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Sample records for synaptonemal complex disassembly

  1. SCP1, a major protein component of synaptonemal complexes of the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwissen, R.L.J.

    1997-01-01

    Synaptonemal complexes (SCs) are structures that are formed between homologous chromosomes during meiotic prophase. SCs consist of two proteinaceous axes, one along each homologue, that are connected along their length by numerous transverse filaments (TFs). The assembly and disassembly of

  2. Identification and characterization of synaptonemal complex proteins of the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Offenberg, H.H.

    1993-01-01

    Synaptonemal complexes (SCs) are structures that are formed between homologous chromosomes during meiotic prophase. They undergo a series of morphological alterations which closely correlate with the successive rearrangements of meiotic prophase chromatin, namely chromosome condensation,

  3. Meiosis in mice without a synaptonemal complex.

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    Anna Kouznetsova

    Full Text Available The synaptonemal complex (SC promotes fusion of the homologous chromosomes (synapsis and crossover recombination events during meiosis. The SC displays an extensive structural conservation between species; however, a few organisms lack SC and execute meiotic process in a SC-independent manner. To clarify the SC function in mammals, we have generated a mutant mouse strain (Sycp1(-/-Sycp3(-/-, here called SC-null in which all known SC proteins have been displaced from meiotic chromosomes. While transmission electron microscopy failed to identify any remnants of the SC in SC-null spermatocytes, neither formation of the cohesion axes nor attachment of the chromosomes to the nuclear membrane was perturbed. Furthermore, the meiotic chromosomes in SC-null meiocytes achieved pre-synaptic pairing, underwent early homologous recombination events and sustained a residual crossover formation. In contrast, in SC-null meiocytes synapsis and MLH1-MLH3-dependent crossovers maturation were abolished, whereas the structural integrity of chromosomes was drastically impaired. The variable consequences that SC inactivation has on the meiotic process in different organisms, together with the absence of SC in some unrelated species, imply that the SC could have originated independently in different taxonomic groups.

  4. Structure and composition of synaptonemal complexes, isolated from rat spermatocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heyting, C.; Dietrich, A. J.; Redeker, E. J.; Vink, A. C.

    1985-01-01

    Synaptonemal complexes (SCs) (structures involved in chromosome pairing during meiosis) were isolated and purified from rat spermatocytes for the purpose of biochemical and morphological analysis. Spermatocytes were lysed in a medium, containing Triton X-100, EDTA and DTT; the resulting swollen

  5. Synaptonemal Complex Length Variation in Wild-Type Male Mice

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    Neil M. Vranis

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Meiosis yields haploid gametes following two successive divisions of a germ cell in the absence of intervening DNA replication. Balanced segregation of homologous chromosomes in Meiosis I is aided by a proteinaceous structure, the synaptonemal complex (SC. The objective of this study was to determine total average autosomal SC lengths in spermatocytes in three commonly used mouse strains (129S4/SvJae, C57BL/6J, and BALB/c. Our experiments revealed that the total autosomal SC length in BALB/c spermatocytes is 9% shorter than in the two other strains. Shorter SCs are also observed in spermatocytes of (BALB/c × 129S4/SvJae and (C57BL/6J × BALB/c F1 hybrids suggesting a genetic basis of SC length regulation. Along these lines, we studied expression of a selected group of genes implicated in meiotic chromosome architecture. We found that BALB/c testes express up to 6-fold less of Rec8 mRNA and 4-fold less of REC8 protein. These results suggest that the mechanism that defines the SC length operates via a REC8‑dependent process. Finally, our results demonstrate that genetic background can have an effect on meiotic studies in mice.

  6. Hormad1 mutation disrupts synaptonemal complex formation, recombination, and chromosome segregation in mammalian meiosis.

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    Yong-Hyun Shin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Meiosis is unique to germ cells and essential for reproduction. During the first meiotic division, homologous chromosomes pair, recombine, and form chiasmata. The homologues connect via axial elements and numerous transverse filaments to form the synaptonemal complex. The synaptonemal complex is a critical component for chromosome pairing, segregation, and recombination. We previously identified a novel germ cell-specific HORMA domain encoding gene, Hormad1, a member of the synaptonemal complex and a mammalian counterpart to the yeast meiotic HORMA domain protein Hop1. Hormad1 is essential for mammalian gametogenesis as knockout male and female mice are infertile. Hormad1 deficient (Hormad1(-/ (- testes exhibit meiotic arrest in the early pachytene stage, and synaptonemal complexes cannot be visualized by electron microscopy. Hormad1 deficiency does not affect localization of other synaptonemal complex proteins, SYCP2 and SYCP3, but disrupts homologous chromosome pairing. Double stranded break formation and early recombination events are disrupted in Hormad1(-/ (- testes and ovaries as shown by the drastic decrease in the γH2AX, DMC1, RAD51, and RPA foci. HORMAD1 co-localizes with γH2AX to the sex body during pachytene. BRCA1, ATR, and γH2AX co-localize to the sex body and participate in meiotic sex chromosome inactivation and transcriptional silencing. Hormad1 deficiency abolishes γH2AX, ATR, and BRCA1 localization to the sex chromosomes and causes transcriptional de-repression on the X chromosome. Unlike testes, Hormad1(-/ (- ovaries have seemingly normal ovarian folliculogenesis after puberty. However, embryos generated from Hormad1(-/ (- oocytes are hyper- and hypodiploid at the 2 cell and 8 cell stage, and they arrest at the blastocyst stage. HORMAD1 is therefore a critical component of the synaptonemal complex that affects synapsis, recombination, and meiotic sex chromosome inactivation and transcriptional silencing.

  7. SCP2, a major protein component of the axial elements of synaptonemal complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schalk, J.A.C.

    1999-01-01

    Synaptonemal complexes (SCs) are ladderlike protein structures, which are formed between homologous chromosomes during the prophase of the first meiotic division. SCs consist of two axial elements, one along each chromosome, and transverse filaments (TFs), which connect the axial elements.

  8. The diverse roles of transverse filaments of synaptonemal complexes in meiosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de E.; Heyting, C.

    2006-01-01

    In most eukaryotes, homologous chromosomes (homologs) are closely apposed during the prophase of the first meiotic division by a ladderlike proteinaceous structure, the synaptonemal complex (SC) [Fawcett, J Biophys Biochem Cytol 2:403-406, 1956; Moses, J Biophys Biochem Cytol 2:215-218, 1956]. SCs

  9. Meiotic cohesin REC8 marks the axial elements of rat synaptonemal complexes before cohesins SMC1B and SMC3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijpe, M.; Offenberg, H.H.; Jessberger, R.; Revenkova, E.; Heyting, C.

    2003-01-01

    In meiotic prophase, the sister chromatids of each chromosome develop a common axial element (AE) that is integrated into the synaptonemal complex (SC). We analyzed the incorporation of sister chromatid cohesion proteins (cohesins) and other AE components into AEs. Meiotic cohesin REC8 appeared

  10. The Mr 30,000-33,000 major protein components of the lateral elements of synaptonemal complexes of the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, H.

    1999-01-01

    Synaptonemal complexes (SCs) are intranuclear structures which are formed during meiotic prophase between homologous chromosomes. The SC consists of two protein-rich axes, either of which is found at the basis of one of the homologous chromosomes. These axes, called lateral elements (LEs),

  11. Synaptonemal Complex Components Are Required for Meiotic Checkpoint Function in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohr, Tisha; Ashley, Guinevere; Eggleston, Evan; Firestone, Kyra; Bhalla, Needhi

    2016-01-01

    Synapsis involves the assembly of a proteinaceous structure, the synaptonemal complex (SC), between paired homologous chromosomes, and is essential for proper meiotic chromosome segregation. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the synapsis checkpoint selectively removes nuclei with unsynapsed chromosomes by inducing apoptosis. This checkpoint depends on pairing centers (PCs), cis-acting sites that promote pairing and synapsis. We have hypothesized that the stability of homolog pairing at PCs is monitored by this checkpoint. Here, we report that SC components SYP-3, HTP-3, HIM-3, and HTP-1 are required for a functional synapsis checkpoint. Mutation of these components does not abolish PC function, demonstrating they are bona fide checkpoint components. Further, we identify mutant backgrounds in which the instability of homolog pairing at PCs does not correlate with the synapsis checkpoint response. Altogether, these data suggest that, in addition to homolog pairing, SC assembly may be monitored by the synapsis checkpoint. PMID:27605049

  12. Hydra meiosis reveals unexpected conservation of structural synaptonemal complex proteins across metazoans

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    Fraune, Johanna; Alsheimer, Manfred; Volff, Jean-Nicolas; Busch, Karoline; Fraune, Sebastian; Bosch, Thomas C. G.; Benavente, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    The synaptonemal complex (SC) is a key structure of meiosis, mediating the stable pairing (synapsis) of homologous chromosomes during prophase I. Its remarkable tripartite structure is evolutionarily well conserved and can be found in almost all sexually reproducing organisms. However, comparison of the different SC protein components in the common meiosis model organisms Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Arabidopsis thaliana, Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, and Mus musculus revealed no sequence homology. This discrepancy challenged the hypothesis that the SC arose only once in evolution. To pursue this matter we focused on the evolution of SYCP1 and SYCP3, the two major structural SC proteins of mammals. Remarkably, our comparative bioinformatic and expression studies revealed that SYCP1 and SYCP3 are also components of the SC in the basal metazoan Hydra. In contrast to previous assumptions, we therefore conclude that SYCP1 and SYCP3 form monophyletic groups of orthologous proteins across metazoans. PMID:23012415

  13. The width of the lateral element of the synaptonemal complex is determined by a multilayered organization of its components

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    Ortiz, Rosario, E-mail: r_oh@ciencias.unam.mx [Laboratorio de Microscopía Electrónica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México DF 04510, México (Mexico); Kouznetsova, Anna, E-mail: Anna.Kouznetsova@ki.se [Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Karolinska Institutet, Berzelius väg 35, 171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Echeverría-Martínez, Olga M., E-mail: omem@ciencias.unam.mx [Laboratorio de Microscopía Electrónica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México DF 04510, México (Mexico); Vázquez-Nin, Gerardo H., E-mail: vazqueznin@ciencias.unam.mx [Laboratorio de Microscopía Electrónica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México DF 04510, México (Mexico); Hernández-Hernández, Abrahan, E-mail: abrahan.hernandez@ki.se [Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Karolinska Institutet, Berzelius väg 35, 171 77 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2016-05-15

    The synaptonemal complex (SC) is a proteinaceous structure that holds the homologous chromosomes in close proximity while they exchange genetic material in a process known as meiotic recombination. This meiotic recombination leads to genetic variability in sexually reproducing organisms. The ultrastructure of the SC is studied by electron microscopy and it is observed as a tripartite structure. Two lateral elements (LE) separated by a central region (CR) confer its classical tripartite organization. The LEs are the anchoring platform for the replicated homologous chromosomes to properly exchange genetic material with one another. An accurate assembly of the LE is indispensable for the proper completion of meiosis. Ultrastructural studies suggested that the LE is organized as a multilayered unit. However, no validation of this model has been previously provided. In this ultrastructural study, by using mice with different genetic backgrounds that affect the LE width, we provide further evidence that support a multilayered organization of the LE. Additionally, we provide data suggesting additional roles of the different cohesin complex components in the structure of the LEs of the SC. - Highlights: • The lateral element of the synaptonemal complex is a multilayered structure. • The width of the lateral element in synaptonemal complex-null mice is different. • Two cohesin complex cores plus one axial element form a wild-type lateral element. • The layers of the lateral element can be analyzed in different null mice models.

  14. HTP-1 coordinates synaptonemal complex assembly with homolog alignment during meiosis in C. elegans.

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    Couteau, Florence; Zetka, Monique

    2005-11-15

    During meiosis, the mechanisms responsible for homolog alignment, synapsis, and recombination are precisely coordinated to culminate in the formation of crossovers capable of directing accurate chromosome segregation. An outstanding question is how the cell ensures that the structural hallmark of meiosis, the synaptonemal complex (SC), forms only between aligned pairs of homologous chromosomes. In the present study, we find that two closely related members of the him-3 gene family in Caenorhabditis elegans function as regulators of synapsis. HTP-1 functionally couples homolog alignment to its stabilization by synapsis by preventing the association of SC components with unaligned and immature chromosome axes; in the absence of the protein, nonhomologous contacts between chromosomes are inappropriately stabilized, resulting in extensive nonhomologous synapsis and a drastic decline in chiasma formation. In the absence of both HTP-1 and HTP-2, synapsis is abrogated per se and the early association of SC components with chromosomes observed in htp-1 mutants does not occur, suggesting a function for the proteins in licensing SC assembly. Furthermore, our results suggest that early steps of recombination occur in a narrow window of opportunity in early prophase that ends with SC assembly, resulting in a mechanistic coupling of the two processes to promote crossing over.

  15. Sex-specific differences in the synaptonemal complex in the genus Oreochromis (Cichlidae).

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    Campos-Ramos, Rafael; Harvey, Simon C; Penman, David J

    2009-04-01

    Total synaptonemal complex (SC) lengths were estimated from Oreochromis aureus Steindachner (which has a WZ/ZZ sex determination system), O. mossambicus Peters and O. niloticus L. (both of which have XX/XY sex determination systems). The total SC length in oocytes was greater than that in spermatocytes in all three species (194 +/- 30 microm and 134 +/- 13 microm, 187 +/- 22 microm and 127 +/- 17 microm, 193 +/- 37 microm and 144 +/- 19 microm, respectively). These sex-specific differences did not appear to be influenced by the type of sex determination system (the female/male total SC length ratio was 1.45 in O. aureus, 1.47 in O. mossambicus and 1.34 in O. niloticus) and do not correlate with the lack of any overall sex-specific length differences in the current Oreochromis linkage map. Although based on data from relatively few species, there appears to be no consistent relationship between sex-specific SC lengths and linkage map lengths in fish. Neomale (hormonally masculinized genetic female) O. aureus and O. mossambicus had total SC lengths of 138 +/- 13 microm and 146 +/- 13 microm respectively, more similar to normal males than to normal females. These findings agree with data from other vertebrate species that suggest that phenotypic sex, rather than genotype, determines traits such as total SC length, chiasmata position and recombination pattern, at least for the autosomes.

  16. The synaptonemal complex of basal metazoan hydra: more similarities to vertebrate than invertebrate meiosis model organisms.

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    Fraune, Johanna; Wiesner, Miriam; Benavente, Ricardo

    2014-03-20

    The synaptonemal complex (SC) is an evolutionarily well-conserved structure that mediates chromosome synapsis during prophase of the first meiotic division. Although its structure is conserved, the characterized protein components in the current metazoan meiosis model systems (Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, and Mus musculus) show no sequence homology, challenging the question of a single evolutionary origin of the SC. However, our recent studies revealed the monophyletic origin of the mammalian SC protein components. Many of them being ancient in Metazoa and already present in the cnidarian Hydra. Remarkably, a comparison between different model systems disclosed a great similarity between the SC components of Hydra and mammals while the proteins of the ecdysozoan systems (D. melanogaster and C. elegans) differ significantly. In this review, we introduce the basal-branching metazoan species Hydra as a potential novel invertebrate model system for meiosis research and particularly for the investigation of SC evolution, function and assembly. Also, available methods for SC research in Hydra are summarized. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Meiotic recombination modulates the structure and dynamics of the synaptonemal complex during C. elegans meiosis.

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    Divya Pattabiraman

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available During meiotic prophase, a structure called the synaptonemal complex (SC assembles at the interface between aligned pairs of homologous chromosomes, and crossover recombination events occur between their DNA molecules. Here we investigate the inter-relationships between these two hallmark features of the meiotic program in the nematode C. elegans, revealing dynamic properties of the SC that are modulated by recombination. We demonstrate that the SC incorporates new subunits and switches from a more highly dynamic/labile state to a more stable state as germ cells progress through the pachytene stage of meiotic prophase. We further show that the more dynamic state of the SC is prolonged in mutants where meiotic recombination is impaired. Moreover, in meiotic mutants where recombination intermediates are present in limiting numbers, SC central region subunits become preferentially stabilized on the subset of chromosome pairs that harbor a site where pro-crossover factors COSA-1 and MutSγ are concentrated. Polo-like kinase PLK-2 becomes preferentially localized to the SCs of chromosome pairs harboring recombination sites prior to the enrichment of SC central region proteins on such chromosomes, and PLK-2 is required for this enrichment to occur. Further, late pachytene nuclei in a plk-2 mutant exhibit the more highly dynamic SC state. Together our data demonstrate that crossover recombination events elicit chromosome-autonomous stabilizing effects on the SC and implicate PLK-2 in this process. We discuss how this recombination-triggered modulation of SC state might contribute to regulatory mechanisms that operate during meiosis to ensure the formation of crossovers while at the same time limiting their numbers.

  18. Analysis of chromosome rearrangements on the basis of synaptonemal complexes in the offspring of mice exposed to γ-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalikinskaya, E.I.; Bogdanov, Yu.F.; Kolomiets, O.L.; Shevchenko, V.A.

    1986-01-01

    Electron-microscopic analysis of synaptonemic complexes (SC), spread on the hypophase surface, was conducted to investigate chromosome rearrangements in sterile and semisterile F 1 malemause offsprings, exposed to 5 Gy γ-rays Paralelly Chromosome rearrangement account in diakinesis-metaphase 1 was conducted using light microscope, in the same animals. During SC analysis in pachytene chromosome rearrangements were found in 63% of spermatocytes. Under chromosome analysis in diakinesis-metaphase 1 in the same animals chromosome rearrangements were found only in 32% of cells. SC analysis allows one to reveal chromosome rearrangements, which can not be revealed in diakinesis-metaphase 1

  19. Mutation of the mouse Syce1 gene disrupts synapsis and suggests a link between synaptonemal complex structural components and DNA repair.

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    Ewelina Bolcun-Filas

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available In mammals, the synaptonemal complex is a structure required to complete crossover recombination. Although suggested by cytological work, in vivo links between the structural proteins of the synaptonemal complex and the proteins of the recombination process have not previously been made. The central element of the synaptonemal complex is traversed by DNA at sites of recombination and presents a logical place to look for interactions between these components. There are four known central element proteins, three of which have previously been mutated. Here, we complete the set by creating a null mutation in the Syce1 gene in mouse. The resulting disruption of synapsis in these animals has allowed us to demonstrate a biochemical interaction between the structural protein SYCE2 and the repair protein RAD51. In normal meiosis, this interaction may be responsible for promoting homologous synapsis from sites of recombination.

  20. Holding it together: rapid evolution and positive selection in the synaptonemal complex of Drosophila.

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    Hemmer, Lucas W; Blumenstiel, Justin P

    2016-05-05

    The synaptonemal complex (SC) is a highly conserved meiotic structure that functions to pair homologs and facilitate meiotic recombination in most eukaryotes. Five Drosophila SC proteins have been identified and localized within the complex: C(3)G, C(2)M, CONA, ORD, and the newly identified Corolla. The SC is required for meiotic recombination in Drosophila and absence of these proteins leads to reduced crossing over and chromosomal nondisjunction. Despite the conserved nature of the SC and the key role that these five proteins have in meiosis in D. melanogaster, they display little apparent sequence conservation outside the genus. To identify factors that explain this lack of apparent conservation, we performed a molecular evolutionary analysis of these genes across the Drosophila genus. For the five SC components, gene sequence similarity declines rapidly with increasing phylogenetic distance and only ORD and C(2)M are identifiable outside of the Drosophila genus. SC gene sequences have a higher dN/dS (ω) rate ratio than the genome wide average and this can in part be explained by the action of positive selection in almost every SC component. Across the genus, there is significant variation in ω for each protein. It further appears that ω estimates for the five SC components are in accordance with their physical position within the SC. Components interacting with chromatin evolve slowest and components comprising the central elements evolve the most rapidly. Finally, using population genetic approaches, we demonstrate that positive selection on SC components is ongoing. SC components within Drosophila show little apparent sequence homology to those identified in other model organisms due to their rapid evolution. We propose that the Drosophila SC is evolving rapidly due to two combined effects. First, we propose that a high rate of evolution can be partly explained by low purifying selection on protein components whose function is to simply hold chromosomes

  1. Stage-specific damage to synaptonemal complexes and metaphase chromosomes induced by X rays in male mouse germ cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backer, L.C.; Sontag, M.R.; Allen, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    Synaptonemal complexes (SCs) reveal mutagen-induced effects in germ cell meiotic chromosomes. The study was aimed at characterizing relationships between SC and metaphase I chromosome damage following radiation exposure at various stages of spermatogenesis. Male mice were irradiated with doses of 0, 2, or 4 Gy, and spermatocytes were harvested at times consistent with earlier exposures as spermatogonial stem cells, preleptotene cells (premeiotic DNA synthesis), or meiotic prophase cells. After stem-cell exposure, twice as many rearrangements were observed in SCs as in metaphase I chromosomes. Irradiation during premeiotic DNA synthesis resulted in dose-related increases in SC breakage and rearrangements (including novel forms) and in metaphase chromosomal aberrations. Following prophase exposure, various types and levels of SC and metaphase damage were observed. Irradiation of zygotene cells led to high frequencies of chromosome multivalents in metaphase I without a correspondingly high level of damage in preceding prophase SCs. Thus, irradiation of premeiotic and meiotic cells results in variable relationships between SC and metaphase chromosome damage

  2. Disassembled DJ-1 high molecular weight complex in cortex mitochondria from Parkinson's disease patients

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    Adler Charles

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Correction to Nural H, He P, Beach T, Sue L, Xia W, Shen Y. Disassembled DJ-1 high molecular weight complex in cortex mitochondria from Parkinson's disease patients Molecular Neurodegeneration 2009, 4:23.

  3. [IMMUNOCYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF THE DISTURBANCES IN THE STRUCTURE OF SYNAPTONEMAL COMPLEXES IN SPERMATOCYTE NUCLEI IN MICE UNDER EXPOSURE TO ROCKET FUEL COMPONENT].

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    Lovinskaya, A V; Kolumbayeva, S Zh; Abilev, S K; Kolomiets, O L

    2016-01-01

    There was performed an assessment of genotoxic effects of rocket fuel component--unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH, heptyl)--on forming germ cells of male mice. Immunocytochemically there was studied the structure of meiotic nuclei at different times after the intraperitoneal administration of UDMH to male mice. There were revealed following types of disturbances of the structure of synaptonemal complexes (SCs) of meiotic chromosomes: single and multiple fragments of SCs associations of autosomes with a sex bivalent, atypical structure of the SCs with a frequency higher than the reference level. In addition, there were found the premature desinapsis of sex bivalents, the disorder offormation of the genital corpuscle and ring SCs. Established disorders in SCs of spermatocytes, analyzed at 38th day after the 10-days intoxication of animal by the component of rocket fuel, attest to the risk of permanent persistence of chromosomal abnormalities occurring in the pool of stem cells.

  4. A yeast two-hybrid screen for SYP-3 interactors identifies SYP-4, a component required for synaptonemal complex assembly and chiasma formation in Caenorhabditis elegans meiosis.

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    Sarit Smolikov

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The proper assembly of the synaptonemal complex (SC between homologs is critical to ensure accurate meiotic chromosome segregation. The SC is a meiotic tripartite structure present from yeast to humans, comprised of proteins assembled along the axes of the chromosomes and central region (CR proteins that bridge the two chromosome axes. Here we identify SYP-4 as a novel structural component of the SC in Caenorhabditis elegans. SYP-4 interacts in a yeast two-hybrid assay with SYP-3, one of components of the CR of the SC, and is localized at the interface between homologs during meiosis. SYP-4 is essential for the localization of SYP-1, SYP-2, and SYP-3 CR proteins onto chromosomes, thereby playing a crucial role in the stabilization of pairing interactions between homologous chromosomes. In the absence of SYP-4, the levels of recombination intermediates, as indicated by RAD-51 foci, are elevated in mid-prophase nuclei, and crossover recombination events are significantly reduced. The lack of chiasmata observed in syp-4 mutants supports the elevated levels of chromosome nondisjunction manifested in high embryonic lethality. Altogether our findings place SYP-4 as a central player in SC formation and broaden our understanding of the structure of the SC and its assembly.

  5. Human synaptonemal complex protein 1 (SCP1): Isolation and characterization of the cDNA and chromosomal localization of the gene

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    Meuwissen, R.L.J.; Meerts, I.; Heyting, C. [Agricultural Univ., Wageningen (Netherlands)] [and others

    1997-02-01

    Synaptonemal complexes (SCs) are structures that are formed between homologous chromosomes (homologs) during meiotic prophase. They consist of two proteinaceous axes, one along each homolog, that are connected along their length by numerous transverse filaments (TFs). The cDNA encoding one major component of TFs of SCs of the rat, rnSCP1, has recently been isolated and characterized. In this paper we describe the isolation and characterization of the cDNA encoding the human protein homologous to rnSCP1, hsSCP1. hsSCP1 and rnSCP1 have 75% amino acid identity. The most prominent structural features and amino acid sequence motifs of rnSCP1 have been conserved in hsSCP1. Most probably, hsSCP1 is functionally homologous to rnSCP1. The hsSCP1 gene was assigned to human chromosome 1p12-p13 by fluorescence in situ hybridization. 44 refs., 4 figs.

  6. DNA damage response clamp 9-1-1 promotes assembly of ZMM proteins for formation of crossovers and synaptonemal complex

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    Shinohara, Miki; Hayashihara, Kayoko; Grubb, Jennifer T.; Bishop, Douglas K.; Shinohara, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Formation of crossovers between homologous chromosomes during meiosis is positively regulated by the ZMM proteins (also known as SIC proteins). DNA damage checkpoint proteins also promote efficient formation of interhomolog crossovers. Here, we examined, in budding yeast, the meiotic role of the heterotrimeric DNA damage response clamp composed of Rad17, Ddc1 and Mec3 (known as ‘9-1-1’ in other organisms) and a component of the clamp loader, Rad24 (known as Rad17 in other organisms). Cytological analysis indicated that the 9-1-1 clamp and its loader are not required for the chromosomal loading of RecA homologs Rad51 or Dmc1, but are necessary for the efficient loading of ZMM proteins. Interestingly, the loading of ZMM proteins onto meiotic chromosomes was independent of the checkpoint kinase Mec1 (the homolog of ATR) as well as Rad51. Furthermore, the ZMM member Zip3 (also known as Cst9) bound to the 9-1-1 complex in a cell-free system. These data suggest that, in addition to promoting interhomolog bias mediated by Rad51–Dmc1, the 9-1-1 clamp promotes crossover formation through a specific role in the assembly of ZMM proteins. Thus, the 9-1-1 complex functions to promote two crucial meiotic recombination processes, the regulation of interhomolog recombination and crossover formation mediated by ZMM. PMID:25736290

  7. Assembly/disassembly of a complex icosahedral virus to incorporate heterologous nucleic acids

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    Pascual, Elena; Mata, Carlos P.; Carrascosa, José L.; Castón, José R.

    2017-12-01

    Hollow protein containers are widespread in nature, and include virus capsids as well as eukaryotic and bacterial complexes. Protein cages are studied extensively for applications in nanotechnology, nanomedicine and materials science. Their inner and outer surfaces can be modified chemically or genetically, and the internal cavity can be used to template, store and/or arrange molecular cargos. Virus capsids and virus-like particles (VLP, noninfectious particles) provide versatile platforms for nanoscale bioengineering. Study of capsid protein self-assembly into monodispersed particles, and of VLP structure and biophysics is necessary not only to understand natural processes, but also to infer how these platforms can be redesigned to furnish novel functional VLP. Here we address the assembly dynamics of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), a complex icosahedral virus. IBDV has a ~70 nm-diameter T  =  13 capsid with VP2 trimers as the only structural subunits. During capsid assembly, VP2 is synthesized as a precursor (pVP2) whose C terminus is cleaved. The pVP2 C terminus has an amphipathic helix that controls VP2 polymorphism. In the absence of the VP3 scaffolding protein, necessary for control of assembly, 466/456-residue pVP2 intermediates bearing this helix assemble into VLP only when expressed with an N-terminal His6 tag (the HT-VP2-466 protein). HT-VP2-466 capsids are optimal for genetic insertion of proteins (cargo space ~78 000 nm3). We established an in vitro assembly/disassembly system of HT-VP2-466-based VLP for heterologous nucleic acid packaging and/or encapsulation of drugs and other molecules. HT-VP2-466 (empty) capsids were disassembled and reassembled by dialysis against low-salt/basic pH and high-salt/acid pH buffers, respectively, thus illustrating the reversibility in vitro of IBDV capsid assembly. HT-VP2-466 VLP also packed heterologous DNA by non-specific confinement during assembly. These and previous results establish the bases

  8. Arp2/3 complex ATP hydrolysis promotes lamellipodial actin network disassembly but is dispensable for assembly

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    Ingerman, Elena; Hsiao, Jennifer Ying

    2013-01-01

    We examined the role of ATP hydrolysis by the Arp2/3 complex in building the leading edge of a cell by studying the effects of hydrolysis defects on the behavior of the complex in the lamellipodial actin network of Drosophila S2 cells and in a reconstituted, in vitro, actin-based motility system. In S2 cells, nonhydrolyzing Arp2 and Arp3 subunits expanded and delayed disassembly of lamellipodial actin networks and the effect of mutant subunits was additive. Arp2 and Arp3 ATP hydrolysis mutants remained in lamellipodial networks longer and traveled greater distances from the plasma membrane, even in networks still containing wild-type Arp2/3 complex. In vitro, wild-type and ATP hydrolysis mutant Arp2/3 complexes each nucleated actin and built similar dendritic networks. However, networks constructed with Arp2/3 hydrolysis-defective mutants were more resistant to disassembly by cofilin. Our results indicate that ATP hydrolysis on both Arp2 and Arp3 contributes to dissociation of the complex from the actin network but is not strictly necessary for lamellipodial network disassembly. PMID:23439681

  9. Dual functions of ribosome recycling factor in protein biosynthesis: disassembling the termination complex and preventing translational errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janosi, L; Ricker, R; Kaji, A

    1996-01-01

    We summarize in this communication the data supporting the two functions of ribosome recycling factor (RRF, originally called ribosome releasing factor). The first described role involves the disassembly of the termination complex which consists of mRNA, tRNA and the ribosome bound to the mRNA at the termination codon. This process is catalyzed by two factors, elongation factor G (EF-G) and RRF. RRF stimulated protein synthesis as much as eight-fold in the in vitro lysozyme synthesis system, when ribosomes were limiting. In the absence of RRF, ribosomes remain mRNA-bound at the termination codon and translate downstream codons. In the in vitro system, the site of reinitiation is the triplet codon 3' to the termination codon. RRF is an essential protein for bacterial life. Temperature sensitive (ts) RRF mutants were isolated and in vivo translational reinitiation due to inactivation of ts RRF was demonstrated using the beta-galactosidase reporter gene placed downstream from the termination codon. A second function of RRF involves preventing errors in translation. In polyphenylalanine synthesis programmed by polyuridylic acid, misincorporation of isoleucine, leucine or a mixture of amino acids was stimulated upto 17-fold when RRF was omitted from the in vitro system. RRF did not influence the large error (10-fold increase) induced by streptomycin. This means that RRF participates not only in the disassembly of the termination complex but also in peptide elongation. Extending this concept and its conventional role for releasing ribosomes from mRNA, involvement of RRF in the reinitiation in the 3A' system (a construct using S aureus protein A, a collaborative work with Dr Isaksson), in programmed frame shifting, in trans-translation with 10Sa RNA (collaborative work with Dr Muto), and in the reinitiation downstream from the ORF A of the IS 3 (insertion sequence of a transposon, collaborative work with Dr Sekine) are discussed on the basis of preliminary data to be

  10. Heat-induced disassembly and degradation of chlorophyll-containing protein complexes in vivo. A study with linearly heated barley leaves

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lípová, L.; Krchňák, P.; Komenda, Josef; Ilík, P.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 1797, č. 1 (2010), s. 63-70 ISSN 0005-2728 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Chlorophyll-containing protein complex * Chlorophyll fluorescence temperature curve * Disassembly Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 5.132, year: 2010

  11. RNA binding to APOBEC3G induces the disassembly of functional deaminase complexes by displacing single-stranded DNA substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polevoda, Bogdan; McDougall, William M.; Tun, Bradley N.; Cheung, Michael; Salter, Jason D.; Friedman, Alan E.; Smith, Harold C.

    2015-01-01

    APOBEC3G (A3G) DNA deaminase activity requires a holoenzyme complex whose assembly on nascent viral reverse transcripts initiates with A3G dimers binding to ssDNA followed by formation of higher-order A3G homo oligomers. Catalytic activity is inhibited when A3G binds to RNA. Our prior studies suggested that RNA inhibited A3G binding to ssDNA. In this report, near equilibrium binding and gel shift analyses showed that A3G assembly and disassembly on ssDNA was an ordered process involving A3G dimers and multimers thereof. Although, fluorescence anisotropy showed that A3G had similar nanomolar affinity for RNA and ssDNA, RNA stochastically dissociated A3G dimers and higher-order oligomers from ssDNA, suggesting a different modality for RNA binding. Mass spectrometry mapping of A3G peptides cross-linked to nucleic acid suggested ssDNA only bound to three peptides, amino acids (aa) 181–194 in the N-terminus and aa 314–320 and 345–374 in the C-terminus that were part of a continuous exposed surface. RNA bound to these peptides and uniquely associated with three additional peptides in the N- terminus, aa 15–29, 41–52 and 83–99, that formed a continuous surface area adjacent to the ssDNA binding surface. The data predict a mechanistic model of RNA inhibition of ssDNA binding to A3G in which competitive and allosteric interactions determine RNA-bound versus ssDNA-bound conformational states. PMID:26424853

  12. Modeling operational behavior of a disassembly line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizilkaya, Elif A.; Gupta, Surendra M.

    2004-12-01

    In this paper we present a dynamic kanban (pull) system specifically developed for disassembly lines. This type of kanban system is much more complex than the traditional kanban system used in assembly lines. For instance, unlike the assembly line where the external demand occurs only at the last station, the demands in the disassembly case also occur at any of the intermittent stations. The reason is that as a product moves on the disassembly line, various parts are disassembled at every station and accumulated at that station. Therefore, there are as many demand sources as there are number of parts. We consider a case example involving the end-of-life products. Based on the precedence relationships and other criteria such as hazardous properties of the parts, we balance the disassembly line. The results of the disassembly line-balancing problem (DLBP) are used as input to the proposed dynamic kanban system for disassembly line (DKSDL). We compare the performance of the DKSDL to the modified kanban system for disassembly line (MKSDL), which was previously introduced by the authors. We show, via simulation, that the DKSDL is far superior to MKSDL considered.

  13. AGC-2 Disassembly Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William Windes

    2014-05-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Graphite Research and Development (R&D) Program is currently measuring irradiated material properties for predicting the behavior and operating performance of new nuclear graphite grades available for use within the cores of new very high temperature reactor designs. The Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) experiment, consisting of six irradiation capsules, will generate irradiated graphite performance data for NGNP reactor operating conditions. The AGC experiment is designed to determine the changes to specific material properties such as thermal diffusivity, thermal expansion, elastic modulus, mechanical strength, irradiation induced dimensional change rate, and irradiation creep for a wide variety of nuclear grade graphite types over a range of high temperature, and moderate doses. A series of six capsules containing graphite test specimens will be used to expose graphite test samples to a dose range from 1 to 7 dpa at three different temperatures (600, 900, and 1200°C) as described in the Graphite Technology Development Plan. Since irradiation induced creep within graphite components is considered critical to determining the operational life of the graphite core, some of the samples will also be exposed to an applied load to determine the creep rate for each graphite type under both temperature and neutron flux. All six AGC capsules in the experiment will be irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). AGC-1 and AGC-2 will be irradiated in the south flux trap and AGC-3–AGC-6 will be irradiated in the east flux trap. The change in flux traps is due to NGNP irradiation priorities requiring the AGC experiment to be moved to accommodate Fuel irradiation experiments. After irradiation, all six AGC capsules will be cooled in the ATR Canal, sized for shipment, and shipped to the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) where the capsule will be disassembled in the Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF). During disassembly, the metallic

  14. Retention of habitat complexity minimizes disassembly of reef fish communities following disturbance: a large-scale natural experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Emslie

    Full Text Available High biodiversity ecosystems are commonly associated with complex habitats. Coral reefs are highly diverse ecosystems, but are under increasing pressure from numerous stressors, many of which reduce live coral cover and habitat complexity with concomitant effects on other organisms such as reef fishes. While previous studies have highlighted the importance of habitat complexity in structuring reef fish communities, they employed gradient or meta-analyses which lacked a controlled experimental design over broad spatial scales to explicitly separate the influence of live coral cover from overall habitat complexity. Here a natural experiment using a long term (20 year, spatially extensive (∼ 115,000 kms(2 dataset from the Great Barrier Reef revealed the fundamental importance of overall habitat complexity for reef fishes. Reductions of both live coral cover and habitat complexity had substantial impacts on fish communities compared to relatively minor impacts after major reductions in coral cover but not habitat complexity. Where habitat complexity was substantially reduced, species abundances broadly declined and a far greater number of fish species were locally extirpated, including economically important fishes. This resulted in decreased species richness and a loss of diversity within functional groups. Our results suggest that the retention of habitat complexity following disturbances can ameliorate the impacts of coral declines on reef fishes, so preserving their capacity to perform important functional roles essential to reef resilience. These results add to a growing body of evidence about the importance of habitat complexity for reef fishes, and represent the first large-scale examination of this question on the Great Barrier Reef.

  15. Retention of habitat complexity minimizes disassembly of reef fish communities following disturbance: a large-scale natural experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emslie, Michael J; Cheal, Alistair J; Johns, Kerryn A

    2014-01-01

    High biodiversity ecosystems are commonly associated with complex habitats. Coral reefs are highly diverse ecosystems, but are under increasing pressure from numerous stressors, many of which reduce live coral cover and habitat complexity with concomitant effects on other organisms such as reef fishes. While previous studies have highlighted the importance of habitat complexity in structuring reef fish communities, they employed gradient or meta-analyses which lacked a controlled experimental design over broad spatial scales to explicitly separate the influence of live coral cover from overall habitat complexity. Here a natural experiment using a long term (20 year), spatially extensive (∼ 115,000 kms(2)) dataset from the Great Barrier Reef revealed the fundamental importance of overall habitat complexity for reef fishes. Reductions of both live coral cover and habitat complexity had substantial impacts on fish communities compared to relatively minor impacts after major reductions in coral cover but not habitat complexity. Where habitat complexity was substantially reduced, species abundances broadly declined and a far greater number of fish species were locally extirpated, including economically important fishes. This resulted in decreased species richness and a loss of diversity within functional groups. Our results suggest that the retention of habitat complexity following disturbances can ameliorate the impacts of coral declines on reef fishes, so preserving their capacity to perform important functional roles essential to reef resilience. These results add to a growing body of evidence about the importance of habitat complexity for reef fishes, and represent the first large-scale examination of this question on the Great Barrier Reef.

  16. Illustrating the disassembly of 3D models

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Jianwei

    2013-06-11

    We present a framework for the automatic disassembly of 3D man-made models and the illustration of the disassembly process. Given an assembled 3D model, we first analyze the individual parts using sharp edge loops and extract the contact faces between each pair of neighboring parts. The contact faces are then used to compute the possible moving directions of each part. We then present a simple algorithm for clustering the sets of the individual parts into meaningful sub-assemblies, which can be used for a hierarchical decomposition. We take the stability of sub-assemblies into account during the decomposition process by considering the upright orientation of the input models. Our framework also provides a user-friendly interface to enable the superimposition of the constraints for the decomposition. Finally, we visualize the disassembly process by generating an animated sequence. The experiments demonstrate that our framework works well for a variety of complex models. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  17. The evolutionary history of the mammalian synaptonemal complex

    OpenAIRE

    Fraune, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    Der Synaptonemalkomplex (SC) ist eine hochkonservierte Proteinstruktur. Er weist eine dreiteili-ge, leiterähnliche Organisation auf und ist für die stabile Paarung der homologen Chromosomen während der Prophase der ersten meiotischen Teilung verantwortlich, die auch als Synpase be-zeichnet wird. Fehler während der Synpase führen zu Aneuploidie oder Apoptose der sich entwi-ckelnden Keimzellen. Seit 1956 ist der SC Gegenstand intensiver Forschung. Seine Existenz wurde in zahlreichen Orga-nis...

  18. Disassembling iron availability to phytoplankton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeala eShaked

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The bioavailability of iron to microorganisms and its underlying mechanisms have far reaching repercussions to many natural systems and diverse fields of research, including ocean biogeochemistry, carbon cycling and climate, harmful algal blooms, soil and plant research, bioremediation, pathogenesis and medicine. Within the framework of ocean sciences, short supply and restricted bioavailability of Fe to phytoplankton is thought to limit primary production and curtail atmospheric CO2 drawdown in vast ocean regions. Yet a clear-cut definition of bioavailability remains elusive, with elements of iron speciation and kinetics, phytoplankton physiology, light, temperature and microbial interactions, to name a few, all intricately intertwined into this concept. Here, in a synthesis of published and new data, we attempt to disassemble the complex concept of iron bioavailability to phytoplankton by individually exploring some of its facets. We distinguish between the fundamentals of bioavailability - the acquisition of Fe-substrate by phytoplankton - and added levels of complexity involving interactions among organisms, iron and ecosystem processes. We first examine how phytoplankton acquire free and organically-bound iron, drawing attention to the pervasiveness of the reductive uptake pathway in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Turning to acquisition rates, we propose to view the availability of various Fe-substrates to phytoplankton as spectrum rather than an absolute all or nothing. We then demonstrate the use of uptake rate constants to make comparisons across different studies, organisms, Fe compounds and environments, and for gauging the contribution of various Fe substrates to phytoplankton growth in situ. Last, we describe the influence of aquatic microorganisms on iron chemistry and fate by way of organic complexation and bio-mediated redox transformations and examine the bioavailability of these bio-modified Fe species.

  19. A symbolic methodology to improve disassembly process design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Pedro; Blyler, Leslie; Tieman, Lisa; Stuart, Julie Ann; Grant, Ed

    2003-12-01

    Millions of end-of-life electronic components are retired annually due to the proliferation of new models and their rapid obsolescence. The recovery of resources such as plastics from these goods requires their disassembly. The time required for each disassembly and its associated cost is defined by the operator's familiarity with the product design and its complexity. Since model proliferation serves to complicate an operator's learning curve, it is worthwhile to investigate the benefits to be gained in a disassembly operator's preplanning process. Effective disassembly process design demands the application of green engineering principles, such as those developed by Anastas and Zimmerman (Environ. Sci. Technol. 2003, 37, 94A-101A), which include regard for product complexity, structural commonality, separation energy, material value, and waste prevention. This paper introduces the concept of design symbolsto help the operator more efficiently survey product complexity with respect to location and number of fasteners to remove a structure that is common to all electronics: the housing. With a sample of 71 different computers, printers, and monitors, we demonstrate that appropriate symbols reduce the total disassembly planning time by 13.2 min. Such an improvement could well make efficient the separation of plastic that would otherwise be destined for waste-to-energy or landfill. The symbolic methodology presented may also improve Design for Recycling and Design for Maintenance and Support.

  20. Simulation-based disassembly systems design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlendorf, Martin; Herrmann, Christoph; Hesselbach, Juergen

    2004-02-01

    Recycling of Waste of Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) is a matter of actual concern, driven by economic, ecological and legislative reasons. Here, disassembly as the first step of the treatment process plays a key role. To achieve sustainable progress in WEEE disassembly, the key is not to limit analysis and planning to merely disassembly processes in a narrow sense, but to consider entire disassembly plants including additional aspects such as internal logistics, storage, sorting etc. as well. In this regard, the paper presents ways of designing, dimensioning, structuring and modeling different disassembly systems. Goal is to achieve efficient and economic disassembly systems that allow recycling processes complying with legal requirements. Moreover, advantages of applying simulation software tools that are widespread and successfully utilized in conventional industry sectors are addressed. They support systematic disassembly planning by means of simulation experiments including consecutive efficiency evaluation. Consequently, anticipatory recycling planning considering various scenarios is enabled and decisions about which types of disassembly systems evidence appropriateness for specific circumstances such as product spectrum, throughput, disassembly depth etc. is supported. Furthermore, integration of simulation based disassembly planning in a holistic concept with configuration of interfaces and data utilization including cost aspects is described.

  1. Disassembly and Sanitization of Classified Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockham, Dwight J.; Saad, Max P.

    2008-01-01

    The Disassembly Sanitization Operation (DSO) process was implemented to support weapon disassembly and disposition by using recycling and waste minimization measures. This process was initiated by treaty agreements and reconfigurations within both the DOD and DOE Complexes. The DOE is faced with disassembling and disposing of a huge inventory of retired weapons, components, training equipment, spare parts, weapon maintenance equipment, and associated material. In addition, regulations have caused a dramatic increase in the need for information required to support the handling and disposition of these parts and materials. In the past, huge inventories of classified weapon components were required to have long-term storage at Sandia and at many other locations throughout the DoE Complex. These materials are placed in onsite storage unit due to classification issues and they may also contain radiological and/or hazardous components. Since no disposal options exist for this material, the only choice was long-term storage. Long-term storage is costly and somewhat problematic, requiring a secured storage area, monitoring, auditing, and presenting the potential for loss or theft of the material. Overall recycling rates for materials sent through the DSO process have enabled 70 to 80% of these components to be recycled. These components are made of high quality materials and once this material has been sanitized, the demand for the component metals for recycling efforts is very high. The DSO process for NGPF, classified components established the credibility of this technique for addressing the long-term storage requirements of the classified weapons component inventory. The success of this application has generated interest from other Sandia organizations and other locations throughout the complex. Other organizations are requesting the help of the DSO team and the DSO is responding to these requests by expanding its scope to include Work-for- Other projects. For example

  2. An Entropy-Based Adaptive Hybrid Particle Swarm Optimization for Disassembly Line Balancing Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanli Xiao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the product disassembly efficiency, the disassembly line balancing problem (DLBP is transformed into a problem of searching for the optimum path in the directed and weighted graph by constructing the disassembly hierarchy information graph (DHIG. Then, combining the characteristic of the disassembly sequence, an entropy-based adaptive hybrid particle swarm optimization algorithm (AHPSO is presented. In this algorithm, entropy is introduced to measure the changing tendency of population diversity, and the dimension learning, crossover and mutation operator are used to increase the probability of producing feasible disassembly solutions (FDS. Performance of the proposed methodology is tested on the primary problem instances available in the literature, and the results are compared with other evolutionary algorithms. The results show that the proposed algorithm is efficient to solve the complex DLBP.

  3. A methodological approach for designing and sequencing product families in Reconfigurable Disassembly Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Eguia

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: A Reconfigurable Disassembly System (RDS represents a new paradigm of automated disassembly system that uses reconfigurable manufacturing technology for fast adaptation to changes in the quantity and mix of products to disassemble. This paper deals with a methodology for designing and sequencing product families in RDS. Design/methodology/approach: The methodology is developed in a two-phase approach, where products are first grouped into families and then families are sequenced through the RDS, computing the required machines and modules configuration for each family. Products are grouped into families based on their common features using a Hierarchical Clustering Algorithm. The optimal sequence of the product families is calculated using a Mixed-Integer Linear Programming model minimizing reconfigurability and operational costs. Findings: This paper is focused to enable reconfigurable manufacturing technologies to attain some degree of adaptability during disassembly automation design using modular machine tools. Research limitations/implications: The MILP model proposed for the second phase is similar to the well-known Travelling Salesman Problem (TSP and therefore its complexity grows exponentially with the number of products to disassemble. In real-world problems, which a higher number of products, it may be advisable to solve the model approximately with heuristics. Practical implications: The importance of industrial recycling and remanufacturing is growing due to increasing environmental and economic pressures. Disassembly is an important part of remanufacturing systems for reuse and recycling purposes. Automatic disassembly techniques have a growing number of applications in the area of electronics, aerospace, construction and industrial equipment. In this paper, a design and scheduling approach is proposed to apply in this area. Originality/value: This paper presents a new concept called Reconfigurable Disassembly System

  4. Disassembly automation automated systems with cognitive abilities

    CERN Document Server

    Vongbunyong, Supachai

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a number of aspects to be considered in the development of disassembly automation, including the mechanical system, vision system and intelligent planner. The implementation of cognitive robotics increases the flexibility and degree of autonomy of the disassembly system. Disassembly, as a step in the treatment of end-of-life products, can allow the recovery of embodied value left within disposed products, as well as the appropriate separation of potentially-hazardous components. In the end-of-life treatment industry, disassembly has largely been limited to manual labor, which is expensive in developed countries. Automation is one possible solution for economic feasibility. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and experts in the field, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  5. The effect of sudden server breakdown on the performance of a disassembly line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udomsawat, Gun; Gupta, Surendra M.

    2005-11-01

    Product and material recovery relies on the disassembly process to separate target components or materials from the end-of-life (EOL) products. Disassembly line is especially effective when products in large quantity are disassembled. Unlike an assembly line, a disassembly line is more complex and is subjected to numerous uncertainties including stochastic and multi-level arrivals of component demands, stochastic arrival times for EOL products, and process interruption due to equipment failure. These factors seriously impair the control mechanism in the disassembly line. A common production control mechanism is the traditional push system (TPS). TPS responds to the aforementioned complications by carrying substantial amounts of inventories. An alternative control mechanism is a newly developed multi-kanban pull system (MKS) that relies on dynamic routing of kanbans, which tends to minimize the system's inventories while maintaining demand serviceability. In this paper we explore the impact of sudden breakdown of server on the performance of a disassembly line. We compare the overall performances of the TPS and MKS by considering two scenarios. We present the solution procedure and results for these cases.

  6. Nuclear fuel bundle disassembly and assembly tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yates, J.; Long, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    A nuclear power reactor fuel bundle is described which has a plurality of tubular fuel rods disposed in parallel array between two transverse tie plates. It is secured against disassembly by one or more locking forks which engage slots in tie rods which position the transverse plates. Springs mounted on the fuel and tie rods are compressed when the bundle is assembled thereby maintaining a continual pressure against the locking forks. Force applied in opposition to the springs permits withdrawal of the locking forks so that one tie plate may be removed, giving access to the fuel rods. An assembly and disassembly tool facilitates removal of the locking forks when the bundle is to be disassembled and the placing of the forks during assembly of the bundle. (U.S.)

  7. D-Amino Acids Trigger Biofilm Disassembly

    OpenAIRE

    Kolodkin-Gal, Illana; Romero, Diego; Cao, Shugeng; Clardy, Jon; Kolter, Roberto; Losick, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Bacteria form communities known as biofilms, which disassemble over time. Here we found that prior to biofilm disassembly Bacillus subtilis produced a factor that prevented biofilm formation and could break down existing biofilms. The factor was shown to be a mixture of D-leucine, D-methionine, D-tyrosine and D-tryptophan that could act at nanomolar concentrations. D-amino acid treatment caused the release of amyloid fibers that linked cells in the biofilm together. Mutants able to form biofi...

  8. Multi-kanban mechanism for appliance disassembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udomsawat, Gun; Gupta, Surendra M.

    2005-11-01

    The use of household appliances continues to rise every year. A significant number of End-Of-Life (EOL) appliances are generated because of the introduction of newer models that are more attractive, efficient and affordable. Others are, of course, generated when they become non-functional. Many regulations encourage recycling of EOL appliances to reduce the amount of waste sent to landfills. In addition, EOL appliances offer the appliance manufacturing and remanufacturing industries a source of less expensive raw materials and components. For this reason product recovery has become a subject of interest during the past decade. In this paper, we study the disassembly line for appliance disassembly. We discuss and incorporate some of the complications that are inherent in disassembly line including product arrival, demand arrival, inventory fluctuation and production control mechanisms. We show how to overcome such complications by implementing a multi-kanban system in the appliance disassembly line setting. The multi-kanban system (MKS) relies on dynamic routing of kanbans according to the state of the system. We investigate the multi-kanban mechanism using simulation and explore the effect of product mix on performance of the traditional push system (TPS) and MKS in terms of controlling the system's inventory while attempting to achieve a decent customer service level.

  9. Phosphorylation of Nup98 by multiple kinases is crucial for NPC disassembly during mitotic entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurell, Eva; Beck, Katja; Krupina, Ksenia; Theerthagiri, Gandhi; Bodenmiller, Bernd; Horvath, Peter; Aebersold, Ruedi; Antonin, Wolfram; Kutay, Ulrike

    2011-02-18

    Disassembly of nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) is a decisive event during mitotic entry in cells undergoing open mitosis, yet the molecular mechanisms underlying NPC disassembly are unknown. Using chemical inhibition and depletion experiments we show that NPC disassembly is a phosphorylation-driven process, dependent on CDK1 activity and supported by members of the NIMA-related kinase (Nek) family. We identify phosphorylation of the GLFG-repeat nucleoporin Nup98 as an important step in mitotic NPC disassembly. Mitotic hyperphosphorylation of Nup98 is accomplished by multiple kinases, including CDK1 and Neks. Nuclei carrying a phosphodeficient mutant of Nup98 undergo nuclear envelope breakdown slowly, such that both the dissociation of Nup98 from NPCs and the permeabilization of the nuclear envelope are delayed. Together, our data provide evidence for a phosphorylation-dependent mechanism underlying disintegration of NPCs during prophase. Moreover, we identify mitotic phosphorylation of Nup98 as a rate-limiting step in mitotic NPC disassembly. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Research on automated disassembly technology for waste LCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Qin; Zhu, Dongdong; Wang, Jingwei; Dou, Jianfang; Wang, Sujuan; Tu, Zimei

    2017-11-01

    In the field of Waste LCD disassembling and recycling, there are existing two major problems: 1) disassembling waste LCD mainly depends on manually mechanical crushing; 2) the resource level is not high. In order to deal with the above problems, in this paper, we develop an efficient, safe and automated waste LCD disassembling assembly line technology. This technology can disassembly and classify mainstream LCD into four components, which are liquid crystal display panels, housings and metal shield, PCB assembly. It can also disassembly many kinds of waste LCD. Compared with the traditional cooperation of manual labor and electric tools method, our proposed technology can significantly improve disassembling efficiency and demonstrate good prospects and promotional value.

  11. Multikanban model for disassembly line with demand fluctuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udomsawat, Gun; Gupta, Surendra M.; Al-Turki, Yousef A. Y.

    2004-02-01

    In recent years, the continuous growth in consumer waste and dwindling natural resources has seriously threatened the environment. Realizing this, several countries have passed regulations that force manufacturers not only to manufacture environmentally conscious products, but also to take back their used products from consumers so that the components and materials recovered from the products may be reused and/or recycled. Disassembly plays an important role in product recovery. A disassembly line is perhaps the most suitable setting for disassembly of products in large quantities. Because a disassembly line has a tendency to generate excessive inventory, employing a kanban system can reduce the inventory level and let the system run more efficiently. A disassembly line is quite different from an assembly line. For example, not only can the demand arrive at the last station, it can also arrive at any of the other stations in the system. The demand for a component on the disassembly line could fluctuate widely. In fact, there are many other complicating matters that need to be considered to implement the concept of kanbans in such an environment. In this paper, we discuss the complications that are unique to a disassembly line. We discuss the complications in utilizing the conventional production control mechanisms in a disassembly line setting. We then show how to overcome them by implementing kanbans in a disassembly line setting with demand fluctuation and introduce the concept of multi-kanban mechanism. We demonstrate its effectiveness using a simulation model. An example is presented to illustrate the concept.

  12. Impact of different disassembly line balancing algorithms on the performance of dynamic kanban system for disassembly line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizilkaya, Elif A.; Gupta, Surendra M.

    2005-11-01

    In this paper, we compare the impact of different disassembly line balancing (DLB) algorithms on the performance of our recently introduced Dynamic Kanban System for Disassembly Line (DKSDL) to accommodate the vagaries of uncertainties associated with disassembly and remanufacturing processing. We consider a case study to illustrate the impact of various DLB algorithms on the DKSDL. The approach to the solution, scenario settings, results and the discussions of the results are included.

  13. Asymmetric disassembly and robustness in declining networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Serguei; Reed-Tsochas, Felix; Uzzi, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Mechanisms that enable declining networks to avert structural collapse and performance degradation are not well understood. This knowledge gap reflects a shortage of data on declining networks and an emphasis on models of network growth. Analyzing >700,000 transactions between firms in the New York garment industry over 19 years, we tracked this network's decline and measured how its topology and global performance evolved. We find that favoring asymmetric (disassortative) links is key to preserving the topology and functionality of the declining network. Based on our findings, we tested a model of network decline that combines an asymmetric disassembly process for contraction with a preferential attachment process for regrowth. Our simulation results indicate that the model can explain robustness under decline even if the total population of nodes contracts by more than an order of magnitude, in line with our observations for the empirical network. These findings suggest that disassembly mechanisms are not simply assembly mechanisms in reverse and that our model is relevant to understanding the process of decline and collapse in a broad range of biological, technological, and financial networks. PMID:18936489

  14. Hot dense nuclear matter and its disassembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samaddar, S.K.; Pal, Subrata; De, J.N.

    1996-01-01

    Transient hot and compressed nuclear matter created in energetic nuclear collisions responds to the perturbation through a sudden expansion and subsequent emission of a large number of light particles as well as intermediate mass fragments (IMFs). These particles carry the imprint of the thermal energy as well as the collective flow energy of the disassembling system. The effect of radial collective flow on the element distribution in prompt nuclear multifragmentation is studied in a quantum statistical model. The production of very light particles is seen to increase with flow energy at all temperatures. The yield of IMFs is enhanced only at relatively low temperatures and suppressed at high temperatures. The IMF-IMF correlation functions have also been studied and it is seen that the peak-structure of the functions are washed out with increasing flow energy. (author). 18 refs., 5 figs

  15. Disassembling and modification of RA-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarizzo, R.D.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe the partial disassembling and modification of RA-3, called the Modernization Project. It comprises all the technical and administrative steps directly related with this task. The improvement of RA-3 is a result of the lack of 90% enriched uranium obliging a change over to 20% enriched uranium. This brought about design modifications both in fuel elements and the reactor. The presentation of documents for the licensing authority as well as are detailed separately. The modernization project was divided in 25 tasks: 1) changing fuel element support table, 2) changing heat exchanger, 3) repairing of cooling towers, 4) repairing of primary circuit valves, 5) repairing of irradiation channels, 6) construction of a new sampler, 7) changing tangential channel, 8) cleaning and disassembling of reactor (inside), 9) changing continuous demineralizer (ion exchange column), 10) detection of failure in fuel elements, 11) modification of nuclear instrumentation, 12) modification of conventional instrumentation, 13) modification of electrical system, 14) changing telemanipulators, 15) construction of mechanism bridge, 16) changing a primary circuit valve when the heat exchanger is changed too, 17) painting ground floor, hall floor, and pump room floor with epoxy resin levelling, 18) installation of fire alarm system, 19) radioactive liquid discharge, 20) modification of secondary circuit (This task involves: a) installation of a third secondary pump, b) extension of this piping, c) installation of two 12 inch valves to the present cooling towers pools independent, d) installation of filtering system), 21) optimization hot water bed, 22) changing detector support table, 23) removal, decontamination and reinstallation of shielding, 25) changing pneumatic system

  16. Systems impacts of spent fuel disassembly alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-07-01

    Three studies were completed to evaluate four alternatives to the disposal of intact spent fuel assemblies in a geologic repository. A preferred spent fuel waste form for disposal was recommended on consideration of (1) package design and fuel/package interaction, (2) long-term, in-repository performance of the waste form, and (3) overall process performance and costs for packaging, handling, and emplacement. The four basic alternative waste forms considered were (1) end fitting removal, (2) fission gas venting, (3) disassembly and close packing, and (4) shearing/immobilization. None of the findings ruled out any alternative on the basis of waste package considerations or long-term performance of the waste form. The third alternative offers flexibility in loading that may prove attractive in the various geologic media under consideration, greatly reduces the number of packages, and has the lowest unit cost. These studies were completed in October, 1981. Since then Westinghouse Electric Corporation and the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation have completed studies in related fields. This report is now being published to provide publicly the background material that is contained within. 47 references, 28 figures, 31 tables

  17. Cleaning, disassembly, and requalification of the FFTF in vessel handling machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coops, W.J.

    1977-10-01

    The Engineering Model In Vessel Handling Machine (IVHM) was successfully removed, cleaned, disassembled, inspected, reassembled and reinstalled into the sodium test vessel at Richland, Washington. This was the first time in the United States a full size operational sodium wetted machine has been cleaned by the water vapor nitrogen process and requalified for operation. The work utilized an atmospheric control system during removal, a tank type water vapor nitrogen cleaning system and an open ''hands on'' disassembly and assembly stand. Results of the work indicate the tools, process and equipment are adequate for the non-radioactive maintenance sequence. Additionally, the work proves that a machine of this complexity can be successfully cleaned, maintained and re-used without the need to replace a large percentage of the sodium wetted parts

  18. AGR-1 Irradiated Test Train Preliminary Inspection and Disassembly First Look

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Demkowicz; Lance Cole; Scott Ploger; Philip Winston; Binh Pham; Michael Abbott

    2011-01-01

    The AGR-1 irradiation experiment ended on November 6, 2009, after 620 effective full power days in the Advanced Test Reactor, achieving a peak burnup of 19.6% FIMA. The test train was shipped to the Materials and Fuels Complex in March 2010 for post-irradiation examination. The first PIE activities included non-destructive examination of the test train, followed by disassembly of the test train and individual capsules and detailed inspection of the capsule contents, including the fuel compacts and the graphite fuel holders. Dimensional measurements of the compacts, graphite holders, and steel capsules shells were performed using a custom vision measurement system (for outer diameters and lengths) and conventional bore gauges (for inner diameters). Gamma spectrometry of the intact test train gave a preliminary look at the condition of the interior components. No evidence of damage to compacts or graphite components was evident from the isotopic and gross gamma scans. Neutron radiography of the intact Capsule 2 showed a high degree of detail of interior components and confirmed the observation that there was no major damage to the capsule. Disassembly of the capsules was initiated using procedures qualified during out-of-cell mockup testing. Difficulties were encountered during capsule disassembly due to irradiation-induced changes in some of the capsule components’ properties, including embrittled niobium and molybdenum parts that were susceptible to fracture and swelling of the graphite fuel holders that affected their removal from the capsule shells. This required various improvised modifications to the disassembly procedure to avoid damage to the fuel compacts. Ultimately the capsule disassembly was successful and only one compact from Capsule 4 (out of 72 total in the test train) sustained damage during the disassembly process, along with the associated graphite holder. The compacts were generally in very good condition upon removal. Only relatively minor

  19. Artificial biofilms establish the role of matrix interactions in staphylococcal biofilm assembly and disassembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Elizabeth J.; Ganesan, Mahesh; Younger, John G.; Solomon, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that the microstructural and mechanical properties of bacterial biofilms can be created through colloidal self-assembly of cells and polymers, and thereby link the complex material properties of biofilms to well understood colloidal and polymeric behaviors. This finding is applied to soften and disassemble staphylococcal biofilms through pH changes. Bacterial biofilms are viscoelastic, structured communities of cells encapsulated in an extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) comprised of polysaccharides, proteins, and DNA. Although the identity and abundance of EPS macromolecules are known, how these matrix materials interact with themselves and bacterial cells to generate biofilm morphology and mechanics is not understood. Here, we find that the colloidal self-assembly of Staphylococcus epidermidis RP62A cells and polysaccharides into viscoelastic biofilms is driven by thermodynamic phase instability of EPS. pH conditions that induce phase instability of chitosan produce artificial S. epidermidis biofilms whose mechanics match natural S. epidermidis biofilms. Furthermore, pH-induced solubilization of the matrix triggers disassembly in both artificial and natural S. epidermidis biofilms. This pH-induced disassembly occurs in biofilms formed by five additional staphylococcal strains, including three clinical isolates. Our findings suggest that colloidal self-assembly of cells and matrix polymers produces biofilm viscoelasticity and that biofilm control strategies can exploit this mechanism. PMID:26272750

  20. Design-only conceptual design report for pit disassembly and conversion facility. Rev 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zygmunt, S.; Christensen, L.; Richardson, C.

    1997-12-12

    This design-only conceptual design report (DOCDR) was prepared to support a funding request by the Department of Energy (DOE)-Office of Fissile Material Disposition (OFMD) for engineering design of the Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility (PDCF) Project No. 99-D-141. The PDCF will be used to disassemble the nation`s inventory of surplus nuclear weapons pits and convert the plutonium recovered from those pits into a form suitable for storage, international inspection, and final disposition. The PDCF is a complex consisting of a hardened building that will contain the plutonium processes in a safe and secure manner, and conventional buildings and structures that will house support personnel, systems, and equipment. The PDCF uses the Advanced Recovery and Integrated Extraction System (ARIES), a low waste, modular pyroprocessing system to convert pits to plutonium oxide. The PDCF project consists of engineering and design, and construction of the buildings and structures, and engineering and design, procurement, installation, testing and start-up of equipment to disassemble pits and convert plutonium in pits to oxide form. The facility is planned to operate for 10 years, averaging 3.5 metric tons (3.86 tons) of plutonium metal per year. On conclusion of operations, the PDCF will be decontaminated and decommissioned.

  1. Disassembly of cemented bipolar prothesis of the hip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jiong Jiong; Yang, Huilin; Yang, Tongqi; Tang, Tiansi

    2008-08-01

    A case of spontaneous disassembly of a bipolar prothesis after hemiarthroplasty due to a dislocation of the hip in an 85-year-old woman is presented, which is a rare complication. Open reduction was performed and original components were used because there was no acetabular and polyethylene linear erosion. The result was satisfactory at final follow-up (36 months), and radiographs showed no acetabular erosion, polyethylene wear, femoral subsidence, or component migration. To date, only 6 cases of disassembly of bipolar components have been reported in the English literature. In almost all cases, the injury was caused without any significant force, as only 2 patients reported a fall. Most were elderly women. We classified them into 3 types according to the etiology: iatrogenic disassembly (type I), erosion of the polyethylene liner (type II), and spontaneous disassembly (type III). Spontaneous disassembly is uncommon and seemed to be caused by a failure of the locking mechanism between the head components, resulting in an intraacetabular dislocation. Open reduction is required and revision surgery is judged by the locking mechanism between components. When there is no acetabular and polyethylene linear erosion, we believe that the original components can be used again. Although the potential disadvantage of bipolar systems shown here does not outweigh the advantages, we should rethink the status of bipolar hemiarthroplasty.

  2. Disassembling and cleaning apparatus for control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Tomiji; Sasaki, Masayoshi; Numata, Nobumasa; Oowada, Masataka; Arazoe, Masatoshi.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To shorten the working period, as well as decrease the number of operators and radiation exposure doses for disassembling and cleaning of the control rod drives. Constitution: The apparatus comprises a cleaning tank, clamp units, inner and outer surface cleaning nozzles, a high pressure pump, a drying tank unit, electronic components and the likes. This enables to render the various works automatic, such as wash out of outer and inner filters and strainers at high radiation dose levels, extraction and cleaning of a piston tube and an index tube, cleaning for the control rod drive main body, and cleaning and drying of small components, whereby the disassembling, cleaning and assembling works for the control rod drives, among all, the disassembling and cleaning works resulting relatively high radiation exposure doses to the operator can be made in a remote control and semi-automatic manner. (Furukawa, Y.)

  3. AGR-2 Irradiated Test Train Preliminary Inspection and Disassembly First Look

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploger, Scott [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Demkowciz, Paul [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Harp, Jason [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-05-01

    The AGR 2 irradiation experiment began in June 2010 and was completed in October 2013. The test train was shipped to the Materials and Fuels Complex in July 2014 for post-irradiation examination (PIE). The first PIE activities included nondestructive examination of the test train, followed by disassembly of the test train and individual capsules and detailed inspection of the capsule contents, including the fuel compacts and their graphite fuel holders. Dimensional metrology was then performed on the compacts, graphite holders, and steel capsule shells. AGR 2 disassembly and metrology were performed with the same equipment used successfully on AGR 1 test train components. Gamma spectrometry of the intact test train gave a preliminary look at the condition of the interior components. No evidence of damage to compacts or graphite components was evident from the isotopic and gross gamma scans. Disassembly of the AGR 2 test train and its capsules was conducted rapidly and efficiently by employing techniques refined during the AGR 1 disassembly campaign. Only one major difficulty was encountered while separating the test train into capsules when thermocouples (of larger diameter than used in AGR 1) and gas lines jammed inside the through tubes of the upper capsules, which required new tooling for extraction. Disassembly of individual capsules was straightforward with only a few minor complications. On the whole, AGR 2 capsule structural components appeared less embrittled than their AGR 1 counterparts. Compacts from AGR 2 Capsules 2, 3, 5, and 6 were in very good condition upon removal. Only relatively minor damage or markings were visible using high resolution photographic inspection. Compact dimensional measurements indicated radial shrinkage between 0.8 to 1.7%, with the greatest shrinkage observed on Capsule 2 compacts that were irradiated at higher temperature. Length shrinkage ranged from 0.1 to 0.9%, with by far the lowest axial shrinkage on Capsule 3 compacts

  4. Functional and cosmetic outcome of partial penile disassembly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To evaluate the functional and cosmetic outcome of single stage partial penile disassembly repair in isolated male epispadias. Patients and methods: A retrospective analysis of 43 cases of primary epispadias repair, performed during July 1998 to March 2013. Patients were classified on the basis of type of ...

  5. Innovation and employee injury risk in automotive disassembly operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, W. Patrick; Winkel, Jørgen; Palmerud, Gunnar

    2018-01-01

    Engineering innovations in car disassembly systems are studied for affects on system operators’ risk of repetitive strain injury (RSI). Objective instrumented measures of injury risk factors with synchronised video-based task analyses were used to examine changes in operators’ RSI risk during...

  6. Multi-kanban mechanism for personal computer disassembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udomsawat, Gun; Gupta, Surendra M.; Kamarthi, Sagar V.

    2004-12-01

    The use of personal computers (PCs) continues to increase every year. According to a 1999 figure, 50 percent of all US households owned PCs, a figure that continues to rise every year. With continuous development of sophisticated software, PCs are becoming increasingly powerful. In addition, the price of a PC continues to steadily decline. Furthermore, the typical life of a PC in the workplace is approximately two to three years while in the home it is three to five years. As these PCs become obsolete, they are replaced and the old PCs are disposed of. It is estimated that between 14 and 20 million PCs are retired annually in the US. While 20 to 30% of the units may be resold, the others are discarded. These discards represent a significant potential source of lead for the waste stream. In some communities, waste cathode ray tubes (CRTs) represent the second largest source of lead in the waste stream after vehicular lead acid batteries. PCs are, therefore, not suitable for dumping in landfills. Besides, several components of a PC can be reused and then there are other valuable materials that can also be harvested. And with the advent of product stewardship, product recovery is the best solution for manufacturers. Disassembly line is perhaps the most suitable set up for disassembling PCs. However, planning and scheduling of disassembly on a disassembly line is complicated. In this paper, we discuss some of the complications including product arrival, demand arrival, inventory fluctuation and production control mechanisms. We then show how to overcome them by implementing a multi-kanban mechanism in the PC disassembly line setting. The multi-kanban mechanism relies on dynamic routing of kanbans according to the state of the system. We investigate the multi-kanban mechanism using simulation and demonstrate that this mechanism is superior to the traditional push system in terms of controlling the system"s inventory while maintaining a decent customer service level.

  7. Interactive domains in the molecular chaperone human alphaB crystallin modulate microtubule assembly and disassembly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy G Ghosh

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Small heat shock proteins regulate microtubule assembly during cell proliferation and in response to stress through interactions that are poorly understood.Novel functions for five interactive sequences in the small heat shock protein and molecular chaperone, human alphaB crystallin, were investigated in the assembly/disassembly of microtubules and aggregation of tubulin using synthetic peptides and mutants of human alphaB crystallin.The interactive sequence (113FISREFHR(120 exposed on the surface of alphaB crystallin decreased microtubule assembly by approximately 45%. In contrast, the interactive sequences, (131LTITSSLSSDGV(142 and (156ERTIPITRE(164, corresponding to the beta8 strand and the C-terminal extension respectively, which are involved in complex formation, increased microtubule assembly by approximately 34-45%. The alphaB crystallin peptides, (113FISREFHR(120 and (156ERTIPITRE(164, inhibited microtubule disassembly by approximately 26-36%, and the peptides (113FISREFHR(120 and (131LTITSSLSSDGV(142 decreased the thermal aggregation of tubulin by approximately 42-44%. The (131LTITSSLSSDGV(142 and (156ERTIPITRE(164 peptides were more effective than the widely used anti-cancer drug, Paclitaxel, in modulating tubulinmicrotubule dynamics. Mutagenesis of these interactive sequences in wt human alphaB crystallin confirmed the effects of the alphaB crystallin peptides on microtubule assembly/disassembly and tubulin aggregation. The regulation of microtubule assembly by alphaB crystallin varied over a narrow range of concentrations. The assembly of microtubules was maximal at alphaB crystallin to tubulin molar ratios between 1:4 and 2:1, while molar ratios >2:1 inhibited microtubule assembly.Interactive sequences on the surface of human alphaB crystallin collectively modulate microtubule assembly through a dynamic subunit exchange mechanism that depends on the concentration and ratio of alphaB crystallin to tubulin. These are the first

  8. Foraging traits modulate stingless bee community disassembly under forest loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberg, Elinor M; Mendenhall, Chase D; Brosi, Berry

    2017-10-01

    Anthropogenic land use change is an important driver of impacts to biological communities and the ecosystem services they provide. Pollination is one ecosystem service that may be threatened by community disassembly. Relatively little is known about changes in bee community composition in the tropics, where pollination limitation is most severe and land use change is rapid. Understanding how anthropogenic changes alter community composition and functioning has been hampered by high variability in responses of individual species. Trait-based approaches, however, are emerging as a potential method for understanding responses of ecologically similar species to global change. We studied how communities of tropical, eusocial stingless bees (Apidae: Meliponini) disassemble when forest is lost. These bees are vital tropical pollinators that exhibit high trait diversity, but are under considerable threat from human activities. We compared functional traits of stingless bee species found in pastures surrounded by differing amounts of forest in an extensively deforested landscape in southern Costa Rica. Our results suggest that foraging traits modulate competitive interactions that underlie community disassembly patterns. In contrast to both theoretical predictions and temperate bee communities, we found that stingless bee species with the widest diet breadths were less likely to persist in sites with less forest. These wide-diet-breadth species also tend to be solitary foragers, and are competitively subordinate to group-foraging stingless bee species. Thus, displacement by dominant, group-foraging species may make subordinate species more dependent on the larger or more diversified resource pool that natural habitats offer. We also found that traits that may reduce reliance on trees-nesting in the ground or inside nests of other species-correlated with persistence in highly deforested landscapes. The functional trait perspective we employed enabled capturing community

  9. Capillarity-induced disassembly of virions in carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan Xiaobin; Peng Wenchao; Li Yang; Li Xianyu; Zhang Guoliang; Zhang Fengbao [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin (China); Barclay, J Elaine; Evans, David J [Department of Biological Chemistry, John Innes Centre, Norwich Research Park, Norwich NR4 7UH (United Kingdom)], E-mail: fbzhang@tju.edu.cn

    2008-04-23

    Studying the transport and fate of viruses through nanochannels is of great importance. By using the nanochannel of a carbon nanotube (CNT) as an ideal model, we evaluated the possibility of capillarity-induced viral transport through a closely fitting nanochannel and explored the mechanisms involved. It is shown both experimentally and theoretically that Cowpea mosaic virus can enter CNTs by capillarity. However, when introduced into a nanotube the protein capsid may disassemble. During the initial capillary filling stage, anomalous needle-shaped high pressure exists in the centre of the nanotube's entrance. This high pressure, combining with the significant negative pressure within the nanotube, may account for the disassembly of the virions.

  10. Integrating Safeguards into the Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, T.G.

    2002-01-01

    In September 2000, the United States and the Russian Federation entered into an agreement which stipulates each country will irreversibly transform 34 metric tons of weapons-grade plutonium into material which could not be used for weapon purposes. Supporting the Department of Energy's (DOE) program to dispose of excess nuclear materials, the Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility (PDCF) is being designed and constructed to disassemble the weapon ''pits'' and convert the nuclear material to an oxide form for fabrication into reactor fuel at the separate Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility. The PDCF design incorporates automation to the maximum extent possible to facilitate material safeguards, reduce worker dose, and improve processing efficiency. This includes provisions for automated guided vehicle movements for shipping containers, material transport via automated conveyor between processes, remote process control monitoring, and automated Nondestructive Assay product systems

  11. Programmable, isothermal disassembly of DNA-linked colloidal particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tison, Christopher Kirby

    Colloidal particles serve as useful building blocks for materials applications ranging from controlled hand-gap materials to rationally designed drug delivery systems. Thus, developing approaches to direct the assembly and disassembly of sub-micron sized particles will be paramount to further advances in materials science engineering. This project focuses on using programmable and reversible binding between oligonucleotide strands to assemble and then disassemble polystyrene colloidal particles. It is shown that DNA-mediated assembly can be reversed at a fixed temperature using secondary oligonucleotide strands to competitively displace the primary strands linking particles together. It was found that (1) titrating the surface density of hybridizing probe strands and (2) adjusting the base length difference between primary and secondary target strands was key to successful isothermal disassembly. In order to titrate the surface density of primary probe-target duplexes, colloidal particles were conjugated with mixtures of probe strands and "diluent" strands in order to minimize the number of DNA linkages between particles. To reduce the steric interference of the diluent strands to hybridization events, diluent strands were clipped with a restriction enzyme in select cases. Kinetics studies revealed that a four to six base-length difference between primary and secondary target strands resulted in extensive competitive hybridization at secondary oligonucleotide concentrations as low as 10 nM. Importantly, it was found that the timing for release of either DNA alone or DNA-conjugated nanoparticles could be tuned through choices in the DNA sequences and concentration. Lastly, competitive hybridization was explored in select studies to drive the "shedding" of PEGylated DNA targets from microspheres to reveal underlying adhesive groups or ligands on the particle surface. Unlike prior work relying on elevated temperatures to melt DNA-linkages, this work presents an

  12. On the optimal design of the disassembly and recovery processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xanthopoulos, A; Iakovou, E

    2009-05-01

    This paper tackles the problem of the optimal design of the recovery processes of the end-of-life (EOL) electric and electronic products, with a special focus on the disassembly issues. The objective is to recover as much ecological and economic value as possible, and to reduce the overall produced quantities of waste. In this context, a medium-range tactical problem is defined and a novel two-phased algorithm is presented for a remanufacturing-driven reverse supply chain. In the first phase, we propose a multicriteria/goal-programming analysis for the identification and the optimal selection of the most 'desirable' subassemblies and components to be disassembled for recovery, from a set of different types of EOL products. In the second phase, a multi-product, multi-period mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) model is presented, which addresses the optimization of the recovery processes, while taking into account explicitly the lead times of the disassembly and recovery processes. Moreover, a simulation-based solution approach is proposed for capturing the uncertainties in reverse logistics. The overall approach leads to an easy-to-use methodology that could support effectively middle level management decisions. Finally, the applicability of the developed methodology is illustrated by its application on a specific case study.

  13. On the optimal design of the disassembly and recovery processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xanthopoulos, A.; Iakovou, E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper tackles the problem of the optimal design of the recovery processes of the end-of-life (EOL) electric and electronic products, with a special focus on the disassembly issues. The objective is to recover as much ecological and economic value as possible, and to reduce the overall produced quantities of waste. In this context, a medium-range tactical problem is defined and a novel two-phased algorithm is presented for a remanufacturing-driven reverse supply chain. In the first phase, we propose a multicriteria/goal-programming analysis for the identification and the optimal selection of the most 'desirable' subassemblies and components to be disassembled for recovery, from a set of different types of EOL products. In the second phase, a multi-product, multi-period mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) model is presented, which addresses the optimization of the recovery processes, while taking into account explicitly the lead times of the disassembly and recovery processes. Moreover, a simulation-based solution approach is proposed for capturing the uncertainties in reverse logistics. The overall approach leads to an easy-to-use methodology that could support effectively middle level management decisions. Finally, the applicability of the developed methodology is illustrated by its application on a specific case study

  14. Asymmetric ring structure of Vps4 required for ESCRT-III disassembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caillat, Christophe; Macheboeuf, Pauline; Wu, Yuanfei; McCarthy, Andrew A.; Boeri-Erba, Elisabetta; Effantin, Gregory; Göttlinger, Heinrich G.; Weissenhorn, Winfried; Renesto, Patricia

    2015-12-01

    The vacuolar protein sorting 4 AAA-ATPase (Vps4) recycles endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT-III) polymers from cellular membranes. Here we present a 3.6-Å X-ray structure of ring-shaped Vps4 from Metallosphera sedula (MsVps4), seen as an asymmetric pseudohexamer. Conserved key interface residues are shown to be important for MsVps4 assembly, ATPase activity in vitro, ESCRT-III disassembly in vitro and HIV-1 budding. ADP binding leads to conformational changes within the protomer, which might propagate within the ring structure. All ATP-binding sites are accessible and the pseudohexamer binds six ATP with micromolar affinity in vitro. In contrast, ADP occupies one high-affinity and five low-affinity binding sites in vitro, consistent with conformational asymmetry induced on ATP hydrolysis. The structure represents a snapshot of an assembled Vps4 conformation and provides insight into the molecular motions the ring structure undergoes in a concerted action to couple ATP hydrolysis to ESCRT-III substrate disassembly.

  15. Whole cell cryo-electron tomography reveals distinct disassembly intermediates of vaccinia virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Cyrklaff

    Full Text Available At each round of infection, viruses fall apart to release their genome for replication, and then reassemble into stable particles within the same host cell. For most viruses, the structural details that underlie these disassembly and assembly reactions are poorly understood. Cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET, a unique method to investigate large and asymmetric structures at the near molecular resolution, was previously used to study the complex structure of vaccinia virus (VV. Here we study the disassembly of VV by cryo-ET on intact, rapidly frozen, mammalian cells, infected for up to 60 minutes. Binding to the cell surface induced distinct structural rearrangements of the core, such as a shape change, the rearrangement of its surface spikes and de-condensation of the viral DNA. We propose that the cell surface induced changes, in particular the decondensation of the viral genome, are a prerequisite for the subsequent release of the vaccinia DNA into the cytoplasm, which is followed by its cytoplasmic replication. Generally, this is the first study that employs whole cell cryo-ET to address structural details of pathogen-host cell interaction.

  16. Assembling and disassembling Ag clusters on Si(111)-(7×7) by vertical atomic manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Fangfei; Wang, Kedong; Pan, Shuan; Liu, Jiepeng; Zhang, Xieqiu; Yang, Jinlong; Xiao, Xudong

    2011-09-27

    Atomic manipulation has been rarely used in the studies of complex structures and a low temperature requirement usually limits its application. Herein we have demonstrated a vertical manipulation technique to reproducibly and reversibly manipulating Ag atoms on an Si(111)-(7×7) surface by a scanning tunneling microscope tip at room temperature. Simple and complex Ag nanoclusters were assembled and disassembled with a precise control of single Ag atoms, which provided critical information on the size of these nanoclusters. The manipulation showed the growth processes of these Ag clusters and even partly unveiled their atomic structures. This technique can form a fundamental basis for further studies of the Ag/Si(111)-(7×7) system and for fabricating functional nanodevices in various metal-semiconductor systems. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  17. QIL1 mutation causes MICOS disassembly and early onset fatal mitochondrial encephalopathy with liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarani, Virginia; Jardel, Claude; Chrétien, Dominique; Lombès, Anne; Bénit, Paule; Labasse, Clémence; Lacène, Emmanuelle; Bourillon, Agnès; Imbard, Apolline; Benoist, Jean-François; Dorboz, Imen; Gilleron, Mylène; Goetzman, Eric S; Gaignard, Pauline; Slama, Abdelhamid; Elmaleh-Bergès, Monique; Romero, Norma B; Rustin, Pierre; Ogier de Baulny, Hélène; Paulo, Joao A; Harper, J Wade; Schiff, Manuel

    2016-09-13

    Previously, we identified QIL1 as a subunit of mitochondrial contact site (MICOS) complex and demonstrated a role for QIL1 in MICOS assembly, mitochondrial respiration, and cristae formation critical for mitochondrial architecture (Guarani et al., 2015). Here, we identify QIL1 null alleles in two siblings displaying multiple clinical symptoms of early-onset fatal mitochondrial encephalopathy with liver disease, including defects in respiratory chain function in patient muscle. QIL1 absence in patients' fibroblasts was associated with MICOS disassembly, abnormal cristae, mild cytochrome c oxidase defect, and sensitivity to glucose withdrawal. QIL1 expression rescued cristae defects, and promoted re-accumulation of MICOS subunits to facilitate MICOS assembly. MICOS assembly and cristae morphology were not efficiently rescued by over-expression of other MICOS subunits in patient fibroblasts. Taken together, these data provide the first evidence of altered MICOS assembly linked with a human mitochondrial disease and confirm a central role for QIL1 in stable MICOS complex formation.

  18. Spent fuel disassembly and canning programs at the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant (BNFP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townes III, G.A.

    1980-10-01

    Methods of disassembling and canning spent fuel to allow more efficient storage are being investigated at the BNFP. Studies and development programs are aimed at dry disassembly of fuel to allow storage and shipment of fuel pins rather than complete fuel assemblies. Results indicate that doubling existing storage capacity or tripling the carrying capacity of existing transportation equipment is achievable. Disassembly could be performed in the BNFP hot cells at rates of about 12 to 15 assemblies per day

  19. Application of industrial robots in automatic disassembly line of waste LCD displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sujuan

    2017-11-01

    In the automatic disassembly line of waste LCD displays, LCD displays are disassembled into plastic shells, metal shields, circuit boards, and LCD panels. Two industrial robots are used to cut metal shields and remove circuit boards in this automatic disassembly line. The functions of these two industrial robots, and the solutions to the critical issues of model selection, the interfaces with PLCs and the workflows were described in detail in this paper.

  20. Corrosion of aluminum alloys in a reactor disassembly basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howell, J.P.; Zapp, P.E.; Nelson, D.Z.

    1992-12-01

    This document discusses storage of aluminum clad fuel and target tubes of the Mark 22 assembly takes place in the concrete-lined, light-water-filled, disassembly basins located within each reactor area at the Savannah River Site (SRS). A corrosion test program has been conducted in the K-Reactor disassembly basin to assess the storage performance of the assemblies and other aluminum clad components in the current basin environment. Aluminum clad alloys cut from the ends of actual fuel and target tubes were originally placed in the disassembly water basin in December 1991. After time intervals varying from 45--182 days, the components were removed from the basin, photographed, and evaluated metallographically for corrosion performance. Results indicated that pitting of the 8001 aluminum fuel clad alloy exceeded the 30-mil (0.076 cm) cladding thickness within the 45-day exposure period. Pitting of the 1100 aluminum target clad alloy exceeded the 30-mil (0.076 cm) clad thickness in 107--182 days exposure. The existing basin water chemistry is within limits established during early site operations. Impurities such as Cl{sup {minus}}, NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} and SO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} are controlled to the parts per million level and basin water conductivity is currently 170--190 {mu}mho/cm. The test program has demonstrated that the basin water is aggressive to the aluminum components at these levels. Other storage basins at SRS and around the US have successfully stored aluminum components for greater than ten years without pitting corrosion. These basins have impurity levels controlled to the parts per billion level (1000X lower) and conductivity less than 1.0 {mu}mho/cm.

  1. Remote examination and disassembly of a biomedical target at LASL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.H.; Newbury, F.H.; Shaffer, D.S.

    1978-01-01

    Group CMB-14 at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory examines a failed water-cooled biomedical pion-production target used in the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility. The target had developed a water leak during service. During investigation of the failure, the target was pressurized in water first to locate the leak generally and second to pinpoint it after the target was partially disassembled. Samples from the target were examined by a metallograph, a scanning electron microscope, an electron and an ion microprobe, and an x-ray diffractometer

  2. TRIM15 is a focal adhesion protein that regulates focal adhesion disassembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchil, Pradeep D.; Pawliczek, Tobias; Reynolds, Tracy D.; Ding, Siyuan; Hinz, Angelika; Munro, James B.; Huang, Fang; Floyd, Robert W.; Yang, Haitao; Hamilton, William L.; Bewersdorf, Joerg; Xiong, Yong; Calderwood, David A.; Mothes, Walther

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Focal adhesions are macromolecular complexes that connect the actin cytoskeleton to the extracellular matrix. Dynamic turnover of focal adhesions is crucial for cell migration. Paxillin is a multi-adaptor protein that plays an important role in regulating focal adhesion dynamics. Here, we identify TRIM15, a member of the tripartite motif protein family, as a paxillin-interacting factor and a component of focal adhesions. TRIM15 localizes to focal contacts in a myosin-II-independent manner by an interaction between its coiled-coil domain and the LD2 motif of paxillin. Unlike other focal adhesion proteins, TRIM15 is a stable focal adhesion component with restricted mobility due to its ability to form oligomers. TRIM15-depleted cells display impaired cell migration and reduced focal adhesion disassembly rates, in addition to enlarged focal adhesions. Thus, our studies demonstrate a cellular function for TRIM15 as a regulatory component of focal adhesion turnover and cell migration. PMID:25015296

  3. Digital mock-up for the spent fuel disassembly processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. Y.; Kim, S. H.; Song, T. G.; Kim, Y. H.; Hong, D. H.; Yoon, J. S.

    2000-12-01

    In this study, the graphical design system is developed and the digital mock-up is implemented for designing the spent fuel handling and disassembly processes. The system consists of a 3D graphical modeling system, a devices assembling system, and a motion simulation system. This system is used throughout the design stages from the conceptual design to the motion analysis. By using this system, all the process involved in the spent fuel handling and disassembly processes are analyzed and optimized. Also, this system is used in developing the on-line graphic simulator which synchronously simulates the motion of the equipment in a real time basis by connecting the device controllers with the graphic server through the TCP/IP network. This simulator can be effectively used for detecting the malfunctions of the process equipment which is remotely operated. Thus, the simulator enhances the reliability and safety of the spent fuel handling process by providing the remote monitoring function of the process. The graphical design system and the digital mock-up system can be effectively used for designing the process equipment, as well as the optimized process and maintenance process. And the on-line graphic simulator can be an alternative of the conventional process monitoring system which is a hardware based system

  4. Digital mock-up for the spent fuel disassembly processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. Y.; Kim, S. H.; Song, T. G.; Kim, Y. H.; Hong, D. H.; Yoon, J. S

    2000-12-01

    In this study, the graphical design system is developed and the digital mock-up is implemented for designing the spent fuel handling and disassembly processes. The system consists of a 3D graphical modeling system, a devices assembling system, and a motion simulation system. This system is used throughout the design stages from the conceptual design to the motion analysis. By using this system, all the process involved in the spent fuel handling and disassembly processes are analyzed and optimized. Also, this system is used in developing the on-line graphic simulator which synchronously simulates the motion of the equipment in a real time basis by connecting the device controllers with the graphic server through the TCP/IP network. This simulator can be effectively used for detecting the malfunctions of the process equipment which is remotely operated. Thus, the simulator enhances the reliability and safety of the spent fuel handling process by providing the remote monitoring function of the process. The graphical design system and the digital mock-up system can be effectively used for designing the process equipment, as well as the optimized process and maintenance process. And the on-line graphic simulator can be an alternative of the conventional process monitoring system which is a hardware based system.

  5. Phosphorylation and disassembly of intermediate filaments in mitotic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Yinghao; Rosevear, E.; Goldman, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    As baby hamster kidney (BHK-21) cells enter mitosis, networks of intermediate filaments (IFs) are transformed into cytoplasmic aggregates of protofilaments. Coincident with this morphological change, the phosphate content of vimentin increases from 0.3 mol of P i per mol of protein in interphase to 1.9 mol of P i per mol of protein in mitosis. A similar increase in phosphate content is observed with desmin, from 0.5 mol of P i per mol of protein to 1.5 mol of P i per mol of protein. Fractionation of mitotic cell lysates by hydroxylapatite column chromatography reveals the presence of two IF protein kinase activities, designated as IF protein kinase I and IF protein kinase II. Comparison of two-dimensional 32 P-labeled phosphopeptide maps of vimentin and desmin phosphorylated in vivo in mitosis, and in vitro using partially purified kinase fractions, reveals extensive similarity in the two sets of phosphorylation sites. Phosphorylation of in vitro polymerized IFs by IF protein kinase II induces complete disassembly as determined by negative-stain electron microscopy. The results support the idea that the disassembly of IFs in mitosis is regulated by the phosphorylation of its subunit proteins

  6. ARIES pit disassembly-safeguards issues for transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fearey, B.L.; Cremers, T.L.

    1995-01-01

    Historic changes are now occurring in U.S. nonproliferation and arms control policy. The quantity of nuclear weapons required to provide a deterrence has decreased (especially with the end of the Cold War). Further, various bilateral and multilateral treaties now require the removal of numerous nuclear weapons from the U.S. stockpile. Although the removal of such weapons appears straightforward, the final disposition of the surplus weapons-grade nuclear material must be carefully considered. Domestically, several plutonium disposition plans are now under consideration concerning long-term safety, materials accounting, environmental impact, accessibility, and long-term containment. The Automated Retirement and Integrated Extraction System (ARIES) currently under development at Los Alamos National Laboratory is one such disposition method for the disassembly of plutonium weapons components (pits). The ARIES system integrates and automates several features: disassembly of pits, consolidation of the plutonium material, on-line measurement of final products, waste streams, and long-term packaging. Clearly, in any plutonium disposition plan, the safeguards aspects of materials control and accounting and the security aspects must be carefully considered and evaluated

  7. Coordination of substrate binding and ATP hydrolysis in Vps4-mediated ESCRT-III disassembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Brian A; Azmi, Ishara F; Payne, Johanna; Shestakova, Anna; Horazdovsky, Bruce F; Babst, Markus; Katzmann, David J

    2010-10-01

    ESCRT-III undergoes dynamic assembly and disassembly to facilitate membrane exvagination processes including multivesicular body (MVB) formation, enveloped virus budding, and membrane abscission during cytokinesis. The AAA-ATPase Vps4 is required for ESCRT-III disassembly, however the coordination of Vps4 ATP hydrolysis with ESCRT-III binding and disassembly is not understood. Vps4 ATP hydrolysis has been proposed to execute ESCRT-III disassembly as either a stable oligomer or an unstable oligomer whose dissociation drives ESCRT-III disassembly. An in vitro ESCRT-III disassembly assay was developed to analyze Vps4 function during this process. The studies presented here support a model in which Vps4 acts as a stable oligomer during ATP hydrolysis and ESCRT-III disassembly. Moreover, Vps4 oligomer binding to ESCRT-III induces coordination of ATP hydrolysis at the level of individual Vps4 subunits. These results suggest that Vps4 functions as a stable oligomer that acts upon individual ESCRT-III subunits to facilitate ESCRT-III disassembly.

  8. Disassembly for remanufacturing: A systematic literature review, new model development and future research needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priyono, A.; Ijomah, W.; Bititci, U.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Disassembly is an important process that distinguishes remanufacturing from conventional manufacturing. It is a unique process that becomes focus of investigation from many scholars. Yet, most scholars investigate disassembly from technical and operational standpoint that lack of strategic perspective. This paper attempts to fill this gap by looking at disassembly from a strategic perspective by considering organisational characteristics, process choices and product attributes. To be more specific, this paper has three objectives. First, to gain understanding what has been done, and what need to be done in the field of disassembly in remanufacturing. Second, to conduct a systematic literature review for identifying the factors affecting disassembly for remanufacturing. Third, to propose a new model of disassembly for remanufacturing and also to provide avenues for future research. Design/methodology/approach: This study used a systematic literature review method. A series of steps were undertaken during the review. The study was started with determining the purpose of the study, selecting appropriate keywords, and reducing the selected papers using a number of criteria. A deeper analysis was carried out on the final paper that meets the criteria for this review. Findings: There are two main findings of this study. First, a list of factors affecting disassembly in remanufacturing is identified. The factors can be categorised into three groups: organisational factors, process choices and product attributes. Second, using factors that have been identified, a new model of disassembly process for remanufacturing is developed. Current studies only consider disassembly as a physical activity to break down products into components. In the new model, disassembly is viewed as a process that converts into into output, which consist of a series of steps. Research limitations/implications: The opportunities for future research include: the need to develop an index of

  9. Disassembly for remanufacturing: A systematic literature review, new model development and future research needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjar Priyono

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Disassembly is an important process that distinguishes remanufacturing from conventional manufacturing. It is a unique process that becomes focus of investigation from many scholars. Yet, most scholars investigate disassembly from technical and operational standpoint that lack of strategic perspective. This paper attempts to fill this gap by looking at disassembly from a strategic perspective by considering organisational characteristics, process choices and product attributes. To be more specific, this paper has three objectives. First, to gain understanding what has been done, and what need to be done in the field of disassembly in remanufacturing. Second, to conduct a systematic literature review for identifying the factors affecting disassembly for remanufacturing. Third, to propose a new model of disassembly for remanufacturing and also to provide avenues for future research. Design/methodology/approach: This study used a systematic literature review method. A series of steps were undertaken during the review. The study was started with determining the purpose of the study, selecting appropriate keywords, and reducing the selected papers using a number of criteria. A deeper analysis was carried out on the final paper that meets the criteria for this review. Findings: There are two main findings of this study. First, a list of factors affecting disassembly in remanufacturing is identified. The factors can be categorised into three groups: organisational factors, process choices and product attributes. Second, using factors that have been identified, a new model of disassembly process for remanufacturing is developed. Current studies only consider disassembly as a physical activity to break down products into components. In the new model, disassembly is viewed as a process that converts into into output, which consist of a series of steps. Research limitations/implications: The opportunities for future research include: the need to

  10. Disassembly for remanufacturing: A systematic literature review, new model development and future research needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priyono, A.; Ijomah, W.; Bititci, U.

    2016-07-01

    Purpose: Disassembly is an important process that distinguishes remanufacturing from conventional manufacturing. It is a unique process that becomes focus of investigation from many scholars. Yet, most scholars investigate disassembly from technical and operational standpoint that lack of strategic perspective. This paper attempts to fill this gap by looking at disassembly from a strategic perspective by considering organisational characteristics, process choices and product attributes. To be more specific, this paper has three objectives. First, to gain understanding what has been done, and what need to be done in the field of disassembly in remanufacturing. Second, to conduct a systematic literature review for identifying the factors affecting disassembly for remanufacturing. Third, to propose a new model of disassembly for remanufacturing and also to provide avenues for future research. Design/methodology/approach: This study used a systematic literature review method. A series of steps were undertaken during the review. The study was started with determining the purpose of the study, selecting appropriate keywords, and reducing the selected papers using a number of criteria. A deeper analysis was carried out on the final paper that meets the criteria for this review. Findings: There are two main findings of this study. First, a list of factors affecting disassembly in remanufacturing is identified. The factors can be categorised into three groups: organisational factors, process choices and product attributes. Second, using factors that have been identified, a new model of disassembly process for remanufacturing is developed. Current studies only consider disassembly as a physical activity to break down products into components. In the new model, disassembly is viewed as a process that converts into into output, which consist of a series of steps. Research limitations/implications: The opportunities for future research include: the need to develop an index of

  11. Knowledge of damage identification about tensegrities via flexibility disassembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ge; Feng, Xiaodong; Du, Shigui

    2017-12-01

    Tensegrity structures composing of continuous cables and discrete struts are under tension and compression, respectively. In order to determine the damage extents of tensegrity structures, a new method for tensegrity structural damage identification is presented based on flexibility disassembly. To decompose a tensegrity structural flexibility matrix into the matrix represention of the connectivity between degress-of-freedoms and the diagonal matrix comprising of magnitude informations. Step 1: Calculate perturbation flexibility; Step 2: Compute the flexibility connectivity matrix and perturbation flexibility parameters; Step 3: Calculate the perturbation stiffness parameters. The efficiency of the proposed method is demonstrated by a numeical example comprising of 12 cables and 4 struts with pretensioned. Accurate identification of local damage depends on the availability of good measured data, an accurate and reasonable algorithm.

  12. Maintenance and disassembly considerations for the Technology Demonstration Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spampinato, P.T.

    1983-01-01

    The Technology Demonstration Facility (TDF) is a tandem mirror design concept carried out under the direction of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. It was conceived as a near-term device with a mission of developing engineering technology in a D-T fusion environment. Overall maintenance and component disassembly were among the responsibilities of the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC). A configuration evolved that was based on the operational requirements of the components, as well as the requirements for their replacements. Component lifetime estimates were used to estimate the frequency and the number of replacements. In addition, it was determined that the need for remote handling equipment followed within 1.5 years after initial start-up, emphasizing the direct relationship between developing maintenance scenarios/equipment and the device configuration. Many of the scheduled maintenance operations were investigated to first order, and preliminary handling equipment concepts were developed

  13. Workshop on instrumentation of the disassembled BER II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jauch, W.; Steiner, M.

    1982-01-01

    A workshop on the instrumentation of a disassembled BER II-reactor took place in the Hahn-Meitner-Institute in Berlin on April 19 and 20, 1982. Invited were all groups that are promoted by the associations 'Neutron Scattering for Investigation of Condensed Substance' and 'Neutron Scattering and Complementary Methods in Chemistry and Biology', along with experts for neutron spectrometers. 40 foreign scientists from 22 different institutes had accepted the invitation. The actual questions were treated in 13 presentations and a certain number of posters, with the latter also comprising activation analysis. The present report contains the presentations submitted, the final discussion minutes and a summary from HMI-view. (orig./RW) [de

  14. Maintenance and disassembly considerations for the Technology Demonstration Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spampinato, P.T.

    1983-01-01

    The Technology Demonstration Facility (TDF) is a tandem-mirror design concept carried out under the direction of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. It was conceived as a near-term device with a mission of developing engineering technology in a D-T fusion environment. Overall maintenance and component disassembly were among the responsibilities of the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC). A configuration evolved that was based on the operational requirements of the components, as well as the requirements for their replacements. Component lifetime estimates were used to estimate the frequency and the number of replacements. In addition, it was determined that the need for remote handling equipment followed within 1.5 years after initial start-up, emphasizing the direct relationship between developing maintenance scenarios/equipment and the device configuration. Many of the scheduled maintenance operations were investigated to first order, and preliminary handling equipment concepts were developed

  15. Dynamic Alterations to α-Actinin Accompanying Sarcomere Disassembly and Reassembly during Cardiomyocyte Mitosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohu Fan

    Full Text Available Although mammals are thought to lose their capacity to regenerate heart muscle shortly after birth, embryonic and neonatal cardiomyocytes in mammals are hyperplastic. During proliferation these cells need to selectively disassemble their myofibrils for successful cytokinesis. The mechanism of sarcomere disassembly is, however, not understood. To study this, we performed a series of immunofluorescence studies of multiple sarcomeric proteins in proliferating neonatal rat ventricular myocytes and correlated these observations with biochemical changes at different cell cycle stages. During myocyte mitosis, α-actinin and titin were disassembled as early as prometaphase. α-actinin (representing the sarcomeric Z-disk disassembly precedes that of titin (M-line, suggesting that titin disassembly occurs secondary to the collapse of the Z-disk. Sarcomere disassembly was concurrent with the dissolution of the nuclear envelope. Inhibitors of several intracellular proteases could not block the disassembly of α-actinin or titin. There was a dramatic increase in both cytosolic (soluble and sarcomeric α-actinin during mitosis, and cytosolic α-actinin exhibited decreased phosphorylation compared to sarcomeric α-actinin. Inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1 induced the quick reassembly of the sarcomere. Sarcomere dis- and re-assembly in cardiomyocyte mitosis is CDK1-dependent and features dynamic differential post-translational modifications of sarcomeric and cytosolic α-actinin.

  16. Development of remote disassembly technology for liquid-metal reactor (LMR) fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, E.C.; Evans, J.H.; Metz, C.F. III; Weil, B.S.

    1990-01-01

    A major objective of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) is to develop equipment and demonstrate technology to reprocess fast breeder reactor fuel. Experimental work on fuel disassembly cutting methods began in the 1970s. High-power laser cutting was selected as the preferred cutting method for fuel disassembly. Remotely operated development equipment was designed, fabricated, installed, and tested at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Development testing included remote automatic operation, remote maintenance testing, and laser cutting process development. This paper summarizes the development work performed at ORNL on remote fuel disassembly. 2 refs., 1 fig

  17. A disassembly-free method for evaluation of spiral bevel gear assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedliński, Łukasz; Jonak, Józef

    2017-05-01

    The paper presents a novel method for evaluation of assembly of spiral bevel gears. The examination of the approaches to the problem of gear control diagnostics without disassembly has revealed that residual processes in the form of vibrations (or noise) are currently the most suitable to this end. According to the literature, contact pattern is a complex parameter for describing gear position. Therefore, the task is to determine the correlation between contact pattern and gear vibrations. Although the vibration signal contains a great deal of information, it also has a complex spectral structure and contains interferences. For this reason, the proposed method has three variants which determine the effect of preliminary processing of the signal on the results. In Variant 2, stage 1, the vibration signal is subjected to multichannel denoising using a wavelet transform (WT), and in Variant 3 - to a combination of WT and principal component analysis (PCA). This denoising procedure does not occur in Variant 1. Next, we determine the features of the vibration signal in order to focus on information which is crucial regarding the objective of the study. Given the lack of unequivocal premises enabling selection of optimum features, we calculate twenty features, rank them and finally select the appropriate ones using an algorithm. Diagnostic rules were created using artificial neural networks. We investigated the suitability of three network types: multilayer perceptron (MLP), radial basis function (RBF) and support vector machine (SVM).

  18. A thermodynamic model of microtubule assembly and disassembly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard M A G Piette

    Full Text Available Microtubules are self-assembling polymers whose dynamics are essential for the normal function of cellular processes including chromosome separation and cytokinesis. Therefore understanding what factors effect microtubule growth is fundamental to our understanding of the control of microtubule based processes. An important factor that determines the status of a microtubule, whether it is growing or shrinking, is the length of the GTP tubulin microtubule cap. Here, we derive a Monte Carlo model of the assembly and disassembly of microtubules. We use thermodynamic laws to reduce the number of parameters of our model and, in particular, we take into account the contribution of water to the entropy of the system. We fit all parameters of the model from published experimental data using the GTP tubulin dimer attachment rate and the lateral and longitudinal binding energies of GTP and GDP tubulin dimers at both ends. Also we calculate and incorporate the GTP hydrolysis rate. We have applied our model and can mimic published experimental data, which formerly suggested a single layer GTP tubulin dimer microtubule cap, to show that these data demonstrate that the GTP cap can fluctuate and can be several microns long.

  19. Alpha Decontamination and Disassembly Pilot Facility. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daugherty, B.A.; Clark, H.E.

    1985-04-01

    The Alpha Decontamination and Disassembly (AD and D) Pilot Facility was built to develop and demonstrate a reference process for the decontamination and size reduction of noncombustible transuranic (TRU) waste. The goals of the reference process were to remove >99% of the surface contamination to the high-level waste tanks, and to achieve volume reduction factors greater than 15:1. Preliminary bench-scale decontamination work was accomplished at Savannah River Laboratory (SRL), establishing a reference decontamination process. Initially, the pilot facility did not achieve the decontamination goals. As the program continued, and modifications to the process were made, coupon analysis idicated that 99% of the surface contamination was removed to the high-level drain system. Prior to the AD and D Pilot Facility, no size reduction work had been done at SRL. Several other Department of Energy (DOE) facilities were experimenting with plasma arc torches for size reduction work. Their methods were employed in the AD and D hot cell with moderate success. The experimental work concluded with recommendations for further testing of other size reduction techniques. 11 figs., 6 tabs

  20. Augmented stress fiber arrays after cytopharmacologic disassembly of microtubules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godman, G.C.; Tannenbaum, J.; Brett, J.B.

    1986-03-01

    Disruption of microtubules (mt) of bovine aortic endothelial (BAE) cells, and normal and transformed fibroblasts, by exposure to 2.5 ..mu..M colchicine; 12 ..mu..M vinblastine; or 1 ..mu..M nocodazole, for 5 or 20 hrs results in aggregation of vimentin-intermediate filament (IF) and the development of markedly augmented stress fiber (SF) arrays. After disassembly of mt, confluent BAE, with circumferential marginal microfilament bands and few central SF, develop dense ribbon-like SF arrays, and spontaneously transformed fibroblasts (tHmf-e), which before treatment are apolar or epithelioid and have few or no SF, acquire extensive organized SF arrays. The axially oriented SF span the entire cell length and terminate in vinculin-containing adhesion plaques, polarizing these cells. The visible increase in SF associated actin is not accompanied by an increase either in actin synthesis (determined from electropherograms after pulse labeling with (/sup 35/S)methionine), or content (DNAse I assay for total cell actin). The reorganization of actin into SF and the development of vinculin adhesion plaques is independent of protein synthesis and occurs in the presence of cycloheximide (10 ..mu..g/ml). These results suggest a role for mt and IF in the regulation of the organizational state of the actin-based cytoskeleton.

  1. Disassembly and Dislocation of a Bipolar Hip Prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsieh-Hsing Lee

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Dislocation of a hip prosthesis is a common complication. In usual cases of hip prosthesis dislocation, the prosthetic femoral head comes out from either the natural acetabular cavity in a bipolar hemiarthroplasty or the prosthetic acetabulum in a total hip arthroplasty. Only a few cases of bipolar hip prosthesis dislocation due to dissociation between the polyethylene and inner head of the prosthesis have been reported. We describe a rare case of disassembly of the inner head from the bipolar outer prosthesis in an osteoarthritic acetabulum. A 72-year-old woman had undergone bipolar hemiarthroplasty due to fracture of the left femoral neck about 10 years previously. Recently, she sustained an injury after falling from a chair, and examinations revealed an unusual disassembly−dislocation of the bipolar hip prosthesis. We classified this failure in our patient as a type II failure, representing extreme varus position of the outer head in the acetabulum, dislocation of the inner head from the outer head, and a detached locking ring around the stem neck. This mechanism of failure as shown in our patient rarely occurs in the bipolar prosthesis of the self-centering system. Osteoarthritic change of the acetabulum would place the outer head in the varus position, increasing wear on the beveled rim by impinging the femoral stem neck and causing dislodgment of the inner locking ring and consequent disassembly−dislocation of the inner head.

  2. Decommissioning of nuclear facilities: Decontamination, disassembly and waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The term 'decommissioning', as used within the nuclear industry, means the actions taken at the end of a facility's useful life to retire the facility from service in a manner that provides adequate protection for the health and safety of the decommissioning workers, the general public, and for the environment. These actions can range from merely closing down the facility and a minimal removal of radioactive material coupled with continuing maintenance and surveillance, to a complete removal of residual radioactivity in excess of levels acceptable for unrestricted use of the facility and its site. This latter condition, unrestricted use, is the ultimate goal of all decommissioning actions at retired nuclear facilities. The purpose of this report is to provide an information base on the considerations important to decommissioning, the methods available for decontamination and disassembly of a nuclear facility, the management of the resulting radioactive wastes, and the areas of decommissioning methodology where improvements might be made. Specific sections are devoted to each of these topics, and conclusions are presented concerning the present status of each topic. A summary of past decommissioning experience in Member States is presented in the Appendix. The report, with its discussions of necessary considerations, available operational methods, and waste management practices, together with supporting references, provides an appreciation of the activities that comprise decommissioning of nuclear facilities. It is anticipated that the information presented in the report should prove useful to persons concerned with the development of plans for the decommissioning of retired nuclear facilities

  3. Disassembly Properties of Cementitious Finish Joints Using an Induction Heating Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jaecheol; Noguchi, Takafumi; Kitagaki, Ryoma

    2015-01-01

    Efficient maintenance and upgrading of a building during its lifecycle are difficult because a cementitious finish uses materials and parts with low disassembly properties. Additionally, the reuse and recycling processes during building demolition also present numerous problems from the perspective of environmental technology. In this study, an induction heating (IH) method was used to disassemble cementitious finish joints, which are widely used to join building members and materials. The IH rapidly and selectively heated and weakened these joints. The temperature elevation characteristics of the cementitious joint materials were measured as a function of several resistor types, including wire meshes and punching metals, which are usually used for cementitious finishing. The disassembly properties were evaluated through various tests using conductive resistors in cementitious joints such as mortar. When steel fiber, punching metal, and wire mesh were used as conductive resistors, the cementitious modifiers could be weakened within 30 s. Cementitious joints with conductive resistors also showed complete disassembly with little residual bond strength.

  4. Balancing Disassembly Line in Product Recovery to Promote the Coordinated Development of Economy and Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Liu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available For environmentally conscious and sustainable manufacturing, many more manufacturers are acting to recycle and remanufacture their post-consumed products. The most critical process of remanufacturing is disassembly, since it allows for the selective extraction of the valuable components and materials from returned products to reduce the waste disposal volume. It is, therefore, important to design and balance the disassembly line to work efficiently due to its vital role in effective resource usage and environmental protection. Considering the disassembly precedence relationships and sequence-dependent parts removal time increments, this paper presents an improved discrete artificial bee colony algorithm (DABC for solving the sequence-dependent disassembly line balancing problem (SDDLBP. The performance of the proposed algorithm was tested against nine other approaches. Computational results evidently indicate the superior efficiency of the proposed algorithm for addressing the environmental and economic concerns while optimizing the multi-objective SDDLBP.

  5. AGR-3/4 Irradiation Test Train Disassembly and Component Metrology First Look Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stempien, John Dennis [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rice, Francine Joyce [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Harp, Jason Michael [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Winston, Philip Lon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The AGR-3/4 experiment was designed to study fission product transport within graphitic matrix material and nuclear-grade graphite. To this end, this experiment consisted of 12 capsules, each fueled with 4 compacts containing UCO TRISO particles as driver fuel and 20 UCO designed-to-fail (DTF) fuel particles in each compact. The DTF fuel was fabricated with a thin pyrocarbon layer which was intended to fail during irradiation and provide a source of fission products. These fission products could then migrate through the compact and into the surrounding concentric rings of graphitic matrix material and/or nuclear graphite. Through post-irradiation examination (PIE) of the rings (including physical sampling and gamma scanning) fission product concentration profiles within the rings can be determined. These data can be used to elucidate fission product transport parameters (e.g. diffusion coefficients within the test materials) which will be used to inform and refine models of fission product transport. After irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) had been completed in April 2014, the AGR-3/4 experiment was shipped to the Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF) at the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) for inspection, disassembly, and metrology. The AGR-3/4 test train was received at MFC in two separate shipments between February and April 2015. Visual examinations of the test train exterior did not indicate dimensional distortion, and only two small discolored areas were observed at the bottom of Capsules 8 and 9. No corresponding discoloration was found on the inside of these capsules, however. Prior to disassembly, the two test train sections were subject to analysis via the Precision Gamma Scanner (PGS), which did not indicate that any gross fuel relocation had occurred. A series of specialized tools (including clamps, cutters, and drills) had been designed and fabricated in order to carry out test train disassembly and recovery of capsule components (graphite

  6. AGR-3/4 Irradiation Test Train Disassembly and Component Metrology First Look Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stempien, John Dennis; Rice, Francine Joyce; Harp, Jason Michael; Winston, Philip Lon

    2016-01-01

    The AGR-3/4 experiment was designed to study fission product transport within graphitic matrix material and nuclear-grade graphite. To this end, this experiment consisted of 12 capsules, each fueled with 4 compacts containing UCO TRISO particles as driver fuel and 20 UCO designed-to-fail (DTF) fuel particles in each compact. The DTF fuel was fabricated with a thin pyrocarbon layer which was intended to fail during irradiation and provide a source of fission products. These fission products could then migrate through the compact and into the surrounding concentric rings of graphitic matrix material and/or nuclear graphite. Through post-irradiation examination (PIE) of the rings (including physical sampling and gamma scanning) fission product concentration profiles within the rings can be determined. These data can be used to elucidate fission product transport parameters (e.g. diffusion coefficients within the test materials) which will be used to inform and refine models of fission product transport. After irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) had been completed in April 2014, the AGR-3/4 experiment was shipped to the Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF) at the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) for inspection, disassembly, and metrology. The AGR-3/4 test train was received at MFC in two separate shipments between February and April 2015. Visual examinations of the test train exterior did not indicate dimensional distortion, and only two small discolored areas were observed at the bottom of Capsules 8 and 9. No corresponding discoloration was found on the inside of these capsules, however. Prior to disassembly, the two test train sections were subject to analysis via the Precision Gamma Scanner (PGS), which did not indicate that any gross fuel relocation had occurred. A series of specialized tools (including clamps, cutters, and drills) had been designed and fabricated in order to carry out test train disassembly and recovery of capsule components (graphite

  7. AGR-3/4 Irradiation Test Train Disassembly and Component Metrology First Look Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stempien, John Dennis [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rice, Francine Joyce [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Harp, Jason Michael [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Winston, Philip Lon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The AGR-3/4 experiment was designed to study fission product transport within graphitic matrix material and nuclear-grade graphite. To this end, this experiment consisted of 12 capsules, each fueled with 4 compacts containing UCO TRISO particles as driver fuel and 20 UCO designed-to-fail (DTF) fuel particles in each compact. The DTF fuel was fabricated with a thin pyrocarbon layer which was intended to fail during irradiation and provide a source of fission products. These fission products could then migrate through the compact and into the surrounding concentric rings of graphitic matrix material and/or nuclear graphite. Through post-irradiation examination (PIE) of the rings (including physical sampling and gamma scanning) fission product concentration profiles within the rings can be determined. These data can be used to elucidate fission product transport parameters (e.g. diffusion coefficients within the test materials) which will be used to inform and refine models of fission product transport. After irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) had been completed in April 2014, the AGR-3/4 experiment was shipped to the Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF) at the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) for inspection, disassembly, and metrology. The AGR-3/4 test train was received at MFC in two separate shipments between February and April 2015. Visual examinations of the test train exterior did not indicate dimensional distortion, and only two small discolored areas were observed at the bottom of Capsules 8 and 9. No corresponding discoloration was found on the inside of these capsules, however. Prior to disassembly, the two test train sections were subject to analysis via the Precision Gamma Scanner (PGS), which did not indicate that any gross fuel relocation had occurred. A series of specialized tools (including clamps, cutters, and drills) had been designed and fabricated in order to carry out test train disassembly and recovery of capsule components (graphite

  8. A Label Correcting Algorithm for Partial Disassembly Sequences in the Production Planning for End-of-Life Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Fang (Jennifer Tsai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Remanufacturing of used products has become a strategic issue for cost-sensitive businesses. Due to the nature of uncertain supply of end-of-life (EoL products, the reverse logistic can only be sustainable with a dynamic production planning for disassembly process. This research investigates the sequencing of disassembly operations as a single-period partial disassembly optimization (SPPDO problem to minimize total disassembly cost. AND/OR graph representation is used to include all disassembly sequences of a returned product. A label correcting algorithm is proposed to find an optimal partial disassembly plan if a specific reusable subpart is retrieved from the original return. Then, a heuristic procedure that utilizes this polynomial-time algorithm is presented to solve the SPPDO problem. Numerical examples are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of this solution procedure.

  9. Shape memory polymer nanocomposites for application of multiple-field active disassembly: experiment and simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrell, John; Zhang, Hong-Chao; Wang, Shiren; Tate, Derrick

    2013-11-19

    Active disassembly (AD) uses innovative materials that can perform a designed disassembly action by the application of an external field. AD provides improvements over current disassembly processes by limiting machine or manual labor and enabling batch processing for end-of-life products. With improved disassembly operations, more reuse of components and purer recycling streams may be seen. One problem with AD, however, has been with the single-field actuation because of the probability of accidental disassembly. This presentation will discuss the application of shape memory polymer (SMP) nanocomposites in a new AD process. This novel AD process requires multiple-field actuation of the SMP nanocomposite fastener. In the analysis of this AD process, thermal and magnetic field tests were performed on the SMP nanocomposite. From these tests, finite-element analysis was performed to model and simulate the multiple-field AD process. The results of the simulations provide performance variables for the AD process and show a better performance time for the SMP nanocomposite fastener than for a comparable SMP fastener.

  10. Centralized disassembly and packaging of spent fuel in the DOE spent fuel management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.R.

    1986-01-01

    In October 1984, E.R. Johnson Associates, Inc. (JAI) initiated a study of the prospective use of a centralized facility for the disassembly and packaging of spent fuel to support the various elements of the US Dept. of Energy (DOE) spent fuel management system, including facilities for monitored retrievable storage (MRS) and repositories. It was DOE's original plan to receive spent fuel at each repository where it would be disassembled and packaged (overpacked) for disposal purposes. Subsequently, DOE considered the prospective use of MRS of spent fuel as an option for providing safe and reliable management of spent fuel. This study was designed to consider possible advantages of the use of centralized facilities for disassembly and packaging of spent fuel at whose location storage facilities could be added as required. The study was divided into three principal technical tasks that covered: (a) development of requirements and criteria for the central disassembly and packaging facility and associated systems. (2) Development of conceptual designs for the central disassembly and packaging facility and associated systems. (3) Estimation of capital and operating costs involved for all system facilities and determination of life cycle costs for various scenarios of operation - for comparison with the reference system

  11. An Intelligent Agent-Controlled and Robot-Based Disassembly Assistant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungbluth, Jan; Gerke, Wolfgang; Plapper, Peter

    2017-09-01

    One key for successful and fluent human-robot-collaboration in disassembly processes is equipping the robot system with higher autonomy and intelligence. In this paper, we present an informed software agent that controls the robot behavior to form an intelligent robot assistant for disassembly purposes. While the disassembly process first depends on the product structure, we inform the agent using a generic approach through product models. The product model is then transformed to a directed graph and used to build, share and define a coarse disassembly plan. To refine the workflow, we formulate “the problem of loosening a connection and the distribution of the work” as a search problem. The created detailed plan consists of a sequence of actions that are used to call, parametrize and execute robot programs for the fulfillment of the assistance. The aim of this research is to equip robot systems with knowledge and skills to allow them to be autonomous in the performance of their assistance to finally improve the ergonomics of disassembly workstations.

  12. Movement and equipositioning of plasmids by ParA filament disassembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringgaard, Simon; van Zon, Jeroen; Howard, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Bacterial plasmids encode partitioning (par) loci that confer stable plasmid inheritance. We showed previously that, in the presence of ParB and parC encoded by the par2 locus of plasmid pB171, ParA formed cytoskeletal-like structures that dynamically relocated over the nucleoid. Simultaneously......, the par2 locus distributed plasmids regularly over the nucleoid. We show here that the dynamic ParA patterns are not simple oscillations. Rather, ParA nucleates and polymerizes in between plasmids. When a ParA assembly reaches a plasmid, the assembly reaction reverses into disassembly. Strikingly......, plasmids consistently migrate behind disassembling ParA cytoskeletal structures, suggesting that ParA filaments pull plasmids by depolymerization. The perpetual cycles of ParA assembly and disassembly result in continuous relocation of plasmids, which, on time averaging, results in equidistribution...

  13. Design and analysis of sustainable computer mouse using design for disassembly methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roni Sahroni, Taufik; Fitri Sukarman, Ahmad; Agung Mahardini, Karunia

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents the design and analysis of computer mouse using Design for Disassembly methodology. Basically, the existing computer mouse model consist a number of unnecessary part that cause the assembly and disassembly time in production. The objective of this project is to design a new computer mouse based on Design for Disassembly (DFD) methodology. The main methodology of this paper was proposed from sketch generation, concept selection, and concept scoring. Based on the design screening, design concept B was selected for further analysis. New design of computer mouse is proposed using fastening system. Furthermore, three materials of ABS, Polycarbonate, and PE high density were prepared to determine the environmental impact category. Sustainable analysis was conducted using software SolidWorks. As a result, PE High Density gives the lowers amount in the environmental category with great maximum stress value.

  14. Pilot scale, alpha disassembly and decontamination facility at the Savannah River Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadieux, J.R.; Becker, G.W. Jr.; Richardson, G.W.; Coogler, A.L.

    1982-01-01

    An alpha-contained pilot facility is being built at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) for research into the disassembly and dcontamination of noncombustible, Transuranic (TRU) waste. The design and program objectives for the facility are presented along with the initial test results from laboratory scale decontamination experiments with Pu-238 and Cm-244

  15. Conceptual design report for the mechanical disassembly of Fort St. Vrain fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lord, D.L.; Wadsworth, D.C.; Sekot, J.P.; Skinner, K.L.

    1993-04-01

    A conceptual design study was prepared that: (1) reviewed the operations necessary to perform the mechanical disassembly of Fort St. Vrain fuel elements; (2) contained a description and survey of equipment capable of performing the necessary functions; and (3) performed a tradeoff study for determining the preferred concepts and equipment specifications. A preferred system was recommended and engineering specifications for this system were developed

  16. Disassembly Properties of Cementitious Finish Joints Using an Induction Heating Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaecheol Ahn

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Efficient maintenance and upgrading of a building during its lifecycle are difficult because a cementitious finish uses materials and parts with low disassembly properties. Additionally, the reuse and recycling processes during building demolition also present numerous problems from the perspective of environmental technology. In this study, an induction heating (IH method was used to disassemble cementitious finish joints, which are widely used to join building members and materials. The IH rapidly and selectively heated and weakened these joints. The temperature elevation characteristics of the cementitious joint materials were measured as a function of several resistor types, including wire meshes and punching metals, which are usually used for cementitious finishing. The disassembly properties were evaluated through various tests using conductive resistors in cementitious joints such as mortar. When steel fiber, punching metal, and wire mesh were used as conductive resistors, the cementitious modifiers could be weakened within 30 s. Cementitious joints with conductive resistors also showed complete disassembly with little residual bond strength.

  17. Improved Nondestructive Disassembly Process using Augmented Reality and RFID Product/Part Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ile Mircheski

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The waste from electric and electronic equipment and discarded automobiles in the past grew rapidly and resulted with waste in billions of tones. The aim of this paper is to present an improved non-destructive disassembly process of electromechanical products using augmented reality based devices, such as glasses, tablets or mobile phones, and RFID technology for valuable product/part tracking. The proposed method includes tagging of components of interest in the product assembly by using a RFID tag. The valuable product is marked with specific ID number written in the RFID tag, in order to declare the product. The relevant data such as material and weight of components, guidelines for non-destructive disassembly for the valuable product and removing of component of interest will be obtained with the assistance of RFID tag and a centralized database. This modular system offers guidelines for the non-destructive disassembly process for obtaining valuable component of interest intended for easy repairs, remanufacture, reuse or recycling. The guidelines are in video presentation format using augmented reality for easy visualization of non-destructive disassembly process. The benefits of proposed modular system includes biggest percentage of reuse of the valuable components, easy maintaining, improved material recycling, environmental protection and greater total return form end of life products.

  18. Cellular Mechanisms Regulating Ciliary Disassembly and EMT: Roles of Ion Transport and Implications for Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malinda, Raj Rajeshwar

    presented in paper I of this thesis provide new insight into the molecular mechanisms of ciliary disassembly by demonstrating a critical role for PDGFRmediated PLCγ- and Ca2+ signaling in this process. Findings presented in paper II show that acid extruding ion transporters are upregulated, while merlin...

  19. DISA- a computer code for accident analysis of fast reactor during disassembly phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, R.D.S.; Gupta, H.P.

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of the hypothetical transients in fast rectors that result in the disassembly of the reactor generally consists of three phases. In the phase-l, some initiating event like control rod ejection, coolant pump failure etc. is assumed to have taken place which leads the reactor to prompt critical state where fuel melting, sodium voiding etc. take place. In fast reactor normally the fuel is not in the optimum shape and further positive reactivity may be introduced into the system due to fuel melting. Fuel slumping is assumed to take place in this phase. If prompt criticality is reached as a result of the first phase, then disassembly phase is assumed to start. In this phase the neutron transient is followed till it is terminated by the disassembly of the core which takes place due to generation of high pressure gradients and which lead the core material to move from more worth region to less worth region. Doppler feed back is taken into account and reactivity feedback due to material movement is calculated by solving the hydrodynamics equations. The third phase will calculate the effect of this transient on the reactor vessel and containment. A computer code DISA for fast reactor DISAssembly phase, which is similar to the well known code VENUS has been developed. (author)

  20. Phosphatase PP2A and microtubule-mediated pulling forces disassemble centrosomes during mitotic exit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J. Enos

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Centrosomes are microtubule-nucleating organelles that facilitate chromosome segregation and cell division in metazoans. Centrosomes comprise centrioles that organize a micron-scale mass of protein called pericentriolar material (PCM from which microtubules nucleate. During each cell cycle, PCM accumulates around centrioles through phosphorylation-mediated assembly of PCM scaffold proteins. During mitotic exit, PCM swiftly disassembles by an unknown mechanism. Here, we used Caenorhabditis elegans embryos to determine the mechanism and importance of PCM disassembly in dividing cells. We found that the phosphatase PP2A and its regulatory subunit SUR-6 (PP2ASUR-6, together with cortically directed microtubule pulling forces, actively disassemble PCM. In embryos depleted of these activities, ∼25% of PCM persisted from one cell cycle into the next. Purified PP2ASUR-6 could dephosphorylate the major PCM scaffold protein SPD-5 in vitro. Our data suggest that PCM disassembly occurs through a combination of dephosphorylation of PCM components and force-driven fragmentation of the PCM scaffold.

  1. Low cytoplasmic pH reduces ER-Golgi trafficking and induces disassembly of the Golgi apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soonthornsit, Jeerawat; Yamaguchi, Yoko; Tamura, Daisuke; Ishida, Ryuichi; Nakakoji, Yoko; Osako, Shiho; Yamamoto, Akitsugu; Nakamura, Nobuhiro

    2014-11-01

    The Golgi apparatus was dramatically disassembled when cells were incubated in a low pH medium. The cis-Golgi disassembled quickly, extended tubules and spread to the periphery of cells within 30 min. In contrast, medial- and trans-Golgi were fragmented in significantly larger structures of smaller numbers at a slower rate and remained largely in structures distinct from the cis-Golgi. Electron microscopy revealed the complete disassembly of the Golgi stack in low pH treated cells. The effect of low pH was reversible; the Golgi apparatus reassembled to form a normal ribbon-like structure within 1-2h after the addition of a control medium. The anterograde ER to Golgi transport and retrograde Golgi to ER transport were both reduced under low pH. Phospholipase A2 inhibitors (ONO, BEL) effectively suppressed the Golgi disassembly, suggesting that the phospholipase A2 was involved in the Golgi disassembly. Over-expression of Rab1, 2, 30, 33 and 41 also suppressed the Golgi disassembly under low pH, suggesting that they have protective role against Golgi disassembly. Low pH treatment reduced cytoplasmic pH, but not the luminal pH of the Golgi apparatus, strongly suggesting that reduction of the cytoplasmic pH triggered the Golgi disassembly. Because a lower cytoplasmic pH is induced in physiological or pathological conditions, disassembly of the Golgi apparatus and reduction of vesicular transport through the Golgi apparatus may play important roles in cell physiology and pathology. Furthermore, our findings indicated that low pH treatment can serve as an important tool to analyze the molecular mechanisms that support the structure and function of the Golgi apparatus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Assembly, operation and disassembly manual for the Battelle Large Volume Water Sampler (BLVWS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, V.W.; Campbell, R.M.

    1984-12-01

    Assembly, operation and disassembly of the Battelle Large Volume Water Sampler (BLVWS) are described in detail. Step by step instructions of assembly, general operation and disassembly are provided to allow an operator completely unfamiliar with the sampler to successfully apply the BLVWS to his research sampling needs. The sampler permits concentration of both particulate and dissolved radionuclides from large volumes of ocean and fresh water. The water sample passes through a filtration section for particle removal then through sorption or ion exchange beds where species of interest are removed. The sampler components which contact the water being sampled are constructed of polyvinylchloride (PVC). The sampler has been successfully applied to many sampling needs over the past fifteen years. 9 references, 8 figures.

  3. A Trio-Rac1-PAK1 signaling axis drives invadopodia disassembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshfegh, Yasmin; Bravo-Cordero, Jose Javier; Miskolci, Veronika; Condeelis, John; Hodgson, Louis

    2014-01-01

    Rho family GTPases control cell migration and participate in the regulation of cancer metastasis. Invadopodia, associated with invasive tumor cells, are crucial for cellular invasion and metastasis. To study Rac1 GTPase in invadopodia dynamics, we developed a genetically-encoded, single-chain Rac1 Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) biosensor. The biosensor shows Rac1 activity exclusion from the core of invadopodia, and higher activity when invadopodia disappear, suggesting that reduced Rac1 activity is necessary for their stability, and Rac1 activation is involved in disassembly. Photoactivating Rac1 at invadopodia confirmed this previously-unknown Rac1 function. We built an invadopodia disassembly model, where a signaling axis involving TrioGEF, Rac1, PAK1, and phosphorylation of cortactin, causing invadopodia dissolution. This mechanism is critical for the proper turnover of invasive structures during tumor cell invasion, where a balance of proteolytic activity and locomotory protrusions must be carefully coordinated to achieve a maximally invasive phenotype. PMID:24859002

  4. Assembly, operation and disassembly manual for the Battelle Large Volume Water Sampler (BLVWS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, V.W.; Campbell, R.M.

    1984-12-01

    Assembly, operation and disassembly of the Battelle Large Volume Water Sampler (BLVWS) are described in detail. Step by step instructions of assembly, general operation and disassembly are provided to allow an operator completely unfamiliar with the sampler to successfully apply the BLVWS to his research sampling needs. The sampler permits concentration of both particulate and dissolved radionuclides from large volumes of ocean and fresh water. The water sample passes through a filtration section for particle removal then through sorption or ion exchange beds where species of interest are removed. The sampler components which contact the water being sampled are constructed of polyvinylchloride (PVC). The sampler has been successfully applied to many sampling needs over the past fifteen years. 9 references, 8 figures

  5. Underwater Nuclear Fuel Disassembly and Rod Storage Process and Equipment Description. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viebrock, J.M.

    1981-09-01

    The process, equipment, and the demonstration of the Underwater Nuclear Fuel Disassembly and Rod Storage System are presented. The process was shown to be a viable means of increasing spent fuel pool storage density by taking apart fuel assemblies and storing the fuel rods in a denser fashion than in the original storage racks. The assembly's nonfuel-bearing waste is compacted and containerized. The report documents design criteria and analysis, fabrication, demonstration program results, and proposed enhancements to the system

  6. Dynamic instabilities in the kinetics of growth and disassembly of microtubules

    OpenAIRE

    Katrukha, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic instability of microtubules is considered using frameworks of non-linear thermodynamics and non-equilibrium reaction-diffusion systems. Stochastic assembly/disassembly phases in the polymerization dynamics of microtubules are treated as a result of collective clusterization of microdefects (holes in structure). The model explains experimentally observed power law dependence of catastrophe frequency from the microtubule growth rate. Additional reaction-diffusion-precipitation model is ...

  7. What if the hand piece spring disassembles during robotic radical prostatectomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbulut, Ziya; Canda, Abdullah Erdem; Atmaca, Ali Fuat; Asil, Erem; Isgoren, Egemen; Balbay, Mevlana Derya

    2011-01-01

    Robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALRP) is successfully being performed for treating prostate cancer (PCa). However, instrumentation failure associated with robotic procedures represents a unique new problem. We report the successful completion of RALRP in spite of a disassembled hand piece spring during the procedure. A PubMed/Medline search was made concerning robotic malfunction and robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy to discuss our experience. We performed RALRP in a 60-year-old male patient with localized PCa. During the procedure, the spring of the hand piece disassembled, and we were not able to reassemble it. We completed the procedure successfully however without fixing the disassembled hand piece spring. We were able to grasp tissue and needles when we brought our fingers together. The only movement we needed to do was to move fingers apart to release tissue or needles caught by robotic instrument. Although malfunction risk related to the da Vinci Surgical System seems to be very low, it might still occur. Sometimes, simple maneuvers may compensate for the failed function as occurred in our case. However, patients should be informed before the operation about the possibility of converting their procedure to laparoscopic or open due to robotic malfunction.

  8. The controlled disassembly of mesostructured perovskites as an avenue to fabricating high performance nanohybrid catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan; Arandiyan, Hamidreza; Tahini, Hassan A.; Scott, Jason; Tan, Xin; Dai, Hongxing; Gale, Julian D.; Rohl, Andrew L.; Smith, Sean C.; Amal, Rose

    2017-05-01

    Versatile superstructures composed of nanoparticles have recently been prepared using various disassembly methods. However, little information is known on how the structural disassembly influences the catalytic performance of the materials. Here we show how the disassembly of an ordered porous La0.6Sr0.4MnO3 perovskite array, to give hexapod mesostructured nanoparticles, exposes a new crystal facet which is more active for catalytic methane combustion. On fragmenting three-dimensionally ordered macroporous (3DOM) structures in a controlled manner, via a process that has been likened to retrosynthesis, hexapod-shaped building blocks can be harvested which possess a mesostructured architecture. The hexapod-shaped perovskite catalyst exhibits excellent low temperature methane oxidation activity (T90%=438 °C reaction rate=4.84 × 10-7 mol m-2 s-1). First principle calculations suggest the fractures, which occur at weak joints within the 3DOM architecture, afford a large area of (001) surface that displays a reduced energy barrier for hydrogen abstraction, thereby facilitating methane oxidation.

  9. The controlled disassembly of mesostructured perovskites as an avenue to fabricating high performance nanohybrid catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan; Arandiyan, Hamidreza; Tahini, Hassan A; Scott, Jason; Tan, Xin; Dai, Hongxing; Gale, Julian D; Rohl, Andrew L; Smith, Sean C; Amal, Rose

    2017-05-25

    Versatile superstructures composed of nanoparticles have recently been prepared using various disassembly methods. However, little information is known on how the structural disassembly influences the catalytic performance of the materials. Here we show how the disassembly of an ordered porous La 0.6 Sr 0.4 MnO 3 perovskite array, to give hexapod mesostructured nanoparticles, exposes a new crystal facet which is more active for catalytic methane combustion. On fragmenting three-dimensionally ordered macroporous (3DOM) structures in a controlled manner, via a process that has been likened to retrosynthesis, hexapod-shaped building blocks can be harvested which possess a mesostructured architecture. The hexapod-shaped perovskite catalyst exhibits excellent low temperature methane oxidation activity (T 90% =438 °C; reaction rate=4.84 × 10 -7  mol m -2  s -1 ). First principle calculations suggest the fractures, which occur at weak joints within the 3DOM architecture, afford a large area of (001) surface that displays a reduced energy barrier for hydrogen abstraction, thereby facilitating methane oxidation.

  10. Phosphorylation of p37 is important for Golgi disassembly at mitosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Yayoi; Tamura, Kaori; Totsukawa, Go; Kondo, Hisao

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → p37 is phosphorylated on Serine-56 and Threonine-59 by Cdc2 at mitosis. → Phosphorylated p37 does not bind to Golgi membranes. → p37 phosphorylation inhibits p97/p37-mediated Golgi membrane fusion. -- Abstract: In mammals, the Golgi apparatus is disassembled at early mitosis and reassembled at the end of mitosis. For Golgi disassembly, membrane fusion needs to be blocked. Golgi biogenesis requires two distinct p97ATPase-mediated membrane fusion, the p97/p47 and p97/p37 pathways. We previously reported that p47 phosphorylation on Serine-140 by Cdc2 results in mitotic inhibition of the p97/p47 pathway . In this study, we demonstrate that p37 is phosphorylated on Serine-56 and Threonine-59 by Cdc2 at mitosis, and this phosphorylated p37 does not bind to Golgi membranes. Using an in vitro Golgi reassembly assay, we show that mutated p37(S56D, T59D), which mimics mitotic phosphorylation, does not cause any cisternal regrowth, indicating that p37 phosphorylation inhibits the p97/p37 pathway. Our results demonstrate that p37 phosphorylation on Serine-56 and Threonine-59 is important for Golgi disassembly at mitosis.

  11. The non-catalytic domains of Drosophila katanin regulate its abundance and microtubule-disassembly activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle D Grode

    Full Text Available Microtubule severing is a biochemical reaction that generates an internal break in a microtubule and regulation of microtubule severing is critical for cellular processes such as ciliogenesis, morphogenesis, and meiosis and mitosis. Katanin is a conserved heterodimeric ATPase that severs and disassembles microtubules, but the molecular determinants for regulation of microtubule severing by katanin remain poorly defined. Here we show that the non-catalytic domains of Drosophila katanin regulate its abundance and activity in living cells. Our data indicate that the microtubule-interacting and trafficking (MIT domain and adjacent linker region of the Drosophila katanin catalytic subunit Kat60 cooperate to regulate microtubule severing in two distinct ways. First, the MIT domain and linker region of Kat60 decrease its abundance by enhancing its proteasome-dependent degradation. The Drosophila katanin regulatory subunit Kat80, which is required to stabilize Kat60 in cells, conversely reduces the proteasome-dependent degradation of Kat60. Second, the MIT domain and linker region of Kat60 augment its microtubule-disassembly activity by enhancing its association with microtubules. On the basis of our data, we propose that the non-catalytic domains of Drosophila katanin serve as the principal sites of integration of regulatory inputs, thereby controlling its ability to sever and disassemble microtubules.

  12. Application of laser processing for disassembly of nuclear power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranov, Gennady A.; Zinchenko, A. V.; Arutyunyan, R. B.

    1998-12-01

    Provision of safety and drop of ecological risk at salvaging of nuclear submarines (NSM) of Russia Navy Forces represents one of the most actual problems of nowadays. It is necessary to remove from services of Russian Navy Forces 170 - 180 nuclear submarines by 2000. At salvaging of Russian Navy Forces NSM it should be necessary to cut out reactor compartments with more than 150 thousand tons of gross weight and to fragment terminal carcasses of submarines with gross weight of 2 million tons. Taking into account overall dimensions of salvaging objects and Euro-standard requirement on the sizes of carcass fragments, for salvaging of one NSM it is necessary to execute more than 10 km of cuts. Using of conventional methods of gas and plasma cutting of ship constructions and equipment polluted with radioactive oxides and bedding of insulation and paint and varnish materials causes contamination of working zones and environment by a mix of radioactive substances and highly toxic combustion products, nomenclature of which includes up to 50 names. Calculations carried out in the Institute of industrial and Marine Medicine have shown that salvage of just one NSM with using of gas and plasma cutting are accompanied by discharge into an environment of up to 11.5 kg of chromium oxides, up to 22.5 kg of manganese oxides, up to 97 kg of carbon oxides and up to 650 kg of nitrogen oxides. Fragmentation of such equipment by a method of directional explosion or hydraulic jet is problematic because of complexity of treated constructions and necessity to create special protective facilities, which will accumulate a bulk of radioactive and toxic discharges, as a consequence of the explosion and spreaded by shock waves and water deluges. In a number of new technological processes the cutting with using of high-power industrial lasers radiation stands out. As compared with other technological processes, laser cutting has many advantages determined by such unique properties of laser

  13. [PHAHs levels in soil samples from the E-waste disassembly sites and their sources allocation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Gao-Feng; Wang, Zi-Jian

    2009-06-15

    Soil samples (each with 3 replicates of - 1 kg, at the top 0-5 cm layer) were collected from each of the e-waste disassembly sites and the control site. Also obtained from each disassembly site were samples (each weighing - 0.2 kg) of cable coating,stuffing powder, and circuit boards chipping. The contents of 23 PBB congeners, 12 PBDE congeners, and 27 PCB congeners in soil and in their potential sources, including e-waste residues, were measured using the GC-MS5975B technique. The highest level of PBBs was found in the cable coating among the three e-waste residues, with a concentration of 35.25 ng x g(-1). The contents of low-brominated PBBs (including monobromobiphenyls and dibromobiphenyls) accounted for 38% of the total PBBs concentration observed in cable coating sample. The highest levels of PBDEs and PBDE209 were found in the stuffing powder for electronic component among the collected e-waste residues, with a concentration of 29.71 and 4.19 x 10(3) ng x g(-1). PBDE153 and PBDE183 were the most predominant PBDE congeners, with their concentration accounting for 43% and 24% of the total PBDEs concentration observed in the stuffing powder sample, respectively. Levels of PCBs in cable coating were the highest in these e-waste residues, with a concentration of 680.02 ngx g(-1). The observed values of the three PHAHs in soils from the disassembly site were considerably higher than their corresponding values observed in the control site (p < 0.05), which indicates that these PHAHs from e-waste is the pollution source of local environment.

  14. Structure assemblable and disassemblable on a racking site for the storage of nuclear reactor fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helary, L.J.; Grenon, P.

    1987-01-01

    An assemblable and disassemblable nuclear fuel element storage rack structure is described comprising: (a) a juxtapositioning of vertically arranged parallelepipedic racks; (b) a horizontal base plate; (c) at least two meshed networks of horizontal bars; (d) dismantlable fixing means connecting, in each of the networks, the bars of the first series to the bars of the second series, and in the lower network, the bars of each series of bars to the base plate; (c) at least two horizontal strips fixed to two different faces of each rack; and (f) means securing the racks located on the periphery of the rack structure against the bars located at the ends of each series

  15. Nuclear disassembly of the Pb+Au system at Elab=29 MeV per nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piasecki, E.; Bresson, S.; Lott, B.; Bougault, R.; Colin, J.; Crema, E.; Galin, J.; Gatty, B.; Genoux-Lubain, A.; Guerreau, D.; Horn, D.; Jacquet, D.; Jahnke, U.; Jastrzebski, J.; Kordyasz, A.; Le Brun, C.; Lecolley, J.F.; Louvel, M.; Morjean, M.; Paulot, C.; Pienkowski, L.; Pouthas, J.; Quednau, B.; Schroeder, W.U.; Schwinn, E.; Skulski, W.; Toeke, J.; Grand Accelerateur National d'Ions Lourds; Centre de Recherches Nucleaires Strasbourg, BP 20 CRO, 67037 Strasbourg CEDEX, France; Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire Caen, boulevard du Marechal Juin, 14032 Caen CEDEX, France; Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil; Institut de Physique Nucleaire, BP 1, 91406 Orsay CEDEX, France; Chalk River Laboratories, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario, Canda K0J 1J0; Hahn Meitner Institut, D-1000 Berlin 39, Germany; Heavy Ion Laboratory, Warsaw University, ul. Banacha 4, 02-097 Warszawa, Poland; University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627)

    1991-01-01

    Nuclei with Z up to 82 emitted in the 208 Pb+ 197 Au reaction at E lab =29 MeV per nucleon have been measured as a function of the associated neutron multiplicity. The data reveal the presence of strong correlations between character of a collision and neutron multiplicity. The trends suggest a disassembly of the nuclear system into a large number of nucleons and small fragments in the events with the highest neutron multiplicity. In such events, approximately one-third of the neturons are released from the system and fragment yields decrease in an exponential fashion with increasing mass

  16. KADIS: a program to analyse the disassembly phase of hypothetical accidents in LMFBRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmuck, P.; Jacobs, G.; Arnecke, G.

    1977-11-01

    The program KADIS models the disassembly phase during power excursions in LMFBR hypothetical accidents. KADIS is based on point kinetics in the neutronics part and on a 2-dimensional representation of the reactor core in the hydrodynamics part. The core is modeled as an ideal, compressible fluid which is heated up adiabatically during the excursion. KADIS was built up with the help of the VENUS program of Argonne National Laboratory. Several important features were added to the basic VENUS model. Therefore we give first a complete description of the mathematical models used. Secondly we provide the user with the necessary information to handle the input/output of KADIS. (orig.) [de

  17. Nuclear disassembly of the (Pb+Au) system at Elab=29 MeV per nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piasecki, E.; Kordyasz, A.; Bresson, S.; Crema, E.; Galin, J.; Guerreau, D.; Morjean, M.; Paulot, C.; Pouthas, J.; Jastrzebski, J.; Pienkowski, L.; Skulski, W.; Lott, B.; Quednau, B.; Schroder, W.U.; Toeke, J.

    1990-01-01

    Nuclei, with Z up to 82, emitted in the 208 Pb+ 197 Au reaction at E lab =29 MeV per nucleon, have been measured as a function of the associated neutron multiplicity. The data reveal the presence of strong correlations between character of a collision and neutron multiplicity. The trends suggest a disassembly of the nuclear system into a large number of nucleons and small fragments in the events with the highest neutron multiplicity. In such events, approximately one third of the neutrons are released from the system and fragments yields decrease in an exponential fashion with increasing mass

  18. [Assessing drug targeting of Yougui Pill, Zuogui Pill, and their disassembled prescriptions using infrared thermography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xia; Deng, Yan-Li; Li, Qi-Jia; Lu, Hua

    2014-04-01

    To dynamically assess drug targeting of Yougui Pill (YP) and Zuogui Pill (ZP) using infrared thermography. In this self-control experiment, five healthy volunteers were recruited. By using infrared thermography 10 to 11 thermal images of different body locations were taken from each participant after they took warm water, YP, ZP, and their dissembled prescriptions at 30, 70, 100, 130, and 160 min, respectively. The heat values in the lower quadrant abdomen, uterus, Du channel, and Shenque (CV8) were statistically analyzed after scanning for 125 times. Administration of YP and its disassembled prescriptions enhanced the heat value of the locations of the Du channel and Shenque (CV8), but did no enhance the heat value of the lower quadrant abdomen at 30 min. Administration of ZP and its disassembled prescriptions reduced the heat value in the locations of the lower quadrant abdomen, uterus, Du channel, and Shenque (CV8) at each time point. The drug targeting of ZP and YP focused on the locations of the Du channel and Shenque (CV8), not on the locations of the lower quadrant abdomen or uterus.

  19. Prey and mound disassembly, manipulation and transport by fire ant collectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Bahnisikha; Monaenkova, Daria; Goodisman, Michael A.; Goldman, Daniel

    Fire ants inhabit subterranean nests covered by a hemispherical mound of soil permeated by narrow ( 1 body length diameter) tunnels. Fire ants can use their mound for long-term food storage [Gayahan &Tschinkel, J. Insect Sci.,2008]. Since mound tunnels are narrow, we expect that in addition to prey manipulation, mound reconfiguration could also be an important aspect of the food storage strategy. Ant colonies collected from wild were allowed to build nests in containers filled with clay soil in the laboratory. These colonies were offered diverse prey embedded with lead markers, including mealworms, crickets and shrimp. Ant-prey-soil interactions on the nest surface were recorded using overhead video and subsurface using x-ray imaging. Individual ants involved in prey storage exhibited three distinct behaviors: prey maneuvering, prey dissection and mound reconfiguration. Small prey (e.g. mealworms) were collectively carried intact into the mound through a tunnel, and then disassembled within the mound. Larger prey (e.g. shrimp) were dismantled into small pieces above the surface and carried to mound tunnels. The bodies of hard medium-sized prey (e.g. crickets) were buried after limb removal and then disassembled and moved into tunnels. Soil reconfiguration occurred in all cases.

  20. Stimuli-disassembling gold nanoclusters for diagnosis of early stage oral cancer by optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang Soo; Ingato, Dominique; Wilder-Smith, Petra; Chen, Zhongping; Kwon, Young Jik

    2018-01-01

    A key design consideration in developing contrast agents is obtaining distinct, multiple signal changes in diseased tissue. Plasmonic gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) have been developed as contrast agents due to their strong surface plasmon resonance (SPR). This study aims to demonstrate that stimuli-responsive plasmonic Au nanoclusters (Au NCs) can be used as a contrast agent for optical coherence tomography (OCT) in detecting early-stage cancer. Au NPs were clustered via acid-cleavable linkers to synthesize Au NCs that disassemble under mildly acidic conditions into individual Au NPs, simultaneously diminishing SPR effect (quantified by scattering intensity) and increasing Brownian motion (quantified by Doppler variance). The acid-triggered morphological and accompanying optico-physical property changes of the acid-disassembling Au NCs were confirmed by TEM, DLS, UV/Vis, and OCT. Stimuli-responsive Au NCs were applied in a hamster check pouch model carrying early-stage squamous carcinoma tissue. The tissue was visualized by OCT imaging, which showed reduced scattering intensity and increased Doppler variance in the dysplastic tissue. This study demonstrates the promise of diagnosing early-stage cancer using molecularly programmable, inorganic nanomaterial-based contrast agents that are capable of generating multiple, stimuli-triggered diagnostic signals in early-stage cancer.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  1. Cofilin phosphorylation is elevated after F-actin disassembly induced by Rac1 depletion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Linna; Li, Jing; Zhang, Liwang

    2015-01-01

    Cytoskeletal reorganization is essential to keratinocyte function. Rac1 regulates cytoskeletal reorganization through signaling pathways such as the cofilin cascade. Cofilin severs actin filaments after activation by dephosphorylation. Rac1 was knocked out in mouse keratinocytes and it was found...... that actin filaments disassembled. In the epidermis of mice in which Rac1 was knocked out only in keratinocytes, cofilin phosphorylation was aberrantly elevated, corresponding to repression of the phosphatase slingshot1 (SSH1). These effects were independent of the signaling pathways for p21-activated kinase....../LIM kinase (Pak/LIMK), protein kinase C, or protein kinase D or generation of reactive oxygen species. Similarly, when actin polymerization was specifically inhibited or Rac1 was knocked down, cofilin phosphorylation was enhanced and SSH1 was repressed. Repression of SSH1 partially blocked actin...

  2. Chain Assembly and Disassembly Processes Differently Affect the Conformational Space of Ubiquitin Chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniss, Andreas; Schuetz, Denise; Kazemi, Sina; Pluska, Lukas; Spindler, Philipp E; Rogov, Vladimir V; Husnjak, Koraljka; Dikic, Ivan; Güntert, Peter; Sommer, Thomas; Prisner, Thomas F; Dötsch, Volker

    2018-02-06

    Ubiquitination is the most versatile posttranslational modification. The information is encoded by linkage type as well as chain length, which are translated by ubiquitin binding domains into specific signaling events. Chain topology determines the conformational space of a ubiquitin chain and adds an additional regulatory layer to this ubiquitin code. In particular, processes that modify chain length will be affected by chain conformations as they require access to the elongation or cleavage sites. We investigated conformational distributions in the context of chain elongation and disassembly using pulsed electron-electron double resonance spectroscopy in combination with molecular modeling. Analysis of the conformational space of diubiquitin revealed conformational selection or remodeling as mechanisms for chain recognition during elongation or hydrolysis, respectively. Chain elongation to tetraubiquitin increases the sampled conformational space, suggesting that a high intrinsic flexibility of K48-linked chains may contribute to efficient proteasomal degradation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Surplus weapons plutonium: Technologies for pit disassembly/conversion and MOX fuel fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toevs, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    This paper will provide a description of the technologies involved in the disposition of plutonium from surplus nuclear weapon components (pits), based on pit disassembly and conversion and on fabrication of mixed oxide (MOX) fuel for disposition through irradiation in nuclear reactors. The MOX/Reactor option is the baseline disposition plan for both the US and russian for plutonium from pits and other clean plutonium metal and oxide. In the US, impure plutonium in various forms will be converted to oxide and immobilized in glass or ceramic, surrounded by vitrified high level waste to provide a radiation barrier. A similar fate is expected for impure material in Russia as well. The immobilization technologies will not be discussed. Following technical descriptions, a discussion of options for monitoring the plutonium during these processes will be provided

  4. Electrostatic assembly/disassembly of nanoscaled colloidosomes for light-triggered cargo release

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Song

    2015-04-27

    Colloidosome capsules possess the potential for the encapsulation and release of molecular and macromolecular cargos. However, the stabilization of the colloidosome shell usually requires an additional covalent crosslinking which irreversibly seals the capsules, and greatly limits their applications in large-cargos release. Herein we report nanoscaled colloidosomes designed by the electrostatic assembly of organosilica nanoparticles (NPs) with oppositely charged surfaces (rather than covalent bonds), arising from different contents of a bridged nitrophenylene-alkoxysilane [NB; 3-nitro-N-(3-(triethoxysilyl)propyl)-4-(((3-(triethoxysilyl)propyl)-amino)methyl)benzamid] derivative in the silica. The surface charge of the positively charged NPs was reversed by light irradiation because of a photoreaction in the NB moieties, which impacted the electrostatic interactions between NPs and disassembled the colloidosome nanosystems. This design was successfully applied for the encapsulation and light-triggered release of cargos. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. What North America's skeleton crew of megafauna tells us about community disassembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Matt

    2017-01-11

    Functional trait diversity is increasingly used to model future changes in community structure despite a poor understanding of community disassembly's effects on functional diversity. By tracking the functional diversity of the North American large mammal fauna through the End-Pleistocene megafaunal extinction and up to the present, I show that contrary to expectations, functionally unique species are no more likely to go extinct than functionally redundant species. This makes total functional richness loss no worse than expected given similar taxonomic richness declines. However, where current species sit in functional space relative to pre-anthropogenic baselines is not random and likely explains ecosystem functional changes better than total functional richness declines. Prehistoric extinctions have left many extant species functionally isolated and future extinctions will cause even more rapid drops in functional richness. © 2017 The Author(s).

  6. Permo-Triassic anatexis, continental rifting and the disassembly of western Pangaea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Ryan; Spikings, Richard; Gerdes, Axel; Ulianov, Alexey; Mora, Andres; Villagómez, Diego; Putlitz, Benita; Chiaradia, Massimo

    2014-03-01

    Crustal anatectites are frequently observed along ocean-continent active margins, although their origins are disputed with interpretations varying between rift-related and collisional. We report geochemical, isotopic and geochronological data that define an ~ 1500 km long belt of S-type meta-granites along the Andes of Colombia and Ecuador, which formed during 275-223 Ma. These are accompanied by amphibolitized tholeiitic basaltic dykes that yield concordant zircon U-Pb dates ranging between 240 and 223 Ma. A model is presented which places these rocks within a compressive Permian arc setting that existed during the amalgamation of westernmost Pangaea. Anatexis and mafic intrusion during 240-223 Ma are interpreted to have occurred during continental rifting, which culminated in the formation of oceanic crust and initiated the break-up of western Pangaea. Compression during 275-240 Ma generated small volumes of crustal melting. Rifting during 240-225 Ma was characterized by basaltic underplating, the intrusion of tholeiitic basalts and a peak in crustal melting. Tholeiitic intrusions during 225-216 Ma isotopically resemble depleted mantle and yield no evidence for contamination by continental crust, and we assign this period to the onset of continental drift. Dissected ophiolitic sequences in northern Colombia yield zircon U-Pb dates of 216 Ma. The Permo-Triassic margin of Ecuador and Colombia exhibits close temporal, faunal and geochemical similarities with various crustal blocks that form the basement to parts of Mexico, and thus these may represent the relict conjugate margin to NW Gondwana. The magmatic record of the early disassembly of Pangaea spans ~ 20 Ma (240-216 Ma), and the duration of rifting and rift-drift transition is similar to that documented in Cretaceous-Tertiary rift settings such as the West Iberia-Newfoundland conjugate margins, and the Taupo-Lau-Havre System, where rifting and continental disassembly also occurred over periods lasting ~ 20 Ma.

  7. Intracellular Disassembly of Self-Quenched Nanoparticles Turns NIR Fluorescence on for Sensing Furin Activity in Cells and in Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yue; Zhang, Jia; Cao, Qinjingwen; An, Linna; Liang, Gaolin

    2015-06-16

    There has been no report on enzyme-controlled disassembly of self-quenched NIR fluorescent nanoparticles turning fluorescence on for specific detection/imaging of the enzyme's activity in vitro and in vivo. Herein, we reported the rational design of new NIR probe 1 whose fluorescence signal was self-quenched upon reduction-controlled condensation and subsequent assembly of its nanoparticles (i.e., 1-NPs). Then disassembly of 1-NPs by furin turned the fluorescence on. Employing this enzymatic strategy, we successfully applied 1-NPs for NIR detection of furin in vitro and NIR imaging furin activity in living cells. Moreover, we also applied 1-NPs for discriminative NIR imaging of MDA-MB-468 tumors in nude mice. This NIR probe 1 might be further developed for tumor-targeted imaging in routine preclinical studies or even in patients in the future.

  8. Device for disassembling and reassembling a main steam isolation valve of a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokohama, T.M.; Fujsawa, T.I.

    1986-01-01

    A device is described for disassembling and reassembling a main steam isolation valve of the type in which the isolation valve installed at an angle relative to a main steam pipe extended from a nuclear reactor is withdrawn along an axis of the isolation valve from the main steam pipe and then the isolation valve is reinserted into the main steam pipe. The device consists of a supporting stand mounted on a stationary member thermatically isolated from the isolation valve and adapted to move toward or away from the isolation valve; guide bars each mounted on the supporting stand such that an angle of inclination of the guide bar can be arbitrarily adjusted, the guide bars being extended in parallel with the axis of the isolation valve; a supporting member mounted on the isolation valve for supporting the isolation valve such that the isolation valve can be freely moved over the guide bars; and drive means mounted on the guide bar and engaged with the isolation valve so as to cause upward or downward movement of the isolation valve along the guide bars

  9. Disassembly of actin structures by nanosecond pulsed electric field is a downstream effect of cell swelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakhomov, Andrei G; Xiao, Shu; Pakhomova, Olga N; Semenov, Iurii; Kuipers, Marjorie A; Ibey, Bennett L

    2014-12-01

    Disruption of the actin cytoskeleton structures was reported as one of the characteristic effects of nanosecond-duration pulsed electric field (nsPEF) in both mammalian and plant cells. We utilized CHO cells that expressed the monomeric fluorescent protein (mApple) tagged to actin to test if nsPEF modifies the cell actin directly or as a consequence of cell membrane permeabilization. A train of four 600-ns pulses at 19.2 kV/cm (2 Hz) caused immediate cell membrane poration manifested by YO-PRO-1 dye uptake, gradual cell rounding and swelling. Concurrently, bright actin features were replaced by dimmer and uniform fluorescence of diffuse actin. To block the nsPEF-induced swelling, the bath buffer was isoosmotically supplemented with an electropore-impermeable solute (sucrose). A similar addition of a smaller, electropore-permeable solute (adonitol) served as a control. We demonstrated that sucrose efficiently blocked disassembly of actin features by nsPEF, whereas adonitol did not. Sucrose also attenuated bleaching of mApple-tagged actin in nsPEF-treated cells (as integrated over the cell volume), although did not fully prevent it. We conclude that disintegration of the actin cytoskeleton was a result of cell swelling, which, in turn, was caused by cell permeabilization by nsPEF and transmembrane diffusion of solutes which led to the osmotic imbalance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Substantiation of the admissable concentration of radionuclides in the utilization of concrete from disassembled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engovatov, I.A.; Mashkovich, V.P.; Morev, M.N.

    1995-01-01

    The complete or partial disassembly of the buildings and systems of a modern nuclear power plant results in the formation of hundreds of thousands of tons of wastes. More than 90% of this mass consists of reinforced concrete. Only a small fraction of these materials is contaminated and/or activated up to high level and must be treated as radioactive wastes that must be buried. For this reason, it is helpful to consider a variant of recycling of some of the wastes and secondary utilization of these wastes in different industrial production processes. In this paper, we analyze the concrete that is freed when a nuclear power plant is decommissioned, and in particular, we examine three scenarios: (1) stockpiling and long-term storage of concrete at an industrial site, (2) highway construction, and (3) industrial building construction. Admissable radionuclide concentrations of several isotopes are tabulated for each scenario, and the results provide the basic information for the development of standards for the utilization of the concrete wastes produced during the decommissioning of nuclear power plants

  11. Role of a reducing environment in disassembly of the herpesvirus tegument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newcomb, William W. [Department of Microbiology Immunology and Cancer Biology, University of Virginia Health System, Box 800734, University of Virginia Health System, 1300 Jefferson Park Ave. Charlottesville, VA 22908 (United States); Jones, Lisa M. [Department of Chemistry, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Dee, Alexander [Department of Molecular, Microbial and Structural Biology, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT 06030 (United States); Chaudhry, Farid [Department of Microbiology Immunology and Cancer Biology, University of Virginia Health System, Box 800734, University of Virginia Health System, 1300 Jefferson Park Ave. Charlottesville, VA 22908 (United States); Brown, Jay C., E-mail: JCB2G@VIRGINIA.EDU [Department of Microbiology Immunology and Cancer Biology, University of Virginia Health System, Box 800734, University of Virginia Health System, 1300 Jefferson Park Ave. Charlottesville, VA 22908 (United States)

    2012-09-15

    Initiation of infection by herpes family viruses involves a step in which most of the virus tegument becomes detached from the capsid. Detachment takes place in the host cell cytosol near the virus entry site and it is followed by dispersal of tegument proteins and disappearance of the tegument as a distinct entity. Here we describe the results of experiments designed to test the idea that the reducing environment of the cytosol may contribute to tegument detachment and disassembly. Non-ionic detergent was used to remove the membrane of purified herpes simplex virus under control and reducing conditions. The effects on the tegument were then examined by SDS-PAGE and electron microscopy. Protein analysis demonstrated that most major tegument proteins were removed under both oxidizing and reducing conditions except for UL49 which required a reducing environment. It is proposed therefore that the reducing conditions in the cytosol are involved in removal of UL49 protein. Electron microscopic analysis revealed that capsids produced under oxidizing conditions contained a coating of protein that was absent in reduced virions and which correlated uniquely with the presence of UL49. This capsid-associated layer is suggested to be the location of UL49 in the extracted virion.

  12. Leukocytes Breach Endothelial Barriers by Insertion of Nuclear Lobes and Disassembly of Endothelial Actin Filaments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagi Barzilai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The endothelial cytoskeleton is a barrier for leukocyte transendothelial migration (TEM. Mononuclear and polymorphonuclear leukocytes generate gaps of similar micron-scale size when squeezing through inflamed endothelial barriers in vitro and in vivo. To elucidate how leukocytes squeeze through these barriers, we co-tracked the endothelial actin filaments and leukocyte nuclei in real time. Nuclear squeezing involved either preexistent or de novo-generated lobes inserted into the leukocyte lamellipodia. Leukocyte nuclei reversibly bent the endothelial actin stress fibers. Surprisingly, formation of both paracellular gaps and transcellular pores by squeezing leukocytes did not require Rho kinase or myosin II-mediated endothelial contractility. Electron-microscopic analysis suggested that nuclear squeezing displaced without condensing the endothelial actin filaments. Blocking endothelial actin turnover abolished leukocyte nuclear squeezing, whereas increasing actin filament density did not. We propose that leukocyte nuclei must disassemble the thin endothelial actin filaments interlaced between endothelial stress fibers in order to complete TEM.

  13. Disassembly of Bacterial Biofilms by the Self-Assembled Glycolipids Derived from Renewable Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Yadavali Siva; Miryala, Sandeep; Lalitha, Krishnamoorthy; Ranjitha, K; Barbhaiwala, Shehnaz; Sridharan, Vellaisamy; Maheswari, C Uma; Srinandan, C S; Nagarajan, Subbiah

    2017-11-22

    More than 80% of chronic infections of bacteria are caused by biofilms. It is also a long-term survival strategy of the pathogens in a nonhost environment. Several amphiphilic molecules have been used in the past to potentially disrupt biofilms; however, the involvement of multistep synthesis, complicated purification and poor yield still remains a major problem. Herein, we report a facile synthesis of glycolipid based surfactant from renewable feedstocks in good yield. The nature of carbohydrate unit present in glycolipid influence the ring chain tautomerism, which resulted in the existence of either cyclic structure or both cyclic and acyclic structures. Interestingly, these glycolipids self-assemble into gel in highly hydrophobic solvents and vegetable oils, and displayed foam formation in water. The potential application of these self-assembled glycolipids to disrupt preformed biofilm was examined against various pathogens. It was observed that glycolipid 6a disrupts Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes biofilm, while the compound 6c was effective in disassembling uropathogenic E. coli and Salmonella enterica Typhimurium biofilms. Altogether, the supramolecular self-assembled materials, either as gel or as surfactant solution could be potentially used for surface cleansing in hospital environments or the food processing industries to effectively reduce pathogenic biofilms.

  14. Role of a reducing environment in disassembly of the herpesvirus tegument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newcomb, William W.; Jones, Lisa M.; Dee, Alexander; Chaudhry, Farid; Brown, Jay C.

    2012-01-01

    Initiation of infection by herpes family viruses involves a step in which most of the virus tegument becomes detached from the capsid. Detachment takes place in the host cell cytosol near the virus entry site and it is followed by dispersal of tegument proteins and disappearance of the tegument as a distinct entity. Here we describe the results of experiments designed to test the idea that the reducing environment of the cytosol may contribute to tegument detachment and disassembly. Non-ionic detergent was used to remove the membrane of purified herpes simplex virus under control and reducing conditions. The effects on the tegument were then examined by SDS-PAGE and electron microscopy. Protein analysis demonstrated that most major tegument proteins were removed under both oxidizing and reducing conditions except for UL49 which required a reducing environment. It is proposed therefore that the reducing conditions in the cytosol are involved in removal of UL49 protein. Electron microscopic analysis revealed that capsids produced under oxidizing conditions contained a coating of protein that was absent in reduced virions and which correlated uniquely with the presence of UL49. This capsid-associated layer is suggested to be the location of UL49 in the extracted virion.

  15. Analysis of the stress-deformed condition of the disassembly parabolic antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odinets, M. N.; Kaygorodtseva, N. V.; Krysova, I. V.

    2018-01-01

    Active development of satellite communications and computer-aided design systems raises the problem of designing parabolic antennas on a new round of development. The aim of the work was to investigate the influence of the design of the mirror of a parabolic antenna on its endurance under wind load. The research task was an automated analysis of the stress-deformed condition of various designs of computer models of a paraboloid mirror (segmented or holistic) at modeling the exploitation conditions. The peculiarity of the research was that the assembly model of the antenna’s mirror was subjected to rigid connections on the contacting surfaces of the segments and only then the finite element grid was generated. The analysis showed the advantage of the design of the demountable antenna, which consists of cyclic segments, in front of the construction of the holistic antenna. Calculation of the stress-deformed condition of the antennas allows us to conclude that dividing the design of the antenna’s mirror on parabolic and cyclic segments increases it strength and rigidity. In the future, this can be used to minimize the mass of antenna and the dimensions of the disassembled antenna. The presented way of modeling a mirror of a parabolic antenna using to the method of the finite-element analysis can be used in the production of antennas.

  16. Spent fuel disassembly hardware and other non-fuel bearing components: characterization, disposal cost estimates, and proposed repository acceptance requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luksic, A.T.; McKee, R.W.; Daling, P.M.; Konzek, G.J.; Ludwick, J.D.; Purcell, W.L.

    1986-10-01

    There are two categories of waste considered in this report. The first is the spent fuel disassembly (SFD) hardware. This consists of the hardware remaining after the fuel pins have been removed from the fuel assembly. This includes end fittings, spacer grids, water rods (BWR) or guide tubes (PWR) as appropriate, and assorted springs, fasteners, etc. The second category is other non-fuel-bearing (NFB) components the DOE has agreed to accept for disposal, such as control rods, fuel channels, etc., under Appendix E of the standard utiltiy contract (10 CFR 961). It is estimated that there will be approximately 150 kg of SFD and NFB waste per average metric ton of uranium (MTU) of spent uranium. PWR fuel accounts for approximately two-thirds of the average spent-fuel mass but only 50 kg of the SFD and NFB waste, with most of that being spent fuel disassembly hardware. BWR fuel accounts for one-third of the average spent-fuel mass and the remaining 100 kg of the waste. The relatively large contribution of waste hardware in BWR fuel, will be non-fuel-bearing components, primarily consisting of the fuel channels. Chapters are devoted to a description of spent fuel disassembly hardware and non-fuel assembly components, characterization of activated components, disposal considerations (regulatory requirements, economic analysis, and projected annual waste quantities), and proposed acceptance requirements for spent fuel disassembly hardware and other non-fuel assembly components at a geologic repository. The economic analysis indicates that there is a large incentive for volume reduction.

  17. Clathrin coat disassembly by the yeast Hsc70/Ssa1p and auxilin/Swa2p proteins observed by single-particle burst analysis spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krantz, Kelly C; Puchalla, Jason; Thapa, Rajan; Kobayashi, Callie; Bisher, Margaret; Viehweg, Julie; Carr, Chavela M; Rye, Hays S

    2013-09-13

    The role of clathrin-coated vesicles in receptor-mediated endocytosis is conserved among eukaryotes, and many of the proteins required for clathrin coat assembly and disassembly have orthologs in yeast and mammals. In yeast, dozens of proteins have been identified as regulators of the multistep reaction required for endocytosis, including those that regulate disassembly of the clathrin coat. In mammalian systems, clathrin coat disassembly has been reconstituted using neuronal clathrin baskets mixed with the purified chaperone ATPase 70-kDa heat shock cognate (Hsc70), plus a clathrin-specific co-chaperone, such as the synaptic protein auxilin. Yet, despite previous characterization of the yeast Hsc70 ortholog, Ssa1p, and the auxilin-like ortholog, Swa2p, testing mechanistic models for disassembly of nonneuronal clathrin coats has been limited by the absence of a functional reconstitution assay. Here we use single-particle burst analysis spectroscopy, in combination with fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, to follow the population dynamics of fluorescently tagged yeast clathrin baskets in the presence of purified Ssa1p and Swa2p. An advantage of this combined approach for mechanistic studies is the ability to measure, as a function of time, changes in the number and size of objects from a starting population to the reaction products. Our results indicate that Ssa1p and Swa2p cooperatively disassemble yeast clathrin baskets into fragments larger than the individual triskelia, suggesting that disassembly of clathrin-coated vesicles may proceed through a partially uncoated intermediate.

  18. Sodium removal disassembly and examination of the Fermi secondary sodium pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maffei, H.P.; Funk, C.W.; Ballif, J.L.

    1974-01-01

    The Fermi secondary pump is a centrifugal single stage design. The pump had been operated more than 42,000 hours between 450 and 800 0 F. Sodium was drained from the pump in 1973 and the system was back filled with carbon dioxide. The pump was fabricated for 2.25 Cr-1 Mo Croloy steel. Prior to cleaning the pump was inerted and heated with 150 0 F nitrogen using the pump casing as the containment vessel. The water-vapor-nitrogen process was used in three increasing stages of water concentration. The hydrogen concentration in the discharge line was followed as an indicator of the sodium-water reaction rate. Upon completion of the hydrogen evolution, the pump was rinsed several times with hot water. Six pounds of sodium were removed from the pump during a process cycle of 79 hours including rinsing. The maximum pump temperature recorded was 175 0 F with no variation exceeding 10 0 F. The hydrogen concentration in the effluent provided a very satisfactory index for control of the reaction by adjustment of the water-vapor concentration feed to the system. Rinsing effectiveness was limited by a pool of water in the volute that was not drainable with the available system hook up. Sodium and its compounds were removed from all internal surfaces that could be observed by the first stage of disassembly. All such surfaces were coated with a black deposit. Areas above the sodium liquid level were coated with a vermillion colored oxide. Sodium was found on the (1) threads of the impeller nut lock screw, (2) impeller nut-tapered shaft interface, and (3) vapor deposited sodium was found in the oil seal

  19. Methylation-regulated decommissioning of multimeric PP2A complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Cheng-Guo; Zheng, Aiping; Jiang, Li; Rowse, Michael; Stanevich, Vitali; Chen, Hui; Li, Yitong; Satyshur, Kenneth A.; Johnson, Benjamin; Gu, Ting-Jia; Liu, Zuojia; Xing, Yongna

    2017-12-01

    Dynamic assembly/disassembly of signaling complexes are crucial for cellular functions. Specialized latency and activation chaperones control the biogenesis of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) holoenzymes that contain a common scaffold and catalytic subunits and a variable regulatory subunit. Here we show that the butterfly-shaped TIPRL (TOR signaling pathway regulator) makes highly integrative multibranching contacts with the PP2A catalytic subunit, selective for the unmethylated tail and perturbing/inactivating the phosphatase active site. TIPRL also makes unusual wobble contacts with the scaffold subunit, allowing TIPRL, but not the overlapping regulatory subunits, to tolerate disease-associated PP2A mutations, resulting in reduced holoenzyme assembly and enhanced inactivation of mutant PP2A. Strikingly, TIPRL and the latency chaperone, α4, coordinate to disassemble active holoenzymes into latent PP2A, strictly controlled by methylation. Our study reveals a mechanism for methylation-responsive inactivation and holoenzyme disassembly, illustrating the complexity of regulation/signaling, dynamic complex disassembly, and disease mutations in cancer and intellectual disability.

  20. Control of cell volume in the J774 macrophage by microtubule disassembly and cyclic AMP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melmed, RN; Karanian, PJ; Berlin, RD

    1981-01-01

    We have explored the possibilities that cell volume is regulated by the status of microtubule assembly and cyclic AMP metabolism and may be coordinated with shape change. Treatment of J774.2 mouse macrophages with colchicine caused rapid microtubule disassembly and was associated with a striking increase (from 15-20 to more than 90 percent) in the proportion of cells with a large protuberance at one pole. This provided a simple experimental system in which shape changes occurred in virtually an entire cell population in suspension. Parallel changes in cell volume could then be quantified by isotope dilution techniques. We found that the shape change caused by colchicine was accompanied by a decrease in cell volume of approximately 20 percent. Nocodozole, but not lumicolchicine, caused identical changes in both cell shape and cell volume. The volume loss was not due to cell lysis nor to inhibition of pinocytosis. The mechanism of volume loss was also examined. Colchicine induced a small but reproducible increase in activity of the ouabain-sensitive Na(+), K(+)-dependent ATPase. However, inhibition of this enzyme/transport system by ouabain did not change cell volume nor did it block the colchicines-induced decrease in volume. One the other hand, SITS (4’acetamido, 4-isothiocyano 2,2’ disulfonic acid stilbene), an inhibitor of anion transport, inhibited the effects of colchicines, thus suggesting a role for an anion transport system in cell volume regulation. Because colchicine is known to activate adenylate cyclase in several systems and because cell shape changes are often induced by hormones that elevate cyclic AMP, we also examined the effects of cyclic AMP on cell volume. Agents that act to increase syclic AMP (cholera toxin, which activates adenylate cyclase; IBMX, and inhibitor of phosphodiesterase; and dibutyryl cyclic AMP) all caused a volume decrease comparable to that of colchicine. To define the effective metabolic pathway, we studied two mutants of J

  1. Characterization of spent fuel disassembly hardware and nonfuel bearing components and their relationship to 10 CFR 61

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luksic, A.T.

    1987-01-01

    There are a variety of wastes that will be disposed of by the federal waste management system under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. The primary waste form is spent nuclear fuel. Currently, this is in the form of fuel assemblies. If the fuel pins are removed from the fuel assembly, as in consolidation, then the fuel pins and the structural portion of the fuel assembly must be considered as separate waste streams. The structural hardware consists of end fittings, grid spacers, water rods (BWR 8 x 8 only), control rod guide tubes (PWR only) and various nuts, washers, springs, etc. These are referred to as spent fuel disassembly (SFD) hardware. There will also be a number of other components which are defined in Appendix E of 10 CFR 961, the standard utility contract. These are referred to as nonfuel-bearing (NFB) components, and include fuel channels (BWR), control rods, fission chambers, neutron sources, thimble plugs, and other components. This paper characterizes spent fuel disassembly (SFD) hardware, and nonfuel-bearing (NFB) components for the most abundant fuel types. The descriptions and figures given are representative for the items described. Many subvariants exist due to design evaluation, which are not covered. This paper also discusses the relationship of these wastes to 10 CFR 61 waste classification

  2. Photosensitizer enhanced disassembly of amphiphilic micelle for ROS-response targeted tumor therapy in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Liangliang; Yu, Yonglin; Luo, Zhong; Li, Menghuan; Chen, Weizhen; Shen, Xinkun; Chen, Feng; Sun, Qiang; Zhang, Qingfeng; Gu, Hao; Cai, Kaiyong

    2016-10-01

    This study reports a reactive oxygen species (ROS) sensitive drug delivery system based on amphiphilic polymer of poly(propylene sulfide)-polyethylene glycol-serine-folic acid (PPS-mPEG-Ser-FA). The polymer could form homogeneous micelles with an average diameter of around 80 nm through self-assembly, which would then be loaded with the singlet oxygen-generating photosensitizer of zinc phthalocyanine (ZNPC) and anti-cancer drug of DOX. The disassembly of micelles could be triggered by the hydrophobic to hydrophilic transition of the PPS core in response to ROS-induced oxidation in vitro. ZNPC molecules are capable of producing ROS under laser irradiation, which results in the rapid disassembly of micelles and releasing of the anti-tumor drug for tumor therapy under physiological condition otherwise. Moreover, the excessive ROS production deriving from ZNPC synergically induces cells apoptosis. Furthermore, the DOX loaded amphiphilic micelles could be internalized by tumor cells via FA receptor-mediated endocytosis to effectively inhibit the tumor growth in vivo, while with only minimal toxic side effects. The results in vitro and in vivo consistently demonstrate that the light-responsive micelle is a promising biodegradable nanocarrier for on-command drug release and targeted tumor therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. New findings on the onset of thermal disassembly in spallation reactions; Nouvelles approches pour l'etude de la multifragmentation thermique dans la spallation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napolitani, P

    2004-09-15

    Thermal multifragmentation is the process of multi body disassembly of a hot nucleus when the excitation is almost purely thermal i.e. dynamical effects like compression (characteristic of ion-ion collisions at Fermi energy) are negligible. Suited reactions are proton induced collision or ion-ion abrasion at relativistic incident energy. Thus we measured four systems at FRS (Fragment separator, GSI, Darmstadt) in inverse kinematics: Fe{sup 56}+p, Fe{sup 56}+Ti(nat), Xe{sup 136}+p, Xe{sup 136}+Ti(nat) a 1 A*GeV. The inverse kinematics allows to observe all particles without any threshold in energy. This is a great advantage compared to experiments in direct kinematics, because only in inverse kinematics it is possible to obtain complete velocity spectra (without a hole for low velocities) for fully identified isotopes. The complex shape of the velocity spectra allows to identify the different deexcitation channels and it clearly shows the transition from a chaotic-dominated process (Gaussian cloud in velocity space) to a direct Coulomb- (or eventually expansion-) dominated process (shell of a sphere in velocity space). Different possible descriptions of the reaction process are discussed, based either on asymmetric fission or multifragmentation. The resulting physical picture is especially interesting for the Fe{sup 56}+p, and Xe{sup 136}+p systems: proton induced collisions could result in the split of the system in two or more fragments due to a fast break-up process. In this case, the configuration of the break-up partition is very asymmetric. The discussion will be extended to other characteristics, like the restoring of nuclear structure features in the isotopic production and the temperature dependence of the isotopic composition of the residues. (author)

  4. Synaptonemal complexes , transverse filaments and interference in mouse meiotic recombination; an immunocytological study = Synaptonemale complexen, transversale filamenten en interferentie bij de meiotsche recombinatie bij de muis; een immuuncytologische studie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de E.

    2007-01-01

    During the prophase of the first meiotic division, homologous chromosomes (homologs} recognize each other and form stable pairs (bivalents). Subsequently non-sister chromatids of homologous chromosomes exchange corresponding parts (crossing over). These events are accompanied by the formation of a

  5. Biomedical exploitation of chitin and chitosan via mechano-chemical disassembly, electrospinning, dissolution in imidazolium ionic liquids, and supercritical drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzzarelli, Riccardo A A

    2011-01-01

    Recently developed technology permits to optimize simultaneously surface area, porosity, density, rigidity and surface morphology of chitin-derived materials of biomedical interest. Safe and ecofriendly disassembly of chitin has superseded the dangerous acid hydrolysis and provides higher yields and scaling-up possibilities: the chitosan nanofibrils are finding applications in reinforced bone scaffolds and composite dressings for dermal wounds. Electrospun chitosan nanofibers, in the form of biocompatible thin mats and non-wovens, are being actively studied: composites of gelatin + chitosan + polyurethane have been proposed for cardiac valves and for nerve conduits; fibers are also manufactured from electrospun particles that self-assemble during subsequent freeze-drying. Ionic liquids (salts of alkylated imidazolium) are suitable as non-aqueous solvents that permit desirable reactions to occur for drug delivery purposes. Gel drying with supercritical CO(2) leads to structures most similar to the extracellular matrix, even when the chitosan is crosslinked, or in combination with metal oxides of interest in orthopedics.

  6. T1R3 homomeric sweet taste receptor regulates adipogenesis through Gαs-mediated microtubules disassembly and Rho activation in 3T3-L1 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosuke Masubuchi

    Full Text Available We previously reported that 3T3-L1 cells express a functional sweet taste receptor possibly as a T1R3 homomer that is coupled to Gs and negatively regulates adipogenesis by a Gαs-mediated but cAMP-independent mechanism. Here, we show that stimulation of this receptor with sucralose or saccharin induced disassembly of the microtubules in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, which was attenuated by overexpression of the dominant-negative mutant of Gαs (Gαs-G226A. In contrast, overexpression of the constitutively active mutant of Gαs (Gαs-Q227L as well as treatment with cholera toxin or isoproterenol but not with forskolin caused disassembly of the microtubules. Sweetener-induced microtubule disassembly was accompanied by activation of RhoA and Rho-associated kinase (ROCK. This was attenuated with by knockdown of GEF-H1, a microtubule-localized guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rho GTPase. Furthermore, overexpression of the dominant-negative mutant of RhoA (RhoA-T19N blocked sweetener-induced dephosphorylation of Akt and repression of PPARγ and C/EBPα in the early phase of adipogenic differentiation. These results suggest that the T1R3 homomeric sweet taste receptor negatively regulates adipogenesis through Gαs-mediated microtubule disassembly and consequent activation of the Rho/ROCK pathway.

  7. Evidence of the Disassembly of α-Cyclodextrin-octylamine Inclusion Compounds Conjugated to Gold Nanoparticles via Thermal and Photothermal Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataly Silva

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Cyclodextrin (CD molecules form inclusion compounds (ICs, generating dimers that are capable of encapsulating molecules derived from long-chain hydrocarbons. The aim of this study is to evaluate the structural changes experienced by ICs in solution with increasing temperatures. For this, a nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR titration was performed to determinate the stoichiometric α-cyclodextrin (α-CD:octylamine (OA 2:1 and binding constant (k = 2.16 M−2 of ICs. Solution samples of α-CD-OA ICs conjugated with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs were prepared, and 1H-NMR spectra at different temperatures were recorded. Comparatively, 1H-NMR spectra of the sample irradiated with a laser with tunable wavelengths, with plasmons of conjugated AuNPs, were recorded. In this work, we present evidence of the disassembly of ICs conjugated with AuNPs. Thermal studies demonstrated that, at 114 °C, there are reversible rearrangements of the host and guests in the ICs in a solid state. Migration movements of the guest molecules from the CD cavity were monitored via temperature-dependent 1H-NMR, and were verified comparing the chemical shifts of octylamine dissolved in deuterated dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO-d6 with the OA molecule included in α-CD dissolved in the same solvent. It was observed that, at 117 °C, OA exited the α-CD cavity. CD IC dimer disassembly was also observed when the sample was irradiated with green laser light.

  8. Disassembling the Classroom--An Ethnographic Approach to the Materiality of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehl, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    The ethnography of education is challenged by the materiality of the classroom. Ethnographic accounts of school lessons mostly highlight language and interaction and offer no suitable methodology for researching objects and their role in the classroom. Moreover, objects are part of complex and interwoven assemblages involving human actors,…

  9. Disassembly of hot nuclear matter formed in Au-induced reactions near the Fermi energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delis, D.N.

    1993-09-01

    Complex fragment emission has been studied in the 60 MeV/A 197 Au + 12 C, 27 Al, 51 V, nat Cu, and 197 Au reactions. Velocity spectra, angular distributions and cross sections have been constructed for each target from the inclusive data. Coincidence data including 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-fold events have also been examined. Furthermore neutron multiplicity distributions have been obtained for the above reactions by utilizing a novel neutron calorimetric approach

  10. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 117: Area 26 Pluto Disassembly Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Burmeister

    2009-06-01

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 117: Area 26 Pluto Disassembly Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. This CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management. Corrective Action Unit 117 comprises Corrective Action Site (CAS) 26-41-01, Pluto Disassembly Facility, located in Area 26 of the Nevada Test Site. The purpose of this CR is to provide documentation supporting the completed corrective actions and provide data confirming that the closure objectives for CAU 117 were met. To achieve this, the following actions were performed: • Review the current site conditions, including the concentration and extent of contamination. • Implement any corrective actions necessary to protect human health and the environment. • Properly dispose of corrective action and investigation wastes. • Document Notice of Completion and closure of CAU 117 issued by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection. From May 2008 through February 2009, closure activities were performed as set forth in the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 117, Area 26 Pluto Disassembly Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. The purpose of the activities as defined during the data quality objectives process were: • Determine whether contaminants of concern (COCs) are present. • If COCs are present, determine their nature and extent, implement appropriate corrective actions, and properly dispose of wastes. Analytes detected during the closure activities were evaluated against final action levels to determine COCs for CAU 117. Assessment of the data generated from closure activities indicated that the final action levels were exceeded for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) reported as total Aroclor and

  11. Disassembly of hot nuclear matter formed in Au-induced reactions near the Fermi energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delis, Dimitrios Nicholas [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1993-09-01

    Complex fragment emission has been studied in the 60 MeV/A 197Au + 12C, 27Al, 51V, natCu, and 197Au reactions. Velocity spectra, angular distributions and cross sections have been constructed for each target from the inclusive data. Coincidence data including 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-fold events have also been examined. Furthermore neutron multiplicity distributions have been obtained for the above reactions by utilizing a novel neutron calorimetric approach.

  12. Fast reactor fuel reprocessing plant D1206: disassembly cave window 4 replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, H.G.; Beckitt, S.; Potts, A.B.

    1996-01-01

    At UKAEA's fast reactor reprocessing plant at Dounreay, the containment glass on the zinc bromide cave viewing window tank failed after 13 years active use. External shielding was fitted and the window tank subsequently drained to make it safe. Fuel cropping operations carried out behind the window were resited to enable cave work to continue whilst a project team made arrangements and plans to replace the damaged window. Because of the complexity of the task and high (alpha, beta, gamma and neutron) radiation levels in excess of 500 Sv/hr a rehearsal facility was built to develop the remote handling techniques to be employed in the task. (UK)

  13. Dimethyl Sulfoxide Induced Destabilization and Disassembly of Various Structural Variants of Insulin Fibrils Monitored by Vibrational Circular Dichroism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ge; Babenko, Viktoria; Dzwolak, Wojciech; Keiderling, Timothy A

    2015-12-15

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) induced destabilization of insulin fibrils has been previously studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and interpreted in terms of secondary structural changes. The variation of this process for fibrils with different types of higher-order morphological structures remained unclear. Here, we utilize vibrational circular dichroism (VCD), which has been reported to provide a useful biophysical probe of the supramolecular chirality of amyloid fibrils, to characterize changes in the macroscopic chirality following DMSO-induced disassembly for two types of insulin fibrils formed under different conditions, at different reduced pH values with and without added salt and agitation. We confirm that very high concentrations of DMSO can disaggregate both types of insulin fibrils, which initially maintained a β-sheet conformation and eventually changed their secondary structure to a disordered form. The two types responded to varying concentrations of DMSO, and disaggregation followed different mechanisms. Interconversion of specific insulin fibril morphological types also occurred during the destabilization process as monitored by VCD. With transmission electron microscopy, we were able to correlate the changes in VCD sign patterns to alteration of morphology of the insulin fibrils.

  14. Studies and research concerning BNFP. Spent fuel disassembly: increasing hot-cell storage capacity at the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.T.

    1979-10-01

    This report presents the results of work performed at AGNS in 1979 related to production-rate fuel disassembly in the existing hot cell spaces of the BNFP. The primary advantage of the developed technique is realized at a reprocessing plant facility where suitable hot cells and connecting storage pools are available. The existing spent fuel pools are also candidates for away-from-reactor (AFR) storage space. Storage estimates based on utilization of the BNFP indicate that a major expansion from 1600 MTU up to 3000 MTU is possible. The report presents data on the results of initial process development and prototype equipment testing. Assessments were made of operational safety, licensing, and economic factors. These studies indicate that the techniques are performable and have economic merit when there is a requirement for a large increment of new storage capacity. A development program plan is presented. This plan delineates the future work required to bring the process to a point where implementation is possible

  15. Trametinib suppresses HIV-1 replication by interfering with the disassembly of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 capsid core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dochi, Takeo; Akita, Ayano; Kishimoto, Naoki; Takamune, Nobutoki; Misumi, Shogo

    2018-01-08

    Our previous study showed that the phosphorylation of a highly conserved serine residue, Ser 16 in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) capsid (CA) protein is promoted by virion-incorporated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK2) and required for proper peptidyl-prolyl isomerase (Pin1)-mediated uncoating. Interestingly, western blot analysis demonstrated that phosphorylated/activated mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1/2 (MEK1/2), the upstream activator of ERK2, as well as ERK2 are incorporated into virions. Here, we show that the MEK1/2 selective allosteric inhibitor Trametinib reduces HIV-1 infectivity via the decrease in virion-incorporated ERK2 phosphorylation. The treatment of chronic HIV-1-infected T-cell line, CEM/LAV-1 cells with Trametinib results in a decrease in ERK2 phosphorylation in the virions. The viruses have relatively low infectivity and impaired reverse transcription. Cell-based fate-of-capsid uncoating assay showed that the reduction in infectivity was caused by a functional impairment of the uncoating process. Furthermore, the viruses from Trametinib-treated CEM/LAV-1 cells also showed decreased reverse transcription efficiency and attenuated multiple rounds of replication in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Taken together, these findings suggest that Trametinib suppresses HIV-1 replication by abrogating the proper disassembly of CA core. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Disassembly of microtubules and inhibition of neurite outgrowth, neuroblastoma cell proliferation, and MAP kinase tyrosine dephosphorylation by dibenzyl trisulphide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rösner, H; Williams, L A; Jung, A; Kraus, W

    2001-08-22

    Dibenzyl trisulphide (DTS), a main lipophilic compound in Petiveria alliacea L. (Phytolaccaceae), was identified as one of the active immunomodulatory compounds in extracts of the plant. To learn more about its biological activities and molecular mechanisms, we conducted one-dimensional NMR interaction studies with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and tested DTS and related compounds in two well-established neuronal cell-and-tissue culture systems. We found that DTS preferentially binds to an aromatic region of BSA which is rich in tyrosyl residues. In SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, DTS attenuates the dephosphorylation of tyrosyl residues of MAP kinase (erk1/erk2). In the same neuroblastoma cell line and in Wistar 38 human lung fibroblasts, DTS causes a reversible disassembly of microtubules, but it did not affect actin dynamics. Probably due to the disruption of the microtubule dynamics, DTS also inhibits neuroblastoma cell proliferation and neurite outgrowth from spinal cord explants. Related dibenzyl compounds with none, one, or two sulphur atoms were found to be significantly less effective. These data confirmed that the natural compound DTS has a diverse spectrum of biological properties, including cytostatic and neurotoxic actions in addition to immunomodulatory activities.

  17. Controlled induction of focal adhesion disassembly and migration in primary fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dunlevy, J R; Couchman, J R

    1993-01-01

    with HCM; conversely, removal of HCM promoted reformation of focal adhesions within 12-24 h. HCM-stimulated fibroblasts which lacked focal adhesions concomitantly lacked F-actin stress fibers and focal concentrations of vinculin and talin. Therefore, fibroblast migration can be readily controlled in an on......Fibroblast migration is an integral component of biological processes such as wound healing and embryogenesis. Previous experiments examining fibroblast locomotion from tissue explants have shown that migrating fibroblasts lack, or contain only transient, focal adhesions (focal contacts). Focal...... adhesions are specialized regions of tight cell-matrix interaction, assembled by a complex process of transmembrane signalling. Although the explant model has been used for studying several aspects of fibroblast locomotion, it is limited by the lack of control over migration, and only a small percentage...

  18. Nano-encrypted Morse code: a versatile approach to programmable and reversible nanoscale assembly and disassembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ngo Yin; Xing, Hang; Tan, Li Huey; Lu, Yi

    2013-02-27

    While much work has been devoted to nanoscale assembly of functional materials, selective reversible assembly of components in the nanoscale pattern at selective sites has received much less attention. Exerting such a reversible control of the assembly process will make it possible to fine-tune the functional properties of the assembly and to realize more complex designs. Herein, by taking advantage of different binding affinities of biotin and desthiobiotin toward streptavidin, we demonstrate selective and reversible decoration of DNA origami tiles with streptavidin, including revealing an encrypted Morse code "NANO" and reversible exchange of uppercase letter "I" with lowercase "i". The yields of the conjugations are high (>90%), and the process is reversible. We expect this versatile conjugation technique to be widely applicable with different nanomaterials and templates.

  19. Rough order of magnitude cost estimate for immobilization of 50 MT of plutonium sharing existing facilities at Hanford with pit disassembly and conversion facility: alternative 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiSabatino, A.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this Cost Estimate Report is to identify preliminary capital and operating costs for a facility to immobilize 50 metric tons (nominal) of plutonium as a ceramic in an existing facility at Hanford, the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF). The Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility (PDCF), which is being costed in a separate report by LANL, will also be located in the FMEF in this co-location option

  20. Cesium removal from the fuel storage water at the Savannah River Site R-Building Disassembly Basin using 3M Empore reg-sign-membrane filter technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oji, L.N.; Thompson, M.C.; Peterson, K.; May, C.; Kafka, T.M.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes results from a seven-day demonstration of the use of 3M Empore membrane filter loaded with ion exchange material (potassium cobalt hexacynoferrate (CoHex)) for cesium uptake from the R-Disassembly Basin at the Savannah River Site. The goal of the demonstration was to evaluate the ability of the Process Absorber Development unit (PADU), a water pre-filtration /CoHex configuration on a skid, to remove cesium from R-Disassembly Basin at a linear processing flow rate of 22.7 liters per minute (1,195.8 liters/minute/m 2 or 29.35 gallons/minute/ft 2 ). Over 210,000 liters (> 55,500 gallons) of R-Disassembly Basin water was processed through the PADU without a cesium breakthrough, that is, the effluent after treatment with CoHex, contained less than detectable amounts of radioactive cesium. Some of the observed advantages of the Empore membrane filter technology over conventional packed column ion exchange systems includes rapid flow rates without channeling effects, low volume secondary waste and fast extraction or rapid kinetics per unit of flow

  1. Phylogenetic disassembly of species boundaries in a widespread group of Australian skinks (Scincidae: Ctenotus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabosky, Daniel L; Hutchinson, Mark N; Donnellan, Stephen C; Talaba, Amanda L; Lovette, Irby J

    2014-08-01

    Scincid lizards in the genus Ctenotus represent one of Australia's most species-rich vertebrate clades, with more than 100 recognized species. Formal diagnoses of many species have relied on qualitative assessments of adult color pattern, but the validity of many such species has not been tested in a phylogenetic framework. We used mitochondrial and nuclear DNA to perform the first phylogenetic analysis of species in the Ctenotus inornatus group, a complex of at least 11 nominal forms that are distributed widely across the Australian continent. Mitochondrial and nuclear gene phylogenies support the presence of multiple species in the group, but these clades largely fail to match species boundaries as currently defined. Multivariate analyses of color pattern indicate that extreme intraspecific morphological variation in this character has created a significant impediment to understanding taxonomic diversity in the group. Our results suggest that nearly all species in the C. inornatus group require substantial taxonomic revision, and several geographically widespread forms ("C. saxatilis" and "C. robustus") appear to be polyphyletic taxa drawn from phenotypically similar but genetically distinct lineages. We describe one new species and provide redescriptions for three additional species. We synonymize names applied to a number of genetically incoherent or otherwise poorly-defined forms. The results of our study highlight an acute need for population genetic studies of species boundaries in Australian skinks, many of which are recognized by morphological traits that vary greatly within and between populations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Final Status Survey Report for Corrective Action Unit 117 - Pluto Disassembly Facility, Building 2201, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gwin, Jeremy; Frenette, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    This document contains the process knowledge, radiological data and subsequent statistical methodology and analysis to support approval for the radiological release of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 117 - Pluto Disassembly Facility, Building 2201 located in Area 26 of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). Preparations for release of the building began in 2009 and followed the methodology described in the Multi-Agency Radiation Survey and Site Investigation Manual (MARSSIM). MARSSIM is the DOE approved process for release of Real Property (buildings and landmasses) to a set of established criteria or authorized limits. The pre-approved authorized limits for surface contamination values and corresponding assumptions were established by DOE O 5400.5. The release criteria coincide with the acceptance criteria of the U10C landfill permit. The U10C landfill is the proposed location to dispose of the radiologically non-impacted, or ''clean,'' building rubble following demolition. However, other disposition options that include the building and/or waste remaining at the NNSS may be considered providing that the same release limits apply. The Final Status Survey was designed following MARSSIM guidance by reviewing historical documentation and radiological survey data. Following this review a formal radiological characterization survey was performed in two phases. The characterization revealed multiple areas of residual radioactivity above the release criteria. These locations were remediated (decontaminated) and then the surface activity was verified to be less than the release criteria. Once remediation efforts had been successfully completed, a Final Status Survey Plan (10-015, ''Final Status Survey Plan for Corrective Action Unit 117 - Pluto Disassembly Facility, Building 2201'') was developed and implemented to complete the final step in the MARSSIM process, the Final Status Survey. The Final Status Survey Plan consisted of categorizing each individual room into one

  3. Final Status Survey Report for Corrective Action Unit 117 - Pluto Disassembly Facility, Building 2201, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeremy Gwin and Douglas Frenette

    2010-09-30

    This document contains the process knowledge, radiological data and subsequent statistical methodology and analysis to support approval for the radiological release of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 117 – Pluto Disassembly Facility, Building 2201 located in Area 26 of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). Preparations for release of the building began in 2009 and followed the methodology described in the Multi-Agency Radiation Survey and Site Investigation Manual (MARSSIM). MARSSIM is the DOE approved process for release of Real Property (buildings and landmasses) to a set of established criteria or authorized limits. The pre-approved authorized limits for surface contamination values and corresponding assumptions were established by DOE O 5400.5. The release criteria coincide with the acceptance criteria of the U10C landfill permit. The U10C landfill is the proposed location to dispose of the radiologically non-impacted, or “clean,” building rubble following demolition. However, other disposition options that include the building and/or waste remaining at the NNSS may be considered providing that the same release limits apply. The Final Status Survey was designed following MARSSIM guidance by reviewing historical documentation and radiological survey data. Following this review a formal radiological characterization survey was performed in two phases. The characterization revealed multiple areas of residual radioactivity above the release criteria. These locations were remediated (decontaminated) and then the surface activity was verified to be less than the release criteria. Once remediation efforts had been successfully completed, a Final Status Survey Plan (10-015, “Final Status Survey Plan for Corrective Action Unit 117 – Pluto Disassembly Facility, Building 2201”) was developed and implemented to complete the final step in the MARSSIM process, the Final Status Survey. The Final Status Survey Plan consisted of categorizing each individual room

  4. Fate of the sperm mitochondria, and the incorporation, conversion, and disassembly of the sperm tail structures during bovine fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutovsky, P; Navara, C S; Schatten, G

    1996-12-01

    Sperm incorporation and the conversion of the sperm-derived components into zygotic structures during in vitro fertilization of bovine oocytes was explored by combining ultrastructural studies with observations of the fertilizing sperm tagged with a mitochondrion-specific vital dye MitoTracker green FM. The zygotes fertilized by the MitoTracker-labeled sperm were fixed at various times after fertilization and then processed for immunocytochemistry to examine the distribution of DNA, microtubules, and sperm tail components, including the fibrous sheath and axonemal microtubules. We show here that the complete incorporation of the sperm, but not sperm-oocyte binding and oocyte activation, depends upon the integrity of oocyte microfilaments and is inhibited by the microfilament disrupter cytochalasin B. After sperm incorporation, the mitochondria are displaced from the sperm's connecting piece, and the sperm centriole is exposed to the egg cytoplasm. This event is followed by the formation of the microtubule-based sperm aster, which is responsible for the union of male and female pronuclei. Concomitantly, the major structure of the sperm principal piece, the fibrous sheath, disappears. After the first mitosis, the compact mitochondrial sheath can be seen in one of the blastomeres. An aggregate of the sperm mitochondria is observed at the entry of the second mitosis, although they remain in the vicinity of the nucleus and can later be seen at one pole of the metaphase spindle. The mitochondrial cluster is occasionally found in one of the blastomeres in the early-stage four-cell embryos, but it is no longer detected by the beginning of the third mitotic cycle. These data suggest that the disassembly of the sperm tail during bovine fertilization occurs as a series of precisely orchestrated events involving the destruction (fibrous sheath and mitochondrial sheath) and transformation (DNA, sperm centriole) of particular sperm structures into zygotic and embryonic

  5. A carboxy-terminally truncated human CPSF6 lacking residues encoded by exon 6 inhibits HIV-1 cDNA synthesis and promotes capsid disassembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Takanori; Takeuchi, Hiroaki; Saito, Hideki; Sakuma, Ryuta; Inagaki, Yoshio; Yamaoka, Shoji

    2013-07-01

    Since HIV-1 replication is modulated at multiple stages by host cell factors, identification and characterization of those host cell factors are expected to contribute to the development of novel anti-HIV therapeutics. Previous studies showed that a C-terminally truncated cytosolic form of cleavage and polyadenylation-specific factor 6 (CPSF6-358) inhibits HIV-1 infection through interference with HIV-1 trafficking to the nucleus. Here we identified and characterized a different configuration of C-terminally truncated human CPSF6 (hCPSF6-375) through cDNA expression cloning coupled with ganciclovir-mediated lethal selection. Notably, hCPSF6-375, but not mouse CPSF6-358 (mCPSF6-358) as previously reported, remarkably interfered with viral cDNA synthesis after HIV-1 infection. Moreover, we found that hCPSF6-375 aberrantly accelerated the disassembly of the viral capsid in target cells, while CPSF6-358 did not. Sequence comparison of CPSF6-375 and CPSF6-358 cDNAs showed a lack of exon 6 and additional coding sequence for 54 amino acid residues in the C terminus of hCPSF6-375. Mutational analyses revealed that the residues encoded by exon 6, but not the C-terminal 54 residues in hCPSF6-375, is responsible for impaired viral cDNA synthesis by hCPSF6-375. This is the first report demonstrating a novel mode of HIV-1 inhibition by truncated forms of CPSF6 that involves rapid capsid disassembly and inhibition of viral cDNA synthesis. These findings could facilitate an increased understanding of viral cDNA synthesis in light of the viral capsid disassembly.

  6. Authorized Limits for the Release of a 25 Ton Locomotive, Serial Number 21547, at the Area 25 Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeremy Gwin and Douglas Frenette

    2010-04-08

    This document contains process knowledge and radiological data and analysis to support approval for release of the 25-ton locomotive, Serial Number 21547, at the Area 25 Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (EMAD) Facility, located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The 25-ton locomotive is a small, one-of-a-kind locomotive used to move railcars in support of the Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application project. This locomotive was identified as having significant historical value by the Nevada State Railroad Museum in Boulder City, Nevada, where it will be used as a display piece. A substantial effort to characterize the radiological conditions of the locomotive was undertaken by the NTS Management and Operations Contractor, National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec). During this characterization process, seven small areas on the locomotive had contamination levels that exceeded the NTS release criteria (limits consistent with U.S. Department of Energy [DOE] Order DOE O 5400.5, “Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment”). The decision was made to perform radiological decontamination of these known accessible impacted areas to further the release process. On February 9, 2010, NSTec personnel completed decontamination of these seven areas to within the NTS release criteria. Although all accessible areas of the locomotive had been successfully decontaminated to within NTS release criteria, it was plausible that inaccessible areas of the locomotive (i.e., those areas on the locomotive where it was not possible to perform radiological surveys) could potentially have contamination above unrestricted release limits. To access the majority of these inaccessible areas, the locomotive would have to be disassembled. A complete disassembly for a full radiological survey could have permanently destroyed parts and would have ruined the historical value of the locomotive. Complete disassembly would also add an unreasonable financial burden for the

  7. Mucin-mediated nanocarrier disassembly for triggered uptake of oligonucleotides as a delivery strategy for the potential treatment of mucosal tumours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martirosyan, A.; Olesen, M. J.; Fenton, R. A.; Kjems, J.; Howard, K. A.

    2016-06-01

    This work demonstrates gastric mucin-triggered nanocarrier disassembly for release of antisense oligonucleotides and consequent unassisted cellular entry as a novel oral delivery strategy. A fluorescence activation-based reporter system was used to investigate the interaction and mucin-mediated disassembly of chitosan-based nanocarriers containing a 13-mer DNA oligonucleotide with a flanked locked RNA nucleic acid gapmer design. Gastric mucins were shown to trigger gapmer release from nanocarriers that was dependent on the interaction time, mucin concentration and N : P ratio with a maximal release at N : P 10. In contrast to siRNA, naked gapmers exhibited uptake into mucus producing HT-MTX mono-cultures and HT-MTX co-cultured with the carcinoma epithelial cell line Caco-2. Importantly, in vivo gapmer uptake was observed in epithelial tissue 30 min post-injection in murine intestinal loops. The findings present a mucosal design-based system tailored for local delivery of oligonucleotides that may maximize the effectiveness of gene silencing therapeutics within tumours at mucosal sites.This work demonstrates gastric mucin-triggered nanocarrier disassembly for release of antisense oligonucleotides and consequent unassisted cellular entry as a novel oral delivery strategy. A fluorescence activation-based reporter system was used to investigate the interaction and mucin-mediated disassembly of chitosan-based nanocarriers containing a 13-mer DNA oligonucleotide with a flanked locked RNA nucleic acid gapmer design. Gastric mucins were shown to trigger gapmer release from nanocarriers that was dependent on the interaction time, mucin concentration and N : P ratio with a maximal release at N : P 10. In contrast to siRNA, naked gapmers exhibited uptake into mucus producing HT-MTX mono-cultures and HT-MTX co-cultured with the carcinoma epithelial cell line Caco-2. Importantly, in vivo gapmer uptake was observed in epithelial tissue 30 min post-injection in murine intestinal

  8. Advance on the technology of assembly and disassembly of a head frame with four legs and the machine-assembled head frame

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Youzong; Cao Baozhen [Ministry of Coal Industry (China). Geological Exploration Machinery Factory

    1996-12-31

    According to the meditation of assembling headframes from upper to lower instead of that from lower to upper, the authors created successfully a new type of machine for assembling and disassembling headframes as well as a type of machine-assembled headframe. The new type of headframe not only has the merits of old type of headframe with four legs, but also can keep people away from dangers of working in high space and save the workers much labour. The new technology has good effect on raising productive efficiency. 2 figs.

  9. Assessment of the impacts of spent fuel disassembly alternatives on the Nuclear Waste Isolation System. [Preparing and packaging spent fuel assemblies for geologic disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-07-01

    The objective of this report was to evaluate four possible alternative methods of preparing and packaging spent fuel assemblies for geologic disposal against the Reference Process of unmodified spent fuel. The four alternative processes were: (1) End fitting removal, (2) Fission gas venting and resealing, (3) Fuel bundle disassembly and close packing of fuel pins, and (4) Fuel shearing and immobilization. Systems analysis was used to develop a basis of comparison of the alternatives. Conceptual processes and facility layouts were devised for each of the alternatives, based on technology deemed feasible for the purpose. Assessments were made of 15 principal attributes from the technical, operational, safety/risk, and economic considerations related to each of the alternatives, including both the surface packaging and underground repository operations. Specific attributes of the alternative processes were evaluated by assigning a number for each that expressed its merit relative to the corresponding attribute of the Reference Process. Each alternative process was then ranked by summing the numbers for attributes in each of the four assessment areas and collectively. Fuel bundle disassembly and close packing of fuel pins was ranked the preferred method of disposal of spent fuel. 63 references, 46 figures, 46 tables.

  10. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products. Task 4.8, Decontamination and disassembly of the mild gasification process research unit and disposal of co-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ness, R.O. Jr.; Li, Y.; Heidt, M.

    1992-09-01

    Prior to disassembly of the CFBR, accumulated tar residue must be removed from the reactor, piping and tubing lines, and the condenser vessels. Based on experience from the CFBR mild gasification tests, lacquer thinner must be pumped through the unit for at least one hour to remove the residual tar. The lacquer thinner wash may be followed by a water wash. The CFBR will be disassembled after the system has been thoroughly flushed out. The following equipment must be disassembled and removed for storage: Superheater; Water supply pump; Coal feed system (hopper, auger, ball feeder, valves); Reactor; Cyclone and fines catch pot; Condensers (water lines, glycol bath, condenser pots, valves); and Gas meter. After the process piping and reactor have been disassembled, the equipment will be inspected for tar residues and flushed again with acetone or lacquer thinner, if necessary. All solvent used for cleaning the system will be collected for recycle or proper disposal. Handling and disposal of the solvent will be properly documented. The equipment will be removed and stored for future use. Equipment contaminated externally with tar (Level 4) will be washed piece by piece with lacquer thinner after disassembly of the PRU. Proper health and safety practices must be followed by the personnel involved in the cleanup operation. Care must be taken to avoid ingestion, inhalation, or prolonged skin contact of the coal tars and lacquer thinner. Equipment contaminated internally by accumulation of residual tar or oil (Level 5) will be flushed section by section with lacquer thinner. The equipment will be washed with solvent both before and after disassembly to ensure that all tar has been removed from the piping, pumps, gas quench condensers, light tar condensers, and drain lines. The coal tars wig be separated from the solvent and incinerated.

  11. The CD63-Syntenin-1 Complex Controls Post-Endocytic Trafficking of Oncogenic Human Papillomaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gräßel, Linda; Fast, Laura Aline; Scheffer, Konstanze D; Boukhallouk, Fatima; Spoden, Gilles A; Tenzer, Stefan; Boller, Klaus; Bago, Ruzica; Rajesh, Sundaresan; Overduin, Michael; Berditchevski, Fedor; Florin, Luise

    2016-08-31

    Human papillomaviruses enter host cells via a clathrin-independent endocytic pathway involving tetraspanin proteins. However, post-endocytic trafficking required for virus capsid disassembly remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that the early trafficking pathway of internalised HPV particles involves tetraspanin CD63, syntenin-1 and ESCRT-associated adaptor protein ALIX. Following internalisation, viral particles are found in CD63-positive endosomes recruiting syntenin-1, a CD63-interacting adaptor protein. Electron microscopy and immunofluorescence experiments indicate that the CD63-syntenin-1 complex controls delivery of internalised viral particles to multivesicular endosomes. Accordingly, infectivity of high-risk HPV types 16, 18 and 31 as well as disassembly and post-uncoating processing of viral particles was markedly suppressed in CD63 or syntenin-1 depleted cells. Our analyses also present the syntenin-1 interacting protein ALIX as critical for HPV infection and CD63-syntenin-1-ALIX complex formation as a prerequisite for intracellular transport enabling viral capsid disassembly. Thus, our results identify the CD63-syntenin-1-ALIX complex as a key regulatory component in post-endocytic HPV trafficking.

  12. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 113: Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Building Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J. L.

    2001-01-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the action necessary for the closure in place of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 113 Area 25 Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility (R-MAD). CAU 113 is currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (NDEP, 1996). The CAU is located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and consists of Corrective Action Site (CAS) 25-04-01, R-MAD Facility (Figures 1-2). This plan provides the methodology for closure in place of CAU 113. The site contains radiologically impacted and hazardous material. Based on preassessment field work, there is sufficient process knowledge to close in place CAU 113 using the SAFER process. At a future date when funding becomes available, the R-MAD Building (25-3110) will be demolished and inaccessible radiologic waste will be properly disposed in the Area 3 Radiological Waste Management Site (RWMS)

  13. CSER 94-013: Classification and access to PFP 232-Z Incinerator Facility and limits on characterization and disassembly activities in 232-Z burning hood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, E.M.

    1995-01-12

    This CSER justifies the Limited Control Facility designation for the closed Burning Hood in the PFP 232-Z Incinerator Facility. If the Burning Hood is opened to characterize the plutonium distribution and geometric integrity of the internals or for disassembly of the internals, then the more rigorous Fissionable Material Facility classification is required. Two sets of requirements apply for personnel access, criticality firefighting category for water use, and fissile material movement for the two states of the Burning Hood. The parameters used in the criticality analysis are listed to establish the limits under which this CSER is valid. Determination that the Burning Hood fissile material, moderation, or internal arrangements are outside these limits requires reevaluation of these parameter values and activities at the 232-Z Incinerator Facility. When the Burning Hood is open, water entry is to be prevented by two physical barriers for each water source.

  14. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 113: Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Building Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. L. Smith

    2001-01-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the action necessary for the closure in place of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 113 Area 25 Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility (R-MAD). CAU 113 is currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (NDEP, 1996). The CAU is located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and consists of Corrective Action Site (CAS) 25-04-01, R-MAD Facility (Figures 1-2). This plan provides the methodology for closure in place of CAU 113. The site contains radiologically impacted and hazardous material. Based on preassessment field work, there is sufficient process knowledge to close in place CAU 113 using the SAFER process. At a future date when funding becomes available, the R-MAD Building (25-3110) will be demolished and inaccessible radiologic waste will be properly disposed in the Area 3 Radiological Waste Management Site (RWMS).

  15. Disassembly of the actin network inhibits insulin-dependent stimulation of glucose transport and prevents recruitment of glucose transporters to the plasma membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsakiridis, T; Vranic, M; Klip, A

    1994-11-25

    In muscle and fat tissues, insulin stimulates glucose transport through the translocation of glucose transporter proteins from an intracellular storage pool to the plasma membrane. The mechanism of this translocation is unknown. We have examined the possible role of the actin microfilament network in the stimulation of glucose transport by insulin and on the distribution of glucose transporters, in differentiated L6 rat skeletal muscle cells. Insulin (10(-7) M for 30 min) caused a major reorganization of the actin network of differentiated L6 myotubes. Cytochalasin D, a widely used inhibitor of actin filament formation, caused a dose- and time-dependent disassembly of the actin network, which was associated with an 80% inhibition of the insulin stimulation of glucose transport, without affecting the basal rate of glucose uptake. L6 myotubes express three glucose transporter isoforms, named GLUT1, GLUT3, and GLUT4. Disassembly of the actin network by cytochalasin D did not affect the number of basal glucose transporters in the plasma membrane but reduced the content of all three glucose transporters in intracellular membranes and prevented their appearance at the plasma membrane response to insulin. The inhibitory effect of cytochalasin D treatment on the insulin stimulation of glucose transport occurred downstream of tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor substrate-1 and of binding of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase to the insulin receptor substrate-1. Using immunoprecipitation of intact membranes, we detected specific association of the actin-binding protein spectrin with GLUT4 glucose transporter-containing vesicles. We conclude that an intact actin network is required for the correct intracellular localization of glucose transporters, as well as for their incorporation into the plasma membrane in response to insulin. A direct interaction may exist between the actin network and the glucose transporter vesicles which may be mediated through a spectrin

  16. Cohesin complexes with a potential to link mammalian meiosis to cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Strunnikov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Among multiple genes aberrantly activated in cancers, invariably, there is a group related to the capacity of cell to self-renewal. Some of these genes are related to the normal process of development, including the establishment of a germline. This group, a part of growing family of Cancer/Testis (CT genes, now includes the meiosis specific subunits of cohesin complex. The first reports characterizing the SMC1 and RAD21 genes, encoding subunits of cohesin, were published 20 years ago; however the exact molecular mechanics of cohesin molecular machine in vivo remains rather obscure notwithstanding ample elegant experiments. The matters are complicated by the fact that the evolution of cohesin function, which is served by just two basic types of protein complexes in budding yeast, took an explosive turn in Metazoa. The recent characterization of a new set of genes encoding cohesin subunits specific for meiosis in vertebrates adds several levels of complexity to the task of structure-function analysis of specific cohesin pathways, even more so in relation to their aberrant functionality in cancers. These three proteins, SMC1β, RAD21L and STAG3 are likely involved in a specific function in the first meiotic prophase, genetic recombination, and segregation of homologues. However, at present, it is rather challenging to pinpoint the molecular role of these proteins, particularly in synaptonemal complex or centromere function, due to the multiplicity of different cohesins in meiosis. The roles of these proteins in cancer cell physiology, upon their aberrant activation in tumors, also remain to be elucidated. Nevertheless, as the existence of Cancer/Testis cohesin complexes in tumor cells appears to be all but certain, this brings a promise of a new target for cancer therapy and/or diagnostics.

  17. African Swine Fever Virus Undergoes Outer Envelope Disruption, Capsid Disassembly and Inner Envelope Fusion before Core Release from Multivesicular Endosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Hernáez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available African swine fever virus (ASFV is a nucleocytoplasmic large DNA virus (NCLDV that causes a highly lethal disease in domestic pigs. As other NCLDVs, the extracellular form of ASFV possesses a multilayered structure consisting of a genome-containing nucleoid successively wrapped by a thick protein core shell, an inner lipid membrane, an icosahedral protein capsid and an outer lipid envelope. This structural complexity suggests an intricate mechanism of internalization in order to deliver the virus genome into the cytoplasm. By using flow cytometry in combination with pharmacological entry inhibitors, as well as fluorescence and electron microscopy approaches, we have dissected the entry and uncoating pathway used by ASFV to infect the macrophage, its natural host cell. We found that purified extracellular ASFV is internalized by both constitutive macropinocytosis and clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Once inside the cell, ASFV particles move from early endosomes or macropinosomes to late, multivesicular endosomes where they become uncoated. Virus uncoating requires acidic pH and involves the disruption of the outer membrane as well as of the protein capsid. As a consequence, the inner viral membrane becomes exposed and fuses with the limiting endosomal membrane to release the viral core into the cytosol. Interestingly, virus fusion is dependent on virus protein pE248R, a transmembrane polypeptide of the inner envelope that shares sequence similarity with some members of the poxviral entry/fusion complex. Collective evidence supports an entry model for ASFV that might also explain the uncoating of other multienveloped icosahedral NCLDVs.

  18. CD44 variant, but not standard CD44 isoforms, mediate disassembly of endothelial VE-cadherin junction on metastatic melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pu; Fu, Changliang; Bai, Huiyuan; Song, Erqun; Dong, Cheng; Song, Yang

    2014-12-20

    Loss of endothelial adherens junctions is involved in tumor metastasis. Here, we demonstrate that, in the metastatic Lu1205 melanoma cells, expression of the CD44 variant CD44v8-v10 induced junction disassembly and vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin phosphorylation at Y658 and Y731. Short interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated CD44 knockdown or sialic acid cleavage reversed these effects. Moreover, microspheres coated with recombinant CD44v8-v10 promoted endothelial junction disruption. Overexpression of CD44v8-v10 but not of standard CD44 (CD44s) promoted gap formation in the non-metastatic WM35 melanoma cells, whereas CD44 knockdown or neuraminidase treatment dramatically diminished melanoma transendothelial migration. Endothelial cells transfected with the phosphomimetic VE-cadherin mutant Y658E supported transmigration of CD44-silenced Lu1205 cells. Our findings imply that CD44 variant isoform (CD44v) but not CD44s regulates endothelial junction loss, promoting melanoma extravasation. Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Rab5 GTPase controls chromosome alignment through Lamin disassembly and relocation of the NuMA-like protein Mud to the poles during mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capalbo, Luisa; D'Avino, Pier Paolo; Archambault, Vincent; Glover, David M

    2011-10-18

    The small GTPase Rab5 is a conserved regulator of membrane trafficking; it regulates the formation of early endosomes, their transport along microtubules, and the fusion to the target organelles. Although several members of the endocytic pathway were recently implicated in spindle organization, it is unclear whether Rab5 has any role during mitosis. Here, we describe that Rab5 is required for proper chromosome alignment during Drosophila mitoses. We also found that Rab5 associated in vivo with nuclear Lamin and mushroom body defect (Mud), the Drosophila counterpart of nuclear mitotic apparatus protein (NuMA). Consistent with this finding, Rab5 was required for the disassembly of the nuclear envelope at mitotic entry and the accumulation of Mud at the spindle poles. Furthermore, Mud depletion caused chromosome misalignment defects that resembled the defects of Rab5 RNAi cells, and double-knockdown experiments indicated that the two proteins function in a linear pathway. Our results indicate a role for Rab5 in mitosis and reinforce the emerging view of the contributions made by cell membrane dynamics to spindle function.

  20. Determination of C0-60 in Cobalt Slugs and Slabs and Radionuclides in Curium Sampler Slugs L-Reactor Disassembly Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casella, V.R.

    2004-01-01

    Co-60 was historically produced in the SRS reactors. Cobalt slugs were irradiated in the early 1970s. Post-production, remaining cobalt slugs (including slab form) were consolidated for storage. There are approximately nine hundred cobalt slugs currently stored awaiting final disposition. These slugs had historically incomplete documentation for activity rates; therefore, assaying was required in order to determine their activity levels. Since the gamma dose rate from these slugs is extremely high, the most cost effective way to shield a source of this magnitude from personnel and the radiation detector was to use the basin water in which the slugs are stored as the shield. A sodium iodide gamma detector was placed above a specially designed air collimator assembly, so that slug was at least eight feet from the detector and was shielded by the basin water. Using a sodium iodide detector and multichannel analyzer system and an underwater collimator assembly, Co-60 concentrations we re determined for Disassembly Basin cobalt slugs and slabs and 18 curium sampler slugs. The total activity of all of the assayed slugs summed to 31,783 curies. From the Co-60 concentrations of the curium sampler slugs, the irradiation flux was determined for the known irradiation time. The amounts of Pu-238, 239, 240, 241, 242; Am-241, 243; and Cm-242, 244 produced were then obtained based on the original amount of Pu-239 irradiated

  1. HUWE1 Ubiquitylates and Degrades the RAC Activator TIAM1 Promoting Cell-Cell Adhesion Disassembly, Migration, and Invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynsey Vaughan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The E3 ubiquitin ligase HUWE1, deregulated in carcinoma, has been implicated in tumor formation. Here, we uncover a role for HUWE1 in cell migration and invasion through degrading the RAC activator TIAM1, implying an additional function in malignant progression. In MDCKII cells in response to HGF, HUWE1 catalyzes TIAM1 ubiquitylation and degradation predominantly at cell-cell adhesions, facilitating junction disassembly, migration, and invasion. Depleting HUWE1 or mutating the TIAM1 ubiquitylation site prevents TIAM1 degradation, antagonizing scattering, and invasion. Moreover, simultaneous depletion of TIAM1 restores migration and invasion in HUWE1-depleted cells. Significantly, we show that HUWE1 stimulates human lung cancer cell invasion through regulating TIAM1 stability. Finally, we demonstrate that HUWE1 and TIAM1 protein levels are inversely correlated in human lung carcinomas. Thus, we elucidate a critical role for HUWE1 in regulating epithelial cell-cell adhesion and provide additional evidence that ubiquitylation contributes to spatiotemporal control of RAC.

  2. Biomedical Exploitation of Chitin and Chitosan via Mechano-Chemical Disassembly, Electrospinning, Dissolution in Imidazolium Ionic Liquids, and Supercritical Drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo A. A. Muzzarelli

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently developed technology permits to optimize simultaneously surface area, porosity, density, rigidity and surface morphology of chitin-derived materials of biomedical interest. Safe and ecofriendly disassembly of chitin has superseded the dangerous acid hydrolysis and provides higher yields and scaling-up possibilities: the chitosan nanofibrils are finding applications in reinforced bone scaffolds and composite dressings for dermal wounds. Electrospun chitosan nanofibers, in the form of biocompatible thin mats and non-wovens, are being actively studied: composites of gelatin + chitosan + polyurethane have been proposed for cardiac valves and for nerve conduits; fibers are also manufactured from electrospun particles that self-assemble during subsequent freeze-drying. Ionic liquids (salts of alkylated imidazolium are suitable as non-aqueous solvents that permit desirable reactions to occur for drug delivery purposes. Gel drying with supercritical CO2 leads to structures most similar to the extracellular matrix, even when the chitosan is crosslinked, or in combination with metal oxides of interest in orthopedics.

  3. From Centralized Disassembly to Life Cycle Management: Status and Progress of E-waste Treatment System in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaolong; Yang, Jianxin; Lu, Bin; Yang, Dong

    2017-01-01

    China is now facing e-waste problems from both growing domestic generation and illegal imports. Many stakeholders are involved in the e-waste treatment system due to the complexity of e-waste life cycle. Beginning with the state of the e-waste treatment industry in China, this paper summarizes the latest progress in e-waste management from such aspects as the new edition of the China RoHS Directive, new Treatment List, new funding subsidy standard, and eco-design pilots. Thus, a conceptual model for life cycle management of e-waste is generalized. The operating procedure is to first identify the life cycle stages of the e-waste and extract the important life cycle information. Then, life cycle tools can be used to conduct a systematic analysis to help decide how to maximize the benefits from a series of life cycle engineering processes. Meanwhile, life cycle thinking is applied to improve the legislation relating to e-waste so as to continuously improve the sustainability of the e-waste treatment system. By providing an integrative framework, the life cycle management of e-waste should help to realize sustainable management of e-waste in developing countries.

  4. Three v-SNAREs and two t-SNAREs, present in a pentameric cis-SNARE complex on isolated vacuoles, are essential for homotypic fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ungermann, C; von Mollard, G F; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard

    1999-01-01

    in the same cis multi-SNARE complex. After priming, which disassembles the cis-SNARE complex, antibodies to any of the five SNARE proteins still inhibit the fusion assay until the docking stage is completed, suggesting that each SNARE plays a role in docking. Furthermore, vti1 temperature-sensitive alleles...... cause a synthetic fusion-defective phenotype in our reaction. Our data show that vacuole-vacuole fusion requires a cis-SNARE complex of five SNAREs, the t-SNAREs Vam3p and Vam7p and the v-SNAREs Nyv1p, Vti1p, and Ykt6p....

  5. Complexity explained

    CERN Document Server

    Erdi, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This book explains why complex systems research is important in understanding the structure, function and dynamics of complex natural and social phenomena. Readers will learn the basic concepts and methods of complex system research.

  6. Complex chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bong Gon; Kim, Jae Sang; Kim, Jin Eun; Lee, Boo Yeon

    2006-06-01

    This book introduces complex chemistry with ten chapters, which include development of complex chemistry on history coordination theory and Warner's coordination theory and new development of complex chemistry, nomenclature on complex with conception and define, chemical formula on coordination compound, symbol of stereochemistry, stereo structure and isomerism, electron structure and bond theory on complex, structure of complex like NMR and XAFS, balance and reaction on solution, an organo-metallic chemistry, biology inorganic chemistry, material chemistry of complex, design of complex and calculation chemistry.

  7. Complex Narratives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, J.; Buckland, W.

    2014-01-01

    In the opening chapter, "Complex Narratives," Jan Simons brings together narratology, game theory, and complexity theory to untangle the intricate nature of complex narratives in contemporary cinema. He presents an overview of the different concepts - forking path narratives, mind-game films,

  8. phenanthroline complex

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ABHRANIL DE

    2018-02-28

    Feb 28, 2018 ... complex in a unique binding motif and provide additional stability to the compound in the solid state. This iron(II) complex is able to catalyze the cleavage of aromatic C-C linkage of 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (Gentisic acid,. GA) in oxygen environment. The iron(II) complex in the presence of two equivalent ...

  9. (II) complexes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    activities of Schiff base tin (II) complexes. Neelofar1 ... Conclusion: All synthesized Schiff bases and their Tin (II) complexes showed high antimicrobial and ...... Singh HL. Synthesis and characterization of tin (II) complexes of fluorinated Schiff bases derived from amino acids. Spectrochim Acta Part A: Molec Biomolec.

  10. Mechanistic insights into the recycling machine of the SNARE complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Minglei; Wu, Shenping; Zhou, Qiangjun; Vivona, Sandro; Cipriano, Daniel J; Cheng, Yifan; Brunger, Axel T

    2015-02-05

    Evolutionarily conserved SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor attachment protein receptors) proteins form a complex that drives membrane fusion in eukaryotes. The ATPase NSF (N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor), together with SNAPs (soluble NSF attachment protein), disassembles the SNARE complex into its protein components, making individual SNAREs available for subsequent rounds of fusion. Here we report structures of ATP- and ADP-bound NSF, and the NSF/SNAP/SNARE (20S) supercomplex determined by single-particle electron cryomicroscopy at near-atomic to sub-nanometre resolution without imposing symmetry. Large, potentially force-generating, conformational differences exist between ATP- and ADP-bound NSF. The 20S supercomplex exhibits broken symmetry, transitioning from six-fold symmetry of the NSF ATPase domains to pseudo four-fold symmetry of the SNARE complex. SNAPs interact with the SNARE complex with an opposite structural twist, suggesting an unwinding mechanism. The interfaces between NSF, SNAPs, and SNAREs exhibit characteristic electrostatic patterns, suggesting how one NSF/SNAP species can act on many different SNARE complexes.

  11. Surfactant-free purification of membrane protein complexes from bacteria: application to the staphylococcal penicillin-binding protein complex PBP2/PBP2a

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulin, Sarah; Rosado, Helena; Taylor, Peter W; Jamshad, Mohammed; Dafforn, Timothy R; Garcia-Lara, Jorge; Foster, Simon J; Galley, Nicola F; Roper, David I

    2014-01-01

    Surfactant-mediated removal of proteins from biomembranes invariably results in partial or complete loss of function and disassembly of multi-protein complexes. We determined the capacity of styrene-co-maleic acid (SMA) co-polymer to remove components of the cell division machinery from the membrane of drug-resistant staphylococcal cells. SMA-lipid nanoparticles solubilized FtsZ-PBP2-PBP2a complexes from intact cells, demonstrating the close physical proximity of these proteins within the lipid bilayer. Exposure of bacteria to (-)-epicatechin gallate, a polyphenolic agent that abolishes β-lactam resistance in staphylococci, disrupted the association between PBP2 and PBP2a. Thus, SMA purification provides a means to remove native integral membrane protein assemblages with minimal physical disruption and shows promise as a tool for the interrogation of molecular aspects of bacterial membrane protein structure and function. (paper)

  12. Complexity Plots

    KAUST Repository

    Thiyagalingam, Jeyarajan

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we present a novel visualization technique for assisting the observation and analysis of algorithmic complexity. In comparison with conventional line graphs, this new technique is not sensitive to the units of measurement, allowing multivariate data series of different physical qualities (e.g., time, space and energy) to be juxtaposed together conveniently and consistently. It supports multivariate visualization as well as uncertainty visualization. It enables users to focus on algorithm categorization by complexity classes, while reducing visual impact caused by constants and algorithmic components that are insignificant to complexity analysis. It provides an effective means for observing the algorithmic complexity of programs with a mixture of algorithms and black-box software through visualization. Through two case studies, we demonstrate the effectiveness of complexity plots in complexity analysis in research, education and application. © 2013 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2013 The Eurographics Association and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Complex odontoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preetha, A; Balikai, Bharati S; Sujatha, D; Pai, Anuradha; Ganapathy, K S

    2010-01-01

    Odontomas are hamartomatous lesions or malformations composed of mature enamel, dentin, and pulp. They may be compound or complex, depending on the extent of morphodifferentiation or their resemblance to normal teeth. The etiology of odontoma is unknown, although several theories have been proposed. This article describes a case of a large infected complex odontoma in the residual mandibular ridge, resulting in considerable mandibular expansion.

  14. Complex narratives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper brings together narratology, game theory, and complexity theory to untangle the intricate nature of complex narratives in contemporary cinema. It interrogates the different terms - forking-path narratives, mind-game films, modular narratives, multiple-draft films, database narratives,

  15. Complexity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, William H K.

    2016-01-01

    A complex system consists of many interacting parts, generates new collective behavior through self organization, and adaptively evolves through time. Many theories have been developed to study complex systems, including chaos, fractals, cellular automata, self organization, stochastic processes, turbulence, and genetic algorithms.

  16. Complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, Stephen D

    1999-01-01

    The most important topics in the theory and application of complex variables receive a thorough, coherent treatment in this introductory text. Intended for undergraduates or graduate students in science, mathematics, and engineering, this volume features hundreds of solved examples, exercises, and applications designed to foster a complete understanding of complex variables as well as an appreciation of their mathematical beauty and elegance. Prerequisites are minimal; a three-semester course in calculus will suffice to prepare students for discussions of these topics: the complex plane, basic

  17. Managing Complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maylath, Bruce; Vandepitte, Sonia; Minacori, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the largest and most complex international learning-by-doing project to date- a project involving translation from Danish and Dutch into English and editing into American English alongside a project involving writing, usability testing, and translation from English into Dutch...... and into French. The complexity of the undertaking proved to be a central element in the students' learning, as the collaboration closely resembles the complexity of international documentation workplaces of language service providers. © Association of Teachers of Technical Writing....

  18. Complex Covariance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frieder Kleefeld

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available According to some generalized correspondence principle the classical limit of a non-Hermitian quantum theory describing quantum degrees of freedom is expected to be the well known classical mechanics of classical degrees of freedom in the complex phase space, i.e., some phase space spanned by complex-valued space and momentum coordinates. As special relativity was developed by Einstein merely for real-valued space-time and four-momentum, we will try to understand how special relativity and covariance can be extended to complex-valued space-time and four-momentum. Our considerations will lead us not only to some unconventional derivation of Lorentz transformations for complex-valued velocities, but also to the non-Hermitian Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations, which are to lay the foundations of a non-Hermitian quantum theory.

  19. Communication Complexity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jaikumar Radhakrishnan

    Alice and Bob are randomized agents. They exchange messages in order to compute a function f(x, y). We allow a small probability of error. Goal: minimize the total number of bits transmitted. Jaikumar Radhakrishnan. Communication Complexity ...

  20. Transformation of the fourth power block of the Chernobyl atomic power station into a ecologically safe system by a dock-caisson technological complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konyukhov, S.N.; Kokulin, Eh.M.; Kozin, S.Ya.; Kurinnoj, V.N.

    1999-01-01

    The designers of the technical solution do not doubt that it is possible to transform the fourth power block of the Chernobyl APS into an ecologically safe system by help of Dock-Caisson technological complex. Application of the Dock-Caisson allows to make the operations of phases 1 and 2 of the Shelter installation transformation at the same time, i.e. to make the installation stabilization and preparation to radioactive wastes extraction simultaneously. By completion of first two phases the conditions are created for instant beginning of phase 3, i.e. disassembling of the content of the crashed power block

  1. Complex analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Freitag, Eberhard

    2005-01-01

    The guiding principle of this presentation of ``Classical Complex Analysis'' is to proceed as quickly as possible to the central results while using a small number of notions and concepts from other fields. Thus the prerequisites for understanding this book are minimal; only elementary facts of calculus and algebra are required. The first four chapters cover the essential core of complex analysis: - differentiation in C (including elementary facts about conformal mappings) - integration in C (including complex line integrals, Cauchy's Integral Theorem, and the Integral Formulas) - sequences and series of analytic functions, (isolated) singularities, Laurent series, calculus of residues - construction of analytic functions: the gamma function, Weierstrass' Factorization Theorem, Mittag-Leffler Partial Fraction Decomposition, and -as a particular highlight- the Riemann Mapping Theorem, which characterizes the simply connected domains in C. Further topics included are: - the theory of elliptic functions based on...

  2. Complex Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Stein, Elias M

    2009-01-01

    With this second volume, we enter the intriguing world of complex analysis. From the first theorems on, the elegance and sweep of the results is evident. The starting point is the simple idea of extending a function initially given for real values of the argument to one that is defined when the argument is complex. From there, one proceeds to the main properties of holomorphic functions, whose proofs are generally short and quite illuminating: the Cauchy theorems, residues, analytic continuation, the argument principle.With this background, the reader is ready to learn a wealth of additional m

  3. Complex manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Morrow, James

    2006-01-01

    This book, a revision and organization of lectures given by Kodaira at Stanford University in 1965-66, is an excellent, well-written introduction to the study of abstract complex (analytic) manifolds-a subject that began in the late 1940's and early 1950's. It is largely self-contained, except for some standard results about elliptic partial differential equations, for which complete references are given. -D. C. Spencer, MathSciNet The book under review is the faithful reprint of the original edition of one of the most influential textbooks in modern complex analysis and geometry. The classic

  4. Communication Complexity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jaikumar Radhakrishnan

    Communication complexity. Motivation . . . An abstract model to study the communicaiton required for computation. A tool for showing lower bounds in several computational models. The study often requires deep understanding of computation using tools from combinatorics, coding theory, algebra, analysis, etc. Jaikumar ...

  5. Lecithin Complex

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1Department of Food Science and Engineering, Xinyang College of Agriculture and Forestry, Xinyang 464000, 2Henan. Economy and Trade ... Methanol of HPLC grade was purchased from Tedia (USA). Other chemicals used were of analytical grade. Preparation of polydatin-lecithin complex. Polydatin (200 mg) and ...

  6. Complex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Evsukoff, Alexandre; González, Marta

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade we have seen the emergence of a new inter-disciplinary field focusing on the understanding of networks which are dynamic, large, open, and have a structure sometimes called random-biased. The field of Complex Networks is helping us better understand many complex phenomena such as the spread of  deseases, protein interactions, social relationships, to name but a few. Studies in Complex Networks are gaining attention due to some major scientific breakthroughs proposed by network scientists helping us understand and model interactions contained in large datasets. In fact, if we could point to one event leading to the widespread use of complex network analysis is the availability of online databases. Theories of Random Graphs from Erdös and Rényi from the late 1950s led us to believe that most networks had random characteristics. The work on large online datasets told us otherwise. Starting with the work of Barabási and Albert as well as Watts and Strogatz in the late 1990s, we now know th...

  7. Disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) is a constituent of the mammalian mitochondrial contact site and cristae organizing system (MICOS) complex, and is essential for oxidative phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñero-Martos, Estefanía; Ortega-Vila, Bernardo; Pol-Fuster, Josep; Cisneros-Barroso, Eugenia; Ruiz-Guerra, Laura; Medina-Dols, Aina; Heine-Suñer, Damián; Lladó, Jerònia; Olmos, Gabriel; Vives-Bauzà, Cristofol

    2016-10-01

    Disrupted in Schizophrenia-1 (DISC1) has been associated with a broad spectrum of mental disorders. DISC1 is a multi-compartmentalized protein found in the cytoplasm, centrosome, nuclei and mostly enriched in mitochondria. In order to shed light on DISC1 mitochondrial function, we have studied its topology within the organelle. We show in here that in mammals DISC1 resides in the 'Mitochondrial contact site and Cristae Organizing system' (MICOS) complex, involved in cristae organization. DISC1 knockdown in SH-SY5Y cells causes MICOS disassembly and fragmentation of the mitochondrial morphology network. Moreover, DISC1 depleted cells have decreased mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content and steady state levels of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) subunits. As a consequence, OXPHOS complexes and supercomplexes are partially disassembled in DISC1 knockdown cells, which suffer severe bioenergetic defects, evidenced by impaired oxygen consumption, adenosine triphosphate synthesis and mitochondrial membrane potential. Transfection of recombinant full-length human DISC1 restores MICOS complex assembly and rescues OXPHOS function, meanwhile overexpression of the DISC1 truncated form Δ597-854, known to be pathogenic, fails to rescue the bioenergetic impairment caused by DISC1 knockdown. These results should contribute to reveal DISC1 physiological function and potential pathogenic role in severe mental illnesses. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Complex chemistry with complex compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eichler Robert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years gas-phase chemical studies assisted by physical pre-separation allowed for the investigation of fragile single molecular species by gas-phase chromatography. The latest success with the heaviest group 6 transactinide seaborgium is highlighted. The formation of a very volatile hexacarbonyl compound Sg(CO6 was observed similarly to its lighter homologues molybdenum and tungsten. The interactions of these gaseous carbonyl complex compounds with quartz surfaces were investigated by thermochromatography. Second-generation experiments are under way to investigate the intramolecular bond between the central metal atom of the complexes and the ligands addressing the influence of relativistic effects in the heaviest compounds. Our contribution comprises some aspects of the ongoing challenging experiments as well as an outlook towards other interesting compounds related to volatile complex compounds in the gas phase.

  9. Mto2 multisite phosphorylation inactivates non-spindle microtubule nucleation complexes during mitosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borek, Weronika E.; Groocock, Lynda M.; Samejima, Itaru; Zou, Juan; de Lima Alves, Flavia; Rappsilber, Juri; Sawin, Kenneth E.

    2015-01-01

    Microtubule nucleation is highly regulated during the eukaryotic cell cycle, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. During mitosis in fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, cytoplasmic microtubule nucleation ceases simultaneously with intranuclear mitotic spindle assembly. Cytoplasmic nucleation depends on the Mto1/2 complex, which binds and activates the γ-tubulin complex and also recruits the γ-tubulin complex to both centrosomal (spindle pole body) and non-centrosomal sites. Here we show that the Mto1/2 complex disassembles during mitosis, coincident with hyperphosphorylation of Mto2 protein. By mapping and mutating multiple Mto2 phosphorylation sites, we generate mto2-phosphomutant strains with enhanced Mto1/2 complex stability, interaction with the γ-tubulin complex and microtubule nucleation activity. A mutant with 24 phosphorylation sites mutated to alanine, mto2[24A], retains interphase-like behaviour even in mitotic cells. This provides a molecular-level understanding of how phosphorylation ‘switches off' microtubule nucleation complexes during the cell cycle and, more broadly, illuminates mechanisms regulating non-centrosomal microtubule nucleation. PMID:26243668

  10. QIL1-dependent assembly of MICOS complex-lethal mutation in C19ORF70 resulting in liver disease and severe neurological retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gödiker, J; Grüneberg, M; DuChesne, I; Reunert, J; Rust, S; Westermann, C; Wada, Y; Classen, G; Langhans, C D; Schlingmann, K P; Rodenburg, R J; Pohlmann, R; Marquardt, T

    2018-04-04

    Seven subunits of the mitochondrial contact site and cristae junction (CJ) organizing system (MICOS) in humans have been recently described in function and structure. QIL1 (also named MIC13) is a small complex that is crucial for the maintenance and assembling of MICOS. A novel mutation of an essential splice site in the C19orf70 gene encoding QIL1 induces severe mitochondrial encephalopathy, hepatopathy and lactate acidosis consistent with psychomotor retardation. In addition, bilateral kidney stones were observed. Disassembly of MICOS complex subunits displays lack of MIC10-MIC26-MIC27-QIL1 subcomplex, resulting in aberrant cristae structure and a loss of cristae junctions and contact sites. In liver and muscle tissue, the activity of the respiratory chain complexes (OXPHOS) was severely impaired. Defects in MICOS complex do not only affect mitochondrial architecture, but also mitochondrial fusion, metabolic signalling, lipid trafficking and cellular electric homeostasis.

  11. Managing Complexity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chassin, David P.; Posse, Christian; Malard, Joel M.

    2004-08-01

    Physical analogs have shown considerable promise for understanding the behavior of complex adaptive systems, including macroeconomics, biological systems, social networks, and electric power markets. Many of today’s most challenging technical and policy questions can be reduced to a distributed economic control problem. Indeed, economically-based control of large-scale systems is founded on the conjecture that the price-based regulation (e.g., auctions, markets) results in an optimal allocation of resources and emergent optimal system control. This paper explores the state of the art in the use physical analogs for understanding the behavior of some econophysical systems and to deriving stable and robust control strategies for them. In particular we review and discussion applications of some analytic methods based on the thermodynamic metaphor according to which the interplay between system entropy and conservation laws gives rise to intuitive and governing global properties of complex systems that cannot be otherwise understood.

  12. Time complexity and gate complexity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, Tatsuhiko; Okudaira, Yosuke

    2010-01-01

    We formulate and investigate the simplest version of time-optimal quantum computation theory (TO-QCT), where the computation time is defined by the physical one and the Hamiltonian contains only one- and two-qubit interactions. This version of TO-QCT is also considered as optimality by sub-Riemannian geodesic length. The work has two aims: One is to develop a TO-QCT itself based on a physically natural concept of time, and the other is to pursue the possibility of using TO-QCT as a tool to estimate the complexity in conventional gate-optimal quantum computation theory (GO-QCT). In particular, we investigate to what extent is true the following statement: Time complexity is polynomial in the number of qubits if and only if gate complexity is also. In the analysis, we relate TO-QCT and optimal control theory (OCT) through fidelity-optimal computation theory (FO-QCT); FO-QCT is equivalent to TO-QCT in the limit of unit optimal fidelity, while it is formally similar to OCT. We then develop an efficient numerical scheme for FO-QCT by modifying Krotov's method in OCT, which has a monotonic convergence property. We implemented the scheme and obtained solutions of FO-QCT and of TO-QCT for the quantum Fourier transform and a unitary operator that does not have an apparent symmetry. The former has a polynomial gate complexity and the latter is expected to have an exponential one which is based on the fact that a series of generic unitary operators has an exponential gate complexity. The time complexity for the former is found to be linear in the number of qubits, which is understood naturally by the existence of an upper bound. The time complexity for the latter is exponential in the number of qubits. Thus, both the targets seem to be examples satisfyng the preceding statement. The typical characteristics of the optimal Hamiltonians are symmetry under time reversal and constancy of one-qubit operation, which are mathematically shown to hold in fairly general situations.

  13. Welding complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebedev, V.K.; Kuchuk-Yatsenko, S.I.; Sakharnov, V.A.; Galyan, B.A.; Krivenko, V.G.; Asoyants, G.B.

    1992-10-27

    A welding complex for construction of a continuous underwater pipeline is adapted to be installed aboard a ship. The complex includes a welding machine positionable at a joint of the pipeline with a pipe section to be welded, burr-removing trimmers positionable coaxially with the pipeline for displacement relative to the pipeline in the joint area, and a support device for the end part of the pipeline. A rotatably mounted holding device for setting, holding, and retaining the pipe section to be welded, the welding machine, and the trimmers is axially aligned with the end part of the pipeline. An accumulator is provided for storing and delivering successive pipe sections at a loading position laterally offset from the common axis of the pipeline and of the pipe section to be welded to it. The holding device includes a platform movable along the common axis of the pipeline and of the pipe section to be welded to it by a resistance butt welding machine, and a plate with a means for carrying the pipe section to be welded which is mounted on a pivot carried by the platform for rotation between the loading position and the aligning position. The welding complex of the invention provides for implementing resistance butt welding in construction of continuous underwater pipelines and ensures the accuracy of alignment and permanence of the gap between the edges being welded. The welding complex's structure allows handling of longer pipe sections, thus reducing the overall number of joints to be welded. 7 figs.

  14. Complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Flanigan, Francis J

    2010-01-01

    A caution to mathematics professors: Complex Variables does not follow conventional outlines of course material. One reviewer noting its originality wrote: ""A standard text is often preferred [to a superior text like this] because the professor knows the order of topics and the problems, and doesn't really have to pay attention to the text. He can go to class without preparation."" Not so here-Dr. Flanigan treats this most important field of contemporary mathematics in a most unusual way. While all the material for an advanced undergraduate or first-year graduate course is covered, discussion

  15. Structural mechanisms of DREAM complex assembly and regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiley, Keelan Z; Liban, Tyler J; Felthousen, Jessica G; Ramanan, Parameshwaran; Litovchick, Larisa; Rubin, Seth M

    2015-05-01

    The DREAM complex represses cell cycle genes during quiescence through scaffolding MuvB proteins with E2F4/5 and the Rb tumor suppressor paralog p107 or p130. Upon cell cycle entry, MuvB dissociates from p107/p130 and recruits B-Myb and FoxM1 for up-regulating mitotic gene expression. To understand the biochemical mechanisms underpinning DREAM function and regulation, we investigated the structural basis for DREAM assembly. We identified a sequence in the MuvB component LIN52 that binds directly to the pocket domains of p107 and p130 when phosphorylated on the DYRK1A kinase site S28. A crystal structure of the LIN52-p107 complex reveals that LIN52 uses a suboptimal LxSxExL sequence together with the phosphate at nearby S28 to bind the LxCxE cleft of the pocket domain with high affinity. The structure explains the specificity for p107/p130 over Rb in the DREAM complex and how the complex is disrupted by viral oncoproteins. Based on insights from the structure, we addressed how DREAM is disassembled upon cell cycle entry. We found that p130 and B-Myb can both bind the core MuvB complex simultaneously but that cyclin-dependent kinase phosphorylation of p130 weakens its association. Together, our data inform a novel target interface for studying MuvB and p130 function and the design of inhibitors that prevent tumor escape in quiescence. © 2015 Guiley et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  16. Complex dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Carleson, Lennart

    1993-01-01

    Complex dynamics is today very much a focus of interest. Though several fine expository articles were available, by P. Blanchard and by M. Yu. Lyubich in particular, until recently there was no single source where students could find the material with proofs. For anyone in our position, gathering and organizing the material required a great deal of work going through preprints and papers and in some cases even finding a proof. We hope that the results of our efforts will be of help to others who plan to learn about complex dynamics and perhaps even lecture. Meanwhile books in the field a. re beginning to appear. The Stony Brook course notes of J. Milnor were particularly welcome and useful. Still we hope that our special emphasis on the analytic side will satisfy a need. This book is a revised and expanded version of notes based on lectures of the first author at UCLA over several \\Vinter Quarters, particularly 1986 and 1990. We owe Chris Bishop a great deal of gratitude for supervising the production of cour...

  17. Complex Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantum instanton (QI approximation is recently proposed for the evaluations of the chemical reaction rate constants with use of full dimensional potential energy surfaces. Its strategy is to use the instanton mechanism and to approximate time-dependent quantum dynamics to the imaginary time propagation of the quantities of partition function. It thus incorporates the properties of the instanton idea and the quantum effect of partition function and can be applied to chemical reactions of complex systems. In this paper, we present the QI approach and its applications to several complex systems mainly done by us. The concrete systems include, (1 the reaction of H+CH4→H2+CH3, (2 the reaction of H+SiH4→H2+SiH3, (3 H diffusion on Ni(100 surface; and (4 surface-subsurface transport and interior migration for H/Ni. Available experimental and other theoretical data are also presented for the purpose of comparison.

  18. Dynein light chain 1 induces assembly of large Bim complexes on mitochondria that stabilize Mcl-1 and regulate apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Prafull Kumar; Roukounakis, Aristomenis; Frank, Daniel O; Kirschnek, Susanne; Das, Kushal Kumar; Neumann, Simon; Madl, Josef; Römer, Winfried; Zorzin, Carina; Borner, Christoph; Haimovici, Aladin; Garcia-Saez, Ana; Weber, Arnim; Häcker, Georg

    2017-09-01

    The Bcl-2 family protein Bim triggers mitochondrial apoptosis. Bim is expressed in nonapoptotic cells at the mitochondrial outer membrane, where it is activated by largely unknown mechanisms. We found that Bim is regulated by formation of large protein complexes containing dynein light chain 1 (DLC1). Bim rapidly inserted into cardiolipin-containing membranes in vitro and recruited DLC1 to the membrane. Bim binding to DLC1 induced the formation of large Bim complexes on lipid vesicles, on isolated mitochondria, and in intact cells. Native gel electrophoresis and gel filtration showed Bim-containing mitochondrial complexes of several hundred kilodaltons in all cells tested. Bim unable to form complexes was consistently more active than complexed Bim, which correlated with its substantially reduced binding to anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins. At endogenous levels, Bim surprisingly bound only anti-apoptotic Mcl-1 but not Bcl-2 or Bcl-X L , recruiting only Mcl-1 into large complexes. Targeting of DLC1 by RNAi in human cell lines induced disassembly of Bim-Mcl-1 complexes and the proteasomal degradation of Mcl-1 and sensitized the cells to the Bcl-2/Bcl-X L inhibitor ABT-737. Regulation of apoptosis at mitochondria thus extends beyond the interaction of monomers of proapoptotic and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members but involves more complex structures of proteins at the mitochondrial outer membrane, and targeting complexes may be a novel therapeutic strategy. © 2017 Singh et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  19. Cosmic Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, John C.

    2012-01-01

    What explains the extraordinary complexity of the observed universe, on all scales from quarks to the accelerating universe? My favorite explanation (which I certainty did not invent) ls that the fundamental laws of physics produce natural instability, energy flows, and chaos. Some call the result the Life Force, some note that the Earth is a living system itself (Gaia, a "tough bitch" according to Margulis), and some conclude that the observed complexity requires a supernatural explanation (of which we have many). But my dad was a statistician (of dairy cows) and he told me about cells and genes and evolution and chance when I was very small. So a scientist must look for me explanation of how nature's laws and statistics brought us into conscious existence. And how is that seemll"!gly Improbable events are actually happening a!1 the time? Well, the physicists have countless examples of natural instability, in which energy is released to power change from simplicity to complexity. One of the most common to see is that cooling water vapor below the freezing point produces snowflakes, no two alike, and all complex and beautiful. We see it often so we are not amazed. But physlc!sts have observed so many kinds of these changes from one structure to another (we call them phase transitions) that the Nobel Prize in 1992 could be awarded for understanding the mathematics of their common features. Now for a few examples of how the laws of nature produce the instabilities that lead to our own existence. First, the Big Bang (what an insufficient name!) apparently came from an instability, in which the "false vacuum" eventually decayed into the ordinary vacuum we have today, plus the most fundamental particles we know, the quarks and leptons. So the universe as a whole started with an instability. Then, a great expansion and cooling happened, and the loose quarks, finding themselves unstable too, bound themselves together into today's less elementary particles like protons and

  20. Studies of complex fragment emission in heavy ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charity, R.J.; Sobotka, L.G.

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: High energy photon production in a HI collision; the mechanism for the disassembly of excited 16 O projectiles into four alpha particles; the disassembly of excited 28 Si projectiles; large pre-fission multiplicities from temperature; dependent friction and fission barriers; multiplicity correlations; molecular beam induced fusion; dwarf ball and wall; mini wall; and computer and local data acquisition systems

  1. Modulation of chromatin structure by the FACT histone chaperone complex regulates HIV-1 integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matysiak, Julien; Lesbats, Paul; Mauro, Eric; Lapaillerie, Delphine; Dupuy, Jean-William; Lopez, Angelica P; Benleulmi, Mohamed Salah; Calmels, Christina; Andreola, Marie-Line; Ruff, Marc; Llano, Manuel; Delelis, Olivier; Lavigne, Marc; Parissi, Vincent

    2017-07-28

    Insertion of retroviral genome DNA occurs in the chromatin of the host cell. This step is modulated by chromatin structure as nucleosomes compaction was shown to prevent HIV-1 integration and chromatin remodeling has been reported to affect integration efficiency. LEDGF/p75-mediated targeting of the integration complex toward RNA polymerase II (polII) transcribed regions ensures optimal access to dynamic regions that are suitable for integration. Consequently, we have investigated the involvement of polII-associated factors in the regulation of HIV-1 integration. Using a pull down approach coupled with mass spectrometry, we have selected the FACT (FAcilitates Chromatin Transcription) complex as a new potential cofactor of HIV-1 integration. FACT is a histone chaperone complex associated with the polII transcription machinery and recently shown to bind LEDGF/p75. We report here that a tripartite complex can be formed between HIV-1 integrase, LEDGF/p75 and FACT in vitro and in cells. Biochemical analyzes show that FACT-dependent nucleosome disassembly promotes HIV-1 integration into chromatinized templates, and generates highly favored nucleosomal structures in vitro. This effect was found to be amplified by LEDGF/p75. Promotion of this FACT-mediated chromatin remodeling in cells both increases chromatin accessibility and stimulates HIV-1 infectivity and integration. Altogether, our data indicate that FACT regulates HIV-1 integration by inducing local nucleosomes dissociation that modulates the functional association between the incoming intasome and the targeted nucleosome.

  2. B-type nuclear lamin and the nuclear pore complex Nup107-160 influences maintenance of the spindle envelope required for cytokinesis in Drosophila male meiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Hayashi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In higher eukaryotes, nuclear envelope (NE disassembly allows chromatin to condense and spindle microtubules to access kinetochores. The nuclear lamina, which strengthens the NE, is composed of a polymer meshwork made of A- and B-type lamins. We found that the B-type lamin (Lam is not fully disassembled and continues to localize along the spindle envelope structure during Drosophila male meiosis I, while the A-type lamin (LamC is completely dispersed throughout the cytoplasm. Among the nuclear pore complex proteins, Nup107 co-localized with Lam during this meiotic division. Surprisingly, Lam depletion resulted in a higher frequency of cytokinesis failure in male meiosis. We also observed the similar meiotic phenotype in Nup107-depleted cells. Abnormal localization of Lam was found in the Nup-depleted cells at premeiotic and meiotic stages. The central spindle microtubules became abnormal and recruitment of a contractile ring component to the cleavage sites was disrupted in Lam-depleted cells and Nup107-depleted cells. Therefore, we speculate that both proteins are required for a reinforcement of the spindle envelope, which supports the formation of central spindle microtubules essential for cytokinesis in Drosophila male meiosis.

  3. Phosphomimetic mutation of the mitotically phosphorylated serine 1880 compromises the interaction of the transmembrane nucleoporin gp210 with the nuclear pore complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onischenko, Evgeny A.; Crafoord, Ellinor; Hallberg, Einar

    2007-01-01

    The nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) reversibly disassemble and reassemble during mitosis. Disassembly of the NPC is accompanied by phosphorylation of many nucleoporins although the function of this is not clear. It was previously shown that in the transmembrane nucleoporin gp210 a single serine residue at position 1880 is specifically phosphorylated during mitosis. Using amino acid substitution combined with live cell imaging, time-lapse microscopy and FRAP, we investigated the role of serine 1880 in binding of gp210 to the NPC in vivo. An alanine substitution mutant (S1880A) was significantly more dynamic at the NPC compared to the wild-type protein, suggesting that serine 1880 is important for binding of gp210 to the NPC. Moreover a glutamate substitution (S1880E) closely mimicking phosphorylated serine specifically interfered with incorporation of gp210 into the NPC and compromised its post-mitotic recruitment to the nuclear envelope of daughter nuclei. Our findings are consistent with the idea that mitotic phosphorylation acts to dissociate gp210 from the structural elements of the NPC

  4. Disassembling archeology, reassembling the modern world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruthers, William; Van Damme, Stéphane

    2017-09-01

    This article provides a substantive discussion of the relevance of the history of archeology to the history of science. At the same time, the article introduces the papers contained in this special issue as exemplars of this relevance. To make its case, the article moves through various themes in the history of archeology that overlap with key issues in the history of science. The article discusses the role and tension of regimes of science in antiquarian and archeological practices, and also considers issues of scale and place, particularly in relation to the field. Additionally, the piece attends to issues of professionalization and the constitution of an archeological public, at the same time as discussing issues of empire, colonialism, and the circulation of knowledge. Meanwhile, enriching discussions within and beyond the history of science, the article discusses the history of archeology and its relationship with museums, collecting, and material culture and materiality. Finally, the piece discusses the relationship of the history of archeology with wider discussions about scientific ethics. In conclusion, the article questions whether we should speak of 'the history of archeology' at all.

  5. The meiotic recombination checkpoint suppresses NHK-1 kinase to prevent reorganisation of the oocyte nucleus in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar M Lancaster

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The meiotic recombination checkpoint is a signalling pathway that blocks meiotic progression when the repair of DNA breaks formed during recombination is delayed. In comparison to the signalling pathway itself, however, the molecular targets of the checkpoint that control meiotic progression are not well understood in metazoans. In Drosophila, activation of the meiotic checkpoint is known to prevent formation of the karyosome, a meiosis-specific organisation of chromosomes, but the molecular pathway by which this occurs remains to be identified. Here we show that the conserved kinase NHK-1 (Drosophila Vrk-1 is a crucial meiotic regulator controlled by the meiotic checkpoint. An nhk-1 mutation, whilst resulting in karyosome defects, does so independent of meiotic checkpoint activation. Rather, we find unrepaired DNA breaks formed during recombination suppress NHK-1 activity (inferred from the phosphorylation level of one of its substrates through the meiotic checkpoint. Additionally DNA breaks induced by X-rays in cultured cells also suppress NHK-1 kinase activity. Unrepaired DNA breaks in oocytes also delay other NHK-1 dependent nuclear events, such as synaptonemal complex disassembly and condensin loading onto chromosomes. Therefore we propose that NHK-1 is a crucial regulator of meiosis and that the meiotic checkpoint suppresses NHK-1 activity to prevent oocyte nuclear reorganisation until DNA breaks are repaired.

  6. Complex analysis and geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Silva, Alessandro

    1993-01-01

    The papers in this wide-ranging collection report on the results of investigations from a number of linked disciplines, including complex algebraic geometry, complex analytic geometry of manifolds and spaces, and complex differential geometry.

  7. Complex Systems: An Introduction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 9. Complex Systems: An Introduction - Anthropic Principle, Terrestrial Complexity, Complex Materials. V K Wadhawan. General Article Volume 14 Issue 9 September 2009 pp 894-906 ...

  8. The Mitochondrial Complex(Ity of Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix A. Urra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence highlights that the cancer cell energy requirements vary greatly from normal cells and that cancer cells exhibit different metabolic phenotypes with variable participation of both glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation. NADH–ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Complex I is the largest complex of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and contributes about 40% of the proton motive force required for mitochondrial ATP synthesis. In addition, Complex I plays an essential role in biosynthesis and redox control during proliferation, resistance to cell death, and metastasis of cancer cells. Although knowledge about the structure and assembly of Complex I is increasing, information about the role of Complex I subunits in tumorigenesis is scarce and contradictory. Several small molecule inhibitors of Complex I have been described as selective anticancer agents; however, pharmacologic and genetic interventions on Complex I have also shown pro-tumorigenic actions, involving different cellular signaling. Here, we discuss the role of Complex I in tumorigenesis, focusing on the specific participation of Complex I subunits in proliferation and metastasis of cancer cells.

  9. QIL1 is a novel mitochondrial protein required for MICOS complex stability and cristae morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarani, Virginia; McNeill, Elizabeth M; Paulo, Joao A; Huttlin, Edward L; Fröhlich, Florian; Gygi, Steven P; Van Vactor, David; Harper, J Wade

    2015-05-21

    The mitochondrial contact site and cristae junction (CJ) organizing system (MICOS) dynamically regulate mitochondrial membrane architecture. Through systematic proteomic analysis of human MICOS, we identified QIL1 (C19orf70) as a novel conserved MICOS subunit. QIL1 depletion disrupted CJ structure in cultured human cells and in Drosophila muscle and neuronal cells in vivo. In human cells, mitochondrial disruption correlated with impaired respiration. Moreover, increased mitochondrial fragmentation was observed upon QIL1 depletion in flies. Using quantitative proteomics, we show that loss of QIL1 resulted in MICOS disassembly with the accumulation of a MIC60-MIC19-MIC25 sub-complex and degradation of MIC10, MIC26, and MIC27. Additionally, we demonstrated that in QIL1-depleted cells, overexpressed MIC10 fails to significantly restore its interaction with other MICOS subunits and SAMM50. Collectively, our work uncovers a previously unrecognized subunit of the MICOS complex, necessary for CJ integrity, cristae morphology, and mitochondrial function and provides a resource for further analysis of MICOS architecture.

  10. Complex differential geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Fangyang

    2002-01-01

    The theory of complex manifolds overlaps with several branches of mathematics, including differential geometry, algebraic geometry, several complex variables, global analysis, topology, algebraic number theory, and mathematical physics. Complex manifolds provide a rich class of geometric objects, for example the (common) zero locus of any generic set of complex polynomials is always a complex manifold. Yet complex manifolds behave differently than generic smooth manifolds; they are more coherent and fragile. The rich yet restrictive character of complex manifolds makes them a special and interesting object of study. This book is a self-contained graduate textbook that discusses the differential geometric aspects of complex manifolds. The first part contains standard materials from general topology, differentiable manifolds, and basic Riemannian geometry. The second part discusses complex manifolds and analytic varieties, sheaves and holomorphic vector bundles, and gives a brief account of the surface classifi...

  11. Dynamic and reversible self-assembly of photoelectrochemical complexes based on lipid bilayer disks, photosynthetic reaction centers, and single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boghossian, Ardemis A; Choi, Jong Hyun; Ham, Moon-Ho; Strano, Michael S

    2011-03-01

    An aqueous solution containing photosynthetic reaction centers (RCs), membrane scaffold proteins (MSPs), phospholipids, and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) solubilized with the surfactant sodium cholate (SC) reversibly self-assembles into a highly ordered structure upon dialysis of the latter. The resulting structure is photoelectrochemically active and consists of 4-nm-thick lipid bilayer disks (nanodisks, NDs) arranged parallel to the surface of the SWCNT with the RC housed within the bilayer such that its hole injecting site faces the nanotube surface. The structure can be assembled and disassembled autonomously with the addition or removal of surfactant. We model the kinetic and thermodynamic forces that drive the dynamics of this reversible self-assembly process. The assembly is monitored using spectrofluorimetry during dialysis and subsequent surfactant addition and used to fit a kinetic model to determine the forward and reverse rate constants of ND and ND-SWCNT formation. The calculated ND and ND-SWCNT forward rate constants are 79 mM(-1) s(-1) and 5.4 × 10(2) mM(-1) s(-1), respectively, and the reverse rate constants are negligible over the dialysis time scale. We find that the reaction is not diffusion-controlled since the ND-SWCNT reaction, which consists of entities with smaller diffusion coefficients, has a larger reaction rate constant. Using these rate parameters, we were able to develop a kinetic phase diagram for the formation of ND-SWCNT complexes, which indicates an optimal dialysis rate of approximately 8 × 10(-4) s(-1). We also fit the model to cyclic ND-SWCNT assembly and disassembly experiments and hence mimic the thermodynamic forces used in regeneration processes detailed previously. Such forces may form the basis of both synthetic and natural photoelectrochemical complexes capable of dynamic component replacement and repair.

  12. Radioisotope trithiol complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurisson, Silvia S.; Cutler, Cathy S.; Degraffenreid, Anthony J.

    2016-08-30

    The present invention is directed to a series of stable radioisotope trithiol complexes that provide a simplified route for the direct complexation of radioisotopes present in low concentrations. In certain embodiments, the complex contains a linking domain configured to conjugate the radioisotope trithiol complex to a targeting vector. The invention is also directed to a novel method of linking the radioisotope to a trithiol compound to form the radioisotope trithiol complex. The inventive radioisotope trithiol complexes may be utilized for a variety of applications, including diagnostics and/or treatment in nuclear medicine.

  13. Complex and symplectic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Medori, Costantino; Tomassini, Adriano

    2017-01-01

    This book arises from the INdAM Meeting "Complex and Symplectic Geometry", which was held in Cortona in June 2016. Several leading specialists, including young researchers, in the field of complex and symplectic geometry, present the state of the art of their research on topics such as the cohomology of complex manifolds; analytic techniques in Kähler and non-Kähler geometry; almost-complex and symplectic structures; special structures on complex manifolds; and deformations of complex objects. The work is intended for researchers in these areas.

  14. Oligocyclopentadienyl transition metal complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Azevedo, Cristina G.; Vollhardt, K. Peter C.

    2002-01-18

    Synthesis, characterization, and reactivity studies of oligocyclopentadienyl transition metal complexes, namely those of fulvalene, tercyclopentadienyl, quatercyclopentadienyl, and pentacyclopentadienyl(cyclopentadienyl) are the subject of this account. Thermal-, photo-, and redox chemistries of homo- and heteropolynuclear complexes are described.

  15. Mycobacterium Avium Complex (MAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 30, 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 514 Mycobacterium Avium Complex (MAC) WHAT IS MAC? HOW DO ... INTERACTION PROBLEMS THE BOTTOM LINE WHAT IS MAC? Mycobacterium Avium Complex (MAC) is a serious illness caused ...

  16. Complex sulfides and thiosalts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uehlls, A.

    1987-01-01

    Different types of the structures of complex sulfides, thiosalts of alkali, alkaline earth, rare earth, transition and actinide metals are considered in the review of the papers published before 1980 and devoted to the crystal structure of complex sulfides

  17. Holograms as complex media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, H. John

    2005-08-01

    Complex media can be grown, found in nature, or manufactured.. Holography is one way of fabricating such media. Here I review some examples of holographically manufactured complex media and speculate about some that could be made.

  18. The simple complex numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Zalesny, Jaroslaw

    2008-01-01

    A new simple geometrical interpretation of complex numbers is presented. It differs from their usual interpretation as points in the complex plane. From the new point of view the complex numbers are rather operations on vectors than points. Moreover, in this approach the real, imaginary and complex numbers have similar interpretation. They are simply some operations on vectors. The presented interpretation is simpler, more natural, and better adjusted to possible applications in geometry and ...

  19. The Visibility Complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pocchiola, Michel; Vegter, Gert

    1993-01-01

    We introduce the visibility complex of a collection O of n pairwise disjoint convex objects in the plane. This 2–dimensional cell complex may be considered as a generalization of the tangent visibility graph of O. Its space complexity k is proportional to the size of the tangent visibility graph. We

  20. Complex fuzzy soft multisets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkouri, Abd Ulazeez M.; Salleh, Abdul Razak

    2014-09-01

    In this paper we combine two definitions, namely fuzzy soft multiset and complex fuzzy set to construct the definition of a complex fuzzy soft multiset and study its properties. In other words, we study the extension of a fuzzy soft multiset from real numbers to complex numbers. We also introduce its basic operations, namely complement, union and intersection. Some examples are given.

  1. Complex variables I essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Solomon, Alan D

    2013-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Complex Variables I includes functions of a complex variable, elementary complex functions, integrals of complex functions in the complex plane, sequences and series, and poles and r

  2. Observation of Extensive Chromosome Axis Remodeling during the “Diffuse-Phase” of Meiosis in Large Genome Cereals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colas, Isabelle; Darrier, Benoit; Arrieta, Mikel; Mittmann, Sybille U.; Ramsay, Luke; Sourdille, Pierre; Waugh, Robbie

    2017-01-01

    The production of balanced fertile haploid gametes requires the faithful separation of paired (synapsed) chromosomes toward the end of meiotic prophase I (desynapsis). This involves the timely dissolution of the synaptonemal complex during the pachytene-diplotene transition, a stage traditionally referred to as the “diffuse stage.” In species with large genomes such as, barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) we know most about the early stages of meiotic prophase I. There, synapsis initiates at the telomeric ends of chromosomes and progresses toward the centromeric regions through the ordered assembly of the synaptonemal complex (SC). Synapsis is impacted by recombination (crossing over, CO) which locally modifies the extent of chromatin compaction and extension. CO is uneven along the chromosomes, occurring mainly toward the telomeric regions resulting in a highly skewed distribution of recombination events. However, we know very little about the process of desynapsis which occurs during the “diffuse stage,” where the synapsed and recombined chromosomes faithfully desynapse and separate into daughter cells. Here, using 3D-SIM super-resolution immuno-cytology combined with the use of antibodies directed against two crucial SC proteins, ASY1 and ZYP1, we followed the whole of meiosis I (i.e., both synapsis and desynapsis) in both barley and wheat. We showed that synapsis forms a characteristic tri-partite SC structure in zygotene (more clearly seen in barley). Toward the end of meiosis I, as the SC starts to disassemble, we show that extensive chromosome axis remodeling results in the formation of characteristic “tinsel-like” structures in both wheat and barley. By using a mutant (des10) that is severely compromised in polymerization of ZYP1during synapsis, we show that tinsel structure formation during SC dissolution is not dependant on full synapsis and may relate instead to changes in expansion stress. Our observations highlight

  3. Inhibition by stabilization: targeting the Plasmodium falciparum aldolase-TRAP complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemetski, Sondra Maureen; Cardozo, Timothy J; Bosch, Gundula; Weltzer, Ryan; O'Malley, Kevin; Ejigiri, Ijeoma; Kumar, Kota Arun; Buscaglia, Carlos A; Nussenzweig, Victor; Sinnis, Photini; Levitskaya, Jelena; Bosch, Jürgen

    2015-08-20

    Emerging resistance of the malaria parasite Plasmodium to current therapies underscores the critical importance of exploring novel strategies for disease eradication. Plasmodium species are obligate intracellular protozoan parasites. They rely on an unusual form of substrate-dependent motility for their migration on and across host-cell membranes and for host cell invasion. This peculiar motility mechanism is driven by the 'glideosome', an actin-myosin associated, macromolecular complex anchored to the inner membrane complex of the parasite. Myosin A, actin, aldolase, and thrombospondin-related anonymous protein (TRAP) constitute the molecular core of the glideosome in the sporozoite, the mosquito stage that brings the infection into mammals. Virtual library screening of a large compound library against the PfAldolase-TRAP complex was used to identify candidate compounds that stabilize and prevent the disassembly of the glideosome. The mechanism of these compounds was confirmed by biochemical, biophysical and parasitological methods. A novel inhibitory effect on the parasite was achieved by stabilizing a protein-protein interaction within the glideosome components. Compound 24 disrupts the gliding and invasive capabilities of Plasmodium parasites in in vitro parasite assays. A high-resolution, ternary X-ray crystal structure of PfAldolase-TRAP in complex with compound 24 confirms the mode of interaction and serves as a platform for future ligand optimization. This proof-of-concept study presents a novel approach to anti-malarial drug discovery and design. By strengthening a protein-protein interaction within the parasite, an avenue towards inhibiting a previously "undruggable" target is revealed and the motility motor responsible for successful invasion of host cells is rendered inactive. This study provides new insights into the malaria parasite cell invasion machinery and convincingly demonstrates that liver cell invasion is dramatically reduced by 95 % in the

  4. Analytical sedimentation of the IIAChb and IIBChb proteins of the Escherichia coli N,N'-diacetylchitobiose phosphotransferase system. Demonstration of a model phosphotransfer transition state complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyhani, N; Rodgers, M E; Demeler, B; Hansen, J C; Roseman, S

    2000-10-20

    The phosphoenolpyruvate:glycose transferase system (PTS) is a prototypic signaling system responsible for the vectorial uptake and phosphorylation of carbohydrate substrates. The accompanying papers describe the proteins and product of the Escherichia coli N, N-diacetylchitobiose ((GlcNAc)(2)) PTS-mediated permease. Unlike most PTS transporters, the Chb system is composed of two soluble proteins, IIA(Chb) and IIB(Chb), and one transmembrane receptor (IIC(Chb)). The oligomeric states of PTS permease proteins and phosphoproteins have been difficult to determine. Using analytical ultracentrifugation, both dephospho and phosphorylated IIA(Chb) are shown to exist as stable dimers, whereas IIB(Chb), phospho-IIB(Chb) and the mutant Cys10SerIIB(Chb) are monomers. The mutant protein Cys10SerIIB(Chb) is unable to accept phosphate from phospho-IIA(Chb) but forms a stable higher order complex with phospho-IIA(Chb) (but not with dephospho-IIA(Chb)). The stoichiometry of proteins in the purified complex was determined to be 1:1, indicating that two molecules of Cys10SerIIB(Chb) are associated with one phospho-IIA(Chb) dimer in the complex. The complex appears to be a transition state analogue in the phosphotransfer reaction between the proteins. A model is presented that describes the concerted assembly and disassembly of IIA(Chb)-IIB(Chb) complexes contingent on phosphorylation-dependent conformational changes, especially of IIA(Chb).

  5. Meiotic pairing of B chromosomes, multiple sexual system, and Robertsonian fusion in the red brocket deer Mazama americana (Mammalia, Cervidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, C I; Abril, V V; Duarte, J M B

    2013-09-13

    Deer species of the genus Mazama show significant inter- and intraspecific chromosomal variation due to the occurrence of rearrangements and B chromosomes. Given that carriers of aneuploidies and structural rearrangements often show anomalous chromosome pairings, we here performed a synaptonemal complex analysis to study chromosome pairing behavior in a red brocket deer (Mazama americana) individual that is heterozygous for a Robertsonian translocation, is a B chromosome carrier, and has a multiple sex chromosome system (XY₁Y₂). The synaptonemal complex in spermatocytes showed normal chromosome pairings for all chromosomes, including the autosomal and sex trivalents. The electromicrographs showed homology among B chromosomes since they formed bivalents, but they also appeared as univalents, indicating their anomalous behavior and non-Mendelian segregation. Thus, synaptonemal complex analysis is a useful tool to evaluate the role of B chromosomes and rearrangements during meiosis on the intraspecific chromosomal variation that is observed in the majority of Mazama species.

  6. Coordinated action of pectinesterase and polygalacturonate lyase complex of Clostridium multifermentans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheiman, M I; Macmillan, J D; Miller, L; Chase, T

    1976-05-01

    The polygalacturonate lyase and pectinesterase activities of Clostridium multifermentans, both produced extracellularly when the organism grows on pectin or polygalacturonate, have been suggested to be associated in a single complex. Both enzymic sites act on their respective substrates by single-chain action patterns, as shown by equivalent release of terminal tritium label and total product throughout the reaction. From these results, the Km and V of the lyase, and the amount of lyase activity present, we calculate the steady-state concentration of lyase substrate expected during action of the two sites on pectin if the sites are independent. No such steady-state concentration of lyase substrate was observed. Therefore, we conclude that the two types of active site act in a coordinated manner; the polysaccharide chain passes from the esterase site to the lyase site without intermediate dissociation and rebinding. This 'molecular disassembly line' constituted by the two sites may represent a system of general significance in synthesis and degradation of biological polymers.

  7. Simplicial complexes of graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Jonsson, Jakob

    2008-01-01

    A graph complex is a finite family of graphs closed under deletion of edges. Graph complexes show up naturally in many different areas of mathematics, including commutative algebra, geometry, and knot theory. Identifying each graph with its edge set, one may view a graph complex as a simplicial complex and hence interpret it as a geometric object. This volume examines topological properties of graph complexes, focusing on homotopy type and homology. Many of the proofs are based on Robin Forman's discrete version of Morse theory. As a byproduct, this volume also provides a loosely defined toolbox for attacking problems in topological combinatorics via discrete Morse theory. In terms of simplicity and power, arguably the most efficient tool is Forman's divide and conquer approach via decision trees; it is successfully applied to a large number of graph and digraph complexes.

  8. Measuring static complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Goertzel

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of “pattern” is introduced, formally defined, and used to analyze various measures of the complexity of finite binary sequences and other objects. The standard Kolmogoroff-Chaitin-Solomonoff complexity measure is considered, along with Bennett's ‘logical depth’, Koppel's ‘sophistication'’, and Chaitin's analysis of the complexity of geometric objects. The pattern-theoretic point of view illuminates the shortcomings of these measures and leads to specific improvements, it gives rise to two novel mathematical concepts--“orders” of complexity and “levels” of pattern, and it yields a new measure of complexity, the “structural complexity”, which measures the total amount of structure an entity possesses.

  9. Avoiding Simplicity Is Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allender, Eric

    It is a trivial observation that every decidable set has strings of length n with Kolmogorov complexity logn + O(1) if it has any strings of length n at all. Things become much more interesting when one asks whether a similar property holds when one considers resource-bounded Kolmogorov complexity. This is the question considered here: Can a feasible set A avoid accepting strings of low resource-bounded Kolmogorov complexity, while still accepting some (or many) strings of length n?

  10. Complex Systems and Dependability

    CERN Document Server

    Zamojski, Wojciech; Sugier, Jaroslaw

    2012-01-01

    Typical contemporary complex system is a multifaceted amalgamation of technical, information, organization, software and human (users, administrators and management) resources. Complexity of such a system comes not only from its involved technical and organizational structure but mainly from complexity of information processes that must be implemented in the operational environment (data processing, monitoring, management, etc.). In such case traditional methods of reliability analysis focused mainly on technical level are usually insufficient in performance evaluation and more innovative meth

  11. Cobalt(III) complex

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    e, 40 µM complex, 10 hrs after dissolution, f, 40 µM complex, after irradiation dose 15 Gy. and H-atoms result in reduction of Co(III) to Co. (II). 6. It is interesting to see in complex containing multiple ligands what is the fate of electron adduct species formed by electron addition. Reduction to. Co(II) and intramolecular transfer ...

  12. Conducting metal dithiolate complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Underhill, A. E.; Ahmad, M. M.; Turner, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    Further work on the chemical composition of the one-dimensional metallic metal dithiolene complex Li-Pt(mnt) is reported. The electrical conduction and thermopower properties of the nickel and palladium complexes are reported and compared with those of the platinum compound......Further work on the chemical composition of the one-dimensional metallic metal dithiolene complex Li-Pt(mnt) is reported. The electrical conduction and thermopower properties of the nickel and palladium complexes are reported and compared with those of the platinum compound...

  13. Mitochondrial hepato-encephalopathy due to deficiency of QIL1/MIC13 (C19orf70), a MICOS complex subunit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeharia, Avraham; Friedman, Jonathan R; Tobar, Ana; Saada, Ann; Konen, Osnat; Fellig, Yacov; Shaag, Avraham; Nunnari, Jodi; Elpeleg, Orly

    2016-12-01

    The mitochondrial inner membrane possesses distinct subdomains including cristae, which are lamellar structures invaginated into the mitochondrial matrix and contain the respiratory complexes. Generation of inner membrane domains requires the complex interplay between the respiratory complexes, mitochondrial lipids and the recently identified mitochondrial contact site and cristae organizing system (MICOS) complex. Proper organization of the mitochondrial inner membrane has recently been shown to be important for respiratory function in yeast. Here we aimed at a molecular diagnosis in a brother and sister from a consanguineous family who presented with a neurodegenerative disorder accompanied by hyperlactatemia, 3-methylglutaconic aciduria, disturbed hepatocellular function with abnormal cristae morphology in liver and cerebellar and vermis atrophy, which suggest mitochondrial dysfunction. Using homozygosity mapping and exome sequencing the patients were found to be homozygous for the p.(Gly15Glufs*75) variant in the QIL1/MIC13 (C19orf70) gene. QIL1/MIC13 is a constituent of MICOS, a six subunit complex that helps to form and/or stabilize cristae junctions and determine the placement, distribution and number of cristae within mitochondria. In patient fibroblasts both MICOS subunits QIL1/MIC13 and MIC10 were absent whereas MIC60 was present in a comparable abundance to that of the control. We conclude that QIL1/MIC13 deficiency in human, is associated with disassembly of the MICOS complex, with the associated aberration of cristae morphology and mitochondrial respiratory dysfunction. 3-Methylglutaconic aciduria is associated with variants in genes encoding mitochondrial inner membrane organizing determinants, including TAZ, DNAJC19, SERAC1 and QIL1/MIC13.

  14. The visibility complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pocchiola, M; Vegter, G

    We introduce the visibility complex (rr 2-dimensional regular cell complex) of a collection of n pairwise disjoint convex obstacles in the plane. It can be considered as a subdivision of the set of free rays (i.e., rays whose origins lie in free space, the complement of the obstacles). Its cells

  15. complexes of pyrimidine derived

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    HL3, HL4 and HL5) respectively. These ligands are already reported as good donors for Mo(VI) state. The μ-oxo Mo(V) complexes reported here bears a distorted octahedral geometry around each Mo atom with either N2O2Cl or N2O2Br chromophores. Fine variations in the spectroscopic behaviour of the complexes.

  16. Visual Complexity: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donderi, Don C.

    2006-01-01

    The idea of visual complexity, the history of its measurement, and its implications for behavior are reviewed, starting with structuralism and Gestalt psychology at the beginning of the 20th century and ending with visual complexity theory, perceptual learning theory, and neural circuit theory at the beginning of the 21st. Evidence is drawn from…

  17. Complex Materials and Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    Disruptive Basic Research Areas” – Metamaterials and Plasmonics – Quantum Information Science – Cognitive Neuroscience – Nanoscience and...function Complex Electronics and Fundamental Quantum Processes Complex engineered materials and devices Devices based on quantum phenomena...fundamental quantum processes Quantum Electronic Solids (Weinstock) Photonics and Optoelectronics (Pomrenke) GHz-THz Electronics (Hwang) Natural

  18. Complexity in Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierschynski, Jarek; Louie, Belinda; Pughe, Bronwyn

    2015-01-01

    One of the key requirements of Common Core State Standards (CCSS) in English Language Arts is that students are able to read and access complex texts across all grade levels. The CCSS authors emphasize both the limitations and lack of accuracy in the current CCSS model of text complexity, calling for the development of new frameworks. In response…

  19. Complex conductivity of soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Revil, A.; Coperey, A.; Shao, Z.; Florsch, N.; Fabricus, I.L.; Deng, Y.; Delsman, J.R.; Pauw, P.S.; Karaoulis, M.; Louw, P.G.B. de; Baaren, E.S. van; Dabekaussen, W.; Menkovic, A.; Gunnink, J.L.

    2017-01-01

    The complex conductivity of soils remains poorly known despite the growing importance of this method in hydrogeophysics. In order to fill this gap of knowledge, we investigate the complex conductivity of 71 soils samples (including four peat samples) and one clean sand in the frequency range 0.1 Hz

  20. Genetics of complex disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kere, Juha

    2010-05-21

    The success stories of identifying genes in Mendelian disorders have stimulated research that aims at identifying the genetic determinants in complex disorders, in which both genetics, environment and chance affect the pathogenetic processes. This review summarizes the brief history and lessons learned from genetic analysis of complex disorders and outlines some landscapes ahead for medical research. 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Life Complexity and Diversity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is as if the stage is cleared from time to time to make for fresh beginnings, with major bouts of extinction. Humans are amongst the most complex products of evolution having in turn populated the world with ever growing numbers of complex artefacts. These artefacts are now threatening to overwhelm the diversity of life.

  2. Photocytotoxic lanthanide complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The chemistry of photoactive lanthanide complexes showing biological applications is of recent origin. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a non-invasive treatment modality of cancer using a photosensitizer drug and light. This review primarily focuses on different aspects of the chemistry of lanthanide complexes showing ...

  3. complexes of pyrimidine derived

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    complexes are not so common in literature. Because of a tendency of Mo(V) species to form oxo- ... enzymes such as DMSO reductase are common in microbial systems and are mononuclear in nature. 11 ..... ligands with centroid to centroid distances of 3⋅52 Å. 4. Conclusion. Ten new Mo(V) complexes are prepared which ...

  4. Complexity and behavioral economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, J Barkley; Rosser, Marina V

    2015-04-01

    This paper will consider the relationship between complexity economics and behavioral economics. A crucial key to this is to understand that Herbert Simon was both the founder of explicitly modern behavioral economics as well as one of the early developers of complexity theory. Bounded rationality was essentially derived from Simon's view of the impossibility of full rationality on the part of economic agents. Modern complexity theory through such approaches as agent-based modeling offers an approach to understanding behavioral economics by allowing for specific behavioral responses to be assigned to agents who interact within this context, even without full rationality. Other parts of modern complexity theory are considered in terms of their relationships with behavioral economics. Fundamentally, complexity provides an ultimate foundation for bounded rationality and hence the need to use behavioral economics in a broader array of contexts than most economists have thought appropriate.

  5. Leading healthcare in complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Jeffrey

    2014-12-01

    Healthcare institutions and providers are in complexity. Networks of interconnections from relationships and technology create conditions in which interdependencies and non-linear dynamics lead to surprising, unpredictable outcomes. Previous effective approaches to leadership, focusing on top-down bureaucratic methods, are no longer effective. Leading in complexity requires leaders to accept the complexity, create an adaptive space in which innovation and creativity can flourish and then integrate the successful practices that emerge into the formal organizational structure. Several methods for doing adaptive space work will be discussed. Readers will be able to contrast traditional leadership approaches with leading in complexity. They will learn new behaviours that are required of complexity leaders, along with challenges they will face, often from other leaders within the organization.

  6. Systemic delivery of siRNA in pumpkin by a plant PHLOEM SMALL RNA-BINDING PROTEIN 1-ribonucleoprotein complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Byung-Kook; Li, Gang; Jia, Weitao; Leary, Julie A; Lucas, William J

    2014-11-01

    In plants, the vascular system, specifically the phloem, functions in delivery of small RNA (sRNA) to exert epigenetic control over developmental and defense-related processes. Although the importance of systemic sRNA delivery has been established, information is currently lacking concerning the nature of the protein machinery involved in this process. Here, we show that a PHLOEM SMALL-RNA BINDING PROTEIN 1 (PSRP1) serves as the basis for formation of an sRNA ribonucleoprotein complex (sRNPC) that delivers sRNA (primarily 24 nt) to sink organs. Assembly of this complex is facilitated through PSRP1 phosphorylation by a phloem-localized protein kinase, PSRPK1. During long-distance transport, PSRP1-sRNPC is stable against phloem phosphatase activity. Within target tissues, phosphatase activity results in disassembly of PSRP1-sRNPC, a process that is probably required for unloading cargo sRNA into surrounding cells. These findings provide an insight into the mechanism involved in delivery of sRNA associated with systemic gene silencing in plants. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Quantum Entropy and Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benatti, F.; Oskouei, S. Khabbazi; Abad, A. Shafiei Deh

    We study the relations between the recently proposed machine-independent quantum complexity of P. Gacs [1] and the entropy of classical and quantum systems. On one hand, by restricting Gacs complexity to ergodic classical dynamical systems, we retrieve the equality between the Kolmogorov complexity rate and the Shannon entropy rate derived by A. A. Brudno [2]. On the other hand, using the quantum Shannon-McMillan theorem [3], we show that such an equality holds densely in the case of ergodic quantum spin chains.

  8. Study of complex modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastrnak, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    This eighteen-month study has been successful in providing the designer and analyst with qualitative guidelines on the occurrence of complex modes in the dynamics of linear structures, and also in developing computer codes for determining quantitatively which vibration modes are complex and to what degree. The presence of complex modes in a test structure has been verified. Finite element analysis of a structure with non-proportional dumping has been performed. A partial differential equation has been formed to eliminate possible modeling errors

  9. Simulation in Complex Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicholas, Paul; Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette; Tamke, Martin

    2017-01-01

    This paper will discuss the role of simulation in extended architectural design modelling. As a framing paper, the aim is to present and discuss the role of integrated design simulation and feedback between design and simulation in a series of projects under the Complex Modelling framework. Complex...... Restraint developed for the research exhibition Complex Modelling, Meldahls Smedie Gallery, Copenhagen in 2016. Where the direct project aims and outcomes have been reported elsewhere, the aim for this paper is to discuss overarching strategies for working with design integrated simulation....

  10. Complexity from the ordinary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayres, Phil

    2006-01-01

    Herbert Simon proposed that complexity is an emergent property that can result from the interaction of a simple mechanism within a complex environment. The Kielder context exhibits continual variation across many time scales and offers a rich resource for exploring the notions of novelty, variety......, specificity and complexity. By considering the design process as a continual iterative cycle in which the digital and analogue are closely coupled, we might imagine a construct that continually redefines itself in relation to its context, attempting to become increasingly specific to location and purpose over...

  11. Involvement of complexin 2 in docking, locking and unlocking of different SNARE complexes during sperm capacitation and induced acrosomal exocytosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Shiue J Tsai

    Full Text Available Acrosomal exocytosis (AE is an intracellular multipoint fusion reaction of the sperm plasma membrane (PM with the outer acrosomal membrane (OAM. This unique exocytotic event enables the penetration of the sperm through the zona pellucida of the oocyte. We previously observed a stable docking of OAM to the PM brought about by the formation of the trans-SNARE complex (syntaxin 1B, SNAP 23 and VAMP 3. By using electron microscopy, immunochemistry and immunofluorescence techniques in combination with functional studies and proteomic approaches, we here demonstrate that calcium ionophore-induced AE results in the formation of unilamellar hybrid membrane vesicles containing a mixture of components originating from the two fused membranes. These mixed vesicles (MV do not contain the earlier reported trimeric SNARE complex but instead possess a novel trimeric SNARE complex that contained syntaxin 3, SNAP 23 and VAMP 2, with an additional SNARE interacting protein, complexin 2. Our data indicate that the earlier reported raft and capacitation-dependent docking phenomenon between the PM and OAM allows a specific rearrangement of molecules between the two docked membranes and is involved in (1 recruiting SNAREs and complexin 2 in the newly formed lipid-ordered microdomains, (2 the assembly of a fusion-driving SNARE complex which executes Ca(2+-dependent AE, (3 the disassembly of the earlier reported docking SNARE complex, (4 the recruitment of secondary zona binding proteins at the zona interacting sperm surface. The possibility to study separate and dynamic interactions between SNARE proteins, complexin and Ca(2+ which are all involved in AE make sperm an ideal model for studying exocytosis.

  12. Complex Flow Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2012-05-01

    This report documents findings from a workshop on the impacts of complex wind flows in and out of wind turbine environments, the research needs, and the challenges of meteorological and engineering modeling at regional, wind plant, and wind turbine scales.

  13. Low complexity MIMO receivers

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Lin; Yu, Quan

    2014-01-01

    Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems can increase the spectral efficiency in wireless communications. However, the interference becomes the major drawback that leads to high computational complexity at both transmitter and receiver. In particular, the complexity of MIMO receivers can be prohibitively high. As an efficient mathematical tool to devise low complexity approaches that mitigate the interference in MIMO systems, lattice reduction (LR) has been widely studied and employed over the last decade. The co-authors of this book are world's leading experts on MIMO receivers, and here they share the key findings of their research over years. They detail a range of key techniques for receiver design as multiple transmitted and received signals are available. The authors first introduce the principle of signal detection and the LR in mathematical aspects. They then move on to discuss the use of LR in low complexity MIMO receiver design with respect to different aspects, including uncoded MIMO detection...

  14. Physical Sciences Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This 88,000 square foot complex is used to investigate basic physical science in support of missile technology development. It incorporates office space, dedicated...

  15. Bitter Sweetness of Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horst, A. K.; Wagener, C.

    Glycosylation of proteins, lipids and mucins has gained increasing complexity in the course of evolution. Metazoans and mammals exhibit extensively exploited pathways of N-glycan biosynthesis, with unique features that are not found in plants or protozoans.

  16. complexes of Ciprofloxacin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-12-17

    2002). Magnesium, Calcium and Barium Percholate complexes of ciprofloxacin and Norfloxacin. Acta. Chim. Slov. 49: 457-466. Akanji MA, Olagoke OA, Oloyede OB (1993). Effects of chronic consumption of metabisulphite on ...

  17. Complex Strategic Choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leleur, Steen

    . Complex Strategic Choices provides clear principles and methods which can guide and support strategic decision making to face the many current challenges. By considering ways in which planning practices can be renewed and exploring the possibilities for acquiring awareness and tools to add value...... and students in the field of planning and decision analysis as well as practitioners dealing with strategic analysis and decision making. More broadly, Complex Strategic Choices acts as guide for professionals and students involved in complex planning tasks across several fields such as business...... to strategic decision making, Complex Strategic Choices presents a methodology which is further illustrated by a number of case studies and example applications. Dr. Techn. Steen Leleur has adapted previously established research based on feedback and input from various conferences, journals and students...

  18. Indicators: Physical Habitat Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical habitat complexity measures the amount and variety of all types of cove at the water’s edge in lakes. In general, dense and varied shoreline habitat is able to support more diverse communities of aquatic life.

  19. Complex Networks IX

    CERN Document Server

    Coronges, Kate; Gonçalves, Bruno; Sinatra, Roberta; Vespignani, Alessandro; Proceedings of the 9th Conference on Complex Networks; CompleNet 2018

    2018-01-01

    This book aims to bring together researchers and practitioners working across domains and research disciplines to measure, model, and visualize complex networks. It collects the works presented at the 9th International Conference on Complex Networks (CompleNet) 2018 in Boston, MA in March, 2018. With roots in physical, information and social science, the study of complex networks provides a formal set of mathematical methods, computational tools and theories to describe prescribe and predict dynamics and behaviors of complex systems. Despite their diversity, whether the systems are made up of physical, technological, informational, or social networks, they share many common organizing principles and thus can be studied with similar approaches. This book provides a view of the state-of-the-art in this dynamic field and covers topics such as group decision-making, brain and cellular connectivity, network controllability and resiliency, online activism, recommendation systems, and cyber security.

  20. Reconstruction Using Witness Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudot, Steve Y.

    2010-01-01

    We present a novel reconstruction algorithm that, given an input point set sampled from an object S, builds a one-parameter family of complexes that approximate S at different scales. At a high level, our method is very similar in spirit to Chew’s surface meshing algorithm, with one notable difference though: the restricted Delaunay triangulation is replaced by the witness complex, which makes our algorithm applicable in any metric space. To prove its correctness on curves and surfaces, we highlight the relationship between the witness complex and the restricted Delaunay triangulation in 2d and in 3d. Specifically, we prove that both complexes are equal in 2d and closely related in 3d, under some mild sampling assumptions. PMID:21643440

  1. Complexity for Artificial Substrates (

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loke, L.H.L.; Jachowski, N.R.; Bouma, T.J.; Ladle, R.J.; Todd, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    Physical habitat complexity regulates the structure and function of biological communities, although the mechanisms underlying this relationship remain unclear. Urbanisation, pollution, unsustainable resource exploitation and climate change have resulted in the widespread simplification (and loss)

  2. Thermodynamics of complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerhoff, Hans V.; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal; Snoep, Jacky L.

    1998-01-01

    the thesis that the aforesaid holds a fortiori for the living cell: Much of the essence of the live state depends more on the manner in which the molecules are organised than on the properties of single molecules. This is due to the phenomenon of 'Complexity'. BioComplexity is defined here as the phenomenon...... understanding of this BioComplexity, modem thermodynamic concepts and methods (nonequilibrium thermodynamics, metabolic and hierarchical control analysis) will be needed. We shall propose to redefine nonequilibrium thermodynamics as: The science that aims at understanding the behaviour of nonequilibrium systems...... with metabolic control analysis. Subsequently, the complexity of the control of the energy metabolism of E. coli will be analysed in detail. New control theorems will be derived for newly defined control coefficients. It will become transparent that molecular genetic experimentation will allow one to penetrate...

  3. Complex variable HVPT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Killingbeck, John P [Mathematics Department, University of Hull, Hull HU6 7RX (United Kingdom); Grosjean, Alain [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de l' Observatoire de Besancon (CNRS, UPRES-A 6091), 41 bis Avenue de l' Observatoire, BP 1615, 25010 Besancon Cedex (France); Jolicard, Georges [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de l' Observatoire de Besancon (CNRS, UPRES-A 6091), 41 bis Avenue de l' Observatoire, BP 1615, 25010 Besancon Cedex (France)

    2004-08-13

    Complex variable hypervirial perturbation theory is applied to the case of oscillator and Coulomb potentials perturbed by a single term potential of the form Vx{sup n} or Vr{sup n}, respectively. The trial calculations reported show that this approach can produce accurate complex energies for resonant states via a simple and speedy calculation and can also be useful in studies of PT symmetry and tunnelling resonance effects. (addendum)

  4. An erupted complex odontoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozoglu, Sinan; Yildirim, Umran; Buyukkurt, M Cemil

    2010-01-01

    Odontomas are benign tumors of odontogenic origin. The cause of the odontoma is unknown, but it is believed to be hereditary or due to a disturbance in tooth development triggered by trauma or infection. Odontomas may be either compound or complex. Although these tumors are seen frequently, erupted odontomas are rare. The purpose of this study is to present a rare case of complex odontoma that erupted into the oral cavity.

  5. Complexity and Safety (FAA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-27

    Carnegie Mellon University for the operation of the Software Engineering Institute, a federally funded research and development center sponsored by...their error propagation potentials are Enable use of complexity as an indicator of risk , to be tracked using standard techniques Future research...into “How much can we discount the complexity of a system given that X% has been used before?” can be framed as “ credit for precedence” and ties to

  6. Simulation with complex measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kieu, T.D.; Griffin, C.J.

    1994-01-01

    The simulation of statistical and quantum systems suffers from the sign problem when the generating function measures are indefinite or are complex, such as lattice quantum chromodynamics with finite temperature and density and chiral gauge theory. A new approach is proposed which yields statistical errors smaller than the crude Monte Carlo using absolute values of the original measures. The one-dimensional complex-coupling Ising model is employed as an illustration. 2 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  7. Advances in network complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Dehmer, Matthias; Emmert-Streib, Frank

    2013-01-01

    A well-balanced overview of mathematical approaches to describe complex systems, ranging from chemical reactions to gene regulation networks, from ecological systems to examples from social sciences. Matthias Dehmer and Abbe Mowshowitz, a well-known pioneer in the field, co-edit this volume and are careful to include not only classical but also non-classical approaches so as to ensure topicality. Overall, a valuable addition to the literature and a must-have for anyone dealing with complex systems.

  8. Provability, complexity, grammars

    CERN Document Server

    Beklemishev, Lev; Vereshchagin, Nikolai

    1999-01-01

    The book contains English translations of three outstanding dissertations in mathematical logic and complexity theory. L. Beklemishev proves that all provability logics must belong to one of the four previously known classes. The dissertation of M. Pentus proves the Chomsky conjecture about the equivalence of two approaches to formal languages: the Chomsky hierarchy and the Lambek calculus. The dissertation of N. Vereshchagin describes a general framework for criteria of reversability in complexity theory.

  9. Conversation, coupling and complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Abney, Drew; Bahrami, Bahador

    We investigate the linguistic co-construction of interpersonal synergies. By applying a measure of coupling between complex systems to an experimentally elicited corpus of joint decision dialogues, we show that interlocutors’ linguistic behavior displays increasing signature of multi-scale coupling......, known as complexity matching, over the course of interaction. Furthermore, we show that stronger coupling corresponds with more effective interaction, as measured by collective task performance....

  10. Electrospun complexes - functionalised nanofibres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, T.; Wolf, M.; Dreyer, B.; Unruh, D.; Krüger, C.; Menze, M. [Leibniz University Hannover, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry (Germany); Sindelar, R. [University of Applied Science Hannover, Faculty II (Germany); Klingelhöfer, G. [Gutenberg-University, Institute of Inorganic and Analytic Chemistry (Germany); Renz, F., E-mail: renz@acd.uni-hannover.de [Leibniz University Hannover, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    Here we present a new approach of using iron-complexes in electro-spun fibres. We modify poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) by replacing the methoxy group with Diaminopropane or Ethylenediamine. The complex is bound covalently via an imine-bridge or an amide. The resulting polymer can be used in the electrospinning process without any further modifications in method either as pure reagent or mixed with small amounts of not functionalised polymer resulting in fibres of different qualities (Fig. 1).

  11. Organotin complexes with phosphines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passos, B. de F.T.; Jesus Filho, M.F. de; Filgueiras, C.A.L.; Abras, A.

    1988-01-01

    A series of organotin complexes was prepared involving phosphines bonded to the organotin moiety. The series include derivatives of SnCl x Ph 4-x (where x varied from zero to four with the phosphines Ph 3 P, (Ph 2 P)CH 2 , (Ph 2 P) 2 (CH 2 ) 2 , cis-(Ph 2 P)CH 2 , and CH 3 C(CH 2 PPh 2 ) 3 . A host of new complexes was obtained, showing different stoichiometries, bonding modes, and coordination numbers around the tin atom. These complexes were characterized by several different chemical and physical methods. The 119 Sn Moessbauer parameters varied differently. Whereas isomer shift values did not great variation for each group of complexs with the same organotin parent (SnCl x Ph 4-x ), reflecting a small change in s charge distribution on the Sn atom upon complexation, quadrupole splitting results varied widely, however, when the parent organotin compound was wholly symmetric (SnCl 4 and SnPPh 4 ), the complexes also tended to show quadrupole splitting values approaching zero. (author)

  12. MANAGEMENT OF SPORT COMPLEXES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian STAN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The actuality of the investigated theme. Nowadays, human evolution, including his intellectual development, proves the fact that especially the creation manpower and the employment was the solution of all life’s ambitions in society. So, the fact is that in reality, man is the most important capital of the society. Also, in an individual’s life, the practice of sport plays a significant role and that’s why the initiation, the launch and the management of sports complexes activity reveal the existence of specific management features that we will identify and explain in the current study. The aim of the research refers to the elaboration of a theoretical base of the management of the sport complexes, to the pointing of the factors that influence the efficient existence and function of a sport complex in our country and to the determination of the responsibilities that have a manager who directs successfully the activity of the sport complexes. The investigation is based on theoretical methods, such as: scientific documentation, analysis, synthesis, comparison and on empirical research methods, like: study of researched literature and observation. The results of the research indicate the fact that the profitability of a sport complex must assure a particular structure to avoid the bankruptcy risk and also, that the administration of the sport complexes activity must keep in view the reliable functions of the contemporaneous management.

  13. The Orion complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goudis, C.

    1982-01-01

    This work deals with some of the most typical complexes of interstellar matter and presents a holistic view of the well studied complexes in Orion, built on information derived from various branches of modern astrophysics. A wealth of published data is presented in the form of photographs, contour maps, diagrams and numerous heavily annotated tables. Chapter 1, which is concerned with the large scale view of the Orion region, outlines the morphology of the area and examines in particular the nature of Barnard's Loop and the associated filamentary structure in addition to the origin of the I Orion OB association. Chapter 2 focuses on the Great Orion Nebula (M42 or NGC 1976) and the small H II region to the north (M43 or NGC 1982). Chapter 3 examines the Orion Complex as a whole, i.e. the H II regions M42 and M43, the associated molecular clouds OMC 1 and OMC 2 and their interrelations. Chapter 4 contains a discussion of the empirical models introduced to attempt to explain certain aspects of this very complex region, and chapter 5 investigates the second prominent H II region and molecular cloud complex, NGC 2024 (Orion B, W12). (Auth.)

  14. Algorithmic Relative Complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Cerra

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Information content and compression are tightly related concepts that can be addressed through both classical and algorithmic information theories, on the basis of Shannon entropy and Kolmogorov complexity, respectively. The definition of several entities in Kolmogorov’s framework relies upon ideas from classical information theory, and these two approaches share many common traits. In this work, we expand the relations between these two frameworks by introducing algorithmic cross-complexity and relative complexity, counterparts of the cross-entropy and relative entropy (or Kullback-Leibler divergence found in Shannon’s framework. We define the cross-complexity of an object x with respect to another object y as the amount of computational resources needed to specify x in terms of y, and the complexity of x related to y as the compression power which is lost when adopting such a description for x, compared to the shortest representation of x. Properties of analogous quantities in classical information theory hold for these new concepts. As these notions are incomputable, a suitable approximation based upon data compression is derived to enable the application to real data, yielding a divergence measure applicable to any pair of strings. Example applications are outlined, involving authorship attribution and satellite image classification, as well as a comparison to similar established techniques.

  15. Complexes and imagination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kast, Verena

    2014-11-01

    Fantasies as imaginative activities are seen by Jung as expressions of psychic energy. In the various descriptions of active imagination the observation of the inner image and the dialogue with inner figures, if possible, are important. The model of symbol formation, as Jung describes it, can be experienced in doing active imagination. There is a correspondence between Jung's understanding of complexes and our imaginations: complexes develop a fantasy life. Complex episodes are narratives of difficult dysfunctional relationship episodes that have occurred repeatedly and are internalized with episodic memory. This means that the whole complex episode (the image for the child and the image for the aggressor, connected with emotions) is internalized and can get constellated in everyday relationship. Therefore inner dialogues do not necessarily qualify as active imaginations, often they are the expression of complex-episodes, very similar to fruitless soliloquies. If imaginations of this kind are repeated, new symbols and new possibilities of behaviour are not found. On the contrary, old patterns of behaviour and fantasies are perpetuated and become cemented. Imaginations of this kind need an intervention by the analyst. In clinical examples different kinds of imaginations are discussed. © 2014, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  16. Modeling Complex Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Boccara, Nino

    2010-01-01

    Modeling Complex Systems, 2nd Edition, explores the process of modeling complex systems, providing examples from such diverse fields as ecology, epidemiology, sociology, seismology, and economics. It illustrates how models of complex systems are built and provides indispensable mathematical tools for studying their dynamics. This vital introductory text is useful for advanced undergraduate students in various scientific disciplines, and serves as an important reference book for graduate students and young researchers. This enhanced second edition includes: . -recent research results and bibliographic references -extra footnotes which provide biographical information on cited scientists who have made significant contributions to the field -new and improved worked-out examples to aid a student’s comprehension of the content -exercises to challenge the reader and complement the material Nino Boccara is also the author of Essentials of Mathematica: With Applications to Mathematics and Physics (Springer, 2007).

  17. Complex Strategic Choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leleur, Steen

    Effective decision making requires a clear methodology, particularly in a complex world of globalisation. Institutions and companies in all disciplines and sectors are faced with increasingly multi-faceted areas of uncertainty which cannot always be effectively handled by traditional strategies....... Complex Strategic Choices provides clear principles and methods which can guide and support strategic decision making to face the many current challenges. By considering ways in which planning practices can be renewed and exploring the possibilities for acquiring awareness and tools to add value...... to strategic decision making, Complex Strategic Choices presents a methodology which is further illustrated by a number of case studies and example applications. Dr. Techn. Steen Leleur has adapted previously established research based on feedback and input from various conferences, journals and students...

  18. Large erupted complex odontoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijeev Vasudevan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Odontomas are a heterogeneous group of jaw bone lesions, classified as odontogenic tumors which usually include well-diversified dental tissues. Odontoma is a term introduced to the literature by Broca in 1867. Trauma, infection and hereditary factors are the possible causes of forming this kind of lesions. Among odontogenic tumors, they constitute about 2/3 of cases. These lesions usually develop slowly and asymptomatically, and in most cases they do not cross the bone borders. Two types of odontoma are recognized: compound and complex. Complex odontomas are less common than the compound variety in the ratio 1:2.3. Eruption of an odontoma in the oral cavity is rare. We present a case of complex odontoma, in which apparent eruption has occurred in the area of the right maxillary second molar region.

  19. Alanine water complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquero, Vanesa; Sanz, M Eugenia; Peña, Isabel; Mata, Santiago; Cabezas, Carlos; López, Juan C; Alonso, José L

    2014-04-10

    Two complexes of alanine with water, alanine-(H2O)n (n = 1,2), have been generated by laser ablation of the amino acid in a supersonic jet containing water vapor and characterized using Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. In the observed complexes, water molecules bind to the carboxylic group of alanine acting as both proton donors and acceptors. In alanine-H2O, the water molecule establishes two intermolecular hydrogen bonds forming a six-membered cycle, while in alanine-(H2O)2 the two water molecules establish three hydrogen bonds forming an eight-membered ring. In both complexes, the amino acid moiety is in its neutral form and shows the conformation observed to be the most stable for the bare molecule. The microsolvation study of alanine-(H2O)n (n = 1,2) can be taken as a first step toward understanding bulk properties at a microscopic level.

  20. Can Complexity be Planned?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Koutny

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The long accepted complexity invariance of human languages has become controversial within the last decade. In investigations of the problem, both creole and planned languages have often been neglected. After a presentation of the scope of the invariance problem and the proposition of the natural to planned language continuum, this article will discuss the contribution of planned languages. It will analyze the complexity of Esperanto at the phonological, morphological, syntactic and semantic levels, using linguistic data bases. The role of the L2 speech community and development of the language will also be taken into account when discussing the endurance of the same level of simplicity of this planned international language. The author argues that complexity can be variable and to some extent planned and maintained.

  1. Complex Strategic Choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leleur, Steen

    to strategic decision making, Complex Strategic Choices presents a methodology which is further illustrated by a number of case studies and example applications. Dr. Techn. Steen Leleur has adapted previously established research based on feedback and input from various conferences, journals and students......Effective decision making requires a clear methodology, particularly in a complex world of globalisation. Institutions and companies in all disciplines and sectors are faced with increasingly multi-faceted areas of uncertainty which cannot always be effectively handled by traditional strategies....... Complex Strategic Choices provides clear principles and methods which can guide and support strategic decision making to face the many current challenges. By considering ways in which planning practices can be renewed and exploring the possibilities for acquiring awareness and tools to add value...

  2. Philosophy of complex systems

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    The domain of nonlinear dynamical systems and its mathematical underpinnings has been developing exponentially for a century, the last 35 years seeing an outpouring of new ideas and applications and a concomitant confluence with ideas of complex systems and their applications from irreversible thermodynamics. A few examples are in meteorology, ecological dynamics, and social and economic dynamics. These new ideas have profound implications for our understanding and practice in domains involving complexity, predictability and determinism, equilibrium, control, planning, individuality, responsibility and so on. Our intention is to draw together in this volume, we believe for the first time, a comprehensive picture of the manifold philosophically interesting impacts of recent developments in understanding nonlinear systems and the unique aspects of their complexity. The book will focus specifically on the philosophical concepts, principles, judgments and problems distinctly raised by work in the domain of comple...

  3. Synchronization in complex networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arenas, A.; Diaz-Guilera, A.; Moreno, Y.; Zhou, C.; Kurths, J.

    2007-12-12

    Synchronization processes in populations of locally interacting elements are in the focus of intense research in physical, biological, chemical, technological and social systems. The many efforts devoted to understand synchronization phenomena in natural systems take now advantage of the recent theory of complex networks. In this review, we report the advances in the comprehension of synchronization phenomena when oscillating elements are constrained to interact in a complex network topology. We also overview the new emergent features coming out from the interplay between the structure and the function of the underlying pattern of connections. Extensive numerical work as well as analytical approaches to the problem are presented. Finally, we review several applications of synchronization in complex networks to different disciplines: biological systems and neuroscience, engineering and computer science, and economy and social sciences.

  4. Management of complex fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, Hans Staby; Andersen, Peder; Hoff, Ayoe

    2013-01-01

    . This is defined as the management scheme which produces the highest net present value over a 25 year period. The assessed management schemes (scenarios) are composed by several measures as used in the Common Fisheries Policy of the European Union for the cod fishery in the Baltic Sea. The scenarios are total......The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how fisheries economics management issues or problems can be analyzed by using a complex model based on conventional bioeconomic theory. Complex simulation models contain a number of details that make them suitable for practical management advice......, including taking into account the response of the fishermen to implemented management measures. To demonstrate the use of complex management models this paper assesses a number of second best management schemes against a first rank optimum (FRO), an ideal individual transferable quotas (ITQ) system...

  5. Introduction to Complex Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Bonitz, Michael; Ludwig, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Complex plasmas differ from traditional plasmas in many ways: these are low-temperature high pressure systems containing nanometer to micrometer size particles which may be highly charged and strongly interacting. The particles may be chemically reacting or be in contact with solid surfaces, and the electrons may show quantum behaviour. These interesting properties have led to many applications of complex plasmas in technology, medicine and science. Yet complex plasmas are extremely complicated, both experimentally and theoretically, and require a variety of new approaches which go beyond standard plasma physics courses. This book fills this gap presenting an introduction to theory, experiment and computer simulation in this field. Based on tutorial lectures at a very successful recent Summer Institute, the presentation is ideally suited for graduate students, plasma physicists and experienced undergraduates.

  6. Modeling Complex Time Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Svatos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze complexity of time limits we can find especially in regulated processes of public administration. First we review the most popular process modeling languages. There is defined an example scenario based on the current Czech legislature which is then captured in discussed process modeling languages. Analysis shows that the contemporary process modeling languages support capturing of the time limit only partially. This causes troubles to analysts and unnecessary complexity of the models. Upon unsatisfying results of the contemporary process modeling languages we analyze the complexity of the time limits in greater detail and outline lifecycles of a time limit using the multiple dynamic generalizations pattern. As an alternative to the popular process modeling languages there is presented PSD process modeling language, which supports the defined lifecycles of a time limit natively and therefore allows keeping the models simple and easy to understand.

  7. Simulation in Complex Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicholas, Paul; Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette; Tamke, Martin

    2017-01-01

    This paper will discuss the role of simulation in extended architectural design modelling. As a framing paper, the aim is to present and discuss the role of integrated design simulation and feedback between design and simulation in a series of projects under the Complex Modelling framework. Complex...... performance, engage with high degrees of interdependency and allow the emergence of design agency and feedback between the multiple scales of architectural construction. This paper presents examples for integrated design simulation from a series of projects including Lace Wall, A Bridge Too Far and Inflated...... Restraint developed for the research exhibition Complex Modelling, Meldahls Smedie Gallery, Copenhagen in 2016. Where the direct project aims and outcomes have been reported elsewhere, the aim for this paper is to discuss overarching strategies for working with design integrated simulation....

  8. Complex Polynomial Vector Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    vector fields. Since the class of complex polynomial vector fields in the plane is natural to consider, it is remarkable that its study has only begun very recently. There are numerous fundamental questions that are still open, both in the general classification of these vector fields, the decomposition...... of parameter spaces into structurally stable domains, and a description of the bifurcations. For this reason, the talk will focus on these questions for complex polynomial vector fields.......The two branches of dynamical systems, continuous and discrete, correspond to the study of differential equations (vector fields) and iteration of mappings respectively. In holomorphic dynamics, the systems studied are restricted to those described by holomorphic (complex analytic) functions...

  9. Entropy, Search, Complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Katona, Gyula O H; Tardos, Gábor

    2007-01-01

    The present volume is a collection of survey papers in the fields of entropy, search and complexity. They summarize the latest developments in their respective areas. More than half of the papers belong to search theory which lies on the borderline of mathematics and computer science, information theory and combinatorics, respectively. Search theory has variegated applications, among others in bioinformatics. Some of these papers also have links to linear statistics and communicational complexity. Further works survey the fundamentals of information theory and quantum source coding. The volume is recommended to experienced researchers as well as young scientists and students both in mathematics and computer science

  10. Complex HVPT and hyperasymptotics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Killingbeck, John P [Mathematics Department, University of Hull, Hull HU6 7RX (United Kingdom); Grosjean, Alain [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de l' Observatoire de Besancon(CNRS, UMR 6091), 41 bis Avenue de l' Observatoire, BP 1615, 25010 Besancon Cedex (France); Jolicard, Georges [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de l' Observatoire de Besancon(CNRS, UMR 6091), 41 bis Avenue de l' Observatoire, BP 1615, 25010 Besancon Cedex (France)

    2006-08-25

    Complex hypervirial perturbation theory (HVPT) is applied to the problem of a harmonic oscillator with a perturbation gx{sup 3}exp(i{psi}), for which the traditional Rayleigh-Schodinger perturbation theory has to be supplemented by hyperasymptotics for obtaining accurate resonance energies in the negative {psi} region. Complex HVPT gives accurate results for positive {psi} and for negative {psi} up to about vertical bar {phi} vertical bar = {pi}/24. The case of a quartic perturbed oscillator is also treated. (letter to the editor)

  11. Luminescent macrocyclic lanthanide complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Kenneth N; Corneillie, Todd M; Xu, Jide

    2014-05-20

    The present invention provides a novel class of macrocyclic compounds as well as complexes formed between a metal (e.g., lanthanide) ion and the compounds of the invention. Preferred complexes exhibit high stability as well as high quantum yields of lanthanide ion luminescence in aqueous media without the need for secondary activating agents. Preferred compounds incorporate hydroxy-isophthalamide moieties within their macrocyclic structure and are characterized by surprisingly low, non-specific binding to a variety of polypeptides such as antibodies and proteins as well as high kinetic stability. These characteristics distinguish them from known, open-structured ligands.

  12. Theories of computational complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Calude, C

    1988-01-01

    This volume presents four machine-independent theories of computational complexity, which have been chosen for their intrinsic importance and practical relevance. The book includes a wealth of results - classical, recent, and others which have not been published before.In developing the mathematics underlying the size, dynamic and structural complexity measures, various connections with mathematical logic, constructive topology, probability and programming theories are established. The facts are presented in detail. Extensive examples are provided, to help clarify notions and constructions. The lists of exercises and problems include routine exercises, interesting results, as well as some open problems.

  13. Complex function theory

    CERN Document Server

    Sarason, Donald

    2007-01-01

    Complex Function Theory is a concise and rigorous introduction to the theory of functions of a complex variable. Written in a classical style, it is in the spirit of the books by Ahlfors and by Saks and Zygmund. Being designed for a one-semester course, it is much shorter than many of the standard texts. Sarason covers the basic material through Cauchy's theorem and applications, plus the Riemann mapping theorem. It is suitable for either an introductory graduate course or an undergraduate course for students with adequate preparation. The first edition was published with the title Notes on Co

  14. Planning Complex Projects Automatically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henke, Andrea L.; Stottler, Richard H.; Maher, Timothy P.

    1995-01-01

    Automated Manifest Planner (AMP) computer program applies combination of artificial-intelligence techniques to assist both expert and novice planners, reducing planning time by orders of magnitude. Gives planners flexibility to modify plans and constraints easily, without need for programming expertise. Developed specifically for planning space shuttle missions 5 to 10 years ahead, with modifications, applicable in general to planning other complex projects requiring scheduling of activities depending on other activities and/or timely allocation of resources. Adaptable to variety of complex scheduling problems in manufacturing, transportation, business, architecture, and construction.

  15. Complex variables II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Solomon, Alan D

    2013-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Complex Variables II includes elementary mappings and Mobius transformation, mappings by general functions, conformal mappings and harmonic functions, applying complex functions to a

  16. Humic acid protein complexation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, W. F.; Koopal, L. K.; Weng, L. P.; van Riemsdijk, W. H.; Norde, W.

    2008-04-01

    Interactions of purified Aldrich humic acid (PAHA) with lysozyme (LSZ) are investigated. In solution LSZ is moderately positively and PAHA negatively charged at the investigated pH values. The proton binding of PAHA and of LSZ is determined by potentiometric proton titrations at various KCl concentrations. It is also measured for two mixtures of PAHA-LSZ and compared with theoretically calculated proton binding assuming no mutual interaction. The charge adaptation due to PAHA-LSZ interaction is relatively small and only significant at low and high pH. Next to the proton binding, the mass ratio PAHA/LSZ at the iso-electric point (IEP) of the complex at given solution conditions is measured together with the pH using the Mütek particle charge detector. From the pH changes the charge adaptation due to the interaction can be found. Also these measurements show that the net charge adaptation is weak for PAHA-LSZ complexes at their IEP. PAHA/LSZ mass ratios in the complexes at the IEP are measured at pH 5 and 7. At pH 5 and 50 mmol/L KCl the charge of the complex is compensated for 30-40% by K +; at pH 7, where LSZ has a rather low positive charge, this is 45-55%. At pH 5 and 5 mmol/L KCl the PAHA/LSZ mass ratio at the IEP of the complex depends on the order of addition. When LSZ is added to PAHA about 25% K + is included in the complex, but no K + is incorporated when PAHA is added to LSZ. The flocculation behavior of the complexes is also different. After LSZ addition to PAHA slow precipitation occurs (6-24 h) in the IEP, but after addition of PAHA to LSZ no precipitation can be seen after 12 h. Clearly, PAHA/LSZ complexation and the colloidal stability of PAHA-LSZ aggregates depend on the order of addition. Some implications of the observed behavior are discussed.

  17. Complex matrix model duality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, T.W.

    2010-11-15

    The same complex matrix model calculates both tachyon scattering for the c=1 non-critical string at the self-dual radius and certain correlation functions of half-BPS operators in N=4 super- Yang-Mills. It is dual to another complex matrix model where the couplings of the first model are encoded in the Kontsevich-like variables of the second. The duality between the theories is mirrored by the duality of their Feynman diagrams. Analogously to the Hermitian Kontsevich- Penner model, the correlation functions of the second model can be written as sums over discrete points in subspaces of the moduli space of punctured Riemann surfaces. (orig.)

  18. Complex/Symplectic Mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuang, Wu-yen; Kachru, Shamit; /Stanford U., ITP /SLAC; Tomasiello, Alessandro; /Stanford U., ITP

    2005-10-28

    We construct a class of symplectic non-Kaehler and complex non-Kaehler string theory vacua, extending and providing evidence for an earlier suggestion by Polchinski and Strominger. The class admits a mirror pairing by construction. Comparing hints from a variety of sources, including ten-dimensional supergravity and KK reduction on SU(3)-structure manifolds, suggests a picture in which string theory extends Reid's fantasy to connect classes of both complex non-Kaehler and symplectic non-Kaehler manifolds.

  19. Resilience and Complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlberg, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores two key concepts: resilience and complexity. The first is understood as an emergent property of the latter, and their inter-relatedness is discussed using a three tier approach. First, by exploring the discourse of each concept, next, by analyzing underlying relationships and...... robust. Robustness is a property of simple or complicated systems characterized by predictable behavior, enabling the system to bounce back to its normal state following a perturbation. Resilience, however, is an emergent property of complex adaptive systems. It is suggested that this distinction...

  20. Simulations with complex measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markham, J.K.; Kieu, T.D.

    1997-01-01

    A method is proposed to handle the sign problem in the simulation of systems having indefinite or complex-valued measures. In general, this new approach, which is based on renormalisation blocking, is shown to yield statistical errors smaller that the crude Monte Carlo method using absolute values of the original measures. The improved method is applied to the 2D Ising model with temperature generalised to take on complex values. It is also adapted to implement Monte Carlo Renormalisation Group calculations of the magnetic and thermal critical exponents. 10 refs., 4 tabs., 7 figs

  1. SIMPLE MODELS OF COMPLEX BEHAVIOUR

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SIMPLE MODELS OF COMPLEX BEHAVIOUR · COMPLEXITY IN HUMAN AFFAIRS · COMPLEXITY IN STATISTICAL PHYSICS · DISORDER, CRITICALITY and ORDER IN EQUILIBRIUM SYSTEMS · COARSENING PHENOMENA · NONEQUILIBRIUM STEADY STATES · ORDERING INDUCED BY RANDOM DRIVING.

  2. Real and complex analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Apelian, Christopher; Taft, Earl; Nashed, Zuhair

    2009-01-01

    The Spaces R, Rk, and CThe Real Numbers RThe Real Spaces RkThe Complex Numbers CPoint-Set Topology Bounded SetsClassification of Points Open and Closed SetsNested Intervals and the Bolzano-Weierstrass Theorem Compactness and Connectedness Limits and Convergence Definitions and First Properties Convergence Results for SequencesTopological Results for Sequences Properties of Infinite SeriesManipulations of Series in RFunctions: Definitions and Limits DefinitionsFunctions as MappingsSome Elementary Complex FunctionsLimits of FunctionsFunctions: Continuity and Convergence Continuity Uniform Continuity Sequences and Series of FunctionsThe DerivativeThe Derivative for f: D1 → RThe Derivative for f: Dk → RThe Derivative for f: Dk → RpThe Derivative for f: D → CThe Inverse and Implicit Function TheoremsReal IntegrationThe Integral of f: [a, b] → RProperties of the Riemann Integral Further Development of Integration TheoryVector-Valued and Line IntegralsComplex IntegrationIntroduction to Complex Integrals Fu...

  3. Nitrido complexes of technetium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abram, U.; Abram, S.

    1987-01-01

    In this report synthesis, characterization and chemical behaviour of coordination compounds of the element technetium are reported containing a geminal nitrogen ligand. In addition, an evaluation of the in-vitro behaviour of the complexes is given as well as a list of all literature to this matter. (author)

  4. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 40. It is uncommon in children and rare in the elderly. How is complex regional pain syndrome diagnosed? Your ... Mental Health Sex and Birth Control Sex and Sexuality Birth Control Family ... Men Seniors In The News Your Health Resources Healthcare Management End- ...

  5. Proteasomes: a complex story

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendil, Klavs B; Hartmann-Petersen, Rasmus

    2004-01-01

    Protein degradation in eukaryotic cells is important for regulation of metabolism, progression through the division cycle, in cell signalling pathways, and in mammals also for generation of antigen fragments for presentation on the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I. Most cell protein...

  6. Cobalt(III) complex

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    CO. –. 2 radi- cals with [Co(III)(phendione)2Cl2]Cl (complex) have been studied by electron pulse radiolysis. Time resolved transient absorption spectra for all the four species show two peaks which match with those of phendione anion radical produced by the reaction of e. – aq with phendione. However, there are some ...

  7. Life Complexity and Diversity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 12. Life Complexity and Diversity Whither Diversity. Madhav Gadgil. Series Article Volume 1 Issue 12 December 1996 pp 17-25. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/001/12/0017-0025 ...

  8. Smoothed Complexity Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bläser, Markus; Manthey, Bodo

    Smoothed analysis is a new way of analyzing algorithms introduced by Spielman and Teng. Classical methods like worst-case or average-case analysis have accompanying complexity classes, such as P and Avg-P, respectively. Whereas worst-case or average-case analysis give us a means to talk about the

  9. Entropy and Kolmogorov complexity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moriakov, N.V.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is dedicated to studying the theory of entropy and its relation to the Kolmogorov complexity. Originating in physics, the notion of entropy was introduced to mathematics by C. E. Shannon as a way of measuring the rate at which information is coming from a data source. There are, however,

  10. The CERN accelerator complex

    CERN Multimedia

    Christiane Lefèvre

    2008-01-01

    The LHC is the last ring (dark grey line) in a complex chain of particle accelerators. The smaller machines are used in a chain to help boost the particles to their final energies and provide beams to a whole set of smaller experiments, which also aim to uncover the mysteries of the Universe.

  11. The hamstring muscle complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Made, A. D.; Wieldraaijer, T.; Kerkhoffs, G. M.; Kleipool, R. P.; Engebretsen, L.; van Dijk, C. N.; Golanó, P.

    2015-01-01

    The anatomical appearance of the hamstring muscle complex was studied to provide hypotheses for the hamstring injury pattern and to provide reference values of origin dimensions, muscle length, tendon length, musculotendinous junction (MTJ) length as well as width and length of a tendinous

  12. Electromeric rhodium radical complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puschmann, F.F.; Harmer, J.; Stein, D.; Rüegger, H.; de Bruin, B.; Grützmacher, H.

    2010-01-01

    Radical changes: One single P-Rh-P angle determines whether the odd electron in the paramagnetic complex [Rh(trop2PPh)(PPh3)] is delocalized over the whole molecule (see picture, blue) or is localized on the P—Rh unit (red). The two energetically almost degenerate electromers exist in a fast

  13. Supporting complex search tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gäde, Maria; Hall, Mark; Huurdeman, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    introductory to specialized, and from authoritative to speculative or opinionated, when to show what sources of information? How does the information seeking process evolve and what are relevant differences between different stages? With complex task and search process management, blending searching, browsing...

  14. Complexity and formative experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roque Strieder

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The contemporaneity is characterized by instability and diversity calling into question certainties and truths proposed in modernity. We recognize that the reality of things and phenomena become effective as a set of events, interactions, retroactions and chances. This different frame extends the need for revision of the epistemological foundations that sustain educational practices and give them sense. The complex thinking is an alternative option for acting as a counterpoint to classical science and its reductionist logic and knowledge compartmentalization, as well as to answer to contemporary epistemological and educational challenges. It aims to associate different areas and forms of knowledge, without, however merge them, distinguishing without separating the several disciplines and instances of the realities. This study, in theoretical references, highlights the relevance of complex approaches to support formative experiences because also able to produce complexities in reflections about educational issues. We conclude that formative possibilities from complexity potentialize the resignification of human’s conception and the understanding of its singularity in interdependence; The understanding that pedagogical and educational activities is a constant interrogation about the possibilities of knowing the knowledge and reframe learning, far beyond knowing its functions and utilitarian purposes; and, as a formative possibility, places us on the trail of responsibility, not as something eventual, but present and indicative of freedom to choose to stay or go beyond.

  15. The CERN accelerator complex

    CERN Multimedia

    Mobs, Esma Anais

    2016-01-01

    The LHC is the last ring (dark blue line) in a complex chain of particle accelerators. The smaller machines are used in a chain to help boost the particles to their final energies and provide beams to a whole set of smaller experiments, which also aim to uncover the mysteries of the Universe.

  16. Managing complex child law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Idamarie Leth

    2017-01-01

    The article reports the findings of a qualitative study of Danish legal regulation of the public initial assessment of children and young persons and municipal practitioners’ decision-making under this regulation. The regulation mirrors new and complex relations between families and society and t...

  17. Complexity driven photonics

    KAUST Repository

    Fratalocchi, Andrea

    2014-12-01

    Disorder and chaos are ubiquitous phenomena that are mostly unwanted in applications. On the contrary, they can be exploited to create a new technology. In this talk I will summarize my research in this field, discussing chaotic energy harvesting, nonlinear stochastic resonance and complex nanolasers.

  18. The CERN accelerator complex

    CERN Multimedia

    Haffner, Julie

    2013-01-01

    The LHC is the last ring (dark grey line) in a complex chain of particle accelerators. The smaller machines are used in a chain to help boost the particles to their final energies and provide beams to a whole set of smaller experiments, which also aim to uncover the mysteries of the Universe.

  19. Complexity measures of music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pease, April; Mahmoodi, Korosh; West, Bruce J.

    2018-03-01

    We present a technique to search for the presence of crucial events in music, based on the analysis of the music volume. Earlier work on this issue was based on the assumption that crucial events correspond to the change of music notes, with the interesting result that the complexity index of the crucial events is mu ~ 2, which is the same inverse power-law index of the dynamics of the brain. The search technique analyzes music volume and confirms the results of the earlier work, thereby contributing to the explanation as to why the brain is sensitive to music, through the phenomenon of complexity matching. Complexity matching has recently been interpreted as the transfer of multifractality from one complex network to another. For this reason we also examine the mulifractality of music, with the observation that the multifractal spectrum of a computer performance is significantly narrower than the multifractal spectrum of a human performance of the same musical score. We conjecture that although crucial events are demonstrably important for information transmission, they alone are not suficient to define musicality, which is more adequately measured by the multifractality spectrum.

  20. Optical Complex Systems 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Guillaume

    The Optical Complex Systems are more and more in the heart of various systems that industrial applications bring to everyday life. From environment up to spatial applications, OCS is also relevant in monitoring, transportation, robotics, life sciences, sub-marine, and even for agricultural purposes.

  1. Complex adaptive systems ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommerlund, Julie

    2003-01-01

    In the following, I will analyze two articles called Complex Adaptive Systems EcologyI & II (Molin & Molin, 1997 & 2000). The CASE-articles are some of the more quirkyarticles that have come out of the Molecular Microbial Ecology Group - a groupwhere I am currently making observational studies...

  2. Macroevolution of complex retroviruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katzourakis, Aris; Gifford, Robert J; Tristem, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Retroviruses can leave a "fossil record" in their hosts' genomes in the form of endogenous retroviruses. Foamy viruses, complex retroviruses that infect mammals, have been notably absent from this record. We have found an endogenous foamy virus within the genomes of sloths and show that foamy vir...

  3. Energy momentum complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nashed, Gamal G.L. [Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt). Faculty of Science. Mathematics Dept.

    2010-09-15

    We show that the definition of the energy-momentum complex given by Moeller using Weitzenboeck spacetime in the calculations of gravitational energy gives results which are different from those obtained from other definitions given in the framework of general relativity. (author)

  4. unsymmetrical Schiff base complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ecoline-RE 104 thermostat. FT- .... refluxed for 24 h under nitrogen atmosphere. The result- ing oil was grinded with n-hexane to extract impurities, ... diethyl ether into a solution of the metal complex in dimethylformamide (DMF) at room temperature ...

  5. Light in complex dielectrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurmans, F.J.P.

    1999-01-01

    In this thesis the properties of light in complex dielectrics are described, with the two general topics of "modification of spontaneous emission" and "Anderson localization of light". The first part focuses on the spontaneous emission rate of an excited atom in a dielectric host with variable

  6. Prediction of Biomolecular Complexes

    KAUST Repository

    Vangone, Anna

    2017-04-12

    Almost all processes in living organisms occur through specific interactions between biomolecules. Any dysfunction of those interactions can lead to pathological events. Understanding such interactions is therefore a crucial step in the investigation of biological systems and a starting point for drug design. In recent years, experimental studies have been devoted to unravel the principles of biomolecular interactions; however, due to experimental difficulties in solving the three-dimensional (3D) structure of biomolecular complexes, the number of available, high-resolution experimental 3D structures does not fulfill the current needs. Therefore, complementary computational approaches to model such interactions are necessary to assist experimentalists since a full understanding of how biomolecules interact (and consequently how they perform their function) only comes from 3D structures which provide crucial atomic details about binding and recognition processes. In this chapter we review approaches to predict biomolecular complexesBiomolecular complexes, introducing the concept of molecular dockingDocking, a technique which uses a combination of geometric, steric and energetics considerations to predict the 3D structure of a biological complex starting from the individual structures of its constituent parts. We provide a mini-guide about docking concepts, its potential and challenges, along with post-docking analysis and a list of related software.

  7. Accessibility in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travençolo, B. A. N.; da F. Costa, L.

    2008-12-01

    This Letter describes a method for the quantification of the diversity of non-linear dynamics in complex networks as a consequence of self-avoiding random walks. The methodology is analyzed in the context of theoretical models and illustrated with respect to the characterization of the accessibility in urban streets.

  8. Complex Event Recognition Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, William A.; Firby, R. James

    2009-01-01

    Complex Event Recognition Architecture (CERA) is the name of a computational architecture, and software that implements the architecture, for recognizing complex event patterns that may be spread across multiple streams of input data. One of the main components of CERA is an intuitive event pattern language that simplifies what would otherwise be the complex, difficult tasks of creating logical descriptions of combinations of temporal events and defining rules for combining information from different sources over time. In this language, recognition patterns are defined in simple, declarative statements that combine point events from given input streams with those from other streams, using conjunction, disjunction, and negation. Patterns can be built on one another recursively to describe very rich, temporally extended combinations of events. Thereafter, a run-time matching algorithm in CERA efficiently matches these patterns against input data and signals when patterns are recognized. CERA can be used to monitor complex systems and to signal operators or initiate corrective actions when anomalous conditions are recognized. CERA can be run as a stand-alone monitoring system, or it can be integrated into a larger system to automatically trigger responses to changing environments or problematic situations.

  9. Life: Complexity and Diversity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Research, Bangalore. His fascination for the .... largest being an egg of the ostrich, largely loaded with stored food. So, to achieve larger sizes .... viruses and fungi. Packing Species. The diversity of living organisms has exploded, hand in hand with the evolving complexity of their interactions in communi- ties. In the dance ...

  10. pyridine-carboxamide complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    DOI 10.1007/s12039-016-1215-9. REGULAR ARTICLE. Synthesis, characterization, crystal structure and DNA-binding study of four cadmium(II) ...... be due to the presence of four non-planar ligand moi- eties in complexes (1), which probably play a key role to interact with DNA in electrostatic/covalent binding mode. 4.

  11. Query complexity in expectation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaniewski, J.; Lee, T.; de Wolf, R.; Halldórsson, M.M.; Iwama, K.; Kobayashi, N.; Speckmann, B.

    2015-01-01

    We study the query complexity of computing a function f:{0,1}n→R+ in expectation. This requires the algorithm on input x to output a nonnegative random variable whose expectation equals f(x), using as few queries to the input x as possible. We exactly characterize both the randomized and the quantum

  12. Tevatron's complex collider cousins

    CERN Multimedia

    Fischer, W

    2004-01-01

    Letter referring to Schwarzschild's story "Disappointing performance and tight budgets confront Fermilab with tough decisions" and contesting that the Tevatron is not the most complex accelerator operating. They use the examples of CERN's SPS collider, HERA at DESY and the RHIC at Brookhaven (1/4 page)

  13. Typical Complexity Numbers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Typical Complexity Numbers. Say. 1000 tones,; 100 Users,; Transmission every 10 msec. Full Crosstalk cancellation would require. Full cancellation requires a matrix multiplication of order 100*100 for all the tones. 1000*100*100*100 operations every second for the ...

  14. Life: Complexity and Diversity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 4. Life : Complexity and Diversity Growing Larger. Madhav Gadgil. Series Article Volume 1 Issue 4 April 1996 pp 15-22. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/001/04/0015-0022 ...

  15. Photocytotoxic lanthanide complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ln(III) complexes are also expected to be non-toxic in dark owing to the redox stability of the Ln(III) ions thus making them suitable for cellular applications in the presence of reducing cellular glutathione. The presence of heavy lanthanide metal is likely to facilitate the ISC due to heavy atom effect thereby contributing to the ...

  16. pyridine-carboxamide complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In addition, a short ring interaction between thiophene S1 and pyri- dine N1 of a symmetry related complex (centroid-to- centroid distance = 3.707(4) Ε; dihedral angle between planes = 2.3(3) ..... Changes in the Histology of Kidneys in Common Carp,. Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae) Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 58 456. 10.

  17. Automatic Complexity Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    1989-01-01

    One way to analyse programs is to to derive expressions for their computational behaviour. A time bound function (or worst-case complexity) gives an upper bound for the computation time as a function of the size of input. We describe a system to derive such time bounds automatically using abstrac...

  18. Interdisciplinary Symposium on Complex Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rössler, Otto; Zelinka, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    The book you hold in your hands is the outcome of the “2014 Interdisciplinary Symposium on Complex Systems” held in the historical city of Florence. The book consists of 37 chapters from 4 areas of Physical Modeling of Complex Systems, Evolutionary Computations, Complex Biological Systems and Complex Networks. All 4 parts contain contributions that give interesting point of view on complexity in different areas in science and technology. The book starts with a comprehensive overview and classification of complexity problems entitled Physics in the world of ideas: Complexity as Energy”  , followed by chapters about complexity measures and physical principles, its observation, modeling and its applications, to solving various problems including real-life applications. Further chapters contain recent research about evolution, randomness and complexity, as well as complexity in biological systems and complex networks. All selected papers represent innovative ideas, philosophical overviews and state-of-the-...

  19. Crystal structure of the Xpo1p nuclear export complex bound to the SxFG/PxFG repeats of the nucleoporin Nup42p.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Masako; Hirano, Hidemi; Shirai, Natsuki; Matsuura, Yoshiyuki

    2017-10-01

    Xpo1p (yeast CRM1) is the major nuclear export receptor that carries a plethora of proteins and ribonucleoproteins from the nucleus to cytoplasm. The passage of the Xpo1p nuclear export complex through nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) is facilitated by interactions with nucleoporins (Nups) containing extensive repeats of phenylalanine-glycine (so-called FG repeats), although the precise role of each Nup in the nuclear export reaction remains incompletely understood. Here we report structural and biochemical characterization of the interactions between the Xpo1p nuclear export complex and the FG repeats of Nup42p, a nucleoporin localized at the cytoplasmic face of yeast NPCs and has characteristic SxFG/PxFG sequence repeat motif. The crystal structure of Xpo1p-PKI-Nup42p-Gsp1p-GTP complex identified three binding sites for the SxFG/PxFG repeats on HEAT repeats 14-20 of Xpo1p. Mutational analyses of Nup42p showed that the conserved serines and prolines in the SxFG/PxFG repeats contribute to Xpo1p-Nup42p binding. Our structural and biochemical data suggest that SxFG/PxFG-Nups such as Nup42p and Nup159p at the cytoplasmic face of NPCs provide high-affinity docking sites for the Xpo1p nuclear export complex in the terminal stage of NPC passage and that subsequent disassembly of the nuclear export complex facilitates recycling of free Xpo1p back to the nucleus. © 2017 Molecular Biology Society of Japan and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  20. Complex Strategic Choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leleur, Steen

    resulting in new material stemming from and focusing on practical application of a systemic approach. The outcome is a coherent and flexible approach named systemic planning. The inclusion of both the theoretical and practical aspects of systemic planning makes this book a key resource for researchers......Effective decision making requires a clear methodology, particularly in a complex world of globalisation. Institutions and companies in all disciplines and sectors are faced with increasingly multi-faceted areas of uncertainty which cannot always be effectively handled by traditional strategies....... Complex Strategic Choices provides clear principles and methods which can guide and support strategic decision making to face the many current challenges. By considering ways in which planning practices can be renewed and exploring the possibilities for acquiring awareness and tools to add value...

  1. Complexity is simple!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, William; Montero, Miguel

    2018-02-01

    In this note we investigate the role of Lloyd's computational bound in holographic complexity. Our goal is to translate the assumptions behind Lloyd's proof into the bulk language. In particular, we discuss the distinction between orthogonalizing and `simple' gates and argue that these notions are useful for diagnosing holographic complexity. We show that large black holes constructed from series circuits necessarily employ simple gates, and thus do not satisfy Lloyd's assumptions. We also estimate the degree of parallel processing required in this case for elementary gates to orthogonalize. Finally, we show that for small black holes at fixed chemical potential, the orthogonalization condition is satisfied near the phase transition, supporting a possible argument for the Weak Gravity Conjecture first advocated in [1].

  2. Complexes Tickling the $ubject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Gildersleeve

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article continues my earlier work of reading Jung with Lacan. This article will develop Zizek’s work on Lacan’s concept of objet petit a by relating it to a phenomenological interpretation of Jung. I use a number of different examples, including Zizek’s interpretation of Francis Bacon, Edvard Munch, Hans Holbein and Johann Gottlieb Fichte, to describe the objet petit a and its relationship to a phenomenological interpretation of complexes. By integrating other Lacanian concepts, such as subject, drive, fantasy, jouissance, gaze, desire, and ego as well as the imaginary, symbolic and Real, this work also highlights how Hegel and Heidegger can elucidate the relationship between objet petit a and complexes. Jung’s transcendent function and the Rosarium Philosophorum also elucidate the relationship between Jung and Lacan.

  3. Polystochastic Models for Complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Iordache, Octavian

    2010-01-01

    This book is devoted to complexity understanding and management, considered as the main source of efficiency and prosperity for the next decades. Divided into six chapters, the book begins with a presentation of basic concepts as complexity, emergence and closure. The second chapter looks to methods and introduces polystochastic models, the wave equation, possibilities and entropy. The third chapter focusing on physical and chemical systems analyzes flow-sheet synthesis, cyclic operations of separation, drug delivery systems and entropy production. Biomimetic systems represent the main objective of the fourth chapter. Case studies refer to bio-inspired calculation methods, to the role of artificial genetic codes, neural networks and neural codes for evolutionary calculus and for evolvable circuits as biomimetic devices. The fifth chapter, taking its inspiration from systems sciences and cognitive sciences looks to engineering design, case base reasoning methods, failure analysis, and multi-agent manufacturing...

  4. Complex Polynomial Vector Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Kealey

    The two branches of dynamical systems, continuous and discrete, correspond to the study of differential equations (vector fields) and iteration of mappings respectively. In holomorphic dynamics, the systems studied are restricted to those described by holomorphic (complex analytic) functions...... or meromorphic (allowing poles as singularities) functions. There already exists a well-developed theory for iterative holomorphic dynamical systems, and successful relations found between iteration theory and flows of vector fields have been one of the main motivations for the recent interest in holomorphic...... vector fields. Since the class of complex polynomial vector fields in the plane is natural to consider, it is remarkable that its study has only begun very recently. There are numerous fundamental questions that are still open, both in the general classification of these vector fields, the decomposition...

  5. On complex functions analyticity

    CERN Document Server

    Karavashkin, S B

    2002-01-01

    We analyse here the conventional definitions of analyticity and differentiability of functions of complex variable. We reveal the possibility to extend the conditions of analyticity and differentiability to the functions implementing the non-conformal mapping. On this basis we formulate more general definitions of analyticity and differentiability covering those conventional. We present some examples of such functions. By the example of a horizontal belt on a plane Z mapped non-conformally onto a crater-like harmonic vortex, we study the pattern of trajectory variation of a body motion in such field in case of field power function varying in time. We present the technique to solve the problems of such type with the help of dynamical functions of complex variable implementing the analytical non-conformal mapping

  6. Complex conductivity of soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revil, A.; Coperey, A.; Shao, Z.

    2017-01-01

    The complex conductivity of soil remains poorly known despite the growing importance of this method in hyrogeophysics. In order to fill this gap of knowledge, we investigate the complex conductivity of 71 soils samples (including 4 peat samples) and one clean sand in the frequency range 0.1 Hertz...... to 45 kHz. The soil samples are saturated with 6 different NaCl brines with conductivities (0.031, 0.53, 1.15, 5.7, 14.7, and 22 S m-1, NaCl, 25°C) in order to determine their intrinsic formation factor and surface conductivity. This dataset is used to test the predictions of the dynamic Stern...... polarization model of porous media in terms of relationship between the quadrature conductivity and the surface conductivity. We also investigate the relationship between the normalized chargeability (the difference of in phase conductivity between two frequencies) and the quadrature conductivity...

  7. Operational Shock Complexity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-26

    Theory : Recommendations For The National Strategy To Defeat Terrorism.” Student Issue Paper, Center for Strategic Leadership , US Army War College, July...Lens of Complexity Theory : Recommendations For The National Strategy To Defeat Terrorism.” (Student Issue Paper, Center for Strategic Leadership , US...planners managed to cause confusion in the enemy’s internal model by operating in an unexpected manner. 140 Glenn E. James, “Chaos Theory : The

  8. Arithmetic of Complex Manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Lange, Herbert

    1989-01-01

    It was the aim of the Erlangen meeting in May 1988 to bring together number theoretists and algebraic geometers to discuss problems of common interest, such as moduli problems, complex tori, integral points, rationality questions, automorphic forms. In recent years such problems, which are simultaneously of arithmetic and geometric interest, have become increasingly important. This proceedings volume contains 12 original research papers. Its main topics are theta functions, modular forms, abelian varieties and algebraic three-folds.

  9. Modeling Complex Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreckenberg, M

    2004-01-01

    This book by Nino Boccara presents a compilation of model systems commonly termed as 'complex'. It starts with a definition of the systems under consideration and how to build up a model to describe the complex dynamics. The subsequent chapters are devoted to various categories of mean-field type models (differential and recurrence equations, chaos) and of agent-based models (cellular automata, networks and power-law distributions). Each chapter is supplemented by a number of exercises and their solutions. The table of contents looks a little arbitrary but the author took the most prominent model systems investigated over the years (and up until now there has been no unified theory covering the various aspects of complex dynamics). The model systems are explained by looking at a number of applications in various fields. The book is written as a textbook for interested students as well as serving as a comprehensive reference for experts. It is an ideal source for topics to be presented in a lecture on dynamics of complex systems. This is the first book on this 'wide' topic and I have long awaited such a book (in fact I planned to write it myself but this is much better than I could ever have written it!). Only section 6 on cellular automata is a little too limited to the author's point of view and one would have expected more about the famous Domany-Kinzel model (and more accurate citation!). In my opinion this is one of the best textbooks published during the last decade and even experts can learn a lot from it. Hopefully there will be an actualization after, say, five years since this field is growing so quickly. The price is too high for students but this, unfortunately, is the normal case today. Nevertheless I think it will be a great success! (book review)

  10. On convex complexity measures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrubeš, P.; Jukna, S.; Kulikov, A.; Pudlák, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 411, 16-18 (2010), s. 1842-1854 ISSN 0304-3975 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1019401 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : boolean formula * complexity measure * combinatorial rectangle * convexity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.838, year: 2010 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0304397510000885

  11. Complex geometries in wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette; Riiber Nielsen, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    The versatility of wood constructions and traditional wood joints for the production of non standard elements was in focus of a design based research. Herein we established a seamless process from digital design to fabrication. A first research phase centered on the development of a robust...... parametric model and a generic design language a later explored the possibilities to construct complex shaped geometries with self registering joints on modern wood crafting machines. The research was carried out as collaboration with industrial partners....

  12. COMPLEX QUERY AND METADATA

    OpenAIRE

    Nakatoh, Tetsuya; Omori, Keisuke; Yamada, Yasuhiro; Hirokawa, Sachio

    2003-01-01

    We are developing a search system DAISEn which integrates multiple search engines and generates a metasearch engine automatically. The target search engines of DAISEn are not general search engines, but are search engines specialized in some area. Integration of such engines yields efficiency and quality. There are search engines of new type which accept complex query and return structured data. Integration of such search engines is much harder than that of simple search engines which accept ...

  13. Volatile uranyl hexafluoroacetoacetonate complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dines, M.B.; Hall, R.B.; Kaldor, A.; Kramer, G.M.; Maas, E.T. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A composition of matter is described, characterized by the formula UO 2 (CF 3 COCHCOCF 3 ).L where L is a ligand selected from isopropanol, ethanol, isobutanol, tert-butanol, methanol, tetrahydrofuran, acetone, dimethylformamide, n-propanol and ethyl acetate. A process for producing the complex comprises reacting uranyl chloride with a hexafluoroacetylacetonate dissolved in a ligand L: experimental details are given. (U.K.)

  14. Complexity in Dynamical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Cristopher David

    The study of chaos has shown us that deterministic systems can have a kind of unpredictability, based on a limited knowledge of their initial conditions; after a finite time, the motion appears essentially random. This observation has inspired a general interest in the subject of unpredictability, and more generally, complexity; how can we characterize how "complex" a dynamical system is?. In this thesis, we attempt to answer this question with a paradigm of complexity that comes from computer science, we extract sets of symbol sequences, or languages, from a dynamical system using standard methods of symbolic dynamics; we then ask what kinds of grammars or automata are needed a generate these languages. This places them in the Chomsky heirarchy, which in turn tells us something about how subtle and complex the dynamical system's behavior is. This gives us insight into the question of unpredictability, since these automata can also be thought of as computers attempting to predict the system. In the culmination of the thesis, we find a class of smooth, two-dimensional maps which are equivalent to the highest class in the Chomsky heirarchy, the turning machine; they are capable of universal computation. Therefore, these systems possess a kind of unpredictability qualitatively different from the usual "chaos": even if the initial conditions are known exactly, questions about the system's long-term dynamics are undecidable. No algorithm exists to answer them. Although this kind of unpredictability has been discussed in the context of distributed, many-degree-of -freedom systems (for instance, cellular automata) we believe this is the first example of such phenomena in a smooth, finite-degree-of-freedom system.

  15. Complexity of the Ephemeral

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekman, Ulrik

    2015-01-01

    This brief article presents the everyday cultural use of the Snapchat instant messaging application for video chats as an exemplary case of the challenges confronting studies of cinematics in an epoch marked by the rise in network societies of ubiquitous mobile and social media and technics. It p....... It proffers and begins to detail the argument that snap video chats cannot be denigrated as mere ‘shorts’ but must be approached as spatiotemporally and experientally complex....

  16. The Complexity Trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    fundamental challenge for the millennial genera- tion. Complexity, it appears, is all the rage. We challenge these declarations and assumptions—not...pan- opticism: surveillance creates “a state of conscious and permanent visibility that assures the automatic functioning of power.”38 States do not...Oxford University Press, 1997), 124-125. 20. Ibid., 4, 246, 252. 21. Richard Price and Nina Tannenwald, “Norms and Deterrence: The Nuclear and Chemical

  17. Complex geometries in wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette; Riiber Nielsen, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    The versatility of wood constructions and traditional wood joints for the production of non standard elements was in focus of a design based research. Herein we established a seamless process from digital design to fabrication. A first research phase centered on the development of a robust parame...... parametric model and a generic design language a later explored the possibilities to construct complex shaped geometries with self registering joints on modern wood crafting machines. The research was carried out as collaboration with industrial partners....

  18. Predictive Surface Complexation Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sverjensky, Dimitri A. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences

    2016-11-29

    Surface complexation plays an important role in the equilibria and kinetics of processes controlling the compositions of soilwaters and groundwaters, the fate of contaminants in groundwaters, and the subsurface storage of CO2 and nuclear waste. Over the last several decades, many dozens of individual experimental studies have addressed aspects of surface complexation that have contributed to an increased understanding of its role in natural systems. However, there has been no previous attempt to develop a model of surface complexation that can be used to link all the experimental studies in order to place them on a predictive basis. Overall, my research has successfully integrated the results of the work of many experimentalists published over several decades. For the first time in studies of the geochemistry of the mineral-water interface, a practical predictive capability for modeling has become available. The predictive correlations developed in my research now enable extrapolations of experimental studies to provide estimates of surface chemistry for systems not yet studied experimentally and for natural and anthropogenically perturbed systems.

  19. The Emparassment of Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowotny, Helga

    My vision of complexity sciences targets their potential to extend the range, precision, and depth in making predictions. While this has always been the ambition and yardstick for the physicalmathematical sciences, complexity sciences now allow to include society and social behavior - to some extent. There is agreement that society is a complex adaptive system, CAS, with a few peculiarities. Ignoring, downplaying, or naturalizing them, i.e. to take them as essential and given, carries the risk to end up with abstractions which are cutoff from the dynamics of societal contexts. One of the peculiarities of society as a CAS is that the models with which we try to make sense of the world are invented and constructed by us. It is humans who make observations and provide the assumptions on which models are based. Humans leave traces that are collected and processed to be transformed into data. Humans decide to which purpose they will be put and how they will be repurposed. Humans are object of research and subject. Coping with these peculiarities requires an inbuilt reflexivity. Practioners must perform a double act and do so repeatedly. They must engage in a focused way with their scientific work and equally distance themselves by critically reflecting their often tacit assumptions. A friend of mine, Yehuda Elkana, called this twotier thinking...

  20. Control of complex systems

    CERN Document Server

    Albertos, Pedro; Blanke, Mogens; Isidori, Alberto; Schaufelberger, Walter; Sanz, Ricardo

    2001-01-01

    The world of artificial systems is reaching complexity levels that es­ cape human understanding. Surface traffic, electricity distribution, air­ planes, mobile communications, etc. , are examples that demonstrate that we are running into problems that are beyond classical scientific or engi­ neering knowledge. There is an ongoing world-wide effort to understand these systems and develop models that can capture its behavior. The reason for this work is clear, if our lack of understanding deepens, we will lose our capability to control these systems and make they behave as we want. Researchers from many different fields are trying to understand and develop theories for complex man-made systems. This book presents re­ search from the perspective of control and systems theory. The book has grown out of activities in the research program Control of Complex Systems (COSY). The program has been sponsored by the Eu­ ropean Science Foundation (ESF) which for 25 years has been one of the leading players in stimula...

  1. Keynes, Hayek and Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormerod, Paul

    In the spirit of the overall topic of the conference, in this paper I consider the extent to which economic theory includes elements of the complex systems approach. I am setting to one side here the developments over the past decade in applying complex systems analysis to economic problems. This is not because this recent work is not important. It most certainly is. But I want to argue that there is a very distinct tradition of what we would now describe as a complex systems approach in the works of two of the greatest economists of the 20th century. There is of course a dominant intellectual paradigm within economics, that known as `neo-classical'economics. This paradigm is by no means an empty box, and is undoubtedly useful in helping to understand how some aspects of the social and economic worlds work. But even in its heyday, neo-classical economics never succeeded by its empirical success in driving out completely other theoretical approaches, for its success was simply not sufficient to do so. Much more importantly, economics over the past twenty or thirty years has become in an increasing state of flux.

  2. Coherence, Complexity and Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arecchi, Fortunato Tito

    We review the ideas and experiments that established the onset of laser coherence beyond a suitable threshold. That threshold is the first of a chain of bifurcations in a non linear dynamics, leading eventually to deterministic chaos in lasers. In particular, the so called HC behavior has striking analogies with the electrical activity of neurons. Based on these considerations, we develop a dynamical model of neuron synchronization leading to coherent global perceptions. Synchronization implies a transitory control of neuron chaos. Depending on the time duration of this control, a cognitive agent has different amounts of awareness. Combining this with a stream of external inputs, one can point at an optimal use of internal resources, that is called cognitive creativity. While coherence is associated with long range correlations, complexity arises whenever an array of coupled dynamical systems displays multiple paths of coherence. What is the relation among the three concepts in the title? While coherence is associated with long range correlations, complexity arises whenever an array of coupled dynamical systems displays multiple paths of coherence. Creativity corresponds to a free selection of a coherence path within a complex nest. As sketched above, it seems dynamically related to chaos control.

  3. [Complex posttraumatic stress disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Tamar; Kotler, Moshe

    2007-11-01

    The characteristic symptoms resulting from exposure to an extreme trauma include three clusters of symptoms: persistent experience of the traumatic event, persistent avoidance of stimuli associated with the trauma and persistent symptoms of increased arousal. Beyond the accepted clusters of symptoms for posttraumatic stress disorder exists a formation of symptoms related to exposure to extreme or prolonged stress e.g. childhood abuse, physical violence, rape, and confinement within a concentration camp. With accumulated evidence of the existence of these symptoms began a trail to classify a more complex syndrome, which included, but was not confined to the symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. This review addresses several subjects for study in complex posttraumatic stress disorder, which is a complicated and controversial topic. Firstly, the concept of complex posttraumatic stress disorder is presented. Secondly, the professional literature relevant to this disturbance is reviewed and finally, the authors present the polemic being conducted between the researchers of posttraumatic disturbances regarding validity, reliability and the need for separate diagnosis for these symptoms.

  4. Cdt1 revisited: complex and tight regulation during the cell cycle and consequences of deregulation in mammalian cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujita Masatoshi

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In eukaryotic cells, replication of genomic DNA initiates from multiple replication origins distributed on multiple chromosomes. To ensure that each origin is activated precisely only once during each S phase, a system has evolved which features periodic assembly and disassembly of essential pre-replication complexes (pre-RCs at replication origins. The pre-RC assembly reaction involves the loading of a presumptive replicative helicase, the MCM2-7 complexes, onto chromatin by the origin recognition complex (ORC and two essential factors, CDC6 and Cdt1. The eukaryotic cell cycle is driven by the periodic activation and inactivation of cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks and assembly of pre-RCs can only occur during the low Cdk activity period from late mitosis through G1 phase, with inappropriate re-assembly suppressed during S, G2, and M phases. It was originally suggested that inhibition of Cdt1 function after S phase in vertebrate cells is due to geminin binding and that Cdt1 hyperfunction resulting from Cdt1-geminin imbalance induces re-replication. However, recent progress has revealed that Cdt1 activity is more strictly regulated by two other mechanisms in addition to geminin: (1 functional and SCFSkp2-mediated proteolytic regulation through phosphorylation by Cdks; and (2 replication-coupled proteolysis mediated by the Cullin4-DDB1Cdt2 ubiquitin ligase and PCNA, an eukaryotic sliding clamp stimulating replicative DNA polymerases. The tight regulation implies that Cdt1 control is especially critical for the regulation of DNA replication in mammalian cells. Indeed, Cdt1 overexpression evokes chromosomal damage even without re-replication. Furthermore, deregulated Cdt1 induces chromosomal instability in normal human cells. Since Cdt1 is overexpressed in cancer cells, this could be a new molecular mechanism leading to carcinogenesis. In this review, recent insights into Cdt1 function and regulation in mammalian cells are discussed.

  5. Complexity Leadership: A Theoretical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltaci, Ali; Balci, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Complex systems are social networks composed of interactive employees interconnected through collaborative, dynamic ties such as shared goals, perspectives and needs. Complex systems are largely based on "the complex system theory". The complex system theory focuses mainly on finding out and developing strategies and behaviours that…

  6. LUBAC-Recruited CYLD and A20 Regulate Gene Activation and Cell Death by Exerting Opposing Effects on Linear Ubiquitin in Signaling Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Draber

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ubiquitination and deubiquitination are crucial for assembly and disassembly of signaling complexes. LUBAC-generated linear (M1 ubiquitin is important for signaling via various immune receptors. We show here that the deubiquitinases CYLD and A20, but not OTULIN, are recruited to the TNFR1- and NOD2-associated signaling complexes (TNF-RSC and NOD2-SC, at which they cooperate to limit gene activation. Whereas CYLD recruitment depends on its interaction with LUBAC, but not on LUBAC’s M1-chain-forming capacity, A20 recruitment requires this activity. Intriguingly, CYLD and A20 exert opposing effects on M1 chain stability in the TNF-RSC and NOD2-SC. While CYLD cleaves M1 chains, and thereby sensitizes cells to TNF-induced death, A20 binding to them prevents their removal and, consequently, inhibits cell death. Thus, CYLD and A20 cooperatively restrict gene activation and regulate cell death via their respective activities on M1 chains. Hence, the interplay between LUBAC, M1-ubiquitin, CYLD, and A20 is central for physiological signaling through innate immune receptors.

  7. Plant nonsense-mediated mRNA decay is controlled by different autoregulatory circuits and can be induced by an EJC-like complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyikó, Tünde; Kerényi, Farkas; Szabadkai, Levente; Benkovics, Anna H.; Major, Péter; Sonkoly, Boglárka; Mérai, Zsuzsanna; Barta, Endre; Niemiec, Emilia; Kufel, Joanna; Silhavy, Dániel

    2013-01-01

    Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) is a eukaryotic quality control system that recognizes and degrades transcripts containing NMD cis elements in their 3′untranslated region (UTR). In yeasts, unusually long 3′UTRs act as NMD cis elements, whereas in vertebrates, NMD is induced by introns located >50 nt downstream from the stop codon. In vertebrates, splicing leads to deposition of exon junction complex (EJC) onto the mRNA, and then 3′UTR-bound EJCs trigger NMD. It is proposed that this intron-based NMD is vertebrate specific, and it evolved to eliminate the misproducts of alternative splicing. Here, we provide evidence that similar EJC-mediated intron-based NMD functions in plants, suggesting that this type of NMD is evolutionary conserved. We demonstrate that in plants, like in vertebrates, introns located >50 nt from the stop induces NMD. We show that orthologs of all core EJC components are essential for intron-based plant NMD and that plant Partner of Y14 and mago (PYM) also acts as EJC disassembly factor. Moreover, we found that complex autoregulatory circuits control the activity of plant NMD. We demonstrate that expression of suppressor with morphogenic effect on genitalia (SMG)7, which is essential for long 3′UTR- and intron-based NMD, is regulated by both types of NMD, whereas expression of Barentsz EJC component is downregulated by intron-based NMD. PMID:23666629

  8. Ultrastructural aspects of spermatogenesis, testes, and vas deferens in the parthenogenetic tapeworm Atractolytocestus huronensis Anthony, 1958 (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea), a carp parasite from Slovakia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bruňanská, M.; Nebesářová, Jana; Oros, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 108, č. 1 (2011), 61-68 ISSN 0932-0113 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : GLARIDACRIS-CATOSTOMI * SYNAPTONEMAL COMPLEX * REPRODUCTIVE DUCTS * COMMON CARP * SPERMATOZOA * PLATYHELMINTHES * VITELLOGENESIS * EVOLUTION * TRIPLOIDY * CESTOIDEA Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.149, year: 2011

  9. Transition Complexity of Incomplete DFAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Gao

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the transition complexity of regular languages based on the incomplete deterministic finite automata. A number of results on Boolean operations have been obtained. It is shown that the transition complexity results for union and complementation are very different from the state complexity results for the same operations. However, for intersection, the transition complexity result is similar to that of state complexity.

  10. Relaxation phenomena during polyelectrolyte complex formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindhoud, S.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Polyelectrolyte complex formation is a well-studied subject in colloid science. Several types of complex formation have been studied, including PEMs, macroscopic polyelectrolyte complexes, soluble complexes and polyelectrolyte complex micelles. The chemical nature of the complex-forming

  11. The Stigma Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pescosolido, Bernice A.; Martin, Jack K.

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, research on stigma has continued. Building on conceptual and empirical work, the recent period clarifies new types of stigmas, expansion of measures, identification of new directions, and increasingly complex levels. Standard beliefs have been challenged, the relationship between stigma research and public debates reconsidered, and new scientific foundations for policy and programs suggested. We begin with a summary of the most recent Annual Review articles on stigma, which reminded sociologists of conceptual tools, informed them of developments from academic neighbors, and claimed findings from the early period of “resurgence.” Continued (even accelerated) progress has also revealed a central problem. Terms and measures are often used interchangeably, leading to confusion and decreasing accumulated knowledge. Drawing from this work but focusing on the past 14 years of stigma research (including mental illness, sexual orientation, HIV/AIDS, and race/ethnicity), we provide a theoretical architecture of concepts (e.g., prejudice, experienced/received discrimination), drawn together through a stigma process (i.e., stigmatization), based on four theoretical premises. Many characteristics of the mark (e.g., discredited, concealable) and variants (i.e., stigma types and targets) become the focus of increasingly specific and multidimensional definitions. Drawing from complex and systems science, we propose a stigma complex, a system of interrelated, heterogeneous parts bringing together insights across disciplines to provide a more realistic and complicated sense of the challenge facing research and change efforts. The Framework Integrating Normative Influences on Stigma (FINIS) offers a multilevel approach that can be tailored to stigmatized statuses. Finally, we outline challenges for the next phase of stigma research, with the goal of continuing scientific activity that enhances our understanding of stigma and builds

  12. Complexity in fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayly, B.

    1991-01-01

    Fluids are basically very simple things. The fluids encountered all the time - air, water, milk, coffee, etc. - are undramatic. One blob of a given fluid looks much like any other, except for such gross properties as volume or mass. Of course, blobs of fluid come in different shapes. However, it's easy to change the shape of a blob of fluid, with the result that we rarely think of the shape of a fluid blob as a defining property. In fact, a blob that starts with one shape can be deformed into almost any other shape, with arbitrarily small input of energy. When one talks about lumps of a solid, in contrast, shape is important. This is because it takes work, i.e., energy, to change the shape of a solid. Making a small deformation from some rest configuration takes a small amount of energy, and a large deformation takes a lot of energy. Sometimes, as in idealized elastic systems, the required energy goes to infinity as the deformation becomes unbounded. Real solids usually break if you deform them enough; all subsequent deformations cost no energy. Basically, a finite deformation requires finite energy. Complexity arises in fluid systems because the shape of a blob of fluid is indeterminate. Nothing prevents an initially simple fluid blob from deforming into the weirdest shape imaginable. It is the absence of any kind of blob-shape constraint that allows complexity to enter fluid science. During these lectures the author briefly describes a few areas in which complexity arises and has to be dealt with. These lectures will be roughly divided as follows: (1) physical and mathematical description of fluids and flows; (2) flow transport and ergodic theory; (3) magnetic dynamos and related problems; (4) flow instabilities; (5) turbulence

  13. The molecular chaperone Hsp90α is required for meiotic progression of spermatocytes beyond pachytene in the mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Grad

    Full Text Available The molecular chaperone Hsp90 has been found to be essential for viability in all tested eukaryotes, from the budding yeast to Drosophila. In mammals, two genes encode the two highly similar and functionally largely redundant isoforms Hsp90α and Hsp90β. Although they are co-expressed in most if not all cells, their relative levels vary between tissues and during development. Since mouse embryos lacking Hsp90β die at implantation, and despite the fact that Hsp90 inhibitors being tested as anti-cancer agents are relatively well tolerated, the organismic functions of Hsp90 in mammals remain largely unknown. We have generated mouse lines carrying gene trap insertions in the Hsp90α gene to investigate the global functions of this isoform. Surprisingly, mice without Hsp90α are apparently normal, with one major exception. Mutant male mice, whose Hsp90β levels are unchanged, are sterile because of a complete failure to produce sperm. While the development of the male reproductive system appears to be normal, spermatogenesis arrests specifically at the pachytene stage of meiosis I. Over time, the number of spermatocytes and the levels of the meiotic regulators and Hsp90 interactors Hsp70-2, NASP and Cdc2 are reduced. We speculate that Hsp90α may be required to maintain and to activate these regulators and/or to disassemble the synaptonemal complex that holds homologous chromosomes together. The link between fertility and Hsp90 is further supported by our finding that an Hsp90 inhibitor that can cross the blood-testis barrier can partially phenocopy the genetic defects.

  14. Complexity in Managing Modularization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Poul H. Kyvsgård; Sun, Hongyi

    2011-01-01

    In general, the phenomenon of managing modularization is not well known. The cause-effect relationships between modularization and realized benefits are complex and comprehensive. Though a number of research works have contributed to the study of the phenomenon of efficient and effective...... modularization management it is far from clarified. Recognizing the need for further empirical research, we have studied 40 modularity cases in various companies. The studies have been designed as long-term studies leaving time for various types of modularization benefits to emerge. Based on these studies we...... have developed a framework to support the heuristic and iterative process of planning and realizing modularization benefits....

  15. Fluorido complexes of technetium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariappan Balasekaran, Samundeeswari

    2013-07-04

    Fluorine chemistry has received considerable interest during recent years due to its significant role in the life sciences, especially for drug development. Despite the great nuclear medicinal importance of the radioactive metal technetium in radiopharmaceuticals, its coordination chemistry with the fluorido ligand is by far less explored than that of other ligands. Up to now, only a few technetium fluorides are known. This thesis contains the synthesis, spectroscopic and structural characterization of novel technetium fluorides in the oxidation states ''+1'', ''+2'', ''+4'' and ''+6''. In the oxidation state ''+6'', the fluoridotechnetates were synthesized either from nitridotechnetic(VI) acid or from pertechnetate by using reducing agent and have been isolated as cesium or tetraethylammonium salts. The compounds were characterized spectroscopically and structurally. In the intermediate oxidation state ''+4'', hexafluoridotechnetate(IV) was known for long time and studied spectroscopically. This thesis reports novel and improved syntheses and solved the critical issues of early publications such as the color, some spectroscopic properties and the structure of this key compound. Single crystal analyses of alkali metal, ammonium and tetramethylammonium salts of hexafluoridotechnetate(IV) are presented. In aqueous alkaline solutions, the ammonium salt of hexafluoridotechnetate(IV) undergoes hydrolysis and forms an oxido-bridged dimeric complex. It is the first step hydrolysis product of hexafluoridotechnetate(IV) and was characterized by spectroscopic and crystallographic methods. Low-valent technetium fluorides with the metal in the oxidation states of ''+2'' or ''+1'' are almost unknown. A detailed description of the synthesis and characterization of pentafluoridonitrosyltechnetate(II) is presented. The

  16. Complex adaptive systems ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommerlund, Julie

    2003-01-01

    In the following, I will analyze two articles called Complex Adaptive Systems EcologyI & II (Molin & Molin, 1997 & 2000). The CASE-articles are some of the more quirkyarticles that have come out of the Molecular Microbial Ecology Group - a groupwhere I am currently making observational studies....... They are the result of acooperation between Søren Molin, professor in the group, and his brother, JanMolin, professor at Department of Organization and Industrial Sociology atCopenhagen Business School. The cooperation arises from the recognition that bothmicrobial ecology and sociology/organization theory works...

  17. The Frankenstein Complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Boris Brorman

    2016-01-01

    In his polemic essay Boris Brorman Jensen raises the issue of a perceived academic reluctance to acknowledge the impact of real-world pragmatics on the architectural expression of built architecture. “One might claim that parts of architectural academia suffer from a Frankenstein complex that see...... to understand and engage the full range of technical skills present in the interdisciplinary team of consultants......., of our given lifeworld.” Being the first major project of the emerging practice Element Architects, the Teachers’ Union Conference Center highlights the importance of the architect as a skilled negotiator, not merely the provider of flattering design. Critically acclaimed for its unconventional approach...

  18. Deformable Simplicial Complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misztal, Marek Krzysztof

    triangles/tetrahedra marked as outside from those marked as inside. Such an approach allows for robust topological adaptivity. Among other advantages of the deformable simplicial complexes there are: space adaptivity, ability to handle and preserve sharp features, possibility for topology control. We....... One particular advantage of DSC is the fact that as an alternative to topology adaptivity, topology control is also possible. This is exploited in the construction of cut loci on tori where a front expands from a single point on a torus and stops when it self-intersects....

  19. Kinetics of complex plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Sodha, Mahendra Singh

    2014-01-01

    The presentation in the book is based on charge balance on the dust particles, number and energy balance of the constituents and atom-ion-electron interaction in the gaseous plasma. Size distribution of dust particles, statistical mechanics, Quantum effects in electron emission from and accretion on dust particles and nonlinear interaction of complex plasmas with electric and electromagnetic fields have been discussed in the book. The book introduces the reader to basic concepts and typical applications. The book should be of use to researchers, engineers and graduate students.

  20. Emergent complex neural dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chialvo, Dante R.

    2010-10-01

    A large repertoire of spatiotemporal activity patterns in the brain is the basis for adaptive behaviour. Understanding the mechanism by which the brain's hundred billion neurons and hundred trillion synapses manage to produce such a range of cortical configurations in a flexible manner remains a fundamental problem in neuroscience. One plausible solution is the involvement of universal mechanisms of emergent complex phenomena evident in dynamical systems poised near a critical point of a second-order phase transition. We review recent theoretical and empirical results supporting the notion that the brain is naturally poised near criticality, as well as its implications for better understanding of the brain.

  1. Genetics of complex diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellerup, Erling; Møller, Gert Lykke; Koefoed, Pernille

    2012-01-01

    A complex disease with an inheritable component is polygenic, meaning that several different changes in DNA are the genetic basis for the disease. Such a disease may also be genetically heterogeneous, meaning that independent changes in DNA, i.e. various genotypes, can be the genetic basis...... for the disease. Each of these genotypes may be characterized by specific combinations of key genetic changes. It is suggested that even if all key changes are found in genes related to the biology of a certain disease, the number of combinations may be so large that the number of different genotypes may be close...

  2. Complex regional pain syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep J Sebastin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS previously known as reflex sympathetic dystrophy is a chronic neurological disorder involving the limbs characterized by disabling pain, swelling, vasomotor instability, sudomotor abnormality, and impairment of motor function. CRPS is not uncommon after hand surgery and may complicate post-operative care. There is no specific diagnostic test for CRPS and the diagnosis is based on history, clinical examination, and supportive laboratory findings. Recent modifications to diagnostic criteria have enabled clinicians to diagnose this disease more consistently. This review gives a synopsis of CRPS and discusses the diagnosis, pathophysiology, and treatment options based on the limited evidence in the literature.

  3. Procuring complex performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, A.; Roehrich, J.; Frederiksen, Lars

    2014-01-01

    – The transition towards PCP can be best described as a learning process which cumulates the knowledge and experience in the client-supplier interaction accompanied by changing contractual and relational capabilities. In public infrastructure this process is not initially motivated by the benefits of value co......-creation, but is politically driven. Practical implications – The study proposes three generic transition stages towards increased performance and infrastructural complexity moderated by contract duration. These stages may help managers of public agencies to identify the current procurement level and the contractual...... adopting a longitudinal perspective on these interactions in the transition towards PCP....

  4. Computability, complexity, logic

    CERN Document Server

    Börger, Egon

    1989-01-01

    The theme of this book is formed by a pair of concepts: the concept of formal language as carrier of the precise expression of meaning, facts and problems, and the concept of algorithm or calculus, i.e. a formally operating procedure for the solution of precisely described questions and problems. The book is a unified introduction to the modern theory of these concepts, to the way in which they developed first in mathematical logic and computability theory and later in automata theory, and to the theory of formal languages and complexity theory. Apart from considering the fundamental themes an

  5. Complexation reactions in pyridine and 2,6-dimethylpyridine-water system: The quantum-chemical description and the path to liquid phase separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernia, Zelig; Tsori, Yoav

    2018-03-01

    Phase separation in substituted pyridines in water is usually described as an interplay between temperature-driven breakage of hydrogen bonds and the associating interaction of the van der Waals force. In previous quantum-chemical studies, the strength of hydrogen bonding between one water and one pyridine molecules (the 1:1 complex) was assigned a pivotal role. It was accepted that the disassembly of the 1:1 complex at a critical temperature leads to phase separation and formation of the miscibility gap. Yet, for over two decades, notable empirical data and theoretical arguments were presented against that view, thus revealing the need in a revised quantum-mechanical description. In the present study, pyridine-water and 2,6-dimethylpyridine-water systems at different complexation stages are calculated using high level Kohn-Sham theory. The hydrophobic-hydrophilic properties are accounted for by the polarizable continuum solvation model. Inclusion of solvation in free energy of formation calculations reveals that 1:1 complexes are abundant in the organically rich solvents but higher level oligomers (i.e., 2:1 dimers with two pyridines and one water molecule) are the only feasible stable products in the more polar media. At the critical temperature, the dissolution of the external hydrogen bonds between the 2:1 dimer and the surrounding water molecules induces the demixing process. The 1:1 complex acts as a precursor in the formation of the dimers but is not directly involved in the demixing mechanism. The existence of the miscibility gap in one pyridine-water system and the lack of it in another is explained by the ability of the former to maintain stable dimerization. Free energy of formation of several reaction paths producing the 2:1 dimers is calculated and critically analyzed.

  6. Bound Exciton Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, B. K.

    In the preceding chapter, we concentrated on the properties of free excitons. These free excitons may move through the sample and hit a trap, a nonradiative or a radiative recombination center. At low temperatures, the latter case gives rise to either deep center luminescence, mentioned in Sect. 7.1 and discussed in detail in Chap. 9, or to the luminescence of bound exciton complexes (BE or BEC). The chapter continues with the most prominent of these BECs, namely A-excitons bound to neutral donors. The next aspects are the more weakly BEs at ionized donors. The Sect. 7.4 treats the binding or localization energies of BEC from a theoretical point of view, while Sect. 7.5 is dedicated to excited states of BECs, which contain either holes from deeper valence bands or an envelope function with higher quantum numbers. The last section is devoted to donor-acceptor pair transitions. There is no section devoted specifically to excitons bound to neutral acceptors, because this topic is still partly controversially discussed. Instead, information on these A0X complexes is scattered over the whole chapter, however, with some special emphasis seen in Sects. 7.1, 7.4, and 7.5.

  7. Herding Complex Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Ruf, Sebastian F.

    2018-04-12

    The problem of controlling complex networks is of interest to disciplines ranging from biology to swarm robotics. However, controllability can be too strict a condition, failing to capture a range of desirable behaviors. Herdability, which describes the ability to drive a system to a specific set in the state space, was recently introduced as an alternative network control notion. This paper considers the application of herdability to the study of complex networks. The herdability of a class of networked systems is investigated and two problems related to ensuring system herdability are explored. The first is the input addition problem, which investigates which nodes in a network should receive inputs to ensure that the system is herdable. The second is a related problem of selecting the best single node from which to herd the network, in the case that a single node is guaranteed to make the system is herdable. In order to select the best herding node, a novel control energy based herdability centrality measure is introduced.

  8. Complex master slave interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivet, Sylvain; Maria, Michael; Bradu, Adrian; Feuchter, Thomas; Leick, Lasse; Podoleanu, Adrian

    2016-02-08

    A general theoretical model is developed to improve the novel Spectral Domain Interferometry method denoted as Master/Slave (MS) Interferometry. In this model, two functions, g and h are introduced to describe the modulation chirp of the channeled spectrum signal due to nonlinearities in the decoding process from wavenumber to time and due to dispersion in the interferometer. The utilization of these two functions brings two major improvements to previous implementations of the MS method. A first improvement consists in reducing the number of channeled spectra necessary to be collected at Master stage. In previous MSI implementation, the number of channeled spectra at the Master stage equated the number of depths where information was selected from at the Slave stage. The paper demonstrates that two experimental channeled spectra only acquired at Master stage suffice to produce A-scans from any number of resolved depths at the Slave stage. A second improvement is the utilization of complex signal processing. Previous MSI implementations discarded the phase. Complex processing of the electrical signal determined by the channeled spectrum allows phase processing that opens several novel avenues. A first consequence of such signal processing is reduction in the random component of the phase without affecting the axial resolution. In previous MSI implementations, phase instabilities were reduced by an average over the wavenumber that led to reduction in the axial resolution.

  9. Complexity in language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Alexander; Lappin, Shalom

    2013-01-01

    Learning theory has frequently been applied to language acquisition, but discussion has largely focused on information theoretic problems-in particular on the absence of direct negative evidence. Such arguments typically neglect the probabilistic nature of cognition and learning in general. We argue first that these arguments, and analyses based on them, suffer from a major flaw: they systematically conflate the hypothesis class and the learnable concept class. As a result, they do not allow one to draw significant conclusions about the learner. Second, we claim that the real problem for language learning is the computational complexity of constructing a hypothesis from input data. Studying this problem allows for a more direct approach to the object of study--the language acquisition device-rather than the learnable class of languages, which is epiphenomenal and possibly hard to characterize. The learnability results informed by complexity studies are much more insightful. They strongly suggest that target grammars need to be objective, in the sense that the primitive elements of these grammars are based on objectively definable properties of the language itself. These considerations support the view that language acquisition proceeds primarily through data-driven learning of some form. Copyright © 2013 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  10. Shapes of interacting RNA complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fu, Benjamin Mingming; Reidys, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Shapes of interacting RNA complexes are studied using a filtration via their topological genus. A shape of an RNA complex is obtained by (iteratively) collapsing stacks and eliminating hairpin loops.This shape-projection preserves the topological core of the RNA complex and for fixed topological...... genus there are only finitely many such shapes. Our main result is a new bijection that relates the shapes of RNA complexes with shapes of RNA structures. This allows to compute the shape polynomial of RNA complexes via the shape polynomial of RNA structures. We furthermore present a linear time uniform...... sampling algorithm for shapes of RNA complexes of fixed topological genus....

  11. Complexity functions for networks: Dynamical hubs and complexity clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afraimovich, Valentin; Dmitrichev, Aleksei; Shchapin, Dmitry; Nekorkin, Vladimir

    2018-02-01

    A method for studying the behavior of the elements of dynamical networks is introduced. We measure the amount of instability stored at each element according to the value of the mean complexity related to this element. Elements with close values of the mean complexity can be unified into complexity clusters; elements with the smallest values of complexities form dynamical hubs. The effectiveness of the method is manifested by its successive application to networks of coupled Lorenz systems.

  12. Complex agent networks: An emerging approach for modeling complex systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mei, S.; Zarrabi, N.; Lees, M.; Sloot, P.M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Complexity and complex systems are all around us: from molecular and cellular systems in biology up to economics and human societies. There is an urgent need for methods that can capture the multi-scale spatio-temporal characteristics of complex systems. Recent emphasis has centered on two methods

  13. Syntactic Complexity as an Aspect of Text Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantz, Roger S.; Starr, Laura E.; Bailey, Alison L.

    2015-01-01

    Students' ability to read complex texts is emphasized in the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) for English Language Arts and Literacy. The standards propose a three-part model for measuring text complexity. Although the model presents a robust means for determining text complexity based on a variety of features inherent to a text as well as…

  14. Complex dynamical invariants for two-dimensional complex potentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Complex dynamical invariants are searched out for two-dimensional complex poten- tials using rationalization method within the framework of an extended complex phase space characterized by x = x1 + ip3, y = x2 + ip4, px = p1 + ix3, py = p2 + ix4. It is found that the cubic oscillator and shifted harmonic oscillator ...

  15. The regulatory gamma subunit SNF4b of the sucrose non-fermenting-related kinase complex is involved in longevity and stachyose accumulation during maturation of Medicago truncatula seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosnoblet, Claire; Aubry, Catherine; Leprince, Olivier; Vu, Benoit Ly; Rogniaux, Hélène; Buitink, Julia

    2007-07-01

    The sucrose non-fermenting-related kinase complex (SnRK1) is a heterotrimeric complex that plays a central role in metabolic adaptation to nutritional or environmental stresses. Here we investigate the role of a regulatory gamma-subunit of the complex, MtSNF4b, in Medicago truncatula seeds. Western blot indicated that MtSNF4b accumulated during seed filling, whereas it disappeared during imbibition of mature seeds. Gel filtration chromatography suggested that MtSNF4b assembled into a complex (450-600 kDa) at the onset of maturation drying, and dissociated during subsequent imbibition. Drying of desiccation-tolerant radicles led to a reassembly of the complex, in contrast to sensitive tissues. Silencing of MtSNF4b using a RNA interference (RNAi) approach resulted in a phenotype with reduced seed longevity, evident from the reduction in both germination percentage and seedling vigour in aged RNAi MtSNF4b seeds compared with the wild-type seeds. In parallel to the assembly of the complex, seeds of the RNAi MtSNF4b lines showed impaired accumulation of raffinose family oligosaccharides compared with control seeds. In mature seeds, the amount of stachyose was reduced by 50-80%, whereas the sucrose content was 60% higher. During imbibition, the differences in non-reducing sugar compared with the control disappeared in parallel to the disassembly of the complex. No difference was observed in dry weight or reserve accumulation such as proteins, lipids and starch. These data suggest that the regulatory gamma-subunit MtSNF4b confers a specific and temporal function to SnRK1 complexes in seeds, improving seed longevity and affecting the non-reducing sugar content at later stages of seed maturation.

  16. OF AGROINDUSTRIAL COMPLEX MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruslan E. Mansurov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of this work is determined, on the one hand, by tightening of the foreign political situation and its possible negative impact on the food security of the country, and, on the other hand, by the crisis of the domestic agricultural sector. These factors demand the development of new approaches to regional agroindustrial complex (AIC management. The aim is to develop a methodology for assessing the level of food self-sufficiency in main food areas of the Volgograd region. The author used the results of the statistical materials of AIC of the Volgograd region for 2016. The analytical methods included mathematical analysis and comparison. The main results are as follows. Based on the analysis of the current situation to ensure food security of Russia it was proved that at the present time it is necessary to develop effective indicators showing the level of self-sufficiency in basic food regions. It was also revealed that at the moment this indicator in the system of regional agrarian and industrial complex is not controlled. As a result of generalization of existing approaches the author’s method of rating the level of self-sufficiency of regions was offered. Its testing was carried out in several districts of the Volgograd region. The proposed authoring method of rating estimation of self-sufficiency in basic foodstuffs can be used in the regional agroindustrial complex management system at the federal and local levels. It can be used to rank areas in terms of their self-sufficiency in basic foodstuffs. This allows us to focus on the development of backward areas of agro-food and make appropriate management decisions. The final rating value - 0.759 obtained by the results of analysis of the situation in the Volgograd region means that the situation in matters of selfsufficiency in basic foodstuffs in general is good. However, we should aim at the maximum possible value of the rating - 1. In the application of the proposed

  17. Complex Hamiltonian Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bountis, Tassos

    2012-01-01

    This book introduces and explores modern developments in the well established field of Hamiltonian dynamical systems. It focuses on high degree-of-freedom systems and the transitional regimes between regular and chaotic motion. The role of nonlinear normal modes is highlighted and the importance of low-dimensional tori in the resolution of the famous FPU paradox is emphasized. Novel powerful numerical methods are used to study localization phenomena and distinguish order from strongly and weakly chaotic regimes. The emerging hierarchy of complex structures in such regimes gives rise to particularly long-lived patterns and phenomena called quasi-stationary states, which are explored in particular in the concrete setting of one-dimensional Hamiltonian lattices and physical applications in condensed matter systems.  The self-contained and pedagogical approach is blended with a unique balance between mathematical rigor, physics insights and concrete applications. End of chapter exercises and (more demanding) res...

  18. Recirculation over complex terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutter, Eric; Yi, Chuixiang; Hendrey, George; Liu, Heping; Eaton, Timothy; Ni-Meister, Wenge

    2017-06-01

    This study generated eddy covariance data to investigate atmospheric dynamics leeward of a small, forested hillside in upstate New York. The causes and effects of recirculation eddies were examined to support the larger goal of improving measurement of the exchange of energy, moisture, and trace gases between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere over complex terrain. Sensors operated at five different altitudes on two separate towers—one at the top of the hill and one down the slope to the east—for approximately 8 weeks in the spring of 2013. During the experiment, the vertical potential temperature gradient was found to be the primary factor for determining whether winds interacting with the terrain features caused a recirculating eddy leeward of the hill. The study found evidence that the recirculation influenced carbon dioxide flux and caused the air column to be vertically well mixed.

  19. Complex performance in construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bougrain, Frédéric; Forman, Marianne; Gottlieb, Stefan Christoffer

    of the industry. The main objective of this project was to understand how the development of integrated solutions in construction led to distinct configuration of actors and structures. Furthermore, the project analyses whether these changes modified project processes and contributed to the delivery of new value......To fulfil the expectations of demanding clients, new project-delivery mechanisms have been developed. Approaches focusing on performance-based building or new procurement processers such as new forms of private-public partnerships are considered as solutions improving the overall performance...... to the end users. This report summarises the results from work undertaken in the international collaborative project “Procuring and Operating Complex Products and Systems in Construction” (POCOPSC). POCOPSC was carried out in the period 2010-2014. The project was executed in collaboration between CSTB...

  20. Complex algebraic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Kollár, János

    1997-01-01

    This volume contains the lectures presented at the third Regional Geometry Institute at Park City in 1993. The lectures provide an introduction to the subject, complex algebraic geometry, making the book suitable as a text for second- and third-year graduate students. The book deals with topics in algebraic geometry where one can reach the level of current research while starting with the basics. Topics covered include the theory of surfaces from the viewpoint of recent higher-dimensional developments, providing an excellent introduction to more advanced topics such as the minimal model program. Also included is an introduction to Hodge theory and intersection homology based on the simple topological ideas of Lefschetz and an overview of the recent interactions between algebraic geometry and theoretical physics, which involve mirror symmetry and string theory.

  1. Mutagenicity of complex mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelroy, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of coal-derived complex chemical mixtures on the mutagenicity of 6-aminochrysene (6-AC) was determined with Salmonella typhimurium TA98. Previous results suggested that the mutagenic potency of 6-AC for TA98 in the standard microsomal activation (Ames) assay increased if it was presented to the cells mixed with high-boiling coal liquids (CL) from the solvent refined coal (SRC) process. In this year's work, the apparent mutational synergism of CL and 6-AC was independently verified in a fluctuation bioassay which allowed quantitation of mutational frequencies and cell viability. The results of this assay system were similar to those in the Ames assay. Moreover, the fluctation assay revealed that mutagenesis and cellular toxicity induced by 6-AC were both strongly enhanced if 6-AC was presented to the cells mixed in a high-boiling CL. 4 figures

  2. Early AIDS dementia complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mountz, J.M.; Speed, N.M.; Adams, K.; Schwartz, J.A.; Gross, M.D.; Ostrow, D.G.

    1988-01-01

    A frequent complication of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is AIDS dementia complex (ADC). The authors evaluated seven patients with AIDS (aged 28-55 years, all male) for ADC by psychiatric evaluation, neuropsychological testing, CT scanning, and IMP-SPECT. Six of seven patients exhibited cognitive or behavioral abnormalities. Neuropsychological testing showed general deficits but no cases of explicit dementia. SPECT showed marked abnormalities in two cases: posterior temporal-parietal diminution of tracer uptake in one case (posterior/anterior=0.81) and marked right/left subcortical asymmetry (1.17) in the other. In three additional cases there was asymmetric tracer uptake in the subcortical and parietal regions. CT findings were normal in all seven cases. The authors conclude that functional imaging with the use of IMP-SPECT may be a useful method to follow ADC progression and response to therapy

  3. Segmentation of complex document

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souad Oudjemia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a method for segmentation of documents image with complex structure. This technique based on GLCM (Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix used to segment this type of document in three regions namely, 'graphics', 'background' and 'text'. Very briefly, this method is to divide the document image, in block size chosen after a series of tests and then applying the co-occurrence matrix to each block in order to extract five textural parameters which are energy, entropy, the sum entropy, difference entropy and standard deviation. These parameters are then used to classify the image into three regions using the k-means algorithm; the last step of segmentation is obtained by grouping connected pixels. Two performance measurements are performed for both graphics and text zones; we have obtained a classification rate of 98.3% and a Misclassification rate of 1.79%.

  4. Turbulence in complex terrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, Jakob [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy and Atmosheric Physics Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop a model of the spectral velocity-tensor in neutral flow over complex terrain. The resulting equations are implemented in a computer code using the mean flow generated by a linear mean flow model as input. It estimates turbulence structure over hills (except on the lee side if recirculation is present) in the so-called outer layer and also models the changes in turbulence statistics in the vicinity roughness changes. The generated turbulence fields are suitable as input for dynamic load calculations on wind turbines and other tall structures and is under implementation in the collection of programs called WA{sup s}P Engineering. (au) EFP-97; EU-JOULE-3. 15 refs.

  5. Thermodynamics of complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerhoff, Hans V.; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal; Snoep, Jacky L.

    1998-01-01

    Thermodynamics has always been a remarkable science in that it studies macroscopic properties that are only partially determined by the properties of individual molecules. Entropy and free energy only exist in constellations of more than a single molecule (degree of freedom). They are the so...... understanding of this BioComplexity, modem thermodynamic concepts and methods (nonequilibrium thermodynamics, metabolic and hierarchical control analysis) will be needed. We shall propose to redefine nonequilibrium thermodynamics as: The science that aims at understanding the behaviour of nonequilibrium systems...... by taking into account both the molecular properties and the emergent properties that are due to (dys)organisation. This redefinition will free nonequilibrium thermodynamics from the limitations imposed by earlier near-equilibrium assumptions, resolve the duality with kinetics, and bridge the apparent gap...

  6. Evolution of Biological Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Raymond E.

    It is a general rule of nature that larger organisms are more complex, at least as measured by the number of distinct types of cells present. This reflects the fitness advantage conferred by a division of labor among specialized cells over homogeneous totipotency. Yet, increasing size has both costs and benefits, and the search for understanding the driving forces behind the evolution of multicellularity is becoming a very active area of research. This article presents an overview of recent experimental and theoretical work aimed at understanding this biological problem from the perspective of physics. For a class of model organisms, the Volvocine green algae, an emerging hypothesis connects the transition from organisms with totipotent cells to those with terminal germ-soma differentiation to the competition between diffusion and fluid advection created by beating flagella. A number of challenging problems in fluid dynamics, nonlinear dynamics, and control theory emerge when one probes the workings of the simplest multicellular organisms.

  7. Iridium complexes for electrocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheehan, Stafford Wheeler; Hintermair, Ulrich; Thomsen, Julianne M; Brudvig, Gary W; Crabtree, Robert H

    2017-10-17

    Solution-phase (e.g., homogeneous) or surface-immobilized (e.g., heterogeneous) electrode-driven oxidation catalysts based on iridium coordination compounds which self-assemble upon chemical or electrochemical oxidation of suitable precursors and methods of making and using thereof are. Iridium species such as {[Ir(LX).sub.x(H.sub.2O).sub.y(.mu.-O)].sub.z.sup.m+}.sub.n wherein x, y, m are integers from 0-4, z and n from 1-4 and LX is an oxidation-resistant chelate ligand or ligands, such as such as 2(2-pyridyl)-2-propanolate, form upon oxidation of various molecular iridium complexes, for instance [Cp*Ir(LX)OH] or [(cod)Ir(LX)] (Cp*=pentamethylcyclopentadienyl, cod=cis-cis,1,5-cyclooctadiene) when exposed to oxidative conditions, such as sodium periodate (NaIO.sub.4) in aqueous solution at ambient conditions.

  8. Complexity Science for Simpletons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feinstein C. A.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we shall describe some of the most interesting topics in the subject of Complexity Science for a general audience. Anyone with a solid foundation in high school mathematics (with some calculus and an elementary understanding of computer programming will be able to follow this article. First, we shall explain the significance of the P versus NP problem and solve it. Next, we shall describe two other famous mathematics problems, the Collatz 3n+ 1 Conjecture and the Riemann Hypothesis, and show how both Chaitin’s incompleteness theorem and Wolfram’s notion of “computational irreducibility” are important for understanding why no one has, as of yet, solved these two problems.

  9. Complex Algebraic Varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Peternell, Thomas; Schneider, Michael; Schreyer, Frank-Olaf

    1992-01-01

    The Bayreuth meeting on "Complex Algebraic Varieties" focussed on the classification of algebraic varieties and topics such as vector bundles, Hodge theory and hermitian differential geometry. Most of the articles in this volume are closely related to talks given at the conference: all are original, fully refereed research articles. CONTENTS: A. Beauville: Annulation du H(1) pour les fibres en droites plats.- M. Beltrametti, A.J. Sommese, J.A. Wisniewski: Results on varieties with many lines and their applications to adjunction theory.- G. Bohnhorst, H. Spindler: The stability of certain vector bundles on P(n) .- F. Catanese, F. Tovena: Vector bundles, linear systems and extensions of (1).- O. Debarre: Vers uns stratification de l'espace des modules des varietes abeliennes principalement polarisees.- J.P. Demailly: Singular hermitian metrics on positive line bundles.- T. Fujita: On adjoint bundles of ample vector bundles.- Y. Kawamata: Moderate degenerations of algebraic surfaces.- U. Persson: Genus two fibra...

  10. Complex wounds Feridas complexas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Castro Ferreira

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex wound is the term used more recently to group those well-known difficult wounds, either chronic or acute, that challenge medical and nursing teams. They defy cure using conventional and simple "dressings" therapy and currently have a major socioeconomic impact. The purpose of this review is to bring these wounds to the attention of the health-care community, suggesting that they should be treated by multidisciplinary teams in specialized hospital centers. In most cases, surgical treatment is unavoidable, because the extent of skin and subcutaneous tissue loss requires reconstruction with grafts and flaps. New technologies, such as the negative pressure device, should be introduced. A brief review is provided of the major groups of complex wounds-diabetic wounds, pressure sores, chronic venous ulcers, post-infection soft-tissue gangrenes, and ulcers resulting from vasculitis.Ferida complexa é uma nova definição para identificar aquelas feridas crônicas e algumas agudas já bem conhecidas e que desafiam equipes médicas e de enfermagem. São difíceis de serem resolvidas usando tratamentos convencionais e simples curativos. Têm atualmente grande impacto sócio-econômico. Esta revisão procura atrair atenção da comunidade de profissionais de saúde para estas feridas, sugerindo que devam ser tratadas por equipe multidisciplinar em centro hospitalar especializado. Na maioria dos casos o tratamento cirúrgico deve ser indicado, uma vez que a perda de pele e tecido subcutâneo é extensa, necessitando de reconstrução com enxertos e retalhos. Nova tecnologia, como uso da terapia por pressão negativa foi introduzido. Breves comentários sobre os principais grupos de feridas complexas: pé diabético, úlceras por pressão, úlceras venosas, síndrome de Fournier e vasculites.

  11. The Complex Cepstrum - Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemerait, R. C., Sr.

    2016-12-01

    Since this paper comes at the twilight of my career, it is appropriate to share my views on a subject very dear to my heart and to my long career. In 2004 "From Frequency to Quefrency: A History of the Cepstrum" was published in the IEEE Signal Processing magazine. There is no question that the authors, Alan V. Oppenheim and Ronald W. Schafer, were pioneers in this area of research, and this publication documents their involvement quite nicely. In parallel research also performed in the 1960's, Childers, et. al., renamed the original "Cepstrum" to the "Power Cepstrum" to avoid confusion with the principal topic of their research, that being the "Complex Cepstrum." The term "Power Cepstrum" has become widely used in the literature since that time. The Childers team, including Dr. Kemerait, published a summary of their work, as of that date, in the IEEE Proceedings of October 1977, and titled the article "The Cepstrum: A Guide to Processing." In the subsequent 40 years, Dr. Kemerait has continued to research cepstral techniques applied to many diverse problems; however, his primary research has been on estimating the depth of underground and underwater events. He has also applied these techniques to biomedical data: EEG, EKG, and Visua-evoked responses as well as on hydroacoustic data ; thereby, determining the "bubble pulse frequency", and the depths of the explosion and the ocean depth at the explosion point. He has also used cepstral techniques in the processing of ground penetrating radar, speech, machine diagnostics, and, throughout these years, seismic data. This paper emphasizes his recent improvements in processing primarily seismic and infrasound data associated with nuclear treaty monitoring. The emphasis is mainly on the recent improvements and the automation of the Complex Cepstrum process.

  12. Complex sleep apnea syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang J

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Juan Wang,1,* Yan Wang,1,* Jing Feng,1,2 Bao-yuan Chen,1 Jie Cao1 1Respiratory Department of Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin, People's Republic of China; 2Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA *The first two authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Complex sleep apnea syndrome (CompSAS is a distinct form of sleep-disordered breathing characterized as central sleep apnea (CSA, and presents in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA patients during initial treatment with a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP device. The mechanisms of why CompSAS occurs are not well understood, though we have a high loop gain theory that may help to explain it. It is still controversial regarding the prevalence and the clinical significance of CompSAS. Patients with CompSAS have clinical features similar to OSA, but they do exhibit breathing patterns like CSA. In most CompSAS cases, CSA events during initial CPAP titration are transient and they may disappear after continued CPAP use for 4–8 weeks or even longer. However, the poor initial experience of CompSAS patients with CPAP may not be avoided, and nonadherence with continued therapy may often result. Treatment options like adaptive servo-ventilation are available now that may rapidly resolve the disorder and relieve the symptoms of this disease with the potential of increasing early adherence to therapy. But these approaches are associated with more expensive and complicated devices. In this review, the definition, potential plausible mechanisms, clinical characteristics, and treatment approaches of CompSAS will be summarized. Keywords: complex sleep apnea syndrome, obstructive sleep apnea, central sleep apnea, apnea threshold, continuous positive airway pressure, adaptive servo-ventilation

  13. Amphotericin B Lipid Complex Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amphotericin B lipid complex injection is used to treat serious, possibly life-threatening fungal infections in people who did ... respond or are unable to tolerate conventional amphotericin B therapy. Amphotericin B lipid complex injection is in ...

  14. Complexity in governance network theory

    OpenAIRE

    Klijn, Erik-Hans; Koppenjan, Joop

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstractIn this article, we discuss how complexity is viewed in governance network theory. The article provides a systematic elaboration of the notion of complexity, distinguishing three types: substantive, strategic , and institutional complexity. We argue that dealing with these types of complexity in networks is essentially a matter of mutual adaption and cooperation. An important explanation for the occurrence of deadlocks, breakthroughs and outcomes is the presence and the qualit...

  15. Cooperativity of complex salt bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Gvritishvili, Anzor G.; Gribenko, Alexey V.; Makhatadze, George I.

    2008-01-01

    The energetic contribution of complex salt bridges, in which one charged residue (anchor residue) forms salt bridges with two or more residues simultaneously, has been suggested to have importance for protein stability. Detailed analysis of the net energetics of complex salt bridge formation using double- and triple-mutant cycle analysis revealed conflicting results. In two cases, it was shown that complex salt bridge formation is cooperative, i.e., the net strength of the complex salt bridge...

  16. Statistic complexity: combining kolmogorov complexity with an ensemble approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmert-Streib, Frank

    2010-08-26

    The evaluation of the complexity of an observed object is an old but outstanding problem. In this paper we are tying on this problem introducing a measure called statistic complexity. This complexity measure is different to all other measures in the following senses. First, it is a bivariate measure that compares two objects, corresponding to pattern generating processes, on the basis of the normalized compression distance with each other. Second, it provides the quantification of an error that could have been encountered by comparing samples of finite size from the underlying processes. Hence, the statistic complexity provides a statistical quantification of the statement ' is similarly complex as Y'. The presented approach, ultimately, transforms the classic problem of assessing the complexity of an object into the realm of statistics. This may open a wider applicability of this complexity measure to diverse application areas.

  17. Statistic complexity: combining kolmogorov complexity with an ensemble approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Emmert-Streib

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The evaluation of the complexity of an observed object is an old but outstanding problem. In this paper we are tying on this problem introducing a measure called statistic complexity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This complexity measure is different to all other measures in the following senses. First, it is a bivariate measure that compares two objects, corresponding to pattern generating processes, on the basis of the normalized compression distance with each other. Second, it provides the quantification of an error that could have been encountered by comparing samples of finite size from the underlying processes. Hence, the statistic complexity provides a statistical quantification of the statement ' is similarly complex as Y'. CONCLUSIONS: The presented approach, ultimately, transforms the classic problem of assessing the complexity of an object into the realm of statistics. This may open a wider applicability of this complexity measure to diverse application areas.

  18. Complexity in governance network theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E-H. Klijn (Erik-Hans); J.F.M. Koppenjan (Joop)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstractIn this article, we discuss how complexity is viewed in governance network theory. The article provides a systematic elaboration of the notion of complexity, distinguishing three types: substantive, strategic , and institutional complexity. We argue that dealing with these types of

  19. Low energy costs of F1Fo ATP synthase reversal in colon carcinoma cells deficient in mitochondrial complex IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhdanov, Alexander V; Andreev, Dmitry E; Baranov, Pavel V; Papkovsky, Dmitri B

    2017-05-01

    Mitochondrial polarisation is paramount for a variety of cellular functions. Under ischemia, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and proton gradient (ΔpH) are maintained via a reversal of mitochondrial F1Fo ATP synthase (mATPase), which can rapidly deplete ATP and drive cells into energy crisis. We found that under normal conditions in cells with disassembled cytochrome c oxidase complex (COX-deficient HCT116), mATPase maintains ΔΨm at levels only 15-20% lower than in WT cells, and for this utilises relatively little ATP. For a small energy expenditure, mATPase enables mitochondrial ΔpH, protein import, Ca 2+ turnover, and supports free radical detoxication machinery enlarged to protect the cells from oxidative damage. Whereas in COX-deficient cells the main source of ATP is glycolysis, the ΔΨm is still maintained upon inhibition of the adenine nucleotide translocators with bongkrekic acid and carboxyatractyloside, indicating that the role of ANTs is redundant, and matrix substrate level phosphorylation alone or in cooperation with ATP-Mg/P i carriers can continuously support the mATPase activity. Intriguingly, we found that mitochondrial complex III is active, and it contributes not only to free radical production, but also to ΔΨm maintenance and energy budget of COX-deficient cells. Overall, this study demonstrates that F1Fo ATP synthase can support general mitochondrial and cellular functions, working in extremely efficient 'energy saving' reverse mode and flexibly recruiting free radical detoxication and ATP producing / transporting pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Proteomics reveals dynamic assembly of repair complexes during bypass of DNA cross-links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Räschle, Markus; Smeenk, Godelieve; Hansen, Rebecca K

    2015-01-01

    a technique called chromatin mass spectrometry (CHROMASS) to study protein recruitment dynamics during perturbed DNA replication in Xenopus egg extracts. Using CHROMASS, we systematically monitored protein assembly and disassembly on ICL-containing chromatin. Among numerous prospective DNA repair factors, we...... to damaged DNA in vertebrate cells....

  1. Binary Disassembly Block Coverage by Symbolic Execution vs. Recursive Descent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Switzerland, 2010. [CCKK12] Vitaly Chipounov, George Candea, Andreas Kirchner , and Volodymyr Kuznetsov. S2E Source Code...Foundation, 2008. http://www.python.org/getit/releases/2.5.4/. [CSXK08] Anthony Cozzie, Frank Stratton, Hui Xue, and Samuel T. King. Digging for data

  2. Functional and cosmetic outcome of partial penile disassembly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A. Bhat

    2017-07-04

    . This however required second surgery for cosme- sis. Swenson in 1958 ... in these cases to gain the length of penis, cosmesis and alignment of corporal bodies. This allows better positioning of the bladder neck and posterior ...

  3. Learning in the "Platform Society": Disassembling an Educational Data Assemblage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Ben

    2017-01-01

    Schools are increasingly involved in diverse forms of student data collection. This article provides a sociotechnical survey of a data assemblage used in education. ClassDojo is a commercial platform for tracking students' behaviour data in classrooms and a social media network for connecting teachers, students, and parents. The hybridization of…

  4. SP-100 reactor disassembly remote handling test program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, C.E.; Potter, J.D.; Maiden, G.E.; Vader, D.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper is presented as an overview of the remote handling equipment validation testing, which will be conducted before installation and use in the ground engineering test facility. This equipment will be used to defuel the SP-100 reactor core after removing it from the Test Assembly following nuclear testing. A series of full scale mock-up operational tests will be conducted at a Hanford Site facility to verify equipment design, operation, and capabilities

  5. Shape Formation by Self-Disassembly in Programmable Matter Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    channel) PWM Signal Comparator (internal to processor) +5V+20V +20V +20V +20V drives timer input capture +20V Figure 3-8: The four EP magnets are driven...strength similar to that of plastic and that the modules will be able to transfer power and communication signals capacitively from neighbor to neighbor...with the appropriate bonding strengths. Klavins et al. worked to develop intelligent self-assembling systems that employ triangular modules driven by

  6. Charge correlations as a probe of nuclear disassembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreutz, P.; Pochodzalla, J.; Schuettauf, A.; Tucholski, A.; Bouissou, P.; Leray, S.; Seidel, W.; Begemann-Blaich, M.; Hubele, J.; Kunde, G.J.; Lindenstruth, V.; Liu, Z.; Lynen, U.; Meijer, R.J.; Milkau, U.; Mueller, W.F.J.; Ogilvie, C.A.; Sann, H.; Trautmann, W.

    1992-03-01

    We have studied multi-fragment decays of Au projectiles after collision with C, Al, Cu and Pb targets at a bombarding energy of 600 MeV/nucleon. We examine the correlations between the charges emitted in these reactions. These correlations are given as a function of the total charge in bound fragments, Z bound , at forward angles, which is a measure of the violence of the collision and can be related to the impact parameter. The charge distributions have been fit by a power law and the extracted τ parameter exhibits a minimum as a function of Z bound . We observe a strong reduction in the maximum charge, Z max , of the event with decreasing Z bound . For those events where Z max is less than half Z bound , the relative sizes of the two largest charges within the event cover the full spectrum of possibilities. The charge-Dalitz plots indicate that the multi-fragmentation events are not an extension of symmetric fission reactions. The event-by-event charge moments are examined to measure the size of the charge fluctuations. All of the charge correlations are independent of the target when plotted as a function of Z bound . The results are compared to both nuclear statistical and percolation calculations. The model predictions differ from each other, establishing that the observables are sensitive to how the available phase space is populated. The sequential nuclear model predicts too asymmetric a decay, while the simultaneous model predicts too symmetrical a break-up. The percolation model, which was adjusted to reproduce the mean multiplicity of fragments and the size of Z max , correctly predicts the charge fluctuations. (orig.)

  7. How to disassemble a virus capsid: a computacional approach

    OpenAIRE

    Piedade, Claudio Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Tese de mestrado, Bioquímica (Bioquímica) Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências 2016 Viruses are one of the main subjects of study in science due to the amount of diseases and deaths they cause, not only in humans, but also in other organisms, such as plants, other mammals, insects and microorganisms. This raises the need to understand the mechanisms of host infection. Capsids surround the genetic information of viruses and many experimental and theoretical studies have been done t...

  8. DESTRUCTIVE DISASSEMBLY TO SUPPORT VIRTUAL PROTOTYPING. (R825370C067)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  9. Energy impacts of recycling disassembly material in residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Weijun; Ariyama, Takahiro; Ojima, Toshio; Meier, Alan

    2000-01-01

    In order to stop the global warmth due to the CO2 concentration, the energy use should be decreased. The investment of building construction industry in Japan is about 20 percent of GDP. This fraction is much higher than in most developed countries. That results the Japanese building construction industry including residential use consumes about one third of all energy and resources of the entire industrial sectors. In order to save energy as well as resource, the recycle of the building materials should be urgent to be carried out. In this paper, we focus on the potential energy savings with a simple calculated method when the building materials or products are manufactured from recycled materials. We examined three kinds of residential buildings with different construction techniques and estimated the decreased amount of energy consumption and resources resulting from use of recycled materials. The results have shown for most building materials, the energy consumption needed to remake housing materials from recycled materials is lower than that to make new housing materials. The energy consumption of building materials in all case-study housing can be saved by at least 10 percent. At the same time, the resource, measured by mass of building materials (kg) can be decreased by over 50 percent

  10. Uranium nucleophilic carbene complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tourneux, Jean-Christophe

    2012-01-01

    The only stable f-metal carbene complexes (excluding NHC) metals f present R 2 C 2- groups having one or two phosphorus atoms in the central carbon in alpha position. The objective of this work was to develop the chemistry of carbenes for uranium (metal 5f) with the di-anion C{Ph 2 P(=S)} 2 2- (SCS 2- ) to extend the organometallic chemistry of this element in its various oxidation states (+3-+6), and to reveal the influence of the 5f orbitals on the nature and reactivity of the double bond C=U. We first isolated the reactants M(SCHS) (M = Li and K) and demonstrated the role of the cation M + on the evolution of the di-anion M 2 SCS (M = Li, K, Tl) which is transformed into LiSCHS in THF or into product of intramolecular cyclization K 2 [C(PhPS) 2 (C 6 H 4 )]. We have developed the necessary conditions mono-, bis- and tris-carbene directly from the di-anion SCS 2- and UCl 4 , as the precursor used in uranium chemistry. The protonolysis reactions of amides compounds (U-NEt 2 ) by the neutral ligand SCH 2 S were also studied. The compounds [Li(THF)] 2 [U(SCS)Cl 3 ] and [U(SCS)Cl 2 (THF) 2 ] were then used to prepare a variety of cyclopentadienyl and mono-cyclo-octa-tetra-enyliques uranium(IV) carbene compounds of the DFT analysis of compounds [M(SCS)Cl 2 (py) 2 ] and [M(Cp) 2 (SCS)] (M = U, Zr) reveals the strong polarization of the M=C double bond, provides information on the nature of the σ and π interactions in this binding, and shows the important role of f orbitals. The influence of ancillary ligands on the M=C bond is revealed by examining the effects of replacing Cl - ligands and pyridine by C 5 H 5 - groups. Mulliken and NBO analyzes show that U=C bond, unlike the Zr=C bond, is not affected by the change in environment of the metal center. While the oxidation tests of carbene complexes of U(IV) were disappointing, the first carbene complex of uranium (VI), [UO 2 (SCS)(THF) 2 ], was isolated with the uranyl ion UO 2 2+ . The reactions of compounds UO 2 X 2

  11. Monotone measures of statistical complexity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudnicki, Łukasz; Toranzo, Irene V.; Sánchez-Moreno, Pablo; Dehesa, Jesús S.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The notion of monotonicity of the complexity measure of a probability distribution is introduced and discussed. • The monotonicity properties of statistical measures of complexity are studied. • The Cramer–Rao and Fisher–Shannon measures of complexity are shown to be monotone. - Abstract: We introduce and discuss the notion of monotonicity for the complexity measures of general probability distributions, patterned after the resource theory of quantum entanglement. Then, we explore whether this property is satisfied by the three main intrinsic measures of complexity (Crámer–Rao, Fisher–Shannon, LMC) and some of their generalizations.

  12. Monotone measures of statistical complexity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudnicki, Łukasz [Institute for Physics, University of Freiburg, Rheinstraße 10, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Center for Theoretical Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Aleja Lotników 32/46, PL-02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Toranzo, Irene V. [Instituto Carlos I de Física Teórica y Computacional, Universidad de Granada, 18071-Granada (Spain); Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Granada, 18071-Granada (Spain); Sánchez-Moreno, Pablo [Instituto Carlos I de Física Teórica y Computacional, Universidad de Granada, 18071-Granada (Spain); Departamento de Matemática Aplicada, Universidad de Granada, 18071-Granada (Spain); Dehesa, Jesús S., E-mail: dehesa@ugr.es [Instituto Carlos I de Física Teórica y Computacional, Universidad de Granada, 18071-Granada (Spain); Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Granada, 18071-Granada (Spain)

    2016-01-28

    Highlights: • The notion of monotonicity of the complexity measure of a probability distribution is introduced and discussed. • The monotonicity properties of statistical measures of complexity are studied. • The Cramer–Rao and Fisher–Shannon measures of complexity are shown to be monotone. - Abstract: We introduce and discuss the notion of monotonicity for the complexity measures of general probability distributions, patterned after the resource theory of quantum entanglement. Then, we explore whether this property is satisfied by the three main intrinsic measures of complexity (Crámer–Rao, Fisher–Shannon, LMC) and some of their generalizations.

  13. On Measuring the Complexity of Networks: Kolmogorov Complexity versus Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikołaj Morzy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most popular methods of estimating the complexity of networks is to measure the entropy of network invariants, such as adjacency matrices or degree sequences. Unfortunately, entropy and all entropy-based information-theoretic measures have several vulnerabilities. These measures neither are independent of a particular representation of the network nor can capture the properties of the generative process, which produces the network. Instead, we advocate the use of the algorithmic entropy as the basis for complexity definition for networks. Algorithmic entropy (also known as Kolmogorov complexity or K-complexity for short evaluates the complexity of the description required for a lossless recreation of the network. This measure is not affected by a particular choice of network features and it does not depend on the method of network representation. We perform experiments on Shannon entropy and K-complexity for gradually evolving networks. The results of these experiments point to K-complexity as the more robust and reliable measure of network complexity. The original contribution of the paper includes the introduction of several new entropy-deceiving networks and the empirical comparison of entropy and K-complexity as fundamental quantities for constructing complexity measures for networks.

  14. Complexity a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Holland, John H

    2014-01-01

    The importance of complexity is well-captured by Hawking's comment: "Complexity is the science of the 21st century". From the movement of flocks of birds to the Internet, environmental sustainability, and market regulation, the study and understanding of complex non-linear systems has become highly influential over the last 30 years. In this Very Short Introduction, one of the leading figures in the field, John Holland, introduces the key elements and conceptual framework of complexity. From complex physical systems such as fluid flow and the difficulties of predicting weather, to complex adaptive systems such as the highly diverse and interdependent ecosystems of rainforests, he combines simple, well-known examples - Adam Smith's pin factory, Darwin's comet orchid, and Simon's 'watchmaker' - with an account of the approaches, involving agents and urn models, taken by complexity theory. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost eve...

  15. Complexity of formation in holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Shira [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Marrochio, Hugo [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Department of Physics & Astronomy and Guelph-Waterloo Physics Institute,University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada); Myers, Robert C. [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada)

    2017-01-16

    It was recently conjectured that the quantum complexity of a holographic boundary state can be computed by evaluating the gravitational action on a bulk region known as the Wheeler-DeWitt patch. We apply this complexity=action duality to evaluate the ‘complexity of formation’ (DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.191301; 10.1103/PhysRevD.93.086006), i.e. the additional complexity arising in preparing the entangled thermofield double state with two copies of the boundary CFT compared to preparing the individual vacuum states of the two copies. We find that for boundary dimensions d>2, the difference in the complexities grows linearly with the thermal entropy at high temperatures. For the special case d=2, the complexity of formation is a fixed constant, independent of the temperature. We compare these results to those found using the complexity=volume duality.

  16. Managing Complex Environmental Risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, Mikael

    2006-01-01

    Environmental and public health risks are often handled in a process in which experts, and sometimes policy makers, try their best to quantitatively assess, evaluate and manage risks. This approach harmonises with mainstream interpretations of sustainable development, which aim at defining a desirable relationship between human and natural systems, for instance by policies that define limit values of different forms of disturbances. However, under conditions of high scientific incertitude, diverging values and distrust, this approach is far from satisfactory. The use of cell phones, hazardous chemicals, nuclear or fossil energy systems, and modern biotechnology are examples of activities causing such risks with high complexity. Against this background, a complementary interpretation of the concept of sustainable development is suggested. This interpretation is operationalised through new formulations of three common principles for public risk management; the precautionary principle, the polluter pays principle and the principle of public participation. Implementation of these reformulated principles would challenge some foundations of present mainstream views on environmental decision-making, but would on the other hand contribute to improved practices for long-term human welfare and planetary survival (full text of contribution)

  17. Complex Sleep Apnea Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Talha Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex sleep apnea is the term used to describe a form of sleep disordered breathing in which repeated central apneas (>5/hour persist or emerge when obstructive events are extinguished with positive airway pressure (PAP and for which there is not a clear cause for the central apneas such as narcotics or systolic heart failure. The driving forces in the pathophysiology are felt to be ventilator instability associated oscillation in PaCO2 arterial partial pressure of Carbon Dioxide, continuous cositive airway pressure (CPAP related increased CO2 carbon dioxide elimination, and activation of airway and pulmonary stretch receptors triggering these central apneas. The prevalence ranges from 0.56% to 18% with no clear predictive characteristics as compared to simple obstructive sleep apnea. Prognosis is similar to obstructive sleep apnea. The central apnea component in most patients on followup using CPAP therap, has resolved. For those with continued central apneas on simple CPAP therapy, other treatment options include bilevel PAP, adaptive servoventilation, permissive flow limitation and/or drugs.

  18. Complex Interfaces Under Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosbjerg, Dan

    The hydrosphere is dynamic across the major compartments of the Earth system: the atmosphere, the oceans and seas, the land surface water, and the groundwater within the strata below the two last compartments. The global geography of the hydrosphere essentially depends on thermodynamic and mechan...... these interfaces and interfaced compartments and processes. Climate, sea-level, oceanographic currents and hydrological processes are all affected, while anthropogenic changes are often intense in the geographic settings corresponding to such interfaces.......The hydrosphere is dynamic across the major compartments of the Earth system: the atmosphere, the oceans and seas, the land surface water, and the groundwater within the strata below the two last compartments. The global geography of the hydrosphere essentially depends on thermodynamic...... and mechanical processes that develop within this structure. Water-related processes at the interfaces between the compartments are complex, depending both on the interface itself, and on the characteristics of the interfaced compartments. Various aspects of global change directly or indirectly impact...

  19. Complexity of Perceptual Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tito Arecchi, F.

    2005-09-01

    At the borderline between neuroscience and physics of complex phenomena, a new paradigm is under investigation, namely feature binding. This terminology denotes how a large collection of coupled neurons combines external signals with internal memories into new coherent patterns of meaning. An external stimulus spreads over an assembly of coupled neurons, building up a corresponding collective state. Thus, the synchronization of spike trains of many individual neurons is the basis of a coherent perception. Based on recent investigations, a novel conjecture for the dynamics of single neurons and, consequently, for neuron assemblies has been formulated. Homoclinic chaos is proposed as the most suitable way to code information in time by trains of equal spikes occurring at apparently erratic times; a new quantitative indicator, called propensity, is introduced to select the most appropriate neuron model. In order to classify the set of different perceptions, the percept space is given a metric structure by introducing a distance measure between distinct percepts. The distance in percept space is conjugate to the duration of the perception in the sense that an uncertainty relation in percept space is associated with time limited perceptions. Thus coding of different percepts by synchronized spike trains entails fundamental quantum features. It is conjectured that they are related to the details of the perceptual chain rather than depending on Planck's action.

  20. Complexities and futures?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Urry

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Physical and social worlds are full of change, paradox and contradiction. There are no simple, unchangingstable states or states to which there is equilibrium-establishing movement. The “normal” state isnot one of balance and equilibrium. Any system is “complex”. Policies never straightforwardly restoreequilibrium. The equilibrium models dominant in most economic system analyses, especially generalequilibrium models, can be critiqued since they ignore the huge array of positive feedbacks. Thus, systems should be viewed as dynamic and processual, demonstrating the power of the second law of thermodynamics, in which physical and social systems are seen as moving towards entropy. Systems can be broadly viewed as unpredictable, open rather than closed, with energy and matter flowing in and out. Systems are characterised by a lack of proportionality or “non-linearity” between the apparent “causes” and “effects” of events and processes. Various implications for thinking futures are examined in the light of this complex systems thinking.

  1. Complex mixtures biostudies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Springer, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    The objective of the project is to identify potential adverse biological activities associated with human exposures to complex organic mixtures (COM) from energy-related industries. Studies to identify the influence of chemical class fractions from a COM on the initiating activity of a known carcinogen, benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), demonstrated that the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and nitrogen-containing polycyclic aromatic compound (NPAC) fractions were the most effective inhibitors of initiation. In an effort to determine the contribution of BaP to the initiating activity of the COM, binding of radiolabeled BaP to mouse skin DNA was measured. Results indicated that binding of BaP to DNA decreased in the presence of the COM so that at initiating COM doses, BaP binding was near the limit detection. Addition of unlabeled BaP to the COM at an amount similar to that originally present in the COM did not significantly increase the binding. Studies to determine the rates of disappearance of carcinogenic PAH from the site of application on the skin indicated that half-lives for PAH differed by a factor of about 2. Analytical methods developed to identify PAH from COM which covalently bind to DNA demonstrated that the lower level of detection is approximately 200 picograms. Developmental studies demonstrated that both pregnant rats and mice treated dermally with a high-boiling COM developed fetuses with major malformations including cleft palate, small lungs, edema, and sagittal suture hemorrhages. 3 figures, 5 tables

  2. Complexity measurement based on information theory and kolmogorov complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Leong Ting; Terrazas, Germán; Zenil, Hector; Alexander, Cameron; Krasnogor, Natalio

    2015-01-01

    In the past decades many definitions of complexity have been proposed. Most of these definitions are based either on Shannon's information theory or on Kolmogorov complexity; these two are often compared, but very few studies integrate the two ideas. In this article we introduce a new measure of complexity that builds on both of these theories. As a demonstration of the concept, the technique is applied to elementary cellular automata and simulations of the self-organization of porphyrin molecules.

  3. The hamstring muscle complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Made, A D; Wieldraaijer, T; Kerkhoffs, G M; Kleipool, R P; Engebretsen, L; van Dijk, C N; Golanó, P

    2015-07-01

    The anatomical appearance of the hamstring muscle complex was studied to provide hypotheses for the hamstring injury pattern and to provide reference values of origin dimensions, muscle length, tendon length, musculotendinous junction (MTJ) length as well as width and length of a tendinous inscription in the semitendinosus muscle known as the raphe. Fifty-six hamstring muscle groups were dissected in prone position from 29 human cadaveric specimens with a median age of 71.5 (range 45-98). Data pertaining to origin dimensions, muscle length, tendon length, MTJ length and length as well as width of the raphe were collected. Besides these data, we also encountered interesting findings that might lead to a better understanding of the hamstring injury pattern. These include overlapping proximal and distal tendons of both the long head of the biceps femoris muscle and the semimembranosus muscle (SM), a twist in the proximal SM tendon and a tendinous inscription (raphe) in the semitendinosus muscle present in 96 % of specimens. No obvious hypothesis can be provided purely based on either muscle length, tendon length or MTJ length. However, it is possible that overlapping proximal and distal tendons as well as muscle architecture leading to a resultant force not in line with the tendon predispose to muscle injury, whereas the presence of a raphe might plays a role in protecting the muscle against gross injury. Apart from these architectural characteristics that may contribute to a better understanding of the hamstring injury pattern, the provided reference values complement current knowledge on surgically relevant hamstring anatomy. IV.

  4. Carney complex (CNC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertherat, Jérôme

    2006-06-06

    The Carney complex (CNC) is a dominantly inherited syndrome characterized by spotty skin pigmentation, endocrine overactivity and myxomas. Skin pigmentation anomalies include lentigines and blue naevi. The most common endocrine gland manifestations are acromegaly, thyroid and testicular tumors, and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-independent Cushing's syndrome due to primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD). PPNAD, a rare cause of Cushing's syndrome, is due to primary bilateral adrenal defect that can be also observed in some patients without other CNC manifestations or familial history of the disease. Myxomas can be observed in the heart, skin and breast. Cardiac myxomas can develop in any cardiac chamber and may be multiple. One of the putative CNC genes located on 17q22-24, (PRKAR1A), has been identified to encode the regulatory subunit (R1A) of protein kinase A. Heterozygous inactivating mutations of PRKAR1A were reported initially in 45 to 65% of CNC index cases, and may be present in about 80% of the CNC families presenting mainly with Cushing's syndrome. PRKAR1A is a key component of the cAMP signaling pathway that has been implicated in endocrine tumorigenesis and could, at least partly, function as a tumor suppressor gene. Genetic analysis should be proposed to all CNC index cases. Patients with CNC or with a genetic predisposition to CNC should have regular screening for manifestations of the disease. Clinical work-up for all the manifestations of CNC should be performed at least once a year in all patients and should start in infancy. Cardiac myxomas require surgical removal. Treatment of the other manifestations of CNC should be discussed and may include follow-up, surgery, or medical treatment depending on the location of the tumor, its size, the existence of clinical signs of tumor mass or hormonal excess, and the suspicion of malignancy. Bilateral adrenalectomy is the most common treatment for Cushing's syndrome due to PPNAD.

  5. Carney complex (CNC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertherat Jérôme

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Carney complex (CNC is a dominantly inherited syndrome characterized by spotty skin pigmentation, endocrine overactivity and myxomas. Skin pigmentation anomalies include lentigines and blue naevi. The most common endocrine gland manifestations are acromegaly, thyroid and testicular tumors, and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome due to primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD. PPNAD, a rare cause of Cushing's syndrome, is due to primary bilateral adrenal defect that can be also observed in some patients without other CNC manifestations or familial history of the disease. Myxomas can be observed in the heart, skin and breast. Cardiac myxomas can develop in any cardiac chamber and may be multiple. One of the putative CNC genes located on 17q22-24, (PRKAR1A, has been identified to encode the regulatory subunit (R1A of protein kinase A. Heterozygous inactivating mutations of PRKAR1A were reported initially in 45 to 65 % of CNC index cases, and may be present in about 80 % of the CNC families presenting mainly with Cushing's syndrome. PRKAR1A is a key component of the cAMP signaling pathway that has been implicated in endocrine tumorigenesis and could, at least partly, function as a tumor suppressor gene. Genetic analysis should be proposed to all CNC index cases. Patients with CNC or with a genetic predisposition to CNC should have regular screening for manifestations of the disease. Clinical work-up for all the manifestations of CNC should be performed at least once a year in all patients and should start in infancy. Cardiac myxomas require surgical removal. Treatment of the other manifestations of CNC should be discussed and may include follow-up, surgery, or medical treatment depending on the location of the tumor, its size, the existence of clinical signs of tumor mass or hormonal excess, and the suspicion of malignancy. Bilateral adrenalectomy is the most common treatment for Cushing

  6. Complexity management in projects between rational momentum and complex conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mac, Anita; Schlamovitz, Jesper

    This study takes its departure in a model of complexity, developed by Stacey (1993), to test and discuss its practical benefit as perceived by practicing project managers. Based on a survey, the study finds that complexity is a phenomenon recognized by project managers, and complexity management...... is associated with benefits in the development of tasks and managing stakeholders. It is also associated with some difficulty in terms of an increased need for dialogue and a risk of creating goal ambiguity. Based on the findings, we conclude that classical project management approaches can benefit from...... incorporating complexity management....

  7. Complexity Management In Projects Between Rational Momentum And Complex Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mac, Anita; Schlamovitz, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    management is associated with benefits in the development of tasks and managing stakeholders. It is also associated with some difficulty in terms of an increased need for dialogue and a risk of creating goal ambiguity. Based on the findings, we conclude that classical project management approaches can......Abstract: This study takes its departure in a model of complexity, developed by Stacey (1993), to test and discuss its practical benefit as perceived by practicing project managers. Based on a survey, the study finds that complexity is a phenomenon recognized by project managers, and complexity...... benefit from incorporating complexity management....

  8. Complexity management in projects between rational momentum and complex conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mac, Anita; Schlamovitz, Jesper

    is associated with benefits in the development of tasks and managing stakeholders. It is also associated with some difficulty in terms of an increased need for dialogue and a risk of creating goal ambiguity. Based on the findings, we conclude that classical project management approaches can benefit from......This study takes its departure in a model of complexity, developed by Stacey (1993), to test and discuss its practical benefit as perceived by practicing project managers. Based on a survey, the study finds that complexity is a phenomenon recognized by project managers, and complexity management...... incorporating complexity management....

  9. Lanthanide croconate complexation in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choppin, G.R.; Orebaugh, E.

    1977-01-01

    The thermodynamic parameters of complexation of lanthanide cations by croconate ligands have been measured in aqueous solution using potentiometry and calorimetry. Comparison of experimental and calculated (with a modified Born equation) values of ΔG indicates the presence of aromatic pi systems in the carbon rings of the ligands in squarate, croconate and tropolonate complexes but of a nonaromatic pi system in the cyclic ether rings of kojate and maltolate complexes

  10. Metal complexes of phosphinic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, P.N.M.; Kuchen, W.; Keck, H.; Haegele, G.

    1977-01-01

    Pr(III), Nd(III) and Eu(III) complexes of dimethyldithiophosphinic acid have been prepared. Their properties and structures have been studied using elemental analysis, molecular weight determination, IR, UV, mass, NMR, magnetic studies, etc. It is found that these metals form neutral complexes of the type ML 3 where L is a deprotonated bidentate dimethyldithiophosphinic acid molecule. The coordination number exhibited by these metals in this case is six. Octahedral structures have been assigned to these complexes. (author)

  11. Increasing complexity with quantum physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Janet; Wiesner, Karoline

    2011-09-01

    We argue that complex systems science and the rules of quantum physics are intricately related. We discuss a range of quantum phenomena, such as cryptography, computation and quantum phases, and the rules responsible for their complexity. We identify correlations as a central concept connecting quantum information and complex systems science. We present two examples for the power of correlations: using quantum resources to simulate the correlations of a stochastic process and to implement a classically impossible computational task.

  12. Complex networks an algorithmic perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Erciyes, Kayhan

    2014-01-01

    Network science is a rapidly emerging field of study that encompasses mathematics, computer science, physics, and engineering. A key issue in the study of complex networks is to understand the collective behavior of the various elements of these networks.Although the results from graph theory have proven to be powerful in investigating the structures of complex networks, few books focus on the algorithmic aspects of complex network analysis. Filling this need, Complex Networks: An Algorithmic Perspective supplies the basic theoretical algorithmic and graph theoretic knowledge needed by every r

  13. Complexity leadership: a healthcare imperative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weberg, Dan

    2012-01-01

    The healthcare system is plagued with increasing cost and poor quality outcomes. A major contributing factor for these issues is that outdated leadership practices, such as leader-centricity, linear thinking, and poor readiness for innovation, are being used in healthcare organizations. Complexity leadership theory provides a new framework with which healthcare leaders may practice leadership. Complexity leadership theory conceptualizes leadership as a continual process that stems from collaboration, complex systems thinking, and innovation mindsets. Compared to transactional and transformational leadership concepts, complexity leadership practices hold promise to improve cost and quality in health care. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. COMPLEXITY and the QGCW Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zichichi, Antonino

    2014-06-01

    The following sections are included: * Seven definitions of Complexity * Complexity exists at all scales * AFB phenomena from Beethoven to the Superworld * UEEC events, from Galilei up to SM&B * The two asymptotic limits: History and Science * The basic points on the correlation between Complexity and Predictions * The lesson needed for the future * From Planck to Complexity * Consequences for LHC: the QGCW project * Conclusions * The Platonic Grand Unification * The Platonic Supersymmetry * Examples of UEEC events in the construction of the SM&B * Open Problems in Subnuclear Physics * The ten challenges of Subnuclear Physics * References

  15. Technetium-aspirin molecule complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Shahawy, A.S.; Mahfouz, R.M.; Aly, A.A.M.; El-Zohry, M. (Assiut Univ. (Egypt))

    1993-01-01

    Technetium-aspirin and technetium-aspirin-like molecule complexes were prepared. The structure of N-acetylanthranilic acid (NAA) has been decided through CNDO calculations. The ionization potential and electron affinity of the NAA molecule as well as the charge densities were calculated. The electronic absorption spectra of Tc(V)-Asp and Tc(V)-ATS complexes have two characteristic absorption bands at 450 and 600 nm, but the Tc(V)-NAA spectrum has one characteristic band at 450 nm. As a comparative study, Mo-ATS complex was prepared and its electronic absorption spectrum is comparable with the Tc-ATS complex spectrum. (author).

  16. Cyclomatic Complexity: theme and variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Henderson-Sellers

    1993-11-01

    Full Text Available Focussing on the "McCabe family" of measures for the decision/logic structure of a program, leads to an evaluation of extensions to modularization, nesting and, potentially, to object-oriented program structures. A comparison of rated, operating and essential complexities of programs suggests two new metrics: "inessential complexity" as a measure of unstructuredness and "product complexity" as a potential objective measure of structural complexity. Finally, nesting and abstraction levels are considered, especially as to how metrics from the "McCabe family" might be applied in an object-oriented systems development environment.

  17. Axially chiral allenyl gold complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Alice; Laguna, Antonio; Gimeno, M Concepción

    2014-09-17

    Unprecedented allenyl gold complexes have been achieved starting from triphenylpropargylphosphonium bromide. Two different coordination modes of the allene isomer of triphenylphosphoniumpropargylide to gold have been found depending on the gold oxidation state. Bromo-, pentafluorophenyl-, and triphenylphosphine-gold(I) allenyl complexes were prepared in which the α carbon coordinates to the gold(I) center. A chiral pentafluorophenyl-gold(III) allenyl complex with the gold atoms coordinated to the γ carbon was also prepared. All the complexes have been structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction showing the characteristic distances for a C═C═C unit.

  18. Complex dynamical invariants for two-dimensional complex potentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    that the cubic oscillator and shifted harmonic oscillator admit quadratic complex invariants. The obtained invariants ..... where α, β, α1,α2,β1,β2,δ3 and δ4 are arbitrary constants of integration. Pramana – J. Phys. ..... An invariant for a shifted harmonic oscillator in complex plane can be derived by substi- tuting δ3 = 0,δ2 = −1.

  19. Complex Constructivism: A Theoretical Model of Complexity and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolittle, Peter E.

    2014-01-01

    Education has long been driven by its metaphors for teaching and learning. These metaphors have influenced both educational research and educational practice. Complexity and constructivism are two theories that provide functional and robust metaphors. Complexity provides a metaphor for the structure of myriad phenomena, while constructivism…

  20. Complexity in phonology: The complex consonants of simple CV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main objective of this article is to investigate the interplay of simplicity and complexity in the phonological structure of Zezuru. The article argues that Zezuru affricates, prenasalised consonants (NCs) and velarised consonants (Cws) are subsegmentally complex segments which function as simple onsets. Treating them ...