WorldWideScience

Sample records for synapse-specific retrograde transmission

  1. Significance of telemedicine for video image transmission of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic ultrasonography procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Shuji; Itaba, Soichi; Yada, Shinichiro; Takahata, Shunichi; Nakashima, Naoki; Okamura, Koji; Rerknimitr, Rungsun; Akaraviputh, Thawatchai; Lu, Xinghua; Tanaka, Masao

    2011-05-01

    With the rapid and marked progress in gastrointestinal endoscopy, the education of doctors in many new diagnostic and therapeutic procedures is of increasing importance. Telecommunications (telemedicine) is very useful and cost-effective for doctors' continuing exposure to advanced skills, including those needed for hepato-pancreato-biliary diseases. Nevertheless, telemedicine in endoscopy has not yet gained much popularity. We have successfully established a new system which solves the problems of conventional ones, namely poor streaming images and the need for special expensive teleconferencing equipment. The digital video transport system, free software that transforms digital video signals directly into Internet Protocol without any analog conversion, was installed on a personal computer using a network with as much as 30 Mbps per channel, thereby providing more than 200 times greater information volume than the conventional system. Kyushu University Hospital in Japan was linked internationally to worldwide academic networks, using security software to protect patients' privacy. Of the 188 telecommunications link-ups involving 108 institutions in 23 countries performed between February 2003 and August 2009, 55 events were endoscopy-related, 19 were live demonstrations, and 36 were gastrointestinal teleconferences with interactive discussions. The frame rate of the transmitted pictures was 30/s, thus preserving smooth high-quality streaming. This paper documents the first time that an advanced tele-endoscopy system has been established over such a wide area using academic high-volume networks, funded by the various governments, and which is now available all over the world. The benefits of a network dedicated to research and education have barely been recognized in the medical community. We believe our cutting-edge system will be a milestone in endoscopy and will improve the quality of gastrointestinal education, especially with respect to endoscopic retrograde

  2. Retrograde peri-implantitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Jumshad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Retrograde peri-implantitis constitutes an important cause for implant failure. Retrograde peri-implantitis may sometimes prove difficult to identify and hence institution of early treatment may not be possible. This paper presents a report of four cases of (the implant placed developing to retrograde peri-implantitis. Three of these implants were successfully restored to their fully functional state while one was lost due to extensive damage. The paper highlights the importance of recognizing the etiopathogenic mechanisms, preoperative assessment, and a strong postoperative maintenance protocol to avoid retrograde peri-implant inflammation.

  3. Colonic perforation following endoscopic retrograde ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Case report. A 41-year-old woman with HIV infection who had not had anti- retroviral drugs presented with jaundice secondary to choledo- cholithiasis. Multiple common bile duct stones were extracted at endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). She failed to keep appointments for laparoscopic ...

  4. Colonic perforation following endoscopic retrograde ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We highlight a potentially lethal complication of acute severe pancreatitis that may not be suspected in severely ill patients. A 41-year-old woman developed acute severe pancreatitis following endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for suspected choledocholithiasis. When her condition deteriorated ...

  5. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An approach to suspected gallstone pancreatitis'based on endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) was adopted in 1976 and was followed in 29 patients. ERCp became the routine method of early biliary tract assessment when gallstone pancreatitis was suspected on ...

  6. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-01-05

    Jan 5, 1991 ... An approach to suspected gallstone pancreatitis'based on endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and e'ndoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) was adopted in 1976 and was followed in 29 patients. ERCp became the routine method of early biliary tract assessment when gallstone pancreatitis.

  7. Retrograde Jejuno‑gastric Intussusception

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    gastric contrast around it giving a “claw sign” suggestive of the retrograde intussusception. The serrated margins were due to thickened mucosal folds of intussuscepted jejunal loops. The coronal view showed efferent jejunal loop with areas of central fat attenuation (−42 HU) suggestive of jejunal mesenteric fat along.

  8. Retrograde pericatheter urethrography (RPU) technique and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A. Bansal

    2016-07-04

    Jul 4, 2016 ... Contrast;. Retrograde pericatheter urethrogram;. Urethral stricture;. Urethroplasty. Abstract. Objective: To describe our technique of retrograde pericatheter urethrography (RPU) and its clinical use after urethroplasty. Subjects and methods: Between January 2008 and December 2013, 387 patients with ...

  9. Retrograde transvenous obliteration for uterine arteriovenous malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishino, Mitsuhiro; Miyasaka, Naoyuki; Takeguchi, Yuko; Ohashi, Isamu

    2014-02-01

    Transarterial embolization is an established treatment for uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM); however, in some cases, transarterial embolization is difficult. We present balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration as an alternative endovascular treatment for uterine AVM. A 24-year-old woman was diagnosed with uterine AVM. Her medical treatments were ineffective, and selective embolization was abandoned because of the extremely tortuous feeders. We used balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration, in which balloon catheters were inserted into the draining vein to stop the outflow. Then, a sclerosant was retrogradely injected through the catheter into the nidus. The abnormal vessels were fully obliterated, and there was no recurrence after the treatment. Balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration may be an alternative treatment for uterine AVMs with adequate vascular structures.

  10. Memory: proline induces retrograde amnesia in chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkin, A; Eckardt, M J; Gerbrandt, L K

    1976-07-16

    Intracerebral injection of L-proline, 1 minute after one-trial avoidance training of chicks, impaired memory 24 hours later. Chicks injected with proline 1 or 4 hours after training and controls injected with L-isoleucine at intervals after training, showed no impairment of memory 24 hours after training. The retrograde impairment of long-term memory induced by proline occurred without the convulsions or electrographic events usually associated with retrograde amnesic treatments.

  11. A retrograde object near Jupiter's orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, M.; Wiegert, P.

    2018-02-01

    Asteroid 2007 VW266 is among the rare objects with a heliocentric retrograde orbit, and its semimajor axis is within a Hill sphere radius of that of Jupiter. This raised the interesting possibility that it could be in co-orbital retrograde resonance with Jupiter, a second "counter-orbital" object in addition to recently discovered 2015 BZ509. We find instead that the object is in 13/14 retrograde mean motion resonance (also referred to as 13/-14). The object is shown to have entered its present orbit about 1700 years ago, and it will leave it in about 8000 years, both through close approach to Jupiter. Entry and exit states both avoid 1:1 retrograde resonance, but the retrograde nature is preserved. The temporary stable state is due to an elliptic orbit with high inclination keeping nodal passages far from the associated planet. We discuss the motion of this unusual object based on modeling and theory, and its observational prospects.

  12. Popliteal versus tibial retrograde access for subintimal arterial flossing with antegrade-retrograde intervention (SAFARI) technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, W R; Yi, M Q; Min, T L; Feng, S N; Xuan, L Z; Xing, J

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed to ascertain differences in benefit and effectiveness of popliteal versus tibial retrograde access in subintimal arterial flossing with the antegrade-retrograde intervention (SAFARI) technique. This was a retrospective study of SAFARI-assisted stenting for long chronic total occlusion (CTO) of TASC C and D superficial femoral lesions. 38 cases had superficial femoral artery lesions (23 TASC C and 15 TASC D). All 38 cases underwent SAFARI-assisted stenting. The ipsilateral popliteal artery was retrogradely punctured in 17 patients. A distal posterior tibial (PT) or dorsalis pedis (DP) artery was retrogradely punctured in 21 patients, and 16 of them were punctured after open surgical exposure. SAFARI technical success was achieved in all cases. There was no significant difference in 1-year primary patency (75% vs. 78.9%, p = .86), secondary patency (81.2% vs. 84.2%, p = .91) and access complications (p = 1.00) between popliteal and tibial retrograde access. There was statistical difference in operation time between popliteal (140.1 ± 28.4 min) and tibial retrograde access with PT/DP punctures after surgical vessel exposure (120.4 ± 23.0 min, p = .04). The SAFARI technique is a safe and feasible option for patients with infrainguinal CTO (TASC II C and D). The PT or DP as the retrograde access after surgical vessel exposure is a good choice when using the SAFARI technique. Copyright © 2013 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Retrograde amnesia after electroconvulsive therapy: a temporary effect?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeter, M.; Janssen, S.M.J.; Birkenhager, T.; van den Broek, W.W.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Although electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is generally considered effective against depression, it remains controversial because of its association with retrograde memory loss. Here, we assessed memory after ECT in circumstances most likely to yield strong retrograde amnesia. Method: A

  14. Medullary Sponge Kidney on Retrograde Pyelography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tsung-Yi; Lin, Jih-Pin

    2014-01-01

    A woman aged 31 had recurrent urinary tract infection with bloody urine. A series image of medullary sponge kidney presented by intravenous urography (IVU) was detected dynamically by retrograde pyelography (RP). Other than ultrasonography and IVU, RP is also a reliable method to detect medullary sponge kidney. PMID:24855603

  15. Topographic Anterograde and Retrograde Memory for Spatial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was on the effects of haloperidol injection on anterograde and retrograde topographic memories for spatial behaviours in Long Evan rats. Twelve Long Evan albino rats weighing 0.5 – 0.8 kg (6 males, 6 females) were used for the study. Complex Maze Box of 14 unit T Alley from the Royal Institute of ...

  16. Retrograde Renal Cooling to Minimize Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet L. Colli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: During partial nephrectomy, renal hypothermia has been shown to decrease ischemia induced renal damage which occurs from renal hilar clamping. In this study we investigate the infusion rate required to safely cool the entire renal unit in a porcine model using retrograde irrigation of iced saline via dual-lumen ureteral catheter. Materials and Methods: Renal cortical, renal medullary, bowel and rectal temperatures during retrograde cooling in a laparoscopic porcine model were monitored in six renal units. Iced normal saline was infused at 300 cc/hour, 600 cc/hour, 1000 cc/hour and gravity (800 cc/hour for 600 seconds with and without hilar clamping. Results: Retrograde cooling with hilar clamping provided rapid medullary renal cooling and significant hypothermia of the medulla and cortex at infusion rates ≥ 600 cc/hour. With hilar clamping, cortical temperatures decreased at -0.9° C/min. reaching a threshold temperature of 26.9° C, and medullary temperatures decreased at -0.90 C/min. reaching a temperature of 26.1° C over 600 seconds on average for combined data at infusion rates ≥ 600 cc/hour. The lowest renal temperatures were achieved with gravity infusion. Without renal hilum clamping, retrograde cooling was minimal at all infusion rates. Conclusions: Significant renal cooling by gravity infusion of iced cold saline via a duel lumen catheter with a clamped renal hilum was achieved in a porcine model. Continuous retrograde irrigation with iced saline via a two way ureteral catheter may be an effective method to induce renal hypothermia in patients undergoing robotic assisted and/or laparoscopic partial nephrectomy.

  17. [Retrograde endoscopic cholangiography after biliary surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monges, B; Richieri, J P; Pin, G; Grimaud, J C; Salducci, J

    1984-05-01

    Retrograde cholangiography was conducted in 310 patients early or late after biliary system surgery. Principal indications for the investigation were angiocholitis (37% of cases), isolated jaundice (30%) or acute hepatic colic (17%). Biliary tract lesions were excluded in 7% of patients while in the remaining 93% it was possible to determine the precise cause of the disorder. In 30% of cases the disorder was unrelated to the previous operation or the lithiasic disease, whereas in 63% it was related to the latter (remaining or reformed stone, odditis) or to the surgical procedure (stenosis, common bile duct ligature or injury to main bile duct). These results, and those reported in the ligature, suggest that retrograde cholangiography can provide a precise diagnosis and ensure adapted therapy after biliary surgery.

  18. Retrograde root filling with amalgam and Cavit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finne, K; Nord, P G; Persson, G; Lennartsson, B

    1977-04-01

    In a 3-year review of 218 teeth with retrograde root filling with amalgam orCavit, the results obtained with the former proved significantly better than those obtained with the latter. The difference seemed to be due to a better obliteration of the canal by amalgam. The obliterating effect of amalgam probably eliminates the need for revision of incomplete othograde root filling, for example, in cases with a post in the root canal. Irrespective of type of filling materials, the results were less good in cases with marginal bone loss.

  19. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography for primary sclerosing cholangitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thosani, Nirav; Banerjee, Subhas

    2014-11-01

    Although there are no randomized, controlled trials evaluating the efficacy of endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC) in primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) patients, substantial indirect evidence supports the effectiveness of ERC in symptomatic PSC patients with a dominant stricture. Currently, cumulative evidence supports the role of ERC with endoscopic dilation with or without additional short-term stent placement for symptomatic PSC patients with a dominant stricture. Differentiating benign dominant strictures from cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) remains difficult; however, newer endoscopic techniques and advanced cytologic techniques are likely to improve sensitivity for the diagnosis of CCA over that achieved by traditional cytology brushing alone. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Retrograde tubal transfer of human embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risquez, F; Boyer, P; Rolet, F; Magnani, M; Guichard, A; Cedard, L; Zorn, J R

    1990-02-01

    This preliminary study was designed to evaluate retrograde cannulation of the Fallopian tubes up to the isthmo-interstitial junction using the new technique of tubal embryo stage transfer (TEST). Follicular aspiration was performed under the guidance of a vaginal ultrasound probe in 51 women treated with GnRH + HMG. The oocytes retrieved were inseminated in vitro with 50,000 motile spermatozoa and kept in Menezo B2 medium without serum, at 37 degrees C, in an atmosphere of air + 5% CO2. The eggs were checked 24 and 36 h after insemination. No fertilization occurred in 23 patients. Cleaved embryos were obtained in the 28 other patients. One to seven embryos at the 2-4-cell stage were transferred with the 'Baudelocque Black Catheter' (BBC) into one tube and spare embryos were frozen. Five pregnancies occurred after retrograde TEST, for a pregnancy rate of 9.8% per cycle and 17.9% per transfer. One patient has given birth to a normal full-term baby. One singleton and one twin pregnancy are ongoing (8 months in June 1989). The other two pregnancies were ectopic.

  1. Transfer and capture into distant retrograde orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Christopher J.

    This dissertation utilizes theory and techniques derived from the fields of dynamical systems theory, astrodyanamics, celestial mechanics, and fluid mechanics to analyze the phenomenon of satellite capture and interrelated spacecraft transfers in restricted three-body systems. The results extend current knowledge and understanding of capture dynamics in the context of astrodynamics and celestial mechanics. Manifold theory, fast Lyapunov indicator maps, and the classification of space structure facilitate an analysis of the transport of objects from the chaotic reaches of the solar system to the distant retrograde region in the sun-Jupiter system. Apart from past studies this dissertation considers the role of the complex lobe structure encompassing stable regions in the circular restricted three-body problem. These structures are shown to be responsible for the phenomenon of sticky orbits and the transport of objects among stable regions. Since permanent capture can only be achieved through a change in energy, fast Lyapunov indicator maps and other methods which reveal the structure of the conservative system are used to discern capture regions and identify the underpinnings of the dynamics. Fast Lyapunov indicator maps provide an accurate classification of orbits of permanent capture and escape, yet monopolize computational resources. In anticipation of a fully three-dimensional analysis in the dissipative system a new mapping parameter is introduced based on energy degradation and averaged velocity. Although the study specifically addresses the sun-Jupiter system, the qualitative results and devised techniques can be applied throughout the solar system and to capture about extrasolar planets. Extending the analysis beyond the exterior of the stable distant retrograde region fosters the construction of transfer orbits from low-Earth orbit to a stable periodic orbit at the center of the stable distant retrograde region. Key to this analysis is the predictability of

  2. Phytochrome and retrograde signalling pathways coverage to antogonistically regulate a light-induced transcription network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plastid-to-nucleus retrograde signals emitted by dysfunctional chloroplasts impact photomorphogenic development, but the molecular link between retrograde and photosensory-receptor signaling has remained undefined. Here, we show that the phytochrome (phy) and retrograde signaling pathways converge a...

  3. Case Report: A Healthy Live Birth Following ICSI with Retrograde ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Complete retrograde ejaculation causes male infertility. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) has been employed to achieve fertilization in some cases of male subfertility e.g. severe oligoasthenoteratozoospermia. Assisted reproductive techniques to aid conception in cases of retrograde ejaculation have been described ...

  4. Retrograde amnesia for semantic information in Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeter, M.; Kollen, A.; Scheltens, P.

    2005-01-01

    Patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease and normal controls were tested on a retrograde amnesia test with semantic content (Neologism and Vocabulary Test, or NVT), consisting of neologisms to be defined. Patients showed a decrement as compared to normal controls, pointing to retrograde

  5. Using Kinesthetic Activities to Teach Ptolemaic and Copernican Retrograde Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Ted

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a method for teaching planetary retrograde motion, and the Ptolemaic and Copernican accounts of retrograde motion, by means of a series kinesthetic learning activities (KLAs). In the KLAs described, the students literally walk through the motions of the planets in both systems. A retrospective statistical analysis shows that…

  6. Case Report: A Healthy Live Birth Following ICSI with Retrograde ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Live Birth with Retrograde Ejaculation. African Journal of Reproductive Health December 2014; 18(4): 123. CASE REPORT. Case Report: A Healthy Live Birth Following ICSI with Retrograde. Ejaculated Sperm. Michael B. Yakass. 1 ... produce a post ejaculatory urine sample to be examined for the presence of sperm.

  7. Modeling electric bicycle's lane-changing and retrograde behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tie-Qiao; Luo, Xiao-Feng; Zhang, Jian; Chen, Liang

    2018-01-01

    Recently, electric bicycle (EB) has been one important traffic tool due to its own merits. However, EB's motion behaviors (especially at a signalized/non-signalized intersection) are more complex than those of vehicle since it always has lane-changing and retrograde behaviors. In this paper, we propose a model to explore EB's lane-changing and retrograde behaviors on a road with a signalized intersection. The numerical results indicate that the proposed model can qualitatively describe each EB's lane-changing and retrograde behaviors near a signalized intersection, and that lane-changing and retrograde behaviors have prominent impacts on the signalized intersection (i.e., prominent jams and congestions occur). The above results show that EB should be controlled as a vehicle, i.e., lane-changing and retrograde behaviors at a signalized intersection should strictly be prohibited to improve the operational efficiency and traffic safety at the signalized intersection.

  8. Evidence for retrograde lithospheric subduction on Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandwell, David T.; Schubert, Gerald

    1992-01-01

    Annular moats and outer rises around large Venus coronas such as Artemis, Latona, and Eithinoha are similar in arcuate planform and topography to the trenches and outer rises of terrestrial subduction zones. On earth, trenches and outer rises are modeled as the flexural response of a thin elastic lithosphere to the bending moment of the subducted slab; this lithospheric flexure model also accounts for the trenches and outer rises outboard of the major coronas on Venus. Accordingly, it is proposed that retrograde lithospheric subduction may be occurring on the margins of the large Venus coronas while compensating back-arc extension is occurring in the expanding coronas interiors. Similar processes may be taking place at other deep arcuate trenches or chasmata on Venus such as those in the Dali-Diana chasmata area of aestern Aphrodite Terra.

  9. [Retrograde nailing in a tibial fracture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valls-Mellado, M; Martí-Garín, D; Fillat-Gomà, F; Marcano-Fernández, F A; González-Vargas, J A

    2014-01-01

    We describe a case of a severely comminuted type iiia open tibial fracture, with distal loss of bone stock (7 cm), total involvement of the tibial joint surface, and severe instability of the fibular-talar joint. The treatment performed consisted of thorough cleansing, placing a retrograde reamed calcaneal-talar-tibial nail with proximal and distal blockage, as well as a fibular-talar Kirschner nail. Primary closure of the skin was achieved. After 3 weeks, an autologous iliac crest bone graft was performed to fill the bone defect, and the endomedullary nail, which had protruded distally was reimpacted and dynamized distally. The bone defect was eventually consolidated after 16 weeks. Currently, the patient can walk without pain the tibial-astragal arthrodesis is consolidated. Copyright © 2013 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Our experiences on retrograde intrarenal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namık Kemal Hatipoğlu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate outcomes of the cases who had undergone retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS in our clinics. Methods: Outcomes of 100 cases who had undergone RIRS because of renal stones between February 2012, and May 2013 were retrospectively evaluated. Results: Study population consisted of 35 female and 65 male patients with a mean age of 36.81(1-76 years. RIRS was performed with the indication of rest double J (D-J stent (n=1, and renal stone (n=99. Mean stone size was 15.26 (5-27 mm. Preoperatively, 61 cases (61% had preexisting D-J stents, while 39 (39% cases were stentless. Access sheaths were used in 86 (86% cases, while in 14 (14% cases the procedure was applied without using an access sheath. Mean operative, and fluoroscopy times were 52.72 (10-120 minus, and 57.32 (10-180 seconds, respectively. Postoperatively D-J stents were implanted in 88 (88% cases, and 12 (12% cases were stent-free. Mean hospital time was 1.3 (1-7 days. After one month postoperatively, stone-free rate was achieved in 87 (87% patients. Clinically insignificant residual stone fragments (CIRF 6 (6%, and residual stones 7 (7% were also detected. The latter group consisted of cases with horseshoe kidney (n=1, pelvic kidney (n=1, and kyphoscoliosis (n=1. Also in two case procedure was terminated prematurely, because of blurring of the vision secondary to bleeding. Apart from these patients, any preoperative complication did not develop. During follow-up period, urinary tract infection developed in 3 patients with resultant renal parenchymal damage in one patient. In one patient, D-J stent migrated into ureter. Conclusion: Retrograde intrarenal surgery is an effective and safe technique in the management of renal stones.

  11. A systematic review of in vivo retrograde obturation materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederman, R; Theodosopoulou, J N

    2003-09-01

    The aim of this study was to answer the question: For patients requiring apicoectomy (apicectomy/root-end resection) and retrograde (root-end) obturation (filling), which retrograde obturation (root-end filling) material(s) is/are the most effective, as determined by reduction in periapical radiolucency and elimination of signs and symptoms? A MEDLINE and a Cochrane search (two specified searches) were conducted to identify randomised (RCT) and nonrandomised controlled clinical trials (CCT), cohort studies (CS) and case-control studies (CCS), published between 1966 and 2002, October week 4, conducted on humans, and published in English, German and French language, relating to retrograde obturation materials following apicoectomy. The MEDLINE and the Cochrane search identified 324 and 21 published articles, respectively. The Cochrane search identified three additional articles to the MEDLINE-search articles. Fourteen studies met the inclusion criteria: two were RCTs, six were CCTs, none was a CS and six were retrospective CCSs. Nine of the 14 studies compared a new retrograde (root-end)-filling material to amalgam, 4 of the 14 studies compared orthograde root canal fillings to retrograde (root-end) amalgam and the fourteenth study compared variations of a resin composite (Retroplast) when used in combination with the bonding agent Gluma (Bayer AG, Gluma 1 and 2). The two RCTs indicated that glass ionomer cement appeared to be equivalent to amalgam. The six CCTs indicated that orthograde filling with gutta-percha and sealer was more effective than amalgam retrograde (root-end)-filling (one trial). Similarly, retrograde (root-end)-filling with (i) composite and Gluma (Bayer AG, Leverkusen, Germany) as bonding agent (one trial), (ii) reinforced zinc oxide eugenol cement (EBA cement) (Stailine, Staident, Middlesex, England; one trial) and (iii) gold leaf (one trial) appeared to be better than amalgam retrograde (root-end)-filling. Finally, gutta-percha retrograde (root

  12. The formation of retrograde planetary orbits by close stellar encounters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ford E. B.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We consider the growing number of observations of the RossiterMcLaughlin effect in transiting planets, which seem to suggest that ~30% of transiting planets are in highly inclined or retrograde orbits. We consider the dense cluster environment in which stars are born and investigate whether perturbations from passing stars can drive planetary systems into retrograde configurations. We find that fly-bys can result in significantly more inclination excitation than might naively be expected from impulse approximations, leading to several percent of stellar systems possessing planets in retrograde orbits.

  13. Biocytin as a retrograde tracer in the mammalian visual system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picanço-Diniz, C W; Silveira, L C; Yamada, E S; Martin, K A

    1992-01-01

    We have successfully used biocytin as a retrograde tracer in the mammalian visual system. Retinal ganglion cells, pyramidal and stellate cortical neurons were labelled. Both pressure injections and gel implants were used successfully for retrograde labelling. Biocytin was detected using avidin conjugates and horseradish peroxidase histochemistry. Retrograde filling with biocytin proved to be more reliable and to allow better morphological resolution than other commonly used neurotracers such as horseradish peroxidase. The fine details of cell morphology observable by this method are comparable in many cases to the results obtained with intracellular tracer injections. The morphological resolution obtained with this method allows the study of brain microcircuits using extracellular deposits of biocytin.

  14. A study of retrograde degeneration of median nerve forearm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mona Mokhtar El Bardawil

    Alexandria University, Department of Physical Medicine, Rheumatology and Rehabilitation, Egypt. Received 16 April 2013; accepted 24 August 2013. Available online 22 October 2013. KEYWORDS. Carpal tunnel syndrome;. Electrodiagnosis;. Forearm median mixed study;. Retrograde degeneration. Abstract Introduction: ...

  15. A Radiographic Classification for Retrograde Peri-implantitis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shah, Rucha; Thomas, Raison; Kumar, A B Tarun; Mehta, Dhoom Singh

    2016-01-01

    Retrograde peri-implantitis (RPI) is an inflammatory disease that affects the apical part of an osseointegrated implant, while the coronal portion of the implant sustains a normal bone-to-implant interface...

  16. Tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis with retrograde intramedullary nailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendicino, Robert W; Catanzariti, Alan R; Saltrick, Karl R; Dombek, Michael F; Tullis, Brandon L; Statler, Trenton K; Johnson, Brandi M

    2004-01-01

    Nineteen patients (20 feet) with severe hindfoot and ankle deformity underwent tibiotalocalcaneal fusion with a retrograde locked intramedullary nail as a limb-salvage procedure. The purpose of this study was to compare the complication rates of this procedure in diabetic versus nondiabetic patients. There were 8 men and 11 women with preoperative diagnoses including Charcot neuroarthropathy, primary osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, equinocavovarus, posttraumatic osteoarthritis, gouty arthritis, and ankle malunion. Ten of 20 procedures were performed in patients with diabetes. The average patient age was 56 years, and the average postoperative follow-up was 19.8 months. Nineteen of 20 ankles (95%) achieved successful fusion with an average time of 4.1 months. Four patients (21%) required either a fracture brace or an ankle foot orthosis at final follow-up. Five patients (25%) had major complications and 11 patients had minor complications. Major complications included osteomyelitis (n = 2), Charcot arthropathy (n = 2), failure of fixation (n =1), soft-tissue necrosis (n = 1), cardiac arrest (n = 1), cerebral vascular accident (n = 1), and fatal pulmonary embolus (n = 1). All patients with major complications were diabetic, and 14 of 20 combined major and minor complications occurred in patients with diabetes. The complication rate was found to be high in diabetic patients with end-stage deformity undergoing a limb salvage

  17. Distant retrograde orbits and the asteroid hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perozzi, Ettore; Ceccaroni, Marta; Valsecchi, Giovanni B.; Rossi, Alessandro

    2017-08-01

    Distant Retrograde Orbits (DROs) gained a novel wave of fame in space mission design because of their numerous advantages within the framework of the US plans for bringing a large asteroid sample in the vicinity of the Earth as the next target for human exploration. DROs are stable solutions of the three-body problem that can be used whenever an object, whether of natural or artificial nature, is required to remain in the neighborhood of a celestial body without being gravitationally captured by it. As such, they represent an alternative option to Halo orbits around the collinear Lagrangian points L1 and L2. Also known under other names ( e.g., quasi-satellite orbits, cis-lunar orbits, family- f orbits) these orbital configurations found interesting applications in several mission profiles, like that of a spacecraft orbiting around the small irregularly shaped satellite of Mars Phobos or the large Jovian moon Europa. In this paper a basic explanation of the DRO dynamics is presented in order to clarify some geometrical properties that characterize them. Their accessibility is then discussed from the point of view of mission analysis under different assumptions. Finally, their relevance within the framework of the present asteroid hazard protection programs is shown, stressing the significant increase in warning time they would provide in the prediction of impactors coming from the direction of the Sun.

  18. Anterograde and Retrograde Effects of Benzodiazepines on Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Beracochea

    2006-01-01

    Benzodiazepines are known as “acquisition-impairing” molecules, and their effects on anterograde memory processes are well described. In contrast, the impact of benzodiazepines on retrograde memory and, more particularly, on retrieval processes, is only marginally studied. This mini-review provides an overlook of the main studies evidencing an effect of benzodiazepines on retrograde memory, both in humans and animals, with special emphasis on retrieval processes. The conditions for the emerge...

  19. Anterograde and retrograde effects of benzodiazepines on memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beracochea, Daniel

    2006-11-16

    Benzodiazepines are known as "acquisition-impairing" molecules, and their effects on anterograde memory processes are well described. In contrast, the impact of benzodiazepines on retrograde memory and, more particularly, on retrieval processes, is only marginally studied. This mini-review provides an overlook of the main studies evidencing an effect of benzodiazepines on retrograde memory, both in humans and animals, with special emphasis on retrieval processes. The conditions for the emergence of the benzodiazepine-induced retrieval impairments are also discussed.

  20. Retrograde Intramedullary Nailing for Distal Femur Fracture with Osteoporosis

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jihyeung; Kang, Seung-baik; Nam, Kyungpyo; Rhee, Seung Hwan; Won, Jong Won; Han, Hyuk-Soo

    2012-01-01

    Background The incidence of distal femur fracture in the elderly has been increasing recently, and commonly occurs with osteoporosis. Retrograde intramedullary nailing has been considered a good surgical option for distal femur fracture. The purpose of the present study was to present our surgical results with retrograde intramedullary nailing for distal femur fractures with osteoporosis. Methods Thirteen patients diagnosed with extra-articular distal femur fracture and osteoporosis and manag...

  1. Retrograde Melting and Internal Liquid Gettering in Silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudelson, Steve; Newman, Bonna K.; Bernardis, Sarah; Fenning, David P.; Bertoni, Mariana I.; Marcus, Matthew A.; Fakra, Sirine C.; Lai, Barry; Buonassisi, Tonio

    2011-07-01

    Retrograde melting (melting upon cooling) is observed in silicon doped with 3d transition metals, via synchrotron-based temperature-dependent X-ray microprobe measurements. Liquid metal-silicon droplets formed via retrograde melting act as efficient sinks for metal impurities dissolved within the silicon matrix. Cooling results in decomposition of the homogeneous liquid phase into solid multiple-metal alloy precipitates. These phenomena represent a novel pathway for engineering impurities in semiconductor-based systems.

  2. Efficient retrograde neuronal transduction utilizing self-complementary AAV1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, Edmund R; Kadoya, Ken; Hirsch, Matthew; Samulski, Richard J; Tuszynski, Mark H

    2008-02-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) is frequently used for gene transfer into the central nervous system (CNS). Similar to adenovirus and rabies virus, AAV can be taken up by axons and retrogradely transported, resulting in neuronal gene expression distant from the injection site. We investigated the retrograde transport properties of self-complementary AAV (scAAV) serotypes 1-6 following peripheral injection. Injection of scAAV into either rat extensor carpi muscle or sciatic nerve resulted in detectable retrograde vector transport and reporter gene expression in spinal cord motor neurons (MNs). Serotype 1 resulted in the highest level of retrograde transport, with 4.1 +/- 0.3% of cervical MNs projecting to the extensor carpi transduced following intramuscular injection, and 7.5 +/- 3.1% of lumbar MNs transduced after sciatic nerve injection. In contrast to scAAV1, retrograde transduction with scAAV2 was undetectable following intramuscular injection, and was detected in only 0.81 +/- 0.15% of MNs projecting to the sciatic nerve following intranerve injection. Furthermore, sciatic injection of single-stranded AAV1 required injection of tenfold higher numbers of viral particles for detectable transgene expression compared to scAAV1, and then only 0.91 +/- 0.24% of lumbar MNs were transduced. Our data provide the basis for increased retrograde transduction efficiency using peripheral injections of scAAV1 vectors for therapeutic gene delivery to the spinal cord.

  3. Retrograde waves in tropical cyclone inner-core

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanh Kieu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an extension of Kelvin's vortex wave model for the inner-core region of tropical cyclone-like vortices. By considering a more suitable approximation for tropical cyclones (TCs for which the horizontal scale of the TC inner-core is significantly larger than the TC vertical depth and taking into account the TC inherent baroclinicity, it is shown that there exists a retrograde wave mode in which the wave propagation is opposite to the mean tangential flow for the azimuthal wavenumber 1. While this result appears to be similar to that obtained in Kelvin's wave model, the retrograde mode in the TC-like vortices depends critically on the TC baroclinicity that Kelvin's model does not contain. Idealised simulations of a TC-like vortex using the full-physics Hurricane Weather Research and Forecasting (HWRF model indeed capture existence of the retrograde waves inside the vortex inner-core at the high intensity limit. Despite the brief existence of this retrograde mode, the emergence of retrograde waves in the HWRF simulations is of significance, because they may be related to subsequent wave growth and formation of mesovortices that are often observed inside the core region of intense TCs.

  4. Mercury Retrograde Effect in Capital Markets: Truth or Illusion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murgea Aurora

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available From the most ancient times, the astrological beliefs have played an important role in human history, thinking, world-views, language and other elements of social culture. The practice of relating the movement of celestial bodies to events in financial markets is relatively newer but despite the inconsistency between financial astrology and standard economic or financial theory, it seems to be largely spread among capital market traders. This paper evaluates one of the astrological effects on the capital market, more precisely the Mercury retrograde effect on US capital market. Despite the fact that it is just an optical illusion the astrological tradition says that Mercury retrograde periods are characterized by confusion and miscommunications. The trades could be less effective, the individuals more prone to make mistakes so there is a long-held belief that it is better to avoid set plans during Mercury retrograde, signing contracts, starting new ventures or open new stock market positions. The main findings of this study are lower return’s volatilities in the Mercury retrograde periods, inconsistent with the astrologic theories assumptions but consistent with the idea that trader’s beliefs in Mercury retrograde effect could change the market volatility exactly in the opposite sense than the predicted one.

  5. Retrograde transport pathways utilised by viruses and protein toxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts Lynne M

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A model has been presented for retrograde transport of certain toxins and viruses from the cell surface to the ER that suggests an obligatory interaction with a glycolipid receptor at the cell surface. Here we review studies on the ER trafficking cholera toxin, Shiga and Shiga-like toxins, Pseudomonas exotoxin A and ricin, and compare the retrograde routes followed by these protein toxins to those of the ER trafficking SV40 and polyoma viruses. We conclude that there is in fact no obligatory requirement for a glycolipid receptor, nor even with a protein receptor in a lipid-rich environment. Emerging data suggests instead that there is no common pathway utilised for retrograde transport by all of these pathogens, the choice of route being determined by the particular receptor utilised.

  6. Anterograde and Retrograde Effects of Benzodiazepines on Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Beracochea

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Benzodiazepines are known as “acquisition-impairing” molecules, and their effects on anterograde memory processes are well described. In contrast, the impact of benzodiazepines on retrograde memory and, more particularly, on retrieval processes, is only marginally studied. This mini-review provides an overlook of the main studies evidencing an effect of benzodiazepines on retrograde memory, both in humans and animals, with special emphasis on retrieval processes. The conditions for the emergence of the benzodiazepine-induced retrieval impairments are also discussed.

  7. Persistent knee complaints after retrograde unreamed nailing of femoral shaft fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Moumni, Mostafa; Schraven, Pim; ten Duis, Henk Jan; Wendt, Klaus

    Retrograde nailing is an attractive method for stabilisation of femoral shaft fractures in cases of polytrauma, ipsilateral pelvic, acetabular, tibial and femoral neck fractures, bilateral femoral fractures, obese and pregnant patients. However, retrograde nailing may result in complaints about the

  8. Osteochondral lesion of the tibial plafond treated with a retrograde osteochondral autograft: a report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kensuke Okamura

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: Use of the retrograde osteochondral autograft produced satisfactory results including the return to sports. The retrograde osteochondral autograft can be considered recommendable for treating OLTPs.

  9. A rare cause of coffee-ground vomiting: Retrograde jejunogastric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Retrograde jejunogastric intussusception is a well-recognised, rare, but potentially fatal long-term complication of gastrojejunostomy or Billroth II reconstruction. Only about 200 cases have been reported in the literature to date. Diagnosis of this condition is difficult in most cases. To avoid mortality, earlydiagnosis and prompt ...

  10. Retrograde pylorogastric intussusception – Case report and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efrat Avinadav

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A case of gastric outlet obstruction in an infant due to retrograde intussusception of the pylorus into the stomach is presented. This anomaly is extremely rare, with almost no reports in the literature. The patient underwent formal Heineke-Mikulicz pyloroplasty with an uneventful recovery and resumed full enteral feeding.

  11. Retrograde intramedullary nailing for distal femur fracture with osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihyeung; Kang, Seung-Baik; Nam, Kyungpyo; Rhee, Seung Hwan; Won, Jong Won; Han, Hyuk-Soo

    2012-12-01

    The incidence of distal femur fracture in the elderly has been increasing recently, and commonly occurs with osteoporosis. Retrograde intramedullary nailing has been considered a good surgical option for distal femur fracture. The purpose of the present study was to present our surgical results with retrograde intramedullary nailing for distal femur fractures with osteoporosis. Thirteen patients diagnosed with extra-articular distal femur fracture and osteoporosis and managed with retrograde intramedullary nailing were retrospectively reviewed. Cement augmentation was used in four patients, shape memory alloy was used in eight patients and both were used in one patient. All patients were followed up for more than 2 years. Radiologic alignments were scored and Tegner and the Lysholm activity score was used for a functional assessment. The average time to clinical union was 13 weeks (range, 10 to 15 weeks). In 12 of our cases, the total alignment scores were excellent. At the last follow-up, the mean range of motion was 116° (range, 110° to 125°). The average functional score at postoperative 1 year was 2.6 (range, 1 to 5). Retrograde intramedullary nailing is a good surgical option for distal femur fracture with osteoporosis. Cement augmentation and shape memory alloy can also be used for added mechanical stability. This surgical technique is very useful for distal femur fracture with osteoporosis as it promotes fracture healing and early rehabilitation.

  12. Chloroplast retrograde regulation of heat stress responses in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-Zhen eSun

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that intracellular signaling from chloroplast to nucleus plays a vital role in stress responses to survive environmental perturbations. The chloroplasts were proposed as sensors to heat stress since components of the photosynthetic apparatus housed in the chloroplast are the primary susceptible targets of thermal damage in plants. Thus, communicating subcellular perturbations to the nucleus is critical during exposure to extreme environmental conditions such as heat stress. By coordinating expression of stress specific nuclear genes essential for adaptive responses to hostile environment, plants optimize different cell functions and activate acclimation responses through retrograde signaling pathways. Such diverse metabolic and biosynthetic functions require efficient communication between plastids and the nucleus. In recent years several putative retrograde signals released from plastids that regulate nuclear genes have been identified and signaling pathways have been proposed. In this review, we provide an update on retrograde signals derived from tetrapyrroles, carotenoids, reactive oxygen species (ROS and organellar gene expression (OGE in the context of heat stress responses and address their roles in retrograde regulation of heat-responsive gene expression, systemic acquired acclimation and cellular coordination in plants.

  13. Arfaptin-1 negatively regulates Arl1-mediated retrograde transport.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lien-Hung Huang

    Full Text Available The small GTPase Arf-like protein 1 (Arl1 is well known for its role in intracellular vesicular transport at the trans-Golgi network (TGN. In this study, we used differential affinity chromatography combined with mass spectrometry to identify Arf-interacting protein 1b (arfaptin-1b as an Arl1-interacting protein and characterized a novel function for arfaptin-1 (including the arfaptin-1a and 1b isoforms in Arl1-mediated retrograde transport. Using a Shiga-toxin subunit B (STxB transportation assay, we demonstrated that knockdown of arfaptin-1 accelerated the retrograde transport of STxB from the endosome to the Golgi apparatus, whereas Arl1 knockdown inhibited STxB transport compared with control cells. Arfaptin-1 overexpression, but not an Arl1 binding-defective mutant (arfaptin-1b-F317A, consistently inhibited STxB transport. Exogenous arfaptin-1 expression did not interfere with the localization of the Arl1-interacting proteins golgin-97 and golgin-245 to the TGN and vice versa. Moreover, we found that the N-terminal region of arfaptin-1 was involved in the regulation of retrograde transport. Our results show that arfaptin-1 acts as a negative regulator in Arl1-mediated retrograde transport and suggest that different functional complexes containing Arl1 form in distinct microdomains and are responsible for different functions.

  14. Light intensity-dependent retrograde signalling in higher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szechyńska-Hebda, Magdalena; Karpiński, Stanisław

    2013-11-15

    Plants are able to acclimate to highly fluctuating light environment and evolved a short- and long-term light acclimatory responses, that are dependent on chloroplasts retrograde signalling. In this review we summarise recent evidences suggesting that the chloroplasts act as key sensors of light intensity changes in a wide range (low, high and excess light conditions) as well as sensors of darkness. They also participate in transduction and synchronisation of systemic retrograde signalling in response to differential light exposure of distinct leaves. Regulation of intra- and inter-cellular chloroplast retrograde signalling is dependent on the developmental and functional stage of the plastids. Therefore, it is discussed in following subsections: firstly, chloroplast biogenic control of nuclear genes, for example, signals related to photosystems and pigment biogenesis during early plastid development; secondly, signals in the mature chloroplast induced by changes in photosynthetic electron transport, reactive oxygen species, hormones and metabolite biosynthesis; thirdly, chloroplast signalling during leaf senescence. Moreover, with a help of meta-analysis of multiple microarray experiments, we showed that the expression of the same set of genes is regulated specifically in particular types of signals and types of light conditions. Furthermore, we also highlight the alternative scenarios of the chloroplast retrograde signals transduction and coordination linked to the role of photo-electrochemical signalling. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. A study of retrograde degeneration of median nerve forearm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a disorder of the hand which results from compression of the median nerve within its fibro-osseous tunnel at the wrist. The slowing in the forearm motor conduction velocity suggests the presence of retrograde degeneration. Existing studies conflict regarding a correlation ...

  16. Functional Outcomes of the Knee after Retrograde and Antegrade ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    currently considered the gold standard for treatment of femur shaft fractures although retrograde technique is gaining acceptance. Although introducing the nail through the knee has potential to damage the intra articular structures, several reports have indicated acceptable functional outcome. The results are not known in ...

  17. Functional Outcomes of the Knee after Retrograde and Antegrade ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Antegrade intramedullary nailing is currently considered the gold standard for treatment of femur shaft fractures although retrograde technique is gaining acceptance. Although introducing the nail through the knee has potential to damage the intra articular structures, several reports have indicated acceptable ...

  18. Retrograde ejaculation and sexual dysfunction in men with diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedder, J; Kaspersen, Maja Døvling; Brandslund, I

    2013-01-01

    Retrograde ejaculation (RE) and erectile dysfunction may be caused by diabetes mellitus (DM), but the prevalence of RE among DM patients is unknown. A prospective, blinded case-control study comparing men with DM with matched controls according to RE and erectile dysfunction was performed. Twenty...

  19. M1 ipRGCs Influence Visual Function through Retrograde Signaling in the Retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigge, Cameron L; Yeh, Po-Ting; Liou, Nan-Fu; Lee, Chi-Chan; You, Shih-Feng; Liu, Lei-Lei; McNeill, David S; Chew, Kylie S; Hattar, Samer; Chen, Shih-Kuo; Zhang, Dao-Qi

    2016-07-06

    Melanopsin-expressing intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs, with five subtypes named M1-M5) are a unique subclass of RGCs with axons that project directly to many brain nuclei involved in non-image-forming functions such as circadian photoentrainment and the pupillary light reflex. Recent evidence suggests that melanopsin-based signals also influence image-forming visual function, including light adaptation, but the mechanisms involved are unclear. Intriguingly, a small population of M1 ipRGCs have intraretinal axon collaterals that project toward the outer retina. Using genetic mouse models, we provide three lines of evidence showing that these axon collaterals make connections with upstream dopaminergic amacrine cells (DACs): (1) ipRGC signaling to DACs is blocked by tetrodotoxin both in vitro and in vivo, indicating that ipRGC-to-DAC transmission requires voltage-gated Na(+) channels; (2) this transmission is partly dependent on N-type Ca(2+) channels, which are possibly expressed in the axon collateral terminals of ipRGCs; and (3) fluorescence microscopy reveals that ipRGC axon collaterals make putative presynaptic contact with DACs. We further demonstrate that elimination of M1 ipRGCs attenuates light adaptation, as evidenced by an impaired electroretinogram b-wave from cones, whereas a dopamine receptor agonist can potentiate the cone-driven b-wave of retinas lacking M1 ipRGCs. Together, the results strongly suggest that ipRGCs transmit luminance signals retrogradely to the outer retina through the dopaminergic system and in turn influence retinal light adaptation. Melanopsin-expressing intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) comprise a third class of retinal photoreceptors that are known to mediate physiological responses such as circadian photoentrainment. However, investigation into whether and how ipRGCs contribute to vision has just begun. Here, we provide convergent anatomical and physiological evidence that

  20. Retrograde trafficking of AB₅ toxins: mechanisms to therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Somshuvra; Linstedt, Adam D

    2013-10-01

    Bacterial AB5 toxins are a clinically relevant class of exotoxins that include several well-known members such as Shiga, cholera, and pertussis toxins. Infections with toxin-producing bacteria cause devastating human diseases that affect millions of individuals each year and have no definitive medical treatment. The molecular targets of AB5 toxins reside in the cytosol of infected cells, and the toxins reach the cytosol by trafficking through the retrograde membrane transport pathway that avoids degradative late endosomes and lysosomes. Focusing on Shiga toxin as the archetype member, we review recent advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in the retrograde trafficking of AB5 toxins and highlight how these basic science advances are leading to the development of a promising new therapeutic approach based on inhibiting toxin transport.

  1. Electrocardiographic Changes in Elderly Patients During Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NG Kounis

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cardiorespiratory complications may occur during gastrointestinal endoscopy, and elderly people seem to be more vulnerable to these complications during endoscopic procedures involving the manipulation of abdominal viscera. OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence of cardiac arrhythmias, changes in oxygen saturation, heart rate and blood pressure during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP via Holter monitoring in elderly patients older than 70 years of age.

  2. Fluoro-Free navigated retrograde drilling of osteochondral lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gras, Florian; Marintschev, Ivan; Kahler, David M; Klos, Kajetan; Mückley, Thomas; Hofmann, Gunther O

    2011-01-01

    Retrograde drilling of osteochondral lesions (OCLs) is a recommended, but demanding operative approach for revascularization of lesions in stage 1-3 according to Berndt and Harty after failed conservative treatment. The gold standard of intraoperative driller guidance is fluoroscopic control. Limitations are a 2D visualization of a 3D procedure and sometimes limited view of the OCL in fluoroscopy, leading to increased radiation exposure. A new image-free navigation procedure was evaluated for practicability and precision in first clinical applications. In a period of 7 months, retrograde drillings were performed in eight patients (3x femoral condyle, 5x talus) using the new Fluoro-Free navigation procedure without rigidly fixed reference bases. In total, 29 retrograde drillings were performed without any technical problem. The overall mean operating time was 82.1 ± 29.3 min (34.6 ± 6.4 min for the standard arthroscopy and 11.2 ± 1.2 min per drill). Twenty-seven of 29 drillings hit the target with a 100% first-pass accuracy. Two complications during drilling (one navigation specific and one navigation independent) were observed. The paper describes the promising first clinical applications of a new Fluoro-Free navigation procedure for the retrograde drilling of OCLs determined by arthroscopy. The benefit of that navigated drillings with a high rate of first-pass accuracy and no need for radiation exposure in contrast to standard techniques is highlighted.

  3. The Management of Retrograde Peri-Implantitis: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed, Jumshad B.; Alam, Md Nazish; Singh, Gurudeep; S C Chandrasekaran

    2012-01-01

    Peri-Implantitis is defined as an inflammatory reaction with the loss of the supporting bone in the tissues which surround a functioning implant. The peri-implantitis lesions are often asymptomatic and they are usually detected during the routine recall appointments. Careful probing around the teeth and the implants should be done routinely along with the radiologic evaluation during these check-up appointments. Retrograde peri-implantitis may sometimes prove even more difficult to identify, ...

  4. A cadaveric study of surgical landmarks for retrograde parotidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjie Zhong

    2016-08-01

    Conclusion: The findings indicate that all three landmarks are useful for surgeons to locate the facial nerve branches during retrograde parotidectomy. Since all three landmarks were consistent indicators for the corresponding facial nerve branches, the surgeon has more than one option should one landmark be obscured by tumors. The optimal landmark is the distance from A to MM because it is shortest and most reliable, followed by RMV to MM, and Z to B.

  5. A retrograde co-orbital asteroid of Jupiter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegert, Paul; Connors, Martin; Veillet, Christian

    2017-03-29

    Recent theoretical work in celestial mechanics has revealed that an asteroid may orbit stably in the same region as a planet, despite revolving around the Sun in the sense opposite to that of the planet itself. Asteroid 2015 BZ 509 was discovered in 2015, but with too much uncertainty in its measured orbit to establish whether it was such a retrograde co-orbital body. Here we report observations and analysis that demonstrates that asteroid 2015 BZ 509 is indeed a retrograde co-orbital asteroid of the planet Jupiter. We find that 2015 BZ 509 has long-term stability, having been in its current, resonant state for around a million years. This is long enough to preclude precise calculation of the time or mechanism of its injection to its present state, but it may be a Halley-family comet that entered the resonance through an interaction with Saturn. Retrograde co-orbital asteroids of Jupiter and other planets may be more common than previously expected.

  6. Psychogenic amnesia: syndromes, outcome, and patterns of retrograde amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Neil A; Johnston, Kate; Corno, Federica; Casey, Sarah J; Friedner, Kimberley; Humphreys, Kate; Jaldow, Eli J; Pitkanen, Mervi; Kopelman, Michael D

    2017-09-01

    There are very few case series of patients with acute psychogenic memory loss (also known as dissociative/functional amnesia), and still fewer studies of outcome, or comparisons with neurological memory-disordered patients. Consequently, the literature on psychogenic amnesia is somewhat fragmented and offers little prognostic value for individual patients. In the present study, we reviewed the case records and neuropsychological findings in 53 psychogenic amnesia cases (ratio of 3:1, males:females), in comparison with 21 consecutively recruited neurological memory-disordered patients and 14 healthy control subjects. In particular, we examined the pattern of retrograde amnesia on an assessment of autobiographical memory (the Autobiographical Memory Interview). We found that our patients with psychogenic memory loss fell into four distinct groups, which we categorized as: (i) fugue state; (ii) fugue-to-focal retrograde amnesia; (iii) psychogenic focal retrograde amnesia following a minor neurological episode; and (iv) patients with gaps in their memories. While neurological cases were characterized by relevant neurological symptoms, a history of a past head injury was actually more common in our psychogenic cases (P = 0.012), perhaps reflecting a 'learning episode' predisposing to later psychological amnesia. As anticipated, loss of the sense of personal identity was confined to the psychogenic group. However, clinical depression, family/relationship problems, financial/employment problems, and failure to recognize the family were also statistically more common in that group. The pattern of autobiographical memory loss differed between the psychogenic groups: fugue cases showed a severe and uniform loss of memories for both facts and events across all time periods, whereas the two focal retrograde amnesia groups showed a 'reversed' temporal gradient with relative sparing of recent memories. After 3-6 months, the fugue patients had improved to normal scores for facts

  7. Synapse-specific astrocyte gating of amygdala-related behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Fernandez, Mario; Jamison, Stephanie; Robin, Laurie M; Zhao, Zhe; Martin, Eduardo D; Aguilar, Juan; Benneyworth, Michael A; Marsicano, Giovanni; Araque, Alfonso

    2017-11-01

    The amygdala plays key roles in fear and anxiety. Studies of the amygdala have largely focused on neuronal function and connectivity. Astrocytes functionally interact with neurons, but their role in the amygdala remains largely unknown. We show that astrocytes in the medial subdivision of the central amygdala (CeM) determine the synaptic and behavioral outputs of amygdala circuits. To investigate the role of astrocytes in amygdala-related behavior and identify the underlying synaptic mechanisms, we used exogenous or endogenous signaling to selectively activate CeM astrocytes. Astrocytes depressed excitatory synapses from basolateral amygdala via A 1 adenosine receptor activation and enhanced inhibitory synapses from the lateral subdivision of the central amygdala via A 2A receptor activation. Furthermore, astrocytic activation decreased the firing rate of CeM neurons and reduced fear expression in a fear-conditioning paradigm. Therefore, we conclude that astrocyte activity determines fear responses by selectively regulating specific synapses, which indicates that animal behavior results from the coordinated activity of neurons and astrocytes.

  8. Effects of inulin with different degree of polymerization on gelatinization and retrogradation of wheat starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Denglin; Li, Yun; Xu, Baocheng; Ren, Guangyue; Li, Peiyan; Li, Xuan; Han, Sihai; Liu, Jianxue

    2017-08-15

    The effects of three types of inulin, including FS (DP≤10), FI (DP of 2-60) and FXL (DP≥23), on the gelatinization and retrogradation characteristics of wheat starch were investigated. As the concentration of inulin added into starch increased, the gelatinization temperature increased whereas the breakdown value decreased, and the value of setback first decreased and then increased slightly. The three types of inulin with lower concentrations (inulin showed a significant suppression of starch retrogradation in the addition range of 5-7.5%. They can all inhibit amylose retrogradation, but accelerate amylopectin retrogradation. Inulin with lower DP has stronger effects on the starch retrogradation. Generally, the three types of inulin can all retard the retrogradation performance of wheat starch to some extent in the long-term storage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Retrograde lawsonite formation in the Franciscan subduction complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, S.; Mulcahy, S. R.

    2016-12-01

    Lawsonite [CaAl2Si2O7(OH)2·H2O] is an index mineral of low-temperature subduction zones, contains a significant amount of water, and is an important host of rare-earth and trace elements in mafic protoliths. For these reasons, numerous studies have investigated the consequences of lawsonite breakdown during prograde subduction. In the Franciscan subduction complex, however, lawsonite in mafic blueschist largely formed along a retrograde path from pre-existing eclogite. In order to asses the conditions and significance of retrograde lawsonite formation we examined the petrology and geochemistry of lawsonite-bearing assemblages in Franciscan mafic rocks. All of the samples have the common assemblage: lawsonite, glaucophane, and sphene. Quartz is generally absent. Muscovite, chlorite, and relict epidote and rutile are variably present. Different index minerals calcite, aragonite, albite, and jadeitic pyroxene are present within lawsonite assemblages. Garnet occurs in equilibrium with lawsonite, as a relict mineral in lawsonite and the matrix, or is completely absent. Major element compositions vary from typical basalts and are strongly correlated with one another. Chondrite normalized REE compositions are variably LREE depleted or enriched, MREE are flat to enriched, and HREE are generally flat. Trace elements normalized to NMORB show variably enriched and depleted LILE. The petrology suggests lawsonite, glaucophane, and sphene formed from multiple retrograde reactions involving garnet, clinopyroxene, epidote, and rutile, together with significant hydration. Important index minerals imply lawsonite formed over a wide range of pressures within the subduction zone. The major, REE, and trace element compositions suggest lawsonite assemblages were derived from different protoliths or experienced variable amounts of metasomatism and interaction with crustally derived material and serpentinite.

  10. Retrograde Viral Delivery of IGF-1 Prolongs Survival in a Mouse ALS Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brian K. Kaspar; Jerònia Lladó; Nushin Sherkat; Jeffrey D. Rothstein; Fred H. Gage

    2003-01-01

    .... Although chronic delivery of molecules to the central nervous system has proven difficult, we recently discovered that adeno-associated virus can be retrogradely transported efficiently from muscle...

  11. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography causes reduced myocardial blood flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, M; Hendel, H W; Rasmussen, V

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Previous studies have shown that up to 50% of healthy patients may develop ST-segment changes during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. The aim of the study was to evaluate myocardial blood flow in patients during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP...... with either of the two methods, while two patients developed signs of ischemia during ERCP with both the Holter tape recording and on myocardial scintigraphy (P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Patients undergoing ERCP may develop true myocardial ischemia with reduced myocardial blood flow. Although this is a small...

  12. Modified Technique of Retrograde Intubation in TMJ Ankylosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaila Kamat

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We are presenting a case report on the anaesthetic management of a case of ankylosis of temporomandibular joint for corrective surgery in a 7 year old child. Anticipated difficult airway in paediatric population has always been a perplexing problem, awake fibreoptic intubation almost impossible due to obvious difficulties with co-operation. Here we are describing a new approach to this problem, in which the patients were kept under GA with spontaneous ventilation while retrograde intubation was done quite comfortably by the conventional method.

  13. Retrograde Intrarenal Surgery for Small Renal Calyx Stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevzat Sener

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Lower pole kidney stones are one of the most common problems is urology practice. For this group of patients, shock wave lithotripsy (SWL and retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS are established treatments with low morbidity and high efficacy. SWL has relatively lower success rates for lower pole stones. On the other hand, RIRS has as high as 100% success rates for lower pole stones. With advances in technology and experience we believe RIRS may be the first treatment option over SWL in the following years.

  14. The retrograde P-wave theory: explaining ST segment depression in supraventricular tachycardia by retrograde AV node conduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Santiago; De La Paz Ricapito, Maria; Conde, Diego; Verdu, Mariano Badra; Roux, Jean François; Paredes, Félix Ayala

    2014-09-01

    Pseudo ischemic ST segment changes during supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) are not yet fully understood. Our aim was to determine whether venticulo-atrial (VA) conduction during SVT may be a possible mechanism for ST depression (STd) in SVT. Patients undergoing SVT ablation (2010-2012) were analyzed (n = 72).Typical atrioventricular node reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT) and atrioventricular reentrant tachycardia (AVRT) were included. Those with STd were compared to those without STd. VA interval length, tachycardia cycle length (TCL), and retrograde P-wave activation during SVT were assessed. Retrograde P waves arriving simultaneously with the ST segment (PWST) during SVT were considered, whenever an atrial electrogram (measured from the high right atrium) was "on time" with the ST segment. Patients with STd during SVT presented longer VA intervals than those without STd (VA 100 ± 37 ms vs VA 69 ± 22 ms; P = 0.006). No differences in TCL were observed (TCL 333 ± 35 ms vs TCL 360 ± 22 ms; P = 0.1). PWST was observed in 38.5% of patients with AVNRT and STd versus 0% in those without STd. The TCL was similar in both groups (355 ± 25 ms vs 334 ± 18 ms; P = 0.1). In patients with AVRT and STd, PWST was present in 81% of cases versus 0% in those without STd. The TCL was also similar (330 ± 29 ms vs 346 ± 17 ms; P = 0.1). STd during SVT is observed at long VA intervals when the retrograde P wave matches the ST segment, without dependence on the TCL. This suggests that STd is not necessarily rate dependent but a result of a fusion between the ST segment and the P wave. ©2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. A new retrograde transillumination technique for videolaryngoscopic tracheal intubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biro, P; Fried, E; Schlaepfer, M; Kristensen, M S

    2018-01-18

    This single-centre, prospective trial was designed to assess the efficacy of a new retrograde transillumination device called the 'Infrared Red Intubation System' (IRRIS) to aid videolaryngoscopic tracheal intubation. We included 40 adult patients, who were undergoing elective urological surgery under general anaesthesia. We assessed the ability to differentiate the transilluminated glottis from other structures and found a median (IQR [range]) larynx recognition time of 8 (5-14 [3-28]) s. The difference in laryngeal visibility on the screen between the deactivated vs. activated device expressed on a visual analogue scale was significant (6 (4-7 [2-10]) vs. 10 (8-10 [4-10]); p < 0.001). The number of laryngoscope insertions was 1 (1-2 [1-3]) and the device showed high values on a visual analogue scale ranging from 0 (lowest score) to 10 (highest score) for helpfulness (6 (5-7 [2-10])), credibility (10 (8-10 [5-10])) and ease of use (10 (9-10 [8-10])). Tracheal intubation with the system lasted 26 (16-32 [6-89]) s. No alternative technique of securing the airway was necessary. The lowest SpO2 during intubation was 98 (97-99 [91-100])%. We conclude that this method of retrograde transillumination can assist videolaryngoscopy. © 2018 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  16. Role of Phospholipase A2 in Retrograde Transport of Ricin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Sandvig

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Ricin is a protein toxin classified as a bioterror agent, for which there are no known treatment options available after intoxication. It is composed of an enzymatically active A-chain connected by a disulfide bond to a cell binding B-chain. After internalization by endocytosis, ricin is transported retrogradely to the Golgi and ER, from where the ricin A-chain is translocated to the cytosol where it inhibits protein synthesis and thus induces cell death. We have identified cytoplasmic phospholipase A2 (PLA2 as an important factor in ricin retrograde transport. Inhibition of PLA2 protects against ricin challenge, however the toxin can still be endocytosed and transported to the Golgi. Interestingly, ricin transport from the Golgi to the ER is strongly impaired in response to PLA2 inhibition. Confocal microscopy analysis shows that ricin is still colocalized with the trans-Golgi marker TGN46 in the presence of PLA2 inhibitor, but less is colocalized with the cis-Golgi marker GM130. We propose that PLA2 inhibition results in impaired ricin transport through the Golgi stack, thus preventing it from reaching the ER. Consequently, ricin cannot be translocated to the cytosol to exert its toxic action.

  17. Posttraumatic lumbar cerebrospinal fluid leak: detection by retrograde In-111-DTPA myeloscintography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colletti, P.M.; Siegel, M.E.

    1981-09-01

    A case of lumbar cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) extravasation with an unsuspected traumatic meningocele after a gunshot wound was detected by means of retrograde myeloscintography using isobaric In-111-DTPA. Our experience and a review of the literature have provided evidence retrograde myeloscintography may be useful for detecting and delineating significant traumatic thoracic and lumbar CSF leaks.

  18. Anterograde and Retrograde Amnesia of Place Discrimination in Retrosplenial Cortex and Hippocampal Lesioned Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haijima, Asahi; Ichitani, Yukio

    2008-01-01

    Retrograde and anterograde amnesic effects of excitotoxic lesions of the rat retrosplenial cortex (RS) and hippocampus (HPC) were investigated. To test retrograde amnesia, rats were trained with two-arm place discrimination in a radial maze 4 wk and 1 d before surgery with a different arm pair, respectively. In the retention test 1 wk after…

  19. Deterioration of cholestasis after endoscopic retrograde cholangiography in advanced primary sclerosing cholangitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beuers, U.; Spengler, U.; Sackmann, M.; Paumgartner, G.; Sauerbruch, T.

    1992-01-01

    Complications of endoscopic retrograde cholangiography specific to patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis have not yet been reported. We observed transient rises of serum bilirubin after diagnostic endoscopic retrograde cholangiography in five of 15 patients and persistent rises in three of 15

  20. Retrograde flow and shear rate acutely impair endothelial function in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijssen, D.H.J.; Dawson, E.A.; Tinken, T.M.; Cable, N.T.; Green, D.J.

    2009-01-01

    Changes in arterial shear stress induce functional and structural vasculature adaptations. Recent studies indicate that substantial retrograde flow and shear can occur through human conduit arteries. In animals, retrograde shear is associated with atherogenic effects. The aim of this study was to

  1. Retrograde nailing for distal femur fractures in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giddie Jasdeep

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: We report the results of treating a series of 56 fractures in 54 elderly patients with a distal femur fracture with a retrograde femoral nail. Methods: Fifty-four of the nails were inserted percutaneously with a closed reduction. After surgery all patients were allowed to weight bear as tolerated. Four fractures were supported in a temporary external splint. Results: The mean age of patients was 80.6 years (range 51–103 years, 52/54 (96% were females. There were no cases of nail related complications and no re-operations were required. One patient was lost to follow up. The 30-day mortality was 5/54 (9.3% and the one year mortality was 17/54 (31.5%. Conclusions: Distal femoral nail fixation provides a good method of fixation allowing immediate mobilisation for this group of patients.

  2. Retrograde versus Prograde Models of Accreting Black Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Garofalo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a general consensus that magnetic fields, accretion disks, and rotating black holes are instrumental in the generation of the most powerful sources of energy in the known universe. Nonetheless, because magnetized accretion onto rotating black holes involves both the complications of nonlinear magnetohydrodynamics that currently cannot fully be treated numerically, and uncertainties about the origin of magnetic fields that at present are part of the input, the space of possible solutions remains less constrained. Consequently, the literature still bears witness to the proliferation of rather different black hole engine models. But the accumulated wealth of observational data is now sufficient to meaningfully distinguish between them. It is in this light that this critical paper compares the recent retrograde framework with standard “spin paradigm” prograde models.

  3. Inhibition of wheat starch retrogradation by tea derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haihua; Sun, Binghua; Zhang, Shikang; Zhu, Yuejin; Tian, Yaoqi

    2015-12-10

    The effect of four industrial tea derivatives (tea polyphenols [TPS], tea water-soluble extracts [TSE], tea polysaccharides [TSS], and green tea powder [GTP]), on the retrogradation of wheat starch was investigated using texture profile analysis (TPA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), rapid viscosity analysis (RVA), and the α-amylase-iodine method. The addition of the four tea derivatives resulted in decreased hardness and increased cohesiveness of the starch gel as shown by the TPA test. The DSC data demonstrated an increase in the enthalpy change of starch gelatinization and a decrease in the enthalpy change of starch recrystallite dissociation. The RVA results indicated that the peak viscosity, representing the intermolecular forces of wheat starch, was reduced after addition of TPS, TSE, and TSS, respectively, but was increased by GTP. Furthermore, the half crystallization time in the Avrami equation almost doubled after the separate addition of the tea derivatives. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Transcolonic retrograde ureteric catheterization assisted by 3-d computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snow, T.M.; Olivier, J.; Vigar, M. [Gold Coast Hospital, Southport, QLD (Australia). Department of Radiology; Parnham, A.P. [Gold Coast Hospital, Southport, QLD (Australia). Department of Radiology

    1999-08-01

    A 42-year-old woman had bladder extrophy at birth, treated by ureterocolic anastomosis of her single kidney. She suffered recurrent hyperammonaemia, leading to comas, but refused an ileal conduit. During her most recent coma, it was decided to divert her urine to test whether this would reduce hyperammonaemia: this was accomplished by transcolonic retrograde catheterization of the ureter. This was only possible after computed tomography ureterography to show the ureterocolic anastomosis. Ureterocolic anastomosis is associated with several complications, the best known being hyperchloraemic acidosis and potassium deficiency. There is also a very high incidence of stricture at the anastomosis, both benign and malignant. Hyperammonaemia is less common. It can lead to disturbance of consciousness and seizures. It is caused by reabsorption of ammonia from the colon, exacerbated by the presence of urea-splitting organisms. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd 8 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Retrograde transport of protein toxins through the Golgi apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvig, Kirsten; Skotland, Tore; van Deurs, Bo

    2013-01-01

    A number of protein toxins from plants and bacteria take advantage of transport through the Golgi apparatus to gain entry into the cytosol where they exert their action. These toxins include the plant toxin ricin, the bacterial Shiga toxins, and cholera toxin. Such toxins bind to lipids or proteins...... at the cell surface, and they are endocytosed both by clathrin-dependent and clathrin-independent mechanisms. Sorting to the Golgi and retrograde transport to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are common to these toxins, but the exact mechanisms turn out to be toxin and cell-type dependent. In the ER......, the enzymatically active part is released and then transported into the cytosol, exploiting components of the ER-associated degradation system. In this review, we will discuss transport of different protein toxins, but we will focus on factors involved in entry and sorting of ricin and Shiga toxin into and through...

  6. Is a safety guidewire needed for retrograde ureteroscopy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Wilson Rica; Pessoa, Rodrigo R; Silva, Rodrigo Donalísio da; Gustafson, Diedra; Nogueira, Leticia; Meller, Alex

    2017-08-01

    It is generally advised to have a safety guidewire (SGW) present during ureteroscopy (URS) to manage possible complications. However, it increases the strenght needed to insert and retract the endoscope during the procedure, and, currently, there is a lack of solid data supporting the need for SGW in all procedures. We reviewed the literature about SGW utilization during URS. A review of the literature was conducted through April 2017 using PubMed, Ovid, and The Cochrane Library databases to identify relevant studies. The primary outcome was to report stone-free rates, feasibility, contraindications to and complications of performing intrarenal retrograde flexible and semi-rigid URS without the use of a SGW. Six studies were identified and selected for this review, and overall they included 1,886 patients where either semi-rigid or flexible URS was performed without the use of a SGW for the treatment of urinary calculi disease. Only one study reported stone-free rates with or without SGW at 77.1 and 85.9%, respectively (p=0.001). None of the studies showed increased rates of complications in the absence of SGW and one of them showed more post-endoscopic ureteral stenosis whenever SGW was routinely used. All studies recommended utilization of SGW in complicated cases, such as ureteral stones associated with significant edema, ureteral stricture, abnormal anatomy or difficult visualization. Our review showed a lack of relevant data supporting the use of SGW during retrograde URS. A well-designed prospective randomized trial is in order.

  7. Diagnosis of Acute Appendicitis by Endoscopic Retrograde Appendicitis Therapy (ERAT): Combination of Colonoscopy and Endoscopic Retrograde Appendicography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingchao; Mi, Chen; Li, Weizhi; She, Junjun

    2016-11-01

    Acute appendicitis is the most common abdominal emergency, but the diagnosis of appendicitis remains a challenge. Endoscopic retrograde appendicitis therapy (ERAT) is a new and minimally invasive procedure for the diagnosis and treatment of acute appendicitis. To investigate the diagnostic value of ERAT for acute appendicitis by the combination of colonoscopy and endoscopic retrograde appendicography (ERA). Twenty-one patients with the diagnosis of suspected uncomplicated acute appendicitis who underwent ERAT between November 2014 and January 2015 were included in this study. The main outcomes, imaging findings of acute appendicitis including colonoscopic direct-vision imaging and fluoroscopic ERA imaging, were retrospectively reviewed. Secondary outcomes included mean operative time, mean hospital stay, rate of complication, rate of appendectomy during follow-up period, and other clinical data. The diagnosis of acute appendicitis was established in 20 patients by positive ERA (5 patients) or colonoscopy (1 patient) alone or both (14 patients). The main colonoscopic imaging findings included mucosal inflammation (15/20, 75 %), appendicoliths (14/20, 70 %), and maturation (5/20, 25 %). The key points of ERA for diagnosing acute appendicitis included radiographic changes of appendix (17/20, 85 %), intraluminal appendicoliths (14/20, 70 %), and perforation (1/20, 5 %). Mean operative time of ERAT was 49.7 min, and mean hospital stay was 3.3 days. No patient converted to emergency appendectomy. Perforation occurred in one patient after appendicoliths removal was not severe and did not require invasive procedures. During at least 1-year follow-up period, only one patient underwent laparoscopic appendectomy. ERAT is a valuable procedure of choice providing a precise yield of diagnostic information for patients with suspected acute appendicitis by combination of colonoscopy and ERA.

  8. The Yeast Retrograde Response as a Model of Intracellular Signaling of Mitochondrial Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Michal eJazwinski

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial dysfunction activates intracellular signaling pathways that impact yeast longevity, and the best known of these pathways is the retrograde response. More recently, similar responses have been discerned in other systems, from invertebrates to human cells. However, the identity of the signal transducers is either unknown or apparently diverse, contrasting with the well-established signaling module of the yeast retrograde response. On the other hand, it has become equally clear that several other pathways and processes interact with the retrograde response, embedding it in a network responsive to a variety of cellular states. An examination of this network supports the notion that the master regulator NFkB aggregated a variety of mitochondria-related cellular responses at some point in evolution and has become the retrograde transcription factor. This has significant consequences for how we view some of the deficits associated with aging, such as inflammation. The support for NFkB as the retrograde response transcription factor is not only based on functional analyses. It is bolstered by the fact that NFkB can regulate Myc-Max, which is activated in human cells with dysfunctional mitochondria and impacts cellular metabolism. Myc-Max is homologous to the yeast retrograde response transcription factor Rtg1-Rtg3. Further research will be needed to disentangle the pro-aging from the anti-aging effects of NFkB. Interestingly, this is also a challenge for the complete understanding of the yeast retrograde response.

  9. Importance of variants in cerebrovascular anatomy for potential retrograde embolization in cryptogenic stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markl, Michael [Northwestern University, Department of Radiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, McCormick School of Engineering, Chicago, IL (United States); Semaan, Edouard; Carr, James; Collins, Jeremy [Northwestern University, Department of Radiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Stromberg, LeRoy [Northwestern University, Department of Neurology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Edward Hospital, Department of Radiology, Naperville, IL (United States); Prabhakaran, Shyam [Northwestern University, Department of Neurology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2017-10-15

    To test the hypothesis that variants in cerebrovascular anatomy will affect the number of patients demonstrating a plausible retrograde embolization mechanism from plaques in the descending aorta (DAo). Thirty-five patients (aged 63 ± 17 years) with cryptogenic stroke underwent 4D flow MRI for the assessment of aortic 3D blood flow and MR angiography for the evaluation of circle of Willis, posterior circulation, and aortic arch architecture. In patients with proven DAo plaque, retrograde embolization was considered a potential mechanism if retrograde flow extended from the DAo to a supra-aortic vessel supplying the cerebral infarct territory. Retrograde embolization with matching cerebral infarct territory was detected in six (17%) patients. Circle of Willis and aortic arch variant anatomy was found in 60% of patients, leading to reclassification of retrograde embolization risk as present in three (9%) additional patients, for a total 26% of cryptogenic stroke patients. 4D flow MRI demonstrated 26% concordance with infarct location on imaging with retrograde diastolic flow into the feeding vessels of the affected cerebral area, identifying a potential etiology for cryptogenic stroke. Our findings further demonstrate the importance of cerebrovascular anatomy when determining concordance of retrograde flow pathways with vascular stroke territory from DAo plaques. (orig.)

  10. Ankle fusion with a retrograde locked intramedullary nail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Xu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To assess the value of ankle fusion with a retrograde locked intramedullary nail in the treatment of sequela of lower extremity compartment syndrome. Methods: Thirty-five cases of equinus deformity follow-ing tibiofibular compartment syndrome treated by means of ankle fusion with a retrograde locked intramedullary nail from January 2001 to December 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. The complications, the time needed for bony fu-sion of the ankle joint assessed by anteroposterior and lateral X-ray photographs as well as patients’ subjective evalua-tion were recorded and analysed. Results: Among the 35 patients, 15 had previously undergone surgical treatment twice on the same limb, 13 had thrice and 7 had to be operated on four times before ankle fusion. An anterior midpoint approach to the ankle joint was adopted in 29 cases, while anterior midpoint ap-proach plus a small incision on the posterior ankle joint was made in 17 cases, whereas lateral approach in 6 cases. Tar-sus joint fusion was performed on 4 cases. The follow-up period ranged 6-124 months, averaged 40.6 months. Bone grafting was not performed in this series. Preoperative tibial shaft fracture occurred in one patient and was healed after conservative treatment. Incision dehiscence located at pre-vious Achilles tendon incision was found in two patients. As a result, one received an intramedullary nail emplace-ment at calcaneoplantar part while the wound at anterosuperior part of the other one was healed by dressing change. Two patients failed to bony union 5 months postoperatively, in which one healed 10 weeks after retrieval of proximal tibial nail and another by iliac grafting. Terminal necrosis of the toe due to blood supply dysfunction was not found in this series. All the patients were satisfied with the ankle joint function postoperatively. The time for bony union on X-rays was 9.8 weeks on average. Except for one patient who demanded removal of

  11. The 'SAFARI' Technique Using Retrograde Access Via Peroneal Artery Access

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang, Kun Da, E-mail: zkunda@gmail.com [Singapore General Hospital, Interventional Radiology Centre (Singapore); Tan, Seck Guan [Singapore General Hospital, Department of General Surgery (Singapore); Tay, Kiang Hiong [Singapore General Hospital, Interventional Radiology Centre (Singapore)

    2012-08-15

    The 'SAFARI' technique or subintimal arterial flossing with antegrade-retrograde intervention is a method for recanalisation of chronic total occlusions (CTOs) when subintimal angioplasty fails. Retrograde access is usually obtained via the popliteal, distal anterior tibial artery (ATA)/dorsalis pedis (DP), or distal posterior tibial artery (PTA). Distal access via the peroneal artery has not been described and has a risk of continued bleeding, leading to compartment syndrome due to its deep location. We describe our experience in two patients with retrograde access via the peroneal artery and the use of balloon-assisted hemostasis for these retrograde punctures. This approach may potentially give more options for endovascular interventions in lower limb CTOs.

  12. Mozart, Mozart Rhythm and Retrograde Mozart Effects: Evidences from Behaviours and Neurobiology Bases

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xing, Yingshou; Xia, Yang; Kendrick, Keith; Liu, Xiuxiu; Wang, Maosen; Wu, Dan; Yang, Hua; Jing, Wei; Guo, Daqing; Yao, Dezhong

    2016-01-01

    .... But there have been inconsistent reports in previous studies of the Mozart effect. Here conducted was a systematic study, with Mozart and retrograde Mozart music, Mozart music rhythm and pitch, behaviours and neurobiology tests, rats and humans subjects...

  13. Plastidial retrograde signalling--a true "plastid factor" or just metabolite signatures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfannschmidt, Thomas

    2010-08-01

    The genetic compartments of plant cells, nuclei, plastids and mitochondria exchange information by anterograde (nucleus-to-organelle) and retrograde (organelle-to-nucleus) signalling. These avenues of communication coordinate activities during the organelles' development and function. Despite extensive research retrograde signalling remains poorly understood. The proposed cytosolic signalling pathways and the putative organellar signalling molecules remain elusive, and a clear functional distinction from the signalling cascades of other cellular perception systems (i.e. photoreceptors or phytohormones) is difficult to obtain. Notwithstanding the stagnant progress, some basic assumptions about the process have remained virtually unchanged for many years, potentially obstructing the view on alternative routes for retrograde communication. Here, I critically assess the current models of retrograde signalling and discuss novel ideas and potential connections. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Retrograde Tibiopedal Access as a Bail-Out Procedure for Endovascular Intervention Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Amro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Retrograde pedal access has been well described in the literature as a secondary approach for limb salvage in critical limb ischemia (CLI patients. In this manuscript we are presenting a case where retrograde tibiopedal access has been used as a bail-out procedure for the management of superficial femoral artery (SFA intervention complications. Procedure/Technique. After development of a perforation while trying to cross the totally occluded mid SFA using the conventional CFA access, we were able to cross the mid SFA lesion after accessing the posterior tibial artery in a retrograde fashion and delivered a self-expanding stent which created a flap that sealed the perforation without the need for covered stent. Conclusion. Retrograde tibiopedal access is a safe and effective approach for delivery of stents from the distal approach and so can be used as a bail-out technique for SFA perforation.

  15. Reconsidering the nature and mode of action of metabolite retrograde signals from the chloroplast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Martín Estavillo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant organelles produce retrograde signals to alter nuclear gene expression in order to coordinate their biogenesis, maintain homeostasis or optimize their performance under adverse conditions. Many signals of different chemical nature have been described in the past decades, including chlorophyll intermediates, reactive oxygen species and adenosine derivatives. While the effects of retrograde signalling on gene expression are well understood, the initiation and transport of the signals and their mode of action have either not been resolved, or are a matter of speculation. Moreover, retrograde signalling should be consider as part of a broader cellular network, instead of as separate pathways, required to adjust to changing physiologically relevant conditions. Here we summarize current plastid retrograde signalling models in plants, with a focus on new signalling pathways, SAL1-PAP, MEcPP and β- cyclocitral, and outline missing links or future areas of research that we believe need to be addressed to have a better understanding of plant intracellular signalling networks.

  16. Earth-Mars transfers through Moon Distant Retrograde Orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Davide; Di Carlo, Marilena; Ho, Koki; Spencer, David B.; Vasile, Massimiliano

    2018-02-01

    This paper focuses on the trajectory design which is relevant for missions that would exploit the use of asteroid mining in stable cis-lunar orbits to facilitate deep space missions, specifically human Mars exploration. Assuming that a refueling "gas station" is present at a given lunar Distant Retrograde Orbit (DRO), ways of departing from the Earth to Mars via that DRO are analyzed. Thus, the analysis and results presented in this paper add a new cis-lunar departure orbit for Earth-Mars missions. Porkchop plots depicting the required C3 at launch, v∞ at arrival, Time of Flight (TOF), and total Δ V for various DRO departure and Mars arrival dates are created and compared with results obtained for low Δ V Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to Mars trajectories. The results show that propellant-optimal trajectories from LEO to Mars through a DRO have higher overall mission Δ V due to the additional stop at the DRO. However, they have lower Initial Mass in LEO (IMLEO) and thus lower gear ratio as well as lower TOF than direct LEO to Mars transfers. This results in a lower overall spacecraft dry mass that needs to be launched into space from Earth's surface.

  17. Intraparenchymal hematoma as a late complication of retrograde intrarenal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat Yahsi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A 34 year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with left flank pain. A non-contrast enhanced computerized tomography (NCCT revealed a 1.5x2cm left proximal ureter stone. Patient was scheduled for ureterorenoscopy (URS and stone removal. She was submitted to retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS. At the postoperative 1st day, the patient began to suffer from left flank pain. A NCCT was taken, which revealed a subcapsular hematoma and perirenal fluid. The patient was managed conservatively with intravenous fluid, antibiotic and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug therapy and was discharged at the postoperative 6th day. Two weeks after the discharge the patient was admitted to emergency department with severe left flank pain, palpitation and malaise. KUB (kidney-ureter-bladder radiography showed double-J stent (DJS to be repositioned to the proximal ureter. Patient was evaluated with contrast enhanced CT which revealed an 8cm intraparenchymal hematoma/abscess in the middle part of the kidney. A percutaneous drainage catheter was inserted into the collection. The percutaneous drainage catheter and the DJS were removed at the 10th day of second hospitalization. RIRS surgery is an effective and feasible choice for renal stones with high success and acceptable complication rates. However, clinician should be alert to possible complications.

  18. Endoscopic prevention of post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tae Hoon; Park, Do Hyun

    2014-11-28

    Post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) pancreatitis (PEP) is not an uncommon adverse event but may be an avoidable complication. Although pancreatitis of severe grade is reported in 0.1%-0.5% of ERCP patients, a serious clinical course may be lethal. For prevention of severe PEP, patient risk stratification, appropriate selection of patients using noninvasive diagnostic imaging methods such as magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography or endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS), and avoidance of unnecessary invasive procedures, are important measures to be taken before any procedure. Pharmacological prevention is also commonly attempted but is usually ineffective. No ideal agent has not yet been found and the available data conflict. Currently, rectal non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are used to prevent PEP in high-risk patients, but additional studies using larger numbers of subjects are necessary to confirm any prophylactic effect. In this review, we focus on endoscopic procedures seeking to prevent or decrease the severity of PEP. Among various cannulation methods, wire-guided cannulation, precut fistulotomy, and transpancreatic septostomy are reviewed. Prophylactic pancreatic stent placement, which is the best-known prophylactic method, is reviewed with reference to the ideal stent type, adequate duration of stent placement, and stent-related complications. Finally, we comment on other treatment alternatives, and make the point that further advances in EUS-guided techniques may afford useful PEP prophylaxis.

  19. Our Retrograde Intrarenal Surgery Experience with Horseshoe Kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tufan Süelözgen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To share our experience with retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS done in patients with horseshoe kidney anomaly. Materials and Methods: Data from 107 patients who underwent RIRS for kidney stones between 2013 and 2016 in our clinic was retrospectively analyzed and 6 patients with horseshoe kidney anomaly detected on computed tomography (CT were included in the study. Achieving stone-free status or having residual stones of ≤4 mm were considered operational success. Results: The mean age of the patients was 44.5±6.7 years. Four patients were male (66.6% and two were female (33.3%. The mean stone size was 14.5±4.1 (10-22 mm. Three patients had pelvis stones (50% and the rest 3 (50% had lower calyx stones. Two patients (33.3% were found to be stone-free on post-operative non-contrast CT results. Conclusion: RIRS should be performed by experienced surgeons in patients with horseshoe kidney.

  20. Evaluation of renal masses including retrograde renal brushing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, W B; Bibbo, M; Thomsen, S; Lu, C T

    1976-02-01

    1. The evaluation of renal masses has become an increasingly important topic because of the increasing incidence of kidney cancer, the improved cure rate of renal carcinoma with the proper preoperative diagnosis, and the proliferation in renal mass diagnostic methodology. 2. A variety of benign entities can produce an abnormal renal mass with attendant difficulties in being distinguished from malignant neoplasms. Among these benign lesions are: simple renal cysts, polycystic kidneys, congenital variations in renal size and shape, segmental renal hypertrophy, renal infarcts, intrarenal hematomas, renal hamartomas, renal leiomyomas, renal adenomas, renal angiomas, renal fibrolipomatosis, hydronephrosis of a duplicated collecting system, renal abscesses, and xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis. 3. Nephrotomography, nephrosonography (ultrasound), adrenalin renal arteriography, selective magnification renal arteriography, renal venography and cavography, lymphangiography, renal scintillation scanning, abnormal levels of enzymes in blood and urine, immunologic studies (circulating antibodies and tumor-associated antigens), percutaneous needle aspirations, and retrograde renal brushing have all increased the diagnostic accuracy of determining the etiology of renal masses. None of these diagnostic procedures is infallible. A judicious combination of procedures gives the most reliable diagnostic results. 4. A search continues for (a) chemical agent(s) or a chemical profile in the blood or urine which is (are) specific for renal carcinoma, but as yet this is an investigational area and not a practical clinical reality.

  1. Miniperc and retrograde intrarenal surgery: when and how?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramón de Fata, F; Hauner, K; Andrés, G; Angulo, J C; Straub, M

    2015-09-01

    Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) and percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) are consolidated procedures for the treatment of kidney stones; however, their primary weak points are the lower efficacy of ESWL, especially for lower calyx stones, and the morbidity of PCNL resulting from the creation and dilation of the percutaneous trajectory. The increasing miniaturization of percutaneous surgery instrumentation and the development of retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) are recent innovations. A structured nonsystematic review was conducted through a literature search of articles published between 1997 and 2013, using the terms kidney stones, miniperc, mini-PCNL, RIRS and flexible ureteroscopy in the PubMed, Google Scholar and Scopus databases. RIRS requires greater surgical time, several procedures for voluminous stones and higher hospital costs, due in part to the relative fragility of the instruments. On the other hand, miniperc requires a longer hospital stay, an increased need for postoperative analgesia and a greater reduction in hemoglobin levels, although these do not translate into an increased rate of transfusions. The current treatment of kidney stones uses minimally invasive procedures such as miniperc and RIRS. The 2 procedures are equivalent in terms of efficacy (stone clearance) and are associated with minimal complications. Comparative prospective studies are necessary to determine the position of each of these techniques in the treatment of kidney stones. In our experience, the 2 techniques are complementary and should be part of the current urological therapeutic arsenal. Copyright © 2014 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Spatial-specific functions in retrograde neuronal signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahavi, Eitan Erez; Maimon, Roy; Perlson, Eran

    2017-07-01

    Neurons are highly polarized cells, possessing long axons that can extend to more than 1-m long in adult humans. In order to survive and maintain proper functions, neurons have to respond accurately in both space and time to intracellular or intercellular cues. The regulation of these comprehensive responses involves ligand-receptor interactions, trafficking and local protein synthesis. Alterations in these mechanisms can lead to cellular dysfunction and disease. Although studies on the transport and localization of signalling endosomes along the axon have shed light on some central pathways of neuronal survival and growth as well as synapse function, little is known about the spatiotemporal mechanisms that allow the same molecule to signal differently at diverse subcellular locations and in specific neuronal populations. In this review, we will provide an overview of retrograde axonal signalling mechanisms and discuss new advances in our understanding of the spatial-specific regulation of neuronal signalling and functions, mechanisms that allow the same signal to have a different effect in another subcellular location. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Interventricular Septal Hematoma and Coronary-Ventricular Fistula: A Complication of Retrograde Chronic Total Occlusion Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul-rahman R. Abdel-karim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Interventricular septal hematoma is a rare complication of retrograde chronic total occlusion (CTO percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI with a typically benign course. Here we report two cases of interventricular septal hematoma and coronary-cameral fistula development after right coronary artery (RCA CTO-PCI using a retrograde approach. Both were complicated by development of ST-segment elevation and chest pain. One case was managed actively and the other conservatively, both with a favorable outcome.

  4. Local translation and retrograde axonal transport of CREB regulates IL-6-induced nociceptive plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melemedjian, Ohannes K; Tillu, Dipti V; Moy, Jamie K; Asiedu, Marina N; Mandell, Edward K; Ghosh, Sourav; Dussor, Gregory; Price, Theodore J

    2014-07-04

    Transcriptional regulation of genes by cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) is essential for the maintenance of long-term memory. Moreover, retrograde axonal trafficking of CREB in response to nerve growth factor (NGF) is critical for the survival of developing primary sensory neurons. We have previously demonstrated that hindpaw injection of interleukin-6 (IL-6) induces mechanical hypersensitivity and hyperalgesic priming that is prevented by the local injection of protein synthesis inhibitors. However, proteins that are locally synthesized that might lead to this effect have not been identified. We hypothesized that retrograde axonal trafficking of nascently synthesized CREB might link local, activity-dependent translation to nociceptive plasticity. To test this hypothesis, we determined if IL-6 enhances the expression of CREB and if it subsequently undergoes retrograde axonal transport. IL-6 treatment of sensory neurons in vitro caused an increase in CREB protein and in vivo treatment evoked an increase in CREB in the sciatic nerve consistent with retrograde transport. Importantly, co-injection of IL-6 with the methionine analogue azido-homoalanine (AHA), to assess nascently synthesized proteins, revealed an increase in CREB containing AHA in the sciatic nerve 2 hrs post injection, indicating retrograde transport of nascently synthesized CREB. Behaviorally, blockade of retrograde transport by disruption of microtubules or inhibition of dynein or intrathecal injection of cAMP response element (CRE) consensus sequence DNA oligonucleotides, which act as decoys for CREB DNA binding, prevented the development of IL-6-induced mechanical hypersensitivity and hyperalgesic priming. Consistent with previous studies in inflammatory models, intraplantar IL-6 enhanced the expression of BDNF in dorsal root ganglion (DRG). This effect was blocked by inhibition of retrograde axonal transport and by intrathecal CRE oligonucleotides. Collectively, these findings

  5. Retrograde solubility of formamidinium and methylammonium lead halide perovskites enabling rapid single crystal growth

    KAUST Repository

    Saidaminov, Makhsud I.

    2015-10-20

    Here we show the retrograde solubility of various hybrid perovskites through the correct choice of solvent(s) and report their solubility curves. Retrograde solubility enables to develop inverse temperature crystallization of FAPbX3 (FA = HC(NH2)2+, X = Br−/I−). FAPbI3 crystals exhibit a 1.4 eV bandgap – considerably narrower than their polycrystalline counterparts.

  6. Retrograde approach to coronary chronic total occlusions: preliminary single European centre experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Mario, Carlo; Barlis, Peter; Tanigawa, Jun; Locca, Didier; Bucciarelli-Ducci, Chiara; Kaplan, Sahin; Katoh, Osamu

    2007-08-01

    The retrograde approach via septal or epicardial collaterals holds promise in improving the success rate of chronic total occlusion (CTO) recanalisation but is still viewed as an esoteric practice reserved to a selected group of operators using materials not available in Western countries. We sought to introduce the novel technique of retrograde CTO recanalisation to our institution using materials and resources available outside Japan. Between April 2005 and 2007, all patients with a failed antegrade attempt at CTO recanalisation were considered and selected based on their appropriateness to have a retrograde procedure. Seventeen patients were included. Average age was 65.3 years. The mean occlusion duration was 33.3 months. Successful CTO recanalisation was achieved in 15 of 17 (88.2%) patients. A retrograde wire was successfully advanced into the distal occluded vessel and facilitated successful CTO recanalisation in 13 (76.5%) patients. Final retrograde wire crossing was achieved in seven cases, while in the remaining cases, the CART technique (n=4) and 'knuckle' technique (n=2) were successful. In two cases (11.8%), the retrograde wire did not reach the distal occlusion because of septal tortuosity but a repeat antegrade attempt, aided by contralateral visualisation, was successful. In two (11.8%) patients, the procedure was unsuccessful. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging performed in five of the successfully treated retrograde cases (45.5%) showed variable degrees of fibrosis in the territory of the occluded artery with no significant change after the procedure with the exception of one case of contained contrast extravasation within the septum. The novel method of retrograde recanalisation of CTOs was performed with a high procedural success in this series and was applicable in 37.1% of previously failed antegrade procedures. This technique can also be successfully employed despite newly created dissections immediately following a failed antegrade attempt.

  7. Focal retrograde amnesia: voxel-based morphometry findings in a case without MRI lesions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Sehm

    Full Text Available Focal retrograde amnesia (FRA is a rare neurocognitive disorder presenting with an isolated loss of retrograde memory. In the absence of detectable brain lesions, a differentiation of FRA from psychogenic causes is difficult. Here we report a case study of persisting FRA after an epileptic seizure. A thorough neuropsychological assessment confirmed severe retrograde memory deficits while anterograde memory abilities were completely normal. Neurological and psychiatric examination were unremarkable and high-resolution MRI showed no neuroradiologically apparent lesion. However, voxel-based morphometry (VBM-comparing the MRI to an education-, age-and sex-matched control group (n = 20 disclosed distinct gray matter decreases in left temporopolar cortex and a region between right posterior parahippocampal and lingual cortex. Although the results of VBM-based comparisons between a single case and a healthy control group are generally susceptible to differences unrelated to the specific symptoms of the case, we believe that our data suggest a causal role of the cortical areas detected since the retrograde memory deficit is the preeminent neuropsychological difference between patient and controls. This was paralleled by grey matter differences in central nodes of the retrograde memory network. We therefore suggest that these subtle alterations represent structural correlates of the focal retrograde amnesia in our patient. Beyond the implications for the diagnosis and etiology of FRA, our results advocate the use of VBM in conditions that do not show abnormalities in clinical radiological assessment, but show distinct neuropsychological deficits.

  8. Retrograde flow and shear rate acutely impair endothelial function in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thijssen, Dick H J; Dawson, Ellen A; Tinken, Toni M; Cable, N Timothy; Green, Daniel J

    2009-06-01

    Changes in arterial shear stress induce functional and structural vasculature adaptations. Recent studies indicate that substantial retrograde flow and shear can occur through human conduit arteries. In animals, retrograde shear is associated with atherogenic effects. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of incremental levels of retrograde shear on endothelial function in vivo. On 3 separate days, we examined bilateral brachial artery flow-mediated dilation, an index of NO-mediated endothelial function, in healthy men (24+/-3 years) before and after a 30-minute intervention consisting of cuff inflation to 25, 50, or 75 mm Hg. Cuff inflations resulted in "dose"-dependent increases in retrograde shear rate, compared with the noncuffed arm, within subjects (P<0.001). Flow-mediated dilation in the cuffed arm did not change in response to the 25-mm Hg stimulus but decreased significantly after both the 50- and 75-mm Hg interventions (P<0.05). The decrease in flow-mediated dilation after the 75-mm Hg intervention was significantly larger than that observed after a 50-mm Hg intervention (P=0.03). In the noncuffed arm, no changes in shear rate or flow-mediated dilation were observed. These results demonstrate that an increase in retrograde shear rate induces a dose-dependent attenuation of endothelial function in humans. This finding contributes to our understanding regarding the possible detrimental effects of retrograde shear rate in vivo.

  9. Clinical algorithm to guide the need for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography to evaluate early postliver transplant cholestasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Satheesh; Lingala, Shilpa; Satapathy, Sanjaya K; Eason, James D; Vanatta, Jason M

    2014-12-01

    Severe cholestasis after liver transplant is common. In this study, our aim was to develop an algorithm to guide biliary intervention in these patients. A retrospective review was performed on patients who had undergone a hepatobiliary scan, with or without subsequent endoscopic retrograde cholangiogram, during the immediate postoperative period. These findings were evaluated along with laboratory values to determine the benefit for this evaluative process. Biliary duct obstruction was defined as > than a 50% reduction in serum bilirubin within 48 hours of endoscopic retrograde cholangiogram intervention. Twelve patients had endoscopic retrograde cholangiogram with 6 stents in 25 patients with normal a hepatobiliary scan, and 2 patients met criteria for biliary duct obstruction. Twenty-two patients had endoscopic retrograde cholangiogram with 14 stents in 32 patients with delayed uptake, suggesting hepatocellular dysfunction on a hepatobiliary scan, and 4 patients met criteria for biliary duct obstruction. In the 57 patients with severe hyperbilirubinemia, 6 patients (11%) had biliary duct obstruction as a cause. Among the 34 endoscopic retrograde cholangiograms performed, 17% had biliary obstruction. On multivariate analysis, patients having both serum aspartate transaminase concentrations 257 μmol/L had an odds ratio of 25.1 for predicting biliary obstruction (95% CI: 6-37; P = .002). A hepatobiliary scan with a combination peak serum aspartate transaminase and peak serum total bilirubin levels offer a valuable tool to identify patients with hepatocellular dysfunction and can avoid endoscopic retrograde cholangiogram in the immediate posttransplant period.

  10. Effects of low molecular sugars on the retrogradation of tapioca starch gels during storage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Zhang

    Full Text Available The effects of low molecular sugars (sucrose, glucose and trehalose on the retrogradation of tapioca starch (TS gels stored at 4°C for different periods were examined with different methods. Decrease in melting enthalpy (ΔHmelt were obtained through differential scanning calorimetry analysis. Analysis of decrease in crystallization rate constant (k and increase in semi-crystallization time (τ1/2 results obtained from retrogradation kinetics indicated that low molecular sugars could retard the retrogradation of TS gels and further revealed trehalose as the best inhibitor among the sugars used in this study. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR analysis indicated that the intensity ratio of 1047 to 1022 cm-1 was increased with the addition of sugars in the order of trehalose > sucrose > glucose. Decrease in hardness parameters and increase in springiness parameters obtained from texture profile analysis (TPA analysis also indicated that low molecular sugars could retard the retrogradation of TS gels. The results of FTIR and TPA showed a consistent sugar effect on starch retrogradation with those of DSC and retrogradation kinetics analysis.

  11. Post-Golgi anterograde transport requires GARP-dependent endosome-to-TGN retrograde transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Tetsuya; Fujita, Morihisa; Nakamura, Shota; Gotoh, Kazuyoshi; Motooka, Daisuke; Murakami, Yoshiko; Maeda, Yusuke; Kinoshita, Taroh

    2015-01-01

    The importance of endosome-to–trans-Golgi network (TGN) retrograde transport in the anterograde transport of proteins is unclear. In this study, genome-wide screening of the factors necessary for efficient anterograde protein transport in human haploid cells identified subunits of the Golgi-associated retrograde protein (GARP) complex, a tethering factor involved in endosome-to-TGN transport. Knockout (KO) of each of the four GARP subunits, VPS51–VPS54, in HEK293 cells caused severely defective anterograde transport of both glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored and transmembrane proteins from the TGN. Overexpression of VAMP4, v-SNARE, in VPS54-KO cells partially restored not only endosome-to-TGN retrograde transport, but also anterograde transport of both GPI-anchored and transmembrane proteins. Further screening for genes whose overexpression normalized the VPS54-KO phenotype identified TMEM87A, encoding an uncharacterized Golgi-resident membrane protein. Overexpression of TMEM87A or its close homologue TMEM87B in VPS54-KO cells partially restored endosome-to-TGN retrograde transport and anterograde transport. Therefore GARP- and VAMP4-dependent endosome-to-TGN retrograde transport is required for recycling of molecules critical for efficient post-Golgi anterograde transport of cell-surface integral membrane proteins. In addition, TMEM87A and TMEM87B are involved in endosome-to-TGN retrograde transport. PMID:26157166

  12. Retrograde reactions in coal processing: The behavior of ether and sulfide model compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, A.C. III; Britt, P.F.; Skeen, J.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Chemical and Analytical Sciences Div.

    1997-04-01

    Retrograde reactions that produce more refractory molecular structures are undesirable in coal liquefaction. The authors previously found that restricted mass transport, induced by immobilization on a silica support, promotes retrograde reactions for 1,2-diphenylethane (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}C{sub 6}H{sub 5}) by both skeletal rearrangement and ring growth (cyclization-dehydrogenation) pathways involving free-radical intermediates. They are now examining the influence of heteroatoms on the retrograde pathways for the corresponding surface-immobilized ether (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}OCH{sub 2}C{sub 6}H{sub 5}) and sulfide (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}SCH{sub 2}C{sub 6}H{sub 5}) model compounds at 275--350 C. Cyclization-dehydrogenation pathways are not detected for either model compound. However, retrograde skeletal rearrangements involving 1,2-phenyl shifts in C{sub 6}H{sub 5}XCH{center_dot}C{sub 6}H{sub 5} (X = O,S) are found to be significant under restricted diffusion, and for X = O, radical coupling at ring carbons to form benzylphenols is also observed as a major pathway. For surface-immobilized benzyl phenyl ether, the two retrograde processes account for ca. 50% of the thermolysis products, and also generate reactive hydroxyl and keto functionalities that can be involved in additional retrograde reactions.

  13. Procedure for decellularization of porcine heart by retrograde coronary perfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remlinger, Nathaniel T; Wearden, Peter D; Gilbert, Thomas W

    2012-12-06

    Perfusion-based whole organ decellularization has recently gained interest in the field of tissue engineering as a means to create site-specific extracellular matrix scaffolds, while largely preserving the native architecture of the scaffold. To date, this approach has been utilized in a variety of organ systems, including the heart, lung, and liver (1-5). Previous decellularization methods for tissues without an easily accessible vascular network have relied upon prolonged exposure of tissue to solutions of detergents, acids, or enzymatic treatments as a means to remove the cellular and nuclear components from the surrounding extracellular environment(6-8). However, the effectiveness of these methods hinged upon the ability of the solutions to permeate the tissue via diffusion. In contrast, perfusion of organs through the natural vascular system effectively reduced the diffusion distance and facilitated transport of decellularization agents into the tissue and cellular components out of the tissue. Herein, we describe a method to fully decellularize an intact porcine heart through coronary retrograde perfusion. The protocol yielded a fully decellularized cardiac extracellular matrix (c-ECM) scaffold with the three-dimensional structure of the heart intact. Our method used a series of enzymes, detergents, and acids coupled with hypertonic and hypotonic rinses to aid in the lysis and removal of cells. The protocol used a Trypsin solution to detach cells from the matrix followed by Triton X-100 and sodium deoxycholate solutions to aid in removal of cellular material. The described protocol also uses perfusion speeds of greater than 2 L/min for extended periods of time. The high flow rate, coupled with solution changes allowed transport of agents to the tissue without contamination of cellular debris and ensured effective rinsing of the tissue. The described method removed all nuclear material from native porcine cardiac tissue, creating a site-specific cardiac ECM

  14. Impact of Retrograde Arch Extension in Acute Type B Aortic Dissection on Management and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauta, Foeke J H; Tolenaar, Jip L; Patel, Himanshu J; Appoo, Jehangir J; Tsai, Thomas T; Desai, Nimesh D; Montgomery, Daniel G; Mussa, Firas F; Upchurch, Gilbert R; Fattori, Rosella; Hughes, G Chad; Nienaber, Christoph A; Isselbacher, Eric M; Eagle, Kim A; Trimarchi, Santi

    2016-12-01

    Optimal management of acute type B aortic dissection with retrograde arch extension is controversial. The effect of retrograde arch extension on operative and long-term mortality has not been studied and is not incorporated into clinical treatment pathways. The International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection was queried for all patients presenting with acute type B dissection and an identifiable primary intimal tear. Outcomes were stratified according to management for patients with and without retrograde arch extension. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were constructed. Between 1996 and 2014, 404 patients (mean age, 63.3 ± 13.9 years) were identified. Retrograde arch extension existed in 67 patients (16.5%). No difference in complicated presentation was noted (36.8% vs 31.7%, p = 0.46), as defined by limb or organ malperfusion, coma, rupture, and shock. Patients with or without retrograde arch extension received similar treatment, with medical management in 53.7% vs 56.5% (p = 0.68), endovascular treatment in 32.8% vs 31.1% (p = 0.78), open operation in 11.9% vs 9.5% (p = 0.54), or hybrid approach in 1.5% vs 3.0% (p = 0.70), respectively. The in-hospital mortality rate was similar for patients with (10.7%) and without (10.4%) retrograde arch extension (p = 0.96), and 5-year survival was also similar at 78.3% and 77.8%, respectively (p = 0.27). The incidence of retrograde arch dissection involves approximately 16% of patients with acute type B dissection. In the International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection, this entity seems not to affect management strategy or early and late death. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Transmission eigenvalues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakoni, Fioralba; Haddar, Houssem

    2013-10-01

    In inverse scattering theory, transmission eigenvalues can be seen as the extension of the notion of resonant frequencies for impenetrable objects to the case of penetrable dielectrics. The transmission eigenvalue problem is a relatively late arrival to the spectral theory of partial differential equations. Its first appearance was in 1986 in a paper by Kirsch who was investigating the denseness of far-field patterns for scattering solutions of the Helmholtz equation or, in more modern terminology, the injectivity of the far-field operator [1]. The paper of Kirsch was soon followed by a more systematic study by Colton and Monk in the context of developing the dual space method for solving the inverse scattering problem for acoustic waves in an inhomogeneous medium [2]. In this paper they showed that for a spherically stratified media transmission eigenvalues existed and formed a discrete set. Numerical examples were also given showing that in principle transmission eigenvalues could be determined from the far-field data. This first period of interest in transmission eigenvalues was concluded with papers by Colton et al in 1989 [3] and Rynne and Sleeman in 1991 [4] showing that for an inhomogeneous medium (not necessarily spherically stratified) transmission eigenvalues, if they existed, formed a discrete set. For the next seventeen years transmission eigenvalues were ignored. This was mainly due to the fact that, with the introduction of various sampling methods to determine the shape of an inhomogeneous medium from far-field data, transmission eigenvalues were something to be avoided and hence the fact that transmission eigenvalues formed at most a discrete set was deemed to be sufficient. In addition, questions related to the existence of transmission eigenvalues or the structure of associated eigenvectors were recognized as being particularly difficult due to the nonlinearity of the eigenvalue problem and the special structure of the associated transmission

  16. Structural and enzyme kinetic studies of retrograded starch: Inhibition of α-amylase and consequences for intestinal digestion of starch

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Hamung; Royall, Paul G.; Gaisford, Simon; Williams, Gareth R.; Edwards, Cathrina H.; Warren, Frederick J; Flanagan, Bernadine M.; Ellis, Peter R.; Butterworth, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    Retrograded starch is known to be resistant to digestion. We used enzyme kinetic experiments to examine how retrogradation of starch affects amylolysis catalysed by porcine pancreatic amylase. Parallel studies employing differential scanning calorimetry, infra red spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and NMR spectroscopy were performed to monitor changes in supramolecular structure of gelatinised starch as it becomes retrograded. The total digestible starch and the catalytic efficiency of amylase ...

  17. Retrograde open mesenteric stenting for acute mesenteric ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blauw, Juliette T M; Meerwaldt, Robert; Brusse-Keizer, Marjolein; Kolkman, Jeroen J; Gerrits, Dick; Geelkerken, Robert H

    2014-09-01

    Acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) encompasses the sequels of end-stage untreated chronic mesenteric ischemia and acute mesenteric artery thrombosis. Percutaneous mesenteric artery stenting (PMAS) is the preferred treatment of patients with AMI but is not always feasible. Retrograde open mesenteric stenting (ROMS) is a hybrid technique that combines the advantages of open surgical and endovascular approaches. The literature on the results of this new technique is scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the results of ROMS in a consecutive series of patients with AMI. All patients with emergent mesenteric revascularization for AMI between January 2007 and September 2011 were entered in our prospective registry. Technical success, mortality, patency, clinical success, and complication rate at 30 days and 6 and 12 months were assessed. Sixty-eight patients presented with AMI and 54 underwent PMAS, of which four were unsuccessful and followed by ROMS. Eleven patients were directly treated with ROMS, making a total of 15 patients (10 women and five men; median age, 66 years [interquartile range, 54-73 years]). In all patients, only the superior mesenteric artery was revascularized. In nine of the 15 patients, all three mesenteric arteries were severely stenotic or occluded. Technical success was achieved in 14 patients. At ROMS in two patients, the small bowel was severely ischemic. One of these patients needed a partial bowel resection because of irreversible transmural ischemia. At 30 days, the mortality rate was 20% and the primary patency was 92%. Ten patients underwent unplanned relaparotomy, of whom one needed resection of a large part of the small bowel. At 12 months, the mortality rate was still 20%. The primary patency was 83%. Primary assisted patency was 91%, and secondary patency was 100%. Clinical success at 30 days, 6 months, and 12 months, respectively, was 73%, 67%, and 67%. AMI is still a devastating event. If PMAS is not feasible, ROMS is a reliable

  18. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in gallstone-associated acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayub, K; Imada, R; Slavin, J

    2004-10-18

    Early endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography with or without endoscopic sphincterotomy (ERCP+/-ES) has been advocated to reduce complications in patients presenting with a severe attack of gallstone-associated acute pancreatitis (GAP). However, a recent trial has reported contradictory results. Importantly, patients with acute cholangitis were excluded suggesting it may be a major confounding factor affecting previous studies. To assess the effectiveness of early ERCP+/-ES compared to conservative management stratified according to severity of disease, concealment of randomisation, acute cholangitis and bilirubin level in the reduction of mortality, morbidity, length of hospitalisation and cost in adults suspected of having GAP. We searched - Cochrane Library (Issue 4 2003), Medline (1966-2004), EMBASE (1980-2004) and LILACS. 'Grey literature' was sought by looking at cited references and hand searched to identify further relevant trials. Conference proceedings of United European Gastroenterology Week (published in Gut) and Digestive Disease Week (published in Gastroenterology) were also hand searched. Randomized controlled trials (RCT) of adult patients, from 15 years old or greater, presenting with gallstone-associated acute pancreatitis (GAP) comparing ERCP +/- ES versus Conservative management within 72 hours of admission. Data were assessed for quality independently by two reviewers. Wherever appropriate, results were pooled together and sub-grouped by predicted severity of disease. Fixed and random effects models were applied. Sensitivity analysis was performed to test the fragility of results. Three trials, involving 511 patients, met inclusion criteria. The test for heterogeneity yielded statistically non-significant results (p-value 0.1 to 0.63) suggesting all comparisons were above the established threshold for combinability (p<0.1). Fixed effect and random effect meta-analyses gave identical results. Early ERCP +/- ES was associated with non

  19. Retrogradation of Maize Starch after High Hydrostatic Pressure Gelation: Effect of Amylose Content and Depressurization Rate

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Zhi

    2016-05-24

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) has been employed to gelatinize or physically modify starch dispersions. In this study, waxy maize starch, normal maize starch, and two high amylose content starch were processed by a HHP of the order of 600 MPa, at 25°C for 15min. The effect of HHP processing on the crystallization of maize starches with various amylose content during storage at 4°C was investigated. Crystallization kinetics of HHP treated starch gels were investigated using rheology and FTIR. The effect of crystallization on the mechanical properties of starch gel network were evaluated in terms of dynamic complex modulus (G*). The crystallization induced increase of short-range helices structures were investigated using FTIR. The pressure releasing rate does not affect the starch retrogradation behaviour. The rate and extent of retrogradation depends on the amylose content of amylose starch. The least retrogradation was observed in HHP treated waxy maize starch. The rate of retrogradation is higher for HHP treated high amylose maize starch than that of normal maize starch. A linear relationship between the extent of retrogradation (phase distribution) measured by FTIR and G* is proposed.

  20. Factors Influencing Cecal Intubation Time during Retrograde Approach Single-Balloon Enteroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Ming Ou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim. The predisposing factors for prolonged cecal intubation time (CIT during colonoscopy have been well identified. However, the factors influencing CIT during retrograde SBE have not been addressed. The aim of this study was to determine the factors influencing CIT during retrograde SBE. Methods. We investigated patients who underwent retrograde SBE at a medical center from January 2011 to March 2014. The medical charts and SBE reports were reviewed. The patients’ characteristics and procedure-associated data were recorded. These data were analyzed with univariate analysis as well as multivariate logistic regression analysis to identify the possible predisposing factors. Results. We enrolled 66 patients into this study. The median CIT was 17.4 minutes. With univariate analysis, there was no statistical difference in age, sex, BMI, or history of abdominal surgery, except for bowel preparation (P=0.021. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that inadequate bowel preparation (odds ratio 30.2, 95% confidence interval 4.63–196.54; P<0.001 was the independent predisposing factors for prolonged CIT during retrograde SBE. Conclusions. For experienced endoscopist, inadequate bowel preparation was the independent predisposing factor for prolonged CIT during retrograde SBE.

  1. Profound loss of general knowledge in retrograde amnesia: Evidence from an amnesic artist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma eGregory

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies of retrograde amnesia have focused on autobiographical memory, with fewer studies examining how non-autobiographical memory is affected. Those that have done so have focused primarily on memory for famous people and public events—relatively limited aspects of memory that are tied to learning during specific times of life and do not deeply tap into the rich and extensive knowledge structures that are developed over a lifetime. To assess whether retrograde amnesia can also cause impairments to other forms of general world knowledge, we explored losses across a broad range of knowledge domains in a newly-identified amnesic. LSJ is a professional artist, amateur musician and history buff with extensive bilateral medial temporal and left anterior temporal damage. We examined LSJ's knowledge across a range of everyday domains (e.g., sports and domains for which she had premorbid expertise (e.g., famous paintings. Across all domains tested, LSJ showed losses of knowledge at a level of breadth and depth never before documented in retrograde amnesia. These results show that retrograde amnesia can involve broad and deep deficits across a range of general world knowledge domains. Thus, losses that have already been well-documented (famous people and public events may severely underestimate the nature of human knowledge impairment that can occur in retrograde amnesia.

  2. Retrogradation of Maize Starch after High Hydrostatic Pressure Gelation: Effect of Amylose Content and Depressurization Rate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Yang

    Full Text Available High hydrostatic pressure (HHP has been employed to gelatinize or physically modify starch dispersions. In this study, waxy maize starch, normal maize starch, and two high amylose content starch were processed by a HHP of the order of 600 MPa, at 25°C for 15min. The effect of HHP processing on the crystallization of maize starches with various amylose content during storage at 4°C was investigated. Crystallization kinetics of HHP treated starch gels were investigated using rheology and FTIR. The effect of crystallization on the mechanical properties of starch gel network were evaluated in terms of dynamic complex modulus (G*. The crystallization induced increase of short-range helices structures were investigated using FTIR. The pressure releasing rate does not affect the starch retrogradation behaviour. The rate and extent of retrogradation depends on the amylose content of amylose starch. The least retrogradation was observed in HHP treated waxy maize starch. The rate of retrogradation is higher for HHP treated high amylose maize starch than that of normal maize starch. A linear relationship between the extent of retrogradation (phase distribution measured by FTIR and G* is proposed.

  3. Data transmission

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tugal, Dogan A; Tugal, Osman

    1989-01-01

    This updated second edition provides working answers to today's critical questions about designing and managing all types of data transmission systems and features a new chapter on local area networks (LANs...

  4. ADF/cofilin-mediated actin retrograde flow directs neurite formation in the developing brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Kevin C; Hellal, Farida; Neukirchen, Dorothee; Jacob, Sonja; Tahirovic, Sabina; Dupraz, Sebastian; Stern, Sina; Garvalov, Boyan K; Gurniak, Christine; Shaw, Alisa E; Meyn, Liane; Wedlich-Söldner, Roland; Bamburg, James R; Small, J Victor; Witke, Walter; Bradke, Frank

    2012-12-20

    Neurites are the characteristic structural element of neurons that will initiate brain connectivity and elaborate information. Early in development, neurons are spherical cells but this symmetry is broken through the initial formation of neurites. This fundamental step is thought to rely on actin and microtubule dynamics. However, it is unclear which aspects of the complex actin behavior control neuritogenesis and which molecular mechanisms are involved. Here, we demonstrate that augmented actin retrograde flow and protrusion dynamics facilitate neurite formation. Our data indicate that a single family of actin regulatory proteins, ADF/Cofilin, provides the required control of actin retrograde flow and dynamics to form neurites. In particular, the F-actin severing activity of ADF/Cofilin organizes space for the protrusion and bundling of microtubules, the backbone of neurites. Our data reveal how ADF/Cofilin organizes the cytoskeleton to drive actin retrograde flow and thus break the spherical shape of neurons. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Transport According to GARP: Receiving Retrograde Cargo at the Trans-Golgi Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifacino, Juan S.; Hierro, Aitor

    2010-01-01

    Tethering factors are large protein complexes that capture transport vesicles and enable their fusion with acceptor organelles at different stages of the endomembrane system. Recent studies have shed new light on the structure and function of a heterotetrameric tethering factor named Golgi-associated retrograde protein (GARP), which promotes fusion of endosome-derived, retrograde transport carriers to the trans-Golgi network (TGN). X-ray crystallography of the Vps53 and Vps54 subunits of GARP has revealed that this complex is structurally related to other tethering factors such as the exocyst, COG and Dsl1, indicating that they all might work by a similar mechanism. Loss of GARP function compromises the growth, fertility and/or viability of the defective organisms, underscoring the essential nature of GARP-mediated retrograde transport. PMID:21183348

  6. Retrograde mechanochemical ablation of the small saphenous vein for the treatment of a venous ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Hayley M; Lane, Tristan R A; Franklin, Ian J; Davies, Alun H

    2014-10-01

    We present the first case of retrograde ablation of the small saphenous vein to treat active venous ulceration. A 73-year-old gentleman with complicated varicose veins of the left leg and a non-healing venous ulcer despite previous successful endovenous treatment to his left great saphenous vein underwent mechanochemical ablation of his small saphenous vein with the ClariVein® system, under local anaesthetic, using a retrograde cannulation technique. Post-operatively the patient had improved symptomatically and the ulcer size had reduced. This report highlights that patients with small saphenous vein incompetence and active ulceration can be treated successfully with retrograde mechanochemical ablation. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  7. The sealing ability of novel Kryptonite adhesive bone cement as a retrograde filling material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Uzun

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study evaluated the ability of Kryptonite bone cement in sealing retrograde cavities. Methods. The root canals of one hundred extracted human maxillary incisor teeth were instrumented up to master apical file #40 using Mtwo rotary system and obturated with gutta-percha and AH Plus sealer by cold lateral compaction method. The specimens were assigned to one control group and four experimental groups based on the retrograde filling materials (n=20. The specimens were immersed in 0.5% Rhodamine B solution for 48h. Then the specimens were divided longitudinally into two parts and the depth of dye penetration was assessed under ×10 magnification. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni tests. Results. There were statistically significant difference between the experimental groups and the control group (P0.05. Conclusion. Kryptonite cement provided optimal apical seal in a manner similar to MTA, amalgam and IRM when used as a retrograde filling cement.

  8. Ablation of Focal Right Upper Pulmonary Vein Tachycardia Using Retrograde Aortic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Sheikhvatan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of diagnostic and therapeutic methods for assessing pulmonary vein due to its status as a main source of ectopicbeats for the initiation of atrial dysrrythmias is strongly recommended. We report the case of a 13-year-old girl who wasadmitted to our hospital with the electrocardiogram manifestation of an ectopic atrial tachycardia. The focus of arrhythmia was inside the right upper pulmonary vein. The patient underwent successful ablation with a conventional electrophysiology catheter via the retrograde aortic approach. We showed that when the origin of atrial tachycardia is in the right upper pulmonary vein, it is possible to advance the catheter into this vein via the retrograde aortic approach and find the focus of arrhythmia. This case demonstrates that right upper pulmonary vein mapping is feasible through the retrograde aortic approach and it is also possible to ablate the arrhythmia using the same catheter and approach.

  9. Healthy live birth using theophylline in a case of retrograde ejaculation and absolute asthenozoospermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebner, Thomas; Shebl, Omar; Mayer, Richard Bernhard; Moser, Marianne; Costamoling, Walter; Oppelt, Peter

    2014-02-01

    To analyze whether the use of ready-to-use theophylline is a feasible option in a case of retrograde ejaculation and absolute asthenozoospermia. Case report. In vitro fertilization unit of a public hospital. Thirty-one-year-old nulliparous woman, and 39-year-old male with retrograde ejaculation and absolute asthenozoospermia. Retrieval of postejaculatory urine, restoration of motility using a methylxanthine, intracytoplasmic sperm injection, single-embryo transfer. Sperm motility, fertilization, embryo quality, live birth. Successful fertilization and a single-embryo transfer resulted in a healthy live birth. Theophylline turned out to be a safe, efficient agent for stimulating immotile spermatozoa in patients with retrograde ejaculation. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Early Outcomes of Acute Retrograde Dissection From the International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauta, Foeke J H; Kim, Joon Bum; Patel, Himanshu J; Peterson, Mark D; Eckstein, Hans-Henning; Khoynezhad, Ali; Ehrlich, Marek P; Eusanio, Marco Di; Corte, Alessandro Della; Montgomery, Daniel G; Nienaber, Christoph A; Isselbacher, Eric M; Eagle, Kim A; Sundt, Thoralf M; Trimarchi, Santi

    2017-01-01

    To provide data on the management and outcomes of patients with acute retrograde aortic dissection (AD) originating from a tear in the descending aorta with extension into the aortic arch or ascending aorta. All patients enrolled in the International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection from 1996-2015 were reviewed. Retrograde AD was defined by primary tear in the descending aorta with proximal extension into the arch or ascending aorta. Primary end points were in-hospital management strategy and mortality. We identified 101 patients with retrograde AD (67 men; 63.2 ± 14.0 years). During index hospitalization, medical (MED), open surgical (SURG), and endovascular (ENDO) therapies were undertaken in 44, 33, and 22 patients, respectively. The SURG group presented with larger ascending aorta (P = 0.04) and more frequent ascending aortic involvement (81.8% [27/33] vs 22.7% [15/66], P < 0.001) compared with the MED and ENDO groups. Early mortality rate was 9.1% (4/44), 18.2% (6/33), and 13.6% (3/22), for the MED, SURG, and ENDO groups (P = 0.51), respectively. A favorable early mortality rate was observed in patients with retrograde extension limited to the arch (8.6% [5/58]) vs into the ascending aorta (18.6% [8/43], P = 0.14). Early mortality rate of patients with retrograde AD with primary tear in the descending aorta (12.9% [13/101]) was significantly lower than those with classic type A AD presenting with primary tear in the ascending aorta (20.0% [195/977], P = 0.001). A subset of patients with acute retrograde AD originating from primary tear in the descending aorta might be managed less invasively with acceptable early results, particularly among those with proximal extension limited to the arch. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Retrograde or antegrade double-pigtail stent placement for malignant ureteric obstruction?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uthappa, M.C. [Department of Radiology, Churchill Hospital, Oxford (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: uthappas@hotmail.com; Cowan, N.C. [Department of Radiology, Churchill Hospital, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2005-05-01

    AIM: To determine the optimum approach for double-pigtail stent placement in malignant ureteric obstruction. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrograde stent placement was attempted in a consecutive series of patients presenting with malignant ureteric obstruction. If retrograde stent placement was unsuccessful, percutaneous nephrostomy was performed immediately followed by elective antegrade stent placement. Identical digital C-arm fluoroscopy for image-guidance and conditions for anaesthesia and analgesia were employed for both retrograde and antegrade procedures. Identical 8 Fr (20-26 cm) double-pigtail hydrophilic coated stents were used for each approach. RESULTS: Retrograde placement was attempted in 50 ureters in 30 patients {l_brace}19 male, 11 female, average age 61.4 yr (range 29-90 yr){r_brace} over a 24-month period. The success rate for retrograde ureteric stent placement was 50% (n=25/50). Technical failures were due to failure to identify the ureteric orifice (n=22), failure to cross the stricture (n=1), failure to pass the stent (n=1) and failure to pass a 4 Fr catheter (n=1). Antegrade placement was attempted in 25 ureters with a success rate of 96% (n=24/25). Failure in the one case was due to inability to cross an upper third stricture secondary to pyeloureteritis cystica. CONCLUSION: It is suggested that retrograde route should be the initial approach if imaging shows no involvement of ureteric orifice (UO), when nephrostomy is technically very difficult or in cases of solitary kidney. The antegrade route is preferred if imaging shows tumour occlusion of the UO or if there is a tight stricture very close to the uretero-vesical junction (UVJ) making purchase within the ureter difficult for crossing the stricture.

  12. Retrograde jejunogastric intussusception: A case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loi, Chao-Man; Huang, Shu-Yi; Chen, Ying-Da; Chen, Shian-Dian; Wu, Jiann-Ming; Chen, Kuo-Hsin

    2017-07-01

    Retrograde jejunogastric intussusception (JGI) is a rare but potentially fatal complication after previous gastrectomy or gastric bypass surgery. Because of the prevalence of bariatric surgery, the number of cases of postoperative intussusception has increased markedly. Here, we present the case of a patient with retrograde jejunogastric intussusception, having a previous history of subtotal gastrectomy and gastrojejunostomy for peptic ulcer disease. Correct preoperative diagnosis was made by plain abdominal film, upper gastrointestinal series, computed tomographic scan, and esophagogastroduodenoscopy. The diagnosis was confirmed by laparoscopic examination. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  13. Transesophageal echocardiographic evaluation of an intraoperative retrograde acute aortic dissection: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiter Charles G

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We report an intraoperative retrograde dissection of the aorta and its subsequent evaluation by transesophageal echocardiography (TEE. Case presentation A 78 year old woman with an ascending aortic aneurysm without dissection and coronary artery disease was brought to the operating room for aneurysm repair and coronary artery bypass grafting. After initiation of cardiopulmonary bypass through a femoral artery cannula, aortic dissection was noted and subsequently imaged by TEE. Conclusion Retrograde aortic dissection through the femoral artery is life-threatening. Intraoperative TEE can be used to diagnose this uncommon event, and should be considered after initiation of bypass.

  14. Radiation therapy with concurrent retrograde superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy for gingival carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukai, Y.; Hata, M.; Koike, I.; Inoue, T. [Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Mitsudo, K.; Koizumi, T.; Oguri, S.; Kioi, M.; Tohnai, I. [Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Omura, M. [Shonankamakura General Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Kamakura, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2014-02-15

    The aim of this study was to review the efficacy and toxicity of radiation therapy with concurrent retrograde superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy in the treatment of gingival carcinoma. In all, 34 patients (21 men and 13 women) with squamous cell carcinoma of the gingiva underwent radiation therapy with concurrent retrograde superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy. Treatment consisted of daily external irradiation and concurrent retrograde superselective intra-arterial infusion with cisplatin and docetaxel. A median total dose of 60 Gy in 30 fractions was delivered to tumors. Of the 34 patients, 29 (85 %) achieved a complete response (CR) and 5 had residual tumors. Of the 29 patients with a CR, 2 had local recurrences and 1 had distant metastasis 1-15 months after treatment. Twenty-six of the 36 patients had survived at a median follow-up time of 36 months (range 12-79 months); 4 died of cancer and 4 died of non-cancer-related causes. At both 3 and 5 years after treatment, the overall survival rates were 79 % and the cause-specific survival rates were 85 %. Osteoradionecrosis of the mandibular bone only developed in 1 patient after treatment. Radiation therapy with concurrent retrograde superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy was effective and safe in the treatment of gingival carcinoma. This treatment may be a promising curative and organ-preserving treatment option for gingival carcinoma. (orig.) [German] Das Ziel dieser Studie war die Ueberpruefung der Effizienz und Toxizitaet einer Strahlenbehandlung des Gingivakarzinoms mit gleichzeitiger retrograder, superselektiver intraarterieller Chemotherapie. Insgesamt 34 Patienten (21 Maenner und 13 Frauen) mit Zahnfleischplattenzellkarzinom erhielten eine Strahlenbehandlung mit gleichzeitiger retrograder, superselektiver intraarterieller Chemotherapie. Die Behandlung umfasste eine taegliche externe Bestrahlung mit gleichzeitiger retrograder, superselektiver intraarterieller Infusion von Cisplatin und

  15. Effects of ciliary neurotrophic factor on retrograde cell reaction after facial nerve crush in young adults rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gispen, W.H.; Ulenkate, H.J.L.M.; Jennekens, F.G.I.

    1996-01-01

    Locally applied ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) has a powerful effect on retrograde axonal reaction following facial nerve crush in neonatal rats. We examined whether it also exerts a strong effect on retrograde axonal reaction in young adult rats when administered subcutaneously. The dose was 1

  16. Impact of retrograde shear rate on brachial and superficial femoral artery flow-mediated dilation in older subjects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, T.H.A.; Green, D.J.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Thijssen, D.H.

    2015-01-01

    An inverse, dose-dependent relationship between retrograde shear rate and brachial artery endothelial function exists in young subjects. This relationship has not been investigated in older adults, who have been related to lower endothelial function, higher resting retrograde shear rate and higher

  17. A retrograde double fluorescent tracing study of the levator palpebrae superioris muscle in the cynomolgus monkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanderWerf, F.; Aramideh, M.; Ongerboer de Visser, B. W.; Baljet, B.; Speelman, J. D.; Otto, J. A.

    1997-01-01

    In the cynomolgus monkey, motoneurons innervating the levator palpebrae superioris muscle form a nucleus within the oculomotor nuclei called the central caudal nucleus. After double fluorescent neuronal retrograde tracing experiments, using fast blue and diamidino yellow as tracers in the levator

  18. Retrograde cerebral perfusion and delayed hyperbaric oxygen for massive air embolism during cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, T Sloane; Kelly, Matthew P; Cason, Brian; Tseng, Elaine

    2009-03-01

    We report a case of massive air embolism from a ventricular vent line during cardiac surgery successfully treated with emergent retrograde cerebral perfusion and delayed hyperbaric oxygen therapy. The etiologies of this rare but potentially devastating complication are discussed along with prevention and treatment options.

  19. Lrp4 is a retrograde signal for presynaptic differentiation at neuromuscular synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yumoto, Norihiro; Kim, Natalie; Burden, Steven J

    2012-09-20

    Motor axons receive retrograde signals from skeletal muscle that are essential for the differentiation and stabilization of motor nerve terminals. Identification of these retrograde signals has proved elusive, but their production by muscle depends on the receptor tyrosine kinase, MuSK (muscle, skeletal receptor tyrosine-protein kinase), and Lrp4 (low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR)-related protein 4), an LDLR family member that forms a complex with MuSK, binds neural agrin and stimulates MuSK kinase activity. Here we show that Lrp4 also functions as a direct muscle-derived retrograde signal for early steps in presynaptic differentiation. We demonstrate that Lrp4 is necessary, independent of MuSK activation, for presynaptic differentiation in vivo, and we show that Lrp4 binds to motor axons and induces clustering of synaptic-vesicle and active-zone proteins. Thus, Lrp4 acts bidirectionally and coordinates synapse formation by binding agrin, activating MuSK and stimulating postsynaptic differentiation, and functioning in turn as a muscle-derived retrograde signal that is necessary and sufficient for presynaptic differentiation.

  20. A Hands-on Exploration of the Retrograde Motion of Mars as Seen from the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincelli, M. M.; Otranto, S.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a set of activities based on the use of a celestial simulator to gain insights into the retrograde motion of Mars as seen from the Earth. These activities provide a useful link between the heliocentric concepts taught in schools and those tackled in typical introductory physics courses based on classical mechanics for…

  1. Removal of a Broken Cannulated Femoral Nail: A Novel Retrograde Impaction Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kongkhet Riansuwan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents a surgical technique to remove a broken cannulated nail from the femur. A Harrington rod was modified for retrograde impaction of the retained fragment. The broken implant was finally removed without complication. This particular procedure was safe, simple, and promising.

  2. Retrograd intrarenal stenkirurgi--en minimalinvasiv metode til behandling af nyresten

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Helene U; Osther, Palle J S

    2009-01-01

    Retrograde intrarenal stone surgery (RIRS) is a safe and effective minimally invasive method for the treatment of minor (kidney stones. This modality is the preferred treatment for minor ESWL-resistant kidney stones where resistance is due e.g. to anatomical abnormalities or stones...

  3. Reexposure to the Amnestic Agent Alleviates Cycloheximide-Induced Retrograde Amnesia for Reactivated and Extinction Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, James F.; Olson, Brian P.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated whether reexposure to an amnestic agent would reverse amnesia for extinction of learned fear similar to that of a reactivated memory. When cycloheximide (CHX) was administered immediately after a brief cue-induced memory reactivation (15 sec) and an extended extinction session (12 min) rats showed retrograde amnesia for both…

  4. The therapeutic effect of crocin on ketamine-induced retrograde amnesia in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namdar Yousefvand

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The glutamatergic system plays an important role in learning and memory. Administration of crocus sativus (Saffron or its constituent, crocin, facilitates the formation of memory. This research investigated the effect of crocin on antagonizing retrograde amnesia induced by ketamine, a glutamatergic receptor antagonist, in rats by shuttle box. Methods: Male Wistar rats were tested to measure their learning behavior in the passive avoidance task. All animals were trained by a 1 mA shock. The drugs were injected immediately after the training was successfully performed. The animals were tested 24h after training to measure Step Through Latency (STL. Results: On the test day, administration of ketamine (12 mg/kg, ip impaired the memory after training. Different doses of crocin (2, 5 or 10 mg/kg, ip were injected 30 min after ketamine, but only 2 mg/kg crocin could improve retrograde amnesia and 5 and 10 mg/kg doses did not have any significant effect on retrograde amnesia. Moreover, administration of crocin (2, 5 or 10 mg/kg, ip after training had no significant impact on passive avoidance memory by itself. Conclusion: Considering the therapeutic effect of post-training administration of crocin on ketamine-induced retrograde amnesia, it can be argued that crocin has an interaction with glutamatergic system in formation of passive avoidance memory in rats.

  5. Hydrogen transfer in the formation and destruction of retrograde products in coal conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMillen, D.F.; Malhotra, R. [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2006-06-01

    The conversion of coals to volatiles or liquids during pyrolysis and liquefaction is notoriously limited by the formation of retrograde products. Analysis of literature data for coals with grafted structures and for polymeric coal models demonstrates that the formation of volatile products from these materials does not correlate primarily with the weakness of the original bonding but correlates with the facility for retrogressive reaction. This analysis suggests further that simple recombination of resonance-stabilized radicals does not tend to yield true retrograde products, except in the case of aryloxy radicals. For pure hydrocarbon structural elements, radical addition to aromatic systems appears to be a key class of retrograde reactions, where the key factor is the kinetics of radical or H-atom loss from a cyclohexadienyl intermediate. We have used a mechanistic numerical model with a detailed set of radical reactions and thermochemically based kinetic parameters operating on a limited set of hydrocarbon structures to delineate important factors in mitigating retrograde processes. This showed that, not only the cleavage of critical bonds in the original coal structures but also the net prevention of retrogression may be due to the H-transfer-induced cleavage of strong bonds.

  6. Retrograde mineral and fluid evolution in high-pressure metapelites (Schistes Lustres unit, Western Alps).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agard, Ph.; Goffe, B.; Touret, J.L.R.; Vidal, O.

    2000-01-01

    Fluid inclusions have been analysed in successive generations of syn-metamorphic segregations within low-grade, high-pressure, low-temperature (HP-LT) metapelites from the Western Alps. Fluid composition was then compared to mass transfer deduced from outcrop-scale retrograde mineral reactions. Two

  7. Evaluation of black tea polyphenol extract against the retrogradation of starches from various plant sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Huaxi; Lin, Qinlu; Liu, Gao-Qiang; Yu, Fengxiang

    2012-07-06

    The effects of black tea polyphenol extract (BTPE) on the retrogradation of starches from different plant sources were studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). DSC analysis shows that the gelatinization temperature of maize starch and starches from different rice varieties increased with increasing BTPE level. After storage at 4 °C, BTPE at a concentration of 15% markedly retarded the retrogradation of maize starch and starches from different rice varieties. Native maize starch and starches from different rice varieties showed typical A-type X-ray diffraction patterns, while native potato starch showed a typical B-type X-ray diffraction pattern. Adding BTPE significantly affected the crystalline region and intensities of X-ray diffraction peaks of maize and rice starch granules. It is concluded that adding BTPE markedly inhibits the retrogradation of maize starch and starches from different rice varieties, but has no significant influence on the gelatinization and retrogradation characteristics of potato starch.

  8. HIV Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abroad Treatment Basic Statistics Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV/AIDS HIV Transmission Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on ...

  9. Contraction of the ventral abdomen potentiates extracardiac retrograde hemolymph propulsion in the mosquito hemocoel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan W Andereck

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hemolymph circulation in mosquitoes is primarily controlled by the contractile action of a dorsal vessel that runs underneath the dorsal midline and is subdivided into a thoracic aorta and an abdominal heart. Wave-like peristaltic contractions of the heart alternate in propelling hemolymph in anterograde and retrograde directions, where it empties into the hemocoel at the terminal ends of the insect. During our analyses of hemolymph propulsion in Anopheles gambiae, we observed periodic ventral abdominal contractions and hypothesized that they promote extracardiac hemolymph circulation in the abdominal hemocoel. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We devised methods to simultaneously analyze both heart and abdominal contractions, as well as to measure hemolymph flow in the abdominal hemocoel. Qualitative and quantitative analyses revealed that ventral abdominal contractions occur as series of bursts that propagate in the retrograde direction. Periods of ventral abdominal contraction begin only during periods of anterograde heart contraction and end immediately following a heartbeat directional reversal, suggesting that ventral abdominal contractions function to propel extracardiac hemolymph in the retrograde direction. To test this functional role, fluorescent microspheres were intrathoracically injected and their trajectory tracked throughout the hemocoel. Quantitative measurements of microsphere movement in extracardiac regions of the abdominal cavity showed that during periods of abdominal contractions hemolymph flows in dorsal and retrograde directions at a higher velocity and with greater acceleration than during periods of abdominal rest. Histochemical staining of the abdominal musculature then revealed that ventral abdominal contractions result from the contraction of intrasegmental lateral muscle fibers, intersegmental ventral muscle bands, and the ventral transverse muscles that form the ventral diaphragm. CONCLUSIONS

  10. Contraction of the Ventral Abdomen Potentiates Extracardiac Retrograde Hemolymph Propulsion in the Mosquito Hemocoel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andereck, Jonathan W.; King, Jonas G.; Hillyer, Julián F.

    2010-01-01

    Background Hemolymph circulation in mosquitoes is primarily controlled by the contractile action of a dorsal vessel that runs underneath the dorsal midline and is subdivided into a thoracic aorta and an abdominal heart. Wave-like peristaltic contractions of the heart alternate in propelling hemolymph in anterograde and retrograde directions, where it empties into the hemocoel at the terminal ends of the insect. During our analyses of hemolymph propulsion in Anopheles gambiae, we observed periodic ventral abdominal contractions and hypothesized that they promote extracardiac hemolymph circulation in the abdominal hemocoel. Methodology/Principal Findings We devised methods to simultaneously analyze both heart and abdominal contractions, as well as to measure hemolymph flow in the abdominal hemocoel. Qualitative and quantitative analyses revealed that ventral abdominal contractions occur as series of bursts that propagate in the retrograde direction. Periods of ventral abdominal contraction begin only during periods of anterograde heart contraction and end immediately following a heartbeat directional reversal, suggesting that ventral abdominal contractions function to propel extracardiac hemolymph in the retrograde direction. To test this functional role, fluorescent microspheres were intrathoracically injected and their trajectory tracked throughout the hemocoel. Quantitative measurements of microsphere movement in extracardiac regions of the abdominal cavity showed that during periods of abdominal contractions hemolymph flows in dorsal and retrograde directions at a higher velocity and with greater acceleration than during periods of abdominal rest. Histochemical staining of the abdominal musculature then revealed that ventral abdominal contractions result from the contraction of intrasegmental lateral muscle fibers, intersegmental ventral muscle bands, and the ventral transverse muscles that form the ventral diaphragm. Conclusions/Significance These data show that

  11. Evaluation of the Optimal Site for Retrograde Common Femoral Arterial Puncture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Seung Joon; Kim, Jeong Ho; Byun, Sung Su; Jeong, Yu Mi; Hwang, Hee Young; Kim, Hyung Sik [Gachon University College of Medicine, Gil Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-15

    To determine the optimal skin site for retrograde common femoral arterial puncture based on the inguinal skin crease. We retrospectively evaluated CT arteriographic images of right groins in 200 patients. We measured the relative distances of the common femoral artery bifurcation and inguinal ligament from the inguinal skin crease, respectively. We calculated the rates of common femoral artery puncture at 1 mm intervals, above or below the inguinal skin crease. The range in skin site where the rates of common femoral artery puncture were greater than 60%, 70%, and 80% were situated between 3 mm below to 27 mm above, 1 mm to 23 mm above, and 5 mm to 15 mm above the inguinal skin crease, respectively. The skin site of the highest puncture rate was 10 mm above inguinal skin crease (85.2%). The optimal skin site for retrograde common femoral artery puncture was above the inguinal skin crease, most optimally at 10 mm above the inguinal skin crease

  12. Retrograde tracing of fluorescent gold after autogenous nerve transplantation on spinal cord injured in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, X; Liu, W; Ding, Ming

    2016-01-01

    , the transplantation group using autologous sural nerve graft to repair spinal cord injury period and non-transplantation group was only exposed incision without treatment. In the 4, 6 and 8 weeks after operation, the retrograde tracing of FG Fluoro-Gold was performed to discover the recovery of the axial plasma......Objective To investigate the changes of the fluorescent gold retrograde tracing autogenous nerve transplantation on spinal cord injured in rats. Methods The animals were divided into two groups, with modified Allen impact method to establish model of spinal cord injury. After 4 weeks.......01). Conclusion After spinal cord injury, autologous nerve graft was repaired and survived well and promote the recovery of spinal cord injury segment shaft pulp transportation function....

  13. Valve replacement under retrograde warm-blood cardioplegia. Results in 287 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolis, G A; Sfyras, N; Astras, G; Georgiou, G

    1998-01-01

    We studied 287 consecutive patients who underwent valve replacement procedures under retrograde warm-blood cardioplegia between 1 March 1992 and 30 June 1997 (64 months). Some of the procedures were performed in combination with other operations (70), but most (217) were isolated. Thirty patients had undergone previous "open" procedures and another 25 patients had undergone prior "closed" procedures. The 30-day postoperative mortality rate was 3.8% (11 deaths). In 7 patients, the cause of death was not cardiogenic. We did not observe any instance of right ventricular failure, perforation of the coronary sinus, phrenic nerve palsy, or wound infection. These results indicate that retrograde warm-blood cardioplegia provides excellent myocardial protection of both ventricles during valve replacement. PMID:9782558

  14. Percutaneous reconstruction of the innominate bifurcation using the retrograde 'kissing stents' technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagata, Shun-ichi; Kazekawa, Kiyoshi; Matsubara, Shuko [Fukuoka University Chikushi Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Chikushino, Fukuoka (Japan); Sugata, Sei [Bironoki Neurosurgical Hospital, Shibushi, Kagoshima (Japan)

    2006-08-15

    Obstructions of the supraaortic vessels are an important cause of morbidity associated with a variety of symptoms. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty has evolved as an effective and safe treatment modality for occlusive lesions of the supraaortic vessels. However, the endovascular management of an innominate bifurcation has not previously been reported. A 53-year-old female with a history of systematic hypertension, diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolemia presented with left hemiparesis and dysarthria. Angiography of the innominate artery showed a stenosis of the innominate bifurcation. The lesion was successfully treated using the retrograde kissing stent technique via a brachial approach and an exposed direct carotid approach. The retrograde kissing stent technique for the treatment of a stenosis of the innominate bifurcation was found to be a safe and effective alternative to conventional surgery. (orig.)

  15. Retrograde axonal transport of ciliary neurotrophic factor is increased by peripheral nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, R; Adryan, K M; Zhu, Y; Harkness, P J; Lindsay, R M; DiStefano, P S

    1993-09-16

    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) promotes the survival of several populations of neurons, including sensory and motor neurons. Although CNTF is abundant in adult sciatic nerve, the mature protein lacks a signal sequence and is not secreted; therefore, it has been proposed to act as a lesion factor. The identification of a functional CNTF receptor revealed ligand-specific phosphorylation cascades and gene induction. However, it is not clear how these signal-transducing events are elicited in neuronal cell bodies that may be distant from the source of CNTF. We report here that CNTF can be retrogradely transported by adult sensory neurons. More importantly, sensory and motor neurons both show greatly increased transport of CNTF following peripheral nerve lesion. Axotomy-induced increases in retrograde transport of neurotrophic factors may be an important response of neuronal cell bodies during regeneration.

  16. Effects of salts on the gelatinization and retrogradation properties of maize starch and waxy maize starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Zhou, Hongxian; Yang, Hong; Zhao, Siming; Liu, Youming; Liu, Ru

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of salts on the gelatinization and retrogradation of maize and waxy maize starch. Experimental results showed that the salting-out or structure-making ions, such as F(-) and SO4(2-), decreased the swelling power, solubility and transparency of both starches, but increased the gelatinization temperature, enthalpy, and syneresis, due to the tendency of these ions to protect the hydrogen bond links among starch molecules. On the other hand, the salting-in or structure-breaking ions, such as I(-) and SCN(-), exhibited the opposite effects. Microscopic observations confirmed such effects of salts on both starches. Furthermore, the effects of salts were more significant on waxy maize and on normal maize starch. Generally, salts could significantly influence on the gelatinization and retrogradation of maize and waxy maize starch, following the order of the Hofmeister series. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Posterior pelvic exenteration and retrograde total hysterectomy in patients with locally advanced ovarian cancer: Clinical and functional outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Berretta

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: Our study confirmed that pelvic posterior exenteration associated with retrograde radical hysterectomy represents the safest radical surgical approach to advanced ovarian cancer, which permits preservation of the pelvic autonomic nerve plexus and, therefore, bladder and colorectal functions.

  18. Awake endotracheal retrograde intubation in restricted mouth opening: a 'J'-tipped guide wire technique--a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhola, Nitin; Jadhav, Anendd; Borle, Rajiv; Khemka, Gaurav; Ajani, Abbas Ali

    2014-12-01

    Airway management in patient with restricted mouth opening is a great challenge, owing to the difficulty in laryngoscopy and visualisation of the vocal cords during the procedure of intubation. The term retrograde intubation refers to a technique in which a guide wire is passed into the trachea and then into the mouth or nose. A tracheal tube is then passed down over the guide until it enters the trachea. A retrospective audit was undertaken to determine the success and complication associated with retrograde intubation. The results show that in a sample of 20 patients in which retrograde intubation was done, only three developed sore throat and cough, one had bronchospasm and one developed infection at the site of insertion of a J-tipped catheter. Retrograde tracheal intubation was easy to perform and had a high success rate and a low incidence of complications.

  19. Mozart, Mozart Rhythm and Retrograde Mozart Effects: Evidences from Behaviours and Neurobiology Bases

    OpenAIRE

    Yingshou Xing; Yang Xia; Keith Kendrick; Xiuxiu Liu; Maosen Wang; Dan Wu; Hua Yang; Wei Jing; Daqing Guo; Dezhong Yao

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenal finding that listening to Mozart K.448 enhances performance on spatial tasks has motivated a continuous surge in promoting music education over the past two decades. But there have been inconsistent reports in previous studies of the Mozart effect. Here conducted was a systematic study, with Mozart and retrograde Mozart music, Mozart music rhythm and pitch, behaviours and neurobiology tests, rats and humans subjects. We show that while the Mozart K.448 has positive cognitive ef...

  20. Urethro-venous intravasation during retrograde urethrography (report of 5 cases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta S

    1991-04-01

    Full Text Available Five instances of urethro-venous intravasation during retrograde urethrography are reported. Four cases were of urethral strictures and one case was of urethral hemangioma. All patients had post procedural bleeding while one patient got allergic reactions, another showed chills and rigors. Anatomy of the drainage veins is described. Factors responsible for this complication and its clinical implications are discussed. It is suggested that urethro-venous intravasation should be considered a diagnostic sign of urethral inflammation.

  1. Alcohol-induced retrograde facilitation renders witnesses of crime less suggestible to misinformation

    OpenAIRE

    Albery, IP; Gawrylowicz, J; Ridley, AM; Barnoth, E; Young, J.

    2017-01-01

    Rationale: Research has shown that alcohol can have both detrimental and facilitating effects on memory: intoxication can lead to poor memory for information encoded after alcohol consumption (anterograde amnesia) and may improve memory for information encoded before consumption (retrograde facilitation). This study examined whether alcohol consumed after witnessing a crime can render individuals less vulnerable to misleading post-event information (misinformation). Method: Participants watch...

  2. Relay of retrograde synaptogenic signals through axonal transport of BMP receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Rebecca B.; Machamer, James B.; Kim, Nam Chul; Hays, Thomas S.; Marqués, Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    Neuronal function depends on the retrograde relay of growth and survival signals from the synaptic terminal, where the neuron interacts with its targets, to the nucleus, where gene transcription is regulated. Activation of the Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) pathway at the Drosophila larval neuromuscular junction results in nuclear accumulation of the phosphorylated form of the transcription factor Mad in the motoneuron nucleus. This in turn regulates transcription of genes that control syna...

  3. Retrograde Transpubic Approach for Percutaneous Radiofrequency Ablation and Cementoplasty of Acetabular Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salem Bauones

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of painful and disabling anterior acetabular bone metastasis treated with bipolar radiofrequency ablation and cementoplasty. Due to the high risk of complications related to the proximity of the femoral neurovascular structures with a direct approach, we successfully performed a retrograde transpubic approach under combined CT and fluoroscopic guidance. In the present report, we describe this approach detailing its indications, advantages, and the technical tips to achieve a safe and satisfactory procedure.

  4. Collateral Channel Size and Tortuosity Predict Retrograde Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Success for Chronic Total Occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ching-Chang; Lee, Chih-Kuo; Meng, Shih-Wei; Hung, Chi-Sheng; Chen, Ying-Hsien; Lin, Mao-Shin; Yeh, Chih-Fan; Kao, Hsien-Li

    2018-01-01

    There is little evidence on how to select an interventional collateral channel (CC) in retrograde chronic total occlusion (CTO) percutaneous coronary intervention. We aimed to identify independent angiographic predictors of CC tracking and technical success in retrograde CTO percutaneous coronary intervention. From January 2012 to December 2015, a total of 216 consecutive retrograde CTO percutaneous coronary intervention attempts by a high-volume operator in a tertiary university-affiliated hospital were enrolled. The clinical, angiographic, and procedural details were collected. The characteristics analyzed included channel type, size, tortuosity, angle of attack, length to emerging point, and the Multicenter CTO Registry of Japan score. The Multicenter CTO Registry of Japan score was 4.2±0.8. A total of 242 CCs were attempted for intervention. CC tracking success rate was 83.5%, and the technical success rate (per CC) was 81.4%. The per-patient technical success rate was 91.2%, and the major procedural complication rate was 4.6%. The atrioventricular groove, epicardial, and septal CCs were used in 36 (14.9%), 84 (34.7%), and 122 (50.4%) tracking attempts, respectively. In multivariable analysis, only large channel size and lack of tortuosity were significant independent predictors of CC tracking and technical success. A new scoring system was developed, while large size was given 1 point and lack of tortuosity was given 2 points. The receiver-operating characteristic area by the new model to predict CC tracking and technical success were 0.800 and 0.752, respectively. In retrograde CTO percutaneous coronary intervention, only size and tortuosity of a CC are independent angiographic predictors of CC tracking and technical success. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Retrograde myotomy: a variation in per oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsky, Jeffrey L; Marks, Jeffrey M; Orenstein, Sean B

    2014-11-01

    Per oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) has evolved as a novel therapeutic option for the treatment of esophageal motility disorders such as achalasia. The originally described dissection technique involves cutting the inner circular esophageal muscle fibers in an antegrade fashion. We have modified this technique by commencing the muscular division at the most distal aspect of the submucosal tunnel and continuing the dissection in a retrograde fashion. We present our initial series of patients performed using this modified technique. We retrospectively reviewed our prospectively collected database. Peri- and postoperative data were collected and analyzed. POEM procedures were performed in a near-identical manner as previously published. Retrograde myotomy was performed on five patients with a diagnosis of achalasia. Four had a history of prior treatment including balloon dilation, with one of these having a prior surgical myotomy. Retrograde POEM procedures were performed with trace blood loss and without any complications. Mean operative time was 85 min. All patients had normal esophagram studies, and diets were advanced as per protocol. POEM was developed as a minimally invasive method for the treatment of achalasia. Our retrograde dissection modification allows the most critical portion of the case, namely division of the lower esophageal and upper gastric circular muscle fibers, to be performed earlier in the case. This ensures adequate dissection of the primary site of esophageal dysfunction should problems arise during the procedure. The modification is straightforward, without the need for additional training or equipment, and appears to provide a more rapid myotomy with less charring in this small cohort of patients.

  6. Retrograde Procedural Planning, Skills Development, and How to Set Up a Base of Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spratt, James C; Strange, Julian W

    2012-07-01

    This article addresses the practical steps required when adopting retrograde access as part of the treatment of chronic total occlusions (CTOs). The article focuses on procedure rationale, equipment required, the practical steps, and considerations involved in collateral-channel crossing and setting up a "base of operations" at the proximal cap of the CTO. It also describes simple methods of wire escalation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Does nasal oxygen reduce the cardiorespiratory problems experienced by elderly patients undergoing endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography?

    OpenAIRE

    Haines, D J; Bibbey, D; Green, J R

    1992-01-01

    Elderly patients undergoing endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) have an increased risk of sedation related complications during the procedure. To determine whether nasal oxygen supplementation (2 l/min) reduces these risks, half of 66 patients aged over 60 undergoing ERCP using minimal midazolam sedation alone were randomised to receive nasal oxygen. The arterial oxygen saturation and pulse rate of all patients were monitored by pulse oximetry before and during the procedure...

  8. Factors that affect the variability in heart rate during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Merete; Reinert, Rebekka; Rasmussen, Verner

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To find out if drugs, position, and endoscopic manipulation during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) influence the changes in the variability of heart rate. DESIGN: Single-blind randomised trial. SUBJECTS: 10 volunteers given butyscopolamine, glucagon, or saline...... intravenously on three different study days, and 10 patients who had ERCP without butylscopolamine or glucagon. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Holter tape analysis for ischaemia and changes in the variability of heart rate. RESULTS: 5 volunteers developed tachycardia after butylscopolamine, while 2 developed...

  9. Endovascular recanalization of occluded superior mesenteric artery using retrograde access through the inferior mesenteric artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Keller Saadi, MD

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Symptomatic occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery can be treated by open repair, hybrid procedure, or endovascular revascularization. In most cases, endovascular procedures are done by the antegrade approach. We report a case of a 67-year-old woman who presented with acute-on-chronic mesenteric ischemia successfully treated by retrograde endovascular recanalization of an occluded common hepatomesenteric trunk through the inferior mesenteric artery and arc of Riolan.

  10. COPI-mediated retrograde trafficking from the Golgi to the ER regulates EGFR nuclear transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ying-Nai; Wang, Hongmei; Yamaguchi, Hirohito [Department of Molecular and Cellular Oncology, The University of Texas, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Lee, Hong-Jen; Lee, Heng-Huan [Department of Molecular and Cellular Oncology, The University of Texas, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Hung, Mien-Chie, E-mail: mhung@mdanderson.org [Department of Molecular and Cellular Oncology, The University of Texas, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Center for Molecular Medicine and Graduate Institute of Cancer Biology, China Medical University and Hospital, Taichung 404, Taiwan (China); Asia University, Taichung 413, Taiwan (China)

    2010-09-03

    Research highlights: {yields} ARF1 activation is involved in the EGFR transport to the ER and the nucleus. {yields} Assembly of {gamma}-COP coatomer mediates EGFR transport to the ER and the nucleus. {yields} Golgi-to-ER retrograde trafficking regulates nuclear transport of EGFR. -- Abstract: Emerging evidence indicates that cell surface receptors, such as the entire epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family, have been shown to localize in the nucleus. A retrograde route from the Golgi to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is postulated to be involved in the EGFR trafficking to the nucleus; however, the molecular mechanism in this proposed model remains unexplored. Here, we demonstrate that membrane-embedded vesicular trafficking is involved in the nuclear transport of EGFR. Confocal immunofluorescence reveals that in response to EGF, a portion of EGFR redistributes to the Golgi and the ER, where its NH{sub 2}-terminus resides within the lumen of Golgi/ER and COOH-terminus is exposed to the cytoplasm. Blockage of the Golgi-to-ER retrograde trafficking by brefeldin A or dominant mutants of the small GTPase ADP-ribosylation factor, which both resulted in the disassembly of the coat protein complex I (COPI) coat to the Golgi, inhibit EGFR transport to the ER and the nucleus. We further find that EGF-dependent nuclear transport of EGFR is regulated by retrograde trafficking from the Golgi to the ER involving an association of EGFR with {gamma}-COP, one of the subunits of the COPI coatomer. Our findings experimentally provide a comprehensive pathway that nuclear transport of EGFR is regulated by COPI-mediated vesicular trafficking from the Golgi to the ER, and may serve as a general mechanism in regulating the nuclear transport of other cell surface receptors.

  11. International Normalized Ratio Does Not Predict Gastrointestinal Bleeding After Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography in Patients With Cirrhosis

    OpenAIRE

    Adike, Abimbola; Al-Qaisi, Mohanad; Baffy, Noemi J.; Kosiorek, Heidi; Pannala, Rahul; Aqel, Bashar; Faigel, Douglas O; Harrison, M. Edwyn

    2017-01-01

    Background Cirrhosis is often accompanied by an elevated international normalized ratio (INR) due to a decrease in pro-coagulant factors. An elevated INR in cirrhosis is often interpreted as an increased risk of bleeding. There are a paucity of data in the literature on the use of INR to predict risk of gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) following endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in patients with cirrhosis. The aims of the study were to determine if there is a correlation be...

  12. Valve replacement under retrograde warm-blood cardioplegia. Results in 287 patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Tolis, G A; Sfyras, N; Astras, G; Georgiou, G.

    1998-01-01

    We studied 287 consecutive patients who underwent valve replacement procedures under retrograde warm-blood cardioplegia between 1 March 1992 and 30 June 1997 (64 months). Some of the procedures were performed in combination with other operations (70), but most (217) were isolated. Thirty patients had undergone previous "open" procedures and another 25 patients had undergone prior "closed" procedures. The 30-day postoperative mortality rate was 3.8% (11 deaths). In 7 patients, the cause of dea...

  13. Accuracy of retrograde ileostomy radiographic examination for detecting small-bowel abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Jonathan M; Levine, Marc S; Rubesin, Stephen E; Rombeau, John L; Laufer, Igor

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of retrograde ileostomy radiographic examination for detecting small-bowel abnormalities in patients with ileostomies. Our database contained the records of 35 patients who had undergone retrograde ileostomy examinations from 1999-2005 and fulfilled our inclusion criteria. The images from the examinations were reviewed to determine the frequency and nature of small-bowel abnormalities, whether lateral views were obtained, and whether the catheter tip was withdrawn to the stoma. The accuracy of these examinations was determined by correlating clinical, radiographic, and surgical findings. Twenty-eight (80%) of the patients had small-bowel abnormalities: adhesions in 14 (40%), adynamic small-bowel ileus in four (11%), strictures in two (6%), Crohn's disease in two (6%), focal perforation in two (6%), fistulas (one enterocutaneous and one enterovaginal) in two (6%), metastasis in one (3%), and parastomal hernia in one (3%) of the patients. The other seven (20%) patients had normal findings. Abnormalities were detected on lateral but not frontal or oblique views in six (75%) of eight patients with distal ileal disease and in three (43%) of seven patients for whom views were obtained only after withdrawal of the catheter to the stoma. Retrograde ileostomy examination had a sensitivity of 96%, specificity of 86%, positive predictive value of 96%, and negative predictive value of 86%. Our experience suggested that retrograde ileostomy examination is an accurate technique for detecting symptomatic small-bowel abnormalities in patients with ileostomies, particularly in the distal-most portion of the ileum abutting the ileostomy stoma.

  14. Flexible robotic retrograde renoscopy: description of novel robotic device and preliminary laboratory experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Mihir M; Aron, Monish; Gill, Inderbir S; Pascal-Haber, Georges; Ukimura, Osamu; Kaouk, Jihad H; Stahler, Gregory; Barbagli, Federico; Carlson, Christopher; Moll, Fredric

    2008-07-01

    To describe a novel flexible robotic system for performing retrograde intrarenal surgery. Remote robotic flexible ureterorenoscopy was performed bilaterally in 5 acute swine (10 kidneys). A novel 14F robotic catheter system, which manipulated a passive optical fiberscope mounted on a remote catheter manipulator was used. The technical feasibility, efficiency, and reproducibility of accessing all calices were assessed. Additionally, laser lithotripsy of calculi and laser ablation of renal papillae were performed. The robotic catheter system could be introduced de novo in eight ureters; two ureters required balloon dilation. The ureteroscope could be successfully manipulated remotely into 83 (98%) of the 85 calices. The time required to inspect all calices within a given kidney decreased with experience from 15 minutes in the first kidney to 49 seconds in the last (mean 4.6 minutes). On a visual analog scale (1, worst to 10, best), the reproducibility of caliceal access was rated at 8, and instrument tip stability was rated at 10. A renal pelvic perforation constituted the solitary complication. Histologic examination of the ureter showed changes consistent with acute dilation without areas of necrosis. A novel robotic catheter system is described for performing retrograde ureterorenoscopy. The potential advantages compared with conventional manual flexible ureterorenoscopy include an increased range of motion, instrument stability, and improved ergonomics. Ongoing refinement is likely to expand the role of this technology in retrograde intrarenal surgery in the near future.

  15. WD60/FAP163 is a dynein intermediate chain required for retrograde intraflagellar transport in cilia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel-King, Ramila S.; Gilberti, Renée M.; Hom, Erik F. Y.; King, Stephen M.

    2013-01-01

    Retrograde intraflagellar transport (IFT) is required for assembly of cilia. We identify a Chlamydomonas flagellar protein (flagellar-associated protein 163 [FAP163]) as being closely related to the D1bIC(FAP133) intermediate chain (IC) of the dynein that powers this movement. Biochemical analysis revealed that FAP163 is present in the flagellar matrix and is actively trafficked by IFT. Furthermore, FAP163 copurified with D1bIC(FAP133) and the LC8 dynein light chain, indicating that it is an integral component of the retrograde IFT dynein. To assess the functional role of FAP163, we generated an RNA interference knockdown of the orthologous protein (WD60) in planaria. The Smed-wd60(RNAi) animals had a severe ciliary assembly defect that dramatically compromised whole-organism motility. Most cilia were present as short stubs that had accumulated large quantities of IFT particle–like material between the doublet microtubules and the membrane. The few remaining approximately full-length cilia had a chaotic beat with a frequency reduced from 24 to ∼10 Hz. Thus WD60/FAP163 is a dynein IC that is absolutely required for retrograde IFT and ciliary assembly. PMID:23864713

  16. Mozart, Mozart Rhythm and Retrograde Mozart Effects: Evidences from Behaviours and Neurobiology Bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yingshou; Xia, Yang; Kendrick, Keith; Liu, Xiuxiu; Wang, Maosen; Wu, Dan; Yang, Hua; Jing, Wei; Guo, Daqing; Yao, Dezhong

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenal finding that listening to Mozart K.448 enhances performance on spatial tasks has motivated a continuous surge in promoting music education over the past two decades. But there have been inconsistent reports in previous studies of the Mozart effect. Here conducted was a systematic study, with Mozart and retrograde Mozart music, Mozart music rhythm and pitch, behaviours and neurobiology tests, rats and humans subjects. We show that while the Mozart K.448 has positive cognitive effects, the retrograde version has a negative effect on rats’ performance in the Morris water maze test and on human subjects’ performance in the paper folding and cutting test and the pencil-and-paper maze test. Such findings are further confirmed by subsequent immunohistochemical analyses in rats on the neurogenesis and protein levels of BDNF and its receptor, TrkB. Furthermore, when the rhythm and pitch of the normal and retrograde Mozart music are manipulated independently, the learning performance of the rats in the Morris water maze test indicated that rhythm is a crucial element in producing the behavioural effects. These findings suggest that the nature of Mozart effect is the Mozart rhythm effect, and indicate that different music may have quite different to opposite effects. Further study on rhythm effect may provide clues to understand the common basis over animals from rats to humans. PMID:26795072

  17. Regulation of mitochondria-dynactin interaction and mitochondrial retrograde transport in axons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drerup, Catherine M; Herbert, Amy L; Monk, Kelly R; Nechiporuk, Alex V

    2017-04-17

    Mitochondrial transport in axons is critical for neural circuit health and function. While several proteins have been found that modulate bidirectional mitochondrial motility, factors that regulate unidirectional mitochondrial transport have been harder to identify. In a genetic screen, we found a zebrafish strain in which mitochondria fail to attach to the dynein retrograde motor. This strain carries a loss-of-function mutation in actr10 , a member of the dynein-associated complex dynactin. The abnormal axon morphology and mitochondrial retrograde transport defects observed in actr10 mutants are distinct from dynein and dynactin mutant axonal phenotypes. In addition, Actr10 lacking the dynactin binding domain maintains its ability to bind mitochondria, arguing for a role for Actr10 in dynactin-mitochondria interaction. Finally, genetic interaction studies implicated Drp1 as a partner in Actr10-dependent mitochondrial retrograde transport. Together, this work identifies Actr10 as a factor necessary for dynactin-mitochondria interaction, enhancing our understanding of how mitochondria properly localize in axons.

  18. Mozart, Mozart Rhythm and Retrograde Mozart Effects: Evidences from Behaviours and Neurobiology Bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yingshou; Xia, Yang; Kendrick, Keith; Liu, Xiuxiu; Wang, Maosen; Wu, Dan; Yang, Hua; Jing, Wei; Guo, Daqing; Yao, Dezhong

    2016-01-21

    The phenomenal finding that listening to Mozart K.448 enhances performance on spatial tasks has motivated a continuous surge in promoting music education over the past two decades. But there have been inconsistent reports in previous studies of the Mozart effect. Here conducted was a systematic study, with Mozart and retrograde Mozart music, Mozart music rhythm and pitch, behaviours and neurobiology tests, rats and humans subjects. We show that while the Mozart K.448 has positive cognitive effects, the retrograde version has a negative effect on rats' performance in the Morris water maze test and on human subjects' performance in the paper folding and cutting test and the pencil-and-paper maze test. Such findings are further confirmed by subsequent immunohistochemical analyses in rats on the neurogenesis and protein levels of BDNF and its receptor, TrkB. Furthermore, when the rhythm and pitch of the normal and retrograde Mozart music are manipulated independently, the learning performance of the rats in the Morris water maze test indicated that rhythm is a crucial element in producing the behavioural effects. These findings suggest that the nature of Mozart effect is the Mozart rhythm effect, and indicate that different music may have quite different to opposite effects. Further study on rhythm effect may provide clues to understand the common basis over animals from rats to humans.

  19. Telescopic Corsair in 5F Guidion for Retrograde Recanalization of Complex Chronic Total Occlusions (CTOs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmers, Pieter-Jan; Maeremans, Joren; Meyer-Gessner, Markus; Bataille, Yoann; Dens, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Case series Patient: Male, 81 • Female, 72 • Male, 58 Final Diagnosis: CTO Symptoms: Angina pectoris Medication: — Clinical Procedure: PCI Specialty: Cardiology Objective: Unusual setting of medical care Background: Retrograde advancement of microcatheters through septal/epicardial connectors can be challenging. Although several tricks might help to do so (e.g., balloon trap of retro wire in second guiding, balloon trap of retro wire in native coronary artery, and use of antegrade extension to approximate the antegrade conduit to the retrograde gear), these tricks cannot always be applied, especially in patients with poor access. Also, puncturing, knuckling, and crossing of the distal CTO cap (or the aorta as described in 1 of the cases) sometimes needs a lot of backup of the microcatheter. Case Report: We describe 3 cases in which we used a novel telescopic technique with 5F Guidion (IMDS®) supported retrograde Corsair (Asahi®) advancement in complex CTO lesions. Conclusions: The telescopic Corsair in 5F Guidion may offer the support needed to end successfully in these situations. PMID:28456814

  20. A modified technique of retrograde intubation dacryocystorhinostomy for proximal canalicular obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Trakos

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Nikolaos Trakos, Emmanouil Mavrikakis, Kostas G Boboridis, Marselos Ralidis, George Dimitriadis, Ioannis MavrikakisOculoplastic Service, Metropolitan Hospital, Athens, GreecePurpose: To describe a modification of the retrograde intubation dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR in patients with proximal canalicular obstruction.Materials and methods: Interventional case report of a 43-year-old female with a nine-month history of left epiphora following a road traffic accident involving the proximal lower canaliculus. An external DCR approach was performed. Following the creation of a lower canalicular pseudopunctum, the O’Donoghue silicone stent was introduced through the common ostium, out through the pseudopunctum of the lower canaliculus, and returned through the punctum of the normal upper canaliculus down through the common ostium into the nose.Results: The patient experienced complete resolution of symptoms and on her last follow-up, two years later, her lower canaliculus was patent to syringing.Conclusion: This modification of the retrograde intubation DCR is an effective technique which decreases the intraoperative time needed to insert the tubes and minimises further trauma to the newly created punctal area.Keywords: retrograde dacryocystorhinostomy, proximal canalicular obstruction, midcanalicular obstruction, conjuctivodacryocystorhinostomy

  1. MRI-guided percutaneous retrograde drilling of osteochondritis dissecans of the talus: a feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerimaa, Pekka; Ojala, Risto; Markkanen, Paula; Tervonen, Osmo; Blanco Sequeiros, Roberto [Oulu University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Oulu (Finland); Sinikumpu, Juha-Jaakko; Korhonen, Jussi [Oulu University Hospital, Department of Paediatric Surgery, Oulu (Finland); Hyvoenen, Pekka [Oulu University Hospital, Department of Surgery, Oulu (Finland)

    2014-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of MRI guidance for percutaneous retrograde drilling in the treatment of osteochondritis dissecans of the talus (OCDT). Four patients, one juvenile and three adults, with one OCDT lesion each and persisting ankle pain after conservative treatment, were treated with MRI-guided retrograde drilling. All lesions were stable and located in the middle or posterior medial third of the talar dome. Pain relief and the ability to return to normal activities were assessed during clinical follow-up. MRI and plain film radiographs were used for imaging follow-up. Technical success was 100 % with no complications and with no damage to the overlying cartilage. All patients experienced some clinical benefit, although only one had complete resolution of pain and one had a relapse leading to surgical treatment. Changes in the pathological imaging findings were mostly very slight during the follow-up period. MRI guidance seems accurate, safe and technically feasible for retrograde drilling of OCDT. Larger series are needed to reliably assess its clinical value. (orig.)

  2. Neuronal retrograde transport of Borna disease virus occurs in signalling endosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlier, Caroline M; Debaisieux, Solène; Foret, Charlotte; Thouard, Anne; Schiavo, Giampietro; Gonzalez-Dunia, Daniel; Malnou, Cécile E

    2016-12-01

    Long-range axonal retrograde transport is a key mechanism for the cellular dissemination of neuroinvasive viruses, such as Borna disease virus (BDV), for which entry and egress sites are usually distant from the nucleus, where viral replication takes place. Although BDV is known to disseminate very efficiently in neurons, both in vivo and in primary cultures, the modalities of its axonal transport are still poorly characterized. In this work, we combined different methodological approaches, such as confocal microscopy and biochemical purification of endosomes, to study BDV retrograde transport. We demonstrate that BDV ribonucleoparticles (composed of the viral genomic RNA, nucleoprotein and phosphoprotein), as well as the matrix protein, are transported towards the nucleus into endocytic carriers. These specialized organelles, called signalling endosomes, are notably used for the retrograde transport of neurotrophins and activated growth factor receptors. Signalling endosomes have a neutral luminal pH and thereby offer protection against degradation during long-range transport. This particularity could allow the viral particles to be delivered intact to the cell body of neurons, avoiding their premature release in the cytoplasm.

  3. Geldanamycin Enhances Retrograde Transport of Shiga Toxin in HEp-2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyve Lingelem, Anne Berit; Hjelseth, Ieva Ailte; Simm, Roger; Torgersen, Maria Lyngaas; Sandvig, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    The heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibitor geldanamycin (GA) has been shown to alter endosomal sorting, diverting cargo destined for the recycling pathway into the lysosomal pathway. Here we investigated whether GA also affects the sorting of cargo into the retrograde pathway from endosomes to the Golgi apparatus. As a model cargo we used the bacterial toxin Shiga toxin, which exploits the retrograde pathway as an entry route to the cytosol. Indeed, GA treatment of HEp-2 cells strongly increased the Shiga toxin transport to the Golgi apparatus. The enhanced Golgi transport was not due to increased endocytic uptake of the toxin or perturbed recycling, suggesting that GA selectively enhances endosomal sorting into the retrograde pathway. Moreover, GA activated p38 and both inhibitors of p38 or its substrate MK2 partially counteracted the GA-induced increase in Shiga toxin transport. Thus, our data suggest that GA-induced p38 and MK2 activation participate in the increased Shiga toxin transport to the Golgi apparatus.

  4. Gynecologic-tract sparing extra peritoneal retrograde radical cystectomy with neobladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagdeesh N. Kulkarni

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We report on a series of female patients with transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder who underwent extraperitoneal retrograde radical cystectomy sparing the female reproductive organs with neobladder creation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 14 female patients between the ages of 45 and 72 years who underwent gynecologic-tract sparing cystectomy (GTSC with neobladder between 1997 and 2002 were retrospectively reviewed. Our surgical technique is also described. Radical cystectomy is accomplished by a retrograde method sparing the uterus, adnexa, vagina and distal urethra. An orthotopic neobladder was constructed using small bowel or sigmoid colon, brought extraperitoneally, and anastomosed to the distal urethra. RESULTS: Operating time ranged from 4.5 to six hours with a mean of 5.3 hours. Ten patients were able to void satisfactorily while four required self-catheterization for complete emptying of the bladder. Seven patients were continent day and night and another 7 reported varying degrees of daytime and nighttime incontinence. One patient died of metastases and another of pelvic recurrence. There were no urethral recurrences. Patient satisfaction with the procedure was high. CONCLUSIONS: Gynecologic-tract sparing cystectomy with orthotopic neobladder is a viable alternative in female patients with muscle invasive traditional cell carcinoma of the bladder, providing oncological safety with improved quality of life. Our extraperitoneal technique, which is an extension of our successful experience with retrograde extraperitoneal radical cystectomy in men, minimizes intraoperative complications and simplifies the management of post-operative morbidity with the neobladder.

  5. Pseudotyped Lentiviral Vectors for Retrograde Gene Delivery into Target Brain Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenta Kobayashi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Gene transfer through retrograde axonal transport of viral vectors offers a substantial advantage for analyzing roles of specific neuronal pathways or cell types forming complex neural networks. This genetic approach may also be useful in gene therapy trials by enabling delivery of transgenes into a target brain region distant from the injection site of the vectors. Pseudotyping of a lentiviral vector based on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 with various fusion envelope glycoproteins composed of different combinations of rabies virus glycoprotein (RV-G and vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV-G enhances the efficiency of retrograde gene transfer in both rodent and nonhuman primate brains. The most recently developed lentiviral vector is a pseudotype with fusion glycoprotein type E (FuG-E, which demonstrates highly efficient retrograde gene transfer in the brain. The FuG-E–pseudotyped vector permits powerful experimental strategies for more precisely investigating the mechanisms underlying various brain functions. It also contributes to the development of new gene therapy approaches for neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease, by delivering genes required for survival and protection into specific neuronal populations. In this review article, we report the properties of the FuG-E–pseudotyped vector, and we describe the application of the vector to neural circuit analysis and the potential use of the FuG-E vector in gene therapy for Parkinson’s disease.

  6. Pseudotyped Lentiviral Vectors for Retrograde Gene Delivery into Target Brain Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kenta; Inoue, Ken-Ichi; Tanabe, Soshi; Kato, Shigeki; Takada, Masahiko; Kobayashi, Kazuto

    2017-01-01

    Gene transfer through retrograde axonal transport of viral vectors offers a substantial advantage for analyzing roles of specific neuronal pathways or cell types forming complex neural networks. This genetic approach may also be useful in gene therapy trials by enabling delivery of transgenes into a target brain region distant from the injection site of the vectors. Pseudotyping of a lentiviral vector based on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) with various fusion envelope glycoproteins composed of different combinations of rabies virus glycoprotein (RV-G) and vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV-G) enhances the efficiency of retrograde gene transfer in both rodent and nonhuman primate brains. The most recently developed lentiviral vector is a pseudotype with fusion glycoprotein type E (FuG-E), which demonstrates highly efficient retrograde gene transfer in the brain. The FuG-E-pseudotyped vector permits powerful experimental strategies for more precisely investigating the mechanisms underlying various brain functions. It also contributes to the development of new gene therapy approaches for neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, by delivering genes required for survival and protection into specific neuronal populations. In this review article, we report the properties of the FuG-E-pseudotyped vector, and we describe the application of the vector to neural circuit analysis and the potential use of the FuG-E vector in gene therapy for Parkinson's disease.

  7. Hippocampus and Retrograde Amnesia in the Rat Model: A Modest Proposal for the Situation of Systems Consolidation

    OpenAIRE

    Sutherland, Robert J.; Sparks, Fraser; Lehmann, Hugo

    2010-01-01

    The properties of retrograde amnesia after damage to the hippocampus have been explicated with some success using a rat model of human medial temporal lobe amnesia. We review the results of this experimental work with rats focusing on several areas of consensus in this growing literature. We evaluate the theoretically significant hypothesis that hippocampal retrograde amnesia normally exhibits a temporal gradient, affecting recent, but sparing remote memories. Surprisingly, the evidence does ...

  8. Routine Use of Surgical Retrograde Transtibial Endovascular Approach for Failed Attempts at Antegrade Recanalization of Chronic Peripheral Artery Total Occlusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, GangZhu; Zhang, FuXian, E-mail: gangzhuliang@126.com; Luo, XiaoYun; Zhang, ChangMing; Feng, YaPing; Niu, LuYuan; Zhang, Huan; Hu, Lu; Zhao, Hui; Cheng, Long; Zhang, MingYi [Capital Medical University, Department of Vascular Surgery, Beijing Shijitan Hospital (China)

    2016-12-15

    PurposeOur aim was to describe the technical aspects and clinical outcomes of an open surgical approach to retrograde transtibial endovascular therapy for recanalization of chronic total occlusions (CTOs) of peripheral arteries because of inability to acquire antegrade intravascular access across the occlusion.Materials and MethodsBetween January 2011 and May 2014, conventional antegrade revascularization failed in 15 limbs of 15 patients (11 males, 4 females) with complex CTOs. The mean age of the patients was 74 years (range 48–83 years). Five patients had severe claudication (Rutherford Category 3), and 10 patients had critical limb-threatening ischemia (Rutherford Categories 4–5). For each of these cases of antegrade failure, an open surgical exposure of the tibial or dorsalis pedis artery was used to allow a safe retrograde transtibial endovascular approach to recanalize the CTO.ResultsSurgical retrograde access from the tibial artery was achieved successfully in 14 of the 15 patients. In the 14 successful retrograde endovascular approaches, surgical retrograde transtibial access was achieved from the dorsalis pedis artery in 8 patients and from the posterior tibial artery in 6. The average time to obtain retrograde access was 5 min (range 2–11 min). No stenosis or occlusion occurred in the tibial or dorsalis pedis arteries used for the retrograde access sites during follow-up.ConclusionsRoutine surgical exposure can be a safe and an effective method for retrograde transtibial access to the more proximal occluded arterial segments in selected patients with CTO.

  9. Retrograde signalling caused by heritable mitochondrial dysfunction is partially mediated by ANAC017 and improves plant performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Aken, Olivier; Ford, Ethan; Lister, Ryan; Huang, Shaobai; Millar, A Harvey

    2016-11-01

    Mitochondria are crucial for plant viability and are able to communicate information on their functional status to the cellular nucleus via retrograde signalling, thereby affecting gene expression. It is currently unclear if retrograde signalling in response to constitutive mitochondrial biogenesis defects is mediated by the same pathways as those triggered during acute mitochondrial dysfunction. Furthermore, it is unknown if retrograde signalling can effectively improve plant performance when mitochondrial function is constitutively impaired. Here we show that retrograde signalling in mutants defective in mitochondrial proteins RNA polymerase rpotmp or prohibitin atphb3 can be suppressed by knocking out the transcription factor ANAC017. Genome-wide RNA-seq expression analysis revealed that ANAC017 is almost solely responsible for the most dramatic transcriptional changes common to rpotmp and atphb3 mutants, regulating classical marker genes such as alternative oxidase 1a (AOX1a) and also previously-uncharacterised DUF295 genes that appear to be new retrograde markers. In contrast, ANAC017 does not regulate intra-mitochondrial gene expression or transcriptional changes unique to either rpotmp or atphb3 genotype, suggesting the existence of currently unknown signalling cascades. The data show that ANAC017 function extends beyond common retrograde transcriptional responses and affects downstream protein abundance and enzyme activity of alternative oxidase, as well as steady-state energy metabolism in atphb3 plants. Furthermore, detailed growth analysis revealed that ANAC017-dependent retrograde signalling provides benefits for growth and productivity in plants with mitochondrial defects. In conclusion, ANAC017 plays a key role in both biogenic and operational mitochondrial retrograde signalling, and improves plant performance when mitochondrial function is constitutively impaired. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Retrograde portal vein flow and transarterial chemoembolization in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma - a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirstein, Martha M; Voigtländer, Torsten; Schweitzer, Nora; Gebel, Michael; Hinrichs, Jan B; Rodt, Thomas; Manns, Michael P; Wacker, Frank; Potthoff, Andrej; Vogel, Arndt

    2017-12-01

    Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is the most common treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In case of portal vein (PV) flow diversion, outcome may be compromised due to a decompensation of hepatic perfusion following arterial embolization. The aim of this study was to determine whether TACE in patients with retrograde PV flow results in a stronger deterioration of liver function and a poorer survival compared to patients with orthograde PV flow. A database of 606 patients treated with TACE between 2000 and 2015 at Hannover Medical School was screened for Doppler ultrasound (US) findings on PV flow prior to TACE. A total of 407 patients were identified, among which 32 patients had retrograde PV flow. Patients with retrograde PV flow had significantly more often liver cirrhosis with advanced hepatic dysfunction (93.5% vs. 72.7%, p flow, respectively (HR 1.27, p > .05). Patients with retrograde PV flow showed a trend for a shorter OS when matched for cirrhosis (12 vs. 21months, HR 1.51), Child-Pugh score/albumin-bilirubin grade (12 vs. 15 months). There was no difference in the deterioration of liver function after repeated treatments between both groups as assessed by increase of CP points and ALBI grade. Retrograde PV flow alone was not a significant prognostic marker, but patients with retrograde PV flow and advanced liver cirrhosis treated with TACE had a very short survival. Assessment of PV flow prior TACE may be helpful in borderline cases considered for TACE.

  11. Transcending Transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeneborn, Dennis; Trittin, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – Extant research on corporate social responsibility (CSR) communication primarily relies on a transmission model of communication that treats organizations and communication as distinct phenomena. This approach has been criticized for neglecting the formative role of communication...... in the emergence of organizations. This paper seeks to propose to reconceptualize CSR communication by drawing on the “communication constitutes organizations” (CCO) perspective. Design/methodology/approach – This is a conceptual paper that explores the implications of switching from an instrumental...... to a constitutive notion of communication. Findings – The study brings forth four main findings: from the CCO view, organizations are constituted by several, partly dissonant, and potentially contradictory communicative practices. From that viewpoint, the potential impact of CSR communication becomes a matter...

  12. Transvenous retrograde nidus sclerotherapy under controlled hypotension (TRENSH): hemodynamic analysis and concept validation in a pig arteriovenous malformation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massoud, Tarik F

    2013-08-01

    Transvenous retrograde nidus sclerotherapy under controlled hypotension (TRENSH) is a proposed novel concept for endovascular treatment of cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). To assess the experimental hemodynamic feasibility of TRENSH in a pig AVM model. We surgically constructed carotid-jugular fistula-type AVM models in 8 pigs. In 5 pigs (group 1) we hemodynamically assessed the AVM through the main arterial feeder (AF) and draining vein (DV) at systemic normotension (Syst(norm)). We then performed retrograde nidus angiography through the DV at progressively deeper levels of hemorrhagic systemic hypotension (Syst(hypo)), and graded and correlated these angiograms with the degree of Syst(hypo). In another 3 pigs (group 2) we correlated the effects of temporary balloon occlusion of the main AF with the angiographic extent of retrograde nidus filling. In group 1 pigs, the drop in AF pressure correlated strongly (r(2) = 0.93-0.99) with the drop in DV pressure at progressively deeper Syst(hypo). Minimal retrograde nidus filling occurred at Syst(norm). We observed progressively greater extents of retrograde nidus filling as the transnidal pressure gradients fell with deeper Syst(hypo). Near-complete retrograde permeation of the nidus was possible as the transnidal gradients approached 0 mm Hg. As more of the nidus filled, its concurrent emptying was documented through a greater number of DVs. Temporary AF occlusion resulted in improved retrograde nidus filling in all group 2 pigs. Endovascular TRENSH appears feasible in a pig AVM model. Further experimental investigations of TRENSH are necessary to assess its full potential before future clinical applications.

  13. MRI-guided percutaneous retrograde drilling of osteochondritis dissecans of the knee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojala, Risto; Kerimaa, Pekka; Tervonen, Osmo; Blanco-Sequeiros, Roberto [Oulu University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Oulu (Finland); Lakovaara, Martti [Oulu Deaconess Institute, Department of Surgery, Oulu (Finland); Hyvoenen, Pekka; Lehenkari, Petri [Oulu University Hospital, Department of Surgery, Oulu (Finland)

    2011-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a new method for osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) treatment. Ten OCD lesions of the knee unresponsive to conservative management were treated with MRI-guided percutaneous retrograde drilling to reduce symptoms and promote ossification of the lesion. All lesions were located in distal femoral condyles. Only stable OCD lesions were included (preprocedural MRI grade I or II). Five lesions were of juvenile type and five lesions were of adult type OCD. All the patients had severe limitation of activity due to the OCD-related pain. By using a 0.23 T open MRI scanner and spinal anesthesia, percutaneous retrograde drilling of the OCD lesions was performed (3 mm cylindrical drill, one to three channels). Optical tracking and MRI imaging were used to guide instruments during the procedure. Mean postprocedural clinical follow-up time was 3 years. Eight patients had a post-procedural follow-up MRI within 1 year. All the OCD lesions were located and drilled using the 0.23 T open MRI scanner without procedural complications. All the patients had pain relief, mean visual analog score (VAS) declined from 6 to 2. Follow-up MRI showed ossification in all lesions. Eight patients could return to normal physical activity with no or minor effect on function (Hughston score 3-4). Treatment failed in two cases where the continuation of symptoms led to arthroscopy and transchondral fixation. MR-guided retrograde OCD lesion drilling is an accurate, feasible, and effective cartilage-sparing techique in OCD management. (orig.)

  14. Impairment of retrograde neuronal transport in oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy demonstrated by molecular imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawid Schellingerhout

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The purpose of our study was to utilize a molecular imaging technology based on the retrograde axonal transport mechanism (neurography, to determine if oxaliplatin-induced neurotoxicity affects retrograde axonal transport in an animal model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mice (n = 8/group were injected with a cumulative dose of 30 mg/kg oxaliplatin (sufficient to induce neurotoxicity or dextrose control injections. Intramuscular injections of Tetanus Toxin C-fragment (TTc labeled with Alexa 790 fluorescent dye were done (15 ug/20 uL in the left calf muscles, and in vivo fluorescent imaging performed (0-60 min at baseline, and then weekly for 5 weeks, followed by 2-weekly imaging out to 9 weeks. Tissues were harvested for immunohistochemical analysis. RESULTS: With sham treatment, TTc transport causes fluorescent signal intensity over the thoracic spine to increase from 0 to 60 minutes after injection. On average, fluorescence signal increased 722%+/-117% (Mean+/-SD from 0 to 60 minutes. Oxaliplatin treated animals had comparable transport at baseline (787%+/-140%, but transport rapidly decreased through the course of the study, falling to 363%+/-88%, 269%+/-96%, 191%+/-58%, 121%+/-39%, 75%+/-21% with each successive week and stabilizing around 57% (+/-15% at 7 weeks. Statistically significant divergence occurred at approximately 3 weeks (p≤0.05, linear mixed-effects regression model. Quantitative immuno-fluorescence histology with a constant cutoff threshold showed reduced TTc in the spinal cord at 7 weeks for treated animals versus controls (5.2 Arbitrary Units +/-0.52 vs 7.1 AU +/-1.38, p0.56, T-test. CONCLUSION: We show-for the first time to our knowledge-that neurographic in vivo molecular imaging can demonstrate imaging changes in a model of oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy. Impaired retrograde neural transport is suggested to be an important part of the pathophysiology of oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy.

  15. Annexin A1 and A2: roles in retrograde trafficking of Shiga toxin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionel Tcatchoff

    Full Text Available Annexins constitute a family of calcium and membrane binding proteins. As annexin A1 and A2 have previously been linked to various membrane trafficking events, we initiated this study to investigate the role of these annexins in the uptake and intracellular transport of the bacterial Shiga toxin (Stx and the plant toxin ricin. Once endocytosed, both toxins are retrogradely transported from endosomes to the Golgi apparatus and the endoplasmic reticulum before being targeted to the cytosol where they inhibit protein synthesis. This study was performed to obtain new information both about toxin transport and the function of annexin A1 and annexin A2. Our data show that depletion of annexin A1 or A2 alters the retrograde transport of Stx but not ricin, without affecting toxin binding or internalization. Knockdown of annexin A1 increases Golgi transport of Stx, whereas knockdown of annexin A2 slightly decreases the same transport step. Interestingly, annexin A1 was found in proximity to cytoplasmic phospholipase A2 (cPLA(2, and the basal as well as the increased Golgi transport of Stx upon annexin A1 knockdown is dependent on cPLA(2 activity. In conclusion, annexin A1 and A2 have different roles in Stx transport to the trans-Golgi network. The most prominent role is played by annexin A1 which normally works as a negative regulator of retrograde transport from the endosomes to the Golgi network, most likely by complex formation and inhibition of cPLA(2.

  16. Aesthetic correction of severe cicatricial upper-eyelid ectropion with a retrograde postauricular island flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Siqi; Fan, Jincai; Chen, Wenlin; Yang, Zengjie; Yin, Zhuming

    2013-02-01

    Cicatricial ectropion of the upper eyelid is a serious problem because of the association with exposure keratitis and ulceration. Traditional surgical treatment usually requires skin grafts or local flaps depending on the severity of the defect. However, outcomes have usually been discouraging, especially in terms of cosmetic appearance. From February 2000 to March 2012, a total of 12 upper eyelids with severe cicatricial ectropion were treated with a retrograde postauricular island flap and were included in this study. Based on the pedicle of the parietal branch of the superficial temporal artery and its choke anastomoses to the posterior auricular artery, the retrograde postauricular island flap was harvested with a supra-auricular incision down to the non-hair-bearing side skin of the postauricular region. The flap was then transferred to the upper-lid lesion by passing it through a subcutaneous tunnel between the pedicle base and the upper-lid lesion. The donor site was directly closed by advancing the postauricular scalp flap into the sulcus. The largest flap was 6.5 × 3.5 cm(2). After 6-12 months of follow-up, flaps survived with good color, texture, and contour. The eyelids moved freely without recurrence of ectropion. The donor site had an inconspicuous scar. No major complications occurred. The retrograde postauricular island flap can be a safe, simple, and effective procedure for aesthetic correction of severe cicatricial upper-eyelid ectropion with few complications and little donor-site morbidity. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  17. Retrograde intrarenal surgery and micro-percutaneous nephrolithotomy for renal lithiasis smaller than 2 CM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepeda, M; Amón, J H; Mainez, J A; de la Cruz, B; Rodríguez, V; Alonso, D; Martínez-Sagarra, J M

    2017-10-01

    Microperc is the upgraded form of percutaneous nephrolithotomy miniaturization. The aim of this study is to compare prospectively microperc and retrograde intrarenal surgery for the treatment of renal stones smaller than 2 cm. A comparative prospective study of both techniques was carried out between January 2014 and June 2015. Thirty-five patients were divided in two groups: Group A, 17 patients treated by retrograde intrarenal surgery and Group B, 18 patients treated by microperc. Stone clearance was assessed using CT scan 3 months after surgery. Both groups were statistically comparable as demographic variables and stone size was similar (16.76 mm Group A vs 15.72 mm Group B). Success rate, hospital stay and JJ stenting were similar for both groups. There was no statistically significant difference regarding post-operatory complications: 17.64% Group A vs 5.56% Group B (p=0,062), all of them Clavien I and II. Surgical time was statistically different (63.82 min Group A vs 103.24 min Group B) as well as hemoglobin drop (0.62 g/dl Group A and 1.89 g/dl Group B). Microperc is an effective and safe procedure for the treatment of renal lithiasis smaller than 2 cm, which makes it a good alternative to retrograde intrarenal surgery for this stone size. However, more prospective studies that include a larger cohort are necessary to confirm our results. Copyright © 2017 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Diagnostic and treatment of retrograde ejaculation as a manifestation of urogenital form of autonomic diabetic polyneuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Gennadyevich Kurbatov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Retrograde ejaculation in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus is a complication of autonomic neuropathy that causes excretory infertility. It can be partial (reduction of ejaculate or total (absence of ejaculate and occurs in 10%–20% of men with type 1 diabetes mellitus.Aim. The aim of the study was to assess the effectiveness of a new endoscopic method for retrograde ejaculation correction and antegrade ejaculation restoration.Materials and methods. We included 30 patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus who had spermatozoa present in their post-orgasmic urine and ultrasonographic evidence of impaired or absent bladder neck closure. The mean age of participants was 32 (30–35 years, mean duration of diabetes was 17 (12–22 years and mean preoperative glycated haemoglobin level was 7.4% (6.9%–8.0%. All participants had total retrograde ejaculation. We used conventional irrigated urethrocystoscopy under local anaesthesia. During urethroscopy, bladder neck gaping was observed in all cases. Biocompatible material was injected at three points under the mucous layer of the posterior urethra, reaching the closing of the opposite edges of the urethra. A spermiogram was examined 1 week after the operation.Results. Restoration of antegrade ejaculation was achieved for 22 patients (73%, and the effects persisted for a mean of 7 (2–12 months. The spouses of four men became pregnant after surgery. In one case, the pregnancy resulted in a spontaneous abortion at gestational week 8, but the other three cases continued normally.Conclusion.This new method provides a highly effective means of restoring the physiological passage of the ejaculate. The operation is a low-invasive endoscopic procedure that does not disrupt urination, and it is possible to receive ejaculate of sufficient.

  19. Adeno-associated virus type 6 is retrogradely transported in the non-human primate brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Sebastian, W; Samaranch, L; Heller, G; Kells, A P; Bringas, J; Pivirotto, P; Forsayeth, J; Bankiewicz, K S

    2013-12-01

    We recently demonstrated that axonal transport of adeno-associated virus (AAV) is serotype-dependent. Thus, AAV serotype 2 (AAV2) is anterogradely transported (e.g., from cell bodies to nerve terminals) in both rat and non-human primate (NHP) brain. In contrast, AAV serotype 6 (AAV6) is retrogradely transported from terminals to neuronal cell bodies in the rat brain. However, the directionality of axonal transport of AAV6 in the NHP brain has not been determined. In this study, two Cynomolgus macaques received an infusion of AAV6 harboring green fluorescent protein (GFP) into the striatum (caudate and putamen) by magnetic resonance (MR)-guided convection-enhanced delivery. One month after infusion, immunohistochemical staining of brain sections revealed a striatal GFP expression that corresponded well with MR signal observed during gene delivery. As shown previously in rats, GFP expression was detected throughout the prefrontal, frontal and parietal cortex, as well as the substantia nigra pars compacta and thalamus, indicating retrograde transport of the vector in NHP. AAV6-GFP preferentially transduced neurons, although a few astrocytes were also transduced. Transduction of non-neuronal cells in the brain was associated with the upregulation of the major histocompatibility complex-II and lymphocytic infiltration as previously observed with AAV1 and AAV9. This contrasts with highly specific neuronal transduction in the rat brain. Retrograde axonal transport of AAV6 from a single striatal infusion permits efficient transduction of cortical neurons in significant tissue volumes that otherwise would be difficult to achieve.

  20. Alcohol-induced retrograde memory impairment in rats: prevention by caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinetta, Michael J; Woodlee, Martin T; Feinberg, Leila M; Stroud, Chris; Schallert, Kellan; Cormack, Lawrence K; Schallert, Timothy

    2008-12-01

    Ethanol and caffeine are two of the most widely consumed drugs in the world, often used in the same setting. Animal models may help to understand the conditions under which incidental memories formed just before ethanol intoxication might be lost or become difficult to retrieve. Ethanol-induced retrograde amnesia was investigated using a new odor-recognition test. Rats thoroughly explored a wood bead taken from the cage of another rat, and habituated to this novel odor (N1) over three trials. Immediately following habituation, rats received saline, 25 mg/kg pentylenetetrazol (a seizure-producing agent known to cause retrograde amnesia) to validate the test, 1.0 g/kg ethanol, or 3.0 g/kg ethanol. The next day, they were presented again with N1 and also a bead from a new rat's cage (N2). Rats receiving saline or the lower dose of ethanol showed overnight memory for N1, indicated by preferential exploration of N2 over N1. Rats receiving pentylenetetrazol or the higher dose of ethanol appeared not to remember N1, in that they showed equal exploration of N1 and N2. Caffeine (5 mg/kg), delivered either 1 h after the higher dose of ethanol or 20 min prior to habituation to N1, negated ethanol-induced impairment of memory for N1. A combination of a phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor and an adenosine A(2A) antagonist, mimicking two major mechanisms of action of caffeine, likewise prevented the memory impairment, though either drug alone had no such effect. Binge alcohol can induce retrograde, caffeine-reversible disruption of social odor memory storage or recall.

  1. Retrograde Transport from Early Endosomes to the trans-Golgi Network Enables Membrane Wrapping and Egress of Vaccinia Virus Virions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivan, Gilad; Weisberg, Andrea S; Americo, Jeffrey L; Moss, Bernard

    2016-10-01

    The anterograde pathway, from the endoplasmic reticulum through the trans-Golgi network to the cell surface, is utilized by trans-membrane and secretory proteins. The retrograde pathway, which directs traffic in the opposite direction, is used following endocytosis of exogenous molecules and recycling of membrane proteins. Microbes exploit both routes: viruses typically use the anterograde pathway for envelope formation prior to exiting the cell, whereas ricin and Shiga-like toxins and some nonenveloped viruses use the retrograde pathway for cell entry. Mining a human genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi) screen revealed a need for multiple retrograde pathway components for cell-to-cell spread of vaccinia virus. We confirmed and extended these results while discovering that retrograde trafficking was required for virus egress rather than entry. Retro-2, a specific retrograde trafficking inhibitor of protein toxins, potently prevented spread of vaccinia virus as well as monkeypox virus, a human pathogen. Electron and confocal microscopy studies revealed that Retro-2 prevented wrapping of virions with an additional double-membrane envelope that enables microtubular transport, exocytosis, and actin polymerization. The viral B5 and F13 protein components of this membrane, which are required for wrapping, normally colocalize in the trans-Golgi network. However, only B5 traffics through the secretory pathway, suggesting that F13 uses another route to the trans-Golgi network. The retrograde route was demonstrated by finding that F13 was largely confined to early endosomes and failed to colocalize with B5 in the presence of Retro-2. Thus, vaccinia virus makes novel use of the retrograde transport system for formation of the viral wrapping membrane. Efficient cell-to-cell spread of vaccinia virus and other orthopoxviruses depends on the wrapping of infectious particles with a double membrane that enables microtubular transport, exocytosis, and actin polymerization

  2. A dispersive wave pattern on Jupiter's fastest retrograde jet at 20°S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, J. H.; Fletcher, L. N.; Adamoli, G.; Jacquesson, M.; Vedovato, M.; Orton, G. S.

    2016-10-01

    A compact wave pattern has been identified on Jupiter's fastest retrograding jet at 20°S (the SEBs) on the southern edge of the South Equatorial Belt. The wave has been identified in both reflected sunlight from amateur observations between 2010 and 2015, thermal infrared imaging from the Very Large Telescope and near infrared imaging from the Infrared Telescope Facility. The wave pattern is present when the SEB is relatively quiescent and lacking large-scale disturbances, and is particularly notable when the belt has undergone a fade (whitening). It is generally not present when the SEB exhibits its usual large-scale convective activity ('rifts'). Tracking of the wave pattern and associated white ovals on its southern edge over several epochs have permitted a measure of the dispersion relationship, showing a strong correlation between the phase speed (-43.2 to -21.2 m/s) and the longitudinal wavelength, which varied from 4.4 to 10.0° longitude over the course of the observations. Infrared imaging sensing low pressures in the upper troposphere suggest that the wave is confined to near the cloud tops. The wave is moving westward at a phase speed slower (i.e., less negative) than the peak retrograde wind speed (-62 m/s), and is therefore moving east with respect to the SEBs jet peak. Unlike the retrograde NEBn jet near °N, which is a location of strong vertical wind shear that sometimes hosts Rossby wave activity, the SEBs jet remains retrograde throughout the upper troposphere, suggesting the SEBs pattern cannot be interpreted as a classical Rossby wave. 2D windspeeds and thermal gradients measured by Cassini in 2000 are used to estimate the quasi-geostrophic potential vorticity gradient as a means of understanding the origin of the a wave. We find that the vorticity gradient is dominated by the baroclinic term and becomes negative (changes sign) in a region near the cloud-top level (400-700 mbar) associated with the SEBs. Such a sign reversal is a necessary (but

  3. A fluorescence-based double retrograde tracer strategy for charting central neuronal connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apps, Richard; Ruigrok, Tom J H

    2007-01-01

    Microspheres (beads) tagged with different fluorescent markers can be used for double retrograde axonal tracing of CNS connections. They have several advantages over other double tracer techniques, including ease-of-use, high transport efficiency, distinctive cell labeling and the ability to produce well-defined injection sites. In this protocol we describe the basic procedure for their use, some common problems and how these can be overcome. The protocol, including animal surgery, preparation and delivery of tracer can be completed in approximately 0.5 d. Subsequent histological processing (excluding survival time) can be completed in 0.5-1 d.

  4. Percutaneous retrograde revascularization of the occluded celiac artery for chronic mesenteric ischemia using intravascular ultrasound guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Gagan; Pandit, Bhagya Narayan; Goyal, Mayank; Trehan, Vijaya Kumar

    2013-07-01

    A 47-year-old male presented with a triad of postprandial abdominal pain, food fear and significant weight loss since 1 year suggestive of chronic mesenteric ischemia. CT angiogram revealed chronic total occlusion of the celiac artery (CA), inferior mesenteric artery and 80-90 % stenosis of the proximal superior mesenteric artery (SMA). After SMA stenting, successful retrograde recanalisation of chronically occluded CA through pancreatico-duodenal arcade using intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) guidance was done when standard tools failed. The role of IVUS in such challenging lesions is described in the following case report.

  5. Endovascular Treatment of Totally Occluded Superior Mesenteric Artery by Retrograde Crossing via the Villemin Arcade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferro, Carlo; Rossi, Umberto G., E-mail: urossi76@hotmail.com; Seitun, Sara; Bovio, Giulio [IRCCS San Martino University Hospital-IST-National Institute for Cancer Research, Department of Radiology and Interventional Radiology (Italy); Fornaro, Rosario [IRCCS San Martino University Hospital-IST-National Institute for Cancer Research, Department of Surgery (Italy)

    2013-06-15

    Chronic mesenteric ischemia (CMI) is a rare disorder that is commonly caused by progressive atherosclerotic stenosis or occlusion of one or more mesenteric arteries. Endovascular treatment for symptomatic CMI represents a viable option, especially in high-operative risk patients. We report a case of acute symptomatic CMI with chronic totally occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) associated with significant stenosis of celiac trunk (CT) and inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) that underwent endovascular treatment of all the three mesenteric arteries: stenting of CT and IMA stenosis, and recanalization of the SMA occlusion by retrograde crossing via the Villemin arcade.

  6. Partial melting during exhumation of Paleozoic retrograde eclogite in North Qaidam, western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yu-ting; Liu, Liang; Chen, Dan-ling; Wang, Chao; Yang, Wen-qiang; Kang, Lei; Zhu, Xiao-hui

    2017-10-01

    Ultrahigh pressure (UHP) rocks are often overprinted by high pressure (HP) granulite-facies metamorphism during exhumation. Here we investigate retrograde eclogite from the Lvliangshan area in North Qaidam which is associated with abundant felsic veins. The eclogite adjacent to the vein shows conversion to garnet amphibolite. Petrographic, mineralogical, geochemical, geochronological data suggest that the eclogite has been experienced peak eclogite facies metamorphism at c. 440 Ma, followed by granulite facies retrogression at c. 420 Ma, and amphibolite facies overprinting at sodic amphibolite dehydration-melting together account for the formation of felsic veins during exhumation from the eclogite-facies to granulite-facies stages.

  7. Ride the wave: Retrograde trafficking becomes Ca(2+) dependent with BAIAP3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jakob B

    2017-01-01

    -specific angiogenesis inhibitor I-associated protein 3), acts in retrograde trafficking by returning secretory vesicle material to the trans-Golgi network. In its absence, secretory vesicle formation is impaired, leading to accumulation of immature vesicles, or lysosomal vesicle degradation.......The functions of four of the five proteins in the mammalian uncoordinated-13 (Munc13) family have been identified as priming factors in SNARE-dependent exocytosis. In this issue, Zhang et al. (2017. J. Cell Biol. https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201702099) show that the fifth member, BAIAP3 (brain...

  8. Normograde and retrograde pinning of the distal fragment in humeral fractures of the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milgram, Joshua; Hod, Nitai; Benzioni, Hadas

    2012-08-01

    To determine if normograde and retrograde pinning of the distal humeral fragment, to maximize pin purchase in this fragment, would damage vital structures in and around the elbow and shoulder joints in dogs. Anatomic study. Cadaveric dogs (n = 12; 12 thoracic limb pairs). Twelve thoracic limb pairs were harvested from cross-breed dogs and 1 thoracic limb from each pair was allocated to 1 of 3 groups. A transverse osteotomy was created at the junction of the middle and distal thirds in the diaphyseal fracture group (n = 8) and proximal to the supracondylar foramen in the metaphyseal fracture group (n = 8). The humeri in the normograde group (n = 8) were left intact. In all specimens in the distal and supracondylar fracture groups, retrograde pinning of the distal fragment was performed with the elbow flexed. The pins were driven into the medial epicondyle until they exited the skin caudal to the elbow. Dissection of the soft tissues around the exit tract of the pin was performed. The fracture was then reduced and the pin was advanced until it exited the proximal humeral fragment. In the specimens in the normograde group, pinning was initiated on the distal aspect of the medial epicondyle. The pin was directed parallel to the caudal aspect of the medial epicondyle and driven proximally into the humerus until it exited the proximal humerus. Pins exiting the distal aspect of the medial epicondyle passed through muscle origins in 7 specimens in the diaphyseal osteotomy group and in all 8 specimens in the metaphyseal group. The ulnar nerve was entrapped in 1 specimen in the metaphyseal osteotomy group; however, it was not entrapped in any of the specimens in the diaphyseal osteotomy group. The articular cartilage of the trochlea was damaged in 2 specimens in each of the retrograde pinned groups. There was no damage to articular or periarticular structures by pins exiting the proximal humerus. Retrograde pinning of the distal fragment in humeral fractures in the dog may

  9. Retrograde metasomatic effects on phase assemblages in an interlayered blueschist-greenschist sequence (Coastal Cordillera, Chile)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halama, Ralf; Konrad-Schmolke, Matthias

    2015-02-01

    Interlayered blueschists and greenschists of the Coastal Cordillera (Chile) are part of a Late Palaeozoic accretionary complex. They represent metavolcanic rocks with oceanic affinities based on predominantly OIB-type REE patterns and immobile trace element ratios. Both rock types have similar mineralogies, albeit with different mineral modal abundances. Amphibole is the major mafic mineral and varies compositionally from glaucophane to actinolite. The presence of glaucophane relicts as cores in zoned amphiboles in both blueschists and greenschists is evidence for a pervasive high-pressure metamorphic stage, indicating that tectonic juxtaposition is an unlikely explanation for the cm-dm scale interlayering. During exhumation, a retrograde greenschist-facies overprint stabilized chlorite + albite + winchitic/actinolitic amphibole + phengitic white mica ± epidote ± K-feldspar at 0.4 ± 0.1 GPa. Geochemical variability can be partly ascribed to primary magmatic and partly to secondary metasomatic processes that occurred under greenschist-facies conditions. Isocon diagrams of several adjacent blueschist-greenschist pairs with similar protolith geochemistry were used to evaluate metasomatic changes due to retrograde fluid-rock interaction. The most important geochemical changes are depletion of Si and Na and addition of water in the greenschists compared to the blueschists. Transition metals and LILE are mobilized to varying degrees. The unsystematic deviations from magmatic fractionation trends suggest open system conditions and influx of an external fluid. Pseudosection and water isopleth calculations show that the rocks were dehydrating during most of their exhumation history and remained at water-saturated conditions. The mineralogical changes, in particular breakdown of blue amphibole and replacement by chlorite, albite and calcic/sodic-calcic amphibole, are the prime cause for the distinct coloring. Pseudo-binary phase diagrams were used as a means to link bulk

  10. Retrograde ejaculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms include: Cloudy urine after orgasm Little or no semen is released during ejaculation ... 2016:chap 141. McMahon CG. Disorders of male orgasm and ejaculation. In: Wein AJ, Kavoussi LR, Partin ...

  11. Retrograde signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleine, Tatjana; Leister, Dario Michael

    2016-01-01

    have been associated with two main networks: 'Biogenic control' is active during early stages of chloroplast development, while 'operational' control functions in response to environmental fluctuations. Early work focused on the former and its major players, the GUN proteins. However, our view...

  12. Survey of Transmission Cost Allocation Methodologies for Regional Transmission Organizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, S.; Porter, K.; Mudd, C.; Rogers, J.

    2011-02-01

    The report presents transmission cost allocation methodologies for reliability transmission projects, generation interconnection, and economic transmission projects for all Regional Transmission Organizations.

  13. Retrograde entry portal for femoral interlocking nailing in femoral nonunion after plate failure: a prospective comparative study with antergrade portal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaghir, Yasser

    2017-03-01

    The piriformis fossa is the ideal portal of entry for antegrade interlocking nailing. Localizing this portal can be difficult and its eccentricity leads to complications. This prospective comparative study was designed to compare an innovative way to obtain the ideal portal from inside the medullary canal in cases of plate failure and compare it to the classic antegrade portal. It included 41 cases (19 antegrade and 22 retrograde). The retrograde portal was significantly better in terms of entry time, radiation time, blood-loss, and wound length. The proper portal was rapidly and easily achieved in all retrograde cases without complications; while four in antegrade cases had complications. Minimum follow-up was 2 years. Level of evidence III.

  14. [Searching for lost memory: memory loss and recovery mechanisms observed in a patient with pure retrograde amnesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antérion, C Thomas; Mazzola, L; Foyatier-Michel, N; Laurent, B

    2008-03-01

    We describe a patient who developed acute reversible amnesia characterized by impaired recollection of past events with preserved anterograde memory. This occurred after a mild head trauma and in the context of occupational stress. Isolated retrograde amnesia affected autobiographical memory (with lost of identity lasting a few days) and semantic knowledge. Isolated retrograde amnesia subsided for nine months. The patient was no longer able to access to his memories, which did not seem completely lost. Some answers to tests concerning historical events were better than those given at random; his answers to a TV quiz were automatic or he exhibited temporal transfer phenomena (ecmnesia). Gradual, progressive, irregular and spontaneous or "flash" recovery, which was also facilitated by dreams, associations or contextual clues. The persistent and vivid familiarity of the retrieved memories are reported here together with the organization of long-term memory and the clinical and neuropsychological traits of functional isolated retrograde amnesia.

  15. Properties of retrograded and acetylated starch produced via starch extrusion or starch hydrolysis with pullulanase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapelko, M; Zięba, T; Gryszkin, A; Styczyńska, M; Wilczak, A

    2013-09-12

    The aim of the present study was to determine the impact of serial modifications of starch, including firstly starch extrusion or hydrolysis with pullulanase, followed by retrogradation (through freezing and defrosting of pastes) and acetylation (under industrial conditions), on its susceptibility to amylolysis. The method of production had a significant effect on properties of the resultant preparations, whilst the direction and extent of changes depended on the type of modification applied. In the produced starch esters, the degree of substitution, expressed by the per cent of acetylation, ranged from 3.1 to 4.4 g/100 g. The acetylation had a significant impact on contents of elements determined with the atomic emission spectrometry, as it contributed to an increased Na content and decreased contents of Ca and K. The DSC thermal characteristics enabled concluding that the modifications caused an increase in temperatures and a decrease in heat of transition (or its lack). The acetylation of retrograded starch preparations increased their solubility in water and water absorbability. The modifications were found to exert various effects on the rheological properties of pastes determined based on the Brabender's pasting characteristics and flow curves determined with the use of an oscillatory-rotating viscosimeter. All starch acetates produced were characterized by ca. 40% resistance to amylolysis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Structurally optimized analogs of the retrograde trafficking inhibitor Retro-2cycl limit Leishmania infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Evan; Huyghues-Despointes, Charles-Eugene; Yu, Chun; Handy, Emma L; Sello, Jason K; Kima, Peter E

    2017-05-01

    In infected mammalian cells, Leishmania parasites reside within specialized compartments called parasitophorous vacuoles (LPVs). We have previously shown that Retro-2, a member of a novel class of small retrograde pathway inhibitors caused reduced LPV sizes and lower parasite numbers during experimental L. mexicana sp. infections. The purpose of this study was to determine if structural analogs of Retro-2cycl reported to have superior potency in the inhibition of retrograde pathway-dependent phenomena (i.e., polyomavirus cellular infection by polyomavrius and Shiga toxin trafficking in cells) are also more effective than the parent compound at controlling Leishmania infections. In addition to their effects on LPV development, we show that two optimized analogs of Retro-2cycl, DHQZ 36 and DHQZ 36.1 limit Leishmania amazonensis infection in macrophages at EC50 of 13.63+/-2.58μM and10.57+/-2.66μM, respectively, which is significantly lower than 40.15μM the EC50 of Retro-2cycl. In addition, these analogs caused a reversal in Leishmania induced suppression of IL-6 release by infected cells after LPS activation. Moreover, we show that in contrast to Retro-2cycl that is Leishmania static, the analogs can kill Leishmania parasites in axenic cultures, which is a desirable attribute for any drug to treat Leishmania infections. Together, these studies validate and extend the published structure-activity relationship analyses of Retro-2cycl.

  17. A simple method for percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube removal: "tie and retrograde pull".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakus, Suleyman Cuneyt; Celtik, Coskun; Koku, Naim; Ertaskın, Idris

    2013-08-01

    Various techniques have been presented to remove the percutaneous endoscopically placed gastrostomy tube in children, but tubes with semi-rigid internal retaining discs are difficult or impossible to remove by external traction. We describe a simple and effective endoscopic removal technique that should be applicable to any type of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube removal was performed with the "tie and retrograde pull" technique. After a polypropylene suture was placed and tied 1cm over the skin level, the percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube was cut 0.5 cm over the knot. The suture was cut from the connection point between the needle and the suture. The distal end of the suture was pushed through the stoma into the stomach. Then a forceps was inserted through the gastroscope. The suture was caught, and the residual percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy portion was retrieved via retrograde traction on the suture. The causes of exchange were determined to be planned tube replacement in 9, buried bumper syndrome in 1, and tube occlusion in 3 patients. The mean tube dwell time was 10.8 ± 3.9 months. Esophageal mucosal tear developed in 1 patient with epidermolysis bullosa during removal. No other complications occurred during PEG tube exchanges. This is a rapid and useful technique that does not require any complex endoscopic devices. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The retrograde IFT machinery of C. elegans cilia: two IFT dynein complexes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limin Hao

    Full Text Available We analyzed the relatively poorly understood IFT-dynein (class DYNC2-driven retrograde IFT pathway in C. elegans cilia, which yielded results that are surprising in the context of current models of IFT. Assays of C. elegans dynein gene expression and intraflagellar transport (IFT suggest that conventional IFT-dynein contains essential heavy (CHE-3, light-intermediate (XBX-1, plus three light polypeptide chains that participate in IFT, but no "essential" intermediate chain. IFT assays of XBX-1::YFP suggest that IFT-dynein is transported as cargo to the distal tip of the cilium by kinesin-2 motors, but independent of the IFT-particle/BBSome complexes. Finally, we were surprised to find that the subset of cilia present on the OLQ (outer labial quadrant neurons assemble independently of conventional "CHE-3" IFT-dynein, implying that there is a second IFT-dynein acting in these cilia. We have found a novel gene encoding a dynein heavy chain, DHC-3, and two light chains, in OLQ neurons, which could constitute an IFT-dynein complex in OLQ neuronal cilia. Our results underscore several surprising features of retrograde IFT that require clarification.

  19. Efficacy and safety of balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration with sodium tetradecyl sulfate liquid sclerotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Il Soo; Park, Sang Woo; Kwon, So Young; Cheo, Won Hyeok; Cheon, Young Koog; Shim, Chan Sup; Lee, Tae Yoon; Kim, Jeong Han [Digestive Disease Center, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) with sodium tetradecyl sulfate (STS) liquid sclerotherapy of gastric varices. Between February 2012 and August 2014, STS liquid sclerotherapy was performed in 17 consecutive patients (male:female = 8:9; mean age 58.6 years, range 44-86 years) with gastric varices. Retrograde venography was performed after occlusion of the gastrorenal shunt using a balloon catheter and embolization of collateral draining veins using coils or gelfoam pledgets, to evaluate the anatomy of the gastric varices. We prepared 2% liquid STS by mixing 3% STS and contrast media in a ratio of 2:1. A 2% STS solution was injected into the gastric varices until minimal filling of the afferent portal vein branch was observed (mean 19.9 mL, range 6-33 mL). Patients were followed up using computed tomography (CT) or endoscopy. Technical success was achieved in 16 of 17 patients (94.1%). The procedure failed in one patient because the shunt could not be occluded due to the large diameter of gastrorenal shunt. Complete obliteration of gastric varices was observed in 15 of 16 patients (93.8%) with follow-up CT or endoscopy. There was no rebleeding after the procedure. There was no procedure-related mortality. BRTO using STS liquid can be a safe and useful treatment option in patients with gastric varices.

  20. Visualization of cortical projection neurons with retrograde TET-off lentiviral vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watakabe, Akiya; Kato, Shigeki; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Takaji, Masafumi; Nakagami, Yuki; Sadakane, Osamu; Ohtsuka, Masanari; Hioki, Hiroyuki; Kaneko, Takeshi; Okuno, Hiroyuki; Kawashima, Takashi; Bito, Haruhiko; Kitamura, Yoshihiro; Yamamori, Tetsuo

    2012-01-01

    We are interested in identifying and characterizing various projection neurons that constitute the neocortical circuit. For this purpose, we developed a novel lentiviral vector that carries the tetracycline transactivator (tTA) and the transgene under the TET Responsive Element promoter (TRE) on a single backbone. By pseudotyping such a vector with modified rabies G-protein, we were able to express palmitoylated-GFP (palGFP) or turboFP635 (RFP) in corticothalamic, corticocortical, and corticopontine neurons of mice. The high-level expression of the transgene achieved by the TET-Off system enabled us to observe characteristic elaboration of neuronal processes for each cell type. At higher magnification, we were able to observe fine structures such as boutons and spines as well. We also injected our retrograde TET-Off vector to the marmoset cortex and proved that it can be used to label the long-distance cortical connectivity of millimeter scale. In conclusion, our novel retrograde tracer provides an attractive option to investigate the morphologies of identified cortical projection neurons of various species.

  1. Visualization of cortical projection neurons with retrograde TET-off lentiviral vector.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiya Watakabe

    Full Text Available We are interested in identifying and characterizing various projection neurons that constitute the neocortical circuit. For this purpose, we developed a novel lentiviral vector that carries the tetracycline transactivator (tTA and the transgene under the TET Responsive Element promoter (TRE on a single backbone. By pseudotyping such a vector with modified rabies G-protein, we were able to express palmitoylated-GFP (palGFP or turboFP635 (RFP in corticothalamic, corticocortical, and corticopontine neurons of mice. The high-level expression of the transgene achieved by the TET-Off system enabled us to observe characteristic elaboration of neuronal processes for each cell type. At higher magnification, we were able to observe fine structures such as boutons and spines as well. We also injected our retrograde TET-Off vector to the marmoset cortex and proved that it can be used to label the long-distance cortical connectivity of millimeter scale. In conclusion, our novel retrograde tracer provides an attractive option to investigate the morphologies of identified cortical projection neurons of various species.

  2. The Retrograde IFT Machinery of C. elegans Cilia: Two IFT Dynein Complexes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swoboda, Peter; Scholey, Jonathan M.

    2011-01-01

    We analyzed the relatively poorly understood IFT-dynein (class DYNC2)-driven retrograde IFT pathway in C. elegans cilia, which yielded results that are surprising in the context of current models of IFT. Assays of C. elegans dynein gene expression and intraflagellar transport (IFT) suggest that conventional IFT-dynein contains essential heavy (CHE-3), light-intermediate (XBX-1), plus three light polypeptide chains that participate in IFT, but no “essential” intermediate chain. IFT assays of XBX-1::YFP suggest that IFT-dynein is transported as cargo to the distal tip of the cilium by kinesin-2 motors, but independent of the IFT-particle/BBSome complexes. Finally, we were surprised to find that the subset of cilia present on the OLQ (outer labial quadrant) neurons assemble independently of conventional “CHE-3” IFT-dynein, implying that there is a second IFT-dynein acting in these cilia. We have found a novel gene encoding a dynein heavy chain, DHC-3, and two light chains, in OLQ neurons, which could constitute an IFT-dynein complex in OLQ neuronal cilia. Our results underscore several surprising features of retrograde IFT that require clarification. PMID:21695221

  3. Tectonic history of subduction zones inferred from retrograde blueschist P-T paths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, W.G. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (USA))

    1988-12-01

    Many Phanerozoic convergent plate junctions are marked by discontinuous blueschist belts, reflecting relatively high-pressure (P) prograde trajectories. Common blueschist paragneisses, such as those of the western Alps, exhibit widespread overprinting by greenschist and/or epidote-amphibolite facies assemblages. For this type of high-P belt, retrograde metamorphism involved fairly rapid, nearly isothermal decompression; some terranes underwent continued heating during early stages of pressure release. Uplift probably occurred as a consequence of the entrance of an island arc, oceanic plateau, or segment of continental crust into the subduction zone (collision), resulting in marked deceleration or cessation of underflow and buoyant, approximately adiabatic rise of the stranded, recrystallized subduction complex. Other high-P belts, such as the Franciscan of western California, preserve metamorphic aragonite and lack a low-P overprint; retrogression approximately retraced the prograde P-T (temperature) path, or for early formed high-grade blocks, occurred at even higher P/T ratios. Parts of this type of metamorphic belt evidently migrated slowly back up the subduction zone in response to isostatic forces during continued plate descent and refrigeration. Upward motion took place as tectonically imbricated slices, as laminar return flow in melange zones, and perhaps partly a lateral spreading/extension of the underplated accretionary prism. Retrograde P-T trajectories of high-P belts therefore provide important constraints on the tectonic evolution of convergent plate junctions.

  4. Transnasal Snare Technique for Retrograde Primary Jejunostomy Placement After Surgical Gastrojejunostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasa, Rajiv N; Chick, Jeffrey Forris Beecham; Hage, Anthony N; Shields, James J; Saad, Wael E; Majdalany, Bill S; Srinivasa, Ravi N

    2017-12-01

    To report a transnasal snare technique for retrograde primary jejunostomy placement after surgical gastrojejunostomy. Two patients underwent the transnasal snare technique for retrograde primary jejunostomy placement. Patients included two females, age 58 and 62. In both patients, a gooseneck snare was inserted in a transnasal fashion. After insertion of the snare into the jejunum, the location was confirmed with ultrasound. The snare was then targeted using a Chiba needle through which a 0.018-inch wire was advanced and snared through the nose. The wire was exchanged for a 0.035-inch Amplatz wire over which the tract was serially dilated followed by insertion of the jejunostomy catheter through a peel-away sheath. Technical success, complications, and follow-up were recorded. Primary jejunostomy placement was technically successful in both patients. No minor or major complications occurred. Both patients received enteral nutrition the day following placement. Follow-up was at 54 and 38 days for patients 1 and 2, respectively. The transnasal snare technique provides a novel alternative for primary jejunostomy insertion allowing for targeting of the jejunum with improved procedural success and no complications.

  5. A retrograde tracing study of compensatory corticospinal projections in rats with neonatal hemidecortication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Akira; Atobe, Yoshitoshi; Takeda, Akihito; Kamiya, Yoshinori; Takiguchi, Masahito; Funakoshi, Kengo

    2011-01-01

    To examine the compensatory mechanisms in rats that underwent left decortication at postnatal day 7 (P7), we injected the retrograde tracers fluorescein isothiocyanate-cholera toxin B subunit (FITC-CTB) and Fast Blue (FB) into the right and left upper cervical spinal cord, respectively, at postoperative weeks 2, 3, 4, and 5 and counted the number of retrogradely labeled corticospinal neurons in the right cerebral cortex compared with that in normally developed rats. Significantly more ipsilaterally projecting neurons were labeled with FITC-CTB in the decorticated rats compared with normal rats at all time points examined. The number of labeled neurons was similar to that at P7 in normal rats. There were also some FITC-CTB and FB double-labeled neurons in both decorticated and normal rats. The number of double-labeled neurons in the decorticated rats increased each week and was significantly greater than that in normal rats at postoperative weeks 4 and 5. The present results suggest that the elimination of ipsilaterally projecting axons observed in normal rats was prevented in the decorticated rats, so that the cerebral cortex neurons on the unlesioned side projected corticospinal tracts to the ipsilateral spinal cord. Furthermore, the collaterals of the corticospinal tracts originating from the cerebral cortex on the unlesioned side also project to the ipsilateral spinal cord. These compensatory mechanisms might underlie the acquisition of motor function in these animals. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Retrograde Instillation of Methylene Blue in the Difficult Diagnosis of BPF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ravenna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report two cases in which we were able to diagnose bronchopleural fistula through retrograde methylene blue instillation during bronchoscopy. In the first case, methylene blue was injected through an abdominal drain, followed by air instillation and detected in the left bronchial tree, demonstrating the presence of a fistula in the lingula’s bronchus. In the second case, methylene blue was injected into a pleural drain, through a breach on a surgical suture and detected in the right bronchial tree, demonstrating the presence of a fistula in the right inferior bronchus. The retrograde instillation of methylene blue, through a drain in the abdomen or the thoracic wall, is a safe, cheap, and practical method that allows the bronchoscopist to identify the presence of a fistula and, more importantly, to identify the exact point on the bronchial tree where a fistula is located. This provides the possibility of sealing the fistula with a variety of devices. It is our opinion that this procedure should be considered a primary method of diagnosis when a bronchopleural fistula is suspected and a drain on the thoracic or abdominal wall is positioned such that effusions are able to drain.

  7. Recurrent Complete Pharyngo-Oesophageal Stricture Treated by Multidisciplinary Anterograde-Retrograde Endoscopic Dilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Castro Soares

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Complete pharyngo-oesophageal stricture (PES after radiotherapy for head and neck cancer is a relatively rare and difficult complication to manage. Historically this condition has been treated surgically, but endoscopic approaches are now available. We present a 61-year-old man with an epidermoid carcinoma of the supraglottic stage and a micro-invasive epidermoid carcinoma of the oropharynx treated surgically and subsequently by adjuvant radiotherapy. Eight months after the end of the radiotherapy, a complete PES was diagnosed and treated with a combined anterograde-retrograde endoscopic dilation (CARD. The procedure was performed using a transoral anterograde progression with a rigid pharyngoscope and a retrograde progression with an extra-slim nasal endoscope using the percutaneous gastrostomy already in place. Using both transillumination and direct visualisation from both sides of the complete stenosis patency was restored between the neopharynx and the oesophagus. Despite the use of an endoprosthesis, the complete PES recurred and the technique had to be performed a second time. Illustrating the complexity of the case different types of endoprosthesis and several dilations had to be performed for our patient to achieve and maintain a normal oral intake. This case report illustrates that even in complicated recurrent radiation-induced complete PES a CARD can be performed safely and successfully using different types of endoprosthesis.

  8. Human papillomavirus type 16 entry: retrograde cell surface transport along actin-rich protrusions.

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    Mario Schelhaas

    Full Text Available The lateral mobility of individual, incoming human papillomavirus type 16 pseudoviruses (PsV bound to live HeLa cells was studied by single particle tracking using fluorescence video microscopy. The trajectories were computationally analyzed in terms of diffusion rate and mode of motion as described by the moment scaling spectrum. Four distinct modes of mobility were seen: confined movement in small zones (30-60 nm in diameter, confined movement with a slow drift, fast random motion with transient confinement, and linear, directed movement for long distances. The directed movement was most prominent on actin-rich cell protrusions such as filopodia or retraction fibres, where the rate was similar to that measured for actin retrograde flow. It was, moreover, sensitive to perturbants of actin retrograde flow such as cytochalasin D, jasplakinolide, and blebbistatin. We found that transport along actin protrusions significantly enhanced HPV-16 infection in sparse tissue culture, cells suggesting a role for in vivo infection of basal keratinocytes during wound healing.

  9. Arthroscopic retrograde osteochondral autologous transplantation to chondral lesion in femoral head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetinkaya, Sarper; Toker, Berkin; Taser, Omer

    2014-06-01

    This report describes the treatment of 2 cases of full-thickness cartilage defect of the femoral head. The authors performed osteochondral autologous transplantation with a different technique that has not been reported to date. One patient was 37 years old, and the other was 42 years old. Both presented with hip pain. In both patients, radiograph and magnetic resonance imaging scan showed a focal chondral defect on the weight-bearing area of the femoral head and acetabular impingement. A retrograde osteochondral autologous transplantation technique combined with hip arthroscopy and arthroscopic impingement treatment was performed. After a 2-month recovery period, the symptoms were resolved. In the first year of follow-up, Harris Hip scores improved significantly (case 1, 56.6 to 87.6; case 2, 58.6 to 90). The technique described yielded good short- and midterm clinical and radiologic outcomes. To the authors' knowledge, this report is the first to describe a retrograde osteochondral transplantation technique performed with hip arthroscopy in the femoral head. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. Pilot study of endoscopic retrograde 3-dimensional - computed tomography enteroclysis for the assessment of Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Hiroki; Ito, Takahiro; Inaba, Yuhei; Ando, Katsuyoshi; Nomura, Yoshiki; Ueno, Nobuhiro; Kashima, Shin; Moriichi, Kentaro; Fujiya, Mikihiro; Okumura, Toshikatsu

    2017-01-01

    Endoscopic retrograde ileography (ERIG) is developed in our institute and applied clinically for the diagnosis and assessment of the Crohn's disease activity. We have further improved the technique using 3-dimensional - computed tomography enteroclysis (3D-CTE) and conducted a retrospective study to determine the feasibility and the diagnostic value of endoscopic retrograde 3D-CTE (ER 3D-CTE) in Crohn's disease patients in a state of remission. Thirteen Crohn's patients were included in this pilot study. CTE was performed after the infusion of air or CO2 through the balloon tube following conventional colonoscopy. The primary endpoint of this study was to assess the safety of this method. Secondarily, the specific findings of Crohn's disease and length of the visualized small intestine were assessed. The procedures were completed without any adverse events. Gas passed through the small intestine and enterographic images were obtained in 10 out of 13 cases, but, in the remaining patients, insertion of the balloon tubes into the terminal ileum failed. Various features specific to Crohn's disease were visualized using ER 3D-CTE. A cobble stone appearance or hammock-like malformation was specific and effective for diagnosing Crohn's disease and the features of anastomosis after the surgical operations were also well described. Therefore, this technique may be useful after surgery. In this study, ER 3D-CTE was performed safely in Crohn's disease patients and may be used for the diagnosis and follow-up of this disease.

  11. Retrograde Endopyelotomy with Cutting Balloon™ for Treatment of Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction in Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parente, Alberto; Perez-Egido, Laura; Romero, Rosa Maria; Ortiz, Ruben; Burgos, Laura; Angulo, Jose Maria

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze results of retrograde endopyelotomy with cutting balloon for treatment of ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) in infants. We routinely treat patients with UPJO under 18 months of age with retrograde high-pressure balloon dilatation of the pelviureteric junction (PUJ). During the procedure, in these cases where narrowing at the PUJ persists, endopyelotomy with cutting balloon is performed. Endopyelotomy is performed over guidewire with 5-mm Cutting Balloon™ under fluoroscopic control. Double-J stents is left in situ for 4 weeks. We retrospectively analyzed the postoperative, clinical, and radiological outcome infants treated with cutting balloon endopyelotomy between 2007 and 2015. Sixteen patients required cutting balloon endopyelotomy to achieve complete resolution of narrowing of the waist observed during high-pressure balloon dilatation of the PUJ. Mean operative time was 35 ± 21 min (mean ± SD) and hospital stay was cutting balloon could be a valid and safe option in minimally invasive management of UPJO in infants.

  12. Cardioplegia retrógrada seqüencial Sequencial retrograde cardioplegy

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    Otoni M Gomes

    1996-09-01

    extracorporeal circulation established. The following routes were employed for cardioplegic perfusion: 1 Antegrade - through ascending aortic canullation bellow the aortic occlusion clamp;2 Selective retrograde - through coronary synus (Co.S - 25 mmHg using a self-inflating ballooned cannula; 3 Total retrograde, (Co.S - 40 mmHg - through a cannula inserted in the right atrium (RA; 4 Sequencial retrograde, Co.S-RA - with the CS flowing first through the coronary synus lowering the interventricular septal temperature to 16 ºC and after through the RA cannula as in the total retrograde technique with the pulmonary artery occluded and;5 Sequencial retrograde, Co.S-RV - the RV chamber being directly cannulated through the tricuspid valve and perfused, instead of the RA in the latter technique. The temperature variation of the myocardium in the left ventricule (LV, RVt RA and sinus node region (SN was controlled employing an Omega needle termistor and thermometer. With the antegrade technique (70 mmHg pressure the most uniform myocardial cooling, the lowest CS volume and perfusion time duration was observed, followed In excelence by the Co.S-RA Sequencial retrograde technique and the Co.S-RV sequencial technique. The present data indicate that sequencial retrograde cardioplegic perfusion techinique is significantly better than the usual Co.S or RA total retrograde technique alone for myocardial protection when compared with the aortic root antegrade perfusion technique.

  13. Relative importance of moisture migration and amylopectin retrogradation for pound cake crumb firming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyts, A; Wilderjans, E; Van Haesendonck, I; Brijs, K; Courtin, C M; Delcour, J A

    2013-12-15

    Moisture migration largely impacts cake crumb firmness during storage at ambient temperature. To study the importance of phenomena other than crumb to crust moisture migration and to exclude moisture and temperature gradients during baking, crustless cakes were baked using an electrical resistance oven (ERO). Cake crumb firming was evaluated by texture analysis. First, ERO cakes with properties similar to those baked conventionally were produced. Cake batter moisture content (MC) was adjusted to ensure complete starch gelatinisation in the baking process. In cakes baked conventionally, most of the increase in crumb firmness during storage was caused by moisture migration. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) showed that the population containing protons of crystalline starch grew during cake storage. These and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) data pointed to only limited amylopectin retrogradation. The limited increase in amylopectin retrogradation during cake storage cannot solely account for the significant firming of ERO cakes and, hence, other phenomena are involved in cake firming. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP Is a Candidate Signaling Molecule in the Mitochondria-to-Nucleus Retrograde Response Pathway

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    Zhengchang Liu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular communication from the mitochondria to the nucleus is achieved via the retrograde response. In budding yeast, the retrograde response, also known as the RTG pathway, is regulated positively by Rtg1, Rtg2, Rtg3 and Grr1 and negatively by Mks1, Lst8 and two 14-3-3 proteins, Bmh1/2. Activation of retrograde signaling leads to activation of Rtg1/3, two basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factors. Rtg1/3 activation requires Rtg2, a cytoplasmic protein with an N-terminal adenosine triphosphate (ATP binding domain belonging to the actin/Hsp70/sugar kinase superfamily. The critical regulatory step of the retrograde response is the interaction between Rtg2 and Mks1. Rtg2 binds to and inactivates Mks1, allowing for activation of Rtg1/3 and the RTG pathway. When the pathway is inactive, Mks1 has dissociated from Rtg2 and bound to Bmh1/2, preventing activation of Rtg1/3. What signals association or disassociation of Mks1 and Rtg2 is unknown. Here, we show that ATP at physiological concentrations dissociates Mks1 from Rtg2 in a highly cooperative fashion. We report that ATP-mediated dissociation of Mks1 from Rtg2 is conserved in two other fungal species, K. lactis and K. waltii. Activation of Rtg1/3 upregulates expression of genes encoding enzymes catalyzing the first three reactions of the Krebs cycle, which is coupled to ATP synthesis through oxidative phosphorylation. Therefore, we propose that the retrograde response is an ATP homeostasis pathway coupling ATP production with ATP-mediated repression of the retrograde response by releasing Mks1 from Rtg2.

  15. [Minimally invasive retrograde drilling of osteochondral lesions of the femur using an arthroscopic drill guide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, S; Steinert, A; Rucker, A; Rudert, M; Barthel, T

    2011-04-01

    Retrograde drilling for penetration of subchondral sclerotic bone in osteochondrosis dissecans (OCD) of the femoral condyle with preserved cartilage integrity. Hereby, revascularization of the OCD and immigration of bone marrow cells to achieve stable reintegration of the OCD into the surrounding subchondral bone. Stable juvenile and adult osteochondrosis dissecans (stage I-II of the International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) classification) of the medial and lateral femoral condyle with an intact articular surface and surrounding sclerosis zone, which is visible in the x-ray. OCD stage III-IV of the ICRS grading scale. Relative contraindication: preceding retrograde drilling. Arthroscopic inspection and palpation of the cartilage defect. Minimal incision over the M. vastus medialis (when the defect is located in the medial condyle) or the M. vastus lateralis (when the defect is located in the medial condyle). Preparation and dissection of the fascia of the vastus muscle. Insertion of retractors underneath the vastus muscle to expose the metaphysis of the distal femur. Intraarticular positioning of the arthroscopic drill guide, placement of the wire guide and a Kirschner(K) wire on the femur metaphysis and retrograde drilling with a 2.0-2.2 mm K wire under radiographic visualization. Length measurement of the intraosseous wire distance. Switch the guide mechanism to a multiple hole drill guide and, depending on the defect size, insertion of a further 7-10 K wires of same thickness and defined length. Sterile bandage and slightly compressive dressing. Continuous active and passive knee motion. Weight bearing of 20 kg for 6 weeks, with subsequent transition to continuous weight bearing. Radiographic controls at 6 and 12 weeks postoperatively. In case of a persistent sclerosis zone in the control x-ray or clinical abnormalities, control MRI is indicated. A total of 55 patients with a mean age of 19.6 years were treated using the described technique: 49 patients (89

  16. Antioxidant drugs to prevent post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis: What does evidence suggest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-Orozco, Clotilde; Dávalos-Cobián, Carlos; García-Correa, Jesús; Ambriz-González, Gabriela; Macías-Amezcua, Michel Dassaejv; García-Rentería, Jesús; Rendón-Félix, Jorge; Chávez-Tostado, Mariana; Cuesta-Márquez, Lizbeth Araceli; Alvarez-Villaseñor, Andrea Socorro; Cortés-Flores, Ana Olivia; González-Ojeda, Alejandro

    2015-06-07

    To determine whether or not the use of antioxidant supplementation aids in the prevention of post- endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was made to evaluate the preventive effect of prophylactic antioxidant supplementation in post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis (PEP). The inclusion criteria included: acute post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis in adults; randomized clinical trials with the use of any antioxidant as an intervention compared with placebo, to reduce PEP. The outcome measure was the incidence and severity of PEP. Twelve RCTs involving 3110 patients since 1999 were included. The antioxidants used were selenite, β-carotene, and pentoxifylline (each one in one trial), N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in three trials, and allopurinol in six trials. The group of patients treated with NAC received different doses; either oral or intravenous, and allopurinol-treated patients received five different oral doses in two different administration periods. The results are expressed with raw numbers, proportions, as well as mean and standard deviations. The incidence of pancreatitis between groups was analyzed with Pearson's χ(2) test or Fisher's exact test (F). The main outcome is expressed as relative risks and 95%CI. The incidence of pancreatitis in all antioxidant treatment groups was 8.6%, whereas it was 9.7% in the control group. The antioxidants used were selenite, β-carotene, and pentoxifylline (each one in one trial), NAC in three trials, and allopurinol in six trials. In allopurinol trials, three different dosifications were used; two trials reported a low dosage (of less than 400 mg), two trials reported a moderate dose (600 mg) and the remaining two employed higher doses (more than 900 mg). Supplementation was not associated with a significant reduction in the incidence of PEP [relative risk (RR) = 0.93; 95%CI: 0.82-1.06; P

  17. Treatment of ureteric lithiasis with retrograde ureteroscopy and holmium: YAG laser lithotripsy vs extracorporeal lithotripsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrabal-Polo, Miguel A; Arrabal-Martín, Miguel; Miján-Ortiz, José L; Valle-Díaz, Francisco; López-León, Víctor; Merino-Salas, Sergio; Zuluaga-Gómez, Armando

    2009-10-01

    To analyse the efficiency of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) vs retrograde ureteroscopy and holmium:YAG laser lithotripsy, as ESWL is successful in 67-90% of cases but endoscopic lithotripsy with pneumatic lithotrites or lasers is successful in 90-96% of distal ureteric calculi, and holmium:YAG lithotripsy is effective in proximal ureteric calculi. From April 2006 to April 2008 we assessed 164 patients undergoing ureteric lithiasis in two homogeneous groups: group A included 83 treated with retrograde ureteroscopy and holmium:YAG endoscopic lithotripsy, and group B, 81 treated by ESWL. For laser lithotripsy we used 2071 mJ pulses at 3-6 Hz, with a mean of 1105 pulses and 2.5 kJ of total energy. ESWL was carried out using 37.5-87.5 mJ shock waves, a mean of 3650 shock waves and 187.6 J, with a radioscopy time of 1-4 min. The results were assessed after 3 weeks with plain films and ultrasonography, or urography. The efficiency of each procedure was assessed by calculating the relative risk, and results compared using the chi-square or Student's t-test. The efficiency quotient (EQ) was determined for both procedures, and the focal applied energy quotient (FAEQ) used to assess ESWL. The overall success rate for retrograde ureteroscopy and laser lithotripsy was 96.4% (80/83 patients), with an EQ of 0.52; a JJ catheter was placed in 67 patients. The success rate for the first ESWL session was 48%, and after repeat ESWL was 64% (52/81 patients), giving an EQ of 0.39. For successful treatments the FAEQ was 9.22, vs 6.47 for the failures (P laser lithotripsy, with an absolute benefit of 46% (95% confidence interval 33.8-57.9%), and number needed to treat of 2 (2-3), but no significant differences for lumbar ureteric calculi. Endoscopic lithotripsy with the holmium laser is more effective than ESWL, but for lumbar ureteric calculi ESWL is therapeutically recommended as it is less invasive.

  18. The prognostic value of cerebral oxygenation and retrograde pressure during carotid endarterectomy

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    А. А. Карпенко

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study aimed to determine the predictive value of retrograde pressure (RP indicators and cerebral oxygenation in the evaluation of ischemic brain damage during carotid endarterectomy (CEA.Methods: This nonrandomized, prospective pilot study included 87 patients with asymptomatic stenosis greater than 70% who underwent carotid endarterectomy under general anesthesia. Brain tolerance to ischemia was determined by measuring and evaluating RP (∆rSO2 and cerebral oxygenation (rSO2 during a trial clamping of the carotid artery. Depending on the degree of reduction of cerebral oxygenation from the baseline (∆rSO2 during a trial clamping of the carotid artery, patients were divided into 3 groups: the first group (n = 35 - ∆rSO2 <9.9%, the second group (n = 35 - ∆rSO2 from 10 to 19.9%, the third group (n = 14 - ∆rSO2 ≥ 20%. The primary end-point of the study was to obtain the AUC value exceeding 0.70, which could mean a high predictive quality of research methods. Results: There were no perioperative strokes or myocardial infarctions during the study. Average time of carotid artery clamping was 28 (26-30 minutes. 3 patients who received temporary shunts were excluded from the study because of a simultaneous decrease in the rSO2 and ∆rSO2 indicators. It was found out that S-100 and NSE protein concentration in all groups did not significantly differ at different stages (p> 0.05. A temporary shutdown of blood flow in the carotid artery during CEA is accompanied by significant elevation of cerebral damage markers (S100, NSE concentration with their subsequent restoration at 3 days after surgery. ROC - analysis revealed that none of the methods for assessing cerebral ischemic tolerance (RP, ∆rSO2 and rSO2 is precise enough (AUC > 0.7 to predict brain injury during carotid endarterectomy. Satisfactory, but a poor quality (AUC< 0.7 of predicting an increase in the reference values of S-100 protein neuromarkers was demonstrated by

  19. Distinct Functions for Anterograde and Retrograde Sorting of SORLA in Amyloidogenic Processes in the Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumanis, Sonya B; Burgert, Tilman; Caglayan, Safak; Füchtbauer, Annette; Füchtbauer, Ernst-Martin; Schmidt, Vanessa; Willnow, Thomas E

    2015-09-16

    SORLA is a neuronal sorting receptor implicated both in sporadic and familial forms of AD. SORLA reduces the amyloidogenic burden by two mechanisms, either by rerouting internalized APP molecules from endosomes to the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to prevent proteolytic processing or by directing newly produced Aβ to lysosomes for catabolism. Studies in cell lines suggested that the interaction of SORLA with cytosolic adaptors retromer and GGA is required for receptor sorting to and from the TGN. However, the relevance of anterograde or retrograde trafficking for SORLA activity in vivo remained largely unexplored. Here, we generated mouse models expressing SORLA variants lacking binding sites for GGA or retromer to query this concept in the brain. Disruption of retromer binding resulted in a retrograde-sorting defect with accumulation of SORLA in endosomes and depletion from the TGN, and in an overall enhanced APP processing. In contrast, disruption of the GGA interaction did not impact APP processing but caused increased brain Aβ levels, a mechanism attributed to a defect in anterograde lysosomal targeting of Aβ. Our findings substantiated the significance of adaptor-mediated sorting for SORLA activities in vivo, and they uncovered that anterograde and retrograde sorting paths may serve discrete receptor functions in amyloidogenic processes. SORLA is a sorting receptor that directs target proteins to distinct intracellular compartments in neurons. SORLA has been identified as a genetic risk factor for sporadic, but recently also for familial forms of AD. To confirm the relevance of SORLA sorting for AD processes in the brain, we generated mouse lines, which express trafficking mutants instead of the wild-type form of this receptor. Studying neuronal activities in these mutant mice, we dissected distinct trafficking routes for SORLA guided by two cytosolic adaptors termed GGA and retromer. We show that these sorting pathways serve discrete functions in control of

  20. Hippocampus and Retrograde Amnesia in the Rat Model: A Modest Proposal for the Situation of Systems Consolidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Robert J.; Sparks, Fraser T.; Lehmann, Hugo

    2010-01-01

    The properties of retrograde amnesia after damage to the hippocampus have been explicated with some success using a rat model of human medial temporal lobe amnesia. We review the results of this experimental work with rats focusing on several areas of consensus in this growing literature. We evaluate the theoretically significant hypothesis that…

  1. Percutaneous retrograde transfemoral closure of mitral paravalvular leak in 3 patients without construction of an arteriovenous wire loop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Teoman; Sahin, Tayfun; Ural, Ertan

    2014-04-01

    Percutaneous closure of paravalvular leaks has emerged as an alternative to repeated surgeries. Different percutaneous techniques and various devices have been used, off-label, for paravalvular leak closure. For mitral leaks, antegrade transseptal, retrograde transfemoral, and retrograde transapical techniques have been developed. In the antegrade transseptal approach, an arteriovenous guidewire loop is often created to advance the delivery sheath. In retrograde transfemoral closure, the wire in the left atrium is usually snared after transseptal puncture, to pull it from the femoral vein. The delivery sheath and closure device will subsequently be deployed from the left atrium. Each of these procedures takes time, is costly, and increases the risk of complications. We present the cases of 3 patients in whom we closed mitral paravalvular leaks by means of a retrograde transfemoral approach, with use of an Amplatzer™ Duct Occluder II device and without the construction of an arteriovenous wire loop. We think that this approach can be very useful in a specific group of patients-reducing costs, fluoroscopy times, and complications related to transseptal puncture and construction of an arteriovenous wire loop. In our institution, this reported technique is routinely used for mitral paravalvular leak closure.

  2. No reduction of radiation dose following the introduction of dose-area product measurement in endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruit, A.S.; Vleggaar, F.P.; Erpecum, K.J. van; Timmerman, A.M.D.E.; Siersema, P.D.; Oldenburg, B.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: During radiological examinations such as endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), it is recommended to record the dose-area product (DAP) to reduce the patient's and the physician's exposure to ionizing radiation. However, the effect of DAP measurement on the total

  3. Retrograde tibial nailing: a minimally invasive and biomechanically superior alternative to angle-stable plate osteosynthesis in distal tibia fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Sebastian; Appelmann, Philipp; Mehler, Dorothea; Pairon, Philip; Rommens, Pol M

    2014-05-13

    Currently, antegrade intramedullary nailing and minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) represent the main surgical alternatives in distal tibial fractures. However, neither choice is optimal for all bony and soft tissue injuries. The Retrograde Tibial Nail (RTN) is a small-caliber prototype implant, which is introduced through a 2-cm-long incision at the tip of the medial malleolus with stab incisions sufficient for interlocking. During this project, we investigated the feasibility of retrograde tibial nailing in a cadaver model and conducted biomechanical testing. Anatomical implantations of the RTN were carried out in AO/OTA 43 A1-3 fracture types in three cadaveric lower limbs. Biomechanical testing was conducted in an AO/OTA 43 A3 fracture model for extra-axial compression, torsion, and destructive extra-axial compression. Sixteen composite tibiae were used to compare the RTN against an angle-stable plate osteosynthesis (Medial Distal Tibial Plate, Synthes®). Statistical analysis was performed by Student's t test. Retrograde intramedullary nailing is feasible in simple fracture types by closed manual reduction and percutaneous reduction forceps, while in highly comminuted fractures, the use of a large distractor can aid the reduction. Biomechanical testing shows a statistically superior stability (p maximum soft tissue protection by a minimally invasive surgical approach with the ability of secure fracture fixation by multiple locking options. Retrograde tibial nailing with the RTN is a promising concept in the treatment of distal tibia fractures.

  4. Balloon occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration of bleeding stomal varices using sodium tetradecyl sulfate foam: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Chang; Yang, Po Sang; Lee, Yeon Soo; Kim, Hyun Jeong; Park, Gun [Dept. of Radiology, The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Daejeon St. Mary' s Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    A small varix is an uncommon complication with a high mortality rate occurring secondary to portal hypertension in patients with a stoma. We describe a case of recurrent stomal varix bleeding successfully managed by balloon occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration using sodium tetradecyl sulfate foam.

  5. Kinesin-3 and dynein cooperate in long-range retrograde endosome motility along a nonuniform microtubule array

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuster, M.; Kilaru, S.; Fink, G.; Collemare, J.A.R.; Roger, Y.; Steinberg, G.

    2011-01-01

    The polarity of microtubules (MTs) determines the motors for intracellular motility, with kinesins moving to plus ends and dynein to minus ends. In elongated cells of Ustilago maydis, dynein is thought to move early endosomes (EEs) toward the septum (retrograde), whereas kinesin-3 transports them to

  6. Hippocampus and retrograde amnesia in the rat model: a modest proposal for the situation of systems consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Robert J; Sparks, Fraser T; Lehmann, Hugo

    2010-07-01

    The properties of retrograde amnesia after damage to the hippocampus have been explicated with some success using a rat model of human medial temporal lobe amnesia. We review the results of this experimental work with rats focusing on several areas of consensus in this growing literature. We evaluate the theoretically significant hypothesis that hippocampal retrograde amnesia normally exhibits a temporal gradient, affecting recent, but sparing remote memories. Surprisingly, the evidence does not provide much support for the idea that there is a lengthy process of systems consolidation following a learning episode. Instead, recent and remote memories tend to be equally affected. The extent of damage to the hippocampus is a significant factor in this work since it is likely that spared hippocampal tissue can support at least partial memory retrieval. With extensive hippocampal damage gradients are flat or, in the case of memory tasks with flavour/odour retrieval cues, the retrograde amnesia covers a period of about 1-3 days. There is consistent evidence that at the time of learning the hippocampus interferes with or overshadows memory acquisition by other systems. This contributes to the breadth and severity of retrograde amnesia relative to anterograde amnesia in the rat. The fact that multiple, distributed learning episodes can overcome this overshadowing is consistent with a parallel dual-store theory or a Distributed Reinstatement Theory in which each learning episode triggers a short period of memory replay that provides a brief hippocampal-dependent systems consolidation.

  7. Serotonergic projections from the raphe nuclei to the subthalamic nucleus; a retrograde- and anterograde neuronal tracing study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reznitsky, Martin; Plenge, Per; Hay-Schmidt, Anders

    2016-01-01

    the 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A not were present. Retrograde tracer FluoroGold or Choleratoxin subunit B were iontophoretically delivered in the STN and combined with immunohistochemistry for 5-HT in order to map the topographic organization in the dorsal raphe system. The study showed that approximately 320...

  8. Structural and functional mapping of Rtg2p determinants involved in retrograde signaling and aging of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Maria Rios-Anjos

    Full Text Available In Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondrial dysfunction induces retrograde signaling, a pathway of communication from mitochondria to the nucleus that promotes a metabolic remodeling to ensure sufficient biosynthetic precursors for replication. Rtg2p is a positive modulator of this pathway that is also required for cellular longevity. This protein belongs to the ASKHA superfamily, and contains a putative N-terminal ATP-binding domain, but there is no detailed structural and functional map of the residues in this domain that accounts for their contribution to retrograde signaling and aging. Here we use Decomposition of Residue Correlation Networks and site-directed mutagenesis to identify Rtg2p structural determinants of retrograde signaling and longevity. We found that most of the residues involved in retrograde signaling surround the ATP-binding loops, and that Rtg2p N-terminus is divided in three regions whose mutants have different aging phenotypes. We also identified E137, D158 and S163 as possible residues involved in stabilization of ATP at the active site. The mutants shown here may be used to map other Rtg2p activities that crosstalk to other pathways of the cell related to genomic stability and aging.

  9. The anterograde and retrograde axonal transport of biotinylated dextran amine and biocytin in the nervous system of teleosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Hao-Gang; Yang, Chun-Ying; Ito, Hironobu

    2004-06-01

    Biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) and biocytin are well transported both retrogradely and anterogradely. Both tracers have stable molecular structure for long-term storage and examination, and their visualizations can be realized by simple histochemical reactions. Therefore, the BDA and biocytin are widely used in neuroanatomical studies as the tract-tracing markers. The results obtained by BDA and biocytin applications to various areas of the nervous system in teleosts were qualitatively identical, and the retrogradely and anterogradely labeled structures could be clearly identified with reference to the counter-staining. Iontophoretic injections or crystal insertions resulted in filling of cell bodies, dendrites and terminals in the core of injection side, revealing morphological details of the local and distant somata, dendritic arborizations and axonal terminals. However, biocytin exhibited superior to BDA in anterograde transport, and could label very thin axons, axonal collaterals and terminal ramifications. In contrast, retrograde transport of BDA was superior to that of biocytin, and resulted in more complete dendritic filling of retrograde labeled neurons including dendritic arborizations and spines. Copyright 2004 Elsevier B.V.

  10. The apical leakage of mineral trioxide aggregate as the retrograde filling material with various mixing agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ema Mulyawati

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA is relatively considered as a new material in endodontic. It even has been used as retrograde filling material due to its biocompatibility, antibacterial effect, sealing ability and anti-moist effect. Some materials have been used as mixing agent to achieve an appropiate setting of MTA. Purpose: The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of the mixing agents of MTA towards the apical leakage when they are used together as retrograde filling materials. Method: The samples of this research consist of 30 human extracted upper central incisors. First, the crown of each tooth is sectioned. The root canals are prepared by using the conventional technique and then are obturated with gutta percha. After cutting the root apex, 2 mm from apical, class 1 cavities are prepared by using fissure bur with the depth of 3 mm. The samples then are divided into 3 groups with 10 teeth for each. Group I uses aquabidest as mixing agent of MTA (MTA-aquabidest, group II uses saline (MTA-saline, while group III uses 0.12% chlorhexidine (MTA-chlorhexidine. The apex of each group then is filled with the mixing MTA determined already. Afterwards, clearing method is used to evaluate the apical leakage. The apical leakage actually is determined by measuring the depth of methylene blue penetration with stereomicroscope. The statictical analyses of the linear dye penetration then are performed with analysis of varians ANOVA. Result: The dye penetration for both MTA-aquadest and MTA-saline groups indicates the lowest penetration, and there is even a significant difference compared with MTA-0.12% chlorhexidine group (p<0.005. Conclusion: It can be concluded that aquabidest and saline as mixing agents of MTA produce less apical leakage compared with 0.12% chlorhexidine.Latar belakang: Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA merupakan bahan yang relatif baru dalam bidang endodontik. Bahan tersebut diindikasikan sebagai bahan pengisi

  11. Current status of retrograde intrarenal surgery for management of nephrolithiasis in children

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    Yaser El-Hout

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To review the current status of retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS for renal stones in children focusing on its indications, outcomes and success in the management of nephrolithiasis. Materials and Methods : Between 1988 and 2009, a comprehensive PubMed/MEDLINE literature review on RIRS was conducted. Results : The available literature is limited and heterogeneous, skewed by favorable results on ureteral stone outcomes. However, recent case series report outcomes comparable to time-honored modalities: percutaneous nephrolithotomy and shock wave lithotripsy. Concerns about urinary tract damage are not substantiated by the yet available intermediate-term follow-up. Conclusions : RIRS seems to be an effective modality in pediatric nephrolithiasis management. However, long-term outcomes and comparative prospective randomized studies are awaited.

  12. Obliterative urethral stricture: MR urethrography versus conventional retrograde urethrography with voiding cystourethrography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Deuk Jae; Kim, Yun Hwan; Cho, Sung Bum; Oh, Yu Whan; Lee, Nam Joon; Kim, Jung Hyuk; Chung, Kyoo Byung; Moon, Du Geon; Kim, Je Jong

    2006-09-01

    Institutional review board approval and informed consent were obtained. The purpose of the study was to prospectively evaluate magnetic resonance (MR) urethrography for the depiction of obliterative urethral stricture. Twelve patients with obliterative urethral stricture were examined preoperatively with T2-weighted, T1-weighted, and contrast material-enhanced T1-weighted MR imaging of a urethra distended with sterile lubricating jelly. Ten of the 12 patients were examined with conventional retrograde urethrography (RGU) combined with voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) prior to MR imaging. Each imaging result was compared with either a surgical specimen or a description of the surgical findings to determine which method allowed accurate estimation of stricture length. MR measurements of stricture length demonstrated significantly lower errors (P .05, respectively). MR imaging of the urethra distended with sterile lubricating jelly is an effective tool for evaluating obliterative urethral strictures. (c) RSNA, 2006.

  13. Retrogradely Transported TrkA Endosomes Signal Locally within Dendrites to Maintain Sympathetic Neuron Synapses

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    Kathryn M. Lehigh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Sympathetic neurons require NGF from their target fields for survival, axonal target innervation, dendritic growth and formation, and maintenance of synaptic inputs from preganglionic neurons. Target-derived NGF signals are propagated retrogradely, from distal axons to somata of sympathetic neurons via TrkA signaling endosomes. We report that a subset of TrkA endosomes that are transported from distal axons to cell bodies translocate into dendrites, where they are signaling competent and move bidirectionally, in close proximity to synaptic protein clusters. Using a strategy for spatially confined inhibition of TrkA kinase activity, we found that distal-axon-derived TrkA signaling endosomes are necessary within sympathetic neuron dendrites for maintenance of synapses. Thus, TrkA signaling endosomes have unique functions in different cellular compartments. Moreover, target-derived NGF mediates circuit formation and synapse maintenance through TrkA endosome signaling within dendrites to promote aggregation of postsynaptic protein complexes.

  14. Isosorbide, a green plasticizer for thermoplastic starch that does not retrogradate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battegazzore, Daniele; Bocchini, Sergio; Nicola, Gabriele; Martini, Eligio; Frache, Alberto

    2015-03-30

    Isosorbide is a non-toxic biodegradable diol derived from bio-based feedstock. It can be used for preparing thermoplastic starch through a semi-industrial process of extrusion. Isosorbide allows some technological advantages with respect to classical plasticizers: namely, direct mixing with starch, energy savings for the low processing temperature required and lower water uptake. Indeed, maize starch was directly mixed with the solid plasticizer and direct fed in the main hopper of a co-rotating twin screw extruder. Starch plasticization was assessed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and dynamic-mechanical analysis (DMTA). Oxygen permeability, water uptake and mechanical properties were measured at different relative humidity (R.H.) values. These three properties turned out to be highly depending on the R.H. No retrogradation and changing of the material properties were occurred from XRD and DMTA after 9 months. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Dual Targeting and Retrograde Translocation: Regulators of Plant Nuclear Gene Expression Can Be Sequestered by Plastids

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    Karin Krupinska

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the developmental or metabolic state of plastids can trigger profound changes in the transcript profiles of nuclear genes. Many nuclear transcription factors were shown to be controlled by signals generated in the organelles. In addition to the many different compounds for which an involvement in retrograde signaling is discussed, accumulating evidence suggests a role for proteins in plastid-to-nucleus communication. These proteins might be sequestered in the plastids before they act as transcriptional regulators in the nucleus. Indeed, several proteins exhibiting a dual localization in the plastids and the nucleus are promising candidates for such a direct signal transduction involving regulatory protein storage in the plastids. Among such proteins, the nuclear transcription factor WHIRLY1 stands out as being the only protein for which an export from plastids and translocation to the nucleus has been experimentally demonstrated. Other proteins, however, strongly support the notion that this pathway might be more common than currently believed.

  16. Regeneration of unmyelinated and myelinated sensory nerve fibres studied by a retrograde tracer method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lozeron, Pierre; Krarup, Christian; Schmalbruch, Henning

    2004-01-01

    Regeneration of myelinated and unmyelinated sensory nerve fibres after a crush lesion of the rat sciatic nerve was investigated by means of retrograde labelling. The advantage of this method is that the degree of regeneration is estimated on the basis of sensory somata rather than the number...... of axons. Axonal counts do not reflect the number of regenerated neurons because of axonal branching and because myelinated axons form unmyelinated sprouts. Two days to 10 weeks after crushing, the distal sural or peroneal nerves were cut and exposed to fluoro-dextran. Large and small dorsal root ganglion...... cells that had been labelled, i.e., that had regenerated axons towards or beyond the injection site, were counted in serial sections. Large and small neurons with presumably myelinated and unmyelinated axons, respectively, were classified by immunostaining for neurofilaments. The axonal growth rate...

  17. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and stent placement via gastrostomy: technical aspects and clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holderman, W H; Etzkorn, K P; Harig, J M; Watkins, J L

    1995-01-01

    Significant advances in the field of enteral nutrition (1), combined with technical advances in percutaneous access, have increased the indications for, and safety of, enteral alimentation (2). A mature gastrostomy stoma not only provides access to the gastrointestinal lumen for nutrition, but in selected cases, provides access for the diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopist. In 1971, Wiendl first reported diagnostic fiberoptic stomal endoscopy (3). This has since been followed by reports of diagnostic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) (4), and more recently, the first case of therapeutic ERCP by Gray et al. (5). We report here on the second case of therapeutic ERCP in a patient with metastatic squamous-cell carcinoma of the head and neck, with liver metastasis. We discuss the technical aspects, indications, and future of therapeutic stomal endoscopy.

  18. Research advances in pharmacological prevention of pancreatitis after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

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    WANG Ai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP has become an important method for the diagnosis and treatment of cholangio-pancreatic duct diseases. Post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP is the most common complication and its incidence has increased up to 40% in recent years. The prevention of PEP has always been a hot topic in clinical research. This article reviews the research advances in the pharmacological prevention of PEP and points out that controlled clinical trials with a large sample size are still needed to investigate the effect of preventive drugs, and further studies should focus on optimal medication time, route of administration, and dose. In addition, demographic features of populations from different countries and different age groups should be taken into consideration.

  19. Fatal air embolism during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP): An 'impossible' diagnosis for the forensic pathologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchesi, Matteo; Battistini, Alessio; Pellegrinelli, Moira; Gentile, Guendalina; Zoja, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    Fatal air embolism related to endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography is a very rare phenomenon. The authors describe the case of a 51-year-old female patient who developed this mortal complication; a computed tomography (CT) examination was performed in articulo mortis by the physicians. Autopsy was unreliable because of bizarre post-mortem changes (reabsorption of intra-cardiac gas vs. conservation of intra-cranial gas) and a lack of strong diagnostic value of histological findings. The right diagnosis was possible thanks only to the CT examination that permitted the assumption of this possible cause of death before the autopsy and to prepare the necessary procedures to recognise and probe air embolism. This case exemplifies how early post-mortem imaging can be crucial to avoid a wrong diagnosis. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Post–Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreaticography complications in liver transplanted patients, a single-center experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambrus, R B; Svendsen, Lars Bo; Hillingsø, J G

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Complications in the biliary tract occur in 5%-30% after liver transplantation and the main part of the complications is successfully managed with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreaticography (ERCP). The incidence and risk factors for post-ERCP complications in liver transplantation...... patients are not well described. Our objective was to define the frequency of post-ERCP complications in liver transplantation patients at the Abdominal Center, Rigshospitalet, the only Liver Transplantation Center in Denmark. METHODS: Retrospective study of all ERCPs performed in liver transplantation...... and cholangitis occurred after two procedures, respectively. Multivariate analysis concerning overall complications identified biliary sphincterotomy (p = 0.006) and time since liver transplantation within 90 days postoperatively (p = 0.044) as risk factors for post-ERCP complications. Specifically concerning...

  1. Grain-scale Sr isotope heterogeneity in amphibolite (retrograded UHP eclogite, Dabie terrane): Implications for the origin and flow behavior of retrograde fluids during slab exhumation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shun; Yang, Yueheng; Chen, Yi; Su, Bin; Gao, Yijie; Zhang, Lingmin; Liu, Jingbo; Mao, Qian

    2016-12-01

    To constrain the origin and flow behavior of amphibolite-facies retrograde fluids during slab exhumation, we investigate the textures, trace element contents, and in situ strontium (Sr) isotopic compositions (using LA-MC-ICP-MS) of multiple types of epidote and apatite in the UHP eclogite and amphibolites from the Hualiangting area (Dabie terrane, China). The UHP epidote porphyroblasts in the eclogite (Ep-E), which formed at 28-30 kbar and 660-720 °C, contain high amounts of Sr, Pb, Th, Ba, and light rare earth elements (LREEs) and have a narrow range of initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.70431 ± 0.00012 to 0.70454 ± 0.00010). Two types of amphibolite-facies epidote were recognized in the amphibolites. The first type of epidote (Ep-AI) developed in all the amphibolites and has slightly lower trace element contents than Ep-E. The Ep-AI has a same initial 87Sr/86Sr ratio range as the Ep-E and represents the primary amphibolite-facies retrograde product that is associated with an internally buffered fluid at 8.0-10.3 kbar and 646-674 °C. The other type of epidote (Ep-AII) occurs as irregular fragments, veins/veinlets, or reaction rims on the Ep-AI in certain amphibolites. Elemental X-ray maps reveal the presence of Ep-AI relics in the Ep-AII domains (appearing as a patchy texture), which indicates that Ep-AII most likely formed by the partial replacement of the Ep-AI in the presence of an infiltrating fluid. The distinctly lower trace element contents of Ep-AII are ascribed to element scavenging by a mechanism of dissolution-transport-precipitation during replacement. The Ep-AII in an individual amphibolite exhibits large intra- and inter-grain variations in the initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.70493 ± 0.00030 to 0.70907 ± 0.00022), which are between those of the Ep-AI and granitic gneisses (wall rock of the amphibolites, 0.7097-0.7108). These results verify that the infiltrating fluid was externally derived from granitic gneisses. The matrix apatite in the amphibolites has

  2. Integrated omics analyses of retrograde signaling mutant delineate interrelated stress-response strata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjornson, Marta; Balcke, Gerd Ulrich; Xiao, Yanmei; de Souza, Amancio; Wang, Jin-Zheng; Zhabinskaya, Dina; Tagkopoulos, Ilias; Tissier, Alain; Dehesh, Katayoon

    2017-07-01

    To maintain homeostasis in the face of intrinsic and extrinsic insults, cells have evolved elaborate quality control networks to resolve damage at multiple levels. Interorganellar communication is a key requirement for this maintenance, however the underlying mechanisms of this communication have remained an enigma. Here we integrate the outcome of transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomics analyses of genotypes including ceh1, a mutant with constitutively elevated levels of both the stress-specific plastidial retrograde signaling metabolite methyl-erythritol cyclodiphosphate (MEcPP) and the defense hormone salicylic acid (SA), as well as the high MEcPP but SA deficient genotype ceh1/eds16, along with corresponding controls. Integration of multi-omic analyses enabled us to delineate the function of MEcPP from SA, and expose the compartmentalized role of this retrograde signaling metabolite in induction of distinct but interdependent signaling cascades instrumental in adaptive responses. Specifically, here we identify strata of MEcPP-sensitive stress-response cascades, among which we focus on selected pathways including organelle-specific regulation of jasmonate biosynthesis; simultaneous induction of synthesis and breakdown of SA; and MEcPP-mediated alteration of cellular redox status in particular glutathione redox balance. Collectively, these integrated multi-omic analyses provided a vehicle to gain an in-depth knowledge of genome-metabolism interactions, and to further probe the extent of these interactions and delineate their functional contributions. Through this approach we were able to pinpoint stress-mediated transcriptional and metabolic signatures and identify the downstream processes modulated by the independent or overlapping functions of MEcPP and SA in adaptive responses. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Retrograde Accretion of a Caribbean Fringing Reef Controlled by Hurricanes and Sea-level Rise

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    Paul Blanchon

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Predicting the impact of sea-level (SL rise on coral reefs requires reliable models of reef accretion. Most assume that accretion results from vertical growth of coralgal framework, but recent studies show that reefs exposed to hurricanes consist of layers of coral gravel rather than in-place corals. New models are therefore needed to account for hurricane impact on reef accretion over geological timescales. To investigate this geological impact, we report the configuration and development of a 4-km-long fringing reef at Punta Maroma along the northeast Yucatan Peninsula. Satellite-derived bathymetry (SDB shows the crest is set-back a uniform distance of 315 ±15 m from a mid-shelf slope break, and the reef-front decreases 50% in width and depth along its length. A 12-core drill transect constrained by multiple 230Th ages shows the reef is composed of an ~2-m thick layer of coral clasts that has retrograded 100 m over its back-reef during the last 5.5 ka. These findings are consistent with a hurricane-control model of reef development where large waves trip and break over the mid-shelf slope break, triggering rapid energy dissipation and thus limiting how far upslope individual waves can fragment corals and transport clasts. As SL rises and water depth increases, energy dissipation during wave-breaking is reduced, extending the clast-transport limit, thus leading to reef retrogradation. This hurricane model may be applicable to a large sub-set of fringing reefs in the tropical Western-Atlantic necessitating a reappraisal of their accretion rates and response to future SL rise.

  4. Synthesis of partial stabilized cement-gypsum as new dental retrograde filling material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadhasivam, S. [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Division of Medical Engineering Research, National Health Research Institute, Zhunan, Miaoli County, Taiwan (China); Chen, Jung-Chih [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Medical Device Innovation Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan,Taiwan (China); Savitha, S. [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Ming-Xiang; Hsu, Chung-King [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lin, Chun-Pin [School of Dentistry and Graduate Institute of Clinical Dentistry, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University and National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lin, Feng-Huei, E-mail: double@ntu.edu.tw [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Division of Medical Engineering Research, National Health Research Institute, Zhunan, Miaoli County, Taiwan (China)

    2012-10-01

    The study describes the sol-gel synthesis of a new dental retrograde filling material partial stabilized cement (PSC)-gypsum by adding different weight percentage of gypsum (25% PSC + 75% gypsum, 50% PSC + 50% gypsum and 75% PSC + 25% gypsum) to the PSC. The crystalline phase and hydration products of PSC-gypsum were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. The handling properties such as setting time, viscosity, tensile strength, porosity and pH, were also studied. The XRD and microstructure analysis demonstrated the formation of hydroxyapatite and removal of calcium dihydrate during its immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) on day 10 for 75% PSC + 25% gypsum. The developed PSC-gypsum not only improved the setting time but also greatly reduced the viscosity, which is very essential for endodontic surgery. The cytotoxic and cell proliferation studies indicated that the synthesized material is highly biocompatible. The increased alkaline pH of the PSC-gypsum also had a remarkable antibacterial activity. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new dental retrograde filling material PSC-gypsum was developed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PSC-gypsum cement has shown excellent initial and final setting time as 15-35 min. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It not only improved the setting time but also retain the viscosity, 2 Pa{center_dot}s. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High alkaline pH of the cement had a remarkable antibacterial activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cytotoxicity studies revealed that the synthesized material is highly biocompatible.

  5. Quantification of retrograde axonal transport in the rat optic nerve by fluorogold spectrometry.

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    Christian van Oterendorp

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Disturbed axonal transport is an important pathogenic factor in many neurodegenerative diseases, such as glaucoma, an eye disease characterised by progressive atrophy of the optic nerve. Quantification of retrograde axonal transport in the optic nerve usually requires labour intensive histochemical techniques or expensive equipment for in vivo imaging. Here, we report on a robust alternative method using Fluorogold (FG as tracer, which is spectrometrically quantified in retinal tissue lysate. METHODS: To determine parameters reflecting the relative FG content of a sample FG was dissolved in retinal lysates at different concentrations and spectra were obtained. For validation in vivo FG was injected uni- or bilaterally into the superior colliculus (SC of Sprague Dawley rats. The retinal lysate was analysed after 3, 5 and 7 days to determine the time course of FG accumulation in the retina (n = 15. In subsequent experiments axona transport was impaired by optic nerve crush (n = 3, laser-induced ocular hypertension (n = 5 or colchicine treatment to the SC (n = 10. RESULTS: Spectrometry at 370 nm excitation revealed two emission peaks at 430 and 610 nm. We devised a formula to calculate the relative FG content (c(FG, from the emission spectrum. c(FG is proportional to the real FG concentration as it corrects for variations of retinal protein concentration in the lysate. After SC injection, c(FG monotonously increases with time (p = 0.002. Optic nerve axonal damage caused a significant decrease of c(FG (crush p = 0.029; hypertension p = 0.025; colchicine p = 0.006. Lysates are amenable to subsequent protein analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Spectrometrical FG detection in retinal lysates allows for quantitative assessment of retrograde axonal transport using standard laboratory equipment. It is faster than histochemical techniques and may also complement morphological in vivo analyses.

  6. Bilateral Single-Session Retrograde Intrarenal Surgery for the Treatment of Bilateral Renal Stones

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    Gokhan Atis

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of bilateral single-session retrograde intrarenal surgery in the treatment of bilateral renal stones. Materials and Methods From December 2008 to February 2012, 42 patients who had undergone bilateral single-session retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS and laser lithotripsy were included in the study. The procedures were performed in the lithotomy position on an endoscopy table under general anesthesia, beginning on the side in which the stone size was smaller. Plain abdominal radiography, intravenous urograms (IVU, renal ultrasonography (USG and / or non-contrast tomography (CT scans were conducted for all patients. The success rate was defined as patients who were stone-free or only had residual fragment less than 4 mm. Results A total of 42 patients (28 male, 14 female with a mean age 39.2 ± 14.2 were included in the present study. The mean stone size was 24.09 ± 6.37 mm with a mean operative time of 51.08 ± 15.22 minutes. The stone-free rates (SFR were 92.8% and 97.6% after the first and second procedures, respectively. The average hospital stay was 1.37 ± 0.72 days. In two patients (4.7%, minor complications (Clavien I or II were observed, whereas no major complications (Clavien III-V or blood transfusions were noted in the studied group. Conclusions Bilateral single-session RIRS and laser lithotripsy can be performed safely and effectively with a high success rate and low complication rate in patients with bilateral renal stones.

  7. Retrograde femoral vein catheter insertion. A new approach for challenging hemodialysis vascular access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouda, Zaghloul

    2014-01-01

    Venous catheters provide access for hemodialysis (HD) when patients do not have functioning access device. Obstruction of jugular, femoral or even external iliac vessels further depletes options. Subclavian approach is prohibited. Catheterization of inferior vena cava requires specialized equipment and skills. The purpose is to assess a new lifesaving HD vascular access approach for patients with nonfunctioning access device in the ordinary sites. This entails insertion of a retrograde temporary HD catheter in the superficial femoral vein, directing the catheter distally, toward the foot. We included six end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients retrospectively who are on regular renal replacement therapy and need urgent HD with nonfunctioning access device in the ordinary sites. Successful insertion of six retrograde femoral vein catheters in the superficial femoral vein. The mean catheter days were 2.5±0.5 days with one patient having 26 catheter days. The mean blood pump speed was 230.0±44.7 mL/min. Urea reduction ratio and Kt/V at 3 hours HD session were 47% and 1.5, respectively, which increased with increasing session duration. The ultrafiltration volume was 2-3 L/session which increased up to 6 L/session in case of using slow low-efficiency dialysis. No major complications were observed during insertion or the postinsertion period except thigh pain in one patient and exit site infection in the case of long duration. This is a newly applied lifesaving HD vascular access approach for selected ESRD patients with no available HD vascular access at the ordinary sites with accepted HD adequacy. It needs more evaluation and more studies.

  8. Modified retrograde-locked nailing for aseptic femoral supracondylar nonunion with severe osteoporosis in elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chi-Chuan

    2011-08-01

    Femoral supracondylar nonunions in elderly patients are uncommon. To date, there is no convincing technique for managing this condition. When the nonunion is associated with severe osteoporosis, treatment becomes even more complicated. We developed a modified retrograde-locked nailing technique to treat this complex lesion. Twenty-four aseptic femoral supracondylar nonunions with severe osteopenia in 24 elderly patients (aged ≥65 years) were treated. A retrograde femoral-locked nail was inserted in the dynamic mode. Next, the medial ½ to 2/3 marrow cavity in the nonunion site was filled with bone cement, and the lateral 1/3 to ½ marrow cavity received a cancellous bone graft with or without a bone graft substitute. A cylindrical brace was applied for 3 weeks postoperation. Early ambulation with a walker or wheelchair was encouraged. Twenty patients were followed up for an average period of 2.5 years (range, 1.1-4.5 years), and 18 nonunions healed. The union rate was 90.0% with an average union period of 4.9 months (range, 4-7 months). No deep infection or malunion was found. The two patients with persistent nonunions were advised to use a walker whenever necessary. The satisfactory rate for knee function improved from 0% preoperatively to 80.0% at the latest follow-up. The described technique may concomitantly provide sufficient stability and initiate osteogenic potential, thus facilitating bone union. This technique is simple with a low complication rate and thus should be considered as a useful alternative for treating this complex lesion.

  9. MICROLEAKAGE ASSOCIATED WITH RETROGRADE FILLING AFTER ROOT END RESECTION (in vitro study

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    Elka Radeva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to compare microleakage after root end resection of the two materials (MTA and Biodentine for two different apical cavity preparation using the method of penetration of dye - 0, 2 % Rodamine B. Materials and Methods: Forty-eight extracted single-rooted human teeth were used in this study. The resection was made at 3 mm from the root tip with a high speed diamond bur at an angle of 90 degree to the long axis of the tooth. For the retrofilling, ProRoot MTA and Biodentine were used. The teeth were divided into 5 groups: 1st group (10 teeth – the apical cavity was prepared with stainless steel fissure bur #10 at 3 mm depth in the root canal parallel to the long axis of the tooth and is filled retrograde with MTA. 3rd group (10 teeth - retrofilling with Biodentine. 2 nd group (10 teeth - with a round bur apical cavity was prepared with a concave shape and cavity along the root canal with a depth of 3 mm and retrograde obturation with MTA. 4th group (10 teeth - retrofilling with Biodentine. 5th group (8 teeth - control group - with preparation of the cavity after resection without retrofilling. The outer surface of the root is covered with two layers of varnish, with the exception of the apical 3 mm then immersed in 0.2% Rodamine B for 72 h. The degree of penetration of the dye is measured in millimeters. Results: Relative highest median value of penetration of the dye in mm is in the control group. MTA group has a higher value in mm versus the Biodentine. The apical preparation with a concave shape and cavity along the root canal with a depth of 3 mm after apicoectomy is important to reduce apical microleakage. Conclusion: Different apical cavity preparations in both types of material have led to the microleakage dye, but to varying degrees.

  10. Uncoupling High Light Responses from Singlet Oxygen Retrograde Signaling and Spatial-Temporal Systemic Acquired Acclimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmody, Melanie; Crisp, Peter A; d'Alessandro, Stefano; Ganguly, Diep; Gordon, Matthew; Havaux, Michel; Albrecht-Borth, Verónica; Pogson, Barry J

    2016-07-01

    Distinct ROS signaling pathways initiated by singlet oxygen ((1)O2) or superoxide and hydrogen peroxide have been attributed to either cell death or acclimation, respectively. Recent studies have revealed that more complex antagonistic and synergistic relationships exist within and between these pathways. As specific chloroplastic ROS signals are difficult to study, rapid systemic signaling experiments using localized high light (HL) stress or ROS treatments were used in this study to uncouple signals required for direct HL and ROS perception and distal systemic acquired acclimation (SAA). A qPCR approach was chosen to determine local perception and distal signal reception. Analysis of a thylakoidal ascorbate peroxidase mutant (tapx), the (1)O2-retrograde signaling double mutant (ex1/ex2), and an apoplastic signaling double mutant (rbohD/F) revealed that tAPX and EXECUTER 1 are required for both HL and systemic acclimation stress perception. Apoplastic membrane-localized RBOHs were required for systemic spread of the signal but not for local signal induction in directly stressed tissues. Endogenous ROS treatments revealed a very strong systemic response induced by a localized 1 h induction of (1)O2 using the conditional flu mutant. A qPCR time course of (1)O2 induced systemic marker genes in directly and indirectly connected leaves revealed a direct vascular connection component of both immediate and longer term SAA signaling responses. These results reveal the importance of an EXECUTER-dependent (1)O2 retrograde signal for both local and long distance RBOH-dependent acclimation signaling that is distinct from other HL signaling pathways, and that direct vascular connections have a role in spatial-temporal SAA induction. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Two-step retrograde closed stenting: a novel method for treating canalicular lacerations in Chinese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Y; Sui, G; Zhou, Q; Heindl, L M; Bock, F; Sun, X; Tang, S; Wang, Z; Cursiefen, C

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of two-step retrograde closed stenting for treating canalicular laceration. methods: Forty-eight consecutive canalicular laceration cases (48 eyes) were randomised and divided into two groups: a one-step group and a two-step group. In the two-step group (23 cases), the first step was performed in the outpatient department and included identifying the medial cut end of the canaliculus and probing under a slit-lamp microscope, followed by a retrograde canalicular stenting assisted by a memory titanium stylet. The second step was canalicular anastomosis, which was performed in the operating room. In the one-step group (25 cases), all of the surgical procedures were performed when preoperative preparations were simultaneously available. The time elapsed from the doctor visit to the treatment was 4.3 ± 2.4 h in the two-step group and 18.8 ± 6.3 h in the one-step group (Ptwo-step group, and 51.4 ± 24.2 min was needed in the one-step group (Ptwo-step group and 5.4 ± 2.2 in the one-step group (Ptwo-step group and nine cases (36%) in the one-step group required other assisted methods to locate the medial cut end (P=0.007). Twenty-one cases (91.3%) in the two-step group and 20 cases (80%) in the one-step group achieved patent lacrimal drainage systems during a 12-month follow-up (P=0.528). The two-step canalicular anastomosis method allows an early search for the medial cut end of the canaliculus and improves the chances of finding it; it is also a quicker, less invasive method for treating canalicular lacerations.

  12. Retrograde Suction Decompression Through Direct Puncture of the Common Carotid Artery for Paraclinoid Aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Naoki; Wada, Kojiro; Toyooka, Terushige; Fujii, Kazuya; Ueno, Hideaki; Tomura, Satoshi; Tomiyama, Arata; Nakao, Yasuaki; Yamamoto, Takuji; Mori, Kentaro

    2016-01-01

    Surgical clipping of paraclinoid aneurysm can be very difficult because strong adhesions may hinder the dissection of the perforators and surrounding anatomical structures from the aneurysm dome. We describe our experience with using retrograde suction decompression during the clipping of paraclinoid aneurysms and discuss the relative advantages and pitfalls. This study included 23 patients with large and giant paraclinoid aneurysms who underwent surgical treatment consisting of direct clipping with suction decompression between March 2004 and August 2014. Direct puncture of the common carotid artery (CCA) was performed with a 20-gauge needle. The aneurysm was temporarily trapped by clamping of the CCA and external carotid artery (ECA), followed by temporary clipping of the intracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) distal to the aneurysm neck. Blood was then gently aspirated through a catheter introduced into the cervical ICA, resulting in collapse of the aneurysm. Therefore, safe aneurysm dissection was feasible during interruption of the blood flow, which could be maintained for up to 5 min. This procedure was repeated until dissection and clipping of the aneurysm were completed. Seven patients were admitted with SAH, 11 with asymptomatic unruptured aneurysm, and 5 with symptomatic unruptured aneurysm. The aneurysms were located on the paraclinoidal segment of the ICA in 15 cases, on the ICA-posterior communicating artery (PComA) in 6, at the ICA bifurcation in 1, and on the anterior wall of the ICA in 1. None of them suffered complications related to the CCA puncture. Surgical outcome was good recovery in 13 patients, moderate disability in 4, severe disability in 4, and vegetative state in 1. Retrograde suction decompression through direct puncture of the common carotid artery is a useful adjunct technique for the clipping of paraclinoid ICA aneurysms.

  13. The localization of primary efferent sympathetic neurons innervating the porcine thymus – a retrograde tracing study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Kulik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The autonomic nervous system is a sophisticated and independent structure composed of two antagonistic (opposing divisions (sympathetic and parasympathetic that control many vital functions including: homeostasis maintenance, heart rate, blood circulation, secretion, etc. Thymus is one of the most important primary lymphoid organs playing a role in the developing of a juvenile’s immune system mainly by maturation, development, and migration of T-cells (T lymphocytes. In the last decades, several studies identifying sources of the thymic autonomic supply have been undertaken in humans and several laboratory rodents but not in higher mammals such as the pig. Therefore, in the present work, retrograde tracing technique of Fast Blue and DiI was used to investigate the sources of sympathetic efferent supply to the porcine thymus. After Fast Blue injection into the right lobe of the thymus, the presence of Fast Blue-positive neurons was found in the unilateral cranial cervical ganglion (82.8 ± 3.0% of total Fast Blue-positive neurons as well as in the middle cervical ganglion (17.2 ± 3.0%. Injection of DiI resulted in the presence of retrograde tracer in neurons of the cranial cervical ganglion (80.4 ± 2.3% of total amount of DiI-labelled neurons, the middle cervical ganglion (18.4 ± 1.9%, and the cervicothoracic ganglion (1.2 ± 0.8%. The present report provides the first data describing in details the localization of primary efferent sympathetic neurons innervating the porcine thymus.

  14. A TOCA/CDC-42/PAR/WAVE functional module required for retrograde endocytic recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Zhiyong; Grant, Barth D

    2015-03-24

    Endosome-to-Golgi transport is required for the function of many key membrane proteins and lipids, including signaling receptors, small-molecule transporters, and adhesion proteins. The retromer complex is well-known for its role in cargo sorting and vesicle budding from early endosomes, in most cases leading to cargo fusion with the trans-Golgi network (TGN). Transport from recycling endosomes to the TGN has also been reported, but much less is understood about the molecules that mediate this transport step. Here we provide evidence that the F-BAR domain proteins TOCA-1 and TOCA-2 (Transducer of Cdc42 dependent actin assembly), the small GTPase CDC-42 (Cell division control protein 42), associated polarity proteins PAR-6 (Partitioning defective 6) and PKC-3/atypical protein kinase C, and the WAVE actin nucleation complex mediate the transport of MIG-14/Wls and TGN-38/TGN38 cargo proteins from the recycling endosome to the TGN in Caenorhabditis elegans. Our results indicate that CDC-42, the TOCA proteins, and the WAVE component WVE-1 are enriched on RME-1-positive recycling endosomes in the intestine, unlike retromer components that act on early endosomes. Furthermore, we find that retrograde cargo TGN-38 is trapped in early endosomes after depletion of SNX-3 (a retromer component) but is mainly trapped in recycling endosomes after depletion of CDC-42, indicating that the CDC-42-associated complex functions after retromer in a distinct organelle. Thus, we identify a group of interacting proteins that mediate retrograde recycling, and link these proteins to a poorly understood trafficking step, recycling endosome-to-Golgi transport. We also provide evidence for the physiological importance of this pathway in WNT signaling.

  15. A TOCA/CDC-42/PAR/WAVE functional module required for retrograde endocytic recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Zhiyong; Grant, Barth D.

    2015-01-01

    Endosome-to-Golgi transport is required for the function of many key membrane proteins and lipids, including signaling receptors, small-molecule transporters, and adhesion proteins. The retromer complex is well-known for its role in cargo sorting and vesicle budding from early endosomes, in most cases leading to cargo fusion with the trans-Golgi network (TGN). Transport from recycling endosomes to the TGN has also been reported, but much less is understood about the molecules that mediate this transport step. Here we provide evidence that the F-BAR domain proteins TOCA-1 and TOCA-2 (Transducer of Cdc42 dependent actin assembly), the small GTPase CDC-42 (Cell division control protein 42), associated polarity proteins PAR-6 (Partitioning defective 6) and PKC-3/atypical protein kinase C, and the WAVE actin nucleation complex mediate the transport of MIG-14/Wls and TGN-38/TGN38 cargo proteins from the recycling endosome to the TGN in Caenorhabditis elegans. Our results indicate that CDC-42, the TOCA proteins, and the WAVE component WVE-1 are enriched on RME-1–positive recycling endosomes in the intestine, unlike retromer components that act on early endosomes. Furthermore, we find that retrograde cargo TGN-38 is trapped in early endosomes after depletion of SNX-3 (a retromer component) but is mainly trapped in recycling endosomes after depletion of CDC-42, indicating that the CDC-42–associated complex functions after retromer in a distinct organelle. Thus, we identify a group of interacting proteins that mediate retrograde recycling, and link these proteins to a poorly understood trafficking step, recycling endosome-to-Golgi transport. We also provide evidence for the physiological importance of this pathway in WNT signaling. PMID:25775511

  16. The Retrograde Transvenous Push-Through Method: A Novel Treatment of Peripheral Arteriovenous Malformations with Dominant Venous Outflow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlgemuth, Walter A., E-mail: walter.wohlgemuth@ukr.de; Müller-Wille, René, E-mail: Rene.Mueller-Wille@ukr.de; Teusch, Veronika I., E-mail: Veronika.Teusch@gmx.de [University Medical Center Regensburg, Department of Radiology (Germany); Dudeck, Oliver, E-mail: Oliver.Dudeck@med.ovgu.de [University of Magdeburg, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (Germany); Cahill, Anne M., E-mail: Cahill@email.chop.edu [Perelman School of Medicine of the University of Pennsylvania, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia (United States); Alomari, Ahmad I., E-mail: Ahmad.Alomari@childrens.harvard.edu [Boston Children’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Division of Vascular and Interventional Radiology (United States); Uller, Wibke, E-mail: Wibke.Uller@ukr.de [University Medical Center Regensburg, Department of Radiology (Germany)

    2015-06-15

    PurposeTo evaluate the efficacy and safety of a novel retrograde transvenous embolization technique of peripheral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) using Onyx.Materials and MethodsWe conducted a retrospective analysis of all patients who underwent transvenous retrograde Onyx embolization of peripheral AVMs with dominant venous outflow over a 29-month period. The embolization is aimed at retrograde filling of the nidus after building a solid plug in the dominant venous outflow (push-through). Classification, clinical signs, technical aspects, clinical and technical success rates, and complications were recorded. Short-term outcome was assessed.Results11 Symptomatic patients (8 female; mean age 31.4 years) were treated at our Vascular Anomalies Center with this method between January 2012 and May 2014. The AVMs were located on the upper extremity (n = 3), pelvis (n = 2), buttock (n = 2), and lower extremity (n = 4). Retrograde embolization was successfully carried out after preparatory transarterial-flow reduction in eight cases (73 %) and venous-flow reduction with Amplatzer Vascular Plugs in four cases (36 %). Complete devascularization (n = 10; 91 %) or 95 % devascularization (n = 1; 9 %) led to complete resolution (n = 8; 73 %) or improvement of clinical symptoms (n = 3; 27 %). One minor complication occurred (pain and swelling). During a mean follow-up time of 8 months, one clinically asymptomatic recurrence of AVM was detected.ConclusionInitial results suggest that retrograde transvenous Onyx embolization of peripheral AVMs with dominant venous outflow is a safe and effective novel technique with a low complication rate.

  17. OPPORTUNITIES OF ENDOSCOPIC RETROGRADE STENTING OF THE BILE DUCTS IN MALIGNANT TUMORS OF THE PANCREATOBILIARY ZONE, COMPLICATED BY OBSTRUCTIVE JAUNDICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Budzinsky

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In the last 10 years in the treatment of acute jaundice, developed on a background of malignant tumors of the pancreatobiliary zone (PBZ, more preferred method is endoscopic retrograde biliary drainage.Material and methods. From January 2007 to July 2012 in the clinic of hospital surgery N. 2 PRNMU endoscopic biliary stenting was performed in 441 patients. Of these, 324 (73.5% stenting fell to 234 patients with a tumor of the extrahepatic bile ducts. The diagnostic program included ultrasonography, computed tomography, endoscopic ultrasonography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreaticography.Results. Installing of bilioduodenal stent in 223 patients (95.3% was generated after the pre-endoscopic papillosphincterotomy (EPST. The adequacy of the biliary drainage after produced in the required amount of biliary stent placement was achieved in all patients. In 46 cases, execute the biliary tract prosthesis failed. Complications of endoscopic interventions presented with acute pancreatitis, cholangitis, bleeding from the area of EPST, perforated duodenal wall and migration of the stent were in 19 cases (5?9%. Postoperative mortality was 3?8%. 7 patients (3% died after the endoscopic decompression of the biliary tract. After stenting in all patients with jaundice it was resolved or significantly reduced. In 185 of them (79% was the definitive guide endoscopic treatment because of severity of tumor process. In cases of jaundice reccurence endoscopic stent recanalizing or replacement were performed. In the remaining cases (21% patients after the resolution of jaundice decompressive surgical intervention were done.Conclusion. The method of endoscopic retrograde biliary drainage allows you to prepare patients with obstructive jaundice for surgical intervention, including the radical. The frequency of complications after endoscopic retrograde operations on the major duodenal papilla for acute jaundice blastomatous origin did not differ from

  18. Retrograde pedal access with a 20-gauge intravenous cannula after failed antegrade recanalization of a tibialis anterior artery in a diabetic patient: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yucel Colkesen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Retrograde tibiopedal approach is being used frequently in below-the-knee vascular interventions. In patients with diabetic foot pathology, complex anatomy often requires a retrograde technique when the distal vascular anatomy and puncture site is suitable. The dorsalis pedis and posterior tibial arteries can be punctured because of their relatively superficial position. We report a retrograde puncturing technique in patients with chronic total occlusions. After failed antegrade recanalization, puncturing and cannulation of a tiny dorsalis pedis artery with a narrow bore [20-gauge (0.8 mm] intravenous cannula is described.

  19. Syncrip/hnRNP Q influences synaptic transmission and regulates BMP signaling at the Drosophila neuromuscular synapse

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    James M. Halstead

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Synaptic plasticity involves the modulation of synaptic connections in response to neuronal activity via multiple pathways. One mechanism modulates synaptic transmission by retrograde signals from the post-synapse that influence the probability of vesicle release in the pre-synapse. Despite its importance, very few factors required for the expression of retrograde signals, and proper synaptic transmission, have been identified. Here, we identify the conserved RNA binding protein Syncrip as a new factor that modulates the efficiency of vesicle release from the motoneuron and is required for correct synapse structure. We show that syncrip is required genetically and its protein product is detected only in the muscle and not in the motoneuron itself. This unexpected non-autonomy is at least partly explained by the fact that Syncrip modulates retrograde BMP signals from the muscle back to the motoneuron. We show that Syncrip influences the levels of the Bone Morphogenic Protein ligand Glass Bottom Boat from the post-synapse and regulates the pre-synapse. Our results highlight the RNA-binding protein Syncrip as a novel regulator of synaptic output. Given its known role in regulating translation, we propose that Syncrip is important for maintaining a balance between the strength of presynaptic vesicle release and postsynaptic translation.

  20. The automotive transmission book

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Robert; Jürgens, Gunter; Najork, Rolf; Pollak, Burkhard

    2015-01-01

    This book presents essential information on systems and interactions in automotive transmission technology and outlines the methodologies used to analyze and develop transmission concepts and designs. Functions of and interactions between components and subassemblies of transmissions are introduced, providing a basis for designing transmission systems and for determining their potentials and properties in vehicle-specific applications: passenger cars, trucks, buses, tractors, and motorcycles. With these fundamentals the presentation provides universal resources for both state-of-the-art and future transmission technologies, including systems for electric and hybrid electric vehicles.

  1. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure and retrogradation treatments on structural and physicochemical properties of waxy wheat starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiao-Pei; Zhang, Bao; Jin, Zheng-Yu; Xu, Xue-Ming; Chen, Han-Qing

    2017-10-01

    In this study, the effects of high hydrostatic pressure and retrogradation (HHPR) treatments on in vitro digestibility, structural and physicochemical properties of waxy wheat starch were investigated. The waxy wheat starch slurries (10%, w/v) were treated with high hydrostatic pressures of 300, 400, 500, 600MPa at 20°C for 30min, respectively, and then retrograded at 4°C for 4d. The results indicated that the content of slowly digestible starch (SDS) in HHPR-treated starch samples increased with increasing pressure level, and it reached the maximum (31.12%) at 600MPa. HHPR treatment decreased the gelatinization temperatures, the gelatinization enthalpy, the relative crystallinity and the peak viscosity of the starch samples. Moreover, HHPR treatment destroyed the surface and interior structures of starch granules. These results suggest that the in vitro digestibility, physicochemical, and structural properties of waxy wheat starch are effectively modified by HHPR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Long-term potentiation in hippocampal oriens interneurons: postsynaptic induction, presynaptic expression and evaluation of candidate retrograde factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Elizabeth; Kullmann, Dimitri M.

    2014-01-01

    Several types of hippocampal interneurons exhibit a form of long-term potentiation (LTP) that depends on Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors and group I metabotropic glutamate receptors. Several sources of evidence point to a presynaptic locus of LTP maintenance. The retrograde factor that triggers the expression of LTP remains unidentified. Here, we show that trains of action potentials in putative oriens-lacunosum-moleculare interneurons of the mouse CA1 region can induce long-lasting potentiation of stimulus-evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents that mimics LTP elicited by high-frequency afferent stimulation. We further report that blockers of nitric oxide production or TRPV1 receptors failed to prevent LTP induction. The present results add to the evidence that retrograde signalling underlies N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-independent LTP in oriens interneurons, mediated by an unidentified factor. PMID:24298136

  3. A new generation starch product as excipient in pharmaceutical tablets .3. Parameters affecting controlled drug release from tablets based on high surface area retrograded pregelatinized potato starch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TeWierik, GHP; Eissens, AC; ArendsScholte, AW; Bolhuis, GK

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the general applicability of a new pregelatinized starch product in directly compressible controlled-release matrix systems. It was prepared by enzymatic degradation of potato starch followed by precipitation (retrogradation), filtration and washing with ethanol. The advantages

  4. Lack of consensus on the role of endoscopic retrograde cholangiography in acute biliary pancreatitis in published meta-analyses and guidelines: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geenen, E.J.M. van; Santvoort, H.C. van; Besselink, M.G.; Peet, D.L. van der; Erpecum, K.J. van; Fockens, P.; Mulder, C.J.; Bruno, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Several randomized controlled trials studied the role of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreaticography (ERCP) and endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) in acute biliary pancreatitis (ABP). No study assessed whether these trials resulted in international consensus in published meta-analyses

  5. Lack of Consensus on the Role of Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiography in Acute Biliary Pancreatitis in Published Meta-Analyses and Guidelines A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Geenen, Erwin-Jan M.; van Santvoort, Hjalmar C.; Besselink, Marc G. H.; van der Peet, Donald L.; van Erpecum, Karel J.; Fockens, Paul; Mulder, Chris J. J.; Bruno, Marco J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Several randomized controlled trials studied the role of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreaticography (ERCP) and endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) in acute biliary pancreatitis (ABP). No study assessed whether these trials resulted in international consensus in published meta-analyses

  6. Thylakoid redox signals are integrated into organellar-gene-expression-dependent retrograde signalling in the prors1-1 mutant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca eTadini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Perturbations in organellar gene expression (OGE and the thylakoid redox state (TRS activate retrograde signalling pathways that adaptively modify nuclear gene expression (NGE, according to developmental and metabolic needs. The prors1-1 mutation in Arabidopsis down-regulates the expression of the nuclear gene Prolyl-tRNA Synthetase1 (PRORS1 which acts in both plastids and mitochondria, thereby impairing protein synthesis in both organelles and triggering OGE-dependent retrograde signalling. Because the mutation also affects thylakoid electron transport, TRS-dependent signals may likewise have an impact on the changes in NGE observed in this genotype. In this study, we have investigated whether signals related to TRS are actually integrated into the OGE-dependent retrograde signalling pathway. To this end, the chaos mutation (for chlorophyll a/b binding protein harvesting-organelle specific, which shows a partial loss of PSII antennae proteins and thus a reduction in PSII light absorption capability, was introduced into the prors1-1 mutant background. The resulting double mutant displayed a prors1-1-like reduction in plastid translation rate and a chaos-like decrease in PSII antenna size, whereas the hyper-reduction of the thylakoid electron transport chain, caused by the prors1-1 mutation, was alleviated, as determined by monitoring chlorophyll (Chl fluorescence and thylakoid phosphorylation. Interestingly, a substantial fraction of the nucleus-encoded photosynthesis genes down-regulated in the prors1-1 mutant are expressed at nearly wild-type rates in prors1-1 chaos leaves, and this recovery is reflected in the steady-state levels of their protein products in the chloroplast. We therefore conclude that signals related to photosynthetic electron transport and TRS, and indirectly to carbohydrate metabolism and energy balance, are indeed fed into the OGE-dependent retrograde pathway to modulate NGE and adjust the abundance of chloroplast proteins.

  7. Synaptic plasticity in the medial vestibular nuclei: role of glutamate receptors and retrograde messengers in rat brainstem slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, S; Pettorossi, V E

    2001-08-01

    The analysis of cellular-molecular events mediating synaptic plasticity within vestibular nuclei is an attempt to explain the mechanisms underlying vestibular plasticity phenomena. The present review is meant to illustrate the main results, obtained in vitro, on the mechanisms underlying long-term changes in synaptic strength within the medial vestibular nuclei. The synaptic plasticity phenomena taking place at the level of vestibular nuclei could be useful for adapting and consolidating the efficacy of vestibular neuron responsiveness to environmental requirements, as during visuo-vestibular recalibration and vestibular compensation. Following a general introduction on the most salient features of vestibular compensation and visuo-vestibular adaptation, which are two plastic events involving neuronal circuitry within the medial vestibular nuclei, the second and third sections describe the results from rat brainstem slice studies, demonstrating the possibility to induce long-term potentiation and depression in the medial vestibular nuclei, following high frequency stimulation of the primary vestibular afferents. In particular the mechanisms sustaining the induction and expression of vestibular long-term potentiation and depression, such as the role of various glutamate receptors and retrograde messengers have been described. The relevant role of the interaction between the platelet-activating factor, acting as a retrograde messenger, and the presynaptic metabotropic glutamate receptors, in determining the full expression of vestibular long-term potentiation is also underlined. In addition, the mechanisms involved in vestibular long-term potentiation have been compared with those leading to long-term potentiation in the hippocampus to emphasize the most significant differences emerging from vestibular studies. The fourth part, describes recent results demonstrating the essential role of nitric oxide, another retrograde messenger, in the induction of vestibular

  8. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided biliary drainage versus percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage after failed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography: a meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Baniya R; Upadhaya S; Madala S; Subedi SC; Shaik Mohammed T; Bachuwa G

    2017-01-01

    Ramkaji Baniya, Sunil Upadhaya, Seetharamprasad Madala, Subash Chandra Subedi, Tabrez Shaik Mohammed, Ghassan Bachuwa Hurley Medical Center, Michigan State University, Flint, MI, USA Abstract: The failure rate of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography for biliary cannulation is approximately 6%–7% in cases of obstructive jaundice. Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) is the procedure of choice in such cases. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided biliary drainage (EGBD) i...

  9. Percutaneous Retrograde Recanalization of the Celiac Artery by Way of the Superior Mesenteric Artery for Chronic Mesenteric Ischemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, George, E-mail: joseph59@gmail.com; Chacko, Sujith Thomas [Christian Medical College, Department of Cardiology (India)

    2013-02-15

    A 52-year-old man presented with recurrent postprandial abdominal pain, sitophobia, and progressive weight loss. Chronic mesenteric ischemia (CMI) due to subtotal occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and flush occlusion of the celiac artery (CA) was diagnosed. Retrograde recanalization of the CA by way of a collateral channel from the SMA was performed using contemporary recanalization equipment. The CA and SMA were then stented, resulting in sustained resolution of CMI-related symptoms.

  10. Comparative analysis of uniplanar external fixator and retrograde intramedullary nailing for ankle arthrodesis in diabetic Charcot′s neuroarthropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakul S Shah

    2011-01-01

    Results: All five (100% patients treated by intramedullary nailing achieved radiological union on an average follow-up of 16 weeks. The external fixation group had significantly higher rate of complications with one amputation, four non unions (66.7% and a delayed union which went on to full osseous union. Conclusion: The retrograde intramedullary nailing for tibio-talar arthrodesis in Charcot′s neuroarthropathy yielded significantly better outcomes as compared to the use of uniplanar external fixator.

  11. The Cystoscope Sheath as a Platform for Performing Retrograde Intrarenal Surgery in a Transplanted Kidney with Complex Renal Anatomy

    OpenAIRE

    Brafman, Aaron F.; Wardenburg, Marla J.; Bird, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Endourology is a widely used means by which to manage urolithiasis. Patient anatomy can oftentimes limit what can be accomplished with current technology. Case Presentation: This is a case of a patient with renal and ureteral stones within a transplant kidney. Her anatomy would not allow for a standard retrograde ureteroscopic approach. We describe a method by which to overcome this difficult scenario by using a rigid cystoscope as a platform by which a ureteroscope was p...

  12. Retrograde and local destination transfer of uterine prostaglandin E2 in early pregnant sow and its physiological consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefańczyk-Krzymowska, Stanisława; Wasowska, Barbara; Chłopek, Jolanta; Gilun, Przemysław; Grzegorzewski, Waldemar; Radomski, Michał

    2006-10-01

    The local destination transfer of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) from the uterine lymph to arterial blood supplying the ovary and its retrograde transfer to arterial blood supplying the uterine horn and the effect of additional delivery of PGE2 into the ovary on the secretion of steroid hormones was studied in early pregnant gilts. The injection of PGE2 under the perimetrium caused an increase (Ppregnancy during (Ppregnancy after infusion (Pearly pregnant gilts.

  13. Same-session bilateral retrograde intrarenal surgery for upper urinary system stones: safety and efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkan, Erdal; Avci, Egemen; Ozkanli, Ahmet Oguz; Acar, Oguz; Balbay, Mevlana Derya

    2014-07-01

    We present our experience with same-session retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) for the management of bilateral upper urinary system stones (UUSS) in terms of clearance of stones, operative times, duration of hospital stay, and complications. Between November 2007 and January 2013, a total of 44 simultaneous bilateral RIRS were performed at our hospital. Initially, symptomatic sides of the patients were operated on, and, when asymptomatic, the greater stone burden was treated first. Having completed stone fragmentation with a holmium:YAG laser, larger fragments were extracted with a nitinol basket. All patients underwent noncontrast CT scanning or urinary ultrasonography 2 months after the removal of the stent to detect any residual fragments. The stone-free status was defined as no fragments and/or the presence of asymptomatic fragments anuria; both cases were treated with Double-J stent placement. Bilateral same-session RIRS is a safe and effective procedure that can be considered a first-line treatment for bilateral UUSS in select patients. The SFR is satisfactory, especially in patients with a stone burden <25 mm. At minimum a unilateral Double-J stent should be placed in patients undergoing bilateral RIRS to avoid postrenal failure.

  14. Actin retrograde flow actively aligns and orients ligand-engaged integrins in focal adhesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, Vinay; Kalappurakkal, Joseph Mathew; Mehta, Shalin B; Nordenfelt, Pontus; Moore, Travis I; Koga, Nobuyasu; Baker, David A; Oldenbourg, Rudolf; Tani, Tomomi; Mayor, Satyajit; Springer, Timothy A; Waterman, Clare M

    2017-10-03

    Integrins are transmembrane receptors that, upon activation, bind extracellular ligands and link them to the actin filament (F-actin) cytoskeleton to mediate cell adhesion and migration. Cytoskeletal forces in migrating cells generated by polymerization- or contractility-driven "retrograde flow" of F-actin from the cell leading edge have been hypothesized to mediate integrin activation for ligand binding. This predicts that these forces should align and orient activated, ligand-bound integrins at the leading edge. Here, polarization-sensitive fluorescence microscopy of GFP-αVβ3 integrins in fibroblasts shows that integrins are coaligned in a specific orientation within focal adhesions (FAs) in a manner dependent on binding immobilized ligand and a talin-mediated linkage to the F-actin cytoskeleton. These findings, together with Rosetta modeling, suggest that integrins in FA are coaligned and may be highly tilted by cytoskeletal forces. Thus, the F-actin cytoskeleton sculpts an anisotropic molecular scaffold in FAs, and this feature may underlie the ability of migrating cells to sense directional extracellular cues.

  15. Actin retrograde flow actively aligns and orients ligand-engaged integrins in focal adhesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, Vinay; Kalappurakkal, Joseph Mathew; Moore, Travis I.; Koga, Nobuyasu; Baker, David A.; Oldenbourg, Rudolf; Tani, Tomomi; Springer, Timothy A.; Waterman, Clare M.

    2017-01-01

    Integrins are transmembrane receptors that, upon activation, bind extracellular ligands and link them to the actin filament (F-actin) cytoskeleton to mediate cell adhesion and migration. Cytoskeletal forces in migrating cells generated by polymerization- or contractility-driven “retrograde flow” of F-actin from the cell leading edge have been hypothesized to mediate integrin activation for ligand binding. This predicts that these forces should align and orient activated, ligand-bound integrins at the leading edge. Here, polarization-sensitive fluorescence microscopy of GFP-αVβ3 integrins in fibroblasts shows that integrins are coaligned in a specific orientation within focal adhesions (FAs) in a manner dependent on binding immobilized ligand and a talin-mediated linkage to the F-actin cytoskeleton. These findings, together with Rosetta modeling, suggest that integrins in FA are coaligned and may be highly tilted by cytoskeletal forces. Thus, the F-actin cytoskeleton sculpts an anisotropic molecular scaffold in FAs, and this feature may underlie the ability of migrating cells to sense directional extracellular cues. PMID:29073038

  16. Eeyarestatin 1 interferes with both retrograde and anterograde intracellular trafficking pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina-Olga Aletrari

    Full Text Available The small molecule Eeyarestatin I (ESI inhibits the endoplasmic reticulum (ER-cytosol dislocation and subsequent degradation of ERAD (ER associated protein degradation substrates. Toxins such as ricin and Shiga/Shiga-like toxins (SLTx are endocytosed and trafficked to the ER. Their catalytic subunits are thought to utilise ERAD-like mechanisms to dislocate from the ER into the cytosol, where a proportion uncouples from the ERAD process, recovers a catalytic conformation and destroys their cellular targets. We therefore investigated ESI as a potential inhibitor of toxin dislocation.Using cytotoxicity measurements, we found no role for ES(I as an inhibitor of toxin dislocation from the ER, but instead found that for SLTx, ESI treatment of cells was protective by reducing the rate of toxin delivery to the ER. Microscopy of the trafficking of labelled SLTx and its B chain (lacking the toxic A chain showed a delay in its accumulation at a peri-nuclear location, confirmed to be the Golgi by examination of SLTx B chain metabolically labelled in the trans-Golgi cisternae. The drug also reduced the rate of endosomal trafficking of diphtheria toxin, which enters the cytosol from acidified endosomes, and delayed the Golgi-specific glycan modifications and eventual plasma membrane appearance of tsO45 VSV-G protein, a classical marker for anterograde trafficking.ESI acts on one or more components that function during vesicular transport, whilst at least one retrograde trafficking pathway, that of ricin, remains unperturbed.

  17. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in general surgery: how much are we outsourcing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Wesley B; Roettger, Richard H; Cobb, William S; Carbonell, Alfredo M

    2009-11-01

    Although surgeons can safely perform endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), it has fallen within the domain of gastroenterologists. We sought to quantify the role of ERCP in a tertiary-care surgery department. The hospital discharge database was queried for all ERCPs performed from January 2007 to December 2007. Gastroenterologists performed all ERCPs in our query. Surgical patients were admitted and/or under the care of a surgeon; whereas nonsurgical patients had no surgeon involvement. Patient characteristics and diagnoses were compared between groups. ERCP procedural details were recorded. Surgical patients comprised 48 per cent (n = 151) of the total 311 ERCPs performed. The mean time interval from a surgeon's request for ERCP to actual procedure was 2.43 days (standard deviation [SD] 2.55; range, 0-13 days). The surgical group had significantly different diagnoses and underwent less diagnostic (22% vs 56%) and more therapeutic ERCPs (72% vs 38%). Surgical patients were more likely inpatients (82.1% vs 16.8%) with a longer length of stay (6.7 vs 3.9 days; P = 0.0029) compared with nonsurgical patients. We found surgical patients requiring ERCP differ significantly from nonsurgical patients, with a significant number of technical interventions being outsourced. Given the benefits of a surgical ERCP program and the potential volume of these unique patients, this procedure should be performed by appropriately trained surgeons.

  18. Markerless tracking for augmented reality for image-guided Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thinh T; Jung, Hoeryong; Lee, Doo Yong

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a markerless tracking method with adaptive pose estimation for augmenting 3D organ models on top of the endoscopic image for Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). While many applications of augmented reality (AR) to surgeries need special markers to track the camera's position and orientation in the live video, our method employs the feature detection techniques to track the endoscopic camera. One of the most difficult problems when applying feature-based method to AR for ERCP is the lack of texture & highly specular reflection surface of duodenum in the endoscopic images, which does not provide a stable number of keypoints to track in the endoscopic video sequence. By introducing an adaptive weight function in the combination of reference-current frame tracking with previous-current frame tracking, we enhance the tracking performance remarkably. The proposed method is evaluated using an endoscopic video of a real ERCP and 3D duodenum model reconstructed from CT data of the patient. The result shows real-time performance and robustness of the method.

  19. [Evaluation of dermatomes in the hind paw of the rat using retrograde axonal transport].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passagia, J G; Benabid, A L; Chirossel, J P; Bouchet, Y

    1993-12-01

    UV light fluorescent tracers (True Blue and Fast Blue) are placed in contact with sensitive receptors after dermabrasion. The abraded surfaces are limited to two hemidorsal areas and two hemi plantar areas on the animals' foot. A five days survival is allowed to enable the axonal retrograde transport of the tracers, then the animals are sacrificed and perfused with an intracardiac injection of 10% formaldehyde in phosphate buffer at 7.4 pH. The lumbar spinal ganglions are immediately dissected out, examined as a whole with a Leitz Dialux fluorescence microscope, then frozen and cut with a cryotome. The results of this analysis show that: i-only ipsilateral dorsal root ganglions are labeled by blue dye. ii-the number of fluorescent cells varies between 20 to 60 per ganglion. iii-a map of the distribution of the dermatomes on the rat hind foot can be deducted from the study of the labelled ganglions. They spread from L2 to L5 from the cranial to the caudal part, and from the medial to the lateral side of the rat foot, on both dorsal and plantar areas.

  20. Symmetrical retrograde actin flow in the actin fusion structure is involved in osteoclast fusion

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    Jiro Takito

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of the zipper-like structure (ZLS, a podosome-related structure that transiently appears at the cell contact zone, in osteoclast fusion. Live-cell imaging of osteoclasts derived from RAW264.7 cells transfected with EGFP-actin revealed consistent symmetrical retrograde actin flow in the ZLS, but not in the podosome cluster, the podosome ring or the podosome belt. Confocal imaging showed that the distributions of F-actin, vinculin, paxillin and zyxin in the ZLS were different from those in the podosome belt. Thick actin filament bundles running outside the ZLS appeared to recruit non-muscle myosin IIA. The F-actin-rich domain of the ZLS contained actin-related protein 2/3 complex (Arp2/3. Inhibition of Arp2/3 activity disorganized the ZLS, disrupted actin flow, deteriorated cell-cell adhesion and inhibited osteoclast hypermultinucleation. In contrast, ML-7, an inhibitor of myosin light chain kinase, had little effect on the structure of ZLS and promoted osteoclast hypermultinucleation. These results reveal a link between actin flow in the ZLS and osteoclast fusion. Osteoclast fusion was promoted by branched actin elongation and negatively regulated by actomyosin contraction.

  1. Refinement of canine pancreatitis model: inducing pancreatitis by using endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruben, Dawn S; Scorpio, Diana G; Gabrielson, K L; Simon, B W; Buscaglia, Jonathan M

    2009-02-01

    The causes and treatments of pancreatitis have been studied in diverse species, but the canine pancreatitis model has been used most often due to its similarities to the condition in humans. Although pancreatitis in dogs can be induced readily by numerous methods, managing these dogs can be difficult because they often develop severe abdominal pain, vomiting, inappetance, and lethargy. In an effort to study pancreatitis, we performed a pilot study to determine whether an endoscopic pancreatic procedure would be possible in a dog and whether, through various manipulations, a new method of inducing pancreatitis could be developed. The model uses endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), a common procedure in human gastroenterology that has been associated with postprocedural pancreatitis. Although all 8 dogs used in developing the ERCP model had both biochemical and histologic changes consistent with pancreatitis, 7 of the 8 dogs remained free of classic clinical signs of the disease. This method is presented as a refinement of a canine model and presents an alternative method of inducing pancreatitis, with decreased risk of developing associated clinical signs.

  2. [Tibiotalocalcaneal corrective arthrodesis in Charcot arthropathy of the ankle with a retrograde nail].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Recum, J

    2015-04-01

    Involvement of the ankle joint in Charcot osteoarthropathy is most often associated with severe instability and fracture or collapse of the talus. Caused by malalignment, ulcerations over both malleoli are associated with increased risk of major amputation. The goal of the operation is to realign the hind foot, gain a stable osteosynthesis, and prevent major amputation. Charcot osteoarthropathy of the ankle joint with instability, with or without soft tissue involvement, failure of the primary arthrodesis of the ankle or subtalar joint. Acute osteitis/osteomyelitis, severe malalignment of the distal tibia, soft tissue infection close to the ankle joint. Realignment of the hind foot, preparation of the joint surfaces using a transfibular approach. Bone grafting of the defects, stable osteosynthesis with an anatomically shaped retrograde locking nail. Walker or cast for at least 12 weeks, 6 weeks no weight bearing. Partial weight bearing starting from week 7. X-ray control at 2, 6, and 12 weeks. After 12 weeks, walking in an ankle brace until fully consolidated.

  3. Bleeding risk in endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography: impact of the use of antithrombotic drugs

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    Fernando Alberca-de-las-Parras

    Full Text Available Aims: To analyze the risk factors for hemorrhage during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and the impact of antithrombotic drugs. Material and methods: Data sources: papers indexed in PubMed have been reviewed, as well as those found during the analysis of the bibliography of meta-analysis and reviews. Selection criteria: the references have been firstly evaluated by review of the abstract. After selecting the most significant articles (mainly randomized trials and well-designed case series these have been deeply analyzed. Evaluation of the studies and synthesis: criteria by the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine have been used for the analysis of the references and elaboration of evidence levels. Results: Seven hundred and sixty-five references were found, 753 in PubMed and the Cochrane Library. Twelve studies were selected during the analysis of other published articles (systematic reviews, meta-analysis and clinical practice guidelines. After analyzing the title or the abstract, 655 studies were excluded. Finally, 83 high quality trials or descriptive studies have been included in the analysis. Conclusions: Seven conclusions regarding the risk factors for bleeding and the impact of antithrombotic drugs have been defined.

  4. Successful closure of atrial septal defect by retrograde transarterial approach after unsuccessful transfemoral venous approach

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    Sadık Volkan Emren

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Although many of the ostium secundum atrial septal defects can be successfully closed by percutaneous transvenous approach, surgical method as well is preferred in some cases due to vascular reasons or due to the anatomical characteristics of the defect. Detecting ostium secundum atrial septal defect in a 26-year-old female patient, who presented with shortness of breath, percutaneous closure procedure was planned. During percutaneous closure, it was observed that guidewire and catheter persistently went towards patent foramen ovale because of quite flaccid structure of interatrial septum. For this reason, occluder could not be placed in the defect area. Before using the option of surgery for the patient, guidewire and simmons 1 diagnostic catheter were pushed forward towards to the left ventricle and then left atrium by transarterial approach through the femoral artery. Guidewire and the catheter were easily passed through atrial septal defect without passing through patent foramen ovale benefiting from the left atrial pressure. Occluder was retrogradely carried via transarterial route and successfully implanted in the defect area. Transarterial approach may be an alternative before surgery in selected cases in which percutaneous closure of atrial septal defect has failed.

  5. Identification of neuroanatomic circuits from spinal cord to stomach in mouse: retrograde transneuronal viral tracing study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Da-Wei; Liu, Cheng; Tian, Xue-Bi; Xiang, Hong-Bing

    2014-01-01

    To determine the spinal innervation and neuronal connections is important for studying gastric carbohydrate metabolism and motor responses. Neurons involved in the efferent control of the stomach were identified following visualization of pseudorabies virus (PRV)-614 retrograde tracing. PRV-614 was injected into the ventral stomach wall in 13 adult C57BL/6J strain male mice. On the fifth day postinjection, animals were humanely sacrificed, and spinal cords were removed and sectioned, and processed for PRV visualization. The virus injected into the ventral stomach wall was specifically transported to the thoracic spinal cord. At 5 d after injection of the PRV-614, stomach enlargement and tissue edema were found, and PRV-614 positive cells were found in the intermediolateral cell column, the intercalates nucleus or the central autonomic nucleus of spinal cord segments T3 to L1, and major PRV-614 labeled cells were focused in the T6-10 segment. Our results revealed neuroanatomical circuits between stomach and the spinal intermediolateral cell column neurons.

  6. A fatal mycotic sepsis after retrograde intrarenal surgery: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cindolo, Luca; Berardinelli, Francesco; Castellan, Pietro; Castellucci, Roberto; Pellegrini, Fabrizio; Schips, Luigi

    2017-04-28

    The retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) is a procedure that sees an increase in its use every day and is supported by excellent results in terms of safety and feasibility. We report the first case of fatal mycotic septic complication in a neurological patient for renal stone disease. The case of a woman 44 year-old, with left solitary kidney and history of advanced multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, bedridden and percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy was described. She was hospitalized for the presence of recurrent lower urinary tract infections. The computed tomography (CT) scan control revealed a 1.7 cm obstructive renal pelvic stone and multiple stones in the bladder. After the refusal of a percutaneous approach, a RIRS was planned and done. No intraoperative complications were observed. In the postoperative period, she developed a urinary sepsis with progressive deterioration of the general conditions. She died 6 days after the RIRS for septic shock with a blood culture positive for Candida glabrata. A Pubmed search for fatal complications after RIRS shows only two cases not fully elucidated. The use of flexible ureteroscopes and holmium lasers has a high succes rate;nevertheless, the possibility of a major complication should be kept in mind in order to evaluate all the risk factors, to adopt all the preventive measures for the safety of the patients.

  7. Comparison Of Ultrasound Evaluation Of Patients Of Obstructive Jaundice With Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangio-Pancreatography Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrukh, Syed Zea-Ul-Islam; Siddiqui, Arif Rasheed; Haqqi, Syed Afzal; Muhammad, Asif Jan; Dheddi, Abdul Samad; Khalid, Saad Khalid

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonography has proven to be quite effective in differentiating hepatocellular from obstructive cause of jaundice in various studies. This study was conducted with the aim to determine the efficacy of ultrasonography and Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangio-Pancreatography (ERCP) in the diagnosis of obstructive reason of jaundice. In this descriptive case series, 200 patients with >15 years age of either gender with cholestatic liver enzymes were included, i.e., those patients who had an ultrasound prior to ERCP at the department of gastroenterology of Patel Hospital, Karachi. Patients known to have liver disease with cholestatic jaundice had imaging other than ultrasound were excluded. The results of ultrasonography and ERCPs were compared in particularly looking for the cause of obstruction. Out of total 200 patients, mean age was 41.22±12.46 years with 107 (53.5%) females. Ability of ultrasound in correctly diagnosing obstructive reason for stone CBD was found to be 72.5%, dilated CBD without reason 41.7%, proximal obstruction, 63.15%, distal CBD obstruction 60%, and sludge 66.7%. Overall ability of ultrasound in correctly diagnosing the cause of obstruction was 64.17%. Ultrasound is recommended as the initial examination, which provides a guide to choose patients for either a more advanced noninvasive imaging like MRCP or to an invasive procedure like ERCP.

  8. Secular resonances between bodies on close orbits II: prograde and retrograde orbits for irregular satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Daohai; Christou, Apostolos A.

    2017-09-01

    In extending the analysis of the four secular resonances between close orbits in Li and Christou (Celest Mech Dyn Astron 125:133-160, 2016) (Paper I), we generalise the semianalytical model so that it applies to both prograde and retrograde orbits with a one-to-one map between the resonances in the two regimes. We propose the general form of the critical angle to be a linear combination of apsidal and nodal differences between the two orbits b_1 Δ π + b_2 Δ Ω, forming a collection of secular resonances in which the ones studied in Paper I are among the strongest. Test of the model in the orbital vicinity of massive satellites with physical and orbital parameters similar to those of the irregular satellites Himalia at Jupiter and Phoebe at Saturn shows that {>}20 and {>}40% of phase space is affected by these resonances, respectively. The survivability of the resonances is confirmed using numerical integration of the full Newtonian equations of motion. We observe that the lowest order resonances with b_1+|b_2|≤ 3 persist, while even higher-order resonances, up to b_1+|b_2|≥ 7, survive. Depending on the mass, between 10 and 60% of the integrated test particles are captured in these secular resonances, in agreement with the phase space analysis in the semianalytical model.

  9. Antegrade and Retrograde Decremental Conduction Properties of an Accessory Pathway Associated with the Coronary Sinus Musculature

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    Kohki Nakamura, MD

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 32-year-old man underwent catheter ablation of an orthodromic atrioventricular reentrant tachycardia. The sinus rhythm electrocardiogram exhibited a normal PQ interval and no delta waves, but atrial pacing produced a prolonged PQ interval and wide QRS morphology with right bundle-branch block due to antegrade accessory pathway (AP conduction. During the tachycardia, atrial double potentials consisting of the coronary sinus musculature (CSM and left atrial (LA potentials were observed. Ventricular extrastimulation exhibited retrograde decremental conduction with an identical atrial activation sequence as during the tachycardia. A radiofrequency application within the posterolateral CS during ventricular pacing eliminated the CSM-LA conduction and concomitantly the ventriculoatrial conduction via the AP was abolished. In this case, the CSM was associated with the bidirectional decremental conduction properties of the AP, and the antegrade slow conduction resulted in the absence of a shortening of the PQ interval and delta waves during sinus rhythm despite the continuous presence of antegrade AP conduction.

  10. Mitochondria Retrograde Signaling and the UPRmt: Where Are We in Mammals?

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    Thierry Arnould

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial unfolded protein response is a form of retrograde signaling that contributes to ensuring the maintenance of quality control of mitochondria, allowing functional integrity of the mitochondrial proteome. When misfolded proteins or unassembled complexes accumulate beyond the folding capacity, it leads to alteration of proteostasis, damages, and organelle/cell dysfunction. Extensively studied for the ER, it was recently reported that this kind of signaling for mitochondrion would also be able to communicate with the nucleus in response to impaired proteostasis. The mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt is activated in response to different types and levels of stress, especially in conditions where unfolded or misfolded mitochondrial proteins accumulate and aggregate. A specific UPRmt could thus be initiated to boost folding and degradation capacity in response to unfolded and aggregated protein accumulation. Although first described in mammals, the UPRmt was mainly studied in Caenorhabditis elegans, and accumulating evidence suggests that mechanisms triggered in response to a UPRmt might be different in C. elegans and mammals. In this review, we discuss and integrate recent data from the literature to address whether the UPRmt is relevant to mitochondrial homeostasis in mammals and to analyze the putative role of integrated stress response (ISR activation in response to the inhibition of mtDNA expression and/or accumulation of mitochondrial mis/unfolded proteins.

  11. Alcohol-induced retrograde facilitation renders witnesses of crime less suggestible to misinformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawrylowicz, Julie; Ridley, Anne M; Albery, Ian P; Barnoth, Edit; Young, Jack

    2017-04-01

    Research has shown that alcohol can have both detrimental and facilitating effects on memory: intoxication can lead to poor memory for information encoded after alcohol consumption (anterograde amnesia) and may improve memory for information encoded before consumption (retrograde facilitation). This study examined whether alcohol consumed after witnessing a crime can render individuals less vulnerable to misleading post-event information (misinformation). Participants watched a simulated crime video. Thereafter, one third of participants expected and received alcohol (alcohol group), one third did not expect but received alcohol (reverse placebo), and one third did not expect nor receive alcohol (control). After alcohol consumption, participants were exposed to misinformation embedded in a written narrative about the crime. The following day, participants completed a cued-recall questionnaire about the event. Control participants were more likely to report misinformation compared to the alcohol and reverse placebo group. The findings suggest that we may oversimplify the effect alcohol has on suggestibility and that sometimes alcohol can have beneficial effects on eyewitness memory by protecting against misleading post-event information.

  12. Occupational Radiation Exposure during Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography and Usefulness of Radiation Protective Curtains

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    Tomoyuki Minami

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the effectiveness of radiation protective curtains in reducing the occupational radiation exposure of medical personnel. Methods. We studied medical staff members who had assisted in 80 consecutive therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP procedures. Use of radiation protective curtains mounted to the X-ray tube was determined randomly for each procedure, and radiation doses were measured with electronic pocket dosimeters placed outside the protective apron. Results. When protective curtains were not used, the mean radiation doses to endoscopists, first assistants, second assistants, and nurses were 340.9, 27.5, 45.3, and 33.1 µSv, respectively; doses decreased to 42.6, 4.2, 13.1, and 10.6 µSv, respectively, when protective curtains were used (P<0.01. When the patient had to be restrained during ERCP (n=8, the radiation dose to second assistants without protective curtains increased by a factor of 9.95 (P<0.01 relative to cases in which restraint was not required. Conclusions. During ERCP, not only endoscopists, but also assistants and nurses were exposed to high doses of radiation. Radiation exposure to staff members during ERCP was reduced with the use of protective curtains.

  13. NEURAL PAIN PATHWAY TRACING OF RABBIT ISCHEMIC HEART BY DOUBLE-RETROGRADE NEUROTRACING

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    Theodorus Dapamede

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Myocardial ischaemia occurs due to inadequate supply of oxygen to fulfill the myocardial tissue oxygen demand. This leads to angina pectoris or referred pain, whichhappens because of the inability of the brain to distinguish the visceral afferent inputs from the somatic afferent inputs since they run along a common pathway via the dorsal root ganglia. Aims. This study aims to distinguish specific areas of the rabbit heart that are projected to specific dorsal root ganglia, which then associates to its specific dermatomes. Methods. A double-retrograde neurotracing method was used, with True Blue and Nuclear Yellow as the neurotracers. Rabbits were divided into 3 groups, which the first and second groups were ligated at the left anterior descending artery and at the left circumflex artery, respectively.The third group acted as the control group, without ligation.True blue was injected at ischaemic sites following ligation. Nuclear yellowwas injected at the skin, dermatomes T1-T4. Dorsal root ganglia levels T1-T4 were then examined for both neurotracers at 3 days post injection. Results. There is significant association between the site of ligation to the projection of the neurotracers at specific dorsal root ganglia (p<0.05. The first group showed high tendency to be projected to T2 and the second group showed a high tendency to project to T1. Conclusion. This study shows that the rabbit heart can be specifically projected neuronally to specific dorsal root ganglia, following coronary artery ligation.

  14. Systemic and local responses to repeated HL stress-induced retrograde signaling in Arabidopsis

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    Matthew John Gordon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chloroplasts of leaves under high light stress initiate signals to the nuclei of both exposed and distal leaves in order to acclimate against the potential threat of oxidative damage: a process known as high light systemic acquired acclimation (HL SAA. This study explores the nature of HL SAA, synergistic interactions with other environmental stresses, and the impact of repeated HL stress on the acclimation response of exposed and distal leaves. This necessitated the development of novel experimental systems to investigate the initiation, perception and response to HL SAA. These systems were used to investigate the HL SAA response by monitoring the induction of mRNA in distal leaves not exposed to the HL stress. Acclimation to HL is induced within minutes and the response is proportionally dependent on the quality and quantity of light. HL SAA treatments in conjunction with variations in temperature and humidity reveal HL SAA is influenced by fluctuations in humidity. These treatments also result in changes in auxin accumulation and auxin-responsive genes. A key question in retrograde signaling is the extent to which transient changes in light intensity result in a memory of the event leading to acclimation responses. Repeated exposure to short term HL resulted in acclimation of the exposed tissue and that of emerging and young leaves (but not older leaves to HL and oxidative stress.

  15. Mapping stable direct and retrograde orbits around the triple system of asteroids (45) Eugenia

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    Araujo, R. A. N.; Moraes, R. V.; Prado, A. F. B. A.; Winter, O. C.

    2017-12-01

    It is widely accepted that knowing the composition and the orbital evolution of asteroids might help us to understand the process of formation of the Solar system. It is also known that asteroids can represent a threat to our planet. Such an important role has made space missions to asteroids a very popular topic in current astrodynamics and astronomy studies. Taking into account the increasing interest in space missions to asteroids, especially to multiple systems, we present a study that aims to characterize the stable and unstable regions around the triple system of asteroids (45) Eugenia. The goal is to characterize the unstable and stable regions of this system and to make a comparison with the system 2001 SN263, which is the target of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) mission. A new concept was used for mapping orbits, by considering the disturbance received by the spacecraft from all perturbing forces individually. This method has also been applied to (45) Eugenia. We present the stable and unstable regions for particles with relative inclination between 0° and 180°. We found that (45) Eugenia presents larger stable regions for both prograde and retrograde cases. This is mainly because the satellites of this system are small when compared to the primary body, and because they are not close to each other. We also present a comparison between these two triple systems, and we discuss how these results can guide us in the planning of future missions.

  16. Magnetic Resonance Cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) Evaluation of Obstructive Jaundice in Comparison with Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, S; Islam, M N; Khan, N A; Mostafa, S N; Amin, M S; Rahman, S; Akhter, P

    2017-04-01

    This cross sectional study was carried out in the department of Radiology and Imaging in collaboration with Department of Gastroenterology of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka, Bangladesh from July 2013 to June 2014 to evaluate the efficacy of Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) and ERCP in the management of obstructive jaundice and also to determine diagnostic validity accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of MRCP in evaluation of obstructive jaundice. For this purpose, a total of 60 patients with obstructive jaundice who underwent MRCP and Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in the above mentioned hospital were enrolled. More than one third (35.0%) patients were in 5th decade and the mean age was 46.2±12.9 years. Male female ratio was 1.1:1. Most (45.0%) of the patients had filling defect, 28.3% had concentric stenosis and 26.7% eccentric stenosis. In MRCP findings more than one third (35.0%) patients had choledocholithiasis followed by 26.7% had cholangiocarcinoma, 10.0% benign CBD stricture and 8.3% had ascariasis. In ERCP findings 31.7% patients had choledocholithiasis followed by 16.7% had cholangiocarcinoma, 13.3% benign CBD stricture and 10.0% ascariasis. All patients had increased serum bilirubin.

  17. Retrograde continence enema in children with spina bifida: Not as effective as first thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Sebastian K; Stathopoulos, Lefteris; Pinnuck, Loreto; Wells, Judy; Hutson, John; Heloury, Yves

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the effectiveness of Peristeen retrograde continence enema (RCE) in the management of faecal incontinence in children with spina bifida. We identified a homogenous group of spina bifida patients in whom RCE was initiated (Jan 2006-July 2013). Confidential assessments included (i) Fecal Incontinence Quality Of Life (FIQOL), (ii) St Marks Faecal Incontinence score, (iii) Cleveland Clinic Constipation score and (iv) Neurogenic Bowel Dysfunction score. Of 20 patients, 11 (mean age 14.5 ± 5.3 years) were male. Of 20 patients, nine were still using RCE (mean follow-up 4.1 years). Three patients ceased RCE within 10 days, six after 4-12 months and two after 36-48 months. Reasons for cessation included balloon difficulties (n = 4), procedure deemed too difficult (n = 4) and pain (n = 3). There were no differences between the groups in length of training time for technique, instillate fluid/volume used and time taken to perform RCE. There were no differences between the groups for quality of life, faecal incontinence or constipation scores. We demonstrated a high rate of cessation with RCE in patients with spina bifida. This could not be explained by associated conditions, or by enema-related parameters. One possible explanation is the lack of ongoing outpatient support for the children and their families. © 2016 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  18. Assessment of patient dose and radiogenic risks during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulieman, A.; Elzaki, M. [Sudan University of Science and Technology, College of Medical Radiologic Science, P. O. Box 1908, Khartoum 11111 (Sudan); Alkhorayef, M.; Babikir, E. [King Saud University, College of Applied Sciences, Radiological Sciences Department, P. O. Box 10219, Riyadh 11433 (Saudi Arabia); Abuzaid, M. [University of Sharjah, College of Health Sciences, Medical Diagnostic Imaging Department, Sharjah (United Arab Emirates); Dalton, A.; Bradley, D., E-mail: Abdelmoneim_a@yahoo.com [University of Surrey, Centre for Nuclear and Radiation Physics, Department of Physics, GU2-7XH, Guildford, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-15

    Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is an invasive technique that has been used for over 30 years in the diagnosis and management of pancreaticobiliary disorders. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the patient entrance surface air kerma doses (ESAK) and estimate the organ and effective doses during ERCP in three hospitals in Khartoum. A total of 55 patients were examined in three hospitals in Khartoum state, Sudan. Calibrated thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD)-Gr-200-A)) were used to measure patients ESAK. The overall mean of ESAK for all ERCP procedures was 42.4 mGy. The mean patient ESAK in Fedail, Soba and Ibn sena centers were 26.7 mGy, 26.0 mGy, 72.4 mGy, respectively. The effective doses in three centers were 1.6, 1.56 and 2.67 mSv in that order and the overall mean effective dose was 2.01 mSv. Patient radiation doses vary widely among the different hospitals. Patient ESAK is low compared to previous studies in the light of the current practice. Patient dose was decreased significantly in the last two decades. (Author)

  19. VPS35 regulates developing mouse hippocampal neuronal morphogenesis by promoting retrograde trafficking of BACE1

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    Chun-Lei Wang

    2012-10-01

    VPS35, a major component of the retromer, plays an important role in the selective endosome-to-Golgi retrieval of membrane proteins. Dysfunction of retromer is a risk factor for neurodegenerative disorders, but its function in developing mouse brain remains poorly understood. Here we provide evidence for VPS35 promoting dendritic growth and maturation, and axonal protein transport in developing mouse hippocampal neurons. Embryonic hippocampal CA1 neurons suppressing Vps35 expression by in utero electroporation of its micro RNAs displayed shortened apical dendrites, reduced dendritic spines, and swollen commissural axons in the neonatal stage, those deficits reflecting a defective protein transport/trafficking in developing mouse neurons. Further mechanistic studies showed that Vps35 depletion in neurons resulted in an impaired retrograde trafficking of BACE1 (β1-secretase and altered BACE1 distribution. Suppression of BACE1 expression in CA1 neurons partially rescued both dendritic and axonal deficits induced by Vps35-deficiency. These results thus demonstrate that BACE1 acts as a critical cargo of retromer in vitro and in vivo, and suggest that VPS35 plays an essential role in regulating apical dendritic maturation and in preventing axonal spheroid formation in developing hippocampal neurons.

  20. Risk factors for recurrence of common bile duct stones after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

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    WANG Chunqiu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the clinical features of patients with recurrence after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP and cholecystolithotomy and related risk factors. MethodsA retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of patients with common bile duct stones who visited our hospital from January 2013 to June 2015 and underwent ERCP and cholecystolithotomy. A total of 292 patients were enrolled, and according to the presence or absence of recurrence of common bile duct stones, these patients were divided into recurrence group with 31 patients and non-recurrence group with 261 patients. The clinical data including age, sex, body mass index (BMI, and the conditions of the biliary tract and bile duct stones were compared between the two groups. The chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data between groups, and the binary logistic regression was used for the analysis of factors that were screened out. ResultsThere were significant differences in the proportions of patients with a number of stones ≥2 or bile duct diameter ≥14 mm between the two groups (χ2=4.80 and 5.61, both P<0.05. A previous history of cholecystectomy was an independent risk factor for the recurrence of common bile duct stones (OR=20.10, 95%CI: 4.11-98.25, P<0.05. ConclusionA previous history of cholecystectomy increases the risk of recurrence of common bile duct stones after ERCP.

  1. MR urography versus retrograde pyelography/ureteroscopy for the exclusion of upper urinary tract malignancy

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    Lee, K.S., E-mail: kslee@bidmc.harvard.ed [Department of Radiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States); Zeikus, E. [Department of Radiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States); DeWolf, W.C. [Department of Surgery, Division of Urology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States); Rofsky, N.M.; Pedrosa, I. [Department of Radiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States)

    2010-03-15

    Aim: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of magnetic resonance urography (MRU) versus retrograde pyelography and/or ureteroscopy (RPU) in the detection of upper urinary tract neoplasms. Materials and methods: This retrospective study included 35 patients with suspected upper urinary tract malignancy who underwent MRU and RPU within 6-months in our institution during the study period (February 2002 to January 2007). MRU and RPU reports were reviewed and results recorded. For each patient, the urinary tract was sub-divided into four regions for analysis: left kidney/renal pelvis, left ureter, right kidney/renal pelvis, and right ureter. MRU and RPU results for each patient were compared to a reference standard and the diagnostic performance of both techniques was compared. Results: A total of 113 regions were analysed on MRU and 90 regions on RPU. Nineteen neoplasms were identified. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for the detection of urinary tract neoplasms were 63, 91, 60, and 92% for MRU, respectively, and 53, 97, 83, and 88% for RPU, respectively. These differences were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Conclusion: The high negative predictive value of MRU in the present series supports its use as a non-invasive screening examination for excluding the presence of upper urinary tract malignancy.

  2. Retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) in the treatment of calyceal diverticulum with lithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmero, Jose Luis; Miralles, Jaume; Garau, Carmen; Nuño de la Rosa, Ines; Amoros, Araceli; Benedicto, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate the result of retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) assisted by flexible ureterorenoscopy (FURS) and Holmium laser in the treatment of lithiasis within calyceal diverticula as a minimally invasive therapeutic option. We retrospectively evaluated 11 cases of symptomatic lithiasis within calyceal diverticula treated between January 2010 and December 2011. We defined treatment success as absence of residual stones and absence/disappearance of symptomatology over the course of follow-up. We describe the RIRS technique and maneuvers for locating the diverticulum, opening the neck, and fragmenting intradiverticular lithiasis. The most frequently experienced symptom was flank pain (72.7%). The size of the lithiasis treated ranged from 7-20 mm. The overall success rate of RIRS was approximately 73% (absence of lithiasis and disappearance of symptoms) with an average follow-up of 13.3 months. Three cases were not solved by RIRS (2 due to unsuccessful location of the neck, 1 due to persistence of lithiasis and symptoms) . Cases of unsuccessful location were treated with laparoscopic surgery. RIRS assisted by FURS and Holmium laser is an effective and minimally invasive procedure for the treatment of lithiasis in the interior of the calyceal diverticulum. This treatment's efficacy improves upon the results from ESWL (extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy( and equals that of the percutaneous method, exhibiting a lower rate of complications.

  3. An unusual case of prolonged post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography jaundice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tziatzios, Georgios; Gkolfakis, Paraskevas; Papanikolaou, Ioannis S; Dimitriadis, George; Triantafyllou, Konstantinos

    2016-04-01

    Despite the effectiveness of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for the treatment of choledocholithiasis, various complications have been described. We herein report the first case of prolonged post-ERCP jaundice due to toxicity of the contrast agent Iobitridol (®XENETIX, Guerbet, Roissy CdG Cedex, France) in a patient who underwent ERCP with sphincterectomy and common bile duct stone removal. While clinical improvement and normalization of aminotransferases and cholestatic enzymes after the procedure, an unexplained increase of direct bilirubin was noticed. A second ERCP was performed one week later, excluding possible remaining choledocholithiasis. Nevertheless, serum direct bilirubin increased further up to 15 mg/dL. Other potential causes of direct hyperbilirubinemia were ruled out and patient's liver biopsy was compatible with drug-induced liver toxicity. Additionally, the cause-result time connection between the use of Iobitridol and bilirubin increase indicated the possibility of a toxic effect related to the repeated use of the particular contrast agent. Iobitridol, a contrast agent, can induce prolonged direct hyperbilirubinemia.

  4. Four-Corner Arthrodesis: Description of Surgical Technique Using Headless Retrograde Crossed Screws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamede, João; Castro Adeodato, Sandro; Aquino Leal, Rafael

    2017-04-01

    Four-corner fusion has been shown to be a reliable option of treatment of wrist arthritis, but there is no consensus about which implant and surgical procedure should be used in the arthrodesis. The present study aimed to describe a surgical technique using 2 crossed screws as implants, inserted in a retrograde manner, and to demonstrate preliminary results of the use of the technique. A retrospective study was conducted using medical records and imaging tests (radiographs and computed tomography) of all 15 patients who underwent a standardized 4-corner fusion technique, between December 2011 and July 2015, in the Department of Hand Surgery of Instituto Nacional de Traumatologia e Ortopedia (INTO), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We collected data on the following variables: fusion rate, time to fusion, and percentage of patients who had any complications or needed another surgical procedure on the same wrist. All but one patient achieved fusion of arthrodesis. The average time to union was 5.54 months (SD = 3.84). Only the patient who developed nonunion of the 4-corner fusion required another surgery on the same wrist. The procedure described in this study demonstrated a low complication rate and high fusion rate, and can therefore be considered a reliable surgical technique for 4-corner fusion.

  5. The Incidence of Hepatocellular Carcinoma after Balloon-Occluded Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration

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    Keiji Yokoyama

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO is a highly effective therapy for gastric varices with liver cirrhosis. We have investigated the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC after BRTO. We enrolled 71 patients with viral hepatitis in which HCC had not appeared with liver imaging findings at the time of BRTO. The overall survival rate after BRTO was 86.8%, 76.1%, and 50.5% at 1, 3, and 5 years. The occurrence rate of HCC after BRTO was 20.9%, 41.1%, and 60.7% at 1, 3, and 5 years, especially showing a higher occurrence of HCC at one year. Meanwhile, the occurrence rate of HCC after treatment which excluded BRTO for esophagogastric varices in patients was 6.3%, 19.2%, and 42.5% at 1, 3, and 5 years. The log-rank test revealed that the occurrence rate of HCC after treatment was significantly higher in the BRTO group compared with that in the non-BRTO group (P=0.0447. The recurrence rate of HCC after BRTO was 35.8% and 80.0% at 1 and 3 years. The present study demonstrated a high incidence of HCC after BRTO in liver cirrhosis patients with viral hepatitis infection. We have suggested the potential for BRTO to accelerate hepatocarcinogenesis.

  6. Nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase (NNT deficiency dysregulates mitochondrial retrograde signaling and impedes proliferation

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    Hung-Yao Ho

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available To study the physiological roles of NADH and NADPH homeostasis in cancer, we studied the effect of NNT knockdown on physiology of SK-Hep1 cells. NNT knockdown cells show limited abilities to maintain NAD+ and NADPH levels and have reduced proliferation and tumorigenicity. There is an increased dependence of energy production on oxidative phosphorylation. Studies with stable isotope tracers have revealed that under the new steady-state metabolic condition, the fluxes of TCA and glycolysis decrease while that of reductive carboxylation increases. Increased [α-ketoglutarate]/[succinate] ratio in NNT-deficient cells results in decrease in HIF-1α level and expression of HIF-1α regulated genes. Reduction in NADPH level leads to repression of HDAC1 activity and an increase in p53 acetylation. These findings suggest that NNT is essential to homeostasis of NADH and NADPH pools, anomalies of which affect HIF-1α- and HDAC1-dependent pathways, and hence retrograde response of mitochondria.

  7. Spinal Cord Protection with Hypothermic Retrograde Venous Perfusion in Aortic Surgery

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    Gönül Ölmez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this experimental study, I examined the advantage of the retrogradehypothermic saline solution through the inferior vena cava during aortic surgery toprevent the complications of spinal cord ischemia. This study was examined on 14kangal dogs. In the first (control group, no preventive method was used. In thesecond (hypotermic group, hypothermic saline solution was delivered by retrogradeway through the inferior vena cava. Aorts were cross-clemped for 75 minutes in theboth groups to create spinal cord ischemia. At the end of this period, the operationswere finished and Tarlov score was applied to dogs. After 1 day, the dogs weretaken to reoperation and the spinal cords of the dogs were taken out to make theimmunohistochemical study with bcl-2 oncoprotein. At the end of this study, Tarlovscores were established 0.28 ± 0.49 in the first group and 2.86 ± 0.69 in the secondgroup. The immunohistochemical study with bcl-2 oncoprotein demonstrated nocell prevention in the first group and 60 % cell prevention in the second group,respectively.According to this experimental study, appliement of hypothermic salinesolution by retrograde way through the inferior vena cava during aortic surgery hasa protective effect for spinal cord ischemia.

  8. Results of retrograde intrarenal surgery in the treatment of renal stones greater than 2 cm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmero, J L; Castelló, A; Miralles, J; Nuño de La Rosa, I; Garau, C; Pastor, J C

    2014-05-01

    To analyze the results of retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) in patients with ≥2 cm stones treated in our center. A retrospective review of 106 patients with renal calculi underwent RIRS ≥2 cm (period January 2009-December 2011). The procedures were performed under general anesthesia as a source of fragmentation using the holmium laser (30 W Litho Quantasystem) and flexible ureteroscopes (X2 Flex Storz, Olympus P5) through ureteral access sheaths. It discusses demographic variables (age, medical history, antiplatelet or anticoagulant treatment, treatment of urolithiasis, BMI, ASA), treated stones variables (size, number, Hounsfield units, biochemical composition) and intra-and postoperative variables (operative time, number of pulses, hospital stay, complications) with the completion of a descriptive analysis of the same. To define our results we consider success to the complete absence of fragments or residual renal pelvis stones (44%) followed by the lower calyx (39%). The postoperative complication rate was 6.7%, with all of little relevance. The success rate with a single procedure was 79.4% to 94.1% with retreatment. RIRS is a valid alternative for the treatment of kidney stones ≥2 cm for its high success rate and few complications if performed in specialized centers. Copyright © 2013 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Retrograde ejaculation associated spontaneous sperm cystolithiasis in four Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumber, Sanjeev; Courtney, Cynthia L; Strait, Karen R; Sharma, Prachi; Freebersyser, Julie E; Crane, Maria M

    2015-01-01

    Retrograde ejaculation (RE) has been reported in humans and animals but RE with subsequent sperm calculi has rarely been reported. This report documents clinical and pathological findings of spontaneous sperm cystolithiasis in four rhesus macaques. While this condition has been associated with repeated electroejaculation, spontaneous sperm cystolithiasis is highly unusual. The animals presented with either stranguria, dysuria, hematuria, distended abdomen or lethargy. Ultrasound examination revealed several hyperechoic masses within the lumen of the urinary bladder. The animals were euthanized due to poor prognosis or study end points. Postmortem examination revealed multiple angular, amorphous, soft to firm, pale yellow to greenish-brown and variably sized calculi in the lumen of the urinary bladder or prostatic/penile urethra. Histologically, the calculi were composed of numerous sperm embedded in abundant brightly eosinophilic matrix. Based on gross and histologic findings, RE associated sperm cystolithiasis was diagnosed, with ulcerative urethritis as the major primary apparent etiology. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of four spontaneous cases of sperm cystolithiasis in rhesus macaques. PMID:23735542

  10. Vaccinia Virus Uses Retromer-Independent Cellular Retrograde Transport Pathways To Facilitate the Wrapping of Intracellular Mature Virions during Virus Morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Kate; Haga, Ismar R.; Pechenick Jowers, Tali; Jasim, Seema; Cintrat, Jean-Christophe; Gillet, Daniel; Schmitt-John, Thomas; Digard, Paul

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Poxviruses, such as vaccinia virus (VACV), undertake a complex cytoplasmic replication cycle which involves morphogenesis through four distinct virion forms and includes a crucial wrapping step whereby intracellular mature virions (IMVs) are wrapped in two additional membranes to form intracellular enveloped virions (IEVs). To determine if cellular retrograde transport pathways are required for this wrapping step, we examined VACV morphogenesis in cells with reduced expression of the tetrameric tethering factor known as the GARP (Golgi-associated retrograde pathway), a central component of retrograde transport. VACV multistep replication was significantly impaired in cells transfected with small interfering RNA targeting the GARP complex and in cells with a mutated GARP complex. Detailed analysis revealed that depletion of the GARP complex resulted in a reduction in the number of IEVs, thereby linking retrograde transport with the wrapping of IMVs. In addition, foci of viral wrapping membrane proteins without an associated internal core accumulated in cells with a mutated GARP complex, suggesting that impaired retrograde transport uncouples nascent IMVs from the IEV membranes at the site of wrapping. Finally, small-molecule inhibitors of retrograde transport strongly suppressed VACV multistep growth in vitro and reduced weight loss and clinical signs in an in vivo murine model of systemic poxviral disease. This work links cellular retrograde transport pathways with the morphogenesis of poxviruses and identifies a panel of novel inhibitors of poxvirus replication. IMPORTANCE Cellular retrograde transport pathways traffic cargo from endosomes to the trans-Golgi network and are a key part of the intracellular membrane network. This work reveals that the prototypic poxvirus vaccinia virus (VACV) exploits cellular retrograde transport pathways to facilitate the wrapping of intracellular mature virions and therefore promote the production of extracellular virus

  11. Vaccinia virus uses retromer-independent cellular retrograde transport pathways to facilitate the wrapping of intracellular mature virions during viral morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Kate; Haga, Ismar R; Pechenick Jowers, Tali; Jasim, Seema; Cintrat, Jean-Christophe; Gillet, Daniel; Schmitt-John, Thomas; Digard, Paul; Beard, Philippa M

    2016-08-31

    Poxviruses such as Vaccinia virus (VACV) undertake a complex cytoplasmic replication cycle which involves morphogenesis through four distinct virion forms, and includes a crucial "wrapping" step whereby intracellular mature virions (IMVs) are wrapped in two additional membranes to form intracellular enveloped virions (IEVs). To determine if cellular retrograde transport pathways were required for this wrapping step we examined VACV morphogenesis in cells with reduced expression of the tetrameric tethering factor complex GARP (Golgi-associated retrograde pathway complex), a central component of retrograde transport. VACV multi-step replication was significantly impaired in cells transfected with siRNA targeting the GARP complex or in cells with a mutated GARP complex. Detailed analysis revealed that depletion of the GARP complex resulted in a reduction in the number of IEVs, thereby linking retrograde transport with the wrapping of IMVs. In addition foci of viral wrapping membrane proteins without an associated internal core accumulated in cells with a mutated GARP complex, suggesting that impaired retrograde transport uncouples nascent IMVs from the IEV membranes at the site of wrapping. Finally, small molecule inhibitors of retrograde transport strongly suppressed VACV multi-step growth in vitro and reduced weight loss and clinical signs in an in vivo murine model of systemic poxviral disease. This work links cellular retrograde transport pathways with morphogenesis of poxviruses and identifies a panel of novel inhibitors of poxvirus replication. Cellular retrograde transport pathways traffic cargo from endosomes to the trans-Golgi network and are a key part of the intracellular membrane network. This work reveals the prototypic poxvirus Vaccinia virus (VACV) exploits cellular retrograde transport pathways to facilitate the wrapping of intracellular mature virions and therefore promote the production of extracellular virus. Inhibition of retrograde transport by

  12. Methionine restriction activates the retrograde response and confers both stress tolerance and lifespan extension to yeast, mouse and human cells.

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    Jay E Johnson

    Full Text Available A methionine-restricted diet robustly improves healthspan in key model organisms. For example, methionine restriction reduces age-related pathologies and extends lifespan up to 45% in rodents. However, the mechanisms underlying these benefits remain largely unknown. We tested whether the yeast chronological aging assay could model the benefits of methionine restriction, and found that this intervention extends lifespan when enforced by either dietary or genetic approaches, and furthermore, that the observed lifespan extension is due primarily to reduced acid accumulation. In addition, methionine restriction-induced lifespan extension requires the activity of the retrograde response, which regulates nuclear gene expression in response to changes in mitochondrial function. Consistent with an involvement of stress-responsive retrograde signaling, we also found that methionine-restricted yeast are more stress tolerant than control cells. Prompted by these findings in yeast, we tested the effects of genetic methionine restriction on the stress tolerance and replicative lifespans of cultured mouse and human fibroblasts. We found that such methionine-restricted mammalian cells are resistant to numerous cytotoxic stresses, and are substantially longer-lived than control cells. In addition, similar to yeast, the extended lifespan of methionine-restricted mammalian cells is associated with NFκB-mediated retrograde signaling. Overall, our data suggest that improved stress tolerance and extension of replicative lifespan may contribute to the improved healthspan observed in methionine-restricted rodents, and also support the possibility that manipulation of the pathways engaged by methionine restriction may improve healthspan in humans.

  13. Retrograde endovenous laser ablation through saphenopopliteal junctional area for incompetent small saphenous vein; Comparison with antegrade approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jun Seok; Park, Sang Woo; Yun, Ik Jin; Hwang, Jae Joon; Lee, Song Am; Chee, Hyun Keun; Hwang, Jin Ho [Konkuk University Hospital, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of retrograde endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) and to compare it with the conventional antegrade EVLA for incompetent small saphenous vein (SSV). Small saphenous vein was cannulated via two approaches under ultrasound-guidance. One method involved puncturing the SSV cranially at mid-calf (the antegrade group). If the antegrade puncture into the SSV failed twice, the other approach for puncture was selected that involved puncturing the SSV toward the ankle (the retrograde group). Patients were evaluated in terms of technical and clinical success, closure rates of the SSV, and complications including pain, bruising, or paresthesia at all follow-up visits. The 1470 nm endovenous laser was used in all limbs. Technical success was seen in all limbs in both groups (100%). Closure rate in both groups showed about 95%, without significant difference (p = 0.685). Similar linear endovenous energy density was supplied during the EVLA in both groups (p = 0.876). Three frequent complications including bruising, pain, and paresthesia did not show statistical significance between groups (p = 0.465, 0.823, 1.000, respectively). Major complications were absent in both groups. The EVLA for the incompetent SSV using a retrograde approach is safe and effective and should be considered the alternative method if the antegrade access fails due to vasospasm or small SSV diameter.

  14. Early onset of retrograde flow in the main pulmonary artery is a characteristic of pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helderman, Frank; Mauritz, Gert-Jan; Andringa, Kirsten E; Vonk-Noordegraaf, Anton; Marcus, J Tim

    2011-06-01

    To evaluate if early onset of retrograde flow in the main pulmonary artery is a characteristic of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Fifty-five patients with suspected pulmonary hypertension (PH) underwent right-sided heart catheterization and retrospectively ECG-gated MR phase-contrast velocity quantification in the main pulmonary artery. Pulmonary hypertension was defined by a mean pulmonary artery pressure being larger than 25 mmHg. The onset time of the retrograde flow relative to the cardiac cycle duration (Relative Onset Time = ROT) was compared with mean pulmonary artery pressure. By the catheterization, 38 patients were identified as having PAH. The ROT for these PAH patients was significantly different from those found in the 17 non-PH subjects (0.14 ± 0.06 versus 0.37 ± 0.06, P < 0.001). The mean pulmonary artery pressure was related to the ROT (r(2) = 0.62, P < 0.001) and could be estimated from the ROT with a standard deviation of 11.7 mmHg. With a cutoff value of 0.25, the ROT distinguished PAH patients from non-PH subjects. Early onset of retrograde flow in the main pulmonary artery is a characteristic of pulmonary arterial hypertension and is visible by standard MR phase-contrast velocity quantification. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Differentiation of chronic total occlusion and subtotal occlusion of the femoropopliteal artery-role of retrograde flow sign and collateral circulation on CT angiography images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shujun; Su, Yanfei; Chen, Haisong

    2017-08-01

    To study the value of a retrograde flow sign and the collateral circulation on CT angiography (CTA) for the differential diagnosis of chronic total occlusion from subtotal occlusion of the femoropopliteal artery (FPA). 50 patients with obstruction of the FPA underwent CTA and digital subtraction angiography examinations of the lower limbs. The frequency of a retrograde flow sign and collateral circulation on CTA in chronic total and subtotal occlusion was noted and analyzed, with the results of digital subtraction angiography as a standard to judge total or subtotal occlusion. The decreasing CT value from the distal to proximal direction on CTA suggests the existence of retrograde flow. There were significant differences in the occurrence rates of a retrograde flow sign on CTA in the chronic total and subtotal obstruction groups (X2 = 13.1, p sign (X2 = 13.5, p sign and the collateral circulation sign to diagnose chronic total obstruction of the FPA had a sensitivity of 92.3% and specificity of 89.8%. The retrograde flow sign combined with a collateral circulation sign is of great clinical value for differentiation of chronic total stenosis from severe stenosis (subtotal occlusion) of the FPA. Advances in knowledge: A retrograde flow sign combined with a collateral circulation sign is of great clinical value to differentiate between chronic total stenosis and severe stenosis (subtotal occlusion) of the FPA.

  16. An investigational study of minimum rotational pump speed to avoid retrograde flow in three centrifugal blood pumps in a pediatric extracorporeal life support model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Joseph B; Guan, Yulong; McCoach, Robert; Kunselman, Allen R; Myers, John L; Undar, Akif

    2011-05-01

    During extracorporeal life support with centrifugal blood pumps, retrograde pump flow may occur when the pump revolutions decrease below a critical value determined by the circuit resistance and the characteristics of the pump. We created a laboratory model to evaluate the occurrence of retrograde flow in each of three centrifugal blood pumps: the Rotaflow, the CentriMag, and the Bio-Medicus BP-50. At simulated patient pressures of 60, 80, and 100 mmHg, each pump was evaluated at speeds from 1000 to 2200 rpm and flow rates were measured. Retrograde flow occurred at low revolution speeds in all three centrifugal pumps. The Bio-Medicus pump was the least likely to demonstrate retrograde flow at low speeds, followed by the Rotaflow pump. The CentriMag pump showed the earliest transition to retrograde flow, as well as the highest degree of retrograde flow. At every pump speed evaluated, the Bio-Medicus pump delivered the highest antegrade flow and the CentriMag pump delivered the least.

  17. Series Transmission Line Transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckles, Robert A.; Booth, Rex; Yen, Boris T.

    2004-06-29

    A series transmission line transformer is set forth which includes two or more of impedance matched sets of at least two transmissions lines such as shielded cables, connected in parallel at one end ans series at the other in a cascading fashion. The cables are wound about a magnetic core. The series transmission line transformer (STLT) which can provide for higher impedance ratios and bandwidths, which is scalable, and which is of simpler design and construction.

  18. Drivers of Tuberculosis Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathema, Barun; Andrews, Jason R; Cohen, Ted; Borgdorff, Martien W; Behr, Marcel; Glynn, Judith R; Rustomjee, Roxana; Silk, Benjamin J; Wood, Robin

    2017-11-03

    Measuring tuberculosis transmission is exceedingly difficult, given the remarkable variability in the timing of clinical disease after Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection; incident disease can result from either a recent (ie, weeks to months) or a remote (ie, several years to decades) infection event. Although we cannot identify with certainty the timing and location of tuberculosis transmission for individuals, approaches for estimating the individual probability of recent transmission and for estimating the fraction of tuberculosis cases due to recent transmission in populations have been developed. Data used to estimate the probable burden of recent transmission include tuberculosis case notifications in young children and trends in tuberculin skin test and interferon γ-release assays. More recently, M. tuberculosis whole-genome sequencing has been used to estimate population levels of recent transmission, identify the distribution of specific strains within communities, and decipher chains of transmission among culture-positive tuberculosis cases. The factors that drive the transmission of tuberculosis in communities depend on the burden of prevalent tuberculosis; the ways in which individuals live, work, and interact (eg, congregate settings); and the capacity of healthcare and public health systems to identify and effectively treat individuals with infectious forms of tuberculosis. Here we provide an overview of these factors, describe tools for measurement of ongoing transmission, and highlight knowledge gaps that must be addressed. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  19. Overview on transmission issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNamara, F.

    2002-07-01

    A personal perspective of transmission issues in Alberta's deregulated electric power industry was presented. The deregulation of power transmission differs from power production and retailing because of its inherent monopolistic characteristics which include large economies of scale, huge capital intensity and special purpose equipment. Public policy makers recognized initially that open transmission access should be provided to all on the same basis, but the organizational form of transmission has become complicated. Transmission issues pose risks for private sector investment and long lead-times are needed to resolve issues such as congestion management, ancillary services, property rights, and loss factors. The author claims that power transmission should serve as a facilitating factor in the development of competitive markets. The paper explained the problems that Alberta is facing with the convergence of relativity, erosion of spare capacity, de-coupling decisions, imperfect substitutes, merchant transmission, and market footprints. Transmission issues now occupy more time than policy makers had originally expected. The Transmission Administrator's approach is to reduce lead times, develop clear commercial rules and show maximum flexibility within its role.

  20. The effect of retrograde and anterograde glucose administration on memory performance in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sünram-Lea, Sandra I; Foster, Jonathan K; Durlach, Paula; Perez, Catalina

    2002-08-21

    Memory for a list of 20 words can be enhanced by preceding learning by consumption of 25 g of glucose, compared with consumption of an equally sweet aspartame solution (Psychopharmacology 137 (1998) 259; Psychopharmacology 157 (2001) 46). However, using this anterograde administration procedure, it is impossible to separate whether glucose affects encoding, consolidation, or retrieval. The present placebo-controlled, double-blind study investigated the effect of anterograde and retrograde administration on memory performance in healthy young participants. In order to evaluate whether post-acquisition administration of glucose can improve memory performance and to compare possible differences in the size of the effect, participants were administered 25 g of glucose immediately before or immediately after presentation of a word list. Moreover, in order to investigate whether the effect of glucose administration on memory performance is time-dependent, a third group received 25 g of glucose 15 min before learning the word list. Word- list recall was tested 30 min and 24 h after word list presentation. Measures of spatial memory performance and working memory were also evaluated. The results of this study showed that both pre- and post-acquisition oral glucose administration (25 g) can improve memory performance. However, as the time interval between anterograde glucose administration and memory encoding increased, the glucose memory facilitation effect decreased. This study provides evidence that glucose enhances memory performance in healthy young people even when it is given after learning has taken place, and that this effect is observed at least up to 24 h after glucose administration. Moreover, it provides evidence that the effect of glucose on memory performance may be time-dependent, as the enhancement of retention was decreased when the administration-learning interval was increased. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  1. A Comparison of Retrograde Intrarenal Surgery and Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy for Management of Renal Stones ?2 CM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Sercan; Ozok, Hakki Ugur; Cakici, Mehmet Caglar; Ozdemir, Harun; Bas, Okan; Karakoyunlu, Nihat; Sagnak, Levent; Senturk, Aykut Bugra; Ersoy, Hamit

    2017-01-18

    In this retrospective study, we aimed to compare the outcomes in patients who have been treated withpercutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) and retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) on renal stones ≥ 2 cm size. We evaluated patients who underwent PNL or RIRS for renal stones ≥ 2 cm size betweenNovember 2011 and November 2014. Stone size, operation, fluoroscopy and hospitalization time, success rates,stone-free rates and complication rates were compared in both groups. Patients were followed for three months. 254 patients were in the PNL Group. 185 patients were in the RIRS Group. The mean age was 46.88 and48.04 years in PNL and RIRS groups, respectively.The patient and stone characteristics (age, gender, Body Mass Index, kidney anomaly, SWL history and stoneradioopacity) were similar between two groups.The mean stone size preoperatively was significantly larger in patients who were treated with PNL (26.33mm.vs24.04mm.; P = .006). In the RIRS group, the mean stone number was significantly higher than PNL group (P <.001).The mean operative, fluoroscopy and hospitalization time were significantly higher in PNL group (P < .001). Thestone-free rate was 93.3% for the PNL group and 73.5% for the RIRS group after first procedure (P < .001). Nomajor complication (Clavien III-V) occurred in the RIRS group. Although the primary treatment method for renal stones ≥ 2cm size is PNL, serious complicationscan be seen. Therefore, RIRS can be an alternative treatment option in the management of renal stones ≥2 cm size.

  2. Metabolic Profiling of Retrograde Pathway Transcription Factors Rtg1 and Rtg3 Knockout Yeast

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    Zanariah Hashim

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Rtg1 and Rtg3 are two basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH transcription factors found in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae that are involved in the regulation of the mitochondrial retrograde (RTG pathway. Under RTG response, anaplerotic synthesis of citrate is activated, consequently maintaining the supply of important precursors necessary for amino acid and nucleotide synthesis. Although the roles of Rtg1 and Rtg3 in TCA and glyoxylate cycles have been extensively reported, the investigation of other metabolic pathways has been lacking. Characteristic dimer formation in bHLH proteins, which allows for combinatorial gene expression, and the link between RTG and other regulatory pathways suggest more complex metabolic signaling involved in Rtg1/Rtg3 regulation. In this study, using a metabolomics approach, we examined metabolic alteration following RTG1 and RTG3 deletion. We found that apart from TCA and glyoxylate cycles, which have been previously reported, polyamine biosynthesis and other amino acid metabolism were significantly altered in RTG-deficient strains. We revealed that metabolic alterations occurred at various metabolic sites and that these changes relate to different growth phases, but the difference can be detected even at the mid-exponential phase, when mitochondrial function is repressed. Moreover, the effect of metabolic rearrangements can be seen through the chronological lifespan (CLS measurement, where we confirmed the role of the RTG pathway in extending the yeast lifespan. Through a comprehensive metabolic profiling, we were able to explore metabolic phenotypes previously unidentified by other means and illustrate the possible correlations of Rtg1 and Rtg3 in different pathways.

  3. Characteristic Findings of Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis on Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiography: Which is the Most Common Finding?

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    Amir Houshang Mohammad Alizadeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC is a chronic cholestatic liver disease and one of the most common indications for liver transplantation in adults. There are conflicting data regarding characteristic findings of PSC disease on endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERCP. We undertook this study to clarify whether there is a specific pattern of involvement of the biliary tract in patients with PSC and to evaluate features of PSC disease on ERCP in order to be able to manage this disease better. Methods This retrospective study included 45 patients admitted to Taleghani Hospital in 2004-2010 and diagnosed to have PSC on the basis of typical cholangiographic findings in combination with clinical and laboratory data. Patients suspected to have secondary sclerosing cholangitis were excluded. Demographic and clinical data were recorded, along with cholangiographic findings and the frequency of large duct and small duct PSC. Results Forty-five patients of mean age 34.8 (range 15-66 years were included. Twenty-nine patients (64.4% had inflammatory bowel disease, and the frequency of large duct PSC and small duct PSC was 93.4% and 6.6%, respectively. The intrahepatic ducts alone were involved in 11 (24.4% patients and the extrahepatic ducts were involved in 14 (31.1%, with 17 (37.7% patients having both intrahepatic and extrahepatic PSC. Three (6.6% patients did not have bile duct involvement on ERCP, and their disease was diagnosed by liver biopsy as small duct PSC. The most common type of cholangiographic feature of intrahepatic duct involvement was type 2, found in 15 (33.3% patients, with type 3 being the most common type of extrahepatic duct involvement and detected in 16 (35.5% patients. Conclusion Our study demonstrates that the most common PSC finding on ERCP is involvement of both the extrahepatic and intrahepatic bile ducts, with small duct PSC being less common than large duct PSC.

  4. Magnetic resonance cholangiography compared with endoscopic retrograde cholangiography in the diagnosis of primary sclerosing cholangitis

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    Hossein Ahrar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRC has gained popularity for diagnosing primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC. We determined the accuracy of MRC compared with endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC for diagnosing PSC. Materials and Methods: This retrospective case-control study was conducted on patients referred to an outpatient gastroenterology clinic from 2001 to 2013. Patients with established diagnosis of PSC who had undergone MRC and ERC within a 6-month interval were included. Controls were selected from patients who had undergone imaging for reasons other than PSC evaluation. Disease outcome at the study time and liver biochemistry data at diagnosis and 1-year thereafter were retrieved. Diagnostic accuracy of MRC in comparison with ERC was evaluated. Results: A total of 46 definite PSC patients (age at diagnosis = 36.8 ± 11.6 years, 33 male were found. Diagnostic imaging for PSC was ERC alone in 12, MRC alone in 23, and ERC plus MRC in 11 patients. Controls were 89 patients mostly with bile stones. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative likelihood ratios of MRC was 90.9%, 95.5%, 20.23, and 0.10, respectively. Early PSC was found more frequently by MRC compared with ERC (30.4% vs. 8.3%, P = 0.146. No significant difference was found between imaging modalities with regards to patients′ outcome (P = 0.786 or liver biochemistry at diagnosis or 1-year thereafter (P >0.05. Conclusion: Starting diagnostic imaging for PSC with MRC seems better and may provide diagnosis of PSC at its earlier phase. Further studies with larger sample of patients and longer follow-ups are warranted.

  5. Safety and efficacy of retrograde intrarenal surgery in patients of different age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolga-Gulpinar, M; Resorlu, B; Atis, G; Tepeler, A; Ozyuvali, E; Oztuna, D; Resorlu, M; Akbas, A; Sancak, E B; Unsal, A

    2015-01-01

    To assess the efficacy and safety of retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) to treat renal stones in different age groups of patients. We performed a retrospective analysis of 947 patients who underwent RIRS for renal calculi between January 2008 and January 2014. Age at RIRS was analysed both as a continuous and categorical variable and patients were categorized into three age groups; aged ≤ 15 years at surgery (group i, n=51), 16 - 60 years (group Ii, n=726) and>60 years (group iii, n=170). We compared the 3 groups with the regard to stone characteristics, operative parameters and postoperative outcomes. The stone-free rate was 78.4% in group i, 77.5% in group ii, and 81.1% in group iii (P=.587). A multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that only stone size and stone number had significant influence on the stone-free rates after RIRS. Intraoperative complications occurred 13.7% in group i, 5.6% group ii, and 7.6% in group iii. Overall complication rates in children were higher than adult patients but the differences were not statistically significant. We found that only operation time was associated with the increased risk of intraoperative complications. Peroperative medical complications developed in 8 patients (.8%) in group ii and 2 patients (1.1%) in group iii. A 48-year-old man died from septic shock 5 days after the surgery. RIRS was observed to be a safe and effective procedure in all age groups of patients with stone disease, therefore age should not be considered as a limiting factor. Copyright © 2014 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Long-term Cre-mediated Retrograde Tagging of Neurons Using a Novel Recombinant Pseudorabies Virus

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    Hassana eOyibo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Brain regions contain diverse populations of neurons that project to different long-range targets. The study of these subpopulations in circuit function and behavior requires a toolkit to characterize and manipulate their activity in vivo. We have developed a novel set of reagents based on Pseudorabies Virus (PRV for efficient and long-term genetic tagging of neurons based on their projection targets. By deleting IE180, the master transcriptional regulator in the PRV genome, we have produced a mutant virus capable of infection and transgene expression in neurons but unable to replicate in or spread from those neurons. IE180-null mutants showed no cytotoxicity, and infected neurons exhibited normal physiological function more than 45 days after infection, indicating the utility of these engineered viruses for chronic experiments. To enable rapid and convenient construction of novel IE180-null recombinants, we engineered a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC shuttle-vector system for moving new constructs into the PRV IE180-null genome. Using this system we generated an IE180-null recombinant virus expressing the site-specific recombinase Cre. This Cre-expressing virus (PRV-hSyn-Cre efficiently and robustly infects neurons in vivo and activates transgene expression from Cre-dependent vectors in local and retrograde projecting populations of neurons in the mouse. We also generated an assortment of recombinant viruses expressing fluorescent proteins (mCherry, EGFP, ECFP. These viruses exhibit long-term labeling of neurons in vitro but transient labeling in vivo. Together these novel IE180-null PRV reagents expand the toolkit for targeted gene expression in the brain, facilitating functional dissection of neuronal circuits in vivo.

  7. Retrograde ankle arthrodesis using an intramedullary nail: a comparison of patients with and without diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wukich, Dane K; Shen, James Y C; Ramirez, Claudia P; Irrgang, James J

    2011-01-01

    Tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis (TTCA) has been used for the salvage of severe deformity involving the ankle and hindfoot. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of retrograde intramedullary nailing (IMN) for severe ankle/hindfoot pathology in a group of patients with diabetic neuropathy and compare them with a cohort of nondiabetic patients. Our working hypothesis was that patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and neuropathy would experience inferior outcomes and more postoperative complications than patients who did not have DM. Forty consecutive patients (17 with DM and 23 without DM) who had a minimum follow-up of 1 year were retrospectively reviewed. The mean follow-up was 33 months and the mean AOFAS Ankle Hindfoot Score significantly improved form 19 to 55. Patients with DM improved on average from 24 to 55 and patients without DM improved from 16 to 55. Although a postoperative complication was experienced in 59% of patients with DM compared with 44% of patients without DM, this difference did not reach statistical significance with the numbers available. More patients with DM used a brace at final follow-up than patients without DM. Those patients who had a history of preoperative skin ulceration had higher rates of infection than those patients who did not have skin ulcers. We did not find any significant postoperative differences in AOFAS Ankle Hindfoot Scores between those patients with DM versus patients without DM. On average, patients with DM demonstrated an improvement of 129% and patients without diabetes improved by 243%. With the numbers available, we were not able to confirm our hypothesis that patients with DM experienced significantly lower clinical outcomes than patients without DM. A study of 100 patients in each group would be necessary to achieve adequate power to conclusively state that DM had no impact on the final outcome. Copyright © 2011 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  8. The retrograde connections and anatomical segregation of the Göttingen minipig nucleus accumbens

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    Anders Christian Meidahl

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nucleus accumbens (NAcc has been implicated in several psychiatric disorders such as treatment resistant depression (TRD and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD, and has been an ongoing experimental target for deep brain stimulation (DBS in both rats and humans. In order to translate basic scientific results from rodents to the human setting a large animal model is needed to thoroughly study the effect of such therapeutic interventions. The aim of the study was, accordingly, to describe the basic anatomy of the Göttingen minipig NAcc and its retrograde connections.Tracing was carried out by MRI-guided stereotactic unilateral fluorogold injections in the NAcc of Göttingen minipigs. After two weeks the brains were sectioned and subsequently stained with Nissl-, autometallographic (AMG development of myelin, and DARPP-32 and calbindin immunohistochemistry.The minipig NAcc was divided in a central core and an outer medial, ventral and lateral shell. We confirmed the NAcc to be a large and well-segregated structure towards its medial, ventral and lateral borders. The fluorogold tracing revealed inputs to NAcc from the medial parts of the prefrontal cortex, BA 25 (subgenual cortex, insula bilaterally, amygdala, the CA1-region of hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, subiculum, paraventricular and anterior parts of thalamus, dorsomedial parts of hypothalamus, substantia nigra, ventral tegmental area, the retrorubral field and the dorsal and median raphe nuclei.In conclusion the Göttingen minipig NAcc is a large ventral striatal structure that can be divided into a core and shell with prominent afferent connections from several subrhinal and infra-/prelimbic brain areas.

  9. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and gastroduodenoscopy after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

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    Martinez, J; Guerrero, L; Byers, P; Lopez, P; Scagnelli, T; Azuaje, R; Dunkin, B

    2006-10-01

    The use of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) for morbid obesity has raised concern that subsequent endoscopic evaluation of the gastric remnant and duodenum is difficult. By gaining percutaneous access to the gastric remnant, however, both gastroduodenoscopy and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) can be performed easily. This report describes the results of a novel technique for performing "transgastrostomy" gastroduodenoscopy and ERCP. Six patients with a RYGB for morbid obesity underwent transgastric remnant endoscopic evaluations. If a gastric remnant tube had not been placed during prior surgery, one was placed percutaneously by an interventional radiologist. The tube tract then was dilated to either 20- or 24-Fr. At the time of endoscopy, the gastrostomy tube was removed and the skin anesthetized. Then either a pediatric duodenoscope (outer diameter, 7.5 mm) or a slim gastroscope (outer diameter, 5.9 mm) was inserted through the gastrostomy tube tract. Percutaneous gastroduodenoscopy was successfully performed for all six patients. The findings included two patients with prepyloric ulcers identified and assessed with a biopsy, one patient with intestinal metaplasia and a benign gastric polyp, and three patients with a normal gastric remnant and duodenum. A nonstrictured enteroenterostomy was noted in one of the three patients with a normal endoscopic evaluation. Percutaneous transgastrostomy ERCP was performed for three of the six patients who underwent gastroduodenoscopy. The findings included one patient who had papillary fibrosis treated with a sphincterotomy, a second patient with a normal biliary tree, and a third patient with a normal pancreatic duct. Selective cannulation of the common bile duct was not successful in the third patient. The transgastrostomy endoscopic route ensures access to the excluded stomach and proximal small bowel after RYGB. This route is safe and effective, allowing the use of a duodenoscope to improve the

  10. Plug-assisted retrograde transvenous obliteration for the treatment of gastric variceal hemorrhage

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    Chang, Min Yung; Kim, Man Deuk; Shin, Won Seon; Shin, Min Woo; Kim, Gyoung Min; Won, Jong Yun; Park, Sung Il; Lee, Do Yun [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Hwan [Dept. of Radiology, National Health Insurance Serivce Ilsan Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    To evaluate the feasibility, safety, and clinical outcomes of plug-assisted retrograde transvenous obliteration (PARTO) to treat gastric variceal hemorrhage in patients with portal hypertension. From May 2012 to June 2014, 19 patients (11 men and 8 women, median age; 61, with history of gastric variceal hemorrhage; 17, active bleeding; 2) who underwent PARTO using a vascular plug and a gelfoam pledget were retrospectively analyzed. Clinical and laboratory data were examined to evaluate primary (technical and clinical success, complications) and secondary (worsening of esophageal varix [EV], change in liver function) end points. Median follow-up duration was 11 months, from 6.5 to 18 months. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare laboratory data before and after the procedure. Technical success (complete occlusion of the efferent shunt and complete filling of gastric varix [GV] with a gelfoam slurry) was achieved in 18 of 19 (94.7%) patients. The embolic materials could not reach the GV in 1 patient who had endoscopic glue injection before our procedure. The clinical success rate (no recurrence of gastric variceal bleeding) was the same because the technically failed patient showed recurrent bleeding later. Acute complications included fever (n = 2), fever and hypotension (n = 2; one diagnosed adrenal insufficiency), and transient microscopic hematuria (n = 3). Ten patients underwent follow-up endoscopy; all exhibited GV improvement, except 2 without endoscopic change. Five patients exhibited aggravated EV, and 2 of them had a bleeding event. Laboratory findings were significantly improved after PARTO. PARTO is technically feasible, safe, and effective for gastric variceal hemorrhage in patients with portal hypertension.

  11. Retrograde intrarenal surgery with holmium-YAG laser lithotripsy in the primary treatment of renal lithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondo, C; Ramón de Fata, F; Gimbernat, H; Meilán, E; Andrés, G; Angulo, J C

    2015-06-01

    retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) appears as a safe and effective technique as well as a good therapeutic alternative to extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) and percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL). descriptive study in 50 patients surgically treated between November 2012 and April 2013. Demographic, operative and postoperative data as well as early and late complications data were collected. The minimum follow-up of patients was one year. Surgery was performed under general anesthesia. Flexible ureteroscopy with ureteral access sheath and laser fragmentation were employed. Surgery success was defined as stone free rate in postoperative control test and at three months after surgery (simple radiography, abdominal ultrasound or CT without contrast). mean age was 51.1±15.5 years old. The highest-frequency location was the lower calyceal group (26%), single stones were described in 58% of patients whilst multiple lithiasis were found in the 42%. Regarding the stone burden in 44% of the patients was low (3 cm) in 22% of the patients. The stone clearance rate was 89.7±17.5. Average surgery time was 96.6±35.2min. Complications were reported in 4 patients (8%), all of them early ones and minor in nature. RIRS is an effective and safe option whose results are comparable to ESWL and PCNL. RIRS can be considered as first-line treatment. These results are corroborated by numerous studies. To strengthen these findings, prospective studies focusing on quality of life, length of stay, complications and cost-effectiveness of different treatments are needed. Copyright © 2014 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Case volume and outcome of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography: results of a nationwide Austrian benchmarking project.

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    Kapral, C; Duller, C; Wewalka, F; Kerstan, E; Vogel, W; Schreiber, F

    2008-08-01

    In a quality assessment project for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), initiated in 2006 by the Austrian Society of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, benchmark data were collected on a voluntary basis. Results from the individual participating centers, both academic and community-based, were compared with pooled benchmark data, with the intention that individual problems should be identified and corrected in order to improve patient care in Austria. Success and complication rates in nonselected patients were evaluated, especially with regard to case volume. In Austria, with a population of 8 million, 140 sites are registered for ERCP, and it is estimated that up to 15 000 procedures are done annually. Of these sites, 28 participated in the "Benchmarking ERCP" project during the first year, reporting on 3132 procedures, or 22 % of the total number. The overall complication rate in nonselected patients was 12.6 %, consisting of post-ERCP pancreatitis (5.1 %), bleeding (3.7 %), cholangitis (1.9 %), cardiopulmonary complications (0.9 %), and perforation (0.5 %); procedure-related mortality was 0.1 %. The overall therapeutic and diagnostic target was achieved in 84.8 %. High case volume (endoscopists performing > 50 vs. < 50 ERCPs per year; 21 vs. 68 endoscopists) was associated with significantly higher success (86.9 % vs. 80.3 %, P < 0.001) and lower overall complication rates (10.2 % vs. 13.6 %, P = 0.007); significance was not reached for all subgroups of complications. Success and complication rates for ERCP in Austria are comparable to those reported elsewhere. In our study, endoscopists with a case volume exceeding 50 ERCPs per year had higher success and lower overall complication rates.

  13. Impact of retrograde flexible ureteroscopy and intracorporeal lithotripsy on kidney functional outcomes

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    Nicolas Hoarau

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate renal function and to identify factors associated with renal function deterioration after retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS for kidney stones. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed patients with renal stones treated by RIRS between January 2010 and June 2013 at a single institute. We used the National Kidney Foundation classification of chronic kidney disease (CKD to classify Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR in 5 groups. The baseline creatinine level was systematically pre-operatively and post-operatively evaluated. All patients had a creatinine blood measurement in June 2013. A change toward a less or a more favorable GFR group following RIRS was considered significant. Results: We included 163 patients. There were 86 males (52.8% and 77 females (47.3% with a mean age of 52.8±17 years. After a mean follow-up of 15.5±11.5 months, median GFR was not significantly changed from 84.3±26.2 to 84.9±24.5 mL/min (p=0.675. Significant renal function deterioration occurred in 8 cases (4.9% and significant renal function amelioration occurred in 23 cases (14.1%. In univariate analysis, multiple procedures (p=0.023; HR: 5.4 and preoperative CKD (p=0.011; HR: 6.8 were associated with decreased renal function. In multivariate analysis these factors did not remain as predictive factors. Conclusion: Stone management with RIRS seems to have favorable outcomes on kidney function; however, special attention should be given to patients with multiple procedures and preoperative chronic kidney disease.

  14. No Benefit of Oral Diclofenac on Post-Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography Pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiwatari, Hirotoshi; Urata, Takahiro; Yasuda, Ichiro; Matsusaki, Shimpei; Hisai, Hiroyuki; Kawakami, Hiroshi; Ono, Michihiro; Iwashita, Takuji; Doi, Shinpei; Kawakubo, Kazumichi; Hayashi, Tsuyoshi; Sonoda, Tomoko; Sakamoto, Naoya; Kato, Junji

    2016-11-01

    Pancreatitis following endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a serious complication. Rectal diclofenac (100 mg) has been shown to reduce the incidence of pancreatitis; however, this dosage form is unavailable in several countries. We aimed to investigate the preventive effect of oral diclofenac on pancreatitis after ERCP in a multicenter, randomized, prospective, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. Patients undergoing a first ERCP in seven high-volume centers between July 2012 and August 2014 were considered eligible. Participants were administered oral diclofenac (50 mg) or placebo before and after ERCP. The primary endpoint was the incidence of pancreatitis. A subgroup analysis was performed for patients at high or low risk of pancreatitis. Secondary endpoints were pancreatic enzyme levels (amylase and lipase). We initially enrolled 430 patients (216 in the diclofenac and 214 in the placebo group), and 23 were excluded after randomization. The overall incidence of pancreatitis was 9.8 % (20/205) and 9.4 % (19/202) in the diclofenac and placebo groups, respectively (p = 0.90). The incidence of pancreatitis was 20.3 % (13/64) and 21.3 % (13/61) in patients at high risk of pancreatitis (p = 0.78) and 5.0 % (7/141) and 4.3 % (6/141) in patients at low risk of pancreatitis in the diclofenac and placebo groups (p = 0.94), respectively. There were no significant differences in serum amylase and lipase levels between the two groups before and 24 h after ERCP. Oral administration of diclofenac before and after ERCP showed no benefit in the prevention of pancreatitis. UMIN000008109.

  15. Locking plate versus retrograde intramedullary nail fixation for tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis A retrospective analysis

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    Chi Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis (TTCA surgery is indicated for the end-stage disease of the tibiotalar and subtalar joints.Although different fixation technique of TTCA has been proposed to achieve high fusion rate and low complication rate, there is still no consensus upon this point. The purpose of this study is to compare the clinical efficacy of retrograde intramedullary nail fixation (RINF and locking plate fixation (LPF for TTCA. Materials and Methods: Fifty four patients who underwent TTCA through the lateral approach with lateral fibular osteotomy using RINF (32 patients, 18 male/14 female, mean age: 48 or LPF (22 patients, 12 male/10 female, mean age: 51 between January 2007 and January 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. Demographic and clinical characteristics, surgery (operation time, blood loss outcomes (postoperative fusion rates, visual analog scale and foot and ankle surgery score and complications were compared. Results: The LPF group had a shorter operation time (72.3 ± 9.2 vs. 102.8 ± 11.1 min, P < 0.001, less blood loss (75.9 ± 20.2 vs. 140.0 ± 23.8 ml, P < 0.001 and less intraoperative fluoroscopy sessions (3.6 ± 0.9 vs. 8.4 ± 1.3, P < 0.001 than the RINF group. Patients were followed up for 12-24 months (mean of 16.2 months. Both groups had similar postoperative fusion rates (90.6% and 95.4% and the LPF group showed a nonsignificant lower complication rate (18.2% vs. 28.1% respectively. Patients at higher risk on nonunion due to rheumatoid diseases may have a lower nonunion rate with LPF than RINF (one out of eight vs. three out of nine, P < 0.001. Conclusions: The LPF for TTCA was simpler to perform compared with RINF, but with similar postoperative outcomes and complication rates.

  16. Poverty and price transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elleby, Christian

    A key parameter determining the welfare impact from a world market shock is the transmission elasticity which measures the average domestic response to an international price change. Many studies have estimated price transmission elasticities for a large number of countries but the variation in t...

  17. Data Transmission Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, Chris

    1995-01-01

    Introduces some basic concepts related to the transmission of data from a computer to its peripherals to help distance educators make decisions regarding computer equipment purchases for their institutions. The following data transmission concepts are described: cables, serial and parallel, synchronous and asynchronous, bandwidth, and analog and…

  18. Cultural Transmission of Civicness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljunge, Jan Martin

    2012-01-01

    This paper estimates the intergeneration transmission of civicness by studying second generation immigrants in 29 European countries with ancestry in 83 nations. There is significant transmission of civicness both on the mother’s and the father’s side. The estimates are quantitatively significant...

  19. Cultural Transmission of Civicness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljunge, Jan Martin

    This paper estimates the intergeneration transmission of civicness by studying second generation immigrants in 29 European countries with ancestry in 83 nations. There is significant transmission of civicness both on the mother’s and the father’s side. The estimates are quantitatively significant...

  20. Comparison of Balloon-Occluded Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration (BRTO) Using Ethanolamine Oleate (EO), BRTO Using Sodium Tetradecyl Sulfate (STS) Foam and Vascular Plug-Assisted Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration (PARTO)

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    Kim, Young Hwan; Kim, Young Hwan, E-mail: yhkim68@dsmc.or.kr; Kim, Chan Sun [Keimyung University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Dongsan Medical Center (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Ung Rae [Daegu Catholic University Medical Center, Department of Radiology (Korea, Republic of); Kim, See Hyung; Kim, Joo Hwan [Keimyung University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Dongsan Medical Center (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    PurposeTo compare the clinical outcomes of balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) using ethanolamine oleate (EO), BRTO using sodium tetradecyl sulfate (STS) foam, and vascular plug-assisted retrograde transvenous obliteration (PARTO).Materials and MethodsFrom April 2004 to February 2015, ninety-five patients underwent retrograde transvenous obliteration for gastric varices were analyzed retrospectively. BRTO with EO was performed in 49 patients, BRTO with STS foam in 25, and PARTO in 21. Among them, we obtained follow-up data in 70 patients. Recurrence of gastric varices was evaluated by follow-up endoscopy or CT. Medical records were reviewed for the clinical efficacy. Statistical analyses were performed by Kaplan–Meier method, Chi-square, Fisher’s, and Kruskal–Wallis tests.ResultsTechnical and clinical success was 94.7 %. As major complications, a hemoglobinuria and a death due to disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) were occurred in two patients with BRTO using EO. Recurrence occurred more frequently in PARTO group (P < 0.05). Recurrence occurred in three patients in BRTO using EO group and four patients in PARTO group with 3.2 and 32.8 % of each expected 1-year recurrence rates. There was no recurrence in BRTO using STS group. Abdominal pain occurred more frequently in BRTO using EO than BRTO using STS foam and PARTO (P < 0.05). Procedure time of PARTO was shorter than two conventional BRTOs (P < 0.05).ConclusionsBRTO using STS foam or PARTO is better than BRTO using EO for treatment of gastric varices in terms of complication or procedure time. However, PARTO showed frequent recurrence of gastric varices during the long-term follow-up rather than BRTO.

  1. Bordetella pertussis transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainor, Elizabeth A; Nicholson, Tracy L; Merkel, Tod J

    2015-11-01

    Bordetella pertussis and B. bronchiseptica are Gram-negative bacterial respiratory pathogens. Bordetella pertussis is the causative agent of whooping cough and is considered a human-adapted variant of B. bronchiseptica. Bordetella pertussis and B. bronchiseptica share mechanisms of pathogenesis and are genetically closely related. However, despite the close genetic relatedness, these Bordetella species differ in several classic fundamental aspects of bacterial pathogens such as host range, pathologies and persistence. The development of the baboon model for the study of B. pertussis transmission, along with the development of the swine and mouse model for the study of B. bronchiseptica, has enabled the investigation of different aspects of transmission including the route, attack rate, role of bacterial and host factors, and the impact of vaccination on transmission. This review will focus on B. pertussis transmission and how animal models of B. pertussis transmission and transmission models using the closely related B. bronchiseptica have increased our understanding of B. pertussis transmission. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Intrathecal Bupivacaine Monotherapy with a Retrograde Catheter for the Management of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome of the Lower Extremity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRoberts, W Porter; Apostol, Catalina; Haleem, Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) presents a therapeutic challenge due to its many presentations and multifaceted pathophysiology. There is no approved treatment algorithm and clinical interventions are often applied empirically. In cases of CRPS where symptoms are localized to an extremity, a targeted treatment is indicated. We describe the use of intrathecal bupivacaine monotherapy, delivered through a retrograde catheter, in the treatment of CRPS affecting the lower extremity. The patient, a 57-year-old woman with a history of failed foot surgery, was seen in our office after 2 years of ineffective treatments with local blocks and neurolytic procedures. We advanced therapy to moderately invasive procedures with an emphasis on neuromodulation. A combined central and peripheral stimulation technique that initially provided 75% pain relief, failed to provide lasting analgesia. We proceeded with an intrathecal pump implant. Based on the results of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) mapping, L5-S1 was identified as the optimal target for therapy and a retrograde catheter was placed at this level. Various intrathecal medications were tested individually. An intrathecal morphine trial was ineffective (visual analog scale [VAS] 7), while intrathecal clonidine provided excellent pain relief (VAS 0) that was limited by severe side effects. Bupivacaine provided 100% analgesia with tolerable side effects (lower extremity weakness and minor bladder incontinence) and was selected for intrathecal infusion. After 14 months, bupivacaine treatment continued to control pain exacerbations. We conclude that CRPS patients benefit from early identification of the predominant underlying symptoms and a targeted treatment with moderately invasive techniques when less invasive techniques fail. Intrathecal bupivacaine, bupivacaine monotherapy, retrograde catheter, complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), dual stimulation, dosal root ganglion (DRG) testing.

  3. A retrograde trafficking inhibitor of ricin and Shiga-like toxins inhibits infection of cells by human and monkey polyomaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Christian D S; Carney, Dan W; Derdowski, Aaron; Lipovsky, Alex; Gee, Gretchen V; O'Hara, Bethany; Williard, Paul; DiMaio, Daniel; Sello, Jason K; Atwood, Walter J

    2013-11-12

    Polyomaviruses are ubiquitous pathogens that cause severe disease in immunocompromised individuals. JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) is the causative agent of the fatal demyelinating disease progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), whereas BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) causes polyomavirus-induced nephropathy and hemorrhagic cystitis. Vaccines or antiviral therapies targeting these viruses do not exist, and treatments focus on reducing the underlying causes of immunosuppression. We demonstrate that retro-2(cycl), an inhibitor of ricin and Shiga-like toxins (SLTs), inhibits infection by JCPyV, BKPyV, and simian virus 40. Retro-2(cycl) inhibits retrograde transport of polyomaviruses to the endoplasmic reticulum, a step necessary for productive infection. Retro-2(cycl) likely inhibits polyomaviruses in a way similar to its ricin and SLT inhibition, suggesting an overlap in the cellular host factors used by bacterial toxins and polyomaviruses. This work establishes retro-2(cycl) as a potential antiviral therapy that broadly inhibits polyomaviruses and possibly other pathogens that use retrograde trafficking. The human polyomaviruses JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) and BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) cause rare but severe diseases in individuals with reduced immune function. During immunosuppression, JCPyV disseminates from the kidney to the central nervous system and destroys oligodendrocytes, resulting in the fatal disease progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Kidney transplant recipients are at increased risk of BKPyV-induced nephropathy, which results in kidney necrosis and loss of the transplanted organ. There are currently no effective therapies for JCPyV and BKPyV. We show that a small molecule named retro-2(cycl) protects cells from infection with JCPyV and BKPyV by inhibiting intracellular viral transport. Retro-2(cycl) treatment reduces viral spreading in already established infections and may therefore be able to control infection in affected patients. Further optimization of

  4. Rapid vascular uptake of contrast during a retrograde urethro-cystogram in a cat with chronic lower urinary tract disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xander Huizing

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Case summary A 9-year male neutered domestic longhair cat was referred to our hospital for investigation of recurrent urinary tract obstruction. The clinical signs had started 12 months earlier and the cat had been catheterised on multiple occasions. Clinical examination and abdominal ultrasound of the abdomen was unremarkable but examination of the penis revealed it to be prolapsed and extremely erythematous and friable. A retrograde contrast urethrocystogram was performed, showing extravasation of the contrast medium and establishing the presence of partial leakage or a tear of the urethra. In subsequent radiographs, the contrast was seen being rapidly absorbed into the pelvic and systemic vasculature via the penile veins, internal and external pudendal veins, internal and external iliac veins, and, ultimately, the caudal vena cava. Later, the contrast medium was seen within the renal pelves. Retrograde urethrocystography revealed stenosis and irregularities of the caudal urethral mucosa consistent with strictures. A routine perineal urethrostomy was performed and the cat recovered well. Conclusions and relevance Rapid vascular absorption of extravasated contrast medium has not been reported before. In this case, the increased blood supply to the distal urethra and penis is likely secondary to (chronic inflammation, as demonstrated by the urethral strictures and the friable, oedematous nature of the penis. Whether the inflammation was caused by chronic obstruction or repeated iatrogenic trauma, or a combination of these factors, will remain debatable. Nonetheless, this case demonstrates that when a retrograde contrast urethrocystogram is considered, it is imperative that a contrast medium (or other intraurethral medication such as local anaesthesia is chosen that is safe for intravascular use. Equally, an absolute aseptic technique is essential considering the potential for contaminants to be absorbed quite rapidly into the systemic

  5. Robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy with early retrograde release of the neurovascular bundle and endopelvic fascia sparing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Augusto Monteiro Lins de Albuquerque

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction Robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy (RAP is the dominant minimally invasive surgical treatment for patients with localized prostate cancer. The introduction of robotic assistance has the potential to improve surgical outcomes and reduce the steep learning curve associated with conventional laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. The purpose of this video is to demonstrate the early retrograde release of the neurovascular bundle without open the endopelvic fascia during RAP. Materials and Methods A 51-year old male, presenting histological diagnosis of prostate adenocarcinoma, Gleason 6 (3+3, in 4 cores of 12, with an initial PSA=3.41ng/dl and the digital rectal examination demonstrating a prostate with hardened nodule in the right lobe of the prostate base (clinical stage T2a. Surgical treatment with the robot-assisted technique was offered as initial therapeutic option and the critical technical point was the early retrograde release of the neurovascular bundle with endopelvic fascia preservation, during radical prostatectomy. Results The operative time was of 89 minutes, blood loss was 100ml. No drain was left in the peritoneal cavity. The patient was discharged within 24 hours. There were no intraoperative or immediate postoperative complications. The pathological evaluation revealed prostate adenocarcinoma, Gleason 6, with free surgical margins and seminal vesicles free of neoplastic involvement (pathologic stage T2a. At 3-month-follow-up, the patient lies with undetectable PSA, continent and potent. Conclusion This is a feasible technique combining the benefits of retrograde release of the neurovascular bundle, the preservation of the pubo-prostatic collar and the preservation of the antero-lateral cavernous nerves.

  6. The anterograde and retrograde transport of neurobiotin in the central nervous system of the rat: comparison with biocytin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapper, S R; Bolam, J P

    1991-09-01

    In order to test whether neurobiotin, an analogue of biotin, is transported by neurones in the central nervous system, injections of varying volumes of a 5% solution were made into different regions of the rat brain. Following perfusion-fixation, the sites of injection and possible sites of transport were sectioned and incubated with an avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex and then subjected to a peroxidase reaction. All injection parameters and sites were directly compared to equivalent injections of the closely related substance, biocytin, which is effectively transported in an anterograde fashion. The sites of injection of neurobiotin were characterised by large areas of labelling that were more extensive than those produced by equivalent injections of biocytin but with less intense labelling of individual neurones. Each of the injections of neurobiotin gave rise to marked anterograde labelling, the characteristics of which were similar to those produced by biocytin, but due to the larger injection sites was heavier than that produced by biocytin. Each of the injections of biocytin or neurobiotin also gave rise to retrograde labelling; the degree of labelling was far greater with neurobiotin but varied between pathways. Retrograde labelling only occurred to a minor degree in some pathways but was particularly marked in others, e.g., the striatonigral pathway. As with biocytin, tract-tracing with neurobiotin can be applied to electron microscopy and can readily be combined with immunocytochemistry for endogenous substances. It is concluded that neurobiotin is an effective anterograde and retrograde marker that may be of use in studies in the central nervous system, particularly in large homogeneous structures such as cortical fields and the striatum.

  7. The Retrograde Tibial Nail: presentation and biomechanical evaluation of a new concept in the treatment of distal tibia fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Sebastian; Appelmann, Philipp; Pairon, Philip; Mehler, Dorothea; Rommens, Pol M

    2014-01-01

    Displaced distal tibia fractures require stable fixation while minimizing secondary damage to the soft tissues by the surgical approach and implants. Antegrade intramedullary nailing has become an alternative to plate osteosynthesis for the treatment of distal metaphyseal fractures over the past two decades. While retrograde intramedullary nailing is a standard procedure in other long bone fractures, only few attempts have been made on retrograde nailing of tibial fractures. The main reasons are difficulties of finding an ideal entry portal and the lack of an ideal implant for retrograde insertion. The Retrograde Tibial Nail (RTN) is a prototype intramedullary implant developed by our group. The implant offers double proximal and triple distal interlocking with an end cap leading to an angle-stable screw-nail construct of the most distal interlocking screw. Its design meets the requirements of a minimally invasive surgical approach, with a stable fracture fixation by multiple locking options. The 8mm diameter curved nail, with a length of 120 mm, is introduced through an entry portal at the medial malleolus. We see possible indications for the RTN in far distal tibial shaft fractures, distal extraarticular metaphyseal tibial fractures and in distal tibia fractures with simple extension into the ankle joint when the nail is combined lag screw fixation. A biomechanical comparison of the current RTN prototype against antegrade nailing (Expert Tibial Nail, Synthes(®), ETN) was performed. Both implants were fixed with double proximal and triple distal interlocking. Seven biomechanical composite tibiae were treated with either osteosynthesis techniques. A 10mm defect osteotomy 40 mm proximal to the joint line served as an AO 43-A3 type distal tibial fracture model. The stiffness of the implant-bone constructs was measured under low and high extra-axial compression (350 and 600 N) and under torsional load (8 Nm). Results show a comparable stability during axial loading

  8. Computed tomographic retrograde positive contrast cystography and computed tomographic excretory urography characterization of a urinary bladder diverticulum in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anson, Agustina; Strohmayer, Carina; Larrinaga, Jose M; Iglesias, Esteban; Almela, Ramon; Ramírez, Gustavo; Cervera, Vicente

    2018-01-14

    A one-year-old intact male German shepherd dog was referred with a 3-month history of dysuria and pollakiuria. Physical examination revealed a large firm mass in the caudal abdomen. Findings from survey radiography, negative contrast cystography, computed tomographic (CT) retrograde positive contrast cystography, and CT excretory urography were consistent with a large urinary bladder diverticulum. An exploratory laparotomy revealed a normal wall appearance in the ventral compartment (true bladder) and marked thinning of the wall in the dorsal compartment (diverticulum). Both ureters inserted into the ventral compartment. The dorsal compartment was excised and histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of urinary bladder diverticulum. © 2018 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  9. Balloon occlusion retrograde transvenous obliteration of gastric varices in two-cirrhotic patients with portal vein thrombosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borhei, Peyman; Kim, Seung Kwon; Zukerman, Darryl A [Interventional Radiology, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis (United States)

    2014-02-15

    This report describes two non-cirrhotic patients with portal vein thrombosis who underwent successful balloon occlusion retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) of gastric varices with a satisfactory response and no complications. One patient was a 35-year-old female with a history of Crohn's disease, status post-total abdominal colectomy, and portal vein and mesenteric vein thrombosis. The other patient was a 51-year-old female with necrotizing pancreatitis, portal vein thrombosis, and gastric varices. The BRTO procedure was a useful treatment for gastric varices in non-cirrhotic patients with portal vein thrombosis in the presence of a gastrorenal shunt.

  10. Access to the ophthalmic artery by retrograde approach through the posterior communicating artery for intra-arterial chemotherapy of retinoblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham, Chi-Tuan; Blanc, Raphael; Pistocchi, Silvia; Bartolini, Bruno; Piotin, Michel [Fondation Rothschild Hospital, Department of Interventional Neuroradiology, Paris (France); Lumbroso-Le Rouic, Livia [Institut Curie, Department of Ocular Oncology, Paris (France)

    2012-08-15

    Intra-arterial infusion of chemotherapy into the ophthalmic artery for treatment of retinoblastoma has been realized after catheterization of the internal carotid and temporary balloon occlusion beyond the orifice of the ophthalmic artery, or more recently after superselective canulation of the ophthalmic artery by a microcatheter. The superselective catheterization of the ophthalmic artery could be cumbersome because of the implantation of the ostium on the carotid siphon or because of the tortuosity of the carotid siphon. We report our experience of using a retrograde approach through the posterior communicating artery that allows a more direct angle of access to the origin of the ophthalmic artery. (orig.)

  11. Microleakage evaluation around retrograde filling materials prepared using conventional and ultrasonic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandava, Pragna; Bolla, Nagesh; Thumu, Jayaprakash; Vemuri, Sayesh; Chukka, Sunil

    2015-02-01

    The importance of the retrograde cavity preparation and the material used to restore is of utmost importance to achieve successful surgical endodontics. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the apical micro-leakage of root end cavities filled with Mineral trioxide aggregate, Biodentine and light cure GIC using two different cavity preparation techniques that is conventional bur preparation and ultrasonic tip preparation. Eighty extracted single rooted human teeth (except mandibular incisors) with one canal, fully developed apices and without any major carious lesion are collected for the study. The teeth were sectioned at CEJ to standardize the length. Roots are instrumented upto master apical file 40 K size and obturated with gutta percha and AH plus sealer in lateral condensation technique. The teeth were then resected apically at 90° angle axis to the long axis of the root removing 3 mm of the apex. The teeth were divided in to four groups of 20 each- • Group I- samples restored with MTA. • Group II- samples restored with Biodentine. • Group III- (Positive control group)- samples restored with Light activated GIC. • Group IV - (negative control group)- no filling material. Each group is divided into two subgroups (a, b) of ten teeth each 1. Retropreparation done with ultrasonic retrotip. 2. Retropreparation done with conventional bur. The teeth were then immersed in 0.5% Rhodamine B dye for 48 h. The teeth were split longitudinally and the interface between the restored material and the canal wall is observed under Confocal laser scanning microscope. Depth of dye penetration was examined under stereomicroscope. The statistical analysis was performed by One way ANOVA, t test. Pair wise comparision was done by Newman - Keuls multiple post hoc test. The mean values of Dye penetration for Group Ia (321.23), Group Ib (490.11), Group IIa (1065.14), Group IIb (1170.96), Group IIIa (1888.90), Group IIIb (2025.35). The samples prepared with ultrasonic

  12. Microleakage Evaluation Around Retrograde Filling Materials Prepared Using Conventional and Ultrasonic Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolla, Nagesh; Thumu, Jayaprakash; Vemuri, Sayesh; Chukka, Sunil

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The importance of the retrograde cavity preparation and the material used to restore is of utmost importance to achieve successful surgical endodontics. Aim: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the apical micro-leakage of root end cavities filled with Mineral trioxide aggregate, Biodentine and light cure GIC using two different cavity preparation techniques that is conventional bur preparation and ultrasonic tip preparation. Materials and Methods: Eighty extracted single rooted human teeth (except mandibular incisors) with one canal, fully developed apices and without any major carious lesion are collected for the study. The teeth were sectioned at CEJ to standardize the length. Roots are instrumented upto master apical file 40 K size and obturated with gutta percha and AH plus sealer in lateral condensation technique. The teeth were then resected apically at 90° angle axis to the long axis of the root removing 3 mm of the apex. The teeth were divided in to four groups of 20 each- • Group I- samples restored with MTA. • Group II- samples restored with Biodentine. • Group III- (Positive control group)- samples restored with Light activated GIC. • Group IV - (negative control group)- no filling material. Each group is divided into two subgroups (a, b) of ten teeth each 1. Retropreparation done with ultrasonic retrotip. 2. Retropreparation done with conventional bur. The teeth were then immersed in 0.5% Rhodamine B dye for 48 h. The teeth were split longitudinally and the interface between the restored material and the canal wall is observed under Confocal laser scanning microscope. Depth of dye penetration was examined under stereomicroscope. Results: The statistical analysis was performed by One way ANOVA, t test. Pair wise comparision was done by Newman – Keuls multiple post hoc test. The mean values of Dye penetration for Group Ia (321.23), Group Ib (490.11), Group IIa (1065.14), Group IIb (1170.96), Group IIIa (1888.90), Group

  13. A Novel Treatment Decision Tree and Literature Review of Retrograde Peri-Implantitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmast, Nima D; Wang, Howard H; Soldatos, Nikolaos K; Angelov, Nikola; Dorn, Samuel; Yukna, Raymond; Iacono, Vincent J

    2016-12-01

    Although retrograde peri-implantitis (RPI) is not a common sequela of dental implant surgery, its prevalence has been reported in the literature to be 0.26%. Incidence of RPI is reported to increase to 7.8% when teeth adjacent to the implant site have a previous history of root canal therapy, and it is correlated with distance between implant and adjacent tooth and/or with time from endodontic treatment of adjacent tooth to implant placement. Minimum 2 mm space between implant and adjacent tooth is needed to decrease incidence of apical RPI, with minimum 4 weeks between completion of endodontic treatment and actual implant placement. The purpose of this study is to compile all available treatment modalities and to provide a decision tree as a general guide for clinicians to aid in diagnosis and treatment of RPI. Literature search was performed for articles published in English on the topic of RPI. Articles selected were case reports with study populations ranging from 1 to 32 patients. Any case report or clinical trial that attempted to treat or rescue an implant diagnosed with RPI was included. Predominant diagnostic presentation of a lesion was presence of sinus tract at buccal or facial abscess of apical portion of implant, and subsequent periapical radiographs taken demonstrated a radiolucent lesion. On the basis of case reports analyzed, RPI was diagnosed between 1 week and 4 years after implant placement. Twelve of 20 studies reported that RPI lesions were diagnosed within 6 months after implant placement. A step-by-step decision tree is provided to allow clinicians to triage and properly manage cases of RPI on the basis of recommendations and successful treatments provided in analyzed case reports. It is divided between symptomatic and asymptomatic implants and adjacent teeth with vital and necrotic pulps. Most common etiology of apical RPI is endodontic infection from neighboring teeth, which was diagnosed within 6 months after implant placement. Most

  14. Diagnosis of pancreatic tumors : comparison of MR pancreatography(MRP) and endoscopic retrograde pancreatography(ERP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Ki Suh; Seo, Jung Hoon; Kim, Myeong Jin; Chung, Jae Bok; Chung, Jae Joon; Lee, Jong Tae; Yoo, Hyung Sik [Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-11-01

    Magnetic resonance pancreatography(MRP) is a non-invasive imaging technique for visualization of the pancreatic duct system, and is similar to those obtained by means of endoscopic retrograde pancreatography(ERP). To determine the role of MRP in the diagnosis of pancreatic tumors, the diagnostic confidence and imaginal difference of MRP and ERP were compared. Twenty patients(13 male and 7 female, mean age 59 years) with pancreatic tumors underwent MRP and ERP. The former involved the use of a single shot fast spin-echo sequence on a 1.5T system. All images were retrospectively reviewed by a radiologist and a gastroenterologist, working together. Both MRP and ERP were compared for separate visualization of the head, body and tail portion of the pancreatic duct, and scored as excellent (4), good (3), fair (2), poor (1), or no visualization (0). In addition, the overall diagnostic confidence of both modalities was graded subjectively from non-diagnoses (0) to definite information (4). The final diagnoses derived from surgical findings (n=9) or imaging findings and clinical follow-up (n=7) were as follows : pancreatic cancer (n=12), mucin-producing pancreatic cancer (n=2), mucinous ductectatic tumor (n=4), serous cystadenoma (n=2). To assess the statistical significance of difference, the paired t-test was used. Mean scores of visualization of the pancreatic duct by MRP and ERP were 2.91 and 3.15 in the pancreatic head (p=NS), 3.11 and 2.18 in the pancreatic body (p=NS), and 3.07 and 1.09 in the pancreatic tail (p<0.01). The mean score of diagnostic confidence was 4.03 for MRP and 2.51 for ERP, a statistically significant difference (p<0.05). In 11 patients with obstruction of the pancreatic duct due to malignant lesions, MRP visualized the duct both proximally and distally to the site of obstruction, while ERP visualized only the distal duct to the site of obstruction. MRP was also better at defining the extent of tumor by visualization of surrounding pancreatic

  15. Sources of porcine longissimus dorsi muscle (LDM innervation as revealed by retrograde neuronal tract-tracing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Majewski

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to establish the origin of the motor, autonomic and sensory innervation of the L1-L2 segment of the porcine longissimus dorsi muscle (LDM, in order to provide morphological basis for further studies focusing on this neural pathway under experimental conditions, e.g. phototerapy and/or lateral electrical surface stimulation. To reach the goal of the study, multiple injections of the fluorescent neuronal tracer Fast Blue (FB were made into the LDM region between the spinal processes of the vertebrae L1 and L2. The spinal cord (Th13-S1 segments as well as the sensory and autonomic ganglia of interest, i.e., dorsal root (DRG and sympathetic chain ganglia from corresponding spinal cord levels were collected three weeks later. FB-positive (FB+ motoneurons were observed exclusively within the nucleus ventromedialis at L1 and L2 spinal cord level, forming the most ventro-medially arranged cell column within this nucleus. Primary sensory and sympathetic chain neurons were found in appropriate ipsilateral ganglia at Th15-L3 levels. The vast majority of retrogradely traced neurons (virtually all motoneurons, approximately 76% of sensory and 99.4% of sympathetic chain ganglia neurons was found at the L1 and L2 levels. The morphometric evaluation of FB-labeled DRG neurons showed that the majority of them (approximately 66% belonged to the class of small-diameter perikarya (10-30 microm in diameter, whereas those of medium size (30-80 microm in diameter and of large diameter (more than 80 microm constituted 22.6% and 11.5% of all DRG neurons, respectively. The results of the present study demonstrated that the nerve terminals supplying porcine LDM originated from different levels of the spinal cord, dorsal root and sympathetic chain ganglia. Thus, the study has revealed sources and morphological characteristic of somatic, autonomic and spinal afferent neurons supplying porcine LDM, simultaneously pointing out the

  16. Sources of porcine longissimus dorsi muscle (LDM) innervation as revealed by retrograde neuronal tract-tracing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chyczewski, Mariusz; Wojtkiewicz, Joanna; Bossowska, Agnieszka; Jałyński, Marek; Brzeski, Wojciech; Kowalski, Ireneusz M; Majewski, Mariusz

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to establish the origin of the motor, autonomic and sensory innervation of the L1-L2 segment of the porcine longissimus dorsi muscle (LDM), in order to provide morphological basis for further studies focusing on this neural pathway under experimental conditions, e.g. phototerapy and/or lateral electrical surface stimulation. To reach the goal of the study, multiple injections of the fluorescent neuronal tracer Fast Blue (FB) were made into the LDM region between the spinal processes of the vertebrae L1 and L2. The spinal cord (Th13-S1 segments) as well as the sensory and autonomic ganglia of interest, i.e., dorsal root (DRG) and sympathetic chain ganglia from corresponding spinal cord levels were collected three weeks later. FB-positive (FB+) motoneurons were observed exclusively within the nucleus ventromedialis at L1 and L2 spinal cord level, forming the most ventro-medially arranged cell column within this nucleus. Primary sensory and sympathetic chain neurons were found in appropriate ipsilateral ganglia at Th15-L3 levels. The vast majority of retrogradely traced neurons (virtually all motoneurons, approximately 76% of sensory and 99.4% of sympathetic chain ganglia neurons) was found at the L1 and L2 levels. The morphometric evaluation of FB-labeled DRG neurons showed that the majority of them (approximately 66%) belonged to the class of small-diameter perikarya (10-30 microm in diameter), whereas those of medium size (30-80 microm in diameter) and of large diameter (more than 80 microm) constituted 22.6% and 11.5% of all DRG neurons, respectively. The results of the present study demonstrated that the nerve terminals supplying porcine LDM originated from different levels of the spinal cord, dorsal root and sympathetic chain ganglia. Thus, the study has revealed sources and morphological characteristic of somatic, autonomic and spinal afferent neurons supplying porcine LDM, simultaneously pointing out the characteristic features

  17. [Retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS). Technical complement for cases of acute lithiasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amón, J H; Cepeda, M; Conde, C; Alonso, D; González, V; Martínez-Sagarra, J M

    2011-02-01

    Washing the renal cavities using minipercutaneous surgery shaft is an ideal technical procedure for retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) when lithiasic fragmentation is significant or if the anatomy of the renal cavities may obstruct the spontaneous elimination of fragments. we performed 37 RIRS on 35 patients with renal lithiasis (14 men, 21 women) with a mean age of 56 (range 33-72) years, divided into two groups in accordance with the size of their kidney stones. Group A, 23 patients with lithiasis lithiasis >1.5 cm. 28 patients had a single kidney stone and 7 had multiple stones. Flexible uretrorenoscopy, 7.5 Fr (Flex-X(®, Karl Storz) by means of a ureteral access sheath. Holmium laser lithotripsy (Calculase®, Karl Storz) using 200 and 365 micrometer fibres. Fragment extraction with 1.7 Fr nitinol baskets (N-gage, Cook). In cases of significant fragmented stone burden, the renal cavities were washed with low-pressure fluid irrigation using a ureteral access sheath, which was collected together with the stone fragments carried by the "mini-perc" sheath (Ultrax-x® 18Fr, Cook; Rusch, 14 Fr) placed under radiologic and endoscopic control at the level of the calyx-papilla selected for fragment drainage. the mean diameter for group A was 9.13 (range 5-13) mm and 20.25 (range 16-28) mm for group B. The overall mean operating time was 81 (range 30-160) min. Group A required 66.43±35.18 min. and group B 107.5±46.73 min. (p=0.006). The rate of absence of stones immediately after surgery was 83.2%, 93.1% at 3 months (95.6% for A and 83.3% for B; p=0.217). In no case was ureteral stenosis observed as a result of the use of ureteral access sheaths. In 7 group B patients (58.3%) with acute lithiasis and/or alteration in their pyelocaliceal anatomy, we performed active lavage of the renal cavities applying the aforementioned percutaneous technique. The mean post-surgery hospital stay was 2.1 (range 1-4) days. There were post-surgery complications (Clavien 1) in 7

  18. Analysis of a Polystyrene-Toluene System through "Dynamic" Sorption Tests: Glass Transitions and Retrograde Vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierleoni, Davide; Minelli, Matteo; Scherillo, Giuseppe; Mensitieri, Giuseppe; Loianno, Valerio; Bonavolontà, Francesco; Doghieri, Ferruccio

    2017-10-26

    Exposing a glassy polymer to a fluid phase (in gaseous or liquid state) containing a low molecular weight compound results in the sorption of the latter within the polymer, inducing, among other effects, the plasticization of the material which also promotes a change in the glass transition temperature. The amount of sorbed penetrant is often related in a complex fashion to the temperature and pressure of the fluid, thus determining that the locus of glass transition, when represented in pressure-temperature coordinates, may display as well rather complex patterns. This is an issue of particular importance in several applications of glassy polymers. In particular, we investigated the behavior of polystyrene in contact with toluene vapor by performing several modes of dynamic sorption experiments, in which the rate of change of the temperature of the system and/or of the pressure of the vapor phase are controlled with high accuracy, with the aim of creating a map of rubbery and glassy states of the polymer as a function of temperature and pressure of the toluene vapor. Isothermal tests were performed by changing the pressure at a controlled rate, isobaric tests were performed by changing the temperature at a controlled rate, and isoactivity tests were performed by concurrently changing, in a proper way, both temperature and pressure. A relevant feature resulting from these experiments is the presence of a discontinuity in the slope of the mass of toluene sorbed within polystyrene reported as a function of temperature and/or pressure. This discontinuity has been interpreted as the indication of the occurrence of a glass transition. The elaboration of the experimental results allowed identification of the pressure/temperature conditions at which rubbery or glassy states of the polymer mixture are established. Quite interestingly, the system displays the so- called "retrograde vitrification" phenomenon, which consists of the occurrence of a rubbery-to-glassy state

  19. Re: Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy Versus Retrograde Intrarenal Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De S

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Debate still goes on about minimally invasive treatment of urolithiasis. Meta-analysis is very important in decision-making; the level of evidence 1a represents evidence obtained from meta-analysis of randomized trials. This meta-analysis represented by De et al. reviewed the results of ten studies comparing minimicro percutaneous nephrolithotomy (mmPNL with retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS. A subgroup analysis was performed comparing standard PCNL and minimally invasive percutaneous procedures (MIPPs including mini-PCNL and micro-PCNL with RIRS, separately. Half of the studies were from Turkey. All stone burdens in these studies were lower than 2 cm except in two studies. Similarly, single stone was treated in all except for two studies. There were major differences between studies in terms of surgical techniques, follow-up procedure and imaging and definition of stone free or, in other words, clinically insignificant residual fragment. Operation time was same for RIRS and sPNL which might be because of the smaller size of stones for PNL, a debatable point. In patients with single stone about 2 cm, not surprisingly, sPNL was the leading one in stone free rates. There was a statistical confusion for other methods. According to original paper, RIRS was second one but if searched again; we can see the ‘corrigendum’ which reflected that stone free rate of mmPNL was higher than RIRS due to the correction of statistical mistake. In a special comparison between mmPNL and RIRS; RIRS had lower morbidity with lower stone free rates. Thus, as a conclusion, if the question is stone free rate, sPNL should be chosen but RIRS had the lowest morbidity with very close stone free rates to mmPNL. Although this type of studies are very important; this study did not meet expectations in decision making. It should be better to follow the European Association of Urology guidelines recommendations with evaluating whole criteria, such as comorbidities of the

  20. A HaloTag® method for assessing the retrograde axonal transport of the p75 neurotrophin receptor and other proteins in compartmented cultures of rat sympathetic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Sue-Ann; Lund, Karen; Lapointe, Paul; Campenot, Robert B

    2013-03-30

    We have adapted HaloTag® (HT) technology for use in compartmented cultures of rat sympathetic neurons in order to provide a technique that can be broadly applied to studies of the retrograde transport of molecules that play roles in neurotrophin signaling. Transfected neurons expressing HT protein alone, HT protein fused to the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) or HT protein fused to tubulin α-1B were maintained in compartmented cultures in which cell bodies and proximal axons of rat sympathetic neurons reside in proximal compartments and their distal axons extend into distal compartments. HT ligand containing a fluorescent tetramethylrhodamine (TMR) label was applied either in the distal compartments or the proximal compartments, and the transport of labeled proteins was assayed by gel fluorescence imaging and TMR immunoblot. HT protein expressed alone displayed little or no retrograde transport. HT protein fused to either the intracellular C-terminus or the extracellular N-terminus of p75NTR was retrogradely transported. The retrograde transport of p75NTR was augmented when the distal axons were provided with nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) or antibodies to BDNF. The anterograde transport of HT protein fused to the N-terminus of tubulin α-1B was also demonstrated. We conclude that retrograde transport of HT fusion proteins provides a powerful and novel approach in studies of axonal transport. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Transmission Problem in Thermoelasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz Rivera JaimeE

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We show that the energy to the thermoelastic transmission problem decays exponentially as time goes to infinity. We also prove the existence, uniqueness, and regularity of the solution to the system.

  2. Automatic transmission vehicle injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, M

    1973-04-07

    Four drivers sustained severe injuries when run down by their own automatic cars while adjusting the carburettor or throttle linkages. The transmission had been left in the "Drive" position and the engine was idling. This accident is easily avoidable.

  3. Kansas Electric Transmission Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This data set is a digital representation of the EletcircTransmission lines for the State of Kansas as maintained by the Kansas Corporation Commission. Data is...

  4. Electric Power Transmission Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Transmission Lines are the system of structures, wires, insulators and associated hardware that carry electric energy from one point to another in an electric power...

  5. Pregnancy & perinatal transmission update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denison, R

    1998-09-01

    According to a June 1998 report from UNAIDS, the majority of children infected with HIV acquired it from their mothers during or near birth. One way to prevent perinatal transmission of HIV is to increase prevention efforts for women. Other ways to prevent perinatal transmission include using AZT treatment, avoiding breastfeeding, and choosing a C-section delivery instead of a vaginal delivery. One important study, called the Thai study, promoted a shorter course of AZT therapy that was less expensive, more accessible, and still prevented transmission in many cases. Several reasons are cited for why some women continue breastfeeding, despite the increased risk of transmitting HIV to their babies. An important factor in preventing perinatal transmission is the overall health of the mother, and her ability to maintain her health and treatment regimen while caring for a newborn.

  6. Watching Handball Transmissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Kirsten

    2010-01-01

    The current article presents a qualitative study of Danish television viewer’s reception of Danish handball transmissions. The overall aim of the study has been to contribute to a more nuanced understanding of televised sport as a specific kind of television entertainment. The analysis shows that...... is embedded in quite diverse patterns regarding additional media use. This points to gendered differences regarding how the entertaining experience is basically received and the qualities sought and pursued in the transmissions....

  7. Superconducting metamaterial transmission line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouxinol, Francisco; Wang, Haozhi; Plourde, B. L. T.

    2014-03-01

    Left-handed metamaterials are artificial composite structures with unusual properties. Such systems have a wide range of potential applications in photonics. We are developing transmission lines composed of superconducting metamaterials using thin-film lumped circuit elements. Such structures allow for the possibility of generating novel transmission spectra with a high density of modes in some frequency ranges and stop-bands in others. We discuss possible couplings of these lines to superconducting qubits in circuit QED architectures.

  8. Eliminating Perinatal HIV Transmission

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-11-26

    In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Steve Nesheim discusses perinatal HIV transmission, including the importance of preventing HIV among women, preconception care, and timely HIV testing of the mother. Dr. Nesheim also introduces the revised curriculum Eliminating Perinatal HIV Transmission intended for faculty of OB/GYN and pediatric residents and nurse midwifery students.  Created: 11/26/2012 by Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention.   Date Released: 11/26/2012.

  9. Chronic alcohol exposure disrupts CB1 regulation of GABAergic transmission in the rat basolateral amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varodayan, Florence P; Bajo, Michal; Soni, Neeraj; Luu, George; Madamba, Samuel G; Schweitzer, Paul; Roberto, Marisa

    2017-05-01

    The basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA) is critical to the pathophysiology of anxiety-driven alcohol drinking and relapse. The endogenous cannabinoid/type 1 cannabinoid receptor (eCB/CB1 ) system curbs BLA-driven anxiety and stress responses via a retrograde negative feedback system that inhibits neurotransmitter release, and BLA CB1 activation reduces GABA release and drives anxiogenesis. Additionally, decreased amygdala CB1 is observed in abstinent alcoholic patients and ethanol withdrawn rats. Here, we investigated the potential disruption of eCB/CB1 signaling on GABAergic transmission in BLA pyramidal neurons of rats exposed to 2-3 weeks intermittent ethanol. In the naïve rat BLA, the CB1 agonist WIN 55,212-2 (WIN) decreased GABA release, and this effect was prevented by the CB1 antagonist AM251. AM251 alone increased GABA release via a mechanism requiring postsynaptic calcium-dependent activity. This retrograde tonic eCB/CB1 signaling was diminished in chronic ethanol exposed rats, suggesting a functional impairment of the eCB/CB1 system. In contrast, acute ethanol increased GABAergic transmission similarly in naïve and chronic ethanol exposed rats, via both presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms. Notably, CB1 activation impaired ethanol's facilitation of GABAergic transmission across both groups, but the AM251-induced and ethanol-induced facilitation of GABA release was additive, suggesting independent presynaptic sites of action. Collectively, the present findings highlight a critical CB1 influence on BLA GABAergic transmission that is dysregulated by chronic ethanol exposure and, thus, may contribute to the alcohol-dependent state. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  10. National transmission grid study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, Spencer [USDOE Office of the Secretary of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2003-05-31

    The National Energy Policy Plan directed the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to conduct a study to examine the benefits of establishing a national electricity transmission grid and to identify transmission bottlenecks and measures to address them. DOE began by conducting an independent analysis of U.S. electricity markets and identifying transmission system bottlenecks using DOE’s Policy Office Electricity Modeling System (POEMS). DOE’s analysis, presented in Section 2, confirms the central role of the nation’s transmission system in lowering costs to consumers through increased trade. More importantly, DOE’s analysis also confirms the results of previous studies, which show that transmission bottlenecks and related transmission system market practices are adding hundreds of millions of dollars to consumers’ electricity bills each year. A more detailed technical overview of the use of POEMS is provided in Appendix A. DOE led an extensive, open, public input process and heard a wide range of comments and recommendations that have all been considered.1 More than 150 participants registered for three public workshops held in Detroit, MI (September 24, 2001); Atlanta, GA (September 26, 2001); and Phoenix, AZ (September 28, 2001).

  11. Slow-fast Form of Atrioventricular Nodal Reentrant Tachycardia with Unusual Retrograde Activation in the Right Atrium —Possible Conduction Disturbance across the Tendon of Todaro Related to the Genesis of Positive Component of Biphasic Retrograde P Wave—

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuya Ishibashi, MD

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of slow-fast form of atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia with delayed activation in the low septal right atrium (His bundle area. During supraventricular tachycardia (SVT, electrocardiogram showed “pseudo-positive P waves” in II, III, and aVF leads. SVT was induced by atrial extrastimulus with marked AH prolongation (i.e., jump phenomenon. Ventricular pacing showed a decremental retrograde conduction without jump phenomenon. Double atrial potentials were observed in the His bundle area during SVT and during ventricular pacing. The first electrogram of these split potentials, which was the earliest activation during SVT and during ventricular pacing, showed a dull and small deflection, whereas the second electrogram was sharp and clear. The interval of these discrete potentials was 70 msec during SVT. After a standard slow pathway ablation, SVT could never be induced by any programmed stimuli. It was concluded that in this case, the conduction disturbance across the tendon of Todaro was likely to cause the delayed atrial activation in the His bundle area, which created the pseudo-positive (biphasic. retrograde P wave.

  12. Wireless data signal transmission system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for providing a radio frequency signal for transmission, a system for providing a radio frequency signal for transmission and a method for wireless data transmission between a transmitter and a receiver.......The present invention relates to a method for providing a radio frequency signal for transmission, a system for providing a radio frequency signal for transmission and a method for wireless data transmission between a transmitter and a receiver....

  13. A Case of Persistent Generalized Retrograde Autobiographical Amnesia Subsequent to the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Odagaki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional retrograde autobiographical amnesia is often associated with physical and/or psychological trauma. On 11 March 2011, the largest earthquake on record in Japan took place, and subsequent huge tsunami devastated the Pacific coast of northern Japan. This case report describes a patient suffering from retrograde episodic-autobiographical amnesia for whole life, persisting for even more than five years after the disaster. A Japanese man, presumably in his 40s, got police protection in April 2016 but was unable to respond to question about his own name. He lost all information about his personal identity, and his memory was wholly lost until the disaster on 11 March 2011. He was able to recall his life after the disaster, and semantic memories and social abilities were largely preserved. A medical examination performed on 1 November 2016 verified that he was awake, alert, and oriented to time, place, and person (except for himself. General physical and neurological examinations revealed no pathological findings. He also experienced some symptoms associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, such as intrusive thoughts, flashbacks, and nightmares. No abnormalities were detected by biochemical test and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Physicians and other professionals who take care of victims of disaster should be aware of dissociative spectrum disorders, such as psychogenic amnesia.

  14. Adeno-Associated Virus-Mediated Gene Transfer to Renal Tubule Cells via a Retrograde Ureteral Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel C. Chung

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Gene therapy involves delivery of exogenous DNA to provide a therapeutic protein. Ideally, a gene therapy vector should be non-toxic, non-immunogenic, easy to produce, and efficient in protecting and delivering DNA into target cells. Methods: Adeno-associated virus (AAV offers these advantages and few, if any, disadvantages, and over 100 isolates exist. We previously showed that AAV-mediated gene therapy can be used to restore vision to patients with Leber’s congenital amaurosis, a disease of childhood blindness. Results: Here we show that novel recombinant AAV2/8 and AAV2/9 transduce kidney tubule cells with high efficiency both in vitroin cell culture and in vivoin mice. In addition, we adapted and modified a retrograde approach to allow for optimal transgene delivery to renal tubular cells that further minimizes the risk of an immunogenic reaction. Conclusions: We believe that recombinant AAV2, especially AAV2/8, gene delivery to renal tubule cells via a retrograde approach represents a viable method for gene therapy for a multitude of renal disorders ranging from autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease to acute kidney injury.

  15. [Retrograde intramedullary nailing in proximal fracture of the humerus in the elderly patient. Results of a minimally invasive management concept].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, R; Khodadadyan, C; Raschke, M; Melcher, I; Maitino, P D; Haas, N P

    1998-01-01

    Retrograde intramedullary fixation of proximal humerus fractures with flexible wires was evaluated in a prospectively documented study. Seventy-four fractures in 73 patients with unstable proximal humerus shaft or neck fractures were fixed with 3-11 flexible intramedullary wires. The age of the patients averaged 72 years (42 females, 31 males). In nine fractures additional implants (screws, cerclages) were used to fix dislocated fragments through an anterior approach to the shoulder. Complications associated with the procedure especially in osteoporotic bone were secondary loss of reduction (16%) and wire migration (21%) which lead to revision surgery in 14% of patients within 6 weeks. A minimum follow-up of 12 months (average 16.5 months) could be obtained in 61 patients (84%). According to the Neer- and Constant-scores 60% showed good or excellent results, 30% had a satisfactory and 10% had an unsatisfactory or poor result.--Retrograde intramedullary, flexible wire fixation can provide an overall satisfactory outcome in unstable proximal humerus fractures of the elderly. However, the high incidence of secondary wire dislocations especially in marked osteoporosis appears to be an unsolved problem of this treatment modality.

  16. Structural optimization of a retrograde trafficking inhibitor that protects cells from infections by human polyoma- and papillomaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Daniel W; Nelson, Christian D S; Ferris, Bennett D; Stevens, Julia P; Lipovsky, Alex; Kazakov, Teymur; DiMaio, Daniel; Atwood, Walter J; Sello, Jason K

    2014-09-01

    Human polyoma- and papillomaviruses are non-enveloped DNA viruses that cause severe pathologies and mortalities. Under circumstances of immunosuppression, JC polyomavirus causes a fatal demyelinating disease called progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) and the BK polyomavirus is the etiological agent of polyomavirus-induced nephropathy and hemorrhagic cystitis. Human papillomavirus type 16, another non-enveloped DNA virus, is associated with the development of cancers in tissues like the uterine cervix and oropharynx. Currently, there are no approved drugs or vaccines to treat or prevent polyomavirus infections. We recently discovered that the small molecule Retro-2(cycl), an inhibitor of host retrograde trafficking, blocked infection by several human and monkey polyomaviruses. Here, we report diversity-oriented syntheses of Retro-2(cycl) and evaluation of the resulting analogs using an assay of human cell infections by JC polyomavirus. We defined structure-activity relationships and also discovered analogs with significantly improved potency as suppressors of human polyoma- and papillomavirus infection in vitro. Our findings represent an advance in the development of drug candidates that can broadly protect humans from non-enveloped DNA viruses and toxins that exploit retrograde trafficking as a means for cell entry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of Inferior Alveolar Nerve Regeneration by Bifocal Distraction Osteogenesis with Retrograde Transportation of Horseradish Peroxidase in Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isomura, Emiko Tanaka

    2014-01-01

    Background Bifocal distraction osteogenesis has been shown to be a reliable method for reconstructing segmental mandibular defects. However, there are few reports regarding the occurrence of inferior alveolar nerve regeneration during the process of distraction. Previously, we reported inferior alveolar nerve regeneration after distraction, and evaluated the regenerated nerve using histological and electrophysiological methods. In the present study, we investigated axons regenerated by bifocal distraction osteogenesis using retrograde transportation of horseradish peroxidase in the mandibles of dogs to determine their type and function. Methods and Findings Using a bifocal distraction osteogenesis method, we produced a 10-mm mandibular defect, including a nerve defect, in 11 dogs and distracted using a transport disk at a rate of 1 mm/day. The regenerated inferior alveolar nerve was evaluated by retrograde transportation of HRP in all dogs at 3 and 6 months after the first operation. At 3 and 6 months, HRP-labeled neurons were observed in the trigeminal ganglion. The number of HRP-labeled neurons in each section increased, while the cell body diameter of HRP-labeled neurons was reduced over time. Conclusions We found that the inferior alveolar nerve after bifocal distraction osteogenesis successfully recovered until peripheral tissue began to function. Although our research is still at the stage of animal experiments, it is considered that it will be possible to apply this method in the future to humans who have the mandibular defects. PMID:24732938

  18. Evaluation of inferior alveolar nerve regeneration by bifocal distraction osteogenesis with retrograde transportation of horseradish peroxidase in dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosuke Shogen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bifocal distraction osteogenesis has been shown to be a reliable method for reconstructing segmental mandibular defects. However, there are few reports regarding the occurrence of inferior alveolar nerve regeneration during the process of distraction. Previously, we reported inferior alveolar nerve regeneration after distraction, and evaluated the regenerated nerve using histological and electrophysiological methods. In the present study, we investigated axons regenerated by bifocal distraction osteogenesis using retrograde transportation of horseradish peroxidase in the mandibles of dogs to determine their type and function. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using a bifocal distraction osteogenesis method, we produced a 10-mm mandibular defect, including a nerve defect, in 11 dogs and distracted using a transport disk at a rate of 1 mm/day. The regenerated inferior alveolar nerve was evaluated by retrograde transportation of HRP in all dogs at 3 and 6 months after the first operation. At 3 and 6 months, HRP-labeled neurons were observed in the trigeminal ganglion. The number of HRP-labeled neurons in each section increased, while the cell body diameter of HRP-labeled neurons was reduced over time. CONCLUSIONS: We found that the inferior alveolar nerve after bifocal distraction osteogenesis successfully recovered until peripheral tissue began to function. Although our research is still at the stage of animal experiments, it is considered that it will be possible to apply this method in the future to humans who have the mandibular defects.

  19. Biomechanical analysis of a synthetic femoral spiral fracture model: Do end caps improve retrograde flexible intramedullary nail fixation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessel Lucas M

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elastic Stable intramedullary Nailing (ESIN of dislocated diaphyseal femur fractures has become an accepted method for the treatment in children and adolescents with open physis. Studies focused on complications of this technique showed problems regarding stability, usually in complex fracture types such as spiral fractures and in older children weighing > 40 kg. Biomechanical in vitro testing was performed to evaluate the stability of simulated spiral femoral fractures after retrograde flexible titanium intramedullary nail fixation with and without End caps. Methods Eight synthetic adolescent-size femoral bone models (Sawbones® with a medullar canal of 10 mm and a spiral fracture of 100 mm length identically sawn by the manufacturer were used for each group. Both groups underwent retrograde fixation with two 3.5 mm Titanium C-shaped nails inserted from medial and lateral entry portals. In the End Cap group the ends of the nails of the eight specimens were covered with End Caps (Synthes Company, Oberdorf, Switzerland at the distal entry. Results Beside posterior-anterior stress (4.11 Nm/mm vs. 1.78 Nm/mm, p Conclusion In this biomechanical study the use of End Caps did not improve the stability of the intramedullary flexible nail osteosynthesis.

  20. Nutritional State-Dependent Ghrelin Activation of Vasopressin Neurons via Retrograde Trans-Neuronal–Glial Stimulation of Excitatory GABA Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haam, Juhee; Halmos, Katalin C.; Di, Shi

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral and physiological coupling between energy balance and fluid homeostasis is critical for survival. The orexigenic hormone ghrelin has been shown to stimulate the secretion of the osmoregulatory hormone vasopressin (VP), linking nutritional status to the control of blood osmolality, although the mechanism of this systemic crosstalk is unknown. Here, we show using electrophysiological recordings and calcium imaging in rat brain slices that ghrelin stimulates VP neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in a nutritional state-dependent manner by activating an excitatory GABAergic synaptic input via a retrograde neuronal–glial circuit. In slices from fasted rats, ghrelin activation of a postsynaptic ghrelin receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor type 1a (GHS-R1a), in VP neurons caused the dendritic release of VP, which stimulated astrocytes to release the gliotransmitter adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP activation of P2X receptors excited presynaptic GABA neurons to increase GABA release, which was excitatory to the VP neurons. This trans-neuronal–glial retrograde circuit activated by ghrelin provides an alternative means of stimulation of VP release and represents a novel mechanism of neuronal control by local neuronal–glial circuits. It also provides a potential cellular mechanism for the physiological integration of energy and fluid homeostasis. PMID:24790191

  1. Comparative study on safety of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in patients with cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WU Jushan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo evaluate the safety of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP in patients with cirrhosis. MethodsA retrospective analysis was performed on the clinical data of 347 patients who were admitted to Beijing You′an Hospital and received ERCP from January 2010 to November 2013. Patients were divided into three groups: patients without liver diseases (n = 258, patients with chronic hepatitis (n = 40, and patients with cirrhosis (n = 49. One-way ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis H test was performed to compare changes in alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, albumin (Alb, total bilirubin (TBil, white blood cells (WBC, percentage of neutrophils (NEUT, and serum amylase between the three groups of patients after ERCP. The incidence rates of complications, including hyperamylasemia, acute pancreatitis, infection, hemorrhage, and perforation, and distribution of disease spectrum diagnosis the changes in liver function and blood amylase after ERCP were analyzed compared between the three groups using chi-square test. ResultsPatients with cirrhosis had significantly lower levels of serum Alb, ALT, and AST than patients in the other two groups before ERCP (H = 3.68, P = 0.028; H = 14.03, P = 0.001, and H = 8.00, P = 0.018, respectively. After ERCP, the TBil level was significantly higher in the cirrhosis group than in the other two groups (H = 6.69, P = 0.035. Compared with the serum levels of AST and TBil before ERCP, 44.9% (22/49 of patients with cirrhosis had higher levels of AST and TBil 3 days after ERCP, the incidence of which was the highest among all three groups. The percentage of NEUT 1 day after ERCP in patients with cirrhosis was 73.9%±12.7%, which was similar to that in patients without liver diseases (74.8%±11.0% and higher than that in patients with chronic hepatitis; the difference between the three groups was statistically significant (H=7.31, P=0.026. Although no significant difference in the

  2. Small passenger car transmission test: Mercury Lynx ATX transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujold, M. P.

    1981-01-01

    The testing of a Mercury Lynx automatic transmission is reported. The transmission was tested in accordance with a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J65lb) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these conditions, the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the mid-ninety percent range both for drive performance test and coast performance tests. The torque, speed, and efficiency curves are presented, which provide the complete performance characteristics for the Mercury Lynx automatic transmission.

  3. Small passenger car transmission test: Dodge Omni A-404 transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujold, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    The small passenger car transmission test was initiated to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commercially available transmissions. This transmission was tested in accordance with a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J65lb) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these test conditions, the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the mid eighty percent range for both drive performance test and coast performance tests.

  4. Probabilistic transmission system planning

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Wenyuan

    2011-01-01

    "The book is composed of 12 chapters and three appendices, and can be divided into four parts. The first part includes Chapters 2 to 7, which discuss the concepts, models, methods and data in probabilistic transmission planning. The second part, Chapters 8 to 11, addresses four essential issues in probabilistic transmission planning applications using actual utility systems as examples. Chapter 12, as the third part, focuses on a special issue, i.e. how to deal with uncertainty of data in probabilistic transmission planning. The fourth part consists of three appendices, which provide the basic knowledge in mathematics for probabilistic planning. Please refer to the attached table of contents which is given in a very detailed manner"--

  5. Aerosol Transmission of Filoviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berhanu Mekibib

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Filoviruses have become a worldwide public health concern because of their potential for introductions into non-endemic countries through international travel and the international transport of infected animals or animal products. Since it was first identified in 1976, in the Democratic Republic of Congo (formerly Zaire and Sudan, the 2013–2015 western African Ebola virus disease (EVD outbreak is the largest, both by number of cases and geographical extension, and deadliest, recorded so far in medical history. The source of ebolaviruses for human index case(s in most outbreaks is presumptively associated with handling of bush meat or contact with fruit bats. Transmission among humans occurs easily when a person comes in contact with contaminated body fluids of patients, but our understanding of other transmission routes is still fragmentary. This review deals with the controversial issue of aerosol transmission of filoviruses.

  6. Aerosol Transmission of Filoviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekibib, Berhanu; Ariën, Kevin K

    2016-05-23

    Filoviruses have become a worldwide public health concern because of their potential for introductions into non-endemic countries through international travel and the international transport of infected animals or animal products. Since it was first identified in 1976, in the Democratic Republic of Congo (formerly Zaire) and Sudan, the 2013-2015 western African Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak is the largest, both by number of cases and geographical extension, and deadliest, recorded so far in medical history. The source of ebolaviruses for human index case(s) in most outbreaks is presumptively associated with handling of bush meat or contact with fruit bats. Transmission among humans occurs easily when a person comes in contact with contaminated body fluids of patients, but our understanding of other transmission routes is still fragmentary. This review deals with the controversial issue of aerosol transmission of filoviruses.

  7. Transmission positron microscopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyama, Masao [Teikyo University of Science and Technology, Uenohara, Yamanashi 409-0193 (Japan)]. E-mail: doyama@ntu.ac.jp; Kogure, Yoshiaki [Teikyo University of Science and Technology, Uenohara, Yamanashi 409-0193 (Japan); Inoue, Miyoshi [Teikyo University of Science and Technology, Uenohara, Yamanashi 409-0193 (Japan); Kurihara, Toshikazu [Institute of Materials Structure Science (IMSS), High Energy Accelerator, Research Organization (KEK), Ohno 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Yoshiie, Toshimasa [Reactor Research Institute, Kyoto University, Noda, Kumatori, Osaka 590-0451 (Japan); Oshima, Ryuichiro [Research Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, Osaka Prefecture University (Japan); Matsuya, Miyuki [Electron Optics Laboratory (JEOL) Ltd., Musashino 3-1-2, Akishima 196-0021 (Japan)

    2006-02-28

    Immediate and near-future plans for transmission positron microscopes being built at KEK, Tsukuba, Japan, are described. The characteristic feature of this project is remolding a commercial electron microscope to a positron microscope. A point source of electrons kept at a negative high voltage is changed to a point source of positrons kept at a high positive voltage. Positional resolution of transmission microscopes should be theoretically the same as electron microscopes. Positron microscopes utilizing trapping of positrons have always positional ambiguity due to the diffusion of positrons.

  8. Transmission grid security

    CERN Document Server

    Haarla, Liisa; Hirvonen, Ritva; Labeau, Pierre-Etienne

    2011-01-01

    In response to the growing importance of power system security and reliability, ""Transmission Grid Security"" proposes a systematic and probabilistic approach for transmission grid security analysis. The analysis presented uses probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) and takes into account the power system dynamics after severe faults. In the method shown in this book the power system states (stable, not stable, system breakdown, etc.) are connected with the substation reliability model. In this way it is possible to: estimate the system-wide consequences of grid faults; identify a chain of eve

  9. Printed circuit dispersive transmission line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikezi, Hiroyuki; Lin-Liu, Yuh-Ren; DeGrassie, John S.

    1991-01-01

    A printed circuit dispersive transmission line structure is disclosed comprising an insulator, a ground plane formed on one surface of the insulator, a first transmission line formed on a second surface of the insulator, and a second transmission line also formed on the second surface of the insulator and of longer length than the first transmission line and periodically intersecting the first transmission line. In a preferred embodiment, the transmission line structure exhibits highly dispersive characteristics by designing the length of one of the transmission line between two adjacent periodic intersections to be longer than the other.

  10. The analgesic effect on neuropathic pain of retrogradely transported botulinum neurotoxin A involves Schwann cells and astrocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Marinelli

    Full Text Available In recent years a growing debate is about whether botulinum neurotoxins are retrogradely transported from the site of injection. Immunodetection of cleaved SNAP-25 (cl-SNAP-25, the protein of the SNARE complex targeted by botulinum neurotoxin serotype A (BoNT/A, could represent an excellent approach to investigate the mechanism of action on the nociceptive pathways at peripheral and/or central level. After peripheral administration of BoNT/A, we analyzed the expression of cl-SNAP-25, from the hindpaw's nerve endings to the spinal cord, together with the behavioral effects on neuropathic pain. We used the chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve in CD1 mice as animal model of neuropathic pain. We evaluated immunostaining of cl-SNAP-25 in the peripheral nerve endings, along the sciatic nerve, in dorsal root ganglia and in spinal dorsal horns after intraplantar injection of saline or BoNT/A, alone or colocalized with either glial fibrillar acidic protein, GFAP, or complement receptor 3/cluster of differentiation 11b, CD11b, or neuronal nuclei, NeuN, depending on the area investigated. Immunofluorescence analysis shows the presence of the cl-SNAP-25 in all tissues examined, from the peripheral endings to the spinal cord, suggesting a retrograde transport of BoNT/A. Moreover, we performed in vitro experiments to ascertain if BoNT/A was able to interact with the proliferative state of Schwann cells (SC. We found that BoNT/A modulates the proliferation of SC and inhibits the acetylcholine release from SC, evidencing a new biological effect of the toxin and further supporting the retrograde transport of the toxin along the nerve and its ability to influence regenerative processes. The present results strongly sustain a combinatorial action at peripheral and central neural levels and encourage the use of BoNT/A for the pathological pain conditions difficult to treat in clinical practice and dramatically impairing patients' quality of life.

  11. Scanning transmission electron microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruit, P.

    2006-01-01

    The invention relates to a scanning transmission electron microscope comprising an electron source, an electron accelerator and deflection means for directing electrons emitted by the electron source at an object to be examined, and in addition a detector for detecting electrons coming from the

  12. 4. CRIMINALISING HIV TRANSMISSION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    are no well-founded evidences that criminalization of. HIV transmission ... A combination of effective evidence-based approaches should be adopted ... the globe. In doing so literature on various laws and issues surrounding the discussion topics were reviewed. Based. Medical Journal of Zambia, Vol. 41, No. 3: 121 - 1126 ...

  13. Intergenerational Transmission of Volunteering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, René

    2007-01-01

    In this article, I investigate the strength of intergenerational transmission of volunteering for non-profit associations in The Netherlands. Data from the Family Survey of the Dutch Population 2000 reveal that there are significant relations between current volunteering and parental volunteering in

  14. Drivers of Tuberculosis Transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathema, Barun; Andrews, Jason R.; Cohen, Ted; Borgdorff, Martien W.; Behr, Marcel; Glynn, Judith R.; Rustomjee, Roxana; Silk, Benjamin J.; Wood, Robin

    2017-01-01

    Measuring tuberculosis transmission is exceedingly difficult, given the remarkable variability in the timing of clinical disease after Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection; incident disease can result from either a recent (ie, weeks to months) or a remote (ie, several years to decades) infection

  15. Intergenerational Transmission of Preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulte, E.H.; Horan, R.D.

    2011-01-01

    We propose a perfect empathy model of cultural transmission to capture the evolution of preferences in a population. Unlike existing imperfect empathy models, focusing on stable interior equilibria, we demonstrate that a corner outcome will eventuate. However, which corner outcome emerges is

  16. Design of transmission shafting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenthal, S. H.

    1978-01-01

    Formula considers flexure fatigue characteristics of shaft material under combined cyclic bending and static torsion stress. Formula permits selecting shaft sizes that meet common loading conditions without adding on excessive shaft material. Formula is applicable to design of rotary power or torque transmission shafting external to machine elements.

  17. Automatic transmission line monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, W. E.; Richards, L. O.

    1971-01-01

    Monitor improves complex network reliability in computer data links and command transmission lines. System evaluates circuit performance against preselected criteria, identifies and stores data indicating out-of-tolerance conditions, conducts closed loop testing, and provides for operation under command of digital computer that determines restoration priorities.

  18. 4. CRIMINALISING HIV TRANSMISSION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    ABSTRACT. Objective: This paper attempts to summarise the global state with regard to the criminalisation of Human. Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) transmission. Method: A comprehensive analysis of both global and. Zambianpublications, legislation and case laws was conducted. Results: Proponents of criminalisation of ...

  19. Target ballon-assisted antegrade and retrograde approach for recanalization of thrombosed fem-pop bypass graft using the outbreak catheter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Jung Won; Chung, Hwan Hoon; Lee, Seung Hwa; Yeom, Suk Keu; Cha, Sang Hoon [Dept. of Radiology, Korea University College of Medicine, Ansan Hospital, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    The subintimal arterial flossing with antegrade-retrograde intervention (SAFARI) technique is reportedly effective in severe peripheral vascular disease that cannot be treated with standard endovascular techniques including subintimal angioplasty. In this report, we used a target balloon with the Outback catheter to recanalize a thrombosed bypass graft that could not be treated successfully with SAFARI.

  20. Three times as many lamina I neurons project to the periaqueductal gray than to the thalamus : a retrograde tracing study in the cat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouton, Leonora J.; Holstege, Gert

    1998-01-01

    The number and distribution of lamina I neurons projecting to the periaqueductal gray (PAG) were examined by a retrograde tracing study in the cat. WGA-HRP injections in the intermediate and caudal FAG resulted in as much as 1600 labeled lamina I neurons throughout the length of the spinal cord,

  1. A new generation of starch products as excipient in pharmaceutical tablets .2. High surface area retrograded pregelatinized potato starch products in sustained-release tablets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TeWierik, GHP; Eissens, AC; ArendsScholte, AW; Lerk, CF

    1997-01-01

    A new linear short-chain starch product was prepared by gelatinization of potato starch followed by enzymatic degradation, precipitation (retrogradation) and filtration. A high specific surface area was subsequently created by washing with ethanol or acetone or freeze-drying. Tablets compressed from

  2. Retrograde labeling of single neurons in conjunction with MALDI high-energy collision-induced dissociation MS/MS analysis for peptide profiling and structural characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Filali, Z.; Hornshaw, M.; Smit, A.B.; Li, K.W.

    2003-01-01

    To reveal the peptide contents of the visually nonidentifiable neurons from a neuronal circuit of interest, we combined retrograde labeling of neurons with mass spectrometric single cell analysis. We used the neuronal circuit involved in the copulation behavior of a freshwater snail, Lymnaea

  3. Laparoscopic exploration of the common bile duct and removal of dead worm in a patient of cholangitis after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalkoo Mushtaq

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a dead ascaris-induced extrahepatic bilary obstruction in a young female who presented with acute cholangitis. The dead ascaris was removed by laparoscopic exploration of common bile duct after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography failure. Patient had an uneventful hospital course after the procedure and was discharged afebrile after 3 days of hospital stay.

  4. PDMP blocks brefeldin A-induced retrograde membrane transport from Golgi to ER : Evidence for involvement of calcium homeostasis and dissociation from sphingolipid metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, JW; Babia, T; Filipeanu, CM; Nelemans, A; Egea, G; Hoekstra, D

    1998-01-01

    In this study, we show that an inhibitor of sphingolipid biosynthesis, D,L-threo-1-phenyl-2-decanoylamino-3-morpholino-1-propanol (PDMP), inhibits brefeldin A (BFA)-induced retrograde membrane transport from Golgi to endoplasmic reticulum (ER). If BFA treatment was combined with or preceded by PDMP

  5. A simple method to minimize spillage on retrograde examination of the bowel in patients with an ileostomy or colostomy: technical note

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torreggiani, W.C.; Lyburn, I.D.; Harris, A.C.; Zwirewich, C.V. [Vancouver General Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, Abdominal Div., Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)

    2001-06-01

    Retrograde examination of the bowel in patients with an ileostomy or colostomy is a well-described technique and is still widely practised in most radiology departments. The procedure is useful for examining the bowel for evidence of strictures, obstruction, hernias or local disease recurrence. The technique may also be used to delineate gut anatomy before ileostomy or colostomy reversal. (author)

  6. Nervous wreck interacts with thickveins and the endocytic machinery to attenuate retrograde BMP signaling during synaptic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor-Giles, Kate M; Ho, Ling Ling; Ganetzky, Barry

    2008-05-22

    Regulation of synaptic growth is fundamental to the formation and plasticity of neural circuits. Here, we demonstrate that Nervous wreck (Nwk), a negative regulator of synaptic growth at Drosophila NMJs, interacts functionally and physically with components of the endocytic machinery, including dynamin and Dap160/intersectin, and negatively regulates retrograde BMP growth signaling through a direct interaction with the BMP receptor, thickveins. Synaptic overgrowth in nwk is sensitive to BMP signaling levels, and loss of Nwk facilitates BMP-induced overgrowth. Conversely, Nwk overexpression suppresses BMP-induced synaptic overgrowth. We observe analogous genetic interactions between dap160 and the BMP pathway, confirming that endocytosis regulates BMP signaling at NMJs. Finally, we demonstrate a correlation between synaptic growth and pMAD levels and show that Nwk regulates these levels. We propose that Nwk functions at the interface of endocytosis and BMP signaling to ensure proper synaptic growth by negatively regulating Tkv to set limits on this positive growth signal.

  7. Interdisciplinary cognitive task analysis: a strategy to develop a comprehensive endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography protocol for use in fellowship training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canopy, Erin; Evans, Matt; Boehler, Margaret; Roberts, Nicole; Sanfey, Hilary; Mellinger, John

    2015-10-01

    Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography is a challenging procedure performed by surgeons and gastroenterologists. We employed cognitive task analysis to identify steps and decision points for this procedure. Standardized interviews were conducted with expert gastroenterologists (7) and surgeons (4) from 4 institutions. A procedural step and cognitive decision point protocol was created from audio-taped transcriptions and was refined by 5 additional surgeons. Conceptual elements, sequential actions, and decision points were iterated for 5 tasks: patient preparation, duodenal intubation, selective cannulation, imaging interpretation with related therapeutic intervention, and complication management. A total of 180 steps were identified. Gastroenterologists identified 34 steps not identified by surgeons, and surgeons identified 20 steps not identified by gastroenterologists. The findings suggest that for complex procedures performed by diverse practitioners, more experts may help delineate distinctive emphases differentiated by training background and type of practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Retrieval of Surgical Clip from Common Bile Duct by Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography: A Rare Complication of Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Rasool

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has become the standard procedure for the surgical management of symptomatic cholelithiasis. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is generally considered a safe procedure although a few complications such as major bleeding, wound infection, bile leakage, biliary and bowel injury are well known. We are reporting a case of a thirty-seven year old male who presented with abdominal pain, three weeks after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Abdominal ultrasound revealed a filling defect in common bile duct with deranged liver function tests. With an impression of choledocholithiasis, his endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP was done which revealed a surgical clip impacted in the ampulla. The surgical clip was retrieved successfully by ERCP. Intraductal clip migration is a rarely encountered complication after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Appropriate management requires timely identification and retrieval during ERCP.

  9. A Retrograde Transvenous Embolization Technique with Balloon-Assisted Arterial Aspiration for a Peripheral Arteriovenous Malformation with a Venous Pouch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhara, Asako, E-mail: kuhara-asako@med.kurume-u.ac.jp; Tanaka, Norimitsu; Koganemaru, Masamichi; Kugiyama, Tomoko [Kurume University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Japan); Kiyokawa, Kensuke [Kurume University School of Medicine, Department of Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery and Maxillofacial Surgery (Japan); Abe, Toshi [Kurume University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Japan)

    2017-05-15

    Management of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) is challenging, and there is no consensus regarding either the ideal approach or the treatment timing. Percutaneous embolization is the most frequent approach currently used and is considered the first-line technique for AVMs. There is an ongoing discussion about the best technical approach to embolize AVMs. AVMs associated with a dominant outflow vein (DOV) are rare. Embolization of both the DOV and the nidus is considered more effective. Herein, we report a novel technique of transvenous embolization of a DOV under negative pressure from an arterial balloon catheter in a case of a peripheral AVM. This technique allows the embolization of the DOV and the nidus retrogradely.

  10. Balloon-Occluded Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration of a Gastric Vascular Malformation: An Innovative Approach to Treatment of a Rare Condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansing, Catherine E., E-mail: catherine.e.hansing.mil@mail.mil [Naval Medical Center Portsmouth, Transitional Year/Graduate Medical Education Department, Medical Corps, United States Navy (United States); Marquardt, Joseph P.; Sutton, Daniel M.; York, John D. [Naval Medical Center Portsmouth, Radiology Department, Medical Corps, United States Navy (United States)

    2017-02-15

    Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are a high-flow form of a vascular malformation, which can be found anywhere in the body. While historically treated surgically, a multidisciplinary approach utilizing multiple specialties and treatment modalities is now commonly employed. In order to effectively treat an AVM, the nidus must be targeted and eradicated, which can be done via multiple approaches. We present the case of a 43-year-old male with a gastric wall AVM, which was initially incompletely treated using a percutaneous transarterial approach. The gastric AVM was noted to have dominant drainage through a gastrorenal shunt; therefore, Balloon-occluded Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration (BRTO) was utilized to eradicate the AVM nidus. This case illustrates the utility of Interventional Radiology, specifically BRTO, as another treatment option for challenging AVMs.

  11. Preserved Renal Function in Kidney Transplantation over a Thrombosed Aortobifemoral Bypass Graft: The Role of Retrograde Flow and Early Thrombolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saúl Pampa-Saico

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aortobifemoral bypass (ABFB thrombosis is not uncommon, and when the artery of a renal graft is implanted on a bypass the risk of graft loss is high. We report the case of a 48-year-old woman with a previous history of ABFB under antiplatelet therapy and a kidney allograft implanted on the vascular prosthesis, who presented with acute limb ischemia and severe renal impairment. Imaging techniques revealed a complete thrombosis of the proximal left arm of the ABFB. However, a faint retrograde flow over the graft was observed thanks to the recanalization of distal left bypass by collateral native arteries. This unusual situation not previously reported in a kidney transplant setting, together with an early diagnosis, allowed graft survival until an early local thrombolysis resolved the problem. Two years later, renal function remains normal.

  12. Tibiotalocalcaneal fusion with a cemented coated retrograde nail as a salvage procedure for infected ORIF of the ankle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Pérez, M; Boluda-Mengod, J; Gutierrez-Morales, M J; Pais-Brito, J L

    Tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis is an effective salvage procedure in cases of combined ankle and subtalar osteoarthritis as well as severe multiplanar deformities and severe joint destruction of the hindfoot. Special mention should be made of this procedure in cases of bone loss, especially from the talus, secondary to failed previous surgeries or bone infection, often being the only way to achieve a stable and painless foot and ankle. We present a case of ankle fracture in a patient with associated morbidity and multiple complications following osteosynthesis, in which tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis with cemented with antibiotic coated retrograde nail has achieved a satisfactory final result. Copyright © 2017 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Classification and Clinical Management of Retrograde Peri-implantitis Associated with Apical Periodontitis: A Proposed Classification System and Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmast, Nima D; Wang, Howard H; Sajadi, Ali S; Angelov, Nikola; Dorn, Samuel O

    2017-11-01

    Biological complications involving dental implants include peri-implant diseases such as peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis. The latter presents with progressive bone loss from the alveolar crest in a coronal apical direction. However, a separate disease entity termed retrograde peri-implantitis (RPI), which presents with progressive bone loss at the periapex of the implant, also exists and may be of particular interest to endodontists because it typically presents with periapical pathology of both the implant and adjacent tooth or at a site that previously housed an endodontically treated tooth. The reported prevalence of retrograde peri-implantitis is 0.26%, which is much lower than the prevalence of marginal peri-implantitis; however, its incidence increases to 7.8% when teeth adjacent to the implant exhibit an endodontic infection. It is positively correlated with a shorter distance between the implant and the adjacent tooth and a shorter time elapsed from the endodontically treated adjacent tooth to implant placement. This case report describes a patient diagnosed with an RPI lesion (RPI) associated with an adjacent endodontically treated tooth with a persistent periapical radiolucent lesion. The diagnosis, possible etiology, and management of the RPI lesion is thoroughly reported including follow-up visits showing complete resolution after subsequent periodontal and endodontic therapy. Endodontic evaluation of teeth adjacent to the implant site should be performed for primary prevention of RPI. Proper classification of RPI will aid in determining the course of treatment; class 1 and 2 cases require endodontic therapy of the involved teeth for healing to occur. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Cellular cardiomyoplasty into infracted swine's hearts by retrograde infusion through the venous coronary sinus: An experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prifti, Edvin, E-mail: edvinprifti@hotmail.com [Division of Cardiac Surgery, University Hospital Center of Tirana (Albania); Di Lascio, Gabriella [Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Section, Department of Health Sciences, University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Harmelin, Guy [Cardiac Surgery, Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Bani, Daniele [Research Unit of Histology & Embryology, Departments of Clinical & Experimental Medicine, University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Briganti, Vittorio [Unit of Nuclear Medicine, Careggi Hospital, Florence (Italy); Veshti, Altin [Division of Cardiac Surgery, University Hospital Center of Tirana (Albania); Bonacchi, Massimo [Cardiac Surgery, Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University of Florence, Florence (Italy)

    2016-06-15

    Objectives: The aim was to create a model of myocardial infarction with a borderline myocardial impairment which would enable evaluation of the retrograde cellular cardiomyoplasty through the venous coronary sinus in a large animal model. Materials and methods: Fifteen (study group) and 10 juvenile farm pigs (control group) underwent distal left anterior descending artery ligation. One month later the study group animals underwent sternotomy and a murine myoblastic line C2-C12 was injected at a constant pressure of 30 mmHg, into the coronary sinus. Thirty days later all animals that survived from both groups underwent transthoracic echocardiography and 99Tc scintigraphy and were later euthanized and specimens were taken for microscopic evaluation. Results: Cardiac output decreased significantly after ligation (p < 0.001) and increased significantly after cardiomyoplasty (p < 0.001). In all animals, the surgical induction of myocardial infarction caused a marked decline in the echocardiographic values of cardiac function; however, the cardiac function and dimensions were significantly improved in the study group after cardiomyoplasty versus the control group. All animals undergoing cardiomyoplasty demonstrated a significant reduction of the perfusion deficit in the left anterior descending artery territory, instead such data remained unchanged in the control group. The histological examination demonstrated the engrafted myoblasts could be distinguished from the activated fibroblasts in the scar tissue because they never showed any signs of collagen secretion and fiber buildup. Conclusions: In conclusion, the venous retrograde delivery route through the coronary sinus is safe and effective, providing a significant improvement in function and viability.

  15. Non-phengitic charge-coupled substitutions in retrograde muscovite after staurolite, Great Smoky Mountains, North Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohr, D.W.; Barnett, R.A.; Michie, J.

    1985-01-01

    Forty EDS microprobe analyses of muscovite retrograde after a single staurolite crystal show considerable variation in elemental abundance. Comparison of K factors (K = sigma/root C) for Si and Al between muscovite and garnet; Si show that scatter of muscovite analyses is due to real chemical inhomogeneity. Silicon content (22 oxygens) varies from 6.0 to 6.4 cations. Abundances of Mg + Fe (FM) does not correlate to that of Si (r = 0.013). Strong negative correlations occur for FM versus Al(VI) (r = -0.818), sum of VI cations versus Si (r = -0.622), and sum of alkali cations versus Si (r = -0.661). Charge-coupled substitutions which match observed correlations include a) Al(IV) + alkali (XII) = Si(IV) + ( ) (XIII), b) Al(VI) + ( ) (XII) = FM(VI) + alkali (XI)), and c) 2Al(VI) + ( ) (VI) = 3FM(VI). Increase in extent of substitution a) leads to prevalence of b) over c). Substitution c) accounts for an excess of 0.06 VI cations beyond the dioctahedral in muscovites containing 6.0 Si and 2.0 alkalis. Retrogression within the garnet zone is shown by presence of chloritoid and euhedral, reverse-zoned rims on garnet, both within altered staurolite. Garnet-biotite thermometry suggests a temperature decline from 550/sup 0/ to 450-480/sup 0/C. Observed charge-coupled substitutions within muscovite may be due to disequilibrium caused by considerable overstepping of Teq. of retrograde reactions. Phengitic substitution of prograde muscovite may be due to coupling of substitutions a) and b) under near-equilibrium conditions of metamorphic reactions.

  16. Uncoupling High Light Responses from Singlet Oxygen Retrograde Signaling and Spatial-Temporal Systemic Acquired Acclimation1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Matthew; Havaux, Michel; Albrecht-Borth, Verónica

    2016-01-01

    Distinct ROS signaling pathways initiated by singlet oxygen (1O2) or superoxide and hydrogen peroxide have been attributed to either cell death or acclimation, respectively. Recent studies have revealed that more complex antagonistic and synergistic relationships exist within and between these pathways. As specific chloroplastic ROS signals are difficult to study, rapid systemic signaling experiments using localized high light (HL) stress or ROS treatments were used in this study to uncouple signals required for direct HL and ROS perception and distal systemic acquired acclimation (SAA). A qPCR approach was chosen to determine local perception and distal signal reception. Analysis of a thylakoidal ascorbate peroxidase mutant (tapx), the 1O2-retrograde signaling double mutant (ex1/ex2), and an apoplastic signaling double mutant (rbohD/F) revealed that tAPX and EXECUTER 1 are required for both HL and systemic acclimation stress perception. Apoplastic membrane-localized RBOHs were required for systemic spread of the signal but not for local signal induction in directly stressed tissues. Endogenous ROS treatments revealed a very strong systemic response induced by a localized 1 h induction of 1O2 using the conditional flu mutant. A qPCR time course of 1O2 induced systemic marker genes in directly and indirectly connected leaves revealed a direct vascular connection component of both immediate and longer term SAA signaling responses. These results reveal the importance of an EXECUTER-dependent 1O2 retrograde signal for both local and long distance RBOH-dependent acclimation signaling that is distinct from other HL signaling pathways, and that direct vascular connections have a role in spatial-temporal SAA induction. PMID:27288360

  17. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided biliary drainage versus percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage after failed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baniya R

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Ramkaji Baniya, Sunil Upadhaya, Seetharamprasad Madala, Subash Chandra Subedi, Tabrez Shaik Mohammed, Ghassan Bachuwa Hurley Medical Center, Michigan State University, Flint, MI, USA Abstract: The failure rate of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography for biliary cannulation is approximately 6%–7% in cases of obstructive jaundice. Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD is the procedure of choice in such cases. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided biliary drainage (EGBD is a novel technique that allows biliary drainage by echoendoscopy and fluoroscopy using a stent from the biliary tree to the gastrointestinal tract. Information in PubMed, Scopus, clinicaltrials.gov and Cochrane review were analyzed to obtain studies comparing EGBD and PTBD. Six studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Technical (odds ratio (OR: 0.34; confidence interval (CI 0.10–1.14; p=0.05 and clinical (OR: 1.48; CI 0.46–4.79; p=0.51 success rates were not statistically significant between the EGBD and PTBD groups. Mild adverse events were nonsignificantly different (OR: 0.36; CI 0.10–1.24; p=0.11 but not the moderate-to-severe adverse events (OR: 0.16; CI 0.08–0.32; p≤0.00001 and total adverse events (OR: 0.34; CI 0.20–0.59; p≤0.0001. EGBD is equally effective but safer than PTBD. Keywords: failed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage, endoscopic ultrasound-guided biliary drainage, technical success, clinical success

  18. Biomechanical analysis of a synthetic femoral spiral fracture model: Do end caps improve retrograde flexible intramedullary nail fixation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Martin M; Zachert, Gregor; Wendlandt, Robert; Rapp, Marion; Eggert, Rebecca; Stratmann, Christine; Wessel, Lucas M; Schulz, Arndt P; Kienast, Benjamin J

    2011-09-18

    Elastic Stable intramedullary Nailing (ESIN) of dislocated diaphyseal femur fractures has become an accepted method for the treatment in children and adolescents with open physis. Studies focused on complications of this technique showed problems regarding stability, usually in complex fracture types such as spiral fractures and in older children weighing > 40 kg. Biomechanical in vitro testing was performed to evaluate the stability of simulated spiral femoral fractures after retrograde flexible titanium intramedullary nail fixation with and without End caps. Eight synthetic adolescent-size femoral bone models (Sawbones® with a medullar canal of 10 mm and a spiral fracture of 100 mm length identically sawn by the manufacturer) were used for each group. Both groups underwent retrograde fixation with two 3.5 mm Titanium C-shaped nails inserted from medial and lateral entry portals. In the End Cap group the ends of the nails of the eight specimens were covered with End Caps (Synthes Company, Oberdorf, Switzerland) at the distal entry. Beside posterior-anterior stress (4.11 Nm/mm vs. 1.78 Nm/mm, p Caps demonstrated no higher stability in 4-point bending compared to the group without End Caps (anterior-posterior bending 0.27 Nm/mm vs. 0.77 Nm/mm, p difference (0.37 Nm/° vs. 0.32 Nm/°, p = 0.13 and 1.29 mm vs. 2.18 mm, p = 0.20, respectively) compared to the "classic" 2-C-shaped osteosynthesis without End Caps. In this biomechanical study the use of End Caps did not improve the stability of the intramedullary flexible nail osteosynthesis.

  19. Adeno-associated virus serotypes 1, 8, and 9 share conserved mechanisms for anterograde and retrograde axonal transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Michael J; Gershenson, Zachary T; Giles, April R; Holzbaur, Erika L F; Wolfe, John H

    2014-08-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors often undergo long-distance axonal transport after brain injection. This leads to transduction of brain regions distal to the injection site, although the extent of axonal transport and distal transduction varies widely among AAV serotypes. The mechanisms driving this variability are poorly understood. This is a critical problem for applications that require focal gene expression within a specific brain region, and also impedes the utilization of vector transport for applications requiring widespread delivery of transgene to the brain. Here, we compared AAV serotypes 1 and 9, which frequently demonstrate distal transduction, with serotype 8, which rarely spreads beyond the injection site. To examine directional AAV transport in vitro, we used a microfluidic chamber to apply dye-labeled AAV to the axon termini or to the cell bodies of primary rat embryonic cortical neurons. All three serotypes were actively transported along axons, with transport characterized by high velocities and prolonged runs in both the anterograde and retrograde directions. Coinfection with pairs of serotypes indicated that AAV1, 8, and 9 share the same intracellular compartments for axonal transport. In vivo, both AAV8 and 9 demonstrated anterograde and retrograde transport within a nonreciprocal circuit after injection into adult mouse brain, with highly similar distributions of distal transduction. However, in mass-cultured neurons, we found that AAV1 was more frequently transported than AAV8 or 9, and that the frequency of AAV9 transport could be enhanced by increasing receptor availability. Thus, while these serotypes share conserved mechanisms for axonal transport both in vitro and in vivo, the frequency of transport can vary among serotypes, and axonal transport can be markedly increased by enhancing vector uptake. This suggests that variability in distal transduction in vivo likely results from differential uptake at the plasma membrane, rather

  20. Prograde and retrograde growth of monazite in migmatites: An example from the Nagercoil Block, southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim E. Johnson

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Data from a migmatised metapelite raft enclosed within charnockite provide quantitative constraints on the pressure–temperature–time (P–T–t evolution of the Nagercoil Block at the southernmost tip of peninsular India. An inferred peak metamorphic assemblage of garnet, K-feldspar, sillimanite, plagioclase, magnetite, ilmenite, spinel and melt is consistent with peak metamorphic pressures of 6–8 kbar and temperatures in excess of 900 °C. Subsequent growth of cordierite and biotite record high-temperature retrograde decompression to around 5 kbar and 800 °C. SHRIMP U–Pb dating of magmatic zircon cores suggests that the sedimentary protoliths were in part derived from felsic igneous rocks with Palaeoproterozoic crystallisation ages. New growth of metamorphic zircon on the rims of detrital grains constrains the onset of melt crystallisation, and the minimum age of the metamorphic peak, to around 560 Ma. The data suggest two stages of monazite growth. The first generation of REE-enriched monazite grew during partial melting along the prograde path at around 570 Ma via the incongruent breakdown of apatite. Relatively REE-depleted rims, which have a pronounced negative europium anomaly, grew during melt crystallisation along the retrograde path at around 535 Ma. Our data show the rocks remained at suprasolidus temperatures for at least 35 million years and probably much longer, supporting a long-lived high-grade metamorphic history. The metamorphic conditions, timing and duration of the implied clockwise P–T–t path are similar to that previously established for other regions in peninsular India during the Ediacaran to Cambrian assembly of that part of the Gondwanan supercontinent.

  1. Marginal adaptation of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) to root dentin surface with orthograde/retrograde application techniques: A microcomputed tomographic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Fouzan, Khalid; Awadh, Mohammed; Badwelan, Moahmmed; Gamal, Abeer; Geevarghese, Amrita; Babhair, Samar; Al-Rejaie, Mansour; Al Hezaimi, Khalid; Rotstein, Ilan

    2015-01-01

    Achieving a good apical seal for root canals is known to be associated with good mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) adaptation to dentin. This study aims to compare the marginal adaptation of MTA with root dentin between orthograde and retrograde application techniques using microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) analysis. Fifty-two single-rooted human teeth were divided into four equal groups: (Group 1) Retrograde MTA (RMTA), (Group 2) Orthograde MTA (OMTA), (Group 3) Etched RMTA (ERMTA), and (Group 4) Etched OMTA (EOMTA). For Group 1, 3-mm retrograde cavities were prepared and filled with MTA. For Group 2, the apical 6 mm of the canals were filled with MTA and sealed with sealer cement and warm gutta-percha. In Groups 3 and 4, canals were treated the same as Groups 1 and 2, respectively, except that before placing the MTA, canals were irrigated with 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). After 48 hours, all the teeth were analyzed using a micro-CT scanner. Mean dentin-MTA contact and the mean length and width of each gap was analysed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Statistical significance was set at an α level of 5%. No significant difference in gap volumes was observed in the dentin-MTA adaptation in both orthograde and retrograde application techniques. However, significant difference in the gap volumes was observed between RMTA and ERMTA (P = 0.045). Etching significantly improved the MTA-Dentin adaptation (P MTA adaptation, instead with the use of 17% EDTA, a significant improvement could be achieved. Within the limitations of the present study, it concludes that MTA adaptation to dentin tooth structure is not significantly different between an orthograde and retrograde approach. However, the use of EDTA significantly improved the MTA-Dentin adaptation.

  2. Small passenger car transmission test; Ford C4 transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujold, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    A 1979 Ford C4 automatic transmission was tested per a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J651b) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these test conditions, the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the mid-eighty percent range for both drive performance tests and coast performance tests. The major results of this test (torque, speed, and efficiency curves) are presented. Graphs map the complete performance characteristics for the Ford C4 transmission.

  3. Small passenger car transmission test; Chevrolet LUV transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujold, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    A 1978 Chevrolet LUV manual transmission tested per the applicable portions of a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J65lb) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these test conditions, the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the upper ninety percent range for both drive performance tests and coast performance tests. The major results of this test (torque, speed, and efficiency curves) are presented. Graphs map the complete performance characteristics for the Chevrolet LUV transmission.

  4. Data transmission networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexovich, Robert

    1990-01-01

    A task order was written by the High Resolution, High Frame Rate Video Technology (HHVT) project engineers to investigate data compression techniques that could be applied to the HHVT system, and both existing and planned downlink/uplink capabilities of the Space Shuttle and Space Station Freedom. The following tasks were included: (1) Investigate signal channel availability and determine both the maximum possible data rate and the average data rate; (2) Identify time blocks for HHVT video transmission assuming time sharing and interruptions in the communication links; (3) Determine the bit error rates to be expected; and (4) Define the transmit and receive interfaces. A summary chart of the data transmission capabilities for Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS), the Space Shuttle, Space Station Freedom, Spacelab, and USLab are also presented.

  5. Drill string transmission line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Pixton, David S.; Bradford, Kline; Fox, Joe

    2006-03-28

    A transmission line assembly for transmitting information along a downhole tool comprising a pin end, a box end, and a central bore traveling between the pin end and the box end, is disclosed in one embodiment of the invention as including a protective conduit. A transmission line is routed through the protective conduit. The protective conduit is routed through the central bore and the ends of the protective conduit are routed through channels formed in the pin end and box end of the downhole tool. The protective conduit is elastically forced into a spiral or other non-linear path along the interior surface of the central bore by compressing the protective conduit to a length within the downhole tool shorter than the protective conduit.

  6. Mechanisms, Transmissions and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Corves, Burkhard

    2012-01-01

    The first Workshop on Mechanisms, Transmissions and Applications -- MeTrApp-2011 was organized by the Mechatronics Department at the Mechanical Engineering Faculty, “Politehnica” University of Timisoara, Romania, under the patronage of the IFToMM Technical Committees Linkages and Mechanical Controls and Micromachines. The workshop brought together researchers and students who work in disciplines associated with mechanisms science and offered a great opportunity for scientists from all over the world to present their achievements, exchange innovative ideas and create solid international links, setting the trend for future developments in this important and creative field. The topics treated in this volume are mechanisms and machine design, mechanical transmissions, mechatronic and biomechanic applications, computational and experimental methods, history of mechanism and machine science and teaching methods.

  7. Regional transmission subsystem planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa Bortoni, Edson da [Quadrante Softwares Especializados Ltda., Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Bajay, Sergio Valdir; Barros Correia, Paulo de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica; Santos, Afonso Henriques Moreira; Haddad, Jamil [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    This work presents an approach for the planning of transmission systems by employing mixed--integer linear programming to obtain a cost and operating characteristics optimized system. The voltage loop equations are written in a modified form, so that, at the end of the analysis, the model behaves as a DC power flow, with the help of the two Kirchhoff`s laws, exempting the need of interaction with an external power flow program for analysis of the line loading. The model considers the occurrence of contingencies, so that the final result is a network robust to the most severe contingencies. This whole technique is adapted to the regional electric power transmission subsystems. (author) 9 refs., 4 figs.

  8. [Mumps vaccine virus transmission].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otrashevskaia, E V; Kulak, M V; Otrashevskaia, A V; Karpov, I A; Fisenko, E G; Ignat'ev, G M

    2013-01-01

    In this work we report the mumps vaccine virus shedding based on the laboratory confirmed cases of the mumps virus (MuV) infection. The likely epidemiological sources of the transmitted mumps virus were children who were recently vaccinated with the mumps vaccine containing Leningrad-Zagreb or Leningrad-3 MuV. The etiology of the described cases of the horizontal transmission of both mumps vaccine viruses was confirmed by PCR with the sequential restriction analysis.

  9. Scanning transmission electron microscope

    OpenAIRE

    Kruit, P.

    2006-01-01

    The invention relates to a scanning transmission electron microscope comprising an electron source, an electron accelerator and deflection means for directing electrons emitted by the electron source at an object to be examined, and in addition a detector for detecting electrons coming from the object and, connected to the detector, a device for processing the detected electrons so as to form an object image, wherein a beam splitter is provided for dividing the electron beam from the electron...

  10. Hydrostatic continuously variable transmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, T.; Saito, M.; Matsuto, T.; Nakajima, Y.; Sakakibara, K.; Yakigaya, N.; Nakamura, K.

    1989-05-09

    A hydrostatic continuously variable transmission is described, comprising: a swashplate type hydraulic pump having a pump swashplate and annularly arranged pump plungers whose suction and discharge strokes are provided by the pump swashplate; a swashplate type hydraulic motor having a motor swashplate and annularly arranged motor plungers whose expansion and shrinkage strokes are provided by the motor swashplate; and a hydraulic closed circuit formed between the hydraulic pump and the hydraulic motor. The transmission has at least one of a relationship that a middle point of a discharge region of the hydraulic pump is angularly delayed at a given angle in a direction of rotation of the hydraulic pump relative to a tilting axis of the pump swashplate and a relationship that a middle point of an expansion region of the hydraulic motor is angularly advanced at a given angle in a direction of rotation of the hydraulic motor relative to a tilting axis of the motor swashplate, wherein the transmission has at least one of a relationship that a suction region of the hydraulic pump is set at an angle larger than that of the discharge region thereof and a relationship that a shrinkage region of the hydraulic motor is set at an angle larger than that of the expansion region of the motor.

  11. Transmission of compressed video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasch, H. L.

    1990-09-01

    An overview of video coding is presented. The aim is not to give a technical summary of possible coding techniques, but to address subjects related to video compression in general and to the transmission of compressed video in more detail. Bit rate reduction is in general possible by removing redundant information; removing information the eye does not use anyway; and reducing the quality of the video. The codecs which are used for reducing the bit rate, can be divided into two groups: Constant Bit rate Codecs (CBC's), which keep the bit rate constant, but vary the video quality; and Variable Bit rate Codecs (VBC's), which keep the video quality constant by varying the bit rate. VBC's can be in general reach a higher video quality than CBC's using less bandwidth, but need a transmission system that allows the bandwidth of a connection to fluctuate in time. The current and the next generation of the PSTN does not allow this; ATM might. There are several factors which influence the quality of video: the bit error rate of the transmission channel, slip rate, packet loss rate/packet insertion rate, end-to-end delay, phase shift between voice and video, and bit rate. Based on the bit rate of the coded video, the following classification of coded video can be made: High Definition Television (HDTV); Broadcast Quality Television (BQTV); video conferencing; and video telephony. The properties of these classes are given. The video conferencing and video telephony equipment available now and in the next few years can be divided into three categories: conforming to 1984 CCITT standard for video conferencing; conforming to 1988 CCITT standard; and conforming to no standard.

  12. Research and Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Pumain

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The present situation provides a challenge for us to reconsider the necessary link between science and pedagogy, between research and the transmission of knowledge. The Ministry of National education has just inaugurated a broad consultation of teachers on every level with a view to modernising and giving coherence to the programs of secondary education. Armand Frémont will head the group of experts responsible for history and geography. Is this a coincidence? The changeover in the jury for t...

  13. Outcome analysis of retrograde nailing and less invasive stabilization system in distal femoral fractures: A retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Hierholzer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Two major therapeutic principles can be employed for the treatment of distal femoral fractures: retrograde intramedullary (IM nailing (RN or less invasive stabilization on system (LISS. Both operative stabilizing systems follow the principle of biological osteosynthesis. IM nailing protects the soft-tissue envelope due to its minimally invasive approach and closed reduction techniques better than distal femoral locked plating. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare outcome of distal femur fracture stabilization using RN or LISS techniques. Materials and Methods: In a retrospective study from 2003 to 2008, we analyzed 115 patients with distal femur fracture who had been treated by retrograde IM nailing (59 patients or LISS plating (56 patients. In the two cohort groups, mean age was 54 years (17-89 years. Mechanism of injury was high energy impact in 57% (53% RN, 67% LISS and low-energy injury in 43% (47% RN, 33% LISS, respectively. Fractures were classified according to AO classification: there were 52 type A fractures (RN 31, LISS 21 and 63 type C fractures (RN 28, LISS 35; 32% (RN and 56% (LISS were open and 68% (RN and 44% (LISS were closed fractures, respectively. Functional and radiological outcome was assessed. Results: Clinical and radiographic evaluation demonstrated osseous healing within 6 months following RN and following LISS plating in over 90% of patients. However, no statistically significant differences were found for the parameters time to osseous healing, rate of nonunion, and postoperative complications. The following complications were treated: hematoma formation (one patient RN and three patients LISS, superficial infection (one patient RN and three patients LISS, deep infection (2 patients LISS. Additional secondary bone grafting for successful healing 3 months after the primary operation was required in four patients in the RN (7% of patients and six in the LISS group (10% of patients

  14. Broadband transmission EPR spectroscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfred R Hagen

    Full Text Available EPR spectroscopy employs a resonator operating at a single microwave frequency and phase-sensitive detection using modulation of the magnetic field. The X-band spectrometer is the general standard with a frequency in the 9-10 GHz range. Most (biomolecular EPR spectra are determined by a combination of the frequency-dependent electronic Zeeman interaction and a number of frequency-independent interactions, notably, electron spin - nuclear spin interactions and electron spin - electron spin interactions, and unambiguous analysis requires data collection at different frequencies. Extant and long-standing practice is to use a different spectrometer for each frequency. We explore the alternative of replacing the narrow-band source plus single-mode resonator with a continuously tunable microwave source plus a non-resonant coaxial transmission cell in an unmodulated external field. Our source is an arbitrary wave digital signal generator producing an amplitude-modulated sinusoidal microwave in combination with a broadband amplifier for 0.8-2.7 GHz. Theory is developed for coaxial transmission with EPR detection as a function of cell dimensions and materials. We explore examples of a doublet system, a high-spin system, and an integer-spin system. Long, straigth, helical, and helico-toroidal cells are developed and tested with dilute aqueous solutions of spin label hydroxy-tempo. A detection limit of circa 5 µM HO-tempo in water at 800 MHz is obtained for the present setup, and possibilities for future improvement are discussed.

  15. Hippocampal mossy fiber sprouting and synapse formation after status epilepticus in rats: visualization after retrograde transport of biocytin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, M M; Evenson, D A; Nadler, J V

    1995-02-20

    In complex partial epilepsy and in animal models of epilepsy, hippocampal mossy fibers appear to develop recurrent collaterals that invade the dentate molecular layer. Mossy fiber collaterals have been proposed to subserve recurrent excitation by forming granule cell-granule cell synapses. This hypothesis was tested by visualizing dentate granule cells and their mossy fibers after terminal uptake and retrograde transport of biocytin. Labeling studies were performed with transverse slices of the caudal rat hippocampal formation prepared 2.6-70.0 weeks after pilocarpine-induced or kainic acid-induced status epilepticus. Light microscopy demonstrated the progressive growth of recurrent mossy fibers into the molecular layer; the densest innervation was observed in slices from pilocarpine-treated rats that had survived 10 weeks or longer after status epilepticus. Thin mossy fiber collaterals originated predominantly from deep within the hilar region, crossed the granule cell body layer, and formed an axonal plexus oriented parallel to the cell body layer within the inner one-third of the molecular layer. When sprouting was most robust, some recurrent mossy fibers at the apex of the dentate gyrus reached the outer two-thirds of the molecular layer. The distribution and density of mossy fiber-like Timm staining correlated with the biocytin labeling. When viewed with the electron microscope, the inner one-third of the dentate molecular layer contained numerous mossy fiber boutons. In some instances, biocytin-labeled mossy fiber boutons were engaged in synaptic contact with biocytin-labeled granule cell dendrites. Granule cell dendrites did not develop large complex spines ("thorny excrescences") at the site of synapse formation, and they did not appear to have been permanently damaged by seizure activity. These results establish the validity of Timm staining as a marker for mossy fiber sprouting and support the view that status epilepticus provokes the formation of a novel

  16. Small passenger car transmission test: Mercury Lynx ATX transmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bujold, M P

    1981-09-01

    The small passenger car transmission test was initiated to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commercially available transmissions. This information would enable EV manufacturers to design a more energy efficient vehicle. With this information the manufacturers would be able to estimate vehicle driving range as well as speed and torque requirements for specific road load performance characteristics. This report covers the 1981 Mercury Lynx ATX transaxle. This transmission was tested per a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J65lb) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these test conditions the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the 93% range for drive performance tests. The major results of this test are the torque, speed and efficiency curves which are located in the data section of this report. These graphs map performance characteristics for the Mercury Lynx ATX transmission.

  17. Small passenger car transmission test-Chevrolet 200 transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujold, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    The small passenger car transmission was tested to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commerically available transmissions which would enable them to design a more energy efficient vehicle. With this information the manufacturers could estimate vehicle driving range as well as speed and torque requirements for specific road load performance characteristics. A 1979 Chevrolet Model 200 automatic transmission was tested per a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J651b) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. The transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the mid-eighty percent range for both drive performance tests and coast performance tests. Torque, speed and efficiency curves map the complete performance characteristics for Chevrolet Model 200 transmission.

  18. Retrograde intramedullary nailing of the femur using a tibial nail--the adjunctive use of an existing implant: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, W B; Kennedy, J G; Coran, D L; Goodman, L J; Lhowe, D W

    1996-01-01

    A 74-year-old male involved in a pedestrian-automobile collision sustained a comminuted supracondylar-diaphyseal femur fracture. The fracture was stabilized by retrograde intramedullary fixation with a Synthes unreamed tibial nail. Knee motion reached 0 degree-120 degrees by the sixth postoperative day and the fracture healed within twelve weeks. Twelve months after his injury, his knee motion was symmetric to his uninjured side and he had resumed full preinjury activities, including martial arts training. Although antegrade intramedullary nailing remains the treatment of choice for fractures of the femur, this case highlights the usefulness of retrograde nailing and demonstrates the adjunctive application of an existing implant, the tibial nail, in certain special trauma situations.

  19. Fiber optic data transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shreve, Steven T.

    1987-01-01

    The Ohio University Avionics Engineering Center is currently developing a fiber optic data bus transmission and reception system that could eventually replace copper cable connections in airplanes. The original form of the system will transmit information from an encoder to a transponder via a fiber optic cable. An altimeter and an altitude display are connected to a fiber optic transmitter by copper cable. The transmitter converts the altimetry data from nine bit parallel to serial form and send these data through a fiber optic cable to a receiver. The receiver converts the data using a cable similar to that used between the altimeter and display. The transmitting and receiving ends also include a display readout. After completion and ground testing of the data bus, the system will be tested in an airborne environment.

  20. Stress transmission in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamandé, Mathieu; Schjønning, Per

    We urgently need increased quantitative knowledge on stress transmission in real soils loaded with agricultural machinery. 3D measurements of vertical stresses under tracked wheels were performed in situ in a Stagnic Luvisol (clay content 20 %) continuously cropped with small grain cereals......). Seven load cells were inserted horizontally from a pit with minimal disturbance of soil in each of three depths (0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 m), covering the width of the wheeled area. The position of the wheel relative to the transducers was recorded using a laser sensor. Finally, the vertical stresses near...... the soil-tyre interface were measured in separate tests by 17 stress transducers across the width of the tyres. The results showed that the inflation pressure controlled the level of maximum stresses at 0.3 m depth, while the wheel load was correlated to the measured stresses at 0.9 m depth. This supports...

  1. Protolith ages and timing of peak and retrograde metamorphism of the high-pressure granulites in the Shandong Peninsula, eastern North China Craton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinghua Liu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available High-pressure (HP granulites widely occur as enclaves within tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG gneisses of the Early Precambrian metamorphic basement in the Shandong Peninsula, southeast part of the North China Craton (NCC. Based on cathodoluminescence (CL, laser Raman spectroscopy and in-situ U-Pb dating, we characterize the zircons from the HP granulites and group them into three main types: inherited (magmatic zircon, HP metamorphic zircon and retrograde zircon. The inherited zircons with clear or weakly defined magmatic zoning contain inclusions of apatites, and 207Pb/206Pb ages of 2915–2890 Ma and 2763–2510 Ma, correlating with two magmatic events in the Archaean basement. The homogeneous HP metamorphic zircons contain index minerals of high-pressure metamorphism including garnet, clinopyroxene, plagioclase, quartz, rutile and apatite, and yield 207Pb/206Pb ages between 1900 and 1850 Ma, marking the timing of peak HP granulite facies metamorphism. The retrograde zircons contain inclusions of orthopyroxene, plagioclase, quartz, apatite and amphibole, and yield the youngest 207Pb/206Pb ages of 1840–1820 Ma among the three groups, which we correlate to the medium to low-pressure granulite facies retrograde metamorphism. The data presented in this study suggest subduction of Meso- and Neoarchean magmatic protoliths to lower crust depths where they were subjected to HP granulite facies metamorphism during Palaeoproterozoic (1900–1850 Ma. Subsequently, the HP granulites were exhumated to upper crust levels, and were overprinted by medium to low-pressure granulite and amphibolite facies retrograde event at ca. 1840–820 Ma.

  2. Lentiviral vectors enveloped with rabies virus glycoprotein can be used as a novel retrograde tracer to assess nerve recovery in rat sciatic nerve injury models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yujun; Gong, Kai; Ao, Qiang; Wang, Aijun; Gong, Yandao; Zuo, Huancong; Zhang, Yuqi; Wang, James; Wang, Guihuai

    2014-02-01

    Retrograde labeling has become the new "gold standard" technique to evaluate the recovery of injured peripheral nerves. In this study, lentiviral vectors with rabies virus glycoprotein envelop (RABV-G-LV) and RFP genes are injected into gastrocnemius muscle to determine the location of RFP in sciatic nerves. We then examine RFP expression in the L4-S1 spinal cord and sensory dorsal root ganglia and in the rat sciatic nerve, isolated Schwann cells, viral dose to expression relationship and the use of RABV-G-LV as a retrograde tracer for regeneration in the injured rat sciatic nerve. VSV-G-LV was used as control for viral envelope specificity. Results showed that RFP were positive in the myelin sheath and lumbar spinal motorneurons of the RABV-G-LV group. RFP gene could be detected both in myelinated Schwann cells and lumbar spinal motor neurons in the RABV-G-LV group. Schwann cells isolated from the RABV-G-LV injected postnatal Sprague Dawley rats were also RFP-gene positive. All the results obtained in the VSV-G-LV group were negative. Distribution of RFP was unaltered and the level of RFP expression increasing with time progressing. RABV-G-LV could assess the amount of functional regenerating nerve fibers two months post-operation in the four models. This method offers an easy-operated and consistent standardized approach for retrograde labeling regenerating peripheral nerves, which may be a significant supplement for the previous RABV-G-LV-related retrograde labeling study.

  3. Broadband Transmission EPR Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Wilfred R.

    2013-01-01

    EPR spectroscopy employs a resonator operating at a single microwave frequency and phase-sensitive detection using modulation of the magnetic field. The X-band spectrometer is the general standard with a frequency in the 9–10 GHz range. Most (bio)molecular EPR spectra are determined by a combination of the frequency-dependent electronic Zeeman interaction and a number of frequency-independent interactions, notably, electron spin – nuclear spin interactions and electron spin – electron spin interactions, and unambiguous analysis requires data collection at different frequencies. Extant and long-standing practice is to use a different spectrometer for each frequency. We explore the alternative of replacing the narrow-band source plus single-mode resonator with a continuously tunable microwave source plus a non-resonant coaxial transmission cell in an unmodulated external field. Our source is an arbitrary wave digital signal generator producing an amplitude-modulated sinusoidal microwave in combination with a broadband amplifier for 0.8–2.7 GHz. Theory is developed for coaxial transmission with EPR detection as a function of cell dimensions and materials. We explore examples of a doublet system, a high-spin system, and an integer-spin system. Long, straigth, helical, and helico-toroidal cells are developed and tested with dilute aqueous solutions of spin label hydroxy-tempo. A detection limit of circa 5 µM HO-tempo in water at 800 MHz is obtained for the present setup, and possibilities for future improvement are discussed. PMID:23555819

  4. Regulation of ciliary retrograde protein trafficking by the Joubert syndrome proteins ARL13B and INPP5E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, Shohei; Katoh, Yohei; Terada, Masaya; Michisaka, Saki; Funabashi, Teruki; Takahashi, Senye; Kontani, Kenji; Nakayama, Kazuhisa

    2017-02-01

    ARL13B (a small GTPase) and INPP5E (a phosphoinositide 5-phosphatase) are ciliary proteins encoded by causative genes of Joubert syndrome. We here showed, by taking advantage of a visible immunoprecipitation assay, that ARL13B interacts with the IFT46 -: IFT56 (IFT56 is also known as TTC26) dimer of the intraflagellar transport (IFT)-B complex, which mediates anterograde ciliary protein trafficking. However, the ciliary localization of ARL13B was found to be independent of its interaction with IFT-B, but dependent on the ciliary-targeting sequence RVEP in its C-terminal region. ARL13B-knockout cells had shorter cilia than control cells and exhibited aberrant localization of ciliary proteins, including INPP5E. In particular, in ARL13B-knockout cells, the IFT-A and IFT-B complexes accumulated at ciliary tips, and GPR161 (a negative regulator of Hedgehog signaling) could not exit cilia in response to stimulation with Smoothened agonist. This abnormal phenotype was rescued by the exogenous expression of wild-type ARL13B, as well as by its mutant defective in the interaction with IFT-B, but not by its mutants defective in INPP5E binding or in ciliary localization. Thus, ARL13B regulates IFT-A-mediated retrograde protein trafficking within cilia through its interaction with INPP5E. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. Safety and Utility of Single-Session Endoscopic Ultrasonography and Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography for the Evaluation of Pancreatobiliary Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakubo, Kazumichi; Kuwatani, Masaki; Haba, Shin; Kudo, Taiki; Abe, Yoko; Kawahata, Shuhei; Onodera, Manabu; Ehira, Nobuyuki; Yamato, Hiroaki; Eto, Kazunori; Sakamoto, Naoya

    2014-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) are essential for diagnosing and treating pancreatobiliary diseases. Single-session EUS and ERCP are considered to be essential in reducing the duration of hospital stays; however, complications are a primary concern. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of single-session EUS and ERCP. Sixty-eight patients underwent single-session EUS and ERCP at a tertiary referral center between June 2008 and December 2012. We retrospectively reviewed patient data from a prospectively maintained EUS-ERCP database and evaluated the procedural characteristics and complications. Thirty-eight patients (56%) underwent diagnostic EUS, and 30 patients (44%) underwent EUS fine-needle aspiration, which had an overall accuracy of 100%. Sixty patients (89%) underwent therapeutic ERCP, whereas the remaining eight procedures were diagnostic. Thirteen patients underwent biliary stone extraction, and 48 underwent biliary drainage. The median total procedural time was 75 minutes. Complications were observed in seven patients (10%). Six complications were post-ERCP pancreatitis, which were resolved using conservative management. One patient developed Mallory-Weiss syndrome, which required endoscopic hemostasis. No sedation-related cardiopulmonary complications were observed. Single-session EUS and ERCP provided accurate diagnosis and effective management with a minimal complication rate. PMID:24827632

  6. Nonviral Retrograde Gene Transfer of Human Hepatocyte Growth Factor Improves Neuropathic Pain-related Phenomena in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchihara, Toyokazu; Ogata, Sho; Nemoto, Koichi; Okabayashi, Takatoshi; Nakanishi, Kuniaki; Kato, Naoki; Morishita, Ryuichi; Kaneda, Yasufumi; Uenoyama, Maki; Suzuki, Shinya; Amako, Masatoshi; Kawai, Toshiaki; Arino, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injury occasionally causes chronic neuropathic pain with hyperalgesia and allodynia. However, its treatment is difficult. Here, we used a chronic constriction injury (CCI) model in rats to investigate the effects on experimental neuropathic pain of the human hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) gene delivered into the nervous system by retrograde axonal transport following its repeated intramuscular transfer, using liposomes containing the hemagglutinating virus of Japan (HVJ). CCI (control) rats exhibited marked mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia, and decreased blood flow in sciatic nerve and hind paw. All these changes were significantly reversed by HGF gene transfer. In the sciatic nerve in HGF-treated rats, the size-frequency distributions for myelinated and unmyelinated axons each showed a rightward shift, the number of myelinated axons >5 µm in diameter was significantly increased, and the mean diameter of unmyelinated axons was significantly increased (versus CCI rats). Levels of P2X3, P2X4, and P2Y1 receptor mRNAs, and of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) mRNAs, were elevated in the ipsilateral dorsal root ganglia and/or sciatic nerve by CCI, and these levels were decreased by HGF gene transfer. These results may point toward a potential new treatment strategy for chronic neuropathic pain in this model. PMID:18941443

  7. Volume, specialty background, practice pattern, and outcomes in endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography: an analysis of the national inpatient sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Jac; Desai, Sapan; Scaife, Steve; Gonczy, Chad; Mellinger, John

    2017-07-01

    Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a complex endoscopic procedure performed by both gastroenterologists and surgeons. There has been recent controversy regarding training paradigms for gastrointestinal endoscopy. No prior studies have evaluated comparative outcomes for ERCP in relation to specialty training background. This study utilized the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) to assess ERCP outcomes as a function of training background, practice pattern, and individual provider volume. NIS data was queried from 2007 to 2009. Gastroenterologists and surgeons were identified by procedural profiles and unique physician identifiers. Comorbidity was assessed via Charlson Score. Outcomes including cost, length of stay (LOS), and mortality were analyzed, with and without propensity score matching (PSM). Analysis of outcomes as a function of provider procedural volume was also performed. Comparison for statistical significance was accomplished via t test. A total of 110,811 ERCP's were identified, of which 42,025 (37.9%) were performed by surgeons. Surgeons exhibited longer LOS (8.7 vs. 7.2 days), overall cost ($24,739 vs. $16,960), and mortality (3.9 vs. 1.2%, odds ratio 3.3), with p background. Gastroenterologists demonstrate favorable gross outcomes compared to surgeons performing ERCP. Differences may correlate in part with more frequent subsequent surgical management of comorbid conditions by surgical providers. Lower volume providers achieve inferior outcomes regardless of specialty background. Analyses of this type may help inform discussions on optimal training and proficiency paradigms, including maintenance of proficiency, for therapeutic endoscopic procedures.

  8. The effects of humidity and serum on the surface microhardness and morphology of five retrograde filling materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, J S; Rhim, E M; Huh, S Y; Ahn, S J; Kim, D S; Kim, S Y; Park, S H

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the surface morphology and surface hardness of five materials 24 h after filling, in conditions of 100% humidity, and fetal bovine serum. The five materials were ProRoot Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA), Super-EBA, Intermediate Restorative Materials (IRM), Zinc Oxide Eugenol (ZOE), and Amalgam. The microhardness of these materials was evaluated by Vickers microhardness test, and their morphologies were compared by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). To evaluate the microhardness, the mixed five materials were measured with Vickers microhardness test. Differences between the experimental groups were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Duncan's multiple comparison tests. All analyses were performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL). For the microstructural morphological evaluation, the cross cut and root-end cavity prepared surfaces followed by retrograde filling with five different materials were observed under a Scanning Electron Microscope (Steroscan 440; Leica, Cambridge, England) at ×500. To summarize, Super EBA was less influenced by storage medium than the other materials, especially MTA. However, further long-term studies considering other factors, such as biocompatibility (i.e. cellular toxicity) and retention, are needed to be collaborated with these findings in the clinical context. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Usefulness of Interventional Treatment for Dysfunctional Hemodialysis Shunts of the Upper Arm by Means of the Retrograde Transradial Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hwa Seon; Shin, Tae Beom; Na, Jae Beom; Jung, Seong Hoon; Kim, Hyun Jung; Lee, Jung Eun [Gyeongsang National University Hospital College of Medicine, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Song, Yun Gyu [Masan Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University College of Medicine, Masan (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Gyoo Sik [Kosin University Hospital College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-11-15

    This study was designed to evaluate the technical feasibility and clinical outcome of endovascular intervention using the retrograde transradial approach to treat dysfunctional hemodialysis shunts of the upper arms. During the last 3 years, sixteen procedures were performed by the transradial approach in 13 patients with dysfunctional hemodialysis shunts of the upper arms. The radial artery was accessed with the use of 20-gauge needle and a 6-Fr sheath. Angiography was performed using a 5-Fr catheter placed in the brachial artery, and then the interventional procedure was performed. The technical and clinical success rates, complications and patency rates were evaluated. Fistulography and percutaneous transluminal angioplasty via the transradial approach were performed in 16 cases of the 13 patients. Fistulography demonstrated stenosis in 7 cases and occlusions in 9 cases. Lesion multiplicity was identified in 9 out of 16 cases. Balloon angioplasty was performed in all cases and a stent was placed to overcome restenosis or to treat venous rupture in two cases. The technical success rate of balloon angioplasty was 87.5% (14/16) and the technical success rate with including stent insertion was 100% (16/16). The clinical success rate was 93.8%. There was one procedural-related complication. The primary patency rates at 6 and 12 months were 84.6% and 74%, respectively. The transradial approach seems to be technically feasible and effective for the management of insufficient hemodialysis shunts of the upper arms

  10. Biodentine versus Mineral Trioxide Aggregate versus Intermediate Restorative Material for Retrograde Root End Filling: An Invitro Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravanapriyan Soundappan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the marginal adaptation of Biodentine in comparison with Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA and Intermediate Restorative Material (IRM, as a root end filling material, using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM.Thirty permanent maxillary central incisors were chemo-mechanically prepared and obturated. Three millimetres of the root end were resected and 3mm retro cavity preparation was done using ultrasonic retrotips. The samples were randomly divided into three groups (n=10 and were restored with root end filling materials: Group I - MTA, Group II - Biodentine, Group III - IRM. The root ends were sectioned transversely at 1mm and 2mm levels and evaluated for marginal adaptation using SEM. The gap between dentin and retro filling material was measured at four quadrants. The mean gap at 1mm level and 2mm level from the resected root tip and combined mean were calculated. The data were statistically analyzed, using one-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD post hoc test for intergroup analysis and paired t-test for intragroup analysis.The overall results showed no statistically significant difference between MTA and IRM but both were superior when compared to Biodentine. At 1mm level there was no statistically significant difference among any of the tested materials. At 2mm level MTA was superior to both IRM and Biodentine.In overall comparison, MTA and IRM were significantly superior when compared to Biodentine in terms of marginal adaptation, when used as retrograde filling material.

  11. U-Pb isotopic systematics of zircons from prograde and retrograde transition zones in high-grade orthogneisses, Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baur, N.; Liew, T.C.; Todt, W.; Hofmann, A.W. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemie, Mainz (West Germany)); Kroener, A. (Univ. Mainz (West Germany)); Williams, I.S. (Australian National Univ., Canberra (Australia))

    1991-07-01

    The authors present U-Pb zircon isotopic data from locally restricted prograde (arrested in situ charnockitization) and retrograde metamorphic transition zones, which are well exposed in Proterozoic orthogneisses tectonically interbanded with granulite facies supracrustal rocks of the Highland Group in Sri Lanka. These granitoid rocks yield apparent ages of 1942 {plus minus} 22 Ma, {approximately} 770 Ma, {approximately} 660 Ma, and {approximately} 560 Ma. All samples show severe Pb-loss some 550-560 Ma ago. The main phase of granulite-formation could not be dated unambiguously but is bracketed between {approximately} 660 Ma and {approximately} 550 Ma. The pervasive Pb-loss event around 550-560 Ma reflects the end of this period of high-grade metamorphism and was associated with widespread igneous activity and retrogression. This is constrained by the 550 {plus minus} 3 Ma intrusion age for a post-tectonic granite. They relate this late phase of thermal activity to crustal uplift of the Sri Lankan granulites. This data unambiguously prove the high-grade history of the Sri Lanka gneisses to be a late Precambrian event that may be related to the Pan-African evolution along the eastern part of Africa.

  12. The Effect of Stone Composition on the Efficacy of Retrograde Intrarenal Surgery: Kidney Stones 1 - 3 cm in Diameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yuquan; Zhang, Peng; Yang, Xiaojie; Chong, Tie

    2015-05-01

    The goal of this study was to analyze the effect of stone composition on the efficacy of retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) with kidney stones of 1-3 cm, 1-2 cm, and 2-3 cm in diameter. We undertook a retrospective analysis of 74 patients with kidney stones who underwent RIRS. The patients were divided into two groups based on stone composition: Group I (n=47) (calcium oxalate monohydrate and calcium phosphate) was the hard to fragment stone group and group II (n=27) (calcium oxalate dihydrate, magnesium ammonium phosphate, and uric acid) was the easy to fragment stone group. Forty-six patients with kidney stones 1 to 2 cm in diameter were divided into group A (n=30) (smaller than 20 mm, hard to fragment stones) and group B (n=16) (smaller than 20 mm, easy to fragment stones). Twenty-eight patients with stones 2 to 3 cm in diameter were divided into group C (n=17) (larger than 20 mm, hard to fragment stones) and group D (n=11) (larger than 20 mm, easy-to-crush stones). The stone clearance rates of group I and group II were 66.0% and 88.9%, respectively (Pkidney stones. For 2-3 cm calcium oxalate dihydrate stones, uric acid stones, and magnesium ammonium phosphate stones, the outcome of RIRS treatment was relatively good, and RIRS is recommended.

  13. Global and regional brain atrophy is associated with low or retrograde facial vein flow in multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Jakimovski

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Increased collateral facial vein (FV flow may be associated with structural damage in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. The objective was to assess differences in FV flow and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI-derived outcomes in MS. The study included 136 MS patients who underwent neck and head vascular system examination by echo-color Doppler. Inflammatory MRI markers were assessed on a 3T MRI using a semi-automated edge detection and contouring/ thresholding technique. MRI volumetric outcomes of whole brain (WB, gray matter (GM, white matter (WM, cortex, ventricular cerebrospinal fluid (vCSF, deep gray matter (DGM, thalamus, caudate nucleus (CN, putamen, globus pallidus (GP, and hippocampus were calculated. Independent t-test and ANCOVA, adjusted for age, were used to compare groups based on FV flow quartiles. Thirty-four MS patients with FV flow ≤327.8 mL/min (lowest quartile had significantly lower WB (P327.8 mL/min (higher quartiles. There were no differences in T1-, T2- and gadolinium- enhancing lesion volumes between the quartile groups. The lack of an association between FV blood flow and inflammatory MRI measures in MS patients, but an association with brain atrophy, suggests that the severity of neurodegenerative process may be related to hemodynamic alterations. MS patients with more advanced global and regional brain atrophy showed low or retrograde FV volume flow.

  14. Biodentine versus Mineral Trioxide Aggregate versus Intermediate Restorative Material for Retrograde Root End Filling: An Invitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soundappan, Saravanapriyan; Sundaramurthy, Jothi Latha; Raghu, Sandhya; Natanasabapathy, Velmurugan

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the marginal adaptation of Biodentine in comparison with Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) and Intermediate Restorative Material (IRM), as a root end filling material, using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Thirty permanent maxillary central incisors were chemo-mechanically prepared and obturated. Three millimetres of the root end were resected and 3mm retro cavity preparation was done using ultrasonic retrotips. The samples were randomly divided into three groups (n=10) and were restored with root end filling materials: Group I - MTA, Group II - Biodentine, Group III - IRM. The root ends were sectioned transversely at 1mm and 2mm levels and evaluated for marginal adaptation using SEM. The gap between dentin and retro filling material was measured at four quadrants. The mean gap at 1mm level and 2mm level from the resected root tip and combined mean were calculated. The data were statistically analyzed, using one-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD post hoc test for intergroup analysis and paired t-test for intragroup analysis. The overall results showed no statistically significant difference between MTA and IRM but both were superior when compared to Biodentine. At 1mm level there was no statistically significant difference among any of the tested materials. At 2mm level MTA was superior to both IRM and Biodentine. In overall comparison, MTA and IRM were significantly superior when compared to Biodentine in terms of marginal adaptation, when used as retrograde filling material.

  15. Retrograde intrarenal surgery versus percutaneous lithotripsy to treat renal stones 2-3 cm in diameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zengin, Kursad; Tanik, Serhat; Karakoyunlu, Nihat; Sener, Nevzat Can; Albayrak, Sebahattin; Tuygun, Can; Bakirtas, Hasan; Imamoglu, M Abdurrahim; Gurdal, Mesut

    2015-01-01

    Retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) performed using a flexible ureterorenoscope marked the beginning of a new era in urology. Today, even staghorn stones are successfully treated via RIRS. The recommended treatment for larger stones is percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL). However, the question of whether PNL or RIRS should be the first-line treatment option for larger stones remains controversial. In this study, we contribute to the debate by comparing the success and complication rates of PNL and RIRS that were used to treat renal pelvis stones 2-3 cm in diameter. The medical records of 154 patients (74 PNL, 80 RIRS) were retrospectively evaluated. PNL patients were placed in Group 1 and RIRS patients in Group 2. The complete stone-free rates were 95.5% in the PNL group and 80.6% in the RIRS group 1 month postoperatively (P = 0.061). The respective complication rates (evaluated using the Clavien system) were 13.5% and 8.8% (P = 0.520). RIRS affords a comparable success rate, causes fewer complications than PNL, and seems to be a promising alternative to PNL when larger stones are to be treated. Prospective randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm these findings.

  16. Comparison of retrograde intrarenal surgery, shockwave lithotripsy, and percutaneous nephrolithotomy for treatment of medium-sized radiolucent renal stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resorlu, Berkan; Unsal, Ali; Ziypak, Tevfik; Diri, Akif; Atis, Gokhan; Guven, Selcuk; Sancaktutar, Ahmet Ali; Tepeler, Abdulkadir; Bozkurt, Omer Faruk; Oztuna, Derya

    2013-12-01

    To compare the outcomes of shock wave lithotripsy (SWL), percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL), and retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) for 10-20 mm radiolucent renal calculi by evaluating stone-free rates and associated complications. A total of 437 patients at 7 institutions who underwent SWL (n = 251), PNL (n = 140), or RIRS (n = 46) were enrolled in our study. Clinical success was defined as stone-free status or asymptomatic insignificant residual fragments PNL, and RIRS (p PNL and RIRS (21.9 vs 5.7 vs 8.7%, respectively; p PNL, and RIRS were 7.6, 22.1, and 10.9%, respectively (p PNL group received blood transfusions, while none of the patients in RIRS and SWL groups transfused. Hospitalization time per patient was 1.3 ± 0.5 days in the RIRS group, while it was 2.6 ± 0.9 days in the PNL group (p PNL group compared to RIRS (145.7 ± 101.7 vs 28.7 ± 18.7 s, and 57.5 ± 22.1 vs 43.1 ± 17 min, respectively). For treatment of moderate-sized radiolucent renal stones, RIRS and PNL provide significantly higher success and lower retreatment rate compared with SWL. Although PNL is effective, its biggest drawback is its invasiveness. Blood loss, radiation exposure, hospital stay, and morbidities of PNL can be significantly reduced with RIRS technique.

  17. Retrograde Intrarenal Surgery versus Percutaneous Lithotripsy to Treat Renal Stones 2-3 cm in Diameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kursad Zengin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS performed using a flexible ureterorenoscope marked the beginning of a new era in urology. Today, even staghorn stones are successfully treated via RIRS. The recommended treatment for larger stones is percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL. However, the question of whether PNL or RIRS should be the first-line treatment option for larger stones remains controversial. In this study, we contribute to the debate by comparing the success and complication rates of PNL and RIRS that were used to treat renal pelvis stones 2-3 cm in diameter. Materials and Methods. The medical records of 154 patients (74 PNL, 80 RIRS were retrospectively evaluated. PNL patients were placed in Group 1 and RIRS patients in Group 2. Results. The complete stone-free rates were 95.5% in the PNL group and 80.6% in the RIRS group 1 month postoperatively (P=0.061. The respective complication rates (evaluated using the Clavien system were 13.5% and 8.8% (P=0.520. Conclusions. RIRS affords a comparable success rate, causes fewer complications than PNL, and seems to be a promising alternative to PNL when larger stones are to be treated. Prospective randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm these findings.

  18. Rewiring AMPK and Mitochondrial Retrograde Signaling for Metabolic Control of Aging and Histone Acetylation in Respiratory-Defective Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Magnus N. Friis

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal respiratory metabolism plays a role in numerous human disorders. We find that regulation of overall histone acetylation is perturbed in respiratory-incompetent (ρ0 yeast. Because histone acetylation is highly sensitive to acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA availability, we sought interventions that suppress this ρ0 phenotype through reprogramming metabolism. Nutritional intervention studies led to the discovery that genetic coactivation of the mitochondrion-to-nucleus retrograde (RTG response and the AMPK (Snf1 pathway prevents abnormal histone deacetylation in ρ0 cells. Metabolic profiling of signaling mutants uncovered links between chromatin-dependent phenotypes of ρ0 cells and metabolism of ATP, acetyl-CoA, glutathione, branched-chain amino acids, and the storage carbohydrate trehalose. Importantly, RTG/AMPK activation reprograms energy metabolism to increase the supply of acetyl-CoA to lysine acetyltransferases and extend the chronological lifespan of ρ0 cells. Our results strengthen the framework for rational design of nutrient supplementation schemes and drug-discovery initiatives aimed at mimicking the therapeutic benefits of dietary interventions.

  19. Cannulation time is a more accurate measure of cannulation difficulty in endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography than the number of attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Chenlu; Gamboa, Anthony; Chaudhury, Biswashree; Willingham, Field F; Keilin, Steve; Cai, Qiang

    2013-11-01

    Cannulation of the common bile duct (CBD) is the initial and sometime challenging step in endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) procedure. Endoscopists often use cannulation attempts and cannulation time to grade cannulation difficulty, but a standard system has yet to be established. The objective of this study was to compare cannulation times with numbers of cannulation attempts, as measures of cannulation difficulty. We conducted a prospective study in a tertiary referral center, enrolling 58 patients who were undergoing ERCP for a variety of indications. Cannulation time and the number of cannulation attempts were recorded for each patient. A subset of 14 ERCPs had two observers assessing attempts at cannulation. Cannulation time, number of attempts and inter-observer variability in assessment of attempts were compared and studied. The degree of agreement between two the methods (cannulation times and number of cannulation attempts) was unacceptable. There were considerable discrepancies between attempt tallies from two observers but the mean difference was statistically insignificant. The grade of cannulation difficulty for a given ERCP procedure may differ when different methods are used (total cannulation time vs number of attempts); thus, grading by different methods should not be used interchangeably. Cannulation time is a more objective and more accurate assessment tool for grading cannulation difficulty than the number of attempts to cannulate the papilla.

  20. [Choledocolithiasis predictors in high-risk population subjected to endoscopic retrograde pancreatocholangiography at "Hospital Nacional Arzobispo Loayza"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra Pérez, V; Vargas Cárdenas, G; Astete Benavides, M; Valdivia Roldán, M; Morán Tisoc, L; Nuñez Calixto, N; Chávez Rossell, M; Mayurí Bravo De Rueda, C

    2007-01-01

    The choledocholithiasis is a frequent complication of gallstone disease. The endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is suitable for its diagnosis and treatment. That approach has both significative morbility and mortality so others methods of diagnosis have been proposed such as intraoperatorycholangiography (IOC) and magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRC), reserving ERCP only for therapy purpose. Verify the utility of choledocholithiasis predictors described in literature This study is a correlational observational transversal prospective approach. It was performed at the Arzobispo Loayza Hospital from August 2004 to January 2005. Many clinical, biochemical and ecographyc predictors of choledocholithiasis were analyzed in 151 patient underwent to ERCP. In all peopleunder study and analyzing separately patients underwent to cholecystectomy or not previous to ERCP, it was identified some risk factors for choledocholithiasis by means of both univariate and multivariate analysis. The univariate analysis showed a relationships among age, icterus, cholangytis, direct bilirrubin, amylase, lactic deshidrogenasa, ductal dilatation (>8 mm) and choledocholithiasis. In all groups, the multivariate analysis determined that ductal dilatation by ecography was the unique predictor for choledocholithiasis in the group of patients postoperated. None single indicator was able to predict with accuracy the choledocholithiasis. However, the parameters described in the literature are useful in our country.

  1. Octavolateral neurons projecting to the middle and posterior rhombencephalic reticular nuclei of larval lamprey: a retrograde horseradish peroxidase labeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, M J; Manso, M J; Anadón, R

    1997-08-04

    The octavolateral area of lampreys, which receives primary fibers from the octaval and lateral line nerves, is involved in the premotor organization of body movements through secondary projections to the reticular formation. Here, the typology of neurons of the three octavolateral nuclei (ventral, medial, and dorsal) that putatively project to the middle and posterior rhombencephalic reticular nuclei were studied by retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) applied to these reticular nuclei. Several types of neurons were labeled in the ventral nucleus, both ipsilateral and contralateral to the site of HRP application. Some of these neurons showed a rather simple morphology (octavomotor neurons, monopolar cells), but most had more- or less-branched dendrites that were associated with one, or several, fields of terminal fibers in the octavolateral area. Unlike those of the ventral nucleus, labeled neurons of the medial nucleus were homogeneous in appearance (mostly pear-shaped). The dorsal nucleus was scarcely developed in larvae, as judged from the very simple and small labeled cells. The presence of terminal or "en-passant" boutons of secondary octavolateral fibers in the reticular area and the commissural nature of these fibers were also investigated by means of application of HRP or indocarbocyanine dye to the octavolateral nuclei. In addition, neurons of other alar plate nuclei that were labeled by the HRP application to the reticular nuclei (trigeminal descending root nucleus and solitary nucleus) were also characterized. The functional significance of these results is discussed.

  2. Minimally Invasive Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy versus Retrograde Intrarenal Surgery for Upper Urinary Stones: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyang Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy (mini-PCNL and retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS are both alternatives for PCNL to treat renal calculi. This study is aimed at comparing the stone-free rate (SFR and other surgery parameters of two approaches for treating upper urinary calculi. We performed this meta-analysis in September 2016 by searching studies about mini-PCNL and RIRS for treating upper urinary calculi in various databases, and RevMan v.5.3 was applied. Three randomized controlled trials and ten nonrandomized trials were included, involving a total of 1317 patients. Meta-analysis showed that mini-PCNL group led to a higher SFR [odds ratio: 1.96; 95% confidence interval: 1.46–2.64; P<0.00001] but brought a larger postoperative decrease in hemoglobin levels compared with RIRS. RIRS provided a shorter hospital time. There was no significant difference in operation time. Higher postoperative complications were detected in the mini-PCNL, but the difference was not significant. Grade I and III complications did not vary between two procedures, but grade II complications were of lower incidence in RIRS group. In the light of these results, compared with RIRS, mini-PCNL provided significantly higher SFR and efficiency quotient for managing calculi; however, it resulted in higher incidence of postoperative complications, larger hemoglobin drops, and longer hospital stay.

  3. PKCδ and ε regulate the morphological integrity of the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC) but not the anterograde and retrograde transports via the Golgi apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Taichi; Nakatsu, Daiki; Kii, Hiroaki; Maiya, Nobuhiko; Adachi, Atsuhiro; Yamamoto, Akitsugu; Kano, Fumi; Murata, Masayuki

    2012-04-01

    The ER-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC) is an organelle through which cargo proteins pass and are being transferred by either anterograde or retrograde transport between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the Golgi apparatus. We examined the effect of 80 different kinase inhibitors on ERGIC morphology and found that rottlerin, a PKCδ inhibitor, induced the dispersion of the perinuclear ERGIC into punctate structures. Rottlerin also delayed anterograde transport of vesicular stomatitis virus G protein (VSVG) from the ER to the Golgi and retrograde transport of cholera toxin from cell surface to the ER via the Golgi. RNA interference revealed that knockdown of PKCδ or ε resulted in the dispersion of the ERGIC, but unexpectedly did not inhibit VSVG and cholera toxin transport. We also found that rottlerin depolarized the mitochondrial membrane potential, as does carbonylcyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP), an uncoupler, and demonstrated that a decrease in the intracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels by rottlerin might underlie the block in transports. These results suggest that PKCδ and ε specifically regulate the morphology of the ERGIC and that the maintenance of ERGIC structure is not necessarily required for anterograde and retrograde transports. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A new endoscopic therapeutic method for acute obstructive suppurative cholangitis post Roux-en-Y anastomosis: endoscopic retrograde cholangiography through jejunostomy

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    Zhuo YANG

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available  Objective  To probe the value of endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC through jejunostomy in patients in whom ERC could not be performed via the mouth after Roux-en-Y anastomosis on the upper gastrointestinal tract. Methods  In two patients suffering from acute obstructive suppurative cholangitis after a radical operation for cholangiocarcinoma, ERC could not be performed through the mouth due to the presence of a long non-functional jejunal loop. A jejunostomy was first done in the afferent loop of the jejunum, and a gastroscope was then inserted via the jejunostomy and passed retrogradely, to find the stoma of the cholangiointestinal anastomosis. ERC was then successfully performed, and followed by endoscopic retrograde biliary drainage (ERBD. Results  The operation was successful. It was found that cholangio-jejunostomy stoma was narrow, and a large amount of purulent mucus was present in the enlarged intrahepatic duct. ERC was done to enlarge the stoma, and a stent was placed into the main branch of the intrahepatic duct. Two patients achieved surgical success and smooth recovery after the operation. Conclusion  ERC through a jejunostomy in the patients who had Roux-en-Y cholangiojejunostomy following radical resection for cholangiocarcinoma, is a safe and effective surgical procedure.

  5. A mechanistic approach to studies of the possible digestion of retrograded starch by α-amylase revealed using a log of slope (LOS) plot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Hamung; Day, Richard; Butterworth, Peter J; Ellis, Peter R

    2014-11-26

    The rate and extent of digestibility of starch were analysed using the logarithm of the slope (LOS) method. Digestibility curves with α-amylase were obtained for starches in their native, gelatinised and 24h retrograded form. A LOS plot of the digestibility curves was then constructed, which allowed the rate constant (k) and the concentration of the product at the end of the reaction (C∞) to be calculated. It also allowed the identification of rapid and slow phases in starch digestion. Upon gelatinisation, both k and C∞ increased with dramatic changes notably in C∞; however after starch samples had been stored for 24h at room temperature, k was not affected but C∞ decreased. This suggests that retrograded starch is virtually inert to amylase action. Both k and C∞ were strongly related to the increase in degree of order of the α-glucan chains, monitored by FTIR-ATR spectroscopy, in retrograded starch. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. The value of three-dimensional helical computed tomography for the retrograde flexible ureteronephroscopy in the treatment of lower pole calyx stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Lyu, Jian-Lin

    2016-03-01

    The aim of our study was to determine if there is any advantage of three-dimensional helical computed tomography (3D-HCT) over intravenous urogram (IVU) for the retrograde flexible ureteronephroscopy in the treatment of lower pole calyx stones. From June 2012 to January 2014, a total of 52 cases of lower pole renal stones underwent retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) in our center. All patients underwent a preoperative IVU and three-dimensional helical computed tomography urography (3D-CTU) program to define the collecting system anatomy, manly concerning the following lower pole features; infundibu-lopelvic angle (IPA), infundibular length (IL), and infundibular width (IW). The examinations were performed in the same center of reference with a standardized method and with 3D-HCT Siemens Somaton Plus equipment. The measurements were performed by the same researcher, using a ruler and a square. Based on clinical threshold difference of the anatomic factors on an IVU image to compare the difference between an IVU image and a 3D-CT image of 52 patients, the IPA was IVU when analyzing the morphometric and the morphological features of kidney lower pole spatial anatomy for the retrograde flexible ureteronephroscopy in the treatment of lower pole calyx stones.

  7. Above and beyond C5a Receptor Targeting by Staphylococcal Leucotoxins: Retrograde Transport of Panton-Valentine Leucocidin and γ-Hemolysin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann-Meisse, Gaëlle; Prévost, Gilles; Jover, Emmanuel

    2017-01-20

    Various membrane receptors associated with the innate immune response have recently been identified as mediators of the cellular action of Staphylococcus aureus leucotoxins. Two of these, the Panton-Valentine leucotoxin LukS-PV/LukF-PV and the γ-hemolysin HlgC/HlgB, bind the C5a complement-derived peptide receptor. These leucotoxins utilize the receptor to induce intracellular Ca 2+ release from internal stores, other than those activated by C5a. The two leucotoxins are internalized with the phosphorylated receptor, but it is unknown whether they divert retrograde transport of the receptor or follow another pathway. Immunolabeling and confocal microscopic techniques were used to analyze the presence of leucotoxins in endosomes, lysosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, and Golgi. The two leucotoxins apparently followed retrograde transport similar to that of the C5a peptide-activated receptor. However, HlgC/HlgB reached the Golgi network very early, whereas LukS-PV/LukF-PV followed slower kinetics. The HlgC/HlgB leucotoxin remained in neutrophils 6 h after a 10-min incubation of the cells in the presence of the toxin with no signs of apoptosis, whereas apoptosis was observed 3 h after neutrophils were incubated with LukS-PV/LukF-PV. Such retrograde transport of leucotoxins provides a novel understanding of the cellular effects initiated by sublytic concentrations of these toxins.

  8. Above and beyond C5a Receptor Targeting by Staphylococcal Leucotoxins: Retrograde Transport of Panton–Valentine Leucocidin and γ-Hemolysin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaëlle Zimmermann-Meisse

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Various membrane receptors associated with the innate immune response have recently been identified as mediators of the cellular action of Staphylococcus aureus leucotoxins. Two of these, the Panton–Valentine leucotoxin LukS-PV/LukF-PV and the γ-hemolysin HlgC/HlgB, bind the C5a complement-derived peptide receptor. These leucotoxins utilize the receptor to induce intracellular Ca2+ release from internal stores, other than those activated by C5a. The two leucotoxins are internalized with the phosphorylated receptor, but it is unknown whether they divert retrograde transport of the receptor or follow another pathway. Immunolabeling and confocal microscopic techniques were used to analyze the presence of leucotoxins in endosomes, lysosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, and Golgi. The two leucotoxins apparently followed retrograde transport similar to that of the C5a peptide-activated receptor. However, HlgC/HlgB reached the Golgi network very early, whereas LukS-PV/LukF-PV followed slower kinetics. The HlgC/HlgB leucotoxin remained in neutrophils 6 h after a 10-min incubation of the cells in the presence of the toxin with no signs of apoptosis, whereas apoptosis was observed 3 h after neutrophils were incubated with LukS-PV/LukF-PV. Such retrograde transport of leucotoxins provides a novel understanding of the cellular effects initiated by sublytic concentrations of these toxins.

  9. Development of prognostic model for predicting survival after retrograde placement of ureteral stent in advanced gastrointestinal cancer patients and its evaluation by decision curve analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Shingo; Komai, Yoshinobu; Ishioka, Junichiro; Sakai, Yasuyuki; Fuse, Nozomu; Ito, Masaaki; Kihara, Kazunori; Saito, Norio

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine risk factors for survival after retrograde placement of ureteral stents and develop a prognostic model for advanced gastrointestinal tract (GIT: esophagus, stomach, colon and rectum) cancer patients. We examined the clinical records of 122 patients who underwent retrograde placement of a ureteral stent against malignant extrinsic ureteral obstruction. A prediction model for survival after stenting was developed. We compared its clinical usefulness with our previous model based on the results from nephrostomy cases by decision curve analysis. Median follow-up period was 201 days (8-1490) and 97 deaths occurred. The 1-year survival rate in this cohort was 29%. Based on multivariate analysis, primary site of colon origin, absence of retroperitoneal lymph node metastasis and serum albumin >3g/dL were significantly associated with a prolonged survival time. To develop a prognostic model, we divided the patients into 3 risk groups of favorable: 0-1 factors (N.=53), intermediate: 2 risk factors (N.=54), and poor: 3 risk factors (N.=15). There were significant differences in the survival profiles of these 3 risk groups (P<0.0001). Decision curve analyses revealed that the current model has a superior net benefit than our previous model for most of the examined probabilities. We have developed a novel prognostic model for GIT cancer patients who were treated with retrograde placement of a ureteral stent. The current model should help urologists and medical oncologists to predict survival in cases of malignant extrinsic ureteral obstruction.

  10. Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liemann, S; Glockshuber, R

    1998-09-18

    Scrapie, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), and the Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) belong to a group of lethal neurodegenerative disorders in mammals. Prion diseases or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are characterized by the accumulation of an abnormal isoform (PrPSc) of the host-encoded cellular prion protein (PrPC) in the brain. The infectious agent, the 'prion,' is believed to be devoid of informational nucleic acid and to consist largely, if not entirely, of PrPSc. The PrP isoforms contain identical amino acid sequences yet differ in their overall secondary structure with the PrPSc isoform possessing a higher beta-sheet and lower alpha-helix content than PrPC. Elucidation of the three-dimensional structure of PrPC has provided important clues on the molecular basis of inherited human TSEs and on the species barrier phenomenon of TSEs. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanism of the conformational rearrangement of PrPC into PrPSc is still unknown, mainly due to the lack of detailed structural information on PrPSc. Within the framework of the 'protein only' hypothesis, two plausible models for the self-replication of prions have been suggested, the conformational model and the nucleation-dependent polymerization model.

  11. Thrips transmission of tospoviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotenberg, Dorith; Jacobson, Alana L; Schneweis, Derek J; Whitfield, Anna E

    2015-12-01

    One hundred years ago, the disease tomato spotted wilt was first described in Australia. Since that time, knowledge of this disease caused by Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and transmitted by thrips (insects in the order Thysanoptera) has revealed a complex relationship between the virus, vector, plant host, and environment. Numerous tospoviruses and thrips vectors have been described, revealing diversity in plant host range and geographical distributions. Advances in characterization of the tripartite interaction between the virus, vector, and plant host have provided insight into molecular and ecological relationships. Comparison to animal-infecting viruses in the family Bunyaviridae has enabled the identification of commonalities between tospoviruses and other bunyaviruses in transmission by arthropod vectors and molecular interactions with hosts. This review provides a special emphasis on TSWV and Frankliniella occidentalis, the model tospovirus-thrips pathosystem. However, other virus-vector combinations are also of importance and where possible, comparisons are made between different viruses and thrips vectors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Control of schistosomiasis transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz C. de S. Dias

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the success of control programmes, schistosomiasis is still a serious public health problem in the world. More than 70 countries where 200 million individuals are evaluated to be infected of a total 600 million at risk. Though there have been important local success in the control of transmission, globally the infection has increased. Economic constrains in developing countries, environmental changes associated with migration and water resources development have been blocking the progress. The main objective of schistosomiasis control is to achieve reduction of disease due to schistosomiasis. We discussed the control measures like: health education, diagnosis and chemotherapy, safe water supplies, sanitation and snail control. We emphasized the need to give priority to school-age children and the importance of integrating the measures of control into locally available systems of health care. The control of schistosomiasis is directly related to the capacity of the preventive health services of an endemic country. The strategy of control requires long-term commitment from the international to the local level.

  13. Transmission diamond imaging detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smedley, John, E-mail: smedley@bnl.gov; Pinelli, Don; Gaoweia, Mengjia [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Muller, Erik; Ding, Wenxiang; Zhou, Tianyi [Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Bohon, Jen [Case Center for Synchrotron Biosciences, Center for Proteomics and Bioinformatics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2016-07-27

    Many modern synchrotron techniques are trending toward use of high flux beams and/or beams which require enhanced stability and precise understanding of beam position and intensity from the front end of the beamline all the way to the sample. For high flux beams, major challenges include heat load management in optics (including the vacuum windows) and a mechanism of real-time volumetric measurement of beam properties such as flux, position, and morphology. For beam stability in these environments, feedback from such measurements directly to control systems for optical elements or to sample positioning stages would be invaluable. To address these challenges, we are developing diamond-based instrumented vacuum windows with integrated volumetric x-ray intensity, beam profile and beam-position monitoring capabilities. A 50 µm thick single crystal diamond has been lithographically patterned to produce 60 µm pixels, creating a >1kilopixel free-standing transmission imaging detector. This device, coupled with a custom, FPGA-based readout, has been used to image both white and monochromatic x-ray beams and capture the last x-ray photons at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). This technology will form the basis for the instrumented end-station window of the x-ray footprinting beamline (XFP) at NSLS-II.

  14. Genetic transmission of reading ability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swagerman, Suzanne C.; Van Bergen, Elsje; Dolan, Conor; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Koenis, Marinka M.G.; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2017-01-01

    Reading is the processing of written language. Family resemblance for reading (dis)ability might be due to transmission of a genetic liability or due to family environment, including cultural transmission from parents to offspring. Familial-risk studies exploring neurobehavioral precursors for

  15. Hendra virus ecology and transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Hume E

    2016-02-01

    Hendra virus causes acute and highly fatal infection in horses and humans. Pteropid bats (flying-foxes) are the natural host of the virus, with age and species being risk factors for infection. Urine is the primary route of excretion in flying-foxes, with viral RNA more frequently detected in Pteropus alecto and P. conspicillatus than other species. Infection prevalence in flying-foxes can vary between and within years, with a winter peak of excretion occurring in some regions. Vertical transmission and recrudescing infection has been reported in flying-foxes, but horizontal transmission is evidently the primary mode of transmission. The most parsimonious mode of flying-fox to horse transmission is equine contact (oro-nasal, conjunctival) with infected flying-fox urine, either directly, or via urine-contaminated pasture or surfaces. Horse to horse transmission is inefficient, requiring direct contact with infected body fluids. Flying-fox to human transmission has not been recorded; all human cases have been associated with close and direct contact with infected horses. Canine cases (subclinical) have also been limited to equine case properties. Notwithstanding the recent availability of an effective vaccine for horses, a comprehensive understanding of Hendra virus ecology and transmission is essential to limit inter-species transmission. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A Quantitative Transmission Line Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, D. C.; Silbernagel, B. G.

    1969-01-01

    Describes modifications of a commercially available strip-type transmission line, which makes possible reproducible measurements of standing waves on the line. Experimental data yield values for the characteristic impedance, phase velocity and line wavelength of radiation in the transmission line, and the dielectric constant of material in the…

  17. HVDC power transmission technology assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauth, R.L.; Tatro, P.J.; Railing, B.D. [New England Power Service Co., Westborough, MA (United States); Johnson, B.K.; Stewart, J.R. [Power Technologies, Inc., Schenectady, NY (United States); Fink, J.L.

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an assessment of the national utility system`s needs for electric transmission during the period 1995-2020 that could be met by future reduced-cost HVDC systems. The assessment was to include an economic evaluation of HVDC as a means for meeting those needs as well as a comparison with competing technologies such as ac transmission with and without Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) controllers. The role of force commutated dc converters was to be assumed where appropriate. The assessment begins by identifying the general needs for transmission in the U.S. in the context of a future deregulated power industry. The possible roles for direct current transmission are then postulated in terms of representative scenarios. A few of the scenarios are illustrated with the help of actual U.S. system examples. non-traditional applications as well as traditional applications such as long lines and asynchronous interconnections are discussed. The classical ``break-even distance`` concept for comparing HVDC and ac lines is used to assess the selected scenarios. The impact of reduced-cost converters is reflected in terms of the break-even distance. This report presents a comprehensive review of the functional benefits of HVDC transmission and updated cost data for both ac and dc system components. It also provides some provocative thoughts on how direct current transmission might be applied to better utilize and expand our nation`s increasingly stressed transmission assets.

  18. A transmission line phase stabilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutes, G. F.

    1979-01-01

    To meet the phase stability requirements of certain experiments performed with the Deep Space Network, transmission lines carrying reference signals must be stabilized to reduce changes in their electrical length due to mechanical movement or changes in ambient temperature. A transmission line phase stabilizer being developed at JPL to perform this function is described.

  19. Maize Cytolines Unmask Key Nuclear Genes That Are under the Control of Retrograde Signaling Pathways in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miclaus, Mihai; Balacescu, Ovidiu; Has, Ioan; Balacescu, Loredana; Has, Voichita; Suteu, Dana; Neuenschwander, Samuel; Keller, Irene; Bruggmann, Rémy

    2016-11-17

    The genomes of the two plant organelles encode for a relatively small number of proteins. Thus, nuclear genes encode the vast majority of their proteome. Organelle-to-nucleus communication takes place through retrograde signaling (RS) pathways. Signals relayed through RS pathways have an impact on nuclear gene expression but their target-genes remain elusive in a normal state of the cell (considering that only mutants and stress have been used so far). Here, we use maize cytolines as an alternative. The nucleus of a donor line was transferred into two other cytoplasmic environments through at least nine back-crosses, in a time-span of > 10 years. The transcriptomes of the resulting cytolines were sequenced and compared. There are 96 differentially regulated nuclear genes in two cytoplasm-donor lines when compared with their nucleus-donor. They are expressed throughout plant development, in various tissues and organs. One-third of the 96 proteins have a human homolog, stressing their potential role in mitochondrial RS. We also identified syntenic orthologous genes in four other grasses and homologous genes in Arabidopsis thaliana These findings contribute to the paradigm we use to describe the RS in plants. The 96 nuclear genes identified here are not differentially regulated as a result of mutation, or any kind of stress. They are rather key players of the organelle-to-nucleus communication in a normal state of the cell. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  20. The impact of pelvicaliceal anatomy on the success of retrograde intrarenal surgery in patients with lower pole renal stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resorlu, Berkan; Oguz, Ural; Resorlu, Eylem Burcu; Oztuna, Derya; Unsal, Ali

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of pelvicaliceal anatomy on the success of retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) for lower pole renal stones and determine which of these factors can be used to select patients who will benefit from RIRS. We evaluated 67 patients who underwent RIRS between 2009 and 2010 for isolated lower pole renal stones. The infundibular length (IL), infundibular width (IW), pelvicaliceal height (PCH), and infundibulopelvic angle (IPA) were measured by preoperative intravenous urogram. Success was defined as either complete clearance or clearance with insignificant residual fragments≤3 mm in size at 2-months follow-up. Mean IL was 26.7±7.9 and 28.2±5.3 mm, mean PCH was 20.7±6.6 and 23.2±4.9 mm in stone-free and non-stone-free patients, respectively. These were slightly larger in the non-stone-free group but not statistically significant (P=.140 and P=.072, respectively). Mean IW was 5.8±3.5 and 5.6±2.2 mm in stone-free and non-stone-free patients, respectively, which had no significant impact on the stone-free rate (P=.719). There were significant differences between the groups in terms of stone length (P=.001) and IPA (P=.003). The mean IPA was 49.37±11.83 and 37.61±13.22 mm in stone-free and non-stone-free patients, respectively. In addition to the influence of stone size, lower pole anatomy, especially IPA, has a significant impact on stone clearance for lower pole stones after RIRS. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.