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Sample records for synchrotron infrared spectromicroscopy

  1. Synchrotron infrared spectromicroscopy as a novel bioanalytical microprobe for individual living cells: Cytotoxicity considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holman, Hoi-Ying N.; Bjornstad, Kathleen A.; McNamara, Morgan P.; Martin, Michael C.; McKinney, Wayne R.; Blakely, Eleanor A.

    2001-12-12

    Synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infrared (SR-FTIR) spectromicroscopy is a newly emerging analytical tool capable of monitoring the biochemistry within an individual living mammalian cell in real time. This unique technique provides infrared (IR)spectra, hence chemical information, with high signal-to-noise at spatial resolutions as fine as 3 to 10 microns. Mid-IR photons are too low in energy (0.05-0.5 eV) to either break bonds or to cause ionization, and the synchrotron IR beam has been shown to produce minimal sample heating. However, an important question remains, ''Does the intense synchrotron beam induce any cytotoxic effects in living cells?'' In this work, we present the results from a series of standard biological assays to evaluate any short-and/or long-term effects on cells exposed to the synchrotron radiation-based infrared (SR-IR) beam. Cell viability was tested using alcian blue dye-exclusion and colony formation assays. Cell-cycle progression was tested with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) uptake during DNA synthesis. Cell metabolism was tested using an 3-[4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. All control, 5-, 10-, and 20-minute SR-IR exposure tests (267 total and over 1000 controls) show no evidence of cytotoxic effects. Concurrent infrared spectra obtained with each experiment confirm no detectable chemistry changes between control and exposed cells.

  2. The first synchrotron infrared beamlines at the Advanced Light Source: Spectromicroscopy and fast timing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Michael C.; McKinney, Wayne R.

    1999-01-01

    Two recently commissioned infrared beamlines on the 1.4 bending magnet port at the Advanced Light Source, LBNL, are described. Using a synchrotron as an IR source provides three primary advantages: increased brightness, very fast light pulses, and enhanced far-IR flux. The considerable brightness advantage manifests itself most beneficially when performing spectroscopy on a microscopic length scale. Beamline (BL) 1.4.3 is a dedicated FTIR spectromicroscopy beamline, where a diffraction-limited spot size using the synchrotron source is utilized. BL 1.4.2 consists of a vacuum FTIR bench with a wide spectral range and step-scan capability. This BL makes use of the pulsed nature of the synchrotron light as well as the far-IR flux. Fast timing is demonstrated by observing the pulses from the electron bunch storage pattern at the ALS. Results from several experiments from both IR beamlines will be presented as an overview of the IR research currently being done at the ALS

  3. Synchrotron radiation-based Fourier-transform infrared spectromicroscopy for characterization of the protein/peptide distribution in single microspheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manli Wang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study establishes a visualization method for the measurement of the distribution and localization of protein/peptide constituents within a single poly-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA microsphere using synchrotron radiation–based Fourier-transform infrared spectromicroscopy (SR-FTIR. The representative infrared wavenumbers specific for protein/peptide (Exenatide and excipient (PLGA were identified and chemical maps at the single microsphere level were generated by measuring and plotting the intensity of these specific bands. For quantitative analysis of the distribution within microspheres, Matlab software was used to transform the map file into a 3D matrix and the matrix values specific for the drug and excipient were extracted. Comparison of the normalized SR-FTIR maps of PLGA and Exenatide indicated that PLGA was uniformly distributed, while Exenatide was relatively non-uniformly distributed in the microspheres. In conclusion, SR-FTIR is a rapid, nondestructive and sensitive detection technology to provide the distribution of chemical constituents and functional groups in microparticles and microspheres.

  4. Analysis of peripheral thermal damage after laser irradiation of dentin using polarized light microscopy and synchrotron radiation infrared spectromicroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dela Rosa, Alfredo; Sarma, Anupama V.; Le, Charles Q.; Jones, Robert S.; Fried, Daniel

    2004-05-01

    It is necessary to minimize peripheral thermal damage during laser irradiation, since thermal damage to collagen and mineral compromises the bond strength to restorative materials in dentin and inhibits healing and osteointegration in bone. The overall objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that lasers resonant to the specific absorption of water, collagen, and hydroxyapatite with pulse durations less than the thermal relaxation times at each respective laser wavelength will efficiently remove dentin with minimal peripheral thermal damage. Precise incisions were produced in 3 x 3 mm2 blocks of human dentin using CO2 (9.6 μm), Er:YSGG (2.79 μm), and Nd:YAG (355 nm) lasers with and without a computer controlled water spray. Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography was used to obtain optical cross-sections of each incision to determine the rate and efficiency of ablation. The peripheral thermal damage zone around each incision was analyzed using polarized light microscopy (PLM) and Synchrotron-Radiation Fourier Transform Infrared Spectro-microscopy (SR-FTIR). Thermally induced chemical changes to both mineral and the collagen matrix was observed with SR-FTIR with a 10-μm spatial resolution and those changes were correlated with optical changes observed with PLM. Minimal (alveolar bone.

  5. Synchrotron-based FTIR spectromicroscopy: Cytotoxicity and heating considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holman, Hoi-Ying N.; Martin, Michael C.; McKinney, Wayne R.

    2002-12-13

    Synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infrared (SR-FTIR) spectromicroscopy is a newly emerging bioanalytical and imaging tool. This unique technique provides mid-infrared (IR) spectra, hence chemical information, with high signal-to-noise at spatial resolutions as fine as 3 to 10 microns. Thus it enables researchers to locate, identify, and track specific chemical events within an individual living mammalian cell. Mid-IR photons are too low in energy (0.05 - 0.5 eV) to either break bonds or to cause ionization. In this review, we show that the synchrotron IR beam has no detectable effects on the short- and long-term viability, reproductive integrity, cell-cycle progression, and mitochondrial metabolism in living human cells, and produces only minimal sample heating (< 0.5 degrees C). These studies have established an important foundation for SR-FTIR spectromicroscopy in biological and biomedical research.

  6. Synchrotron-based FTIR spectromicroscopy Cytotoxicity and heating considerations

    CERN Document Server

    Holman, H Y N; McKinney, W R

    2002-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infrared (SR-FTIR) spectromicroscopy is a newly emerging bioanalytical and imaging tool. This unique technique provides mid-infrared (IR) spectra, hence chemical information, with high signal-to-noise at spatial resolutions as fine as 3 to 10 microns. Thus it enables researchers to locate, identify, and track specific chemical events within an individual living mammalian cell. Mid-IR photons are too low in energy (0.05 - 0.5 eV) to either break bonds or to cause ionization. In this review, we show that the synchrotron IR beam has no detectable effects on the short- and long-term viability, reproductive integrity, cell-cycle progression, and mitochondrial metabolism in living human cells, and produces only minimal sample heating (< 0.5 degrees C). These studies have established an important foundation for SR-FTIR spectromicroscopy in biological and biomedical research.

  7. Molecular toxicity of triclosan and carbamazepine to green algae Chlorococcum sp.: A single cell view using synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared spectromicroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Xiaying; Huang, Guohe; Liu, Xia; An, Chunjiang; Yao, Yao; Weger, Harold; Zhang, Peng; Chen, Xiujuan

    2017-07-01

    Although pharmaceuticals and personal care products have been used and introduced into the environment in large quantities, little information on potential ecological risks is currently available considering their effects on living organisms. We verified the feasibility of using synchrotron-based Fourier Transform Infrared (SR-FTIR) spectromicroscopy to explore in vivo toxic effects on single living Chlorococcum sp. cells. The study provided important information to achieve a better understanding of the toxic mechanism of triclosan and carbamazepine on living algae Chlorococcum sp.. Triclosan and carbamazepine had distinctive toxic effects on unicellular living algae. Most strikingly, triclosan had more dramatic toxic effects on biochemical components than carbamazepine. Triclosan can affect algae primarily by inhibiting fatty acid synthesis and causing protein aggregation. The toxicity response was irreversible at higher concentration (100.000 μM), but attenuated at lower concentration (0.391 μM) as time extended. Carbamazepine can produce hydrophobic interactions to affect the phospholipid bilayer and work on specific proteins to disfunction the cell membrane. Carbamazepine-exposed cells developed a resistance while extending exposure time. This is the first demonstration from an ecological standpoint that SR-FTIR can provide an innovative approach to reveal the toxicity of emerging pollutants in aquatic environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Pigmented Creatine Deposits in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Central Nervous System Tissues Identified by Synchrotron Fourier Transform Infrared Microspectroscopy and X-ray Fluorescence Spectromicroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kastyak, M.; Szczerbowska-Boruchowska, M; Adamek, D; Tomik, B; Lankosz, M; Gough, K

    2010-01-01

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is an untreatable, neurodegenerative disease of motor neurons characterized by progressive muscle atrophy, limb paralysis, dysarthria, dysphagia, dyspnae and finally death. Large motor neurons in ventral horns of spinal cord and motor nuclei in brainstem, large pyramidal neurons of motor cortex and/or large myelinated axons of corticospinal tracts are affected. In recent synchrotron Fourier Transform Infrared microspectroscopy (sFTIR) studies of ALS CNS autopsy tissue, we discovered a small deposit of crystalline creatine, which has a crucial role in energy metabolism. We have now examined unfixed, snap frozen, post-autopsy tissue sections of motor cortex, brain stem, spinal cord, hippocampus and substantia nigra from six ALS and three non-degenerated cases with FTIR and micro-X-ray fluorescence (XRF). Heterogeneous pigmented deposits were discovered in spinal cord, brain stem and motor neuron cortex of two ALS cases. The FTIR signature of creatine has been identified in these deposits and in numerous large, non-pigmented deposits in four of the ALS cases. Comparable pigmentation and creatine deposits were not found in controls or in ALS hippocampus and substantia nigra. Ca, K, Fe, Cu and Zn, as determined by XRF, were not correlated with the pigmented deposits; however, there was a higher incidence of hot spots (Ca, Zn, Fe and Cu) in the ALS cases. The identity of the pigmented deposits remains unknown, although the absence of Fe argues against both erythrocytes and neuromelanin. We conclude that elevated creatine deposits may be indicators of dysfunctional oxidative processes in some ALS cases.

  9. Toward optimal spatial and spectral quality in widefield infrared spectromicroscopy of IR labelled single cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, Eric C; Unger, Miriam; Clède, Sylvain; Lambert, François; Policar, Clotilde; Imtiaz, Asher; D'Souza, Roshan; Hirschmugl, Carol J

    2013-10-07

    Advancements in widefield infrared spectromicroscopy have recently been demonstrated following the commissioning of IRENI (InfraRed ENvironmental Imaging), a Fourier Transform infrared (FTIR) chemical imaging beamline at the Synchrotron Radiation Center. The present study demonstrates the effects of magnification, spatial oversampling, spectral pre-processing and deconvolution, focusing on the intracellular detection and distribution of an exogenous metal tris-carbonyl derivative 1 in a single MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell. We demonstrate here that spatial oversampling for synchrotron-based infrared imaging is critical to obtain accurate diffraction-limited images at all wavelengths simultaneously. Resolution criteria and results from raw and deconvoluted images for two Schwarzschild objectives (36×, NA 0.5 and 74×, NA 0.65) are compared to each other and to prior reports for raster-scanned, confocal microscopes. The resolution of the imaging data can be improved by deconvolving the instrumental broadening that is determined with the measured PSFs, which is implemented with GPU programming architecture for fast hyperspectral processing. High definition, rapidly acquired, FTIR chemical images of respective spectral signatures of the cell 1 and shows that 1 is localized next to the phosphate- and Amide-rich regions, in agreement with previous infrared and luminescence studies. The infrared image contrast, localization and definition are improved after applying proven spectral pre-processing (principal component analysis based noise reduction and RMie scattering correction algorithms) to individual pixel spectra in the hyperspectral cube.

  10. Infrared spectromicroscopy and magneto-optical imaging stations at SPring-8

    CERN Document Server

    Kimura, S; Sada, T; Okuno, M; Matsunami, M; Shinoda, K; Kimura, H; Moriwaki, T; Yamagata, M; Kondo, Y; Yoshimatsu, Y; Takahashi, T; Fukui, K; Kawamoto, T; Ishikawa, T

    2001-01-01

    At the BL43IR of SPring-8, infrared microanalysis on various kinds of solid specimens under multiple environments with a spatial resolution smaller than 10 mu m in diameter is planned in the infrared region. In order to perform such analysis, two different stations, a multipurpose spectromicroscopy apparatus and a magneto-optical imaging one have been constructed. Measurements on the spatial two-dimensional cross-section of the infrared beam at the spectromicroscopy station have proven that the stations have a good prospective feature in the performance.

  11. Synchrotron Infrared Science: Physics, Biology, Environmental Science and Coherence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, M.C.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: In recent years, infrared microscopy and spectroscopy has greatly benefited from a bright new source of light, namely synchrotrons. Synchrotrons provide a significant improvement in brightness, and therefore spatial resolution for mapping characteristic vibrational signatures of molecular species with high signal to noise. This has opened up new scientific directions for physicists, biologists, chemists, industrial applications, forensics, and more. I will present a brief overview of the technique followed by several scientific highlights of synchrotron infrared spectromicroscopy research being performed in Berkeley. I will then turn to the future by discussing our recent understanding of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR). We are proposing a new ring which will use CSR to provide a far-infrared (THz) source having intensities between 7 and 10 orders of magnitude higher than present broadband sources. I will motivate and discuss the exciting capabilities of this revolutionary new source

  12. High Spatial Resolution Analysis of Fungal Cell Biochemistry: Bridging the Analytical Gap using Synchrotron FTIR Spectromicroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminskyj, S.; Konstantin, J.; Szeghalmi, A.; Gough, K.

    2008-01-01

    Fungi impact humans and the environment in many ways, for good and ill. Some fungi support the growth of terrestrial plants or are used in biotechnology, and yet others are established or emerging pathogens. In some cases, the same organism may play different roles depending on the context or the circumstance. A better understanding of the relationship between fungal biochemical composition as related to the fungal growth environment is essential if we are to support or control their activities. Synchrotron FTIR (sFTIR) spectromicroscopy of fungal hyphae is a major new tool for exploring cell composition at a high spatial resolution. Brilliant synchrotron light is essential for this analysis due to the small size of fungal hyphae. sFTIR biochemical characterization of subcellular variation in hyphal composition will allow detailed exploration of fungal responses to experimental treatments and to environmental factors.

  13. Development of an in situ temperature stage for synchrotron X-ray spectromicroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, R., E-mail: rupak@alum.mit.edu, E-mail: buonassisi@mit.edu; Serdy, J.; Culpepper, M. L.; Buonassisi, T., E-mail: rupak@alum.mit.edu, E-mail: buonassisi@mit.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); West, B.; Stuckelberger, M.; Bertoni, M. I. [School of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Lai, B.; Maser, J. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    In situ characterization of micro- and nanoscale defects in polycrystalline thin-film materials is required to elucidate the physics governing defect formation and evolution during photovoltaic device fabrication and operation. X-ray fluorescence spectromicroscopy is particularly well-suited to study defects in compound semiconductors, as it has a large information depth appropriate to study thick and complex materials, is sensitive to trace amounts of atomic species, and provides quantitative elemental information, non-destructively. Current in situ methods using this technique typically require extensive sample preparation. In this work, we design and build an in situ temperature stage to study defect kinetics in thin-film solar cells under actual processing conditions, requiring minimal sample preparation. Careful selection of construction materials also enables controlled non-oxidizing atmospheres inside the sample chamber such as H{sub 2}Se and H{sub 2}S. Temperature ramp rates of up to 300 °C/min are achieved, with a maximum sample temperature of 600 °C. As a case study, we use the stage for synchrotron X-ray fluorescence spectromicroscopy of CuIn{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}Se{sub 2} (CIGS) thin-films and demonstrate predictable sample thermal drift for temperatures 25–400 °C, allowing features on the order of the resolution of the measurement technique (125 nm) to be tracked while heating. The stage enables previously unattainable in situ studies of nanoscale defect kinetics under industrially relevant processing conditions, allowing a deeper understanding of the relationship between material processing parameters, materials properties, and device performance.

  14. Infrared (IR) photon-sensitive spectromicroscopy in a cryogenic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereverzev, Sergey

    2016-06-14

    A system designed to suppress thermal radiation background and to allow IR single-photon sensitive spectromicroscopy of small samples by using both absorption, reflection, and emission/luminescence measurements. The system in one embodiment includes: a light source; a plurality of cold mirrors configured to direct light along a beam path; a cold or warm sample holder in the beam path; windows of sample holder (or whole sample holder) are transparent in a spectral region of interest, so they do not emit thermal radiation in the same spectral region of interest; a cold monochromator or other cold spectral device configured to direct a selected fraction of light onto a cold detector; a system of cold apertures and shields positioned along the beam path to prevent unwanted thermal radiation from arriving at the cold monochromator and/or the detector; a plurality of optical, IR and microwave filters positioned along the beam path and configured to adjust a spectral composition of light incident upon the sample under investigation and/or on the detector; a refrigerator configured to maintain the detector at a temperature below 1.0K; and an enclosure configured to: thermally insulate the light source, the plurality of mirrors, the sample holder, the cold monochromator and the refrigerator.

  15. Low-dose responses to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in single living human cells measured by synhrotron infrared spectromicroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holman, Hoi-Ying N.; Goth-Goldstein, R.; Martin, M.C.; Russel, M.L.; McKinney, W.R.

    1999-01-01

    We report synchrotron radiation-based (SR) Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectromicroscopy measurements of HepG2 cells exposed to an environmental contaminant that is a known ligand for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Measurements were made on cells treated with an AhR-binding model compound 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Compared to untreated control cells, treated cells display unique spectral changes with TCDD concentrations of 0.01 to 10.0 nanomolar (nM). Key spectral changes involve P=O, C-O and C-H stretching bands. The first changes are related to the environment of the phosphate backbone of nucleic acids. The C-H stretching bands data show a relative increase in the number of methyl to methylene groups. We find an excellent correlation between spectral changes and an increase in CYP1A1 expression measured by the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique demonstrating that the SR-FTIR method is observing cellular biochemical changes related to this gene expression pathway. Finally, we discuss the potential use of SR-FTIR spectromicroscopy as a diagnostic tool for monitoring cellular exposure and early molecular responses to environmental pollutants

  16. Infrared microspectroscopy with synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, G.L.; Williams, G.P. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). National Synchrotron Light Source

    1997-09-01

    Infrared microspectroscopy with a high brightness synchrotron source can achieve a spatial resolution approaching the diffraction limit. However, in order to realize this intrinsic source brightness at the specimen location, some care must be taken in designing the optical system. Also, when operating in diffraction limited conditions, the effective spatial resolution is no longer controlled by the apertures typically used for a conventional (geometrically defined) measurement. Instead, the spatial resolution depends on the wavelength of light and the effective apertures of the microscope`s Schwarzchild objectives. The authors have modeled the optical system from the synchrotron source up to the sample location and determined the diffraction-limited spatial distribution of light. Effects due to the dependence of the synchrotron source`s numerical aperture on wavelength, as well as the difference between transmission and reflection measurement modes, are also addressed. Lastly, they examine the benefits (when using a high brightness source) of an extrinsic germanium photoconductive detector with cone optics as a replacement for the standard MCT detector.

  17. Exploring the interactions and binding sites between Cd and functional groups in soil using two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy and synchrotron radiation based spectromicroscopies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Fusheng [Jiangsu Provincial Key Lab for Organic Solid Waste Utilization and National Engineering Research Center for Organic-Based Fertilizers, College of Resources & Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Department of Soil Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Polizzotto, Matthew L. [Department of Soil Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Guan, Dongxing [Key Laboratory of Surficial Geochemistry, Ministry of Education, School of Earth Sciences and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210026 (China); Wu, Jun [College of Environment, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014 (China); Shen, Qirong; Ran, Wei [Jiangsu Provincial Key Lab for Organic Solid Waste Utilization and National Engineering Research Center for Organic-Based Fertilizers, College of Resources & Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Wang, Boren [Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081 (China); Yu, Guanghui, E-mail: yuguanghui@njau.edu.cn [Jiangsu Provincial Key Lab for Organic Solid Waste Utilization and National Engineering Research Center for Organic-Based Fertilizers, College of Resources & Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • The interactions and binding between Cd and functional groups are essential for their fates. • Two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy can identify Cd binding to functional groups in soils. • Synchrotron radiation based spectromicroscopy shows the micro-scale distribution of Cd in soils. • Soil functional groups controlling Cd binding can be modified by fertilization treatments. - Abstract: Understanding how heavy metals bind and interact in soils is essential for predicting their distributions, reactions and fates in the environment. Here we propose a novel strategy, i.e., combining two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D COS) and synchrotron radiation based spectromicroscopies, for identifying heavy metal binding to functional groups in soils. The results showed that although long-term (23 yrs) organic fertilization treatment caused the accumulation of Cd (over 3 times) in soils when compared to no fertilization and chemical fertilization treatments, it significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the Cd concentration in wheat grain. The 2D COS analyses demonstrated that soil functional groups controlling Cd binding were modified by fertilization treatments, providing implications for the reduced bioavailability of heavy metals in organic fertilized soils. Furthermore, correlative micro X-ray fluorescence spectromicroscopy, electron probe micro-analyzer mapping, and synchrotron-radiation-based FTIR spectromicroscopy analysis showed that Cd, minerals, and organic functional groups were heterogeneously distributed at the micro-scale in soil colloids. Only minerals, rather than organic groups, had a similar distribution pattern with Cd. Together, this strategy has a potential to explore the interactions and binding sites among heavy metals, minerals and organic components in soil.

  18. Infrared spectroscopy by use of synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanba, Takao

    1991-01-01

    During five years since the author wrote the paper on the utilization of synchrotron radiation in long wavelength region, it seems to be recognized that in synchrotron radiation, the light from infrared to milli wave can be utilized, and is considerably useful. Recently the research on coherent synchrotron radiation in this region using electron linac has been developed by Tohoku University group, and the high capability of synchrotron radiation as light source is verified. This paper is the report on the infrared spectroscopic research using incoherent synchrotron radiation obtained from the deflection electromagnet part of electron storage rings. Synchrotron radiation is high luminance white light source including from X-ray to micro wave. The example of research that the author carried out at UVSOR is reported, and the perspective in near future is mentioned. Synchrotron radiation as the light source for infrared spectroscopy, the intensity and dimensions of the light source, far infrared region and mid infrared region, far infrared high pressure spectroscopic experiment, and the heightening of luminance of synchrotron radiation as infrared light source are described. (K.I.)

  19. A Sensitive Method for Examining Whole Cell Biochemical Composition in Single Cells of Filamentous Fungi using Synchrotron FTIR Spectromicroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstantin, J.; Gough, K.; Julian, R.; Kaminskyj, S.

    2008-01-01

    Cell function is related to cell composition. The asexual state of filamentous fungi (molds and mildews) has two main life cycle stages: vegetative hyphae for substrate colonization and nutrient acquisition, and asexual spores for survival and dispersal. Hyphal composition changes over a few tens of microns during growth and maturation; spores are different from hyphae. Most biochemical analyses are restricted to studying a few components at high spatial resolution (e.g. histochemistry) or many compounds at low spatial resolution (e.g. GC-MS). Synchrotron FTIR spectromicroscopy can be used to study fungal cell biology by fingerprinting varieties of carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids at about 6 microm spatial resolution. FTIR can distinguish fungal species and changes during hyphal growth, and reveals that even fungi grown under optimal vs mildly stressed conditions exhibit dramatic biochemical changes without obvious morphological effects. Here we compare hypha and spore composition of two fungi, Neurospora and Rhizopus. There are clear biochemical changes when Neurospora hyphae commit to spore development, during spore maturation and following germination, many of which are consistent with results from molecular genetics, but have not been shown before at high spatial resolution. Rhizopus spores develop within a fluid-containing sporangium that becomes dry at maturity. Rhizopus spores had similar protein content and significantly more carbohydrate than the sporangial fluid, both of which are novel findings.

  20. Infrared synchrotron radiation from electron storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, W.D.; Williams, G.P.

    1983-01-01

    Simple and useful approximations, valid at infrared wavelengths, to the equations for synchrotron radiation are presented and used to quantify the brightness and power advantage of current synchrotron radiation light sources over conventional infrared broadband laboratory sources. The Daresbury Synchrotron Radiation Source (SRS) and the Brookhaven National Synchrotron Light Source (vacuum ultraviolet) [NSLS(VUV)] storage rings are used as examples in the calculation of the properties of infrared synchrotron radiation. The pulsed nature of the emission is also discussed, and potential areas of application for the brightness, power, and time structure advantages are presented. The use of infrared free electron lasers and undulators on the next generation of storage ring light sources is briefly considered

  1. Technique of infrared synchrotron acceleration diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mal'tsev, A.A.; Mal'tsev, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    Techniques of measuring of current and geometric parameters and evaluating of energy parameters of the ring bunch of relativistic low-energy electrons have been presented. They have been based on using the synchrotron radiation effect in its infrared spectral part. Fast infrared detectors have provided radiation detection in the spectral range Δλ ≅ 0.3-45 μm. The descriptions of some data monitoring and measuring systems developed in JINR for the realization of techniques of the infrared synchrotron acceleration diagnostics have been given. Infrared optics elements specially developed have been used in these systems

  2. Direct observation of organic layer growth by dynamic spectro-microscopy using high-brilliance synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umbach, E.

    2004-01-01

    It was always the dream of scientists to watch microscopic objects directly on an atomic scale, to follow their dynamical behaviour, and to know everything about them, i.e. to get as much spectroscopic information as possible. While instruments have become available which may fulfill two of these wishes simultaneously, it is much more difficult to get all three at once. The development of so called spectro-microscopes which operate at 3rd generation synchrotron sources nourishes the hope that this dream will become true in the near future. The talk intends to show how much can be learned about organic thin films and interfaces if high-brilliance synchrotron radiation is combined with new instruments, for instance a high energy resolution beamline and a high-spatial resolution spectro-microscope. While the former is standard technology of today, the latter is a new development, combining brilliant undulator radiation of variable polarization with a specially developed, energy-filtered low energy electron microscope. First, it will be shown that many new details about the electronic structure of organic materials and their interaction with one another or with an interface can be obtained using high-resolution photoemission and x-ray absorption. For instance, from a careful analysis of the fine structure of photoemission spectra one can derive details about the interface bonding, about the interaction between molecules, and about the dynamic response of the molecular system upon creation of a core hole. Or, from a careful analysis of the fine structure of high resolution x-ray absorption spectra one gets insight into the intermolecular interaction, the coupling between electronic and vibronic excitations, and even about the shapes of potential curves. Second, the dynamic growth of highly-ordered organic thin films will be followed as a function of molecule and preparation conditions. The formation of islands, the inner structure of organic crystallites, diffusion

  3. Real-time Bacterial Detection by Single Cell Based Sensors UsingSynchrotron FTIR Spectromicroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veiseh, Mandana; Veiseh, Omid; Martin, Michael C.; Bertozzi,Carolyn; Zhang, Miqin

    2005-08-10

    Microarrays of single macrophage cell based sensors weredeveloped and demonstrated for real time bacterium detection bysynchrotron FTIR microscopy. The cells were patterned on gold-SiO2substrates via a surface engineering technique by which the goldelectrodes were immobilized with fibronectin to mediate cell adhesion andthe silicon oxide background were passivated with PEG to resist proteinadsorption and cell adhesion. Cellular morphology and IR spectra ofsingle, double, and triple cells on gold electrodes exposed tolipopolysaccharide (LPS) of different concentrations were compared toreveal the detection capabilities of these biosensors. The single-cellbased sensors were found to generate the most significant IR wave numbervariation and thus provide the highest detection sensitivity. Changes inmorphology and IR spectrum for single cells exposed to LPS were found tobe time- and concentration-dependent and correlated with each other verywell. FTIR spectra from single cell arrays of gold electrodes withsurface area of 25 mu-m2, 100 mu-m2, and 400 mu-m2 were acquired usingboth synchrotron and conventional FTIR spectromicroscopes to study thesensitivity of detection. The results indicated that the developedsingle-cell platform can be used with conventional FTIRspectromicroscopy. This technique provides real-time, label-free, andrapid bacterial detection, and may allow for statistic and highthroughput analyses, and portability.

  4. Infrared spectroscopy with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagarde, P.

    1978-01-01

    Storage rings are normally used as sources of radiation in the X-ray and the u.v. part of the spectrum. It is shown that, with a specially designed component, a storage ring like ACO at Orsay is a very powerful far-infrared source, whose advantages over classical wide band sources are reviewed. (author)

  5. CVD diamond windows for infrared synchrotron applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sussmann, R.S.; Pickles, C.S.J.; Brandon, J.R.; Wort, C.J.H.; Coe, S.E.; Wasenczuk, A.; Dodge, C.N.; Beale, A.C.; Krehan, A.J.; Dore, P.; Nucara, A.; Calvani, P.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the attributes that make diamond a unique material for infrared synchrotron beam experiments. New developments in diamond synthesised by Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) promise to extend the range of applications which have been hitherto limited by the availability and cost of large-size single-crystal diamond. Polycrystalline CVD diamond components such as large (100 mm) diameter windows with extremely good transparency over a wide spectral range are now commercially available. Properties of CVD diamond of relevance to optical applications, such as mechanical strength, thermal conductivity and absolute bulk absorption, are discussed. It is shown that although some of the properties of CVD diamond (similar to other polycrystalline industrial ceramics) are affected by the grain structure, currently produced CVD diamond optical components have the quality and performance required for numerous demanding applications

  6. Synchrotron-based far-infrared spectroscopy of nickel tungstate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinko, A.; Kuzmin, A.; Roy, P.; Evarestov, R.A.

    2016-01-01

    Monoclinic antiferromagnetic NiWO 4 was studied by far-infrared (30-600 cm -1 ) absorption spectroscopy in the temperature range of 5-300 K using the synchrotron radiation from SOLEIL source. Two isomorphous CoWO 4 and ZnWO 4 tungstates were investigated for comparison. The phonon contributions in the far-infrared range of tungstates were interpreted using the first-principles spin-polarized linear combination of atomic orbital calculations. No contributions from magnetic excitations were found in NiWO 4 and CoWO 4 below their Neel temperatures down to 5 K.

  7. Fast infrared detectors for beam diagnostics with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocci, A.; Marcelli, A.; Pace, E.; Drago, A.; Piccinini, M.; Cestelli Guidi, M.; De Sio, A.; Sali, D.; Morini, P.; Piotrowski, J.

    2007-01-01

    Beam diagnostic is a fundamental constituent of any particle accelerators either dedicated to high-energy physics or to synchrotron radiation experiments. All storage rings emit radiations. Actually they are high brilliant sources of radiation: the synchrotron radiation emission covers from the infrared range to the X-ray domain with a pulsed structure depending on the temporal characteristics of the stored beam. The time structure of the emitted radiation is extremely useful as a tool to perform time-resolved experiments. However, this radiation can be also used for beam diagnostic to determine the beam stability and to measure the dimensions of the e - or e + beam. Because of the temporal structure of the synchrotron radiation to perform diagnostic, we need very fast detectors. Indeed, the detectors required for the diagnostics of the stored particle bunches at third generation synchrotron radiation sources and FEL need response times in the sub-ns and even ps range. To resolve the bunch length and detect bunch instabilities, X-ray and visible photon detectors may be used achieving response times of a few picoseconds. Recently, photon uncooled infrared devices optimized for the mid-IR range realized with HgCdTe semiconductors allowed to obtain sub-nanosecond response times. These devices can be used for fast detection of intense IRSR sources and for beam diagnostic. We present here preliminary experimental data of the pulsed synchrotron radiation emission of DAΦNE, the electron positron collider of the LNF laboratory of the INFN, performed with new uncooled IR detectors with a time resolution of a few hundreds of picoseconds

  8. Tracking chemical changes in a live cell: Biomedical applications of SR-FTIR spectromicroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holman, Hoi-Ying N.; Martin, Michael C.; McKinney, Wayne R.

    2002-07-25

    Synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infrared (SR-FTIR) spectromicroscopy is a newly emerging bioanalytical and imaging tool. This unique technique provides mid-infrared (IR) spectra, hence chemical information, with high signal-to-noise at spatial resolutions as fine as 3 to 10 microns. Thus it enables researchers to locate, identify, and track specific chemical events within an individual living mammalian cell. Mid-IR photons are too low in energy (0.05 - 0.5 eV) to either break bonds or to cause ionization. In this review, we show that the synchrotron IR beam has no detectable effects on the short- and long-term viability, reproductive integrity, cell-cycle progression, and mitochondrial metabolism in living human cells, and produces only minimal sample heating (< 0.5 degrees C). We will then present several examples demonstrating the application potentials of SR-FTIR spectromicroscopy in biomedical research. These will include monitoring living cells progressing through the cell cycle, including death, and cells reacting to dilute concentrations of toxins.

  9. Tracking chemical changes in a live cell: Biomedical applications of SR-FTIR spectromicroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holman, Hoi-Ying N.; Martin, Michael C.; McKinney, Wayne R.

    2002-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infrared (SR-FTIR) spectromicroscopy is a newly emerging bioanalytical and imaging tool. This unique technique provides mid-infrared (IR) spectra, hence chemical information, with high signal-to-noise at spatial resolutions as fine as 3 to 10 microns. Thus it enables researchers to locate, identify, and track specific chemical events within an individual living mammalian cell. Mid-IR photons are too low in energy (0.05 - 0.5 eV) to either break bonds or to cause ionization. In this review, we show that the synchrotron IR beam has no detectable effects on the short- and long-term viability, reproductive integrity, cell-cycle progression, and mitochondrial metabolism in living human cells, and produces only minimal sample heating (< 0.5 degrees C). We will then present several examples demonstrating the application potentials of SR-FTIR spectromicroscopy in biomedical research. These will include monitoring living cells progressing through the cell cycle, including death, and cells reacting to dilute concentrations of toxins

  10. Biological infrared microspectroscopy at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Lisa M.; Carr, G. Lawrence; Williams, Gwyn P.; Sullivan, Michael; Chance, Mark R.

    2000-01-01

    Beamline U2B at the National Synchrotron Light Source has been designed and built as an infrared beamline dedicated to the study of biomedical problems. In 1997, the horizontal and vertical acceptances of Beamline U2B were increased in order to increase the overall flux of the beamline. A wedged, CVD diamond window separates the UHV vacuum of the VUV ring from the rough vacuum of the beamline. The endstation consists of a Nicolet Magna 860 step-scan FTIR and a NicPlan infrared microscope. The spectrometer is equipped with beamsplitter/detector combinations that permit data collection in the mid-and far-infrared regions. We have also made provisions for mounting an external detector (e.g. bolometer) for far infrared microspectroscopy. Thus far, Beamline U2B has been used to (1) perform chemical imaging of bone tissue and brain cells to address issues related to bone disease and epilepsy, respectively, and (2) examine time-resolved protein structure in the sub-millisecond folding of cytochrome c

  11. High-pressure synchrotron infrared spectroscopy at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemley, R.J.; Goncharov, A.F.; Lu, R.; Struzhkin, V.V.; Li, M.; Mao, H.K.

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes a synchrotron infrared facility for high-pressure spectroscopy and microspectroscopy at the National Synchrotron Light-Source (NSLS). Located at beamline U2B on the VUV ring of the NSLS, the facility utilizes a commercial FT-IR together with custom-built microscope optics designed for a variety of diamond anvil cell experiments, including low- and high- temperature studies. The system contains an integrated laser optical/grating spectrometer for concurrent optical experiments. The facility has been used to characterize a growing number of materials to ultrahigh pressure and has been instrumental of new high-pressure phenomena. Experiments on dense hydrogen to >200 GPa have led to the discovery of numerous unexpected properties of this fundamental system. The theoretically predicted molecular-atomic transition of H 2 O ice to the symmetric hydrogen-bonded structure has been identified, and new classes of high-density clathrates and molecular compounds have been characterized. Experiments on natural and synthetic mineral samples have been performed to study hydrogen speciation, phase transformations, and microscopic inclusions in multiphase assemblages. Detailed information on the behavior of new materials, including novel high-pressure glasses and ceramics, has also been obtained

  12. Intraocular Pressure Induced Retinal Changes Identified Using Synchrotron Infrared Microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Hui Shen

    Full Text Available Infrared (IR spectroscopy has been used to quantify chemical and structural characteristics of a wide range of materials including biological tissues. In this study, we examined spatial changes in the chemical characteristics of rat retina in response to intraocular pressure (IOP elevation using synchrotron infrared microscopy (SIRM, a non-destructive imaging approach. IOP elevation was induced by placing a suture around the eye of anaesthetised rats. Retinal sections were collected onto transparent CaF2 slides 10 days following IOP elevation. Using combined SIRM spectra and chemical mapping approaches it was possible to quantify IOP induced changes in protein conformation and chemical distribution in various layers of the rat retina. We showed that 10 days following IOP elevation there was an increase in lipid and protein levels in the inner nuclear layer (INL and ganglion cell layer (GCL. IOP elevation also resulted in an increase in nucleic acids in the INL. Analysis of SIRM spectra revealed a shift in amide peaks to lower vibrational frequencies with a more prominent second shoulder, which is consistent with the presence of cell death in specific layers of the retina. These changes were more substantial in the INL and GCL layers compared with those occurring in the outer nuclear layer. These outcomes demonstrate the utility of SIRM to quantify the effect of IOP elevation on specific layers of the retina. Thus SIRM may be a useful tool for the study of localised tissue changes in glaucoma and other eye diseases.

  13. Singapore Synchrotron Light Source - Status, first results, program

    CERN Document Server

    Moser, H O; Kempson, V C; Kong, J R; Li, Z W; Nyunt, T; Qian, H J; Rossmanith, R; Tor, P H; Wilhelmi, O; Yang, P; Zheng, H W; Underhay, I J

    2003-01-01

    The Singapore Synchrotron Light Source is a general-purpose synchrotron radiation facility serving research organisations and industry. Beamlines active or coming up within 2002 include lithography for micro/nanofabrication, phase contrast imaging, surface science, and X-ray diffraction and absorption. An infrared spectro/microscopy beamline is expected to become operational in 2003. Further beamlines are under discussion with user groups. The Microtron Undulator Radiation Facility (MURF) is under development to provide brilliant VUV radiation and to prepare for subsequent development of an EUV and X-ray FEL.

  14. Degradation process of lead chromate in paintings by Vincent van Gogh studied by means of synchrotron X-ray spectromicroscopy and related methods. 1. Artificially aged model samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monico, Letizia; Van der Snickt, Geert; Janssens, Koen; De Nolf, Wout; Miliani, Costanza; Verbeeck, Johan; Tian, He; Tan, Haiyan; Dik, Joris; Radepont, Marie; Cotte, Marine

    2011-02-15

    On several paintings by artists of the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th Century a darkening of the original yellow areas, painted with the chrome yellow pigment (PbCrO(4), PbCrO(4)·xPbSO(4), or PbCrO(4)·xPbO) is observed. The most famous of these are the various Sunflowers paintings Vincent van Gogh made during his career. In the first part of this work, we attempt to elucidate the degradation process of chrome yellow by studying artificially aged model samples. In view of the very thin (1-3 μm) alteration layers that are formed, high lateral resolution spectroscopic methods such as microscopic X-ray absorption near edge (μ-XANES), X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (μ-XRF), and electron energy loss spectrometry (EELS) were employed. Some of these use synchrotron radiation (SR). Additionally, microscopic SR X-ray diffraction (SR μ-XRD), μ-Raman, and mid-FTIR spectroscopy were employed to completely characterize the samples. The formation of Cr(III) compounds at the surface of the chrome yellow paint layers is particularly observed in one aged model sample taken from a historic paint tube (ca. 1914). About two-thirds of the chromium that is present at the surface has reduced from the hexavalent to the trivalent state. The EELS and μ-XANES spectra are consistent with the presence of Cr(2)O(3)·2H(2)O (viridian). Moreover, as demonstrated by μ-XANES, the presence of another Cr(III) compound, such as either Cr(2)(SO(4))(3)·H(2)O or (CH(3)CO(2))(7)Cr(3)(OH)(2) [chromium(III) acetate hydroxide], is likely.

  15. Scanning photoemission spectromicroscopy applications in surface chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amati, M. [Elettra – Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A. di interesse nazionale, SS14-Km163.5 in Area Science Park, 34149 Trieste (Italy); Dalmiglio, M. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, Nanobiosciences Unit, Via Enrico Fermi 2749, 21029 Ispra, VA (Italy); Abyaneh, M. Kazemian [Elettra – Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A. di interesse nazionale, SS14-Km163.5 in Area Science Park, 34149 Trieste (Italy); Gregoratti, L., E-mail: luca.gregoratti@elettra.trieste.it [Elettra – Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A. di interesse nazionale, SS14-Km163.5 in Area Science Park, 34149 Trieste (Italy)

    2013-08-15

    Highlights: •An overview of the spectromicroscopy capability of the SPEM is provided. •Reactivity towards oxidation and adsorbate mass transport of MWCNTs is described. •Oxidation of Pt-Rh nanoparticles is site dependent. -- Abstract: Scanning photoelectron microscopy (SPEM) combines X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) with spatial resolution and is a powerful technique to image and probe micro and nanostructures. An overview of some recent achievements of the SPEM hosted at the Elettra synchrotron light laboratory will be presented in this report. The examples will spread through the oxidation as well as mass transport of multiwall carbon nanotubes clean and functionalized with metallic coatings, the electronic and chemical characterization of semiconductor sensor prototypes and the oxidation of PtRh nanoparticles produced by pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) with atomic oxygen.

  16. AILES: the infrared and THz beamline on SOLEIL synchrotron radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, P.; Brubach, J.B.; Rouzieres, M.; Pirali, O.; Kwabia Tchana, F.; Manceron, L.

    2008-01-01

    The development of a new infrared beamline (ligne de lumiere AILES) at the third generation Synchrotron Radiation source SOLEIL is underway. This beamline utilizes infrared synchrotron radiation from both the edge emission and the constant field conventional source. The expected performances including flux, spatial distribution of the photons, spectral range and stability are calculated and discussed. The optical system, spectroscopic stations and workspace are described. The calculation in the near field approach and the simulation by ray tracing show that the source with its adapted optics offers high flux and brilliance for a variety of infrared experiments. We also review the main research themes and the articulation and developments of the infrared sources at SOLEIL. (authors)

  17. Time-resolved far-infrared experiments at the National Synchrotron Light Source. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanner, D.B.; Reitze, D.H.; Carr, G.L.

    1999-01-01

    A facility for time-resolved infrared and far-infrared spectroscopy has been built and commissioned at the National Synchrotron Light Source. This facility permits the study of time dependent phenomena over a frequency range from 2-8000cm -1 (0.25 meV-1 eV). Temporal resolution is approximately 200 psec and time dependent phenomena in the time range out to 100 nsec can be investigated

  18. Synchrotron radiation in the Far-Infrared: Adsorbate-substrate vibrations and resonant interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, F.M.; Williams, G.P.; Hirschmugl, C.J.; Chabal, Y.J.

    1991-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation in the Far Infrared offers the potential for a broadband source of high brightness and intensity. Recent development of a Far-Infrared Beamline at the NSLS in Brookhaven provides an unique high intensity source in the FIR spectral range (800-10 cm -1 ). This talk reviews its application to surface vibrational spectroscopy of low frequency adsorbate-substrate vibrations and resonant interactions on metal surfaces

  19. Far infrared spectroscopy of high-Tc superconductors at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkowitz, S.; Williams, G.P.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports the first far infrared transmission spectra for micron-thick films of high-T c rare-earth superconductors such as DyBaCuO, with implications for the superconducting gap. Spectra were obtained at Brookhaven's National Synchrotron Light Source, a new high-intensity, broad-band millimeter to infrared source. The National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory, known for powerful X-ray and UV output, is also a high-intensity (10 to 1000 times above a black body), high-brightness (intensity per solid angle), broad-band, picosecond, millimeter to infrared source. These features make it valuable for far-infrared condensed matter experiments, especially those in highly absorbing or extremely small systems. A first application has been to measure very small infrared transmissions through thick bulk-like high-T c superconducting films. Preliminary measurements through films of the conventional superconductor Nb 3 Ge established techniques. These were followed by the first measurements (to the author's knowledge) through micron-thick films of high-T c rare-earth superconductors such as DyBaCuO over 10-300 cm -1 , which includes the superconducting gap according to BCS or moderately strong-coupled theory. The authors discuss the transmission evidence bearing on the existence of a gap and other important features of high-T c superconductors, and describe the synchrotron and instrumentation features which make possible these unusual measurements

  20. The application of infrared synchrotron radiation to the study of interfacial vibrational modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirschmugl, C.J.; Williams, G.P.

    1992-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation provides an extremely bright broad-band source in the infrared which is ideally suited to the study of surface and interface vibrational modes in the range 50--3,000 cm -1 . Thus it covers the important range of molecule-substrate interactions, as well as overlapping with the more easily accessible near-ir region where molecular internal modes are found. Compared to standard broadband infrared sources such as globars, not only is it 1,000 times brighter, but its emittance matches the phase-space of the electrochemical cell leading to full utilization of this brightness advantage. In addition, the source is more stable even than water-cooled globars in vacuum for both short-term and long-term fluctuations. The authors summarize the properties of synchrotron radiation in the infrared, in particular pointing out the distinct differences between this and the x-ray region. They use experimental data in discussing important issues of signal to noise and address the unique problems and advantages of the synchrotron source. Thus they emphasize the important considerations necessary for developing new facilities. This analysis then leads to a discussion of phase-space matching to electrochemical cells, and to other surfaces in vacuum. Finally they show several examples of the application of infrared synchrotron radiation to surface vibrational spectroscopy. The examples are for metal crystal surfaces in ultra-high vacuum and include CO/Cu(100) and (111) and CO/K/Cu(100). The experiments show how the stability of the synchrotron source allows subtle changes in the background to be observed in addition to the discrete vibrational modes. These changes are due to electronic states induced by the adsorbate. In some cases the authors have seen interferences between these and the discrete vibrational modes, leading to a breakdown of the dipole selection rules, and the observation of additional modes

  1. The first synchrotron infrared beamlines at the Advanced Light Source: Microspectroscopy and fast timing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, M.C.; McKinney, W.R.

    1998-05-01

    A set of new infrared (IR) beamlines on the 1.4 bending magnet port at the Advanced Light Source, LBNL, are described. Using a synchrotron as an IR source provides considerable brightness advantages, which manifests itself most beneficially when performing spectroscopy on a microscopic length scale. Beamline (BL) 1.4.3 is a dedicated microspectroscopy beamline, where the much smaller focused spot size using the synchrotron source is utilized. This enables an entirely new set of experiments to be performed where spectroscopy on a truly microscopic scale is now possible. BL 1.4.2 consists of a vacuum FTIR bench with a wide spectral range and step-scan capabilities. The fast timing is demonstrated by observing the synchrotron electron storage pattern at the ALS

  2. Development of microfluidic devices for biomedical applications of synchrotron radiation infrared microspectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Birarda, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    2009/2010 ABSTRACT DEVELOPMENT OF MICROFLUIDIC DEVICES FOR BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS OF SYNCHROTRON RADIATION INFRARED MICROSPECTROSCOPY by Birarda Giovanni The detection and measurement of biological processes in a complex living system is a discipline at the edge of Physics, Biology, and Engineering, with major scientific challenges, new technological applications and a great potential impact on dissection of phenomena occurring at tissue, cell, and sub cellular level. The ...

  3. Time Resolved Detection of Infrared Synchrotron Radiation at DAΦNE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocci, A.; Marcelli, A.; Drago, A.; Guidi, M. Cestelli; Pace, E.; Piccinini, M.; Sali, D.; Morini, P.; Piotrowski, J.

    2007-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation is characterized by a very wide spectral emission from IR to X-ray wavelengths and a pulsed structure that is a function of the source time structure. In a storage ring, the typical temporal distance between two bunches, whose duration is a few hundreds of picoseconds, is on the nanosecond scale. Therefore, synchrotron radiation sources are a very powerful tools to perform time-resolved experiments that however need extremely fast detectors. Uncooled IR devices optimized for the mid-IR range with sub-nanosecond response time, are now available and can be used for fast detection of intense IR sources such as synchrotron radiation storage rings. We present here different measurements of the pulsed synchrotron radiation emission at DAΦNE (Double Annular Φ-factory for Nice Experiments), the collider of the Laboratori Nazionali of Frascati (LNF) of the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), performed with very fast uncooled infrared detectors with a time resolution of a few hundreds of picoseconds. We resolved the emission time structure of the electron bunches of the DAΦNE collider when it works in a normal condition for high energy physics experiments with both photovoltaic and photoconductive detectors. Such a technology should pave the way to new diagnostic methods in storage rings, monitoring also source instabilities and bunch dynamics

  4. Determination of phosphorus fertilizer soil reactions by Raman and synchrotron infrared microspectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Christian; Adam, Christian; Sekine, Ryo; Schiller, Tara; Lipiec, Ewelina; McNaughton, Don

    2013-10-01

    The reaction mechanisms of phosphate-bearing mineral phases from sewage sludge ash-based fertilizers in soil were determined by Raman and synchrotron infrared microspectroscopy. Different reaction mechanisms in wet soil were found for calcium and magnesium (pyro-) phosphates. Calcium orthophosphates were converted over time to hydroxyapatite. Conversely, different magnesium phosphates were transformed to trimagnesium phosphate. Since the magnesium phosphates are unable to form an apatite structure, the plant-available phosphorus remains in the soil, leading to better growth results observed in agricultural pot experiments. The pyrophosphates also reacted very differently. Calcium pyrophosphate is unreactive in soil. In contrast, magnesium pyrophosphate quickly formed plant-available dimagnesium phosphate.

  5. Introduction of soft X-ray spectromicroscopy as an advanced technique for plant biopolymers research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chithra Karunakaran

    Full Text Available Soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy coupled with nano-scale microscopy has been widely used in material science, environmental science, and physical sciences. In this work, the advantages of soft X-ray absorption spectromicroscopy for plant biopolymer research were demonstrated by determining the chemical sensitivity of the technique to identify common plant biopolymers and to map the distributions of biopolymers in plant samples. The chemical sensitivity of soft X-ray spectroscopy to study biopolymers was determined by recording the spectra of common plant biopolymers using soft X-ray and Fourier Transform mid Infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy techniques. The soft X-ray spectra of lignin, cellulose, and polygalacturonic acid have distinct spectral features. However, there were no distinct differences between cellulose and hemicellulose spectra. Mid infrared spectra of all biopolymers were unique and there were differences between the spectra of water soluble and insoluble xylans. The advantage of nano-scale spatial resolution exploited using soft X-ray spectromicroscopy for plant biopolymer research was demonstrated by mapping plant cell wall biopolymers in a lentil stem section and compared with the FT-IR spectromicroscopy data from the same sample. The soft X-ray spectromicroscopy enables mapping of biopolymers at the sub-cellular (~30 nm resolution whereas, the limited spatial resolution in the micron scale range in the FT-IR spectromicroscopy made it difficult to identify the localized distribution of biopolymers. The advantages and limitations of soft X-ray and FT-IR spectromicroscopy techniques for biopolymer research are also discussed.

  6. Solid state spectroscopy by using of far-infrared synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanba, Takao [Kobe Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Science

    1996-07-01

    If the spectroscopic system corresponding to the wavelength region required for experiment is installed, the light source with continuous wavelength is to be obtainable by synchrotron radiation. This report is that of the research on solid state spectroscopy using the ordinary incoherent synchrotron radiation which is obtained from the deflection electromagnet parts of electron storage ring. At present in the world, the facilities which can be utilized in far-infrared spectroscopy region are five, including the UVSOR of Molecular Science Research Institute in Japan. The optical arrangement of the measuring system of the UVSOR is shown. The spectrum distribution of the light passing through the pinholes with different diameter in the place of setting samples was compared in case of the UVSOR and a high pressure mercury lamp, and it was shown that synchrotron radiation has high luminance. The researches on solid state spectroscopy carried out in the above mentioned five facilities are enumerated. In this paper, the high pressure spectroscopic experiment which has been carried out at the UVSOR is reported. The observation of the phase transition of fine particles and the surface phonons of fine particles are described. As fine particle size became smaller, the critical pressure at which phase transition occurred was high. (K.I.)

  7. The status of the first infrared beamline at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Te; Tong, Yajun; Zhu, Huachun; Zhang, Zengyan; Peng, Weiwei; Chen, Min; Xiao, Tiqiao; Xu, Hongjie

    2015-01-01

    Construction of the first infrared beamline BL01B1 at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) was completed at the end of 2013. The IR beamline collects both edge radiation (ER) and bending magnet radiation (BMR) from a port, providing a solid angle of 40 mrad and 20 mrad in the horizontal and vertical directions, respectively. The optical layout of the infrared beamline and the design of the extraction mirror are described in this paper. A calculation of the beam propagation has been used to optimize the parameters of the optical components. The photon flux and spatial resolution have been measured at the end-station, and the experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretical calculation

  8. The status of the first infrared beamline at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Te; Tong, Yajun; Zhu, Huachun; Zhang, Zengyan; Peng, Weiwei; Chen, Min, E-mail: chenmin@sinap.ac.cn; Xiao, Tiqiao; Xu, Hongjie

    2015-07-11

    Construction of the first infrared beamline BL01B1 at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) was completed at the end of 2013. The IR beamline collects both edge radiation (ER) and bending magnet radiation (BMR) from a port, providing a solid angle of 40 mrad and 20 mrad in the horizontal and vertical directions, respectively. The optical layout of the infrared beamline and the design of the extraction mirror are described in this paper. A calculation of the beam propagation has been used to optimize the parameters of the optical components. The photon flux and spatial resolution have been measured at the end-station, and the experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretical calculation.

  9. The status of the first infrared beamline at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Te; Tong, Yajun; Zhu, Huachun; Zhang, Zengyan; Peng, Weiwei; Chen, Min; Xiao, Tiqiao; Xu, Hongjie

    2015-07-01

    Construction of the first infrared beamline BL01B1 at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) was completed at the end of 2013. The IR beamline collects both edge radiation (ER) and bending magnet radiation (BMR) from a port, providing a solid angle of 40 mrad and 20 mrad in the horizontal and vertical directions, respectively. The optical layout of the infrared beamline and the design of the extraction mirror are described in this paper. A calculation of the beam propagation has been used to optimize the parameters of the optical components. The photon flux and spatial resolution have been measured at the end-station, and the experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretical calculation.

  10. A proposal for an infrared/optical beam line for the new Australian synchrotron project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creagh, D.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In late 2001 the Premier of Victoria, Steve Bracks, announced that the Victorian Government would provide funding of $100,000,000 for the construction of an Australian National Synchrotron on a site on the Monash University campus. The design of the synchrotron and the tentative allocations of beamlines within the synchrotron were taken from the 'Boomerang' designs developed by Dr John Boldeman for the Australian Synchrotron Research Program. The formal administrative structure has recently been put in place. Committees such as the International Machine Advisory Committee (IMAC) and the National Scientific Advisory Committee (NSAC) have been formed and are actively pursuing the goals set down in the strategic plan. Meetings of the NSAC are held monthly, the fifteen members from all states and territories (except Tasmania and the Northern Territory) meeting to discuss how the scientific goals may be achieved. At the last meeting proposals were canvassed for the beamlines to be provided at the synchrotron. One of these beamlines is an IR/Optical Beamline, the subject of this paper. Spectroscopy, using photon energies from the infrared (IR) to the ultraviolet has long been an important analytical tool in scientific investigations. The study of the absorption and scattering (both elastic and Raman) of light by samples, and the fluorescence radiation emitted by samples, can give information about essential for the understanding of the chemical state of the sample, identifying chemical and mineral types present in a sample, and identifying changes in systems Areas of research which would benefit from the use of synchrotron radiation source include: cell biology, in particular the study of the uptake of drugs by cells; surficial processes, for example the in situ study of corrosion processes and the testing of anti-corrosion coatings; organic and inorganic nanotechnology; the study of bandgaps in quantum effect materials; mineralogy, for example determining

  11. Aleurone Cell Walls of Wheat Grain: High Spatial Resolution Investigation Using Synchrotron Infrared Microspectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamme, F.; Robert, R.; Bouchet, B.; Saulnier, L.; Dumas, P.; Guillon, F.

    2008-01-01

    Infrared microspectroscopy and immunolabeling techniques were employed in order to obtain deeper insight into the biochemical nature of aleurone cell walls of wheat grain. The use of a synchrotron source, thanks to its intrinsic brightness, has provided unprecedented information at the level of a few micrometers and has allowed the discrimination of various polysaccharides in cell walls. The high spectral quality obtained in the small analyzed domain has been beneficial in estimating the relative proportions of Β-glucan and arabinoxylan, through the use of principal component analysis (PCA). The highest amount of Β-glucan is found in periclinal cell walls close to the starchy endosperm. The junction regions between aleurone cells are enriched in arabinoxylan. At the early stage of wheat grain development (271 degrees D), the chemical composition along the cell walls is more heterogeneous than at the mature stage. Both synchrotron infrared microspectroscopy and immunolabeling experiments made it possible to reveal the spatial heterogeneity of the various chemical compositions of aleurone cell walls.

  12. Imidazole and beta-carotene photoprotection against photodynamic therapy evaluated by synchrotron infrared microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosio, Gabriela N.; Parisi, Julieta; García Einschlag, Fernando S.; Mártire, Daniel O.

    2018-04-01

    In order to better understand the role of β-carotene and imidazole on the Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) mechanism, synchrotron infrared microscopy was used to detect the associated intracellular biochemical modifications following the visible light irradiation of HeLa cells incubated with these compounds as typical hydrophobic and hydrophilic singlet oxygen quenchers, respectively. For this purpose, PDT was performed employing the hydrophilic sensitizer 5,10,15,20-Tetrakis (1-methyl-4-pyridinio) porphyrin tetra (p-toluenesulfonate), TMPyP, and the hydrophobic sensitizer 5-(4-Methoxycarboxyphenyl)-10,15,20-triphenyl-21H,23H-porphyrin. The single cell IR spectra of PDT-treated, PDT plus quencher-treated and control HeLa cells were recorded at the SOLEIL Synchrotron Infrared SMIS beamline targeting specifically the cell nucleus. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to assess the IR spectral changes. PCA revealed that there is a frequency shift of the protein Amide I vibrational band for the assays with the TMPyP sensitizer, indicating changes in the protein secondary structures of the PDT-treated cancer cells compared to the controls. In addition, the scores in those cells treated with both quenchers appear to be similar to the controls indicating a photoprotective effect. Comparative experiments carried out with SKMEL-28 and HaCat cells showed non- significant photoprotective effects of β-carotene and imidazole.

  13. Biochemical profiling of rat embryonic stem cells grown on electrospun polyester fibers using synchrotron infrared microspectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doncel-Pérez, Ernesto; Ellis, Gary; Sandt, Christophe; Shuttleworth, Peter S; Bastida, Agatha; Revuelta, Julia; García-Junceda, Eduardo; Fernández-Mayoralas, Alfonso; Garrido, Leoncio

    2018-06-01

    Therapeutic options for spinal cord injuries are severely limited; current treatments only offer symptomatic relief and rehabilitation focused on educating the individual on how to adapt to their new situation to make best possible use of their remaining function. Thus, new approaches are needed, and interest in the development of effective strategies to promote the repair of neural tracts in the central nervous system inspired us to prepare functional and highly anisotropic polymer scaffolds. In this work, an initial assessment of the behavior of rat neural progenitor cells (NPCs) seeded on poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) fiber scaffolds using synchrotron-based infrared microspectroscopy (SIRMS) is described. Combined with a modified touch imprint cytology sample preparation method, this application of SIRMS enabled the biochemical profiles of NPCs on the coated polymer fibers to be determined. The results showed that changes in the lipid and amide I-II spectral regions are modulated by the type and coating of the substrate used and the culture time. SIRMS studies can provide valuable insight into the early-stage response of NPCs to the morphology and surface chemistry of a biomaterial, and could therefore be a useful tool in the preparation and optimization of cellular scaffolds. Graphical abstract Synchrotron IR microspectroscopy can provide insight into the response of neural progenitor cells to synthetic scaffolds.

  14. High-pressure synchrotron x-ray diffraction and infrared microspectroscopy: applications to dense hydrous phases

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Z; Yang, H; Mao Ho Kwang; Hemley, R J

    2002-01-01

    Synchrotron x-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared (IR) absorption spectra of hydrous and 'anhydrous' forms of phase X were measured to 30 GPa at room temperature. Three OH stretching modes were found in the hydrous phase, and surprisingly one sharp OH mode was observed in the previously characterized anhydrous phase. All OH stretching modes soften and broaden with increasing pressure and become very weak above approx 20 GPa. XRD indicates that the crystal structure remains stable up to 30 GPa. Combining IR absorption and XRD results, the behaviour is attributed to pressure-induced distortion of the Si sub 2 O sub 7 groups and disorder of the hydrogen atoms. The bulk moduli of the hydrous and 'anhydrous' phases are in the region of 74 GPa.

  15. Structure and acidity of individual Fluid Catalytic Cracking catalyst particles studied by synchrotron-based infrared micro-spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buurmans, I.L.C.; Soulimani, F.; Ruiz Martinez, J.; van der Bij, H.E.; Weckhuysen, B.M.

    2013-01-01

    A synchrotron-based infrared micro-spectroscopy study has been conducted to investigate the structure as well as the Brønsted and Lewis acidity of Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) catalyst particles at the individual particle level. Both fresh and laboratory-deactivated catalyst particles have been

  16. Determination of Endosperm Protein Secondary Structure in Hard Wheat Breeding Lines using Synchrotron Infrared Microspectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonwell, E.; Fisher, T.; Fritz, A.; Wetzel, D.

    2008-01-01

    One molecular aspect of mature hard wheat protein quality for breadmaking is the relative amount of endosperm protein in the a-helix form compared with that in other secondary structure forms including β-sheet. Modeling of a-helix and β-sheet absorption bands that contribute to the amide I band at 1650 cm-1 was applied to more than 1500 spectra in this study. The microscopic view of wheat endosperm is dominated by many large starch granules with protein in between. The spectrum produced from in situ microspectroscopy of this mixture is dominated by carbohydrate bands from the large starch granules that fill up the field. The high spatial resolution achievable with synchrotron infrared microspectroscopy enables revealing good in situ spectra of the protein located interstitially. Synchrotron infrared microspectroscopic mapping of 4 μm thick frozen sections of endosperm in the subaleurone region provides spectra from a large number of pixels. Pixels with protein-dominated spectra are sorted out from among adjacent pixels to minimize the starch absorption and scattering contributions. Subsequent data treatment to extract information from the amide I band requires a high signal to noise ratio. Although spectral interference of the carbohydrate band on the amide band is not a problem, the scattering produced by the large starch granules diminishes the signal to noise ratio throughout the spectrum. High density mapping was done on beamlines U2B and U10B at the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY. Mapping with a single masked spot size of 5.5 μm diameter or confocal 5 μm x 5 μm spot size, respectively, on the two beamlines used produced spectra for new breeding lines under current consideration. Appropriate data treatment allows calculation of a numerical estimate of the a-helix population relative to other secondary protein structures from the position and shape of the amide I absorption band. Current breeding lines show a

  17. Synchrotron far-infrared spectroscopy of the two lowest fundamental modes of 1,1-difluoroethane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Andy; Thompson, Christopher D.; Appadoo, Dominique R. T.; Plathe, Ruth; Roy, Pascale; Manceron, Laurent; Barros, Joanna; McNaughton, Don

    2013-08-01

    The far-infrared (FIR) spectrum (50-600 cm-1) of 1,1-difluoroethane was recorded using the high-resolution infrared AILES beamline at the Soleil synchrotron. A ro-vibrational assignment was performed on the lowest wavenumber, low intensity 181 0 and 171 0 modes, yielding band centres of 224.241903 (10) cm-1 and 384.252538 (13) cm-1, respectively. A total of 965 and 2031 FIR transitions were assigned to the 181 0 and 171 0 fundamentals, respectively. Previously measured pure rotational transitions from the upper states were included into the respective fits to yield improved rotational and centrifugal distortion constants. The 182 1 hot band was observed within the fundamental band, with 369 FIR transitions assigned and co-fitted with the fundamental to give a band centre of 431.956502 (39) cm-1 for ν 18 = 2. The 182 0 overtone was observed with 586 transitions assigned and fitted to give a band centre of 431.952763 (23) cm-1 for ν 18 = 2. The difference in energy is attributed to a torsional splitting of 0.003740 (45) cm-1 in the ν 18 = 2 state. Two hot bands originating from the ν 18 = 1 and ν 17 = 1 states were observed within the 171 0 fundamental.

  18. A comparison of three different ray trace programs for x-ray and infrared synchrotron beamline designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irick, S.C.; Jung, C.R.

    1997-07-01

    There are a number of ray trace programs currently used for the design of synchrotron beamlines. While several of these programs have been written and used mostly within the programmer''s institution, many have also been available to the general public. This paper discusses three such programs. One is a commercial product oriented for the general optical designer (not specifically for synchrotron beamlines). One is designed for synchrotron beamlines and is free with restricted availability. Finally, one is designed for synchrotron beamlines and is used primarily in one institution. The wealth of information from general optical materials and components catalogs is readily available in the commercial program for general optical designs. This makes the design of an infrared beamline easier from the standpoint of component selection. However, this program is not easily configured for synchrotron beamline designs, particularly for a bending magnet source. The synchrotron ray trace programs offer a variety of sources, but generally are not as easy to use from the standpoint of the user interface. This paper shows ray traces of the same beamline Optikwerks, SHADOW, and RAY, and compares the results

  19. Recent applications and current trends in Cultural Heritage Science using synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared micro-spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotte, Marine; Dumas, Paul; Taniguchi, Yoko; Checroun, Emilie; Walter, Philippe; Susini, Jean

    2009-09-01

    Synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared micro-spectroscopy (SR-FTIR) is one of the emerging techniques increasingly employed for Cultural Heritage analytical science. Such a technique combines the assets of FTIR spectroscopy (namely, the identification of molecular groups in various environments: organic/inorganic, crystallized/amorphous, solid/liquid/gas), with the extra potential of chemical imaging (localization of components + easier data treatment thanks to geographical correlations) and the properties of the synchrotron source (namely, high brightness, offering high data quality even with reduced dwell time and reduced spot size). This technique can be applied to nearly all kind of materials found in museum objects, going from hard materials, like metals, to soft materials, like paper, and passing through hybrid materials such as paintings and bones. The purpose is usually the identification of complex compositions in tiny, heterogeneous samples. Recent applications are reviewed in this article, together with the fundamental aspects of the infrared synchrotron source which are leading to such improvements in analytical capabilities. A recent example from the ancient Buddhist paintings from Bamiyan is detailed. Emphasis is made on the true potential offered at such large scale facilities in combining SR-FTIR microscopy with other synchrotron-based micro-imaging techniques. To cite this article: M. Cotte et al., C. R. Physique 10 (2009).

  20. Possibilities and Challenges of Scanning Hard X-ray Spectro-microscopy Techniques in Material Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Somogyi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Scanning hard X-ray spectro-microscopic imaging opens unprecedented possibilities in the study of inhomogeneous samples at different length-scales. It gives insight into the spatial variation of the major and minor components, impurities and dopants of the sample, and their chemical and electronic states at micro- and nano-meter scales. Measuring, modelling and understanding novel properties of laterally confined structures are now attainable. The large penetration depth of hard X-rays (several keV to several 10 keV beam energy makes the study of layered and buried structures possible also in in situ and in operando conditions. The combination of different X-ray analytical techniques complementary to scanning spectro-microscopy, such as X-ray diffraction, X-ray excited optical luminescence, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS and nano-SIMS, provides access to optical characteristics and strain and stress distributions. Complex sample environments (temperature, pressure, controlled atmosphere/vacuum, chemical environment are also possible and were demonstrated, and allow as well the combination with other analysis techniques (Raman spectroscopy, infrared imaging, mechanical tensile devices, etc. on precisely the very same area of the sample. The use of the coherence properties of X-rays from synchrotron sources is triggering emerging experimental imaging approaches with nanometer lateral resolution. New fast analytical possibilities pave the way towards statistically significant studies at multi- length-scales and three dimensional tomographic investigations. This paper gives an overview of these techniques and their recent achievements in the field of material sciences.

  1. Scanning photoemission microscopy with synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ade, Harald W.

    1992-08-01

    Progress in photoemission spectro-microscopy at various synchrotron radiation facilities is reviewed. Microprobe devices such as MAXIMUM at the SRC in Wisconsin, the X1-SPEM at the NSLS at BNL, as well as the ellipsoidal ring mirror microscope at DESY in Hamburg, recorded first images during the last few years. The present status of these devices which achieve their lateral resolution by focusing X-rays to a small spot is the primary focus of this paper, but work representing other approaches to spectro-microscopy is also discussed.

  2. Synchrotron radiation sources for photobiology and ultraviolet, visible and infrared spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, J.C.

    1980-01-01

    The advantages of synchrotron radiation in several types of spectroscopy, microscopy and diffraction studies are clear. The availability of synchrotron radiation will expand rapidly in the early 1980's as experimental programs start at the new generation of dedicated storage rings

  3. Synchrotron radiation infrared microspectroscopy to assess the activity of vancomycin against endocarditis vegetation bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batard, Eric; Jamme, Frédéric; Montassier, Emmanuel; Bertrand, Dominique; Caillon, Jocelyne; Potel, Gilles; Dumas, Paul

    2011-06-01

    Infrared microspectroscopy was used to show that vancomycin alters infrared spectra of endocarditis vegetation bacteria, and that vancomycin effects on bacterial biochemical contents are unevenly distributed between peripheral and central areas of bacterial masses. Infrared microspectroscopy is useful to study the activity of antibacterial agents against bacteria in tissues. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. 3D spectral imaging with synchrotron Fourier transform infrared spectro-microtomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael C. Martin; Charlotte Dabat-Blondeau; Miriam Unger; Julia Sedlmair; Dilworth Y. Parkinson; Hans A. Bechtel; Barbara Illman; Jonathan M. Castro; Marco Keiluweit; David Buschke; Brenda Ogle; Michael J. Nasse; Carol J. Hirschmugl

    2013-01-01

    We report Fourier transform infrared spectro-microtomography, a nondestructive three-dimensional imaging approach that reveals the distribution of distinctive chemical compositions throughout an intact biological or materials sample. The method combines mid-infrared absorption contrast with computed tomographic data acquisition and reconstruction to enhance chemical...

  5. Chemical changes demonstrated in cartilage by synchrotron infrared microspectroscopy in an antibody-induced murine model of rheumatoid arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croxford, Allyson M.; Selva Nandakumar, Kutty; Holmdahl, Rikard; Tobin, Mark J.; McNaughton, Don; Rowley, Merrill J.

    2011-06-01

    Collagen antibody-induced arthritis develops in mice following passive transfer of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to type II collagen (CII) and is attributed to effects of proinflammatory immune complexes, but transferred mAbs may react directly and damagingly with CII. To determine whether such mAbs cause cartilage damage in vivo in the absence of inflammation, mice lacking complement factor 5 that do not develop joint inflammation were injected intravenously with two arthritogenic mAbs to CII, M2139 and CIIC1. Paws were collected at day 3, decalcified, paraffin embedded, and 5-μm sections were examined using standard histology and synchrotron Fourier-transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIRM). None of the mice injected with mAb showed visual or histological evidence of inflammation but there were histological changes in the articular cartilage including loss of proteoglycan and altered chondrocyte morphology. Findings using FTIRM at high lateral resolution revealed loss of collagen and the appearance of a new peak at 1635 cm-1 at the surface of the cartilage interpreted as cellular activation. Thus, we demonstrate the utility of synchrotron FTIRM for examining chemical changes in diseased cartilage at the microscopic level and establish that arthritogenic mAbs to CII do cause cartilage damage in vivo in the absence of inflammation.

  6. Mechanistic insights into nanotoxicity determined by synchrotron radiation-based Fourier-transform infrared imaging and multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riding, Matthew J; Trevisan, Júlio; Hirschmugl, Carol J; Jones, Kevin C; Semple, Kirk T; Martin, Francis L

    2012-12-01

    Our ability to identify the mechanisms by which carbon-based nanomaterials (CBNs) exert toxicity in cells is constrained by the lack of standardized methodologies to assay endpoint effects. Herein we describe a method of mechanistically identifying the effects of various CBN types in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells using multi-beam synchrotron radiation-based Fourier-transform infrared imaging (SR-FTIRI) at diffraction-limited resolution. This technique overcomes many of the inherent difficulties of assaying nanotoxicity and demonstrates exceptional sensitivity in identifying the effects of CBNs in cells at environmentally-relevant concentrations. We identify key mechanisms of nanotoxicity as the alteration of Amide and lipid biomolecules, but propose more specific bioactivity of CBNs occurs as a result of specific interactions between CBN structural conformation and cellular characteristics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Infrared response of YBa2Cu3O7-δ films to pulsed, broadband synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, G.L.; Quijada, M.; Tanner, D.B.; Etemad, S.; DeRosa, F.; Venkatesan, T.; Dutta, B.; Hemmick, D.; Xi, X.

    1990-01-01

    We report studies of a thin high T c film operating as a fast bolometric detector of infrared radiation. The film has a response of infrared radiation. The film has a response of several mV when exposed to a 1 W, 1 ns duration broadband infrared pulse. The decay after the pulse was about 4 ns. The temperature dependence of the response accurately tracked dR/dT. A thermal model, in which the film's temperature varies relative to the substrate, provides a good description of the response. We find no evidence for other (non-bolometric) response mechanisms for temperatures near or well below T c . 13 refs., 4 figs

  8. Improved mid infrared detector for high spectral or spatial resolution and synchrotron radiation use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faye, Mbaye; Bordessoule, Michel; Kanouté, Brahim; Brubach, Jean-Blaise; Roy, Pascale [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, F-91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Manceron, Laurent [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, F-91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Laboratoire MONARIS, CNRS-Université Pierre et Marie Curie, UMR 8233, 4 Place Jussieu, F-75252 Paris Cedex (France)

    2016-06-15

    When using bright, small effective size sources, such as synchrotron radiation light beam, for broadband spectroscopy at spectral or spatial high resolution for mid-IR FTIR measurements, a marked detectivity improvement can be achieved by setting up a device matching the detector optical étendue to that of the source. Further improvement can be achieved by reducing the background unmodulated flux and other intrinsic noise sources using a lower temperature cryogen, such as liquid helium. By the combined use of cooled apertures, cold reimaging optics, filters and adapted detector polarization, and preamplification electronics, the sensitivity of a HgCdTe photoconductive IR detector can be improved by a significant factor with respect to standard commercial devices (more than one order of magnitude on average over 6–20 μm region) and the usable spectral range extended to longer wavelengths. The performances of such an optimized detector developed on the AILES Beamline at SOLEIL are presented here.

  9. Characterization of mannitol in Curvularia protuberata hyphae by FTIR and Raman spectromicroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isenor, Merrill; Kaminskyj, Susan G W; Rodriguez, Russell J; Redman, Regina S; Gough, Kathleen M

    2010-12-01

    FTIR and Raman spectromicroscopy were used to characterize the composition of Curvularia protuberata hyphae, and to compare a strain isolated from plants inhabiting geothermal soils with a non-geothermal isolate. Thermal IR source images of hyphae have been acquired with a 64 × 64 element focal plane array detector; single point IR spectra have been obtained with synchrotron source light. In some C. protuberata hyphae, we have discovered the spectral signature of crystalline mannitol, a fungal polyol with complex protective roles. With FTIR-FPA imaging, we have determined that the protein content in cells remains fairly constant throughout the length of a hypha, whereas the mannitol is found at discrete, irregular locations. This is the first direct observation of mannitol in intact fungal hyphae. Since the concentration of mannitol in cells varies with respect to position and is not present in all hyphae, this discovery may be related to habitat adaptation, fungal structure and growth stages.

  10. Far Infrared High Resolution Synchrotron FTIR Spectroscopy of the Low Frequency Bending Modes of Dmso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuisset, Arnaud; Smirnova, Irina; Bocquet, Robin; Hindle, Francis; Mouret, Gael; Sadovskii, Dmitrii A.; Pirali, Olivier; Roy, Pascale

    2010-06-01

    In addition to its importance for industrial and environmental studies, the monitoring of DiMethylSulfOxyde (DMSO, (CH_3)_2SO) concentrations is of considerable interest for civil protection. The existing high resolution gas phase spectroscopic data of DMSO only concerned the pure rotational transitions in the ground state. In the Far-IR domain, the low-frequency rovibrational transitions have never previously resolved. The high brightness of the AILES beamline of the synchrotron SOLEIL and the instrumental sensitivity provided by the multipass cell allowed to measure for the first time these transitions. 1581 A-type and C-type transitions in the ν11 band have been assigned and 25 molecular constants of Watson's s-form hamiltonian developed to degree 8 have been fitted within the experimental accuracy. The use of then synchrotron radiation has opened many possibilities for new spectroscopic studies. Together with several other recent studies, our successful measurement and analysis of DMSO convincingly demonstrates the potential of the AILES beamline for high resolution FIR spectroscopy. Thus our present work is just at the beginning of unraveling the rovibrational structure of low frequency bending and torsional vibrational states of DMSO and yielding important comprehensive structural and spectroscopic information on this molecule. L. Margules, R. A. Motienko, E. A. Alekseev, J. Demaison, J. Molec. Spectrosc., 260(23),2009 V. Typke, M. Dakkouri, J. Molec. Struct., 599(177),2001 A. Cuisset, L. Nanobashvili, I. Smirnova, R. Bocquet, F. Hindle, G. Mouret, O. Pirali, P. Roy, D. Sadovskii, Chem. Phys. Lett., accepted for publication

  11. Organic and inorganic correlations for Northwest Africa 852 by synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesiltas, Mehmet; Peale, Robert E.; Unger, Miriam; Sedlmair, Julia; Hirschmugl, Carol J.

    2015-10-01

    Relationships between organic molecules and inorganic minerals are investigated in a single 34 μm diameter grain of the CR2 chondrite Northwest Africa 852 (NWA) 852 with submicron spatial resolution using synchrotron-based imaging micro-FTIR spectroscopy. Correlations based on absorption strength for the various constituents are determined using statistical correlation analysis. The silicate band is found to be correlated with the hydration band, and the latter is highly correlated with stretching modes of aliphatic hydrocarbons. Spatial distribution maps show that water+organic combination, silicate, OH, and C-H distributions overlap, suggesting a possible catalytic role of phyllosilicates in the formation of organics. In contrast, the carbonate band is anticorrelated with water+organic combination, however uncorrelated with any other spectral feature. The average ratio of asymmetric CH2 and CH3 band strengths (CH2/CH3 = 2.53) for NWA 852 is similar to the average ratio of interplanetary dust particles (~2.40) and Wild 2 cometary dust particles (2.50), but it significantly exceeds that of interstellar medium objects (~1.00) and several aqueously altered carbonaceous chondrites (~1.40). This suggests organics of similar length/branching, and perhaps similar formation regions, for NWA 852, Wild 2 dust particles, and interplanetary dust particles. The heterogeneous spatial distribution of ratio values indicates the presence of a mixture of aliphatic organic material with different length/branching, and thus a wide range of parent body processes, which occurred before the considered grain was formed.

  12. Imaging Local Chemical Microstructure of Germinated Wheat with Synchrotron Infrared Microspectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koc, H.; Wetzel, D.

    2008-01-01

    The spatial resolution enabled by in situ Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) microspectroscopy as predicted from our earlier report in Spectroscopy (1) is applied to localized chemical analysis in this vital biological process of seed germination. Germination includes several different biochemical and structural processes. Ultimately, the entire seed is consumed in sustaining the new life that results after sprouting and growth (2-4). Alpha amylase production is the standard evidence for detection of sprouted (germinated) wheat at harvest. Moist preharvest conditions can cause devastating losses and render the harvested wheat unfit for flour production. Dormancy of dry seeds following harvest retards sprouting under proper storage.

  13. Spectromicroscopy of Fe distributions in clay microcrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grundl, T. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Cerasari, S.; Garcia, A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Clays are ubiquitous crystalline particles found in nature that are responsible for contributing to a wide range of chemical reactions in soils. The structure of these mineral particles changes when the particle is hydrated ({open_quotes}wet{close_quotes}), from that when it is dry. This makes a study of the microscopic distribution of chemical content of these nanocrystals difficult using standard techniques that require vacuum. In addition to large structural changes, it is likely that chemical changes accompany the drying process. As a result, spectroscopic measurements on dried clay particles may not accurately reflect the actual composition of the material as found in the environment. In this work, the authors extend the use of the ALS Spectromicroscopy Facility STXM to high spectral and spatial resolution studies of transition metal L-edges in environmental materials. The authors are studying mineral particles of montmorillonite, which is an Fe bearing clay which can be prepared with a wide distribution of Fe concentrations, and with Fe occupying different substitutional sites.

  14. Synchrotron Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asfour, F.I

    2000-01-01

    Synchrotron light is produced by electron accelerators combined with storage rings. This light is generated over a wide spectral region; from infra-red (IR) through the visible and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV), and into the X-ray region. For relativistic electrons (moving nearly with the speed of light), most radiation is concentrated in a small cone with an opening angle of 1/gamma(some 0.1 to 1 milliradian),where gamma is the electron energy in units of rest energy (typically 10 3 -10 4 ). In synchrotron radiation sources (storage rings) highly relativistic electrons are stored to travel along a circular path for many hours. Radiation is caused by transverse acceleration due to magnetic forces(bending magnets). The radiation is emitted in pulses of 10-20 picosecond, separated by some 2 nanosecond or longer separation

  15. Soft X-ray spectromicroscopy and application to semiconductor microstructure characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gozzo, F.; Franck, K.; Howells, M.R.; Hussain, Z.; Warwick, A.; Padmore, H.A.; Triplett, B.B.

    1997-01-01

    The universal trend towards device miniaturization has driven the semiconductor industry to develop sophisticated and complex instrumentation for the characterization of microstructures. Many significant problems of relevance to the semiconductor industry cannot be solved by conventional analysis techniques, but can be addressed with soft x-ray spectromicroscopy. An active spectromicroscopy program is being developed at thr Advanced Light Source, attracting both the semiconductor industry and the materials science academic community. Examples of spectromicroscopy techniques are presented. An Advanced Light Source μ-XPS spectromicroscopy project is discussed, involving the first microscope completely dedicated and designed for microstructure analysis on patterned silicon wafers. (author)

  16. Soft X-ray spectromicroscopy and its application to semiconductor microstructure characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gozzo, F.; Franck, K.; Howells, M.R.; Hussain, Z.

    1996-01-01

    The universal trend towards device miniaturization has driven the semiconductor industry to develop sophisticated and complex instrumentation for the characterization of microstructures. Many significant problems of relevance to the semiconductor industry cannot be solved with conventional analysis techniques, but can be addressed with soft x-ray spectromicroscopy. An active spectromicroscopy program is being developed at the Advanced Light Source, attracting both the semiconductor industry and the materials science academic community. Examples of spectromicroscopy techniques are presented. An ALS(mu)-XPS spectromicroscopy project is discussed, involving the first microscope completely dedicated and designed for microstructure analysis on patterned silicon wafers

  17. Identification of copper-based green pigments in Jaume Huguet's Gothic altarpieces by Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy and synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvadó, N; Pradell, T; Pantos, E; Papiz, M Z; Molera, J; Seco, M; Vendrell-Saz, M

    2002-07-01

    The scientific investigation of ancient paintings gives a unique insight into ancient painting techniques and their evolution through time and geographic location. This study deals with the identification of the green pigments used by one of the most important Catalan masters in Gothic times, Jaume Huguet. Other pigments and materials have also been characterized by means of conventional techniques such as optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction has been used to produce maps of phases at a spatial resolution of 100 microm across chromatic layers.

  18. Structural evolution in the isothermal crystallization process of the molten nylon 10/10 traced by time-resolved infrared spectral measurements and synchrotron SAXS/WAXD measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashiro, Kohji; Nishiyama, Asami; Tsuji, Sawako; Hashida, Tomoko; Hanesaka, Makoto; Takeda, Shinichi; Weiyu, Cao; Reddy, Kummetha Raghunatha; Masunaga, Hiroyasu; Sasaki, Sono; Takata, Masaki; Ito, Kazuki

    2009-01-01

    The structural evolution in the isothermal crystallization process of nylon 10/10 from the melt has been clarified concretely on the basis of the time-resolved infrared spectral measurement as well as the synchrotron wide-angle and small-angle X-ray scattering measurements. Immediately after the temperature jump from the melt to the crystallization point, the isolated domains consisting of the hydrogen-bonded random coils were formed in the melt, as revealed by Guinier plot of SAXS data and the infrared spectral data. With the passage of time these domains approached each other with stronger correlation as analyzed by Debye-Bueche equation. These domains transformed finally to the stacked crystalline lamellae, in which the conformationally-regularized methylene segments of the CO sides were connected each other by stronger intermolecular hydrogen bonds to form the crystal lattice.

  19. High-resolution far-infrared synchrotron FTIR spectrum of the ν12 band of formamide-d1 (DCONH2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, T. L.; Wu, Q. Y.; Ng, L. L.; Appadoo, Dominique R. T.; McNaughton, Don

    2018-05-01

    The spectrum of the ν12 band of formamide-d1 (DCONH2) was recorded using a synchrotron Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer coupled to the Australian Synchrotron THz/Far-IR beamline, with an unapodized resolution of 0.00096 cm-1 in the 350-210 cm-1 region. For the first time, rovibrational constants up to five quartic and two sextic terms were derived for the v12 = 1 state through the fitting of a total of 2072 far-infrared transitions using Watson's A-reduced Hamiltonian in the Ir representation with a root-mean-square (rms) deviation of 0.000073 cm-1. The band centre of the ν12 band of DCONH2 was found to be 289.3327553(47) cm-1 although the experimental uncertainty was limited to ±0.0002 cm-1. Ground state rovibrational constants of DCONH2 up to five quartic and two sextic constants were derived from a fit of 847 ground state combination differences (GSCDs) obtained from the infrared transitions of the ν12 band, together with 6 previously reported microwave transitions, with a rms deviation of 0.000108 cm-1. The ground state rotational constants (A, B, and C) of DCONH2 were improved while the ground state centrifugal distortion constants were accurately obtained for the first time. The uncertainty of the measured infrared lines was estimated to be ±0.0002 cm-1. From the ground state rotational constants, the inertial defect of DCONH2 was calculated to be 0.0169412(11) uÅ2.

  20. Spectromicroscopy of self-assembled protein clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schonschek, O.; Hormes, J.; Herzog, V. [Univ. of Bonn (Germany)

    1997-04-01

    The aim of this project is to use synchrotron radiation as a tool to study biomedical questions concerned with the thyroid glands. The biological background is outlined in a recent paper. In short, Thyroglobulin (TG), the precursor protein of the hormone thyroxine, forms large (20 - 500 microns in diameter) clusters in the extracellular lumen of thyrocytes. The process of the cluster formation is still not well understood but is thought to be a main storage mechanism of TG and therefore thyroxine inside the thyroid glands. For human thyroids, the interconnections of the proteins inside the clusters are mainly disulfide bondings. Normally, sulfur bridges are catalyzed by an enzyme called Protein Disulfide Bridge Isomerase (PDI). While this enzyme is supposed to be not present in any extracellular space, the cluster formation of TG takes place in the lumen between the thyrocytes. A possible explanation is the autocatalysis of TG.

  1. Soft X-ray spectromicroscopy of biological and synthetic polymer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hitchcock, A.; Morin, C.; Araki, T.; Zhang, X.; Dynes, J.; Stover, H.; Brash, J.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) and X-ray photoemission electron microscopy (X-PEEM) are synchrotron based, soft X-ray spectromicroscopy techniques which provide chemical speciation at 50 nm spatial resolution based on near edge X-ray absorption spectral (NEXAFS) contrast. The instrumentation and techniques of soft X-ray spectro- microscopy will be described and illustrated with applications to wet biofilms, protein interactions with patterned polymer surfaces, and polymer microstructure optimization. STXM can be applied to samples in air, He, vacuum, or a fully hydrated environment. With many collaborators, my group is using STXM to study fundamental and applied aspects of polymer microstructure, to map metal ions and anti-microbial agents in wet biofilms, and to identify sites of selective adsorption of proteins on phase separated polymer thin films in the presence of an overlayer of protein solution. X-PEEM has greater surface sensitivity than STXM but requires a flat, conductive, and vacuum-compatible sample. Comparison of X-PEEM and STXM for the same system - fibrinogen adsorption on a PS:PMMA blend, will be used to illustrate advantages and limitations of each technique. Measurements at 5.3.2 STXM and 7.3.1 PEEM at the Advanced Light Source, funded by DoE under contract DE-AC03- 76SF00098. Research supported by NSERC (Canada), AFMnet (Advanced Food and Biomaterials Network) and the Canada Research Chair program

  2. PHOTOACOUSTIC SPECTROSCOPY USING A SYNCHROTRON LIGHT SOURCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JACKSON, R.S.; MICHAELIAN, K.H.; HOMES, C.C.

    2001-01-01

    We have investigated the use of a synchrotron as a source for infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy. A synchrotron has an intrinsically high radiance, which is beneficial when photoacoustic spectroscopy is applied to small samples, especially at long wavelengths

  3. Transport behaviors of anionic azo dyes at interface between surfactant-modified flax shives and aqueous solution: Synchrotron infrared and adsorption studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wenxia [MOE Key Laboratory of Resources and Environmental Systems Optimization, Institute for Energy, Environment and Sustainability Research, UR-NCEPU, North China Electric Power University, Beijing, 102206 (China); Huang, Guohe, E-mail: huang@iseis.org [MOE Key Laboratory of Resources and Environmental Systems Optimization, Institute for Energy, Environment and Sustainability Research, UR-NCEPU, North China Electric Power University, Beijing, 102206 (China); An, Chunjiang; Xin, Xiaying [Institute for Energy, Environment and Sustainable Communities, University of Regina, Regina, S4S 0A2 (Canada); Zhang, Yan [MOE Key Laboratory of Resources and Environmental Systems Optimization, Institute for Energy, Environment and Sustainability Research, UR-NCEPU, North China Electric Power University, Beijing, 102206 (China); Liu, Xia [Canadian Light Source, Saskatoon, S7N 2V3 (Canada)

    2017-05-31

    Highlights: • Surfactant modified flax shives for removing anionic azo dyes. • The equilibrium and kinetic studies for the adsorption of anionic azo dyes. • The migration patterns of dye pollutants at flax shive-water interface. • New insights from synchrotron infrared-assisted characterization. • Potential as biomass adsorbent for the removal of dyes from wastewater. - Abstract: From the viewpoint of sustainability, biomass adsorbent has a high potential in pollution control and there is an emerging interest to investigate the behaviors of pollutants at the interface between biomass adsorbent and solution. This study investigated the performance of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide surfactant-modified flax shives (MFS) for removal of anionic azo dyes from aqueous solution. The equilibrium and kinetic analysis for the adsorption of Acid Orange 7 (AO-7), Acid Red 18 (AR-18) and Acid Black 1 (AB-1) on MFS were conducted. The surface of MFS was characterized by synchrotron infrared and SEM analysis. The absorbed amount of three anionic azo dyes varied with the change of adsorbent dosage, pH and ionic strength. The adsorption isotherm data well fit to the Langmuir model. The adsorption process followed the pseudo-second-order kinetics and the liquid film diffusion models. Thermodynamic studies indicated that the adsorption of three anionic azo dyes was spontaneous. The adsorption of AR-18 and AB-1 onto MFS was endothermic while the adsorption of AO-7 was exothermic. The results can help better understand the behaviors of organic pollutants at biomass adsorbent-water interface. They also present the potential of using MFS as a suitable adsorbent for the removal of anionic azo dyes from wastewater.

  4. Transport behaviors of anionic azo dyes at interface between surfactant-modified flax shives and aqueous solution: Synchrotron infrared and adsorption studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wenxia; Huang, Guohe; An, Chunjiang; Xin, Xiaying; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Xia

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Surfactant modified flax shives for removing anionic azo dyes. • The equilibrium and kinetic studies for the adsorption of anionic azo dyes. • The migration patterns of dye pollutants at flax shive-water interface. • New insights from synchrotron infrared-assisted characterization. • Potential as biomass adsorbent for the removal of dyes from wastewater. - Abstract: From the viewpoint of sustainability, biomass adsorbent has a high potential in pollution control and there is an emerging interest to investigate the behaviors of pollutants at the interface between biomass adsorbent and solution. This study investigated the performance of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide surfactant-modified flax shives (MFS) for removal of anionic azo dyes from aqueous solution. The equilibrium and kinetic analysis for the adsorption of Acid Orange 7 (AO-7), Acid Red 18 (AR-18) and Acid Black 1 (AB-1) on MFS were conducted. The surface of MFS was characterized by synchrotron infrared and SEM analysis. The absorbed amount of three anionic azo dyes varied with the change of adsorbent dosage, pH and ionic strength. The adsorption isotherm data well fit to the Langmuir model. The adsorption process followed the pseudo-second-order kinetics and the liquid film diffusion models. Thermodynamic studies indicated that the adsorption of three anionic azo dyes was spontaneous. The adsorption of AR-18 and AB-1 onto MFS was endothermic while the adsorption of AO-7 was exothermic. The results can help better understand the behaviors of organic pollutants at biomass adsorbent-water interface. They also present the potential of using MFS as a suitable adsorbent for the removal of anionic azo dyes from wastewater.

  5. Far-infrared high resolution synchrotron FTIR spectroscopy of the ν11 bending vibrational fundamental transition of dimethylsulfoxyde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuisset, Arnaud; Nanobashvili, Lia; Smirnova, Irina; Bocquet, Robin; Hindle, Francis; Mouret, Gaël; Pirali, Olivier; Roy, Pascale; Sadovskií, Dmitrií A.

    2010-05-01

    We report the first successful high resolution gas phase study of the 'parallel' band of DMSO at 380 cm -1 associated with the ν11 bending vibrational mode. The spectrum was recorded with a resolution of 0.0015 cm -1 using the AILES beamline of the SOLEIL synchrotron source, the IFS 125 FTIR spectrometer and a multipass cell providing an optical path of 150 m. The rotational constants and centrifugal corrections obtained from the analysis of the resolved rotational transitions reproduce the spectrum to the experimental accuracy.

  6. Diffuse Scattering of the Conduction Electrons of a Metallic Substrate by an Adsorbate: an Experimental Study Using Synchrotron Infrared Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hein, M.; Otto, A.; Dumas, P.; Williams, G. P.

    1999-01-01

    Due to its intrinsic high brightness, high stability, and proportionality to the stored electron beam current, synchrotrons IR spectroscopy has revealed itself as an unique tool to experimentally test a physical phenomenon occurring at metallic interfaces, the theory for which was motivated by previous observations. Any adsorbate induces inelastic scattering of the conduction electrons, which causes a broadband IR reflectance change, and was predicted to induce a concomitant DC resistivity change. By choosing a well ordered single crystal thin film of Cu(111), we have checked that the DC resistivity change, and the asymptotic limit of the IR reflectance change are linearly dependent, but independent of the nature of the adsorbate. Coadsorption experiments which have been used to modify the induced density of states at the Fermi level, have further demonstrated that the friction coefficient, which is responsible for the elastic scattering phenomenon, is chemically specific. This article describes the use of synchrotron radiation as an absolute source and its application to the study of dynamics of adsorbates on surfaces

  7. Probing biolabels for high throughput biosensing via synchrotron radiation SEIRA technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornemann, Andrea; Hoehl, Arne; Ulm, Gerhard; Beckhoff, Burkhard; Eichert, Diane; Flemig, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Bio-diagnostic assays of high complexity rely on nanoscaled assay recognition elements that can provide unique selectivity and design-enhanced sensitivity features. High throughput performance requires the simultaneous detection of various analytes combined with appropriate bioassay components. Nanoparticle induced sensitivity enhancement, and subsequent multiplexed capability Surface-Enhanced InfraRed Absorption (SEIRA) assay formats are fitting well these purposes. SEIRA constitutes an ideal platform to isolate the vibrational signatures of targeted bioassay and active molecules. The potential of several targeted biolabels, here fluorophore-labeled antibody conjugates, chemisorbed onto low-cost biocompatible gold nano-aggregates substrates have been explored for their use in assay platforms. Dried films were analyzed by synchrotron radiation based FTIR/SEIRA spectro-microscopy and the resulting complex hyperspectral datasets were submitted to automated statistical analysis, namely Principal Components Analysis (PCA). The relationships between molecular fingerprints were put in evidence to highlight their spectral discrimination capabilities. We demonstrate that robust spectral encoding via SEIRA fingerprints opens up new opportunities for fast, reliable and multiplexed high-end screening not only in biodiagnostics but also in vitro biochemical imaging.

  8. Probing biolabels for high throughput biosensing via synchrotron radiation SEIRA technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hornemann, Andrea, E-mail: andrea.hornemann@ptb.de; Hoehl, Arne, E-mail: arne.hoehl@ptb.de; Ulm, Gerhard, E-mail: gerhard.ulm@ptb.de; Beckhoff, Burkhard, E-mail: burkhard.beckhoff@ptb.de [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Abbestr. 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany); Eichert, Diane, E-mail: diane.eichert@elettra.eu [Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., Strada Statale 14, Area Science Park, 34149 Trieste (Italy); Flemig, Sabine, E-mail: sabine.flemig@bam.de [BAM Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und –prüfung, Richard-Willstätter-Str.10, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2016-07-27

    Bio-diagnostic assays of high complexity rely on nanoscaled assay recognition elements that can provide unique selectivity and design-enhanced sensitivity features. High throughput performance requires the simultaneous detection of various analytes combined with appropriate bioassay components. Nanoparticle induced sensitivity enhancement, and subsequent multiplexed capability Surface-Enhanced InfraRed Absorption (SEIRA) assay formats are fitting well these purposes. SEIRA constitutes an ideal platform to isolate the vibrational signatures of targeted bioassay and active molecules. The potential of several targeted biolabels, here fluorophore-labeled antibody conjugates, chemisorbed onto low-cost biocompatible gold nano-aggregates substrates have been explored for their use in assay platforms. Dried films were analyzed by synchrotron radiation based FTIR/SEIRA spectro-microscopy and the resulting complex hyperspectral datasets were submitted to automated statistical analysis, namely Principal Components Analysis (PCA). The relationships between molecular fingerprints were put in evidence to highlight their spectral discrimination capabilities. We demonstrate that robust spectral encoding via SEIRA fingerprints opens up new opportunities for fast, reliable and multiplexed high-end screening not only in biodiagnostics but also in vitro biochemical imaging.

  9. X-ray Spectromicroscopy Studies of Nanoparticles in the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlmair, J.; Gleber, S.-C.; Schirz, A.; Zanker, H.; Thieme, J.

    2009-04-01

    Motivation: In recent time, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have drawn a lot of attention due to their unique properties and due to that possible application, for instance in pharmacology, material sciences or as semiconductors. CNTs are tubes with diameters in the nanometer scale, but with lengths up to several millimeters. Their walls consist of carbon atoms, each bound to three other carbon atoms (sp2-hybridization), which results in a hexagonal honeycomb-like structure. They can also be functionalized, e.g. with carboxyl- or hydroxyl groups. Although the production and modification of CNTs in sizable quantities have been improved continuously, the characterization of these nano-particles still needs to be advanced. Additionally, the ecological aspect comes into account. Since most of these new materials consist of particles too small to be biodegraded, it is important to analyze the impact of CNTs on the environment (and biomolecular matter in general). Here we present the result of a study of pristine and functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNTs) using the x-ray scanning transmission microscope (STXM) at the storage ring BESSY II in Berlin for a NEXAFS (near edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy) analysis with spatial resolution. Experiment and results: We characterized three types of multi-walled CNTs (3-15 walls, outer diameter of 13-16 nm and length distribution 1-10 nm) by x-ray spectromicroscopy. To be more specific, we have investigated different CNT-samples with energies around the C1s K-shell edge (~284 eV) dry and in aqueous environment at ambient conditions. Using the STXM, the spatial information from the x-ray image with a pixel size of 50 nm can be combined with NEXAFS-spectra[5] of each pixel of the image area. The differences between the species are observable both in the microscopic images and the spectral data. The evaluation[1][2] of the NEXAFS-spectra yields information about the chemical bindings in the sample. Discussion The difference between the

  10. A study on growth and pyrolysis characteristics of microalgae using Thermogravimetric Analysis-Infrared Spectroscopy and synchrotron Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fanghua; Srivatsa, Srikanth Chakravartula; Batchelor, Warren; Bhattacharya, Sankar

    2017-04-01

    This two-part study firstly investigated Tetraselmis suecica grown in different CO 2 (0.04-15%v/v) concentration through indoor and outdoor cultivation systems. A high CO 2 concentration led to a high lipid content, and low nitrogen and oxygen content, which are desirable for transport fuel production. Pyrolysis characteristics were investigated by TG-IR and synchrotron IR microscopy. The results show Tetraselmis suecica grown in 10%CO 2 had the highest decomposition rate corresponding to more volatile products produced during the main thermal cracking stage and derived from protein-and lipid-corresponding functional groups. Moreover, a high reaction temperature and CO 2 concentration resulted in a low retention of surface functional groups. The nitrogen functional groups initially decomposed at a temperature range of 250-300°C and still remained at 550°C, while the lipid-corresponding functional groups completely disappeared at a temperature range of 400-500°C. Besides, the decomposition of chemical components followed the order of carbohydrate, protein and lipid. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Status of the Nanoscopium scanning nanoprobe beamline of Synchrotron Soleil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, A.; Medjoubi, K.; Kewish, C. M.; Leroux, V.; Ribbens, M.; Baranton, G.; Polack, F.; Samama, J. P.

    2013-09-01

    The Nanoscopium 155 m-long scanning nanoprobe beamline of Synchrotron Soleil (St Aubin, France) is dedicated to quantitative multi-modal imaging. Dedicated experimental stations, working in consecutive operation mode, will provide coherent scatter imaging and spectro-microscopy techniques in the 5-20 keV energy range for various user communities. Next to fast scanning, cryogenic cooling will reduce the radiation damage of sensitive samples during the measurements. Nanoscopium is in the construction phase, the first user experiments are expected in 2014. The main characteristics of the beamline and an overview of its status are given in this contribution.

  12. Considerations for a soft x-ray spectromicroscopy beamline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winn, B.; Hao, X.; Jacobsen, C.

    1996-01-01

    The X-1A soft x-ray undulator at the NSLS is the source for the experimental programs in spectromicroscopy. The authors require both spatial and temporal coherence. Due to the relatively large horizontal divergence of the electron beam in the low β straight section of the x-ray storage ring, it has been possible to split the beam using a scraping mirror into two branches: X-1A used by the authors' program and X-1B used for high resolution spectroscopy. They are now rebuilding the X-1A beamline to provide improved resolving power and essentially linear trade-off between photon rate at the zone plate and resolving power for the soft x-ray spectromicroscopy experiments. This new beamline will exploit both additional floorspace due to the NSLS building expansion and increases in the brightness of the x-ray ring. The beam will be further split into two separate beamlines, both of which will use toroidal mirrors to focus the source on the monochromator entrance slits horizontally and to focus on the monochromator exit slits vertically. This separation comes at no loss of coherent flux and permits low thermal loading on the optics, since the authors need little more than the coherent fraction of the beam at the Fresnel zone plate for microfocusing. Because of the small angular acceptance for spatially coherent illumination of the zone plates and the use of an approximately satisfied Rowland condition, the monochromators have sufficient resolving power with fixed exit arms. Experiments can then be placed near the exit slits, with spatial coherence established by the exit slit size. Resolving power will be controlled by adjusting the entrance slit alone with no change of spatial coherence. The zone plates will be overfilled to be less sensitive to beam vibration and drift

  13. Preliminary studies of the effects of psychological stress on circulating lymphocytes analyzed by synchrotron radiation based-Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Caraveo, Alejandra; Castillo-Michel, Hiram; Mejia-Carmona, Gloria Erika; Pérez-Ishiwara, David Guillermo; Cotte, Marine; Martínez-Martínez, Alejandro

    2014-07-01

    Psychological stress is a condition that not only generates behavioral disorders but also disrupts homeostasis and immune activity that can exacerbate or lead to inflammatory diseases. The aim of this work was to study biochemical changes in circulating immune cells from rats under psychological stress by using vibrational spectroscopy. A stress model was used, where exposure to a stressor was repeated for 5 days. Subsequently, circulating lymphocytes were examined for their biomolecular vibrational fingerprints with synchrotron radiation based-Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy. The results showed an increased absorption at the ester lipid region (1720-1755 cm-1) in lymphocytes from stressed rats, suggesting lipid peroxidation. Statistical significant changes in wavenumber peak position and absorbance in the nucleic acid region were also observed (915-950 cm-1 Z-DNA, 1090-1150 cm-1 symmetric stretching of Psbnd Osbnd C, 1200-1260 cm-1 asymmetric PO2 and 1570-1510 cm-1 methylated nucleotides) which suggest a reduction of transcriptional activity in lymphocytes from stressed rat. These results unravel part of the mechanisms by which psychological stress may affect the immune system leading to systemic consequences.

  14. Microprobing the Molecular Spatial Distribution and Structural Architecture of Feed-type Sorghum Seed Tissue (Sorghum Bicolor L.) using the Synchrotron Radiation Infrared Microspectroscopy Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, P.

    2011-01-01

    Sorghum seed (Sorghum bicolor L.) has unique degradation and fermentation behaviours compared with other cereal grains such as wheat, barley and corn. This may be related to its cell and cell-wall architecture. The advanced synchrotron radiation infrared microspectroscopy (SR-IMS) technique enables the study of cell or living cell biochemistry within cellular dimensions. The objective of this study was to use the SR-IMS imaging technique to microprobe molecular spatial distribution and cell architecture of the sorghum seed tissue comprehensively. High-density mapping was carried out using SR-IMS on beamline U2B at the National Synchrotron Light Source (Brookhaven National Laboratory, NY, USA). Molecular images were systematically recorded from the outside to the inside of the seed tissue under various chemical functional groups and their ratios [peaks at ∼1725 (carbonyl C=O ester), 1650 (amide I), 1657 (protein secondary structure α-helix), 1628 (protein secondary structure β-sheet), 1550 (amide II), 1515 (aromatic compounds of lignin), 1428, 1371, 1245 (cellulosic compounds in plant seed tissue), 1025 (non-structural CHO, starch granules), 1246 (cellulosic material), 1160 (CHO), 1150 (CHO), 1080 (CHO), 930 (CHO), 860 (CHO), 3350 (OH and NH stretching), 2960 (CH 3 anti-symmetric), 2929 (CH 2 anti-symmetric), 2877 (CH 3 symmetric) and 2848 cm -1 (CH 2 asymmetric)]. The relative protein secondary structure α-helix to β-sheet ratio image, protein amide I to starch granule ratio image, and anti-symmetric CH 3 to CH 2 ratio image were also investigated within the intact sorghum seed tissue. The results showed unique cell architecture, and the molecular spatial distribution and intensity in the sorghum seed tissue (which were analyzed through microprobe molecular imaging) were generated using SR-IMS. This imaging technique and methodology has high potential and could be used for scientists to develop specific cereal grain varieties with targeted food and feed

  15. Synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Kunz, C

    1974-01-01

    The production of synchrotron radiation as a by-product of circular high-energy electron (positron) accelerators or storage rings is briefly discussed. A listing of existing or planned synchrotron radiation laboratories is included. The following properties are discussed: spectrum, collimation, polarization, and intensity; a short comparison with other sources (lasers and X-ray tubes) is also given. The remainder of the paper describes the experimental installations at the Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY) and DORIS storage rings, presents a few typical examples out of the fields of atomic, molecular, and solid-state spectroscopy, and finishes with an outlook on the use of synchrotron radiation in molecular biology. (21 refs).

  16. X-ray microscopy and spectromicroscopy - tools for environmental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thieme, J.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: X-ray microscopy achieves a much higher resolution than light microscopy. This is due to the much shorter wavelength of X-rays compared to visible light. The smallest structures that can be seen in an X-ray microscope at present are about 20 nm in size. X-ray microscopy is also capable of imaging specimens directly in aqueous media. By choosing the wavelength of the X-radiation appropriately, it is possible to perform spectromicroscopy studies. Comprising, it is a tool very well suited to study colloidal structures in the environment. X-ray microscopy can be performed with two types of instruments. An X-ray microscope quickly takes high-resolution images of objects to be studied, whereas a scanning X-ray microscope is an analytical instrument for spectromicroscopy. Here, an object can be imaged using energies above and below the absorption edge of an element. Dividing both images gives rise to a map of the distribution of this element in the sample. Using near-edge resonances it is possible to conduct NEXAFS studies. As the X-ray energy is raised to match the absorption edge resonances are found, that reflect the chemical bonding state of the element. Therefore, it is possible with X-ray microscopy to combine high spatial resolution with high spectral resolution for studies of colloidal structures. The Institute of X-ray physics builds up an X-ray microscopy beamline at the electron storage ring BESSY II with both, an X-ray microscope and a scanning X-ray microscope. The status of this beamline will be presented in this talk. Colloidal structures play an important role in the environment. Due to their surface activity they are involved in various processes. Substances can be bound and immobilized or transported, colloids can attach to microorganisms building up microhabitats, and organic substances as humics can flocculate due the interaction with metals. A great variety of colloidal structures from the environment have been studied using X

  17. Synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nave, C.; Quinn, P.; Blake, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    The paper on Synchrotron Radiation contains the appendix to the Daresbury Annual Report 1987/88. The appendix is mainly devoted to the scientific progress reports on the work at the Synchrotron Radiation Source in 1987/8. The parameters of the Experimental Stations and the index to the Scientific Reports are also included in the appendix. (U.K.)

  18. Synchrotron light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    'Synchrotron Light' is an interactive and detailed introduction to the physics and technology of the generation of coherent radiation from accelerators as well as to its widespread high-tech applications in science, medicine and engineering. The topics covered are the interaction of light and matter, the technology of synchrotron light sources, spectroscopy, imaging, scattering and diffraction of X-rays, and applications to materials science, biology, biochemistry, medicine, chemistry, food and pharmaceutical technology. All synchrotron light facilities are introduced with their home-page addresses. 'Synchrotron Light' provides an instructive and comprehensive multimedia learning tool for students, experienced practitioners and novices wishing to apply synchrotron radiation in their future work. Its multiple-entry points permit an easy exploration of the CD-Rom according to the users knowledge and interest. 2-D and 3-D animations and virtual reconstruction with computer-generated images guide visitors into the scientific and technical world of a synchrotron and into the applications of synchrotron radiation. This bilingual (English and French) CD-Rom can be used for self-teaching and in courses at various levels in physics, chemistry, engineering, and biology. (author)

  19. Synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helliwell, J.R.; Walker, R.P.

    1985-01-01

    A detailed account of the research work associated with the Synchrotron Radiation Source at Daresbury Laboratory, United Kingdom, in 1984/85, is presented in the Appendix to the Laboratory's Annual Report. (U.K.)

  20. Synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallmeier, K.H.; Meisel, A.; Ranft, J.

    1982-01-01

    The physical background and the properties of synchrotron radiation are described. The radiation offers many useful applications in the fields of spectroscopy and structural investigations. Some examples are given

  1. Synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knotek, M.L.

    1987-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation has had a revolutionary effect on a broad range of scientific studies, from physics, chemistry and metallurgy to biology, medicine and geoscience. The situation during the last decade has been one of very rapid growth, there is a great vitality to the field and a capability has been given to a very broad range of scientific disciplines which was undreamed of just a decade or so ago. Here we will discuss some of the properties of synchrotron radiation that makes it so interesting and something of the sources in existence today including the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). The NSLS is one of the new facilities built specifically for synchrotron radiation research and the model that was developed there for involvement of the scientific community is a good one which provides some good lessons for these facilities and others

  2. Synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poole, M.W.; Lea, K.R.

    1982-01-01

    A report is given on the work involving the Synchrotron Radiation Division of the Daresbury Laboratory during the period January 1981 - March 1982. Development of the source, beamlines and experimental stations is described. Progress reports from individual investigators are presented which reveal the general diversity and interdisciplinary nature of the research which benefits from access to synchrotron radiation and the associated facilities. Information is given on the organisation of the Division and publications written by the staff are listed. (U.K.)

  3. Synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, D.; Walker, R.P.; Durham, P.J.; Ridley, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    The paper on synchrotron radiation is the appendix to the Daresbury (United Kingdom) annual report, 1985/86. The bulk of the volume is made up of the progress reports for the work carried out during the year under review using the Synchrotron Radiation Source (SRS) at Daresbury. The Appendix also contains: the scientific programmes at the the SRS, progress on beamlines, instrumentation and computing developments, and activities connected with accelerator development. (U.K.)

  4. Photoelectron spectroscopy and spectro-microscopy of Pb(Zr,Ti)O{sub 3} (1 1 1) thin layers: Imaging ferroelectric domains with binding energy contrast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huşanu, Marius A.; Popescu, Dana G.; Tache, Cristian A. [National Institute of Materials Physics, Atomistilor 105b, 077125 Magurele-Ilfov (Romania); Apostol, Nicoleta G. [National Institute of Materials Physics, Atomistilor 105b, 077125 Magurele-Ilfov (Romania); Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste, S.S. 14 – km 163,5, Area Science Park, 34169 Basovizza-Trieste (Italy); Barinov, Alexei; Lizzit, Silvano; Lacovig, Paolo [Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste, S.S. 14 – km 163,5, Area Science Park, 34169 Basovizza-Trieste (Italy); Teodorescu, Cristian M., E-mail: teodorescu@infim.ro [National Institute of Materials Physics, Atomistilor 105b, 077125 Magurele-Ilfov (Romania)

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Achievement of well ordered PZT(1 1 1) surfaces with reasonable low energy electron diffraction patterns and good stoichiometry. • Ability of photoelectron spectromicroscopy to visualize ferroelectric domains with contrast of binding energy. • Model taking into account the influence of photogenerated carriers on the depolarization field and its torque on the polarization vector. • Evidence of domain wall migration induced by photogenerated carriers. • Segregation of metal Pb only on areas with out-of-plane component of the polarization pointing outwards. - Abstract: The ability of photoelectron spectro-microscopy with sub-micrometer lateral resolution to identify ferroelectric domains by analysis of surface band bendings is demonstrated on lead zirco-titanate PZT(1 1 1) thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition. Conventional synchrotron radiation X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy allowed one to derive the surface composition of the sample and evidenced shifts toward higher binding energy when the sample is subject to intense soft X-ray beam. A basic model is developed which supposes that photogenerated carriers reduce the depolarization field, yielding a lower torque applied to the ferroelectric polarization. As a consequence, the out-of-plane component of the polarization increases. Domain migration during irradiation with soft X-ray is inferred from the relative amplitude of the components with different binding energy. When the flux density of soft X-ray is on the order of 10{sup 11} photons/(s μm{sup 2}), metal Pb clusters are formed at the surface on areas with the out-of-plane component of the polarization pointing outwards only.

  5. JHF synchrotrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The Japan Hadron Facility (JHF) consists of two synchrotrons and an injector linac. First, we will present a brief review of the specifications and lattice of the synchrotrons; one is 3 GeV booster and the other is 50 GeV main ring. Secondly, some detailed results of design study will be discussed, together with the present status of the R and D programs in progress. Among them, an estimate of beam loss is one of critical issues in beam dynamics. The development of a high gradient RF cavity is also crucial for a high intensity machine. (author)

  6. Infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, M.

    2013-11-01

    'Infrared' is a very wide field in physics and the natural sciences which has evolved enormously in recent decades. It all started in 1800 with Friedrich Wilhelm Herschel's discovery of infrared (IR) radiation within the spectrum of the Sun. Thereafter a few important milestones towards widespread use of IR were the quantitative description of the laws of blackbody radiation by Max Planck in 1900; the application of quantum mechanics to understand the rotational-vibrational spectra of molecules starting in the first half of the 20th century; and the revolution in source and detector technologies due to micro-technological breakthroughs towards the end of the 20th century. This has led to much high-quality and sophisticated equipment in terms of detectors, sources and instruments in the IR spectral range, with a multitude of different applications in science and technology. This special issue tries to focus on a few aspects of the astonishing variety of different disciplines, techniques and applications concerning the general topic of infrared radiation. Part of the content is based upon an interdisciplinary international conference on the topic held in 2012 in Bad Honnef, Germany. It is hoped that the information provided here may be useful for teaching the general topic of electromagnetic radiation in the IR spectral range in advanced university courses for postgraduate students. In the most general terms, the infrared spectral range is defined to extend from wavelengths of 780 nm (upper range of the VIS spectral range) up to wavelengths of 1 mm (lower end of the microwave range). Various definitions of near, middle and far infrared or thermal infrared, and lately terahertz frequencies, are used, which all fall in this range. These special definitions often depend on the scientific field of research. Unfortunately, many of these fields seem to have developed independently from neighbouring disciplines, although they deal with very similar topics in respect of the

  7. The synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevallier, P.

    1994-01-01

    Synchrotron Radiation is a fantastic source of electromagnetic radiation the energy spectrum of which spreads continuously from the far infrared to hard X-rays. For this reason a wide part of the scientific community, fundamentalists as well as industry, is concerned by its use. We shall describe here the main properties of this light source and give two examples of application in the field of characterization of materials: EXAFS (Extended X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure) and X-ray fluorescence. (author). 8 figs., 21 refs

  8. Cluster analysis in soft X-ray spectromicroscopy: Finding the patterns in complex specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerotic, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800 (United States)]. E-mail: lerotic@xray1.physics.sunysb.edu; Jacobsen, C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800 (United States); Gillow, J.B. [Environmental Sciences Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Francis, A.J. [Environmental Sciences Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Wirick, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800 (United States); Vogt, S. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Maser, J. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2005-06-15

    Soft X-ray spectromicroscopy provides spectral data on the chemical speciation of light elements at sub-100 nanometer spatial resolution. If all chemical species in a specimen are known and separately characterized, existing approaches can be used to measure the concentration of each component at each pixel. In other situations such as in biology or environmental science, this approach may not be possible. We have previously described [M. Lerotic, C. Jacobsen, T. Schaefer, S. Vogt, Ultramicroscopy 100 (1-2) (2004) 35] the use of principle component analysis (PCA) to orthogonalize and noise-filter spectromicroscopy data, and cluster analysis (Canada) to classify the analyzed data and obtain thickness maps of representative spectra. We describe here an extension of that work employing an angle distance measure; this measure provides better classification based on spectral signatures alone in specimens with significant thickness variations. The method is illustrated using simulated data, and also to examine sporulation in the bacterium Clostridium sp.

  9. Using a non-invasive technique in nutrition: synchrotron radiation infrared microspectroscopy spectroscopic characterization of oil seeds treated with different processing conditions on molecular spectral factors influencing nutrient delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuewei; Yu, Peiqiang

    2014-07-02

    Non-invasive techniques are a key to study nutrition and structure interaction. Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy coupled with a synchrotron radiation source (SR-IMS) is a rapid, non-invasive, and non-destructive bioanalytical technique. To understand internal structure changes in relation to nutrient availability in oil seed processing is vital to find optimal processing conditions. The objective of this study was to use a synchrotron-based bioanalytical technique SR-IMS as a non-invasive and non-destructive tool to study the effects of heat-processing methods and oil seed canola type on modeled protein structure based on spectral data within intact tissue that were randomly selected and quantify the relationship between the modeled protein structure and protein nutrient supply to ruminants. The results showed that the moisture heat-related processing significantly changed (pprocessing by dry heating. The moisture heating increased (p0.05) in the protein spectral profile between the raw and dry-heated canola tissue and between yellow- and brown-type canola tissue. The results indicated that different heat processing methods have different impacts on the protein inherent structure. The protein intrinsic structure in canola seed tissue was more sensitive and more response to the moisture heating in comparison to the dry heating. These changes are expected to be related to the nutritive value. However, the current study is based on limited samples, and more large-scale studies are needed to confirm our findings.

  10. Review structure of silk by raman spectromicroscopy: from the spinning glands to the fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefèvre, Thierry; Paquet-Mercier, François; Rioux-Dubé, Jean-François; Pézolet, Michel

    2012-06-01

    Raman spectroscopy has long been proved to be a useful tool to study the conformation of protein-based materials such as silk. Thanks to recent developments, linearly polarized Raman spectromicroscopy has appeared very efficient to characterize the molecular structure of native single silk fibers and spinning dopes because it can provide information relative to the protein secondary structure, molecular orientation, and amino acid composition. This review will describe recent advances in the study of the structure of silk by Raman spectromicroscopy. A particular emphasis is put on the spider dragline and silkworm cocoon threads, other fibers spun by orb-weaving spiders, the spinning dope contained in their silk glands and the effect of mechanical deformation. Taken together, the results of the literature show that Raman spectromicroscopy is particularly efficient to investigate all aspects of silk structure and production. The data provided can lead to a better understanding of the structure of the silk dope, transformations occurring during the spinning process, and structure and mechanical properties of native fibers. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Synchrotron light sources: A powerful tool for science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlachter, F.; Robinson, A.

    1996-01-01

    A new generation of synchrotron light sources is producing extremely bright beams of vacuum-ultraviolet and x-ray radiation, poweful new tools for research in a wide variety of basic and applied sciences. Spectromicroscopy using high spectral and spatial resolution is a new way of seeing, offering many opportunities in the study of matter. Development of a new light source provides the country or region of the world in which the light source is located many new opportunities: a focal point for research in many scientific and technological areas, a means of upgrading the technology infrastructure of the country, a means of training students, and a potential service to industry. A light source for Southeast Asia would thus be a major resource for many years. Scientists and engineers from light sources around the world look forward to providing assistance to make this a reality in Southeast Asia

  12. Synchrotron light sources: A powerful tool for science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlachter, F.; Robinson, A.

    1996-01-01

    A new generation of synchrotron light sources is producing extremely bright beams of vacuum-ultraviolet and x-ray radiation, powerful new tools for research in a wide variety of basic and applied sciences. Spectromicroscopy using high spectral and spatial resolution is a new way of seeing, offering many opportunities in the study of matter. Development of a new light source provides the country or region of the world in which the light source is located many new opportunities: a focal point for research in many scientific and technological areas, a means of upgrading the technology infrastructure of the country, a means of training students, and a potential service to industry. A light source for Southeast Asia would thus be a major resource for many years. Scientists and engineers from light sources around the world look forward to providing assistance to make this a reality in Southeast Asia

  13. Synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farge, Y.

    1982-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation is produced by electrons accelerated near the velocity of light in storage rings, which are used for high energy Physics experiments. The radiation light exhibits a wide spread continuous spectrum ranging from 01 nanometre to radiofrequency. This radiation is characterized by high power (several kilowatts) and intense brightness. The paper recalls the emission laws and the distinctive properties of the radiation, and gives some of the numerous applications in research, such as molecular spectroscopy, X ray diffraction by heavy proteins and X ray microlithography in LVSI circuit making [fr

  14. Wavefront propagation simulations for a UV/soft x-ray beamline: Electron Spectro-Microscopy beamline at NSLS-II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canestrari, N.; Bisogni, V.; Walter, A.; Zhu, Y.; Dvorak, J.; Vescovo, E.; Chubar, O.

    2014-09-01

    A "source-to-sample" wavefront propagation analysis of the Electron Spectro-Microscopy (ESM) UV / soft X-ray beamline, which is under construction at the National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) in the Brookhaven National Laboratory, has been conducted. All elements of the beamline - insertion device, mirrors, variable-line-spacing gratings and slits - are included in the simulations. Radiation intensity distributions at the sample position are displayed for representative photon energies in the UV range (20 - 100 eV) where diffraction effects are strong. The finite acceptance of the refocusing mirrors is the dominating factor limiting the spatial resolution at the sample (by ~3 μm at 20 eV). Absolute estimates of the radiation flux and energy resolution at the sample are also obtained from the electromagnetic calculations. The analysis of the propagated UV range undulator radiation at different deflection parameter values demonstrates that within the beamline angular acceptance a slightly "red-shifted" radiation provides higher flux at the sample and better energy resolution compared to the on-axis resonant radiation of the fundamental harmonic.

  15. Synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pattison, P.; Quinn, P.

    1990-01-01

    This report details the activities in synchrotron radiation and related areas at Daresbury Laboratory during 1989/90. The number and scope of the scientific reports submitted by external users and in-house staff is a reflection of the large amount of scheduled beamtime and high operating efficiency achieved at the Synchrotron Radiation Source (SRS) during the past year. Over 4000 hours of user beam were available, equivalent to about 80% of the total scheduled time. Many of the reports collected here illustrate the increasing technical complexity of the experiments now being carried out at Daresbury. Provision of the appropriate technical and scientific infrastructure and support is a continuing challenge. The development of the Materials Science Laboratory together with the existing Biological Support Laboratory will extend the range of experiments which can be carried out on the SRS. This will particularly facilitate work in which the sample must be prepared or characterised immediately before or during an experiment. The year 1989/90 has also seen a substantial upgrade of several stations, especially in the area of x-ray optics. Many of the advantages of the High Brightness Lattice can only be exploited effectively with the use of focusing optics. As the performance of these stations improves, the range of experiments which are feasible on the SRS will be extended significantly. (author)

  16. Development of in situ Brillouin spectroscopy at high pressure and high temperature with synchrotron radiation and infrared laser heating system: Application to the Earth's deep interior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Motohiko; Asahara, Yuki; Ohishi, Yasuo; Hirao, Naohisa; Hirose, Kei

    2009-05-01

    Seismic wave velocity profiles in the Earth provide one of the strongest constraints on structure, mineralogy and elastic properties of the Earth's deep interior. Accurate sound velocity data of deep Earth materials under relevant high-pressure and high-temperature conditions, therefore, are essential for interpretation of seismic data. Such information can be directly obtained from Brillouin scattering measurement. Here we describe an in situ Brillouin scattering system for measurements at high pressure and high temperature using a laser heated diamond anvil cell and synchrotron radiation for sample characterization. The system has been used with single-crystal and polycrystalline materials, and with glass and fluid phase. It provided high quality sound velocity and elastic data with X-ray diffraction data at high pressure and/or high temperature. Those combined techniques can potentially offer the essential information for resolving many remaining issues in mineral physics.

  17. Theoretical estimation and experimental design of high-intensity far-infrared to MM-wave coherent synchrotron radiation generated by short electron bunches at BFEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Junbiao; Li Yonggui; Xie Jialin

    2000-01-01

    Broadband continuous and high-intensity coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) emitted from 4 ps electron bunches provided by the 30 MeV RF linac of Beijing FEL is analyzed and numerically calculated using an exact series expansion for the infinite integral of fractional modified Bessel function. CSR in the mm-wave and far-IR to mm-wave regions can be respectively generated by directly using these bunches and by applying those ones compressed to ≤=1 ps. The CSR powers, approximately as 10 8 -10 9 times as the SR ones, in the range from several hundred microwatts to milliwatts are dependent on chosen electron density distribution, wavelength range, and gathering angle. The power produced by rectangular bunches is greater than that generated by Gaussian ones. The shorter the bunch, the stronger the produced CSR, the greater the energy concentrated to the far-IR end. Experiments to generate CSR and measure the bunch length are designed

  18. The study of efficiency of endogenous and exogenous preventive methods of tooth enamel remineralisation by FTIR microscopy using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goloshchapov, D L; Kashkarov, V M; Seredin, P V; Ippolitov, Y A; Plotnikova, Y A; Bambery, K

    2016-01-01

    The efficiency carious preventive methods was detected with the use of equipment for IR-spectromicroscopy and high-intensive synchrotron radiation. The results of the experiment are indicative of the use of exogenous caries prevention alone (use of a toothpaste) being inadequate in saturating hard dental tissues by mineral groups and, thus, keeping teeth healthy, as this method is only short-lived. The use of endogenous methods (mineral tablets based on calcium glycerophosphate) in combination with exogenous prevention enhances prevention as part of remineralisation of dental tissues. (paper)

  19. Physics and forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, T.J.; Perry, D.L.; Martin, M.C.; McKinney, W.R.

    2001-01-01

    This popular article in Physics World reviews the application of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectromicroscopy to Forensics, and predicts further applications due to the high inherent signal to noise available for FTIR microscopy at synchrotron sources

  20. Synchrotron-radiation research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    The use of radiation from synchrotron sources has started a renaissance in materials, physics, chemistry, and biology. Synchrotron radiation has advantages over conventional x rays in that its source brightness is a thousand times greater throughout a continuous energy spectrum, and resonances are produced with specific electron energy levels. Two major synchrotron radiation sources are operated by DOE: the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory at SLAC, and the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven

  1. Synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seddon, E.A.; Reid, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    Work at the Daresbury SRS has of necessity been interrupted this year (1991/92) due to the incorporation of Wiggler II. However, considerable beamtime was awarded before the shutdown and the major part of this appendix is concerned with the progress reports of the research undertaken then. The reports have been organised under the following broad headings: Molecular Science (19 papers), Surface and Materials Science (169 papers), Biological Science (85 papers), Instrumental and Technique Developments (13 papers) and Accelerator Physics (3 papers). It is hoped that in time the number of contributions on accelerator physics will grow to reflect the in-house activity on, for example, accelerator improvement and design. The research reports are preceded by the Annual Report of the Synchrotron Radiation Facilities Committee, which outlines the research highlights identified by that Committee (also included are details of the current membership of the SRFC and the chairmen of the Beamtime Allocation Panels). Following the reports are the specifications for the beamlines and stations. This year Section 3 contains 289 reports (nearly 100 more than last year) and the number of publications, generated by scientists and engineers who have used or are associated with Daresbury Laboratory facilities, has topped 500 for the first time. (author)

  2. Synchrotron- and focal plane array-based Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy differentiates the basalis and functionalis epithelial endometrial regions and identifies putative stem cell regions of human endometrial glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theophilou, Georgios; Morais, Camilo L M; Halliwell, Diane E; Lima, Kássio M G; Drury, Josephine; Martin-Hirsch, Pierre L; Stringfellow, Helen F; Hapangama, Dharani K; Martin, Francis L

    2018-05-09

    The cyclical process of regeneration of the endometrium suggests that it may contain a cell population that can provide daughter cells with high proliferative potential. These cell lineages are clinically significant as they may represent clonogenic cells that may also be involved in tumourigenesis as well as endometriotic lesion development. To determine whether the putative stem cell location within human uterine tissue can be derived using vibrational spectroscopy techniques, normal endometrial tissue was interrogated by two spectroscopic techniques. Paraffin-embedded uterine tissues containing endometrial glands were sectioned to 10-μm-thick parallel tissue sections and were floated onto BaF 2 slides for synchrotron radiation-based Fourier-transform infrared (SR-FTIR) microspectroscopy and globar focal plane array-based FTIR spectroscopy. Different spectral characteristics were identified depending on the location of the glands examined. The resulting infrared spectra were subjected to multivariate analysis to determine associated biophysical differences along the length of longitudinal and crosscut gland sections. Comparison of the epithelial cellular layer of transverse gland sections revealed alterations indicating the presence of putative transient-amplifying-like cells in the basalis and mitotic cells in the functionalis. SR-FTIR microspectroscopy of the base of the endometrial glands identified the location where putative stem cells may reside at the same time pointing towards ν s PO 2 - in DNA and RNA, nucleic acids and amide I and II vibrations as major discriminating factors. This study supports the view that vibration spectroscopy technologies are a powerful adjunct to our understanding of the stem cell biology of endometrial tissue. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  3. Low frequency interference between short synchrotron radiation sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Méot

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available A recently developed analytical formalism describing low frequency far-field synchrotron radiation (SR is applied to the calculation of spectral angular radiation densities from interfering short sources (edge, short magnet. This is illustrated by analytical calculation of synchrotron radiation from various assemblies of short dipoles, including an “isolated” highest density infrared SR source.

  4. MANTiS: a program for the analysis of X-ray spectromicroscopy data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerotic, Mirna; Mak, Rachel; Wirick, Sue; Meirer, Florian; Jacobsen, Chris

    2014-09-01

    Spectromicroscopy combines spectral data with microscopy, where typical datasets consist of a stack of images taken across a range of energies over a microscopic region of the sample. Manual analysis of these complex datasets can be time-consuming, and can miss the important traits in the data. With this in mind we have developed MANTiS, an open-source tool developed in Python for spectromicroscopy data analysis. The backbone of the package involves principal component analysis and cluster analysis, classifying pixels according to spectral similarity. Our goal is to provide a data analysis tool which is comprehensive, yet intuitive and easy to use. MANTiS is designed to lead the user through the analysis using story boards that describe each step in detail so that both experienced users and beginners are able to analyze their own data independently. These capabilities are illustrated through analysis of hard X-ray imaging of iron in Roman ceramics, and soft X-ray imaging of a malaria-infected red blood cell.

  5. Cluster analysis in soft X-ray spectromicroscopy: finding the patterns in complex specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerotic, M.; Jacobsen, C.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Soft x-ray spectromicroscopy provides spectral data on the chemical speciation of light elements at sub-100 nanometer spatial resolution. When all chemical species in a specimen are known and separately characterized, existing approaches can be used to measure the concentration of each component at each pixel. In other situations such as in biology or environmental science, this approach may not be possible. A method to find natural groupings of data without prior knowledge of the spectra of all components will be presented. Principal component analysis is used to orthogonalize spectromicroscopy data, and discard much of the noise present in data set. Then cluster analysis is used to find a hierarchical classification of pixels with similar spectra, to extract representative, cluster-averaged spectra with good signal-to-noise ratio, and to obtain gradations of concentration of these representative spectra at each pixel. The method is illustrated with a simulated data set of organic compounds, and a mixture of lutetium in hematite used to understand colloidal transport properties of radionuclides. We gratefully acknowledge funding from the National Institutes for Health under contract R01 EB00479-01A1, and from the National Science Foundation under contracts OCE-0221029 and CHE-0221934

  6. First detection of lamella-gyroid-cylinder phase transition of neat polyethylene-poly(ethylene oxide) diblock copolymers on the basis of synchrotron WAXD/SAXS and infrared/Raman spectral measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiyu, Cao; Tashiro, Kohji; Hanesaka, Makoto; Takeda, Shinichi; Masunaga, Hiroyasu; Sasaki, Sono; Takata, Masaki

    2009-01-01

    The phase transition behaviour of polyethylene-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (PE-b-PEO) diblock copolymer with relatively short chain lengths has been studied on the basis of temperature dependent infrared and Raman spectral measurements and synchrotron WAXD/SAXS simultaneous measurements, from which the concrete structural changes were deduced successfully from the various levels of molecular chain conformation, chain packing mode and higher-order structure. The higher-order structure has been found to transform between lamella, perforated lamella, gyroid, cylinder and sphere structures. The inner structural changes occurring in the polyethylene and poly(ethylene oxide) parts have been related with these morphological changes. The morphological transition from lamella to gyroid occurs with keeping the crystalline state of polyethylene parts. This apparently curious transition can be interpreted reasonably by assuming the thermally-activated chain motion in the crystal lattice, which may play an important role as a trigger to induce the morphological change from lamella to gyroid. This idea was supported by the measurement of half-width of Raman anti-symmetric CH 2 stretching band sensitive to the thermal mobility of alkyl chains.

  7. Exploring synchrotron radiation capabilities: The ALS-Intel CRADA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gozzo, F.; Cossy-Favre, A.; Padmore, H.

    1997-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation spectroscopy and spectromicroscopy were applied, at the Advanced Light Source, to the analysis of materials and problems of interest to the commercial semiconductor industry. The authors discuss some of the results obtained at the ALS using existing capabilities, in particular the small spot ultra-ESCA instrument on beamline 7.0 and the AMS (Applied Material Science) endstation on beamline 9.3.2. The continuing trend towards smaller feature size and increased performance for semiconductor components has driven the semiconductor industry to invest in the development of sophisticated and complex instrumentation for the characterization of microstructures. Among the crucial milestones established by the Semiconductor Industry Association are the needs for high quality, defect free and extremely clean silicon wafers, very thin gate oxides, lithographies near 0.1 micron and advanced material interconnect structures. The requirements of future generations cannot be met with current industrial technologies. The purpose of the ALS-Intel CRADA (Cooperative Research And Development Agreement) is to explore, compare and improve the utility of synchrotron-based techniques for practical analysis of substrates of interest to semiconductor chip manufacturing. The first phase of the CRADA project consisted in exploring existing ALS capabilities and techniques on some problems of interest. Some of the preliminary results obtained on Intel samples are discussed here

  8. Identification of the finishing technique of an early eighteenth century musical instrument using FTIR spectromicroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Loïc; Robinet, Laurianne; Cohen, Serge X; Sandt, Christophe; Le Hô, Anne-Solenn; Soulier, Balthazar; Lattuati-Derieux, Agnès; Echard, Jean-Philippe

    2011-03-01

    The study of varnishes from musical instruments presents the difficulty of analysing very thin layers of heterogeneous materials on samples most of which are generally brittle and difficult to prepare. Such study is crucial to the understanding of historical musical instrument varnishing practices since written sources before 1800 are very rare and not precise. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and imaging methods were applied to identify the major chemical components within the build-up of the varnish layers on a cello made by one of the most prominent French violin-makers of the eighteenth century (Jacques Boquay, ca. 1680-1730). Two types of FTIR imaging methods were used: scanning with a synchrotron-based microscope and full-field imaging using a 2D imager with a conventional source. An interpretation of the results obtained from these studies on the Boquay cello is that the maker first applied a proteinaceous layer, probably gelatine-based animal glue. He later applied a second layer based on a mixture of a drying oil and diterpenic resin from Pinaceae sp. From an historical perspective, the results complement previous studies by describing a second technique used for musical instrument finishes at the beginning of the eighteenth century in Europe.

  9. Synchrotron light and its uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blewett, J.P.

    1978-01-01

    It was known for a century that charged particles radiate when accelerated and that relativistic electrons in the energy range between 100 MeV and several GeV and constrained to travel in circular orbits emit concentrated, intense beams with broad continuous spectra that can cover the electromagnetic spectrum from infrared through hard x-rays. Recently the possible applications of this radiation were appreciated and electron synchrotrons and electron storage rings are now being used in many centers for studies of the properties of matter in the solid, liquid and gaseous states. 10 references

  10. Synchrotron radiation in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, R.F.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Synchrotron radiation research in Australia is entering a new era with the commencement of the Australian synchrotron project, which will construct a 3 GeV third generation synchrotron facility at Monash University in Victoria. To date Australian scientists have used overseas facilities, primarily those managed by the Australian Synchrotron Research Program in Japan and the USA. A fast developing and maturing Australian synchrotron user program has developed around these overseas facilities. The field of synchrotron radiation and its importance to a wide range of research will be introduced and Australia's current involvement and facilities will be described. The current status and technical specifications of the Australian synchrotron will be presented. Copyright (2002) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

  11. Overview and perspective of materials characterization by using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamitsubo, Hiromichi

    2009-01-01

    A peculiarity of techniques and the methods of synchrotron radiation are explained. It consists of five sections such as introduction, synchrotron radiation, interaction between X-ray and materials, analytical methods of materials using synchrotron radiation and perspective and problems. The second section described the principles of synchrotron orbit radiation, synchrotron light source, the main formulae and schematic drawing of undulator, and the synchrotron radiation facilities in Japan. The third section explained behavior of X-ray in materials, absorption, reflection, refraction and scattering of X-ray. The fourth section stated many analytical methods of materials; the surface diffractometer, powder diffractometer, high-energy X-ray diffraction, core-electron absorption spectroscopy, micro-beam diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS), and photoemission spectroscopy (PES). A characteristic feature of synchrotron radiation contains the large wave length ranges from infrared to X-ray, high directivity and brightness, linear (circular) polarization, pulsed light, good control and stability. The brightness spectra of Spring-8 and SAGA-LS, concept of synchrotron light source, undulator and wiggler, nine synchrotron radiation facilities in Japan, mass absorption coefficients of Cu and Au, and analysis of materials using synchrotron radiation are illustrated. (S.Y.)

  12. Synchrotron radiation facilities

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    Particularly in the past few years, interest in using the synchrotron radiation emanating from high energy, circular electron machines has grown considerably. In our February issue we included an article on the synchrotron radiation facility at Frascati. This month we are spreading the net wider — saying something about the properties of the radiation, listing the centres where synchrotron radiation facilities exist, adding a brief description of three of them and mentioning areas of physics in which the facilities are used.

  13. Synchrotron radiation and prospects of its applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulipanov, G; Skrinskii, A

    1981-04-01

    Current and prospective applications are described of synchrotron radiation resulting from the motion of high-energy electrons or positrons in a magnetic field and covering a wide spectral range from the infrared to X-ray. The advantages of the synchrotron radiation include a big source luminance, a small angular divergence, the possibility of calculating the absolute intensity and the spectral distribution of the radiation. Special storage rings are most suitable as a source. Synchrotron radiation is applied in X-ray microscopy, energy diffractometry, atomic and molecular spectroscopy, in the structural analysis of microcrystals, very rapid diffractometry of biological objects and crystals, and in Moessbauer spectroscopy. The prospective applications include uses in metrology, medicine, X-ray lithography, elemental analysis, molecular microsurgery, and in radiation technology.

  14. Transmission of infrared radiation through cylindrical waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nucara, A.; Dore, P.; Calvani, P.; Cannavo', D.; Marcelli, A.

    1998-01-01

    Measurement of the transmittance of infrared radiation (v -1 ) through cylindrical waveguides are presented and discussed. The experimental results are compared with numerical simulations, obtained through conventional ray tracing programs. Finally, it' estimated the transmittance of a waveguide in the case of an infrared synchrotron radiation source. Are applied the results to the case of the DAΦNE collider, where a synchrotron radiation beamline for the far infrared is under construction

  15. The World of Synchrotrons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    de Ciencias Fisicas,. Universidad Nacional. Autonoma de Mexico. Sameen Ahmed Khan. A summary of results on synchrotron radiation is presented along with notes on its properties and applications. Quantum aspects are briefly mentioned. Synchrotron radiation facilities are described briefly with a detailed coverage of ...

  16. Synchrotron radiation sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Steenbergen, A.

    1979-01-01

    As a result of the exponential growth of the utilization of synchrotron radiation for research in the domain of the material sciences, atomic and molecular physics, biology and technology, a major construction activity has been generated towards new dedicated electron storage rings, designed optimally for synchrotron radiation applications, also, expansion programs are underway at the existing facilities, such as DORIS, SPEAR, and VEPP. In this report the basic properties of synchrotron radiation will be discussed, a short overview will be given of the existing and new facilities, some aspects of the optimization of a structure for a synchrotron radiation source will be discussed and the addition of wigglers and undulators for spectrum enhancement will be described. Finally, some parameters of an optimized synchrotron radiation source will be given.

  17. Synchrotron radiation from protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutt, S.K.

    1992-12-01

    Synchrotron radiation from protons, though described by the same equations as the radiation from electrons, exhibits a number of interesting features on account of the parameters reached in praxis. In this presentation, we shall point out some of the features relating to (i) normal synchrotron radiation from dipoles in proton machines such as the High Energy Booster and the Superconducting Super Collider; (ii) synchrotron radiation from short dipoles, and its application to light monitors for proton machines, and (iii) synchrotron radiation from undulators in the limit when, the deflection parameter is much smaller than unity. The material for this presentation is taken largely from the work of Hofmann, Coisson, Bossart, and their collaborators, and from a paper by Kim. We shall emphasize the qualitative aspects of synchrotron radiation in the cases mentioned above, making, when possible, simple arguments for estimating the spectral and angular properties of the radiation. Detailed analyses can be found in the literature

  18. Nano-Scale Spatial Assessment of Calcium Distribution in Coccolithophores Using Synchrotron-Based Nano-CT and STXM-NEXAFS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shiyong; Yao, Yanchen; Zou, Xiang; Fan, Shenglan; Zhou, Qing; Dai, Qunwei; Dong, Faqin; Liu, Mingxue; Nie, Xiaoqin; Tan, Daoyong; Li, Shuai

    2014-01-01

    Calcified coccolithophores generate calcium carbonate scales around their cell surface. In light of predicted climate change and the global carbon cycle, the biomineralization ability of coccoliths has received growing interest. However, the underlying biomineralization mechanism is not yet well understood; the lack of non-invasive characterizing tools to obtain molecular level information involving biogenic processes and biomineral components remain significant challenges. In the present study, synchrotron-based Nano-computed Tomography (Nano-CT) and Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy-Near-edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectromicroscopy (STXM-NEXAFS) techniques were employed to identify Ca spatial distribution and investigate the compositional chemistry and distinctive features of the association between biomacromolecules and mineral components of calcite present in coccoliths. The Nano-CT results show that the coccolith scale vesicle is similar as a continuous single channel. The mature coccoliths were intracellularly distributed and immediately ejected and located at the exterior surface to form a coccoshpere. The NEXAFS spectromicroscopy results of the Ca L edge clearly demonstrate the existence of two levels of gradients spatially, indicating two distinctive forms of Ca in coccoliths: a crystalline-poor layer surrounded by a relatively crystalline-rich layer. The results show that Sr is absorbed by the coccoliths and that Sr/Ca substitution is rather homogeneous within the coccoliths. Our findings indicate that synchrotron-based STXM-NEXAFS and Nano-CT are excellent tools for the study of biominerals and provide information to clarify biomineralization mechanism. PMID:25530614

  19. In Situ Soft X-ray Spectromicroscopy of Early Tricalcium Silicate Hydration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungchul Bae

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The understanding and control of early hydration of tricalcium silicate (C3S is of great importance to cement science and concrete technology. However, traditional characterization methods are incapable of providing morphological and spectroscopic information about in situ hydration at the nanoscale. Using soft X-ray spectromicroscopy, we report the changes in morphology and molecular structure of C3S at an early stage of hydration. In situ C3S hydration in a wet cell, beginning with induction (~1 h and acceleration (~4 h periods of up to ~8 h, was studied and compared with ex situ measurements in the deceleration period after 15 h of curing. Analysis of the near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure showed that the Ca binding energy and energy splitting of C3S changed rapidly in the early age of hydration and exhibited values similar to calcium silicate hydrate (C–S–H. The formation of C–S–H nanoseeds in the C3S solution and the development of a fibrillar C–S–H morphology on the C3S surface were visualized. Following this, silicate polymerization accompanied by C–S–H precipitation produced chemical shifts in the peaks of the main Si K edge and in multiple scattering. However, the silicate polymerization process did not significantly affect the Ca binding energy of C–S–H.

  20. Soft X-ray spectromicroscopy for speciation, quantitation and nano-eco-toxicology of nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, J R; Swerhone, G D W; Dynes, J J; Korber, D R; Hitchcock, A P

    2016-02-01

    There is a critical need for methods that provide simultaneous detection, identification, quantitation and visualization of nanomaterials at their interface with biological and environmental systems. The approach should allow speciation as well as elemental analysis. Using the intrinsic X-ray absorption properties, soft X-ray scanning transmission X-ray spectromicroscopy (STXM) allows characterization and imaging of a broad range of nanomaterials, including metals, oxides and organic materials, and at the same time is able to provide detailed mapping of biological components. Thus, STXM offers considerable potential for application to research on nanomaterials in biology and the environment. The potential and limitations of STXM in this context are discussed using a range of examples, focusing on the interaction of nanomaterials with microbial cells, biofilms and extracellular polymers. The studies outlined include speciation and mapping of metal-containing nanomaterials (Ti, Ni, Cu) and carbon-based nanomaterials (multiwalled carbon nanotubes, C60 fullerene). The benefits of X-ray fluorescence detection in soft X-ray STXM are illustrated with a study of low levels of Ni in a natural river biofilm. © 2014 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2014 Royal Microscopical Society.

  1. 3 GeV Booster Synchrotron Conceptual Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiedemann, Helmut

    2009-06-02

    Synchrotron light cna be produced from a relativistic particle beam circulating in a storage ring at extremely high intensity and brilliance over a large spectral region reaching from the far infrared regime to hard x-rays. The particles, either electrons or positrons, radiate as they are deflected in the fields of the storage ring bending magnets or of magnets specially optimized for the production of synchrotron light. The synchrotron light being very intense and well collimated in the forward direction has become a major tool in a large variety of research fields in physics, chemistry, material science, biology, and medicine.

  2. Chemistry with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preses, J.; Grover, J.R.; White, M.G.; Kvick, A.

    1990-01-01

    An accidental by-product of high-energy physics, synchrotron radiation, has emerged as one of the most powerful tools for the understanding of chemical reactions. Advances made by using synchrotron radiation in physical chemistry are reviewed herein. Descriptions of experiments exploiting the many ways that synchrotron radiation can be manipulated are presented. These manipulations include intensification of the radiation and compression or shifting of its spectral structure. Combinations of the use of synchrotron radiation, which provides access to very short wavelengths and is, at the same time, continuously and easily tunable, with laser radiation, which offers much higher resolution and much more intense radiation per pulse, but is difficult to tune in the ultraviolet region of the spectra, gives the chemist a way to map a molecule's potential energy curve, to note the lengths and strengths of chemical bonds, and to predict and explain novel reactions of more complex molecules. The use of diffraction of x-rays to study the spacing of atoms in crystals is discussed. Various applications of synchrotron radiation to studies of the fluorescence of hydrocarbons and to the chiral dichroism studies of other natural products like DNA and RNA are described. Methods for enhancing synchrotron light sources by insertion devices, such as wigglers and undulators, that increase the available photo flux and construction of new sources of synchrotron radiation are mentioned

  3. Synchrotron radiation at Trieste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1986-06-15

    The fast developing field of synchrotron radiation has its origins in the mastery of storage rings in high energy physics and is a prime example of spinoff from pure science. Intense electromagnetic radiation streams off when beams of high energy electrons are bent or shaken. This synchrotron radiation was once an annoying waste of energy in particle storage rings, but now the wheel has turned full circle, with dedicated machines supplying this radiation for a wide range of science. The astonishing growth rate in this field was highlighted at an International Conference on Synchrotron Radiation, held at the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Trieste, Italy from 7-11 April.

  4. National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Steenbergen, A.

    1979-01-01

    The National Synchrotron Light Source comprises two high intensity electron storage rings for the generation of intense fluxes of synchrotron radiation in the vuv wavelength domain (700 MeV e - ring) and in the x-ray wavelength domain (2.5 GeV e - ring). A description is presented of the basic facility and the characteristics of the synchrotron radiation sources. The present plans for specific beam lines will be enumerated and the planned use of beam wigglers and undulators will be discussed

  5. Synchrotron radiation at Trieste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The fast developing field of synchrotron radiation has its origins in the mastery of storage rings in high energy physics and is a prime example of spinoff from pure science. Intense electromagnetic radiation streams off when beams of high energy electrons are bent or shaken. This synchrotron radiation was once an annoying waste of energy in particle storage rings, but now the wheel has turned full circle, with dedicated machines supplying this radiation for a wide range of science. The astonishing growth rate in this field was highlighted at an International Conference on Synchrotron Radiation, held at the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Trieste, Italy from 7-11 April

  6. National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulbert, S.L.; Lazarz, N.M.

    1991-04-01

    This report discussion research being conducted at the National Synchrotron light source. In particular, this report contains operations summaries; symposia, workshops, and projects; NSLS highlights; and abstracts of science at the NSLS

  7. Uses of synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, B.M.

    1982-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence has long been used as a technique for elemental analysis. X-ray fluorescence techniques have a number of features that make them attractive for application to biomedical samples. In the past few years synchrotron radiation x-ray sources have been developed and, because of their properties, their use can improve the sensitivity for trace element analysis by two to three orders of magnitude. Also, synchrotron radiation will make possible an x-ray microprobe with resolution in the micrometer range. The National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), a dedicated synchrotron radiation source recently built at Brookhaven National Laboratory, will have a facility for trace element analysis by x-ray fluorescence and will be available to all interested users

  8. The Australian synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farhi, R.

    2005-06-01

    This document recalls the historical aspects of the Australian Synchrotron which will be implemented in 2007. It presents then the objectives of this program, the specifications of the ring and the light lines. (A.L.B.)

  9. Inauguration of Proton Synchrotron

    CERN Multimedia

    1960-01-01

    On 5 February 1960, the Proton Synchrotron (PS) was formally inaugurated. The great Danish physicist, Niels Bohr, releases a bottle of champagne against a shielding block to launch the PS on its voyage in physics.

  10. Coherent Synchrotron Radiation: Theory and Simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novokhatski, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    The physics of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) emitted by ultra-relativistic electron bunches, known since the last century, has become increasingly important with the development of high peak current free electron lasers and shorter bunch lengths in storage rings. Coherent radiation can be described as a low frequency part of the familiar synchrotron radiation in bending magnets. As this part is independent of the electron energy, the fields of different electrons of a short bunch can be in phase and the total power of the radiation will be quadratic with the number of electrons. Naturally the frequency spectrum of the longitudinal electron distribution in a bunch is of the same importance as the overall electron bunch length. The interest in the utilization of high power radiation from the terahertz and far infrared region in the field of chemical, physical and biological processes has led synchrotron radiation facilities to pay more attention to the production of coherent radiation. Several laboratories have proposed the construction of a facility wholly dedicated to terahertz production using the coherent radiation in bending magnets initiated by the longitudinal instabilities in the ring. Existing synchrotron radiation facilities also consider such a possibility among their future plans. There is a beautiful introduction to CSR in the 'ICFA Beam Dynamics Newsletter' N 35 (Editor C. Biscari). In this paper we recall the basic properties of CSR from the theory and what new effects, we can get from the precise simulations of the coherent radiation using numerical solutions of Maxwell's equations. In particular, transverse variation of the particle energy loss in a bunch, discovered in these simulations, explains the slice emittance growth in bending magnets of the bunch compressors and transverse de-coherence in undulators. CSR may play same the role as the effect of quantum fluctuations of synchrotron radiation in damping rings. It can limit the minimum

  11. Synchrotron environmental laboratory (SUL) at Anka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denecke, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    ) speciation methods, applications of micro-focusing for studies on heterogeneous systems and imaging techniques as well as synchrotron infrared spectroscopy are planned to be available. (author)

  12. Analytical research using synchrotron radiation based techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, Shambhu Nath

    2015-01-01

    There are many Synchrotron Radiation (SR) based techniques such as X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS), X-ray Fluorescence Analysis (XRF), SR-Fourier-transform Infrared (SRFTIR), Hard X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (HAXPS) etc. which are increasingly being employed worldwide in analytical research. With advent of modern synchrotron sources these analytical techniques have been further revitalized and paved ways for new techniques such as microprobe XRF and XAS, FTIR microscopy, Hard X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (HAXPS) etc. The talk will cover mainly two techniques illustrating its capability in analytical research namely XRF and XAS. XRF spectroscopy: XRF spectroscopy is an analytical technique which involves the detection of emitted characteristic X-rays following excitation of the elements within the sample. While electron, particle (protons or alpha particles), or X-ray beams can be employed as the exciting source for this analysis, the use of X-ray beams from a synchrotron source has been instrumental in the advancement of the technique in the area of microprobe XRF imaging and trace level compositional characterisation of any sample. Synchrotron radiation induced X-ray emission spectroscopy, has become competitive with the earlier microprobe and nanoprobe techniques following the advancements in manipulating and detecting these X-rays. There are two important features that contribute to the superb elemental sensitivities of microprobe SR induced XRF: (i) the absence of the continuum (Bremsstrahlung) background radiation that is a feature of spectra obtained from charged particle beams, and (ii) the increased X-ray flux on the sample associated with the use of tunable third generation synchrotron facilities. Detection sensitivities have been reported in the ppb range, with values of 10 -17 g - 10 -14 g (depending on the particular element and matrix). Keeping in mind its demand, a microprobe XRF beamline has been setup by RRCAT at Indus-2 synchrotron

  13. European Synchrotron Radiation Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buras, B.

    1985-01-01

    How a European Synchrotron Radiation Facility has developed into a detailed proposal recently accepted as the basis for construction of the facility at Grenoble is discussed. In November 1977, the General Assembly of the European Science Foundation (ESF) approved the report of the ESF working party on synchrotron radiation entitled Synchrotron Radiation - a Perspective View for Europe. This report contained as one of its principal recommendations that work should commence on a feasibility study for a European synchrotron radiation laboratory having a dedicated hard X-ray storage ring and appropriate advanced instrumentation. In order to prepare a feasibility study the European Science Foundation set up the Ad-hoc Committee on Synchrotron Radiation, which in turn formed two working groups: one for the machine and another for instrumentation. This feasibility study was completed in 1979 with the publication of the Blue Book describing in detail the so called 1979 European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The heart of the facility was a 5 GeV electron storage ring and it was assumed that mainly the radiation from bending magnets will be used. The facility is described

  14. Scanning transmission x-ray microscope for materials science spectromicroscopy at the ALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warwick, T.; Seal, S.; Shin, H. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    The brightness of the Advanced Light Source will be exploited by several new instruments for materials science spectromicroscopy over the next year or so. The first of these to become operational is a scanning transmission x-ray microscope with which near edge x-ray absorption spectra (NEXAFS) can be measured on spatial features of sub-micron size. Here the authors describe the instrument as it is presently implemented, its capabilities, some studies made to date and the developments to come. The Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscope makes use of a zone plate lens to produce a small x-ray spot with which to perform absorption spectroscopy through thin samples. The x-ray beam from ALS undulator beamline 7.0 emerges into the microscope vessel through a silicon nitride vacuum window 160nm thick and 300{mu}m square. The vessel is filled with helium at atmospheric pressure. The zone plate lens is illuminated 1mm downstream from the vacuum window and forms an image in first order of a pinhole which is 3m upstream in the beamline. An order sorting aperture passes the first order converging light and blocks the unfocused zero order. The sample is at the focus a few mm downstream of the zone plate and mounted from a scanning piezo stage which rasters in x and y so that an image is formed, pixel by pixel, by an intensity detector behind the sample. Absorption spectra are measured point-by-point as the photon energy is scanned by rotating the diffraction grating in the monochromator and changing the undulator gap.

  15. Chemical speciation of polyurethane polymers by soft-x-ray spectromicroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rightor, E.G. [Dow Chemical, Freeport, TX (United States); Hitchcock, A.P.; Urquhart, S.G. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Polyurethane polymers are a versatile class of materials which have numerous applications in modern life, from automotive body panels, to insulation, to household furnishings. Phase segregation helps to determine the physical properties of several types of polyurethanes. Polymer scientists believe that understanding the connections between formulation chemistry, the chemical nature of the segregated phases, and the physical properties of the resulting polymer, would greatly advance development of improved polyurethane materials. However, the sub-micron size of segregated features precludes their chemical analysis by existing methods, leaving only indirect means of characterizing these features. For the past several years the authors have been developing near edge X-ray absorption spectromicroscopy to study the chemical nature of individual segregated phases. Part of this work has involved studies of molecular analogues and model polymers, in conjunction with quantum calculations, in order to identify the characteristic near edge spectral transitions of important chemical groups. This spectroscopic base is allowing the authors to study phase segregation in polyurethanes by taking advantage of several unique capabilities of scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM) - high spatial resolution ({approximately} 0.1 {mu}m), high spectral resolution ({approximately}0.1 eV at the C 1s edge), and the ability to record images and spectra with relatively low radiation damage. The beamline 7.0 STXM at ALS is being used to study microtomed sections or cast films of polyurethanes. Based on the pioneering work of Ade, Kirz and collaborators at the NSLS X-1A STXM, it is clear that scanning X-ray transmission microscopy using soft X-rays can provide information about the chemical origin of phase segregation in radiation-sensitive materials on a sub-micron scale. This information is difficult or impossible to obtain by other means.

  16. First insights of Cr speciation in leached Portland cement using X-ray spectromicroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Jérôme; Bénard, Anne; Susini, Jean; Borschneck, Daniel; Hazemann, Jean-Louis; Cheylan, Pascal; Vichot, Angélique; Bottero, Jean-Yves

    2003-11-01

    X-ray spectromicroscopy has been successfully applied to determine the evolution of the Cr oxidation state in Portland cement during leaching experiments. To our knowledge, this is the first study that demonstrates the possibility to study the chromium oxidoreduction phenomena in cement materials at natural Cr concentration (approximately 60 ppm) and at the micron scale. Line scans of Cr for Cr(VI) doped (2000 ppm) and undoped samples indicate that the altered layer (0-1000 microm from the surface) is characterized by a lower amount of Cr as compared to the core part, whereas an accumulation appears in the intermediate region (1000-1300 microm). This Cr-rich interface could correspond to an accumulation of ettringite (3CaO x Al2O3 x 3CaSO4 x 32H2O) as reported by previous works. This mineral exhibits the property to incorporate Cr(III) and Cr(VI) by replacement of aluminum and sulfate, respectively, in the structure. The most surprising result concerns the evolution of the Cr(VI)/Cr(tot) ratio along the line spectra, which is constant from the altered layer to the core (both for doped and undoped samples). This means thatthe same amounts of Cr(VI) and Cr(tot) are released during leaching. Even for the undoped sample, Cr(VI) was detected in the altered layer at 40 microm from the surface. This result is not in perfect agreement with literature, which usually states that Cr(VI) is mainly leached out. Although this result must be confirmed, it clearly indicates that Cr(VI) may be less mobile than predicted by models. An attempt is made to identify potential Cr(VI) fixation phases.

  17. X-ray photoemission spectromicroscopy of titanium silicide formation in patterned microstructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.; Solak, H.; Cerrina, F.

    1997-01-01

    Titanium silicide has the lowest resistivity of all the refractory metal silicides and has good thermal stability as well as excellent compatibility with Al metallization. It is used as an intermediate buffer layer between W vias and the Si substrate to provide good electrical contact in ULSI technology, whose submicron patterned features form the basis of the integrated circuits of today and tomorrow, in the self aligned silicide (salicide) formation process. TiSi 2 exists in two phases: a metastable C49 base-centered orthorhombic phase with specific resistivity of 60-90 μΩ-cm that is formed at a lower temperature (formation anneal) and the stable 12-15 μΩ-cm resistivity face-centered orthorhombic C54 phase into which C49 is transformed with a higher temperature (conversion anneal) step. C54 is clearly the target for low resistivity VLSI interconnects. However, it has been observed that when dimensions shrink below 1/mic (or when the Ti thickness drops below several hundred angstroms), the transformation of C49 into C54 is inhibited and agglomeration often occurs in fine lines at high temperatures. This results in a rise in resistivity due to incomplete transformation to C54 and because of discontinuities in the interconnect line resulting from agglomeration. Spectromicroscopy is an appropriate tool to study the evolution of the TiSi2 formation process because of its high resolution chemical imaging ability which can detect bonding changes even in the absence of changes in the relative amounts of species and because of the capability of studying thick open-quotes as isclose quotes industrial samples

  18. X-ray photoemission spectromicroscopy of titanium silicide formation in patterned microstructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, S.; Solak, H.; Cerrina, F. [Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison, Stoughton, WI (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Titanium silicide has the lowest resistivity of all the refractory metal silicides and has good thermal stability as well as excellent compatibility with Al metallization. It is used as an intermediate buffer layer between W vias and the Si substrate to provide good electrical contact in ULSI technology, whose submicron patterned features form the basis of the integrated circuits of today and tomorrow, in the self aligned silicide (salicide) formation process. TiSi{sub 2} exists in two phases: a metastable C49 base-centered orthorhombic phase with specific resistivity of 60-90 {mu}{Omega}-cm that is formed at a lower temperature (formation anneal) and the stable 12-15 {mu}{Omega}-cm resistivity face-centered orthorhombic C54 phase into which C49 is transformed with a higher temperature (conversion anneal) step. C54 is clearly the target for low resistivity VLSI interconnects. However, it has been observed that when dimensions shrink below 1/mic (or when the Ti thickness drops below several hundred angstroms), the transformation of C49 into C54 is inhibited and agglomeration often occurs in fine lines at high temperatures. This results in a rise in resistivity due to incomplete transformation to C54 and because of discontinuities in the interconnect line resulting from agglomeration. Spectromicroscopy is an appropriate tool to study the evolution of the TiSi2 formation process because of its high resolution chemical imaging ability which can detect bonding changes even in the absence of changes in the relative amounts of species and because of the capability of studying thick {open_quotes}as is{close_quotes} industrial samples.

  19. A dedicated storage ring for Far-IR coherent synchrotron radiation at the ALS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barry, W.C.; Baptist, K.M.; Benjegerdes, R.J.; Biocca, A.K.; Byrd, J.M.; Byrne, W.E.; Cambie, D.; Chin, M.J.; Harkins, J.P.; Kwiatkowski, S.; Li, D.; Marks, S.; Martin, M.C.; McKinney, W.R.; Munson, D.V.; Nishimura, H.; Paterson, J.A.; Plate, D.W.; Rex, K.R.; Robin, D.S.; Rossi, S.L.; Sannibale, F.; Scarvie, T.; Schlueter, R.D.; Steier, C.A.; Stover, G.D.; Thur, W.G.; Jung, J.Y.; Zbasnik, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    We present the concepts for a storage ring dedicated to and optimized for the production of stable coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) over the far-infrared wavelength range from about 200 microns to 1 mm

  20. Future Synchrotron Radiation Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Winick, Herman

    2003-01-01

    Sources of synchrotron radiation (also called synchrotron light) and their associated research facilities have experienced a spectacular growth in number, performance, and breadth of application in the past two to three decades. In 1978 there were eleven electron storage rings used as light sources. Three of these were small rings, all below 500 mega-electron volts (MeV), dedicated to this purpose; the others, with energy up to 5 giga-electron volts (GeV), were used parasitically during the operation of the ring for high energy physics research. In addition, at that time synchrotron radiation from nine cyclic electron synchrotrons, with energy up to 5 GeV, was also used parasitically. At present no cyclic synchrotrons are used, while about 50 electron storage rings are in operation around the world as fully dedicated light sources for basic and applied research in a wide variety of fields. Among these fields are structural molecular biology, molecular environmental science, materials, analytic chemistry, micr...

  1. Australian synchrotron radiation science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, J.W.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: The Australian Synchrotron Radiation Program, ASRP, has been set up as a major national research facility to provide facilities for scientists and technologists in physics, chemistry, biology and materials science who need access to synchrotron radiation. Australia has a strong tradition in crystallography and structure determination covering small molecule crystallography, biological and protein crystallography, diffraction science and materials science and several strong groups are working in x-ray optics, soft x-ray and vacuum ultra-violet physics. A number of groups whose primary interest is in the structure and dynamics of surfaces, catalysts, polymer and surfactant science and colloid science are hoping to use scattering methods and, if experience in Europe, Japan and USA can be taken as a guide, many of these groups will need third generation synchrotron access. To provide for this growing community, the Australian National Beamline at the Photon Factory, Tsukuba, Japan, has been established since 1990 through a generous collaboration with Japanese colleagues, the beamline equipment being largely produced in Australia. This will be supplemented in 1997 with access to the world's most powerful synchrotron x-ray source at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, USA. Some recent experiments in surface science using neutrons as well as x-rays from the Australian National Beamline will be used to illustrate one of the challenges that synchrotron x-rays may meet

  2. Synchrotron radiation sources: general features and vacuum system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craievich, A.F.

    1985-01-01

    In the last years the electron or positron storage rings, which were until 1970 only used for high energy physics experiments, begun to be built in several countries exclusively as electromagnetic radiation source (synchrotron radiation). The sources are generally made up by injector (linear accelerator or microtron), 'booster' (synchrotron), storage ring, insertions ('Wigglers' and ondulators) and light lines. The interest by these sources are due to the high intensity, large spectrum (from infrared to the X-rays), polarization and pulsed structure of the produced radiation. For the ultra-vacuum obtainement, necessary for the functioning storage rings (p=10 -9 Torr), several special procedures are used. In Brazil the Synchrotron Radiation National Laboratory of the CNPq worked out a conceptual project of synchrotron radiation source, whose execution should begin by the construction of the several components prototypes. (L.C.) [pt

  3. Precision synchrotron radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levi, M.; Rouse, F.; Butler, J.

    1989-03-01

    Precision detectors to measure synchrotron radiation beam positions have been designed and installed as part of beam energy spectrometers at the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC). The distance between pairs of synchrotron radiation beams is measured absolutely to better than 28 /mu/m on a pulse-to-pulse basis. This contributes less than 5 MeV to the error in the measurement of SLC beam energies (approximately 50 GeV). A system of high-resolution video cameras viewing precisely-aligned fiducial wire arrays overlaying phosphorescent screens has achieved this accuracy. Also, detectors of synchrotron radiation using the charge developed by the ejection of Compton-recoil electrons from an array of fine wires are being developed. 4 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  4. ANKA - new horizons with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagelstein, M.; Czolk, R.

    2001-01-01

    ANKA GmbH operates a state-of-the-art electron storage ring (2.5 GeV energy, 400 mA maximum current) for the production of high-intensity synchrotron radiation. The produced 'superlight' ranges from the hard X-ray to the infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. To use the light for microfabrication and analysis a number of modern, high quality production and experimental facilities exist on this circular (diameter about 35 m) synchrotron radiation sources. The experimental facilities are consolidated by a young, experienced and highly motivated team of experts. For the patterning of polymers by deep X-ray lithography three end-stations (so-called beamlines) are available. For analytical tasks five beamlines are established where different experiments can be made based on X-ray methods such as X-ray absorption, diffraction and fluorescence spectroscopy as well as IR-spectroscopy. (orig.)

  5. Properties of synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Materlik, G.

    1982-01-01

    This paper forms the introductory chapter to a book concerning the use of synchrotron radiation for investigation of the structure and mechanism of biological macromolecules. After a historical section, the physics of synchrotron radiation is summarized so that the most promising experiments may be extrapolated. Irradiated power and intensity, polarization and angular distribution, brilliance of a real source, and developments such as wigglers and undulators are briefly dealt with. The paper includes a tabulated compilation of proposed and operating machines in 1982, with some of their characteristics. (U.K.)

  6. Estimating the Post-Mortem Interval of skeletonized remains: The use of Infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectro-microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creagh, Dudley; Cameron, Alyce

    2017-08-01

    When skeletonized remains are found it becomes a police task to determine to identify the body and establish the cause of death. It assists investigators if the Post-Mortem Interval (PMI) can be established. Hitherto no reliable qualitative method of estimating the PMI has been found. A quantitative method has yet to be developed. This paper shows that IR spectroscopy and Raman microscopy have the potential to form the basis of a quantitative method.

  7. Research by industry at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    The world's foremost facility for research using x-rays and ultraviolet and infrared radiation, is operated by the National Synchrotron Light Source dept. This pamphlet described the participating research teams that built most of the beam lines, various techniques for studying materials, treatment of materials, and various industrial research (catalysis, pharmaceuticals, etc.)

  8. Towards a table-top synchrotron based on supercontinuum generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christian Rosenberg; Moselund, Peter M.; Huot, Laurent

    2018-01-01

    Recently, high brightness and broadband supercontinuum (SC) sources reaching far into the infrared (IR) have emerged with the potential to rival traditional broadband sources of IR radiation. Here, the brightness of these IR SC sources is compared with that of synchrotron IR beamlines and Si...

  9. Reflectometry with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumrey, Michael; Cibik, Levent; Fischer, Andreas; Gottwald, Alexander; Kroth, Udo; Scholze, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The measurement of the reflectivity for VUV, XUV, and X-radiation at the PTB synchrotron radiation sources is described. The corresponding data of the used beams are presented. Results of experiments on a Cu-Ni double-layer, SiO 2 , Si, and MgF 2 are presented. (HSI)

  10. Coherent synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agoh, Tomonori

    2006-01-01

    This article presents basic properties of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) with numerical examples and introduces the reader to important aspects of CSR in future accelerators with short bunches. We show interesting features of the single bunch instability due to CSR in storage rings and discuss the longitudinal CSR field via the impedance representation. (author)

  11. Characteristics of synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, G.S.

    1984-01-01

    The characteristics and production of synchrotron radiation are qualitatively discussed. The spectral properties of wigglers and undulators are briefly described. Possible applications in condensed matter physics are outlined. These include atomic and molecular studies, crystallography, impurities in solids and radiographic imaging

  12. Synchrotron radiation research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markus, N.

    1995-01-01

    In the many varied application fields of accelerators, synchrotron radiation ranks as one of the most valuable and widely useful tools. Synchrotron radiation is produced in multi-GeV electron synchrotrons and storage rings, and emerges tangentially in a narrow vertical fan. Synchrotron radiation has been used extensively for basic studies and, more recently, for applied research in the chemical, materials, biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries. Initially, the radiation was a byproduct of high energy physics laboratories but the high demand soon resulted in the construction of dedicated electron storage rings. The accelerator technology is now well developed and a large number of sources have been constructed, with energies ranging from about 1.5 to 8 GeV including the 6 GeV European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) source at Grenoble, France. A modern third-generation synchrotron radiation source has an electron storage ring with a complex magnet lattice to produce ultra-low emittance beams, long straights for 'insertion devices', and 'undulator' or 'wiggler' magnets to generate radiation with particular properties. Large beam currents are necessary to give high radiation fluxes and long beam lifetimes require ultra high vacuum systems. Industrial synchrotron radiation research programmes use either Xray diffraction or spectroscopy to determine the structures of a wide range of materials. Biological and pharmaceutical applications study the functions of various proteins. With this knowledge, it is possible to design molecules to change protein behaviour for pharmaceuticals, or to configure more active proteins, such as enzymes, for industrial processes. Recent advances in molecular biology have resulted in a large increase in protein crystallography studies, with researchers using crystals which, although small and weakly diffracting, benefit from the high intensity. Examples with commercial significance include the study of

  13. Quantifying redox-induced Schottky barrier variations in memristive devices via in operando spectromicroscopy with graphene electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeumer, Christoph; Schmitz, Christoph; Marchewka, Astrid; Mueller, David N.; Valenta, Richard; Hackl, Johanna; Raab, Nicolas; Rogers, Steven P.; Khan, M. Imtiaz; Nemsak, Slavomir; Shim, Moonsub; Menzel, Stephan; Schneider, Claus Michael; Waser, Rainer; Dittmann, Regina

    2016-08-01

    The continuing revolutionary success of mobile computing and smart devices calls for the development of novel, cost- and energy-efficient memories. Resistive switching is attractive because of, inter alia, increased switching speed and device density. On electrical stimulus, complex nanoscale redox processes are suspected to induce a resistance change in memristive devices. Quantitative information about these processes, which has been experimentally inaccessible so far, is essential for further advances. Here we use in operando spectromicroscopy to verify that redox reactions drive the resistance change. A remarkable agreement between experimental quantification of the redox state and device simulation reveals that changes in donor concentration by a factor of 2-3 at electrode-oxide interfaces cause a modulation of the effective Schottky barrier and lead to >2 orders of magnitude change in device resistance. These findings allow realistic device simulations, opening a route to less empirical and more predictive design of future memory cells.

  14. CORNELL: Synchrotron 25

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    A recent celebration marked the twenty-fifth anniversary of the Cornell Electron Synchrotron. The major milestone in the commissioning of the synchrotron was on October 11, 1967 when Helen Edwards, Boyce McDaniel, and Maury Tigner achieved a 7 GeV beam, a worldrecord energy for electron synchrotrons at that time. Like so many advances in experimental physics, this occurred early in the morning - 3 a.m.! The transition from accelerator commissioning to high energy physics operation was extremely rapid; 7 GeV operation for data collection was routine just five weeks later. Throughout its life as a source of photon and electron beams for fixed target experiments, the synchrotron maintained energy leadership for circular electron machines. Originally designed for operation at 10 GeV, eventually it consistently provided beams for experiments at energies up to 11.6 GeV. It now operates at 5 GeV, serving as the injector for the CESR electron-positron storage ring. Robert Wilson was director of the laboratory during the design and most of the construction of the machine. He left near the end of the construction to become the first director of Fermilab and was replaced by Boyce McDaniel, who guided the laboratory from the completion of the synchrotron to the construction and early operation of CESR. Wilson recalled how the laboratory had originally proposed a 3 GeV turnkey machine to be built entirely by industry and would fit in the space previously occupied by earlier Cornell accelerators. However, members of the laboratory realized that 3 GeV would not open new physics frontiers, that the construction of the accelerator was much of the fun of doing high energy physics experiments, and that a more challenging project was needed. This led to the proposal for the 10 GeV synchrotron which was built in the ''Cornell Style'' with many of the components fabricated and nearly all of the assembly done at Cornell

  15. CORNELL: Synchrotron 25

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1993-03-15

    A recent celebration marked the twenty-fifth anniversary of the Cornell Electron Synchrotron. The major milestone in the commissioning of the synchrotron was on October 11, 1967 when Helen Edwards, Boyce McDaniel, and Maury Tigner achieved a 7 GeV beam, a worldrecord energy for electron synchrotrons at that time. Like so many advances in experimental physics, this occurred early in the morning - 3 a.m.! The transition from accelerator commissioning to high energy physics operation was extremely rapid; 7 GeV operation for data collection was routine just five weeks later. Throughout its life as a source of photon and electron beams for fixed target experiments, the synchrotron maintained energy leadership for circular electron machines. Originally designed for operation at 10 GeV, eventually it consistently provided beams for experiments at energies up to 11.6 GeV. It now operates at 5 GeV, serving as the injector for the CESR electron-positron storage ring. Robert Wilson was director of the laboratory during the design and most of the construction of the machine. He left near the end of the construction to become the first director of Fermilab and was replaced by Boyce McDaniel, who guided the laboratory from the completion of the synchrotron to the construction and early operation of CESR. Wilson recalled how the laboratory had originally proposed a 3 GeV turnkey machine to be built entirely by industry and would fit in the space previously occupied by earlier Cornell accelerators. However, members of the laboratory realized that 3 GeV would not open new physics frontiers, that the construction of the accelerator was much of the fun of doing high energy physics experiments, and that a more challenging project was needed. This led to the proposal for the 10 GeV synchrotron which was built in the ''Cornell Style'' with many of the components fabricated and nearly all of the assembly done at Cornell.

  16. Synchrotron radiation: its characteristics and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blewett, J.P.; Chasman, R.; Green, G.K.

    1977-01-01

    It has been known for a century that charged particles radiate when accelerated and that relativistic electrons in the energy range between 100 MeV and several GeV and constrained to travel in circular orbits emit concentrated, intense beams with broad continuous spectra that can cover the electromagnetic spectrum from infrared through hard X-rays. Recently the possible applications of this radiation have been appreciated and electron synchrotrons and electron storage rings are now being used in many centers for studies of the properties of matter in the solid, liquid and gaseous states. A brief history is presented of ''synchrotron radiation'' as it is now called. The basic properties of this radiation are described and the world-wide distribution is indicated of facilities for its production. Particular attention is given to the proposed facility at Brookhaven which will be the first major installation to be dedicated only to the production and use of synchrotron radiation. Finally, typical examples are given of applications in the areas of radiation absorption studies, techniques based on scattering of radiation, and advances based on X-ray lithography

  17. MICROANALYSIS OF MATERIALS USING SYNCHROTRON RADIATION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JONES,K.W.; FENG,H.

    2000-12-01

    High intensity synchrotron radiation produces photons with wavelengths that extend from the infrared to hard x rays with energies of hundreds of keV with uniquely high photon intensities that can be used to determine the composition and properties of materials using a variety of techniques. Most of these techniques represent extensions of earlier work performed with ordinary tube-type x-ray sources. The properties of the synchrotron source such as the continuous range of energy, high degree of photon polarization, pulsed beams, and photon flux many orders of magnitude higher than from x-ray tubes have made possible major advances in the possible chemical applications. We describe here ways that materials analyses can be made using the high intensity beams for measurements with small beam sizes and/or high detection sensitivity. The relevant characteristics of synchrotron x-ray sources are briefly summarized to give an idea of the x-ray parameters to be exploited. The experimental techniques considered include x-ray fluorescence, absorption, and diffraction. Examples of typical experimental apparatus used in these experiments are considered together with descriptions of actual applications.

  18. Dirac charge dynamics in graphene by infrared spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Michael C; Li, Z.Q.; Henriksen, E.A.; Jiang, Z.; Hao, Z.; Martin, Michael C; Kim, P.; Stormer, H.L.; Basov, Dimitri N.

    2008-01-01

    A remarkable manifestation of the quantum character of electrons in matter is offered by graphene, a single atomic layer of graphite. Unlike conventional solids where electrons are described with the Schroedinger equation, electronic excitations in graphene are governed by the Dirac hamiltonian. Some of the intriguing electronic properties of graphene, such as massless Dirac quasiparticles with linear energy-momentum dispersion, have been confirmed by recent observations. Here, we report an infrared spectromicroscopy study of charge dynamics in graphene integrated in gated devices. Our measurements verify the expected characteristics of graphene and, owing to the previously unattainable accuracy of infrared experiments, also uncover significant departures of the quasiparticle dynamics from predictions made for Dirac fermions in idealized, free-standing graphene. Several observations reported here indicate the relevance of many-body interactions to the electromagnetic response of graphene

  19. Coronary angiography using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akatsuka, Takao; Hiranaka, Yukio; Takeda, Tohru; Hyodo, Kazuyuki.

    1990-01-01

    Invasive coronary angiography is the imaging technique of choice for diagnosis of ischemic heart disease. Recently, the application of synchrotron radiation in coronary angiography has been investigated in the world, with the aim of developing the noninvasive technique for visualizing the heart. In this article, backgrounds and present situation of coronary angiography using synchrotron radiation are reviewed. Firstly, visual imaging techniques of the cardiovascular system are discussed in terms of angiography and digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Conventional temporal, energy, and hybrid subtraction modes used in DSA are referred to. Secondly, the application of synchrotron radiation is presented, focusing on the property of synchrotron radiation and K-edge subtraction angiography. Two kinds of synchrotron radiation beam methods are outlined. Interpretation of image data and various subtraction procedures remain unestablished. There is much to be done before coronary angiography using synchrotron radiation comes into a clinical practice. (N.K.)

  20. Synchrotron FTIR Imaging For The Identification Of Cell Types Within Human Tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, Michael J.; Pounder, F. Nell; Nasse, Michael J.; Macias, Virgilia; Kajdacsy-Balla, Andre; Hirschmugl, Carol; Bhargava, Rohit

    2010-01-01

    The use of synchrotron Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (S-FTIR) has been shown to be a very promising tool for biomedical research. S-FTIR spectroscopy allows for the fast acquisition of infrared (IR) spectra at a spatial resolution approaching the IR diffraction limit. The development of the Infrared Environmental Imaging (IRENI) beamline at the Synchrotron Radiation Center (SRC) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison has allowed for diffraction limited imaging measurements of cells in human prostate and breast tissues. This has allowed for the identification of cell types within tissues that would otherwise not have been resolvable using conventional FTIR sources.

  1. Compact synchrotron radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, N.; Wang, T.; Tian, J.; Lin, Y.; Chen, S.; He, W.; Hu, Y.; Li, Q.

    1985-01-01

    A compact 800 MeV synchrotron radiation source is discussed. The storage ring has a circumference of 30.3 m, two 90 degree and four 45 degree bending magnet sections, two long straight sections and four short straight sections. The radius of the bending magnet is 2.224m. The critical wave length is 24A. The injector is a 15 Mev Microtron Electrons are accelerated from 15 Mev to 800 Mev by ramping the field of the ring. The expected stored current will be around 100 ma

  2. Synchrotron Moessbauer reflectometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagy, D.L.; Bottyan, L.; Deak, L.; Szilagyi, E. [KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics (Hungary); Spiering, H. [Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie (Germany); Dekoster, J.; Langouche, G. [K.U. Leuven, Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica (Belgium)

    2000-07-15

    Grazing incidence nuclear resonant scattering of synchrotron radiation can be applied to perform depth-selective phase analysis and to determine the isotopic and magnetic structure of thin films and multilayers. Principles and recent experiments of this new kind of reflectometry are briefly reviewed. Methodological aspects are discussed. Model calculations demonstrate how the orientations of the sublattice magnetisation in ferro- and antiferromagnetic multilayers affect time-integral and time-differential spectra. Experimental examples show the efficiency of the method in investigating finite-stacking, in-plane and out-of-plane anisotropy and spin-flop effects in magnetic multilayers.

  3. Synchrotron light beam and a synchrotron light experiment facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Masami

    1980-01-01

    In the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics, about two years ago, the requirements of synchrotron light beam in respective measuring instruments were discussed. Then, also the arrangement (lattice) of a storage ring, the nature of synchrotron light beam, a synchrotron light experiment facility and the arrangement of the beam lines were studied. During the period of two years since then, due to the changes in the circumstances, the design of the lattice was altered. Accordingly, the arrangement of the beam lines and of measuring instruments were largely changed. At this point, the results of discussions in various meetings are described, though they may still be subject to future changes, with due consideration to beam, environment and beam lines required for the design of the measuring instruments: (1) storage ring and synchrotron light beam, (2) requirements on small beam size and beam stability, (3) a synchrotron light experiment facility. (J.P.N.)

  4. Synchrotron Elettra. Status and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remec, I.

    1992-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation and the possibilities for its applications are shortly presented. Elettra, the third generation synchrotron, now under construction in Trieste, Italy, is briefly described and its main characteristics are given. Current activities in Slovenia, related to Elettra, are presented. (author) [sl

  5. Basis of medical accelerator. Synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawachi, Kiyomitsu

    2014-01-01

    On the synchrotron as a medical accelerator, this paper introduces the basic principle, basic techniques and the like. The accelerator, when synchrotron is adopted as an ion beam radiotherapy system, is the composite accelerator composed of ion sources, injector, and synchrotron. This paper introduces the overall structure of synchrotron, and conceptually explains the basic behavior of high-frequency waves and magnetic field of synchrotron, as well as the deflection electromagnet of medical synchrotron and the operation pattern of high-frequency acceleration system. The types of synchrotron can be classified to the function combination type and function separation type, and this paper introduces the features of each type and various types of synchrotrons. It also explains beam dynamics important for ensuring the stability of beams, with a focus on the coordinate system, vertical movement, and lateral movement. In addition, it explains the incidence and outgoing of beams that are important for properly operating the accelerator, with a focus on their techniques. (A.O.)

  6. Experience with synchrotron radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krinsky, S.

    1987-01-01

    The development of synchrotron radiation sources is discussed, emphasizing characteristics important for x-ray microscopy. Bending magnets, wigglers and undulators are considered as sources of radiation. Operating experience at the national Synchrotron Light Source on the VUV and XRAY storage rings is reviewed, with particular consideration given to achieved current and lifetime, transverse bunch dimensions, and orbit stability. 6 refs., 3 figs

  7. Applications of synchrotron radiation to Chemical Engineering Science: Workshop report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    This report contains extended abstracts that summarize presentations made at the Workshop on Applications of Synchrotron Radiation to Chemical Engineering Science held at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL, on April 22--23, 1991. The talks emphasized the application of techniques involving absorption fluorescence, diffraction, and reflection of synchrotron x-rays, with a focus on problems in applied chemistry and chemical engineering, as well as on the use of x-rays in topographic, tomographic, and lithographic procedures. The attendees at the workshop included experts in the field of synchrotron science, scientists and engineers from ANL, other national laboratories, industry, and universities; and graduate and undergraduate students who were enrolled in ANL educational programs at the time of the workshop. Talks in the Plenary and Overview Session described the status of and special capabilities to be offered by the Advanced Photon Source (APS), as well as strategies and opportunities for utilization of synchrotron radiation to solve science and engineering problems. Invited talks given in subsequent sessions covered the use of intense infrared, ultraviolet, and x-ray photon beams (as provided by synchrotrons) in traditional and nontraditional areas of chemical engineering research related to electrochemical and corrosion science, catalyst development and characterization, lithography and imaging techniques, and microanalysis

  8. Applications of synchrotron radiation to Chemical Engineering Science: Workshop report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-07-01

    This report contains extended abstracts that summarize presentations made at the Workshop on Applications of Synchrotron Radiation to Chemical Engineering Science held at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL, on April 22--23, 1991. The talks emphasized the application of techniques involving absorption fluorescence, diffraction, and reflection of synchrotron x-rays, with a focus on problems in applied chemistry and chemical engineering, as well as on the use of x-rays in topographic, tomographic, and lithographic procedures. The attendees at the workshop included experts in the field of synchrotron science, scientists and engineers from ANL, other national laboratories, industry, and universities; and graduate and undergraduate students who were enrolled in ANL educational programs at the time of the workshop. Talks in the Plenary and Overview Session described the status of and special capabilities to be offered by the Advanced Photon Source (APS), as well as strategies and opportunities for utilization of synchrotron radiation to solve science and engineering problems. Invited talks given in subsequent sessions covered the use of intense infrared, ultraviolet, and x-ray photon beams (as provided by synchrotrons) in traditional and nontraditional areas of chemical engineering research related to electrochemical and corrosion science, catalyst development and characterization, lithography and imaging techniques, and microanalysis.

  9. In situ observation of surface reactions with synchrotron radiation induced semiconductor processes by infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy using buried metal layer substrates; Umekomi kinzokuso kiban wo mochiita sekigai hansha kyushu supekutoruho ni yoru hoshako reiki handotai process hanno no sonoba kansatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshigoe, A.; Hirano, S. [The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Yokohama (Japan); Mase, K.; Urisu, T. [Institute for Molecular Science, Aichi (Japan)

    1996-11-20

    It is known that infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRAS) on semiconductor or insulator surfaces becomes practicable by using buried metal layer (BML) substrates, in which the metal thin film is buried order semiconductor or insulator films. In this work, IRAS has been measured for Langmuir-Blodgett films deposited on the BML substrate with SiO2/Al/Si(100) structure and the observed spectrum intensity has been quantitatively compared with the calculation assuming the ideal multilayer structure for the BML substrate. The BML-IRAS using CoSi2 has been adopted to the detection of SiHn on the Si (100) substrate during synchrotron radiation (SR) stimulated Si2H6 gas source molecular beam epitaxy. It has been found that SiH2 and SiH3 on the Si (100) surface are easily decomposed by SR, but SiH can`t be decomposed. From these experiments, it has been concluded that the BML-IRAS is an useful in situ observation technique for the photo-stimulated surface reactions. 26 refs., 9 figs.

  10. Techniques for Handling and Removal of Spectral Channels in Fourier Transform Synchrotron-Based Spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, Amr; Predoi-Cross, Adriana; Teillet, Philippe M.

    2010-01-01

    Channel spectra are a big problem for those attempting to use synchrotron-based Fourier transform spectra for spectral lineshape studies. Due to the layout of the optical system at the CLS far-infrared beamline, the synchrotron beam undergoes unavoidable multiple reflections on the steering mirrors, beam splitter, several sets of windows, and filters. We present a method for eliminating channel spectra and compare the results of our technique with other methods available in the literature.

  11. The national synchrotron light source and its applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, G.P.

    1989-01-01

    We describe the National Synchrotron Light Source facility including its beamlines and operational characteristics. Research results on selected beamlines on the VUV ring which highlight new experimental capabilities are described since they are more relevant to the program at HESYRL. Examples chosen are spin-polarized photoemission, infra-red surface science, high resolution core level spectroscopy, X- Ray lithography, photoelectron/Auger coincidence spectroscopy and high electron momentum resolution surface studies. 7 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Proton synchrotron accelerator theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, E.J.N.

    1977-01-01

    This is the text of a series of lectures given as part of the CERN Academic Training Programme and primarily intended for young engineers and technicians in preparation for the running-in of the 400 GeV Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS). Following the definition of basic quantities, the problems of betatron motion and the effect of momentum spread and orbital errors on the transverse motion of the beam are reviewed. Consideration is then given to multipole fields, chromaticity and non-linear resonances. After dealing with basic relations governing longitudinal beam dynamics, the space-charge, resistive-wall and other collective effects are treated, with reference to precautions in the SPS to prevent their occurrence. (Auth.)

  13. CIRCE: A dedicated storage ring for coherent THz synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrd, J.M.; Martin, Michael C.; McKinney, W.R.; Munson, D.V.; Nishimura, H.; Robin, D.S.; Sannibale, F.; Schlueter, R.D.; Thur, W.G.; Jung, J.Y.; Wan, W.

    2003-01-01

    We present the concepts for an electron storage ring dedicated to and optimized for the production of stable coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) over the far-infrared terahertz wavelength range from 200 mm to about one cm. CIRCE (Coherent InfraRed CEnter) will be a 66 m circumference ring located on top of the ALS booster synchrotron shielding tunnel and using the existing ALS injector. This location provides enough floor space for both the CIRCE ring, its required shielding, and numerous beamlines. We briefly outline a model for CSR emission in which a static bunch distortion induced by the synchrotron radiation field is used to significantly extend the stable CSR emission towards higher frequencies. This model has been verified with experimental CSR results. We present the calculated CIRCE photon flux where a gain of 6-9 orders of magnitude is shown compared to existing far-IR sources. Additionally, the particular design of the dipole vacuum chamber has been optimized to allow an excellent transmission of these far-infrared wavelengths. We believe that the CIRCE source can be constructed for a modest cost

  14. A guide to synchrotron radiation science

    CERN Document Server

    Sato, Shigeru; Munro, Ian; Lodha, G S

    2015-01-01

    Synchrotron Radiation (SR), as a light source is now in use around the world to provide brilliant radiation from the infrared into the soft and hard X-ray regions. It is an indispensible and essential tool to establish the physic-chemical characteristics of materials and surfaces from an atomic and molecular view point. It is being applied to topics which range from mineralogy to protein crystallography, embracing research in areas from the physical to the life sciences. This new guide is a concise yet comprehensive and easily readable introduction to an expanding area of science. It presents in a readily assimilable form the basic concepts of SR science from its generation principles, through source design and operation to the principles of instruments for SR exploitation followed by a survey of its actual applications in selected research fields, including spectroscopy, diffractometry, microanalysis and chemical processing.

  15. Helical magnetized wiggler for synchrotron radiation laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Mei; Park, S.Y.; Hirshfield, J.L.

    1999-01-01

    A helical magnetized iron wiggler has been built for a novel infrared synchrotron radiation laser (SRL) experiment. The wiggler consists of four periods of helical iron structure immersed in a solenoid field. This wiggler is to impart transverse velocity to a prebunched 6 MeV electron beam, and thus to obtain a desired high orbit pitch ratio for the SRL. Field tapering at beam entrance is considered and tested on a similar wiggler. Analytic and simulated characteristics of wigglers of this type are discussed and the performance of the fabricated wigglers is demonstrated experimentally. A 4.7 kG peak field was measured for a 6.4 mm air gap and a 5.4 cm wiggler period at a 20 kG solenoid field. The measured helical fields compare favorably with the analytical solution. This type of helical iron wigglers has the potential to be scaled to small periods with strong field amplitude

  16. Helical magnetized wiggler for synchrotron radiation laser

    CERN Document Server

    Wang Mei; Hirshfield, J L

    1999-01-01

    A helical magnetized iron wiggler has been built for a novel infrared synchrotron radiation laser (SRL) experiment. The wiggler consists of four periods of helical iron structure immersed in a solenoid field. This wiggler is to impart transverse velocity to a prebunched 6 MeV electron beam, and thus to obtain a desired high orbit pitch ratio for the SRL. Field tapering at beam entrance is considered and tested on a similar wiggler. Analytic and simulated characteristics of wigglers of this type are discussed and the performance of the fabricated wigglers is demonstrated experimentally. A 4.7 kG peak field was measured for a 6.4 mm air gap and a 5.4 cm wiggler period at a 20 kG solenoid field. The measured helical fields compare favorably with the analytical solution. This type of helical iron wigglers has the potential to be scaled to small periods with strong field amplitude.

  17. Synchrotron light source data book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, J.

    1989-01-01

    The ''Synchrotron Light Source Data Book'' is as its name implies a collection of data on existing and planned synchrotron light sources. The intention was to provide a compendium of tools for the design of electron storage rings as synchrotron radiation sources. The slant is toward the accelerator physicist as other booklets such as the X-ray Data Booklet, edited by D. Vaughan (LBL PUB-490), address the 'use' of synchrotron radiation. It is hoped that the booklet serves as a pocket sized reference to facilitate back of the envelope type calculations. It contains some useful formulae in 'practical units' and a brief description of many of the existing and planned light source lattices

  18. Biomedical applications of synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwiatek, W.M.; Galka, M.; Hanson, A.L.; Paluszkiewicz, Cz.; Cichocki, T.

    2001-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation techniques application in medical diagnostics have been presented especially for: trace element analysis in tissues, elemental mapping, chemical speciation at trace levels, chemical structure determination. Presented techniques are very useful for early cancer discovery

  19. Inverse comptonization vs. thermal synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenimore, E.E.; Klebesadel, R.W.; Laros, J.G.

    1983-01-01

    There are currently two radiation mechanisms being considered for gamma-ray bursts: thermal synchrotron and inverse comptonization. They are mutually exclusive since thermal synchrotron requires a magnetic field of approx. 10 12 Gauss whereas inverse comptonization cannot produce a monotonic spectrum if the field is larger than 10 11 and is too inefficient relative to thermal synchrotron unless the field is less than 10 9 Gauss. Neither mechanism can explain completely the observed characteristics of gamma-ray bursts. However, we conclude that thermal synchrotron is more consistent with the observations if the sources are approx. 40 kpc away whereas inverse comptonization is more consistent if they are approx. 300 pc away. Unfortunately, the source distance is still not known and, thus, the radiation mechanism is still uncertain

  20. Regions compete for French synchrotron

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Ten regions in France have placed bids to host the planned national synchrotron Soleil. Leading contenders include a joint bid from Ile-de-France and Essonne for Orsay, offering FF 1 billion towards the construction costs (2 paragraphs).

  1. Reshuffle lifts French synchrotron hopes

    CERN Multimedia

    McCabe, H

    2000-01-01

    The sacking of Claude Allegre as research minister has raised doubts over the level of France's promised participation in the construction of Diamond but reawakened French hopes that the synchrotron Soleil may now be built (1 page).

  2. Search for microbial signatures within human and microbial calcifications using soft x-ray spectromicroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzerara, Karim; Miller, Virginia M; Barell, Gerard; Kumar, Vivek; Miot, Jennyfer; Brown, Gordon E; Lieske, John C

    2006-11-01

    The origin of advanced arterial and renal calcification remains poorly understood. Self-replicating, calcifying entities have been detected and isolated from calcified human tissues, including blood vessels and kidney stones, and are referred to as nanobacteria. However, the microbiologic nature of putative nanobacteria continues to be debated, in part because of the difficulty in discriminating biomineralized microbes from minerals nucleated on anything else (eg, macromolecules, cell membranes). To address this controversy, the use of techniques capable of characterizing the organic and mineral content of these self-replicated structures at the submicrometer scale would be beneficial. Calcifying gram-negative bacteria (Caulobacter crescentus, Ramlibacter tataouinensis) used as references and self-replicating calcified nanoparticles cultured from human samples of calcified aneurysms were examined using a scanning transmission x-ray microscope (STXM) at the Advanced Light Source at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. This microscope uses a monochromated and focused synchrotron x-ray beam (80-2,200 eV) to yield microscopic and spectroscopic information on both organic compounds and minerals at the 25 nm scale. High-spatial and energy resolution near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectra indicative of elemental speciation acquired at the C K-edge, N K-edge, and Ca L(2,3)-edge on a single-cell scale from calcified C. crescentus and R. tataouinensis displayed unique spectral signatures different from that of nonbiologic hydroxyapatite (Ca(10)(PO(4))(6)(OH)(2)). Further, preliminary NEXAFS measurements of calcium, carbon, and nitrogen functional groups of cultured calcified nanoparticles from humans revealed evidence of organics, likely peptides or proteins, specifically associated with hydroxyapatite minerals. Using NEXAFS at the 25 nm spatial scale, it is possible to define a biochemical signature for cultured calcified bacteria, including proteins

  3. Macromolecular crystallography using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartunik, H.D.; Phillips, J.C.; Fourme, R.

    1982-01-01

    The use of synchrotron X-ray sources in macromolecular crystallography is described. The properties of synchrotron radiation relevant to macromolecular crystallography are examined. The applications discussed include anomalous dispersion techniques, the acquisition of normal and high resolution data, and kinetic studies of structural changes in macromolecules; protein data are presented illustrating these applications. The apparatus used is described including information on the electronic detectors, the monitoring of the incident beam and crystal cooling. (U.K.)

  4. Manufacturability of compact synchrotron mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Gary M.

    1997-11-01

    While many of the government funded research communities over the years have put their faith and money into increasingly larger synchrotrons, such as Spring8 in Japan, and the APS in the United States, a viable market appears to exist for smaller scale, research and commercial grade, compact synchrotrons. These smaller, and less expensive machines, provide the research and industrial communities with synchrotron radiation beamline access at a portion of the cost of their larger and more powerful counterparts. A compact synchrotron, such as the Aurora-2D, designed and built by Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd. of japan (SHI), is a small footprint synchrotron capable of sustaining 20 beamlines. Coupled with a Microtron injector, with 150 MeV of injection energy, an entire facility fits within a 27 meter [88.5 ft] square floorplan. The system, controlled by 2 personal computers, is capable of producing 700 MeV electron energy and 300 mA stored current. Recently, an Aurora-2D synchrotron was purchased from SHI by the University of Hiroshima. The Rocketdyne Albuquerque Operations Beamline Optics Group was approached by SHI with a request to supply a group of 16 beamline mirrors for this machine. These mirrors were sufficient to supply 3 beamlines for the Hiroshima machine. This paper will address engineering issues which arose during the design and manufacturing of these mirrors.

  5. Detection and spectral measurements of coherent synchrotron radiation at FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrens, Christopher

    2010-02-15

    The operation of high-gain free-electron laser (FEL) underlies tremendous demands on high quality electron beams with high peak currents. At the Free-Electron-Laser in Hamburg (FLASH), two magnetic bunch compressors are used to compress the electron bunches longitudinally. In the bunch compressor magnets, these short electron bunches generate coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR). This CSR contains information on the longitudinal bunch profile, which is relevant for driving an FEL. In order to investigate coherent synchrotron radiation at the second bunch compressor BC3 at FLASH, a new setup behind the last dipole was installed. For the detection of coherent synchrotron radiation, which is emitted in the infrared regime, pyroelectric detectors were used. These pyroelectric detectors have been calibrated at the free-electron laser FELIX in the wavelength range from 5 {mu}m to 110 {mu}m. For characterisation of the emitted radiation, a transverse scanning device was used to measure the transverse intensity distribution. Various transmission filters were used to obtain additional information about the spectral content. In order to get spectral information with high resolution over a wide wavelength range, a rotating mirror spectrometer using reflective blazed gratings was installed. Using this spectrometer, the first spectral measurements of coherent synchrotron radiation at FLASH in a wavelength range from 10 {mu}m to 160 {mu}m were done. (orig.)

  6. Initial scientific uses of coherent synchrotron radiation inelectron storage rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basov, D.N.; Feikes, J.; Fried, D.; Holldack, K.; Hubers, H.W.; Kuske, P.; Martin, M.C.; Pavlov, S.G.; Schade, U.; Singley, E.J.; Wustefeld, G.

    2004-11-23

    The production of stable, high power, coherent synchrotron radiation at sub-terahertz frequency at the electron storage ring BESSY opens a new region in the electromagnetic spectrum to explore physical properties of materials. Just as conventional synchrotron radiation has been a boon to x-ray science, coherent synchrotron radiation may lead to many new innovations and discoveries in THz physics. With this new accelerator-based radiation source we have been able to extend traditional infrared measurements down into the experimentally poorly accessible sub-THz frequency range. The feasibility of using the coherent synchrotron radiation in scientific applications was demonstrated in a series of experiments: We investigated shallow single acceptor transitions in stressed and unstressed Ge:Ga by means of photoconductance measurements below 1 THz. We have directly measured the Josephson plasma resonance in optimally doped Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} for the first time and finally we succeeded to confine the sub-THz radiation for spectral near-field imaging on biological samples such as leaves and human teeth.

  7. Detection and spectral measurements of coherent synchrotron radiation at FLASH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrens, Christopher

    2010-02-01

    The operation of high-gain free-electron laser (FEL) underlies tremendous demands on high quality electron beams with high peak currents. At the Free-Electron-Laser in Hamburg (FLASH), two magnetic bunch compressors are used to compress the electron bunches longitudinally. In the bunch compressor magnets, these short electron bunches generate coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR). This CSR contains information on the longitudinal bunch profile, which is relevant for driving an FEL. In order to investigate coherent synchrotron radiation at the second bunch compressor BC3 at FLASH, a new setup behind the last dipole was installed. For the detection of coherent synchrotron radiation, which is emitted in the infrared regime, pyroelectric detectors were used. These pyroelectric detectors have been calibrated at the free-electron laser FELIX in the wavelength range from 5 μm to 110 μm. For characterisation of the emitted radiation, a transverse scanning device was used to measure the transverse intensity distribution. Various transmission filters were used to obtain additional information about the spectral content. In order to get spectral information with high resolution over a wide wavelength range, a rotating mirror spectrometer using reflective blazed gratings was installed. Using this spectrometer, the first spectral measurements of coherent synchrotron radiation at FLASH in a wavelength range from 10 μm to 160 μm were done. (orig.)

  8. Spin dynamics in electron synchrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Jan Felix

    2017-01-01

    Providing spin polarized particle beams with circular accelerators requires the consideration of depolarizing resonances which may significantly reduce the desired degree of polarization at specific beam energies. The corresponding spin dynamical effects are typically analyzed with numerical methods. In case of electron beams the influence of the emission of synchrotron radiation has to be taken into account. On short timescales, as in synchrotrons with a fast energy ramp or in damping rings, spin dynamics are investigated with spin tracking algorithms. This thesis presents the spin tracking code Polematrix as a versatile tool to study the impact of synchrotron radiation on spin dynamics. Spin tracking simulations have been performed based on the well established particle tracking code Elegant. The numerical studies demonstrate effects which are responsible for beam depolarization: Synchrotron side bands of depolarizing resonances and decoherence of spin precession. Polematrix can be utilized for any electron accelerator with minimal effort as it imports lattice files from the tracking programs MAD-X or Elegant. Polematrix has been published as open source software. Currently, the Electron Stretcher Accelerator ELSA at Bonn University is the only electron synchrotron worldwide providing a polarized beam. Integer and intrinsic depolarizing resonances are compensated with dedicated countermeasures during the fast energy ramp. Polarization measurements from ELSA demonstrate the particular spin dynamics of electrons and confirm the results of the spin tracking code Polematrix.

  9. FT-IR microscopical analysis with synchrotron radiation: The microscope optics and system performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reffner, J.A.; Martoglio, P.A.; Williams, G.P.

    1995-01-01

    When a Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) microspectrometer was first interfaced with the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) in September 1993, there was an instant realization that the performance at the diffraction limit had increased 40-100 times. The synchrotron source transformed the IR microspectrometer into a true IR microprobe, providing high-quality IR spectra for probe diameters at the diffraction limit. The combination of IR microspectroscopy and synchrotron radiation provides a powerful new tool for molecular spectroscopy. The ability to perform IR microspectroscopy with synchrotron radiation is still under development at Brookhaven National Laboratory, but several initial studies have been completed that demonstrate the broad-ranging applications of this technology and its potential for materials characterization

  10. Advanced development of catalysts by using the high-brilliance synchrotron radiation in SPring-8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-10-01

    The advanced development of catalysts by using the high-brilliance synchrotron radiation in SPring-8 is described: (1) the industrial use of SPring-8, (2) the analytical methods of catalyst using SPring-8 (XAFS, powder X-ray diffraction, thin film X-ray scattering, X-ray imaging, infrared analysis, X-ray fluorescence analysis, and photoelectron spectroscopy etc.), (3) the history of synchrotron radiation and catalyst investigations, (4) the new advanced measuring methods of catalyst using synchrotron radiation (various X-ray spectroscopic methods, and application of XAFS to highly-disperse systems of catalyst), and (5) the new advanced development of catalysts using synchrotron radiation and its applications (motor-car catalysts, light catalysts, fuel cells, nanotechnology, and trace amounts of catalyst in wastes). (M.H.)

  11. FT-IR microscopical analysis with synchrotron radiation: The microscope optics and system performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reffner, J.A.; Martoglio, P.A. [Spectra-Tech, Inc., Shelton, CT (United States); Williams, G.P. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-01-01

    When a Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) microspectrometer was first interfaced with the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) in September 1993, there was an instant realization that the performance at the diffraction limit had increased 40-100 times. The synchrotron source transformed the IR microspectrometer into a true IR microprobe, providing high-quality IR spectra for probe diameters at the diffraction limit. The combination of IR microspectroscopy and synchrotron radiation provides a powerful new tool for molecular spectroscopy. The ability to perform IR microspectroscopy with synchrotron radiation is still under development at Brookhaven National Laboratory, but several initial studies have been completed that demonstrate the broad-ranging applications of this technology and its potential for materials characterization.

  12. Contact microscopy with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panessa-Warren, B.J.

    1985-10-01

    Soft x-ray contact microscopy with synchrotron radiation offers the biologist and especially the microscopist, a way to morphologically study specimens that could not be imaged by conventional TEM, STEM or SEM methods (i.e. hydrated samples, samples easily damaged by an electron beam, electron dense samples, thick specimens, unstained low contrast specimens) at spatial resolutions approaching those of the TEM, with the additional possibility to obtain compositional (elemental) information about the sample as well. Although flash x-ray sources offer faster exposure times, synchrotron radiation provides a highly collimated, intense radiation that can be tuned to select specific discrete ranges of x-ray wavelengths or specific individual wavelengths which optimize imaging or microanalysis of a specific sample. This paper presents an overview of the applications of x-ray contact microscopy to biological research and some current research results using monochromatic synchrotron radiation to image biological samples. 24 refs., 10 figs

  13. The synchrotron light source ROSY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einfeld, D.; Buettig, H.; Dienel, S.; Glaeser, W.; Goetz, T.; Guratzsch, H.; Hartmann, B.; Janssen, D.; Krug, H.; Linnemann, J.; Matz, W.; Murphy, J.B.; Neumann, W.; Oehme, W.; Picard, M.; Plesko, M.; Proehl, D.; Schlenk, R.; Tomassini, D.; Tyrroff, H.

    1994-01-01

    ROSY, a 3rd generation synchrotron light source, has been proposed to be built at the Research Center Rossendorf/Dresden in Germany. With its low emittance and optimized space for installing insertion devices ROSY will be the first synchrotron radiation source in the 3 GeV range in Europe, dedicated to materials research and industrial application. The critical wavelength of the synchrotron radiation spectra was designed to be 0.15 nm corresponding to a critical photon energy of 8.4 keV. It is proposed to use a ''modified multiple bend achromat'' (MBA) lattice in order to get a compact machine as well as a low emittance. For 3 GeV an emittance smaller than 30π nm rad can be obtained. With a fourfold symmetry and two larger straight sections within the achromatic arcs the circumference is 148 m. 23% of the circumference can be used for installing insertion devices. (orig.)

  14. The pituitary gland under infrared light - in search of a representative spectrum for homogeneous regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banas, A; Banas, K; Furgal-Borzych, A; Kwiatek, W M; Pawlicki, B; Breese, M B H

    2015-04-07

    The pituitary gland is a small but vital organ in the human body. It is located at the base of the brain and is often described as the master gland due to its multiple functions. The pituitary gland secretes and stores hormones, such as the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), growth hormone (hGH), prolactin, gonadotropins, and luteinizing hormones, as well as the antidiuretic hormone (ADH). A proper diagnosis of pituitary disorders is of utmost importance as this organ participates in regulating a variety of body functions. Typical histopathological analysis provides much valuable information, but it gives no insight into the biochemical background of the changes that occur within the gland. One approach that could be used to evaluate the biochemistry of tissue sections obtained from pituitary disorders is Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) spectromicroscopy. In order to collect diagnostically valuable information large areas of tissue must be investigated. This work focuses on obtaining a unique and representative FTIR spectrum characteristic of one type of cell architecture within a sample. The idea presented is based on using hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) for data evaluation to search for uniform patterns within samples from the perspective of FTIR spectra. The results obtained demonstrate that FTIR spectromicroscopy, combined with proper statistical evaluation, can be treated as a complementary method for histopathological analysis and ipso facto can increase the sensitivity and specificity for detecting various disorders not only for the pituitary gland, but also for other human tissues.

  15. Synchrotron radiation and structural proteomics

    CERN Document Server

    Pechkova, Eugenia

    2011-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the current state of research in both synchrotron radiation and structural proteomics from different laboratories worldwide. The book presents recent research results in the most advanced methods of synchrotron radiation analysis, protein micro- and nano crystallography, X-ray scattering and X-ray optics, coherent X-Ray diffraction, and laser cutting and contactless sample manipulation are described in details. The book focuses on biological applications and highlights important aspects such as radiation damage and molecular modeling.

  16. Rediscovering Ducos du Hauron's Color Photography through a Review of His Three-Color Printing Processes and Synchrotron Microanalysis of His Prints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotte, Marine; Fabris, Tiphaine; Langlois, Juliette; Bellot-Gurlet, Ludovic; Ploye, Françoise; Coural, Natalie; Boust, Clotilde; Gandolfo, Jean-Paul; Galifot, Thomas; Susini, Jean

    2018-06-18

    Louis Ducos du Huron (1837-1920) dedicated his entire life to the elaboration of physical-chemical processes for color photography. This study aimed at highlighting his unique contribution to three-color printing through 1) an in-depth review of the many protocols he published and 2) the synchrotron-based IR and X-ray microanalysis of fragments sampled in three artworks. Ducos du Hauron's method relied on the preparation and assembly of three monochromes (red, blue, yellow). This study brings to light complex multistep recipes based on photochemistry (carbon print), organic, and inorganic chemistry. The various ingredients involved (e.g., pigments, dichromate gelatin, collodion, resin) were identified and localized through their spectroscopic signature, confirming the relevance of synchrotron spectromicroscopy for the characterization of historical photographs. The impressive correlation between texts and chemical analyses calls for a wider application to the history of photography. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Atoms, molecules, clusters and synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kui Rexi; Ju Xin

    1995-01-01

    The importance of synchrotron radiation, especially the third generation synchrotron radiation light source, in atomic, molecular and cluster physics is discussed and some views are presented on new methods which may become available for research in the above fields

  18. Synchrotron X-Ray Footprinting on Tour

    OpenAIRE

    Bohon, Jen; Ralston, Corie; D'Mello, Rhijuta; Gupta, Sayan; Chance, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    Synchrotron X-ray footprinting resources were investigated at a variety of beamlines and synchrotron facilities to understand their potential for a mobile general user. Results indicate that viable resources exist at each synchrotron investigated such that a prospective user need only provide a simple flow apparatus and sample handling accessories to perform this technique.

  19. DESY: Synchrotron and storage rings

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    An improvement programme has been under way for several years at the 7.5 GeV électron synchrotron at DESY. In particular it has been designed to increase the accelerated beam intensity, to achieve better quality of the ejected électron beams and photon beams and to improve machine reliability.

  20. Synchrotron radiation and biomedical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luccio, A.

    1986-08-01

    In this lecture we describe the characteristics of Synchrotron radiation as a source of X rays. We discuss the properties of SR arc sources, wigglers, undulators and the use of backscattering of laser light. Applications to angiography, X ray microscopy and tomography are reviewed. 16 refs., 23 figs

  1. Biological physics and synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filhol, J.M.; Chavanne, J.; Weckert, E.

    2001-01-01

    This conference deals with the applications of synchrotron radiation to current problems in biology and medicine. Seven sessions take stock on the subject: sources and detectors; inelastic scattering and dynamics; muscle diffraction; reaction mechanisms; macromolecular assemblies; medical applications; imaging and spectroscopy. The document presents the papers abstracts. (A.L.B.)

  2. The Australian synchrotron research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, R.F.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The Australian Synchrotron Research Program (ASRP) was established in 1996 under a 5 year grant from the Australian Government, and is managed by ANSTO on behalf of a consortium of Australian universities and research organisations. It has taken over the operation of the Australian National Beamline Facility (ANBF) at the Photon Factory, and has joined two CATS at the Advanced Photon Source: the Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation CAT (SRI-CAT) and the Consortium for Advanced Radiation Sources (CARS). The ASRP thus manages a comprehensive range of synchrotron radiation research facilities for Australian science. The ANBF is a general purpose hard X-ray beamline which has been in operation at the Photon Factory since 1993. It currently caters for about 35 Australian research teams per year. The facilities available at the ANBF will be presented and the research program will be summarised. The ASRP facilities at the APS comprise the 5 sectors operated by SRI-CAT, BioCARS and ChemMatCARS. A brief description will be given of the ASRP research programs at the APS, which will considerably broaden the scope of Australian synchrotron science

  3. Tandems as injectors for synchrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, A.G.

    1993-01-01

    This is a review on the use of tandem electrostatic accelerators for injection and fitting of synchrotrons to accelerate intense beams of heavy ions to relativistic energies. The paper emphasizes the need of operating the tandems in pulsed mode for this application. It has been experimentally demonstrated that at present this type of accelerator still provides the most reliable and best performance. (orig.)

  4. Biological physics and synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filhol, J M; Chavanne, J [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 38 - Grenoble (France); Weckert, E [Hasylab at Desy, Hamburg (Germany); and others

    2001-07-01

    This conference deals with the applications of synchrotron radiation to current problems in biology and medicine. Seven sessions take stock on the subject: sources and detectors; inelastic scattering and dynamics; muscle diffraction; reaction mechanisms; macromolecular assemblies; medical applications; imaging and spectroscopy. The document presents the papers abstracts. (A.L.B.)

  5. Synchrotron radiation in material science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanotto, E.D.

    1983-01-01

    A brief review on the several experimental techniques (XRD, SAXS, EXAFS, IRRS, etc...) which, utilizing of synchrotron radiation can be applied in glass structural studies, is presented. The major part of these techniques can be also used for studies of other materials such as polymers, metals, etc... (L.C.) [pt

  6. Synchrotron Radiation and Faraday Rotation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heald, George

    2015-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation and its degree of linear polarization are powerful tracers of magnetic fields that are illuminated by cosmic ray electrons. Faraday rotation of the linearly polarized radiation is induced by intervening line-of-sight magnetic fields that are embedded in ionized plasmas. For

  7. Microfabrication of high quality polytetrafluoroethylene films by synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, A.; Matsumoto, E.; Yamada, H.; Okada, H.; Wakahara, A.

    2003-01-01

    We deposited polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) thin films both from the PTFE target by using synchrotron radiation (SR) beam and from PTFE emulsion by spin-coat process. The X-ray diffraction analyses showed a sharp peak due to (1 0 0) PTFE crystalline part, and only C-F 2 bonding was found in Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer spectra. From electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis measurements, no impurities were found. The fabricated PTFE films were easily etched by SR beam on the limited area of the surface on a microscale through a suitably patterned mask

  8. SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF GX17+2: CONFIRMATION OF A PERIODIC SYNCHROTRON SOURCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, Thomas E.; McNamara, Bernard J.; Bornak, Jillian; Gelino, Dawn M.; Wachter, Stefanie; Rupen, Michael P.; Gelino, Christopher R.

    2011-01-01

    GX17+2 is a low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) that is also a member of a small family of LMXBs known as 'Z-sources' that are believed to have persistent X-ray luminosities that are very close to the Eddington limit. GX17+2 is highly variable at both radio and X-ray frequencies, a feature common to Z-sources. What sets GX17+2 apart is its dramatic variability in the near-infrared, where it changes by ΔK ∼ 3 mag. Previous investigations have shown that these brightenings are periodic, recurring every 3.01 days. Given its high extinction (A V ≥ 9 mag), it has not been possible to ascertain the nature of these events with ground-based observations. We report mid-infrared Spitzer observations of GX17+2 which indicate a synchrotron spectrum for the infrared brightenings. In addition, GX17+2 is highly variable in the mid-infrared during these events. The combination of the large-scale outbursts, the presence of a synchrotron spectrum, and the dramatic variability in the mid-infrared suggest that the infrared brightening events are due to the periodic transit of a synchrotron jet across our line of sight. An analysis of both new, and archival, infrared observations has led us to revise the period for these events to 3.0367 days. We also present new Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) data for GX17+2 obtained during two predicted infrared brightening events. Analysis of these new data, and data from the RXTE archive, indicates that there is no correlation between the X-ray behavior of this source and the observed infrared brightenings. We examine various scenarios that might produce periodic jet emission.

  9. Research using synchrotron radiation at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomlinson, W.

    1982-01-01

    The National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) is now becoming operational with synchrotron radiation experiments beginning on the 700 MeV VUV electron storage ring. Commissioning of the 2.5 GeV x-ray storage ring has also begun with the experimental program expected to begin in 1983. The current status of the experimental program and instrumentation and the plans for future developments, will be discussed. Although some early results have been obtained on VUV beam lines no attempt will be made in this paper to describe them. Instead, an overview of the beam line characteristics will be given, with an indication of those already operational. In the oral presentation some initial experimental results will be discussed

  10. Science research with high-brilliance synchrotron light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanyal, Milan K.

    2013-01-01

    Synchrotron-science has changed dramatically since the development of high brilliance electron accelerator-based light sources in 1990s. In the last twenty years or so, several such facilities have come up, particularly in developed countries, as material characterizations in relevant atmosphere and protein crystallography with tiny-crystals have strong implications in industrial competitiveness. Moreover several new techniques have been developed recently over the entire spectral range of emitted light, from infra-red to high energy X-rays, which have altered our basic understanding of various materials like biomaterials, nanomaterials, soft-matter and semiconductor quantum structures. In addition, rapid development of various X-ray imaging techniques for nondestructive evaluation of compositional/structural homogeneity of engineering materials with nanometer resolution will have tremendous impact in manufacturing industries. As India becomes a developed country, it must have access to such an advanced synchrotron facility in the country that enables knowledge generation in the ever-expanding fields of design-characterization-production of advanced materials and modern medicines. Development of such state-of-the art facility will also enable us to carry out frontier-basic-research in our own country and help us to retain and bring back Indian talents to India. Here we shall discuss briefly the characteristics of a high brilliance synchrotron source and outline the nature of basic and applied science research that can be done with such a state-of-the-art facility. (author)

  11. Synchrotrons: biomedical applications of the most versatile radiation source of all

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, R.

    2003-01-01

    Synchrotrons are the brightest and most versatile sources of radiation that have ever been devised. The spectrum extends from the infra-red to hard X-rays and the application range is just as wide. Applications range from radiotherapy to archaeology and from genomics to mineral identification. For a property of particle accelerators that was for many years seen as a problem, the transformation has been remarkable. There are now more than 50 synchrotron facilities worldwide and the number is still growing rapidly. Some 25 years after the first dedicated machines came into operation, Australia is about to enter the field with a national facility being built at Monash University in Melbourne. The largest impact of synchrotrons has been in the X-ray region of the spectrum where the performance gain over conventional sources is many orders of magnitude. In fact synchrotrons are the only significant improvement in X-ray production since the rotating anode was first marketed in 1929. The possibilities opened up by the availability of monochromatic, tightly collimated beams of enormous intensity has impacted on practically every area of science. Following a brief overview of synchrotron radiation production, the various prominent techniques that synchrotron radiation has made possible will be reviewed. Particular emphasis will be placed on the biomedical applications which include; 1. advanced imaging techniques exploiting X-ray phase contrast 2. radiotherapy using microbeams 3. structural biology 4. elemental, chemical and molecular structure mapping of live wet samples

  12. Moessbauer spectroscopy with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, U.

    1994-01-01

    The short pulse nature of synchrotron radiation makes it possible to perform Moessbauer spectroscopy in the time domain, i.e. instead of measuring the transmitted intensity time integrated as a function of source/absorber velocity, the intensity of the scattered radiation is measured time differential. The resulting time spectrum is essentially source independent and complications in the data analysis which are related to the radioactive source are completely removed. Furthermore, the large brightness and well defined polarization of the synchrotron radiation can, e.g., speed up the data collection and facilitate studies of polarization phenomena. To illustrate these new spectroscopic possibilities, measurements of the temperature dependence and polarization dependence of forward scattering from alpha - sup 5 sup 7 Fe nuclei are presented and discussed 26 refs., 5 figs. (author)

  13. Australian synchrotron light source - (boomerang)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boldeman, J.

    2001-01-01

    The Australian National Synchrotron Light Source - (Boomerang) is to be installed at the Monash University in Victoria. This report provides some background to the proposed facility and discusses aspects of a prospective design. Recently, significant effort was devoted to refining the in principle design and a lattice providing an emittance od 18 nm rad was obtained with a distributed dispersion in the straight section of 0.29m. Exhaustive studies have been made of the economic benefits that would accrue to Australia to Australia following the installation of this facility. This design is a refinement of the design concept presented to the SRI -2000, Berlin (Boldeman, Einfeld et al), to the meeting of the 4th Asian Forum and the Preliminary Design Study presented to the Australian Synchrotron Research Program

  14. Medical applications of synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomlinson, W.

    1992-01-01

    Ever since the first diagnostic X-ray was done in the United States on February 3, 1896, the application of ionizing radiation to the field of medicine has become incrasingly important. Both in clinical medicine and basic research the use of X-rays for diagnostic imaging and radiotherapy is now widespread. Radiography, angiography, CAT and PETT scanning, mammography, and nuclear medicine are all examples of technologies developed to image the human anatomy. In therapeutic applications, both external and internal sources of radiation are applied to the battle against cancer. The development of dedicated synchrotron radiation sources has allowed exciting advances to take place in many of these applications. The new sources provide tunable, high-intensity monochromatic beams over a wide range of energies which can be tailored to specific programmatic needs. This paper surveys those areas of medical research in which synchrotron radiation facilities are actively involved. (orig.)

  15. Synchrotron radiation in atomic physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crasemann, B.

    1998-01-01

    Much of present understanding of atomic and molecular structure and dynamics was gained through studies of photon-atom interactions. In particular, observations of the emission, absorption, and scattering of X rays have complemented particle-collision experiments in elucidating the physics of atomic inner shells. Grounded on Max von Laue's theoretical insight and the invention of the Bragg spectrometer, the field's potential underwent a step function with the development of synchrotron-radiation sources. Notably current third-generation sources have opened new horizons in atomic and molecular physics by producing radiation of wide tunability and exceedingly high intensity and polarization, narrow energy bandwidth, and sharp time structure. In this review, recent advances in synchrotron-radiation studies in atomic and molecular science are outlined. Some tempting opportunities are surveyed that arise for future studies of atomic processes, including many-body effects, aspects of fundamental photon-atom interactions, and relativistic and quantum-electrodynamic phenomena. (author)

  16. Medical applications of synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomlinson, W.

    1991-10-01

    Ever since the first diagnostic x-ray was done in the United States on February 3, 1896, the application of ionizing radiation to the field of medicine has become increasingly important. Both in clinical medicine and basic research the use of x-rays for diagnostic imaging and radiotherapy is now widespread. Radiography, angiography, CAT and PETT scanning, mammography, and nuclear medicine are all examples of technologies developed to image the human anatomy. In therapeutic applications, both external and internal sources of radiation are applied to the battle against cancer. The development of dedicated synchrotron radiation sources has allowed exciting advances to take place in many of these applications. The new sources provide tunable, high-intensity monochromatic beams over a wide range of energies which can be tailored to specific programmatic needs. This paper surveys those areas of medical research in which synchrotron radiation facilities are actively involved

  17. Synchrotron X-radiation research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabler, M.N.; Nagel, D.J.; Skelton, E.F.

    1990-05-01

    The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) has been involved in the exploitation of X rays since the 1920s. The report gives a brief description of the generation and characteristics of synchrotron radiation, and review highlights of current research. Research examples include soft-X-ray optics, semiconductor surface passivation, surface electron dynamics, space-charge dynamics on silicon, photochemistry on GaAs, local atomic structure, crystal structures from X-ray diffraction. The report then discusses emerging research opportunities

  18. Threedimensional microfabrication using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrfeld, W.

    1990-01-01

    For fabricating microstructures with extreme structural heights a technology has been developed which is based on deep-etch lithography and subsequent replication processes. A particularly high precision is achieved if the lithographic process is carried out by means of synchrotron radiation. Electroforming and molding processes are used for the replication of microstructures from a large variety of materials. The field of application comprises sensors, electrical and optical microconnectors, components for fluid technology, microfiltration systems and novel composite materials. (author)

  19. Synchrotron/crystal sample preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. Barry

    1993-01-01

    The Center for Applied Optics (CAO) of the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) prepared this final report entitled 'Synchrotron/Crystal Sample Preparation' in completion of contract NAS8-38609, Delivery Order No. 53. Hughes Danbury Optical Systems (HDOS) is manufacturing the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) mirrors. These thin-walled, grazing incidence, Wolter Type-1 mirrors, varying in diameter from 1.2 to 0.68 meters, must be ground and polished using state-of-the-art techniques in order to prevent undue stress due to damage or the presence of crystals and inclusions. The effect of crystals on the polishing and grinding process must also be understood. This involves coating special samples of Zerodur and measuring the reflectivity of the coatings in a synchrotron system. In order to gain the understanding needed on the effect of the Zerodur crystals by the grinding and polishing process, UAH prepared glass samples by cutting, grinding, etching, and polishing as required to meet specifications for witness bars for synchrotron measurements and for investigations of crystals embedded in Zerodur. UAH then characterized these samples for subsurface damage and surface roughness and figure.

  20. Synchrotron Environmental Science-I Workshop Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Attendees of the Synchrotrons Environmental Science 1 (SES-1) workshop represented a broad spectrum of environmental science research areas and expertise in all of the current synchrotrons techniques (X-ray scattering and diffraction, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and two- and three-dimensional X-ray imaging). These individuals came together to discuss current measurement obstacles in environmental research and, more specifically, ways to overcome such obstacles by applying synchrotrons radiation techniques. Significant obstacles in measurement affect virtually all of the research issues described. Attendees identified synchrotrons approaches of potential value in their research. A number of the environmental research studies discussed are currently being addressed with some success by synchrotron-based approaches. Nevertheless, improvements in low-Z measurement capabilities are needed to facilitate the use of synchrotrons radiation methodologies in environmental research

  1. Synchrotron Environmental Science-I Workshop Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-08

    Attendees of the Synchrotrons Environmental Science 1 (SES-1) workshop represented a broad spectrum of environmental science research areas and expertise in all of the current synchrotrons techniques (X-ray scattering and diffraction, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and two- and three-dimensional X-ray imaging). These individuals came together to discuss current measurement obstacles in environmental research and, more specifically, ways to overcome such obstacles by applying synchrotrons radiation techniques. Significant obstacles in measurement affect virtually all of the research issues described. Attendees identified synchrotrons approaches of potential value in their research. A number of the environmental research studies discussed are currently being addressed with some success by synchrotron-based approaches. Nevertheless, improvements in low-Z measurement capabilities are needed to facilitate the use of synchrotrons radiation methodologies in environmental research.

  2. Light source for synchrotron radiation x-ray topography study at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (BSRL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jiyong; Jiang Jianhua; Tian Yulian

    1992-01-01

    Characteristics of the synchrotron radiation source for X-ray topography study at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (BSRL) is described, local geometrical resolution of topographies is discussed, and the diffracting intensities of white beam topography is given

  3. Support for Synchrotron Access by Environmental Scientists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daly, Michael; Madden, Andrew; Palumbo, Anthony; Qafoku, N.

    2006-01-01

    To support ERSP-funded scientists in all aspects of synchrotron-based research at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). This support comes in one or more of the following forms: (1) writing proposals to the APS General User (GU) program, (2) providing time at MRCAT/EnviroCAT beamlines via the membership of the Molecular Environmental Science (MES) Group in MRCAT/EnviroCAT, (3) assistance in experimental design and sample preparation, (4) support at the beamline during the synchrotron experiment, (5) analysis and interpretation of the synchrotron data, and (6) integration of synchrotron experimental results into manuscripts

  4. Atomic physics research with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crasemann, B.; Wuilleumier, F.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter discusses applications of synchrotron light in atomic and molecular physics. Use of the radiation from storage rings has expanded and lent access to new areas of absorption and photoemission spectroscopy and scattering experiments. Techniques applied in connection with synchrotron radiation are discussed including absorption spectroscopy, photoelectron spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy and X-ray scattering. Problem areas that are being studied by the techniques mentioned above are discussed. Synchrotron radiation has provided the means for measuring the threshold-excitation and interference effects that signal the breakdown of the two-step model of atomic excitation/deexcitation. Synchrotron radiation provides more means of excited-state photoionization measurements

  5. Synchrotron Radiation in Biology and Medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelka, J.B.

    2008-01-01

    This work is focused on a present status of synchrotron radiation X-ray applications in medicine and biology to imaging, diagnostics, and radio- therapy. Properties of X-ray beams generated by synchrotron sources are compared with radiation produced by classical laboratory X-ray tubes. A list of operating and planned synchrotron facilities applicable to biomedical purposes is given, together with their basic characteristics. A concise overview of typical X-ray synchrotron techniques in biology and medicine is carried out with discussion of their specific properties and examples of typical results. (author)

  6. The Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, 20 years of synchrotron light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantwell, K.

    1993-08-01

    The Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) is now operating as a fully dedicated light source with low emittance electron optics, delivering high brightness photon beams to 25 experimental stations six to seven months per year. On October 1, 1993 SSRL became a Division of the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, rather than an Independent Laboratory of Stanford University, so that high energy physics and synchrotron radiation now function under a single DOE contract. The SSRL division of SLAC has responsibility for operating, maintaining and improving the SPEAR accelerator complex, which includes the storage ring and a 3 GeV injector. SSRL has thirteen x-ray stations and twelve VUV/Soft x-ray stations serving its 600 users. Recently opened to users is a new spherical grating monochromator (SGM) and a multiundulator beam line. Circularly polarized capabilities are being exploited on a second SGM line. New YB 66 crystals installed in a vacuum double-crystal monochromator line have sparked new interest for Al and Mg edge studies. One of the most heavily subscribed stations is the rotation camera, which has been recently enhanced with a MAR imaging plate detector system for protein crystallography on a multipole wiggler. Under construction is a new wiggler-based structural molecular biology beam line with experimental stations for crystallography, small angle scattering and x-ray absorption spectroscopy. Plans for new developments include wiggler beam lines and associated facilities specialized for environmental research and materials processing

  7. Sensitivities in synchrotron radiation TXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pianetta, P.; Baur, K.; Brennan, S.

    2000-01-01

    This work describes the progress we achieved at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) in improving the sensitivity for both the transition metals and light elements such as Al and Na. The transition metal work has matured to the point where a facility exists at SSRL in which semiconductor companies are able to perform industrially relevant measurements at state of the art detection limits. This facility features clean wafer handling and automated data acquisition making routine analytical measurements possible. The best sensitivity demonstrated so far is 3.4 E7 atoms/cm 2 for a 5000 second count time corresponding to 7.6 E7 atoms/cm 2 for a standard 1000 second count time. This is more than a factor of 100 better than what can be achieved with conventional TXRF systems. The detection of light elements such as Al and Na is challenging due to the presence of the h stronger Si fluorescence peak. For traditional energy-dispersive detection only the tunability of synchrotron radiation to excitation energies below the Si-K absorption edge leads to an acceptable sensitivity for Al detection which is limited by a large background due to inelastic x-ray Raman scattering. An alternative approach to overcome the Raman contribution and the strong Si fluorescence is to use a wavelength-dispersive spectrometer for fluorescence detection. The benefits of such a multilayer spectrometer over a solid state detector are its higher energy resolution and greater dynamic range. This strategy allows primary excitation above the Si K absorption edge, eliminating the background due to Raman scattering, and a gracing emission geometry to guarantee high surface sensitivity. Studies testing this concept in combination with high flux synchrotron radiation are underway and first results will be presented. (author)

  8. Vacuum system for HIMAC synchrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanazawa, M.; Sudou, M.; Sato, K.

    1994-01-01

    HIMAC synchrotrons are now under construction, which require vacuum chambers of large aperture and high vacuum of about 10 -9 torr. Wide thin wall vacuum chamber of 0.3 mm thickness reinforced with ribs has been developed as the chamber at dipole magnet. We have just now started to evacuate the lower ring. The obtained average value was about 5x10 -8 torr with turbo-molecular and sputter ion pumps, and 1.1x10 -9 torr after baking. (author)

  9. Barrier rf systems in synchrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhat, Chandra M.

    2004-01-01

    Recently, many interesting applications of the barrier RF system in hadron synchrotrons have been realized. A remarkable example of this is the development of longitudinal momentum mining and implementation at the Fermilab Recycler for extraction of low emittance pbars for the Tevatron shots. At Fermilab, we have barrier RF systems in four different rings. In the case of Recycler Ring, all of the rf manipulations are carried out using a barrier RF system. Here, the author reviews various uses of barrier rf systems in particle accelerators including some new schemes for producing intense proton beam and possible new applications

  10. Longitudinal tune control in synchrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colton, E.P.

    1984-01-01

    Dual rf systems that use fundamental and higher-harmonic cavities can be used to control the longitudinal tune in synchrotrons. The equations of motion and the Hamiltonian are defined for particle motion using dual rf systems. An example is considered using a second-harmonic system - it is shown, that as phi/sub s/ is increased, a substantial gain in bucket area over a single rf system can be realized by proper relative phasing of the first- and second-harmonic voltages

  11. Synchrotron radiation and fusion materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, S.F.

    2009-01-01

    The development of fusion energy is approaching a stage where the capabilities of materials will be dictating the further progress and the time scale for the attainment of fusion power. EU has therefore funded the Fusion Energy Materials Science project Coordination Action (FEMaS - CA) with the intension to utilise the know-how in the materials community to help overcome the material science problems with the fusion related materials. The FEMaS project and some of the possible applications of synchrotron radiation for materials characterisation are described in this paper. (au)

  12. Infrared astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setti, G.; Fazio, G.

    1978-01-01

    This volume contains lectures describing the important achievements in infrared astronomy. The topics included are galactic infrared sources and their role in star formation, the nature of the interstellar medium and galactic structure, the interpretation of infrared, optical and radio observations of extra-galactic sources and their role in the origin and structure of the universe, instrumental techniques and a review of future space observations. (C.F.)

  13. The third generation French synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    This short paper gives a concise presentation of the SOLEIL project of the LURE synchrotron radiation national laboratory at Orsay (France). This new accelerator is devoted to replace the DCI and Super ACO rings of first and second generation, respectively. The main research domains of this project concern: the micro-fluorescence and micro-diffraction characterization of materials, and in particular the electronic components; the study of matter in extreme conditions (high temperature and high pressure); the bio-crystallography; the study of aggregates; and the manufacturing of micro-instruments for micro-electronics or medical applications. SOLEIL will be equipped with special magnetic wigglers to obtain very high brightness sources. The source will be a 336 m circumference ring for 2.5 GeV electron storage, able to produce a large spectrum synchrotron radiation. The injection system will comprise a low energy-high current linear electron accelerator and two electron beam transport lines. The installation will be buried at a 4 m depth to ensure the environmental protection and to limit vibrations. (J.S.)

  14. Photoemission spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, K.L.I.

    1980-01-01

    It is an epoch making event for photoemission spectroscopy that the light sources of continuous wavelength from vacuum ultra-violet to X-ray region have become available by the advent of synchrotron radiation. Specifically the progress after stable intense light has become obtainable from storage rings is very significant. One of the features of these synchrotron radiation is its extreme polarization of radiating pattern. Though the elementary processes of photoemission out of solids are the basic themes, phenomenalistic 3-stage model is usually applied to the analysis of experiments. In this model, the process of photoemission is considered by dividing into three stages, namely the generation of photoelectrons due to optical transition between electron status -- the transportation of photoelectrons to solid surfaces -- breaking away from the surfaces. The spectrometers, the energy analyzers of photoelectrons, and sample-preparing room used for photoemission spectroscopy are described. Next, energy distribution curves are explained. At the end, photoelectron yield spectroscopy, CFS (constant final energy spectroscopy) and CIS (constant initial energy spectroscopy), Auger yield and interatomic Auger yield, the determination of surface structure by normal emission CIS, and surface EXAFS (extended X-ray absorption fine structure) are described. As seen above, the application specifically to surface physics is promising in the future. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  15. Synchrotron-driven spallation sources

    CERN Document Server

    Bryant, P J

    1996-01-01

    The use of synchrotrons for pulsed neutron spallation sources is an example of scientific and technological spin-off from the accelerator development for particle physics. Accelerator-driven sources provide an alternative to the continuous-flux, nuclear reactors that currently furnish the majority of neutrons for research and development. Although the present demand for neutrons can be adequately met by the existing reactors, this situation is unlikely to continue due to the increasing severity of safety regulations and the declared policies of many countries to close down their reactors within the next decade or so. Since the demand for neutrons as a research tool is, in any case,expected to grow, there has been a corresponding interest in sources that are synchrotron-driven or linac-driven with a pulse compression ring and currently several design studies are being made. These accelerator-driven sources also have the advantage of a time structure with a high peak neutron flux. The basic requirement is for a...

  16. Sirepo for Synchrotron Radiation Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-10-25

    Sirepo is an open source framework for cloud computing. The graphical user interface (GUI) for Sirepo, also known as the client, executes in any HTML5 compliant web browser on any computing platform, including tablets. The client is built in JavaScript, making use of the following open source libraries: Bootstrap, which is fundamental for cross-platform web applications; AngularJS, which provides a model–view–controller (MVC) architecture and GUI components; and D3.js, which provides interactive plots and data-driven transformations. The Sirepo server is built on the following Python technologies: Flask, which is a lightweight framework for web development; Jinja, which is a secure and widely used templating language; and Werkzeug, a utility library that is compliant with the WSGI standard. We use Nginx as the HTTP server and proxy, which provides a scalable event-driven architecture. The physics codes supported by Sirepo execute inside a Docker container. One of the codes supported by Sirepo is the Synchrotron Radiation Workshop (SRW). SRW computes synchrotron radiation from relativistic electrons in arbitrary magnetic fields and propagates the radiation wavefronts through optical beamlines. SRW is open source and is primarily supported by Dr. Oleg Chubar of NSLS-II at Brookhaven National Laboratory.

  17. High pressure and synchrotron radiation satellite workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bass, J.; Guignot, N.; Morard, G.; Mezouar, M.; Andrault, D.; Bolfan-Casanova, N.; Sturhahn, W.; Daniel, I.; Reynard, B.; Simionovici, A.; Sanchez Valle, C.; Martinez, I.; Kantor, I.; Dubrovinsky, I.; Mccammon, C.; Dubrovinskaia, N.; Kurnosiv, A.; Kuznetsov, A.; Goncharenko, I.; Loubeyre, P.; Desgreniers, S.; Weck, G.; Yoo, C.S.; Iota, V.; Park, J.; Cynn, H.; Gorelli, F.; Toulemonde, P.; Machon, D.; Merlen, A.; San Miguel, A.; Amboage, M.; Aquilanti, G.; Mathon, O.; Pascarelli, S.; Itie, J.P.; Mcmillan, P.F.; Trapananti, A.; Di Cicco, A.; Panfilis, S. de; Filipponi, A.; Kreisel, J.; Bouvier, P.; Dkhil, B.; Chaabane, B.; Rosner, H.; Koudela, D.; Schwarz, U.; Handestein, A.; Hanfland, M.; Opahle, I.; Koepernik, K.; Kuzmin, M.; Mueller, K.H.; Mydosh, J.; Richter, M.; Hejny, C.; Falconi, S.; Lundegaard, L.F.; Mcmahon, M.I; Loa, I.; Syassen, K.; Wang, X.; Roth, H.; Lorenz, T.; Farber Daniel, I.; Antonangeli Daniele, I.; Krisch, M.; Badro, J.; Fiquet, G.; Occelli, F.; Mao, W.L.; Mao, H.K.; Eng, P.; Kao, C.C.; Shu, J.F.; Hemley, R.J.; Tse, J.S.; Yao, Y.; Deen, P.P.; Paolasini, I.; Braithwaite, D.; Kernavanois, N.; Lapertot, G.; Rupprecht, K.; Leupold, O.; Ponkratz, U.; Wortmann, G.; Beraud, A.; Krisch, M.; Farber, D.; Antonangeli, D.; Aracne, C.; Zarestky, J.L.; Mcqueeney, R.; Mathon, O.; Baudelet, F.; Decremps, F.; Itie, J.P.; Nataf, I.; Pascarelli, S.; Polian, A

    2006-07-01

    The workshop is dedicated to recent advances on science at high pressure at third generation synchrotron sources. A variety of experiments using synchrotron radiation techniques including X-ray diffraction, EXAFS (extended X-ray absorption fine structure), inelastic X-ray scattering, Compton scattering and Moessbauer spectroscopy of crystalline, liquid or amorphous samples, are reported. This document gathers the abstracts of the presentations.

  18. Synchrotron applications in wood preservation and deterioration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara L. Illman

    2003-01-01

    Several non-intrusive synchrotron techniques are being used to detect and study wood decay. The techniques use high intensity synchrotron-generated X-rays to determine the atomic structure of materials with imaging, diffraction, and absorption. Some of the techniques are X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XFS), X-ray...

  19. The Synchrotron Radiation Facility ESFR in Grenoble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haensel, R.

    1994-01-01

    The European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESFR) is the first synchrotron radiation source of the 3-th generation for Roentgen radiations.It permits a new series of experiments in the domains of physics, chemistry, materials studies, micromechanics, biology, medicine and crystallography. The main part of device represents the 850 meter storage ring of 6 GeV electrons. (MSA)

  20. Current status of Hiroshima Synchrotron Radiation Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, Masaki

    2000-01-01

    The Hiroshima Synchrotron Radiation Center is a common facility for both research and education in the field of synchrotron radiation science. The role of the center is to promote original research, training of young scientists, international exchange and cooperative research with neighbouring universities, public organizations and industries. (author)

  1. High pressure and synchrotron radiation satellite workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, J.; Guignot, N.; Morard, G.; Mezouar, M.; Andrault, D.; Bolfan-Casanova, N.; Sturhahn, W.; Daniel, I.; Reynard, B.; Simionovici, A.; Sanchez Valle, C.; Martinez, I.; Kantor, I.; Dubrovinsky, I.; Mccammon, C.; Dubrovinskaia, N.; Kurnosiv, A.; Kuznetsov, A.; Goncharenko, I.; Loubeyre, P.; Desgreniers, S.; Weck, G.; Yoo, C.S.; Iota, V.; Park, J.; Cynn, H.; Gorelli, F.; Toulemonde, P.; Machon, D.; Merlen, A.; San Miguel, A.; Amboage, M.; Aquilanti, G.; Mathon, O.; Pascarelli, S.; Itie, J.P.; Mcmillan, P.F.; Trapananti, A.; Di Cicco, A.; Panfilis, S. de; Filipponi, A.; Kreisel, J.; Bouvier, P.; Dkhil, B.; Chaabane, B.; Rosner, H.; Koudela, D.; Schwarz, U.; Handestein, A.; Hanfland, M.; Opahle, I.; Koepernik, K.; Kuzmin, M.; Mueller, K.H.; Mydosh, J.; Richter, M.; Hejny, C.; Falconi, S.; Lundegaard, L.F.; Mcmahon, M.I; Loa, I.; Syassen, K.; Wang, X.; Roth, H.; Lorenz, T.; Farber Daniel, I.; Antonangeli Daniele, I.; Krisch, M.; Badro, J.; Fiquet, G.; Occelli, F.; Mao, W.L.; Mao, H.K.; Eng, P.; Kao, C.C.; Shu, J.F.; Hemley, R.J.; Tse, J.S.; Yao, Y.; Deen, P.P.; Paolasini, I.; Braithwaite, D.; Kernavanois, N.; Lapertot, G.; Rupprecht, K.; Leupold, O.; Ponkratz, U.; Wortmann, G.; Beraud, A.; Krisch, M.; Farber, D.; Antonangeli, D.; Aracne, C.; Zarestky, J.L.; Mcqueeney, R.; Mathon, O.; Baudelet, F.; Decremps, F.; Itie, J.P.; Nataf, I.; Pascarelli, S.; Polian, A.

    2006-01-01

    The workshop is dedicated to recent advances on science at high pressure at third generation synchrotron sources. A variety of experiments using synchrotron radiation techniques including X-ray diffraction, EXAFS (extended X-ray absorption fine structure), inelastic X-ray scattering, Compton scattering and Moessbauer spectroscopy of crystalline, liquid or amorphous samples, are reported. This document gathers the abstracts of the presentations

  2. Funding problems threaten Middle East's synchrotron

    CERN Multimedia

    McCabe, H

    1999-01-01

    Scientists will tour the Middle East to try to raise support for the Synchrotron radiation for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East project. The plan is to dismantle and move a decommissioned synchrotron from Berlin to the Middle East where scientists of any nationality would be able to use it (3 paragraphs).

  3. Recent research in flaxseed (oil seed) on molecular structure and metabolic characteristics of protein, heat processing-induced effect and nutrition with advanced synchrotron-based molecular techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doiron, Kevin J; Yu, Peiqiang

    2017-01-02

    Advanced synchrotron radiation-based infrared microspectroscopy is able to reveal feed and food structure feature at cellular and molecular levels and simultaneously provides composition, structure, environment, and chemistry within intact tissue. However, to date, this advanced synchrotron-based technique is still seldom known to food and feed scientists. This article aims to provide detailed background for flaxseed (oil seed) protein research and then review recent progress and development in flaxseed research in ruminant nutrition in the areas of (1) dietary inclusion of flaxseed in rations; (2) heat processing effect; (3) assessing dietary protein; (4) synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy as a tool of nutritive evaluation within cellular and subcellular dimensions; (5) recent synchrotron applications in flaxseed research on a molecular basis. The information described in this paper gives better insight in flaxseed research progress and update.

  4. Medical applications with synchrotron radiation in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, T.; Itai, Y. [Univ. of Tsukuba, Inst. of Clinical Medicine, Tsukuba (Japan); Hyodo, K.; Ando, M. [KEK, Tsukuba (Japan); Akatsuka, T. [Yamagata Univ., Faculty of Engineering, Yamagata (Japan); Uyama, C. [National Cardiovascular Centre, Suita (Japan)

    1998-05-01

    In Japan, various medical applications of synchrotron X-ray imaging, such as angiography, monochromatic X-ray computed tomography (CT), radiography and radiation therapy, are being developed. In particular, coronary arteriography (CAG) is quite an important clinical application of synchrotron radiation. Using a two-dimensional imaging method, the first human intravenous CAG was carried out at KEK in May 1996; however, further improvements of image quality are required in clinical practice. On the other hand, two-dimensional aortographic CAG revealed canine coronary arteries as clearly as those on selective CAG, and coronary arteries less than 0.2 mm in diameter. Among applications of synchrotron radiation to X-ray CT, phase-contrast X-ray CT and fluorescent X-ray CT are expected to be very interesting future applications of synchrotron radiation. For actual clinical applications of synchrotron radiation, a medical beamline and a laboratory are now being constructed at SPring-8 in Harima. 55 refs.

  5. Protein Data Bank depositions from synchrotron sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jiansheng; Sweet, Robert M

    2004-07-01

    A survey and analysis of Protein Data Bank (PDB) depositions from international synchrotron radiation facilities, based on the latest released PDB entries, are reported. The results (http://asdp.bnl.gov/asda/Libraries/) show that worldwide, every year since 1999, more than 50% of the deposited X-ray structures have used synchrotron facilities, reaching 75% by 2003. In this web-based database, all PDB entries among individual synchrotron beamlines are archived, synchronized with the weekly PDB release. Statistics regarding the quality of experimental data and the refined model for all structures are presented, and these are analysed to reflect the impact of synchrotron sources. The results confirm the common impression that synchrotron sources extend the size of structures that can be solved with equivalent or better quality than home sources.

  6. Protein Data Bank Depositions from Synchrotron Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, J.; Sweet, R.

    2004-01-01

    A survey and analysis of Protein Data Bank (PDB) depositions from international synchrotron radiation facilities, based on the latest released PDB entries, are reported. The results ( ) show that worldwide, every year since 1999, more than 50% of the deposited X-ray structures have used synchrotron facilities, reaching 75% by 2003. In this web-based database, all PDB entries among individual synchrotron beamlines are archived, synchronized with the weekly PDB release. Statistics regarding the quality of experimental data and the refined model for all structures are presented, and these are analysed to reflect the impact of synchrotron sources. The results confirm the common impression that synchrotron sources extend the size of structures that can be solved with equivalent or better quality than home sources

  7. National Synchrotron Light Source 2008 Activity Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasta, K.

    2009-01-01

    Funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Basic Energy Sciences, the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) is a national user facility that operates two electron storage rings: X-Ray (2.8 GeV, 300 mA) and Vacuum Ultraviolet (VUV) (800 mev, 1.0A). These two rings provide intense light spanning the electromagnetic spectrum -- from very long infrared rays to ultraviolet light and super-short x-rays -- to analyze very small or highly dilute samples. The properties of this light, and the specially designed experimental stations, called beamlines, allow scientists in many diverse disciplines of research to perform experiments not possible at their own laboratories. Each year, about 2,200 scientists from more than 400 universities and companies use the NSLS for research in such diverse fields as biology, physics, chemistry, geology, medicine, and environmental and materials sciences. For example, researchers have used the NSLS to examine the minute details of computer chips, decipher the structures of viruses, probe the density of bone, determine the chemical composition of moon rocks, and reveal countless other mysteries of science. The facility has 65 operating beamlines, with 51 beamlines on the X-Ray Ring and 14 beamlines on the VUV-Infrared Ring. It runs seven days a week, 24 hours a day throughout the year, except during periods of maintenance and studies. Researchers are not charged for beam time, provided that the research results are published in open literature. Proprietary research is conducted on a full-cost-recovery basis. With close to 1,000 publications per year, the NSLS is one of the most prolific scientific facilities in the world. Among the many accolades given to its users and staff, the NSLS has won nine R and D 100 Awards for innovations ranging from a closed orbit feedback system to the first device able to focus a large spread of high-energy x-rays. In addition, a visiting NSLS researcher shared the 2003 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for

  8. National Synchrotron Light Source 2008 Activity Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasta,K.

    2009-05-01

    Funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Basic Energy Sciences, the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) is a national user facility that operates two electron storage rings: X-Ray (2.8 GeV, 300 mA) and Vacuum Ultraviolet (VUV) (800 mev, 1.0A). These two rings provide intense light spanning the electromagnetic spectrum -- from very long infrared rays to ultraviolet light and super-short x-rays -- to analyze very small or highly dilute samples. The properties of this light, and the specially designed experimental stations, called beamlines, allow scientists in many diverse disciplines of research to perform experiments not possible at their own laboratories. Each year, about 2,200 scientists from more than 400 universities and companies use the NSLS for research in such diverse fields as biology, physics, chemistry, geology, medicine, and environmental and materials sciences. For example, researchers have used the NSLS to examine the minute details of computer chips, decipher the structures of viruses, probe the density of bone, determine the chemical composition of moon rocks, and reveal countless other mysteries of science. The facility has 65 operating beamlines, with 51 beamlines on the X-Ray Ring and 14 beamlines on the VUV-Infrared Ring. It runs seven days a week, 24 hours a day throughout the year, except during periods of maintenance and studies. Researchers are not charged for beam time, provided that the research results are published in open literature. Proprietary research is conducted on a full-cost-recovery basis. With close to 1,000 publications per year, the NSLS is one of the most prolific scientific facilities in the world. Among the many accolades given to its users and staff, the NSLS has won nine R&D 100 Awards for innovations ranging from a closed orbit feedback system to the first device able to focus a large spread of high-energy x-rays. In addition, a visiting NSLS researcher shared the 2003 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for

  9. Infrared thermography

    CERN Document Server

    Meola, Carosena

    2012-01-01

    This e-book conveys information about basic IRT theory, infrared detectors, signal digitalization and applications of infrared thermography in many fields such as medicine, foodstuff conservation, fluid-dynamics, architecture, anthropology, condition monitoring, non destructive testing and evaluation of materials and structures.

  10. Extinction correction and synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suortti, P.

    1983-01-01

    The primary extinction factor ysub(p) is defined as the ratio of the integrated reflection from a coherently diffracting domain to the integrated kinematical reflection from the same domain. When ysub(p) is larger than 0.5 it may be approximated by ysub(p)= exp[-(αdelta) 2 ], where α is about 0.5 and delta the average size of the coherent domain when measured in units of the extinction length Λ, delta = D/Λ. Transfer equations are applied to symmetrical Laue diffraction, and the reflectivity per unit length, sigma(epsilon) is solved from the measured reflecting ratio as a function of the rocking angle epsilon = theta -thetasub(B). Measurements with conventional x-ray sources are made on single crystal slabs of Be and Si using AgKβ, MoKα 1 and CuKα radiation. The primary extinction factor ysub(p)(epsilon) is solved from a point-by-point comparison of two measurements where the extinction length Λ is changed by varying the polarization and/or wavelength of the x-ray beam. The results show that primary and secondary extinction are strongly correlated, and that the customary assumption of independent size and orientation distributions of crystal mosaics is unjustified. The structure factors for Be and Si show close agreement with other recent measurements and calculations. The limitations of the method are discussed in length, particularly the effects of beam divergences and incoherence of the rays in the crystal. It is concluded that under typical experimental conditions the requirements of the theory are met. Practical limitations arising from the use of characteristic wavelengths and unpolarized radiation prohibit the use of the full potential of the method. The properties of a synchrotron radiation source are compared with a conventional x-ray source, and it is demonstrated that the experimental limitations can be removed by the use of synchrotron radiation. A diffraction experiment with synchrotron radiation is outlined, as well as generalization of the

  11. Intense, broadband, pulsed I-R source at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, G.P.

    1984-01-01

    We describe a broadband (1 μm to 1 mm) synchrotron radiation infrared source, pulsed each 20 to 180 nseconds and delivering about 10 15 photons/sec/1% bandpass into f10 optics. The source size is diffraction limited. This source is thus 100 to 1000 times brighter than a 2000 0 K black body, very stable and capable of being used for calibration

  12. High heat load synchrotron optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, D.M.

    1993-01-01

    Third generation synchrotron radiation sources currently being constructed worldwide will produce x-ray beams of unparalleled power and power density. These high heat fluxes coupled with the stringent dimensional requirements of the x-ray optical components pose a prodigious challenge to designers of x-ray optical elements, specifically x-ray mirrors and crystal monochromators. Although certain established techniques for the cooling of high heat flux components can be directly applied to this problem, the thermal management of high heat load x-ray optical components has several unusual aspects that may ultimately lead to unique solutions. This manuscript attempts to summarize the various approaches currently being applied to this undertaking and to point out the areas of research that require further development

  13. Rapid cycling superconducting booster synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinev, D.; Agapov, N.; Butenko, A.

    2001-01-01

    The existing set of Nuclotron heavy ion sources, such as duoplasmatron, polarized deuteron, laser and electron beam ion sources permits to have ion beams over a wide range of masses. The main problem for us now is to gain high intensity of accelerator particles. It can be solved by means of multiturn injection of the low current beams into the booster, acceleration up to the intermediate energies, stripping and transferring into the main ring. A design study of this accelerator - the 250 MeV/Amu Nuclotron booster synchrotron at 1 Hz repetition rate and circumference of 84 m, has been completed. The lattice dipole and quadrupole magnets have an iron yoke coils, made of hollow superconductor, are cooled by two-phase Helium flow, as well as the Nuclotron magnets. (authors)

  14. Medical application of Synchrotron Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyodo, Kazuyuki; Nishimura, Katsuyuki.

    1990-01-01

    The number of patients suffering from ischemic heart disease is also increasing rapidly in Japan. The standard method for assessing coronary artery diseases is the coronary angiography. Excellent images are taken by this method, however, it is an invasive method in which a catheter into a peripheral artery. The patients would obtain great benefit if the coronary arteries could be distinguished by intravenous injection of the contrast material. The K-edge subtraction method, which uses the K-edge discontinuity in the attenuation coefficient of the contrast material, is considered to be the most suitable method for coronary angiography by peripheral venous injection. Synchrotron Radiation (SR) is so intense that it allows selection of monochromatic X-rays, and studies on K-edge subtraction using SR has been started at some facilities. Recent activities K-edge subtraction method at the Accumulation Ring are briefly described here. (author)

  15. Synchrotron radiation and industrial research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsend, R.P.

    1995-01-01

    Fundamental studies on the properties of many different materials are of prime importance to most industrial concerns. For Unilever, solids (crystalline and amorphous), soft solids and complex fluids are the materials of primary interest. Synchrotron radiation has proved of great value for the analysis of a variety of such materials, because the intense and highly collimated radiation source has enabled us to obtain structural information rapidly as well as in time-resolved mode. In this paper are outlined the types of materials problems faced, and how we use different techniques to elucidate structure (both short and long range order) in zeolites, amorphous solids, as well as in biomaterials such as skin and hair containing lipid phases. Both equilibrium and time-resolved studies are described. (orig.)

  16. Surface science station of the infrared beamline at SPring-8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, M.; Moriwaki, T.; Kimura, H.; Nishida, S.; Nanba, T.

    2001-01-01

    An experimental station for surface science has been constructed at the infrared beamline (BL43IR) of SPring-8, Japan. The station utilizes synchrotron radiation in the energy range of 100-20000 cm -1 to perform infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRAS) of surfaces. It consists of an experimental section, a preparation chamber, gas handling equipment and a pair of focusing optics. In situ observation of vibrational spectra is possible using both IRAS and high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy

  17. Size-dependent redox behavior of iron observed by in-situ single nanoparticle spectro-microscopy on well-defined model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Waiz; Kleibert, Armin; Hartfelder, Urs; Balan, Ana; Gobrecht, Jens; van Bokhoven, Jeroen A; Ekinci, Yasin

    2016-01-06

    Understanding the chemistry of nanoparticles is crucial in many applications. Their synthesis in a controlled manner and their characterization at the single particle level is essential to gain deeper insight into chemical mechanisms. In this work, single nanoparticle spectro-microscopy with top-down nanofabrication is demonstrated to study individual iron nanoparticles of nine different lateral dimensions from 80 nm down to 6 nm. The particles are probed simultaneously, under same conditions, during in-situ redox reaction using X-ray photoemission electron microscopy elucidating the size effect during the early stage of oxidation, yielding time-dependent evolution of iron oxides and the mechanism for the inter-conversion of oxides in nanoparticles. Fabrication of well-defined system followed by visualization and investigation of singled-out particles eliminates the ambiguities emerging from dispersed nanoparticles and reveals a significant increase in the initial rate of oxidation with decreasing size, but the reactivity per active site basis and the intrinsic chemical properties in the particles remain the same in the scale of interest. This advance of nanopatterning together with spatially-resolved single nanoparticle X-ray absorption spectroscopy will guide future discourse in understanding the impact of confinement of metal nanoparticles and pave way to solve fundamental questions in material science, chemical physics, magnetism, nanomedicine and nanocatalysis.

  18. Size-dependent redox behavior of iron observed by in-situ single nanoparticle spectro-microscopy on well-defined model systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Waiz; Kleibert, Armin; Hartfelder, Urs; Balan, Ana; Gobrecht, Jens; van Bokhoven, Jeroen A.; Ekinci, Yasin

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the chemistry of nanoparticles is crucial in many applications. Their synthesis in a controlled manner and their characterization at the single particle level is essential to gain deeper insight into chemical mechanisms. In this work, single nanoparticle spectro-microscopy with top-down nanofabrication is demonstrated to study individual iron nanoparticles of nine different lateral dimensions from 80 nm down to 6 nm. The particles are probed simultaneously, under same conditions, during in-situ redox reaction using X-ray photoemission electron microscopy elucidating the size effect during the early stage of oxidation, yielding time-dependent evolution of iron oxides and the mechanism for the inter-conversion of oxides in nanoparticles. Fabrication of well-defined system followed by visualization and investigation of singled-out particles eliminates the ambiguities emerging from dispersed nanoparticles and reveals a significant increase in the initial rate of oxidation with decreasing size, but the reactivity per active site basis and the intrinsic chemical properties in the particles remain the same in the scale of interest. This advance of nanopatterning together with spatially-resolved single nanoparticle X-ray absorption spectroscopy will guide future discourse in understanding the impact of confinement of metal nanoparticles and pave way to solve fundamental questions in material science, chemical physics, magnetism, nanomedicine and nanocatalysis.

  19. Application of synchrotron radiation to elemental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, K.W.; Gordon, B.M.; Hanson, A.L.; Hastings, J.B.; Howells, M.R.; Kraner, H.W.; Chen, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    The use of a synchrotron storage ring as a high brightness source for production of monoergic, variable energy, and highly polarized x-ray beams promises to revolutionize the field of elemental analysis. The results of exploratory work using the Cornell synchrotron facility, CHESS, will be described. Design considerations and features of the new X-Ray Microprobe Facility now under construction at the Brookhaven National Synchrotron Light Source will be presented. This facility will be used for bulk analysis and for microanalysis with an initial spatial resolution of the order of 30 μm

  20. Report of the Synchrotron Radiation Vacuum Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avery, R.T.

    1984-06-01

    The Synchrotron Radiation Vacuum Workshop was held to consider two vacuum-related problems that bear on the design of storage rings and beam lines for synchrotron radiation facilities. These problems are gas desorption from the vacuum chamber walls and carbon deposition on optical components. Participants surveyed existing knowledge on these topics and recommended studies that should be performed as soon as possible to provide more definitive experimental data on these topics. This data will permit optimization of the final design of the Advanced Light Source (ALS) and its associated beam lines. It also should prove useful for other synchrotron radiation facilities as well

  1. Synchrotron radiation applications in biophysics and medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burattini, E.

    1985-01-01

    The peculiar properties of synchrotron radiation are briefly summarized. A short review on the possible applications of synchrotron radiation in two important fields like Biophysics and Medicine is presented. Details are given on experiments both in progress and carried out in many synchrotron radiation facilities, all over the world, using different techniques like X-ray absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence microanalysis, X-ray microscopy and digital subtraction angiography. Some news about the photon-activation therapy are briefly reported too

  2. Synchrotron power supply of TARN II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Shin-ichi.

    1991-07-01

    The construction and performance of synchrotron power supply of TARN II are described. The 1.1 GeV synchrotron-cooler TARN II has been constructed at Institute for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo. Constructed power supply for the dipole magnets is 600 V, 2500 A operated in the mode of trapezoid wave form with the repetition cycle of 0.1 Hz. The stability of magnetic field within 10 -3 and tracking error of 10 -4 have been attained with the aid of computer control system. First trial of synchrotron acceleration of He 2+ beam has been done up to 600 MeV in April, 1991. (author)

  3. The Advanced Light Source: A new 1.5 GeV synchrotron radiation facility at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlachter, F.

    1990-01-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS), presently under construction at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, will be the world's brightest synchrotron-radiation source of ultraviolet and soft x-ray photons when it opens its doors to users in April 1993. The ALS is a third-generation source that is based on a low-emittance electron storage ring, optimized for operation at 1.5 GeV, with long straight sections for insertion devices. Its naturally short pulses are ideal for time-resolved measurements. Undulators will produce high-brightness beams from below 10 eV to above 2 keV; wigglers will produce high fluxes of harder x-rays to energies above 10 keV. The ALS will support an extensive research program in a broad spectrum of scientific and technological areas. The high brightness will open new areas of research in the materials sciences, such as spatially resolved spectroscopy (spectromicroscopy). Biological applications will include x-ray microscopy with element-specific sensitivity in the water window of the spectrum where water is much more transparent than protein. The ALS will be an excellent research tool for atomic physics and chemistry because the high flux will allow measurements to be made with tenuous gas-phase targets. Undulator radiation can excite the K shell of elements up to silicon and the L shell of elements up to krypton, and wiggler radiation can excite the L shell of nearly every element. The ALS will operate as a national user facility; interested scientists are encouraged to contact the ALS Scientific Program Coordinator to explore their scientific and technological research interests

  4. Coherent synchrotron radiation by an electron linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazato, T.; Oyamada, M.; Niimura, N.

    1990-01-01

    Coherent effects in synchrotron radiation (SR) have been observed for the first time from 180 MeV short electron bunches of 1.7 mm using the Tohoku 300 MeV Linac. The intensity of the coherent SR was about 10 5 times as strong as that of incoherent SR at wavelengths of 0.33 to 2.0 mm. This enhancement factor roughly corresponds to the number of electrons in a bunch. The SR intensity showed a quadratic dependence on the electron beam current. The radiation was mainly polarized in the orbital plane. The possibility of induced rf in a vacuum chamber was excluded experimentally. An electron linear accelerator will be applied to a strong light source from infrared to millimeter wavelengths instead of the storage rings. The bunch length of shorter than 1 mm can be observed by the spectrum measurement of coherent SR. (author)

  5. Geological applications of synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, C. M. B.; Cressey, G.; Redfern, S. A. T.

    1995-03-01

    Synchrotron-based, Earth sciences research carried out over the last 5 years is reviewed with special attention being given to X-ray absorption studies; X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence microprobe applications are considered more briefly. A comprehensive bibliography is included. The main part of the paper summarizes recent work carried out at the Daresbury SRS. K-edge XAS studies of glasses as models for silicate melts provide information on the local structural environments of Si, Fe 2+ and Fe 3+. By analogy with synthetic "leucites" which contain Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ in tetrahedral framework sites, it seems that many model glasses also contain both oxidation states of Fe in the network, rather than as network modifiers. The structural sites occupied by the minor elements Mn, Zn and Ti in staurolite have been identified using XAFS; Mn and Zn substitute for Fe 2+ in the tetrahedral T2 site, while Ti occupies the distorted M2 octahedral site. L-edge spectroscopy is used to identify the valencies and electronic structures of Mn and Fe in minerals and the Fe 2+:Fe 3+ ratio in a natural spinel is determined. The polarized nature of the synchrotron beam is exploited in determining the Fe X-ray absorption anisotropy in single crystal tourmaline and epidote. XRD powder studies include Rietveld-refinement structure determination and compressibility studies. Synthetic "leucites" having the stoichiometry K 2MgSi 5O 12 have distinctly different structures. The dry-synthesized form is cubic Ia3d with Si and Mg fully disordered on tetrahedral framework sites, while the hydrothermally-synthesized polymorph is monoclinic P2 1/c with Si and Mg fully disordered on, respectively, 10 and 2 tetrahedral sites. The reversible tetragonal to orthorhombic phase transition in gillespite (BaFeSi 4O 10) has been studied in a diamond anvil cell using ED detection and found to occur at 1.2 ± 0.1 GPa. The anomalous compressibility observed has been interpreted in terms of ferroelastic and

  6. Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Light Source (SSRL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The SSRL at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory was built in 1974 to take and use for synchrotron studies the intense x-ray beams from the SPEAR storage ring that...

  7. Molecular photoemission studies using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truesdale, C.M.

    1983-04-01

    The angular distributions of photoelectrons and Auger electrons were measured by electron spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation. The experimental results are compared with theoretical calculations to interpret the electronic behavior of photoionization for molecular systems

  8. National synchrotron light source VUV storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumberg, L.; Bittner, J.; Galayda, J.; Heese, R.; Krinsky, S.; Schuchman, J.; van Steenbergen, A.

    1979-01-01

    A 700 MeV electron storage ring designed for synchrotron radiation applications is described. Lattice and stability calculations are presented and the vacuum, correction and injection systems are discussed

  9. Applications of synchrotron radiation in Biophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bemski, G.

    1983-01-01

    A short introduction to the generation of the synchrotron radiation is made. Following, the applications of such a radiation in biophysics with emphasis to the study of the hemoglobin molecule are presented. (L.C.) [pt

  10. Simulation of synchrotron motion with rf noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leemann, B.T.; Forest, E.; Chattopadhyay, S.

    1986-08-01

    The theoretical formulation is described that is behind an algorithm for synchrotron phase-space tracking with rf noise and some preliminary simulation results of bunch diffusion under rf noise obtained by actual tracking

  11. National Synchrotron Light Source annual report 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulbert, S.; Lazarz, N.; Williams, G. (eds.)

    1988-01-01

    This report discusses the experiment done at the National Synchrotron Light Source. Most experiments discussed involves the use of the x-ray beams to study physical properties of solid materials. (LSP)

  12. Synchrotron light sources in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mtingwa, Sekazi K.; Winick, Herman

    2018-03-01

    We discuss the role that synchrotron light sources, such as SESAME, could play in improving the socioeconomic conditions in developing countries. After providing a brief description of a synchrotron light source, we discuss the important role that they played in the development of several economically emerging countries. Then we describe the state of synchrotron science in South Africa and that country’s leadership role in founding the African Light Source initiative. Next, we highlight a new initiative called Lightsources for Africa, the Americas & Middle East Project, which is a global initiative led by the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics and the International Union of Crystallography, with initial funding provided by the International Council for Science. Finally, we comment on a new technology called the multibend achromat that has launched a new paradigm for the design of synchrotron light sources that should be attractive for construction in developing countries.

  13. Synchrotrons are also devoted to the society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gacoin, M.P.; Cornuejols, D.; Cotte, M.; Deblay, P.; Mitchell, E.P.; McCarthy, J.; Fraissard, F.

    2013-01-01

    The ESRF and the SOLEIL synchrotrons are not only scientific instruments but also active players in the cultural and economic fields. This document gathers 6 short articles. The 2 first present the actions of SOLEIL and ESRS scientific teams towards the spreading of scientific knowledge in the public. The third article is dedicated to the uses of synchrotron radiation to the study of cultural objects to learn more about their fabrication, present state or the remedial actions that could be used to renovate them. The fourth and fifth articles present the contributions of ESRF and SOLEIL to the industrial world, in fact these contributions are not limited to the research field but also appear for quality assurance or the control of aging processes. Partnerships have been signed between both synchrotrons and enterprises to develop industrial products based on instrumentation or on the use of synchrotron radiation. The last article describes the procedure to have access to both facilities. (A.C.)

  14. Synchrotrons are also devoted to society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gacoin, M.P.; Cornuejols, D.; Cotte, M.; Deblay, P.; Mitchell, E.P.; McCarthy, J.; Fraissard, F.

    2013-01-01

    The ESRF and the SOLEIL synchrotrons are not only scientific instruments but also active players in the cultural and economic fields. This document gathers 6 short articles. The 2 first present the actions of SOLEIL and ESRS scientific teams towards the spreading of scientific knowledge in the public. The third article is dedicated to the uses of synchrotron radiation to the study of cultural objects to learn more about their fabrication, present state or the remedial actions that could be used to renovate them. The fourth and fifth articles present the contributions of ESRF and SOLEIL to the industrial world, in fact these contributions are not limited to the research field but also appear for quality assurance or the control of aging processes. Partnerships have been signed between both synchrotrons and enterprises to develop industrial products based on instrumentation or on the use of synchrotron radiation. The last article describes the procedure to have access to both facilities. (A.C.)

  15. Evaluation of the synchrotron close orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashmakov, Yu.A.; Karpov, V.A.

    1991-01-01

    The knowledge of the closed orbit position is an essential condition for the effective work of any accelerator. Therefore questions of calculations, measurements and controls have great importance. For example, during injection of particles into a synchrotron, the amplitudes of their betatron oscillations may become commensurable with the working region of the synchrotron. This makes one pay attention at the problem of formation of the optimum orbit with use of correcting optical elements. In addition, it is often necessary to calculate such an orbit at the end of the acceleration cycle when particles are deposited at internal targets or removed from the synchrotron. In this paper, the computation of the close orbit is reduced to a determination at an arbitrarily chosen azimuth of the eigenvector of the total transfer matrix of the synchrotron ring and to tracing with this vector desired orbit. The eigenvector is found as a result of an iteration

  16. Fiber structural analysis by synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Kojima, J I; Kikutani, T

    2003-01-01

    Topics of fiber structural analysis by synchrotron radiation are explained. There are only three synchrotron radiation facilities in the world, SPring-8 (Super Photon ring-8) in Japan, APS (Advanced Photon Source) in U.S.A. and ESRF (European Synchrotron Radiation Facility) in France. Online measurement of melt spinning process of PET and Nylon6 is explained in detail. Polypropylene and PBO (poly-p-phenylenebenzobisoxazole) was measured by WAXD (Wide Angle X-ray Diffraction)/SAXS (Small Angle X-ray Scattering) at the same time. Some examples of measure of drawing process of fiber are described. The structure formation process of spider's thread was measured. Micro beam of X-ray of synchrotron facility was improved and it attained to 65nm small angle resolving power by 10 mu m beamsize. (S.Y.)

  17. Panel backs next-generation synchrotron

    CERN Multimedia

    Service, R F

    1999-01-01

    A key federal panel recommended continued research into development of a fourth-generation synchrotron. It would be capable of creating x-ray pulses billions of times more intense than current designs (1 page).

  18. Towards Establishing of National Centre of Synchrotron Radiation in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolodziej, J.J.; Szymonski, M.

    2004-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation facilities (SRF) are established part of contemporary world research landscape. They facilitate fast advances of life, health, and physical sciences as well as development of new technologies. The extent of synchrotron radiation (SR) use has been growing up steadily for the last two decades all over the world and it is anticipated that the growth will continue in future. Growing community of SR users has generated increasing demand for the beam-time in infrared, vacuum UV and X-ray ranges. In response, many new SR facilities are now being constructed and planned, not only in large countries of strong economy but also in developing countries. It is expected that such trends will be followed in other parts of the world. No doubt, the ''cutting edge'' of research activity will continue to create the demand for beams of higher brightness, flux and photon energy but it is predictable that the increasing fraction of research done presently with laboratory radiation sources will be shifting towards small-scale SR facilities. Several hundred Polish scientists, a meaningful fraction of all SR users, take part in experiments using synchrotron sources all over the world. Many of them belong to the Polish Synchrotron Radiation Society - an active body promoting the use of SR. Present European Union priorities include knowledge, research and innovation as the key priorities and a pillar of development and stable welfare of Europe. Poland as a new member of EU will have to conform to the EU policy. The government strategy assumes a fast increase of investments in research and development sector starting from 2005. No other scientific research installations has had such major impact on advances in science an technology as the SRF. It is obvious that the time is ripe now for establishing a National Centre of Synchrotron Radiation in Poland. Recently, several Polish educational and research institutions constituted around the idea of Polish SRF. The initiative

  19. New theoretical results in synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagrov, V.G. [Tomsk State University, Lenin Avenue 36, 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: bagrov@phys.tsu.ru; Gitman, D.M. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, C.P. 66318, 05315-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Tlyachev, V.B. [Tomsk Institute of High Current Electronics, Akademicheskiy Avenue 4, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Jarovoi, A.T. [Tomsk State University, Lenin Avenue 36, 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2005-11-15

    One of the remarkable features of the relativistic electron synchrotron radiation is its concentration in small angle {delta}{approx}1/{gamma} (here {gamma}-relativistic factor: {gamma}=E/mc{sup 2}, E - energy, m - electron rest mass, c - light velocity) near rotation orbit plane [V.G. Bagrov, V.A. Bordovitsyn, V.G. Bulenok, V. Ya. Epp, Kinematical projection of pulsar synchrotron radiation profiles, in: Proceedings of IV ISTC Scientific Advisory Commitee Seminar on Basic Science in ISTC Aktivities, Akademgorodok, Novosibirsk, April 23-27, 2001, p. 293-300]. This theoretically predicted and experimentally confirmed feature is peculiar to total (spectrum summarized) radiating intensity. This angular distribution property has been supposed to be (at least qualitatively) conserved and for separate spectrum synchrotron radiation components. In the work of V.G. Bagrov, V.A. Bordovitsyn, V. Ch. Zhukovskii, Development of the theory of synchrotron radiation and related processes. Synchrotron source of JINR: the perspective of research, in: The Materials of the Second International Work Conference, Dubna, April 2-6, 2001, pp. 15-30 and in Angular dependence of synchrotron radiation intensity. http://lanl.arXiv.org/abs/physics/0209097, it is shown that the angular distribution of separate synchrotron radiation spectrum components demonstrates directly inverse tendency - the angular distribution deconcentration relatively the orbit plane takes place with electron energy growth. The present work is devoted to detailed investigation of this situation. For exact quantitative estimation of angular concentration degree of synchrotron radiation the definition of radiation effective angle and deviation angle is proposed. For different polarization components of radiation the dependence of introduced characteristics was investigated as a functions of electron energy and number of spectrum component.

  20. Experimental demonstration of the KEK induction synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takayama, Ken; Torikai, Kota; Shimosaki, Yoshito; Kono, Tadaaki; Iwashita, Taiki; Arakida, Yoshio; Nakamura, Eiji; Shirakata, Masashi; Sueno, Takeshi; Wake, Masayoshi; Otsuka, Kazunori

    2007-01-01

    Recent progress in the KEK induction synchrotron is presented. In the recent experiment, by using a newly developed induction acceleration system instead of radio-wave acceleration devices, a single proton bunch injected from the 500 MeV Booster ring and captured by the barrier bucket created by the induction step-voltages was accelerated to 6 GeV in the KEK proton synchrotron

  1. Early British synchrotrons, an informal history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, J.D.

    1997-02-01

    An historical account of the design and construction of early synchrotrons in the United Kingdom, based partly on personal reminiscences, is presented. Material is also drawn from archives at Birmingham and CERN. The document covers the period from plans for the world's first synchrotron at Malvern after the Second World War to work done at Harwell Laboratory for CERN in the period 1951-1953. (UK)

  2. Synchrotron control system of the HIMAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, E.; Sato, K.; Itano, A.

    1994-01-01

    A structural design synopsis and the present status of the HIMAC synchrotron control system are described. The control system comprises of Timing System, (ring magnet) Power-supply Controller, Programmable Logic Controller, Static Var Compensator controller, Monitor Controller, RF control computer, Beam Transport control computer and the synchrotron main computer (denoted as CS, hereafter) that forms a local area cluster with man-machine interfacing computers, and communicates with HIMAC supervisor computer. (author)

  3. Recent Developments in Synchrotron Moessbauer Reflectometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deak, L.; Bottyan, L.; Major, M.; Nagy, D. L. [KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics (Hungary); Spiering, H. [Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet, Mainz, Institute fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie (Germany); Szilagyi, E.; Tancziko, F. [KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics (Hungary)

    2002-12-15

    Synchrotron Moessbauer Reflectometry (SMR), the grazing incidence nuclear resonant scattering of synchrotron radiation, can be applied to perform depth-selective phase analysis and to determine the isotopic and magnetic structure of thin films and multilayers. Principles and methodological aspects of SMR are briefly reviewed. Off-specular SMR provides information from the lateral structure of multilayers. In anti-ferromagneticly coupled systems the size of magnetic domains can be measured.

  4. National Laboratory of Synchrotron Radiation: technologic potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, C.E.T.G. da; Rodrigues, A.R.D.

    1987-01-01

    The technological or industrial developments based on the accumulated experience by research group of condensed matter physics, in Brazil, are described. The potential of a National Laboratory of Synchrotron Radiation for personnel training, absorption and adaptation of economically important technologies for Brazil, is presented. Examples of cooperations between the Laboratory and some national interprises, and some industrial applications of the synchrotron radiation are done. (M.C.K.) [pt

  5. Localization and chemical forms of cadmium in plant samples by combining analytical electron microscopy and X-ray spectromicroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaure, Marie-Pierre [Section d' Application des Traceurs, LITEN, CEA-Grenoble, 17, rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble cedex 9 (France) and Environmental Geochemistry Group, LGIT, UMR 5559, Universite J. Fourier and CNRS, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble cedex 9 (France)]. E-mail: mpisaure@ujf-grenoble.fr; Fayard, Barbara [Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, UMR 8502 Universite Paris Sud, 91405 Orsay (France); European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, ID-21, BP220, 38043 Grenoble (France); Sarret, Geraldine [Environmental Geochemistry Group, LGIT, UMR 5559, Universite J. Fourier and CNRS, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Pairis, Sebastien [Laboratoire de Cristallographie, UPR 5031, 25 Avenue des Martyrs, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Bourguignon, Jacques [Laboratoire de Physiologie Cellulaire Vegetale, UMR 5168 CEA/CNRS/INRA/UJF, DRDC, CEA-Grenoble, 17 Avenue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble cedex 9 (France)

    2006-12-15

    Cadmium (Cd) is a metal of high toxicity for plants. Resolving its distribution and speciation in plants is essential for understanding the mechanisms involved in Cd tolerance, trafficking and accumulation. The model plant Arabidopsis thaliana was exposed to cadmium under controlled conditions. Elemental distributions in the roots and in the leaves were determined using scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (SEM-EDX), and synchrotron-based micro X-ray fluorescence ({mu}-XRF), which offers a better sensitivity. The chemical form(s) of cadmium was investigated using Cd L{sub III}-edge (3538 eV) micro X-ray absorption near edge structure ({mu}-XANES) spectroscopy. Plant {mu}-XANES spectra were fitted by linear combination of Cd reference spectra. Biological sample preparation and conditioning is a critical point because of possible artifacts. In this work we compared freeze-dried samples analyzed at ambient temperature and frozen hydrated samples analyzed at -170 deg. C. Our results suggest that in the roots Cd is localized in vascular bundles, and coordinated to S ligands. In the leaves, trichomes (epidermal hairs) represent the main compartment of Cd accumulation. In these specialized cells, {mu}-XANES results show that the majority of Cd is bound to O/N ligands likely provided by the cell wall, and a minor fraction could be bound to S-containing ligands. No significant difference in Cd speciation was observed between freeze-dried and frozen hydrated samples. This work illustrates the interest and the sensitivity of Cd L{sub III}-edge XANES spectroscopy, which is applied here for the first time to plant samples. Combining {mu}-XRF and Cd L{sub III}-edge {mu}-XANES spectroscopy offers promising tools to study Cd storage and trafficking mechanisms in plants and other biological samples.

  6. Synchrotron radiation from spherically accreting black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ipser, J.R.; Price, R.H.

    1982-01-01

    Spherical accretion onto a Schwartzchild black hole, of gas with frozen-in magnetic field, is studied numerically and analytically for a range of hole masses and accretion rates in which synchrotron emission is the dominant radiative mechanism. At small radii the equipartition of magnetic, kinetic, and gravitational energy is assumed to apply, and the gas is heated by dissipation of infalling magnetic energy, turbulent energy, etc. The models can be classified into three types: (a) synchrotron cooling negligible, (b) synchrotron cooling important but synchrotron self-absorption negligible, (c) synchrotron cooling and self-absorption important. In the first case gas temperatures become very high near the horizon but luminosity efficiencies (luminosity/mass-energy accretion rate) are low. In cases (b) and (c) the gas flow near the horizon is essentially isothermal and luminosity efficiencies are fairly high. The analysis and results for the isothermal cases (b) and (c) are valid only for moderate dissipative heating and synchrotron self-absorption. If self-absorption is very strong or if dissipated energy is comparable to infall energy, Comptonization effects, not included in the analysis, become important

  7. Starting up the Saturne synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvat, M.

    1958-02-01

    Illustrated by many drawings and graphs, this report describes and comments all operations and measurements to be performed for starting up the Saturne synchrotron until particle acceleration exclusively. The author reports the study of beam as it goes out of the Van de Graaff: experiment of position and stability of the beam axis, study of beam current and geometric characteristics (calibration of the induction probe), experiment of mass separation and proton percentage, and adjustment of regulation and Van de Graaff fall law. In a second part, he reports the optics alignment and the study of optics property (installation of the different sectors, study of inflector end voltage, and influence of inflector position in the chamber). The third part addresses the examination of phenomena associated with injection: injection method and definition of the initial instant, search for injection optimum conditions, study of particle lifetime and of phenomena on the inner probe. The fourth part proposes theoretical additional elements regarding the movement of particles at the injection in the useful area, and phenomena occurring on targets and on the inner probe

  8. ROSY - Rossendorf synchrotron radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einfeld, D.; Matz, W.

    1993-11-01

    The electron energy of the storage ring will be 3 GeV and the emitted synchrotron radiation is in the hard X-ray region with a critical energy of the spectrum of E c =8,4 keV (λ c =0,14 nm). With a natural emittance of 28 π nm rad ROSY emits high brilliance radiation. Besides the radiation from bending magnets there will be the possibility for using radiation from wigglers and undulators. For the insertion devices 8 places are foreseen four of which are located in non-dispersion-free regions. The storage ring is of fourfold symmetry, has a circumference of 148 m and is designed in a modified FODO structure. An upgrade of ROSY with superconducting bending magnets in order to shift the spectrum to higher energy can easily be done. Part I contains the scientific case and a description of the planned use of the beam lines. Part II describes the design of the storage ring and its components in more detail. (orig.) [de

  9. Plant-based food and feed protein structure changes induced by gene-transformation, heating and bio-ethanol processing: a synchrotron-based molecular structure and nutrition research program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Peiqiang

    2010-11-01

    Unlike traditional "wet" analytical methods which during processing for analysis often result in destruction or alteration of the intrinsic protein structures, advanced synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy has been developed as a rapid and nondestructive and bioanalytical technique. This cutting-edge synchrotron-based bioanalytical technology, taking advantages of synchrotron light brightness (million times brighter than sun), is capable of exploring the molecular chemistry or structure of a biological tissue without destruction inherent structures at ultra-spatial resolutions. In this article, a novel approach is introduced to show the potential of the advanced synchrotron-based analytical technology, which can be used to study plant-based food or feed protein molecular structure in relation to nutrient utilization and availability. Recent progress was reported on using synchrotron-based bioanalytical technique synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy and diffused reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy to detect the effects of gene-transformation (Application 1), autoclaving (Application 2), and bio-ethanol processing (Application 3) on plant-based food and feed protein structure changes on a molecular basis. The synchrotron-based technology provides a new approach for plant-based protein structure research at ultra-spatial resolutions at cellular and molecular levels.

  10. Synchrotron radiation applications in medical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomlinson, W.

    1995-01-01

    The medical projects employing synchrotron radiation as discussed in this paper are, for the most part, still in their infancies and no one can predict the direction in which they will develop. Both the basic research and applied medical programs are sure to be advanced at the new facilities coming on line, especially the ESRF and Spring- 8. However, success is not guaranteed. There is a lot of competition from advances in conventional imaging with the development of digital angiography, computed tomography, functional magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound. The synchrotron programs will have to provide significant advantages over these modalities in order to be accepted by the medical profession. Advances in image processing and potentially the development of compact sources will be required in order to move the synchrotron developed imaging technologies into the clinical world. In any event, it can be expected that the images produced by the synchrotron technologies will establish ''gold standards'' to be targeted by conventional modalities. A lot more work needs to be done in order to bring synchrotron radiation therapy and surgery to the level of human studies and, subsequently, to clinical applications

  11. Metrology of reflection optics for synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takacs, P.Z.

    1985-09-01

    Recent years have seen an almost explosive growth in the number of beam lines on new and existing synchrotron radiation facilities throughout the world. The need for optical components to utilize the unique characteristics of synchrotron radiation has increased accordingly. Unfortunately, the technology to manufacture and measure the large, smooth, exotic optical surfaces required to focus and steer the synchrotron radiation beam has not progressed as rapidly as the operational demands on these components. Most companies do not wish to become involved with a project that requires producing a single, very expensive, aspheric optic with surface roughness and figure tolerances that are beyond their capabilities to measure. This paper will review some of the experiences of the National Synchrotron Light Source in procuring grazing incidence optical components over the past several years. We will review the specification process - how it is related to the function of the optic, and how it relates to the metrology available during the manufacturing process and after delivery to the user's laboratory. We will also discuss practical aspects of our experience with new technologies, such as single point diamond turning of metal mirrors and the use of SiC as a mirror material. Recent advances in metrology instrumentation have the potential to move the measurement of surface figure and finish from the research laboratory into the optical shop, which should stimulate growth and interest in the manufacturing of optics to meet the needs of the synchrotron radiation user community

  12. Synchrotron based spallation neutron source concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Y.

    1998-01-01

    During the past 20 years, rapid-cycling synchrotrons (RCS) have been used very productively to generate short-pulse thermal neutron beams for neutron scattering research by materials science communities in Japan (KENS), the UK (ISIS) and the US (IPNS). The most powerful source in existence, ISIS in the UK, delivers a 160-kW proton beam to a neutron-generating target. Several recently proposed facilities require proton beams in the MW range to produce intense short-pulse neutron beams. In some proposals, a linear accelerator provides the beam power and an accumulator ring compresses the pulse length to the required ∼ 1 micros. In others, RCS technology provides the bulk of the beam power and compresses the pulse length. Some synchrotron-based proposals achieve the desired beam power by combining two or more synchrotrons of the same energy, and others propose a combination of lower and higher energy synchrotrons. This paper presents the rationale for using RCS technology, and a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of synchrotron-based spallation sources

  13. Chemical applications of synchrotron radiation: Workshop report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-04-01

    The most recent in a series of topical meetings for Advanced Photon Source user subgroups, the Workshop on Chemical Applications of Synchrotron Radiation (held at Argonne National Laboratory, October 3-4, 1988) dealt with surfaces and kinetics, spectroscopy, small-angle scattering, diffraction, and topography and imaging. The primary objectives were to provide an educational resource for the chemistry community on the scientific research being conducted at existing synchrotron sources and to indicate some of the unique opportunities that will be made available with the Advanced Photon Source. The workshop organizers were also interested in gauging the interest of chemists in the field of synchrotron radiation. Interest expressed at the meeting has led to initial steps toward formation of a Chemistry Users Group at the APS. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases

  14. Space-charge calculations in synchrotrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machida, S.

    1993-05-01

    One obvious bottleneck of achieving high luminosity in hadron colliders, such as the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC), is the beam emittance growth, due to space-charge effects in low energy injector synchrotrons. Although space-charge effects have been recognized since the alternating-gradient synchrotron was invented, and the Laslett tune shift usually calculated to quantify these effects, our understanding of the effects is limited, especially when the Laslett tune shift becomes a large fraction of the integer. Using the Simpsons tracking code, which we developed to study emittance preservation issues in proton synchrotrons, we investigated space-charge effects in the SSC Low Energy Booster (LEB). We observed detailed dependence on parameters such as beam intensity, initial emittance, injection energy, lattice function, and longitudinal motion. A summary of those findings, as well as the tracking technique we developed for the study, are presented.

  15. Fifth school on Magnetism and Synchrotron Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Beaurepaire, Eric; Scheurer, Fabrice; Kappler, Jean-Paul; Magnetism and Synchrotron Radiation : New Trends

    2010-01-01

    Advances in the synthesis of new materials with often complex, nano-scaled structures require increasingly sophisticated experimental techniques that can probe the electronic states, the atomic magnetic moments and the magnetic microstructures responsible for the properties of these materials. At the same time, progress in synchrotron radiation techniques has ensured that these light sources remain a key tool of investigation, e.g. synchrotron radiation sources of the third generation are able to support magnetic imaging on a sub-micrometer scale. With the Fifth Mittelwihr School on Magnetism and Synchrotron Radiation the tradition of teaching the state-of-the-art on modern research developments continues and is expressed through the present set of extensive lectures provided in this volume. While primarily aimed at postgraduate students and newcomers to the field, this volume will also benefit researchers and lecturers actively working in the field.

  16. Chemical applications of synchrotron radiation: Workshop report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-04-01

    The most recent in a series of topical meetings for Advanced Photon Source user subgroups, the Workshop on Chemical Applications of Synchrotron Radiation (held at Argonne National Laboratory, October 3-4, 1988) dealt with surfaces and kinetics, spectroscopy, small-angle scattering, diffraction, and topography and imaging. The primary objectives were to provide an educational resource for the chemistry community on the scientific research being conducted at existing synchrotron sources and to indicate some of the unique opportunities that will be made available with the Advanced Photon Source. The workshop organizers were also interested in gauging the interest of chemists in the field of synchrotron radiation. Interest expressed at the meeting has led to initial steps toward formation of a Chemistry Users Group at the APS. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases.

  17. Overview of Industrial Synchrotron Radiation Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laderman, Stephen S.

    1996-03-01

    Relevant, reliable and accessible synchrotron radiation methods can play an important role in industrial activities. To date, the application of synchrotron radiation based materials characterization methods by industrial concerns has followed the path of laboratory based x-ray methods: early adoption, continuous improvement, and a high degree of specialization to meet specific goals, which may change over time. Like all x-ray methods, their applicability to segments of the biotechnology, chemical, electronics, medical and metallurgical industries arises from a need to develop sophisticated processes for precisely controlling microstructures. An increasing number of those processes are being developed in ways which can, in principle, be more effectively studied if synchrotron radiation based analyses are performed. Technical limitations confined the efforts of early synchrotron radiation users to long-range research investigations. Nowadays, progress in data collection methods, analysis algorithims, accelerator performance, and worker training, have removed many constraints. However, commercial technologies are being improved at steadily higher rates, shortening the time between research, development and manufacturing and, in many cases, blurring their distinctions. Certainly, rapid rates of innovation increase the opportunities for synchrotron radiation techniques to bring competitive advantage since they can be used to shrink development times, to maintain yields and, perhaps, as part of advanced manufacturing. At the same time, rapid rates of innovation also impose stringent criteria on the reliability and timeliness of the supporting methods. Successful conventional x-ray methods have resulted from efforts to create useful new capabilities that effectively balance such forces. Currently, synchrotron radiation users throughout the world are pursuing analogous goals.

  18. Synchrotron X-ray adaptative monochromator: study and realization of a prototype; Monochromateur adaptatif pour rayonnement X synchrotron: etude et realisation d`un prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dezoret, D.

    1995-12-12

    This work presents a study of a prototype of a synchrotron X-ray monochromator. The spectral qualities of this optic are sensitive to the heat loads which are particularly important on third synchrotron generation like ESRF. Indeed, powers generated by synchrotron beams can reach few kilowatts and power densities about a few tens watts per square millimeters. The mechanical deformations of the optical elements of the beamlines issue issue of the heat load can damage their spectral efficiencies. In order to compensate the deformations, wa have been studying the transposition of the adaptive astronomical optics technology to the x-ray field. First, we have considered the modifications of the spectral characteristics of a crystal induced by x-rays. We have established the specifications required to a technological realisation. Then, thermomechanical and technological studies have been required to transpose the astronomical technology to an x-ray technology. After these studies, we have begun the realisation of a prototype. This monochromator is composed by a crystal of silicon (111) bonded on a piezo-electric structure. The mechanical control is a loop system composed by a infrared light, a Shack-Hartmann CDD and wave front analyser. This system has to compensate the deformations of the crystal in the 5 kcV to 60 kcV energy range with a power density of 1 watt per square millimeters. (authors).

  19. Proposal for a national synchrotron light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blewett, J.P.

    1977-02-01

    Since 1971 discussions have been held at Brookhaven National Laboratory on the desirability of construction of a storage ring which would be used exclusively for production of intense beams of photons with wavelengths in the ultraviolet and X-ray ranges. A proposal is given which discusses in detail the machine, its characteristics, and its expected uses. The proposal includes: (1) characteristics of synchrotron radiation; (2) scientific justification for a synchrotron radiation facility; (3) facility design; (4) wiggler magnets; (5) experimental facilities; (6) buildings and utilities; (7) construction schedules, costs, and manpower; and (8) environmental assessment

  20. Challenges and opportunities in synchrotron radiation optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehn, V.

    Design necessities germaine to advances in optics for experimentation with synchrotron radiation are explored. Objectives for development include improved beam-line performance using new mirror materials or coatings, filtering and order-sorting enhancement, and lower surface scattering. A summary is presented of optical systems currently in use, together with requirements imposed by storage rings and experimental design. Advances are recommended in intensity, collimation, focus, and spectral purity of synchrotron beam lines. Any new storage ring mirror is noted to be required to dissipate several hundred watts, something which polished Cu is mentioned as being capable of handling, while standard SiO2 mirrors cannot.

  1. Atomic collision experiments using pulsed synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arikawa, Tatsuo; Watanabe, Tsutomu.

    1982-01-01

    High intensity and continuous nature of the synchrotron radiation are the properties that are fundamentally important for studies of some atomic collision experiments, and many processes have been investigated by using these characteristics. However, so far the property that the radiation is highly polarized and pulsed in time has not been exploited significantly in atomic physics. As an example of the atomic processes relevant to such polarized and pulsed features of the synchrotron radiation, collisions involving optically-allowed excited atoms and molecules will be presented. (author)

  2. 12 Experimental Techniques at Synchrotron Lightsource Beamlines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Peter L [US Department of Energy Office of Science Office Basic Energy Sciences; Rhyne, James J [US Department of Energy Office of Science Office of Basic Energy Sciences

    2015-01-01

    The unique properties of synchrotron radiation are its continuous spectrum, high flux and brightness, and high coherence, which make it an indispensable tool in the exploration of matter. The wavelengths of the emitted photons span a range of dimensions from the atomic level to biological cells, thereby providing incisive probes for advanced research in materials science, physical and chemical sciences, metrology, geosciences, environmental sciences, biosciences, medical sciences, and pharmaceutical sciences. The features of synchrotron radiation are especially well matched to the needs of nanoscience.

  3. RF control system of the HIMAC synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanazawa, M.; Sato, K.; Itano, A.

    1992-01-01

    An RF control system of the HIMAC synchrotron has been constructed. In this control system we have adopted a digital feed back system with a digital synthesizer (DS). Combining a high power system, performance of the control system have been tested in a factory (Toshiba) with a simulator circuit of the synchrotron oscillation. Following this test, We had beam acceleration test with this control system at TARN-II in INS (Institute for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo). This paper describes the RF control system and its tested results. (author)

  4. Automation and Remote Synchrotron Data Collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilski, M.

    2008-01-01

    X-ray crystallography is the natural choice for macromolecular structure determination by virtue of its accuracy, speed, and potential for further speed gains, while synchrotron radiation is indispensable because of its intensity and tuneability. Good X-ray crystallographic diffraction patterns are essential and frequently this is achievable through using the few large synchrotrons located worldwide. Beamline time on these facilities have long queues, and increasing the efficiency of utilization of these facilities will help in expediting the structure determination process. Automation and remote data collection are therefore essential steps in ensuring that macromolecular structure determination becomes a very high throughput process. (author)

  5. Bunch heating by coherent synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heifets, S.A.; Zolotorev, M.

    1995-10-01

    The authors discuss here effects which define the steady-state rms energy spread of a microbunch in a storage ring. It is implied that the longitudinal microwave instability is controlled by low α lattice. In this case the coherent synchrotron radiation, if exists, may be the main factor defining the bunch temperature. Another effect comes from the fact that a nonlinear momentum compaction of such lattices makes Haissinskii equation not applicable, and the coherent synchrotron radiation may effect not only bunch lengthening but the energy spread as well

  6. Development and trends in synchrotron studies of ancient and historical materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertrand, Loïc; Cotte, Marine; Stampanoni, Marco; Thoury, Mathieu; Marone, Federica; Schöder, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Synchrotron photon-based methods are increasingly being used for the physico-chemical study of ancient and historical materials (archaeology, palaeontology, conservation sciences, palaeo-environments). In particular, parameters such as the high photon flux, the small source size and the low divergence attained at the synchrotron make it a very efficient source for a range of advanced spectroscopy and imaging techniques, adapted to the heterogeneity and great complexity of the materials under study. The continuous tunability of the source — its very extended energy distribution over wide energy domains (meV to keV) with a high intensity — is an essential parameter for techniques based on a very fine tuning of the probing energy to reach high chemical sensitivity such as XANES, EXAFS, STXM, UV/VIS spectrometry, etc. The small source size attained (a few micrometres) at least in the vertical plane leads to spatial coherence of the photon beams, giving rise in turn to a series of imaging methods already crucial to the field. This review of the existing literature shows that microfocused hard X-ray spectroscopy (absorption, fluorescence, diffraction), full-field X-ray tomography and infrared spectroscopy are the leading synchrotron techniques in the field, and presents illustrative examples of the study of ancient and historical materials for the various methods. Fast developing analytical modalities in scanning spectroscopy (STXM, macro-XRF scanning) and novel analytical strategies regarding optics, detectors and other instrumental developments are expected to provide major contributions in the years to come. Other energy domains are increasingly being used or considered such as far-infrared and ultraviolet/visible for spectroscopy and imaging. We discuss the main instrumental developments and perspectives, and their impact for the science being made on ancient materials using synchrotron techniques.

  7. Preliminar plan of a machine for the synchrotron radiation production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moscati, G.; Takahashi, J.; Miyao, Y.

    1985-01-01

    A preliminar plan, with all the technical specifications, for the construction of a machine for the synchrotron radiation production to be done by the National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory in Brazil is presented. (L.C.) [pt

  8. What is a synchrotron and why does Australia need one?

    CERN Document Server

    Nugent, K A

    2002-01-01

    Construction of a $157 million synchrotron will soon begin in Melbourne. The author describes what this facility means for Australian science. The Australian synchrotron is a third generation device. The facility would have the capacity to do a wide range of science and technology at the same time. A number of applications, which are the priority for the Australian synchrotron project are briefly described. The huge technological spin-offs of this knowledge have made synchrotrons an attractive proposition to state governments

  9. Synchrotron radiation and free electron laser activities in Novosibirsk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korchuganov, V.N.; Kulipanov, G.N.; Mezentsev, N.A.; Oreshkov, A.D.; Panchenko, V.E.; Pindyurin, V.F.; Skrinskij, A.N.; Sheromov, M.A.; Vinokurov, N.A.; Zolotarev, K.V.

    1994-01-01

    The results of studies realized in the Siberian synchrotron radiation centre within the frameworks of wide program of synchrotron radiation and free electron laser research are summarized. The technical information on the VEPP-2M, VEPP-3 and VEPP-4M storage rings used as synchrotron radiation sources is given. 10 refs.; 8 figs.; 12 tabs

  10. Coherence Inherent in an Incoherent Synchrotron Radio Source ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is well known that synchrotron radiation mechanism does not allow MASER type coherent emission (Pacholczyk 1970). Here we show that coherence can naturally occur in a synchrotron ... cally thick region (Fig. 1), then divides the synchrotron spectrum into an incoherent. 1A thin flat circular unleavened Indian bread.

  11. Photonuclear physics at the Bonn synchrotrons. Present status and future plans at the Bonn synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mecking, B.A.

    1983-11-01

    The activities in the field of photonuclear physics at the Bonn 500 MeV and 2.5 GeV synchrotrons are reviewed. The experiments concentrate on photodisintegration and pion-photoproduction reactions on light nuclei. (orig.)

  12. Wellcome Trust backs Rutherford to host synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    Leder, N

    1999-01-01

    The Wellcome Trust has stated its preference for the site of the new Anglo-French synchrotron to be at RAL in Oxfordshire. But the statement coincides with an announcement from the UK government that a decision on the location of 'Diamond' will be delayed to allow two new reports on the canditate sites to be commissioned (1/2 page).

  13. Atomic physics research with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crasemann, B.

    1981-01-01

    Applications of synchrotron radiation to research in high-energy atomic physics are summarized. These lie in the areas of photoelectron spectrometry, photon scattering, x-ray absorption spectroscopy, time-resolved measurements, resonance spectroscopy and threshold excitation, and future, yet undefined studies

  14. Nuclear Bragg diffraction using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rueffer, R.; Gerdau, E.; Grote, M.; Hollatz, R.; Roehlsberger, R.; Rueter, H.D.; Sturhahn, W.

    1990-01-01

    Nuclear Bragg diffraction with synchrotron radiation as source will become a powerful new X-ray source in the A-region. This source exceeds by now the brilliance of conventional Moessbauer sources giving hyperfine spectroscopy further momentum. As examples applications to yttrium iron garnet (YIG) and iron borate will be discussed. (author)

  15. Reflectometry with synchrotron radiation; Reflektometrie mit Synchrotronstrahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krumrey, Michael [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Berlin (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe ' Roentgenradiometrie' ; Cibik, Levent; Fischer, Andreas; Gottwald, Alexander; Kroth, Udo; Scholze, Frank

    2014-09-15

    The measurement of the reflectivity for VUV, XUV, and X-radiation at the PTB synchrotron radiation sources is described. The corresponding data of the used beams are presented. Results of experiments on a Cu-Ni double-layer, SiO{sub 2}, Si, and MgF{sub 2} are presented. (HSI)

  16. Internal magnetic target of proton synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gachurin, V.V.; Kats, M.M.; Kondrat'ev, L.N.; Rogal', A.D.; Rusinov, V.Yu.

    1988-01-01

    Proton extraction from a synchrotron by means of an internal target of magnetized iron is described. The particles that are aimed at the target pass directly through it and are deflected by the internal magnetic field of the target in the extraction direction. The general properties of magnetic targets are examined theoretically and a specific devices and results of its testing are described

  17. HIDE working groups: synchrotron based system: summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, M.Q.

    1978-01-01

    A brief overview is given of the work resulting from a one-week workshop on the use of synchrotrons in heavy ion fusion, i.e., a Heavy Ion Demonstration Experiment (HIDE). Topics discussed concerned the number of beams on target, space charge limitations, choice of ion charge state, and areas identified as needing further work

  18. Overview of United States synchrotron radiation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    There has been considerable activity within the past year involving the creation of new and the improvement of existing capabilities for research with synchrotron light. The purpose of this review is to summarize what has happened within the United States. Being a status report, some of the information necessarily has a date attached to it - the date, in this case, being early September 1983

  19. HIDE working groups. A. Synchrotron based system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, M.Q.

    1977-01-01

    A summary is given of a week's discussions on an ion source to target scenario for a synchrotron for heavy ion fusion. Topics considered include: the number of beams on the target; beam dynamics; and a number of areas explicitly identified as needing further work

  20. Materials science and technology by synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chikawa, J.

    1990-01-01

    In the present paper, features of the Photon Factory, a facility for synchrotron research installed at the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics in Japan, are outlined, and then the impact of the advent of synchrotron radiation is discussed in relation to its outcome during the past seven years. Prospects for future development of synchrotron radiation are also presented. The facility consists of an injector linac to accelerate electrons up to 2.5 GeV and a ring to store the accelerated electrons in a closed orbit. In the Photon Factory, a 400m-long linac has been constructed for use as injector for both the Photon Factory and the TRISTAN electron-positron collider. The storage ring is operated at the same electron energy of 2.5 GeV. The present report also describes some applications of synchrotron radiation, focusing on spectroscopy (X-ray fluorescence technique and time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy), diffraction and scattering (surface structure studies and protein crystallography), and photo-chemical processing. (N.K.)

  1. The profile of the electron beam in the PTB synchrotron, and its influence on radiometric measurements with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaase, H.

    1976-01-01

    A simple method is described to determine the beam profile in an electron synchrotron; the measured results are compared with calculated values. Moreover, the influence of synchrotron- and betatron-oscillations on synchrotron radiation measurements is discussed, and a method is given to correct this. (orig.) [de

  2. High-rate anisotropic ablation and deposition of polytetrafluoroethylene using synchrotron radiation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inayoshi, Muneto; Ikeda, Masanobu; Hori, Masaru; Goto, Toshio; Hiramatsu, Mineo; Hiraya, Atsunari.

    1995-01-01

    Both anisotropic ablation and thin film formation of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) were successfully demonstrated using synchrotron radiation (SR) irradiation of PTFE, that is, the SR ablation process. Anisotropic ablation by the SR irradiation was performed at an extremely high rate of 3500 μm/min at a PTFE target temperature of 200degC. Moreover, a PTFE thin film was formed at a high rate of 2.6 μm/min using SR ablation of PTFE. The chemical structure of the deposited film was similar to that of the PTFE target as determined from Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis. (author)

  3. Electric field detection of coherent synchrotron radiation in a storage ring generated using laser bunch slicing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayama, I.; Shimosato, H.; Bito, M.; Furusawa, K.; Adachi, M.; Zen, H.; Kimura, S.; Katoh, M.; Shimada, M.; Yamamoto, N.; Hosaka, M.; Ashida, M.

    2012-01-01

    The electric field of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) generated by laser bunch slicing in a storage ring has been detected by an electro-optic sampling method. The gate pulses for sampling are sent through a large-mode-area photonic-crystal fiber. The observed electric field profile of the CSR is in good agreement with the spectrum of the CSR observed using Fourier transform far-infrared spectrometry, indicating good phase stability in the CSR. The longitudinal density profiles of electrons modulated by laser pulses were evaluated from the electric field profile.

  4. Infrared Heaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The heating units shown in the accompanying photos are Panelbloc infrared heaters, energy savers which burn little fuel in relation to their effective heat output. Produced by Bettcher Manufacturing Corporation, Cleveland, Ohio, Panelblocs are applicable to industrial or other facilities which have ceilings more than 12 feet high, such as those pictured: at left the Bare Hills Tennis Club, Baltimore, Maryland and at right, CVA Lincoln- Mercury, Gaithersburg, Maryland. The heaters are mounted high above the floor and they radiate infrared energy downward. Panelblocs do not waste energy by warming the surrounding air. Instead, they beam invisible heat rays directly to objects which absorb the radiation- people, floors, machinery and other plant equipment. All these objects in turn re-radiate the energy to the air. A key element in the Panelbloc design is a coating applied to the aluminized steel outer surface of the heater. This coating must be corrosion resistant at high temperatures and it must have high "emissivity"-the ability of a surface to emit radiant energy. The Bettcher company formerly used a porcelain coating, but it caused a production problem. Bettcher did not have the capability to apply the material in its own plant, so the heaters had to be shipped out of state for porcelainizing, which entailed extra cost. Bettcher sought a coating which could meet the specifications yet be applied in its own facilities. The company asked The Knowledge Availability Systems Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, a NASA Industrial Applications Center (IAC), for a search of NASA's files

  5. Infrared absorption of human breast tissues in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Chenglin [Department of Physics, Surface Physics Laboratory (National Key laboratory), Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Physics Department of Yancheng Teachers' College, Yancheng 224002 (China); Zhang Yuan [Department of Physics, Surface Physics Laboratory (National Key laboratory), Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Yan Xiaohui [Department of Physics, Surface Physics Laboratory (National Key laboratory), Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Zhang Xinyi [Department of Physics, Surface Physics Laboratory (National Key laboratory), Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China) and Shanghai Research Center of Acupuncture and Meridian, Pudong, Shanghai 201203 (China)]. E-mail: xy-zhang@fudan.edu.cn; Li Chengxiang [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230029 (China); Yang Wentao [Cancer Hospital, Medical Center, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Shi Daren [Cancer Hospital, Medical Center, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China)

    2006-07-15

    The spectral characteristics of human breast tissues in normal status and during different cancerous stages have been investigated by synchrotron radiation based Fourier transform infrared (SR-FTIR) absorption spectroscopy. Thanks to the excellent synchrotron radiation infrared (IR) source, higher resolving power is achieved in SR-FTIR absorption spectra than in conventional IR absorption measurements. Obvious variations in IR absorption spectrum of breast tissues were found as they change from healthy to diseased, or say in progression to cancer. On the other hand, some specific absorption peaks were found in breast cancer tissues by SR-FTIR spectroscopic methods. These spectral characteristics of breast tissue may help us in early diagnosis of breast cancer.

  6. 50 years of synchrotrons. Early synchrotrons in Britain, and early work for CERN. - The CERN synchrotrons. Lectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, J.; Brianti, G.

    1997-01-01

    In the first report, 'Early synchrotrons in Britain, and early work for CERN', John Lawson gives an extended account of the material presented at the John Adams lecture, and at the same time a revised and shortened version of RAL report 97-011, which contains fuller archival references and notes. During the period covered by this report there was extensive work in Russia, where the principle of phase stability had been discovered in 1944 by Veksler. Unfortunately, all experimental work was kept secret until Veksler's talk at the first 'Atoms for Peace' conference at Geneva in August 1955. In the second lecture, 'The CERN Synchrotrons', Giorgio Brianti outlines the history of alternating-gradient synchrotrons from 1953/54 until today. In preparing this lecture he was confronted with a vast amount of material, while the time at his disposal was not even one minute per year, implying a time compression factor close to one million. Therefore, he had to exercise drastic choices, which led him to concentrate on CERN hadron synchrotrons and colliders and leave aside the Large Electron-Positron storage ring (LEP). Indeed, LEP was the subject of the John Adams Memorial Lecture in 1990, and it may be treated again in the future in connection with its energy upgrade. Even with these severe limitations, it was impossible to do justice to the number and variety of events and to the ingenuity of the people who have carved the history of CERN and of particle physics on the magnets, radiofrequency cavities, vacuum etc., and on the record performance of our machines. (orig./WL)

  7. Synchrotron X-ray adaptative monochromator: study and realization of a prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dezoret, D.

    1995-01-01

    This work presents a study of a prototype of a synchrotron X-ray monochromator. The spectral qualities of this optic are sensitive to the heat loads which are particularly important on third synchrotron generation like ESRF. Indeed, powers generated by synchrotron beams can reach few kilowatts and power densities about a few tens watts per square millimeters. The mechanical deformations of the optical elements of the beamlines issue issue of the heat load can damage their spectral efficiencies. In order to compensate the deformations, wa have been studying the transposition of the adaptive astronomical optics technology to the x-ray field. First, we have considered the modifications of the spectral characteristics of a crystal induced by x-rays. We have established the specifications required to a technological realisation. Then, thermomechanical and technological studies have been required to transpose the astronomical technology to an x-ray technology. After these studies, we have begun the realisation of a prototype. This monochromator is composed by a crystal of silicon (111) bonded on a piezo-electric structure. The mechanical control is a loop system composed by a infrared light, a Shack-Hartmann CDD and wave front analyser. This system has to compensate the deformations of the crystal in the 5 kcV to 60 kcV energy range with a power density of 1 watt per square millimeters. (authors)

  8. Modeling Protein Structures in Feed and Seed Tissues Using Novel Synchrotron-Based Analytical Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, P.

    2008-01-01

    Traditional 'wet' chemical analyses usually looks for a specific known component (such as protein) through homogenization and separation of the components of interest from the complex tissue matrix. Traditional 'wet' chemical analyses rely heavily on the use of harsh chemicals and derivatization, therefore altering the native feed protein structures and possibly generating artifacts. The objective of this study was to introduce a novel and non-destructive method to estimate protein structures in feed and seeds within intact tissues using advanced synchrotron-based infrared microspectroscopy (SFTIRM). The experiments were performed at the National Synchrotron Light Source in Brookhaven National Laboratory (US Dept. of Energy, NY). The results show that with synchrotron-based SFTIRM, we are able to localize relatively 'pure' protein without destructions of the feed and seed tissues and qualify protein internal structures in terms of the proportions and ratios of a-helix, β-sheet, random coil and β-turns on a relative basis using multi-peak modeling procedures. These protein structure profile (a-helix, β-sheet, etc.) may influence protein quality and availability in animals. Several examples of feed and seeds were provided. The implications of this study are that we can use this new method to compare internal protein structures between feeds and between seed verities. We can also use this method to detect heat-induced the structural changes of protein in feeds.

  9. Biosorption of malachite green onto Haematococcus pluvialis observed through synchrotron-FTIR microspectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J H; Zhang, L; Zha, D C; Chen, L Q; Chen, X X; Qi, Z M

    2018-06-28

    Microalgae have emerged as promising biosorbents for the treatment of malachite green in wastewater. However, the underlying mechanism for the biosorption of malachite green onto microalgae is still unclear and needs further intensive study. In this work, synchrotron Fourier-transform infrared (synchrotron-FTIR) microspectroscoy in combination with biochemical assay is employed to evaluate malachite green removal efficiency (95.2%, 75.6% and 66.5%) by three stages of Haematococcus pluvialis. Meanwhile, the various vital changes of algal cells including lipids, proteins, polysaccharides and carotenoids, is distinguished and quantified in situ. This study illustrates that synchrotron-FTIR microspectroscopy is an effective and powerful tool to scrutinize the mechanism for the interactions between the malachite green dye and microalgal cells and it even provides an effective and none-invasive new approach to screen potentially proper biosorbents for the removal of dyes from wastewater. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Ideas for future synchrotron light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, A.; Hassenzahl, W.; Meddahi, M.

    1992-03-01

    Synchrotron light sources have advanced in the past two-to-three decades through three ''generations,'' from irritating parasitic sources on high-energy physics accelerators to dedicated electron and position storage rings of unprecedented low emittance, utilizing undulator and wiggler magnets. The evolution through these three generations followed a predicable, science-driven, course towards brighter beams of VUV- and x-radiation. The requirements of future light sources is not so clear. The limit on how emittance has certainly not been reached, and diffraction-limited sources at shorter wavelengths would be the natural progression from previous generations. However, scientists are now looking at other radiation characteristics that might better serve their needs, for example, more coherent power, fast switching polarization, ultra-short (sub-picosecond) time structure, and synchronized beams for pump-probe experiments. This paper discusses some current ideas that might drive the fourth-generation synchrotron light source

  11. Applications of Indus-1 synchrotron radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandedkar, R.V.

    2003-01-01

    Indus-1 is a 450 MeV electron storage ring. This is a soft X-ray and Vacuum Ultra Violet radiation source with the critical wavelength being 61 A. In this source, the first beam was stored in mid-1999 and was then made available, after initial storage and beam cleaning of the vacuum components, for beamline installation in the early 2000. Two beamlines are commissioned and are working. Other beamlines are in the advanced stage of commissioning. For Indus-1, the injection system consists of a 20 MeV classical microtron as a preinjector and a booster synchrotron that can go up to 700 MeV. For Indus-1, the injection into the storage ring is at full 450 MeV from this booster synchrotron

  12. The 400 GeV proton synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-05-01

    A general account is given of the 400-GeV proton synchrotron, known as Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS), of the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) at Geneva. A brief chapter on the history of the project covers the steps leading to the earlier plan for a 300-GeV accelerator at a new CERN laboratory elsewhere in Europe, abandoned in 1971 in favour of the present machine, and the progress of construction of the latter. The general features of the SPS design are outlined, illustrated by an aerial view of the CERN site, a plan of the SPS, and interior views of the SPS ring tunnel and main control room. (WSN)

  13. Materials science created by synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshima, Masaharu

    2015-01-01

    We survey the use of synchrotron radiation for studies on oxides. High luminosity enables the spectroscopy with high energy-resolution in soft X-ray and vacuum ultraviolet region. Element analysis is possible by examining absorption edge in the X-ray absorption spectra. Time-resolved measurements are possible due to the pulsed nature of the radiation. The radiation can bear linear or circular polarization. The feature of molecules adhered on a surface can be clarified by using linearly polarized radiation. The circularly polarized radiation, on the other hand, clarifies the magnetic structure. The structure information so far unknown can be obtained by using space- or time-coherent radiation. We show studies using synchrotron radiation on LSI gate oxide foils, variable resistance RAM, strongly correlated oxide foils, and the oxide as positive electrode of Li ion battery. (J.P.N.)

  14. The relativistic foundations of synchrotron radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaritondo, Giorgio; Rafelski, Johann

    2017-07-01

    Special relativity (SR) determines the properties of synchrotron radiation, but the corresponding mechanisms are frequently misunderstood. Time dilation is often invoked among the causes, whereas its role would violate the principles of SR. Here it is shown that the correct explanation of the synchrotron radiation properties is provided by a combination of the Doppler shift, not dependent on time dilation effects, contrary to a common belief, and of the Lorentz transformation into the particle reference frame of the electromagnetic field of the emission-inducing device, also with no contribution from time dilation. Concluding, the reader is reminded that much, if not all, of our argument has been available since the inception of SR, a research discipline of its own standing.

  15. Propagation of synchrotron radiation through nanocapillary structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjeoumikhov, A.; Bjeoumikhova, S.; Riesemeier, H.; Radtke, M.; Wedell, R.

    2007-01-01

    The propagation of synchrotron radiation through nanocapillary structures with channel sizes of 200 nm and periods in the micrometer size has been studied experimentally. It was shown that the propagation through individual capillary channels has a mode formation character. Furthermore it was shown that during the propagation through capillary channels the coherence of synchrotron radiation is partially conserved. Interference of beams propagating through different capillary channels is observed which leads to a periodically modulated distribution of the radiation intensity in a plane far from the exit of the structure. These investigations are of high relevance for the understanding of X-ray transmission through nanocapillaries and the appearance of wave properties at this size scale

  16. Synchrotron Applications of High Magnetic Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This workshop aims at discussing the scientific potential of X-ray diffraction and spectroscopy in magnetic fields above 30 T. Pulsed magnetic fields in the range of 30 to 40 T have recently become available at Spring-8 and the ESRF (European synchrotron radiation facility). This document gathers the transparencies of the 6 following presentations: 1) pulsed magnetic fields at ESRF: first results; 2) X-ray spectroscopy and diffraction experiments by using mini-coils: applications to valence state transition and frustrated magnet; 3) R{sub 5}(Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1-x}){sub 4}: an ideal system to be studied in X-ray under high magnetic field?; 4) high field studies at the Advanced Photon Source: present status and future plans; 5) synchrotron X-ray diffraction studies under extreme conditions; and 6) projects for pulsed and steady high magnetic fields at the ESRF.

  17. Synchrotron radiation. Basics, methods and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mobilio, Settimio; Meneghini, Carlo; Boscherini, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation is today extensively used for fundamental and applied research in many different fields of science. Its exceptional characteristics in terms of intensity, brilliance, spectral range, time structure and now also coherence pushed many experimental techniques to previously un-reachable limits, enabling the performance of experiments unbelievable only few years ago. The book gives an up-to-date overview of synchrotron radiation research today with a view to the future, starting from its generation and sources, its interaction with matter, illustrating the main experimental technique employed and provides an overview of the main fields of research in which new and innovative results are obtained. The book is addressed to PhD students and young researchers to provide both an introductory and a rather deep knowledge of the field. It will also be helpful to experienced researcher who want to approach the field in a professional way.

  18. Single-mode coherent synchrotron radiation instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Heifets

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The microwave instability driven by the coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR has been previously studied [S. Heifets and G. V. Stupakov, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 5, 054402 (2002] neglecting effect of the shielding caused by the finite beam pipe aperture. In practice, the unstable mode can be close to the shielding threshold where the spectrum of the radiation in a toroidal beam pipe is discrete. In this paper, the CSR instability is studied in the case when it is driven by a single synchronous mode. A system of equations for the beam-wave interaction is derived and its similarity to the 1D free-electron laser theory is demonstrated. In the linear regime, the growth rate of the instability is obtained and a transition to the case of continuous spectrum is discussed. The nonlinear evolution of the single-mode instability, both with and without synchrotron damping and quantum diffusion, is also studied.

  19. DELSY project: status and development Dubna Electron Synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    Balalykin, N; Bykovsky, V

    2003-01-01

    The DELSY (Dubna Electron Synchrotron) project is under development at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research. It is based on an acceleration facility donated to the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research by the Institute for Nuclear and High Energy Physics (NIKHEF, Amsterdam). The NIKHEF accelerator facility consists of the linear electron accelerator MEA, which has an electron energy of 700 MeV, and the electron storage ring AmPS, with a maximum energy of 900 MeV and a beam current of 200 mA. There are three phases to the construction of the DELSY facility. Phase I will be accomplished with the construction of a complex of free-electron lasers covering continuously the spectrum from the far infrared down to the ultraviolet (approx 150 nm). Phase II will be accomplished with the commissioning of the storage ring DELSY. Complete commissioning of the DELSY project will take place after finishing Phase III, the construction of an X-ray free-electron laser. This phase is considered as the ultimate goal of the pr...

  20. Infrared Spectroscopy Beamline Based on a Tabletop Storage Ring

    OpenAIRE

    Haque, Md. Monirul; Moon, Ahsa; Yamada, Hironari

    2012-01-01

    An optical beamline dedicated to the infrared (IR) spectroscopy has been constructed at MIRRORCLE, a tabletop storage ring. The beamline has been designed for the use of infrared synchrotron radiation (IRSR) emitted from a bending magnet of 156 mm bending radius with the acceptance angle of 355(H) × 138(V) mrad to obtain high flux. The IR emission is forced by an exactly circular optics, named photon storage ring (PhSR), placed around the electron orbit and is collected by a “magic mirror” as...

  1. Structural analysis with high brilliance synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohno, Hideo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Kamigori, Hyogo (Japan). Kansai Research Establishment

    1997-11-01

    The research subjects in diffraction and scattering of materials with high brilliance synchrotron radiation such as SPring-8 (Super Photon ring 8 GeV) are summarized. The SPring-8 project is going well and 10 public beamlines will be opened for all users in October, 1997. Three JAERI beamlines are also under construction for researches of heavy element science, physical and structural properties under extreme conditions such as high temperature and high pressure. (author)

  2. The Australian synchrotron - a progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boldeman, J.; Jackson, A.; Seaborne, G.; Hobbs, R.; Garrett, R.

    2003-01-01

    This paper summarises progress with the development of the Australian Synchrotron. The facility is based on the Boomerang Storage Ring which has a DBA structure with 14 superperiods. The design objective was to achieve a low emittance in a relatively compact circumference that had an excellent dynamic aperture and was obust with respect to potential construction aberrations. The potential suite of beamline and instrument stations is discussed and some examples are given

  3. Trace element measurements with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, A.L.; Kraner, H.W.; Jones, K.W.; Gordon, B.M.; Mills, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    Aspects of the application of synchrotron radiation to trace element determinations by x-ray fluorescence have been investigated using beams from the Cornell facility, CHESS. Fluoresced x rays were detected with a Si(Li) detector placed 4 cm from the target at 90 0 to the beam. Thick samples of NBS Standard Reference Materials were used to calibrate trace element sensitivity and estimate minimum detectable limits for this method

  4. Plasma diagnostics using synchrotron radiation in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fidone, I.; Giruzzi, G.; Granata, G.

    1995-09-01

    This report deal with the use of synchrotron radiation in tokamaks. The main advantage of this new method is that it enables to overcome several deficiencies, caused by cut-off, refraction, and harmonic overlap. It also makes it possible to enhance the informative contents of the familiar low harmonic scheme. The basic theory of the method is presented and illustrated by numerical applications, for plasma parameters of relevance in present and next step tokamaks. (TEC). 10 refs., 13 figs

  5. Synchrotron radiation sources in the Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapitza, S.P.

    1987-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation (SR) is now recognized to be an important instrument for experimental work in many fields of science. Recently the application of SR in medicine and industry, especially as a light source for microelectronics production have been demonstrated. Thus the development of SR sources has now grown to become a significant and independent dimension for accelerator research and technology. This article describes SR work in the Soviet Union

  6. Review of beamloading and compensation in synchrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koscielniak, S.

    2001-10-01

    This paper discusses the theory and state-of-the-art applications of beam loading and compensation in synchrotrons. In particular it discusses the developments in the introduction of Magnetic Alloy (e.g. Finemet) cores and adoption of low Q cavities; e plus-e minus factories with very large current (e.g. KEKB, PEP II) and developments at p,p factories (e.g. LHC) and simulation codes

  7. Tabletop synchrotron and its unique features

    CERN Document Server

    Yamada, H

    2002-01-01

    Two synchrotrons, AURORA and MIRRORCLE, were built in Ritsumeikan University. MIRRORCLE-20 is the smallest normal conduction synchrotron (15 cm orbit radius and 1.2 m outer diameter) in the world. It uses 2/3 resonance method for electron beam incidence but is not optimized for X-ray generation. MIRRORCLE-6 shall be optimized for X-ray generation. X-ray generated by MIRRORCLE shows very flat white light, rich in hard X-ray, pulse with width changeable from a few mu s to a few ms , wide radiation angle of 25 mrad at MIRRORCLE-20 and 80 mrad at MIRRORCLE-8 and high coherence. The feature such as pulsed light and high coherence is expected to new application which photon radiation cannot practice. Imaging experiments by MIRRORCLE were carried out by Cu plate, Al plate, Teflon and acryl plate. We took a photograph of insect, electric lamp, connector, and cyclotron. New X-ray generation mechanism, X-ray strength, development of tabletop synchrotron and features of X-ray beam are explained. (S.Y.)

  8. Paraxial Green's functions in synchrotron radiation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geloni, G.; Saldin, E.; Scheidmiller, E.; Yurkov, M.

    2005-02-01

    This work contains a systematic treatment of single particle synchrotron radiation and some application to realistic beams with given cross section area, divergence and energy spread. Standard theory relies on several approximations whose applicability limits and accuracy are often forgotten. We begin remarking that on the one hand, a paraxial approximation can always be applied without loss of generality and with ultra relativistic accuracy. On the other hand, dominance of the acceleration field over the velocity part in the Lienard-Wiechert expressions is not always guaranteed and constitutes a separate assumption, whose applicability is discussed. Treating synchrotron radiation in paraxial approximation we derive the equation for the slow varying envelope function of the Fourier components of the electric field vector. Calculations of Synchrotron Radiation properties performed by others showed that the phase of the Fourier components of the electric field vector differs from the phase of a virtual point source. In this paper we present a systematic, analytical description of this phase shift, calculating amplitude and phase of electric field from bending magnets, short magnets, two bending magnet system separated by a straight section (edge radiation) and undulator devices. We pay particular attention to region of applicability and accuracy of approximations used. Finally, taking advantage of results of analytical calculation presented in reduced form we analyze various features of radiation from a complex insertion device (set of two undulators with a focusing triplet in between) accounting for the influence of energy spread and electron beam emittance. (orig.)

  9. Photoemission studies using laboratory and synchrotron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phase, D.M.

    2012-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation sources, providing intense, polarized and stable beams of ultra violet soft and hard X-ray photons, are having great impact on physics, chemistry, biology materials science and other areas research. In particular synchrotron radiation has revolutionized photoelectron spectroscopy by enhancing its capabilities for investigating the electronic properties of solids. The first Indian synchrotron storage ring, Indus- 1 is in operation at RRCAT, Indore. The UGC-DAE CSR with the help of university scientist had designed and developed an angle integrated photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) beamline on this 450 MeV storage ring. A storage ring of this kind is most suitable for investigation in the energy range from few electron volts to around five hundred electron volts. In this lecture we will describe the details of PES beamline and its experimental station. Till date the different university users carried out photoemission measurements on variety of samples. Some of the spectra recorded by users will be presented in order to show the capability of this beamline. In the later part we will report a review of our recent research work carried out on dilute magnetic thin films using this beamline. (author)

  10. 50 Years of synchrotrons Adams' Memorial lecture

    CERN Document Server

    Lawson, J D; CERN. Geneva

    1996-01-01

    Fifty years ago Frank Goward of the Atomic Energy Research Establishment Group at Malvern converted a small American betatron to make the worldÕs first synchrotron. At the same time Marcus Oliphant was planning to build at Birmingham a large proton machine with a ring magnet and variable magnetic field. Ideas for this had come to him during night-shifts tending the electromagnetic separators at Oak Ridge during the war. Some seven years later, in 1953, a group gathered together in Geneva to build the PS. A major contributor to the design work which had made this possible was John Adams. An account of some of the achievements in these eventful years will be presented. CERN has built nine synchrotrons/colliders and two temporary test rings. Eight machines are still running. The review will start with the PS, the first proton synchrotron based on the alternating gradient principle invented in 1952 at BNL. The design work of the PS team, under the enlightened leadership of J.B. Adams, and the construction of the...

  11. Ultrafast molecular dynamics illuminated with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozek, John D.; Miron, Catalin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Ultrafast molecular dynamics probed with synchrotron radiation. • Core-excitation as probe of ultrafast dynamics through core-hole lifetime. • Review of experimental and theoretical methods in ultrafast dynamics using core-level excitation. - Abstract: Synchrotron radiation is a powerful tool for studying molecular dynamics in small molecules in spite of the absence of natural matching between the X-ray pulse duration and the time scale of nuclear motion. Promoting core level electrons to unoccupied molecular orbitals simultaneously initiates two ultrafast processes, nuclear dynamics on the potential energy surfaces of the highly excited neutral intermediate state of the molecule on the one hand and an ultrafast electronic decay of the intermediate excited state to a cationic final state, characterized by a core hole lifetime. The similar time scales of these processes enable core excited pump-probe-type experiments to be performed with long duration X-ray pulses from a synchrotron source. Recent results obtained at the PLIEADES beamline concerning ultrafast dissociation of core excited states and molecular potential energy curve mapping facilitated by changes in the geometry of the short-lived intermediate core excited state are reviewed. High brightness X-ray beams combined with state-of-the art electron and ion-electron coincidence spectrometers and highly sophisticated theoretical methods are required to conduct these experiments and to achieve a full understanding of the experimental results.

  12. Tabletop synchrotron and its unique features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Hironari

    2002-01-01

    Two synchrotrons, AURORA and MIRRORCLE, were built in Ritsumeikan University. MIRRORCLE-20 is the smallest normal conduction synchrotron (15 cm orbit radius and 1.2 m outer diameter) in the world. It uses 2/3 resonance method for electron beam incidence but is not optimized for X-ray generation. MIRRORCLE-6 shall be optimized for X-ray generation. X-ray generated by MIRRORCLE shows very flat white light, rich in hard X-ray, pulse with width changeable from a few μs to a few ms , wide radiation angle of 25 mrad at MIRRORCLE-20 and 80 mrad at MIRRORCLE-8 and high coherence. The feature such as pulsed light and high coherence is expected to new application which photon radiation cannot practice. Imaging experiments by MIRRORCLE were carried out by Cu plate, Al plate, Teflon and acryl plate. We took a photograph of insect, electric lamp, connector, and cyclotron. New X-ray generation mechanism, X-ray strength, development of tabletop synchrotron and features of X-ray beam are explained. (S.Y.)

  13. Synchrotron-radiation experiments with recoil ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    Studies of atoms, ions and molecules with synchrotron radiation have generally focused on measurements of properties of the electrons ejected during, or after, the photoionization process. Much can also be learned, however, about the atomic or molecular relaxation process by studies of the residual ions or molecular fragments following inner-shell photoionization. Measurements are reported of mean kinetic energies of highly charged argon, krypton, and xenon recoil ions produced by vacancy cascades following inner-shell photoionization using white and monochromatic synchrotron x radiation. Energies are much lower than for the same charge-state ions produced by charged-particle impact. The results may be applicable to design of future angle-resolved ion-atom collision experiments. Photoion charge distributions are presented and compared with other measurements and calculations. Related experiments with synchrotron-radiation produced recoil ion, including photoionization of stored ions and measurement of shakeoff in near-threshold excitation, are briefly discussed. 24 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  14. Luminosity dependence in the ratio of X-ray to infrared emission of QSOs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worrall, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    The correlation of X-ray and near-infrared luminosity is studied for a sample of radio-quiet QSOs. The X-ray to infrared ratio is found to decrease as the infrared luminosity increases. No preference is found between the correlations of X-ray luminosity with optical or infrared luminosity. This implies that optical and infrared emission are equally good predictors of X-ray emission. Source models which directly link infrared and X-ray emission are discussed, and a preference is found for a specific synchrotron self-Compton model. This model predicts the correct luminosity dependence of the X-ray to infrared ratio if certain conditions apply. 55 references

  15. National Synchrotron Light Source: vacuum system for National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuchman, J.C.; Godel, J.B.; Jordan, W.; Oversluizen, T.

    1978-01-01

    The National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), a 24 million dollar project under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), is a research facility dedicated to the production of synchrotron radiation. Synchrotron radiation is that radiation produced by the acceleration of charged particles at near the speed of light. This facility will provide a continuous spectrum of radiation from the vacuum ultraviolet to the hard x-ray range. The radiation will be highly intense, 100% polarized, extremely well collimated and will have a pulsed time structure. The radiation will be produced in two electron storage rings at energies of 700 MeV and 2.5 GeV, respectively. A maximum of one ampere at 2 GeV, or one-half ampere at 2.5 GeV, of electron beam will be stored

  16. Relativistic Turbulence with Strong Synchrotron and Synchrotron-Self-Compton Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzdensky, D. A.

    2018-03-01

    Many relativistic plasma environments in high-energy astrophysics, including pulsar wind nebulae, hot accretion flows onto black holes, relativistic jets in active galactic nuclei and gamma-ray bursts, and giant radio lobes, are naturally turbulent. The plasma in these environments is often so hot that synchrotron and inverse-Compton (IC) radiative cooling becomes important. In this paper we investigate the general thermodynamic and radiative properties (and hence the observational appearance) of an optically thin relativistically hot plasma stirred by driven magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence and cooled by radiation. We find that if the system reaches a statistical equilibrium where turbulent heating is balanced by radiative cooling, the effective electron temperature tends to attain a universal value θ = kT_e/m_e c^2 ˜ 1/√{τ_T}, where τT = neσTL ≪ 1 is the system's Thomson optical depth, essentially independent of the strength of turbulent driving and hence of the magnetic field. This is because both MHD turbulent dissipation and synchrotron cooling are proportional to the magnetic energy density. We also find that synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) cooling and perhaps a few higher-order IC components are automatically comparable to synchrotron in this regime. The overall broadband radiation spectrum then consists of several distinct components (synchrotron, SSC, etc.), well separated in photon energy (by a factor ˜ τ_T^{-1}) and roughly equal in power. The number of IC peaks is checked by Klein-Nishina effects and depends logarithmically on τT and the magnetic field. We also examine the limitations due to synchrotron self-absorption, explore applications to Crab PWN and blazar jets, and discuss links to radiative magnetic reconnection.

  17. TIME-RESOLVED INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY IN THE U121R BEAMLINE AT THE NSLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CARR, G.L.; LAVEIGNE, J.D.; LOBO, R.P.S.M.; REITZE, D.H.; TANNER, D.B.

    1999-01-01

    A facility for performing time-resolved infrared spectroscopy has been developed at the NSLS, primarily at beamline U12IR. The pulsed IR light from the synchrotron is used to perform pump-probe spectroscopy. The authors present here a description of the facility and results for the relaxation of photoexcitations in both a semiconductor and superconductor

  18. New synchrotron radiation facility project. Panel on new synchrotron radiation facility project

    CERN Document Server

    Sato, S; Kimura, Y

    2003-01-01

    The project for constructing a new synchrotron radiation facility dedicated to the science in VUV (or EUV) and Soft X-ray (SX) region has been discussed for these two years at the Panel on New Synchrotron Radiation Facility Project. The Panel together with the Accelerator Design Working Group (WG), Beamline Design WG and Research Program WG suggested to the Ministry of Education, Science, Culture and Sports the construction of a 1.8 GeV electron storage ring suitable for 'Top-Up' operation and beamlines and monochromators designed for undulator radiation. The scientific programs proposed by nationwide scientists are summarized with their requirements of the characteristics of the beam. (author)

  19. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MULTI-TURN EXTRACTION FROM THE PROTON SYNCHROTRON TO THE SUPER PROTON SYNCHROTRON

    CERN Document Server

    Abernethy, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Within CERN's accelerator complex, the extraction from the Proton Synchrotron to the Super Proton Synchrotron has been done using the so-called ``Continuous Transfer" (CT) method since the 1970's. A new technique, known as Multi-Turn Extraction (MTE), has now been implemented and is in full operation. This report examines a holistic performance analysis of the novel technique in multiple aspects of the accelerator complex, as well as a direct comparison with its predecessor, CT, from the implementation of MTE in 2010 until the end of 2015.

  20. CHESS-the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batterman, B.W.; Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY

    1980-01-01

    The Wilson Laboratory at Cornell University has done pioneering work on development of high energy synchrotrons. In the last decade, the 12 GeV synchrotron has been the most energetic electron synchrotron in the world. In 1975 plans were formulated to build a 4-8 GeV storage ring in the same tunnel as the synchrotron and to use the latter as the injector for the storage ring. This small radius (the normal bend magnets have R = 87 m), coupled with the relatively high electron energy of the storage ring, makes these magnets potent sources of synchrotron radiation. In June of 1978 the National Science Foundation funded a project to create CHESS, the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source. (orig./FKS)

  1. Historical development of synchrotron x-ray diffraction topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawado, Seiji

    2011-01-01

    After a short history of X-ray diffraction topography, from the early stage of laboratory X-ray topography to recent synchrotron-radiation applications, is described, the development of science and technology for the synchrotron X-ray topography and its industrial applications are reviewed in more detail. In addition, the recent trend to synchrotron topography research is clarified on the basis of several data obtained from 256 papers which have been published since 2000. (author)

  2. Techniques for materials research with synchrotron radiation x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, D.K.

    1983-01-01

    A brief introductory survey is presented of the properties and generation of synchrotron radiation and the main techniques developed so far for its application to materials problems. Headings are:synchrotron radiation; X-ray techniques in synchrotron radiation (powder diffraction; X-ray scattering; EXAFS (Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure); X-ray fluorescent analysis; microradiography; white radiation topography; double crystal topography); future developments. (U.K.)

  3. Atomic photoelectron-spectroscopy studies using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobrin, P.H.

    1983-02-01

    Photoelectron spectroscopy combined with tunable synchrotron radiation has been used to study the photoionization process in several atomic systems. The time structure of the synchrotron radiation source at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) was used to record time-of-flight (TOF) photoelectron spectra of gaseous Cd, Hg, Ne, Ar, Ba, and Mn. The use of two TOF analyzers made possible the measurement of photoelectron angular distributions as well as branching ratios and partial cross sections

  4. Planning study for advanced national synchrotron-radiation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    A new generation of synchrotron-radiation sources based on insertion devices offers gains in photon-beam brilliance as large as the gains that present-day synchrotron sources provided over conventional sources. This revolution in synchrotron capability and its impact on science and technology will be as significant as the original introduction of synchrotron radiation. This report recommends that insertion-device technology be pursued as our highest priority, both through the full development of insertion-device potential on existing machines and through the building of new facilities

  5. SOFT: a synthetic synchrotron diagnostic for runaway electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, M.; Embréus, O.; Tinguely, R. A.; Granetz, R. S.; Stahl, A.; Fülöp, T.

    2018-02-01

    Improved understanding of the dynamics of runaway electrons can be obtained by measurement and interpretation of their synchrotron radiation emission. Models for synchrotron radiation emitted by relativistic electrons are well established, but the question of how various geometric effects—such as magnetic field inhomogeneity and camera placement—influence the synchrotron measurements and their interpretation remains open. In this paper we address this issue by simulating synchrotron images and spectra using the new synthetic synchrotron diagnostic tool SOFT (Synchrotron-detecting Orbit Following Toolkit). We identify the key parameters influencing the synchrotron radiation spot and present scans in those parameters. Using a runaway electron distribution function obtained by Fokker-Planck simulations for parameters from an Alcator C-Mod discharge, we demonstrate that the corresponding synchrotron image is well-reproduced by SOFT simulations, and we explain how it can be understood in terms of the parameter scans. Geometric effects are shown to significantly influence the synchrotron spectrum, and we show that inherent inconsistencies in a simple emission model (i.e. not modeling detection) can lead to incorrect interpretation of the images.

  6. Optimization of a coherent synchrotron radiation source in the Tera-hertz range for high-resolution spectroscopy of molecules of astrophysical interest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, J.

    2012-01-01

    Fourier Transform spectroscopy is the most used multiplex tool for high-resolution measurements in the infrared range. Its extension to the Tera-hertz domain is of great interest for spectroscopic studies of interstellar molecules. This application is however hampered by the lack of dedicated, broadband sources with a sufficient intensity and stability. In this work, Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) was used as a source for molecular spectroscopy at high resolution on the AILES infrared and Tera-hertz beamline of SOLEIL synchrotron. The beamline being optimized for far-infrared, we could characterize the properties of CSR and compare them to the incoherent synchrotron radiation. A double detection system allowed to correct the effect of the source-related instabilities, hence to significantly increase the signal-to-noise ratio. Pure rotational spectra were measured using these developments. The case of the propynal molecule, for which a refined set of rotational and centrifugal distortion constants was calculated, proves the complementarity between CSR and the classical microwave or infrared sources. (author)

  7. Bystander Effects During Synchrotron Imaging Procedures?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schueltke, Elisabeth; Nikkhah, Guido; Bewer, Brian; Wysokinski, Tomasz; Chapman, Dean

    2010-01-01

    Using monochromatic beam and synchrotron phase-contrast technique at the biomedical beamline of the Italian synchrotron facility Elettra (SYRMEP), we have shown in a small animal model of malignant brain tumor that it is possible to obtain high-resolution images of very small tumors when they have developed from implanted tumor cells loaded with colloidal gold nanoparticles (GNP). All previous experiments were conducted in post-mortem samples. We have now designed a cell culture experiment to investigate the effects of synchrotron radiation with an energy and dose profile similar to that expected in our first in vivo imaging studies according to the protocol developed at SYRMEP.Materials and Methods: Culture flasks containing either gold-loaded or naieve C6 glioma cells were exposed to a dose of 0.5 Gy at 24 keV. The irradiated medium was aspirated and replaced with fresh growth medium. Twenty-four hours later this non-irradiated medium exposed to irradiated cells was aspirated, then added to non-irradiated C6 cells in order to investigate whether bystander effects are seen under the conditions of our image acquisition protocol. The irradiated medium was added to a number of other non-irradiated cell cultures. Cell counts were followed until 72 hrs after irradiation. Western blots were conducted with H2AX antibodies. This experiment was one of the first biomedical experiments conducted at BMIT, the new biomedical imaging and therapy beamline of the Canadian Light Source.Results: No significant differences in proliferation were seen between cells that were directly irradiated, exposed to irradiated medium or exposed to the non-irradiated 24-hr-medium from the irradiated cells. However, there was a tendency towards a higher number of double strand breaks in previously irradiated cells when they were exposed to non-irradiated medium that had been in contact with irradiated cells for 24 hrs.

  8. Soft Lithographic Procedure for Producing Plastic Microfluidic Devices with View-ports Transparent to Visible and Infrared Light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryana, Mona; Shanmugarajah, Jegan V; Maniam, Sivakumar M; Grenci, Gianluca

    2017-08-17

    Infrared (IR) spectro-microscopy of living biological samples is hampered by the absorption of water in the mid-IR range and by the lack of suitable microfluidic devices. Here, a protocol for the fabrication of plastic microfluidic devices is demonstrated, where soft lithographic techniques are used to embed transparent Calcium Fluoride (CaF2) view-ports in connection with observation chamber(s). The method is based on a replica casting approach, where a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mold is produced through standard lithographic procedures and then used as the template to produce a plastic device. The plastic device features ultraviolet/visible/infrared (UV/Vis/IR) -transparent windows made of CaF2 to allow for direct observation with visible and IR light. The advantages of the proposed method include: a reduced need for accessing a clean room micro-fabrication facility, multiple view-ports, an easy and versatile connection to an external pumping system through the plastic body, flexibility of the design, e.g., open/closed channels configuration, and the possibility to add sophisticated features such as nanoporous membranes.

  9. Handbook on synchrotron radiation, v.2

    CERN Document Server

    1987-01-01

    Volume 2 of this series concentrates on the use of synchrotron radiation which covers that region of the electromagnetic spectrum which extends from about 10eV to 3keV in photon energy and is essentially the region where the radiation is strongly absorbed by atmospheric gases. It therefore has to make extensive use of a high vacuum to transport the radiation to the workstation where the presence of hard X-rays can cause extensive damage to both the optics and the targets used in the experimental rigs. The topics chosen for this volume have been limited to the disciplines of physics and chemi

  10. Bent approximations to synchrotron radiation optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heald, S.

    1981-01-01

    Ideal optical elements can be approximated by bending flats or cylinders. This paper considers the applications of these approximate optics to synchrotron radiation. Analytic and raytracing studies are used to compare their optical performance with the corresponding ideal elements. It is found that for many applications the performance is adequate, with the additional advantages of lower cost and greater flexibility. Particular emphasis is placed on obtaining the practical limitations on the use of the approximate elements in typical beamline configurations. Also considered are the possibilities for approximating very long length mirrors using segmented mirrors

  11. Atomic electron spectrometry with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorensen, S.L.

    1989-01-01

    Techniques of atomic electron spectrometry were applied to atoms in the gaseous and solid states to derive information about fundamental atomic properties. A new method was developed to measure Coster-Kronig yields in metals by photoionization with synchrotron radiation. Photon-energy sensitive Si L-VV Auger satellites were investigated via electron spectrometry. The krypton 1s photoionization spectrum was measured in an experiment which was motivated by the need to understand the krypton 1s satellite spectrum for calibration of an experiment to measure the mass of the electron antineutrino

  12. Effective spectrum width of the synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagrov, V. G., E-mail: bagrov@phys.tsu.ru [Department of Physics, Tomsk State University, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Institute of High Current Electronics, SB RAS, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Gitman, D. M., E-mail: gitman@if.usp.br [Department of Physics, Tomsk State University, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Institute of Physics, University of São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); P.N.Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Levin, A. D., E-mail: alevin@if.usp.br [Institute of Physics, University of São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); Loginov, A. S.; Saprykin, A. D. [Department of Physics, Tomsk State University, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-25

    For an exact quantitative description of spectral properties of synchrotron radiation (SR), the concept of effective width of the spectrum is introduced. In the most interesting case, which corresponds to the ultrarelativistic limit of SR, the effective width of the spectrum is calculated for the polarization components, and new physically important quantitative information on the structure of spectral distributions is obtained. For the first time, the spectral distribution for the circular polarization component of the SR for the upper half-space is obtained within classical theory.

  13. Effective spectrum width of the synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagrov, V. G.; Gitman, D. M.; Levin, A. D.; Loginov, A. S.; Saprykin, A. D.

    2015-01-01

    For an exact quantitative description of spectral properties of synchrotron radiation (SR), the concept of effective width of the spectrum is introduced. In the most interesting case, which corresponds to the ultrarelativistic limit of SR, the effective width of the spectrum is calculated for the polarization components, and new physically important quantitative information on the structure of spectral distributions is obtained. For the first time, the spectral distribution for the circular polarization component of the SR for the upper half-space is obtained within classical theory

  14. Effective spectrum width of the synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagrov, V.G. [Tomsk State University, Department of Physics, Tomsk (Russian Federation); SB RAS, Institute of High Current Electronics, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Gitman, D.M. [Tomsk State University, Department of Physics, Tomsk (Russian Federation); University of Sao Paulo, Institute of Physics, Sao Paulo (Brazil); P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Levin, A.D. [University of Sao Paulo, Institute of Physics, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Loginov, A.S.; Saprykin, A.D. [Tomsk State University, Department of Physics, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-15

    For an exact quantitative description of spectral properties of synchrotron radiation (SR), the concept of effective width of the spectrum is introduced. In the most interesting case, which corresponds to the ultrarelativistic limit of SR, the effective width of the spectrum is calculated for the polarization components, and new physically important quantitative information on the structure of spectral distributions is obtained. For the first time, the spectral distribution for the circular polarization component of the SR for the upper half-space is obtained within classical theory. (orig.)

  15. Synchrotron-radiation plane-wave topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riglet, P.; Sauvage, M.; Petroff, J.F.; Epelboin, Y.

    1980-01-01

    A computer program based on the Takagi-Taupin differential equations for X-ray propagation in distorted crystals has been developed in order to simulate dislocation images in the Bragg case. The program is valid both for thin and thick crystals. Simulated images of misfit dislocations formed either in a thin epilayer or in a thick substrate are compared with experimental images obtained by synchrotron-radiation plane-wave topography. The influence of the various strain components on the image features is discussed. (author)

  16. Femto-second pulses of synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zholents, A.A.; Zolotorev, M.S.

    1995-07-01

    A method capable of producing femto-second pulses of synchrotron radiation is proposed. It is based on the interaction of femto-second light pulses with electrons in a storage ring. The application of the method to the generation of ultra-short x-ray pulses at the Advance Light Source of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has been considered. The same method can also be used for extraction of electrons from a storage ring in ultra-short series of microbunches spaced by the periodicity of light wavelength

  17. Glancing angle synchrotron X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cernik, R J [Daresbury Lab., Warrington, WA (United States)

    1996-09-01

    This paper describes in basic detail some of the techniques that can be used to study thin films and surfaces. These are all in the X-ray region and cover reflectivity, diffraction form polycrystalline films, textured films and single crystal films. Other effects such as fluorescence and diffuse scattering are mentioned but not discussed in detail. Two examples of the reflectivity from multilayers and the diffraction from iron oxide films are discussed. The advantages of the synchrotron for these studies is stressed and the experimental geometries that can be employed are described i detail. A brief bibliography is provided at the end to accompany this part of the 1996 Frascati school.

  18. Variable-Period Undulators for Synchrotron Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shenoy, Gopal; Lewellen, John; Shu, Deming; Vinokurov, Nikolai

    2005-02-22

    A new and improved undulator design is provided that enables a variable period length for the production of synchrotron radiation from both medium-energy and high energy storage rings. The variable period length is achieved using a staggered array of pole pieces made up of high permeability material, permanent magnet material, or an electromagnetic structure. The pole pieces are separated by a variable width space. The sum of the variable width space and the pole width would therefore define the period of the undulator. Features and advantages of the invention include broad photon energy tunability, constant power operation and constant brilliance operation.

  19. Medical applications of synchrotron radiation. Ch. 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giacomini, J.C.; Gordon, H.J.

    1991-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation has a number of properties which make it uniquely suited for medical diagnostic imaging. The radiation is intense and can be readily monochromatized. With these highly intense, mono-chromatized X-ray beams, iodine K-edge di-chromatography can yield images which greatly enhance the visualization of iodine containing structures. As this technology continues to improve, the possibility of performing diagnostic cardiac, neuroradiological, and other vascular examinations with minimally invasive peripheral venous injections of iodinated contrast agent becomes increasingly practical. (author). 10 refs.; 6 figs

  20. Coherent Synchrotron Radiation in Storage Rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venturini, Marco

    2002-01-01

    We take a detour from the main theme of this volume and present a discussion of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in the context of storage rings rather than single-pass systems. Interest in this topic has been revived by a series of measurements carried out at several light source facilities. There is strong evidence that the observed coherent signal is accompanied by a beam instability, possibly driven by CSR itself. In this paper we review a ''self-consistent'' model of longitudinal beam dynamics in which CSR is the only agent of collective forces. The model yields numerical solutions that appear to reproduce the main features of the observations

  1. Variable-Period Undulators For Synchrotron Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, Gopal; Lewellen, John; Shu, Deming; Vinokurov, Nikolai

    2005-02-22

    A new and improved undulator design is provided that enables a variable period length for the production of synchrotron radiation from both medium-energy and high-energy storage rings. The variable period length is achieved using a staggered array of pole pieces made up of high permeability material, permanent magnet material, or an electromagnetic structure. The pole pieces are separated by a variable width space. The sum of the variable width space and the pole width would therefore define the period of the undulator. Features and advantages of the invention include broad photon energy tunability, constant power operation and constant brilliance operation.

  2. 3D IMAGING USING COHERENT SYNCHROTRON RADIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Cloetens

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Three dimensional imaging is becoming a standard tool for medical, scientific and industrial applications. The use of modem synchrotron radiation sources for monochromatic beam micro-tomography provides several new features. Along with enhanced signal-to-noise ratio and improved spatial resolution, these include the possibility of quantitative measurements, the easy incorporation of special sample environment devices for in-situ experiments, and a simple implementation of phase imaging. These 3D approaches overcome some of the limitations of 2D measurements. They require new tools for image analysis.

  3. Coherent reflectivity using white synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panzner, Tobias; Sant, Tushar; Pietsch, Ullrich [Universitaet Siegen (Germany). Festkoerperphysik

    2008-07-01

    Using coherent white synchrotron radiation in the hard X-ray region for reflectivity experiments one have access to sample properties on a nanometer scale in principle. To extract the wanted information from the performed measurements so called phase retrieval algorithms are necessary. The authors developed a straight forward simulation program based on a spatial limited atomic flat surface to evaluate the influence of different parameters on the coherent scattered signal in the detector plane. These simulations can explain some interesting features of the measurements and shows unexpected results for the influence of the so called illumination function.

  4. Microangiography in Living Mice Using Synchrotron Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Falei; Wang Yongting; Xie Bohua; Tang Yaohui; Guan Yongjing; Lu Haiyan; Yang Guoyuan; Xie Honglan; Du Guohao; Xiao Tiqiao

    2010-01-01

    Traditionally, there are no methods available to detect the fine morphologic changes of cerebrovasculature in small living animals such as rats and mice. Newly developed synchrotron radiation microangiography can achieve a fine resolution of several micrometers and had provided us with a powerful tool to study the cerebral vasculature in small animals. The purpose of this study is to identify the morphology of cerebrovasculature especially the structure of Lenticulostriate arteries (LSAs) in living mice using the synchrotron radiation source at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) in Shanghai, China. Adult CD-1 mice weighing 35-40 grams were anesthetized. Nonionic iodine (Omnipaque, 350 mg I /mL) was used as a contrast agent. The study was performed at the BL13W1 beam line at SSRF. The beam line was derived from a storage ring of electrons with an accelerated energy of 3.5 GeV and an average beam current of 200 mA. X-ray energy of 33.3 keV was used to produce the highest contrast image. Images were acquired every 172 ms by a x-ray camera (Photonic-Science VHR 1.38) with a resolution of 13 μm/pixel. The optimal dose of contrast agent is 100 μl per injection and the injecting rate is 33 μl/sec. The best position for imaging is to have the mouse lay on its right or left side, with ventral side facing the X-ray source. We observed the lenticulostriate artery for the first time in living mice. Our result show that there are 4 to 5 lenticulostriate branches originating from the root of middle cerebral artery in each hemisphere. LSAs have an average diameter of 43±6.8 μm. There were no differences between LSAs from the left and right hemisphere (p<0.05). These results suggest that synchrotron radiation may provide a unique tool for experimental stroke research.

  5. Microangiography in Living Mice Using Synchrotron Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Falei; Wang, Yongting; Guan, Yongjing; Lu, Haiyan; Xie, Bohua; Tang, Yaohui; Xie, Honglan; Du, Guohao; Xiao, Tiqiao; Yang, Guo-Yuan

    2010-07-01

    Traditionally, there are no methods available to detect the fine morphologic changes of cerebrovasculature in small living animals such as rats and mice. Newly developed synchrotron radiation microangiography can achieve a fine resolution of several micrometers and had provided us with a powerful tool to study the cerebral vasculature in small animals. The purpose of this study is to identify the morphology of cerebrovasculature especially the structure of Lenticulostriate arteries (LSAs) in living mice using the synchrotron radiation source at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) in Shanghai, China. Adult CD-1 mice weighing 35-40 grams were anesthetized. Nonionic iodine (Omnipaque, 350 mg I /mL) was used as a contrast agent. The study was performed at the BL13W1 beam line at SSRF. The beam line was derived from a storage ring of electrons with an accelerated energy of 3.5 GeV and an average beam current of 200 mA. X-ray energy of 33.3 keV was used to produce the highest contrast image. Images were acquired every 172 ms by a x-ray camera (Photonic-Science VHR 1.38) with a resolution of 13 μm/pixel. The optimal dose of contrast agent is 100 μl per injection and the injecting rate is 33 μl/sec. The best position for imaging is to have the mouse lay on its right or left side, with ventral side facing the X-ray source. We observed the lenticulostriate artery for the first time in living mice. Our result show that there are 4 to 5 lenticulostriate branches originating from the root of middle cerebral artery in each hemisphere. LSAs have an average diameter of 43±6.8 μm. There were no differences between LSAs from the left and right hemisphere (p<0.05). These results suggest that synchrotron radiation may provide a unique tool for experimental stroke research.

  6. Glancing angle synchrotron X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cernik, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes in basic detail some of the techniques that can be used to study thin films and surfaces. These are all in the X-ray region and cover reflectivity, diffraction form polycrystalline films, textured films and single crystal films. Other effects such as fluorescence and diffuse scattering are mentioned but not discussed in detail. Two examples of the reflectivity from multilayers and the diffraction from iron oxide films are discussed. The advantages of the synchrotron for these studies is stressed and the experimental geometries that can be employed are described i detail. A brief bibliography is provided at the end to accompany this part of the 1996 Frascati school

  7. WE7000 network for KEK Proton Synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Yuji; Yagyu, Hiroshi

    2000-01-01

    A new PC-Based measurement system, WE7000, has been developed. The WE7000 is based on a new concept and the leading-edge technologies, such as 250 Mbps high speed optical fiber network and complete Plug and Play mechanism. This paper describes an application to the betatron oscillation monitor and a magnetic field monitor of beam extraction system for neutrino experiment at 12 GeV Proton Synchrotron (PS) Accelerator in High Energy Accelerator Organization (KEK). It was found that these system are very effective in the operation of the accelerator. (author)

  8. Medical applications of synchrotron radiation in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, R.A.

    2005-01-01

    The Australian synchrotron is being built at Monash University near Melbourne. The 3 GeV machine is well-suited to the mid X-ray region and will have nine beamlines in its initial phase. The high level of biomedical research in Australia has led to the demand for a beamline capable of supporting medical research in both imaging and therapy. The design features for a versatile imaging and hard X-ray beamline capable of operating in the energy range 10-120 keV are outlined here together with a short review of some of the science that is envisaged

  9. High resolution synchrotron light analysis at ELSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Switka, Michael; Zander, Sven; Hillert, Wolfgang [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Elektronen-Stretcher Anlage ELSA-Facility (ELSA)

    2013-07-01

    The pulse stretcher ring ELSA provides polarized electrons with energies up to 3.5 GeV for external hadron experiments. In order to suffice the need of stored beam intensities towards 200 mA, advanced beam instability studies need to be carried out. An external diagnostic beamline for synchrotron light analysis has been set up and provides the space for multiple diagnostic tools including a streak camera with time resolution of <1 ps. Beam profile measurements are expected to identify instabilities and reveal their thresholds. The effect of adequate countermeasures is subject to analysis. The current status of the beamline development is presented.

  10. Synchrotron radiation research facility conceptual design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-06-01

    A report is presented to define, in general outline, the extent and proportions, the type of construction, the schedule for accomplishment, and the estimated cost for a new Synchrotron Radiation Facility, as proposed to the Energy Research and Development Administration by the Brookhaven National Laboratory. The report is concerned only indirectly with the scientific and technological justification for undertaking this project; the latter is addressed explicitly in separate documents. The report does consider user requirements, however, in order to establish a basis for design development. Preliminary drawings, outline specifications, estimated cost data, and other descriptive material are included as supporting documentation on the current status of the project in this preconstruction phase

  11. Emittance growth from transient coherent synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohn, C.L.; Li, R.; Bisognano, J.J.

    1996-01-01

    If the energies of individual particles in a bunch change as the bunch traverses a bending system, even if it is achromatic, betatron oscillations can be excited. Consequently, the transverse emittance of the bunch will grow as it moves downstream. Short bunches may be particularly susceptible to emission of coherent synchrotron radiation which can act back on the particles to change their energies and trajectories. Because a bend spans a well-defined length and angle, the bunch-excited wakefield and its effect back on the bunch are inherently transient. We outline a recently developed theory of this effect and apply it to example bending systems

  12. Synchrotron radiation facilities in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decker, G.

    1996-01-01

    With the successful commissioning and achievement of significant milestones at both the 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source (APS) and the 1.5- GeV Advanced Light Source (ALS) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, synchrotron radiation research capability in the United States holds the promise of many important discoveries in the decade to come. An overview of current accelerator commissioning performance at the American third-generation light sources, state-of-the-art developments at first- and second-generation sources, and a preview of fourth-generation source progress is presented

  13. Coherent Synchrotron Radiation effect in damping rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raubenheimer, T

    2004-01-01

    Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) can play an important role by not only increasing the energy spread and emittance of a beam, but also leading to a potential instability. Previous studies of the CSR induced longitudinal instability were carried out for the CSR impedance due to dipole magnets. In this paper, the instability due to the CSR impedance from a wiggler is studied assuming a large wiggler parameter K. The primary consideration is a low frequency microwave-like instability in the damping rings of several linear collider projects. The threshold is determined by the instability with the longest possible wavelength

  14. Ferroelectrics under the Synchrotron Light: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-Cobas, Luis E.; Montero-Cabrera, María E.; Pardo, Lorena; Fuentes-Montero, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Currently, an intensive search for high-performance lead-free ferroelectric materials is taking place. ABO3 perovskites (A = Ba, Bi, Ca, K and Na; B = Fe, Nb, Ti, and Zr) appear as promising candidates. Understanding the structure–function relationship is mandatory, and, in this field, the roles of long- and short-range crystal orders and interactions are decisive. In this review, recent advances in the global and local characterization of ferroelectric materials by synchrotron light diffraction, scattering and absorption are analyzed. Single- and poly-crystal synchrotron diffraction studies allow high-resolution investigations regarding the long-range average position of ions and subtle global symmetry break-downs. Ferroelectric materials, under the action of electric fields, undergo crystal symmetry, crystallite/domain orientation distribution and strain condition transformations. Methodological aspects of monitoring these processes are discussed. Two-dimensional diffraction clarify larger scale ordering: polycrystal texture is measured from the intensities distribution along the Debye rings. Local order is investigated by diffuse scattering (DS) and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) experiments. DS provides information about thermal, chemical and displacive low-dimensional disorders. XAFS investigation of ferroelectrics reveals local B-cation off-centering and oxidation state. This technique has the advantage of being element-selective. Representative reports of the mentioned studies are described. PMID:28787814

  15. Ferroelectrics under the Synchrotron Light: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E. Fuentes-Cobas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, an intensive search for high-performance lead-free ferroelectric materials is taking place. ABO3 perovskites (A = Ba, Bi, Ca, K and Na; B = Fe, Nb, Ti, and Zr appear as promising candidates. Understanding the structure–function relationship is mandatory, and, in this field, the roles of long- and short-range crystal orders and interactions are decisive. In this review, recent advances in the global and local characterization of ferroelectric materials by synchrotron light diffraction, scattering and absorption are analyzed. Single- and poly-crystal synchrotron diffraction studies allow high-resolution investigations regarding the long-range average position of ions and subtle global symmetry break-downs. Ferroelectric materials, under the action of electric fields, undergo crystal symmetry, crystallite/domain orientation distribution and strain condition transformations. Methodological aspects of monitoring these processes are discussed. Two-dimensional diffraction clarify larger scale ordering: polycrystal texture is measured from the intensities distribution along the Debye rings. Local order is investigated by diffuse scattering (DS and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS experiments. DS provides information about thermal, chemical and displacive low-dimensional disorders. XAFS investigation of ferroelectrics reveals local B-cation off-centering and oxidation state. This technique has the advantage of being element-selective. Representative reports of the mentioned studies are described.

  16. Synchrotrons for hadron therapy: Part I

    CERN Document Server

    Badano, L; Bryant, P; Crescenti, M; Holy, P; Knaus, P; Maier, A; Pullia, M; Rossi, S

    1999-01-01

    The treatment of cancer with accelerator beams has a long history with betatrons, linacs, cyclotrons and now synchrotrons being exploited for this purpose. Treatment techniques can be broadly divided into the use of spread-out beams and scanned 'pencil' beams. The Bragg-peak behaviour of hadrons makes them ideal candidates for the latter. The combination of precisely focused 'pencil' beams with controllable penetration (Bragg peak) and high, radio-biological efficiency (light ions) opens the way to treating the more awkward tumours that are radio-resistant, complex in shape and lodged against critical organs. To accelerate light ions (probably carbon) with pulse-to-pulse energy variation, a synchrotron is the natural choice. The beam scanning system is controlled via an on-line measurement of the particle flux entering the patient and, for this reason, the beam spill must be extended in time (seconds) by a slow-extraction scheme. The quality of the dose intensity profile ultimately depends on the uniformity o...

  17. Analytical fits to the synchrotron functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouka, Mourad; Ouichaoui, Saad

    2013-06-01

    Accurate fitting formulae to the synchrotron function, F(x), and its complementary function, G(x), are performed and presented. The corresponding relative errors are less than 0.26% and 0.035% for F(x) and G(x), respectively. To this end we have, first, fitted the modified Bessel functions, K5/3(x) and K2/3(x). For all the fitted functions, the general fit expression is the same, and is based on the well known asymptotic forms for low and large values of x for each function. It consists of multiplying each asymptotic form by a function that tends to unity or zero for low and large values of x. Simple formulae are suggested in this paper, depending on adjustable parameters. The latter have been determined by adopting the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. The proposed formulae should be of great utility and simplicity for computing spectral powers and the degree of polarization for synchrotron radiation, both for laboratory and astrophysical applications.

  18. Long term ground movement of TRISTAN synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, K.; Ohsawa, Y.; Miyahara, M.

    1989-01-01

    The long term ground movement is estimated through the geological survey before a big accelerator is planned. For the case of TRISTAN-MR (main ring), its site was surveyed to reflect the underground information to the building prior to the construction. The movement of the synchrotron magnet mainly results from the structure of the tunnel. If an individual movement of the magnet exceeds a certain threshold limit, it gives a significant effect on the particle behavior in a synchrotron. Height of the quadrupole magnets were observed periodically during past two years at the TRISTAN-MR and their height differences along the 3 km circumference of the accelerator ring were decomposed into the Fourier components depicting the causes of the movements. Results shows the movement of the tunnel foundation which was also observed by the simultaneous measurement of both magnets and fiducial marks on the tunnel wall. The long term movement of the magnets is summarized with the geological survey prior to construction. 1 ref., 6 figs., 1 tab

  19. Impact system for ultrafast synchrotron experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, B. J.; Owens, C. T.; Ramos, K. J.; Yeager, J. D.; Saavedra, R. A.; Luo, S. N.; Hooks, D. E.; Iverson, A. J.; Fezzaa, K.

    2013-01-01

    The impact system for ultrafast synchrotron experiments, or IMPULSE, is a 12.6-mm bore light-gas gun (<1 km/s projectile velocity) designed specifically for performing dynamic compression experiments using the advanced imaging and X-ray diffraction methods available at synchrotron sources. The gun system, capable of reaching projectile velocities up to 1 km/s, was designed to be portable for quick insertion/removal in the experimental hutch at Sector 32 ID-B of the Advanced Photon Source (Argonne, IL) while allowing the target chamber to rotate for sample alignment with the beam. A key challenge in using the gun system to acquire dynamic data on the nanosecond time scale was synchronization (or bracketing) of the impact event with the incident X-ray pulses (80 ps width). A description of the basic gun system used in previous work is provided along with details of an improved launch initiation system designed to significantly reduce the total system time from launch initiation to impact. Experiments were performed to directly measure the gun system time and to determine the gun performance curve for projectile velocities ranging from 0.3 to 0.9 km/s. All results show an average system time of 21.6 ± 4.5 ms, making it possible to better synchronize the gun system and detectors to the X-ray beam.

  20. Mapping prehistoric ghosts in the synchrotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, N.P.; Wogelius, R.A. [University of Manchester, School of Earth, Atmospheric, and Environmental Sciences, Manchester (United Kingdom); University of Manchester, Williamson Research Centre for Molecular Environmental Science, Manchester (United Kingdom); Bergmann, U. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Linac Coherent Light Source, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Larson, P. [Black Hills Institute of Geological Research, Inc., Hill City, SD (United States); Sellers, W.I. [University of Manchester, Faculty of Life Sciences, Manchester (United Kingdom); Manning, P.L. [University of Manchester, School of Earth, Atmospheric, and Environmental Sciences, Manchester (United Kingdom); University of Manchester, Williamson Research Centre for Molecular Environmental Science, Manchester (United Kingdom); University of Pennsylvania, Department of Earth and Environmental Science, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2013-04-15

    The detailed chemical analysis of fossils has the potential to reveal great insight to the composition, preservation and biochemistry of ancient life. Such analyses would ideally identify, quantify, and spatially resolve the chemical composition of preserved bone and soft tissue structures, but also the embedding matrix. Mapping the chemistry of a fossil in situ can place constraints on mass transfer between the enclosing matrix and the preserved organism(s), and therefore aid in distinguishing taphonomic processes from original chemical zonation remnant within the fossils themselves. Conventional analytical methods, such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) have serious limitations in this case, primarily, an inability to provide large (i.e., decimeter) scale chemical maps. Additionally, vacuum chamber size and the need for destructive sampling preclude analysis of large and precious fossil specimens. However, the recent development of Synchrotron Rapid Scanning X-ray Fluorescence (SRS-XRF) at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource (SSRL) allows the non-destructive chemical analysis and imaging of major, minor, and trace element concentrations of large paleontological and archeological specimens in rapid scanning times. Here we present elemental maps of a fossil reptile produced using the new SRS-XRF method. Our results unequivocally show that preserved biological structures are not simply impressions or carbonized remains, but possess a remnant of the original organismal biochemistry. We show that SRS-XRF is a powerful new tool for the study of paleontological and archaeological samples. (orig.)

  1. Synchrotron radiation from a Helical Wiggler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irani, A.A.

    1979-01-01

    The use of Wiggler magnets as an improved source of synchrotron radiation from high energy electron storage rings was proposed a few years ago. Since then it has also been suggested that synchrotron radiation from Wiggler magnets placed in proton machines can be used to monitor energy, dimensions and position of the beam and that this effect is even more interesting in proton storage rings where the need to see the beam is greater. Most of the calculations carried out so far consider radiation from a single particle in a Wiggler which is appropriate when the beam is radiating incoherently. In this paper a general formalism is developed for the case when the beam radiates coherently. These results are then applied to both electron and proton storage rings. For the electron case, an expression is derived for the length of the bunch to be used as a more intense coherent radiation source. For proton machines the radiation can be used to measure energy, current, transverse dimensions and longitudinal density variations in the beam

  2. Synchrotron radiation from a helical wiggler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irani, A.A.

    1979-01-01

    The use of wiggler magnets as an improved source of synchrotron radiation from high energy electron storage rings was proposed a few years age. Since then it has also been suggested that synchrotron radiation from wiggler magnets placed in proton machines can be used to monitor energy, dimensions and position of the beam and that this effect is even more interesting in proton storage rings where the need to see the beam is greater. Most of the calculations carried out so far consider radiation from a single particle in a wiggler which is appropriate when the beam is radiating incoherently. A general formalism is presented for the case when the beam radiates coherently. These results are applied to both electron and proton storage rings. For the electron case, an expression is derived for the length of the bunch to use it as a more intense coherent radiation source. For proton machines the radiation can be used to measure energy, current, transverse dimensions and longitudinal density variations in the beam

  3. Compact synchrotron radiation depth lithography facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knüppel, O.; Kadereit, D.; Neff, B.; Hormes, J.

    1992-01-01

    X-ray depth lithography allows the fabrication of plastic microstructures with heights of up to 1 mm but with the smallest possible lateral dimensions of about 1 μm. A resist is irradiated with ``white'' synchrotron radiation through a mask that is partially covered with x-ray absorbing microstructures. The plastic microstructure is then obtained by a subsequent chemical development of the irradiated resist. In order to irradiate a reasonably large resist area, the mask and the resist have to be ``scanned'' across the vertically thin beam of the synchrotron radiation. A flexible, nonexpensive and compact scanner apparatus has been built for x-ray depth lithography at the beamline BN1 at ELSA (the 3.5 GeV Electron Stretcher and Accelerator at the Physikalisches Institut of Bonn University). Measurements with an electronic water level showed that the apparatus limits the scanner-induced structure precision to not more than 0.02 μm. The whole apparatus is installed in a vacuum chamber thus allowing lithography under different process gases and pressures.

  4. Application of circular polarized synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Tsuneaki; Kawata, Hiroshi

    1988-03-01

    The idea of using the polarizing property of light for physical experiment by controlling it variously has been known from old time, and the Faraday effect and the research by polarizing microscopy are its examples. The light emitted from the electron orbit of an accelerator has the different polarizing characteristics from those of the light of a laboratory light source, and as far as observing it within the electron orbit plane, it becomes linearly polarized light. By utilizing this property well, research is carried out at present in synchrotron experimental facilities. Recently, the technology related to the insert type light cources using permanent magnets has advanced remarkably, and circular polarized light has become to be producible. If the light like this can be obtained with the energy not only in far ultraviolet region but also to x-ray region at high luminance, new possibility should open. At the stage that the design of an insert type light source was finished, and its manufacture was started, the research on the method of evaluating the degree of circular polarization and the research on the utilization of circular polarized synchrotron radiation are earnestly carried out. In this report, the results of researches presented at the study meeting are summarized. Moreover, the design and manufacture of the beam lines for exclusive use will be carried out. (Kako, I.)

  5. Berkeley Lab's ALS generates femtosecond synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, A L

    2000-01-01

    A team at Berkeley's Advanced Light Source has shown how a laser time-slicing technique provides a path to experiments with ultrafast time resolution. A Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory team has succeeded in generating 300 fs pulses of synchrotron radiation at the ALS synchrotron radiation machine. The team's members come from the Materials Sciences Division (MSD), the Center for Beam Physics in the Accelerator and Fusion Research Division and the Advanced Light Source (ALS). Although this proof-of principle experiment made use of visible light on a borrowed beamline, the laser "time-slicing" technique at the heart of the demonstration will soon be applied in a new bend magnet beamline that was designed specially for the production of femtosecond pulses of X-rays to study long-range and local order in condensed matter with ultrafast time resolution. An undulator beamline based on the same technique has been proposed that will dramatically increase the flux and brightness. The use of X-rays to study the c...

  6. Calibration of AXAF Mirrors Using Synchrotron Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graessle, D. E.; Fitch, J.; Harris, B.; Hsieh, P.; Nguyen, D.; Hughes, J.; Schwartz, D.; Blake, R.

    1995-12-01

    Over the past five years, the SAO AXAF Mission Support Team has been developing methods and systems to provide a tunable, narrow-energy-bandwidth calibration of the reflecting efficiency of the AXAF High Resolution Mirror Assembly. A group of synchrotron beamlines at the National Synchrotron Light Source was selected for this calibration. Measurements and analysis are now available for the 2-12 keV energy range. An X-ray beam with energy purity E/Delta E ~ 5000 has been used to calibrate several witness flats which were coated simultaneously with elements of the flight mirror. In the iridium-edge range, (2010-3200 eV), these may be the first measurements ever to be reported. Optical constants for the iridium have been derived from a fit of reflectance versus grazing angle to a Fresnel equation model for the 2-12 keV energy range. The eight AXAF HRMA elements are being coated individually; however reflectance results are quite consistent from coating run to coating run for the first few pieces. The measurement precision is approximately 0.2%-0.4%. Residuals of the fit are nearly always within 1.0% of the data values, in the angle ranges of interest to AXAF.

  7. Molecular environmental science and synchrotron radiation sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, G.E. Jr. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Molecular environmental science is a relatively new field but focuses on the chemical and physical forms of toxic and/or radioactive contaminants in soils, sediments, man-made waste forms, natural waters, and the atmosphere; their possible reactions with inorganic and organic compounds, plants, and organisms in the environment; and the molecular-level factors that control their toxicity, bioavailability, and transport. The chemical speciation of a contaminant is a major factor in determining its behavior in the environment, and synchrotron-based X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy is one of the spectroscopies of choice to quantitatively determine speciation of heavy metal contaminants in situ without selective extraction or other sample treatment. The use of high-flux insertion device beam lines at synchrotron sources and multi-element array detectors has permitted XAFS studies of metals such as Se and As in natural soils at concentration levels as low as 50 ppm. The X-ray absorption near edge structure of these metals is particularly useful in determining their oxidation state. Examples of such studies will be presented, and new insertion device beam lines under development at SSRL and the Advanced Photon Source for molecular environmental science applications will be discussed.

  8. Performances of BNL high-intensity synchrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, W.T.

    1998-03-01

    The AGS proton synchrotron was completed in 1960 with initial intensity in the 10 to the 10th power proton per pulse (ppp) range. Over the years, through many upgrades and improvements, the AGS now reached an intensity record of 6.3 x 10 13 ppp, the highest world intensity record for a proton synchrotron on a single pulse basis. At the same time, the Booster reached 2.2 x 10 13 ppp surpassing the design goal of 1.5 x 10 13 ppp due to the introduction of second harmonic cavity during injection. The intensity limitation caused by space charge tune spread and its relationship to injection energy at 50 MeV, 200 MeV, and 1,500 MeV will be presented as well as many critical accelerator manipulations. BNL currently participates in the design of an accumulator ring for the SNS project at Oak Ridge. The status on the issues of halo formation, beam losses and collimation are also presented

  9. Synchrotron radiation in art and archaeology SRA 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollard, A.M.; Janssens, K.; Artioli, G.; Young, M.L.; Casadio, F.; Schnepp, S.; Marvin, J.; Dunand, D.C.; Almer, J.; Fezzaa, K.; Lee, W.K.; Haeffner, D.R.; Reguer, S.; Dillmann, Ph.; Mirambet, F.; Susini, J.; Lagarde, P.; Pradell, T.; Molera, J.; Brunetti, B.; D'acapito, F.; Maurizio, C.; Mazzoldi, P.; Padovani, S.; Sgamellotti, A.; Garges, F.; Etcheverry, M.P.; Flank, A.M.; Lagarde, P.; Marcus, M.A.; Scheidegger, A.M.; Grolimund, D.; Pallot-Frossard, I.; Smith, A.D.; Jones, M.; Gliozzo, E.; Memmi-Turbanti, I.; Molera, J.; Vendrell, M.; Mcconachie, G.; Skinner, T.; Kirkman, I.W.; Pantos, E.; Wallert, A.; Kanngiesser, B.; Hahn, O.; Wilke, M.; NekaT, B.; Malzer, W.; Erko, A.; Chalmin, E.; Vignaud, C.; Farges, F.; Susini, J.; Menu, M.; Sandstrom, M.; Cotte, M.; Kennedy, C.J.; Wess, T.J.; Muller, M.; Murphy, B.; Roberts, M.A.; Burghammer, M.; Riekel, C.; Gunneweg, J.; Pantos, E.; Dik, J.; Tafforeau, P.; Boistel, R.; Boller, E.; Bravin, A.; Brunet, M.; Chaimanee, Y.; Cloetens, P.; Feist, M.; Hoszowska, J.; Jaeger, J.J.; Kay, R.F.; Lazzari, V.; Marivaux, L.; Nel, A.; Nemoz, C.; Thibault, X.; Vignaud, P.; Zabler, S.; Sciau, P.; Goudeau, P.; Tamura, N.; Doormee, E.; Kockelmann, W.; Adriaens, A.; Ryck, I. de; Leyssens, K.; Hochleitner, B.; Schreiner, M.; Drakopoulos, M.; Snigireva, I.; Snigirev, A.; Sanchez Del Rio, M.; Martinetto, P.; Dooryhee, E.; Suarez, M.; Sodo, A.; Reyes-Valerio, C.; Haro Poniatowski, E.; Picquart, M.; Lima, E.; Reguera, E.; Gunneweg, J.; Reiche, I.; Berger, A.; Bevers, H.; Duval, A.

    2005-01-01

    Materials - bones, artifacts, artwork,.... - lie at the heart of both archaeology and art conservation. Synchrotron radiation techniques provide powerful ways to interrogate these records of our physical and cultural past. In this workshop we will discuss and explore the current and potential applications of synchrotron radiation science to problems in archaeology and art conservation. This document gathers the abstracts of the presentations

  10. National synchrotron light source basic design and project status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Steenbergen, A.

    1981-01-01

    A summary description and the basic design parameters of the National Synchrotron Light Source, a facility for the generation of intense synchrotron radiation in the vuv and x-ray range is presented, the parameters of the sources are given, the presently planned facility beam lines are tabulated and the status of the project is indicated

  11. Third generation synchrotron radiation applied to materials science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufmann, E.N.; Yun, W.

    1993-01-01

    Utility of synchrotron radiation for characterization of materials and ramifications of availability of new third-generation, high-energy, high-intensity sources of synchrotron radiation are discussed. Examples are given of power of x-ray analysis techniques to be expected with these new machines

  12. Synchrotron radiation facilities at DESY, a status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, E.E.

    1979-12-01

    A short summary of the developments which have led to the present extensive use of Synchrotron Radiation at DESY is presented and a description of the Synchrotron Radiation facilities presently available and under development is given with emphasis on the new HASYLAB project at the storage ring DORIS. (orig.) 891 HSI/orig. 892 MKO

  13. First turn simulations in the cooler synchrotron COSY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinev, D.

    1991-07-01

    This paper is devoted to the first turn correction and related problems in particle accelerators of synchrotron type. The paper consists of two parts. The first part is a survey of the existing methods for first turn steering. The second part is entirely devoted to the first turn in the cooler synchrotron COSY which is under assembling in KFA-Julich, Germany. (orig.)

  14. A synchrotron radiation facility for x-ray astronomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, C.J.; Lewis, R.A.; Christensen, Finn Erland

    1997-01-01

    A proposal for an x-ray optics test facility based at a synchrotron radiation source is presented. The facility would incorporate a clean preparation area, and a large evacuable test area. The advantages of using a synchrotron as the source of the test radiation are discussed. These include the a...

  15. Status of the National Synchrotron Light Source project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heese, R.N.

    1981-01-01

    The National Synchrotron Light Source is in its final stages of construction, and as the turn-on time for the 700 MeV vuv storage ring draws near, an overview of the project is presented. Emphasis is placed on the linac and booster synchrotron performance and the status of major subsystems

  16. Synchrotron radiation X-ray microfluorescence techniques

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Synchrotron X-ray imaging systems with fluorescence techniques was developed for biomedical researches in Brazilian Synchrotron Laboratory. An X-ray fluorescence microtomography system was implemented to analyse human prostate and breast samples and an X-ray microfluorescence system was implemented to ...

  17. Synchrotron radiation in art and archaeology SRA 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollard, A M; Janssens, K; Artioli, G; Young, M L; Casadio, F; Schnepp, S; Marvin, J; Dunand, D C; Almer, J; Fezzaa, K; Lee, W K; Haeffner, D R; Reguer, S; Dillmann, Ph; Mirambet, F; Susini, J; Lagarde, P; Pradell, T; Molera, J; Brunetti, B; D' acapito, F; Maurizio, C; Mazzoldi, P; Padovani, S; Sgamellotti, A; Garges, F; Etcheverry, M P; Flank, A M; Lagarde, P; Marcus, M A; Scheidegger, A M; Grolimund, D; Pallot-Frossard, I; Smith, A D; Jones, M; Gliozzo, E; Memmi-Turbanti, I; Molera, J; Vendrell, M; Mcconachie, G; Skinner, T; Kirkman, I W; Pantos, E; Wallert, A; Kanngiesser, B; Hahn, O; Wilke, M; NekaT, B; Malzer, W; Erko, A; Chalmin, E; Vignaud, C; Farges, F; Susini, J; Menu, M; Sandstrom, M; Cotte, M; Kennedy, C J; Wess, T J; Muller, M; Murphy, B; Roberts, M A; Burghammer, M; Riekel, C; Gunneweg, J; Pantos, E; Dik, J; Tafforeau, P; Boistel, R; Boller, E; Bravin, A; Brunet, M; Chaimanee, Y; Cloetens, P; Feist, M; Hoszowska, J; Jaeger, J J; Kay, R F; Lazzari, V; Marivaux, L; Nel, A; Nemoz, C; Thibault, X; Vignaud, P; Zabler, S; Sciau, P; Goudeau, P; Tamura, N; Doormee, E; Kockelmann, W; Adriaens, A; Ryck, I de; Leyssens, K; Hochleitner, B; Schreiner, M; Drakopoulos, M; Snigireva, I; Snigirev, A; Sanchez Del Rio, M; Martinetto, P; Dooryhee, E; Suarez, M; Sodo, A; Reyes-Valerio, C; Haro Poniatowski, E; Picquart, M; Lima, E; Reguera, E; Gunneweg, J; Reiche, I; Berger, A; Bevers, H; Duval, A

    2005-07-01

    Materials - bones, artifacts, artwork,.... - lie at the heart of both archaeology and art conservation. Synchrotron radiation techniques provide powerful ways to interrogate these records of our physical and cultural past. In this workshop we will discuss and explore the current and potential applications of synchrotron radiation science to problems in archaeology and art conservation. This document gathers the abstracts of the presentations.

  18. Characterization of the new NSLS infrared microspectroscopy beamline U10B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, G.L.

    1999-07-19

    The first of several new infrared beamlines, built on a modified bending magnet port of the NSLS VUV ring, is now operational for mid-infrared microspectroscopy. The port simultaneously delivers 40 mrad by 40 mrad to two separate beamlines and spectrometer endstations designated U10A and U10B. The latter is equipped with a scanning infrared microspectrometer. The combination of this instrument and high brightness synchrotron radiation makes diffraction-limited microspectroscopy practical. This paper describes the beamline's performance and presents quantitative information on the diffraction-limited resolution.

  19. Broadband Correlations Provide Evidence for Synchrotron Self-Compton X-rays from the Black Hole Binary GX 339-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coriat, M.; Corbel, S.; Buxton, M. M.; Baylin, C. D.

    2009-01-01

    GX 339-4 has been one of the key sources for unravelling the accretion ejection coupling in accreting stellar mass black holes. After a long period of quiescence between 1999 and 2002, GX 339-4 underwent a series of 4 outbursts that have been intensively observed by many ground based observatories (radio/infrared/optical) and satellites (X-rays). Here, we present some specific results of these broad band observational campaigns, focusing on the optical-infrared/X-ray flux correlations over the four outbursts. Thanks to our extensive data-set, we found a strong OIR/X-ray correlation over four decades with the presence of a break in the correlation index. These results seem to favour a synchrotron self-Compton origin for the X-ray emission in GX 339-4 during the hard state and could also provide an indirect detection of the break frequency in the synchrotron spectrum of the compact jets.

  20. Excitation of nuclear states by synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olariu, Albert

    2003-01-01

    We study the excitation of nuclear states by gamma ray beams of energy up to 200 keV produced as synchrotron radiation. We consider the possibility to populate an excited state |i> in two steps, from the ground state |g> to an intermediary state |n> which decays by gamma emission or internal conversion to a lower state |i>. The aim of this study is to establish that the probability P 2 of the two-step transition |g> → |n> → |i> should be greater than the probability P 1 of the direct transition |g> → |i>. The probabilities P 1 and P 2 correspond to a radiation pulse of duration equal to the half-time of the state |i>. We have written a computer program in C++ which computes the probability P 2 , the ratio P 2 /P 1 and the rate C 2 of the two-step transitions for any nuclei and different configurations of states. The program uses a database which contains information on the energy levels, half-lives, spins and parities of nuclear states and on the relative intensities of the nuclear transitions. If the half-lives or the relative intensities are not known the program uses the Weisskopf estimates for the transition half-lives. An interpolation program of internal conversion coefficients has also been used. We listed the values obtained for P 2 , P 2 /P 1 and C 2 in a number of cases in which P 2 is significant from the 2900 considered cases. The states |i> and |n> have the energies E i and E n , the corresponding half-lives being t i and t n . The spectral density of the synchrotron radiation has been considered to be 10 12 photons cm -2 s -1 eV -1 . We listed only the cases for which the relative intensities of the transitions from levels |n> and |i> to lower states are known. The calculations carried out in this study allowed us to identify nuclei for which P 2 has relatively great values. In the listed cases P 2 /P 1 >>1, so that the two-step excitation by synchrotron radiation is more efficient than the direct excitation |g> → |i>. For a sample having 10

  1. The Synchrotron Topography Project (STP) at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilello, J.C.; Hmelo, A.B.; Liu, J.M.; Herley, P.J.; Chen, H.; Birnbaum, H.K.; Illinois Univ., Urbana; Green, R.E. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The collaborators have participated in the Synchrotron Topography Project (STP) which has designed and developed instrumentation for an X-ray topography station at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The two principle instruments constructed consist of a White Beam Camera (WBC) and a Multiple Crystal Camera (MCC) with high planar collimation and wide area image coverage. It is possible to perform in situ studies in a versatile environmental chamber equipped with a miniature mechanical testing stage for both the WBC and MCC systems. Real-time video imaging plus a rapid feed cassette holder for high resolution photographic plates is available for recording topographs. Provisions are made for other types of photon detection as well as spectroscopy. The facilities for the entire station have been designed for remote operation using a LSI-11/23 plus suitable interfacing. These instruments will be described briefly and the current status of the program will be reviewed. (orig.)

  2. Plane grating monochromators for synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howells, M.R.

    1979-01-01

    The general background and theoretical basis of plane grating monochromators (PGM's) is reviewed and the particular case of grazing incidence PGM's suitable for use with synchrotron radiation is considered in detail. The theory of reflection filtering is described and the problem of the finite source distance is shown to be of special importance with high brightness storage rings. The design philosophy of previous instruments is discussed and a new scheme proposed, aimed at dealing with the problem of the finite source distance. This scheme, involving a parabolic collimating mirror fabricated by diamond turning, is considered in the context of Wolter-type telescopes and microscopes. Some practical details concerning an instrument presently under construction using the new design are presented

  3. 3D Detectors for Synchrotron Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pennicard, D

    2009-01-01

    3D detectors are a novel variety of photodiode radiation detector, invented by Parker, Kenney and Segal (1997). Instead of having n- and p-type contacts on the front and back surfaces of a silicon substrate, like a standard photodiode, they have columns of doped material passing through the thickness of the silicon. This structure means that the detector can combine a reasonable substrate thickness with a very small electrode spacing, resulting in a low depletion voltage, fast charge collection and low charge sharing. These detectors have a couple of promising applications. Their fast charge collection and low depletion voltage should make them very radiation-tolerant. So, they could be used for future particle physics experiments at the Super Large Hadron Collider (SLHC), where high levels of radiation damage are expected. Also, their low charge sharing means they could potentially improve X-ray diffraction measurements at synchrotrons such as Diamond Light Source. This would allow these experiments, for exa...

  4. Synchrotron radiation facilities for chemical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatano, Yoshihiko

    1995-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation (SR) research is of great importance in understanding radiation chemistry, physics, and biology. It is also clearly recognized in the international chemical community that chemical applications of SR are greatly advanced and divided into 1) Molecular Spectroscopy and Dynamics Studies-Gases, Surfaces, and Condensed Matter- , 2) Radiation Chemistry and Photochemistry, 3) X-ray Structural and XAFS Studies-Crystals, Surfaces, and Liquids- , 4) Analytical Chemistry, and 5) Synthesis or R and D of New Materials. In this paper, a survey is given of recent advances in the application of SR to the chemistry of excitation and ionization of molecules, i.e., SR chemistry, in the wavelength region between near-ultraviolet and hard X-rays. The topics will be chosen from those obtained at some leading SR facilities. (J.P.N.)

  5. Coherent synchrotron radiation experiments for the LCLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsten, B.E.; Russell, S.J.

    1998-01-01

    The authors describe a coherent synchrotron radiation experiment planned at Los Alamos to support the design of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) x-ray FEL. Preliminary simulations of the LCLS compressors show that a clever tuning strategy can be used to minimize the electron's beam emittance growth due to noninertial space-charge forces by employing a delicate cancellation of these forces. The purpose of the Los Alamos experiment, using a sub-picosecond chicane compressor, is to benchmark these simulations tools. In this paper, the authors present detailed numerical simulations of the experiment, and point out unique signatures of this effect that are measurable. As predicted previously, the largest emittance growths and induced energy spreads result from the nonradiative components of this space-charge force

  6. Electron beam spectrum monitor using synchrotron light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reagan, D.; Hostetler, T.E.

    1979-03-01

    This instrument shows the positions, widths, and shapes of momentum spectra of SLAC beams. It uses synchrotron light produced when the beam is deflected by a magnet. Some of the light is focused on the face of an image splitter consisting of acrylic light pipes. The light pipes illuminate twelve photomultiplier tubes. Pulses from the PM tubes are integrated, multiplexed, and displayed on an oscilloscope. The resolution of the instrument is usually better than 0.2%. It has some advantages over the secondary emitter foil spectrum monitors (SEM's) currently in use at SLAC. It need never be put out of service to avoid disturbing the beam. It is as sensitive as the most sensitive SLAC SEM. (Its performance has been optimized for high-current beams; it can easily be made much more sensitive.) It provides information on a pulse-to-pulse basis and, with better cables, could indicate electron beam pulse shapes

  7. Optical substrate materials for synchrotron radiation beamlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howells, M.R.; Paquin, R.A.

    1997-06-01

    The authors consider the materials choices available for making optical substrates for synchrotron radiation beam lines. They find that currently the optical surfaces can only be polished to the required finish in fused silica and other glasses, silicon, CVD silicon carbide, electroless nickel and 17-4 PH stainless steel. Substrates must therefore be made of one of these materials or of a metal that can be coated with electroless nickel. In the context of material choices for mirrors they explore the issues of dimensional stability, polishing, bending, cooling, and manufacturing strategy. They conclude that metals are best from an engineering and cost standpoint while the ceramics are best from a polishing standpoint. They then give discussions of specific materials as follows: silicon carbide, silicon, electroless nickel, Glidcop trademark, aluminum, precipitation-hardening stainless steel, mild steel, invar and superinvar. Finally they summarize conclusions and propose ideas for further research

  8. Microfabrication of crosslinked PTFE by synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Yasunori; Yamaguchi, Daichi; Oshima, Akihiro; Washio, Masakazu; Katoh, Takanori; Aoki, Yasushi; Ikeda, Shigetoshi; Tanaka, Shigeru

    2003-01-01

    Microfabrication of crosslinked polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) using synchrotron radiation (SR) has been demonstrated for production of micro-components applicable to radiation fields. The method of microfabrication was readily capable of obtaining a microstructure with aspect-ratio of 25 made of crosslinked PTFE. The etching rate of crosslinked PTFE was higher than that of non-crosslinked PTFE. The results show that the etching rate of crosslinked PTFE depends only on the degree of crosslinking. The effect of molecular motion on etching process was discussed from temperature dependence on etching rate. Moreover, in order to examine whether any change of chemical structures and crystallinity would be induced by SR-irradiation on PTFE, SR-irradiated PTFE was measured by NMR spectroscopy and DSC analysis. The results showed that the crosslinking reaction of PTFE would be induced by SR-irradiation in the solid state. (author)

  9. Channels in cell membranes and synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Xiaohui; Tian Liang; Zhang Xinyi

    2004-01-01

    For long time a lot of scientists have devoted to study how matter, such as water molecules and K + , Na + , Ca 2+ , Cl - ions, move through cell membranes and complete the matter exchange between the inside and outside of cells. Peter Agre discovered and characterized the first water channel protein in 1988 and Roderick MacKinnon elucidated the structural and mechanistic basis for ion channel function in 1998. These achievements have made it possible for us to 'see' these exquisitely designed molecular machines in action at the atomic level. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry for 2003 is shared between these two scientists. In determining the high resolution 3D structure of these channels, the synchrotron X-ray diffraction plays an important role

  10. Synchrotron radiation total reflection for rainwater analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simabuco, Silvana M.; Matsumoto, Edson

    1999-01-01

    Total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis excited with synchrotron radiation (SR-TXRF) has been used for rainwater trace element analysis. The samples were collected in four different sites at Campinas City, SP. Standard solutions with gallium as internal standard were prepared for the calibration system. Rainwater samples of 10 μl were putted onto Perspex reflector disk, dried on vacuum and analyzed for 100 s measuring time. The detection limits obtained for K-shell varied from 29 ng.ml -1 for sulfur to 1.3 ng.ml -1 for zinc and copper, while for L-shell the values were 4.5 ng.ml -1 for mercury and 7.0 ng.ml -1 for lead. (author)

  11. Synchrotron radiation in solid state chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghigna, Paolo; Pin, Sonia; Spinolo, Giorgio; Newton, Mark A.; Chiara Tarantino, Serena; Zema, Michele

    2011-01-01

    An approach towards the reactivity in the solid state is proposed, primarily based on recognizing the crucial role played by the interfacial free energy and by the topotactical relationship between the two reactants, which in turn control formation of the new phase and its spatial and orientational relationships with respect to the parent phases. Using one of the reactants in the form of film, the ratio between bulk and interfacial free energy can be changed, and the effect of interfacial free energy is maximized. The role of Synchrotron Radiation in such an approach is exemplified by using a new developed technique for μ-XANES mapping with nanometric resolution for studying the reactivity of thin films of NiO onto differently oriented Al 2 O 3 single crystals. The result obtained allowed us to speculate about the rate determining step of the NiO+Al 2 O 3 →NiAl 2 O 4 interfacial reaction.

  12. Mirrors for synchrotron-radiation beamlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howells, M.R.

    1993-09-01

    The authors consider the role of mirrors in synchrotron-radiation beamlines and discuss the optical considerations involved in their design. They discuss toroidal, spherical, elliptical, and paraboloidal mirrors in detail with particular attention to their aberration properties. They give a treatment of the sine condition and describe its role in correcting the coma of axisymmetric systems. They show in detail how coma is inevitable in single-reflection, grazing-incidence systems but correctable in two-reflection systems such as those of the Wolter type. In an appendix, they give the theory of point aberrations of reflectors of a general shape and discuss the question of correct naming of aberrations. In particular, a strict definition of coma is required if attempts at correction are to be based on the sine condition

  13. A synchrotron radiation study of strontium titanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maslen, E.N.; Spadaccini, N.; Ito, T.; Marumo, F.; Satow, Y.

    1995-01-01

    Electron deformation densities Δρ for SrTiO 3 have been determined from diffraction data measured using focused synchrotron radiation with λ = 0.7000 (2) A at the Photon Factory, KEK, Japan. Corrections for secondary extinction were estimated from the variation of diffraction intensity with path length, and checked from the λ-dependence of the strong intensities indicated by measurements using a weaker parallel beam with λ = 0.5000 (2) A. The 0.7 A study is more precise than earlier analyses with Mo Kα radiation. The difference density near the Ti nucleus is mildly anisotropic, and the Δρ topography is similar to those for closed-shell atoms in related perovskite structures. (orig.)

  14. Application of synchrotron radiation in archaeology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakai, Izumi [Science University of Tokyo, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Chemistry, Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    This paper reports current status of archaeological application of synchrotron radiation (SR). The advantages of SR in archaeological research and various application possibilities of X-ray powder diffraction (XPD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) analyses of objects and materials of cultural heritage value are demonstrated through a number of case studies from literatures. They include XPD characterizations of Egyptian cosmetic powder, Attic Black Gloss, and pigments in Gothic altarpieces, provenance analysis of Old-Kutani china wares by high energy XRF, and XAFS analyses to reveal to origin of red color in Satsuma copper-ruby glass and role of iron in Maya blue. (author)

  15. Illuminating magma shearing processes via synchrotron imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavallée, Yan; Cai, Biao; Coats, Rebecca; Kendrick, Jackie E.; von Aulock, Felix W.; Wallace, Paul A.; Le Gall, Nolwenn; Godinho, Jose; Dobson, Katherine; Atwood, Robert; Holness, Marian; Lee, Peter D.

    2017-04-01

    Our understanding of geomaterial behaviour and processes has long fallen short due to inaccessibility into material as "something" happens. In volcanology, research strategies have increasingly sought to illuminate the subsurface of materials at all scales, from the use of muon tomography to image the inside of volcanoes to the use of seismic tomography to image magmatic bodies in the crust, and most recently, we have added synchrotron-based x-ray tomography to image the inside of material as we test it under controlled conditions. Here, we will explore some of the novel findings made on the evolution of magma during shearing. These will include observations and discussions of magma flow and failure as well as petrological reaction kinetics.

  16. Gravitational perturbation theory and synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breuer, R A [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik und Astrophysik, Muenchen (F.R. Germany). Inst. fuer Astrophysik

    1975-01-01

    This article presents methods and results for a gravitational perturbation theory which treats massless fields as linearized perturbations of an arbitrary gravitational vacuum background spacetime. The formalism is outlined for perturbations of type (22) spacetimes. As an application, high-frequency radiation emitted by particles moving approximately on relativistic circular geodesic orbits is computed. More precisely, the test particle assumption is made; throughout it is therefore assumed that the reaction of the radiation on the particle motion is negligible. In particular, these orbits are studied in the gravitational field of a spherically symmetric (Schwarzschild-) black hole as well as of a rotating (Kerr-) black hole. In this model, the outgoing radiation is highly focussed and of much higher fequency than the orbital frequency, i.e. one is dealing with 'gravitational synchrotron radiation'.

  17. Tune measurement in the NSLS booster synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, E.B.; Nawrocky, R.

    1993-01-01

    The NSLS booster synchrotron can accelerate an electron beam from approximately 80 to 750 MeV in 0.7 sec. The betatron tunes can change during acceleration by as much as 0.1 units, causing beam loss as they cross resonance lines. Precise measurements with a conventional swept spectrum analyzer have always been difficult because of the rapid variation of tune as the magnets are ramped. We are now using a system based on a Tektronix 3052 digital spectrum analyzer that can obtain a complete frequency spectrum over a 10 MHz bandwidth in 200 μsec. Betatron oscillations are stimulated for the measurements by applying white noise to the beam through stripline electrodes. We will describe the instrumentation, our measurements of tune as a function time during the acceleration cycle, and the resulting improvements to the booster operation

  18. Silicon Pixel Detectors for Synchrotron Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Stewart, Graeme Douglas

    Recent advances in particle accelerators have increased the demands being placed on detectors. Novel detector designs are being implemented in many different areas including, for example, high luminosity experiments at the LHC or at next generation synchrotrons. The purpose of this thesis was to characterise some of these novel detectors. The first of the new detector types is called a 3D detector. This design was first proposed by Parker, Kenney and Segal (1997). In this design, doped electrodes are created that extend through the silicon substrate. When compared to a traditional photodiode with electrodes on the opposing surfaces, the 3D design can combine a reasonable detector thickness with a small electrode spacing resulting in fast charge collection and limited charge sharing. The small electrode spacing leads to the detectors having lower depletion voltages. This, combined with the fast collection time, makes 3D detectors a candidate for radiation hard applications. These applications include the upgra...

  19. European synchrotron radiation facility at Risoe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    The results of the feasibility study on a potential European Synchrotron Radiation Facility site at Risoe, Denmark, can be summarized as follows: The site is located in a geologically stable area. The ground is fairly flat, free from vibrations and earth movements, and the foundation properties are considered generally good. The study is based upon the machine concept and main geometry as presented in the ESF feasibility study of May 1979. However, the proposed site could accomodate a larger machine (e.g. 900 m of circumference) or a multi-facility centre. The site is located in the vicinity of Risoe National Laboratory, a R and D establishment with 850 employees and a well-developed technical and scientific infrastructure, which can provide support to the ESRF during the plant construction and operation. In particular the possible combination of synchrotron radiation with the existing neutron scattering facilities in DR 3 is emphasized. The site is located 35 km west of Copenhagen with easy access to the scientific, technological and industrial organizations in the metropolitan area. The regional infrastructure ensures easy and fast communication between the ESRF and locations in the host country as well as abroad. The site is located 35 minutes drive from Copenhagen International Airport and on a main communication route out of Copenhagen. The estimated time duration for the design, construction and commissioning of ESRF phase 1 - taking into account national regulatory procedures - is consistent with that of the ESF feasibility study, i.e. approx. 6 years. The estimated captal costs associated with site-specific structures are consistent with those of the ESF feasibility study, taking into account price increase between 1979 and 1981. It should be emphasized that the study is based upon technical and scientific assessments only, and does not reflect any official position or approval from appropriate authorities. (author)

  20. Brightness of synchrotron radiation from wigglers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geloni, Gianluca; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni

    2014-12-01

    According to literature, while calculating the brightness of synchrotron radiation from wigglers, one needs to account for the so called 'depth-of-field' effects. In fact, the particle beam cross section varies along the wiggler. It is usually stated that the effective photon source size increases accordingly, while the brightness is reduced. Here we claim that this is a misconception originating from an analysis of the wiggler source based on geometrical arguments, regarded as almost self-evident. According to electrodynamics, depth-of-field effects do not exist: we demonstrate this statement both theoretically and numerically, using a well-known first-principle computer code. This fact shows that under the usually accepted approximations, the description of the wiggler brightness turns out to be inconsistent even qualitatively. Therefore, there is a need for a well-defined procedure for computing the brightness from a wiggler source. We accomplish this task based on the use of a Wigner function formalism. In the geometrical optics limit computations can be performed analytically. Within this limit, we restrict ourselves to the case of the beam size-dominated regime, which is typical for synchrotron radiation facilities in the X-ray wavelength range. We give a direct demonstration of the fact that the apparent horizontal source size is broadened in proportion to the beamline opening angle and to the length of the wiggler. While this effect is well-understood, a direct proof appears not to have been given elsewhere. We consider the problem of the calculation of the wiggler source size by means of numerical simulations alone, which play the same role of an experiment. We report a significant numerical disagreement between exact calculations and approximations currently used in literature.

  1. Liquid metal cooling of synchrotron optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smither, R.K.

    1993-01-01

    The installation of insertion devices at existing synchrotron facilities around the world has stimulated the development of new ways to cool the optical elements in the associated x-ray beamlines. Argonne has been a leader in the development of liquid metal cooling for high heat load x-ray optics for the next generation of synchrotron facilities. The high thermal conductivity, high volume specific heat, low kinematic viscosity, and large working temperature range make liquid metals a very efficient heat transfer fluid. A wide range of liquid metals were considered in the initial phase of this work. The most promising liquid metal cooling fluid identified to date is liquid gallium, which appears to have all the desired properties and the fewest number of undesired features of the liquid metals examined. Besides the special features of liquid metals that make them good heat transfer fluids, the very low vapor pressure over a large working temperature range make liquid gallium an ideal cooling fluid for use in a high vacuum environment. A leak of the liquid gallium into the high vacuum and even into very high vacuum areas will not result in any detectable vapor pressure and may even improve the vacuum environment as the liquid gallium combines with any water vapor or oxygen present in the system. The practical use of a liquid metal for cooling silicon crystals and other high heat load applications depends on having a convenient and efficient delivery system. The requirements for a typical cooling system for a silicon crystal used in a monochromator are pumping speeds of 2 to 5 gpm (120 cc per sec to 600 cc per sec) at pressures up to 100 psi. No liquid metal pump with these capabilities was available commercially when this project was started, so it was necessary to develop a suitable pump in house

  2. Feldspar, Infrared Stimulated Luminescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Mayank

    2014-01-01

    This entry primarily concerns the characteristics and the origins of infrared-stimulated luminescence in feldspars.......This entry primarily concerns the characteristics and the origins of infrared-stimulated luminescence in feldspars....

  3. Dynamic response of a typical synchrotron magnet/girder assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jendrzejczyk, J.A.; Smith, R.K.; Vogt, M.E.

    1993-06-01

    In the Advanced Photon Source, the synchrotron booster ring accelerates positrons to the required energy level of 7 GeV. The positrons are then injected into the storage ring where they continue to orbit for 10--15 h. The storage ring quadrupoles have very stringent vibration criteria that must be satisfied to ensure that beam emittance growth is within acceptable limits, viz., <10%. Because the synchrotron booster ring is not operated after particle insertion into the storage ring, its vibration response is not a critical issue relative to the performance of the storage ring beam. Nevertheless, the synchrotron pulses at a frequency of 2 Hz, and if a vibration response frequency of the synchrotron magnet/girder assembly were to coincide with the pulsation frequency or its near harmonics, large-amplitude motion could result, with the effect that it could compromise the operation of the synchrotron. Due to the complex dynamics of the synchrotron magnet/girder assembly, it is necessary to measure the dynamic response of a prototypic assembly and its components to ensure that the inherent dynamic response frequencies are not equal to 2 Hz or any near harmonics. Dynamic-response measurement of the synchrotron girder assembly and component magnets is the subject of this report

  4. Limitations of heavy ion synchrotron acceleration for inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berley, D.; Danby, G.T.

    1977-01-01

    The potential benefits from heavy ion inertial fusion motivate the rapid development of a program to test the principle. To define the program, accelerator parameters which have not hitherto been commonly considered must be studied interactively with basic questions of space charge limitations and charge exchange. Beam lifetime and power output efficiency may ultimately lead to a linear accelerator as the choice for an ignition device. For proof of principle, however, at power levels way beyond present inertial fusion experience, synchrotrons may have applicability at lower cost. The power and energy which can be delivered by the accelerating system to the reaction chamber are limited by space charge defocussing and intra beam charge exchange scattering, both of which are beam density dependent. These put constraints on linac injector energy, synchrotron aperture, synchrotron magnetic rigidity, acceleration time, ion species and charge to mass ratio. The accelerator system considered is classical. A linear accelerator injects into a synchrotron which accelerates the ion beam to the full energy delivered to the target. The maximum energy deliverable by a synchrotron is treated in section I. The targetting parameters and the energy gained through synchrotron acceleration completely determine the synchrotron aperture. These are discussed in sections II and III. The ion range in material is treated in section IV. The problem of intrabeam scattering is considered in section V. Finally, in section VI is a discussion of examples to meet specified goals

  5. Advances and synergy of high pressure sciences at synchrotron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, H.; Ehm, L.; Duffy, T.; Crichton, W.; Aoki, K.

    2009-01-01

    Introductory overview to the special issue papers on high-pressure sciences and synchrotron radiation. High-pressure research in geosciences, materials science and condensed matter physics at synchrotron sources is experiencing growth and development through synergistic efforts around the world. A series of high-pressure science workshops were organized in 2008 to highlight these developments. One of these workshops, on 'Advances in high-pressure science using synchrotron X-rays', was held at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), Brookhaven National Laboratory, USA, on 4 October 2008. This workshop was organized in honour of Drs Jingzhu Hu and Quanzhong Guo in celebration of their retirement after up to 18 years of dedicated service to the high-pressure community as beamline scientists at X17 of NSLS. Following this celebration of the often unheralded role of the beamline scientist, a special issue of the Journal of Synchrotron Radiation on Advances and Synergy of High-Pressure Sciences at Synchrotron Sources was proposed, and we were pleased to invite contributions from colleagues who participated in the workshop as well as others who are making similar efforts at synchrotron sources worldwide.

  6. Extragalactic infrared astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gondhalekar, P.M.

    1985-05-01

    The paper concerns the field of Extragalactic Infrared Astronomy, discussed at the Fourth RAL Workshop on Astronomy and Astrophysics. Fifteen papers were presented on infrared emission from extragalactic objects. Both ground-(and aircraft-) based and IRAS infrared data were reviewed. The topics covered star formation in galaxies, active galactic nuclei and cosmology. (U.K.)

  7. Limitations on plasma acceleration due to synchrotron losses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barletta, W.A.; Lee, E.P.; Bonifacio, R.; De Salvo, L.

    1999-01-01

    In this letter we consider the effect of synchrotron radiation losses due to the betatron motion of the electron beam in its self-induced magnetic field in a plasma accelerator taking into account the charge neutralization factor. The most favorable case is where the plasma density is smaller than the beam density. The contrary regime is strongly disfavored by the synchrotron radiation loss for beams with characteristics for TeV energies. In both cases we find that upon increasing the plasma density the synchrotron losses kill the acceleration process, so that there are limitations on the maximum allowable plasma density

  8. Power supplies for the injector synchrotron quadrupoles and sextupoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fathizadeh, M.

    1995-01-01

    This light source note will describe the power supplies for the injector synchrotron quadrupole and sextupole magnets. The injector synchrotron has two families of quadrupole magnets. Each family consists of 40 quadrupole magnets connected in series. These magnets are energized by two phase-controlled, 12-pulse power supplies. Therefore, each power supply will be rated to deliver the necessary power to only 40 quadrupole magnets. The two families of sextupole magnets in the injector synchrotron each consists of 32 sextupole magnets connected in series, powered by a phase-controlled power supply. Thus, each power supply shall be capable of delivering power to only 32 sextupole magnets

  9. Optical systems for synchrotron radiation. Lecture 2. Mirror systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howells, M.R.

    1986-02-01

    The process of reflection of VUV and x-radiation is summarized. The functions of mirrors in synchrotron beamlines are described, which include deflection, filtration, power absorption, formation of a real image, focusing, and collimation. Fabrication of optical surfaces for synchrotron radiation beamlines are described, and include polishing of a near spherical surface as well as bending a cylindrical surface to toroidal shape. The imperfections present in mirrors, aberrations and surface figure inaccuracy, are discussed. Calculation of the thermal load of a mirror in a synchrotron radiation beam and the cooling of the mirror are covered briefly. 50 refs., 7 figs

  10. Photoionization studies of atoms and molecules using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindle, D.W.

    1988-01-01

    Photoionization studies of free atoms and molecules have undergone considerable development in the past decade, in large part due to the use of synchrotron radiation. The tunability of synchrotron radiation has permitted the study of photoionization processes near valence-and core-level ionization thresholds for atoms and molecules throught the Periodic Table. A general illustration of these types of study will be presented, with emphasis on a few of the more promising new directions in atomic and molecular physics being pursued with synchrotron radiation. (author) [pt

  11. Proceedings of the workshop on LAMPF II synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, R.K.

    1983-01-01

    Topics covered at the workshop include: considerations for a staged approach to synchrotron construction; consideration of energy and cost for a kaon and/or antiproton factory; changing the transition energy in the main ring for the Fermilab antiproton beam; a lattice with 50% undispersed straight sections; bunch width considerations in a stretcher ring; a self-consistent longitudinal distribution; rapid-cycling tuned rf cavity for synchrotron use; considerations on a high-shunt impedance tunable RF cavity; rotating condensers; low extraction from the stretcher ring; an antiproton source for LAMPF II; synchrotron magnet circuit; power supply and ring magnet options; and notes for a kaon factory design

  12. THz near-field imaging of biological tissues employing synchrotron radiation (Invited Paper)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schade, Ulrich; Holldack, Karsten; Martin, Michael C.; Fried, Daniel

    2005-04-01

    Terahertz scanning near-field infrared microscopy (SNIM) below 1 THz is demonstrated. The near-field technique benefits from the broadband and highly brilliant coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) from an electron storage ring and from a detection method based on locking on to the intrinsic time structure of the synchrotron radiation. The scanning microscope utilizes conical waveguides as near-field probes with apertures smaller than the wavelength. Different cone approaches have been investigated to obtain maximum transmittance. Together with a Martin-Puplett spectrometer the set-up enables spectroscopic mapping of the transmittance of samples well below the diffraction limit. Spatial resolution down to about λ/40 at 2 wavenumbers (0.06 THz) is derived from the transmittance spectra of the near-field probes. The potential of the technique is exemplified by imaging biological samples. Strongly absorbing living leaves have been imaged in transmittance with a spatial resolution of 130 μm at about 12 wavenumbers (0.36 THz). The THz near-field images reveal distinct structural differences of leaves from different plants investigated. The technique presented also allows spectral imaging of bulky organic tissues. Human teeth samples of various thicknesses have been imaged between 2 and 20 wavenumbers (between 0.06 and 0.6 THz). Regions of enamel and dentin within tooth samples are spatially and spectrally resolved, and buried caries lesions are imaged through both the outer enamel and into the underlying dentin.

  13. Development of intense terahertz coherent synchrotron radiation at KU-FEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sei, Norihiro, E-mail: sei.n@aist.go.jp [Research Institute for Measurement and Analytical Instrumentation, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 1-1-1 Umezono, Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Zen, Heishun; Ohgaki, Hideaki [Institute for Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

    2016-10-01

    We produced intense coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in the terahertz (THz) region using an S-band linac at the Kyoto University Free Electron Laser (KU-FEL), which is a mid-infrared free-electron laser facility. The CSR beam was emitted from short-pulse electron bunches compressed by a 180° arc, and was transferred to air at a large solid angle of 0.10 rad. The measured CSR energy was 55 μJ per 7 μs macropulse, and KU-FEL was one of the most powerful CSR sources in normal conducting linear accelerator facilities. The CSR spectra were measured using an uncooled pyroelectric detector and a Michelson-type interferometer designed specifically for the KU-FEL electron beam, and had a maximum at a frequency of 0.11 THz. We found that adjusting the energy slit enhanced the CSR energy and shortened the electron beam bunch length in the CSR spectra measurements. Our results demonstrated that the efficient use of the energy slit can help improve the characteristics of CSR. - Highlights: • We have developed intense coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) at KU-FEL. • The elevation angle of the CSR was correctly measured by a new technique. • The CSR power extracted to the air was 55 μJ per 7 μs macropulse. • It was demonstrated that an energy slit was effective to improve the CSR properties.

  14. THz near-field imaging of biological tissues employing synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schade, Ulrich; Holldack, Karsten; Martin, Michael C.; Fried, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Terahertz scanning near-field infrared microscopy (SNIM) below 1 THz is demonstrated. The near-field technique benefits from the broadband and highly brilliant coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) from an electron storage ring and from a detection method based on locking onto the intrinsic time structure of the synchrotron radiation. The scanning microscope utilizes conical wave guides as near-field probes with apertures smaller than the wavelength. Different cone approaches have been investigated to obtain maximum transmittance. Together with a Martin-Puplett spectrometer the set-up enables spectroscopic mapping of the transmittance of samples well below the diffraction limit. Spatial resolution down to about lambda/40 at 2 wavenumbers (0.06 THz) is derived from the transmittance spectra of the near-field probes. The potential of the technique is exemplified by imaging biological samples. Strongly absorbing living leaves have been imaged in transmittance with a spatial resolution of 130 mu-m at about 12 wave numbers (0.36 THz). The THz near-field images reveal distinct structural differences of leaves from different plants investigated. The technique presented also allows spectral imaging of bulky organic tissues. Human teeth samples of various thicknesses have been imaged between 2 and 20 wavenumbers (between 0.06and 0.6 THz). Regions of enamel and dentin within tooth samples are spatially and spectrally resolved, and buried caries lesions are imaged through both the outer enamel and into the underlying dentin

  15. Development of intense terahertz coherent synchrotron radiation at KU-FEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sei, Norihiro; Zen, Heishun; Ohgaki, Hideaki

    2016-01-01

    We produced intense coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in the terahertz (THz) region using an S-band linac at the Kyoto University Free Electron Laser (KU-FEL), which is a mid-infrared free-electron laser facility. The CSR beam was emitted from short-pulse electron bunches compressed by a 180° arc, and was transferred to air at a large solid angle of 0.10 rad. The measured CSR energy was 55 μJ per 7 μs macropulse, and KU-FEL was one of the most powerful CSR sources in normal conducting linear accelerator facilities. The CSR spectra were measured using an uncooled pyroelectric detector and a Michelson-type interferometer designed specifically for the KU-FEL electron beam, and had a maximum at a frequency of 0.11 THz. We found that adjusting the energy slit enhanced the CSR energy and shortened the electron beam bunch length in the CSR spectra measurements. Our results demonstrated that the efficient use of the energy slit can help improve the characteristics of CSR. - Highlights: • We have developed intense coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) at KU-FEL. • The elevation angle of the CSR was correctly measured by a new technique. • The CSR power extracted to the air was 55 μJ per 7 μs macropulse. • It was demonstrated that an energy slit was effective to improve the CSR properties.

  16. SYNCHROTRON HEATING BY A FAST RADIO BURST IN A SELF-ABSORBED SYNCHROTRON NEBULA AND ITS OBSERVATIONAL SIGNATURE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yuan-Pei; Dai, Zi-Gao; Zhang, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are mysterious transient sources. If extragalactic, as suggested by their relative large dispersion measures, their brightness temperatures must be extremely high. Some FRB models (e.g., young pulsar model, magnetar giant flare model, or supra-massive neutron star collapse model) suggest that they may be associated with a synchrotron nebula. Here we study a synchrotron-heating process by an FRB in a self-absorbed synchrotron nebula. If the FRB frequency is below the synchrotron self-absorption frequency of the nebula, electrons in the nebula would absorb FRB photons, leading to a harder electron spectrum and enhanced self-absorbed synchrotron emission. In the meantime, the FRB flux is absorbed by the nebula electrons. We calculate the spectra of FRB-heated synchrotron nebulae, and show that the nebula spectra would show a significant hump in several decades near the self-absorption frequency. Identifying such a spectral feature would reveal an embedded FRB in a synchrotron nebula

  17. SYNCHROTRON HEATING BY A FAST RADIO BURST IN A SELF-ABSORBED SYNCHROTRON NEBULA AND ITS OBSERVATIONAL SIGNATURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yuan-Pei; Dai, Zi-Gao [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zhang, Bing, E-mail: zhang@physics.unlv.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV 89154 (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are mysterious transient sources. If extragalactic, as suggested by their relative large dispersion measures, their brightness temperatures must be extremely high. Some FRB models (e.g., young pulsar model, magnetar giant flare model, or supra-massive neutron star collapse model) suggest that they may be associated with a synchrotron nebula. Here we study a synchrotron-heating process by an FRB in a self-absorbed synchrotron nebula. If the FRB frequency is below the synchrotron self-absorption frequency of the nebula, electrons in the nebula would absorb FRB photons, leading to a harder electron spectrum and enhanced self-absorbed synchrotron emission. In the meantime, the FRB flux is absorbed by the nebula electrons. We calculate the spectra of FRB-heated synchrotron nebulae, and show that the nebula spectra would show a significant hump in several decades near the self-absorption frequency. Identifying such a spectral feature would reveal an embedded FRB in a synchrotron nebula.

  18. Synchrotron radiation. 4. Analyses of biological samples using synchrotron radiation. 3. Research on radiation damage to DNA using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takakura, Kaoru

    1998-01-01

    This review described how the synchrotron radiation (SR) is used to solve problems unknown hitherto in radiation biology. Historically, the target substance of UV light in bacterial death was suggested to be nucleic acid in 1930. Researches on the radiation damage to DNA were begun at around 1960 and have mainly used UV light, X-ray and γray. Soft X-ray and vacuum UV whose energy covering from several eV to scores of keV have not been used since UV and X-ray lack the energy of this range. This is one of reasons why detailed process leading to radiation-induced death, carcinogenicity and mutation has not been known hitherto. RS possesses wide range of energy, i.e., from UV to hard X-ray, of high intensity, which is helpful for studying the unknown problems. The RS studies were begun in nineteen-seventies. Those include the action spectrum studies and atomic target studies. In the former, the course of the effect, e.g., the mechanism of DNA double strand breakage, can be elucidated. In the latter, photon of known energy can be irradiated to the specified atom like phosphorus in DNA which elucidating the precise physicochemical process of the breakage. Use of RS in these studies is thought still meaningful in future. (K.H.) 62 refs

  19. Activity report of Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-11-01

    Since 1980s, the Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SRL) has been promoting the 'Super-SOR' project, the new synchrotron radiation facility dedicated to sciences in vacuum ultraviolet and soft X-ray regions. The University of Tokyo considered the project as one of the most important future academic plans and strongly endorsed to construct the new facility with an electron storage ring of third generation type in the Kashiwa campus. During last year, the design of the accelerator system was slightly modified to obtain stronger support of the people in the field of bio-sciences, such as medicine, pharmacy, agriculture, etc. The energy of the storage ring was increased to 2.4 GeV, which is determined to obtain undulator radiation with sufficient brightness in X-ray region for the protein crystallography experiments. The value was also optimised to avoid considerable degradation of undulator radiation in the VUV and soft X-ray regions. However, in October last year, the president office of the University found out that the promotion of the project was very difficult for financial reasons. The budget for the new facility project is too big to be supported by a single university. The decision was intensively discussed by the International Review Committee on the Institute for Solid State Physics (ISSP), which was held at ISSP from November 14 to 16. The committee understood that the restructuring of the University system in Japan would overstrain the financial resources of the University of Tokyo and accepted the decision by the University. Presently, SRL has inclined to install beamlines using undulator radiation in other SR facilities instead of constructing a facility with a light source accelerator. At new beamlines, SRL will promote advanced materials sciences utilizing high brilliance and small emittance of synchrotron radiation which have been considered in the Super-SOR project. They are those such as microscopy and time-resolved experiments, which will only be

  20. Activity report of Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-11-01

    After moved from Tanashi to Kashiwa Campus in the spring of 2000, the Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SRL) has been promoting the High-brilliance Light Source project, Super SOR project, in cooperation with the nationwide user group as well as with the users of the University of Tokyo. In May of 2001, the project has met with a dramatic progress. The Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture organized the Advisory Board and started to discuss the future synchrotron radiation facilities in EUV and SX regime in Japan. Based on extensive discussion, they proposed the new facility consisting of a 1.8 GeV storage ring of 3rd generation type. The University of Tokyo approved to construct the proposed facility in the Kashiwa campus. The plan is supported not only by researchers in academic institutions but also bio- and chemical-industries. We strongly hope the plan will be realized in near future. On the other hand, SRL maintains a branch laboratory in the Photon Factory (PF) High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) at Tsukuba with a Revolver undulator, two beamlines and three experimental stations (BL-18A, 19A and 19B), which are and fully opened to the outside users. In the fiscal year of 2001, the operation time of the beamlines was more than 5000 hours and the number of the users was about 200. The main scientific interests and activities in the SRL at KEK-PF are directed to the electronic structures of new materials with new transport, magnetic and optical properties. The electronic structures of solid surfaces and interfaces are also intensively studied by photoelectron spectroscopy and photoelectron microscopy. The accelerator group of SRL is carrying out research works of the accelerator physics and developing the accelerator-related technology, many parts of which will be directly applied to the new light source project. This report contains the activities of the staff members of SRL and users of the three beamlines in FY2001. The status of

  1. Synchrotrons and their applications in medical imaging and therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, R.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Australasia's first synchrotron is being built on the campus of Monash University near Melbourne. Is it of any relevance to the medical imaging and radiation therapy communities? The answer is an unequivocal yes. Synchrotrons overcome many of the problems with conventional X-ray sources and as a result make it possible to demonstrate extraordinary advances in both X-ray imaging and indeed in radio-therapy. Synchrotron imaging offers us a window into what is possible and the results are spectacular. Specific examples include lung images that reveal alveolar structure and computed tomography of single cells. For therapy treatments are being pioneered that seem to be effective on high grade gliomas. An overview of the status of medical applications using synchrotrons will be given and the proposed Australian medical imaging and therapy facilities will be described and some of the proposed research highlighted. Copyright (2004) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  2. Low Level RF Control System of J-PARC Synchrotrons

    CERN Document Server

    Tamura, Fumihiko; Ezura, Eizi; Hara, Keigo; Nomura, Masahiro; Ohmori, Chihiro; Schnase, Alexander; Takagi, Akira; Yamamoto, Masanobu; Yoshii, Masahito

    2005-01-01

    We present the concept and the design of the low level RF (LLRF) control system of the J-PARC synchrotrons. The J-PARC synchrotrons are the rapid cycling 3-GeV synchrotron (RCS) and the 50-GeV main ring (MR) which require very precise and stable LLRF control systems to accelerate the ultra-high proton beam current. The LLRF system of the synchrotron is a full-digital system based on the direct digital synthesis (DDS). The functions of the system are (1) the multi-harmonic RF generation for the acceleration and the longitudinal bunch shaping, (2) the feedbacks for stabilizing the beam, (3) the feedforward for compensating the heavy beam loading, and (4) other miscellaneous functions such as the synchronization and chopper timing. The LLRF system of the RCS is now under construction. We present the details of the system. Also, we show preliminary results of performance tests of the control modules.

  3. Use of synchrotron radiation in radiation biology research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Takeshi

    1981-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation (SR) holds great expectation as a new research tool in the new areas of material science, because it has the continuous spectral distribution from visible light to X-ray, and its intensity is 10 2 to 10 3 times as strong as that of conventional radiation sources. In the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics, a synchrotron radiation experimental facility has been constructed, which will start operation in fiscal 1982. With this SR, the photons having the wavelength in undeveloped region from vacuum ultraviolet to soft X-ray are obtained as intense mono-wavelength light. The SR thus should contribute to the elucidation of the fundamentals in the biological action of radiation. The following matters are described: synchrotron radiation, experimental facility using SR, electron storage ring, features of SR, photon factory plan and synchrotron radiation experimental facility, utilization of SR in radiation biology field. (J.P.N.)

  4. Open cell conducting foams for high synchrotron radiation accelerators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Petracca

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The possible use of open cell conductive foams in high synchrotron radiation particle accelerators is considered. Available materials and modeling tools are reviewed, potential pros and cons are discussed, and preliminary conclusions are drawn.

  5. Stability of high-brilliance synchrotron radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chattopadhyay, S.

    1989-12-01

    This paper discusses the following topics: characteristics of synchrotron radiation sources; stability of the orbits; orbit control; nonlinear dynamic stability; and coherent stability and control. 1 ref., 5 figs., 1 tab

  6. White beam synchrotron fractography of molybdenum and niobium single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilello, J.C.; Hmelo, A.B.

    1983-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that a White Beam Synchrotron reflection technique can be used to characterize the fracture surface of Mo and Nb single crystals. This technique when used in conjunction with Berg-Barrett (or in the future monochromatic synchrotron topography) gives detailed information which correlates the internal defect structure to the cleavage surface morphology. In particular, synchrotron fractography has revealed the full extent of the plastic zone associated with a precursor crack, has clearly identified the nature of the initial crack where more than one precursor could have existed, and give detailed information on the extent of twinning and microtwinning. In comparison with other fractography methods for such semi-brittle metals the White Beam Synchrotron method not only achieves rapid data collection, but also provides internal defect structure correlation non-destructively. (author)

  7. Photoionization. Daresbury synchrotron radiation lecture note series No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bottcher, C.

    1973-11-15

    These lectures were given in November 1973 to experimental physicists using the Synchrotron Radiation Facility at Daresbury. The aim was a modest one, to survey the basic ideas of the subject and introduce some current theoretical developments.

  8. Beam extraction control systems of the fast-cycling synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toumanian, A.; Zapolski, N.; Nickogosian, V.; Ananian, A.; Kazarian, A.; Khoetsian, M.; Agababian, A.; Matevosian, A.

    1992-01-01

    A compact system controlling the extraction of different beams (gamma, electron, synchrotron radiation) in single and simultaneous operation modes at high electromagnetic disturbances level based on using one computer of IBM PC/AT type is described. (author)

  9. Staff accuse bosses of secrecy over British synchrotron plans

    CERN Multimedia

    Loder, N

    1999-01-01

    Scientific staff at Daresbury who have worked on the Diamond project for many years, believe senior management has kept them in the dark over discussions about the possible siting of the synchrotron at RAL (1 page).

  10. The application of synchrotron radiation to X-ray lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiller, E.; Eastman, D.E.; Feder, R.; Grobman, W.D.; Gudat, W.; Topalian, J.

    1976-06-01

    Synchrotron radiation from the German electron synchrotron DESY in Hamburg has been used for X-ray lithograpgy. Replications of different master patterns (for magnetic bubble devices, fresnel zone plates, etc.) were made using various wavelengths and exposures. High quality lines down to 500 A wide have been reproduced using very soft X-rays. The sensitivities of X-ray resists have been evaluated over a wide range of exposures. Various critical factors (heating, radiation damage, etc.) involved with X-ray lithography using synchrotron radiation have been studied. General considerations of storage ring sources designed as radiation sources for X-ray lithography are discussed, together with a comparison with X-ray tube sources. The general conclusion is that X-ray lithography using synchrotron radiation offers considerable promise as a process for forming high quality sub-micron images with exposure times as short as a few seconds. (orig.) [de

  11. The use of slow-cycling synchrotrons in injection systems

    CERN Multimedia

    1966-01-01

    The PS improvement programme is concerned with increasing the potential of the PS for high energy physics. It involves developing the performance of the proton synchrotron itself and providing major items of experimental equipment to be used on the machine.

  12. CERN PSB Beam Tests of CNAO Synchrotron's Digital LLRF

    CERN Document Server

    Angoletta, M E; De Martinis, C; Falbo, L; Findlay, A; Foglio, R; Hunt, S; Tourres, D; Vescovi, C

    2008-01-01

    The Italian National Centre for Oncological hAdrontherapy (CNAO), in its final construction phase, uses proton and carbon ion beams to treat patients affected by solid tumours. At the heart of CNAO is a 78- meter circumference synchrotron that accelerates particles to up to 400 MeV/u. The synchrotron relies on a digital LLRF system based upon Digital Signal Processors (DSPs) and Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). This system implements cavity servoing and beam control capabilities, such as phase and radial loops. Beam tests of the CNAO synchrotron LLRF system were carried out at CERN's Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB) in autumn 2007, to verify the combined DSP/FPGA architecture and the beam control capabilities. For this, a prototype version of CNAO's LLRF system was adapted to the PSB requirements. This paper outlines the prototype system layout and describes the tests carried out and their results. In particular, system architecture and beam control capabilities were successfully proven by comparison wit...

  13. Synchrotron radiation use in some researchs in program in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caticha-Ellis, S.

    1983-01-01

    Physical and biological applications of the synchrotron radiation in some pure and applied research programs in progress in Brazil are presented, in special those related with crystallografic research. (L.C.) [pt

  14. Daresbury senses victory in battle for UK synchrotron

    CERN Multimedia

    Loder, N

    1999-01-01

    Scientists campaigning for the future synchrotron source, Diamond, to be sited at Daresbury rather than RAL, believe they have won their case following a meeting between the Office of Science & Technology and the director of the Welcome Trust (1 pg).

  15. Research of synchrotron radiation by virtual photon and compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Xianzhu

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a new theory to explain the synchrotron radiation. When charged particle does circular motion in the accelerator, the magnetic field of the accelerator can be taken as periodic, and equivalent to virtual photon. By Compton scattering of virtual photon and charged particle, the virtual photon can be transformed into photon to radiate out. According to this theory, the formula of photon wavelength in synchrotron radiation is found out, and the calculation results of wavelength is consonant with experimental data. (author)

  16. The physics design of the Australian synchrotron storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boldeman, J.W.; Einfeld, D.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the physics design of the Australian Synchrotron Storage Ring--Boomerang, which is currently under construction on a site adjacent to Monash University in Melbourne, Victoria. It also includes brief historical notes on the development of the proposal, some background material on the Australian synchrotron research community and preliminary information on possible research programs on the new facility. The facility itself is now in the early stages of construction under the leadership of Seaborne and Jackson

  17. An introduction to synchrotron radiation techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Willmott, Philip

    2011-01-01

    This book introduces the reader to the basic concepts of the generation and manipulation of synchrotron light, its interaction with matter, and the application of synchrotron light in the “classical” techniques, while including some of the most modern technological developments. As much as possible, complicated mathematical derivations and formulas are avoided. A more heuristic approach is adopted, whereby the general physical reasoning behind the equations is highlighted.

  18. X-ray fluorescence imaging with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivers, M.L.

    1987-01-01

    The micro-distribution of trace elements is of great interest in fields such as geochemistry, biology and material science. The synchrotron x-ray fluorescence microprobe provides a technique to quantitatively measure trace element compositions at individual points and to construct semiquantitative two dimensional maps of trace element compositions. This paper describes an x-ray fluorescence system used at the National Synchrotron Light Source

  19. Fundamentals of Coherent Synchrotron Radiation in Storage Rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sannibale, F.; Byrd, J.M.; Loftsdottir, A.; Martin, M.C.; Venturini, M.

    2004-01-01

    We present the fundamental concepts for producing stable broadband coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in the terahertz frequency region in an electron storage ring. The analysis includes distortion of bunch shape from the synchrotron radiation (SR), enhancing higher frequency coherent emission and limits to stable emission due to a microbunching instability excited by the SR. We use these concepts to optimize the performance of a source for CSR emission

  20. ''Use of synchrotron radiation in France: present status and perspectives''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiry, P.

    1996-01-01

    LURE (laboratory for the use of electromagnetic radiation) plays an important role as a research center, as a synchrotron radiation producer and as a leading pole about new light source studies. The necessity to maintain LURE at a high level of technological competitiveness implies to build a new facility called SOLEIL. This article describes the present equipment of LURE, its activity fields and draws the prospect of synchrotron radiation in France. (A.C.)