSHIELD® as a secondary method was chosen because of the project's resource constraints. Due to the compressed schedule and lack of shielding configuration data, simple FLUKA models were developed. FLUKA activity estimates for stainless steel were compared with sampling data to validate results, which show that simple FLUKA models and irradiation geometries can be used to predict radioactivity inventories accurately in exposed materials. During decommissioning 0.1% of the lead bricks were found to have measurable levels of induced radioactivity. Post-processing with MICROSHIELD® provides an acceptable secondary method of estimating residual exposure rates.

  15. NSLS [National Synchrotron Light Source] X-19A beamline performance for x-ray absorption measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C.Y.; Penner-Hahn, J.E.; Stefan, P.M.

    1989-01-01

    Characterization of the X-19A beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) is described. The beamline is designed for high resolution x-ray absorption spectroscopy over a wide energy range. All of the beamline optical components are compatible with ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) operation. This permits measurements to be made in a window-less mode, thereby facilitating lower energy (<4 KeV) studies. To upgrade the beamline performance, several possible improvements in instrumentation and practice are discussed to increase photon statistics with an optimum energy resolution, while decreasing the harmonic contamination and noise level. A special effort has been made to improve the stability and UHV compatibility of the monochromator system. Initial x-ray absorption results demonstrate the capabilities of this beamline for x-ray absorption studies of low Z elements (e.g. S) in highly dilute systems. The future use of this beamline for carrying out various x-ray absorption experiments is presented. 10 refs., 4 figs

  16. Generating picosecond x-ray pulses in synchrotron light sources using dipole kickers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Guo

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The duration of the x-ray pulse generated at a synchrotron light source is typically tens of picoseconds. Shorter pulses are highly desired by the users. In electron storage rings, the vertical beam size is usually orders of magnitude less than the bunch length due to radiation damping; therefore, a shorter pulse can be obtained by slitting the vertically tilted bunch. Zholents proposed tilting the bunch using rf deflection. We found that tilted bunches can also be generated by a dipole magnet kick. A vertical tilt is developed after the kick in the presence of nonzero chromaticity. The tilt was successfully observed and a 4.2-ps pulse was obtained from a 27-ps electron bunch at the Advanced Photon Source. Based on this principle, we propose a short-pulse generation scheme that produces picosecond x-ray pulses at a repetition rate of 1–2 kHz, which can be used for pump-probe experiments.

  17. Operation of general purpose stepping motor controllers at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stubblefield, F.W.

    1986-10-01

    A prototype and four copies of a general purpose subsystem for mechanical positioning of detectors, samples, and beam line optical elements which constitute experiments at the National Synchrotron Light Source facility of Brookhaven National Laboratory have been constructed and placed into operation. Construction of a sixth subsystem is nearing completion. The subsystems effect mechanical positioning by controlling a set of stepping motors and their associated position encoders. The units are general purpose in the sense that they receive commands over a standard 9600 baud asynchronous serial line compatible with the RS-232-C electrical signal standard, generate TTL-compatible streams of stepping pulses which can be used with a wide variety of stepping motors, and read back position values from a number of different types and models of position encoder. The basic structure of the motor controller subsystem will be briefly reviewed. Short descriptions of the positioning apparatus actuated at each of the test and experiment stations employing a motor control unit are given. Additions and enhancements to the subsystem made in response to problems indicated by actual operation of the four installed units are described in more detail

  18. Visible-light beam size monitors using synchrotron radiation at CESR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, S.T., E-mail: sw565@cornell.edu [Cornell Laboratory for Accelerator-Based Science and Education, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Rubin, D.L.; Conway, J.; Palmer, M.; Hartill, D. [Cornell Laboratory for Accelerator-Based Science and Education, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Campbell, R.; Holtzapple, R. [Physics Department, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, CA 93407 (United States)

    2013-03-01

    A beam profile monitor utilizing visible synchrotron radiation (SR) from a bending magnet has been designed and installed in Cornell Electron-Positron Storage Ring (CESR). The monitor employs a double-slit interferometer to measure both the horizontal and vertical beam sizes over a wide range of beam currents. By varying the separation of the slits, beam sizes ranging from 50 to 500 μm can be measured with a resolution of approximately 5 μm. To measure larger beam size (>500 μm), direct imaging can be employed by rotating the double slits away from SR beam path. By imaging the π-polarized component of SR, a small vertical beam size (∼70 μm) was measured during an undulator test run in CESR, which was consistent with the interferometer measurement. To measure the bunch length, a beam splitter is inserted to direct a fraction of light into a streak camera setup. This beam size monitor measures the transverse and longitudinal beam sizes simultaneously, which is successfully used for intrabeam scattering studies. Detailed error analysis is discussed.

  19. Operation of general purpose stepping motor controllers at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stubblefield, F.W.

    1987-01-01

    A prototype and four copies of a general purpose subsystem for mechanical positioning of detectors, samples, and beam line optical elements which constitute experiments at the National Synchrotron Light Source facility of Brookhaven National Laboratory have been constructed and placed into operation. Construction of a sixth subsystem is nearing completion. The subsystems effect mechanical positioning by controlling a set of stepping motors and their associated position encoders. The units are general purpose in the sense that they receive commands over a standard 9600 baud asynchronous serial line compatible with the RS-232-C electrical signal standard, generate TTL-compatible streams of stepping pulses which can be used with a wide variety of stepping motors, and read back position values from a number of different types and models of position encoder. The basic structure of the motor controller subsystem is briefly reviewed. Short descriptions of the positioning apparatus actuated at each of the test and experiment stations employing a motor control unit are given. Additions and enhancements to the sub-system made in response to problems indicated by actual operation of the four installed units are described in more detail

  20. Synchrotron X-Ray Microdiffraction Studies of Electromigration in Interconnect lines at the Advanced Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Nobumichi; Chen, Kai; Kunz, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Synchrotron polychromatic X-ray microdiffraction is a particularly suitable technique to study in situ the effect of electromigration in metal interconnects as add spatial resolution to grain orientation and strain sensitivity. This technique has been extensively used at the Advanced Light Source to monitor changes in aluminum and copper interconnect test structures while high-density current is passed into them during accelerated tests at elevated temperature. One of the principal findings is the observation of electromigration-induced plasticity in the metal lines that appear during the very early stages of electromigration. In some of the lines, high density of geometrically necessary dislocation are formed leading to additional diffusion paths causing an enhancement of electromigration effect at test temperature. This paper presents an overview of the principal results obtained from X-ray microdiffraction studies of electromigration effects on aluminum and copper interconnects at the ALS throughout continuous efforts that spanned over a decade (1998-2008) from approximately 40 weeks of combined beamtime.

  1. Radiation monitoring in a synchrotron light source facility using magnetically levitated electrode ionization chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichiki, Hirofumi; Kawaguchi, Toshirou; Utsunomiya, Yoshitomo; Ishibashi, Kenji; Ikeda, Nobuo; Korenaga, Kazuhito

    2009-01-01

    We developed a highly accurate differential-type automatic radiation dosimeter to measure very low radiation doses. The dosimeter had two ionization chambers, each of which had a magnetically levitated electrode and it was operated in a repetitive-time integration mode. We first installed the differential-type automatic radiation dosimeter with MALICs at a high-energy electron accelerator facility (Kyushu Synchrotron Light Research Center Facility) and measured the background and ionizing radiations in the facility as well as the gaseous radiation in air. In the background dose measurements, the accuracy of the repetitive-time integration-type dosimeter was three times better than that of a commercial ionization chamber. When the radiation dose increased momentarily at the electron injection from the linac to the operating storage ring, the dosimeter with repetitive-time integral mode gave a successful response to the actual dose variation. The gaseous radiation dose in the facility was at the same level as that in Fukuoka City. We confirmed that the dosimeter with magnetically levitated electrode ionization chambers was usable in the accelerator facility, in spite of its limited response when operated in the repetitive-time integration mode. (author)

  2. National Synchrotron Light Source Facility Manual Maintenance Management Program. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fewell, N.

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of this program s to meet the policy and objectives for the management and performance of cost-effective maintenance and repair of the National Synchrotron Light Source, as required by the US Department of Energy order DOE 433O.4A. It is the DOE`s policy that: The maintenance management program for the NSLS be consistent with this Order and that NSLS property is maintained in a manner which promotes operational safety, worker health, environmental protection and compliance, property preservation, and cost-effectiveness while meeting the NSLS`s programmatic mission. Structures, components and systems (active and passive) that are imporant to safe operation of the NSLS shall be subject to a maintenance program to ensure that they meet or exceed their design requirements throughout the life of the NSLS. Periodic examination of structures, systems components and equipment be performed to determine deterioration or technical obsolescence which may threaten performance and/or safety. Primary responsibility, authority, and accountability for the direction and management of the maintenance program at the NSLS reside with the line management assigned direct programmatic responsibility. Budgeting and accounting for maintenance programs are consistent with DOE Orders guidance.

  3. Synchrotron X-Ray Microdiffraction Studies of Electromigration in Interconnect lines at the Advanced Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, Nobumichi; Chen, Kai; Kunz, Martin

    2009-05-01

    Synchrotron polychromatic X-ray microdiffraction is a particularly suitable technique to study in situ the effect of electromigration in metal interconnects as add spatial resolution to grain orientation and strain sensitivity. This technique has been extensively used at the Advanced Light Source to monitor changes in aluminum and copper interconnect test structures while high-density current is passed into them during accelerated tests at elevated temperature. One of the principal findings is the observation of electromigration-induced plasticity in the metal lines that appear during the very early stages of electromigration. In some of the lines, high density of geometrically necessary dislocation are formed leading to additional diffusion paths causing an enhancement of electromigration effect at test temperature. This paper presents an overview of the principal results obtained from X-ray microdiffraction studies of electromigration effects on aluminum and copper interconnects at the ALS throughout continuous efforts that spanned over a decade (1998-2008) from approximately 40 weeks of combined beamtime.

  4. Synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knotek, M.L.

    1987-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation has had a revolutionary effect on a broad range of scientific studies, from physics, chemistry and metallurgy to biology, medicine and geoscience. The situation during the last decade has been one of very rapid growth, there is a great vitality to the field and a capability has been given to a very broad range of scientific disciplines which was undreamed of just a decade or so ago. Here we will discuss some of the properties of synchrotron radiation that makes it so interesting and something of the sources in existence today including the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). The NSLS is one of the new facilities built specifically for synchrotron radiation research and the model that was developed there for involvement of the scientific community is a good one which provides some good lessons for these facilities and others

  5. Monochromator for synchrotron light with temperature controlled by electrical current on silicon crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cusatis, Cesar; Souza, Paulo E.N. [Universidade Federal do Parana (LORXI/UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica. Lab. de Optica de Raios X e Instrumentacao; Franco, Margareth Kobayaski; Kakuno, Edson [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincroton (LNLS), Campinas, SP (Brazil); Gobbi, Angelo; Carvalho Junior, Wilson de [Centro de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento em Telecomunicacoes (CPqD), Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full text. doped silicon crystal was used simultaneously as a monochromator, sensor and actuator in such way that its temperature could be controlled. Ohmic contacts allowed resistance measurements on a perfect silicon crystal, which were correlated to its temperature. Using the ohmic contacts, an electrical current caused Joule heating on the monochromator that was used to control its temperature. A simple stand-alone electronic box controlled the system. The device was built and tested with white beam synchrotron light on the double crystal monochromator of the XRD line of LNLS, Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron, Campinas. The first crystal of a double crystal monochromator determines the energy that is delivered to a synchrotron experimental station and its temperature instability is a major source of energy and intensity instability. If the (333) silicon monochromator is at theta Bragg near 45 degree the variation of the diffraction angle is around one second of arc per degree Kelvin. It may take several minutes for the first crystal temperature to stabilize at the beginning of the station operation when the crystal and its environment are cold. With water refrigeration, the average overall temperature of the crystal may be constant, but the temperature of the surface changes with and without the white beam. The time used to wait for stabilization of the beam energy/intensity is lost unless the temperature of the crystal surface is kept constant. One solution for keeping the temperature of the monochromator and its environment constant or nearly constant is Joule heating it with a controlled small electrical current flowing on the surface of a doped perfect crystal. When the white beam is on, this small amount of extra power will be more concentrated at the beam footpath because the resistance is lower in this region due to the higher temperature. In addition, if the crystal itself is used to detect the temperature variation by measuring the electrical

  6. Moving at the speed of light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    A short survey is given about synchrotron radiation research. In this connection the US National Synchrotron light source is described. Then the application to angiography is considered. Furthermore some further synchrotron radiation sources in USA and the synchrotron radiation research in Novosibirsk are considered. Finally the development of Wigglers and undulators is discussed. (HSI).

  7. Applications of synchrotron x-ray diffraction topography to fractography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilello, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    Fractographs have been taken using a variety of probes each of which produces different types of information. Methods which have been used to examine fracture surfaces include: (a) optical microscopy, particularly interference contrast methods, (b) scanning electron microscopy (SEM), (c) SEM with electron channelling, (d) SEM with selected-area electron channelling, (e) Berg-Barrett (B-B) topography, and now (f) synchrotron x-radiation fractography (SXRF). This review concentrated on the role that x-ray methods can play in such studies. In particular, the ability to nondestructively assess the subsurface microstructure associated with the fracture to depths of the order of 5 to 10 μm becomes an important attribute for observations of a large class of semi-brittle metals, semiconductors and ceramics

  8. Free electron laser facilities employing a 150-MeV linac injector for Saga synchrotron light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomimasu, T.; Yasumoto, M.; Ochiai, Y.; Ishibashi, M.; Murayama, T.

    1999-01-01

    Free electron laser (FEL) facilities as the FELI FEL Facility are proposed, for which a 150-MeV linac type injector for a Saga synchrotron light source (SLS) is employed in FEL mode. The linac has two operating modes; short macropulse mode a 1 μs at 150 MeV for injection to a 1 - 1.3-GeV third generation type storage ring and long macropulse mode of 12 μs at 100 MeV for four FEL Facilities. The macropulse beam consists of a train of several ps, 0.6 nC microbunches (peak current 100 A) repeating at 89.25 MHz. We are aiming to supply high power level photon beams covering an attractive wavelength range from 0.05 nm (25 keV) to 200 μm (0.006 eV) for scientific researches, bio-medical and industrial applications, using the Saga third generation type SLS with a superconducting wiggler and the proposed four FEL Facilities. (author)

  9. XUV synchrotron optical components for the Advanced Light Source: Summary of the requirements and the developmental program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinney, W.; Irick, S.; Lunt, D.

    1992-07-01

    We give a brief summary of the requirements for water cooled optical components for the Advanced Light Source (ALS), a third generation synchrotron radiation source under construction at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). Materials choices, surface figure and smoothness specifications, and metrology systems for measuring the plated metal surfaces are discussed. Results from a finished water cooled copper alloy mirror will be used to demonstrate the state of the art in optical metrology with the Takacs Long Trace Profiler (LTP II)

  10. NSLS 2002 ACTIVITY REPORT (NATIONAL SYNCHROTRON LIGHT SOURCE ACTIVITY REPORT 2002)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MILLER, L.

    2003-01-01

    The year 2002 has been another highly productive year at the NSLS and an impressive array of highlights from this scientific activity is included in this Activity Report. They have taken significant steps this past year toward better supporting beamlines and users. The number of user science support staff has been increased by about ten positions. They have also worked with their users, DOE, and the other DOE synchrotron facilities to develop a new, more flexible user access policy. Doing things safely remains a top priority, and they are reviewing their training and safety requirements to ensure they are thorough and everyone fully understands the necessity of abiding by them. A major development this past year was approval from DOE for BNL to begin the conceptual design of the Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN). The CFN will have a dramatic impact on nanoscience in the Northeast, facilitating the synthesis, characterization and scientific exploration of new classes of novel nanostructured materials. It will be located adjacent to the NSLS and a number of NSLS beamlines will be optimized to serve the needs of the nanoscience community. The NSLS and CFN user programs will be coordinated to facilitate easy access to both in a single visit. The VUV and X-Ray rings operated with excellent reliability as a result of continued attention to aging critical systems. The DUV-FEL achieved several important milestones this year, including production of Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE) laser light at 400 nm and 266 nm, laser seeded saturation at 266 nm, and the first observation of High Gain Harmonic Generation (HGHG) light at 266 nm, with a third harmonic at 89 nm. Light from the DUV-FEL is now enabling user science experiments in ion pair imaging and they look forward to an expanding user program and a continued series of pioneering accelerator physics studies. In 2002, they continued to work with their user community to develop a plan to upgrade the

  11. NSLS 2007 Activity Report (National Synchrotron Light Source Activity Report 2007)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller ,L.; Nasta, K.

    2008-05-01

    The National Synchrotron Light Source is one of the world's most productive and cost-effective user facilities. With 2,219 individual users, about 100 more than last year, and a record-high 985 publications, 2007 was no exception. In addition to producing an impressive array of science highlights, which are included in this Activity Report, many NSLS users were honored this year for their scientific accomplishments. Throughout the year, there were major strides in the development of the scientific programs by strengthening strategic partnerships with major research resources and with the Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN). Of particular note, the Consortium for Materials Properties Research in Earth Sciences (COMPRES) received renewed funding for the next five years through the National Science Foundation. COMPRES operates four high-pressure NSLS beamlines--X17B2, X17B3, X17C, and U2A--and serves the earth science community as well as the rapidly expanding segment of researchers using high-pressure techniques in materials, chemical, and energy-related sciences. A joint appointment was made between the NSLS and Stony Brook University to further enhance interactions with COMPRES. There was major progress on two key beamline projects outlined in the Five-Year Strategic Plan: the X25 beamline upgrade and the construction of the X9 small angle scattering (SAXS) beamline. The X25 overhaul, which began with the installation of the in-vacuum mini-gap undulator (MGU) in January 2006, is now complete. X25 is once again the brightest beamline for macromolecular crystallography at the NSLS, and in tandem with the X29 undulator beamline, it will keep the NSLS at the cutting edge in this important area of research. Upgrade work associated with the new MGU and the front end for the X9 SAXS beamline--jointly developed by the NSLS and the CFN--also was completed. Beamline X9 will host the SAXS program that currently exists at beamline X21 and will provide new microbeam

  12. Synchrotron applications of an amorphous silicon flat-panel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. H.; Can Aydiner, C.; Almer, J.; Bernier, J.; Chapman, K. W.; Chupas, P. J.; Haeffner, D.; Kump, K.; Lee, P. L.; Lienert, U.; Miceli, A.; Vera, G.; LANL; GE Healthcare

    2008-01-01

    A GE Revolution 41RT flat-panel detector (GE 41RT) from GE Healthcare (GE) has been in operation at the Advanced Photon Source for over two years. The detector has an active area of 41 cm x 41 cm with 200 (micro)m x 200 (micro)m pixel size. The nominal working photon energy is around 80 keV. The physical set-up and utility software of the detector system are discussed in this article. The linearity of the detector response was measured at 80.7 keV. The memory effect of the detector element, called lag, was also measured at different exposure times and gain settings. The modulation transfer function was measured in terms of the line-spread function using a 25 (micro)m x 1 cm tungsten slit. The background (dark) signal, the signal that the detector will carry without exposure to X-rays, was measured at three different gain settings and with exposure times of 1 ms to 15 s. The radial geometric flatness of the sensor panel was measured using the diffraction pattern from a CeO 2 powder standard. The large active area and fast data-capturing rate, i.e. 8 frames s -1 in radiography mode, 30 frames s -1 in fluoroscopy mode, make the GE 41RT one of a kind and very versatile in synchrotron diffraction. The loading behavior of a Cu/Nb multilayer material is used to demonstrate the use of the detector in a strain-stress experiment. Data from the measurement of various samples, amorphous SiO 2 in particular, are presented to show the detector effectiveness in pair distribution function measurements

  13. Terahertz Coherent Synchrotron Radiation from Femtosecond Laser Modulation of the Electron Beam at the Advanced Light Source

    CERN Document Server

    Byrd, John; Martin, Michael C; Robin, David; Sannibale, Fernando; Schönlein, Robert W; Zholents, Alexander; Zolotorev, Max S

    2005-01-01

    At the Advanced Light Source (ALS), the "femtoslicing" beamline is in operation since 1999 for the production of x-ray synchrotron radiation pulses with femtosecond duration. The mechanism used for generating the short x-ray pulses induces at the same time temporary structures in the electron bunch longitudinal distribution with very short characteristic length. Such structures emit intense coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in the terahertz frequency range. This CSR, whose measured intensity is routinely used as a diagnostics for the tune-up of the femtoslicing experiments, represents a potential source of terahertz radiation with very interesting features. Several measurements have been performed for its characterization and in this paper an updated description of the experimental results and of their interpretation is presented.

  14. Development of microfluidic devices for biomedical applications of synchrotron radiation infrared microspectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Birarda, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    2009/2010 ABSTRACT DEVELOPMENT OF MICROFLUIDIC DEVICES FOR BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS OF SYNCHROTRON RADIATION INFRARED MICROSPECTROSCOPY by Birarda Giovanni The detection and measurement of biological processes in a complex living system is a discipline at the edge of Physics, Biology, and Engineering, with major scientific challenges, new technological applications and a great potential impact on dissection of phenomena occurring at tissue, cell, and sub cellular level. The ...

  15. Synchrotron radiation and biomedical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luccio, A.

    1986-08-01

    In this lecture we describe the characteristics of Synchrotron radiation as a source of X rays. We discuss the properties of SR arc sources, wigglers, undulators and the use of backscattering of laser light. Applications to angiography, X ray microscopy and tomography are reviewed. 16 refs., 23 figs

  16. Application of CHESS single-bounce capillaries at synchrotron beamlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, R.; Szebenyi, T.; Pfeifer, M.; Woll, A.; Smilgies, D.-M.; Finkelstein, K.; Dale, D.; Wang, Y.; Vila-Comamala, J.; Gillilan, R.; Cook, M.; Bilderback, D. H.

    2014-03-01

    Single-bounce capillaries are achromatic X-ray focusing optics that can provide efficient and high demagnification focusing with large numerical apertures. Capillary fabrication at CHESS can be customized according to specific application requirements. Exemplary applications are reviewed in this paper, as well as recent progress on condensers for high-resolution transmission X-ray microscopy and small focal size capillaries.

  17. The Advanced Light Source: A new 1.5 GeV synchrotron radiation facility at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlachter, F.

    1990-01-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS), presently under construction at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, will be the world's brightest synchrotron-radiation source of ultraviolet and soft x-ray photons when it opens its doors to users in April 1993. The ALS is a third-generation source that is based on a low-emittance electron storage ring, optimized for operation at 1.5 GeV, with long straight sections for insertion devices. Its naturally short pulses are ideal for time-resolved measurements. Undulators will produce high-brightness beams from below 10 eV to above 2 keV; wigglers will produce high fluxes of harder x-rays to energies above 10 keV. The ALS will support an extensive research program in a broad spectrum of scientific and technological areas. The high brightness will open new areas of research in the materials sciences, such as spatially resolved spectroscopy (spectromicroscopy). Biological applications will include x-ray microscopy with element-specific sensitivity in the water window of the spectrum where water is much more transparent than protein. The ALS will be an excellent research tool for atomic physics and chemistry because the high flux will allow measurements to be made with tenuous gas-phase targets. Undulator radiation can excite the K shell of elements up to silicon and the L shell of elements up to krypton, and wiggler radiation can excite the L shell of nearly every element. The ALS will operate as a national user facility; interested scientists are encouraged to contact the ALS Scientific Program Coordinator to explore their scientific and technological research interests

  18. Ultra high-speed x-ray imaging of laser-driven shock compression using synchrotron light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olbinado, Margie P.; Cantelli, Valentina; Mathon, Olivier; Pascarelli, Sakura; Grenzer, Joerg; Pelka, Alexander; Roedel, Melanie; Prencipe, Irene; Laso Garcia, Alejandro; Helbig, Uwe; Kraus, Dominik; Schramm, Ulrich; Cowan, Tom; Scheel, Mario; Pradel, Pierre; De Resseguier, Thibaut; Rack, Alexander

    2018-02-01

    A high-power, nanosecond pulsed laser impacting the surface of a material can generate an ablation plasma that drives a shock wave into it; while in situ x-ray imaging can provide a time-resolved probe of the shock-induced material behaviour on macroscopic length scales. Here, we report on an investigation into laser-driven shock compression of a polyurethane foam and a graphite rod by means of single-pulse synchrotron x-ray phase-contrast imaging with MHz frame rate. A 6 J, 10 ns pulsed laser was used to generate shock compression. Physical processes governing the laser-induced dynamic response such as elastic compression, compaction, pore collapse, fracture, and fragmentation have been imaged; and the advantage of exploiting the partial spatial coherence of a synchrotron source for studying low-density, carbon-based materials is emphasized. The successful combination of a high-energy laser and ultra high-speed x-ray imaging using synchrotron light demonstrates the potentiality of accessing complementary information from scientific studies of laser-driven shock compression.

  19. Atomic physics with hard X-rays from high brilliance synchrotron light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Southworth, S.; Gemmell, D.

    1996-08-01

    A century after the discovery of x rays, the experimental capability for studying atomic structure and dynamics with hard, bright synchrotron radiation is increasing remarkably. Tempting opportunities arise for experiments on many-body effects, aspects of fundamental photon-atom interaction processes, and relativistic and quantum-electrodynamic phenomena. Some of these possibilities are surveyed in general terms

  20. Support for the Advanced Polymers Beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsiao, Benjamin S. [State Univ. of New York (SUNY), Stonybrook, NY (United States)

    2008-10-01

    The primary focus of the X27C beamline is to investigate frontier polymer science and engineering problems with emphasis on real-time studies of structures, morphologies and dynamics from atomic, nanoscopic, microscopic to mesoscopic scales using simultaneous small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) techniques. The scientific merit of this project is as follows. Currently, many unique sample chambers for in-situ synchrotron studies, developed by the PI (B. Hsiao) and Co-PI (B. Chu), are available for general users of X27C at NSLS. These instruments include a gel/melt spinning apparatus, a continuous fiber drawing apparatus, a tensile stretching apparatus, a high pressure X-ray cell using supercritical carbon dioxide, a parallel plate strain-controlled shear stage and a dynamic rheometer for small-strain oscillatory deformation study. Based on the use of these instruments in combination with synchrotron X-rays, many new insights into the relationships between processing and structure have been obtained in recent years. The broader impact of this project is as follows. The X27C beamline is the first synchrotron facility in the United States dedicated to chemistry/materials research (with emphasis on polymers). The major benefit of this facility to the materials community is that no extensive synchrotron experience and equipment preparation are required from general users to carry out cutting-edge experiments.

  1. Vacuum system of Synchrotron Light National Laboratory (LNLS) linear accelerator: project and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, L.R.B.; Gomes, P.A.P.

    1990-01-01

    The LINAC, electron linear accelerator used as injector for storage ring in production of synchrotron radiation at Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (LNLS) is described. The LINAC basic parameters, the dimension calculations of vacuum system and the final project with all components are presented. The vacuum system for electron gun tests and accelerator structure tests is described. (M.C.K.)

  2. Atomic physics with hard X-rays from high brilliance synchrotron light sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southworth, S.; Gemmell, D.

    1996-08-01

    A century after the discovery of x rays, the experimental capability for studying atomic structure and dynamics with hard, bright synchrotron radiation is increasing remarkably. Tempting opportunities arise for experiments on many-body effects, aspects of fundamental photon-atom interaction processes, and relativistic and quantum-electrodynamic phenomena. Some of these possibilities are surveyed in general terms.

  3. Bringing Physics, Synchrotron Light and Probing Neutrons to the Public: A Collaborative Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micklavzina, Stanley; Almqvist, Monica; Sörensen, Stacey L.

    2014-01-01

    Stanley Micklavzina, a US physics educator on sabbatical, teams up with a Swedish national research laboratory, a synchrotron radiation experimental group and a university science centre to develop and create educational and public outreach projects. Descriptions of the physics, science centre displays and public demonstrations covering the…

  4. Study on alumina-alumina brazing for application in vacuum chambers of proton synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, D.P.; Kaul, R.; Ganesh, P.; Shiroman, Ram; Tiwari, Pragya; Sridhar, R.; Kukreja, L.M.

    2013-01-01

    The paper describes an experimental study to standardize vacuum brazing process to obtain satisfactory high purity alumina brazed joints for application in rapid cycle proton synchrotron machine. Two different brazing routes, adopted for making alumina-alumina brazed joints, included (i) multi-step Mo-Mn metallization and brazing with BVAg-8 alloy and (ii) advanced single-step active brazing with CuSil-ABA alloy. Brazed alumina specimens, prepared by both the routes, yielded ultra high vacuum compatible, helium leak tight and bakeable joints. Active-brazed specimens exhibited satisfactory strength values in tensile and four-point bend tests. Metallized-brazed specimens, although exhibited relatively lower tensile strength than the targeted value, displayed satisfactory flexural strength in four-point bend test. The results of the study demonstrated that active brazing is the simple and cost effective alternative to conventional metallization route for producing satisfactory brazed joints for application in rapid cycle proton synchrotron machine. (author)

  5. Synchrotron Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asfour, F.I

    2000-01-01

    Synchrotron light is produced by electron accelerators combined with storage rings. This light is generated over a wide spectral region; from infra-red (IR) through the visible and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV), and into the X-ray region. For relativistic electrons (moving nearly with the speed of light), most radiation is concentrated in a small cone with an opening angle of 1/gamma(some 0.1 to 1 milliradian),where gamma is the electron energy in units of rest energy (typically 10 3 -10 4 ). In synchrotron radiation sources (storage rings) highly relativistic electrons are stored to travel along a circular path for many hours. Radiation is caused by transverse acceleration due to magnetic forces(bending magnets). The radiation is emitted in pulses of 10-20 picosecond, separated by some 2 nanosecond or longer separation

  6. The application of infrared synchrotron radiation to the study of interfacial vibrational modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirschmugl, C.J.; Williams, G.P.

    1992-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation provides an extremely bright broad-band source in the infrared which is ideally suited to the study of surface and interface vibrational modes in the range 50--3,000 cm -1 . Thus it covers the important range of molecule-substrate interactions, as well as overlapping with the more easily accessible near-ir region where molecular internal modes are found. Compared to standard broadband infrared sources such as globars, not only is it 1,000 times brighter, but its emittance matches the phase-space of the electrochemical cell leading to full utilization of this brightness advantage. In addition, the source is more stable even than water-cooled globars in vacuum for both short-term and long-term fluctuations. The authors summarize the properties of synchrotron radiation in the infrared, in particular pointing out the distinct differences between this and the x-ray region. They use experimental data in discussing important issues of signal to noise and address the unique problems and advantages of the synchrotron source. Thus they emphasize the important considerations necessary for developing new facilities. This analysis then leads to a discussion of phase-space matching to electrochemical cells, and to other surfaces in vacuum. Finally they show several examples of the application of infrared synchrotron radiation to surface vibrational spectroscopy. The examples are for metal crystal surfaces in ultra-high vacuum and include CO/Cu(100) and (111) and CO/K/Cu(100). The experiments show how the stability of the synchrotron source allows subtle changes in the background to be observed in addition to the discrete vibrational modes. These changes are due to electronic states induced by the adsorbate. In some cases the authors have seen interferences between these and the discrete vibrational modes, leading to a breakdown of the dipole selection rules, and the observation of additional modes

  7. Gas scintillation proportional counters for x-ray synchrotron applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.; Bavdaz, M.

    1992-01-01

    Gas scintillation proportional counters (GSPCs) as x-ray detectors provide some advantages and disadvantages compared with proportional counters. In this paper the various configurations of xenon filled GSPC are described including both imaging and nonimaging devices. It is intended that this work be used to configure a GSPC for a particular application and predict its general performance characteristics. The general principles of operation are described and the performance characteristics are then separately considered. A high performance, imaging, driftless GSPC is described in which a single intermediate window is used between the PMT and gas cell

  8. The three-dimensional microstructure of polycrystalline materials unravelled by synchrotron light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, W.; Herbig, M.; Ludwig, W.; King, A; Reischig, P.; Marrow, J.; Babout, L.; Mejdal Lauridsen, E.; Proudhon, H.

    2011-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation X-ray imaging and diffraction techniques offer new possibilities for non-destructive bulk characterization of polycrystalline materials. Minute changes in electron density (different crystallographic phases, cracks, porosities) can be detected using 3D imaging modes exploiting Fresnel diffraction and the coherence properties of third generation synchrotron beams. X-ray diffraction contrast tomography, a technique based on Bragg diffraction imaging, provides access to the 3D shape, orientation and elastic strain state of the individual grains from polycrystalline sample volumes containing several hundred up to a few thousand grains. Combining both imaging modalities allows a comprehensive description of the microstructure of the material at the micrometer length scale. Repeated observations during (interrupted) mechanical tests provide unprecedented insight into crystallographic and grain microstructure related aspects of polycrystal deformation and degradation mechanisms in materials, fulfilling some conditions on grain size and deformation state. (authors)

  9. Intense, broadband, pulsed I-R source at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, G.P.

    1984-01-01

    We describe a broadband (1 μm to 1 mm) synchrotron radiation infrared source, pulsed each 20 to 180 nseconds and delivering about 10 15 photons/sec/1% bandpass into f10 optics. The source size is diffraction limited. This source is thus 100 to 1000 times brighter than a 2000 0 K black body, very stable and capable of being used for calibration

  10. National synchrotron light source. Annual report 1985, October 1, 1984-September 30, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomlinson, W.; White-DePace, S.

    1985-10-01

    The NSLS has made great strides in the past year. Both storage rings are now in full operational status. The users have assembled a most impressive array of beam lines and are making creative use of them. This report outlines the status, describes the facility, and discusses some of the science which is being produced. The facility represents not only a large increase in the national capacity to do synchrotron research, but a new level of capability, with further gains occurring rapidly

  11. X-ray metrology of an array of active edge pixel sensors for use at synchrotron light sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plackett, R.; Arndt, K.; Bortoletto, D.; Horswell, I.; Lockwood, G.; Shipsey, I.; Tartoni, N.; Williams, S.

    2018-01-01

    We report on the production and testing of an array of active edge silicon sensors as a prototype of a large array. Four Medipix3RX.1 chips were bump bonded to four single chip sized Advacam active edge n-on-n sensors. These detectors were then mounted into a 2 by 2 array and tested on B16 at Diamond Light Source with an x-ray beam spot of 2um. The results from these tests, compared with optical metrology demonstrate that this type of sensor is sensitive to the physical edge of the silicon, with only a modest loss of efficiency in the final two rows of pixels. We present the efficiency maps recorded with the microfocus beam and a sample powder diffraction measurement. These results give confidence that this sensor technology can be used effectively in larger arrays of detectors at synchrotron light sources.

  12. Synchrotron radiation and x-ray topography. Part II. Examples of some applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilello, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    Synchrotron x-radiation topography is a powerful tool for studying defects in ''bulk'' metals and alloys. The general features of this technique, including both advantages and disadvantages, have been discussed in Part I of this review. This second report concentrates on some applications of the white beam topography method to studies of flow and fracture of materials and indicates fruitful areas for possible future application. Research investigations on cleavage surfaces of some bcc and hcp metals and alloys are reviewed and contrasted to other more usual methods of studying the morphology of the resulting microstructures

  13. Nuclear waste viewed in a new light; a synchrotron study of uranium encapsulated in grout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stitt, C.A., E-mail: Camilla.stitt@bristol.ac.uk [Interface Analysis Centre, H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Hart, M., E-mail: oxford.mike@gmail.com [Diamond Light Source Limited, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Fermi Avenue, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Harker, N.J., E-mail: nicholas.harker@esrf.fr [Interface Analysis Centre, H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Hallam, K.R., E-mail: k.r.hallam@bristol.ac.uk [Interface Analysis Centre, H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); MacFarlane, J., E-mail: james.macfarlane@bristol.ac.uk [Interface Analysis Centre, H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Banos, A., E-mail: antonis.banos@bristol.ac.uk [Interface Analysis Centre, H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Paraskevoulakos, C., E-mail: cp13846@bristol.ac.uk [Interface Analysis Centre, H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Butcher, E., E-mail: ed.j.butcher@nnl.co.uk [National Nuclear Laboratory, Seascale, Cumbria CA20 1 PG (United Kingdom); Padovani, C., E-mail: cristiano.padovani@nda.gov.uk [Radioactive Waste Management Limited (formerly the Radioactive Waste Management Directorate of the UK Nuclear Decommissioning Authority), Curie Avenue, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0RH (United Kingdom); Scott, T.B., E-mail: t.b.scott@bristol.ac.uk [Interface Analysis Centre, H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom)

    2015-03-21

    Highlights: • Unirradiated Magnox uranium was encapsulated in grout and exposed to hydrogen. • Synchrotron X-ray tomography imaged the uranium corrosion before and after exposure. • Synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction identified the corrosion products; UH{sub 3} and UO{sub 2}. • Uranium encapsulated in grout oxidised via the anoxic U + H{sub 2}O regime. • Successful in-situ, non-invasive examination of pyrophoric and radioactive material - Abstract: How do you characterise the contents of a sealed nuclear waste package without breaking it open? This question is important when the contained corrosion products are potentially reactive with air and radioactive. Synchrotron X-rays have been used to perform micro-scale in-situ observation and characterisation of uranium encapsulated in grout; a simulation for a typical intermediate level waste storage packet. X-ray tomography and X-ray powder diffraction generated both qualitative and quantitative data from a grout-encapsulated uranium sample before, and after, deliberately constrained H{sub 2} corrosion. Tomographic reconstructions provided a means of assessing the extent, rates and character of the corrosion reactions by comparing the relative densities between the materials and the volume of reaction products. The oxidation of uranium in grout was found to follow the anoxic U + H{sub 2}O oxidation regime, and the pore network within the grout was observed to influence the growth of uranium hydride sites across the metal surface. Powder diffraction analysis identified the corrosion products as UO{sub 2} and UH{sub 3}, and permitted measurement of corrosion-induced strain. Together, X-ray tomography and diffraction provide means of accurately determining the types and extent of uranium corrosion occurring, thereby offering a future tool for isolating and studying the reactions occurring in real full-scale waste package systems.

  14. Advances in indirect detector systems for ultra high-speed hard X-ray imaging with synchrotron light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olbinado, M. P.; Grenzer, J.; Pradel, P.; De Resseguier, T.; Vagovic, P.; Zdora, M.-C.; Guzenko, V. A.; David, C.; Rack, A.

    2018-04-01

    We report on indirect X-ray detector systems for various full-field, ultra high-speed X-ray imaging methodologies, such as X-ray phase-contrast radiography, diffraction topography, grating interferometry and speckle-based imaging performed at the hard X-ray imaging beamline ID19 of the European Synchrotron—ESRF. Our work highlights the versatility of indirect X-ray detectors to multiple goals such as single synchrotron pulse isolation, multiple-frame recording up to millions frames per second, high efficiency, and high spatial resolution. Besides the technical advancements, potential applications are briefly introduced and discussed.

  15. Shining a light on Jarosite: formation, alteration and stability studies using in situ experimental synchrotron and neutron techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, H. E. A.; Scarlett, N. V. Y.; Wilson, S. A.; Frierdich, A. J.; Grey, I. E.

    2016-12-01

    Jarosites and related minerals are critical to a range of mineral processing and research applications. They are used in the removal of iron species from smelting processes; they occur in metal bioleaching systems, and they are present in acid mine drainage environments. There has been a recent resurgence in interest in jarosites since their detection on Mars. In this context, the presence of jarosite has been recognised as a likely indicator of liquid water at the surface of Mars in the past & it is thought that their study will provide insight into the environmental history of Mars. Acid sulfate soils cover large areas of the Australian coastline and are likely to be a major constituent of the Martian environment. The oxidation of acid sulfate soils, coupled with potential release of heavy metals and acidic groundwaters, can have serious consequences for fragile ecosystems. Understanding these sediments will provide insight into the biogeochemical processes that affect the lifetimes of transient mineral species on Earth, and may be used to better understand soil acidification, contaminant mobility at sites affected by acid and metalliferous drainage, and even constrain past weathering and putative biosignatures on Mars. Knowledge of the behaviour of jarosite minerals under the actual conditions that they are found in is crucial to understanding their potential environmental impacts on both Earth and Mars. To this end, we are engaged in a program to study the formation, stability and alteration of natural and synthetic jarosite minerals using a complementary suite of in situ synchrotron and neutron techniques. There are 3 sections to this work that will introduce the experimental techniques and sample environments that make these measurements possible: Studying the nucleation and growth of jarosites under laboratory conditions. The experimentation consisted of time-resolved synchrotron small angle X-ray scattering and X-ray diffraction. Studying the stability of

  16. Adoption of Light-Emitting Diodes in Common Lighting Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Mary [Navigant Consulting, Suwanee, GA (United States); Chwastyk, Dan [Navigant Consulting, Suwanee, GA (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Report estimating LED energy savings in nine applications where LEDs compete with traditional lighting sources such as incandescent, halogen, high-pressure sodium, and certain types of fluorescent. The analysis includes indoor lamp, indoor luminaire, and outdoor luminaire applications.

  17. Adoption of Light-Emitting Diodes in Common Lighting Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Mary [Navigant, Chicago, IL (United States); Stober, Kelsey [Navigant, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Report estimating LED energy savings between 2012 and 2014 in 10 applications where LEDs competed with traditional lighting sources such as incandescent, halogen, high-pressure sodium, and fluorescent. The analysis includes indoor lamp, indoor luminaire, and outdoor luminaire applications.

  18. Terahertz Coherent Synchrotron Radiation from Femtosecond Laser Modulation of the Electron Beam at the Advanced Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrd, John M.; Hao, Zhao; Martin, Michael C.; Robin, David S.; Sannibale, Fernando; Schoenlein, Robert W.; Zholents, Alexander A.; Zolotorev, Max S.

    2005-01-01

    At the Advanced Light Source (ALS), the ''femtoslicing'' beamline is in operation since 1999 for the production of x-ray synchrotron radiation pulses with femtosecond duration. The mechanism used for generating the short x-ray pulses induces at the same time temporary structures in the electron bunch longitudinal distribution with very short characteristic length. Such structures emit intense coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in the terahertz frequency range. These CSR pulses were first observed at the ALS, and the measurement of their intensity is now routinely used as a diagnostics for the tune-up of the femtoslicing x-ray experiments. At the same time, these CSR pulses synchronous with the modulating laser, represent a potential source of terahertz radiation with very interesting features. Several measurements have been performed for their characterization and in this paper we present an updated description of the experimental results and of their interpretation. In particular, we include more data on the interesting interaction, previously observed at the ALS, between the slicing and the microbunching instability (MBI), where under particular circumstances, the slicing seems to trigger the onset of the instability

  19. National Synchrotron Light Source: Annual report 1986 for the period of October 1, 1985 through September 30, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White-DePace, S.; Gmur, N.

    1986-10-01

    The National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) is the nation's largest facility dedicated solely to the production of synchrotron radiation. The facility has two electron storage rings: a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) ring which operates at an electron energy of 750 MeV designed for optimum radiation at energies from 10 eV to 1 keV, and an x-ray ring which operates at 2.5 GeV to optimize radiation from 1 keV to 20 keV. A total of 44 beam ports emanate from these rings. Each beam port is capable of supporting one to four experiments. The VUV and x-ray rings presently accommodate over 800 scientists representing over 71 universities, industries, and government laboratories. Both basic and applied research are being done at the NSLS by groups from a variety of disciplines which include physics, chemistry, materials science, metallurgy, biology, and medicine. Among the techniques used are EXAFS (extended x-ray absorption fine structure), scattering, diffraction, topography, fluorescence, gas phase spectroscopy, lithography, tomography, microscopy, and circular dichroism

  20. Applications of Laminar Weak-Link Mechanisms for Ultraprecision Synchrotron Radiation Instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, D.; Toellner, T. S.; Alp, E. E.; Maser, J.; Ilavsky, J.; Shastri, S. D.; Lee, P. L.; Narayanan, S.; Long, G. G.

    2007-01-01

    Unlike traditional kinematic flexure mechanisms, laminar overconstrained weak-link mechanisms provide much higher structure stiffness and stability. Using a laminar structure configured and manufactured by chemical etching and lithography techniques, we are able to design and build linear and rotary weak-link mechanisms with ultrahigh positioning sensitivity and stability for synchrotron radiation applications. Applications of laminar rotary weak-link mechanism include: high-energy-resolution monochromators for inelastic x-ray scattering and x-ray analyzers for ultra-small-angle scattering and powder-diffraction experiments. Applications of laminar linear weak-link mechanism include high-stiffness piezo-driven stages with subnanometer resolution for an x-ray microscope. In this paper, we summarize the recent designs and applications of the laminar weak-link mechanisms at the Advanced Photon Source

  1. Progress in multi-element silicon detectors for synchrotron XRF applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludewigt, B.; Rossington, C.; Kipnis, I.; Krieger, B.

    1995-10-01

    Multi-element silicon strip detectors, in conjunction with integrated circuit pulse-processing electronics, offer an attractive alternative to conventional lithium-drifted silicon and high purity germanium detectors for high count rate, low noise synchrotron x-ray fluorescence applications. We have been developing these types of detectors specifically for low noise synchrotron applications, such as extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, microprobe x-ray fluorescence and total reflection x-ray fluorescence. The current version of the 192-element detector and integrated circuit preamplifier, cooled to -25 degrees C with a single-stage thermoelectric cooler, achieves an energy resolution of <200 eV full width of half maximum (FWHM) per channel (at 5.9 keV, 2 μs peaking time), and each detector element is designed to handle ∼20 kHz count rate. The detector system will soon be completed to 64 channels using new application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) amplifier chips, new CAMAC (Computer Automated Measurement and Control standard) analog-to-digital converters recently developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), CAMAC histogramming modules, and Macintosh-based data acquisition software. We report on the characteristics of this detector system, and the work in progress towards the next generation system

  2. The Advanced Light Source: A new 1.5 GeV synchrotron radiation facility at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlachter, A.S.

    1989-01-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS), now under construction at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, is being planned as a national user facility for the production of high-brightness and partially coherent x-ray and ultraviolet synchrotron radiation. The ALS is based on a low-emittance electron storage ring optimized for operation at 1.5 GeV with insertion devices in 11 long straight sections and up to 48 bend-magnet ports. High-brightness photon beams, from less than 10 eV to more than 1 keV, will be produced by undulators, thereby providing many research opportunities in materials and surface science, biology, atomic physics and chemistry. Wigglers and bend magnets will provide high-flux, broad-band radiation at energies to 10 keV. 6 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Operation of a general purpose stepping motor-encoder positioning subsystem at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stubblefield, F.W.

    1985-11-01

    Four copies of a general purpose subsystem for mechanical positioning of detectors, samples, and beam line optical elements which constitute experiments at the National Synchrotron Light Source facility of Brookhaven National Laboratory have been constructed and placed into operation. Construction of a fifth subsystem unit is nearing completion. The subsystems affect mechanical positioning by controlling a set of stepping motor-encoder pairs. The units are general purpose in the sense that they receive commands over a 9600 baud asynchronous serial line compatible with the RS-232-C electrical signal standard, generate TTL-compatible streams of stepping pulses which can be used with a wide variety of stepping motors, and read back position values from a number of different types and models of position encoder. The basic structure of the motor controller subsystem is briefly reviewed. Additions to the subsystem made in response to problems indicated by actual operation of the four installed units are described in more detail

  4. Data acquisition and experiment control system for high-data-rate experiments at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberi, J.L.; Stubblefield, F.W.

    1981-11-01

    A data acquisition and experiment control system for experiments at the Biology Small-Angle X-ray Scattering Station at the National Synchrotron Light Source has been developed based on a multiprocessor, functionally distributed architecture. The system controls an x-ray monochromator and spectrometer and acquires data from any one of three position-sensitive x-ray detectors. The average data rate from the position-sensitive detector is approx. 10 6 events/sec. Data is stored in a one megaword histogramming memory. The experiments at this Station require that x-ray diffraction patterns be correlated with timed stimuli at the sample. Therefore, depending on which detector is in use, up to 10 3 time-correlated diffraction patterns may be held in the system memory simultaneously. The operation of the system is functionally distributed over four processors communicating via a multiport memory

  5. Diesel Engine Light Truck Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2007-12-31

    The Diesel Engine Light Truck Application (DELTA) program consists of two major contracts with the Department of Energy (DOE). The first one under DE-FC05-97-OR22606, starting from 1997, was completed in 2001, and consequently, a final report was submitted to DOE in 2003. The second part of the contract was under DE-FC05-02OR22909, covering the program progress from 2002 to 2007. This report is the final report of the second part of the program under contract DE-FC05-02OR22909. During the course of this contract, the program work scope and objectives were significantly changed. From 2002 to 2004, the DELTA program continued working on light-duty engine development with the 4.0L V6 DELTA engine, following the accomplishments made from the first part of the program under DE-FC05-97-OR22606. The program work scope in 2005-2007 was changed to the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) soot layer characterization and substrate material assessment. This final report will cover two major technical tasks. (1) Continuation of the DELTA engine development to demonstrate production-viable diesel engine technologies and to demonstrate emissions compliance with significant fuel economy advantages, covering progress made from 2002 to 2004. (2) DPF soot layer characterization and substrate material assessment from 2005-2007.

  6. The synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevallier, P.

    1994-01-01

    Synchrotron Radiation is a fantastic source of electromagnetic radiation the energy spectrum of which spreads continuously from the far infrared to hard X-rays. For this reason a wide part of the scientific community, fundamentalists as well as industry, is concerned by its use. We shall describe here the main properties of this light source and give two examples of application in the field of characterization of materials: EXAFS (Extended X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure) and X-ray fluorescence. (author). 8 figs., 21 refs

  7. PROCEEDINGS ON SYNCHROTRON RADIATION: China Spallation Neutron Source - an overview of application prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jie; Fu, Shi-Nian; Tang, Jing-Yu; Tao, Ju-Zhou; Wang, Ding-Sheng; Wang, Fang-Wei; Wang, Sheng

    2009-11-01

    The China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) is an accelerator-based multidisciplinary user facility to be constructed in Dongguan, Guangdong, China. The CSNS complex consists of an H- linear accelerator, a rapid cycling synchrotron accelerating the beam to 1.6 GeV, a solid-tungsten target station, and instruments for spallation neutron applications. The facility operates at 25 Hz repetition rate with an initial design beam power of 120 kW and is upgradeable to 500 kW. Construction of the CSNS project will lay the foundation of a leading national research center based on advanced proton-accelerator technology, pulsed neutron-scattering technology, and related programs including muon, fast neutron, and proton applications as well as medical therapy and accelerator-driven subcritical reactor (ADS) applications to serve China's strategic needs in scientific research and technological innovation for the next 30 plus years.

  8. Construction and maintenance of SUNY facilities at the National Synchrotron Light Source. Progress report, 1 October 1981-1 July 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigeleisen, J.

    1982-01-01

    Development of the SUNY beam line at the National Synchrotron Light Source is described. The line now includes monochromator/mirror optics with tandem arrangement of experiments. The beamline computer system is now working with CAMAC data acquisition, and a four-circle diffractometer, a small-angle-scattering bench, and a fluorescence EXAFS apparatus should be ready soon

  9. Synchrotron radiation sources: their properties and applications for VUV and X-ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, E.E.

    1976-09-01

    Synchrotron radiation from accelerators and storage rings offers far reaching possibilities for many fields of basic and applied physics. The properties of synchrotron radiation, existing and planned synchrotron radiation facilities, as well as instrumental aspects are discussed. In order to illustrate the usefulness of the synchrotron radiation sources a few highlights from atomic, molelucar, and solid state spectroscopy are presented and examples from x-ray experiments and from the field of applied physics are given. (orig.) [de

  10. A review of thermo-mechanical considerations of high temperature materials for synchrotron applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzay, T.M.

    1993-01-01

    The third generation synchrotron facilities such as the 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source (APS) generate x-ray beams with very high heat load and heat flux levels. Certain front end and beamline components will be required to sustain total heat loads of 3.8 to 15 kW and heat flux levels exceeding 400 W/MM 2 even during the first phase of this project. Grazing geometry and enhanced heat transfer techniques used in the design of such components reduce the heat flux levels below the 30 W/MM 2 level, which is sustainable by the special copper materials routinely used in the component design. Although the resulting maximum surface temperatures are sustainable, the structural stresses and the fatigue issues remain viable concerns. Cyclic thermal loads have a propensity to cause spallation and thermal striping concerns. As such, the steady-state part of the problem is much easier to understand and handle than the time- dependent part. Ease of bonding as well as ultrahigh vacuum and radiation compatibility are additional constraints on material selection for these components. The two copper materials are the traditional OFHC and the newer sintered copper, Glidcop (a trademark product of the SCM Corporation of North Carolina), which are very commonly used in synchrotron components. New materials are also appearing in the form of heat sinks or heat spreaders that are bonded to the base copper in some fashion. These are either partially transparent to x-rays and have engineered volumetric heating and/or very conductive thermally to spread the thermal load in a preferred way. These materials are reviewed critically for high-heat-load or high-heat-flux applications in synchrotrons

  11. Developing EnviroSuite Resources at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul Northrup; Jeffrey Fitts; Mark Fuhrmann; Paul Kalb

    2006-01-01

    The objective of Brookhaven National Laboratory's EnviroSuite Initiative is to develop the facilities, user support infrastructure, and techniques necessary to conduct world-class molecular environmental science research at the NSLS. This is intended to benefit the research of ERSD-supported scientists, both through direct access and assistance and through the indirect benefits of a broader network of environmental scientists as collaborators and users. Much of the EnviroSuite research involves close collaboration with members of the Center for Environmental Molecular Science (CEMS), an EMSI based at BNL and nearby Stony Brook University and jointly supported by ERSD (Project 1023761, P. Kalb) and NSF. This offers unique opportunities to benefit from both national laboratory facilities and university resources. Other collaborators, from around the US and the world, investigate various aspects of the underlying molecular-scale processes in complex natural systems. In general, synchrotron techniques are ideal for studying the molecular-scale structures, chemical/physical interactions, and transformations that govern the macroscopic properties and processes (e.g. transport, bioavailability) of contaminants in the environment. These techniques are element-specific, non-destructive, and sensitive to the very low concentrations found in real-world samples

  12. Operational Radiation Protection in Synchrotron Light and Free Electron Laser Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, James C.; Rokni, Sayed H.; /SLAC; Vylet, Vaclav; /Jefferson Lab

    2009-12-11

    The 3rd generation synchrotron radiation (SR) facilities are storage ring based facilities with many insertion devices and photon beamlines, and have low injection beam power (< few tens of watts), but extremely high stored beam power ({approx} 1 GW). The 4th generation x-ray free electron laser (FEL) facilities are based on an electron Linac with a long undulator and have high injection beam power (a few kW). Due to its electron and photon beam characteristics and modes of operation, storage ring and photon beamlines have unique safety aspects, which are the main subjects of this paper. The shielding design limits, operational modes, and beam losses are first reviewed. Shielding analysis (source terms and methodologies) and interlocked safety systems for storage ring and photon beamlines (including SR and gas bremsstrahlung) are described. Specific safety issues for storage ring top-off injection operation and FEL facilities are discussed. The operational safety program, e.g., operation authorization, commissioning, training, and radiation measurements, for SR facilities is also presented.

  13. Nuclear waste viewed in a new light; a synchrotron study of uranium encapsulated in grout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stitt, C A; Hart, M; Harker, N J; Hallam, K R; MacFarlane, J; Banos, A; Paraskevoulakos, C; Butcher, E; Padovani, C; Scott, T B

    2015-03-21

    How do you characterise the contents of a sealed nuclear waste package without breaking it open? This question is important when the contained corrosion products are potentially reactive with air and radioactive. Synchrotron X-rays have been used to perform micro-scale in-situ observation and characterisation of uranium encapsulated in grout; a simulation for a typical intermediate level waste storage packet. X-ray tomography and X-ray powder diffraction generated both qualitative and quantitative data from a grout-encapsulated uranium sample before, and after, deliberately constrained H2 corrosion. Tomographic reconstructions provided a means of assessing the extent, rates and character of the corrosion reactions by comparing the relative densities between the materials and the volume of reaction products. The oxidation of uranium in grout was found to follow the anoxic U+H2O oxidation regime, and the pore network within the grout was observed to influence the growth of uranium hydride sites across the metal surface. Powder diffraction analysis identified the corrosion products as UO2 and UH3, and permitted measurement of corrosion-induced strain. Together, X-ray tomography and diffraction provide means of accurately determining the types and extent of uranium corrosion occurring, thereby offering a future tool for isolating and studying the reactions occurring in real full-scale waste package systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Operational Radiation Protection in Synchrotron Light and Free Electron Laser Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, James C.; Rokni, Sayed H.; Vylet, Vaclav

    2009-01-01

    The 3rd generation synchrotron radiation (SR) facilities are storage ring based facilities with many insertion devices and photon beamlines, and have low injection beam power (< few tens of watts), but extremely high stored beam power (∼ 1 GW). The 4th generation x-ray free electron laser (FEL) facilities are based on an electron Linac with a long undulator and have high injection beam power (a few kW). Due to its electron and photon beam characteristics and modes of operation, storage ring and photon beamlines have unique safety aspects, which are the main subjects of this paper. The shielding design limits, operational modes, and beam losses are first reviewed. Shielding analysis (source terms and methodologies) and interlocked safety systems for storage ring and photon beamlines (including SR and gas bremsstrahlung) are described. Specific safety issues for storage ring top-off injection operation and FEL facilities are discussed. The operational safety program, e.g., operation authorization, commissioning, training, and radiation measurements, for SR facilities is also presented.

  15. Preliminary studies of enhanced contrast radiography in anatomy and embryology of insects with Elettra synchrotron light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoennicke, M.G.; Foerster, L.A.; Navarro-Silva, M.A.; Menk, R.-H.; Rigon, L.; Cusatis, C.

    2005-01-01

    Enhanced contrast X-ray imaging is achieved by exploiting the real part of the refraction index, which is responsible for the phase shifts, in addition to the imaginary part, which is responsible for the absorption. Such techniques are called X-ray phase contrast imaging. An analyzer-based X-ray phase contrast imaging set-up with Diffraction Enhanced Imaging processing (DEI) were used for preliminary studies in anatomy and embryology of insects. Parasitized stinkbug and moth eggs used as control agents of pests in vegetables and adult stinkbugs and mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti) were used as samples. The experimental setup was mounted in the SYRMEP beamline at ELETTRA. Images were obtained using a high spatial resolution CCD detector (pixel size 14x14μm 2 ) coupled with magnifying optics. Analyzer-based X-ray phase contrast images (PCI) and edge detection images show contrast and details not observed with conventional synchrotron radiography and open the possibility for future study in the embryonic development of insects

  16. Applications of free electron lasers and synchrotrons in industry and research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barletta, William A. [Dept. of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge MA (United States)

    2013-04-19

    Synchrotron radiation sources have had a profound effect on both science and technology from their beginnings decades ago as parasitic operations on accelerators for high energy physics. Now the general area of photon science has opened up new experimental techniques which have become the mainstay tools of materials science, surface physics, protein crystallography, and nanotechnology. With the promise of ultra-bright beams from the latest generation of storage rings and free electron lasers with full coherence, the tools of photon science promise to open a new area of mesoscale science and technology as well as prove to be a disruptive wildcard in the search for sustainable energy technologies. This review will survey a range of applications and explore in greater depth the potential applications to EUV lithography and to technologies for solar energy.

  17. The three-dimensional microstructure of polycrystalline materials unravelled by synchrotron light; La microstructure 3D des materiaux polycristallins vue sous la lumiere synchrotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, W.; Herbig, M. [Universite de Lyon, INSA-Lyon, MATEIS, UMR 5510 CNRS, LyonTech Campus, Bat. Saint-Exupery, 25 avenue Jean Capelle, F-69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Ludwig, W.; King, A; Reischig, P. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 rue J. Horowitz, BP 220, F-38043 Grenoble (France); Marrow, J. [University of Oxford, Department of Materiels, Parks road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Babout, L. [Computer Engineering Department, Technical University of Lodz, ul. Stefanowskiego 18/22, PL-90- 537 Lodz (Poland); Mejdal Lauridsen, E. [Materials Research Department, Riso National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Building 228, PO Box 49, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Proudhon, H. [MINES ParisTech, Centre des Materiaux, UMR 7633 CNRS, BP 87, F-91003 Evry Cedex (France)

    2011-07-01

    Synchrotron radiation X-ray imaging and diffraction techniques offer new possibilities for non-destructive bulk characterization of polycrystalline materials. Minute changes in electron density (different crystallographic phases, cracks, porosities) can be detected using 3D imaging modes exploiting Fresnel diffraction and the coherence properties of third generation synchrotron beams. X-ray diffraction contrast tomography, a technique based on Bragg diffraction imaging, provides access to the 3D shape, orientation and elastic strain state of the individual grains from polycrystalline sample volumes containing several hundred up to a few thousand grains. Combining both imaging modalities allows a comprehensive description of the microstructure of the material at the micrometer length scale. Repeated observations during (interrupted) mechanical tests provide unprecedented insight into crystallographic and grain microstructure related aspects of polycrystal deformation and degradation mechanisms in materials, fulfilling some conditions on grain size and deformation state. (authors)

  18. High-speed nuclear quality pulse height analyzer for synchrotron-based applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beche, Jean-Francois; Bucher, Jerome J.; Fabris, Lorenzo; Riot, Vincent J.

    2001-01-01

    A high throughput Pulse Height Analyzer system for synchrotron-based applications requiring high resolution, high processing speed and low dead time has been developed. The system is comprised of a 120ns 12-bit nuclear quality Analog to Digital converter with a self-adaptive fast peak detector-stretcher and a custom-made fast histogramming memory module that records and processes the digitized data. The histogramming module is packaged in a VME or VXI compatible interface. Data is transferred through a fast optical link from the memory interface to a computer. A dedicated data acquisition program matches the hardware characteristics of the histogramming memory module. The data acquisition system allows for two data collection modes: ''standard'' data acquisition mode where the data is accumulated and read in synchronization with an external trigger and ''live'' data acquisition mode where the system operates as a standard Pulse Height Analyzer. The acquisition, standard or live, can be performed on several channels simultaneously. A two-channel prototype has been demonstrated at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory accelerator in conjunction with an X-ray Fluorescence Absorption Spectroscopy experiment. A detailed description of the entire system is given and experimental data is shown

  19. Applications of Slow Light in Telecommunications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boyd, Robert W; Gauthier, Daniel J; Gaeta, Alexander L

    2006-01-01

    .... Now, optical scientists are turning their attention toward developing useful applications of slow light, including controllable optical delay lines, optical buffers and true time delay methods...

  20. THE Low-level Radio Frequency System for the superconducting cavities of National Synchrotron Light Source II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, H.; Rose, J.; Holub, B.; Cupolo, J.; Oliva, J.; Sikora, R.; Yeddulla, M.

    2011-01-01

    A digital low-level radio frequency (LLRF) field controller has been developed for the storage ring of The National Synchrotron Light Source-II (NSLS-II). The primary performance goal for the LLRF is to support the required RF operation of the superconducting cavities with a beam current of 500mA and a 0.14 degree or better RF phase stability. The digital field controller is FPGA-based, in a standard format 19-inch/I-U chassis. It has an option of high-level control support with MATLAB running on a local host computer through a USB2.0 port. The field controller has been field tested with the high-power superconducting RF (SRF) at Canadian light Source, and successfully stored a high beam current of 250 mA. The test results show that required specifications for the cavity RF field stability are met. This digital field controller is also currently being used as a development platform for other functional modules in the NSLS-II RF systems.

  1. The Australian synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farhi, R.

    2005-06-01

    This document recalls the historical aspects of the Australian Synchrotron which will be implemented in 2007. It presents then the objectives of this program, the specifications of the ring and the light lines. (A.L.B.)

  2. Is photocleavage of DNA by YOYO-1 using a synchrotron radiation light source sequence dependent?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilroy, Emma L.; Hoffmann, Søren Vrønning; Jones, Nykola C.

    2011-01-01

    ) throughout the irradiation period. The dependence of LD signals on DNA sequences and on time in the intense light beam was explored and quantified for single-stranded poly(dA), poly[(dA-dT)2], calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) and Micrococcus luteus DNA (mlDNA). The DNA and ligand regions of the spectrum showed...

  3. Neutrons and synchrotron radiation in engineering materials science from fundamentals to applications

    CERN Document Server

    Schreyer, Andreas; Clemens, Helmut; Mayer, Svea

    2017-01-01

    Retaining its proven concept, the second edition of this ready reference specifically addresses the need of materials engineers for reliable, detailed information on modern material characterization methods. As such, it provides a systematic overview of the increasingly important field of characterization of engineering materials with the help of neutrons and synchrotron radiation. The first part introduces readers to the fundamentals of structure-property relationships in materials and the radiation sources suitable for materials characterization. The second part then focuses on such characterization techniques as diffraction and scattering methods, as well as direct imaging and tomography. The third part presents new and emerging methods of materials characterization in the field of 3D characterization techniques like three-dimensional X-ray diffraction microscopy. The fourth and final part is a collection of examples that demonstrate the application of the methods introduced in the first parts to probl...

  4. Optimizing Monocapillary Optics for Synchrotron X-ray Diffraction, Fluorescence Imaging, and Spectroscopy Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilderback, Donald H.; Kazimirov, Alexander; Gillilan, Richard; Cornaby, Sterling; Woll, Arthur; Zha, Chang-Sheng; Huang Rong

    2007-01-01

    A number of synchrotron x-ray applications such as powder diffraction in diamond anvil cells, microbeam protein crystallography, x-ray fluorescence imaging, etc. can benefit from using hollow glass monocapillary optics to improve the flux per square micron on a sample. We currently draw glass tubing into the desired elliptical shape so that only one-bounce under total reflection conditions is needed to bring the x-ray beam to a focus at a 25 to 50 mm distance beyond the capillary tip. For modest focal spot sizes of 10 to 20 microns, we can increase the intensity per square micron by factors of 10 to 1000. We show some of the results obtained at CHESS and Hasylab with capillaries focusing 5 to 40 keV radiation, their properties, and how even better the experimental results could be if more ideal capillaries were fabricated in the future

  5. Neutrons and synchrotron radiation in engineering materials science. From fundamentals to applications. 2. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staron, Peter [Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Zentrum fuer Material- und Kuestenforschung GmbH, Geesthacht (Germany). Inst. of Materials Research; Schreyer, Andreas [European Spallation Source ERIC, Lund (Sweden); Clemens, Helmut; Mayer, Svea (eds.) [Montanuniv. Leoben (Austria). Dept. of Physical Metallurgy and Materials Testing

    2017-07-01

    This book provides a systematic overview of the increasingly important field of characterization of engineering materials with the help of neutrons and synchrotron radiation. The first part introduces readers to the fundamentals of structure-property relationships in materials and the radiation sources suitable for materials characterization. The second part then focuses on such characterization techniques as diffraction and scattering methods, as well as direct imaging and tomography. The third part presents new and emerging methods of materials characterization in the field of 3D characterization techniques like three-dimensional X-ray diffraction microscopy. The fourth and final part is a collection of examples that demonstrate the application of the methods introduced in the first parts to problems in materials science.

  6. Beam heat load investigations with a cold vacuum chamber for diagnostics in a synchrotron light source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voutta, Robert

    2016-04-22

    The beam heat load is a crucial input parameter for the cryogenic design of superconducting insertion devices. To understand the discrepancies between the predicted heat load of an electron beam to a cold bore and the heat load observed in superconducting devices, a cold vacuum chamber for diagnostics has been built. Extensive beam heat load measurements were performed at the Diamond light source. They are analysed systematically and combined with complementary impedance bench measurements.

  7. Range of applications of modern superconducting synchrotron radiation sources using the source planned at Karlsruhe (KSSQ) as an example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, H.O.

    1989-06-01

    The performance of the Karlsruhe synchrotron radiation source which was designed originally for X-ray deep-etch lithography comes close to that of first and second generation synchrotron radiation sources. The range of applications spanned by KSSQ is therefore quite similar to that of those machines. The present report displays a first collection of topics from the fields of surface analysis, solid state and materials research, and biology which could be investigated using KSSQ by interested groups coming from KfK and its surroundings. (orig.) [de

  8. NSLS 2006 ACTIVITY REPORT (NATIONAL SYNCHROTRON LIGHT SOURCE ACTIVITY REPORT 2006)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MILLER, L.

    2006-01-01

    This past year has seen both challenges and fantastic new opportunities for the user community at the NSLS. The fantastic new opportunities are clear and abundant. We now have a five-year strategic plan for new development and continued operation of the NSLS. The NSLS continues to be an extremely productive facility, and the UEC is delighted at how NSLS Chair Chi-Chang Kao has consulted widely within the user community to develop a five-year plan for strategic upgrades and continued operation of the facility. The NSLS-II project, led by Associate Lab Director Steve Dierker, has done very well in its Department of Energy (DOE) reviews and will hopefully soon receive Critical Decision-1 (CD-1) approval, which in DOE lingo gives a go-ahead to launch the detailed design of the facility. We also held the first joint user meeting between the NSLS and Brookhaven's Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN), for which the building is near completion. The joint user meeting is an important step toward the close collaboration of the two facilities. The CFN, led by Emilio Mendez, promises to provide capabilities and research foci that are complementary to those at the NSLS. Together, all of these developments give a clear path to an exciting future of synchrotron radiation research at Brookhaven. However, with opportunities come challenges. One of the largest of these faced in the past year involved congressional support for scientific research in general, and DOE user facilities in particular. As you likely know, Congress did not complete its usual budget process in 2006, with the exceptions of the departments of Defense and Homeland Security. This left science funding at the budget levels enacted in late 2005 for FY2006, and unfortunately, FY2006 was not a particularly memorable vintage for science support. The good news is that you, the user community, have spoken up with unprecedented vigor about this, and Congress appears to be listening. As we look at the FY2007 budget

  9. NSLS 2006 ACTIVITY REPORT (NATIONAL SYNCHROTRON LIGHT SOURCE ACTIVITY REPORT 2006)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MILLER, L. (EDITOR)

    2006-12-31

    This past year has seen both challenges and fantastic new opportunities for the user community at the NSLS. The fantastic new opportunities are clear and abundant. We now have a five-year strategic plan for new development and continued operation of the NSLS. The NSLS continues to be an extremely productive facility, and the UEC is delighted at how NSLS Chair Chi-Chang Kao has consulted widely within the user community to develop a five-year plan for strategic upgrades and continued operation of the facility. The NSLS-II project, led by Associate Lab Director Steve Dierker, has done very well in its Department of Energy (DOE) reviews and will hopefully soon receive Critical Decision-1 (CD-1) approval, which in DOE lingo gives a go-ahead to launch the detailed design of the facility. We also held the first joint user meeting between the NSLS and Brookhaven's Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN), for which the building is near completion. The joint user meeting is an important step toward the close collaboration of the two facilities. The CFN, led by Emilio Mendez, promises to provide capabilities and research foci that are complementary to those at the NSLS. Together, all of these developments give a clear path to an exciting future of synchrotron radiation research at Brookhaven! However, with opportunities come challenges! One of the largest of these faced in the past year involved congressional support for scientific research in general, and DOE user facilities in particular. As you likely know, Congress did not complete its usual budget process in 2006, with the exceptions of the departments of Defense and Homeland Security. This left science funding at the budget levels enacted in late 2005 for FY2006, and unfortunately, FY2006 was not a particularly memorable vintage for science support. The good news is that you, the user community, have spoken up with unprecedented vigor about this, and Congress appears to be listening. As we look at the FY2007

  10. Light Sources Technologies and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kitsinelis, Spyridon

    2010-01-01

    From the dialogues of the ancient Greek philosophers right up through the physical laws of Newton, the experiments of Thomas Young and the quantum physics pioneers, the study of light was all about observing its characteristics and defining its behavior. At the end of the 19th century, wicks, wax, and oil gave way to electricity, filaments, and gases, and scientific minds began to focus on the technological creation of light, as well as its control and diverse uses. Yet, despite more than a century of profound research and development, until now, the most complete resources on lighting technol

  11. X-ray holographic microscopy experiments at the Brookhaven synchrotron light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howells, M.R.; Iarocci, M.; Kenney, J.; Kirz, J.; Rarback, H.

    1983-01-01

    Soft x-ray holographic microscopy is discussed from an experimental point of view. Three series of measurements have been carried out using the Brookhaven 750 MeV storage ring as an x-ray source. Young slits fringes, Gabor (in line) holograms and various data pertaining to the soft x-ray performance of photographic plates are reported. The measurements are discussed in terms of the technique for recording them and the experimental limitations in effect. Some discussion is also given of the issues involved in reconstruction using visible light

  12. Spectrometer control subsystem with high level functionality for use at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberi, J.L.; Stubblefield, F.W.

    1980-11-01

    We have developed a subsystem capable of controlling stepping motors in a wide variety of vuv and x-ray spectrometers to be used at the National Sychrotron Light Source. The subsystem is capable of controlling up to 15 motors with encoder readback and ramped acceleration/deceleration. Both absolute and incremental encoders may be used in any mixture. Function commands to the subsystem are communicated via ASCII characters over an asynchronous serial link in a well-defined protocol in decipherable English. Thus the unit can be controlled via write statements in a high-level language. Details of hardware implementation will be presented

  13. Analysis of peripheral thermal damage after laser irradiation of dentin using polarized light microscopy and synchrotron radiation infrared spectromicroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dela Rosa, Alfredo; Sarma, Anupama V.; Le, Charles Q.; Jones, Robert S.; Fried, Daniel

    2004-05-01

    It is necessary to minimize peripheral thermal damage during laser irradiation, since thermal damage to collagen and mineral compromises the bond strength to restorative materials in dentin and inhibits healing and osteointegration in bone. The overall objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that lasers resonant to the specific absorption of water, collagen, and hydroxyapatite with pulse durations less than the thermal relaxation times at each respective laser wavelength will efficiently remove dentin with minimal peripheral thermal damage. Precise incisions were produced in 3 x 3 mm2 blocks of human dentin using CO2 (9.6 μm), Er:YSGG (2.79 μm), and Nd:YAG (355 nm) lasers with and without a computer controlled water spray. Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography was used to obtain optical cross-sections of each incision to determine the rate and efficiency of ablation. The peripheral thermal damage zone around each incision was analyzed using polarized light microscopy (PLM) and Synchrotron-Radiation Fourier Transform Infrared Spectro-microscopy (SR-FTIR). Thermally induced chemical changes to both mineral and the collagen matrix was observed with SR-FTIR with a 10-μm spatial resolution and those changes were correlated with optical changes observed with PLM. Minimal (alveolar bone.

  14. Multiple energy computed tomography for neuroradiology with monochromatic x-rays from the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilmanian, F.A.; Garrett, R.F.; Thomlinson, W.C.; Berman, L.E.; Chapman, L.D.; Gmuer, N.F.; Lazarz, N.M.; Moulin, H.R.; Oversluizen, T.; Slatkin, D.N.; Stojanoff, V.; Volkow, N.D.; Zeman, H.D.; Luke, P.N.; Thompson, A.C.

    1990-01-01

    Monochromatic and tunable 33--100 keV x-rays from the X17 superconducting wiggler of the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) will be used for computed tomography (CT) of the human head and neck. The CT configuration will be one of a fixed horizontal fan-shaped beam and a seated rotating subject. The system, which is under development, will employ a two-crystal monochromator with an energy bandwidth of about 0.1%, and high-purity germanium linear array detector with 0.5 mm element width and 200 mm total width. Narrow energy bands not only eliminate beam hardening but are ideal for carrying out the following dial-energy methods: (a) dual-photon absorptiometry CT, that provides separate images of the low-Z and the intermediate-Z elements; and (b) K-edge subtraction CT of iodine and perhaps of heavier contrast elements. As a result, the system should provide ∼10-fold improvement in image contrast resolution and in quantitative precision over conventional CT. A prototype system for a 45 mm subject diameter will be ready in 1991, which will be used for studies with phantoms and small animals. The human imaging system will have a field of view of 200 mm. The in-plane spatial resolution in both systems will be 0.5 mm FWHM. 34 refs., 6 figs

  15. Vacuum system for the Argonne 6 GeV synchrotron light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehrle, R.; Moenich, J.

    1985-01-01

    The ANL vacuum system for the 6 GeV light source storage ring features non-evaporable strip getter pumps for uniform pumping around the ring within a gas desorption antechamber, and it also features lumped getter pumping directly under and above crotch radiation absorbers that are positioned after each bending magnet. Based on experiments at ANL in 1980 and by others, the technical and economical advantages have been established for the use of the distributed NeG pumps of non-magnetic strips coated with a non-evaporable Zr Al getter matrix. The NeG strip pump lifetime approaches ten years. The antechamber improves the isolation of the gas desorption process from the main beam chamber and beam. The combination of these vacuum techniques; the NeG strip getter pumps, the gas desorption antechambers, and the lumped ion and lumped getter pumping provide a unique and reliable system for maintaining long beam lifetime

  16. The World of Synchrotrons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    de Ciencias Fisicas,. Universidad Nacional. Autonoma de Mexico. Sameen Ahmed Khan. A summary of results on synchrotron radiation is presented along with notes on its properties and applications. Quantum aspects are briefly mentioned. Synchrotron radiation facilities are described briefly with a detailed coverage of ...

  17. Synchrotron radiation structure analyses of the light-induced radical pair of a hexaarylbiimidazolyl derivative. Origin of the spin-multiplicity change

    CERN Document Server

    Kawano, M; Matsubara, K; Imabayashi, H; Mitsumi, M; Toriumi, K; Ohashi, Y

    2002-01-01

    In situ synchrotron radiation structure analyses of a light-induced radical pair from o-Cl-HABI were performed by using an X-ray vacuum camera at 23-70K at the BL02B1 station of SPring-8. The combined results of X-ray analysis with theoretical calculation, IR, and UV-vis spectroscopy reveal that a slight conformational change of the radical pair causes the drastic spin-multiplicity change during 2-140K. (author)

  18. NSLS 2003 ACTIVITY REPORT (NATIONAL SYNCHROTRON LIGHT SOURCE ACTIVITY REPORT 2003)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MILLER, L.

    2004-01-01

    -resolution curved position sensitive detector for powder diffraction was also developed and made available to users to enable time-resolved studies of reaction mechanisms, phase transformations, chemical kinetics, and material dynamics. At the DUV-FEL, this past year saw the achievement of HGHG light at 266 nm, with a substantial third harmonic at 89 nm. User science experiments were initiated and published in Physical Review Letters and a successful workshop was held to identify the new scientific opportunities in the chemical sciences enabled by this unique light source. These and many other important projects are described more fully in the Facility Report

  19. Calculation of coupled bunch effects in the synchrotron light source BESSY VSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruprecht, Martin

    2016-02-22

    In the scope of this thesis, the strength of coupled bunch instabilities (CBIs) driven by longitudinal monopole higher order modes (HOMs) and transverse dipole and quadrupole HOMs is evaluated for the upgrade project BESSY Variable Pulse Length Storage Ring (BESSY VSR) at Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH (HZB), based on analytic calculations and tracking simulations, and compared to the performance of an active bunch-by-bunch feedback (BBFB). Algorithms for tracking codes are derived, and a semi-empirical formula for the estimation of transverse quadrupole CBIs is presented. CBI studies are an integral part of the benchmarking of the cavity models for BESSY VSR and have been accompanying and influencing their entire design process. Based on the BESSY VSR cavity model with highly advanced HOM damping, beam stability is likely to be reached with a BBFB system, independent of the bunch fill pattern. Additionally, measurements of CBIs have been performed at BESSY II and the Metrology Light Source of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (MLS), where the longitudinal long range impedance was characterized. Transient beam loading is evaluated by means of analytic formulas and new experimentally verified tracking codes. For the baseline bunch fill pattern of BESSY VSR, it is shown that the particular setup of cavity frequencies amplifies the transient effect on the long bunch, limiting its elongation and potentially resulting in increased Touschek losses.

  20. Development of a programmable CCD detector for imaging, real time studies and other synchrotron radiation applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brizard, C.

    1991-01-01

    A new CCD detector has been developed. The working of CCD and programmable detector is detailed in this thesis. The flexibility of the system allows the use of CCDs from different manufactures. The vacuum chamber of the detector is made of a beryllium window for experiments using X-radiation or of a quartz window coupled to a focusing optic system. Its temporal resolution is 2 microseconds with a X-radiation imaging. Images with a high spatial resolution have been obtained with the focusing system having a set of optical lenses and filters. The first X-ray diffraction experiments in the range of milliseconds and microseconds for the study of semiconductor heterostructures have been performed at X16 beam line at NSLS (National Synchrotron Light Source) with the detector illuminated by X-rays. For the first time, a X-ray beam, horizontally focused has been used to record a X-ray diffraction spectra on a 2-D detector. Finally, a X-ray diffraction method has been used to study the first steps of the crystallisation of Fe 8 0B 2 0 amorphous metallic alloy at X6 beam line at NSLS

  1. Sculpting light for new biophotonics applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Palima, Darwin; Villangca, Mark Jayson

    illumination, optical phase encryption, and recently in contemporary biophotonics applications such as for real-time parallel twophoton optogenetics and neurophotonics [3]. Our most recent GPC light sculpting developments will be presented. These include both static and dynamic GPC Light Shapers where lasers......Generalized Phase Contrast (GPC) is a power efficient approach for generating speckle-free contiguous optical distributions using spatial phaseonly light modulation. GPC has been demonstrated in a variety of applications such as optical micro-manipulation [1], active microscopy [2], structured...... have to be actively shaped into particular light patterns [4]. We show the potential of GPC for biomedical and multispectral applications where we demonstrate phase-only light shaping of a supercontinuum laser over most of its visible wavelength range [5]....

  2. Elemental Composition of Mars Return Samples Using X-Ray Fluorescence Imaging at the National Synchrotron Light Source II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieme, J.; Hurowitz, J. A.; Schoonen, M. A.; Fogelqvist, E.; Gregerson, J.; Farley, K. A.; Sherman, S.; Hill, J.

    2018-04-01

    NSLS-II at BNL provides a unique and critical capability to perform assessments of the elemental composition and the chemical state of Mars returned samples using synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence imaging and X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

  3. Dynamic View on Nanostructures: A Technique for Time Resolved Optical Luminescence Using Synchrotron Light Pulses at SRC, APS, and CLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heigl, F.; Jurgensen, A.; Zhou, X.-T.; Lam, S.; Murphy, M.; Ko, J.Y.P.; Sham, T.K.; Rosenberg, R.A.; Gordon, R.; Brewe, D.; Regier, T.; Armelao, L.

    2007-01-01

    We present an experimental technique using the time structure of synchrotron radiation to study time resolved X-ray excited optical luminescence. In particular we are taking advantage of the bunched distribution of electrons in a synchrotron storage ring, giving short x-ray pulses (10-10 2 picoseconds) which are separated by non-radiating gaps on the nano- to tens of nanosecond scale - sufficiently wide to study a broad range of optical decay channels observed in advanced nanostructured materials.

  4. Tunable light source for fiber optic lighting applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narendran, Nadarajah; Bierman, Andrew; Finney, Mark J.; Edwards, Ian K.

    1997-09-01

    This paper examines the possibility of tuning the lamp spectrum to compensate for color distortions in fiber optic lighting systems. Because most optical fibers have strong absorption in the blue and red wavelength regions, white light entering and propagating down an optical fiber suffers varied amounts of attenuation as a function of wavelength. As a result, the light exiting the optical fiber has a greenish tint that the lighting design community considers undesirable in interior lighting applications. HID lamps are commonly used for the light source in this industry. Certain classes of HID lamps tend to shift in color when their operating position or the input voltage to the lamp is changed. An experimental study is being conducted to characterize the color shift properties of a small HID lamp as a function of tilt and input voltage. The study also examines the possibility of exploiting this color shift to compensate for the color distortions caused by optical fibers. The details of the experiment and the results are presented in this manuscript.

  5. Recent applications and current trends in Cultural Heritage Science using synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared micro-spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotte, Marine; Dumas, Paul; Taniguchi, Yoko; Checroun, Emilie; Walter, Philippe; Susini, Jean

    2009-09-01

    Synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared micro-spectroscopy (SR-FTIR) is one of the emerging techniques increasingly employed for Cultural Heritage analytical science. Such a technique combines the assets of FTIR spectroscopy (namely, the identification of molecular groups in various environments: organic/inorganic, crystallized/amorphous, solid/liquid/gas), with the extra potential of chemical imaging (localization of components + easier data treatment thanks to geographical correlations) and the properties of the synchrotron source (namely, high brightness, offering high data quality even with reduced dwell time and reduced spot size). This technique can be applied to nearly all kind of materials found in museum objects, going from hard materials, like metals, to soft materials, like paper, and passing through hybrid materials such as paintings and bones. The purpose is usually the identification of complex compositions in tiny, heterogeneous samples. Recent applications are reviewed in this article, together with the fundamental aspects of the infrared synchrotron source which are leading to such improvements in analytical capabilities. A recent example from the ancient Buddhist paintings from Bamiyan is detailed. Emphasis is made on the true potential offered at such large scale facilities in combining SR-FTIR microscopy with other synchrotron-based micro-imaging techniques. To cite this article: M. Cotte et al., C. R. Physique 10 (2009).

  6. Development of an x-ray fluorescence microprobe at the National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory: Early results: Comparison with data from other techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.V.; Rivers, M.L.; Sutton, S.R.; Jones, K.W.; Hanson, A.L.; Gordon, B.M.

    1986-01-01

    Theoretical predictions for the detection levels in x-ray fluorescence analysis with a synchrotron storage ring are being achieved experimentally at several laboratories. This paper is deliberately restricted to the state of development of the Brookhaven National Laboratory/University of Chicago instruments. Analyses at the parts per million (ppM) level are being made using white light apertured to 20 μm and an energy dispersive system. This system is particularly useful for elements with Z > 20 in materials dominated by elements with Z < 20. Diffraction causes an interference for crystalline materials. Development of a focusing microprobe for tunable monochromatic x-rays and a wavelength dispersive spectrometer (WDS) is delayed by problems in shaping an 8:1 focusing mirror to the required accuracy. Reconnaissance analyses with a wiggler source on the CHESS synchrotron have been made in the K spectrum up to Z = 80

  7. Applications of pixellated GaAs X-ray detectors in a synchrotron radiation beam

    CERN Document Server

    Watt, J; Campbell, M; Mathieson, K; Mikulec, B; O'Shea, V; Passmore, M S; Schwarz, C; Smith, K M; Whitehill, C

    2001-01-01

    Hybrid semiconductor pixel detectors are being investigated as imaging devices for radiography and synchrotron radiation beam applications. Based on previous work in the CERN RD19 and the UK IMPACT collaborations, a photon counting GaAs pixel detector (PCD) has been used in an X-ray powder diffraction experiment. The device consists of a 200 mu m thick SI-LEC GaAs detector patterned in a 64*64 array of 170 mu m pitch square pixels, bump-bonded to readout electronics operating in single photon counting mode. Intensity peaks in the powder diffraction pattern of KNbO/sub 3/ have been resolved and compared with results using the standard scintillator, and a PCD predecessor (the Omega 3). The PCD shows improved speed, dynamic range, 2-D information and comparable spatial resolution to the standard scintillator based systems. It also overcomes the severe dead time limitations of the Omega 3 by using a shutter based acquisition mode. A brief demonstration of the possibilities of the system for dental radiography and...

  8. Application of white beam synchrotron radiation topography to the analysis of twins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, G.D.; Dudley, M.; Hou, S.Y.; DiSalvo, R.

    1991-01-01

    White beam synchrotron X-ray topography (WBSXRT) has been used to characterize room temperature twinning structures in lanthanum gallate and p-terphenyl single crystals. Both Laue and Bragg geometries are utilized to reveal the nature of twinning in LaGaO 3 . The geometric relationships between the twin related domains and the directions of the corresponding diffracted beams are used to establish the presence of reflection twins on (1anti 12) orth , (1anti 1anti 2) orth and (1anti 10) orth planes. Also described is the application of WBSXRT to reveal the twin law in the solution grown organic crystal p-terphenyl. The active twin plane was unambiguously determined to be (201) by determination of the orientation relationship between parent and twinned structures through Laue pattern analysis. Twin lamellae with the same twin plane were also observed. For both materials, no radiation damage was observed throughout the experiments. These results demonstrate the usefulness of WBSXRT for the study of twins. (orig.)

  9. Application of white beam synchrotron radiation topography to the analysis of twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, G.-D.; Dudley, M.; Hou, S.-Y.; DiSalvo, R.

    1991-05-01

    White beam synchrotron X-ray topography (WBSXRT) has been used to characterize room temperature twinning structures in lanthanum gallate and P-terphenyl single crystals. Both Laue and Bragg geometries are utilized to reveal the nature of twinning in LaGaO 3. The geometric relationships between the twin related domains and the directions of the corresponding diffracted beams are used to establish the presence of reflection twins on (11¯2) orth, (11¯2¯) orth and (11¯0) orth planes. Also described is the application of WBSXRT to reveal the twin law in the solution grown organic crystal p-terphenyl. The active twin plane was unambiguously determined to be (201) by determination of the orientation relationship between parent and twinned structures through Laue pattern analysis. Twin lamellae with the same twin plane were also observed. For both materials, no radiation damage was observed throughout the experiments. These results demonstrate the usefulness of WBSXRT for the study of twins.

  10. Application of white beam synchrotron radiation topography to the analysis of twins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, G.D.; Dudley, M.; Hou, S.Y.; DiSalvo, R. (Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, SUNY, Stony Brook, NY (USA))

    1991-05-01

    White beam synchrotron X-ray topography (WBSXRT) has been used to characterize room temperature twinning structures in lanthanum gallate and p-terphenyl single crystals. Both Laue and Bragg geometries are utilized to reveal the nature of twinning in LaGaO{sub 3}. The geometric relationships between the twin related domains and the directions of the corresponding diffracted beams are used to establish the presence of reflection twins on (1anti 12){sub orth}, (1anti 1anti 2){sub orth} and (1anti 10){sub orth} planes. Also described is the application of WBSXRT to reveal the twin law in the solution grown organic crystal p-terphenyl. The active twin plane was unambiguously determined to be (201) by determination of the orientation relationship between parent and twinned structures through Laue pattern analysis. Twin lamellae with the same twin plane were also observed. For both materials, no radiation damage was observed throughout the experiments. These results demonstrate the usefulness of WBSXRT for the study of twins. (orig.).

  11. Versatile, reprogrammable area pixel array detector for time-resolved synchrotron x-ray applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruner, Sol [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2010-05-01

    The final technical report for DOE grant DE-SC0004079 is presented. The goal of the grant was to perform research, development and application of novel imaging x-ray detectors so as to effectively utilize the high intensity and brightness of the national synchrotron radiation facilities to enable previously unfeasible time-resolved x-ray research. The report summarizes the development of the resultant imaging x-ray detectors. Two types of detector platforms were developed: The first is a detector platform (called a Mixed-Mode Pixel Array Detector, or MM-PAD) that can image continuously at over a thousand images per second while maintaining high efficiency for wide dynamic range signals ranging from 1 to hundreds of millions of x-rays per pixel per image. Research on an even higher dynamic range variant is also described. The second detector platform (called the Keck Pixel Array Detector) is capable of acquiring a burst of x-ray images at a rate of millions of images per second.

  12. Synchrotron radiation sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Steenbergen, A.

    1979-01-01

    As a result of the exponential growth of the utilization of synchrotron radiation for research in the domain of the material sciences, atomic and molecular physics, biology and technology, a major construction activity has been generated towards new dedicated electron storage rings, designed optimally for synchrotron radiation applications, also, expansion programs are underway at the existing facilities, such as DORIS, SPEAR, and VEPP. In this report the basic properties of synchrotron radiation will be discussed, a short overview will be given of the existing and new facilities, some aspects of the optimization of a structure for a synchrotron radiation source will be discussed and the addition of wigglers and undulators for spectrum enhancement will be described. Finally, some parameters of an optimized synchrotron radiation source will be given.

  13. Interest of synchrotron radiation for the therapy of brain tumors: methodology and preclinical applications; Interet du rayonnement synchrotron dans la therapie des tumeurs cerebrales: methodologie et applications precliniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regnard, P

    2007-12-15

    Microbeam radiation (M.R.T.) and stereotactic synchrotron radiation therapy (S.S.R.T.) are innovative techniques currently developed at the european Synchrotron radiation facility. these techniques led to promising, but rarely reproduced, results. the use of different tumoral models for each techniques limit comparisons. M.R.T. experiments on rats bearing 9L tumors 14 days after implantation displayed a double median survival time ( from 20 to 40 days) with a 200 {mu}m spacing irradiation, while a 100 {mu}m spacing irradiation tripled this median (67 days) but damaged normal tissue. the impact of the device dividing synchrotron beam into micro-beams, named multi sit collimator, was also demonstrated. combination of drugs with M.R.T. irradiation was tested. promising results (median survival time: 40 days and 30% of long term survivors) were obtained with an intratumoral injection of gadolinium coupled with a crossing M.R.T. irradiation at 460 Gy. Moreover, earlier M.R.T. irradiation (tumor at D10) quadrupled the median survival time (79 days) with 30% of long term survivors. A new imaging device to target the tumor before irradiation and an adapted collimator will increase the M.R.T. results. As the differences existing between tumoral models used in M.R.T. (9L models) and in S.S.R.T. (F98 models) are major, M.R.T./S.S.R.T. comparative experiments were realised on these two models. Results showed that the two techniques have the same efficacy on F98 model and that the M.R.T. is more effective on 9L model. This can help to define adapted tumor type for these techniques. (author)

  14. National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulbert, S.L.; Lazarz, N.M.

    1993-04-01

    This report contains seven sections discussing the following: (1) scientific research at the NSLS; (2) symposia and workshops held at the NSLS; (3) a facility report; (4) NSLS projects; (5) NSLS operational highlights; (6) informational guides to the VUV and X-ray beamlines; and (7) appendices which include abstracts on projects carried out at the VUV and X-ray beamlines

  15. Atoms, molecules, clusters and synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kui Rexi; Ju Xin

    1995-01-01

    The importance of synchrotron radiation, especially the third generation synchrotron radiation light source, in atomic, molecular and cluster physics is discussed and some views are presented on new methods which may become available for research in the above fields

  16. Temporal Evolution of the Gamma-ray Burst Afterglow Spectrum for an Observer: GeV–TeV Synchrotron Self-Compton Light Curve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukushima, Takuma; Fujita, Yutaka [Department of Earth and Space Science, Osaka University, Osaka, 560-0043 (Japan); To, Sho; Asano, Katsuaki, E-mail: fukushima@vega.ess.sci.osaka-u.ac.jp, E-mail: fujita@vega.ess.sci.osaka-u.ac.jp, E-mail: tosho@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp, E-mail: asanok@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan)

    2017-08-01

    We numerically simulate the gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglow emission with a one-zone time-dependent code. The temporal evolutions of the decelerating shocked shell and energy distributions of electrons and photons are consistently calculated. The photon spectrum and light curves for an observer are obtained taking into account the relativistic propagation of the shocked shell and the curvature of the emission surface. We find that the onset time of the afterglow is significantly earlier than the previous analytical estimate. The analytical formulae of the shock propagation and light curve for the radiative case are also different from our results. Our results show that even if the emission mechanism is switching from synchrotron to synchrotron self-Compton, the gamma-ray light curves can be a smooth power law, which agrees with the observed light curve and the late detection of a 32 GeV photon in GRB 130427A. The uncertainty of the model parameters obtained with the analytical formula is discussed, especially in connection with the closure relation between spectral index and decay index.

  17. Development of 119Sn nuclear resonance scattering of synchrotron radiation and first applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barla, A.

    2001-01-01

    In the framework of this thesis the NRS technique has been developed and applied, for the first time at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, at the resonance of 119 Sn. Elastic nuclear forward scattering (NFS) is ideal for studies of hyperfine interactions, where information about the electronic and magnetic properties of solids is obtained. On the other hand nuclear inelastic scattering (NIS) allows one to study the phonon density of states (DOS) of Moessbauer isotopes in various kinds of systems. In the first stage, technical developments have been made, particularly with regards the used optical elements. A key point has been the construction of a high resolution monochromator (HRM) for the resonance of 119 Sn, with an energy resolution of about 0.65 meV, perfectly suited to perform NIS experiments. A second HRM optimised in throughput has been constructed and used, in combination with focussing elements (bent crystals and compound refractive lenses), to perform NFS experiments at very high pressure. For the first applications of 119 Sn NIS, the phonon DOS of β-Sn has been directly determined from the NIS spectra measured at T = 100 K and T = 300 K. An excellent agreement has been found with the phonon DOS obtained theoretically by previous calculations. Moreover, dynamical and thermodynamical properties of β-Sn extracted from the determined DOS, such as the Lamb-Moessbauer factor and the specific heat, are found to be in good agreement with previously published results. As a first application of 119 Sn NFS experiments at high pressure, the system U(In 1-x Sn x ) 3 has been chosen. (orig.)

  18. Development of {sup 119}Sn nuclear resonance scattering of synchrotron radiation and first applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barla, A.

    2001-07-01

    In the framework of this thesis the NRS technique has been developed and applied, for the first time at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, at the resonance of {sup 119}Sn. Elastic nuclear forward scattering (NFS) is ideal for studies of hyperfine interactions, where information about the electronic and magnetic properties of solids is obtained. On the other hand nuclear inelastic scattering (NIS) allows one to study the phonon density of states (DOS) of Moessbauer isotopes in various kinds of systems. In the first stage, technical developments have been made, particularly with regards the used optical elements. A key point has been the construction of a high resolution monochromator (HRM) for the resonance of {sup 119}Sn, with an energy resolution of about 0.65 meV, perfectly suited to perform NIS experiments. A second HRM optimised in throughput has been constructed and used, in combination with focussing elements (bent crystals and compound refractive lenses), to perform NFS experiments at very high pressure. For the first applications of {sup 119}Sn NIS, the phonon DOS of {beta}-Sn has been directly determined from the NIS spectra measured at T = 100 K and T = 300 K. An excellent agreement has been found with the phonon DOS obtained theoretically by previous calculations. Moreover, dynamical and thermodynamical properties of {beta}-Sn extracted from the determined DOS, such as the Lamb-Moessbauer factor and the specific heat, are found to be in good agreement with previously published results. As a first application of {sup 119}Sn NFS experiments at high pressure, the system U(In{sub 1-x}Sn{sub x}){sub 3} has been chosen. (orig.)

  19. Reflectometer end station for synchrotron calibrations of Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility flight optics and for spectrometric research applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graessle, D.E.; Fitch, J.J.; Ingram, R.; Zhang Juda, J.; Blake, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    Preparations have been underway to construct and test a facility for grazing incidence reflectance calibrations of flat mirrors at the National Synchrotron Light Source. The purpose is to conduct calibrations on witness flats to the coating process of the flight mirrors for NASA's Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF). The x-ray energy range required is 50 eV--12 keV. Three monochromatic beamlines (X8C, X8A, U3A) will provide energy tunability over this entire range. The goal is to calibrate the AXAF flight mirrors with uncertainties approaching 1%. A portable end station with a precision-positioning reflectometer has been developed for this work. We have resolved the vacuum cleanliness requirements to preserve the coating integrity of the flats with the strict grazing-angle certainty requirements placed on the rotational control system of the reflectometer. A precision positioning table permits alignment of the system to the synchrotron beam to within 10 arcsec; the reflectometer's rotational control system can then produce grazing angle accuracy to within less than 2 arcsec, provided that the electron orbit is stable. At 10--12 keV, this degree of angular accuracy is necessary to achieve the calibration accuracy required for AXAF. However the most important energy regions for the synchrotron calibration are in the 2000--3200 eV range, where the M-edge absorption features of the coating element, iridium, appear, and the 300--700 eV range of the Ir N edges. The detail versus energy exhibited in these features cannot be traced adequately without a tunable energy source, which necessitates a synchrotron for this work. We present the mechanical designs, motion control systems, detection and measurement capabilities, and selected procedures for our measurements, as well as reflectance data

  20. Development and application of the analyzer-based imaging technique with hard synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coan, P.

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this thesis is twofold: from one side the application of the analyser-based X-ray phase contrast imaging to study cartilage, bone and bone implants using ESRF synchrotron radiation sources and on the other to contribute to the development of the phase contrast techniques from the theoretical and experimental point of view. Several human samples have been studied in vitro using the analyser based imaging (ABI) technique. Examination included projection and computed tomography imaging and 3-dimensional volume rendering of hip, big toe and ankle articular joints. X-ray ABI images have been critically compared with those obtained with conventional techniques, including radiography, computed tomography, ultrasound, magnetic resonance and histology, the latter taken as gold standard. Results show that only ABI imaging was able to either visualize or correctly estimate the early pathological status of the cartilage. The status of the bone ingrowth in sheep implants have also been examined in vitro: ABI images permitted to correctly distinguish between good and incomplete bone healing. Pioneering in-vivo ABI on guinea pigs were also successfully performed, confirming the possible use of the technique to follow up the progression of joint diseases, the bone/metal ingrowth and the efficacy of drugs treatments. As part of the development of the phase contrast techniques, two objectives have been reached. First, it has been experimentally demonstrated for the first time that the ABI and the propagation based imaging (PBI) can be combined to create images with original features (hybrid imaging, HI). Secondly, it has been proposed and experimentally tested a new simplified set-up capable to produce images with properties similar to those obtained with the ABI technique or HI. Finally, both the ABI and the HI have been theoretically studied with an innovative, wave-based simulation program, which was able to correctly reproduce experimental results. (author)

  1. Characterization of a pnCCD for applications with synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Send, S., E-mail: send@physik.uni-siegen.de [University of Siegen, Department of Physics, Walter-Flex-Straße 3, 57068 Siegen (Germany); Abboud, A. [University of Siegen, Department of Physics, Walter-Flex-Straße 3, 57068 Siegen (Germany); Hartmann, R.; Huth, M. [PNSensor GmbH, Römerstraße 28, 80803 München (Germany); Leitenberger, W. [University of Potsdam, Department of Physics, Karl-Liebknecht-Straße 24/25, 14476 Potsdam (Germany); Pashniak, N. [University of Siegen, Department of Physics, Walter-Flex-Straße 3, 57068 Siegen (Germany); Schmidt, J. [PNSensor GmbH, Römerstraße 28, 80803 München (Germany); Strüder, L. [University of Siegen, Department of Physics, Walter-Flex-Straße 3, 57068 Siegen (Germany); PNSensor GmbH, Römerstraße 28, 80803 München (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstraße, 85748 Garching (Germany); Pietsch, U. [University of Siegen, Department of Physics, Walter-Flex-Straße 3, 57068 Siegen (Germany)

    2013-05-21

    In this work we study the response of a pnCCD by means of X-ray spectroscopy in the energy range between 6 keV and 20 keV and by Laue diffraction techniques. The analyses include measurements of characteristic detector parameters like energy resolution, count rate capability and effects of different gain settings. The limit of a single photon counting operation in white beam X-ray diffraction experiments is discussed with regard to the occurrence of pile-up events, for which the energy information about individual photons is lost. In case of monochromatic illumination the pnCCD can be used as a fast conventional CCD with a charge handling capacity (CHC) of about 300,000 electrons per pixel. If the CHC is exceeded, any surplus charge will spill to neighboring pixels perpendicular to the transfer direction due to electrostatic repulsion. The possibilities of increasing the number of storable electrons are investigated for different voltage settings by exposing a single pixel with X-rays generated by a microfocus X-ray source. The pixel binning mode is tested as an alternative approach that enables a pnCCD operation with significantly shorter readout times. -- Highlights: ► The pnCCD acts as a four-dimensional detector for white X-rays. ► Its performance for applications with synchrotron radiation is investigated. ► The pnCCD can be used for single photon counting and photon integration. ► The operation mode depends on the local frequencies of pile-up events. ► The pnCCD can be optimized for X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray imaging.

  2. Synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Kunz, C

    1974-01-01

    The production of synchrotron radiation as a by-product of circular high-energy electron (positron) accelerators or storage rings is briefly discussed. A listing of existing or planned synchrotron radiation laboratories is included. The following properties are discussed: spectrum, collimation, polarization, and intensity; a short comparison with other sources (lasers and X-ray tubes) is also given. The remainder of the paper describes the experimental installations at the Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY) and DORIS storage rings, presents a few typical examples out of the fields of atomic, molecular, and solid-state spectroscopy, and finishes with an outlook on the use of synchrotron radiation in molecular biology. (21 refs).

  3. Versatile user-oriented atomic and molecular beam apparatus for use with the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, J.B.A.; Grover, J.R.

    1978-11-01

    A proposed atomic and moleuclar beam apparatus is described for photon interaction studies using the National Sychrotron Light Source at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. This apparatus will employ ultrahigh vacuum techniques compatible with storage ring operation. Supersonic nozzle sources will be used to produce the beams and signal detection will be accomplished using a quadrupole mass analysis system. The equipment is intended for use both by in-house and outside users and primary consideration has been given to flexibility of design. The application of photoionization techniques to the study of crossed beam reactive scattering with particular emphasis on internal energy distribution analysis is discussed

  4. Experience with synchrotron radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krinsky, S.

    1987-01-01

    The development of synchrotron radiation sources is discussed, emphasizing characteristics important for x-ray microscopy. Bending magnets, wigglers and undulators are considered as sources of radiation. Operating experience at the national Synchrotron Light Source on the VUV and XRAY storage rings is reviewed, with particular consideration given to achieved current and lifetime, transverse bunch dimensions, and orbit stability. 6 refs., 3 figs

  5. Synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nave, C.; Quinn, P.; Blake, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    The paper on Synchrotron Radiation contains the appendix to the Daresbury Annual Report 1987/88. The appendix is mainly devoted to the scientific progress reports on the work at the Synchrotron Radiation Source in 1987/8. The parameters of the Experimental Stations and the index to the Scientific Reports are also included in the appendix. (U.K.)

  6. Femto-second pulses of synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zholents, A.A.; Zolotorev, M.S.

    1995-07-01

    A method capable of producing femto-second pulses of synchrotron radiation is proposed. It is based on the interaction of femto-second light pulses with electrons in a storage ring. The application of the method to the generation of ultra-short x-ray pulses at the Advance Light Source of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has been considered. The same method can also be used for extraction of electrons from a storage ring in ultra-short series of microbunches spaced by the periodicity of light wavelength

  7. Ultraviolet light imaging technology and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, Takane; Suzuki, Kenji; Oba, Koichiro

    1991-06-01

    Demands on the high-quality imaging in ultraviolet (UV) light region have been increasing recently, especially in fields such as forensic investigations, laser experiments, spent fuel identification, and so on. Important requirements on the UV imaging devices in such applications are high sensitivity, excellent solar blindness, and small image distortion, since the imaging of very weak UV images are usually carried out under natural sunlight or room illuminations and the image data have to be processed to produce useful two-dimensional quantitative data. A new photocathode has been developed to meet these requirements. It is specially made of RbTe on a sapphire window and its quantum efficiency is as high as 20% with the solar blindness of 10,000. The tube is specially designed to meet UV light optics and to minimize image distortion. It has an invertor type image intensifier tube structure and intensifies the incident UV light up to approximately 10,000 times. The distortion of the output image is suppressed less than 1.8%, because of a specially designed electron optic lens system. The device has shown excellent results in the observation of such objects as fingerprints and footprints in forensic investigations, the Cherenkov light produced by the spent fuels stored in a cooling water pool in the nuclear power station, and UV laser beam path in excimer laser experiments. Furthermore, many other applications of the UV light imaging will be expected in various fields such as semiconductors, cosmetics, and electrical power.

  8. Tunable white light source for medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaszczak, Urszula J.; Gryko, Lukasz; Zajac, Andrzej

    2017-08-01

    Development of light-emitting diodes has brought new possibilities in many applications, especially in terms of flexible adjustment of light spectra. This feature is very useful in construction of many devices, for example for medical diagnosis and treatment. It was proved, that in some cases LEDs can easily replace lasers during therapy of cancer without reduction of efficiency of this process. On the other hand during diagnosis process LED-based constructions can provide unique ability to adjust the color temperature of the output light while maintaining high color rendering. It allows for optimum surface contrast and enhanced tissue differentiation at the operator site. In the paper we describe the construction of the tunable LED-based source designed for application in endoscopy. It was optimized from the point of view of the color rendition for 5 different correlated color temperatures (illuminant A, D55, D65, 3500K and 4500K) with the restriction of very high (>90) values of general and specific color rendering indexes (according to Ra method). The source is composed of 13 light-emitting diodes from visible region mounted on the common radiator and controlled by dedicated system. Spectra of the components are mixed and the spectra of output light is analyzed. On the basis of obtained spectra colorimetric parameters are calculated and compared with the results of theoretical analysis.

  9. Synchrotron radiation sources in the Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapitza, S.P.

    1987-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation (SR) is now recognized to be an important instrument for experimental work in many fields of science. Recently the application of SR in medicine and industry, especially as a light source for microelectronics production have been demonstrated. Thus the development of SR sources has now grown to become a significant and independent dimension for accelerator research and technology. This article describes SR work in the Soviet Union

  10. Coronary angiography using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akatsuka, Takao; Hiranaka, Yukio; Takeda, Tohru; Hyodo, Kazuyuki.

    1990-01-01

    Invasive coronary angiography is the imaging technique of choice for diagnosis of ischemic heart disease. Recently, the application of synchrotron radiation in coronary angiography has been investigated in the world, with the aim of developing the noninvasive technique for visualizing the heart. In this article, backgrounds and present situation of coronary angiography using synchrotron radiation are reviewed. Firstly, visual imaging techniques of the cardiovascular system are discussed in terms of angiography and digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Conventional temporal, energy, and hybrid subtraction modes used in DSA are referred to. Secondly, the application of synchrotron radiation is presented, focusing on the property of synchrotron radiation and K-edge subtraction angiography. Two kinds of synchrotron radiation beam methods are outlined. Interpretation of image data and various subtraction procedures remain unestablished. There is much to be done before coronary angiography using synchrotron radiation comes into a clinical practice. (N.K.)

  11. Synchrotron Infrared Science: Physics, Biology, Environmental Science and Coherence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, M.C.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: In recent years, infrared microscopy and spectroscopy has greatly benefited from a bright new source of light, namely synchrotrons. Synchrotrons provide a significant improvement in brightness, and therefore spatial resolution for mapping characteristic vibrational signatures of molecular species with high signal to noise. This has opened up new scientific directions for physicists, biologists, chemists, industrial applications, forensics, and more. I will present a brief overview of the technique followed by several scientific highlights of synchrotron infrared spectromicroscopy research being performed in Berkeley. I will then turn to the future by discussing our recent understanding of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR). We are proposing a new ring which will use CSR to provide a far-infrared (THz) source having intensities between 7 and 10 orders of magnitude higher than present broadband sources. I will motivate and discuss the exciting capabilities of this revolutionary new source

  12. A gas microstrip wide angle X-ray detector for application in synchrotron radiation experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Bateman, J E; Derbyshire, G E; Duxbury, D M; Lipp, J; Mir, J A; Simmons, J E; Spill, E J; Stephenson, R; Dobson, B R; Farrow, R C; Helsby, W I; Mutikainen, R; Suni, I

    2002-01-01

    The Gas Microstrip Detector has counting rate capabilities several orders of magnitude higher than conventional wire proportional counters while providing the same (or better) energy resolution for X-rays. In addition the geometric flexibility provided by the lithographic process combined with the self-supporting properties of the substrate offers many exciting possibilities for X-ray detectors, particularly for the demanding experiments carried out on Synchrotron Radiation Sources. Using experience obtained in designing detectors for Particle Physics we have developed a detector for Wide Angle X-ray Scattering studies. The detector has a fan geometry which makes possible a gas detector with high detection efficiency, sub-millimetre spatial resolution and good energy resolution over a wide range of X-ray energy. The detector is described together with results of experiments carried out at the Daresbury Laboratory Synchrotron Radiation Source.

  13. Application of high-temperature superconducting permanent magnets to synchrotron radiation sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Tanaka

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A simple scheme for field enhancement in synchrotron radiation sources such as undulators and wigglers is proposed, which is based on the fundamental nature of the superconducting loop where the magnetic flux is preserved. A superconductor ring placed to enclose the magnetic pole works as a kind of permanent magnet. The magnetization is performed by electromagnetic induction brought by the opening movement of the magnetic gap. Since neither additional external power supplies nor current leads are necessary, high-temperature bulk superconductors can easily be implemented in this scheme. Calculations to check the effectiveness of the new concept show that the critical current density of the superconductor is crucial to the performance of the synchrotron radiation sources based on this concept. Experiments were performed to verify the principle of the proposed scheme, which gave promising results to strongly support it.

  14. Nanopositioning techniques development for synchrotron radiation instrumentation applications at the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu Deming

    2010-01-01

    At modern synchrotron radiation sources and beamlines, high-precision positioning techniques present a significant opportunity to support state-of-the-art synchrotron radiation research. Meanwhile, the required instrument positioning performance and capabilities, such as resolution, dynamic range, repeatability, speed, and multiple axes synchronization are exceeding the limit of commercial availability. This paper presents the current nanopositioning techniques developed for the Argonne Center for Nanoscale Materials (CNM)/Advanced Photon Source (APS) hard x-ray nanoprobe and high-resolution x-ray monochromators and analyzers for the APS X-ray Operations and Research (XOR) beamlines. Future nanopositioning techniques to be developed for the APS renewal project will also be discussed.

  15. Application of high-resolution film for lithography to synchrotron X-ray topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, Kaoru; Ito, Kazuyoshi; Iwami, Masayuki; Hashimoto, Eiji; Kino, Takao.

    1994-01-01

    A high-resolution film for lithography is applied to a detector for synchrotron radiation topography, instead of a nuclear plate. The film shows much better resolution than that of the plate although exposure time an about 500 times longer is required. The size distribution of interstitial loops grown as vacancy sources in a nearly perfect aluminum crystal after a temperature rise is examined from the while beam topograph. (author)

  16. Synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helliwell, J.R.; Walker, R.P.

    1985-01-01

    A detailed account of the research work associated with the Synchrotron Radiation Source at Daresbury Laboratory, United Kingdom, in 1984/85, is presented in the Appendix to the Laboratory's Annual Report. (U.K.)

  17. Synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poole, M.W.; Lea, K.R.

    1982-01-01

    A report is given on the work involving the Synchrotron Radiation Division of the Daresbury Laboratory during the period January 1981 - March 1982. Development of the source, beamlines and experimental stations is described. Progress reports from individual investigators are presented which reveal the general diversity and interdisciplinary nature of the research which benefits from access to synchrotron radiation and the associated facilities. Information is given on the organisation of the Division and publications written by the staff are listed. (U.K.)

  18. Synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, D.; Walker, R.P.; Durham, P.J.; Ridley, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    The paper on synchrotron radiation is the appendix to the Daresbury (United Kingdom) annual report, 1985/86. The bulk of the volume is made up of the progress reports for the work carried out during the year under review using the Synchrotron Radiation Source (SRS) at Daresbury. The Appendix also contains: the scientific programmes at the the SRS, progress on beamlines, instrumentation and computing developments, and activities connected with accelerator development. (U.K.)

  19. Applications of synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence technique in materials science-possibilities at INDUS-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, Manoj K.

    2016-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy has seen remarkable progress over the last few decades. Numerous applications in basic and applied sciences demonstrate its importance. Various advantages of XRF technique have motivated us to construct a microfocus XRF beamline (BL-16) on Indus-2 national synchrotron radiation facility. The BL-16 beamline offers a wide range of usages - both from research laboratories and industries; and for researchers working in diverse fields. Apart from the fields of pure sciences like physics and chemistry, the beamline provides an attractive platform to exercise material science applications, interdisciplinary applied sciences like medical, forensic and environmental studies etc. In addition to micro-XRF characterization, BL-16 beamline allows a user to perform studies using other advanced synchrotron based experimental methodologies, viz; grazing incidence X-ray fluorescence (GIXRF) analysis, chemical speciation, near-edge absorption spectroscopy and X-ray reflectivity studies of thin layered materials etc. The combined XRR-GIXRF analysis feature of the BL-16 beamline offers a novel capability to perform GIXRF assisted depth resolved X-ray studies to investigate chemical state and electronic structure of the thin nano-structured materials. The design aspects and various salient features of the BL-16 beamline X-ray reflectometer will be presented along with the measured performance. (author)

  20. Application of synchrotron-radiation soft x-ray spectroscopy for food analysis. Oxidation of the Japanese traditional sweets 'Karinto'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muramatsu, Yasuji; Kamamoto, Keishi; Nozawa, Jiro; Amano, Osamu; Gullikson, Eric M.

    2008-01-01

    To establish synchrotron-radiation soft X-ray spectroscopy as a reliable method for food analysis, we measured the X-ray absorption spectra of Japanese traditional sweets 'Karinto' and monitored the oxidation process. We prepared oxidized Karinto samples; The oxidation conditions such as UV/Vis-irradiation/shading and air/nitrogen-atmosphere were controlled for nine months at room temperature. The soft X-ray absorption spectra (XAS) of Karinto samples were measured in the beamline BL-6.3.2 at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). The XAS of the Karinto samples oxidized with UV/Vis-irradiation in air show that the relative peak intensity ratio, π*/σ*, of the nine-month-oxidized sample clearly increases relative to the initial sample. This demonstrates that Karinto can be oxidized with UV/Vis-irradiation. (author)

  1. Interest of synchrotron radiation for the therapy of brain tumors: methodology and preclinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regnard, P.

    2007-12-01

    Microbeam radiation (M.R.T.) and stereotactic synchrotron radiation therapy (S.S.R.T.) are innovative techniques currently developed at the european Synchrotron radiation facility. these techniques led to promising, but rarely reproduced, results. the use of different tumoral models for each techniques limit comparisons. M.R.T. experiments on rats bearing 9L tumors 14 days after implantation displayed a double median survival time ( from 20 to 40 days) with a 200 μm spacing irradiation, while a 100 μm spacing irradiation tripled this median (67 days) but damaged normal tissue. the impact of the device dividing synchrotron beam into micro-beams, named multi sit collimator, was also demonstrated. combination of drugs with M.R.T. irradiation was tested. promising results (median survival time: 40 days and 30% of long term survivors) were obtained with an intratumoral injection of gadolinium coupled with a crossing M.R.T. irradiation at 460 Gy. Moreover, earlier M.R.T. irradiation (tumor at D10) quadrupled the median survival time (79 days) with 30% of long term survivors. A new imaging device to target the tumor before irradiation and an adapted collimator will increase the M.R.T. results. As the differences existing between tumoral models used in M.R.T. (9L models) and in S.S.R.T. (F98 models) are major, M.R.T./S.S.R.T. comparative experiments were realised on these two models. Results showed that the two techniques have the same efficacy on F98 model and that the M.R.T. is more effective on 9L model. This can help to define adapted tumor type for these techniques. (author)

  2. Application of high resolution synchrotron micro-CT radiation in dental implant osseointegration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neldam, Camilla Albeck; Lauridsen, Torsten; Rack, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe a refined method using high-resolution synchrotron radiation microtomography (SRmicro-CT) to evaluate osseointegration and peri-implant bone volume fraction after titanium dental implant insertion. SRmicro-CT is considered gold standard evaluating bone...... microarchitecture. Its high resolution, high contrast, and excellent high signal-to-noise-ratio all contribute to the highest spatial resolutions achievable today. Using SRmicro-CT at a voxel size of 5 μm in an experimental goat mandible model, the peri-implant bone volume fraction was found to quickly increase...

  3. Synchrotron Elettra. Status and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remec, I.

    1992-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation and the possibilities for its applications are shortly presented. Elettra, the third generation synchrotron, now under construction in Trieste, Italy, is briefly described and its main characteristics are given. Current activities in Slovenia, related to Elettra, are presented. (author) [sl

  4. Photoemission spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, K.L.I.

    1980-01-01

    It is an epoch making event for photoemission spectroscopy that the light sources of continuous wavelength from vacuum ultra-violet to X-ray region have become available by the advent of synchrotron radiation. Specifically the progress after stable intense light has become obtainable from storage rings is very significant. One of the features of these synchrotron radiation is its extreme polarization of radiating pattern. Though the elementary processes of photoemission out of solids are the basic themes, phenomenalistic 3-stage model is usually applied to the analysis of experiments. In this model, the process of photoemission is considered by dividing into three stages, namely the generation of photoelectrons due to optical transition between electron status -- the transportation of photoelectrons to solid surfaces -- breaking away from the surfaces. The spectrometers, the energy analyzers of photoelectrons, and sample-preparing room used for photoemission spectroscopy are described. Next, energy distribution curves are explained. At the end, photoelectron yield spectroscopy, CFS (constant final energy spectroscopy) and CIS (constant initial energy spectroscopy), Auger yield and interatomic Auger yield, the determination of surface structure by normal emission CIS, and surface EXAFS (extended X-ray absorption fine structure) are described. As seen above, the application specifically to surface physics is promising in the future. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  5. Application of X-rays and Synchrotron X Rays to Residual Stress Evaluation Near Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyzalla, Anke

    1999-01-01

    A nondestructive residual stress analysis can be performed using diffraction methods. The easiest accessible radiation is characteristic X radiation that has a penetration depth of ∼10 microm suitable for the determination of the residual stresses in near-surface layers. Special techniques have been developed, e.g., with respect to in situ analyses of the stress state in oxide layers and the residual stress analysis in coarse grained zones of steel welds or annealed Ni-base alloys. Depending on the size of the gauge volume, neutron diffraction can provide information at depths of tens of millimetres of steel and many tens of millimetres of Al. An alternative to the use of the characteristic synchrotron radiation is the use of a high-energy polychromatic beam in an energy dispersive arrangement, which gives access to higher penetration depths at still gauge volumes as small as 100 microm x 100 microm x 1 mm in steel rods of 15-mm diameter. The combination of neutrons with conventional X rays and monochromatic and polychromatic synchrotron radiation allows for a comprehensive investigation of the phase composition, the texture, and the residual stresses

  6. Application of An Avalanche Photodiode in Synchrotron-Based Ultra-fast X-Radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheong, S.-K.; Liu Jinyuan; Wang Jin; Powell, Christopher F.

    2004-01-01

    A possibility of using avalanche photodiode has been investigated while operated in current or continuous wave mode to accommodate high-intensity synchrotron x-ray beams in an ultra-fast x-radiography. To achieve a time resolution of 1 μs or better in a time-resolved x-radiograhic experiment, the entire time-sequence of the APD response to the pulsed synchrotron x-ray beam is recorded with time resolution of 1-2 ns. We have characterized the APD detector in the continuous wave mode to reveal its linearity, signal to noise ratio, and the time response with various circuit configurations. We have demonstrated that signal-to-noise ratio better than 1000 can be achieved, which is limited only by Poisson statistics. These detectors, coupled with finely focused x-rays, have been used to study structure and dynamics of supersonic fuel sprays with 50 μm-spatial resolution and μs-temporal resolution in the region close to an injection nozzle

  7. Application of synchrotron radiation for elemental microanalysis of human central nervous system tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szczerbowska-Boruchowska, M.; Lankosz, M.; Ostachowicz, J. [Mining University, Dept. of Radipmetry, Faculty of Physics and Nuclear Techniques, Krakow (Poland); Adamek, D.; Krygowska-Wajs, A.; Tomik, B.; Szczudlik, A. [Jagiellonian University, Institute of Neurology, Collegium Medicum, Krakow (Poland); Simionovici, A.; Bohic, S. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility ESRF, 38 - Grenoble (France)

    2002-08-01

    The pathogenesis of two neuro-degenerative diseases i.e, Parkinson's Disease (PD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are still not known. It is supposed that disturbance of metal ions homeostasis may promote degeneration and atrophy of neurons. As a preliminary study, the quantitative and topographic elemental analysis of selected parts of human brain and spinal cord was performed using synchrotron microbeam-X ray fluorescence ({mu}-SXRF) technique. The samples were taken during the autopsy from patients with PD, ALS and from patients died due to non-neurological conditions events. X-ray fluorescence imaging showed that increased concentration of selected elements are observed in neurons perikaryal parts in compare with surrounding area. Moreover, comparable analysis showed significant differences in accumulation of selected elements between the pathological and control case. The investigations indicate that micro-beam of synchrotron radiation can be satisfactory applied for analysis of central nervous system tissue providing useful information about distribution and contents of elements at the single cell level. (authors)

  8. Bringing light into the nano-world: What can you do with an atomic force microscope on top of your synchrotron radiation sample holder?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Mario Manuel Silveira

    2009-01-01

    This thesis had as a major objective to combine scanning probe microscopy in particular, atomic force microscopy with synchrotron light spectroscopies. The combination of these two types of spectroscopies is meant to be in-situ and in real time. Thus this thesis aimed at introducing new types of experimental techniques suitable for the investigation of nano-sized materials. The proposed new instrumentation, would provide chemical-specific contrast at unprecedented lateral resolution of up to 10-40 nanometers, thus overcoming existing limitations of the two families of spectroscopy methods and opening a wide range of research opportunities and challenges. For the purpose of combining these techniques an atomic force microscope was developed. The atomic force microscope (AFM) was developed around a quartz tuning fork crystal which was used as the sensor with which atomic forces are detected. The developed AFM was then used in several beam lines with essentially two different purposes. A first goal was to do spectroscopy, such as the measurement of an absorption edge, locally with the tip of the AFM. Such measurements were indeed done, but the lateral resolution is still dominated by the X-ray beam size rather than by the tip apex shape. The AFM tip was also used to measure Bragg peaks from crystals with sizes on the nanometer scale. A second goal was to use the AFM as an instrument to mechanical interact with nano-sized systems while the X-ray beam was used to probe changes in the lattice parameter of the studied systems. Thus the AFM tip was used to elastically indent a SiGe crystal while diffraction was simultaneously measured. It was possible to observe shifts of the Bragg peak as a consequence of the applied pressure. The in-situ combination of AFM with synchrotron light permitted, in this way, to measure the Young modulus of a crystal at the nano-scale without any kind of adjustable parameter. (author)

  9. Coherent Synchrotron Radiation for Rotational Spectroscopy: Application to the Rotational Spectrum of Propynal in the 200-750 GHz Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, J.; Roy, P.; Appadoo, D.; Naughton, D. Mc; Robertson, E.; Manceron, L.

    2013-06-01

    In storage rings, short electron bunches can produce an intense THz radiation called Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR). The flux of this emission between 250 and 750 GHz (in the mW range, up the 10000 times the regular synchrotron emission) is very advantageous for broad band absorption spectroscopy, using interferometric techniques. This source is, however, inherently difficult to stabilize, and intensity fluctuations lead to artifacts on the FT-based measurements, which strongly limit the use of CSR in particular for high-resolution measurements. At SOLEIL however, by screening different currents and bunch lengths, we defined stable CSR conditions for which the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) allows for measurements at high resolution. Moreover, we developed an artifact correction system, based on a simultaneous detection of the input and the output signals of the interferometer, which allows to further improve the S/N. For this purpose, the optics and electronics of two bolometers were matched. The stable CSR combined with this ingenious technique allowed us to record for the first time high-resolution FT spectra in the sub-THz range, with a S/N of 100 in a few hours. This enables many applications such as broadband rotational spectra in the THz range, studies of molecules with low frequency torsional modes, absolute intensities determinations, or studies of unstable species. Results obtained on Propynal illustrate these possibilities and enabled to improve significantly the ground state spectroscopic constants.

  10. Application of synchrotron microprobe methods to solid-phase speciation of metals and metalloids in house dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, S R; Jamieson, H E; Rasmussen, P E

    2011-10-01

    Determination of the source and form of metals in house dust is important to those working to understand human and particularly childhood exposure to metals in residential environments. We report the development of a synchrotron microprobe technique for characterization of multiple metal hosts in house dust. We have applied X-ray fluorescence for chemical characterization and X-ray diffraction for crystal structure identification using microfocused synchrotron X-rays at a less than 10 μm spot size. The technique has been evaluated by application to archived house dust samples containing elevated concentrations of Pb, Zn, and Ba in bedroom dust, and Pb and As in living room dust. The technique was also applied to a sample of soil from the corresponding garden to identify linkages between indoor and outdoor sources of metals. Paint pigments including white lead (hydrocerussite) and lithopone (wurtzite and barite) are the primary source of Pb, Zn, and Ba in bedroom dust, probably related to renovation activity in the home at the time of sampling. The much lower Pb content in the living room dust shows a relationship to the exterior soil and no specific evidence of Pb and Zn from the bedroom paint pigments. The technique was also successful at confirming the presence of chromated copper arsenate treated wood as a source of As in the living room dust. The results of the study have confirmed the utility of this approach in identifying specific metal forms within the dust.

  11. JHF synchrotrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The Japan Hadron Facility (JHF) consists of two synchrotrons and an injector linac. First, we will present a brief review of the specifications and lattice of the synchrotrons; one is 3 GeV booster and the other is 50 GeV main ring. Secondly, some detailed results of design study will be discussed, together with the present status of the R and D programs in progress. Among them, an estimate of beam loss is one of critical issues in beam dynamics. The development of a high gradient RF cavity is also crucial for a high intensity machine. (author)

  12. Aerodynamic levitation and laser heating: Applications at synchrotron and neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennet, L.; Pozdnyakova, I.; Drewitt, J.W.E.; Leydier, M.; Brassamin, S.; Zanghi, D.; Magazu, S.; Price, D.L.; Cristiglio, V.; Kozaily, J.; Fischer, H.E.; Cuello, G.J.; Koza, M.; Bytchkov, A.; Thiaudiere, D.; Gruner, S.; Greaves, G.N.

    2011-01-01

    Aerodynamic levitation is an effective way to suspend samples which can be heated with CO 2 lasers. The advantages of this container-less technique are the simplicity and compactness of the device, making it possible to integrate it easily in different kinds of experiments. In addition, all types of materials can be used, including metals and oxides. The integration of aerodynamic levitation at synchrotron and neutron sources provides powerful tools to study the structure and dynamics of molten materials. We present here an overview of the existing techniques (electromagnetic levitation, electrostatic levitation, single-axis acoustic levitation, and aerodynamic levitation) and of the developments made at the CEMHTI in Orleans, as well as a few examples of experimental results already obtained. (authors)

  13. Bejing synchrotron radiation TXRF facility and its applications on trace element study of cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuying, H.; Yingrong, W.; Limin, Z.; Guangcheng, L.; Wie, H.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, Beijing synchrotron radiation TXRF facility and experimental method were described. The minimum detection limits of some elements were tested by using several kinds of standard reference materials. The feasibility of using TXRF in biomedical field is discussed. With this technique small intestine cells of both normal and radiated white mice were analyzed, and the elemental average contents of each single cell are also given. The results indicated that the contents of some trace elements for normal and radiated white mice are greatly different, which may be used to provide valuable reference for clinic medicine. On the other hand, the trace elements of cells of lung and cervix cancer before and after apoptosis were determined by SRTXRF and the changes of trace elements in these cells were discussed. (author)

  14. High-pressure synchrotron x-ray diffraction and infrared microspectroscopy: applications to dense hydrous phases

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Z; Yang, H; Mao Ho Kwang; Hemley, R J

    2002-01-01

    Synchrotron x-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared (IR) absorption spectra of hydrous and 'anhydrous' forms of phase X were measured to 30 GPa at room temperature. Three OH stretching modes were found in the hydrous phase, and surprisingly one sharp OH mode was observed in the previously characterized anhydrous phase. All OH stretching modes soften and broaden with increasing pressure and become very weak above approx 20 GPa. XRD indicates that the crystal structure remains stable up to 30 GPa. Combining IR absorption and XRD results, the behaviour is attributed to pressure-induced distortion of the Si sub 2 O sub 7 groups and disorder of the hydrogen atoms. The bulk moduli of the hydrous and 'anhydrous' phases are in the region of 74 GPa.

  15. Aerodynamic levitation and laser heating: Applications at synchrotron and neutron sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennet, L.; Pozdnyakova, I.; Drewitt, J.W.E.; Leydier, M.; Brassamin, S.; Zanghi, D.; Magazu, S.; Price, D.L. [CEMHTI and University of Orleans, 45071 Orleans Cedex 02 (France); Cristiglio, V.; Kozaily, J.; Fischer, H.E.; Cuello, G.J.; Koza, M. [ILL, BP. 156, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); Bytchkov, A. [ESRF, BP. 220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); Thiaudiere, D. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, BP. 48, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Gruner, S. [Institute of Physics, Chemnitz UT, 09107 Chemnitz (Germany); Greaves, G.N. [IMAPS, University of Wales, Aberystwyth, SY23 3BZ (United Kingdom)

    2011-05-15

    Aerodynamic levitation is an effective way to suspend samples which can be heated with CO{sub 2} lasers. The advantages of this container-less technique are the simplicity and compactness of the device, making it possible to integrate it easily in different kinds of experiments. In addition, all types of materials can be used, including metals and oxides. The integration of aerodynamic levitation at synchrotron and neutron sources provides powerful tools to study the structure and dynamics of molten materials. We present here an overview of the existing techniques (electromagnetic levitation, electrostatic levitation, single-axis acoustic levitation, and aerodynamic levitation) and of the developments made at the CEMHTI in Orleans, as well as a few examples of experimental results already obtained. (authors)

  16. A Modular VME Data Acquisition System for Counter Applications at the GSI Synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    Liakin, D A

    2003-01-01

    Particle counters perform the control of beam loss and slowly extracted currents at the heavy ion synchrotron (SIS) at GSI. A new VME/Lynx - PC/Linux based data acquisition system has been developed to combine the operating purposes beam loss measurement, spill analysis, spill structure measurement and matrix switching functionality in one single assembly. In this paper a detailed PC-side software description is presented. To achieve best system stability, the software has been divided into time critical networking and data deploying threads and low or normal priority interface tasks. Some new abilities in the fields of data computation and presentation are reported. A hardware description is presented, in detail a programmable GSI-EVENT controller, which is based on an ordinary 8 bit RISC microprocessor and which has been integrated into the system, to synchronize the data acquisition with the sophisticated “virtual accelerator” timing at GSI. First experiences gained while the commission...

  17. X-Ray-induced Deuterium Enrichment of N-rich Organics in Protoplanetary Disks: An Experimental Investigation Using Synchrotron Light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavilan, Lisseth; Carrasco, Nathalie [LATMOS, Université Versailles St Quentin, UPMC Université Paris 06, CNRS, 11 blvd d’Alembert, F-78280 Guyancourt (France); Remusat, Laurent; Roskosz, Mathieu [IMPMC, CNRS UMR 7590, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Université Paris 06, IRD, Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, CP 52, 57 rue Cuvier, Paris F-75231 (France); Popescu, Horia; Jaouen, Nicolas [SEXTANTS beamline, SOLEIL synchrotron, L’Orme des Merisiers, F-91190 Saint-Aubin (France); Sandt, Christophe [SMIS beamline, SOLEIL synchrotron, L’Orme des Merisiers, F-91190 Saint-Aubin (France); Jäger, Cornelia [Laboratory Astrophysics and Cluster Physics Group of the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy at the Friedrich Schiller University and Institute of Solid State Physics, Helmholtzweg 3, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Henning, Thomas [Max-Planck Institute for Astronomy Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Simionovici, Alexandre [Institut des Sciences de la Terre, Observatoire des Sciences de l’Univers de Grenoble, BP 53, F-38041 Grenoble (France); Lemaire, Jean Louis [Institut des Sciences Moléculaires d’Orsay (ISMO), CNRS, Univ. Paris Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91405 Orsay (France); Mangin, Denis, E-mail: lisseth.gavilan@latmos.ipsl.fr [Institut Jean Lamour, CNRS, Université de Lorraine, F-54011 Nancy (France)

    2017-05-01

    The deuterium enrichment of organics in the interstellar medium, protoplanetary disks, and meteorites has been proposed to be the result of ionizing radiation. The goal of this study is to simulate and quantify the effects of soft X-rays (0.1–2 keV), an important component of stellar radiation fields illuminating protoplanetary disks, on the refractory organics present in the disks. We prepared tholins, nitrogen-rich organic analogs to solids found in several astrophysical environments, e.g., Titan’s atmosphere, cometary surfaces, and protoplanetary disks, via plasma deposition. Controlled irradiation experiments with soft X-rays at 0.5 and 1.3 keV were performed at the SEXTANTS beamline of the SOLEIL synchrotron, and were immediately followed by ex-situ infrared, Raman, and isotopic diagnostics. Infrared spectroscopy revealed the preferential loss of singly bonded groups (N–H, C–H, and R–N≡C) and the formation of sp{sup 3} carbon defects with signatures at ∼1250–1300 cm{sup −1}. Raman analysis revealed that, while the length of polyaromatic units is only slightly modified, the introduction of defects leads to structural amorphization. Finally, tholins were measured via secondary ion mass spectrometry to quantify the D, H, and C elemental abundances in the irradiated versus non-irradiated areas. Isotopic analysis revealed that significant D-enrichment is induced by X-ray irradiation. Our results are compared to previous experimental studies involving the thermal degradation and electron irradiation of organics. The penetration depth of soft X-rays in μ m-sized tholins leads to volume rather than surface modifications: lower-energy X-rays (0.5 keV) induce a larger D-enrichment than 1.3 keV X-rays, reaching a plateau for doses larger than 5 × 10{sup 27} eV cm{sup −3}. Synchrotron fluences fall within the expected soft X-ray fluences in protoplanetary disks, and thus provide evidence of a new non-thermal pathway to deuterium fractionation of

  18. X-Ray-induced Deuterium Enrichment of N-rich Organics in Protoplanetary Disks: An Experimental Investigation Using Synchrotron Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavilan, Lisseth; Remusat, Laurent; Roskosz, Mathieu; Popescu, Horia; Jaouen, Nicolas; Sandt, Christophe; Jäger, Cornelia; Henning, Thomas; Simionovici, Alexandre; Lemaire, Jean Louis; Mangin, Denis; Carrasco, Nathalie

    2017-05-01

    The deuterium enrichment of organics in the interstellar medium, protoplanetary disks, and meteorites has been proposed to be the result of ionizing radiation. The goal of this study is to simulate and quantify the effects of soft X-rays (0.1-2 keV), an important component of stellar radiation fields illuminating protoplanetary disks, on the refractory organics present in the disks. We prepared tholins, nitrogen-rich organic analogs to solids found in several astrophysical environments, e.g., Titan’s atmosphere, cometary surfaces, and protoplanetary disks, via plasma deposition. Controlled irradiation experiments with soft X-rays at 0.5 and 1.3 keV were performed at the SEXTANTS beamline of the SOLEIL synchrotron, and were immediately followed by ex-situ infrared, Raman, and isotopic diagnostics. Infrared spectroscopy revealed the preferential loss of singly bonded groups (N-H, C-H, and R-N≡C) and the formation of sp3 carbon defects with signatures at ˜1250-1300 cm-1. Raman analysis revealed that, while the length of polyaromatic units is only slightly modified, the introduction of defects leads to structural amorphization. Finally, tholins were measured via secondary ion mass spectrometry to quantify the D, H, and C elemental abundances in the irradiated versus non-irradiated areas. Isotopic analysis revealed that significant D-enrichment is induced by X-ray irradiation. Our results are compared to previous experimental studies involving the thermal degradation and electron irradiation of organics. The penetration depth of soft X-rays in μm-sized tholins leads to volume rather than surface modifications: lower-energy X-rays (0.5 keV) induce a larger D-enrichment than 1.3 keV X-rays, reaching a plateau for doses larger than 5 × 1027 eV cm-3. Synchrotron fluences fall within the expected soft X-ray fluences in protoplanetary disks, and thus provide evidence of a new non-thermal pathway to deuterium fractionation of organic matter.

  19. Application of synchrotron through-the-substrate microdiffraction to crystals in polished thin sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Rius

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The synchrotron through-the-substrate X-ray microdiffraction technique (tts-μXRD is extended to the structural study of microvolumes of crystals embedded in polished thin sections of compact materials [Rius, Labrador, Crespi, Frontera, Vallcorba & Melgarejo (2011. J.Synchrotron Rad. 18, 891–898]. The resulting tts-μXRD procedure includes some basic steps: (i collection of a limited number of consecutive two-dimensional patterns (frames for each randomly oriented crystal microvolume; (ii refinement of the metric from the one-dimensional diffraction pattern which results from circularly averaging the sum of collected frames; (iii determination of the reciprocal lattice orientation of each randomly oriented crystal microvolume which allows assigning the hkl indices to the spots and, consequently, merging the intensities of the different frames into a single-crystal data set (frame merging; and (iv merging of the individual crystal data sets (multicrystal merging to produce an extended data set suitable for structure refinement/solution. Its viability for crystal structure solution by Patterson function direct methods (δ recycling and for accurate single-crystal least-squares refinements is demonstrated with some representative examples from petrology in which different glass substrate thicknesses have been employed. The section of the crystal microvolume must be at least of the same order of magnitude as the focus of the beam (15 × 15 µm in the provided examples. Thanks to its versatility and experimental simplicity, this methodology should be useful for disciplines as disparate as petrology, materials science and cultural heritage.

  20. Characteristics of synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, G.S.

    1984-01-01

    The characteristics and production of synchrotron radiation are qualitatively discussed. The spectral properties of wigglers and undulators are briefly described. Possible applications in condensed matter physics are outlined. These include atomic and molecular studies, crystallography, impurities in solids and radiographic imaging

  1. [Application research of DEI technique based on synchrotron X-ray source in imaging rabbit eyeball in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hong-xia; Huang, Zhi-feng; Wang, Zhen-chang; Liu, Zhao-hui; Li, Yong; Zhu, Pei-ping

    2010-03-23

    To study the application of DEI technique in imaging the small structures of rabbit eyeball. DEI technique was used to image the eyeball of New Zealand white rabbit in vitro. The experiments were performed using beamline 4W1A at the topography station of Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF). DEI image showed clearly the fine structures of the rabbit eyeball, such as the transparent cornea, the sclera, the ciliaris, and the ciliary body. DEI is a new X-ray imaging modality which achieves high contrast and spatial resolution. It also showed obvious effect of edge enhancement. DEI has good potential in observing the micro-structures of eyeballs and other small organs.

  2. Applications of first order matricial theory to the calculation of storage ring designed for producing synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    A review of first order matrix theory (linear approximation) used for calculating component elements of a particle accelerator employing the synchrotron principle of alternated gradient, is presented. Based on this theory, criteria for dimensioning synchrotron designed, exclusively for producing electromagnetic radiation, are established. The problem to find out optimum disposition of elements (straight line sections, quadrupolar magnetic lens, etc.) which take advantages of deflector magnets of the DCI synchrotron (Orsay Linear Accelerator Laboratory, French) aiming to construct a synchrotron designed to operate as electromagnetic radiation source, is solved. (M.C.K.) [pt

  3. Application of new synchrotron powder diffraction techniques to anomalous scattering from glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beno, M.A.; Knapp, G.S.; Armand, P.; Price, D.L.; Saboungi, M.

    1995-01-01

    We have applied two synchrotron powder diffraction techniques to the measurement of high quality anomalous scattering diffraction data for amorphous materials. One of these methods, which uses a curved perfect crystal analyzer to simultaneously diffract multiple powder lines into a position sensitive detector has been shown to possess high resolution, low background, and very high counting rates. This data measurement technique provides excellent energy resolution while minimizing systematic errors resulting from detector nonlinearity. Anomalous scattering data for a Cesium Germanate glass collected using this technique will be presented. The second powder diffraction technique uses a flat analyzer crystal to deflect multiple diffraction lines out of the equatorial plane. Calculations show that this method possesses sufficient energy resolution for anomalous scattering experiments when a perfect crystal analyzer is used and is experimentally much simpler. Future studies will make use of a rapid sample changer allowing the scattering from the sample and a standard material (a material not containing the anomalous scatterer) to be measured alternately at each angle, reducing systematic errors due to beam instability or sample misalignment

  4. Applications of synchrotron-based micro-imaging techniques for the analysis of Cultural Heritage materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotte, Marine; Chilida, Javier; Walter, Philippe; Taniguchi, Yoko; Susini, Jean

    2009-01-01

    The analysis of cultural Heritage objects is often technically challenging. When analyzing micro-fragments, the amount of matter is usually very tiny, hence requiring sensitive techniques. These samples, in particular painting fragments, may present multi-layered structures, with layer thickness of ∼10 μm. It leads to favor micro-imaging techniques, with a good lateral resolution (about one micrometer), that manage the discriminative study of each layer. Besides, samples are usually very complex in term of chemistry, as they are made of mineral and organic matters, amorphous and crystallized phases, major and minor elements. Accordingly, a multi-modal approach is generally essential to solve the chemical complexity of such hybrid materials. Different examples will be given, to illustrate the various possibilities of synchrotron-based micro-imaging techniques, such as micro X-ray diffraction, micro X-ray fluorescence, micro X-ray absorption spectroscopy and micro FTIR spectroscopy. Focus will be made on paintings, but the whole range of museum objects (going from soft matter like paper or wood to hard matter like metal and glass) will be also considered.

  5. Application of high resolution synchrotron micro-CT radiation in dental implant osseointegration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neldam, Camilla Albeck; Lauridsen, Torsten; Rack, Alexander; Lefolii, Tore Tranberg; Jørgensen, Niklas Rye; Feidenhans'l, Robert; Pinholt, Else Marie

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe a refined method using high-resolution synchrotron radiation microtomography (SRmicro-CT) to evaluate osseointegration and peri-implant bone volume fraction after titanium dental implant insertion. SRmicro-CT is considered gold standard evaluating bone microarchitecture. Its high resolution, high contrast, and excellent high signal-to-noise-ratio all contribute to the highest spatial resolutions achievable today. Using SRmicro-CT at a voxel size of 5 μm in an experimental goat mandible model, the peri-implant bone volume fraction was found to quickly increase to 50% as the radial distance from the implant surface increased, and levelled out to approximately 80% at a distance of 400 μm. This method has been successful in depicting the bone and cavities in three dimensions thereby enabling us to give a more precise answer to the fraction of the bone-to-implant contact compared to previous methods. Copyright © 2015 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Macromolecular crystallography using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartunik, H.D.; Phillips, J.C.; Fourme, R.

    1982-01-01

    The use of synchrotron X-ray sources in macromolecular crystallography is described. The properties of synchrotron radiation relevant to macromolecular crystallography are examined. The applications discussed include anomalous dispersion techniques, the acquisition of normal and high resolution data, and kinetic studies of structural changes in macromolecules; protein data are presented illustrating these applications. The apparatus used is described including information on the electronic detectors, the monitoring of the incident beam and crystal cooling. (U.K.)

  7. Infrared spectroscopy by use of synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanba, Takao

    1991-01-01

    During five years since the author wrote the paper on the utilization of synchrotron radiation in long wavelength region, it seems to be recognized that in synchrotron radiation, the light from infrared to milli wave can be utilized, and is considerably useful. Recently the research on coherent synchrotron radiation in this region using electron linac has been developed by Tohoku University group, and the high capability of synchrotron radiation as light source is verified. This paper is the report on the infrared spectroscopic research using incoherent synchrotron radiation obtained from the deflection electromagnet part of electron storage rings. Synchrotron radiation is high luminance white light source including from X-ray to micro wave. The example of research that the author carried out at UVSOR is reported, and the perspective in near future is mentioned. Synchrotron radiation as the light source for infrared spectroscopy, the intensity and dimensions of the light source, far infrared region and mid infrared region, far infrared high pressure spectroscopic experiment, and the heightening of luminance of synchrotron radiation as infrared light source are described. (K.I.)

  8. Tabletop synchrotron and its unique features

    CERN Document Server

    Yamada, H

    2002-01-01

    Two synchrotrons, AURORA and MIRRORCLE, were built in Ritsumeikan University. MIRRORCLE-20 is the smallest normal conduction synchrotron (15 cm orbit radius and 1.2 m outer diameter) in the world. It uses 2/3 resonance method for electron beam incidence but is not optimized for X-ray generation. MIRRORCLE-6 shall be optimized for X-ray generation. X-ray generated by MIRRORCLE shows very flat white light, rich in hard X-ray, pulse with width changeable from a few mu s to a few ms , wide radiation angle of 25 mrad at MIRRORCLE-20 and 80 mrad at MIRRORCLE-8 and high coherence. The feature such as pulsed light and high coherence is expected to new application which photon radiation cannot practice. Imaging experiments by MIRRORCLE were carried out by Cu plate, Al plate, Teflon and acryl plate. We took a photograph of insect, electric lamp, connector, and cyclotron. New X-ray generation mechanism, X-ray strength, development of tabletop synchrotron and features of X-ray beam are explained. (S.Y.)

  9. Tabletop synchrotron and its unique features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Hironari

    2002-01-01

    Two synchrotrons, AURORA and MIRRORCLE, were built in Ritsumeikan University. MIRRORCLE-20 is the smallest normal conduction synchrotron (15 cm orbit radius and 1.2 m outer diameter) in the world. It uses 2/3 resonance method for electron beam incidence but is not optimized for X-ray generation. MIRRORCLE-6 shall be optimized for X-ray generation. X-ray generated by MIRRORCLE shows very flat white light, rich in hard X-ray, pulse with width changeable from a few μs to a few ms , wide radiation angle of 25 mrad at MIRRORCLE-20 and 80 mrad at MIRRORCLE-8 and high coherence. The feature such as pulsed light and high coherence is expected to new application which photon radiation cannot practice. Imaging experiments by MIRRORCLE were carried out by Cu plate, Al plate, Teflon and acryl plate. We took a photograph of insect, electric lamp, connector, and cyclotron. New X-ray generation mechanism, X-ray strength, development of tabletop synchrotron and features of X-ray beam are explained. (S.Y.)

  10. Molecular Chemical Structure of Barley Proteins Revealed by Ultra-Spatially Resolved Synchrotron Light Sourced FTIR Microspectroscopy: Comparison of Barley Varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, P.

    2007-01-01

    Barley protein structure affects the barley quality, fermentation, and degradation behavior in both humans and animals among other factors such as protein matrix. Publications show various biological differences among barley varieties such as Valier and Harrington, which have significantly different degradation behaviors. The objectives of this study were to reveal the molecular structure of barley protein, comparing various varieties (Dolly, Valier, Harrington, LP955, AC Metcalfe, and Sisler), and quantify protein structure profiles using Gaussian and Lorentzian methods of multi-component peak modeling by using the ultra-spatially resolved synchrotron light sourced Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (SFTIRM). The items of the protein molecular structure revealed included protein structure α-helices, β-sheets, and others such as β-turns and random coils. The experiment was performed at the National Synchrotron Light Source in Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL, US Department of Energy, NY). The results showed that with the SFTIRM, the molecular structure of barley protein could be revealed. Barley protein structures exhibited significant differences among the varieties in terms of proportion and ratio of model-fitted α-helices, β-sheets, and others. By using multi-component peaks modeling at protein amide I region of 1710-1576 cm -1 , the results show that barley protein consisted of approximately 18-34% of α-helices, 14-25% of β-sheets, and 44-69% others. AC Metcalfe, Sisler, and LP955 consisted of higher (P 0.05). The ratio of α-helices to others (0.3 to 1.0, P < 0.05) and that of β-sheets to others (0.2 to 0.8, P < 0.05) were different among the barley varieties. It needs to be pointed out that using a multi-peak modeling for protein structure analysis is only for making relative estimates and not exact determinations and only for the comparison purpose between varieties. The principal component analysis showed that protein amide I Fourier

  11. Applications of synchrotron microradiography in materials science-in situ visualization of the growth of metallic alloy crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Tongmin; Zhu Jing; Cao Fei; Wang Kun; Bao Yongming; Xie Honglan; Huang Wanxia

    2012-01-01

    Metals and their alloys are an important type of structural and functional material and have been widely used in the aerospace, automobile, shipbuilding and other industries. The macro-properties of metallic alloys actually depend on their microstructures. The evolution of their microstructures generally involves a dynamic process of crystal growth on the scale of micrometers. The crystal growth of these alloys is still a puzzle to us due to their opacity. Conventional metallography techniques are limited by the high temperature of the phase changes so it is not possible to perform in situ observation of the evolving crystal morphology. The in situ visualization of the crystal growth has now become possible with the application of synchrotron radiation imaging techniques, which are just the right key to unravel the mystery mentioned above. In this paper, the development and current state-of-the-art of in situ crystal growth visualization are reviewed. Some typical application examples are presented, and promising applications in materials science are further expected. (authors)

  12. Extragalactic background light measurements and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooray, Asantha

    2016-03-01

    This review covers the measurements related to the extragalactic background light intensity from γ-rays to radio in the electromagnetic spectrum over 20 decades in wavelength. The cosmic microwave background (CMB) remains the best measured spectrum with an accuracy better than 1%. The measurements related to the cosmic optical background (COB), centred at 1 μm, are impacted by the large zodiacal light associated with interplanetary dust in the inner Solar System. The best measurements of COB come from an indirect technique involving γ-ray spectra of bright blazars with an absorption feature resulting from pair-production off of COB photons. The cosmic infrared background (CIB) peaking at around 100 μm established an energetically important background with an intensity comparable to the optical background. This discovery paved the way for large aperture far-infrared and sub-millimetre observations resulting in the discovery of dusty, starbursting galaxies. Their role in galaxy formation and evolution remains an active area of research in modern-day astrophysics. The extreme UV (EUV) background remains mostly unexplored and will be a challenge to measure due to the high Galactic background and absorption of extragalactic photons by the intergalactic medium at these EUV/soft X-ray energies. We also summarize our understanding of the spatial anisotropies and angular power spectra of intensity fluctuations. We motivate a precise direct measurement of the COB between 0.1 and 5 μm using a small aperture telescope observing either from the outer Solar System, at distances of 5 AU or more, or out of the ecliptic plane. Other future applications include improving our understanding of the background at TeV energies and spectral distortions of CMB and CIB.

  13. Road lighting fundamentals, technology and application

    CERN Document Server

    van Bommel, Wout

    2015-01-01

    This book outlines the underlying principles on which modern road lighting is based, and provides the reader with knowledge of how these principles should be applied in practice. It offers a completely fresh approach to the subject, reflecting how the technology of road lighting has progressed to keep up with the changes in lamp technology, especially in solid state light sources, and the increasing awareness of energy use and environmental issues. The book is divided into three parts. Part One describes lighting of open roads, with chapters discussing visual performance and comfort (including the effects of mesopic vision and age), and international standards and recommendations for road lighting. Lighting equipment is introduced; specifically lamps and luminaires in terms of their practical properties and features, but also the road surface and its characteristics. A chapter on Lighting Design makes the link between theory and practice, providing the reader with the knowledge needed for effective lighting d...

  14. Large-area OLED lightings and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J W; Shin, D C; Park, S H

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we review the key issues related to the fabrication of large-area organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) for lighting applications. We discuss the origin of a short-circuit problem, luminance non-uniformity, hot spot, efficiency reduction (power loss), and heat generation and present the way of suppressing them. We also introduce three different application areas of large-area OLED lighting panels. They can be integrated with a solar cell for power recycling or inorganic LEDs for emotional lightings. The feasibility of using OLEDs for the application of visible-light communications is also reviewed

  15. Linear and nonlinear response matrix and its application to the SIS18 synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parfenova, Angelina

    2008-01-01

    This Thesis is dedicated to the numerical as well as the experimental study of beam dynamics in circular accelerators. The experimental part was undertaken in the SIS18 synchrotron. The detailed description of the experiments contained in this work can be considered as a starting point for future experiments and machine development. The work has the following structure. In Chapter 2 an overview of the GSI and FAIR accelerator facilities, and a general description of the SIS18 instrumentation related to the study of this work are given. The expected SIS18 performance in view of the upgrade program for FAIR project are outlined. The main beam dynamics issues connected with the purpose of this work are discussed. Chapter 3 is devoted to the study of linear beam dynamics in the SIS18. The resonance beam loss measurements were carried out with residual gas profile monitor in the SIS18 (Chapter 4). In the frame of this work a novel technique 'nonlinear tune response matrix method' to identify strengths, polarities and locations of nonlinear errors in circular accelerators is developed (Chapter 5). In the method the feed down effect of the nonlinear components at level of linear tune response to the closed-orbit change is explored. The closed-orbit change is introduced by varying correction steerers. The tune values are retrieved from the spectrum of coherent betatron oscillations excited by a fast kick. The theoretical background, the robustness of the method and numerical examples for the SIS18 using numerical library MICROMAP are presented. The technique to measure lattice nonlinearities was experimentally validated in the SIS18 where two normal as well as two skew sextupolar errors of the order of natural errors were reconstructed with a tolerant precision. It was shown how this technique can be applied to reconstruct sextupolar nonlinear errors in the complete machine. In Chapter 6 the main results and the conclusions of this work are outlined. (orig.)

  16. Light field imaging and application analysis in THz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongfei; Su, Bo; He, Jingsuo; Zhang, Cong; Wu, Yaxiong; Zhang, Shengbo; Zhang, Cunlin

    2018-01-01

    The light field includes the direction information and location information. Light field imaging can capture the whole light field by single exposure. The four-dimensional light field function model represented by two-plane parameter, which is proposed by Levoy, is adopted in the light field. Acquisition of light field is based on the microlens array, camera array and the mask. We calculate the dates of light-field to synthetize light field image. The processing techniques of light field data include technology of refocusing rendering, technology of synthetic aperture and technology of microscopic imaging. Introducing the technology of light field imaging into THz, the efficiency of 3D imaging is higher than that of conventional THz 3D imaging technology. The advantages compared with visible light field imaging include large depth of field, wide dynamic range and true three-dimensional. It has broad application prospects.

  17. The SAGA Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, K.; Iwasaki, Y.; Koda, S.; Okajima, S.; Setoyama, H.; Takabayashi, Y.; Tomimasu, T.; Yoshimura, D.; Ohgaki, H.

    2007-01-01

    Saga prefectural government operates a synchrotron light facility mainly for industrial applications of the synchrotron light. The facility comprises a 1.4 GeV storage ring, a 250 MeV linac as an electron injector and beamlines. The lattice of the storage ring is designed to perform as small emittance as 25 nm-radian and has long straight sections of 2.9 m length for installing insertion devices. Three beam lines have been prepared by Saga prefectural government and one by Saga University

  18. Synchrotron radiation research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markus, N.

    1995-01-01

    In the many varied application fields of accelerators, synchrotron radiation ranks as one of the most valuable and widely useful tools. Synchrotron radiation is produced in multi-GeV electron synchrotrons and storage rings, and emerges tangentially in a narrow vertical fan. Synchrotron radiation has been used extensively for basic studies and, more recently, for applied research in the chemical, materials, biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries. Initially, the radiation was a byproduct of high energy physics laboratories but the high demand soon resulted in the construction of dedicated electron storage rings. The accelerator technology is now well developed and a large number of sources have been constructed, with energies ranging from about 1.5 to 8 GeV including the 6 GeV European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) source at Grenoble, France. A modern third-generation synchrotron radiation source has an electron storage ring with a complex magnet lattice to produce ultra-low emittance beams, long straights for 'insertion devices', and 'undulator' or 'wiggler' magnets to generate radiation with particular properties. Large beam currents are necessary to give high radiation fluxes and long beam lifetimes require ultra high vacuum systems. Industrial synchrotron radiation research programmes use either Xray diffraction or spectroscopy to determine the structures of a wide range of materials. Biological and pharmaceutical applications study the functions of various proteins. With this knowledge, it is possible to design molecules to change protein behaviour for pharmaceuticals, or to configure more active proteins, such as enzymes, for industrial processes. Recent advances in molecular biology have resulted in a large increase in protein crystallography studies, with researchers using crystals which, although small and weakly diffracting, benefit from the high intensity. Examples with commercial significance include the study of

  19. Advanced development of catalysts by using the high-brilliance synchrotron radiation in SPring-8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-10-01

    The advanced development of catalysts by using the high-brilliance synchrotron radiation in SPring-8 is described: (1) the industrial use of SPring-8, (2) the analytical methods of catalyst using SPring-8 (XAFS, powder X-ray diffraction, thin film X-ray scattering, X-ray imaging, infrared analysis, X-ray fluorescence analysis, and photoelectron spectroscopy etc.), (3) the history of synchrotron radiation and catalyst investigations, (4) the new advanced measuring methods of catalyst using synchrotron radiation (various X-ray spectroscopic methods, and application of XAFS to highly-disperse systems of catalyst), and (5) the new advanced development of catalysts using synchrotron radiation and its applications (motor-car catalysts, light catalysts, fuel cells, nanotechnology, and trace amounts of catalyst in wastes). (M.H.)

  20. Instrumentation of x-ray diffraction and materials research on the National Synchrotron Light Source. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liedl, G.L.

    1984-11-01

    MATRIX was organized in 1980 to formulate a research team to design and construct a beam line at NSLS for x-ray diffraction studies of materials. A versatile system was designed to allow a full range of experimental capabilities for wide angle x-ray scattering experiments including surface diffraction studies. The design and construction of the system has been completed. Testing of parts of the system was completed at CHESS and with x-ray sources or other equipment at member institutions. Installation of the beam line at NSLS is in progress and will proceed in parallel with the commissioning of the x-ray ring at NSLS. Full operation of the beam line is expected to be ready by December 1, 1984 being limited only by the source power of NSLS at that time. Useful experiments could be started if the power is at least 2 GeV and 100ma. The MATRIX beam line was one of the first x-ray beam lines to see light in the beam line in early spring of 1984. In July of 1984, the MATRIX beam line as the first port at NSLS to have a monochromatic beam and to scan part of the spectrum from the source. As part of this contract, six publications have resulted from the various projects. Three publications are concerned directly with the beam line and/or its operation while the other three publications are the result of research associated with the project

  1. Synchrotron Radiation and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Applications on Elemental Distribution in Human Hair and Bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, M.L.; Marques, A.F.; Brito, J.

    2003-01-01

    This work is an application of synchrotron microprobe X- Ray fluorescence in order to study elemental distribution along human hair samples of contemporary citizens. Furthermore, X-Ray fluorescence spectrometry is also used to analyse human bones of different historical periods: Neolithic and contemporary subjects. The elemental content in the bones allowed us to conclude about environmental contamination, dietary habits and health status influence in the corresponding citizens. All samples were collected post-mortem. Quantitative analysis was performed for Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr and Pb. Mn and Fe concentration were much higher in bones from pre-historic periods. On the contrary, Pb bone concentrations of contemporary subjects are much higher than in pre-historical ones, reaching 100 μg g-1, in some cases. Very low concentrations for Co, Ni, Br and Rb were found in all the analysed samples. Cu concentrations, allows to distinguish Chalcolithic bones from the Neolithic ones. The distribution of trace elements along human hair was studied for Pb and the obtained pattern was consistent with the theoretical model, based on the diffusion of this element from the root and along the hair. Therefore, the higher concentrations in hair for Pb of contemporary individuals were also observed in the bones of citizens of the same sampling sites. All samples were analysed directly without any chemical treatment

  2. Synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pattison, P.; Quinn, P.

    1990-01-01

    This report details the activities in synchrotron radiation and related areas at Daresbury Laboratory during 1989/90. The number and scope of the scientific reports submitted by external users and in-house staff is a reflection of the large amount of scheduled beamtime and high operating efficiency achieved at the Synchrotron Radiation Source (SRS) during the past year. Over 4000 hours of user beam were available, equivalent to about 80% of the total scheduled time. Many of the reports collected here illustrate the increasing technical complexity of the experiments now being carried out at Daresbury. Provision of the appropriate technical and scientific infrastructure and support is a continuing challenge. The development of the Materials Science Laboratory together with the existing Biological Support Laboratory will extend the range of experiments which can be carried out on the SRS. This will particularly facilitate work in which the sample must be prepared or characterised immediately before or during an experiment. The year 1989/90 has also seen a substantial upgrade of several stations, especially in the area of x-ray optics. Many of the advantages of the High Brightness Lattice can only be exploited effectively with the use of focusing optics. As the performance of these stations improves, the range of experiments which are feasible on the SRS will be extended significantly. (author)

  3. A novel molecular synchrotron for cold collision and EDM experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Shunyong; Wei, Bin; Deng, Lianzhong; Yin, Jianping

    2016-09-07

    Limited by the construction demands, the state-of-the-art molecular synchrotrons consist of only 40 segments that hardly make a good circle. Imperfections in the circular structure will lead to the appearance of unstable velocity regions (i.e. stopbands), where molecules of certain forward velocity will be lost from the structure. In this paper, we propose a stopband-free molecular synchrotron. It contains 1570 ring electrodes, which nearly make a perfect circle, capable of confining both light and heavy polar molecules in the low-field-seeking states. Molecular packets can be conveniently manipulated with this synchrotron by various means, like acceleration, deceleration or even trapping. Trajectory calculations are carried out using a pulsed (88)SrF molecular beam with a forward velocity of 50 m/s. The results show that the molecular beam can make more than 500 round trips inside the synchrotron with a 1/e lifetime of 6.2 s. The synchrotron can find potential applications in low-energy collision and reaction experiments or in the field of precision measurements, such as the searches for electric dipole moment of elementary particles.

  4. Design and project status of the National Synchrotron Light Source; storage rings (2.5 GeV, 0.7 GeV) for the generation of bright synchrotron radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Steenbergen, A.

    1980-01-01

    Two high intensity storage rings are being constructed at Brookhaven National Laboratory for the generation of intense fluxes of synchrotron radiation in the vuv wavelength region (700 MeV ring, lambda/sub c/ = 31.5 A) and in the x-ray wavelength region (2.5 GeV ring, lambda/sub c/ = 2.5 A). A description is given of the facility, the main features of the storage rings are presented and the basic parameters are enumerated. High field superconducting wigglers, to lower the short wavelength cutoff in the x-ray ring, and undulators, for flux enhancement or a free electron laser experiment will be incorporated and parameters are given here. Special design aspects to optimize the electron storage rings as dedicated synchrotron radiation sources will be emphasized and the status of the project will be given

  5. Real Time Structured Light and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilm, Jakob

    Structured light scanning is a versatile method for 3D shape acquisition. While much faster than most competing measurement techniques, most high-end structured light scans still take in the order of seconds to complete. Low-cost sensors such as Microsoft Kinect and time of flight cameras have made......, increased processing power, and methods presented in this thesis, it is possible to perform structured light scans in real time with 20 depth measurements per second. This offers new opportunities for studying dynamic scenes, quality control, human-computer interaction and more. This thesis discusses...... several aspects of real time structured light systems and presents contributions within calibration, scene coding and motion correction aspects. The problem of reliable and fast calibration of such systems is addressed with a novel calibration scheme utilising radial basis functions [Contribution B...

  6. Design for The Indoor Visible Light Communication Application System Based on LED Visible Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian Wenyu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper designs an indoor visible light communication application system based on LED. The system can modulate the original signal one or more times, move to a specific frequency band, transmit on the power line, in the LED terminal use this module to decode, restore the Ethernet signals. This design is applicable to the simplicity of the LED visible light communication applications, which provide the premise and guarantee for the construction of smart home network.

  7. Current Status of the Advanced Residual Gas Monitor for Heavy Ion Synchrotron Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Liakin, D A; Sergeeva, O; Skachkov, V S

    2005-01-01

    The challenge and complexity of the advanced RGM requires very careful design of each structural component of the monitor and special attention to match the properties of different subsystems. In the present paper the status of the high performance readout electronics is discussed. Single optical decoupled profile measurement channel (one of 100) with 14 bit resolution and 10 MHz bandwidth was tested and step-by-step improved. Special attention had been paid to the noise cancellation and digital data processing algorithms optimization. Another important point is a proper electromagnetic guiding system design. As it is shown, high field homogeneity, which is required for sub-millimeter spatial resolution, can be achieved despite the presence of the field-distorting hole for the light signal transmitting. The low energy (down to 10MeV per nucleon) beam disturbance compensation methods are also discussed. The ionization process and electron dynamics simulations are used for proving this system design.

  8. Application of a VMI spectrometer to near-threshold photoionization with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Keeffe, P; Bolognesi, P; Ovcharenko, E; Avaldi, L; Mihelic, A; Richter, R; Moise, A; King, G C

    2011-01-01

    A new developed velocity map imaging spectrometer has been used to study the photoionization of atoms near threshold. The application of the spectrometer to the measurement of the angular distributions of the photoelectrons emitted in the photoionization of the Ne 2p 3/2 state between the 2p spin orbit thresholds and of polarised Ne atoms are presented.

  9. Polymer research at synchrotron radiation sources: symposium proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, T.P.; Goland, A.N.

    1985-01-01

    The twenty-two papers are arranged into eleven sessions entitled: general overviews; time-resolved x-ray scattering; studies using fluorescence, ion-containing polymers; time-resolved x-ray scattering; novel applications of synchrotron radiation; phase transitions in polymers; x-ray diffraction on polymers; recent detector advances; complementary light, x-ray and neutron studies; and neutron scattering studies. Seven of the papers are processed separately; three of the remainder have been previously processed

  10. Putting synchrotron radiation to work for technology: Analytic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    This report contains viewgraphs on: Advanced Light Source; Ultra-ESCA: Advanced Capabilities of XPS with High-Brightness Synchrotron Radiation; High-Resolution (20 nm) XPS and XANES with the ALS; Photoelectron Spectroscopy in Industry: Current Capabilities, Needs, and Possible Roles for the ALS; Materials Analysis by Photoemission: Is This Practical at ALS?; Applications of Long-Wavelength X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry and X-Ray Powder Diffractometry

  11. Polymer research at synchrotron radiation sources: symposium proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, T.P.; Goland, A.N. (eds.)

    1985-01-01

    The twenty-two papers are arranged into eleven sessions entitled: general overviews; time-resolved x-ray scattering; studies using fluorescence, ion-containing polymers; time-resolved x-ray scattering; novel applications of synchrotron radiation; phase transitions in polymers; x-ray diffraction on polymers; recent detector advances; complementary light, x-ray and neutron studies; and neutron scattering studies. Seven of the papers are processed separately; three of the remainder have been previously processed. (DLC)

  12. Potential Applications of Light Robotics in Nanomedicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper

    We have recently pioneered a new generation of 3D micro-printed light robotic structures with multi-functional biophotonics capabilities. The uniqueness of this light robotic approach is that even if a micro-biologist aims at exploring e.g. cell biology at nanoscopic scales, the main support...... of each micro-robotic structure can be 3D printed to have a size and shape that allows convenient laser manipulation in full 3D – even using relatively modest numerical aperture optics. An optical robot is typically equipped with a number of 3D printed "track-balls" that allow for real-time 3D light...... manipulation with six-degrees-of-freedom. This creates a drone-like functionality where each light-driven robot can be e.g. joystick-controlled and provide the user a feeling of stretching his/her hands directly into and interacting with the biologic micro-environment. The light-guided robots can thus act...

  13. Development and application of the analyzer-based imaging technique with hard synchrotron radiation; Developpement et application d'une technique d'imagerie par rayonnement synchrotron basee sur l'utilisation d'un cristal analyseur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coan, P

    2006-07-15

    The objective of this thesis is twofold: from one side the application of the analyser-based X-ray phase contrast imaging to study cartilage, bone and bone implants using ESRF synchrotron radiation sources and on the other to contribute to the development of the phase contrast techniques from the theoretical and experimental point of view. Several human samples have been studied in vitro using the analyser based imaging (ABI) technique. Examination included projection and computed tomography imaging and 3-dimensional volume rendering of hip, big toe and ankle articular joints. X-ray ABI images have been critically compared with those obtained with conventional techniques, including radiography, computed tomography, ultrasound, magnetic resonance and histology, the latter taken as gold standard. Results show that only ABI imaging was able to either visualize or correctly estimate the early pathological status of the cartilage. The status of the bone ingrowth in sheep implants have also been examined in vitro: ABI images permitted to correctly distinguish between good and incomplete bone healing. Pioneering in-vivo ABI on guinea pigs were also successfully performed, confirming the possible use of the technique to follow up the progression of joint diseases, the bone/metal ingrowth and the efficacy of drugs treatments. As part of the development of the phase contrast techniques, two objectives have been reached. First, it has been experimentally demonstrated for the first time that the ABI and the propagation based imaging (PBI) can be combined to create images with original features (hybrid imaging, HI). Secondly, it has been proposed and experimentally tested a new simplified set-up capable to produce images with properties similar to those obtained with the ABI technique or HI. Finally, both the ABI and the HI have been theoretically studied with an innovative, wave-based simulation program, which was able to correctly reproduce experimental results. (author)

  14. Synchrotron Radiation in Biology and Medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelka, J.B.

    2008-01-01

    This work is focused on a present status of synchrotron radiation X-ray applications in medicine and biology to imaging, diagnostics, and radio- therapy. Properties of X-ray beams generated by synchrotron sources are compared with radiation produced by classical laboratory X-ray tubes. A list of operating and planned synchrotron facilities applicable to biomedical purposes is given, together with their basic characteristics. A concise overview of typical X-ray synchrotron techniques in biology and medicine is carried out with discussion of their specific properties and examples of typical results. (author)

  15. Light-emitting diodes - Their potential in biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, Naichia Gary; Wu, Chia-Hao [College of Applied Sciences, MingDao University, 369 Wen-Hua Road, Peetou, Changhua 52345 (China); Cheng, Ta Chih [Department of Tropical Agriculture and International Cooperation, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, 1 Hseuh-Fu Rd., Nei-Pu Hsiang, Pingtung 91201 (China)

    2010-10-15

    The rapid development of high brightness light-emitting diodes (LEDs) makes feasible the use of LEDs, among other light sources (such as laser, intense pulse light and other incoherent light systems), for medical treatment and light therapy. This paper provides a general review on red, green, blue, ultraviolet LED applications in photo rejuvenation and medical treatments of a variety of physical abnormalities, as well as the relief of stress, circadian rhythm disorders, and seasonal affective disorder. The review, concentrated in the papers published after 1990, intends to show that LEDs are well qualified to succeed its more energy demanding counterparts in the named areas and beyond. (author)

  16. FT-IR microscopical analysis with synchrotron radiation: The microscope optics and system performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reffner, J.A.; Martoglio, P.A.; Williams, G.P.

    1995-01-01

    When a Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) microspectrometer was first interfaced with the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) in September 1993, there was an instant realization that the performance at the diffraction limit had increased 40-100 times. The synchrotron source transformed the IR microspectrometer into a true IR microprobe, providing high-quality IR spectra for probe diameters at the diffraction limit. The combination of IR microspectroscopy and synchrotron radiation provides a powerful new tool for molecular spectroscopy. The ability to perform IR microspectroscopy with synchrotron radiation is still under development at Brookhaven National Laboratory, but several initial studies have been completed that demonstrate the broad-ranging applications of this technology and its potential for materials characterization

  17. FT-IR microscopical analysis with synchrotron radiation: The microscope optics and system performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reffner, J.A.; Martoglio, P.A. [Spectra-Tech, Inc., Shelton, CT (United States); Williams, G.P. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-01-01

    When a Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) microspectrometer was first interfaced with the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) in September 1993, there was an instant realization that the performance at the diffraction limit had increased 40-100 times. The synchrotron source transformed the IR microspectrometer into a true IR microprobe, providing high-quality IR spectra for probe diameters at the diffraction limit. The combination of IR microspectroscopy and synchrotron radiation provides a powerful new tool for molecular spectroscopy. The ability to perform IR microspectroscopy with synchrotron radiation is still under development at Brookhaven National Laboratory, but several initial studies have been completed that demonstrate the broad-ranging applications of this technology and its potential for materials characterization.

  18. Warm white LEDs lighting over Ra=95 and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobashi, Katsuya; Taguchi, Tsunemasa

    2007-02-01

    We have for the first time developed warm white LEDs lighting using a combination of near ultraviolet LED and three-band (red, green and blue) white phosphors. This LED has the average color-rendering index Ra=96. Moreover, special color-rendering index R9 (red) and R15 (face color of Japanese) are estimated to be 95 and 97, respectively. We will describe the results of evaluation on the medical lighting applications such as operation, treatment and endoscope experiments, application to the LED fashions and application to the Japanese antique art (ink painting) lighting.

  19. New light Sources for Biomedical Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Argyraki, Aikaterini

    .9%) on mature biofilms was only achieved after a novel treatment was invented, namely “light assisted antibiotics”. Additionally, significant vitamin D enrichment of various food products was achieved. Especially the content of vitamin D in pig skin could reach 0.5 μg/cm2 after 7 sec. exposure versus the 0...

  20. Students' Opinions on the Light Pollution Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özyürek, Cengiz; Aydin, Güliz

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of computer-animated concept cartoons and outdoor science activities on creating awareness among seventh graders about light pollution. It also aims to identify the views of the students on the activities that were carried out. This study used one group pre-test/post-test experimental design…

  1. Visible light communication applications in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Shoaib; Qasid, Syed Hussain Ahmed; Rehman, Shafia; Rai, Aitzaz Bin Sulltan

    2016-01-01

    With the development in science, methods of communication are also improved, replacing old ones with new advanced ways in an attempt to make data transfer more secure, safer for health, and time as well as cost efficient. One of such methods is Visible Light Communication, as the name implies data is transferred through a light equipment such as incandescent or florescent bulb having speed of 10 Kb/s or LEDs approaching speed of 500 Mb/s [1]. VLC uses visible light between 384 and 789 THz [2,3]. Though range is limitation of VLC, however data transfer up-to distance of 1 to 2 km although at lower transfer rate has been reached.The VLC system comprises of light source like LED and receiver equipment, however, with advancement, now LEDs are used for both sending and receiving data. LED remains on all the time, and there is no change in brightness level during the whole process, making it safe for eyes. Currently, VLC system is facing some serious technical challenges before it could be applied in daily life.

  2. Surface photo reaction processes using synchrotron radiation; Hoshako reiki ni yoru hyomenko hanno process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imaizumi, Y. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Institute for Materials Research; Yoshigoe, A. [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan); Urisu, T. [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan). Institute for Molecular Science

    1997-08-20

    This paper introduces the surface photo reaction processes using synchrotron radiation, and its application. A synchrotron radiation process using soft X-rays contained in electron synchrotron radiated light as an excited light source has a possibility of high-resolution processing because of its short wave length. The radiated light can excite efficiently the electronic state of a substance, and can induce a variety of photochemical reactions. In addition, it can excite inner shell electrons efficiently. In the aspect of its application, it has been found that, if radiated light is irradiated on surfaces of solids under fluorine-based reaction gas or Cl2, the surfaces can be etched. This technology is utilized practically. With regard to radiated light excited CVD process, it may be said that anything that can be deposited by the ordinary plasma CVD process can be deposited. Its application to epitaxial crystal growth may be said a nano processing application in thickness direction, such as forming an ultra-lattice structure, the application being subjected to expectation. In micromachine fabricating technologies, a possibility is searched on application of a photo reaction process of the radiated light. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  3. Application of Synchrotron Methods to Assess the Uptake of Roadway-Derived Zn by Earthworms in an Urban Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lev, S.; Landa, E.; Szlavecz, K.; Casey, R.; Snodgrass, J.

    2008-01-01

    The impact of human activities on biogeochemical cycles in terrestrial environments is nowhere more apparent than in urban landscapes. Trace metals, collected on roadways and transported by storm water, may contaminate soils and sediments associated with storm water management systems. These systems will accumulate metals and associated sediments may reach toxic levels for terrestrial and aquatic organisms using the retention basins as habitat. The fate and bioavailability of these metals once deposited is poorly understood. Here we present results from a dose-response experiment that examines the application of synchrotron X-ray fluorescence methods (μ-SXRF) to test the hypothesis that earthworms will bio-accumulate Zn in a roadway-dust contaminated soil system providing a potential pathway for roadway contaminants into the terrestrial food web, and that the storage and distribution of Zn will change with the level of exposure reflecting the micronutrient status of Zn. Lumbricus friendi was exposed to Zn-bearing roadway dust amended to a field soil at six target concentrations ranging from background levels (45 mg/kg Zn) to highly contaminated levels (460 mg/kg Zn) designed to replicate the observed concentration range in storm-water retention basin soils. After a 30 day exposure, Zn storage in the intestine is positively correlated with dose and there is a change in the pattern of Zn storage within the intestine. This relationship is only clear when μ-SXRF Zn map data is coupled with a traditional toxicological approach, and suggests that the gut concentration in L. friendi is a better indicator of Zn bioaccumulation and storage than the total body burden.

  4. Application of Synchrotron Methods to Assess the Uptake of Roadway-Derived Zn by Earthworms in an Urban Soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lev,S.; Landa, E.; Szlavecz, K.; Casey, R.; Snodgrass, J.

    2008-01-01

    The impact of human activities on biogeochemical cycles in terrestrial environments is nowhere more apparent than in urban landscapes. Trace metals, collected on roadways and transported by storm water, may contaminate soils and sediments associated with storm water management systems. These systems will accumulate metals and associated sediments may reach toxic levels for terrestrial and aquatic organisms using the retention basins as habitat. The fate and bioavailability of these metals once deposited is poorly understood. Here we present results from a dose-response experiment that examines the application of synchrotron X-ray fluorescence methods ({mu}-SXRF) to test the hypothesis that earthworms will bio-accumulate Zn in a roadway-dust contaminated soil system providing a potential pathway for roadway contaminants into the terrestrial food web, and that the storage and distribution of Zn will change with the level of exposure reflecting the micronutrient status of Zn. Lumbricus friendi was exposed to Zn-bearing roadway dust amended to a field soil at six target concentrations ranging from background levels (45 mg/kg Zn) to highly contaminated levels (460 mg/kg Zn) designed to replicate the observed concentration range in storm-water retention basin soils. After a 30 day exposure, Zn storage in the intestine is positively correlated with dose and there is a change in the pattern of Zn storage within the intestine. This relationship is only clear when {mu}-SXRF Zn map data is coupled with a traditional toxicological approach, and suggests that the gut concentration in L. friendi is a better indicator of Zn bioaccumulation and storage than the total body burden.

  5. Synchrotron Bragg diffraction imaging characterization of synthetic diamond crystals for optical and electronic power device applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran Thi, Thu Nhi; Morse, J; Caliste, D; Fernandez, B; Eon, D; Härtwig, J; Barbay, C; Mer-Calfati, C; Tranchant, N; Arnault, J C; Lafford, T A; Baruchel, J

    2017-04-01

    Bragg diffraction imaging enables the quality of synthetic single-crystal diamond substrates and their overgrown, mostly doped, diamond layers to be characterized. This is very important for improving diamond-based devices produced for X-ray optics and power electronics applications. The usual first step for this characterization is white-beam X-ray diffraction topography, which is a simple and fast method to identify the extended defects (dislocations, growth sectors, boundaries, stacking faults, overall curvature etc. ) within the crystal. This allows easy and quick comparison of the crystal quality of diamond plates available from various commercial suppliers. When needed, rocking curve imaging (RCI) is also employed, which is the quantitative counterpart of monochromatic Bragg diffraction imaging. RCI enables the local determination of both the effective misorientation, which results from lattice parameter variation and the local lattice tilt, and the local Bragg position. Maps derived from these parameters are used to measure the magnitude of the distortions associated with polishing damage and the depth of this damage within the volume of the crystal. For overgrown layers, these maps also reveal the distortion induced by the incorporation of impurities such as boron, or the lattice parameter variations associated with the presence of growth-incorporated nitrogen. These techniques are described, and their capabilities for studying the quality of diamond substrates and overgrown layers, and the surface damage caused by mechanical polishing, are illustrated by examples.

  6. Application of high-brightness LEDs in aircraft position lights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machi, Nicolo; Mangum, Scott; Singer, Jeffrey M.

    2004-10-01

    Solid state lighting devices have made their way into a number of niche markets and continue to make inroads into other markets as their price / performance ratios improve. One of these markets is aviation lighting. Although this paper will focus on the use of LEDs for aircraft position lights, much of the discussion is applicable to other installations on the interior and exterior of the aircraft. The color, light distribution and intensity levels for a position light are all closely regulated through Code of Federal Regulation (CFR; formerly Federal Aviation Regulation (FAR)) documents. These lighting requirements, along with harsh thermal and environmental requirements, drive the design. In this paper, we will look at these requirements and discuss what is required in order to use LEDs for this type of application. We will explore the optical, thermal and electrical issues associated with the use of LEDs for position lights and examine the specific case study of the Astreon forward position lights. Finally, we will discuss some of the challenges that we see with solid state lighting in current and future aircraft applications.

  7. Applications of photon-in, photon-out spectroscopy with third-generation, synchrotron-radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindle, D.W.; Perera, R.C.C.

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Mother nature's finest test probe; soft x-ray emission spectroscopy with high-brightness synchrotron radiation sources; anisotropy and polarization of x-ray emission from atoms and molecules; valence-hole fluorescence from molecular photoions as a probe of shape-resonance ionization: progress and prospects; structural biophysics on third-generation synchrotron sources; ultra-soft x-ray fluorescence-yield XAFS: an in situ photon-in, photon-out spectroscopy; and x-ray microprobe: an analytical tool for imaging elemental composition and microstructure

  8. Biological physics and synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filhol, J.M.; Chavanne, J.; Weckert, E.

    2001-01-01

    This conference deals with the applications of synchrotron radiation to current problems in biology and medicine. Seven sessions take stock on the subject: sources and detectors; inelastic scattering and dynamics; muscle diffraction; reaction mechanisms; macromolecular assemblies; medical applications; imaging and spectroscopy. The document presents the papers abstracts. (A.L.B.)

  9. Biological physics and synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filhol, J M; Chavanne, J [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 38 - Grenoble (France); Weckert, E [Hasylab at Desy, Hamburg (Germany); and others

    2001-07-01

    This conference deals with the applications of synchrotron radiation to current problems in biology and medicine. Seven sessions take stock on the subject: sources and detectors; inelastic scattering and dynamics; muscle diffraction; reaction mechanisms; macromolecular assemblies; medical applications; imaging and spectroscopy. The document presents the papers abstracts. (A.L.B.)

  10. Synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seddon, E.A.; Reid, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    Work at the Daresbury SRS has of necessity been interrupted this year (1991/92) due to the incorporation of Wiggler II. However, considerable beamtime was awarded before the shutdown and the major part of this appendix is concerned with the progress reports of the research undertaken then. The reports have been organised under the following broad headings: Molecular Science (19 papers), Surface and Materials Science (169 papers), Biological Science (85 papers), Instrumental and Technique Developments (13 papers) and Accelerator Physics (3 papers). It is hoped that in time the number of contributions on accelerator physics will grow to reflect the in-house activity on, for example, accelerator improvement and design. The research reports are preceded by the Annual Report of the Synchrotron Radiation Facilities Committee, which outlines the research highlights identified by that Committee (also included are details of the current membership of the SRFC and the chairmen of the Beamtime Allocation Panels). Following the reports are the specifications for the beamlines and stations. This year Section 3 contains 289 reports (nearly 100 more than last year) and the number of publications, generated by scientists and engineers who have used or are associated with Daresbury Laboratory facilities, has topped 500 for the first time. (author)

  11. Illumination of interior spaces by bended hollow light guides: Application of the theoretical light propagation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darula, Stanislav; Kocifaj, Miroslav; Kittler, Richard [ICA, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava (Slovakia); Kundracik, Frantisek [Department of Experimental Physics, FMPI, Comenius University, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2010-12-15

    To ensure comfort and healthy conditions in interior spaces the thermal, acoustics and daylight factors of the environment have to be considered in the building design. Due to effective energy performance in buildings the new technology and applications also in daylight engineering are sought such as tubular light guides. These allow the transport of natural light into the building core reducing energy consumption. A lot of installations with various geometrical and optical properties can be applied in real buildings. The simplest set of tubular light guide consists of a transparent cupola, direct tube with high reflected inner surface and a ceiling cover or diffuser redistributing light into the interior. Such vertical tubular guide is often used on flat roofs. When the roof construction is inclined a bend in the light guide system has to be installed. In this case the cupola is set on the sloped roof which collects sunlight and skylight from the seen part of the sky hemisphere as well as that reflected from the ground and opposite facades. In comparison with the vertical tube some additional light losses and distortions of the propagated light have to be expected in bended tubular light guides. Recently the theoretical model of light propagation was already published and its applications are presented in this study solving illuminance distributions on the ceiling cover interface and further illuminance distribution on the working plane in the interior. (author)

  12. Light-ion beam for microelectronic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirsch, L.; Tardy, P.; Wantz, G.; Huby, N.; Moretto, P.; Serani, L.; Natali, F.; Damilano, B.; Duboz, J.Y.; Reverchon, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we describe the structure and the composition of (Al,Ga)N/GaN Bragg reflectors obtained from Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy. Bragg reflectors constitute a part of blue (λ = 450 nm) resonant cavity light emitting diodes. To improve the measurement accuracy, three tilt angles have been used (10 deg. , 25 deg. and 50 deg. ). In a second part of the paper, ion beam induced charges study has been carried out, with a 2 MeV 4 He + micro-beam, on metal-semiconductor-metal UV photodetectors. Results have been taken into account for the design of the photodetector electrodes

  13. Fast neutron dosimetry for radioprotection near large accelerators. Application to the proton synchrotron Saturne; Dosimetrie des neutrons rapides en vue de la radioprotection aupres des grands accelerateurs. Application au synchrotron a protons Saturne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tardy-Joubert, P

    1963-07-01

    Methods are described that are used for the measurement of a neutron flux, and of the corresponding energy flux and dose absorbed. The methods are checked experimentally by the use of neutron sources of known energy distribution. The conditions of use of a proportional counter for recoil protons are described. The experimental results obtained with the synchrotron SATURNE at Saclay are described. (author) [French] L'auteur presente les methodes utilisables pour la mesure d'un flux de neutrons, du flux d'energie et de la dose absorbee correspondants. Les methodes sont verifiees experimentalement au moyen de sources de neutrons de spectre connu. Les conditions d'emploi d'un compteur proportionnel a protons de recul sont definies. Les resultats experimentaux obtenus aupres du synchrotron Saturne de Saclay sont presentes. (auteur)

  14. Hydrogels for efficient light delivery in optogenetic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannsmeier, S.; Torres, M. L.; Ripken, T.; Heinemann, D.; Heisterkamp, A.

    2018-02-01

    Light-based therapies have been established for various indications, such as skin conditions, cancer or neonatal jaundice. Advances in the field of optogenetics open up new horizons for light-tissue interactions with an organism-wide impact. Excitable tissues, such as nerve and muscle tissues, can be controlled by light after the introduction of light-sensitive ion channels. Since these organs are generally not easily accessible to illumination in vivo, there is an increasing need for effective biocompatible waveguides for light delivery. These devices not only have to guide and distribute the light as desired with minimal losses, they should also mimic the mechanical properties of the surrounding tissue to ensure compatibility. In this project, we are tuning the properties of hydrogels from poly(ethylene glycol) derivatives to achieve compatibility with muscle tissue as well as optimal light guiding and distribution for optogenetic applications at the heart. The excitation light is coupled into the hydrogel with a biocompatible fiber. Properties of the hydrogel are mainly tuned by monomer length and concentration. Total reflection can be achieved by embedding a fiber-like hydrogel with a high refractive index into a second, low refractive index gel. Different geometries and scattering microparticles are used for light distribution in a flat gel patch. Targeted cell attachment can be achieved by introducing a protein layer to the otherwise bioinert gel. After optimization, the hydrogel may be used to deliver light for the excitation of genetically altered cardiomyocytes for controlled contraction.

  15. Funding problems threaten Middle East's synchrotron

    CERN Multimedia

    McCabe, H

    1999-01-01

    Scientists will tour the Middle East to try to raise support for the Synchrotron radiation for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East project. The plan is to dismantle and move a decommissioned synchrotron from Berlin to the Middle East where scientists of any nationality would be able to use it (3 paragraphs).

  16. Application of light scattering to coatings a user's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Diebold, Michael P

    2014-01-01

    The book begins with the fundamentals of light scattering, first by individual particles, then by small groups of particles, and finally by the trillions of particles present in a real-life paint film. From there, Dr. Diebold focuses on application of these fundamentals to paint formulation. The scope includes both theory and practice with an emphasis on application (from both performance and cost standpoints). The book gives a clear understanding of light scattering principles and application of these principles to paint formulation (with a focus on TiO2 - the strongest scattering material a

  17. Laser wakefield accelerator based light sources: potential applications and requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). NIF and Photon Sciences; Thomas, A. G. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences; Mangles, S. P.D. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). Blackett Lab.; Banerjee, S. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States); Corde, S. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Flacco, A. [ENSTA, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France); Litos, M. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Neely, D. [Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), Oxford (United Kingdom). Rutherford Appleton Lab. (RAL). Central Laser Facility; Viera, J. [Univ. of Lisbon (Portugal). GoLP-Inst. de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear-Lab. Associado; Najmudin, Z. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). Blackett Lab.; Bingham, R. [Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), Oxford (United Kingdom). Rutherford Appleton Lab. (RAL). Central Laser Facility; Joshi, C. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Katsouleas, T. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States). Platt School of Engineering

    2015-01-15

    In this article we review the prospects of laser wakefield accelerators as next generation light sources for applications. This work arose as a result of discussions held at the 2013 Laser Plasma Accelerators Workshop. X-ray phase contrast imaging, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and nuclear resonance fluorescence are highlighted as potential applications for laser-plasma based light sources. We discuss ongoing and future efforts to improve the properties of radiation from plasma betatron emission and Compton scattering using laser wakefield accelerators for these specific applications.

  18. Development of a two-dimensional imaging system for clinical applications of intravenous coronary angiography using intense synchrotron radiation produced by a multipole wiggler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyodo, K.; Ando, M.; Oku, Y.; Yamamoto, S.; Takeda, T.; Itai, Y.; Ohtsuka, S.; Sugishita, Y.; Tada, J.

    1998-01-01

    A two-dimensional clinical intravenous coronary angiography system, comprising a large-size View area produced by asymmetrical reflection from a silicon crystal using intense synchrotron radiation from a multipole wiggler and a two-dimensional detector with an image intensifier, has been completed. An advantage of the imaging system is that two-dimensional dynamic imaging of the cardiovascular system can be achieved due to its two-dimensional radiation field. This world-first two-dimensional system has been successfully adapted to clinical applications. Details of the imaging system are described in this paper

  19. Development of a two-dimensional imaging system for clinical applications of intravenous coronary angiography using intense synchrotron radiation produced by a multipole wiggler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyodo, K.; Ando, M. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Inst. of Material Structure Sciences, Tsukuba (Japan); Oku, Y.; Yamamoto, S. [Graduated School for Advanced Sciences, Tsukuba (Japan); Takeda, T.; Itai, Y.; Ohtsuka, S.; Sugishita, Y. [The Univ. of Tsukuba, Inst. of Clinical Medicine, Tsukuba (Japan); Tada, J. [The Univ. of Tsukuba, Inst. of Basic Medical Sciences, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1998-05-01

    A two-dimensional clinical intravenous coronary angiography system, comprising a large-size View area produced by asymmetrical reflection from a silicon crystal using intense synchrotron radiation from a multipole wiggler and a two-dimensional detector with an image intensifier, has been completed. An advantage of the imaging system is that two-dimensional dynamic imaging of the cardiovascular system can be achieved due to its two-dimensional radiation field. This world-first two-dimensional system has been successfully adapted to clinical applications. Details of the imaging system are described in this paper. 18 refs.

  20. Blue laser diode (LD) and light emitting diode (LED) applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergh, Arpad A.

    2004-01-01

    The family of blue LEDs, edge emitting and surface emitting lasers, enable a number of applications. Blue lasers are used in digital applications such as optical storage in high density DVDs. The resolution of the spot size and hence the storage density is diffraction limited and is inversely proportional to the square of the wavelength of the laser. Other applications include printing, optical scanners, and high-resolution photo-lithography. As light emitters, blue LEDs are used for signaling and in direct view large area emissive displays. They are also making inroads into signage and LCD back-lighting, mobile platforms, and decorative accent lighting in curtains, furniture, etc. Blue LEDs produce white light either with phosphor wavelength converters or in combination with red and green LEDs. The full potential of LED light sources will require three devices to enable complete control over color and intensity. Sensing and medical/bio applications have a major impact on home security, on monitoring the environment, and on health care. New emerging diagnostic and therapeutic applications will improve the quality and reduce the cost of health care. (copyright 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  1. Blue laser diode (LD) and light emitting diode (LED) applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergh, Arpad A [Optoelectronics Industry Development Association (OIDA), 1133 Connecticut Avenue, NW, Suite 600, Washington, DC 20036-4329 (United States)

    2004-09-01

    The family of blue LEDs, edge emitting and surface emitting lasers, enable a number of applications. Blue lasers are used in digital applications such as optical storage in high density DVDs. The resolution of the spot size and hence the storage density is diffraction limited and is inversely proportional to the square of the wavelength of the laser. Other applications include printing, optical scanners, and high-resolution photo-lithography. As light emitters, blue LEDs are used for signaling and in direct view large area emissive displays. They are also making inroads into signage and LCD back-lighting, mobile platforms, and decorative accent lighting in curtains, furniture, etc. Blue LEDs produce white light either with phosphor wavelength converters or in combination with red and green LEDs. The full potential of LED light sources will require three devices to enable complete control over color and intensity. Sensing and medical/bio applications have a major impact on home security, on monitoring the environment, and on health care. New emerging diagnostic and therapeutic applications will improve the quality and reduce the cost of health care. (copyright 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  2. Applications of Light Emitting Diodes in Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jianfei; Xiong, Daxi

    2017-11-01

    Light emitting diodes (LEDs) have become the main light sources for general lighting, due to their high lumen efficiency and long life time. Moreover, their high bandwidth and the availability of diverse wavelength contents ranging from ultraviolet to infrared empower them with great controllability in tuning brightness, pulse durations and spectra. These parameters are the essential ingredients of the applications in medical imaging and therapies. Despite the fast advances in both LED technologies and their applications, few reviews have been seen to link the controllable emission properties of LEDs to these applications. The objective of this paper is to bridge this gap by reviewing the main control techniques of LEDs that enable creating enhanced lighting patterns for imaging and generating effective photon doses for photobiomodulation. This paper also provides the basic mechanisms behind the effective LED therapies in treating cutaneous and neurological diseases. The emerging field of optogenetics is also discussed with a focus on the application of LEDs. The multidisciplinary topics reviewed in this paper can help the researchers in LEDs, imaging, light therapy and optogenetics better understand the basic principles in each other's field; and hence to stimulate the application of LEDs in health care.

  3. SU-E-E-08: Applications of the Quantization of Coupled Circuits in Radiation Physics (design of Klystron, Bremsstrahlung, Synchrotron)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulmer, W

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: During the past decade the quantization of coupled/forced electromagnetic circuits with or without Ohm’s resistance has gained the subject of some fundamental studies, since even problems of quantum electrodynamics can be solved in an elegant manner, e.g. the creation of quantized electromagnetic fields. In this communication, we shall use these principles to describe optimization procedures in the design of klystrons, synchrotron irradiation and high energy bremsstrahlung. Methods: The base is the Hamiltonian of an electromagnetic circuit and the extension to coupled circuits, which allow the study of symmetries and perturbed symmetries in a very apparent way (SU2, SU3, SU4). The introduction resistance and forced oscillators for the emission and absorption in such coupled systems provides characteristic resonance conditions, and atomic orbitals can be described by that. The extension to virtual orbitals leads to creation of bremsstrahlung, if the incident electron (velocity v nearly c) is described by a current, which is associated with its inductivitance and the virtual orbital to the charge distribution (capacitance). Coupled systems with forced oscillators can be used to amplify drastically the resonance frequencies to describe klystrons and synchrotron radiation. Results: The cross-section formula for bremsstrahlung given by the propagator method of Feynman can readily be derived. The design of klystrons and synchrotrons inclusive the radiation outcome can be described and optimized by the determination of the mutual magnetic couplings between the oscillators induced by the currents. Conclusions: The presented methods of quantization of circuits inclusive resistance provide rather a straightforward way to understand complex technical processes such as creation of bremsstrahlung or creation of radiation by klystrons and synchrotrons. They can either be used for optimization procedures and, last but not least, for pedagogical purposes with regard to

  4. Clinical step onward with X-ray dark-field imaging and perspective view of medical applications of synchrotron radiation in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, M.; Hashimoto, E.; Hashizume, H.; Hyodo, K.; Inoue, H.; Kunisada, T.; Maksimenko, A.; Mori, K.; Rubenstein, E.; Roberson, J.; Shimao, D.; Sugiyama, H.; Takeda, K.; Toyofuku, F.; Ueno, E.; Umetani, K.; Wada, H.; Pattanasiriwisawa, W.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports, the application of synchrotron radiation to basic medicine at SPring-8 involving instrumentation and medical application of imaging and scattering. Emphasis should be laid on X-ray dark-field imaging (DFI) whose goal is clinical diagnosis of organs that have been invisible by ordinary techniques. Development of this technique is under way both at SPring-8 and KEK. The X-ray optics of DFI comprises a Bragg asymmetric monochro-collimator and a Laue case analyzer with a diffraction index of 440 using the X-ray energy of 35keV (λ=0.0354nm) in a parallel position. This analyzer that can provide with 80mmx80mm view size has 2.15mm thickness. At present the spatial resolution is around 5-10μm. Visibility of some organs such as soft bone tissue at excised human femoral head and breast cancer tissue is under test. This preliminary test shows that the DFI seems feasible in clinical diagnosis. Furthermore, a perspective view of application of synchrotron radiation to clinical medicine in Japan will be given

  5. Photonuclear physics at the Bonn synchrotrons. Present status and future plans at the Bonn synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mecking, B.A.

    1983-11-01

    The activities in the field of photonuclear physics at the Bonn 500 MeV and 2.5 GeV synchrotrons are reviewed. The experiments concentrate on photodisintegration and pion-photoproduction reactions on light nuclei. (orig.)

  6. Surface, interface and bulk materials characterization using Indus synchrotron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phase, Deodatta M.

    2014-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation sources, providing intense, polarized and stable beams of ultra violet, soft and hard x-ray photons, are having great impact on physics, chemistry, biology, materials science and other areas research. In particular synchrotron radiation has revolutionized materials characterization techniques by enhancing its capabilities for investigating the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of solids. The availability of synchrotron sources and necessary instrumentation has led to considerable improvements in spectral resolution and intensities. As a result, application scope of different materials characterization techniques has tremendously increased particularly in the analysis of solid surfaces, interfaces and bulk materials. The Indian synchrotron storage ring, Indus-1 and Indus-2 are in operation at RRCAT, Indore. The UGC-DAE CSR with the help of university scientist had designed and developed an angle integrated photoelectron spectroscopy (AlPES) beam line on Indus-1 storage ring of 450 MeV and polarized light beam line for soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy (SXAS) on Indus-2 storage ring of 2.5 GeV. (author)

  7. Recent Progress in Synchrotron Radiation Photoemission Spectroscopy of Solids : Applications of VUV, Soft and Hard X-Ray Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, M.

    2004-01-01

    The Hiroshima Synchrotron Radiation Center is a common facility for both research and education in the field of synchrotron radiation science. The operation of the light source was started from March 1998. The storage ring can be operated at 700 MeV with a critical energy of 873 eV. The machine has a racetrack shape with a circumference of 22 m, and has 14 photon beam ports. The maximum operational current is 300 mA, and the beam lifetime is longer than 6 h at 200 mA. Of total 13 beamlines introduced so far, three beamlines are dedicated to photoemission spectroscopy (PES). An available photon-energy range is hν=26-300 eV. A hemispherical photoelectron analyzer is equipped at the end station. Total energy resolution has been achieved to ∼ 15 meV at hν=100 eV. The photon-energy range is hν=4-40 eV and total energy resolution is ∼ 4.5 meV at hν=7 eV. Although total energy resolution has been achieved to ∼25 meV at hν=80 eV, we usually carry out the PES experiments. The PES spectra taken at hν∼7 eV provide information on the conduction band electrons. In order to investigate the bulk-originated electronic structure we started the hard x-ray PES experiments with a total energy resolution of ∼ 270 meV. Thus, we promote the research project with use of light in a wide energy-range (7 eV-6 keV). 1) Unusual energy gap formation in the Kondo semiconductor CeRhAs has attracted much interest for its unusual energy gap formation or metal-to-insulator transition as temperature decreases. The energy gap is assumed to be formed by the temperature dependence of the c-f hybridization. By means of resonant PES, we could observe a energy-gap structure in the Ce 4f states. In order to observe As 4p state and Rh 4d state, we have measured the PES spectra at hν=7.9 eV, 40 eV and 6 keV, respectively, due to the photon-energy dependence of photoionization cross-section. From the spectra at hν=7.9 eV, we could see that the density of states (DOS) near E F decreases with

  8. The application of the light emitting diode in MR room lighting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Jun; Wang Chunhong

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the application of white light emitting diode (LED) in magnetic resonance room, in order to resolve the damageable problem of incandescent lights under the high magnetic field. Methods: The white LEDs and the incandescent lights were installed in MR room, the number of damaged lights was compared after 300 hours. Chi-square test was used for the statistical analysis. And the illuminance and 50 000 hours electricity consumption between LED and incandescent lights were calculated. Results: The number of damaged LED and incandescent lights was 2 and 32, respectively and there was a significant difference (χ 2 =48.813, P=0.000). The illuminance of the LED and incandescent lights was 155 lx and 100 lx at the 0.75 m horizontal level and the 50 000 hour's electricity consumption was 200 kW and 5000 kW, respectively. Conclusion: It is feasible and a great advantage to use the white LEDs in MR room lighting. (authors)

  9. Visible light communication: Applications, architecture, standardization and research challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latif Ullah Khan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Radio Frequency (RF communication suffers from interference and high latency issues. Along with this, RF communication requires a separate setup for transmission and reception of RF waves. Overcoming the above limitations, Visible Light Communication (VLC is a preferred communication technique because of its high bandwidth and immunity to interference from electromagnetic sources. The revolution in the field of solid state lighting leads to the replacement of florescent lamps by Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs which further motivates the usage of VLC. This paper presents a survey of the potential applications, architecture, modulation techniques, standardization and research challenges in VLC.

  10. Synchrotron radiation and structural proteomics

    CERN Document Server

    Pechkova, Eugenia

    2011-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the current state of research in both synchrotron radiation and structural proteomics from different laboratories worldwide. The book presents recent research results in the most advanced methods of synchrotron radiation analysis, protein micro- and nano crystallography, X-ray scattering and X-ray optics, coherent X-Ray diffraction, and laser cutting and contactless sample manipulation are described in details. The book focuses on biological applications and highlights important aspects such as radiation damage and molecular modeling.

  11. Automated tune measurements in the Advanced Light Source storage ring using a LabVIEW application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinkson, J.A.; Chin, M.; Kim, C.H.; Nishimura, H.

    1994-06-01

    Horizontal and vertical betatron tunes and the synchrotron tune are measured frequently during storage ring commissioning. The measurements are tedious and subject to human errors. Automating this kind of repetitive measurement is underway using LabVIEW for Windows, a software application supplied by National Instruments Corporation, that provides acquisition, graphing, and analysis of data as well as instrument control through the General Purpose Interface Bus (GPIB). We have added LabVIEW access to the Advanced Light Source (ALS) data base and control system. LabVIEW is a fast and efficient tool for accelerator commissioning and beam physics studies. Hardware used to perform tune measurements include a tracking generator (or a white noise generator), strip line electrodes for external ''citation of the beam, button monitors, and a spectrum analyzer. All three tunes are displayed simultaneously on the spectrum analyzer. Our program automatically identifies three tunes by applying and analyzing small variations and reports the results. This routine can be encapsulated in other applications, for instance, in a chromaticity measurement and correction program

  12. What is a synchrotron and why does Australia need one?

    CERN Document Server

    Nugent, K A

    2002-01-01

    Construction of a $157 million synchrotron will soon begin in Melbourne. The author describes what this facility means for Australian science. The Australian synchrotron is a third generation device. The facility would have the capacity to do a wide range of science and technology at the same time. A number of applications, which are the priority for the Australian synchrotron project are briefly described. The huge technological spin-offs of this knowledge have made synchrotrons an attractive proposition to state governments

  13. Tandems as injectors for synchrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, A.G.

    1993-01-01

    This is a review on the use of tandem electrostatic accelerators for injection and fitting of synchrotrons to accelerate intense beams of heavy ions to relativistic energies. The paper emphasizes the need of operating the tandems in pulsed mode for this application. It has been experimentally demonstrated that at present this type of accelerator still provides the most reliable and best performance. (orig.)

  14. Contact microscopy with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panessa-Warren, B.J.

    1985-10-01

    Soft x-ray contact microscopy with synchrotron radiation offers the biologist and especially the microscopist, a way to morphologically study specimens that could not be imaged by conventional TEM, STEM or SEM methods (i.e. hydrated samples, samples easily damaged by an electron beam, electron dense samples, thick specimens, unstained low contrast specimens) at spatial resolutions approaching those of the TEM, with the additional possibility to obtain compositional (elemental) information about the sample as well. Although flash x-ray sources offer faster exposure times, synchrotron radiation provides a highly collimated, intense radiation that can be tuned to select specific discrete ranges of x-ray wavelengths or specific individual wavelengths which optimize imaging or microanalysis of a specific sample. This paper presents an overview of the applications of x-ray contact microscopy to biological research and some current research results using monochromatic synchrotron radiation to image biological samples. 24 refs., 10 figs

  15. Report of the Synchrotron Radiation Vacuum Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avery, R.T.

    1984-06-01

    The Synchrotron Radiation Vacuum Workshop was held to consider two vacuum-related problems that bear on the design of storage rings and beam lines for synchrotron radiation facilities. These problems are gas desorption from the vacuum chamber walls and carbon deposition on optical components. Participants surveyed existing knowledge on these topics and recommended studies that should be performed as soon as possible to provide more definitive experimental data on these topics. This data will permit optimization of the final design of the Advanced Light Source (ALS) and its associated beam lines. It also should prove useful for other synchrotron radiation facilities as well

  16. Synchrotron radiation A general overview and a review of storage rings, research facilities, and insertion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winick, H.

    1989-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation, the electromagnetic radiation given off by electrons in circular motion, is revolutionizing many branches of science and technology by offering beams of vacuum ultraviolet light and x rays of immense flux and brightness. In the past decade there has been an explosion of interest in these applications leading activity to construct new research facilities based on advanced storage rings and insertion device sources. Applications include basic and applied research in biology, chemistry, medicine, and physics plus many areas of technology. In this article we present a general overview of the field of synchrotron radiation research, its history, the present status and future prospects of storage rings and research facilities, and the development of wiggler and undulator insertion devices as sources of synchrotron radiation

  17. Developing Quantum Dot Phosphor-Based Light-Emitting Diodes for Aviation Lighting Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengbing Wu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the feasibility of employing quantum dot (QD phosphor-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs in aviation applications that request Night Vision Imaging Systems (NVIS compliance. Our studies suggest that the emerging QD phosphor-based LED technology could potentially be superior to conventional aviation lighting technology by virtue of the marriage of tight spectral control and broad wavelength tunability. This largely arises from the fact that the optical properties of semiconductor nanocrystal QDs can be tailored by varying the nanocrystal size without any compositional changes. It is envisioned that the QD phosphor-based LEDs hold great potentials in cockpit illumination, back light sources of monitor screens, as well as the LED indicator lights of aviation panels.

  18. Developing Quantum Dot Phosphor-Based Light-Emitting Diodes for Aviation Lighting Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, F.; Dawei, Z.; Shuzhen, S.; Yiming, Z.; Songlin, Z.; Jian, X.

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated the feasibility of employing quantum dot (QD) phosphor-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) in aviation applications that request Night Vision Imaging Systems (NVIS) compliance. Our studies suggest that the emerging QD phosphor-based LED technology could potentially be superior to conventional aviation lighting technology by virtue of the marriage of tight spectral control and broad wavelength tunability. This largely arises from the fact that the optical properties of semiconductor nano crystal QDs can be tailored by varying the nano crystal size without any compositional changes. It is envisioned that the QD phosphor-based LEDs hold great potentials in cockpit illumination, back light sources of monitor screens, as well as the LED indicator lights of aviation panels.

  19. The application of multispectral light detectors to gauge detonative events by means of their emitted light signature

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olivier, Marius

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that reacting explosives emit light of varying intensity across the light spectrum. Measurement of this emitted light could have many applications, i.a. the creation of a database of characteristic light signatures at specific...

  20. Overview and perspective of materials characterization by using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamitsubo, Hiromichi

    2009-01-01

    A peculiarity of techniques and the methods of synchrotron radiation are explained. It consists of five sections such as introduction, synchrotron radiation, interaction between X-ray and materials, analytical methods of materials using synchrotron radiation and perspective and problems. The second section described the principles of synchrotron orbit radiation, synchrotron light source, the main formulae and schematic drawing of undulator, and the synchrotron radiation facilities in Japan. The third section explained behavior of X-ray in materials, absorption, reflection, refraction and scattering of X-ray. The fourth section stated many analytical methods of materials; the surface diffractometer, powder diffractometer, high-energy X-ray diffraction, core-electron absorption spectroscopy, micro-beam diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS), and photoemission spectroscopy (PES). A characteristic feature of synchrotron radiation contains the large wave length ranges from infrared to X-ray, high directivity and brightness, linear (circular) polarization, pulsed light, good control and stability. The brightness spectra of Spring-8 and SAGA-LS, concept of synchrotron light source, undulator and wiggler, nine synchrotron radiation facilities in Japan, mass absorption coefficients of Cu and Au, and analysis of materials using synchrotron radiation are illustrated. (S.Y.)

  1. III-nitride based light emitting diodes and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Jung; Amano, Hiroshi; Morkoç, Hadis

    2013-01-01

    Light emitting diodes (LEDs) are already used in traffic signals, signage lighting, and automotive applications. However, its ultimate goal is to replace traditional illumination through LED lamps since LED lighting significantly reduces energy consumption and cuts down on carbon-dioxide emission. Despite dramatic advances in LED technologies (e.g., growth, doping and processing technologies), however, there remain critical issues for further improvements yet to be achieved for the realization of solid-state lighting. This book aims to provide the readers with some contemporary LED issues, which have not been comprehensively discussed in the published books and, on which the performance of LEDs is seriously dependent. For example, most importantly, there must be a breakthrough in the growth of high-quality nitride semiconductor epitaxial layers with a low density of dislocations, in particular, in the growth of Al-rich and and In-rich GaN-based semiconductors. The materials quality is directly dependent on th...

  2. Performances of synchrotron X-ray monochromators under heat load. Part 2. Application of the Takagi-Taupin diffraction theory

    CERN Document Server

    Mocella, V; Freund, A K; Hoszowska, J; Zhang, L; Epelboin, Y

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this work is to generate the rocking curves of monochromators exposed to heat load in synchrotron radiation beams with a computer code performing diffraction calculations based on the theory of Takagi and Taupin. The model study starts with the calculation of deformation by finite element analysis and from an accurate characterization of the incident wave and includes the simulation of the wavefront propagation between the first and the second crystal (analyzer) of a double crystal monochromator. A monochromatic plane wave as well as a polychromatic spherical wave approach is described. The theoretical predictions of both methods are compared with experimental data measured in Bragg geometry and critically discussed.

  3. Performances of synchrotron X-ray monochromators under heat load. Part 2. Application of the Takagi-Taupin diffraction theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mocella, V.; Ferrero, C.; Freund, A.K.; Hoszowska, J.; Zhang, L.; Epelboin, Y.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this work is to generate the rocking curves of monochromators exposed to heat load in synchrotron radiation beams with a computer code performing diffraction calculations based on the theory of Takagi and Taupin. The model study starts with the calculation of deformation by finite element analysis and from an accurate characterization of the incident wave and includes the simulation of the wavefront propagation between the first and the second crystal (analyzer) of a double crystal monochromator. A monochromatic plane wave as well as a polychromatic spherical wave approach is described. The theoretical predictions of both methods are compared with experimental data measured in Bragg geometry and critically discussed

  4. III-nitride based light emitting diodes and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Jung; Amano, Hiroshi; Morkoç, Hadis

    2017-01-01

    The revised edition of this important book presents updated and expanded coverage of light emitting diodes (LEDs) based on heteroepitaxial GaN on Si substrates, and includes new chapters on tunnel junction LEDs, green/yellow LEDs, and ultraviolet LEDs. Over the last two decades, significant progress has been made in the growth, doping and processing technologies of III-nitride based semiconductors, leading to considerable expectations for nitride semiconductors across a wide range of applications. LEDs are already used in traffic signals, signage lighting, and automotive applications, with the ultimate goal of the global replacement of traditional incandescent and fluorescent lamps, thus reducing energy consumption and cutting down on carbon-dioxide emission. However, some critical issues must be addressed to allow the further improvements required for the large-scale realization of solid-state lighting, and this book aims to provide the readers with details of some contemporary issues on which the performanc...

  5. Current indications and new applications of intense pulsed light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Rodríguez, A J; Lorente-Gual, R

    2015-06-01

    Intense pulsed light (IPL) systems have evolved since they were introduced into medical practice 20 years ago. Pulsed light is noncoherent, noncollimated, polychromatic light energy emitted at different wavelengths that target specific chromophores. This selective targeting capability makes IPL a versatile therapy with many applications, from the treatment of pigmented or vascular lesions to hair removal and skin rejuvenation. Its large spot size ensures a high skin coverage rate. The nonablative nature of IPL makes it an increasingly attractive alternative for patients unwilling to accept the adverse effects associated with other procedures, which additionally require prolonged absence from work and social activities. In many cases, IPL is similar to laser therapy in effectiveness, and its versatility, convenience, and safety will lead to an expanded range of applications and possibilities in coming years. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  6. Connected Lighting System Interoperability Study Part 1: Application Programming Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaidon, Clement [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poplawski, Michael [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-10-31

    First in a series of studies that focuses on interoperability as realized by the use of Application Programming Interfaces (APIs), explores the diversity of such interfaces in several connected lighting systems; characterizes the extent of interoperability that they provide; and illustrates challenges, limitations, and tradeoffs that were encountered during this exploration.

  7. Hexabundles: imaging fibre arrays for low-light astronomical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Bryant, Julie; Robertson, Gordon

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate for the first time an imaging fibre bundle (“hexabundle”) that is suitable for low-light applications in astronomy. The most successful survey instruments at optical-infrared wavelengths today have obtained data on up to a million celestial sources using hundreds of multimode fibre...

  8. Synchrotron radiation in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, R.F.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Synchrotron radiation research in Australia is entering a new era with the commencement of the Australian synchrotron project, which will construct a 3 GeV third generation synchrotron facility at Monash University in Victoria. To date Australian scientists have used overseas facilities, primarily those managed by the Australian Synchrotron Research Program in Japan and the USA. A fast developing and maturing Australian synchrotron user program has developed around these overseas facilities. The field of synchrotron radiation and its importance to a wide range of research will be introduced and Australia's current involvement and facilities will be described. The current status and technical specifications of the Australian synchrotron will be presented. Copyright (2002) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

  9. Light

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2003-01-01

    Why is left right and right left in the mirror? Baffled by the basics of reflection and refraction? Wondering just how the eye works? If you have trouble teaching concepts about light that you don t fully grasp yourself, get help from a book that s both scientifically accurate and entertaining with Light. By combining clear explanations, clever drawings, and activities that use easy-to-find materials, this book covers what science teachers and parents need to know to teach about light with confidence. It uses ray, wave, and particle models of light to explain the basics of reflection and refraction, optical instruments, polarization of light, and interference and diffraction. There s also an entire chapter on how the eye works. Each chapter ends with a Summary and Applications section that reinforces concepts with everyday examples. Whether you need a deeper understanding of how light bends or a good explanation of why the sky is blue, you ll find Light more illuminating and accessible than a college textbook...

  10. Applications of quantum electro-optic control and squeezed light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, P.K.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: The control theory of electronic feedback or feedforward is a topic well understood by many scientists and engineers. With many of the modern equipment relying on automation and robotics, an understanding of this classical control theory is a common requisite for many technologists. In the field of optics, electronic control theory is also commonly used in many situations. From the temperature controlling of laser systems, the auto-alignment of optical elements, to the locking of optical resonators, all make use of electronic control theory in their operations. In this talk, we present the use the control theory in the context of quantum optics. In much the same as its classical counterpart, the 'quantum electro-optic' control loop consists simply of an optical beam splitter, a detector and an electro-optic modulator. This simple system, however, can offer many interesting applications when used in combination with nonclassical states of light. One well-known example of non-classical light is that of the squeezed state of light. A light beam is referred to as being amplitude 'squeezed' when its amplitude has less noise when compared to that of a coherent light state. In fact, the field fluctuation of such light states in some sense lower that the field fluctuation of the photonic vacuum state. Yet another interesting non-classical light state is the so-called 'Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen' entangled pair. This consists of two beams of light, each of which has properties that are highly dependent on each other. Using both the quantum electro-optic control loops and these light states, we demonstrate schemes which allow us to perform noiseless optical amplification, quantum non-demolition measurement and quantum teleportation. These schemes may be important building blocks to the realisation of future quantum communications and quantum information networks

  11. White OLED devices and processes for lighting applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide, Nobuhiro; Tsuji, Hiroya; Ito, Norihiro; Matsuhisa, Yuko; Houzumi, Shingo; Nishimori, Taisuke

    2010-05-01

    In these days, the basic performances of white OLEDs are dramatically improved and application of OLEDs to "Lighting" is expected to be true in the near future. We have developed various technologies for OLED lighting with the aid of the Japanese governmental project, "High-efficiency lighting based on the organic light-emitting mechanism." In this project, a white OLED with high efficiency (37 lm/W) and high quality emission characteristics (CRI of 95 with a small variation of chromaticity in different directions and chromaticity just on the black-body radiation curve) applicable to "Lighting" was realized by a two-unit structure with a fluorescent deep blue emissive unit and a phosphorescent green and red emissive unit. Half-decay lifetime of this white OLED at 1,000 cd/m2 was over 40,000 h. A heat radiative, thin encapsulation structure (less than 1 mm) realized a very stable emission at high luminance of over 3,000 cd/m2. A new deposition source with a hot-wall and a rate controllable valve was developed. Thickness uniformity within +/- 3% at high deposition rate of over 8 nm/s, high material utilization of over 70 %, and repeatable deposition rate controllability were confirmed.

  12. A guide to synchrotron radiation science

    CERN Document Server

    Sato, Shigeru; Munro, Ian; Lodha, G S

    2015-01-01

    Synchrotron Radiation (SR), as a light source is now in use around the world to provide brilliant radiation from the infrared into the soft and hard X-ray regions. It is an indispensible and essential tool to establish the physic-chemical characteristics of materials and surfaces from an atomic and molecular view point. It is being applied to topics which range from mineralogy to protein crystallography, embracing research in areas from the physical to the life sciences. This new guide is a concise yet comprehensive and easily readable introduction to an expanding area of science. It presents in a readily assimilable form the basic concepts of SR science from its generation principles, through source design and operation to the principles of instruments for SR exploitation followed by a survey of its actual applications in selected research fields, including spectroscopy, diffractometry, microanalysis and chemical processing.

  13. Study of the magnetic characteristics of ferrites with a view to their application in a proton synchrotron; Etudes des caracteristiques magnetiques des ferrites en vue de leur application dans un synchrotron a protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, K C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-10-01

    In this report magnetic properties of some Ni Zn ferrites available in France are investigated for the purpose of their use in accelerating cavities of proton synchrotron. An attempt is made to measure permeability and quality factor of ferrite versus various physical parameters such as frequency F, the induction B, the magnetic bias field Hp and the temperature, the investigation ranges being: F {<=} 40 Mc/s; B {<=} 10{sup -2} Tesla; Hp {<=} 5000 AT/m; T {<=} 100 C. The measurements were carried out with the one hand, conventional impedance bridge (Q-meter, RX-meter) and on the other hand, with resonating method using an inductive ferrite loaded cavity in parallel with an external capacity. The latter method is of particular interest for the measurements in function of induction and magnetic bias field. (author) [French] Ce travail consiste a etudier les proprietes magnetiques d'un certain nombre de ferrites de Ni Zn disponibles sur le marche francais en vue de leur utilisation dans les cavites acceleratrices d'un synchrotron a protons. On se propose de mesurer la permeabilite et le facteur de qualite du ferrite en fonction de divers parametres physiques tels que la frequence F, l'induction B, le champ magnetique de polarisation Hp et la temperature T, avec: F {<=} 40 Mc/s; B {<=} 10{sup -2} Tesla; Hp {<=} 5000 AT/m; T {<=} 100 C. On effectue les mesures d'une part a l'aide des ponts d'impedance classiques (Q-metre, RX-metre) et d'autre part par la methode du resonateur qui consiste a mettre en parallele une cavite inductive chargee de ferrite et une capacite exterieure. Cette derniere methode est particulierement interessante pour les mesures en fonction de l'induction et du champ magnetique polarisant. (auteur)

  14. Hard X-ray Sources for the Mexican Synchrotron Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes-Herrera, Juan

    2016-01-01

    One of the principal tasks for the design of the Mexican synchrotron was to define the storage ring energy. The main criteria for choosing the energy come from studying the electromagnetic spectrum that can be obtained from the synchrotron, because the energy range of the spectrum that can be obtained will determine the applications available to the users of the future light source. Since there is a public demand of hard X-rays for the experiments in the synchrotron community users from Mexico, in this work we studied the emission spectra from some hard X-ray sources which could be the best options for the parameters of the present Mexican synchrotron design. The calculations of the flux and the brightness for one Bending Magnet and four Insertion Devices are presented; specifically, for a Superconducting Bending Magnet (SBM), a Superconducting Wiggler (SCW), an In Vacuum Short Period Undulator (IV-SPU), a Superconducting Undulator (SCU) and for a Cryogenic Permanent Magnet Undulator (CPMU). Two commonly available synchrotron radiation programs were used for the computation (XOP and SRW). From the results, it can be concluded that the particle beam energy from the current design is enough to have one or more sources of hard X-rays. Furthermore, a wide range of hard X-ray region can be covered by the analyzed sources, and the choice of each type should be based on the specific characteristics of the X-ray beam to perform the experiments at the involved beamline. This work was done within the project Fomix Conacyt-Morelos ”Plan Estrategico para la construccion y operación de un Sincrotron en Morelos” (224392). (paper)

  15. Hard X-ray Sources for the Mexican Synchrotron Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Herrera, Juan

    2016-10-01

    One of the principal tasks for the design of the Mexican synchrotron was to define the storage ring energy. The main criteria for choosing the energy come from studying the electromagnetic spectrum that can be obtained from the synchrotron, because the energy range of the spectrum that can be obtained will determine the applications available to the users of the future light source. Since there is a public demand of hard X-rays for the experiments in the synchrotron community users from Mexico, in this work we studied the emission spectra from some hard X-ray sources which could be the best options for the parameters of the present Mexican synchrotron design. The calculations of the flux and the brightness for one Bending Magnet and four Insertion Devices are presented; specifically, for a Superconducting Bending Magnet (SBM), a Superconducting Wiggler (SCW), an In Vacuum Short Period Undulator (IV-SPU), a Superconducting Undulator (SCU) and for a Cryogenic Permanent Magnet Undulator (CPMU). Two commonly available synchrotron radiation programs were used for the computation (XOP and SRW). From the results, it can be concluded that the particle beam energy from the current design is enough to have one or more sources of hard X-rays. Furthermore, a wide range of hard X-ray region can be covered by the analyzed sources, and the choice of each type should be based on the specific characteristics of the X-ray beam to perform the experiments at the involved beamline. This work was done within the project Fomix Conacyt-Morelos ”Plan Estrategico para la construccion y operación de un Sincrotron en Morelos” (224392).

  16. Optimization of emission color and efficiency of organic light emitting diodes for lighting applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidel, Stefan; Krause, Ralf [Department of Materials Science VI, University of Erlangen-Nuernberg (Germany); Siemens AG, CT MM 1, Erlangen (Germany); Kozlowski, Fryderyk; Schmid, Guenter; Hunze, Arvid [Siemens AG, CT MM 1, Erlangen (Germany); Winnacker, Albrecht [Department of Materials Science VI, University of Erlangen-Nuernberg (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    In recent years the performance of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) has reached a level where OLED lighting presents an interesting application target. Research activities therefore focus amongst other things on the development of high efficient and stable white light emitting devices. We demonstrate how the color coordinates can be adjusted to achieve a warm white emission spectrum, whereas the OLED stack contains phosphorescent red and green dyes combined with a fluorescent blue one. Detailed results are presented with respect to a variation of layer thicknesses and dopant concentrations of the emission layers. Furthermore the influence of various dye molecules and hence different energy level alignments between host and dopants on color and efficiency will be discussed.

  17. Infrared microspectroscopy with synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, G.L.; Williams, G.P. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). National Synchrotron Light Source

    1997-09-01

    Infrared microspectroscopy with a high brightness synchrotron source can achieve a spatial resolution approaching the diffraction limit. However, in order to realize this intrinsic source brightness at the specimen location, some care must be taken in designing the optical system. Also, when operating in diffraction limited conditions, the effective spatial resolution is no longer controlled by the apertures typically used for a conventional (geometrically defined) measurement. Instead, the spatial resolution depends on the wavelength of light and the effective apertures of the microscope`s Schwarzchild objectives. The authors have modeled the optical system from the synchrotron source up to the sample location and determined the diffraction-limited spatial distribution of light. Effects due to the dependence of the synchrotron source`s numerical aperture on wavelength, as well as the difference between transmission and reflection measurement modes, are also addressed. Lastly, they examine the benefits (when using a high brightness source) of an extrinsic germanium photoconductive detector with cone optics as a replacement for the standard MCT detector.

  18. Study of the magnetic characteristics of ferrites with a view to their application in a proton synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, K.C.

    1966-10-01

    In this report magnetic properties of some Ni Zn ferrites available in France are investigated for the purpose of their use in accelerating cavities of proton synchrotron. An attempt is made to measure permeability and quality factor of ferrite versus various physical parameters such as frequency F, the induction B, the magnetic bias field Hp and the temperature, the investigation ranges being: F ≤ 40 Mc/s; B ≤ 10 -2 Tesla; Hp ≤ 5000 AT/m; T ≤ 100 C. The measurements were carried out with the one hand, conventional impedance bridge (Q-meter, RX-meter) and on the other hand, with resonating method using an inductive ferrite loaded cavity in parallel with an external capacity. The latter method is of particular interest for the measurements in function of induction and magnetic bias field. (author) [fr

  19. Development of synchrotron x-ray micro-spectroscopic techniques and application to problems in low temperature geochemistry. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    The focus of the technical development effort has been the development of apparatus and techniques for the utilization of X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) and X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) spectroscopies in a microprobe mode. The present XRM uses white synchrotron radiation (3 to 30 keV) from a bending magnet for trace element analyses using the x-ray fluorescence technique Two significant improvements to this device have been recently implemented. Focusing Mirror: An 8:1 ellipsoidal mirror was installed in the X26A beamline to focus the incident synchrotron radiation and thereby increase the flux on the sample by about a factor of 30. Incident Beam Monochromator: The monochromator has been successfully installed and commissioned in the X26A beamline upstream of the mirror to permit analyses with focused monochromatic radiation. The monochromator consists of a channel-cut silicon (111) crystal driven by a Klinger stepping motor translator. We have demonstrated the operating range of this instrument is 4 and 20 keV with 0.01 eV steps and produces a beam with a {approximately}10{sup {minus}4} energy bandwidth. The primary purpose of the monochromator is for x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) measurements but it is also used for selective excitation in trace element microanalysis. To date, we have conducted XANES studies on Ti, Cr, Fe, Ce and U, spanning the entire accessible energy range and including both K and L edge spectra. Practical detection limits for microXANES are 10--100 ppM for 100 {mu}m spots.

  20. Synchrotron radiation facilities

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    Particularly in the past few years, interest in using the synchrotron radiation emanating from high energy, circular electron machines has grown considerably. In our February issue we included an article on the synchrotron radiation facility at Frascati. This month we are spreading the net wider — saying something about the properties of the radiation, listing the centres where synchrotron radiation facilities exist, adding a brief description of three of them and mentioning areas of physics in which the facilities are used.

  1. Doping of nano structures for light emitting diode applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, S. W.; Yoo, H. J.; Jeong, E. S.; Park, S. H.

    2006-04-01

    Lighting Emitting Diodes (LED) have been widely studied and developed for practical applications and the LED market in the world have been dramatically expended. GaN-based LEDs are mostly used. However, for diverse application, we should first solved several problems in the GaN-based LEDs, thermal heating effects and low light emitting efficiency. The thermal heating effects reduce the life time of LEDs and the low light emitting efficiency are disadvantageous in competition with electric lights. In this project, we studied the possibility of ZnO nanomaterials as LEDs. We have developed a techniques to fabricated reproducible ZnO nanorod arrays on various substrates with 40 - 100 nm diameters. We have successfully fabricated two-dimensional ZnO film growth on one-dimensional nanorods. We have also systematically studied ZnO nanorod growth on GaN and Al 2 O 3 substrated with different proton treatments to understand the ZnO nanorod growth mechanism. These techniques will be used to develop p-ZnO/n-ZnO nanomaterials as LEDs

  2. Application of synchrotron-radiation-based x-ray microprobe techniques for the analysis of recombination activity of metals precipitated at Si/SiGe misfit dislocations

    CERN Document Server

    Vyvenko, O F; Istratov, A A; Weber, E R; Kittler, M; Seifert, W

    2002-01-01

    In this study we report application of synchrotron-radiation-based x-ray microprobe techniques (the x-ray-beam-induced current (XBIC) and x-ray fluorescence (mu-XRF) methods) to the analysis of the recombination activity and space distribution of copper and iron in the vicinity of dislocations in silicon/silicon-germanium structures. A combination of these two techniques enables one to study the chemical nature of the defects and impurities and their recombination activity in situ and to map metal clusters with a micron-scale resolution. XRF analysis revealed that copper formed clearly distinguishable precipitates along the misfit dislocations. A proportional dependence between the XBIC contrast and the number of copper atoms in the precipitates was established. In hydrogen-passivated iron-contaminated samples we observed clusters of iron precipitates which had no recombination activity detectable by the XBIC technique as well as iron clusters which were not completely passivated.

  3. PV-Battery Sizing for Stand-Alone Lighting Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Herteleer, Bert; Cappelle, Jan; Appels, Reinhart; Lefevre, Buvana; Driesen, Johan; Catthoor, Francky

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a follow-up and addition to a system sizing spreadsheet, detailed in [An autonomous photovoltaic system sizing program for office applications in Africa], with a focus on sizing or verifying the employability of an off-grid PV-battery system for night lighting. A dimensionless criterion, the Battery Usable Fraction UF_batt is defined, which aids both the calculations of systems and allows an approximate comparison of batteries, regardless of the employed battery chemistry....

  4. POLARIZED LIGHT APPLICATION AT CHRONIC INSOMNIA AND HABIT OF SMOKING

    OpenAIRE

    D. Tubič; M. Skorbič

    2016-01-01

    In the treatment of patients with situational neurosis, which for years suffered from insomnia, we used a BIOPTRON-2 device. After 10 everyday evening sessions, the process of falling asleep was normalized, and night sleep was maintained with no additional drugs. A group of 30 patients with a chronic habit of intensive smoking was subjected to applications of BIOPTRON-2 generated PILER light for 10 days. In a considerable part of the tested persons, we noticed a decrease in the inclination fo...

  5. Hiroshima Synchrotron Radiation Center - An outline and scientific activities

    CERN Document Server

    Taniguchi, M

    2003-01-01

    High energy-resolution and low-temperature photoemission spectroscopies (DELTA E=4.5-20 meV and T=6-300 K) have been started on undulator beamlines at Hiroshima Synchrotron Radiation Center with a compact light source. Beamlines for high energy-resolution photoemission spectroscopy and their application to direct observation of pseudogap formation in Kondo systems (CeRhAs, CeRhSb, CePtSn and CeNiSn, LaNiSn) are presented.

  6. Light & Skin Interactions Simulations for Computer Graphics Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Baranoski, Gladimir V G

    2010-01-01

    Light and Skin Interactions immerses you in one of the most fascinating application areas of computer graphics: appearance simulation. The book first illuminates the fundamental biophysical processes that affect skin appearance, and reviews seminal related works aimed at applications in life and health sciences. It then examines four exemplary modeling approaches as well as definitive algorithms that can be used to generate realistic images depicting skin appearance. An accompanying companion site also includes complete code and data sources for the BioSpec model, which is considered to be the

  7. Notes on the design of experiments and beam diagnostics with synchrotron light detected by a gated photomultiplier for the Fermilab superconducting electron linac and for the Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stancari, Giulio [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Romanov, Aleksandr [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Ruan, Jinhao [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Santucci, James [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Thurman-Keup, Randy [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Valishev, Alexander [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2017-11-08

    We outline the design of beam experiments for the electron linac at the Fermilab Accelerator Science and Technology (FAST) facility and for the Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA), based on synchrotron light emitted by the electrons in bend dipoles, detected with gated microchannel-plate photomultipliers (MCP-PMTs). The system can be used both for beam diagnostics (e.g., beam intensity with full dynamic range, turn-by-turn beam vibrations, etc.) and for scientific experiments, such as the direct observation of the time structure of the radiation emitted by single electrons in a storage ring. The similarity between photon pulses and spectrum at the downstream end of the electron linac and in the IOTA ring allows one to test the apparatus during commissioning of the linac.

  8. Applications of Cherenkov Light Emission for Dosimetry in Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Adam Kenneth

    Since its discovery in the 1930's, the Cherenkov effect has been paramount in the development of high-energy physics research. It results in light emission from charged particles traveling faster than the local speed of light in a dielectric medium. The ability of this emitted light to describe a charged particle's trajectory, energy, velocity, and mass has allowed scientists to study subatomic particles, detect neutrinos, and explore the properties of interstellar matter. However, only recently has the phenomenon been considered in the practical context of medical physics and radiation therapy dosimetry, where Cherenkov light is induced by clinical x-ray photon, electron, and proton beams. To investigate the relationship between this phenomenon and dose deposition, a Monte Carlo plug-in was developed within the Geant4 architecture for medically-oriented simulations (GAMOS) to simulate radiation-induced optical emission in biological media. Using this simulation framework, it was determined that Cherenkov light emission may be well suited for radiation dosimetry of clinically used x-ray photon beams. To advance this application, several novel techniques were implemented to realize the maximum potential of the signal, such as time-gating for maximizing the signal to noise ratio (SNR) and Cherenkov-excited fluorescence for generating isotropic light release in water. Proof of concept experiments were conducted in water tanks to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method for two-dimensional (2D) projection imaging, three-dimensional (3D) parallel beam tomography, large field of view 3D cone beam tomography, and video-rate dynamic imaging of treatment plans for a number of common radiotherapy applications. The proposed dosimetry method was found to have a number of unique advantages, including but not limited to its non-invasive nature, water-equivalence, speed, high-resolution, ability to provide full 3D data, and potential to yield data in-vivo. Based on

  9. Historical development of synchrotron x-ray diffraction topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawado, Seiji

    2011-01-01

    After a short history of X-ray diffraction topography, from the early stage of laboratory X-ray topography to recent synchrotron-radiation applications, is described, the development of science and technology for the synchrotron X-ray topography and its industrial applications are reviewed in more detail. In addition, the recent trend to synchrotron topography research is clarified on the basis of several data obtained from 256 papers which have been published since 2000. (author)

  10. Context-aware tunable office lighting application and user response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nancy H.; Nawyn, Jason; Thompson, Maria; Gibbs, Julie; Larson, Kent

    2013-09-01

    LED light sources having multiple independently controllable color channels allow tuning of both the intensity and color output. Consequently, highly tailored lighting can be applied according to instantaneous user needs and preferences. Besides improving lighting performance, energy use can also be reduced since the brightest illumination is applied only when necessary. In an example application, low activity or vacant areas of a multi-zone office are lit by low power illumination, including colored light options, which can reduce energy consumption to 20-45% of typical full-time, fullbrightness, office-wide illumination. The availability of color also allows communication functions and additional aesthetic design possibilities. To reduce user burden in frequent switching between various illumination settings, an activity recognition sensor network is used to identify selected office activities. The illumination is then adjusted automatically to satisfy the needs of the occupants. A handheld mobile device provides an interactive interface for gathering user feedback regarding impressions and illumination preferences. The activity-triggered queries collect contemporaneous feedback that reduces reliance on memory; immediate previews of illumination options are also provided. Through mobile queries and post-experience interviews, user feedback was gathered regarding automation, colored lighting, and illumination preferences. Overall reaction was indicated by a range of response words such as fun, stimulating, very cool, very pleasant, enjoyed, good, comfortable, satisfactory, fine, energy saving, interesting, curious, dim, cave, isolated, distracting, and unfamiliar. Positive reaction from a meaningful, though not universal, fraction of users indicates reasonable application potential, particularly as personal preferences and control are accommodated.

  11. National Laboratory of Synchrotron Radiation: technologic potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, C.E.T.G. da; Rodrigues, A.R.D.

    1987-01-01

    The technological or industrial developments based on the accumulated experience by research group of condensed matter physics, in Brazil, are described. The potential of a National Laboratory of Synchrotron Radiation for personnel training, absorption and adaptation of economically important technologies for Brazil, is presented. Examples of cooperations between the Laboratory and some national interprises, and some industrial applications of the synchrotron radiation are done. (M.C.K.) [pt

  12. Threedimensional microfabrication using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrfeld, W.

    1990-01-01

    For fabricating microstructures with extreme structural heights a technology has been developed which is based on deep-etch lithography and subsequent replication processes. A particularly high precision is achieved if the lithographic process is carried out by means of synchrotron radiation. Electroforming and molding processes are used for the replication of microstructures from a large variety of materials. The field of application comprises sensors, electrical and optical microconnectors, components for fluid technology, microfiltration systems and novel composite materials. (author)

  13. 3 GeV Booster Synchrotron Conceptual Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiedemann, Helmut

    2009-06-02

    Synchrotron light cna be produced from a relativistic particle beam circulating in a storage ring at extremely high intensity and brilliance over a large spectral region reaching from the far infrared regime to hard x-rays. The particles, either electrons or positrons, radiate as they are deflected in the fields of the storage ring bending magnets or of magnets specially optimized for the production of synchrotron light. The synchrotron light being very intense and well collimated in the forward direction has become a major tool in a large variety of research fields in physics, chemistry, material science, biology, and medicine.

  14. Data mining application in industrial energy audit for lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maricar, N.M.; Kim, G.C.; Jamal, N. [Kolej Univ., Melaka (Malaysia). Faculty of Electrical Engineering

    2005-07-01

    A data mining application for lighting energy audits at industrial sites was presented. Data collection was based on the parameters needed for the analysis part of the audit. Data collection included the activity for which the room was used; its dimension; light level readings in lux; the number of luminaries; the number of lamps per luminaries; lamp fixtures; and lamp wattage. The lumen method was used to calculate the recommended numbers of luminaries in the room. The number was then compared with the existing system's luminaries. The installed load efficacy ratio (ILER) was then used to determine proper retrofit action to maximize energy usage. The difference between the calculated lux and the standard lux was used to create data subsets. A data mining algorithm was used to determine that the ILER plays an important role in calculating the efficiency of lighting systems. It was also concluded that the method can be used to minimize the time needed to analyze large amounts of lighting data. The results of case studies were also used to show that the combined data mining algorithm provided accurate assessments using existing calculated data. 7 refs., 8 tabs., 5 figs.

  15. A device for the application of uniaxial strain to single crystal samples for use in synchrotron radiation experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gannon, L. [Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford Physics Department, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot OX11 ODE (United Kingdom); Bosak, A. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Burkovsky, R. G. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Peter the Great Saint-Petersburg Polytechnic University, 29 Politekhnicheskaya, 195251, St.-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Nisbet, G.; Hoesch, M., E-mail: Moritz.Hoesch@diamond.ac.uk [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot OX11 ODE (United Kingdom); Petrović, A. P. [DPMC-MaNEP, Université de Genève, Quai Ernest-Ansermet 24, 1211 Genève 4 (Switzerland)

    2015-10-15

    We present the design, construction, and testing of a straining device compatible with many different synchrotron radiation techniques, in a wide range of experimental environments (including low temperature, high field and ultra-high vacuum). The device has been tested by X-ray diffraction on single crystal samples of quasi-one-dimensional Cs{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}Se{sub 6} and K{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}Se{sub 6}, in which microscopic strains up to a Δc/c = 0.12% ± 0.01% change in the c lattice parameters have been achieved. We have also used the device in an inelastic X-ray scattering experiment, to probe the strain-dependent speed of sound ν along the c axis. A reduction Δν/ν of up to −3.8% was obtained at a strain of Δc/c = 0.25% in K{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}Se{sub 6}.

  16. Application of synchrotron radiation phase-contrast microtomography with iodine staining to Rhodnius prolixus head during ecdysis period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sena, G.; Nogueira, L. P.; Braz, D.; Colaço, M. V.; Azambuja, P.; Gonzalez, M. S.; Tromba, G.; Mantuano, A.; Costa, F. N.; Barroso, R. C.

    2018-05-01

    Synchrotron radiation phase-contrast microtomography (SR-PHC-CT) has become an important tool in studies of insects, mainly Rhodinius prolixus, the insect vector of Chagas disease. A previous work has shown that SR-PHC-CT is an excellent technique in studies about the ecdysis process of R.prolixus head. The term ecdysis refers to the set of behaviors by which an insect extracts itself from an old exoskeleton. The exoskeleton formation is indispensable for the evolutionary success of insect species, so failure to complete ecdysis will, in most cases result in death, making this process an excellent target in the search for new insect pest management strategies. Understanding the behavior of the ecdysis process is fundamental for the non-proliferation of Chagas disease. Despite it has been possible to identify the moulting process in the first work, main structures of the R.prolixus head could not be identified. In this work, it was developed a staining protocol which enabled the identification of these important structures using Iodine at SYRMEP beamline of ELETTRA. In the 3D images, it was possible to segment essential structures in the process of ecdysis. These structures have never been presented previously in the moulting period with SR-PHC-CT.

  17. Application of focused-beam flat-sample method to synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction with anomalous scattering effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, M; Katsuya, Y; Matsushita, Y

    2013-01-01

    The focused-beam flat-sample method (FFM), which is a method for high-resolution and rapid synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction measurements by combination of beam focusing optics, a flat shape sample and an area detector, was applied for diffraction experiments with anomalous scattering effect. The advantages of FFM for anomalous diffraction were absorption correction without approximation, rapid data collection by an area detector and good signal-to-noise ratio data by focusing optics. In the X-ray diffraction experiments of CoFe 2 O 4 and Fe 3 O 4 (By FFM) using X-rays near the Fe K absorption edge, the anomalous scattering effect between Fe/Co or Fe 2+ /Fe 3+ can be clearly detected, due to the change of diffraction intensity. The change of observed diffraction intensity as the incident X-ray energy was consistent with the calculation. The FFM is expected to be a method for anomalous powder diffraction.

  18. Advanced Diagnostics for the Study of Linearly Polarized Emission. II. Application to Diffuse Interstellar Radio Synchrotron Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herron, C. A.; Burkhart, Blakesley; Gaensler, B. M.; Lewis, G. F.; McClure-Griffiths, N. M.; Bernardi, G.; Carretti, E.; Haverkorn, M.; Kesteven, M.; Poppi, S.; Staveley-Smith, L.

    2018-03-01

    Diagnostics of polarized emission provide us with valuable information on the Galactic magnetic field and the state of turbulence in the interstellar medium, which cannot be obtained from synchrotron intensity alone. In Paper I, we derived polarization diagnostics that are rotationally and translationally invariant in the Q–U plane, similar to the polarization gradient. In this paper, we apply these diagnostics to simulations of ideal magnetohydrodynamic turbulence that have a range of sonic and Alfvénic Mach numbers. We generate synthetic images of Stokes Q and U for these simulations for the cases where the turbulence is illuminated from behind by uniform polarized emission and where the polarized emission originates from within the turbulent volume. From these simulated images, we calculate the polarization diagnostics derived in Paper I for different lines of sight relative to the mean magnetic field and for a range of frequencies. For all of our simulations, we find that the polarization gradient is very similar to the generalized polarization gradient and that both trace spatial variations in the magnetoionic medium for the case where emission originates within the turbulent volume, provided that the medium is not supersonic. We propose a method for distinguishing the cases of emission coming from behind or within a turbulent, Faraday rotating medium and a method to partly map the rotation measure of the observed region. We also speculate on statistics of these diagnostics that may allow us to constrain the physical properties of an observed turbulent region.

  19. Combination of acoustic levitation with small angle scattering techniques and synchrotron radiation circular dichroism. Application to the study of protein solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristiglio, Viviana; Grillo, Isabelle; Fomina, Margarita; Wien, Frank; Shalaev, Evgenyi; Novikov, Alexey; Brassamin, Séverine; Réfrégiers, Matthieu; Pérez, Javier; Hennet, Louis

    2017-01-01

    The acoustic levitation technique is a useful sample handling method for small solid and liquids samples, suspended in air by means of an ultrasonic field. This method was previously used at synchrotron sources for studying pharmaceutical liquids and protein solutions using x-ray diffraction and small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS). In this work we combined for the first time this containerless method with small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and synchrotron radiation circular dichroism (SRCD) to study the structural behavior of proteins in solutions during the water evaporation. SANS results are also compared with SAXS experiments. The aggregation behavior of 45μl droplets of lysozyme protein diluted in water was followed during the continuous increase of the sample concentration by evaporating the solvent. The evaporation kinetics was followed at different drying stage by SANS and SAXS with a good data quality. In a prospective work using SRCD, we also studied the evolution of the secondary structure of the myoglobin protein in water solution in the same evaporation conditions. Acoustic levitation was applied for the first time with SANS and the high performances of the used neutron instruments made it possible to monitor fast container-less reactions in situ. A preliminary work using SRCD shows the potentiality of its combination with acoustic levitation for studying the evolution of the protein structure with time. This multi-techniques approach could give novel insights into crystallization and self-assembly phenomena of biological compound with promising potential applications in pharmaceutical, food and cosmetics industry. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Science for Life" Guest Editor: Dr. Austen Angell, Dr. Salvatore Magazù and Dr. Federica Migliardo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Workshop on scientific applications of short wavelength coherent light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spicer, W.; Arthur, J.; Winick, H.

    1993-02-01

    This report contains paper on the following topics: A 2 to 4nm High Power FEL On the SLAC Linac; Atomic Physics with an X-ray Laser; High Resolution, Three Dimensional Soft X-ray Imaging; The Role of X-ray Induced Damage in Biological Micro-imaging; Prospects for X-ray Microscopy in Biology; Femtosecond Optical Pulses?; Research in Chemical Physics Surface Science, and Materials Science, with a Linear Accelerator Coherent Light Source; Application of 10 GeV Electron Driven X-ray Laser in Gamma-ray Laser Research; Non-Linear Optics, Fluorescence, Spectromicroscopy, Stimulated Desorption: We Need LCLS' Brightness and Time Scale; Application of High Intensity X-rays to Materials Synthesis and Processing; LCLS Optics: Selected Technological Issues and Scientific Opportunities; Possible Applications of an FEL for Materials Studies in the 60 eV to 200 eV Spectral Region