WorldWideScience

Sample records for symptomatic giardia lamblia

  1. Giardia lamblia.

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Padilla, Eva María

    2015-01-01

    Las infecciones parasitarias son un verdadero problema para la salud pública especialmente en países con niveles socioeconómicos bajos. La infección por Giardia es la responsable de producir un 2-3% de las diarreas del viajero, muy relacionada también con la diarrea infecciosa no viral en niños. El reservorio de Giardia es el hombre, ya sea enfermo o en estado de portador asintomático, la infección puede ser frecuente entre animales domésticos, mamíferos salvajes y aves....

  2. Studies of Giardia lamblia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-10-05

    Giardiasis: A cause of celiac syndrome. Am. J. of Diseases in Children. 98:311- 316. Cote, R. P.M. Daggett, M.J. Gantt, R. Hay, S.C. Jong, and P...stool (Meyer, 1994). The disease associated with infection by G. lamblia is known as giardiosis and is characterized by a variety of symptoms...prone to epidemics. The distribution of cases in the population consequently varies between endemic and epidemic areas. In endemic areas, children

  3. Prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica , Giardia lamblia , and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The intestinal protozoa Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium spp. are the causative agents of giardiasis, amebiasis, and cryptosporidiosis, respectively. Adequate knowledge of the geographical distribution of parasites and the demographic variables that influence their prevalence is ...

  4. Prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-29

    Jun 29, 2016 ... Introduction: The intestinal protozoa Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium spp. are ... prevalence rate of the three organisms was found according to gender, but most of infections were observed in children aged 10 ..... In developing countries, poor hygiene and the use of untreated ...

  5. Host defences against Giardia lamblia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Romero, G; Quintero, J; Astiazarán-García, H; Velazquez, C

    2015-08-01

    Giardia spp. is a protozoan parasite that inhabits the upper small intestine of mammals and other species and is the aetiological agent of giardiasis. It has been demonstrated that nitric oxide, mast cells and dendritic cells are the first line of defence against Giardia. IL-6 and IL-17 play an important role during infection. Several cytokines possess overlapping functions in regulating innate and adaptive immune responses. IgA and CD4(+) T cells are fundamental to the process of Giardia clearance. It has been suggested that CD4(+) T cells play a double role during the anti-Giardia immune response. First, they activate and stimulate the differentiation of B cells to generate Giardia-specific antibodies. Second, they act through a B-cell-independent mechanism that is probably mediated by Th17 cells. Several Giardia proteins that stimulate humoral and cellular immune responses have been described. Variant surface proteins, α-1 giardin, and cyst wall protein 2 can induce host protective responses to future Giardia challenges. The characterization and evaluation of the protective potential of the immunogenic proteins that are associated with Giardia will offer new insights into host-parasite interactions and may aid in the development of an effective vaccine against the parasite. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Tonic shock induces detachment of Giardia lamblia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy R Hansen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The parasite Giardia lamblia must remain attached to the host small intestine in order to proliferate and subsequently cause disease. However, little is known about the factors that may cause detachment in vivo, such as changes in the aqueous environment. Osmolality within the proximal small intestine can vary by nearly an order of magnitude between host fed and fasted states, while pH can vary by several orders of magnitude. Giardia cells are known to regulate their volume when exposed to changes in osmolality, but the short-timescale effects of osmolality and pH on parasite attachment are not known. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a closed flow chamber assay to test the effects of rapid changes in media osmolality, tonicity, and pH on Giardia attachment to both glass and C2(Bbe-1 intestinal cell monolayer surfaces. We found that Giardia detach from both surfaces in a tonicity-dependent manner, where tonicity is the effective osmolality experienced by the cell. Detachment occurs with a characteristic time constant of 25 seconds (SD = 10 sec, n = 17 in both hypo- and hypertonic media but is otherwise insensitive to physiologically relevant changes in media composition and pH. Interestingly, cells that remain attached are able to adapt to moderate changes in tonicity. By exposing cells to a timed pattern of tonicity variations and adjustment periods, we found that it is possible to maximize the tonicity change experienced by the cells, overcoming the adaptive response and resulting in extensive detachment. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: These results, conducted with human-infecting Giardia on human intestinal epithelial monolayers, highlight the ability of Giardia to adapt to the changing intestinal environment and suggest new possibilities for treatment of giardiasis by manipulation of tonicity in the intestinal lumen.

  7. What Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia tell us about the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia are microaerophilic protists, which have long been considered models of ancient pre-mitochondriate eukaryotes. As transitional eukaryotes, amoebae and giardia appeared to lack organelles of higher eukaryotes and to depend upon energy metabolism appropriate for anaerobic ...

  8. Attachment of Giardia lamblia to rat intestinal epithelial cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Inge, P M; Edson, C M; Farthing, M J

    1988-01-01

    The human enteric protozoan, Giardia lamblia, has surface membrane lectin activity which mediates parasite adherence to erythrocytes. To determine whether an intestinal binding site exists for this lectin we have studied the interaction in vitro between axenically cultured Giardia trophozoites and isolated rat intestinal epithelial cells. Scanning electron microscopy showed that Giardia attached to the apical microvillus membrane and basolateral membrane of rat enterocytes. Any location on th...

  9. New insights regarding the biology of Giardia lamblia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, Pedro G; Lujan, Hugo D

    2010-01-01

    Giardia lamblia is one of the most common causes of intestinal disease in humans. To adapt to environments both inside and outside of the host's small intestine, this protozoan parasite undergoes significant developmental changes during its life cycle. In this review, we analyze and discuss the most recent findings regarding the process of Giardia trophozoites differentiation into infective cysts as well as the mechanism of antigenic variation, which allows the parasite to cause chronic and recurrent infections in susceptible individuals.

  10. Transient transfection and expression of firefly luciferase in Giardia lamblia.

    OpenAIRE

    Yee, J; Nash, T E

    1995-01-01

    We have developed a gene transfer system for the protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia. This organism is responsible for many cases of diarrhea worldwide and is considered to be one of the most primitive eukaryotes. Expression of a heterologous gene was detected in this parasite after electroporation with appropriate DNA constructs. We constructed a series of transfection plasmids using flanking sequences of the Giardia glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) gene to drive expression of the firefly lucife...

  11. Gene duplication in the genome of parasitic Giardia lamblia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flores Roberto

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Giardia are a group of widespread intestinal protozoan parasites in a number of vertebrates. Much evidence from G. lamblia indicated they might be the most primitive extant eukaryotes. When and how such a group of the earliest branching unicellular eukaryotes developed the ability to successfully parasitize the latest branching higher eukaryotes (vertebrates is an intriguing question. Gene duplication has long been thought to be the most common mechanism in the production of primary resources for the origin of evolutionary novelties. In order to parse the evolutionary trajectory of Giardia parasitic lifestyle, here we carried out a genome-wide analysis about gene duplication patterns in G. lamblia. Results Although genomic comparison showed that in G. lamblia the contents of many fundamental biologic pathways are simplified and the whole genome is very compact, in our study 40% of its genes were identified as duplicated genes. Evolutionary distance analyses of these duplicated genes indicated two rounds of large scale duplication events had occurred in G. lamblia genome. Functional annotation of them further showed that the majority of recent duplicated genes are VSPs (Variant-specific Surface Proteins, which are essential for the successful parasitic life of Giardia in hosts. Based on evolutionary comparison with their hosts, it was found that the rapid expansion of VSPs in G. lamblia is consistent with the evolutionary radiation of placental mammals. Conclusions Based on the genome-wide analysis of duplicated genes in G. lamblia, we found that gene duplication was essential for the origin and evolution of Giardia parasitic lifestyle. The recent expansion of VSPs uniquely occurring in G. lamblia is consistent with the increment of its hosts. Therefore we proposed a hypothesis that the increment of Giradia hosts might be the driving force for the rapid expansion of VSPs.

  12. Molecular identification of Giardia lamblia isolates from adult human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ARL

    2013-02-27

    Feb 27, 2013 ... Giardia lamblia is a flagellated protozoa that infects the intestinal tract of a wide range of mammalian hosts, including both wild and domestic animals as well as humans. ... Person-to-person, zoonotic, foodborne and waterborne transmissions may occur through the fecal-oral route after contact with the ...

  13. Molecular identification of Giardia lamblia isolates from adult human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... reflect environmental contamination of water resources. Therefore, it seems further studies are needed to clarify the route of infection in the study area. Keywords: Giardia lamblia, glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR), PCR-RFLP, Ahvaz, Iran African Journal of Biotechnology Vol.

  14. Mechanisms of adaptation in the intestinal parasite Giardia lamblia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lujan, Hugo D

    2011-01-01

    Giardia lamblia, a parasite of humans, is a major source of waterborne diarrhoeal disease. Giardia is also an excellent system to study basic biochemical processes because it is a single-celled eukaryote with a small genome and its entire life cycle can be replicated in vitro. Giardia trophozoites undergo fundamental changes to survive outside the intestine of their host by differentiating into infective cysts. Encystation entails the synthesis, processing, transport, secretion and extracellular assembly of cyst wall components. To survive within the intestine, Giardia undergoes antigenic variation, a process by which the parasite continuously switches its major surface molecules, allowing the parasite to evade the host's immune response and produce chronic and recurrent infections. The objective of the present chapter is to provide a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in adaptation and differentiation in Giardia, with a particular focus on the process of encystation and antigenic variation of this interesting micro-organism.

  15. Human Memory CD4+ T Cell Immune Responses against Giardia lamblia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørnes, Steinar; Peirasmaki, Dimitra; Svärd, Staffan; Langeland, Nina

    2015-01-01

    The intestinal protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia may cause severe prolonged diarrheal disease or pass unnoticed as an asymptomatic infection. T cells seem to play an important role in the immune response to Giardia infection, and memory responses may last years. Recently, TH17 responses have been found in three animal studies of Giardia infection. The aim of this study was to characterize the human CD4+ T cell responses to Giardia. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were obtained from 21 returning travelers with recent or ongoing giardiasis and 12 low-risk healthy controls and stimulated in vitro with Giardia lamblia proteins. Production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), gamma interferon, interleukin-17A (IL-17A), IL-10, and IL-4 was measured in CD4+ effector memory (EM) T cells after 24 h by flow cytometry. After 6 days of culture, activation and proliferation were measured by flow cytometry, while an array of inflammatory cytokine levels in supernatants were measured with multiplex assays. We found the number of IL-17A-producing CD4+ EM T cells, as well as that of cells simultaneously producing both IL-17A and TNF-α, to be significantly elevated in the Giardia-exposed individuals after 24 h of antigen stimulation. In supernatants of PBMCs stimulated with Giardia antigens for 6 days, we found inflammation-associated cytokines, including 1L-17A, as well as CD4+ T cell activation and proliferation, to be significantly elevated in the Giardia-exposed individuals. We conclude that symptomatic Giardia infection in humans induces a CD4+ EM T cell response of which IL-17A production seems to be an important component. PMID:26376930

  16. Unusual ribosomal RNA of the intestinal parasite Giardia lamblia.

    OpenAIRE

    Edlind, T D; Chakraborty, P R

    1987-01-01

    The anaerobic protozoan Giardia lamblia is a common intestinal parasite in humans, but is poorly defined at molecular and phylogenetic levels. We report here a structural characterization of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and rRNA genes of G. lamblia. Gel electrophoresis under native or non-denaturing conditions identified two high molecular weight rRNA species corresponding to the 16-18S and 23-28S rRNAs. Surprisingly, both species (1300 and 2300 nucleotides long, respectively) were considerably s...

  17. Giardia lamblia infection after pancreas-kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Ann Abkjaer; Horneland, Rune; Birn, Henrik; Svensson, My

    2016-01-18

    Infection is a common complication of solid organ transplantation. It is associated with an increased risk of acute cellular rejection and loss of graft function. The most common infections are due to bacteria and viruses, including transmission of cytomegalovirus from donor to recipient. In the past years, an increasing number of parasitic infections have been documented in transplant recipients. We describe the first reported case of intestinal Giardia lamblia transmission following simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplantation. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  18. Genomic minimalism in the early diverging intestinal parasite Giardia lamblia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Hilary G; McArthur, Andrew G; Gillin, Frances D; Aley, Stephen B; Adam, Rodney D; Olsen, Gary J; Best, Aaron A; Cande, W Zacheus; Chen, Feng; Cipriano, Michael J; Davids, Barbara J; Dawson, Scott C; Elmendorf, Heidi G; Hehl, Adrian B; Holder, Michael E; Huse, Susan M; Kim, Ulandt U; Lasek-Nesselquist, Erica; Manning, Gerard; Nigam, Anuranjini; Nixon, Julie E J; Palm, Daniel; Passamaneck, Nora E; Prabhu, Anjali; Reich, Claudia I; Reiner, David S; Samuelson, John; Svard, Staffan G; Sogin, Mitchell L

    2007-09-28

    The genome of the eukaryotic protist Giardia lamblia, an important human intestinal parasite, is compact in structure and content, contains few introns or mitochondrial relics, and has simplified machinery for DNA replication, transcription, RNA processing, and most metabolic pathways. Protein kinases comprise the single largest protein class and reflect Giardia's requirement for a complex signal transduction network for coordinating differentiation. Lateral gene transfer from bacterial and archaeal donors has shaped Giardia's genome, and previously unknown gene families, for example, cysteine-rich structural proteins, have been discovered. Unexpectedly, the genome shows little evidence of heterozygosity, supporting recent speculations that this organism is sexual. This genome sequence will not only be valuable for investigating the evolution of eukaryotes, but will also be applied to the search for new therapeutics for this parasite.

  19. Development of functional gastrointestinal disorders after Giardia lamblia infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanevik Kurt

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID may occur following acute gastroenteritis. This long-term complication has previously not been described after infection with the non-invasive protozoan Giardia lamblia. This study aims to characterize persistent abdominal symptoms elicited by Giardia infection according to Rome II criteria and symptoms scores. Methods Structured interview and questionnaires 12–30 months after the onset of Giardia infection, and at least 6 months after Giardia eradication, among 82 patients with persisting abdominal symptoms elicited by the Giardia infection. All had been evaluated to exclude other causes. Results We found that 66 (80.5% of the 82 patients had symptoms consistent with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS and 17 (24.3% patients had functional dyspepsia (FD according to Rome II criteria. IBS was sub classified into D-IBS (47.0%, A-IBS (45.5% and C-IBS (7.6%. Bloating, diarrhoea and abdominal pain were reported to be most severe. Symptoms exacerbation related to specific foods were reported by 45 (57.7% patients and to physical or mental stress by 34 (44.7% patients. Conclusion In the presence of an IBS-subtype pattern consistent with post-infectious IBS (PI-IBS, and in the absence of any other plausible causes, we conclude that acute Giardia infection may elicit functional gastrointestinal diseases with food and stress related symptoms similar to FGID patients in general.

  20. Reconstruction of Sugar Metabolic Pathways of Giardia lamblia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Han

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Giardia lamblia is an “important” pathogen of humans, but as a diplomonad excavate it is evolutionarily distant from other eukaryotes and relatively little is known about its core metabolic pathways. KEGG, the widely referenced site for providing information of metabolism, does not yet include many enzymes from Giardia species. Here we identify Giardia’s core sugar metabolism using standard bioinformatic approaches. By comparing Giardia proteomes with known enzymes from other species, we have identified enzymes in the glycolysis pathway, as well as some enzymes involved in the TCA cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. However, the majority of enzymes from the latter two pathways were not identifiable, indicating the likely absence of these functionalities. We have also found enzymes from the Giardia glycolysis pathway that appear more similar to those from bacteria. Because these enzymes are different from those found in mammals, the host organisms for Giardia, we raise the possibility that these bacteria-like enzymes could be novel drug targets for treating Giardia infections.

  1. Role of nitric oxide and superoxide in Giardia lamblia killing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.D. Fernandes

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Giardia lamblia trophozoites were incubated for 2 h with activated murine macrophages, nitric oxide (NO donors or a superoxide anion generator (20 mU/ml xanthine oxidase plus 1 mM xanthine. Activated macrophages were cytotoxic to Giardia trophozoites (~60% dead trophozoites. This effect was inhibited (>90% by an NO synthase inhibitor (200 µM and unaffected by superoxide dismutase (SOD, 300 U/ml. Giardia trophozoites were killed by the NO donors, S-nitroso-acetyl-penicillamine (SNAP and sodium nitroprusside (SNP in a dose-dependent manner (LD50 300 and 50 µM, respectively. A dual NO-superoxide anion donor, 3-morpholino-sydnonimine hydrochloride (SIN-1, did not have a killing effect in concentrations up to 1 mM. However, when SOD (300 U/ml was added simultaneously with SIN-1 to Giardia, a significant trophozoite-killing effect was observed (~35% dead trophozoites at 1 mM. The mixture of SNAP or SNP with superoxide anion, which yields peroxynitrite, abolished the trophozoite killing induced by NO donors. Authentic peroxynitrite only killed trophozoites at very high concentrations (3 mM. These results indicate that NO accounts for Giardia trophozoite killing and this effect is not mediated by peroxynitrite

  2. Flagellar generated flow mediates attachment of Giardia Lamblia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picou, Theodore; Polackwich, Jamie; Burrola Gabilondo, Beatriz; McAllister, Ryan; Powers, Tom; Elmendorf, Heidi; Urbach, Jeff

    2011-11-01

    Giardia lamblia is a protozoan parasite responsible for widespread diarrheal disease in humans and animals worldwide. Attachment to the host intestinal mucosa and resistance to peristalsis is necessary for establishing infection, but the physical basis for this attachment is poorly understood. We report results from confocal fluorescence microscopy that demonstrate that the regular beating of the posterior flagella generate a flow through the ventral disk, a suction-cup shaped structure that is against the substrate during attachment. Finite element simulations show that the negative pressure generated by the flow is consistent with the measured force of attachement between the parasite and its substrate.

  3. Antigenic variation in the intestinal parasite Giardia lamblia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargantini, Pablo Rubén; Serradell, Marianela Del Carmen; Ríos, Diego Nicolás; Tenaglia, Albano Heraldo; Luján, Hugo Daniel

    2016-08-01

    Giardia lamblia trophozoites undergo antigenic variation, where one member of the Variant-specific Surface Protein (VSP) family is expressed on the surface of proliferating trophozoites and periodically replaced by another one. Two main questions have challenged researchers since antigenic switching was discovered in Giardia: What are the mechanisms involved? How are they influenced by other cellular processes or by the environment? Two molecular mechanisms have been proposed, both involving small non-coding RNAs. Here we postulate that (a) chromatin remodeling, triggered by environmental factors, also plays an important role in selecting the VSP that will be expressed and (b) the particular VSP structure may not only protect the parasite in the small intestine but also signal the need to exchange the existing VSP for another. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Therapeutic enhancement of newly derived bacteriocins against Giardia lamblia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Eglal I; Mossallam, Shereen F; Mahrous, Hoda

    2014-11-01

    Trials for identifying efficient anti-giardial agents are still ongoing. Nowadays, bacteriocins have attracted the attention as potential antimicrobial compounds. For the first time, the current study evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of bacteriocins derived from newly isolated Egyptian strains of probiotics Lactobacilli; L. acidophilus (P106) and L. plantarum (P164) against Giardia lamblia. Bacteriocins' efficacy was evaluated both in vitro; by growth inhibition and adherence assays, and in vivo; through estimation of parasite density, intestinal histopathological examination and ultrastructural analysis of Giardia trophozoites. In vivo bacteriocins' clinical safety was assessed. In vitro results proved that 50 µg of L. acidophilus bacteriocin induced reduction of the mean Giardia lamblia trophozoites by 58.3 ± 4.04%, while at lower concentrations of 10 and 20 µg of both L. acidophilus and L. plantarum, non significant reduction of the mean parasite density was achieved. In vitro trophozoites adherence was susceptible to the tested bacteriocins at all studied concentrations with variable degrees, while the highest adherence reduction was demonstrated using 50 µg of L acidophilus bacteriocin. In vivo, oral inoculation of 50 µg/mouse L. acidophilus bacteriocin for 5 successive days resulted in a noteworthy decline of the intestinal parasite density, along with amelioration of intestinal pathology of infected mice. Ultrastructural examination proved thatfive doses of L. acidophilus bacteriocin showed marked changes in cellular architecture of the trophozoites with evident disorganization of the cell membrane, adhesive disc and cytoplasmic components. This is the first reported study of the safe anti-giardial efficacy of L. acidophilus (P106) derived bacteriocin, hence highlighting its great promise as a potential therapeutic safe alternative to existing commercial drugs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Human Secretory Immune Response to Fatty Acid-Binding Protein Fraction from Giardia lamblia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, S. M. T.; Maachee, M.; Córdova, O. M.; Diaz de la Guardia, R.; Martins, M.; Osuna, A.

    2002-01-01

    The secretory immune response in humans infected with Giardia lamblia was studied by using saliva samples and an 8-kDa antigen capable of binding fatty acids. This antigen was not recognized by saliva samples from healthy individuals. The antigen may be useful in diagnostic studies of G. lamblia infection. PMID:11895992

  6. Human Secretory Immune Response to Fatty Acid-Binding Protein Fraction from Giardia lamblia

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, S. M. T.; Maachee, M.; Córdova, O. M.; Diaz de la Guardia, R.; Martins, M.; Osuna, A.

    2002-01-01

    The secretory immune response in humans infected with Giardia lamblia was studied by using saliva samples and an 8-kDa antigen capable of binding fatty acids. This antigen was not recognized by saliva samples from healthy individuals. The antigen may be useful in diagnostic studies of G. lamblia infection.

  7. Proteomics of secretory and endocytic organelles in Giardia lamblia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra B Wampfler

    Full Text Available Giardia lamblia is a flagellated protozoan enteroparasite transmitted as an environmentally resistant cyst. Trophozoites attach to the small intestine of vertebrate hosts and proliferate by binary fission. They access nutrients directly via uptake of bulk fluid phase material into specialized endocytic organelles termed peripheral vesicles (PVs, mainly on the exposed dorsal side. When trophozoites reach the G2/M restriction point in the cell cycle they can begin another round of cell division or encyst if they encounter specific environmental cues. They induce neogenesis of Golgi-like organelles, encystation-specific vesicles (ESVs, for regulated secretion of cyst wall material. PVs and ESVs are highly simplified and thus evolutionary diverged endocytic and exocytic organelle systems with key roles in proliferation and transmission to a new host, respectively. Both organelle systems physically and functionally intersect at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER which has catabolic as well as anabolic functions. However, the unusually high degree of sequence divergence in Giardia rapidly exhausts phylogenomic strategies to identify and characterize the molecular underpinnings of these streamlined organelles. To define the first proteome of ESVs and PVs we used a novel strategy combining flow cytometry-based organelle sorting with in silico filtration of mass spectrometry data. From the limited size datasets we retrieved many hypothetical but also known organelle-specific factors. In contrast to PVs, ESVs appear to maintain a strong physical and functional link to the ER including recruitment of ribosomes to organelle membranes. Overall the data provide further evidence for the formation of a cyst extracellular matrix with minimal complexity. The mass spectrometry proteomics data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium with the dataset identifier PXD000694.

  8. Participation of actin on Giardia lamblia growth and encystation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araceli Castillo-Romero

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Microfilaments play a determinant role in different cell processes such as: motility, cell division, phagocytosis and intracellular transport; however, these structures are poorly understood in the parasite Giardia lamblia. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By confocal microscopy using TRITC-phalloidin, we found structured actin distributed in the entire trophozoite, the label stand out at the ventral disc, median body, flagella and around the nuclei. During Giardia encystation, a sequence of morphological changes concurrent to modifications on the distribution of structured actin and in the expression of actin mRNA were observed. To elucidate whether actin participates actively on growth and encystation, cells were treated with Cytochalasin D, Latrunculin A and Jasplakinolide and analyzed by confocal and scanning electron microscopy. All drugs caused a growth reduction (27 to 45% and changes on the distribution of actin. Besides, 60 to 80% of trophozoites treated with the drugs, exhibited damage at the caudal region, alterations in the flagella and wrinkles-like on the plasma membrane. The drugs also altered the cyst-yield and the morphology, scanning electron microscopy revealed diminished cytokinesis, cysts with damages in the wall and alterations in the size and on the intermembranal space. Furthermore, the drugs caused a significant reduction of the intensity of fluorescence-labeled CWP1 on ESV and on cyst wall, this was coincident with a reduction of CWP1 gene expression (34%. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: All our results, indicated an important role of actin in the morphology, growth and encystation and indirectly suggested an actin role in gene expression.

  9. Isolation and partial characterization of an immunogenic antigen of Giardia lamblia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, Jael; Valdez, Alejandra; Samaniego, Brenda; Lopez-Romero, Gloria; Astiazaran-Garcia, Humberto; Rascon, Lucila; Breci, Linda; Garibay-Escobar, Adriana; Robles-Zepeda, Ramón; Velazquez, Carlos

    2017-06-01

    Humoral and cellular immune responses play an important role during Giardia lamblia infection. Several Giardia proteins have been identified as immunogenic antigens based on their elicited humoral immune response. Poorly is known about Giardia antigens that stimulate a cellular immune response. The main purpose of this study was to isolate and partial characterize an immunogenic antigen (5G8) of G. lamblia. The 5G8 protein was isolated from G. lamblia trophozoite lysates by affinity chromatography using moAb 5G8-coupled CNBr-Sepharose. The isolated protein was analysed by electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS), and by diverse bioinformatics tools (GiardiaDB, BLASTn, BLASTp and ExPASy). Additionally, several biochemical and immunological characteristics of the isolated protein were analysed. By ESI-MS/MS the amino acidic 5G8 sequence was deduced. The 5G8 antigen belongs to the VSP family proteins of G. lamblia. This protein is composed by one polypeptide chain (±71kDa). Using the algorithm SYFPHEITI, we identified candidate CD4 + T-cell epitopes from the 5G8 antigen, which can elicit cell-mediated immune responses. In this study, we have identified a G. lamblia protein that induces a strong immune response in infected mice. The biochemical and immunological characterization of the immunogenic 5G8 antigen may contribute to the rational design of a Giardia vaccine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Chitin synthetase in encysting Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba invadens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, S.; Gillin, F.D.

    1987-01-01

    Giardia lamblia (Gl) and Entamoeba invadens (Ei) are protozoan parasites with two morphologic stages in their life cycles. Motile trophozoites colonize the intestine of humans and reptiles respectively. Water resistant cysts, which can survive outside the host, transmit infection. In vitro cyst formation of Ei from trophozoites has been reported, and the authors have recently induced in vitro encystation of Gl. Although the cyst walls of both parasites contain chitin, it synthesis by encysting trophozoites has not been reported. The authors now show that encystation conditions greatly increase chitin synthetase (CS) specific activity (incorporation of 3 H GlcNAc from UDP-GlcNAc into TCA-or alcohol-precipitable material). Extracts of encysting Gl incorporated 3.6 nmol/mg protein in 5 hr compared to < 0.005 in controls. Extracts of encysting Fi incorporated 4.8 n mol/mg protein, compared to 1.7 in the control. CS activity of both parasites requires preformed chitin. The Gl enzyme requires a reducing agent, is inhibited by digitonin and the CS inhibitors, polyoxin D and Nikkomycin, but not by tunicamycin. The product is digested by chitinase. Ei enzyme does not require a reducing agent and is stimulated by 1 mg/ml digitonin, but inhibited by higher concentrations. These studies demonstrate CS enzymes which may play important roles in encystation of Gl and Ei

  11. Chitin synthetase in encysting Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba invadens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, S.; Gillin, F.D.

    1987-05-01

    Giardia lamblia (Gl) and Entamoeba invadens (Ei) are protozoan parasites with two morphologic stages in their life cycles. Motile trophozoites colonize the intestine of humans and reptiles respectively. Water resistant cysts, which can survive outside the host, transmit infection. In vitro cyst formation of Ei from trophozoites has been reported, and the authors have recently induced in vitro encystation of Gl. Although the cyst walls of both parasites contain chitin, it synthesis by encysting trophozoites has not been reported. The authors now show that encystation conditions greatly increase chitin synthetase (CS) specific activity (incorporation of /sup 3/H GlcNAc from UDP-GlcNAc into TCA-or alcohol-precipitable material). Extracts of encysting Gl incorporated 3.6 nmol/mg protein in 5 hr compared to < 0.005 in controls. Extracts of encysting Fi incorporated 4.8 n mol/mg protein, compared to 1.7 in the control. CS activity of both parasites requires preformed chitin. The Gl enzyme requires a reducing agent, is inhibited by digitonin and the CS inhibitors, polyoxin D and Nikkomycin, but not by tunicamycin. The product is digested by chitinase. Ei enzyme does not require a reducing agent and is stimulated by 1 mg/ml digitonin, but inhibited by higher concentrations. These studies demonstrate CS enzymes which may play important roles in encystation of Gl and Ei.

  12. Genotyping of Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba spp from river waters in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudi, Mohammad Reza; Nazemalhosseini-Mojarad, Ehsan; Karanis, Panagiotis

    2015-12-01

    In this study, DNA from 55 surface and river water samples, which were collected from some water sources of Tehran and the Guilan Province, Iran, were extracted and examined for Entamoeba spp. and Giardia lamblia by PCR and genotyping. Twenty-seven samples, which were concentrated using the immunomagnetic separation technology (IMS) method, were examined for Giardia alone. Twenty-eight samples, which were concentrated using the sucrose flotation (SF) method, were examined for both Giardia and Entamoeba species. The results showed that 27/55 (17/27 and 10/28) (49 %), 4 /28 (14.28 %) and 3/28 (10.7 %) of the samples were positive for Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba spp and mixed infections (Entamoeba spp. and Giardia spp.), respectively. Sixteen out of 55 samples were negative. Entamoeba genus-specific PCR primers in single-round PCR were used to differentiate between the Entamoeba spp. (E. histolytica, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii). With respect to the 7 samples that were positive for Entamoeba, (14.28 %) 4 out of 28 were positive for E. moshkovskii, (7.14 %), 2 out of 28 were positive for E. histolytica and (3.57 %) 1 out of 28 was positive for E. dispar. Genus-specific PCR primers in a semi-nested PCR assay was performed to genotype Giardia species. Of the 27 samples that were positive for Giardia, 10 samples were sequences. All 10 successfully sequenced samples contained assemblage B of Giardia lamblia.This is first study to investigate the G. lamblia genotypes in the water supply of the Tehran and Guilan provinces, and it is the first study to investigate Entamoeba species in the water supplies of Iran. The investigated river water supplies, which are used for agriculture, camping and animal farming, were heavily contaminated by the human pathogenic Entamoeba and Giardia parasites. There is a potential risk of waterborne outbreaks in humans and animals.

  13. Small-intestinal factors promote encystation of Giardia lamblia in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Gillin, F D; Reiner, D S; Boucher, S E

    1988-01-01

    Bile salts and fatty acids stimulated differentiation of cultured Giardia lamblia trophozoites into water-resistant cysts at the slightly alkaline pH of the small intestinal lumen. Maximum encystation occurred at pH 7.8. Thus, specific small-intestinal factors may influence encystation in vivo as well as in vitro.

  14. MATRIX ASSISTED LASER DESORPTION/IONIZATION TIME OF FLIGHT MASS SPECTROMETRY BASED ANALYSIS OF GIARDIA LAMBLIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardia lamblia is a zoonotic protozoan parasite that is a leading cause of drinking water related gastro-intestinal disease outbreaks worldwide. Due to the genotypic complexity and high prevalence of this parasite in the environment, numerous research studies are being done to ...

  15. Identification of an immunogenic protein of Giardia lamblia using monoclonal antibodies generated from infected mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jael Quintero

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The humoral immune response plays an important role in the clearance of Giardia lamblia. However, our knowledge about the specific antigens of G. lamblia that induce a protective immune response is limited. The purpose of this study was to identify and characterise the immunogenic proteins of G. lamblia in a mouse model. We generated monoclonal antibodies (moAbs specific to G. lamblia (1B10, 2C9.D11, 3C10.E5, 3D10, 5G8.B5, 5F4, 4C7, 3C5 and 3C6 by fusing splenocytes derived from infected mice. Most of these moAbs recognised a band of ± 71 kDa (5G8 protein and this protein was also recognised by serum from the infected mice. We found that the moAbs recognised conformational epitopes of the 5G8 protein and that this antigen is expressed on the cell surface and inside trophozoites. Additionally, antibodies specific to the 5G8 protein induced strong agglutination (> 70-90% of trophozoites. We have thus identified a highly immunogenic antigen of G. lamblia that is recognised by the immune system of infected mice. In summary, this study describes the identification and partial characterisation of an immunogenic protein of G. lamblia. Additionally, we generated a panel of moAbs specific for this protein that will be useful for the biochemical and immunological characterisation of this immunologically interesting Giardia molecule.

  16. Detection of anti-Giardia lamblia serum antibody among children of day care centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guimarães Semíramis

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVES: To detect anti-Giardia lamblia serum antibodies in healthy children attending public day care centers and to assess serological tests as tools for estimating the prevalence of G. lamblia in endemic areas. METHODS: Three separate stool specimens and filter paper blood samples were collected from 147 children ranging from 0 to 6 years old. Each stool sample was processed using spontaneous sedimentation and zinc sulfate flotation methods. Blood samples were tested by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for Giardia IgG. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Of 147 individuals tested, 93 (63.3% showed Giardia cysts in their feces. Using IIF and ELISA, serum antibodies were detected in 93 (63.3% and 100 (68% samples , respectively. Sensitivity of IIF and ELISA was 82% and 72%, respectively. However, ELISA revealed to be less specific (39% than IIF (70%. IIF also showed a higher concordance with microscopic examination than ELISA.

  17. Efficacy of some metronidazole derivatives against Giardia lamblia, in vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Motazedian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Giardiasis is a protozoal infection of small intestine caused by Giardia lamblia. This disease is usually asymptomatic, though it can present as acute or chronic diarrhea. Giardiasis, which is a major cause of intestinal infection, is endemic in Iran. Despite reports about drug resistance, long course treatment and various side effects of metronidazole, it is the drug of choice for giardiasis. In this study, we investigated the in vivo effects of five new derivatives (a-e of metronidazole (MTZ on the Giardia lamblia trophozoite in infected mice. Giardia intestinalis cysts were isolated from a patient and purified by sucrose gradient method. Fifty purified cysts were fed to the mice. After development of infection, the new metronidazole derivatives were given to the mice and the results were compared with metronidazole as the positive control group. Compounds a and b showed desirable antigiardiasis activity and could destroy the cyst and trophozoite of Giardia lamblia in mice after both two and four days, but the activity of the other compounds appeared only after 4 days.

  18. Simultaneous detection of Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium parvum in fecal samples by using multiplex real-time PCR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, Jaco J.; Blangé, Roy A.; Templeton, Kate; Schinkel, Janke; Brienen, Eric A. T.; van Rooyen, Marianne A. A.; van Lieshout, Lisette; Polderman, Anton M.

    2004-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium are three of the most important diarrhea-causing parasitic protozoa. For many years, microscopic examination of stool samples has been considered to be the "gold standard" for diagnosis of E. histolytica, G. lamblia, and C. parvum

  19. In vitro inhibition of Giardia lamblia and Trichomonas vaginalis growth by bithionol, dichlorophene, and hexachlorophene.

    OpenAIRE

    Takeuchi, T; Kobayashi, S; Tanabe, M; Fujiwara, T

    1985-01-01

    Bithionol, dichlorophene, and hexachlorophene, which are used in treating some helminthic infections, killed trophozoites of Giardia lamblia and Trichomonas vaginalis in modified BI-S-33 and Asami media, respectively. Virtually all G. lamblia and T. vaginalis cells were killed within 24 h with a 0.42 mM concentration of these compounds, except that 0.93 mM dichlorophene was required for sterilizing T. vaginalis in the same period. In modified BI-S-33 and Asami media from which bovine and huma...

  20. Molecular seasonality of Giardia lamblia in a cohort of Egyptian children: a circannual pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Mousa A M; El-Akkad, Dina M H; Rizk, Enas M A; El-Askary, Hala M; El-Badry, Ayman A

    2016-11-01

    Giardia lamblia (G. lamblia) is the most worldwide prevailing intestinal parasite, notorious for its broad range of seasonal and age-related prevalence. The potentially lethal nature of giardiasis makes it essential that the seasonality, the groups at risk, and other potential risk factors are identified. The present molecular epidemiological study was designed to determine the genetic diversity of G. lamblia infection, taking into account seasonal peaks, age distribution, and associated symptoms in a cohort of Egyptian diarrheic patients. Stool samples were collected from 1187 diarrheic patients attending outpatient clinics of Cairo University hospitals, of all age groups over a 12-month period. The patients were examined microscopically for fecal G. lamblia cysts, and/or trophozoites, and for copro-DNA detection using nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) assays targeting beta giardin gene. PCR-positive samples were characterized molecularly by nPCR restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) to determine Giardia assemblages. The findings revealed circannual prevalence of Giardia, with a seasonal pattern peaking in mid-summer and late winter, with the summer peak preceded by a peak in temperature. Infection was prevailing in 224 (18.9 %) cases, mainly assemblage B (81.2 %) followed by assemblage A (18.8 %). There were statistically significant associations between the detection of Giardia and flatulence, persistent diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal pain, while gender and intermittent diarrhea showed no association. The pre-school age group was the most vulnerable. This is the first study of molecular characterization of Giardia to determine its circannual prevalence in Egypt, a finding which carries promising potential for the diagnosis, treatment, and elimination of the disease.

  1. A single-stranded RNA copy of the Giardia lamblia virus double-stranded RNA genome is present in the infected Giardia lamblia.

    OpenAIRE

    Furfine, E S; White, T C; Wang, A L; Wang, C C

    1989-01-01

    An isolate of Giardia lamblia infected with the double-stranded RNA virus (GLV) has two major species of RNA that are not present in an uninfected isolate. One of these species is the previously characterized double-stranded RNA genome of GLV (1). The second species of RNA appears to be a full length copy of one strand of the double-stranded RNA genome. This full length single-stranded RNA is not present in viral particles isolated from the growth medium. The cellular concentration of the sin...

  2. Lectin Activation in Giardia lamblia by Host Protease: A Novel Host-Parasite Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev, Boaz; Ward, Honorine; Keusch, Gerald T.; Pereira, Miercio E. A.

    1986-04-01

    A lectin in Giardia lamblia was activated by secretions from the human duodenum, the environment where the parasite lives. Incubation of the secretions with trypsin inhibitors prevented the appearance of lectin activity, implicating proteases as the activating agent. Accordingly, lectin activation was also produced by crystalline trypsin and Pronase; other proteases tested were ineffective. When activated, the lectin agglutinated intestinal cells to which the parasite adheres in vivo. The lectin was most specific to mannose-6-phosphate and apparently was bound to the plasma membrane. Activation of a parasite lectin by a host protease represents a novel mechanism of hostparasite interaction and may contribute to the affinity of Giardia lamblia to the infection site.

  3. Structure of the prolyl-tRNA synthetase from the eukaryotic pathogen Giardia lamblia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, Eric T.; Kim, Jessica E.; Napuli, Alberto J.; Verlinde, Christophe L. M. J.; Fan, Erkang; Zucker, Frank H.; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Buckner, Frederick S.; Hol, Wim G. J.; Merritt, Ethan A., E-mail: merritt@u.washington.edu [Medical Structural Genomics of Pathogenic Protozoa, (United States); University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2012-09-01

    The structure of Giardia prolyl-tRNA synthetase cocrystallized with proline and ATP shows evidence for half-of-the-sites activity, leading to a corresponding mixture of reaction substrates and product (prolyl-AMP) in the two active sites of the dimer. The genome of the human intestinal parasite Giardia lamblia contains only a single aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase gene for each amino acid. The Giardia prolyl-tRNA synthetase gene product was originally misidentified as a dual-specificity Pro/Cys enzyme, in part owing to its unexpectedly high off-target activation of cysteine, but is now believed to be a normal representative of the class of archaeal/eukaryotic prolyl-tRNA synthetases. The 2.2 Å resolution crystal structure of the G. lamblia enzyme presented here is thus the first structure determination of a prolyl-tRNA synthetase from a eukaryote. The relative occupancies of substrate (proline) and product (prolyl-AMP) in the active site are consistent with half-of-the-sites reactivity, as is the observed biphasic thermal denaturation curve for the protein in the presence of proline and MgATP. However, no corresponding induced asymmetry is evident in the structure of the protein. No thermal stabilization is observed in the presence of cysteine and ATP. The implied low affinity for the off-target activation product cysteinyl-AMP suggests that translational fidelity in Giardia is aided by the rapid release of misactivated cysteine.

  4. Structure of the prolyl-tRNA synthetase from the eukaryotic pathogen Giardia lamblia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, Eric T.; Kim, Jessica E.; Napuli, Alberto J.; Verlinde, Christophe L. M. J.; Fan, Erkang; Zucker, Frank H.; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Buckner, Frederick S.; Hol, Wim G. J.; Merritt, Ethan A.

    2012-01-01

    The structure of Giardia prolyl-tRNA synthetase cocrystallized with proline and ATP shows evidence for half-of-the-sites activity, leading to a corresponding mixture of reaction substrates and product (prolyl-AMP) in the two active sites of the dimer. The genome of the human intestinal parasite Giardia lamblia contains only a single aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase gene for each amino acid. The Giardia prolyl-tRNA synthetase gene product was originally misidentified as a dual-specificity Pro/Cys enzyme, in part owing to its unexpectedly high off-target activation of cysteine, but is now believed to be a normal representative of the class of archaeal/eukaryotic prolyl-tRNA synthetases. The 2.2 Å resolution crystal structure of the G. lamblia enzyme presented here is thus the first structure determination of a prolyl-tRNA synthetase from a eukaryote. The relative occupancies of substrate (proline) and product (prolyl-AMP) in the active site are consistent with half-of-the-sites reactivity, as is the observed biphasic thermal denaturation curve for the protein in the presence of proline and MgATP. However, no corresponding induced asymmetry is evident in the structure of the protein. No thermal stabilization is observed in the presence of cysteine and ATP. The implied low affinity for the off-target activation product cysteinyl-AMP suggests that translational fidelity in Giardia is aided by the rapid release of misactivated cysteine

  5. What Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia tell us about the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    However, our studies have shown that amoebae and giardia contain splicoeosomal introns, ras-family signal-transduction proteins, ATP-binding casettes (ABC)-family drug transporters, Golgi, and a mitochondrion-derived organelle (amoebae only). These results suggest that most of the organelles of higher eukaryotes ...

  6. (ELISA) kit for diagnosis copro-antigens of Giardia lamblia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-08-02

    Aug 2, 2010 ... methods based on antigen scanning of parasites such as enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), ... samples. To design this method, a pure antibody against parasite as well as an antibody conjugated to a ..... school children in Santiago, Chile by capture ELISA for the detection of fecal Giardia ...

  7. What Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia tell us about the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    have a single diploid nucleus, while giardia have two similar nuclei. ... bacterial species rather than being reinvented by each bacterium as the need .... Structures of Jacob lectins and peritrophins. Examples of convergent evolution. Figure 4. Coincident evolution of phagocytosis. Phagocytosis of bacteria. Phagocytosis of.

  8. The minimal kinome of Giardia lamblia illuminates early kinase evolution and unique parasite biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The major human intestinal pathogen Giardia lamblia is a very early branching eukaryote with a minimal genome of broad evolutionary and biological interest. Results To explore early kinase evolution and regulation of Giardia biology, we cataloged the kinomes of three sequenced strains. Comparison with published kinomes and those of the excavates Trichomonas vaginalis and Leishmania major shows that Giardia's 80 core kinases constitute the smallest known core kinome of any eukaryote that can be grown in pure culture, reflecting both its early origin and secondary gene loss. Kinase losses in DNA repair, mitochondrial function, transcription, splicing, and stress response reflect this reduced genome, while the presence of other kinases helps define the kinome of the last common eukaryotic ancestor. Immunofluorescence analysis shows abundant phospho-staining in trophozoites, with phosphotyrosine abundant in the nuclei and phosphothreonine and phosphoserine in distinct cytoskeletal organelles. The Nek kinase family has been massively expanded, accounting for 198 of the 278 protein kinases in Giardia. Most Neks are catalytically inactive, have very divergent sequences and undergo extensive duplication and loss between strains. Many Neks are highly induced during development. We localized four catalytically active Neks to distinct parts of the cytoskeleton and one inactive Nek to the cytoplasm. Conclusions The reduced kinome of Giardia sheds new light on early kinase evolution, and its highly divergent sequences add to the definition of individual kinase families as well as offering specific drug targets. Giardia's massive Nek expansion may reflect its distinctive lifestyle, biphasic life cycle and complex cytoskeleton. PMID:21787419

  9. Detection of Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum by direct immunofluorescence assay in stool specimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M M; Hossain, M A; Paul, S K; Ahmed, S; Islam, A; Ehsan, M A; Alam, M M; Kabir, M R; Sarkar, S R

    2014-07-01

    Giardia and Cryptosporidium are the pathogens which transmitted through contaminated soil and contaminated water are significant causes of diarrhea and nutritional disorders in institutional and community peoples. Children and immune compromise persons are more vulnerable for these infections. Both Giardiasis and Cryptosporidiosis were included in 2004 as WHO Neglected Disease. So this is a major public health problem in developing countries. The present study was carried out to detect the Giardia and Cryptosporidium from diarrheic or patient having loose stool by Direct Immunofluorescence assay. The study was conducted during July 20012 to February 2013 and the work was done in Mymensingh Medical College in the department of Microbiology and in Bangladesh Agricultural University in the department of Veterinary Medicine. A total of 100 loose stools were collected from school children of different area and hospital under sadar upazilla, Mymensingh. The detection of Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum showed the individual prevalence 8% and 4% respectively. The highest cyst/oocyst count was 85,000 and 1,000/gm of stool and the lowest being 100 and 50/gm of stool for Giardiasis and Cryptosporidiosis respectively. The detection rate of Giardia and Cryptosporidium by Immunofluorescence assay was relatively higher than the previous study done in Bangladesh and this was the first report from Bangladesh over human stool specimen using Immunofluorescence assay. So, Immunofluorescence assay could be adapted for rapid and accurate detection of Giardia and Cryptosporidium.

  10. In vitro inhibition of Giardia lamblia and Trichomonas vaginalis growth by bithionol, dichlorophene, and hexachlorophene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, T; Kobayashi, S; Tanabe, M; Fujiwara, T

    1985-01-01

    Bithionol, dichlorophene, and hexachlorophene, which are used in treating some helminthic infections, killed trophozoites of Giardia lamblia and Trichomonas vaginalis in modified BI-S-33 and Asami media, respectively. Virtually all G. lamblia and T. vaginalis cells were killed within 24 h with a 0.42 mM concentration of these compounds, except that 0.93 mM dichlorophene was required for sterilizing T. vaginalis in the same period. In modified BI-S-33 and Asami media from which bovine and human sera were omitted, respectively, the inhibitory actions of the compounds against in vitro growth of these protozoa were significantly enhanced. Trophozoites of G. lamblia and T. vaginalis could be killed in shorter than 10 min with 0.074 mM dichlorophene and 0.0025 mM hexachlorophene, respectively, in serum-free media. G. lamblia, which was incubated in the complete medium containing dichlorophene, showed a characteristic swelling of the ventral side which led to disruption of the parasite, whereas bithionol caused a thin crack in the cytoplasm of T. vaginalis incubated in Asami medium. The crack appeared to enlarge and result in vacuolization of T. vaginalis. These observations suggest that bithionol, dichlorophene, and hexachlorophene merit further evaluation to ascertain whether they are useful for treatment of giardiasis and trichomoniasis.

  11. Growth inhibition of the intestinal parasite Giardia lamblia by a dietary lectin is associated with arrest of the cell cycle.

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega-Barria, E; Ward, H D; Keusch, G T; Pereira, M E

    1994-01-01

    Giardia lamblia, a cause of diarrheal disease throughout the world, is a protozoan parasite that thrives in the small intestine. It is shown here that wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), a naturally occurring lectin widely consumed in normal human diets, reversibly inhibits the growth of G. lamblia trophozoites in vitro, and reduces infection by G. muris in the adult mouse model of giardiasis. The inhibitory effect was dose related, not associated with cytotoxicity and reversed by N-acetyl-D-glucosa...

  12. Differential gene expression in Giardia lamblia under oxidative stress: significance in eukaryotic evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Dibyendu; Ghosh, Esha; Mukherjee, Avik K; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi; Ganguly, Sandipan

    2014-02-10

    Giardia lamblia is a unicellular, early branching eukaryote causing giardiasis, one of the most common human enteric diseases. Giardia, a microaerophilic protozoan parasite has to build up mechanisms to protect themselves against oxidative stress within the human gut (oxygen concentration 60 μM) to establish its pathogenesis. G. lamblia is devoid of the conventional mechanisms of the oxidative stress management system, including superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase, and glutathione cycling, which are present in most eukaryotes. NADH oxidase is a major component of the electron transport chain of G. lamblia, which in concurrence with disulfide reductase, protects oxygen-labile proteins such as pyruvate: ferredoxin oxidoreductase against oxidative stress by sustaining a reduced intracellular environment. It also contains the arginine dihydrolase pathway, which occurs in a number of anaerobic prokaryotes, includes substrate level phosphorylation and adequately active to make a major contribution to ATP production. To study differential gene expression under three types of oxidative stress, a Giardia genomic DNA array was constructed and hybridized with labeled cDNA of cells with or without stress. The transcriptomic data has been analyzed and further validated using real time PCR. We identified that out of 9216 genes represented on the array, more than 200 genes encoded proteins with functions in metabolism, oxidative stress management, signaling, reproduction and cell division, programmed cell death and cytoskeleton. We recognized genes modulated by at least ≥ 2 fold at a significant time point in response to oxidative stress. The study has highlighted the genes that are differentially expressed during the three experimental conditions which regulate the stress management pathway differently to achieve redox homeostasis. Identification of some unique genes in oxidative stress regulation may help in new drug designing for this common enteric parasite prone to

  13. Genetic Variation of Giardia lamblia Isolates from Food-handlers in Kashan, Central Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein HOOSHYAR

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Based on genotyping study of human isolates of Giardia lamblia; humans are mainly infected by two assemblages A and B. The present study was carried out to determine the sub-assemblages of G. lamblia isolated from food handlers referred to Kashan health centers, central Iran, 2015.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 3653 stool samples collected from food-handlers that annually refer to health center for getting a health certification and examined microscopically for G. lamblia cyst. Totally, 44 isolates were selected from 47 Giardia positive samples. Cysts were partially purified by the sucrose density gradient method. After freeze-thaw cycles, genomic DNA was extracted using QIAamp Stool Mini kit. A single step PCR-RFLP method was used to amplify a 458bp fragment at the glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh locus, restriction enzymes BspLI and RsaI were used for distinguish between genotypes A and B and their subgroups.Results: Of 44 isolates, 24(54.5% were sub-assemblage AII, 9(20.5% group B including 7(15.9% BIII and 2(4.6% BIV sub-assemblage and 11(25% isolates showed a mixed pattern of AII and B. Sub-assemblage AI was not detected in this study.Conclusion: The higher rate of sub-assemblage AII demonstrated an anthroponotic origin of the infection so infected food-handlers could directly transmit this protozoan to consumers via contaminated food and water. For finding of pattern of transmission and distribution of Giardia assemblages and sub-assemblage, more studies in human and animal population in different regions are necessary.

  14. Imunodeficiência comum variável : manifestações gastrintestinais a Giardia lamblia

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Maria Dinah Jacob da Silva de, 1967-

    2011-01-01

    Tese de mestrado, Microbiologia Clínica, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Lisboa, 2012 A imunodeficiência comum variável (IDCV) é segunda imunodeficiência primária mais frequente a seguir à deficiência selectiva de IgA. As manifestações gastrintestinais na IDCV apresentam uma prevalência de 20% a 60% e a infecção por Giardia lamblia é a causa infecciosa mais frequentemente identificada de diarreia e mal-absorção, em cerca de 30% dos doentes. Escassos estudos documentam a ...

  15. Field portable mobile phone based fluorescence microscopy for detection of Giardia lamblia cysts in water samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceylan Koydemir, Hatice; Gorocs, Zoltan; McLeod, Euan; Tseng, Derek; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2015-03-01

    Giardia lamblia is a waterborne parasite that causes an intestinal infection, known as giardiasis, and it is found not only in countries with inadequate sanitation and unsafe water but also streams and lakes of developed countries. Simple, sensitive, and rapid detection of this pathogen is important for monitoring of drinking water. Here we present a cost-effective and field portable mobile-phone based fluorescence microscopy platform designed for automated detection of Giardia lamblia cysts in large volume water samples (i.e., 10 ml) to be used in low-resource field settings. This fluorescence microscope is integrated with a disposable water-sampling cassette, which is based on a flow-through porous polycarbonate membrane and provides a wide surface area for fluorescence imaging and enumeration of the captured Giardia cysts on the membrane. Water sample of interest, containing fluorescently labeled Giardia cysts, is introduced into the absorbent pads that are in contact with the membrane in the cassette by capillary action, which eliminates the need for electrically driven flow for sample processing. Our fluorescence microscope weighs ~170 grams in total and has all the components of a regular microscope, capable of detecting individual fluorescently labeled cysts under light-emitting-diode (LED) based excitation. Including all the sample preparation, labeling and imaging steps, the entire measurement takes less than one hour for a sample volume of 10 ml. This mobile phone based compact and cost-effective fluorescent imaging platform together with its machine learning based cyst counting interface is easy to use and can even work in resource limited and field settings for spatio-temporal monitoring of water quality.

  16. Curcumin alters the cytoskeleton and microtubule organization on trophozoites of Giardia lamblia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, Filiberto; Palomo-Ligas, Lissethe; Hernández-Hernández, José Manuel; Pérez-Rangel, Armando; Aguayo-Ortiz, Rodrigo; Hernández-Campos, Alicia; Castillo, Rafael; González-Pozos, Sirenia; Cortés-Zárate, Rafael; Ramírez-Herrera, Mario Alberto; Mendoza-Magaña, María Luisa; Castillo-Romero, Araceli

    2017-08-01

    Giardia lamblia is a worldwide protozoan responsible for a significant number of intestinal infections. There are several drugs for the treatment of giardiasis, but they often cause side effects. Curcumin, a component of turmeric, has antigiardial activity; however, the molecular target and mechanism of antiproliferative activity are not clear. The effects of curcumin on cellular microtubules have been widely investigated. Since tubulin is the most abundant protein in the cytoskeleton of Giardia, to elucidate whether curcumin has activity against the microtubules of this parasite, we treated trophozoites with curcumin and the cells were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and confocal microscopy. Curcumin inhibited Giardia proliferation and adhesion in a time-concentration-dependent mode. The higher inhibitory concentrations of curcumin (3 and 15μM) disrupted the cytoskeletal structures of trophozoites; the damage was evident on the ventral disk, flagella and in the caudal region, also the membrane was affected. The immunofluorescence images showed altered distribution of tubulin staining on ventral disk and flagella. Additionally, we found that curcumin caused a clear reduction of tubulin expression. By docking analysis and molecular dynamics we showed that curcumin has a high probability to bind at the interface of the tubulin dimer close to the vinblastine binding site. All the data presented indicate that curcumin may inhibit Giardia proliferation by perturbing microtubules. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Crystal structures of carbamate kinase from Giardia lamblia bound with citric acid and AMP-PNP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kap Lim

    Full Text Available The parasite Giardia lamblia utilizes the L-arginine dihydrolase pathway to generate ATP from L-arginine. Carbamate kinase (CK catalyzes the last step in this pathway, converting ADP and carbamoyl phosphate to ATP and ammonium carbamate. Because the L-arginine pathway is essential for G. lamblia survival and absent in high eukaryotes including humans, the enzyme is a potential target for drug development. We have determined two crystal structures of G. lamblia CK (glCK with bound ligands. One structure, in complex with a nonhydrolyzable ATP analog, adenosine 5'-adenylyl-β,γ-imidodiphosphate (AMP-PNP, was determined at 2.6 Å resolution. The second structure, in complex with citric acid bound in the postulated carbamoyl phosphate binding site, was determined in two slightly different states at 2.1 and 2.4 Å resolution. These structures reveal conformational flexibility of an auxiliary domain (amino acid residues 123-170, which exhibits open or closed conformations or structural disorder, depending on the bound ligand. The structures also reveal a smaller conformational change in a region associated the AMP-PNP adenine binding site. The protein residues involved in binding, together with a model of the transition state, suggest that catalysis follows an in-line, predominantly dissociative, phosphotransfer reaction mechanism, and that closure of the flexible auxiliary domain is required to protect the transition state from bulk solvent.

  18. Prokaryotic Expression ofα-13 Giardin Gene and Its Intracellular Localization inGiardia lamblia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xingang; Abdullahi, Auwalu Yusuf; Wu, Sheng; Pan, Weida; Shi, Xianli; Hu, Wei; Tan, Liping; Li, Kangxin; Wang, Zhen; Li, Guoqing

    2017-01-01

    To study prokaryotic expression and subcellular localization of α -13 giardin in Giardia lamblia trophozoites, α -13 giardin gene was amplified and cloned into prokaryotic expression vector pET-28a(+). The positive recombinant plasmid was transformed into E. coli BL21(DE3) for expression by using IPTG and autoinduction expression system (ZYM-5052). The target protein was validated by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting and purified by Ni-NTA Resin. Rabbits were immunized with purified fusion proteins for preparation of polyclonal antibody; then the intracellular location of α -13 giardin was determined by fluorescence immunoassay. The results showed that the length of α -13 giardin gene was 1038 bp, encoding a polypeptide of 345 amino acids. The expressed product was a fusion protein with about 40 kDa largely present in soluble form. The target protein accounted for 21.0% of total proteins after being induced with IPTG, while it accounted for 28.8% with ZYM-5052. The anti- α 13-giardin polyclonal antibody possessed good antigenic specificity as well as excellent binding activity with recombinant α -13 giardin. Immunofluorescence assays revealed that α -13 giardin was localized in the cytoplasm of G. lamblia trophozoite, suggesting that it is a cytoplasm-associated protein. The present study may lay a foundation for further functional research on α -13 giardin of G. lamblia .

  19. Detection and molecular characterisation of Giardia lamblia genotypes in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElBakri, Ali; Samie, Amidou; Bessong, Pascal; Potgieter, Natasha; Odeh, Ra'ed Abu

    2014-08-01

    No data are available on Giardia lamblia genotypes in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). This study aimed to identify G. lamblia from DNA extracted from human stool samples to gain information on its prevalence and to perform molecular analysis on isolates collected from expatriates from different localities residing in Sharjah, UAE. In total, 111 healthy expatriates residing in Sharjah were screened for G. lamblia using nested PCR amplification of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (ssu-rRNA) gene. Positive samples were genotyped using a nested PCR amplifying the triosephosphate isomerase (tpi) gene to differentiate between the two human assemblages (A and B). A subset of the PCR products (n=23) were sequenced and their phylogenetic relationships were determined. Of the 111 participants, 67 (60.4%) were identified as positive for the ssu-rRNA gene. When genotyped for the tpi gene, 18.9% (21/111) were of assemblage A, 17.1% (19/111) belonged to assemblage B and 5.4% (6/111) showed patterns compatible with mixed infections. A strong correlation between the presence of diarrhoea and assemblage B was observed (χ(2)=10.553; p=0.001). Moreover, an association was also observed between mixed infections (A+B) and diarrhoea (χ(2)=8.899; p=0.003). No correlation between age, gender and geographic origin of the infected individual was noted. Phylogenetic analysis showed three clusters for the tpi gene. No relationship between the clusters and the origin of samples was noted. This study is the first to determine the infection rate and genotypic composition of Giardia in Sharjah, UAE. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Sonoran propolis and some of its chemical constituents inhibit in vitro growth of Giardia lamblia trophozoites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alday-Provencio, Samuel; Diaz, Gabriela; Rascon, Lucila; Quintero, Jael; Alday, Efrain; Robles-Zepeda, Ramón; Garibay-Escobar, Adriana; Astiazaran, Humberto; Hernandez, Javier; Velazquez, Carlos

    2015-06-01

    Propolis is a cereus resin with a complex chemical composition that possesses a wide range of biological activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro anti-Giardia lamblia activity of Sonoran propolis collected from three different areas of Sonoran Desert in northwestern Mexico (Caborca, Pueblo de Alamos, and Ures) and some of its chemical constituents. Additionally, we also analyzed the seasonal effect on the anti-G. lamblia activity of propolis. G. lamblia trophozoite cultures were treated with different concentrations of Sonoran propolis or chemical compounds during 48 h cell proliferation and cell viability were determined. Ures propolis showed the highest inhibitory activity against G. lamblia (IC50 63.8 ± 7.1 µg/mL) in a dose-dependent manner (Ures > Pueblo de Alamos > Caborca). Season had a significant effect on the in vitro anti-G. lamblia activity of Ures propolis. Summer propolis showed the highest inhibitory effect on the G. lamblia trophozoite growth (IC50 23.8 ± 2.3 µg/mL), followed by propolis collected during winter (IC50 59.2 ± 34.7 µg/mL), spring (IC50 102.5 ± 15.3 µg/mL), and autumn (IC50 125.0 ± 3.1 µg/mL). Caffeic acid phenethyl ester, an Ures propolis exclusive constituent, had the highest growth-inhibitory activity towards G. lamblia [IC50 63.1 ± 0.9 µg/mL (222.1 ± 3.2 µM)]. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing that caffeic acid phenethyl ester possesses antiparasitic activity against G. lamblia. Naringenin [IC50 125.7 ± 20.7 µg/mL (461.8 ± 76.3 µM)], hesperetin [IC50 149.6 ± 24.8 µg/mL (494.9 ± 82.2 µM)], and pinocembrin [IC50 174.4 ± 26.0 µg/mL (680.6 ± 101.7 µM)] showed weak anti-G. lamblia activity. On the other hand, chrysin and rutin did not show significant antiparasitic activity. In conclusion, our results suggest that Sonoran propolis and some of its chemical constituents had inhibitory effects on the

  1. A detailed, hierarchical study of Giardia lamblia's ventral disc reveals novel microtubule-associated protein complexes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindi L Schwartz

    Full Text Available Giardia lamblia is a flagellated, unicellular parasite of mammals infecting over one billion people worldwide. Giardia's two-stage life cycle includes a motile trophozoite stage that colonizes the host small intestine and an infectious cyst form that can persist in the environment. Similar to many eukaryotic cells, Giardia contains several complex microtubule arrays that are involved in motility, chromosome segregation, organelle transport, maintenance of cell shape and transformation between the two life cycle stages. Giardia trophozoites also possess a unique spiral microtubule array, the ventral disc, made of approximately 50 parallel microtubules and associated microribbons, as well as a variety of associated proteins. The ventral disc maintains trophozoite attachment to the host intestinal epithelium. With the help of a combined SEM/microtome based slice and view method called 3View® (Gatan Inc., Pleasanton, CA, we present an entire trophozoite cell reconstruction and describe the arrangement of the major cytoskeletal elements. To aid in future analyses of disc-mediated attachment, we used electron-tomography of freeze-substituted, plastic-embedded trophozoites to explore the detailed architecture of ventral disc microtubules and their associated components. Lastly, we examined the disc microtubule array in three dimensions in unprecedented detail using cryo-electron tomography combined with internal sub-tomogram volume averaging of repetitive domains. We discovered details of protein complexes stabilizing microtubules by attachment to their inner and outer wall. A unique tri-laminar microribbon structure is attached vertically to the disc microtubules and is connected to neighboring microribbons via crossbridges. This work provides novel insight into the structure of the ventral disc microtubules, microribbons and associated proteins. Knowledge of the components comprising these structures and their three-dimensional organization is

  2. Binding properties and immunolocalization of a fatty acid-binding protein in Giardia lamblia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, S M T; Maache, M; de la Guardia, R Díaz; Córdova, O M; García, J R Gil; Galiana, M; Acuña Castroviejo, D; Martins, M; Osuna, Antonio

    2005-04-01

    We describe here a fatty acid-binding protein (FABP) isolated and purified from the parasitic protozoon Giardia lamblia. The protein has a molecular mass of 8 kDa and an isoelectric point of 4.96. A Scatchard analysis of the data at equilibrium revealed a dissociation constant of 3.12 x 10(-8) M when the labeled oleic acid was displaced by a 10-fold greater concentration of unlabeled oleic acid. Testosterone, sodium desoxycholate, taurocholate, metronidazol, and alpha-tocopherol, together with butyric, arachidonic, palmitic, retinoic, and glycocholic acids, were also bound to the protein. Assays with polyclonal antibodies revealed that the protein is located in the ventral disk and also appears in the dorsal membrane, the cytoplasm, and in the vicinity of the lipid vacuoles.

  3. Actividad lactásica en niños con enfermedad diarreica por Giardia lamblia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo Izquierdo Estévez

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio prospectivo, de corte transversal y analítico, con el propósito de establecer posibles diferencias en el comportamiento de la actividad lactásica en niños menores de 2 años con enfermedad diarreica por Giardia lamblia tratados en el Servicio de Diarreas del Hospital Pediátrico Docente "Dr. Ángel A. Aballí", en el período de diciembre de 1994 a noviembre de 1995. Se determinaron los niveles de la actividad enzimática según diferentes categorías de variables de caracterización del niño y su enfermedad. Los resultados permitieron afirmar su reducción en estos niños, y que tal actividad tiene un comportamiento diferencial asociado con la edad, estado nutricional y grado de atrofia de la mucosa.A prospective analytical cross-sectional study was made with the objective of setting likely differences in Beta-galactosidase performance in under 2 years-old children admitted with diarrheal disease due to Giardia lamblia to «Ángel A. Aballí» Teaching Pediatric Hospital’s Diarrhea Service Unit from December 1994 to November 1995. Levels of the enzime activity were determined according to the several characterization variable categories of the child and his disease. The outcome showed the decline in diarrheal disease in thesechildren and the different performance patterns of this enzime depending on age, nutrition and mucosa atrophic level.

  4. Development of Tm-shift genotyping method for detection of cat-derived Giardia lamblia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Weida; Fu, Yeqi; Abdullahi, Auwalu Yusuf; Wang, Mingwei; Shi, Xianli; Yang, Fang; Yu, Xingang; Yan, Xinxin; Zhang, Pan; Hang, Jianxiong; Li, Guoqing

    2017-04-01

    To develop T m -shift genotyping method for detection of cat-derived Giardia lamblia, two sets of primers with two GC-rich tails of unequal length attached to their 5'-end were designed according to two SNPs (BG434 and BG170) of β-giardin (bg) gene, and specific PCR products were identified by inspection of a melting curve on real-time PCR thermocycler. A series of experiments on the stability, sensitivity, and accuracy of T m -shift method was tested, and clinical samples were also detected. The results showed that two sets of primers based on SNP could distinguish accurately between assemblages A and F. Coefficient of variation of T m values of assemblage A and F was 0.14 and 0.07% in BG434 and 0.10 and 0.11% in BG170, respectively. The lowest detection concentration was 4.52 × 10 -5 and 4.88 × 10 -5  ng/μL samples of assemblage A and F standard plasmids. The T m -shift genotyping results of ten DNA samples from the cat-derived G. lamblia were consistent with their known genotypes. The detection rate of clinical samples by T m -shift was higher than that by microscopy, and their genotyping results were in complete accordance with sequencing results. It is concluded that the T m -shift genotyping method is rapid, specific, and sensitive and may provide a new technological mean for molecular detection and epidemiological investigation of the cat-derived G. lamblia.

  5. The single cyclic nucleotide-specific phosphodiesterase of the intestinal parasite Giardia lamblia represents a potential drug target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Stefan; Balmer, Vreni; Sterk, Geert Jan; Pollastri, Michael P; Leurs, Rob; Müller, Norbert; Hemphill, Andrew; Spycher, Cornelia

    2017-09-01

    Giardiasis is an intestinal infection correlated with poverty and poor drinking water quality, and treatment options are limited. According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Giardia infections afflict nearly 33% of people in developing countries, and 2% of the adult population in the developed world. This study describes the single cyclic nucleotide-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE) of G. lamblia and assesses PDE inhibitors as a new generation of anti-giardial drugs. An extensive search of the Giardia genome database identified a single gene coding for a class I PDE, GlPDE. The predicted protein sequence was analyzed in-silico to characterize its domain structure and catalytic domain. Enzymatic activity of GlPDE was established by complementation of a PDE-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain, and enzyme kinetics were characterized in soluble yeast lysates. The potency of known PDE inhibitors was tested against the activity of recombinant GlPDE expressed in yeast and against proliferating Giardia trophozoites. Finally, the localization of epitope-tagged and ectopically expressed GlPDE in Giardia cells was investigated. Giardia encodes a class I PDE. Catalytically important residues are fully conserved between GlPDE and human PDEs, but sequence differences between their catalytic domains suggest that designing Giardia-specific inhibitors is feasible. Recombinant GlPDE hydrolyzes cAMP with a Km of 408 μM, and cGMP is not accepted as a substrate. A number of drugs exhibit a high degree of correlation between their potency against the recombinant enzyme and their inhibition of trophozoite proliferation in culture. Epitope-tagged GlPDE localizes as dots in a pattern reminiscent of mitosomes and to the perinuclear region in Giardia. Our data strongly suggest that inhibition of G. lamblia PDE activity leads to a profound inhibition of parasite proliferation and that GlPDE is a promising target for developing novel anti-giardial drugs.

  6. Disulfiram as a novel inactivator of Giardia lamblia triosephosphate isomerase with antigiardial potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Castillo-Villanueva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Giardiasis, the infestation of the intestinal tract by Giardia lamblia, is one of the most prevalent parasitosis worldwide. Even though effective therapies exist for it, the problems associated with its use indicate that new therapeutic options are needed. It has been shown that disulfiram eradicates trophozoites in vitro and is effective in vivo in a murine model of giardiasis; disulfiram inactivation of carbamate kinase by chemical modification of an active site cysteine has been proposed as the drug mechanism of action. The triosephosphate isomerase from G. lamblia (GlTIM has been proposed as a plausible target for the development of novel antigiardial pharmacotherapies, and chemical modification of its cysteine 222 (C222 by thiol-reactive compounds is evidenced to inactivate the enzyme. Since disulfiram is a cysteine modifying agent and GlTIM can be inactivated by modification of C222, in this work we tested the effect of disulfiram over the recombinant and trophozoite-endogenous GlTIM. The results show that disulfiram inactivates GlTIM by modification of its C222. The inactivation is species-specific since disulfiram does not affect the human homologue enzyme. Disulfiram inactivation induces only minor conformational changes in the enzyme, but substantially decreases its stability. Recombinant and endogenous GlTIM inactivates similarly, indicating that the recombinant protein resembles the natural enzyme. Disulfiram induces loss of trophozoites viability and inactivation of intracellular GlTIM at similar rates, suggesting that both processes may be related. It is plausible that the giardicidal effect of disulfiram involves the inactivation of more than a single enzyme, thus increasing its potential for repurposing it as an antigiardial drug. Keywords: Giardiasis, Drug repurposing, Neglected disease, Recombinant protein, Enzyme inactivation

  7. Giardia lamblia: a major parasitic cause of childhood diarrhoea in patients attending a district hospital in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguah Samuel

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute childhood diarrhoea remains one of the leading causes of childhood morbidity and mortality in developing countries. The WHO has accordingly underlined the need for epidemiological surveys of infantile diarrhoea in all geographical areas. This study was conducted to determine the incidence of intestinal parasites among stool samples from children examined at a secondary health care facility in a rural area of Ghana. Method A retrospective study was conducted to investigate the incidence of intestinal parasites among children who had their stools examined at the Agogo Hospital laboratory. Stool microscopy results from January 2006 through May 2009 were obtained from archived records of the laboratory. Results for children less than 18 years were transcribed unto a standardized datasheet, entered into an electronic database designed using Microsoft® access 2007 and analyzed using Stata/SE11.1 statistical software. The incidences of the parasites were determined and presented with their Poisson exact 95% confidence intervals for the various ages. Results The median age of the 1080 children included in the study was 5 years (IQR: 2-12 years with 51.9% being females. The overall incidence of all parasites was 114 per 1000 with Giardia lamblia being the most common (89.5%. Children aged less than a year had the lowest parasite incidence of 13 per 1000 with all being Giardia lamblia, while those aged 15-17 years had the highest of 169 per 1000. The incidence for Giardia lamblia only was lowest at 13 per 1000 for those under a year old, highest at 152 per 1000 for the 15-17 year group and 97 per 1000 for all ages combined. There was a significant rise in incidence of Giardia lamblia with age (Trend x2 = 18.6, p Enterobius vermicularis, Taenia spp and Trichuris trichiura were not seen in any of the stool samples. Conclusion Giardia lamblia is the most prevalent intestinal parasite in examined stool samples of children within the

  8. Giardia lamblia: a major parasitic cause of childhood diarrhoea in patients attending a district hospital in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkrumah, Bernard; Nguah, Samuel Blay

    2011-08-22

    Acute childhood diarrhoea remains one of the leading causes of childhood morbidity and mortality in developing countries. The WHO has accordingly underlined the need for epidemiological surveys of infantile diarrhoea in all geographical areas. This study was conducted to determine the incidence of intestinal parasites among stool samples from children examined at a secondary health care facility in a rural area of Ghana. A retrospective study was conducted to investigate the incidence of intestinal parasites among children who had their stools examined at the Agogo Hospital laboratory. Stool microscopy results from January 2006 through May 2009 were obtained from archived records of the laboratory. Results for children less than 18 years were transcribed unto a standardized datasheet, entered into an electronic database designed using Microsoft® access 2007 and analyzed using Stata/SE11.1 statistical software. The incidences of the parasites were determined and presented with their Poisson exact 95% confidence intervals for the various ages. The median age of the 1080 children included in the study was 5 years (IQR: 2-12 years) with 51.9% being females. The overall incidence of all parasites was 114 per 1000 with Giardia lamblia being the most common (89.5%). Children aged less than a year had the lowest parasite incidence of 13 per 1000 with all being Giardia lamblia, while those aged 15-17 years had the highest of 169 per 1000. The incidence for Giardia lamblia only was lowest at 13 per 1000 for those under a year old, highest at 152 per 1000 for the 15-17 year group and 97 per 1000 for all ages combined. There was a significant rise in incidence of Giardia lamblia with age (Trend x2 = 18.6, p < 0.001). Five (4.3%) of the 118 positive stool samples had mixed parasites infection. Enterobius vermicularis, Taenia spp and Trichuris trichiura were not seen in any of the stool samples. Giardia lamblia is the most prevalent intestinal parasite in examined stool samples

  9. Three-dimensional structure of a protozoal double-stranded RNA virus that infects the enteric pathogen Giardia lamblia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Mandy E W; Takagi, Yuko; Parent, Kristin N; Cardone, Giovanni; Nibert, Max L; Baker, Timothy S

    2015-01-15

    Giardia lamblia virus (GLV) is a small, nonenveloped, nonsegmented double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) virus infecting Giardia lamblia, the most common protozoan pathogen of the human intestine and a major agent of waterborne diarrheal disease worldwide. GLV (genus Giardiavirus) is a member of family Totiviridae, along with several other groups of protozoal or fungal viruses, including Leishmania RNA viruses and Trichomonas vaginalis viruses. Interestingly, GLV is more closely related than other Totiviridae members to a group of recently discovered metazoan viruses that includes penaeid shrimp infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV). Moreover, GLV is the only known protozoal dsRNA virus that can transmit efficiently by extracellular means, also like IMNV. In this study, we used transmission electron cryomicroscopy and icosahedral image reconstruction to examine the GLV virion at an estimated resolution of 6.0 Å. Its outermost diameter is 485 Å, making it the largest totivirus capsid analyzed to date. Structural comparisons of GLV and other totiviruses highlighted a related "T=2" capsid organization and a conserved helix-rich fold in the capsid subunits. In agreement with its unique capacity as a protozoal dsRNA virus to survive and transmit through extracellular environments, GLV was found to be more thermoresistant than Trichomonas vaginalis virus 1, but no specific protein machinery to mediate cell entry, such as the fiber complexes in IMNV, could be localized. These and other structural and biochemical findings provide a basis for future work to dissect the cell entry mechanism of GLV into a "primitive" (early-branching) eukaryotic host and an important enteric pathogen of humans. Numerous pathogenic bacteria, including Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Salmonella enterica, and Vibrio cholerae, are infected with lysogenic bacteriophages that contribute significantly to bacterial virulence. In line with this phenomenon, several pathogenic protozoa, including Giardia lamblia

  10. A detailed look at the cytoskeletal architecture of the Giardia lamblia ventral disc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Joanna R; Schwartz, Cindi L; Heumann, John M; Dawson, Scott C; Hoenger, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Giardia lamblia is a protistan parasite that infects and colonizes the small intestine of mammals. It is widespread and particularly endemic in the developing world. Here we present a detailed structural study by 3-D negative staining and cryo-electron tomography of a unique Giardia organelle, the ventral disc. The disc is composed of a regular array of microtubules and associated sheets, called microribbons that form a large spiral, held together by a myriad of mostly unknown associated proteins. In a previous study we analyzed by cryo-electron tomography the central microtubule portion (here called disc body) of the ventral disc and found a large portion of microtubule associated inner (MIPs) and outer proteins (MAPs) that render these microtubules hyper-stable. With this follow-up study we expanded our 3-D analysis to different parts of the disc such as the ventral and dorsal areas of the overlap zone, as well as the outer disc margin. There are intrinsic location-specific characteristics in the composition of microtubule-associated proteins between these regions, as well as large differences between the overall architecture of microtubules and microribbons. The lateral packing of microtubule-microribbon complexes varies substantially, and closer packing often comes with contracted lateral tethers that seem to hold the disc together. It appears that the marginal microtubule-microribbon complexes function as outer, laterally contractible lids that may help the cell to clamp onto the intestinal microvilli. Furthermore, we analyzed length, quantity, curvature and distribution between different zones of the disc, which we found to differ from previous publications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Selective condensation drives partitioning and sequential secretion of cyst wall proteins in differentiating Giardia lamblia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Konrad

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Controlled secretion of a protective extracellular matrix is required for transmission of the infective stage of a large number of protozoan and metazoan parasites. Differentiating trophozoites of the highly minimized protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia secrete the proteinaceous portion of the cyst wall material (CWM consisting of three paralogous cyst wall proteins (CWP1-3 via organelles termed encystation-specific vesicles (ESVs. Phylogenetic and molecular data indicate that Diplomonads have lost a classical Golgi during reductive evolution. However, neogenesis of ESVs in encysting Giardia trophozoites transiently provides basic Golgi functions by accumulating presorted CWM exported from the ER for maturation. Based on this "minimal Golgi" hypothesis we predicted maturation of ESVs to a trans Golgi-like stage, which would manifest as a sorting event before regulated secretion of the CWM. Here we show that proteolytic processing of pro-CWP2 in maturing ESVs coincides with partitioning of CWM into two fractions, which are sorted and secreted sequentially with different kinetics. This novel sorting function leads to rapid assembly of a structurally defined outer cyst wall, followed by slow secretion of the remaining components. Using live cell microscopy we find direct evidence for condensed core formation in maturing ESVs. Core formation suggests that a mechanism controlled by phase transitions of the CWM from fluid to condensed and back likely drives CWM partitioning and makes sorting and sequential secretion possible. Blocking of CWP2 processing by a protease inhibitor leads to mis-sorting of a CWP2 reporter. Nevertheless, partitioning and sequential secretion of two portions of the CWM are unaffected in these cells. Although these cysts have a normal appearance they are not water resistant and therefore not infective. Our findings suggest that sequential assembly is a basic architectural principle of protective wall formation and requires

  12. The hematological status, plasma vitamin B12 and folic acid levels, and intestinal pathology in rats infected with Giardia lamblia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheeramakara, Cheeraratana; Nontprasert, Apichart; Siripanth, Chutatip; Tanomsak, Wanyarat; Chularerk, Udomporn; Sucharit, Pramualmal; Areekul, Suvit

    2004-12-01

    The purpose of our study was to investigate the hematological status, vitamin B12 and folic acid absorption and intestinal pathology after Giardia lamblia infection in a rat model. Adult Wistar rats were assigned randomly to receive human giardia cysts orally in the amount of 5 x 10(5) or 1.0 x 10(6) cysts, or none in the controls. The results showed that all the rats injected with giardia cysts became infected. The cyst output in the infected rats varied considerably. In rats infected with 5.0 x 10(5) giardia cysts, the incubation period until cyst output was 10 days compared with 4 days in rats infected with the higher amount of 1.0 x 106 giardia cysts. The highest peaks for cysts output in these 2 groups were on days 4-33, which decreased gradually to days 40-58. The hematocrit and hemoglobin levels in the infected rats were statistically significantly lower than in the controls on days 16, 22, 33, and 37 post-infection (p giardia cyst output and hemoglobin concentration was found in the infected rats (p = 0.05). There were no significant differences in plasma vitamin B12 and folic acid levels between the infected rats and the control rats. No pathological changes were found in the small intestine of infected rats. These findings suggest that giardiasis did not affect the absorption of plasma vitamin B12 and folic acid but caused anemia in a rat model.

  13. Identification and analysis of the RNA degrading complexes and machinery of Giardia lamblia using an in silico approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Christopher W; Elmendorf, Heidi G

    2011-11-29

    RNA degradation is critical to the survival of all cells. With increasing evidence for pervasive transcription in cells, RNA degradation has gained recognition as a means of regulating gene expression. Yet, RNA degradation machinery has been studied extensively in only a few eukaryotic organisms, including Saccharomyces cerevisiae and humans. Giardia lamblia is a parasitic protist with unusual genomic traits: it is binucleated and tetraploid, has a very compact genome, displays a theme of genomic minimalism with cellular machinery commonly comprised of a reduced number of protein components, and has a remarkably large population of long, stable, noncoding, antisense RNAs. Here we use in silico approaches to investigate the major RNA degradation machinery in Giardia lamblia and compare it to a broad array of other parasitic protists. We have found key constituents of the deadenylation and decapping machinery and of the 5'-3' RNA degradation pathway. We have similarly found that all of the major 3'-5' RNA degradation pathways are present in Giardia, including both exosome-dependent and exosome-independent machinery. However, we observe significant loss of RNA degradation machinery genes that will result in important differences in the protein composition, and potentially functionality, of the various RNA degradation pathways. This is most apparent in the exosome, the central mediator of 3'-5' degradation, which apparently contains an altered core configuration in both Giardia and Plasmodium, with only four, instead of the canonical six, distinct subunits. Additionally the exosome in Giardia is missing both the Rrp6, Nab3, and Nrd1 proteins, known to be key regulators of noncoding transcript stability in other cells. These findings suggest that although the full complement of the major RNA degradation mechanisms were present - and likely functional - early in eukaryotic evolution, the composition and function of the complexes is more variable than previously

  14. Modeling long-term host cell-Giardia lamblia interactions in an in vitro co-culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Bridget S; Estraño, Carlos E; Cole, Judith A

    2013-01-01

    Globally, there are greater than 700,000 deaths per year associated with diarrheal disease. The flagellated intestinal parasite, Giardia lamblia, is one of the most common intestinal pathogens in both humans and animals throughout the world. While attached to the gastrointestinal epithelium, Giardia induces epithelial cell apoptosis, disrupts tight junctions, and increases intestinal permeability. The underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms of giardiasis, including the role lamina propria immune cells, such as macrophages, play in parasite control or clearance are poorly understood. Thus far, one of the major obstacles in ascertaining the mechanisms of Giardia pathology is the lack of a functionally relevant model for the long-term study of the parasite in vitro. Here we report on the development of an in vitro co-culture model which maintains the basolateral-apical architecture of the small intestine and allows for long-term survival of the parasite. Using transwell inserts, Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells and IC-21 macrophages are co-cultured in the presence of Giardia trophozoites. Using the developed model, we show that Giardia trophozoites survive over 21 days and proliferate in a combination media of Caco-2 cell and Giardia medium. Giardia induces apoptosis of epithelial cells through caspase-3 activation and macrophages do not abrogate this response. Additionally, macrophages induce Caco-2 cells to secrete the pro-inflammatory cytokines, GRO and IL-8, a response abolished by Giardia indicating parasite induced suppression of the host immune response. The co-culture model provides additional complexity and information when compared to a single-cell model. This model will be a valuable tool for answering long-standing questions on host-parasite biology that may lead to discovery of new therapeutic interventions.

  15. A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of the Association Between Giardia lamblia and Endemic Pediatric Diarrhea in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhsen, Khitam; Levine, Myron M.

    2012-01-01

    We performed a systematic literature review and meta-analysis examining the association between diarrhea in young children in nonindustrialized settings and Giardia lamblia infection. Eligible were case/control and longitudinal studies that defined the outcome as acute or persistent (>14 days) diarrhea, adjusted for confounders and lasting for at least 1 year. Data on G. lamblia detection (mainly in stools) from diarrhea patients and controls without diarrhea were abstracted. Random effects model meta-analysis obtained pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Twelve nonindustrialized-setting acute pediatric diarrhea studies met the meta-analysis inclusion criteria. Random-effects model meta-analysis of combined results (9774 acute diarrhea cases and 8766 controls) yielded a pooled OR of 0.60 (95% CI, .38–.94; P = .03), indicating that G. lamblia was not associated with acute diarrhea. However, limited data suggest that initial Giardia infections in early infancy may be positively associated with diarrhea. Meta-analysis of 5 persistent diarrhea studies showed a pooled OR of 3.18 (95% CI, 1.50–6.76; P diarrhea in children in developing countries. PMID:23169940

  16. The Study of the Multilayer Filtration Process Efficiency on Giardia lamblia Elimination in Isfahan Water Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Mosaviyan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Giardia lamblia is a waterborne highly infectious protozoan parasite capable of causing gastrointestinal illness. The multilayer filtration is used in many applications such as turbidity removes from surface waters and Bacteria, Viruses and protozoan removes. This study was investigated in full-scale the efficiency of filtration process during water treatment that remove Giardia cyst in water at Isfahan province. Materials and methods: We used Information Collection Rule method (ICR. In this method the polypropylene yarn-wound cartridge filter for isolation of these parasites was examined and followed by elution, sample concentration, flotation by percoll-sucrose solution and immunofluorescence antibody (IFA staining to recognize them. Results: Result showed that three layer filtration had a maximum 2.3 log10 for remove Giardia cyst. Cysts removal in water filtration is likely to be comparable to the efficiency of turbidity. Efficiency removal was 99.5% for Giardia and 92.7% for turbidity in filtration stage. We detected 0.2 cyst per 100 liter and per 100 liter in filtered water. This observation is according to U.S.EPA standards. The number of cysts were more in high pH samples. Discussion and conclusion: Analysis of physical processes of treatment water in Isfahan plant configurations showed that granular filters (include sand, anthracite and garnet filter were more likely to have effluence in removal cysts than dual filters.

  17. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Giardia lamblia and Blastocystis hominis Infections in Children Under Ten Years Old, Hamadan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedighi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Nowadays, parasitic infections are a major health problem throughout the world, particularly in the developing countries. Objectives Considering the high susceptibility of children against parasitic infections, the current study aimed to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of intestinal parasitic infections among children less than 10 years old in urban and rural areas of Hamadan district. Patients and Methods The current study was conducted on 395 children (214 males and 181 females, referred to urban and rural health centers in Hamadan district in 2013. Stool samples were examined by formalin-ether concentration technique, and trichrome and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining methods. The results were analyzed by chi-square test. Results Of the 395 studied children, 112 (28.4% were infected with intestinal parasites. Blastocystis hominis was the most frequently detected parasite with the prevalence of 18.5%, followed by Giardia lamblia (10.9%, Entamoeba coli (2.8%, Dientamoeba fragilis (0.8%, Iodamoeba buetschlii (0.8%, Chilomastix mesnili (0.5%, Cryptosporidium spp. (0.5%, Endolimax nana (0.3% and Entamoeba hartmanni (0.3%. No cases of infection with helminth parasites were found. Conclusions The results of the study showed a high prevalence of Giardia lamblia and Blastocystis hominis in rural areas compared to urban regions. Therefore it is necessary to promote the public health awareness in the rural population, in order to reduce the frequency of parasitic infections.

  18. Larrea tridentata: A novel source for anti-parasitic agents active against Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia and Naegleria fowleri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashyal, Bharat; Li, Linfeng; Bains, Trpta; Debnath, Anjan; LaBarbera, Daniel V

    2017-08-01

    Protozoan parasites infect and kill millions of people worldwide every year, particularly in developing countries where access to clean fresh water is limited. Among the most common are intestinal parasites, including Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica. These parasites wreak havoc on the epithelium lining the small intestines (G. lamblia) and colon (E. histolytica) causing giardiasis and amebiasis, respectively. In addition, there are less common but far more deadly pathogens such as Naegleria fowleri that thrive in warm waters and infect the central nervous systems of their victims via the nasal passages. Despite their prevalence and associated high mortality rates, there remains an unmet need to identify more effective therapeutics for people infected with these opportunistic parasites. To address this unmet need, we have surveyed plants and traditional herbal medicines known throughout the world to identify novel antiparasitic agents with activity against G. lamblia, E. histolytica, and N. fowleri. Herein, we report Larrea tridentata, known as creosote bush, as a novel source for secondary metabolites that display antiparasitic activity against all three pathogens. This report also characterizes the lignan compound classes, nordihydroguairetic acid and demethoxyisoguaiacin, as novel antiparasitic lead agents to further develop more effective drug therapy options for millions of people worldwide.

  19. Larrea tridentata: A novel source for anti-parasitic agents active against Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia and Naegleria fowleri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharat Bashyal

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Protozoan parasites infect and kill millions of people worldwide every year, particularly in developing countries where access to clean fresh water is limited. Among the most common are intestinal parasites, including Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica. These parasites wreak havoc on the epithelium lining the small intestines (G. lamblia and colon (E. histolytica causing giardiasis and amebiasis, respectively. In addition, there are less common but far more deadly pathogens such as Naegleria fowleri that thrive in warm waters and infect the central nervous systems of their victims via the nasal passages. Despite their prevalence and associated high mortality rates, there remains an unmet need to identify more effective therapeutics for people infected with these opportunistic parasites. To address this unmet need, we have surveyed plants and traditional herbal medicines known throughout the world to identify novel antiparasitic agents with activity against G. lamblia, E. histolytica, and N. fowleri. Herein, we report Larrea tridentata, known as creosote bush, as a novel source for secondary metabolites that display antiparasitic activity against all three pathogens. This report also characterizes the lignan compound classes, nordihydroguairetic acid and demethoxyisoguaiacin, as novel antiparasitic lead agents to further develop more effective drug therapy options for millions of people worldwide.

  20. Comparison of microscopy, real-time PCR and a rapid immunoassay for the detection of Giardia lamblia in human stool specimens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurman, T.; Lankamp, P.; van Belkum, A.; Kooistra-Smid, M.; van Zwet, A.

    2007-01-01

    Giardia lamblia is one of the most common intestinal parasites worldwide, with microscopy being the diagnostic reference standard for use with human stools. However, microscopy is time-consuming, labour-intensive and lacks sensitivity when single stools are examined. In the present study,

  1. Multiplex PCR detection of Cryptosporidium sp, Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica directly from dried stool samples from Guinea-Bissauan children with diarrhoea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mero, Sointu; Kirveskari, Juha; Antikainen, Jenni

    2017-01-01

    Background: In developing countries, diarrhoea is the most common cause of death for children under five years of age, with Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium and Entamoeba histolytica as the most frequent pathogenic parasites. Traditional microscopy for stool parasites has poor sensitivity...... was developed for detecting Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium hominis/parvum and Entamoeba histolytica directly from stool specimens. Applicability to dried samples was checked by comparing with fresh ones in a small test material. Finally, the assay was applied to dried specimens collected from Guinea......-Bissauan children with diarrhoea. Results: The PCR’s analytical sensitivity limit was 0.1 ng/ml for G. lamblia DNA, 0.01 ng/ml for E. histolytica DNA and 0.1 ng/ml for Cryptosporidium sp. In the test material, the assay performed similarly with fresh and dried stools. Of the 52 Guinea-Bissauan samples, local...

  2. Coinfection with Giardia lamblia and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and chronic diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewan-Lowe, K; Furlong, B; Sims, M; Schwartz, D A

    1997-04-01

    Diarrhea is an important clinical problem in immunosuppressed patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). There are numerous classical as well as emerging enteric pathogens that can produce diarrhea; however, these agents can be missed when only one method, such as microbiological examination of stool, is used for diagnosis. The endoscopic biopsy is a sensitive method for diagnosis of many viral, fungal, and parasitic infections of the gastrointestinal tract. Although only one agent is often identified in mucosal biopsies from these immunosuppressed patients, coinfection with multiple microbial agents is being increasingly recognized. Giardia infection is not as prevalent as other pathogens in patients with AIDS, but it remains an important diarrheal agent that is potentially curable. However, there have been only rare reports of coinfections with giardiasis and other infectious agents. This report describes a patient with AIDS and chronic diarrhea who had repeated negative stool examinations for ova and parasites. Light and electron microscopic examination of subsequent endoscopically obtained small intestinal biopsies revealed coinfection with two parasites, Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Giardia lamblia. Following treatment with metronidazole for giardiasis, the diarrhea persisted, but was less severe. This report also describes the diagnostic features of Giardia and Enterocytozoon infections in biopsy tissues and emphasizes the importance of identifying enteric coinfections in patients with AIDS to ensure timely and specific modes of therapy.

  3. Presence of Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia in water samples from Southeast Asia: towards an integrated water detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Thulasi; Abd Majid, Mohamad Azlan; Onichandran, Subashini; Jaturas, Narong; Andiappan, Hemah; Salibay, Cristina C; Tabo, Hazel A L; Tabo, Norbel; Dungca, Julieta Z; Tangpong, Jitbanjong; Phiriyasamith, Sucheep; Yuttayong, Boonyaorn; Polseela, Raxsina; Do, Binh Nhu; Sawangjaroen, Nongyao; Tan, Tian-Chye; Lim, Yvonne A L; Nissapatorn, Veeranoot

    2016-01-13

    Access to clean and safe drinking water that is free from pathogenic protozoan parasites, especially Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia that cause gastrointestinal illness in humans, is still an issue in Southeast Asia (SEA). This study is the first attempt to detect the aforementioned protozoan parasites in water samples from countries in SEA, using real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays. A total of 221 water samples of 10 l each were collected between April and October 2013 from Malaysia (53), Thailand (120), the Philippines (33), and Vietnam (15). A physicochemical analysis was conducted. The water samples were processed in accordance with the US Environmental Protection Agency's methods 1622/1623.1, microscopically observed and subsequently screened using qPCR assays. Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in treated water samples from the Philippines (1/10), with a concentration of 0.06 ± 0.19 oocyst/L, and untreated water samples from Thailand (25/93), Malaysia (17/44), and the Philippines (11/23), with concentrations ranging from 0.13 ± 0.18 to 0.57 ± 1.41 oocyst/L. Giardia cysts were found in treated water samples from the Philippines (1/10), with a concentration of 0.02 ± 0.06 cyst/L, and in untreated water samples from Thailand (20/93), Vietnam (5/10), Malaysia (22/44), and the Philippines (16/23), with concentrations ranging from 0.12 ± 0.3 to 8.90 ± 19.65 cyst/L. The pathogens C. parvum and G. lamblia were detected using using qPCR assays by targeting the 138-bp fragment and the small subunit gene, respectively. C. parvum was detected in untreated water samples from the Philippines (1/23) and Malaysia (2/44), whilst, G. lamblia detected was detected in treated water samples from the Philippines (1/10) and in untreated water samples from Thailand (21/93), Malaysia (12/44), and the Philippines (17/23). Nitrate concentration was found to have a high positive correlation with (oo)cyst (0.993). The presence of

  4. Retention of Escherichia coli, Giardia lamblia cysts and Ascaris lumbricoides eggs in agricultural soils irrigated by untreated wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landa-Cansigno, O; Durán-Álvarez, J C; Jiménez-Cisneros, B

    2013-10-15

    In central Mexico, agricultural irrigation reusing Mexico City's municipal wastewater has been occurring for the last century, resulting in the recharge of the local aquifer. However, groundwater of this zone is of good quality, indicating that the microorganisms contained in wastewater are retained by soil after infiltration. This study aims to assess the capacity of three agricultural soils to retain three microorganisms frequently found in wastewater, namely Escherichia coli (E. coli), Giardia lamblia (G. lamblia) cysts and Ascaris lumbricoides (A. lumbricoides) eggs, through batch sorption-desorption assays. The tested soils were: an organic-clayey soil (C-OM), a clayey soil (C-om) and a sandy soil (c-om). For the three soils, sorption equilibrium of E. coli was reached before 1 h, while for G. lamblia cysts and A. lumbricoides eggs, sorption equilibrium took 2.5 h. Sorption of E. coli was better described by the Freundlich model than by the Langmuir one. Higher retention of bacteria was observed in the C-om soil (KF = 4340) than in the C-OM and c-om ones (KF = 1821 and 0.01, respectively). Regarding G. lamblia cysts and A. lumbricoides eggs, data could not be fitted to the tested sorption models. For both organisms, retention was lower in the C-OM soil than in the C-om and c-om ones. In the desorption tests, a sudden liberation of E. coli from soils was observed, probably due to bacterial re-growth. Desorption of G. lamblia was higher in the sandy soil than in the clayey ones; desorption was not increased when a surfactant was applied to the soil, suggesting that hydrophobic interactions are not necessarily responsible for retention of the cysts onto the tested soils. For A. lumbricoides eggs, desorption using NaOCl solution suggested that retention was caused by interactions between the mineral fraction of the soil and the external walls of eggs. This study showed that the three target microorganisms are retained by the tested soils and that

  5. Purification and characterization of a protein capable of binding to fatty acids and bile salts in Giardia lamblia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Guardia, R Diaz; Lopez, M B; Burgos, M; Osuna, A

    2011-08-01

    A specific fatty acid binding protein was isolated from Giardia lamblia, using an affinity column with butyric acid acting as a ligand in place of stearic acid. This method has proved to be more efficient than the one previously described using stearic acid as ligand. The purified fraction showed 8 electrophoretic bands of proteins, with molecular weights ranging between 8 and 80 kDa. This pattern is a consequence of the aggregation of a protein with a molecular weight of 8,215 Da, corresponding to the lower molecular weight band, the only one capable of binding to fatty acids. The labeled oleic acid bound to these purified proteins was replaced by a 100-fold greater concentration of taurocholate, glycocholate, deoxycholate, palmitic acid, and arachidonic acid, having a greater displacement of the bile salts than the free fatty acids.

  6. Click Chemistry-Facilitated Structural Diversification of Nitrothiazoles, Nitrofurans, and Nitropyrroles Enhances Antimicrobial Activity against Giardia lamblia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wan Jung; Korthals, Keith A.; Li, Suhua; Le, Christine; Kalisiak, Jarosław; Sharpless, K. Barry; Fokin, Valery V.; Miyamoto, Yukiko

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Giardia lamblia is an important and ubiquitous cause of diarrheal disease. The primary agents in the treatment of giardiasis are nitroheterocyclic drugs, particularly the imidazoles metronidazole and tinidazole and the thiazole nitazoxanide. Although these drugs are generally effective, treatment failures occur in up to 20% of cases, and resistance has been demonstrated in vivo and in vitro. Prior work had suggested that side chain modifications of the imidazole core can lead to new effective 5-nitroimidazole drugs that can combat nitro drug resistance, but the full potential of nitroheterocycles other than imidazole to yield effective new antigiardial agents has not been explored. Here, we generated derivatives of two clinically utilized nitroheterocycles, nitrothiazole and nitrofuran, as well as a third heterocycle, nitropyrrole, which is related to nitroimidazole but has not been systematically investigated as an antimicrobial drug scaffold. Click chemistry was employed to synthesize 442 novel nitroheterocyclic compounds with extensive side chain modifications. Screening of this library against representative G. lamblia strains showed a wide spectrum of in vitro activities, with many of the compounds exhibiting superior activity relative to reference drugs and several showing >100-fold increase in potency and the ability to overcome existing forms of metronidazole resistance. The majority of new compounds displayed no cytotoxicity against human cells, and several compounds were orally active against murine giardiasis in vivo. These findings provide additional impetus for the systematic development of nitroheterocyclic compounds with nonimidazole cores as alternative and improved agents for the treatment of giardiasis and potentially other infectious agents. PMID:28396548

  7. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of α-11 giardin from Giardia lamblia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathuri, Puja; Nguyen, Emily Tam; Luecke, Hartmut

    2006-01-01

    α-11 giardin from the intestinal protozoan parasite, G. lamblia has been cloned, expressed, purified and crystallized under two different conditions and in two different space groups. Crystals from the first condition diffracted to 1.1 Å and belong to a primitive orthorhombic space group and crystals obtained in the second condition diffracted to 2.93 Å and belong to a primitive monoclinic space group. α-11 Giardin, a protein from the annexin superfamily, is a 35.0 kDa protein from the intestinal protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia which triggers a form of diarrhea called giardiasis. Here, the cloning, expression, purification and the crystallization of α-11 giardin under two different conditions and in two different space groups is reported. Crystals from the first condition diffracted to 1.1 Å and belong to a primitive orthorhombic space group, while crystals from the second condition, which included calcium in the crystallization solution, diffracted to 2.93 Å and belong to a primitive monoclinic space group. Determination of the detailed atomic structure of α-11 giardin will provide a better insight into its biological function and might establish whether this class of proteins is a potential drug target against giardiasis

  8. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of α-11 giardin from Giardia lamblia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pathuri, Puja; Nguyen, Emily Tam [Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Luecke, Hartmut, E-mail: hudel@uci.edu [Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Department of Information and Computer Sciences, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States)

    2006-11-01

    α-11 giardin from the intestinal protozoan parasite, G. lamblia has been cloned, expressed, purified and crystallized under two different conditions and in two different space groups. Crystals from the first condition diffracted to 1.1 Å and belong to a primitive orthorhombic space group and crystals obtained in the second condition diffracted to 2.93 Å and belong to a primitive monoclinic space group. α-11 Giardin, a protein from the annexin superfamily, is a 35.0 kDa protein from the intestinal protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia which triggers a form of diarrhea called giardiasis. Here, the cloning, expression, purification and the crystallization of α-11 giardin under two different conditions and in two different space groups is reported. Crystals from the first condition diffracted to 1.1 Å and belong to a primitive orthorhombic space group, while crystals from the second condition, which included calcium in the crystallization solution, diffracted to 2.93 Å and belong to a primitive monoclinic space group. Determination of the detailed atomic structure of α-11 giardin will provide a better insight into its biological function and might establish whether this class of proteins is a potential drug target against giardiasis.

  9. Molecular Characterization of Giardia lamblia: First Report of Assemblage B in Human Isolates from Rio de Janeiro (Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Clarissa Perez; Zanini, Graziela Maria; Dias, Gisele Silva; da Silva, Sidnei; Sousa, Maria do Céu

    2016-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of giardiasis, the genetic characterization of Giardia lamblia has been poorly documented in Brazil and molecular epidemiology research has only been conducted in the last few years. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of different G. lamblia assemblages and detect mixed infections among patients with giardiasis. The cross-section survey was conducted among patients attending the FIOCRUZ in Rio de Janeiro. In order to discriminate the genetic assemblages/sub-assemblages, G. lamblia isolates were characterized by PCR-RFLP and qPCR using four loci genes (bg, gdh, tpi and orfC4). Of the 65 positive samples, 41 (63.1%) were successfully amplified by nested-PCR of bg and gdh genes. Among them, 16 were typed as sub-assemblage AII, 7 as BIII, 4 as BIV and 8 as a mixture of BIII and BIV. After the analysis by qPCR assay, a total of 55 (84.6%) samples were amplified using at least one locus: bg gene was amplified in 38 (58.5%) samples, gdh in 41 (63.1%), tpi in 39 (60%), and orfC4 in 39 (60%). Multilocus genotyping results showed that 29 (52.7%) samples belonged to Assemblage A and 26 (47.3%) samples belonged to Assemblage B. In 2011 and 2012, 20 (74.1%) samples belonged to Assemblage A and 7 (25.9%) belonged to Assemblage B. In subsequent years (2013-2015) there was a predominance of Assemblage B, 19 (67.9%) versus 9 (32.1%) Assemblage A. This is the first time that Assemblage B of G. lamblia was reported in human clinical samples from Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) and is the first report about genetic characterization using four genes. The qPCR assemblage-specific showed no mixed infections by Assemblages A and B. A switch in genetic profile over the years was observed, firstly predominance of Assemblage A and lastly of Assemblage B.

  10. Identification of scaffold/Matrix Attachment (S/MAR like DNA element from the gastrointestinal protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautam Pennathur

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromatin in the nucleus of all eukaryotes is organized into a system of loops and domains. These loops remain fastened at their bases to the fundamental framework of the nucleus, the matrix or the scaffold. The DNA sequences which anchor the bases of the chromatin loops to the matrix are known as Scaffold/Matrix Attachment Regions or S/MARs. Though S/MARs have been studied in yeast and higher eukaryotes and they have been found to be associated with gene organization and regulation of gene expression, they have not been reported in protists like Giardia. Several tools have been discovered and formulated to predict S/MARs from a genome of a higher eukaryote which take into account a number of features. However, the lack of a definitive consensus sequence in S/MARs and the randomness of the protozoan genome in general, make it a challenge to predict and identify such sequences from protists. Results Here, we have analysed the Giardia genome for the probable S/MARs predicted by the available computational tools; and then shown these sequences to be physically associated with the nuclear matrix. Our study also reflects that while no single computational tool is competent to predict such complex elements from protist genomes, a combination of tools followed by experimental verification is the only way to confirm the presence of these elements from these organisms. Conclusion This is the first report of S/MAR elements from the protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia. This initial work is expected to lay a framework for future studies relating to genome organization as well as gene regulatory elements in this parasite.

  11. Measurement of Giardia lamblia adhesion force using an integrated microfluidic assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ling; Zheng, Guo-Xia; Yang, Yu-Suo; Feng, Cheng-Yu; Liu, Fang-Fang; Wang, Yun-Hua

    2017-02-01

    The mechanisms how Giardias attach to the intestinal epithelium remain unclear. None of the methods currently being used to measure the attachment force could provide a continuous nutrition supply and a micro-aerobic atmosphere to the Giardia. Besides, they are all labor-intensive. In the present research, a microfluidic method based on electric circuit analogy was developed. The input fluid flowed through the inlet channel with different lengths and was distributed in four assay chambers. Shear force gradients were generated in chambers, too. This allowed an easy control of fluids and the shear forces. Most importantly, the shear stress large enough to detach Giardia could be generated in laminar flow regime. Moreover, analysis could be accomplished in one single test. By applying inlet flow rates of 30, 60, and 120 μL ml -1 , shear force gradients ranging from 19.47 to 60.50 Pa were generated. The adhesion forces of trophozoites were analyzed and the EC 50 of the force that caused 50% trophozoites detachment was calculated as 36.60 Pa. This paper presents a novel method for measurement of Giardia adhesion force. Graphical Abstract Measurement of Giardia adhesion force. Various of flow rates were applied to generate different shear forces and Giardia trophozoites remaining attached were counted (a-c). The percentages of attachment vs shear stress were plotted and the EC 50 of adhesion force was calculated (d).

  12. Association between Whipple's disease and Giardia lamblia infection Asociación de enfermedad de Whipple e infección por Giardia lamblia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Gil Ruiz

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Whipple'disease is mainly characterized by affecting the digestive system, although it can be a multisystemic process with different clinical symptoms. The bacillus causing the disease has been isolated and cultivated in 2000 and the genome sequence has been recently analyzed in 2003, which means new perspectives for its diagnosis and treatment. Giardiasis is an infestation caused by a protozoo and may cause a malabsorption syndrome or run in a subclinic way. The case of a middle-aged male is described, who after a three-year period of migratory arthralgias, showed weight loss, diarrheas and abdominal pain, being diagnosed of Giardiasis, and after the persistent symptoms and a number of studies, was diagnosed with Whipple disease. Nineteen cases of Giardia-Whipple coinfection have been described in the literature, but the reason of this association has not been found yet. The discussion on whether there is an alteration in the inmunitary system which facilitates infections or, the development of an infection lead to the other one, goes on.La enfermedad de Whipple se caracteriza por afectar principalmente al aparato digestivo, aunque puede ser un proceso multisistémico con variadas manifestaciones clínicas. En el año 2000 se ha conseguido aislar y cultivar el bacilo causante y recientemente, en el 2003, se ha analizado la secuencia completa del genoma, lo que supone nuevas perspectivas para el diagnóstico y el tratamiento. La giardiasis es una infección originada por un protozoo que puede evolucionar de forma subclínica o dar lugar a un síndrome de malabsorción. Describimos el caso de un paciente varón de mediana edad, que tras un periodo de tres años de artralgias migratorias en articulaciones periféricas, presentó un cuadro de pérdida de peso, con aumento del número de deposiciones y molestias abdominales siendo diagnosticado de Giardiasis y ante la persistencia de los síntomas y la posterior realización de diferentes estudios

  13. Effects of Dietary Zinc Manipulation on Growth Performance, Zinc Status and Immune Response during Giardia lamblia Infection: A Study in CD-1 Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Astiazarán-García

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Associations between Giardia lamblia infection and low serum concentrations of zinc have been reported in young children. Interestingly, relatively few studies have examined the effects of different dietary zinc levels on the parasite-infected host. The aims of this study were to compare the growth performance and zinc status in response to varying levels of dietary zinc and to measure the antibody-mediated response of mice during G. lamblia infection. Male CD-1 mice were fed using 1 of 4 experimental diets: adequate-zinc (ZnA, low-zinc (ZnL, high-zinc (ZnH and supplemented-zinc (ZnS diet containing 30, 10, 223 and 1383 mg Zn/kg respectively. After a 10 days feeding period, mice were inoculated orally with 5 × 106 G. lamblia trophozoites and were maintained on the assigned diet during the course of infection (30 days. Giardia-free mice fed ZnL diets were able to attain normal growth and antibody-mediated response. Giardia-infected mice fed ZnL and ZnA diets presented a significant growth retardation compared to non-infected controls. Zinc supplementation avoided this weight loss during G. lamblia infection and up-regulated the host’s humoral immune response by improving the production of specific antibodies. Clinical outcomes of zinc supplementation during giardiasis included significant weight gain, higher anti-G. lamblia IgG antibodies and improved serum zinc levels despite the ongoing infection. A maximum growth rate and antibody-mediated response were attained in mice fed ZnH diet. No further increases in body weight, zinc status and humoral immune capacity were noted by feeding higher zinc levels (ZnS than the ZnH diet. These findings probably reflect biological effect of zinc that could be of public health importance in endemic areas of infection.

  14. Comparison between immunomagnetic separation, coupled with immunofluorescence, and the techniques of Faust et al. and of Lutz for the diagnosis of Giardia lamblia cysts in human feces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza Doris Sobral Marques

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the performance of Immunomagnetic Separation technique, coupled with Immunofluorescence (IMS-IFA, was compared with the FAUST et al. and Lutz parasitological techniques for the detection of Giardia lamblia cysts in human feces. One hundred and twenty-seven samples were evaluated by the three techniques at the same time showing a rate of cyst detection of 27.5% by IMS-IFA and 15.7% by both Faust et al. and Lutz techniques. Data analysis showed a higher sensitivity of IMS-IFA for the detection of G. lamblia cysts in comparison with the techniques of FAUST et al. and Lutz. The use of this methodology as a routine procedure enables the processing of many samples simultaneously, in order to increase recovery rate of G. lamblia cysts and reduce the time of sample storage.

  15. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis, Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia among Young Children with and without Diarrhea in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marit G Tellevik

    Full Text Available Although enteroparasites are common causes of diarrheal illness, few studies have been performed among children in Tanzania. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis, Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia among young children in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, and identify risk factors for infection.We performed an unmatched case-control study among children 12 months (P = 0.003; OR = 3.5; 95% CI: 1.5-7.8. Among children aged 7-12 months, those who were breastfed had lower prevalence of G. lamblia infection than those who had been weaned (P = 0.012.Cryptosporidium infection is common among young Tanzanian children with diarrhea, particularly those living with HIV, and infection is more frequent during the rainy season. G. lamblia is frequently implicated in asymptomatic infections, but rarely causes overt diarrheal illness, and its prevalence increases with age.

  16. Evaluation of nine immunoassay kits (enzyme immunoassay and direct fluorescence) for detection of Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum in human fecal specimens.

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, L S; Shimizu, R Y

    1997-01-01

    It is well known that Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum can cause severe symptoms in humans, particularly those who are immunologically compromised. Immunoassay procedures offer both increased sensitivity and specificity compared to conventional staining methods. These reagents are also helpful when screening large numbers of patients, particularly in an outbreak situation or when screening patients with minimal symptoms. The data obtained by using 9 diagnostic kits were compared: di...

  17. Cross-modulation of pathogen-specific pathways enhances malnutrition during enteric co-infection with Giardia lamblia and enteroaggregative Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartelt, Luther A; Bolick, David T; Mayneris-Perxachs, Jordi; Kolling, Glynis L; Medlock, Gregory L; Zaenker, Edna I; Donowitz, Jeffery; Thomas-Beckett, Rose Viguna; Rogala, Allison; Carroll, Ian M; Singer, Steven M; Papin, Jason; Swann, Jonathan R; Guerrant, Richard L

    2017-07-01

    Diverse enteropathogen exposures associate with childhood malnutrition. To elucidate mechanistic pathways whereby enteric microbes interact during malnutrition, we used protein deficiency in mice to develop a new model of co-enteropathogen enteropathy. Focusing on common enteropathogens in malnourished children, Giardia lamblia and enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC), we provide new insights into intersecting pathogen-specific mechanisms that enhance malnutrition. We show for the first time that during protein malnutrition, the intestinal microbiota permits persistent Giardia colonization and simultaneously contributes to growth impairment. Despite signals of intestinal injury, such as IL1α, Giardia-infected mice lack pro-inflammatory intestinal responses, similar to endemic pediatric Giardia infections. Rather, Giardia perturbs microbial host co-metabolites of proteolysis during growth impairment, whereas host nicotinamide utilization adaptations that correspond with growth recovery increase. EAEC promotes intestinal inflammation and markers of myeloid cell activation. During co-infection, intestinal inflammatory signaling and cellular recruitment responses to EAEC are preserved together with a Giardia-mediated diminishment in myeloid cell activation. Conversely, EAEC extinguishes markers of host energy expenditure regulatory responses to Giardia, as host metabolic adaptations appear exhausted. Integrating immunologic and metabolic profiles during co-pathogen infection and malnutrition, we develop a working mechanistic model of how cumulative diet-induced and pathogen-triggered microbial perturbations result in an increasingly wasted host.

  18. Detection of a Giardia lamblia coproantigen by using a commercially available immunoenzymatic assay, in Belo Horizonte, Brazil Avaliação do ProSpeT Giardia ensaio em microplaca na detecção de coproantígenos de Giardia lamblia, em fezes de pacientes de Belo Horizonte, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Míriam Oliveira e ROCHA

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available It is known that fecal examination to detect Giardia lamblia cysts or trophozoites produces a high percentage of false-negative results. A commercially available immunoenzymatic assay (ProSpecT Giardia Microplate Assay, Alexon, Inc., BIOBRÁS to detect G. lamblia specific coproantigen was evaluated for the first time in Brazil. A total of 90 specimens were tested. Each specimen was first tested as unpreserved stool, and then it was preserved in 10% Formalin to be tested 2 months later. The assay was able to identify all the 30 positive patients (sensitivity = 100.0% by visual or spectrophotometric examination in the unpreserved specimens and was negative in 57 of the 60 patients without G. lamblia (specificity = 95.0%. The assay identified 27 of the 30 positive patients (sensitivity = 90.0% and was negative in 59 of the 60 negatives (specificity = 98.3% in the preserved stools according to both readings. A marked difference was observed in the optical densities in both groups, preserved and unpreserved stools, when the G. lamblia-positive specimens were compared to the negative or positive for other intestinal parasites than G. lamblia. The assay seems a good alternative for giardiasis diagnosis, especially when the fecal examination was repeatedly negative and the patient presents giardiasislike symptoms.O diagnóstico da giardíase através da pesquisa de trofozoítos ou cistos do parasita nas fezes apresenta uma elevada percentagem de resultados falso-negativos. No presente trabalho foi feita, pela primeira vez no Brasil, uma avaliação do ProSpecT Giardia Ensaio em Microplaca (Alexon, Inc., BIOBRÁS, utilizando amostras fecais de pacientes de Belo Horizonte, Brasil. Um total de 90 amostras fecais foram testadas, primeiramente como fezes frescas e, então, preservadas em formalina 10%, para um novo teste 2 meses após. Com as amostras frescas, o ensaio imunoenzimático, através de leitura visual ou no espectrofotômetro, foi capaz de

  19. A systematic review of the effects of Iranian pharmaceutical plant extracts on Giardia lamblia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajar Ziaei Hezarjaribi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to provide a systematic review regarding anti-Giardia effect of different Iranian plant extracts used in vivo and in vitro on cysts and trophozoites. Many reports indicated that most of plant extracts used as anti-Giardia were obtained from Liliaceae, Apiaceae, Asteraceae, and Myrtaceae. These extracts included different fractions such as aqueous, alcoholic and chloroform extracts as well as Soxhlet extraction of juice or essence. The findings of this review showed that hydroalcoholic extract of asafoetida, Chenopodium botrys, and chloroformic extract of feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium have the maximum effect (100% efficacy on in vitro application against Giardia. However, the highest in vivo effect of 100% therapeutic significance was recorded for the extract of Allium sativum at 80 mg/mL concentration. Given the plant species richness of Iran in terms of herbal medicines with fewer side effects, it can be a good alternative to chemical drugs used to treat giardiasis.

  20. Modellering van de verwijdering van Cryptosporidium parvum,Giardia lamblia en enterovirussen in spaarbekkens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ratsak CH; MGB

    1996-01-01

    De protozoa Cryptosporidium en Giardia hebben de laatste decennia in de Verenigde Staten en in Groot-Brittannie een aanzienlijk aantal grote en kleine epidemieen van maag-darminfecties via drinkwater veroorzaakt. Wiskundige modellen kunnen worden gebruikt om de verwijdering van pathogene

  1. Giardia infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardia, or giardiasis, is an infection of the small intestine. A tiny parasite called Giardia lamblia causes it. ... from some of the medicines used to treat giardia are: Metallic ... used to treat the infection can be harmful to the unborn baby.

  2. Synthesis and Electrochemistry of 2-Ethenyl and 2-Ethanyl Derivatives of 5-Nitroimidazole and Antimicrobial Activity against Giardia lamblia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Carlos A.; Tripp, Jonathan C.; Miyamoto, Yukiko; Kalisiak, Jaroslaw; Hruz, Petr; Andersen, Yolanda S.; Brown, Sabrina E.; Kangas, Karina; Arzu, Leo V.; Davids, Barbara J.; Gillin, Frances D.; Upcroft, Jacqueline A.; Upcroft, Peter; Fokin, Valery V.; Smith, Diane K.; Sharpless, K. Barry; Eckmann, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Infections with the diarrheagenic pathogen, Giardia lamblia, are commonly treated with the 5-nitroimidazole (5-NI) metronidazole (Mz), and yet treatment failures and Mz resistance occur. Using a panel of new 2-ethenyl and 2-ethanyl 5-NI derivatives, we found that compounds with a saturated bridge between the 5-NI core and a pendant ring system exhibited only modestly increased antigiardial activity and could not overcome Mz resistance. By contrast, olefins with a conjugated bridge connecting the core and a substituted phenyl or heterocyclic ring showed greatly increased antigiardial activity without toxicity, and several overcame Mz resistance and were more effective than Mz in a murine giardiasis model. Determination of the half-wave potential of the initial one-electron transfer by cyclic voltammetry revealed that easier redox activation correlated with greater antigiardial activity and capacity to overcome Mz resistance. These studies show the potential of combining systematic synthetic approaches with biological and electrochemical evaluations in developing improved 5-NI drugs. PMID:19480409

  3. Rapid Detection and Enumeration of Giardia lamblia Cysts in Water Samples by Immunomagnetic Separation and Flow Cytometric Analysis ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keserue, Hans-Anton; Füchslin, Hans Peter; Egli, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Giardia lamblia is an important waterborne pathogen and is among the most common intestinal parasites of humans worldwide. Its fecal-oral transmission leads to the presence of cysts of this pathogen in the environment, and so far, quantitative rapid screening methods are not available for various matrices, such as surface waters, wastewater, or food. Thus, it is necessary to establish methods that enable reliable rapid detection of a single cyst in 10 to 100 liters of drinking water. Conventional detection relies on cyst concentration, isolation, and confirmation by immunofluorescence microscopy (IFM), resulting in low recoveries and high detection limits. Many different immunomagnetic separation (IMS) procedures have been developed for separation and cyst purification, so far with variable but high losses of cysts. A method was developed that requires less than 100 min and consists of filtration, resuspension, IMS, and flow cytometric (FCM) detection. MACS MicroBeads were used for IMS, and a reliable flow cytometric detection approach was established employing 3 different parameters for discrimination from background signals, i.e., green and red fluorescence (resulting from the distinct pattern emitted by the fluorescein dye) and sideward scatter for size discrimination. With spiked samples, recoveries exceeding 90% were obtained, and false-positive results were never encountered for negative samples. Additionally, the method was applicable to naturally occurring cysts in wastewater and has the potential to be automated. PMID:21685159

  4. The role of free-ranging, captive, and domestic birds of Western Poland in environmental contamination with Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and Giardia lamblia cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewska, Anna C; Graczyk, Thaddeus K; Słodkowicz-Kowalska, Anna; Tamang, Leena; Jedrzejewski, Szymon; Zduniak, Piotr; Solarczyk, Piotr; Nowosad, Andrzej; Nowosad, Piotr

    2009-04-01

    As Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia can be disseminated in the environment by avian hosts, a total of 499 fecal dropping from 308 free-ranging, 90 captive, and 101 domestic birds were tested by conventional, immunological, and molecular techniques for these human enteropathogens. Twenty-six (5.2%) tested positive for G. lamblia cysts and 19 (3.8%) for C. parvum oocysts. A bird total of 23 (7.5%) free-ranging, two (2.2%) captive, and one (0.1%) domestic tested positive for cysts, whereas 18 (5.8%) free-ranging, one (1.1%) captive, and zero livestock birds tested positive for oocysts. G. lamblia cysts and C. parvum oocysts were found significantly more frequently in fecal droppings of free-ranging aquatic birds than in birds not normally associated with water. No specimen tested positive for both pathogens simultaneously. Aquatic birds represent an important epidemiologic link in water-associated transmission cycles of Cryptosporidium and Giardia and play a significant role in environmental contamination of aquatic habitats with these anthropozoonotic pathogens.

  5. Impacto de la dieta sobre la inducción de infección con quistes de Giardia lamblia en ratas Sprague-Dawley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz-Cinco Martha Elvia

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar el efecto de la desnutrición en la inducción de la giardiosis con diferentes concentraciones de quistes de Giardia lamblia utilizando como modelo animal ratas Sprague-Dawley. Material y métodos. Es un estudio experimental efectuado entre 1995 y 1999, en el Centro de Investigación en Alimentación y Desarrollo, de la ciudad de Hermosillo, estado de Sonora, México, y cuya muestra estuvo integrada por dos grupos de 6 a 8 unidades experimentales, las cuales recibieron dos tipos de dieta y cinco tratamientos con diferente concentración de inóculo de quistes de Giardia lamblia. Durante la fase experimental se monitoreó la excreción de quistes, ganancia de peso, consumo de alimento, análisis del contenido intestinal y daños macro y microscópicos en mucosa intestinal. El tratamiento estadístico de los datos consistió en análisis de varianza, y de residuales cuando fue necesario. Resultados. En los animales alimentados con una dieta que cubre sus requerimientos nutricionales (DN se observó que es posible provocar la infección con 60 quistes, mientras que en los animales desnutridos (dieta DLN la concentración que se requiere es de únicamente seis quistes para establecer daños a nivel de mucosa intestinal. Conclusiones. La ganancia de peso monitoreada durante los 10 días de ensayo no resultó ser un buen indicador de la infección por Giardia lamblia. El porcentaje de infección depende de la concentración de quistes inoculados y del estado de nutrición de los animales evaluados.

  6. Incidence of Giardia lamblia Subspecies by PCR-RFLP in Stool Specimens of Hospitalized Children at Urmia Mutahhari Hospital, West Azerbaijan Province, Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khosro Hazrati Tappeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Giardia lamblia is one of the most prevalent intestinal flagellate protozoa that infects a wide range of vertebrate hosts causing severe intestinal disorder in children.This study was performed to determine subspecies of G.lamblia by the PCR-RFLP method, targeting the glutamate dehydrogenase(gdhlocus, in hospitalized children at Urmia Mutahhari Hospital, West Azerbaijan Province,Iran and determining the infection transformational storages in this area.Overall, 720 stool specimens were collected from the hospitalized children, 34 samples were positive and Giardia cysts were detected under the microscope. Cysts were partially purified by the sucrose density gradient method and then washed with sterile distilled water to remove effectively the PCR inhibitors. Genomic DNA of G. lamblia isolates was extracted by freeze-thaw cycles followed by phenol/ chloroform/isoamyl alcohol method. The single step PCR-RFLP assay was used to differentiate the assemblages between A and B, which were found in humans. In this method, 432 bp expected size was amplified, and then for detection of subspecies, specific restriction RsaI and BspLI enzymes were used.Totally 34 samples were positive in terms of Giardia cyst out of 720 examined samples microscopically, so the parasite spread rate is reported 4.72%. Analysis PCR-RFLP on these samples revealed that 28 samples (93.3% have the genotype BIII and 2 samples (6.7% belong to the subgroup BIV.PCR-RFLP is a proper analytical method for determining the genotype among parasite types, using the glutamate dehydrogenizes zone's genes. Based on the results, an animal origin of infection cycle is suggested.

  7. Ciclo zoonótico rural de Giardia lamblia en dos campos lecheros de General Mansilla, Buenos Aires

    OpenAIRE

    Molina, Nora Beatriz; Basualdo Farjat, Juan Ángel; Minvielle, Marta Cecilia

    2010-01-01

    Giardia lamblia es el protozoo productor de diarrea diagnosticado con más frecuencia en todo el mundo. La giardiosis es una infección cosmopolita de tipo zoonótico cuya prevalencia varía de 2% en países industrializados al 70% en países en desarrollo (Eligio-García y col. 2008). En Argentina, esta parasitosis muestra una prevalencia variable de 6% a 36% dependiendo de las condiciones sanitarias de cada región y de los hábitos de higiene personal (Minvielle y col. 2004; Basualdo y col. 2007; S...

  8. Stem-Loop RT-qPCR as an Efficient Tool for the Detection and Quantification of Small RNAs in Giardia lamblia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcial-Quino, Jaime; Gómez-Manzo, Saúl; Fierro, Francisco; Vanoye-Carlo, America; Rufino-González, Yadira; Sierra-Palacios, Edgar; Castillo-Villanueva, Adriana; Castillo-Rodríguez, Rosa Angélica; Rodríguez-Bustamante, Eduardo; Arreguin-Espinosa, Roberto; Reyes-Vivas, Horacio

    2016-01-01

    Stem-loop quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) is a molecular technique used for identification and quantification of individual small RNAs in cells. In this work, we used a Universal ProbeLibrary (UPL)-based design to detect—in a rapid, sensitive, specific, and reproducible way—the small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA) GlsR17 and its derived miRNA (miR2) of Giardia lamblia using a stem-loop RT-qPCR approach. Both small RNAs could be isolated from both total RNA and small RNA samples. Identification of the two small RNAs was carried out by sequencing the PCR-amplified small RNA products upon ligation into the pJET1.2/blunt vector. GlsR17 is constitutively expressed during the 72 h cultures of trophozoites, while the mature miR2 is present in 2-fold higher abundance during the first 48 h than at 72 h. Because it has been suggested that miRNAs in G. lamblia have an important role in the regulation of gene expression, the use of the stem-loop RT-qPCR method could be valuable for the study of miRNAs of G. lamblia. This methodology will be a powerful tool for studying gene regulation in G. lamblia, and will help to better understand the features and functions of these regulatory molecules and how they work within the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway in G. lamblia. PMID:27999395

  9. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis, Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia among Young Children with and without Diarrhea in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellevik, Marit G; Moyo, Sabrina J; Blomberg, Bjørn; Hjøllo, Torunn; Maselle, Samuel Y; Langeland, Nina; Hanevik, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    Although enteroparasites are common causes of diarrheal illness, few studies have been performed among children in Tanzania. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis, Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia among young children in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, and identify risk factors for infection. We performed an unmatched case-control study among children hominis was 10.4% (84.7% C. hominis), and that of G. lamblia 4.6%. E. histolytica was not detected. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium was significantly higher in cases (16.3%) than in controls (3.1%; P Cryptosporidium infection was found more often in HIV-positive (24.2%) than in HIV-negative children (3.9%; P Cryptosporidium (P = 0.011; OR = 2.12; 95% CI: 1.2-3.8). G. lamblia infection was more prevalent in the cool season (P = 0.004; OR = 2.2; 95% CI: 1.3-3.8), and more frequent among cases aged > 12 months (P = 0.003; OR = 3.5; 95% CI: 1.5-7.8). Among children aged 7-12 months, those who were breastfed had lower prevalence of G. lamblia infection than those who had been weaned (P = 0.012). Cryptosporidium infection is common among young Tanzanian children with diarrhea, particularly those living with HIV, and infection is more frequent during the rainy season. G. lamblia is frequently implicated in asymptomatic infections, but rarely causes overt diarrheal illness, and its prevalence increases with age.

  10. Both endo-siRNAs and tRNA-derived small RNAs are involved in the differentiation of primitive eukaryote Giardia lamblia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jian-You; Guo, Yan-Hua; Zheng, Ling-Ling; Li, Yan; Xu, Wen-Li; Zhang, Yu-Chan; Zhou, Hui; Lun, Zhao-Rong; Ayala, Francisco J; Qu, Liang-Hu

    2014-09-30

    Small RNAs (sRNAs), including microRNAs and endogenous siRNAs (endo-siRNAs), regulate most important biologic processes in eukaryotes, such as cell division and differentiation. Although sRNAs have been extensively studied in various eukaryotes, the role of sRNAs in the early emergence of eukaryotes is unclear. To address these questions, we deep sequenced the sRNA transcriptome of four different stages in the differentiation of Giardia lamblia, one of the most primitive eukaryotes. We identified a large number of endo-siRNAs in this fascinating parasitic protozoan and found that they were produced from live telomeric retrotransposons and three genomic regions (i.e., endo-siRNA generating regions [eSGRs]). eSGR-derived endo-siRNAs were proven to target mRNAs in trans. Gradual up-regulation of endo-siRNAs in the differentiation of Giardia suggested that they might be involved in the regulation of this process. This hypothesis was supported by the impairment of the differentiation ability of Giardia when GLDICER, essential for the biogenesis of endo-siRNAs, was knocked down. Endo-siRNAs are not the only sRNA regulators in Giardia differentiation, because a great number of tRNAs-derived sRNAs showed more dramatic expression changes than endo-siRNAs in this process. We totally identified five novel kinds of tRNAs-derived sRNAs and found that the biogenesis in four of them might be correlated with that of stress-induced tRNA-derived RNA (sitRNA), which was discovered in our previous studies. Our studies reveal an unexpected complex panorama of sRNA in G. lamblia and shed light on the origin and functional evolution of eukaryotic sRNAs.

  11. Prevalence of Cyclospora cayetanensis among symptomatic and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microsporidia, Giardia lamblia and Hymenolepis nana were also detected in the symptomatic group. There was no significant difference as regards age and residency of Cyclospora positive and negative cases in both groups. In asymptomatic group, Cyclospora infected cases were males while in negative cases, 50% were ...

  12. Identification of Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica and Cryptosporidium sp. in Feces of Diarrheal Patient at Puskesmas Jatinangor, September–November 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komathi Palani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diarrhea is one of the main public health problems occurring in West Java. One of the affected areas is Subdistrict Jatinangor. Inappropriate management of sanitation facilities around Jatinangor area causes contamination of water. Cikeruh River is one of the water sources in Jatinangor Area, from which people obtain water for daily activities. Water borne illness due to poor sanitation condition can lead to parasitic infection such as Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica and Cryptosporidium parvum which can cause a prolonged diarrhea. There has not been any study done regarding the presence of parasitical infection causing diarrhea around Jatinangor. Methods: In order to identify the parasitic infection, a descriptive study was carried out on 16 fecal samples collected from diarrheal patient who visited Puskesmas Jatinangor from September–November 2012. The parasites were checked by using wet mount method Results: The parasites found were Entamoeba histolytica, Cryptosporidium parvum, but none of Giardia lamblia. There were also other findings such as Iodamoeba butschlii and Entamoeba coli. Conclusion: Positive findings of Entamoeba histolytica and Cryptosporidium parvum in diarrhea patients is most probably due to contaminated water and food. Measures need to be done to improve sanitary condition in Cikeruh River to prevent diarrhea.

  13. RNAi-Mediated Specific Gene Silencing as a Tool for the Discovery of New Drug Targets in Giardia lamblia; Evaluation Using the NADH Oxidase Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Marcial-Quino

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The microaerophilic protozoan Giardia lamblia is the agent causing giardiasis, an intestinal parasitosis of worldwide distribution. Different pharmacotherapies have been employed against giardiasis; however, side effects in the host and reports of drug resistant strains generate the need to develop new strategies that identify novel biological targets for drug design. To support this requirement, we have designed and evaluated a vector containing a cassette for the synthesis of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA, which can silence expression of a target gene through the RNA interference (RNAi pathway. Small silencing RNAs were detected and quantified in transformants expressing dsRNA by a stem-loop RT-qPCR approach. The results showed that, in transformants expressing dsRNA of 100–200 base pairs, the level of NADHox mRNA was reduced by around 30%, concomitant with a decrease in enzyme activity and a reduction in the number of trophozoites with respect to the wild type strain, indicating that NADHox is indeed an important enzyme for Giardia viability. These results suggest that it is possible to induce the G. lamblia RNAi machinery for attenuating the expression of genes encoding proteins of interest. We propose that our silencing strategy can be used to identify new potential drug targets, knocking down genes encoding different structural proteins and enzymes from a wide variety of metabolic pathways.

  14. RNAi-Mediated Specific Gene Silencing as a Tool for the Discovery of New Drug Targets in Giardia lamblia; Evaluation Using the NADH Oxidase Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcial-Quino, Jaime; Rufino-González, Yadira; Sierra-Palacios, Edgar; Vanoye-Carlo, America; González-Valdez, Abigail; Torres-Arroyo, Angélica; Oria-Hernández, Jesús; Reyes-Vivas, Horacio

    2017-01-01

    The microaerophilic protozoan Giardia lamblia is the agent causing giardiasis, an intestinal parasitosis of worldwide distribution. Different pharmacotherapies have been employed against giardiasis; however, side effects in the host and reports of drug resistant strains generate the need to develop new strategies that identify novel biological targets for drug design. To support this requirement, we have designed and evaluated a vector containing a cassette for the synthesis of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), which can silence expression of a target gene through the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway. Small silencing RNAs were detected and quantified in transformants expressing dsRNA by a stem-loop RT-qPCR approach. The results showed that, in transformants expressing dsRNA of 100–200 base pairs, the level of NADHox mRNA was reduced by around 30%, concomitant with a decrease in enzyme activity and a reduction in the number of trophozoites with respect to the wild type strain, indicating that NADHox is indeed an important enzyme for Giardia viability. These results suggest that it is possible to induce the G. lamblia RNAi machinery for attenuating the expression of genes encoding proteins of interest. We propose that our silencing strategy can be used to identify new potential drug targets, knocking down genes encoding different structural proteins and enzymes from a wide variety of metabolic pathways. PMID:29099754

  15. Giardia in symptomatic dogs and cats in Europe--results of a European study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epe, C; Rehkter, G; Schnieder, T; Lorentzen, L; Kreienbrock, L

    2010-10-11

    The percentage of Giardia infection in dogs and cats with gastrointestinal signs presenting to clinics was examined across Europe using the IDEXX SNAP Giardia Test (IDEXX Laboratories). Veterinary practices were asked to identify diarrheic and/or vomiting dogs and cats and to use the test on fecal samples from these animals. A selection for "asymptomatic" testing was also available on the data collection sheet for testing that occurred outside the target "symptomatic" population. Results from 8685 dogs and 4214 cats were submitted during the sampling period from 2005 to 2006. Analysis of the data showed 24.78% of the samples positive for Giardia among tested dogs and 20.3% among tested cats. The younger the dog or the cat, the higher the risk of being positive, peaking in the category below 6 months. The main clinical symptom, diarrhoea, also showed a higher risk of being positive, OR's of acute diarrhoea were almost double of those of the category "asymptomatic" for dogs or cats, the same range was calculated for chronic diarrhoea. Differences in participating countries were also seen. The risk of being positive was half or less in UK, Spain, Netherlands, Italy compared to Germany, and only in Belgium it showed to be higher. The results of this study show that Giardia is a common enteric agent among dogs and cats with gastrointestinal signs in Europe. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Validation of housekeeping genes as an internal control for gene expression studies in Giardia lamblia using quantitative real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcial-Quino, Jaime; Fierro, Francisco; De la Mora-De la Mora, Ignacio; Enríquez-Flores, Sergio; Gómez-Manzo, Saúl; Vanoye-Carlo, America; Garcia-Torres, Itzhel; Sierra-Palacios, Edgar; Reyes-Vivas, Horacio

    2016-04-25

    The analysis of transcript levels of specific genes is important for understanding transcriptional regulation and for the characterization of gene function. Real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR) has become a powerful tool to quantify gene expression. The objective of this study was to identify reliable housekeeping genes in Giardia lamblia. Twelve genes were selected for this purpose, and their expression was analyzed in the wild type WB strain and in two strains with resistance to nitazoxanide (NTZ) and metronidazole (MTZ), respectively. RefFinder software analysis showed that the expression of the genes is different in the three strains. The integrated data from the four analyses showed that the NADH oxidase (NADH) and aldolase (ALD) genes were the most steadily expressed genes, whereas the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene was the most unstable. Additionally, the relative expression of seven genes were quantified in the NTZ- and MTZ-resistant strains by RT-qPCR, using the aldolase gene as the internal control, and the results showed a consistent differential pattern of expression in both strains. The housekeeping genes found in this work will facilitate the analysis of mRNA expression levels of other genes of interest in G. lamblia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Host-Parasite Interactions in Individuals with Type 1 and 2 Diabetes Result in Higher Frequency of Ascaris lumbricoides and Giardia lamblia in Type 2 Diabetic Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleuza Rodrigues Machado

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Host-parasite interactions in diabetic patients might influence diabetes complications and intestinal parasitosis. The aim was to investigate the occurrence of enteroparasites in individuals with diabetes types 1 and 2. A descriptive study was designed to estimate frequencies of parasites and to compare them in individuals with diabetes types 1 and 2 from two Health Centers and one hospital in the Federal District of Brazil. Patients were allocated to the study by convenience. Three fecal samples of 156 diabetic individuals (120 type 1 and 36 type 2 were analyzed using two parasitological methods. Enteroparasites or commensals frequency in diabetics was 64%. Diabetics infected with up to six species of intestinal parasites or commensals were found. Frequencies of Ascaris lumbricoides and Giardia lamblia were higher in individuals with type 2 diabetes. The lower frequency of A. lumbricoides found in type 1 diabetes may be related to a strong Th2 response to parasites. Autoimmune response developed in type 1 diabetic individuals characterized by the production of Th1 cytokines could explain low frequency of G. lamblia. High frequency of parasites found in type 2 diabetes emphasizes the importance of periodic parasitological examinations in these individuals.

  18. Prevalence and spatial distribution of Entamoeba histolytica/dispar and Giardia lamblia among schoolchildren in Agboville area (Côte d'Ivoire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamadou Ouattara

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: New efforts are being made to improve understanding of the epidemiology of the helminths and intensifying the control efforts against these parasites. In contrast, relatively few studies are being carried out in this direction for the intestinal protozoa. To contribute to a better comprehension of the epidemiology of the intestinal protozoa, prevalence, and spatial distribution of Entamoeba histolytica/dispar and Giardia lamblia, and their association with drinking water supplies, were determined in the Agboville department in southeast Côte d'Ivoire. METHODS/FINDINGS: Stool samples were taken from more than 1,300 schoolchildren in the third year of primary education (CE1 from 30 primary schools and preserved in SAF (sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin. The samples were analyzed by formalin-ether concentration. Then, a survey questionnaire addressed to schoolchildren and school directors was used to collect data on water supplies. Prevalence of E. histolytica/dispar and G. lamblia were, respectively, 18.8% and 13.9%. No particular focus zone was observed in the spatial distribution of the two species. Significant negative association was observed between use of tap water and high prevalence of E. histolytica/dispar infection (OR = 0.83, p = 0.01. High prevalence of G. lamblia infection was positively associated with use of ponds as the source of drinking water (OR = 1.28, p = 0.009. CONCLUSION: These two species of pathogenic protozoa are present with substantial prevalence in this area of Côte d'Ivoire. Although their spatial distribution is not focused in any one place, determination of the population segments with the highest levels of infection will help to target the chemotherapeutic fight. To reinforce treatment with chemotherapeutic agents, tap water should be made available in all the localities of this area.

  19. The proteasome of the differently-diverged eukaryote Giardia lamblia and its role in remodeling of the microtubule-based cytoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Atrayee; Sarkar, Srimonti

    2017-08-01

    Giardia lamblia is the causative agent of the diarrheal disease giardiasis, against which only a limited number of drugs are currently available. Increasing reports of resistance to these drugs makes it necessary to identify new cellular targets for designing the next generation of anti-giardial drugs. Towards this goal, therapeutic agents that target the parasitic cellular machinery involved in the functioning of the unique microtubule-based cytoskeleton of the Giardia trophozoites are likely to be effective as microtubule function is not only important for the survival of trophozoites within the host, but also their extensive remodeling is necessary during the transition from trophozoites to cysts. Thus, drugs that affect microtubule remodeling have the potential to not only kill the disease-causing trophozoites, but also inhibit transmission of cysts in the community. Recent studies in other model organisms have indicated that the proteasome plays an integral role in the formation and remodeling of the microtubule-based cytoskeleton. This review draws attention to the various processes by which the giardial proteasome may impact the functioning of its microtubule cytoskeleton and highlights the possible differences of the parasitic proteasome and some of other cellular machinery involved in microtubule remodeling, compared to that of the higher eukaryotic host.

  20. Simultaneous detection and differentiation of Entamoeba histolytica, E. dispar, E. moshkovskii, Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. in human fecal samples using multiplex PCR and qPCR-MCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebardast, Nozhat; Yeganeh, Farshid; Gharavi, Mohammad Javad; Abadi, Alireza; Seyyed Tabaei, Seyyed Javad; Haghighi, Ali

    2016-10-01

    Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. are common causes of diarrheal and intestinal diseases all over the world. Microscopic methods are useful in the diagnosis of intestinal parasites (IPs), but their sensitivity was assessed approximately 60 percent. Recently, molecular techniques have been used increasingly for the identification and characterization of the parasites. Among those, in this study we have used multiplex PCR and Real-time PCR with melting curve analysis (qPCR-MCA) for simultaneous detection and differentiation of E. histolytica, E. dispar, E. moshkovskii, G. lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. in human fecal samples. Twenty DNA samples from 12 E. histolytica and 8 E. dispar samples and twenty stool samples confirmed positive for G. lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. were analyzed. After DNA extraction from the samples, multiplex PCR was done for detection and differentiation of above mentioned parasites. QPCR-MCA was also performed for the detection and differentiation of 11 isolates of above mentioned parasite in a cycle with a time and temperature. Multiplex PCR was able to simultaneous detect and differentiate of above mentioned parasite in a single reaction. QPCR-MCA was able to differentiate genus and species those five protozoa using melting temperature simultaneously at the same time and temperature programs. In total, qPCR-MCA diagnosed 7/11 isolation of E. histolytica, 6/8 isolation of E. dispar, 1/1 E. moshkovskii Laredo, 10/11 G. Lamblia and 6/11 Cryptosporidium spp. Application of multiplex PCR for detection of more than one species in a test in developing countries, at least in reference laboratories has accurate diagnosis and plays a critical role in differentiation of protozoan species. Multiplex PCR assay with a template and multi template had different results and it seems that using a set of primers with one template has higher diagnostic capability in compare with multi template. The results of this study

  1. Enquistación in vitro de Giardia lamblia: análisis por electroforesis bidimensional de proteínas expresadas diferencialmente.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula C. Hernández

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available La reconstrucción in vitro del ciclo de vida de Giardia lamblia es un excelente instrumento para el estudio de la biología molecular del parásito. El presente trabajo pretende contribuir al desarrollo de algunas técnicas por las cuales se puede definir mejor un modelo de diferenciación celular del parásito. El estudio presenta un protocolo de enquistación in vitro y establece un método para el aislamiento y la purificación de los quistes producidos, cuyas características morfológicas, por microscopía de luz, coinciden con las de los quistes obtenidos in vivo. Se estudió el mapa de las proteínas de G. lamblia por medio de electroforesis bidimensional de alta resolución y de electroforesis en una dimensión. Estos estudios mostraron que la mayoría de las proteínas del parásito son de carácter ácido. Se amplió, con base en ese resultado, la resolución de la región ácida por medio de un isoelectroenfoque de pH 4-7 en la primera dimensión. Se encontraron diferencias en la expresión de las proteínas durante el proceso de enquistación. Se obtuvieron, además, imágenes por microscopía de luz y electrónica de transmisión que permitieron observar morfológica y ultraestructuralmente las células producidas durante el proceso de la enquistación.

  2. Mecanismos específicos de patogenicidade de protozoários de mucosa: Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia e Trichomonas vaginalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia de Brum Vieira

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Entamoeba histolytica e Giardia lamblia são protozoários que podem parasitar a mucosa intestinal, causando principalmente diarreia. Trichomonas vaginalis coloniza a mucosa vaginal causando tricomonose, a doença sexualmente transmissível não viral mais comum no mundo. Embora coletivamente estes parasitos infectem mais de um bilhão de pessoas a cada ano, seus mecanismos de patogenicidade ainda não estão totalmente esclarecidos. Assim, esta revisão reúne os principais mecanismos envolvidos na patogenicidade destes protozoários, bem como os fatores do microambiente que podem interferir no sucesso da colonização. A patogênese da E. histolytica envolve adesão, lise, fagocitose de células epiteliais e bactérias, invasão tecidual por ação de enzimas e evasão da resposta imune do hospedeiro. A lectina Gal/GalNAc, os amebaporos e as cisteína proteases são as principais moléculas envolvidas nesses processos. O estabelecimento da giardiose depende de diversos mecanismos patogênicos e de virulência desenvolvidos pela G. lamblia, tais como as moléculas envolvidas na adesão, encistamento e variação antigênica. Para o sucesso da colonização da mucosa vaginal, o T. vaginalis expressa moléculas como as adesinas de superfície, lipofosfoglicanos e galectina, envolvidas na adesão às células epiteliais vaginais e alteração da expressão gênica, tanto do parasito como do hospedeiro.

  3. The single cyclic nucleotide-specific phosphodiesterase of the intestinal parasite Giardia lamblia represents a potential drug target

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunz, Stefan; Balmer, Vreni; Sterk, Geert Jan; Pollastri, Michael P.; Leurs, Rob; Müller, Norbert; Hemphill, Andrew; Spycher, Cornelia

    2017-01-01

    Background: Giardiasis is an intestinal infection correlated with poverty and poor drinking water quality, and treatment options are limited. According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Giardia infections afflict nearly 33% of people in developing countries, and 2% of the adult

  4. The minimal ESCRT machinery of Giardia lamblia has altered inter-subunit interactions within the ESCRT-II and ESCRT-III complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Nabanita; Dutta, Somnath; Datta, Shankari P; Sarkar, Srimonti

    2018-01-01

    The ESCRT pathway functions at different subcellular membranes to induce their negative curvature, and it has been largely characterized in model eukaryotes belonging to Opisthokonta. But searches of the genomes of many nonopisthokonts belonging to various supergroups indicate that some of them may harbour fewer ESCRT components. Of the genomes explored thus far, one of the most minimal set of ESCRT components was identified in the human pathogen Giardia lamblia, which belongs to Excavata. Here we report that an ESCRT-mediated pathway most likely operates at the peripheral vesicles, which are located at the cell periphery and the bare zone of this protist. Functional comparison of all the identified putative giardial ESCRT components, with the corresponding well-characterized orthologues from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, indicated that only some of the ESCRT components could functionally substitute for the corresponding yeast proteins. While GlVps25, GlVps2, and all three paralogues of GlVps4, tested positive in functional complementation assays, GlVps22, GlVps20, and GlVps24 did not. Binary interactions of either GlVps22 or GlVps25, with other ESCRT-II components from Giardia or yeast indicate that the giardial Vps36 orthologue is either completely missing or highly diverged. Interactions within the giardial ESCRT-III components also differ from those in yeast; while GlVps46a interacts preferentially with Vps24 compared to Vps2, GlVps46b, like the yeast orthologue, interacts with both. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Apo and calcium-bound crystal structures of cytoskeletal protein alpha-14 giardin (annexin E1) from the intestinal protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathuri, Puja; Nguyen, Emily Tam; Ozorowski, Gabriel; Svärd, Staffan G; Luecke, Hartmut

    2009-01-30

    Alpha-14 giardin (annexin E1), a member of the alpha giardin family of annexins, has been shown to localize to the flagella of the intestinal protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia. Alpha giardins show a common ancestry with the annexins, a family of proteins most of which bind to phospholipids and cellular membranes in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner and are implicated in numerous membrane-related processes including cytoskeletal rearrangements and membrane organization. It has been proposed that alpha-14 giardin may play a significant role during the cytoskeletal rearrangement during differentiation of Giardia. To gain a better understanding of alpha-14 giardin's mode of action and its biological role, we have determined the three-dimensional structure of alpha-14 giardin and its phospholipid-binding properties. Here, we report the apo crystal structure of alpha-14 giardin determined in two different crystal forms as well as the Ca(2+)-bound crystal structure of alpha-14 giardin, refined to 1.9, 1.6 and 1.65 A, respectively. Although the overall fold of alpha-14 giardin is similar to that of alpha-11 giardin, multiwavelength anomalous dispersion phasing was required to solve the alpha-14 giardin structure, indicating significant structural differences between these two members of the alpha giardin family. Unlike most annexin structures, which typically possess N-terminal domains, alpha-14 giardin is composed of only a core domain, followed by a C-terminal extension that may serve as a ligand for binding to cytoskeletal protein partners in Giardia. In the Ca(2+)-bound structure we detected five bound calcium ions, one of which is a novel, highly coordinated calcium-binding site not previously observed in annexin structures. This novel high-affinity calcium-binding site is composed of seven protein donor groups, a feature rarely observed in crystal structures. In addition, phospholipid-binding assays suggest that alpha-14 giardin exhibits calcium-dependent binding to

  6. Comparison of the Triage Micro Parasite Panel and Microscopy for the Detection of Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium parvum in Stool Samples Collected in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Swierczewski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium parvum are three of the most important parasitic causes of acute diarrhea worldwide. Laboratory diagnosis of these parasites is usually done by ova and parasite examination (O&P examination via microscopy. The sensitivity and specificity of O&P examination varies among laboratories and can be labor intensive and time consuming. The Triage Micro Parasite Panel (BioSite, San Diego, California is an enzyme immunoassay kit that can detect E. histolytica/E. dispar, G. lamblia, and C. parvum simultaneously using fresh or frozen stool. The present study evaluated the Triage Micro Parasite Panel in detecting E. histolytica/E. dispar, G. lamblia, and C. parvum compared to O&P examination in 266 stool samples collected at medical facilities in Kenya. The sensitivity and specificity results for the Triage Micro Parasite Panel were: for E. histolytica/E. dispar: 100%, 100%, G. lamblia: 100%, 100% and C. parvum: 73%, 100%. There was no evidence of cross reactivity using the kit with other parasites identified in the stool specimens. These results indicate that the Triage Micro Parasite Panel is a highly sensitive kit that can be used for screening purposes in large scale studies or outbreak investigations or as a possible alternative to O&P examination.

  7. Impacto de la dieta sobre la inducción de infección con quistes de Giardia lamblia en ratas Sprague-Dawley The effect of malnourishment on the development of giardiosis in Sprague-Dawley rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Elvia Díaz-Cinco

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar el efecto de la desnutrición en la inducción de la giardiosis con diferentes concentraciones de quistes de Giardia lamblia utilizando como modelo animal ratas Sprague-Dawley. Material y métodos. Es un estudio experimental efectuado entre 1995 y 1999, en el Centro de Investigación en Alimentación y Desarrollo, de la ciudad de Hermosillo, estado de Sonora, México, y cuya muestra estuvo integrada por dos grupos de 6 a 8 unidades experimentales, las cuales recibieron dos tipos de dieta y cinco tratamientos con diferente concentración de inóculo de quistes de Giardia lamblia. Durante la fase experimental se monitoreó la excreción de quistes, ganancia de peso, consumo de alimento, análisis del contenido intestinal y daños macro y microscópicos en mucosa intestinal. El tratamiento estadístico de los datos consistió en análisis de varianza, y de residuales cuando fue necesario. Resultados. En los animales alimentados con una dieta que cubre sus requerimientos nutricionales (DN se observó que es posible provocar la infección con 60 quistes, mientras que en los animales desnutridos (dieta DLN la concentración que se requiere es de únicamente seis quistes para establecer daños a nivel de mucosa intestinal. Conclusiones. La ganancia de peso monitoreada durante los 10 días de ensayo no resultó ser un buen indicador de la infección por Giardia lamblia. El porcentaje de infección depende de la concentración de quistes inoculados y del estado de nutrición de los animales evaluados.Objective. To assess the effect of malnutrition on the development of giardiosis in Sprague-Dawley rats, using different inoculum sizes of Giardia lamblia cysts. Material and Methods. An experimental study was conducted between 1995 and 1999 at Centro de Investigación, Alimentación y Desarrollo (Center for Research, Food, and Development, in Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico. The study population consisted of two groups of six to eight

  8. Glucosylceramide transferase activity is critical for encystation and viable cyst production by an intestinal protozoan, Giardia lamblia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Tavis L; De Chatterjee, Atasi; Duarte, Trevor T; Gazos-Lopes, Felipe; Robles-Martinez, Leobarda; Roy, Debarshi; Sun, Jianjun; Maldonado, Rosa A; Roychowdhury, Sukla; Almeida, Igor C; Das, Siddhartha

    2013-06-07

    The production of viable cysts by Giardia is essential for its survival in the environment and for spreading the infection via contaminated food and water. The hallmark of cyst production (also known as encystation) is the biogenesis of encystation-specific vesicles (ESVs) that transport cyst wall proteins to the plasma membrane of the trophozoite before laying down the protective cyst wall. However, the molecules that regulate ESV biogenesis and maintain cyst viability have never before been identified. Here, we report that giardial glucosylceramide transferase-1 (gGlcT1), an enzyme of sphingolipid biosynthesis, plays a key role in ESV biogenesis and maintaining cyst viability. We find that overexpression of this enzyme induced the formation of aggregated/enlarged ESVs and generated clustered cysts with reduced viability. The silencing of gGlcT1 synthesis by antisense morpholino oligonucleotide abolished ESV production and generated mostly nonviable cysts. Interestingly, when gGlcT1-overexpressed Giardia was transfected with anti-gGlcT1 morpholino, the enzyme activity, vesicle biogenesis, and cyst viability returned to normal, suggesting that the regulated expression of gGlcT1 is important for encystation and viable cyst production. Furthermore, the overexpression of gGlcT1 increased the influx of membrane lipids and fatty acids without altering the fluidity of plasma membranes, indicating that the expression of gGlcT1 activity is linked to lipid internalization and maintaining the overall lipid balance in this parasite. Taken together, our results suggest that gGlcT1 is a key player of ESV biogenesis and cyst viability and therefore could be targeted for developing new anti-giardial therapies.

  9. Glucosylceramide Transferase Activity Is Critical for Encystation and Viable Cyst Production by an Intestinal Protozoan, Giardia lamblia*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Tavis L.; De Chatterjee, Atasi; Duarte, Trevor T.; Gazos-Lopes, Felipe; Robles-Martinez, Leobarda; Roy, Debarshi; Sun, Jianjun; Maldonado, Rosa A.; Roychowdhury, Sukla; Almeida, Igor C.; Das, Siddhartha

    2013-01-01

    The production of viable cysts by Giardia is essential for its survival in the environment and for spreading the infection via contaminated food and water. The hallmark of cyst production (also known as encystation) is the biogenesis of encystation-specific vesicles (ESVs) that transport cyst wall proteins to the plasma membrane of the trophozoite before laying down the protective cyst wall. However, the molecules that regulate ESV biogenesis and maintain cyst viability have never before been identified. Here, we report that giardial glucosylceramide transferase-1 (gGlcT1), an enzyme of sphingolipid biosynthesis, plays a key role in ESV biogenesis and maintaining cyst viability. We find that overexpression of this enzyme induced the formation of aggregated/enlarged ESVs and generated clustered cysts with reduced viability. The silencing of gGlcT1 synthesis by antisense morpholino oligonucleotide abolished ESV production and generated mostly nonviable cysts. Interestingly, when gGlcT1-overexpressed Giardia was transfected with anti-gGlcT1 morpholino, the enzyme activity, vesicle biogenesis, and cyst viability returned to normal, suggesting that the regulated expression of gGlcT1 is important for encystation and viable cyst production. Furthermore, the overexpression of gGlcT1 increased the influx of membrane lipids and fatty acids without altering the fluidity of plasma membranes, indicating that the expression of gGlcT1 activity is linked to lipid internalization and maintaining the overall lipid balance in this parasite. Taken together, our results suggest that gGlcT1 is a key player of ESV biogenesis and cyst viability and therefore could be targeted for developing new anti-giardial therapies. PMID:23589290

  10. An Interactome-Centered Protein Discovery Approach Reveals Novel Components Involved in Mitosome Function and Homeostasis in Giardia lamblia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Rout

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Protozoan parasites of the genus Giardia are highly prevalent globally, and infect a wide range of vertebrate hosts including humans, with proliferation and pathology restricted to the small intestine. This narrow ecological specialization entailed extensive structural and functional adaptations during host-parasite co-evolution. An example is the streamlined mitosomal proteome with iron-sulphur protein maturation as the only biochemical pathway clearly associated with this organelle. Here, we applied techniques in microscopy and protein biochemistry to investigate the mitosomal membrane proteome in association to mitosome homeostasis. Live cell imaging revealed a highly immobilized array of 30-40 physically distinct mitosome organelles in trophozoites. We provide direct evidence for the single giardial dynamin-related protein as a contributor to mitosomal morphogenesis and homeostasis. To overcome inherent limitations that have hitherto severely hampered the characterization of these unique organelles we applied a novel interaction-based proteome discovery strategy using forward and reverse protein co-immunoprecipitation. This allowed generation of organelle proteome data strictly in a protein-protein interaction context. We built an initial Tom40-centered outer membrane interactome by co-immunoprecipitation experiments, identifying small GTPases, factors with dual mitosome and endoplasmic reticulum (ER distribution, as well as novel matrix proteins. Through iterative expansion of this protein-protein interaction network, we were able to i significantly extend this interaction-based mitosomal proteome to include other membrane-associated proteins with possible roles in mitosome morphogenesis and connection to other subcellular compartments, and ii identify novel matrix proteins which may shed light on mitosome-associated metabolic functions other than Fe-S cluster biogenesis. Functional analysis also revealed conceptual conservation of protein

  11. An Interactome-Centered Protein Discovery Approach Reveals Novel Components Involved in Mitosome Function and Homeostasis in Giardia lamblia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, Samuel; Zumthor, Jon Paulin; Schraner, Elisabeth M; Faso, Carmen; Hehl, Adrian B

    2016-12-01

    Protozoan parasites of the genus Giardia are highly prevalent globally, and infect a wide range of vertebrate hosts including humans, with proliferation and pathology restricted to the small intestine. This narrow ecological specialization entailed extensive structural and functional adaptations during host-parasite co-evolution. An example is the streamlined mitosomal proteome with iron-sulphur protein maturation as the only biochemical pathway clearly associated with this organelle. Here, we applied techniques in microscopy and protein biochemistry to investigate the mitosomal membrane proteome in association to mitosome homeostasis. Live cell imaging revealed a highly immobilized array of 30-40 physically distinct mitosome organelles in trophozoites. We provide direct evidence for the single giardial dynamin-related protein as a contributor to mitosomal morphogenesis and homeostasis. To overcome inherent limitations that have hitherto severely hampered the characterization of these unique organelles we applied a novel interaction-based proteome discovery strategy using forward and reverse protein co-immunoprecipitation. This allowed generation of organelle proteome data strictly in a protein-protein interaction context. We built an initial Tom40-centered outer membrane interactome by co-immunoprecipitation experiments, identifying small GTPases, factors with dual mitosome and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) distribution, as well as novel matrix proteins. Through iterative expansion of this protein-protein interaction network, we were able to i) significantly extend this interaction-based mitosomal proteome to include other membrane-associated proteins with possible roles in mitosome morphogenesis and connection to other subcellular compartments, and ii) identify novel matrix proteins which may shed light on mitosome-associated metabolic functions other than Fe-S cluster biogenesis. Functional analysis also revealed conceptual conservation of protein translocation

  12. Rab11 and actin cytoskeleton participate in Giardia lamblia encystation, guiding the specific vesicles to the cyst wall.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araceli Castillo-Romero

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Giardia passes through two stages during its life cycle, the trophozoite and the cyst. Cyst formation involves the synthesis of cyst wall proteins (CWPs and the transport of CWPs into encystation-specific vesicles (ESVs. Active vesicular trafficking is essential for encystation, but the molecular machinery driving vesicular trafficking remains unknown. The Rab proteins are involved in the targeting of vesicles to several intracellular compartments through their association with cytoskeletal motor proteins.In this study, we found a relationship between Rab11 and the actin cytoskeleton in CWP1 transport. Confocal microscopy showed Rab11 was distributed throughout the entire trophozoite, while in cysts it was translocated to the periphery of the cell, where it colocalized with ESVs and microfilaments. Encystation was also accompanied by changes in rab11 mRNA expression. To evaluate the role of microfilaments in encystation, the cells were treated with latrunculin A. Scanning electron microscopy showed this treatment resulted in morphological damages to encysted parasites. The intensity of fluorescence-labeled Rab11 and CWP1 in ESVs and cyst walls was reduced, and rab11 and cwp1 mRNA levels were down-regulated. Furthermore, knocking down Rab11 with a hammerhead ribozyme resulted in an up to 80% down-regulation of rab11 mRNA. Although this knockdown did not appear lethal for trophozoites and did not affect cwp1 expression during the encystation, confocal images showed CWP1 was redistributed throughout the cytosol.Our results indicate that Rab11 participates in the early and late encystation stages by regulating CWP1 localization and the actin-mediated transport of ESVs towards the periphery. In addition, alterations in the dynamics of actin affected rab11 and cwp1 expression. Our results provide new information about the molecules involved in Giardia encystation and suggest that Rab11 and actin may be useful as novel pharmacological targets.

  13. Apo And Calcium-Bound Crystal Structures of Alpha-11 Giardin, An Unusual Annexin From 'Giardia Lamblia'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pathuri, P.; Nguyen, E.T.; Svard, S.G.; Luecke, H.; /UC, Irvine /Uppsala U. /Karolinska Inst.

    2007-07-12

    Alpha-11 giardin is a member of the multi-gene alpha-giardin family in the intestinal protozoan, Giardia lamblia. This gene family shares an ancestry with the annexin super family, whose common characteristic is calcium-dependent binding to membranes that contain acidic phospholipids. Several alpha giardins are highly expressed during parasite-induced diarrhea in humans. Despite being a member of a large family of proteins, little is known about the function and cellular localization of alpha-11 giardin, although giardins are often associated with the cytoskeleton. It has been shown that Giardia exhibits high levels of alpha-11 giardin mRNA transcript throughout its life cycle; however, constitutive over-expression of this protein is lethal to the parasite. Determining the three-dimensional structure of an alpha-giardin is essential to identifying functional domains shared in the alpha-giardin family. Here we report the crystal structures of the apo and Ca{sup 2+}-bound forms of alpha-11 giardin, the first alpha giardin to be characterized structurally. Crystals of apo and Ca{sup 2+}-bound alpha-11 giardin diffracted to 1.1 angstroms and 2.93 angstroms, respectively. The crystal structure of selenium-substituted apo alpha-11 giardin reveals a planar array of four tandem repeats of predominantly {alpha}-helical domains, reminiscent of previously determined annexin structures, making this the highest-resolution structure of an annexin to date. The apo alpha-11 giardin structure also reveals a hydrophobic core formed between repeats I/IV and II/III, a region typically hydrophilic in other annexins. Surprisingly, the Ca{sup 2+}-bound structure contains only a single calcium ion, located in the DE loop of repeat I and coordinated differently from the two types of calcium sites observed in previous annexin structures. The apo and Ca{sup 2+}-bound alpha-11 giardin structures assume overall similar conformations; however, Ca2+-bound alpha-11 giardin crystallized in a lower

  14. PREVALENCE OF GIARDIA LAMBLIA AND OTHER INTESTINAL PARASITES IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN AND ITS RELATION TO RESIDENCE PLACE, SEX AND BLOOD GROUP IN ILAM COUNTY OF IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pourbabak

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available 1711' object of this study was to determine the prevalence oj asymptomatic infestation with Giardia lamblia lind other intestinal parasites in children of urban anti rural communities oj /lam county and its relation with dwelling place, sex and blood grollp!.. 77w study designed as (l five-month pUTasitoulgica! .m,..£!' oj fecal ami blood specimens from humans anti performed in 10 urban hcalih-trcatmcru clinics of llam city, two urban health treatment clinics of Eyvun city, two rural health-treatment clinics oj Chavar and Sartaf villages, llam province west of fran, 17,e examined population was preschool {, to 7 year-old children without any 'gastrointestinal compliarus. Prevalence oj infestation in subject grOllp W(l."' 32.54% (n=3100. Among intestinal parasites' G. lambliu with 85.43o/c (27.8% oj all, n=JO(JI prevalence rate was the most common. Infestation with 11. nnrm with 1'/.93% and E. coli with 3.07';, were in the second and third ranks, respectively, Infestation shows a distinct relationship with gender (P<0.05 and dwelling place, but it lacks a significant relation with blood groups. This study ."lIOWS that the prevalence of intestinal infestation in 6 to 7 year old child oj llam county hi equivalent to the top oj tile line oj the statistical percentage all over the world. 17,e relation between the severity oj infestation and residence place may arouse the suspicion oj sever contamination oj imbibing water.

  15. Interactions of Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia, vaccinal poliovirus type 1, and bacteriophages phiX174 and MS2 with a drinking water biofilm and a wastewater biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmi, Karim; Skraber, Sylvain; Gantzer, Christophe; Willame, Raphaël; Hoffmann, Lucien; Cauchie, Henry-Michel

    2008-04-01

    Biofilms colonizing surfaces inside drinking water distribution networks may provide a habitat and shelter to pathogenic viruses and parasites. If released from biofilms, these pathogens may disseminate in the water distribution system and cause waterborne diseases. Our study aimed to investigate the interactions of protozoan parasites (Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia [oo]cysts) and viruses (vaccinal poliovirus type 1, phiX174, and MS2) with two contrasting biofilms. First, attachment, persistence, and detachment of the protozoan parasites and the viruses were assessed with a drinking water biofilm. This biofilm was allowed to develop inside a rotating annular reactor fed with tap water for 7 months prior to the inoculation. Our results show that viable parasites and infectious viruses attached to the drinking water biofilm within 1 h and persisted within the biofilm. Indeed, infectious viruses were detected in the drinking water biofilm up to 6 days after the inoculation, while viral genome and viable parasites were still detected at day 34, corresponding to the last day of the monitoring period. Since viral genome was detected much longer than infectious particles, our results raise the question of the significance of detecting viral genomes in biofilms. A transfer of viable parasites and viruses from the biofilm to the water phase was observed after the flow velocity was increased but also with a constant laminar flow rate. Similar results regarding parasite and virus attachment and detachment were obtained using a treated wastewater biofilm, suggesting that our observations might be extrapolated to a wide range of environmental biofilms and confirming that biofilms can be considered a potential secondary source of contamination.

  16. Factores de riesgo de la infección por Giardia lamblia en niños de guarderías infantiles de Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba Risk factors for Giardia lamblia in children in daycare centers in Havana, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidel Ángel Núñez

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available En un estudio longitudinal sobre giardiasis desarrollado durante 18 meses en tres guarderías infantiles de Ciudad de La Habana, describimos un grupo de niños con tendencia o "predisposición" a la infección por Giardia lamblia; a los que se les encontró con síntomas clínicos más asociados a las diarreas. Este estudio de casos y controles se desarrolló para conocer si algunos factores socioeconómicos y hábitos higiénicos estaban asociados con este fenómeno. No se encontraron diferencias entre ambos grupos en las tasas de hacinamiento, el índice de personas por cama, en la carencia de determinados equipos eléctricos, en el nivel escolar de las madres, y en el promedio del ingreso familiar; sin embargo, predominó una frecuencia mayor de padres con nivel escolar menor de 12 grado en los casos que en los controles. No se encontraron diferencias entre ambos grupos en cuanto a la ausencia de lavado de manos antes de comer y después de defecar, pero se encontró un mayor porcentaje de lavado incorrecto de vegetales, y una menor frecuencia del hábito de hervir el agua de consumo en las familias de los casos. Estos resultados demuestran el papel del agua como vehículo de transmisión en la giardiasis y la importancia de algunos factores epidemiológicos.We conducted a longitudinal study on giardiasis in three daycare centers in Havana City for a period of 18 months and described a group of children with a "predisposition" or tendency towards re-infection with Giardia lamblia. This group was found to be more frequently associated with clinical symptoms such as diarrhea. A case-control study was designed to determine whether socioeconomic factors and hygiene were associated with this phenomenon. We found no differences between the groups with regard to overcrowding rates, number of persons per bed, absence of certain electric appliances, mother's schooling, or mean family income. However, there were proportionally more fathers with less

  17. Prevalence and associated risk factors for Giardia lamblia infection among children hospitalized for diarrhea in Goiânia, Goiás State, Brazil Prevalência e fatores de risco associados à infecção por Giardia lamblia em crianças hospitalizadas com diarréia em Goiânia, Goiás, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria das Graças Cabral Pereira

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and to identify risk factors associated with Giardia lamblia infection in diarrheic children hospitalized for diarrhea in Goiânia, State of Goiás, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted and a comprehensive questionnaire was administered to the child's primary custodian. Fixed effects logistic regression was used to determine the association between infection status for G. lamblia and host, sociodemographic, environmental and zoonotic risk factors. A total of 445 fecal samples were collected and processed by the DFA methodology, and G. lamblia cysts were present in the feces of 44 diarrheic children (9.9%. A variety of factors were found to be associated with giardiasis in these population: age of children (OR, 1.18; 90% CI, 1.0 - 1.36; p = 0.052, number of children in the household (OR 1.45; 90% CI, 1.13 - 1.86; p = 0.015, number of cats in the household (OR, 1.26; 90% CI, 1.03 -1.53; p = 0.059, food hygiene (OR, 2.9; 90% CI, 1.34 - 6.43; p = 0.024, day-care centers attendance (OR, 2.3; 90% CI, 1.20 - 4.36; p = 0.034, living on a rural farm within the past six months prior hospitalization (OR, 5.4; CI 90%, 1.5 - 20.1; p = 0.03 and the number of household adults (OR, 0.59; 90% CI, 0.42 - 0.83; p = 0.012. Such factors appropriately managed may help to reduce the annual incidence of this protozoal infection in the studied population.O objetivo desse estudo foi estimar a prevalência e identificar fatores de risco associados à infecção por Giardia lamblia em crianças hospitalizadas com diarréia no município de Goiânia, Estado de Goiás, Brasil. Foi realizado um estudo transversal e um questionário estruturado foi administrado ao responsável pela criança. Análise multivariada foi realizada por meio de regressão logística para se determinar a associação entre infecção por G. lamblia e as variáveis sociodemográficas, ambientais e zoonóticas relacionadas ao

  18. Giardia lamblia and other intestinal parasitic infections and their relationships with nutritional status in children in Brazilian Amazon Giardia lamblia e outros parasitas intestinais e sua relação com o status nutricional de crianças de uma área urbana na Amazônia Brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Anibal Carvalho-Costa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this survey was to assess the relationships between intestinal parasitism, nutritional status and hemoglobin level in children with Indian ascendancy living in an urban area in Brazilian Amazon. We carried out a cross-sectional survey obtaining anthropometric, parasitological and socioeconomic data, and hemoglobin measurements of children aged six to 84 months. Anthropometric data were expressed as z-scores for weight for age (WAZ, height for age (HAZ, weight for height (WHZ and mid upper circumference for age (MUACZ parameters. Parasitological examinations were performed through Ritchie (n = 307, Kato-Katz (n = 278, Baermann-Moraes (n = 238 and Safranin-methylene blue methods (n = 307. Hemoglobin measurements were obtained with a Hemocue® photometer (n = 282. Socioeconomic data were used in order to classify children in three family income strata (n = 242. Multiple linear regression analysis showed independent interactions between Giardia lamblia and WAZ (beta = -0.195, SE = 0.138, p = 0.003, WHZ (beta = -0.161, SE = 0.133, p = 0.018 and MUACZ (beta = -0.197, SE = 0.143, p = 0.011, controlling for age, sex, family income, Ascaris lumbricoides, and hookworm infection. Also, the multivariate model showed that the only variable associated with hemoglobin levels was age. Intestinal parasitism control should increase children's possibilities of full development in the studied area.O presente estudo objetivou avaliar a relação entre as parasitoses intestinais, o status nutricional e os níveis de hemoglobina em crianças vivendo em uma área urbana na Amazônia Brasileira. Foi realizado um estudo seccional, obtendo-se dados antropométricos, parasitológicos e socioeconômicos, além de dosagens de hemoglobina através do fotômetro Hemocue®, de crianças com idade entre seis e 84 meses. Os dados da antropometria foram expressos como escores de desvio-padrão (escores z para os parâmetros peso-idade (PI, altura-idade (AI, peso

  19. Molecular Characterization of Cryptosporidium Species and Giardia duodenalis from Symptomatic Cambodian Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catrin E Moore

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In a prospective study, 498 single faecal samples from children aged under 16 years attending an outpatient clinic in the Angkor Hospital for Children, northwest Cambodia, were examined for Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts using microscopy and molecular assays.Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in 2.2% (11/498 of samples using microscopy and in 7.7% (38/498 with molecular tests. Giardia duodenalis cysts were detected in 18.9% (94/498 by microscopy and 27.7% (138/498 by molecular tests; 82% of the positive samples (by either method were from children aged 1-10 years. Cryptosporidium hominis was the most common species of Cryptosporidium, detected in 13 (34.2% samples, followed by Cryptosporidium meleagridis in 9 (23.7%, Cryptosporidium parvum in 8 (21.1%, Cryptosporidium canis in 5 (13.2%, and Cryptosporidium suis and Cryptosporidium ubiquitum in one sample each. Cryptosporidium hominis and C. parvum positive samples were subtyped by sequencing the GP60 gene: C. hominis IaA16R6 and C. parvum IIeA7G1 were the most abundant subtypes. Giardia duodenalis was typed using a multiplex real-time PCR targeting assemblages A and B. Assemblage B (106; 76.8% of all Giardia positive samples was most common followed by A (12.3% and mixed infections (5.1%. Risk factors associated with Cryptosporidium were malnutrition (AOR 9.63, 95% CI 1.67-55.46, chronic medical diagnoses (AOR 4.51, 95% CI 1.79-11.34 and the presence of birds in the household (AOR 2.99, 95% CI 1.16-7.73; specifically C. hominis (p = 0.03 and C. meleagridis (p<0.001 were associated with the presence of birds. The use of soap was protective against Giardia infection (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.58-0.95.This is the first report to describe the different Cryptosporidium species and subtypes and Giardia duodenalis assemblages in Cambodian children. The variety of Cryptosporidium species detected indicates both anthroponotic and zoonotic transmission in this population. Interventions to improve

  20. Molecular Characterization of Cryptosporidium Species and Giardia duodenalis from Symptomatic Cambodian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Catrin E.; Elwin, Kristin; Phot, Nget; Seng, Chanthou; Mao, Saroeun; Suy, Kuong; Kumar, Varun; Nader, Johanna; Bousfield, Rachel; Perera, Sanuki; Bailey, J. Wendi; Beeching, Nicholas J.; Day, Nicholas P. J.; Parry, Christopher M.; Chalmers, Rachel M.

    2016-01-01

    Background In a prospective study, 498 single faecal samples from children aged under 16 years attending an outpatient clinic in the Angkor Hospital for Children, northwest Cambodia, were examined for Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts using microscopy and molecular assays. Methodology/Principal Findings Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in 2.2% (11/498) of samples using microscopy and in 7.7% (38/498) with molecular tests. Giardia duodenalis cysts were detected in 18.9% (94/498) by microscopy and 27.7% (138/498) by molecular tests; 82% of the positive samples (by either method) were from children aged 1–10 years. Cryptosporidium hominis was the most common species of Cryptosporidium, detected in 13 (34.2%) samples, followed by Cryptosporidium meleagridis in 9 (23.7%), Cryptosporidium parvum in 8 (21.1%), Cryptosporidium canis in 5 (13.2%), and Cryptosporidium suis and Cryptosporidium ubiquitum in one sample each. Cryptosporidium hominis and C. parvum positive samples were subtyped by sequencing the GP60 gene: C. hominis IaA16R6 and C. parvum IIeA7G1 were the most abundant subtypes. Giardia duodenalis was typed using a multiplex real-time PCR targeting assemblages A and B. Assemblage B (106; 76.8% of all Giardia positive samples) was most common followed by A (12.3%) and mixed infections (5.1%). Risk factors associated with Cryptosporidium were malnutrition (AOR 9.63, 95% CI 1.67–55.46), chronic medical diagnoses (AOR 4.51, 95% CI 1.79–11.34) and the presence of birds in the household (AOR 2.99, 95% CI 1.16–7.73); specifically C. hominis (p = 0.03) and C. meleagridis (p<0.001) were associated with the presence of birds. The use of soap was protective against Giardia infection (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.58–0.95). Conclusions/Significance This is the first report to describe the different Cryptosporidium species and subtypes and Giardia duodenalis assemblages in Cambodian children. The variety of Cryptosporidium species detected indicates both

  1. NL MIND-BEST: a web server for ligands and proteins discovery--theoretic-experimental study of proteins of Giardia lamblia and new compounds active against Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Díaz, Humberto; Prado-Prado, Francisco; Sobarzo-Sánchez, Eduardo; Haddad, Mohamed; Maurel Chevalley, Séverine; Valentin, Alexis; Quetin-Leclercq, Joëlle; Dea-Ayuela, María A; Teresa Gomez-Muños, María; Munteanu, Cristian R; José Torres-Labandeira, Juan; García-Mera, Xerardo; Tapia, Ricardo A; Ubeira, Florencio M

    2011-05-07

    different experiments. In experiment 1, we report by first time Quantum QSAR study, synthesis, characterization, and experimental assay of antiplasmodial and cytotoxic activities of oxoisoaporphine alkaloids derivatives as well as NL MIND-BEST prediction of potential target proteins. In experiment 2, we report sampling, parasite culture, sample preparation, 2-DE, MALDI-TOF, and -TOF/TOF MS, MASCOT search, MM/MD 3D structure modeling, and NL MIND-BEST prediction for different peptides a new protein of the found in the proteome of the human parasite Giardia lamblia, which is promising for anti-parasite drug-targets discovery. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Presencia de Giardia lamblia y Cryptosporidium spp. en aguas residuales depuradas reutilizadas para riego agrícola en la isla de Tenerife, España. Efectos del transporte a larga distancia sobre la calidad del agua reutilizada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Abreu Acosta

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available El empleo de aguas residuales depuradas para riego agrícola es la alternativa de reutilización con más relevancia hoy día, siempre y cuando se desarrolle con garantías sanitarias y medioambientales.Giardia lamblia y Cryptosporidium spp. son dos protozoos patógenos entéricos de amplia distribución ambiental, frecuentes en hábitats acuáticos. La investigación y detección de estos parásitos en aguas ha adquirido importancia en los últimos años debido a que poseen formas de dispersión resistentes a los tratamientos habituales, aplicados tanto en procesos de potabilización como de depuración, y a que han sido clasificados como patógenos emergentes causantes de importantes brotes de transmisión hídrica.En este trabajo se estudia la presencia de quistes de Giardia lamblia y ooquistes de Cryptosporidium spp. en el agua residual depurada de la ciudad de Santa Cruz de Tenerife que es transportada hasta el sur de la isla de Tenerife para su reutilización en agricultura. Asimismo se investiga el efecto del transporte, el almacenamiento y el tratamiento avanzado sobre la concentración de quistes y ooquistes a través del sistema, y la existencia de relaciones con otros parámetros bacteriológicos y físico-químicos.Los resultados obtenidos ponen de manifiesto comportamientos variables de los contenidos en quistes y ooquistes frente a los tratamientos aplicados, y el efecto depurador que el transporte a larga distancia, parece tener sobre el agua residual depurada.No se han encontrado relaciones entre las concentraciones de quistes y ooquistes en el agua residual depurada y el contenido de los indicadores tradicionales de contaminación fecal.

  3. Molecular Characterization of Cryptosporidium Species and Giardia duodenalis from Symptomatic Cambodian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Catrin E; Elwin, Kristin; Phot, Nget; Seng, Chanthou; Mao, Saroeun; Suy, Kuong; Kumar, Varun; Nader, Johanna; Bousfield, Rachel; Perera, Sanuki; Bailey, J Wendi; Beeching, Nicholas J; Day, Nicholas P J; Parry, Christopher M; Chalmers, Rachel M

    2016-07-01

    In a prospective study, 498 single faecal samples from children aged under 16 years attending an outpatient clinic in the Angkor Hospital for Children, northwest Cambodia, were examined for Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts using microscopy and molecular assays. Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in 2.2% (11/498) of samples using microscopy and in 7.7% (38/498) with molecular tests. Giardia duodenalis cysts were detected in 18.9% (94/498) by microscopy and 27.7% (138/498) by molecular tests; 82% of the positive samples (by either method) were from children aged 1-10 years. Cryptosporidium hominis was the most common species of Cryptosporidium, detected in 13 (34.2%) samples, followed by Cryptosporidium meleagridis in 9 (23.7%), Cryptosporidium parvum in 8 (21.1%), Cryptosporidium canis in 5 (13.2%), and Cryptosporidium suis and Cryptosporidium ubiquitum in one sample each. Cryptosporidium hominis and C. parvum positive samples were subtyped by sequencing the GP60 gene: C. hominis IaA16R6 and C. parvum IIeA7G1 were the most abundant subtypes. Giardia duodenalis was typed using a multiplex real-time PCR targeting assemblages A and B. Assemblage B (106; 76.8% of all Giardia positive samples) was most common followed by A (12.3%) and mixed infections (5.1%). Risk factors associated with Cryptosporidium were malnutrition (AOR 9.63, 95% CI 1.67-55.46), chronic medical diagnoses (AOR 4.51, 95% CI 1.79-11.34) and the presence of birds in the household (AOR 2.99, 95% CI 1.16-7.73); specifically C. hominis (p = 0.03) and C. meleagridis (pCryptosporidium species and subtypes and Giardia duodenalis assemblages in Cambodian children. The variety of Cryptosporidium species detected indicates both anthroponotic and zoonotic transmission in this population. Interventions to improve sanitation, increase hand washing after defecation and before preparing food and promote drinking boiled water may reduce the burden of these two parasites.

  4. Presencia de Giardia lamblia y Cryptosporidium spp. en aguas residuales depuradas reutilizadas para riego agrícola en la isla de Tenerife, España. Efectos del transporte a larga distancia sobre la calidad del agua reutilizada Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. Presence in treated wastewater reutilised for irrigation in Tenerife island, Spain. Long-distance transport effects in the reutilised water quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escolástico Aguiar González

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available El empleo de aguas residuales depuradas para riego agrícola es la alternativa de reutilización con más relevancia hoy día, siempre y cuando se desarrolle con garantías sanitarias y medioambientales.Giardia lamblia y Cryptosporidium spp. son dos protozoos patógenos entéricos de amplia distribución ambiental, frecuentes en hábitats acuáticos. La investigación y detección de estos parásitos en aguas ha adquirido importancia en los últimos años debido a que poseen formas de dispersión resistentes a los tratamientos habituales, aplicados tanto en procesos de potabilización como de depuración, y a que han sido clasificados como patógenos emergentes causantes de importantes brotes de transmisión hídrica.En este trabajo se estudia la presencia de quistes de Giardia lamblia y ooquistes de Cryptosporidium spp. en el agua residual depurada de la ciudad de Santa Cruz de Tenerife que es transportada hasta el sur de la isla de Tenerife para su reutilización en agricultura. Asimismo se investiga el efecto del transporte, el almacenamiento y el tratamiento avanzado sobre la concentración de quistes y ooquistes a través del sistema, y la existencia de relaciones con otros parámetros bacteriológicos y físico-químicos.Los resultados obtenidos ponen de manifiesto comportamientos variables de los contenidos en quistes y ooquistes frente a los tratamientos aplicados, y el efecto depurador que el transporte a larga distancia, parece tener sobre el agua residual depurada.No se han encontrado relaciones entre las concentraciones de quistes y ooquistes en el agua residual depurada y el contenido de los indicadores tradicionales de contaminación fecal.Treated wastewater use for irrigation is, nowadays, the more relevant reutilization alternative of wastewater, if it is developed with sanitary and environmental warranties.Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. two wide distributed enteric pathogen protozoan, which are frequent in aquatic

  5. Giardia y giardiasis Giardia and giardiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Hugo D. Luján

    2006-01-01

    Giardia lamblia es un protozoario parásito que habita el intestino delgado de los seres humanos y de muchos otros vertebrados y es una de las más comunes causas de diarrea en todo el mundo. Durante su ciclo de vida Giardia sufre significativos cambios bioquímicos y morfológicos que le permiten sobrevivir en ambientes y condiciones que de otro modo lo destruirían. Para sobrevivir fuera del intestino del hospedador, los trofozoítos de Giardia se diferencian a quistes, los que se caracterizan po...

  6. Giardia lamblia e alergia respiratória: estudo em uma amostra de crianças de área urbana com frequência elevada da protozoose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdênia M. O. Souza

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Uma elevada incidência de enteroparasitoses é encontrada em regiões urbanas do nordeste brasileiro. As infecções por Giardia lamblia têm sido relacionadas com aumento da prevalência de alergias cutâneas e gastrointestinais. Contudo, ainda existe pouca informação sobre a associação entre a giardíase e doenças alérgicas das vias aéreas. Diante disso, o presente estudo se propôs a verificar a relação entre a infecção por G. lamblia em crianças de área urbana e reatividade alérgica respiratória. MÉTODOS: O estudo incluiu 110 pacientes, de ambos os sexos e idades, entre 5 e 15 anos. Os pacientes foram submetidos a questionários de avaliação dos sintomas clínicos, testes cutâneos de leitura imediata e exames coproparasitológicos e sorológicos. RESULTADOS: Foi verificada uma frequência elevada de crianças infectadas por G. lamblia (45%, 50/110. A infecção pelo protozoário não foi associada com maior risco de alergias respiratórias (p = 0,075, elevação de IgE total (p = 0,701, IgE específica (p = 0,250 ou teste cutâneo positivo para diferentes alérgenos ambientais (p = 0,239. CONCLUSÃO: O estudo demonstrou que a presença dos sintomas de asma, atopia cutânea e marcadores sorológicos não foram associados com a presença de infecção pela G. lamblia nessa amostra de crianças.

  7. Molecular Genotyping of Giardia duodenalis Isolates from Symptomatic Individuals Attending Two Major Public Hospitals in Madrid, Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida de Lucio

    Full Text Available The flagellate protozoan Giardia duodenalis is an enteric parasite causing human giardiasis, a major gastrointestinal disease of global distribution affecting both developing and industrialised countries. In Spain, sporadic cases of giardiasis have been regularly identified, particularly in pediatric and immigrant populations. However, there is limited information on the genetic variability of circulating G. duodenalis isolates in the country.In this longitudinal molecular epidemiological study we report the diversity and frequency of the G. duodenalis assemblages and sub-assemblages identified in 199 stool samples collected from 184 individual with symptoms compatible with giardiasis presenting to two major public hospitals in Madrid for the period December 2013-January 2015. G. duodenalis cysts were initially detected by conventional microscopy and/or immunochomatography on stool samples. Confirmation of the infection was performed by direct immunofluorescence and real-time PCR methods. G. duodenalis assemblages and sub-assemblages were determined by multi-locus genotyping of the glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH and β-giardin (BG genes of the parasite. Sociodemographic and clinical features of patients infected with G. duodenalis were also analysed.Of 188 confirmed positive samples from 178 giardiasis cases a total of 124 G. duodenalis isolates were successfully typed at the GDH and/or the BG loci, revealing the presence of sub-assemblages BIV (62.1%, AII (15.3%, BIII (4.0%, AI (0.8%, and AIII (0.8%. Additionally, 6.5% of the isolates were only characterised at the assemblage level, being all of them assigned to assemblage B. Discordant genotype results AII/AIII or BIII/BIV were also observed in 10.5% of DNA isolates. A large number of multi-locus genotypes were identified in G. duodenalis assemblage B, but not assemblage A, isolates at both the GDH and BG loci, confirming the high degree of genetic variability observed in other molecular surveys

  8. Giardia y giardiasis Giardia and giardiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo D. Luján

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Giardia lamblia es un protozoario parásito que habita el intestino delgado de los seres humanos y de muchos otros vertebrados y es una de las más comunes causas de diarrea en todo el mundo. Durante su ciclo de vida Giardia sufre significativos cambios bioquímicos y morfológicos que le permiten sobrevivir en ambientes y condiciones que de otro modo lo destruirían. Para sobrevivir fuera del intestino del hospedador, los trofozoítos de Giardia se diferencian a quistes, los que se caracterizan por poseer una rígida pared glicoproteica externa que les permiten sobrevivir inclusive frente a la acción de los desinfectantes más comunes. Otro de los mecanismos de adaptación de este parásito es la variación de los antígenos de superficie que le permite a los trofozoítos evadir la respuesta inmune del huésped y generar infecciones tanto agudas como crónicas o recurrentes en individuos infectados. Durante los últimos años se han producido importantes avances en el conocimiento de las bases moleculares de los procesos de enquistamiento y variación antigénica en Giardia que pronostican el pronto hallazgo de nuevos agentes quimioterapéuticos y/o inmunoprofilácticos contra este importante parásito intestinal.Giardia lamblia is a protozoan parasite that inhabits the upper small intestine of humans and several other vertebrates and one of the most frequent cause of intestinal disease worldwide. During its life cycle, G. lamblia undergoes significant biochemical and morphological changes that allow the parasite to survive under hostile environmental conditions. To survive outside the host’s intestine, Giardia differentiates into resistant cysts, which are characterized by a rigid extracellular cyst wall that protect the parasite even to the action of the most common chemical disinfectants. Another adaptive mechanism of Giardia is the switching of its surface antigens, a mechanism that allows the trophozoites to evade the host’s immune

  9. Factores de riesgo de la infección por Giardia lamblia en niños de guarderías infantiles de Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidel Ángel Núñez

    Full Text Available En un estudio longitudinal sobre giardiasis desarrollado durante 18 meses en tres guarderías infantiles de Ciudad de La Habana, describimos un grupo de niños con tendencia o "predisposición" a la infección por Giardia lamblia; a los que se les encontró con síntomas clínicos más asociados a las diarreas. Este estudio de casos y controles se desarrolló para conocer si algunos factores socioeconómicos y hábitos higiénicos estaban asociados con este fenómeno. No se encontraron diferencias entre ambos grupos en las tasas de hacinamiento, el índice de personas por cama, en la carencia de determinados equipos eléctricos, en el nivel escolar de las madres, y en el promedio del ingreso familiar; sin embargo, predominó una frecuencia mayor de padres con nivel escolar menor de 12 grado en los casos que en los controles. No se encontraron diferencias entre ambos grupos en cuanto a la ausencia de lavado de manos antes de comer y después de defecar, pero se encontró un mayor porcentaje de lavado incorrecto de vegetales, y una menor frecuencia del hábito de hervir el agua de consumo en las familias de los casos. Estos resultados demuestran el papel del agua como vehículo de transmisión en la giardiasis y la importancia de algunos factores epidemiológicos.

  10. Factores de riesgo de la infección por Giardia lamblia en niños de guarderías infantiles de Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núñez Fidel Ángel

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available En un estudio longitudinal sobre giardiasis desarrollado durante 18 meses en tres guarderías infantiles de Ciudad de La Habana, describimos un grupo de niños con tendencia o "predisposición" a la infección por Giardia lamblia; a los que se les encontró con síntomas clínicos más asociados a las diarreas. Este estudio de casos y controles se desarrolló para conocer si algunos factores socioeconómicos y hábitos higiénicos estaban asociados con este fenómeno. No se encontraron diferencias entre ambos grupos en las tasas de hacinamiento, el índice de personas por cama, en la carencia de determinados equipos eléctricos, en el nivel escolar de las madres, y en el promedio del ingreso familiar; sin embargo, predominó una frecuencia mayor de padres con nivel escolar menor de 12 grado en los casos que en los controles. No se encontraron diferencias entre ambos grupos en cuanto a la ausencia de lavado de manos antes de comer y después de defecar, pero se encontró un mayor porcentaje de lavado incorrecto de vegetales, y una menor frecuencia del hábito de hervir el agua de consumo en las familias de los casos. Estos resultados demuestran el papel del agua como vehículo de transmisión en la giardiasis y la importancia de algunos factores epidemiológicos.

  11. Giardia and Vilem Dusan Lambl

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lipoldová, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 5 (2014), e2686 ISSN 1935-2735 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12049 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : History of Science * Giardia lamblia * Infectious disease Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.446, year: 2014

  12. Intestinal parasite infections in symptomatic children attending hospital in Siem Reap, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Catrin E; Nget, Phot; Saroeun, Mao; Kuong, Suy; Chanthou, Seng; Kumar, Varun; Bousfield, Rachel; Nader, Johanna; Bailey, J Wendi; Beeching, Nicholas J; Day, Nicholas P; Parry, Christopher M

    2015-01-01

    Infections with helminths and other intestinal parasites are an important but neglected problem in children in developing countries. Accurate surveys of intestinal parasites in children inform empirical treatment regimens and can assess the impact of school based drug treatment programmes. There is limited information on this topic in Cambodia. In a prospective study of intestinal parasites in symptomatic children attending Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap, Cambodia, April-June 2012, samples were examined by microscopy of a direct and concentrated fecal sample. Two culture methods for hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis were employed when sufficient sample was received. Demographic, clinical and epidemiological data were collected. We studied 970 samples from 865 children. The median (inter-quartile range) age of the children was 5.4 (1.9-9.2) years, 54% were male. The proportion of children with abdominal pain was 66.8%, diarrhea 34.9%, anemia 12.7% and malnutrition 7.4%. 458 parasitic infections were detected in 340 (39.3%) children. The most common parasites using all methods of detection were hookworm (14.3%), Strongyloides stercoralis (11.6%) and Giardia lamblia (11.2%). Giardia lamblia was most common in children aged 1-5 years, hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis were more common with increasing age. Hookworm, Strongloides stercoralis and Giardia lamblia were more common in children living outside of Siem Reap town. In a multivariate logistic regression increasing age was associated with all three infections, defecating in the forest for hookworm infection, the presence of cattle for S. stercoralis and not using soap for handwashing for G. lamblia. This study confirms the importance of intestinal parasitic infections in symptomatic Cambodian children and the need for adequate facilities for laboratory diagnosis together with education to improve personal hygiene and sanitation.

  13. Intestinal parasite infections in symptomatic children attending hospital in Siem Reap, Cambodia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catrin E Moore

    Full Text Available Infections with helminths and other intestinal parasites are an important but neglected problem in children in developing countries. Accurate surveys of intestinal parasites in children inform empirical treatment regimens and can assess the impact of school based drug treatment programmes. There is limited information on this topic in Cambodia.In a prospective study of intestinal parasites in symptomatic children attending Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap, Cambodia, April-June 2012, samples were examined by microscopy of a direct and concentrated fecal sample. Two culture methods for hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis were employed when sufficient sample was received. Demographic, clinical and epidemiological data were collected.We studied 970 samples from 865 children. The median (inter-quartile range age of the children was 5.4 (1.9-9.2 years, 54% were male. The proportion of children with abdominal pain was 66.8%, diarrhea 34.9%, anemia 12.7% and malnutrition 7.4%. 458 parasitic infections were detected in 340 (39.3% children. The most common parasites using all methods of detection were hookworm (14.3%, Strongyloides stercoralis (11.6% and Giardia lamblia (11.2%. Giardia lamblia was most common in children aged 1-5 years, hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis were more common with increasing age. Hookworm, Strongloides stercoralis and Giardia lamblia were more common in children living outside of Siem Reap town. In a multivariate logistic regression increasing age was associated with all three infections, defecating in the forest for hookworm infection, the presence of cattle for S. stercoralis and not using soap for handwashing for G. lamblia.This study confirms the importance of intestinal parasitic infections in symptomatic Cambodian children and the need for adequate facilities for laboratory diagnosis together with education to improve personal hygiene and sanitation.

  14. Genotyping of Giardia in Dutch patients and animals: a phylogenetic analysis of human and animal isolates.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giessen, J W B van der; Vries, A de; Roos, M; Wielinga, Peter; Kortbeek, L M; Mank, T G

    2006-01-01

    Giardia duodenalis (syn. Giardia lamblia, Giardia intestinalis) is a protozoan organism that can infect the intestinal tract of many animal species including mammals. Genetic heterogeneity of G. duodenalis is well described but the zoonotic potential is still not clear. In this study, we analysed

  15. Real-Time PCR for Quantification of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in Environmental Water Samples and Sewage

    OpenAIRE

    Guy, Rebecca A.; Payment, Pierre; Krull, Ulrich J.; Horgen, Paul A.

    2003-01-01

    The protozoan pathogens Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum are major causes of waterborne enteric disease throughout the world. Improved detection methods that are very sensitive and rapid are urgently needed. This is especially the case for analysis of environmental water samples in which the densities of Giardia and Cryptosporidium are very low. Primers and TaqMan probes based on the β-giardin gene of G. lamblia and the COWP gene of C. parvum were developed and used to detect DNA co...

  16. Zoonotic potential of Giardia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Una; Cacciò, Simone M

    2013-11-01

    Giardia duodenalis (syn. Giardia lamblia and Giardia intestinalis) is a common intestinal parasite of humans and mammals worldwide. Assessing the zoonotic transmission of the infection requires molecular characterization as there is considerable genetic variation within G. duodenalis. To date eight major genetic groups (assemblages) have been identified, two of which (A and B) are found in both humans and animals, whereas the remaining six (C to H) are host-specific and do not infect humans. Sequence-based surveys of single loci have identified a number of genetic variants (genotypes) within assemblages A and B in animal species, some of which may have zoonotic potential. Multi-locus typing data, however, has shown that in most cases, animals do not share identical multi-locus types with humans. Furthermore, interpretation of genotyping data is complicated by the presence of multiple alleles that generate "double peaks" in sequencing files from PCR products, and by the potential exchange of genetic material among isolates, which may account for the non-concordance in the assignment of isolates to specific assemblages. Therefore, a better understanding of the genetics of this parasite is required to allow the design of more sensitive and variable subtyping tools, that in turn may help unravel the complex epidemiology of this infection. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Giardia muris infection in mice is associated with a protective interleukin 17A response and induction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Dreesen (Leentje); L. Bosscher (Lisette); K.J. Grit (Kor); B. Staels (Bart); E.W. Lubberts (Erik); E. Bauge (Eric); P. Geldhof (Peter)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThe protozoan parasite Giardia duodenalis (Giardia lamblia) is one of the most commonly found intestinal pathogens in mammals, including humans. In the current study, a Giardia muris-mouse model was used to analyze cytokine transcription patterns and histological changes in intestinal

  18. Characterization of BIP protein of G. lamblia as a potential immunogen in a mouse infection model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Romero, Gloria; Garzon, Thania; Rascon, Raul; Valdez, Alejandra; Quintero, Jael; Arvizu-Flores, Aldo A; Garibay-Escobar, Adriana; Rascon, Lucila; Astiazarán-García, Humberto; Velazquez, Carlos

    2017-08-01

    Giardia lamblia is a protozoan parasite that causes one of the most common gastrointestinal diseases worldwide. To eliminate the parasite from the host intestine, it is necessary the activation of B-cell and T-cell dependent mechanisms. The knowledge about Giardia antigens that can stimulate the host immune response is limited. Recently, it has been described the Binding Immunoglobulin Protein (BIP) of G. lamblia (71kDa) as a potential immunogen. Additionally, our group has identified a highly immunogenic antigen (5G8 protein) of G. lamblia with a relative molecular mass of approximately 70kDa. There is some evidence suggesting that the 5G8 protein may activate both humoral and cellular immune responses. Based on these observations and preliminary mass spectrometry analyses, we hypothesized that the antigen 5G8 could be the BIP protein. In the present study, we characterize immunochemically the BIP protein of Giardia. Flow cytometric assays and western blotting were used to determine the expression profile of BIP and 5G8 antigens in Giardia trophozoites. The differences in expression profile indicated that BIP and 5G8 are not the same molecule. ELISA and Western blotting assays revealed that BIP protein was recognized by antibodies produced during G. lamblia infection in C3H/HeN mice. MTT assays did not reveal the activation of cellular immune response induced by BIP protein in vitro. In addition, we identified the potential B-cell and T-cell epitopes of G. lamblia BIP protein. This molecule is a conserved protein among Giardia strains and other pathogens. The complete immunological characterization of this antigen will contribute to a better understanding of the host-parasite interactions in Giardia infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Advances in understanding Giardia: determinants and mechanisms of chronic sequelae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartor, R. Balfour

    2015-01-01

    Giardia lamblia is a flagellated protozoan that is the most common cause of intestinal parasitic infection in children living in resource-limited settings. The pathogenicity of Giardia has been debated since the parasite was first identified, and clinical outcomes vary across studies. Among recent perplexing findings are diametrically opposed associations between Giardia and acute versus persistent diarrhea and a poorly understood potential for long-term sequelae, including impaired child growth and cognitive development. The mechanisms driving these protean clinical outcomes remain elusive, but recent advances suggest that variability in Giardia strains, host nutritional status, the composition of microbiota, co-infecting enteropathogens, host genetically determined mucosal immune responses, and immune modulation by Giardia are all relevant factors influencing disease manifestations after Giardia infection. PMID:26097735

  20. Introducing a simple and economical method to purify Giardia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To prepare anti-Giardia lamblia antibodies needed to design diagnostic kits as well as parasite culture and other molecular studies, we require purification of the parasite cysts. In this study, we designed a rapid, simple and inexpensive method to purify parasite cysts from fecal samples of the patients suffering from ...

  1. Genotyping of Giardia isolates in Scotland: a descriptive epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, C; Jones, B; Inverarity, D; Pollock, K G J

    2014-08-01

    Giardiasis, caused by the intestinal protozoan parasite Giardia intestinalis (synonyms: G. lamblia, G. duodenalis), is one of the most frequent parasites to infect the Scottish population. Transmission of the infective cysts in faecal matter is commonly via food and/or water. Giardia is subdivided into assemblages, where clinical and epidemiological differences have been described between assemblages A and B. This snapshot descriptive epidemiological study examines 30 positive cases of Giardia of which 72% (n = 21) were shown to be assemblage A, 14% (n = 4) assemblage B and 10% (n = 3) mixed assemblages (A and B). There was a 2:3 female:male ratio of affected individuals with foreign travel recorded in 22 of these cases. The commonest symptom was diarrhoea which was reported in 80% of cases followed by tiredness. Five cases required hospitalization emphasizing the importance of gaining a greater understanding of how Giardia assemblages influence clinical outcomes to assist in formulating guidelines to manage potential Giardia outbreaks.

  2. Giardia & Pets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Giardia spread? Anything that comes into contact with feces (poop) from infected humans or animals can become contaminated ... get infected by: Being in contact with infected feces (poop) from another dog or cat Rolling and ...

  3. Evaluation of Three Commercial Assays for Detection of Giardia and Cryptosporidium Organisms in Fecal Specimens

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston, Stephanie P.; Ballard, Melissa M.; Beach, Michael J.; Causer, Louise; Wilkins, Patricia P.

    2003-01-01

    There is an increasing demand for diagnostic testing for Giardia intestinalis (G. lamblia) and Cryptosporidium parvum, with a priority being placed on obtaining diagnostic results in an efficient and timely manner. Several commercial companies have developed rapid diagnostic tests that are simple to perform and can be completed in less time than traditional methods for detecting Giardia and Cryptosporidium. We compared one of these rapid tests, the ImmunoCard STAT! (Meridian Bioscience, Inc.)...

  4. Disruptions of Host Immunity and Inflammation by Giardia Duodenalis: Potential Consequences for Co-Infections in the Gastro-Intestinal Tract

    OpenAIRE

    James A. Cotton; Christina B. Amat; Andre G. Buret

    2015-01-01

    Giardia duodenalis (syn. G. intestinalis, or G. lamblia) is a leading cause of waterborne diarrheal disease that infects hundreds of millions of people annually. Research on Giardia has greatly expanded within the last few years, and our understanding of the pathophysiology and immunology on this parasite is ever increasing. At peak infection, Giardia trophozoites induce pathophysiological responses that culminate in the development of diarrheal disease. However, human data has suggested tha...

  5. Giardia duodenalis Infection Reduces Granulocyte Infiltration in an In Vivo Model of Bacterial Toxin-Induced Colitis and Attenuates Inflammation in Human Intestinal Tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Cotton, James A.; Motta, Jean-Paul; Schenck, L. Patrick; Hirota, Simon A.; Beck, Paul L.; Buret, Andre G.

    2014-01-01

    Giardia duodenalis (syn. G. intestinalis, G. lamblia) is a predominant cause of waterborne diarrheal disease that may lead to post-infectious functional gastrointestinal disorders. Although Giardia-infected individuals could carry as much as 106 trophozoites per centimetre of gut, their intestinal mucosa is devoid of overt signs of inflammation. Recent studies have shown that in endemic countries where bacterial infectious diseases are common, Giardia infections can protect against the develo...

  6. A report on a case of Giardia duodenalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata Pudasaini

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTGiardia is caused by protozoa, Giardia lamblia. It is one of the most common causes of water born or food born diarrhea and it has a worldwide distribution. The prevalence is approximately 20-30% in developing countries. Giardia duodenalis is the most commonly reported intestinal protozoan in humans mainly affecting children. The infection is usually associated with malabsorption, weight loss and growth retardation.We report a case of four years old boy who presented with diarrhea and malabsorption for last 2 years. Its clinical presentation and histopathological diagnosis on duodenal biopsy is discussed.

  7. Giardia Infection (Giardiasis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardia infection (giardiasis) Overview Giardia infection is an intestinal infection marked by abdominal cramps, bloating, nausea and bouts of watery diarrhea. Giardia infection is caused by a microscopic parasite ...

  8. Anti-giardia activity of hexane extract of Citrus aurantifolia (Christim ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Giardia lamblia is a parasite that causes giardiasis in humans and other mammals. The common treatment includes different drugs, which were described to produce unpleasant side effects. Citrus aurantifolia, popularly known as “lima”, is a plant used in traditional medicine to treat gastrointestinal symptoms.

  9. Comparison of Cytokine Responses in Ecuadorian Children Infected with Giardia, Ascaris, or Both Parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherhead, Jill; Cortés, Andrea Arévalo; Sandoval, Carlos; Vaca, Maritza; Chico, Martha; Loor, Sophia; Cooper, Philip J; Mejia, Rojelio

    2017-06-01

    AbstractMore than 2 billion people are infected with parasites globally, and the majority have coinfections. Intestinal protozoa and helminths induce polarizing CD4 + T-helper cell 1 (Th1) mediated cytokine responses within the host. Such immune polarization may inhibit the ability of the host to mount an adequate immune response for pathogen clearance to concurrent pathogens. The current study evaluated the plasma cytokine profile in Ascaris and Giardia coinfected children compared with Giardia - and Ascaris -only infected children. Fecal samples and blood samples were collected from asymptomatic 3-year-old children living in the district of Quininde, Ecuador. Stool samples that tested positive for Giardia lamblia -only, Ascaris lumbricoides- only, or G. lamblia and A. lumbricoides coinfections were confirmed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Plasma samples from the study subjects were used to quantitate cytokines. A total of 39 patients were evaluated. Children with coinfection had a significant decrease in Th1 cytokine production, interleukin 2 (IL-2) ( P Giardia -only infected children. Coinfected children had an increase in IL-10/interferon gamma (IFN-γ) ratio compared with uninfected ( P Giardia may impair the host's ability to eradicate Giardia infection leading to chronic giardiasis.

  10. Giardia Alters Commensal Microbial Diversity throughout the Murine Gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barash, N R; Maloney, J G; Singer, S M; Dawson, S C

    2017-06-01

    Giardia lamblia is the most frequently identified protozoan cause of intestinal infection. Over 200 million people are estimated to have acute or chronic giardiasis, with infection rates approaching 90% in areas where Giardia is endemic. Despite its significance in global health, the mechanisms of pathogenesis associated with giardiasis remain unclear, as the parasite neither produces a known toxin nor induces a robust inflammatory response. Giardia colonization and proliferation in the small intestine of the host may, however, disrupt the ecological homeostasis of gastrointestinal commensal microbes and contribute to diarrheal disease associated with giardiasis. To evaluate the impact of Giardia infection on the host microbiota, we used culture-independent methods to quantify shifts in the diversity of commensal microbes throughout the gastrointestinal tract in mice infected with Giardia We discovered that Giardia 's colonization of the small intestine causes a systemic dysbiosis of aerobic and anaerobic commensal bacteria. Specifically, Giardia colonization is typified by both expansions in aerobic Proteobacteria and decreases in anaerobic Firmicutes and Melainabacteria in the murine foregut and hindgut. Based on these shifts, we created a quantitative index of murine Giardia -induced microbial dysbiosis. This index increased at all gut regions during the duration of infection, including both the proximal small intestine and the colon. Giardiasis could be an ecological disease, and the observed dysbiosis may be mediated directly via the parasite's unique anaerobic fermentative metabolism or indirectly via parasite induction of gut inflammation. This systemic alteration of murine gut commensal diversity may be the cause or the consequence of inflammatory and metabolic changes throughout the gut. Shifts in the commensal microbiota may explain observed variations in giardiasis between hosts with respect to host pathology, degree of parasite colonization, infection

  11. Genetic characterisation of Giardia duodenalis in dairy cattle in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz e Silva, Flávio Medeiros; Lopes, Raimundo Souza; Araújo, João Pessoa

    2012-02-01

    The intestinal protozoan parasite Giardia duodenalis (Lambl, 1859) Kofoid & Christiansen, 1915 [syn. Giardia intestinalis and Giardia lamblia] has emerged as a widespread enteric pathogen in humans and domestic animals. In recent years, G. duodenalis has been found in cattle worldwide and longitudinal studies have reported cumulative prevalence of 100% in some herds. In the present study, we determined the prevalence and genetic characterisation of G. duodenalis in 200 dairy cattle from 10 dairy farms in São Paulo state, Brazil. All faecal specimens were screened for the presence of G. duodenalis using microscopy examination, enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). DNA was extracted from faecal samples and G. duodenalis were identified by amplification of the small subunit ribosomal (SSU-rDNA) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) genes followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) or sequencing analysis. Giardia was identified in eight farm locations (80% prevalence). Overall, 15/200 (7.5%) animals were positive for infection, only one of which was a cow. Giardia duodenalis genotype E was present in 14 of the animals tested. Zoonotic genotype AI was present in one positive sample. Genotype E and genotype A represented 93% and 7% of G. duodenalis infections, respectively. This study demonstrates that G. duodenalis infection was prevalent in dairy calves in São Paulo state and that the non-zoonotic genotype E predominates in cattle in this region. Nevertheless, calves naturally infected in Brazil can shed Giardia cysts that can potentially infect humans, and thus, they may represent a public health risk.

  12. Immunological aspects of Giardia infections

    OpenAIRE

    Heyworth, Martin F.

    2014-01-01

    Immunodeficiency, particularly antibody deficiency, predisposes to increased intensity and persistence of Giardia infections. Giardia-infected immunocompetent hosts produce serum and intestinal antibodies against Giardia trophozoites. The number of Giardia muris trophozoites, in mice with G. muris infection, is reduced by intra-duodenal administration of anti-G. muris antibody. Giardia intestinalis antigens that are recognised by human anti-trophozoite antibodies include variable (variant-spe...

  13. Giardia: Illness & Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Illness & Symptoms Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Giardia trophozoites stained with trichrome. Credit: Waterborne Disease Prevention Branch, CDC Giardiasis is the most frequently diagnosed intestinal parasitic disease in the United States and among ...

  14. Giardia: General Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lives in the intestines and is passed in feces (poop). Once outside the body, Giardia can sometimes survive ... changing tables, diaper pails, or toys) that contain feces (poop) from an infected person or animal Drinking ...

  15. 18S ribosomal DNA based PCR diagnostic assay for Trichomonas vaginalis infection in symptomatic and asymptomatic women in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surya Prakash Dwivedi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the cases of trichomoniasis in symptomatic and asymptomatic Trichomonas vaginalis (T. vaginalis infected patients by PCR amplification of hypervariable 18S rRNA gene and to assess the sensitivity of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP technique for their diagnosis. Methods: We enrolled 498 women of child bearing age groups, with their pre-informed consent, attending OPD for their routine checkups and STI related problems. Trichomoniasis was diagnosed on the basis of wet mount preparations and PCR with a primer set targeting a well-conserved region in the 18S rRNA genes of T. vaginalis, respectively. Sequencing was done for differentiating the symptomatic and asymptomatic strains of axenic and clinical isolates. Results: After PCR diagnosis T. vaginalis infection was detected in 17 (3.42% out of 498 clinical isolates. Seventeen axenic and sixteen clinical strains of T. vaginalis tested were successfully detected by PCR yielding a single predicted product of 312 bp in gel electrophoresis followed by restriction digestion with restriction endonuclease HaeIII. After restriction digestion they gave two bands, one of 101 and the other of 211 bp, while there was negative response with DNA from Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Giardia lamblia, Toxoplasma gondii, Leishmania donovani and Entamoeba histolytica. An optimal analytical sensitivity and specificity of one T. vaginalis organism per PCR was achieved. Sequence of symptomatic and asymptomatic strains of axenic and clinical isolates are somewhat differentiated on the basis of point mutations in their 18S rRNA gene. Conclusions: Only few factors are known to predict symptoms of T. vaginalis infection, although the majority of women are infected with trichomoniasis are reported. Therefore the application of sensitive PCR based diagnosis may be quite useful for routine diagnosis of T. vaginalis strains.

  16. Immunological aspects of Giardia infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyworth, Martin F

    2014-01-01

    Immunodeficiency, particularly antibody deficiency, predisposes to increased intensity and persistence of Giardia infections. Giardia-infected immunocompetent hosts produce serum and intestinal antibodies against Giardia trophozoites. The number of Giardia muris trophozoites, in mice with G. muris infection, is reduced by intra-duodenal administration of anti-G. muris antibody. Giardia intestinalis antigens that are recognised by human anti-trophozoite antibodies include variable (variant-specific) and invariant proteins. Nitric oxide (NO) appears to contribute to host clearance of Giardia trophozoites. Arginine is a precursor of NO and is metabolised by Giardia trophozoites, possibly reducing its availability for generation of NO by the host. Work with mice suggests that T lymphocytes and interleukin-6 (IL-6) contribute to clearance of Giardia infection via mechanisms independent of antibodies. © M.F. Heyworth, published by EDP Sciences, 2014.

  17. [Investigation on contamination of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in drinking water and environmental water in Shanghai].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Ping; He, Yan-Yan; Zhu, Qian; Ma, Xiao-Jiang; Cai, Li

    2010-12-30

    To understand the contamination status of Cryptosporidium sp. and Giardia lamblia in drinking water, source water and environmental water in Shanghai. All water samples collected from drinking water, source water and environmental water were detected by a procedure of micromembrane filtration, immune magnetic separation (IMS), and immunofluorescent assay (IFA). Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts were not found in 156 samples of the drinking water including finished water, tap water, or pipe water for directly drinking in communities. Among 70 samples either source water of water plants (15 samples), environmental water from Huangpu River(25), canal water around animal sheds(15), exit water from waste-water treatment plants(9), or waste water due to daily life(6), Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in 1(6.7%), 2(8.0%), 7(46.7%), 1(11.1%), and 1(16.7%) samples, respectively; and Giardia cysts were detected in 1(6.7%), 3(12.0%), 6 (40.0%), 2(22.2%), and 2(33.3%), respectively. The positive rate of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts was 17.1% (12/70) and 20.0% (14/70), respectively. No Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts have been detected in drinking water, but found in source water and environmental water samples in Shanghai.

  18. Disruptions of Host Immunity and Inflammation by Giardia Duodenalis: Potential Consequences for Co-Infections in the Gastro-Intestinal Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, James A; Amat, Christina B; Buret, Andre G

    2015-11-10

    Giardia duodenalis (syn. G. intestinalis, or G. lamblia) is a leading cause of waterborne diarrheal disease that infects hundreds of millions of people annually. Research on Giardia has greatly expanded within the last few years, and our understanding of the pathophysiology and immunology on this parasite is ever increasing. At peak infection, Giardia trophozoites induce pathophysiological responses that culminate in the development of diarrheal disease. However, human data has suggested that the intestinal mucosa of Giardia-infected individuals is devoid of signs of overt intestinal inflammation, an observation that is reproduced in animal models. Thus, our understanding of host inflammatory responses to the parasite remain incompletely understood and human studies and experimental data have produced conflicting results. It is now also apparent that certain Giardia infections contain mechanisms capable of modulating their host's immune responses. As the oral route of Giardia infection is shared with many other gastrointestinal (GI) pathogens, co-infections may often occur, especially in places with poor sanitation and/or improper treatment of drinking water. Moreover, Giardia infections may modulate host immune responses and have been found to protect against the development of diarrheal disease in developing countries. The following review summarizes our current understanding of the immunomodulatory mechanisms of Giardia infections and their consequences for the host, and highlights areas for future research. Potential implications of these immunomodulatory effects during GI co-infection are also discussed.

  19. Giardia Colonizes and Encysts in High-Density Foci in the Murine Small Intestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barash, N. R.; Nosala, C.; Pham, J. K.; McInally, S. G.; Gourguechon, S.; McCarthy-Sinclair, B.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Giardia lamblia is a highly prevalent yet understudied protistan parasite causing significant diarrheal disease worldwide. Hosts ingest Giardia cysts from contaminated sources. In the gastrointestinal tract, cysts excyst to become motile trophozoites, colonizing and attaching to the gut epithelium. Trophozoites later differentiate into infectious cysts that are excreted and contaminate the environment. Due to the limited accessibility of the gut, the temporospatial dynamics of giardiasis in the host are largely inferred from laboratory culture and thus may not mirror Giardia physiology in the host. Here, we have developed bioluminescent imaging (BLI) to directly interrogate and quantify the in vivo temporospatial dynamics of Giardia infection, thereby providing an improved murine model to evaluate anti-Giardia drugs. Using BLI, we determined that parasites primarily colonize the proximal small intestine nonuniformly in high-density foci. By imaging encystation-specific bioreporters, we show that encystation initiates shortly after inoculation and continues throughout the duration of infection. Encystation also initiates in high-density foci in the proximal small intestine, and high density contributes to the initiation of encystation in laboratory culture. We suggest that these high-density in vivo foci of colonizing and encysting Giardia likely result in localized disruption to the epithelium. This more accurate visualization of giardiasis redefines the dynamics of the in vivo Giardia life cycle, paving the way for future mechanistic studies of density-dependent parasitic processes in the host. IMPORTANCE Giardia is a single-celled parasite causing significant diarrheal disease in several hundred million people worldwide. Due to limited access to the site of infection in the gastrointestinal tract, our understanding of the dynamics of Giardia infections in the host has remained limited and largely inferred from laboratory culture. To better understand

  20. Phosphonoxins III: synthesis of α-aminophosphonate analogs of antifungal polyoxins with anti-Giardia activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staake, Michael; Chauhan, Jay; Zhou, Ding; Shanker, Aaron; De Chatterjee, Atasi; Das, Siddhartha; Patterson, Steven E

    2010-10-15

    A synthesis of α-aminophosphonate analogs of polyoxins, termed phosphonoxin C1, C2, and C3, has been achieved. The key step was the addition of lithium dimethyl phosphite to the aldehyde of a protected threose derivative. α-Hydroxyphosphonate analogs C4 and C5 were also obtained by taking advantage of an unprecedented conversion of an azide to hydroxyl during treatment with hydrogen on palladium on carbon. The resulting phosphonoxin C5 inhibited the growth of an intestinal protozoan, Giardia lamblia, at low micromolar concentration.

  1. Phosphonoxins III: Synthesis of α-Aminophosphonate Analogs of Antifungal Polyoxins with Anti-Giardia activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staake, Michael; Chauhan, Jay; Zhou, Ding; Shanker, Aaron; De Chatterjee, Atasi; Das, Siddhartha; Patterson, Steven E.

    2010-01-01

    A synthesis of α-aminophosphonate analogs of polyoxins, termed phosphonoxin C1, C2 and C3, has been achieved. The key step was the addition of lithium dimethyl phosphite to the aldehyde of a protected threose derivative. α-Hydroxyphosphonate analogs C4 and C5 were also obtained by taking advantage of an unprecedented conversion of an azide to hydroxyl during treatment with hydrogen on palladium on carbon. The resulting phosphonoxin C5 inhibited the growth of an intestinal protozoan, Giardia lamblia, at low micromolar concentration. PMID:20857975

  2. Persistent gut barrier damage and commensal bacterial influx following eradication of Giardia infection in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent studies of Giardia lamblia outbreaks have indicated that 40–80% of infected patients experience long-lasting functional gastrointestinal disorders after parasitic clearance. Our aim was to assess changes in the intestinal barrier and spatial distribution of commensal bacteria in the post-clearance phase of Giardia infection. Methods Mice were orogastrically inoculated with G. lamblia trophozoites (strain GS/M) or pair-fed with saline and were sacrificed on post-infective (PI) days 7 (colonization phase) and 35 (post-clearance phase). Gut epithelial barrier function was assessed by Western blotting for occludin cleavage and luminal-to-serosal macromolecular permeability. Gut-associated, superficial adherent, and mucosal endocytosed bacteria were measured by agar culturing and were examined by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Intracellular bacteria cultured from isolated mucosal cells were characterized by 16S rDNA sequencing. Neutrophil-specific esterase staining, a myeloperoxidase activity assay, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for cytokine concentrations were used to verify intestinal tissue inflammation. Results Tight junctional damage was detected in the intestinal mucosa of Giardia-infected mice on PI days 7 and 35. Although intestinal bacterial overgrowth was evident only during parasite colonization (PI day 7), enhanced mucosal adherence and endocytosis of bacteria were observed on PI days 7 and 35. Multiple bacterial strains, including Bacillus, Lactobacillus, Staphylococcus, and Phenylobacterium, penetrated the gut mucosa in the post-infective phase. The mucosal influx of bacteria coincided with increases in neutrophil infiltration and myeloperoxidase activity on PI days 7 and 35. Elevated intestinal IFNγ, TNFα, and IL-1β levels also were detected on PI day 35. Conclusions Giardia-infected mice showed persistent tight junctional damage and bacterial penetration, accompanied by mucosal inflammation, after parasite clearance

  3. Giardia duodenalis infection reduces granulocyte infiltration in an in vivo model of bacterial toxin-induced colitis and attenuates inflammation in human intestinal tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, James A; Motta, Jean-Paul; Schenck, L Patrick; Hirota, Simon A; Beck, Paul L; Buret, Andre G

    2014-01-01

    Giardia duodenalis (syn. G. intestinalis, G. lamblia) is a predominant cause of waterborne diarrheal disease that may lead to post-infectious functional gastrointestinal disorders. Although Giardia-infected individuals could carry as much as 106 trophozoites per centimetre of gut, their intestinal mucosa is devoid of overt signs of inflammation. Recent studies have shown that in endemic countries where bacterial infectious diseases are common, Giardia infections can protect against the development of diarrheal disease and fever. Conversely, separate observations have indicated Giardia infections may enhance the severity of diarrheal disease from a co-infecting pathogen. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes or neutrophils (PMNs) are granulocytic, innate immune cells characteristic of acute intestinal inflammatory responses against bacterial pathogens that contribute to the development of diarrheal disease following recruitment into intestinal tissues. Giardia cathepsin B cysteine proteases have been shown to attenuate PMN chemotaxis towards IL-8/CXCL8, suggesting Giardia targets PMN accumulation. However, the ability of Giardia infections to attenuate PMN accumulation in vivo and how in turn this effect may alter the host inflammatory response in the intestine has yet to be demonstrated. Herein, we report that Giardia infection attenuates granulocyte tissue infiltration induced by intra-rectal instillation of Clostridium difficile toxin A and B in an isolate-dependent manner. This attenuation of granulocyte infiltration into colonic tissues paralled decreased expression of several cytokines associated with the recruitment of PMNs. Giardia trophozoite isolates that attenuated granulocyte infiltration in vivo also decreased protein expression of cytokines released from inflamed mucosal biopsy tissues collected from patients with active Crohn's disease, including several cytokines associated with PMN recruitment. These results demonstrate for the first time that certain

  4. Giardia duodenalis infection reduces granulocyte infiltration in an in vivo model of bacterial toxin-induced colitis and attenuates inflammation in human intestinal tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A Cotton

    Full Text Available Giardia duodenalis (syn. G. intestinalis, G. lamblia is a predominant cause of waterborne diarrheal disease that may lead to post-infectious functional gastrointestinal disorders. Although Giardia-infected individuals could carry as much as 106 trophozoites per centimetre of gut, their intestinal mucosa is devoid of overt signs of inflammation. Recent studies have shown that in endemic countries where bacterial infectious diseases are common, Giardia infections can protect against the development of diarrheal disease and fever. Conversely, separate observations have indicated Giardia infections may enhance the severity of diarrheal disease from a co-infecting pathogen. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes or neutrophils (PMNs are granulocytic, innate immune cells characteristic of acute intestinal inflammatory responses against bacterial pathogens that contribute to the development of diarrheal disease following recruitment into intestinal tissues. Giardia cathepsin B cysteine proteases have been shown to attenuate PMN chemotaxis towards IL-8/CXCL8, suggesting Giardia targets PMN accumulation. However, the ability of Giardia infections to attenuate PMN accumulation in vivo and how in turn this effect may alter the host inflammatory response in the intestine has yet to be demonstrated. Herein, we report that Giardia infection attenuates granulocyte tissue infiltration induced by intra-rectal instillation of Clostridium difficile toxin A and B in an isolate-dependent manner. This attenuation of granulocyte infiltration into colonic tissues paralled decreased expression of several cytokines associated with the recruitment of PMNs. Giardia trophozoite isolates that attenuated granulocyte infiltration in vivo also decreased protein expression of cytokines released from inflamed mucosal biopsy tissues collected from patients with active Crohn's disease, including several cytokines associated with PMN recruitment. These results demonstrate for the first time

  5. Batch solar disinfection inactivates oocysts of Cryptosporidium parvum and cysts of Giardia muris in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuigan, K G; Méndez-Hermida, F; Castro-Hermida, J A; Ares-Mazás, E; Kehoe, S C; Boyle, M; Sichel, C; Fernández-Ibáñez, P; Meyer, B P; Ramalingham, S; Meyer, E A

    2006-08-01

    To determine whether batch solar disinfection (SODIS) can be used to inactivate oocysts of Cryptosporidium parvum and cysts of Giardia muris in experimentally contaminated water. Suspensions of oocysts and cysts were exposed to simulated global solar irradiation of 830 W m(-2) for different exposure times at a constant temperature of 40 degrees C. Infectivity tests were carried out using CD-1 suckling mice in the Cryptosporidium experiments and newly weaned CD-1 mice in the Giardia experiments. Exposure times of > or =10 h (total optical dose c. 30 kJ) rendered C. parvum oocysts noninfective. Giardia muris cysts were rendered completely noninfective within 4 h (total optical dose >12 kJ). Scanning electron microscopy and viability (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole/propidium iodide fluorogenic dyes and excystation) studies on oocysts of C. parvum suggest that inactivation is caused by damage to the oocyst wall. Results show that cysts of G. muris and oocysts of C. parvum are rendered completely noninfective after batch SODIS exposures of 4 and 10 h (respectively) and is also likely to be effective against waterborne cysts of Giardia lamblia. These results demonstrate that SODIS is an appropriate household water treatment technology for use as an emergency intervention in aftermath of natural or man-made disasters against not only bacterial but also protozoan pathogens.

  6. Extra-intestinal and long term consequences of Giardia duodenalis infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliez, Marie C M; Buret, André G

    2013-12-21

    Giardiasis is the most common waterborne parasitic infection of the human intestine worldwide. The etiological agent, Giardia duodenalis (syn. G. intestinalis, G. lamblia), is a flagellated, binucleated protozoan parasite which infects a wide array of mammalian hosts. Human giardiasis is a true cosmopolitan pathogen, with highest prevalence in developing countries. Giardiasis can present with a broad range of clinical manifestations from asymptomatic, to acute or chronic diarrheal disease associated with abdominal pain and nausea. Most infections are self-limiting, although re-infection and chronic infection can occur. Recent evidence indicating that Giardia may cause chronic post-infectious gastrointestinal complications have made it a topic of intense research. The causes of the post-infectious clinical manifestations due to Giardia, even after complete elimination of the parasite, remain obscure. This review offers a state-of-the-art discussion on the long-term consequences of Giardia infections, from extra-intestinal manifestations, growth and cognitive deficiencies, to post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome. The discussion also sheds light on some of the novel mechanisms recently implicated in the production of these post-infectious manifestations.

  7. Detection of small number of Giardia in biological materials prepared from stray dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmailikia, Leila; Ebrahimzade, Elahe; Shayan, Parviz; Amininia, Narges

    2017-12-20

    Giardia lamblia is an intestinal protozoa with intermittent and low shedding especially in dogs, and the detection of Giardia is accompanied with problems such as sampling and diagnostic method. The objective of this study was to detection of Giardia in biological materials with low number of parasite using parasitological and molecular methods, and also to determine whether the examined stray dogs harbor known zoonotic genotype of Giardia. For this aim 85 fecal and duodenal samples were studied from which 1 was positive by Trichrome staining of stool, 4 were positive by staining of duodenal samples. The nested PCR analysis with primers derived from 18 SrRNA showed that the specific PCR product could be amplified in 4 stool and 4 duodenal samples. All positive samples in staining analysis were also positive in nested PCR. No amplification could be observed by nested PCR with primers derived from β giardin gene due to the single copy of gene. Interestingly, the extracted DNA from old fixed stained Giardia positive smears could be also amplified with primers derived from 18SrRNA gene. The sequence analysis of nested PCR products showed that they belong to the genotype D. In conclusion, it is to denote that the Trichrome or Giemsa methods were not suitable for the detection of small number of this parasite in stool and the nested PCR with primers derived from 18S rRNA gene can replace the traditional methods successfully. For detection of Giardia in stool, primers derived from β giardin will not be recommended.

  8. PCR based diagnostic assay targeting the beta tubulin gene for the detection of Trichomonas vaginalis infection in vaginal swab samples of symptomatic and asymptomatic women in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surya Prakash Dwivedi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To develop an in-house PCR based diagnostic assay for identification of strains isolated from symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects of India, targeting the 毬 -tubulin gene using specific primers. Methods: In the present study a primer set is designed to target a well-conserved region in the beta-tubulin gene of Trichomonas vaginalis (T. vaginalis. All strains of T. vaginalis were tested and successfully detected by PCR yielding a single predicted product of 198 bp in gel electrophoresis, while there was negative response with DNA from Giardia lamblia, Toxoplasma gondii, Leishmania donovani and Entamoeba histolytica. The sensitivity and specificity for a single T. vaginalis cell per PCR was achieved. Axenic Culture, performed with long term axenized T. vaginalis culture system, was routinely examined to identify T. vaginalis. Results: The PCR based investigations with 498 vaginal swab samples from women attending OPD clinics of Halberg Hospital Moradabad and Queen Mary ’s Hospital, Lucknow, India and 17 long term axenic cultures maintained at PGIMER, Chandigarh, India using primer set BTUB 1 & BTUB 2 showed sensitivity and specificity response of 98% and 100%, respectively, while wet preparation in clinically isolated samples responded up to 62.5%. The PCR product sequencing result of symptomatic strains (SS1 of T. vaginalis (744 bp long was submitted to NCBI (Accession No: JF513200. It shows maximum identity 98 % with XM_001284521 Trichomonas vaginalis G-3 beta-tubulin (btub putative partial mRNA. Conclusions: The data gathered in the present study entail that the diagnosis of T. vaginalis infection by PCR may be established as a sensitive and specific protocol, to be incorporated into a joint strategy for the screening of multiple STDs by employing molecular amplification technique. The merits and precautions of the protocol have been discussed.

  9. Giardia lamblia infections in children in Ghana | Anim-Baidoo | Pan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stool samples were collected and analysed for parasite presence using microscopy, ELISA and PCR. Positive samples were subsequently characterized into assemblages by PCR-RFLP, and further confirmed with sequencing of the glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) gene. Epidemiological data on demographic, clinical and ...

  10. Prevalence of Giardia lamblia cyst; its detection in water bodies and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of the infection based on the type of toilet facility showed that greater number of Abagana people used nearby bush for defecation and was found to be statistically significant (p<0.05). Results also revealed that stream had the highest contamination rate (92.5%). The least contamination rate was found in ...

  11. Polymeric immunoglobulin receptor in intestinal immune defense against the lumen-dwelling protozoan parasite Giardia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davids, Barbara J; Palm, J E Daniel; Housley, Michael P; Smith, Jennifer R; Andersen, Yolanda S; Martin, Martin G; Hendrickson, Barbara A; Johansen, Finn-Eirik; Svärd, Staffan G; Gillin, Frances D; Eckmann, Lars

    2006-11-01

    The polymeric Ig receptor (pIgR) is conserved in mammals and has an avian homologue, suggesting evolutionarily important functions in vertebrates. It transports multimeric IgA and IgM across polarized epithelia and is highly expressed in the intestine, yet little direct evidence exists for its importance in defense against common enteric pathogens. In this study, we demonstrate that pIgR can play a critical role in intestinal defense against the lumen-dwelling protozoan parasite Giardia, a leading cause of diarrheal disease. The receptor was essential for the eradication of Giardia when high luminal IgA levels were required. Clearance of Giardia muris, in which IgA plays a dominant role, was severely compromised in pIgR-deficient mice despite significant fecal IgA output at 10% of normal levels. In contrast, eradication of the human strain Giardia lamblia GS/M, for which adaptive immunity is less IgA dependent in mice, was unaffected by pIgR deficiency, indicating that pIgR had no physiologic role when lower luminal IgA levels were sufficient for parasite elimination. Immune IgA was greatly increased in the serum of pIgR-deficient mice, conferred passive protection against Giardia, and recognized several conserved giardial Ags, including ornithine carbamoyltransferase, arginine deiminase, alpha-enolase, and alpha- and beta-giardins, that are also detected in human giardiasis. Corroborative observations were made in mice lacking the J chain, which is required for pIgR-dependent transepithelial IgA transport. These results, together with prior data on pIgR-mediated immune neutralization of luminal cholera toxin, suggest that pIgR is essential in intestinal defense against pathogenic microbes with high-level and persistent luminal presence.

  12. Comparative reduction of Giardia cysts, F+ coliphages, sulphite reducing clostridia and fecal coliforms by wastewater treatment processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasser, Abidelfatah M; Benisti, Neta-Lee; Ofer, Naomi; Hovers, Sivan; Nitzan, Yeshayahu

    2017-01-28

    Advanced wastewater treatment processes are applied to prevent the environmental dissemination of pathogenic microorganisms. Giardia lamblia causes a severe disease called giardiasis, and is highly prevalent in untreated wastewater worldwide. Monitoring the microbial quality of wastewater effluents is usually based on testing for the levels of indicator microorganisms in the effluents. This study was conducted to compare the suitability of fecal coliforms, F+ coliphages and sulfide reducing clostridia (SRC) as indicators for the reduction of Giardia cysts in two full-scale wastewater treatment plants. The treatment process consists of activated sludge, coagulation, high rate filtration and either chlorine or UV disinfection. The results of the study demonstrated that Giardia cysts are highly prevalent in raw wastewater at an average concentration of 3600 cysts/L. Fecal coliforms, F+ coliphages and SRC were also detected at high concentrations in raw wastewater. Giardia cysts were efficiently removed (3.6 log 10 ) by the treatment train. The greatest reduction was observed for fecal coliforms (9.6 log 10 ) whereas the least reduction was observed for F+ coliphages (2.1 log 10 ) following chlorine disinfection. Similar reduction was observed for SRC by filtration and disinfection by either UV (3.6 log 10 ) or chlorine (3.3 log 10 ). Since F+ coliphage and SRC were found to be more resistant than fecal coliforms for the tertiary treatment processes, they may prove to be more suitable as indicators for Giardia. The results of this study demonstrated that advanced wastewater treatment may prove efficient for the removal of Giardia cysts and may prevent its transmission when treated effluents are applied for crop irrigation or streams restoration.

  13. Infections by Intestinal Coccidia and Giardia duodenalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cama, Vitaliano A; Mathison, Blaine A

    2015-06-01

    The coccidians Cryptosporidium spp, Cyclospora cayetanensis, and Cystoisospora belli and the flagellate Giardia duodenalis are pathogenic protozoa associated with gastrointestinal manifestations. Diagnosis relies heavily on microscopy, and although ova-and-parasite examinations can detect Giardia and Cystoisospora, Cryptosporidium and Cyclospora often require specific diagnostic requests. Approved non-microscopy methods are available for Giardia and Cryptosporidium, although negative results are frequently followed by microscopic assays. Polymerase chain reaction-based methods are not frequently used for diagnosis of Giardia and Cryptosporidium and have been used primarily for epidemiologic or outbreak investigations of Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Differentiation of Giardia duodenalis from other Giardia spp. by using polymerase chain reaction and gene probes.

    OpenAIRE

    Mahbubani, M H; Bej, A K; Perlin, M H; Schaefer, F W; Jakubowski, W; Atlas, R M

    1992-01-01

    Giardia spp. are waterborne organisms that are the most commonly identified pathogenic intestinal protozoans in the United States. Current detection techniques for Giardia species in water include microscopy and immunofluorescence techniques. Species of the genus Giardia are classified on the basis of taxonomic criteria, such as cell morphology, and on host specificity. We have developed a polymerase chain reaction- and gene probe-based detection system specific for Giardia spp., which can di...

  15. Giardia and Drinking Water from Private Wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Once an animal or person is infected with Giardia , the parasite lives in the intestine and is passed in feces. Because the parasite is protected by an outer shell, it can survive outside the body and in the ... past 30 years, Giardia infection has become recognized as a common cause ...

  16. Giardia cyst wall protein 1 is a lectin that binds to curled fibrils of the GalNAc homopolymer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparajita Chatterjee

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The infectious and diagnostic stage of Giardia lamblia (also known as G. intestinalis or G. duodenalis is the cyst. The Giardia cyst wall contains fibrils of a unique beta-1,3-linked N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc homopolymer and at least three cyst wall proteins (CWPs composed of Leu-rich repeats (CWP(LRR and a C-terminal conserved Cys-rich region (CWP(CRR. Our goals were to dissect the structure of the cyst wall and determine how it is disrupted during excystation. The intact Giardia cyst wall is thin (approximately 400 nm, easily fractured by sonication, and impermeable to small molecules. Curled fibrils of the GalNAc homopolymer are restricted to a narrow plane and are coated with linear arrays of oval-shaped protein complex. In contrast, cyst walls of Giardia treated with hot alkali to deproteinate fibrils of the GalNAc homopolymer are thick (approximately 1.2 microm, resistant to sonication, and permeable. The deproteinated GalNAc homopolymer, which forms a loose lattice of curled fibrils, is bound by native CWP1 and CWP2, as well as by maltose-binding protein (MBP-fusions containing the full-length CWP1 or CWP1(LRR. In contrast, neither MBP alone nor MBP fused to CWP1(CRR bind to the GalNAc homopolymer. Recombinant CWP1 binds to the GalNAc homopolymer within secretory vesicles of Giardia encysting in vitro. Fibrils of the GalNAc homopolymer are exposed during excystation or by treatment of heat-killed cysts with chymotrypsin, while deproteinated fibrils of the GalNAc homopolymer are degraded by extracts of Giardia cysts but not trophozoites. These results show the Leu-rich repeat domain of CWP1 is a lectin that binds to curled fibrils of the GalNAc homopolymer. During excystation, host and Giardia proteases appear to degrade bound CWPs, exposing fibrils of the GalNAc homopolymer that are digested by a stage-specific glycohydrolase.

  17. Consistency of direct microscopic examination and ELISA in detection of Giardia in stool specimen among children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Torabi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the consistency of direct microscopic examination and ELISA for determination of Giadia in stool specimen. Method: Study population consisted of children with any clinical symptoms of Giardia infestation since last two weeks. Fresh stool specimen was collected from each child. The stools specimens were assessed by two methods of direct microscopic examination and ELISA.The degree of agreement between direct stool exam and ELISA was calculated by Cohen's kappa coefficient. Results: In this study, 124 children with age range 2-12 years were investigated. A total of 64 (61.7% and 79 (65.7% of children had Giardia by direct stool exam and ELISA test respectively. There was association between frequency of constipation and Giardia infection (P=0.036. The Cohen's kappa coefficient calculated for degree of agreement between direct stool exam and ELISA showed κ=0.756 (P<0.001. Conclusions: The frequency of Giardia infection in symptomatic children was high and there was high agreement rate between ELISA and direct stool smear.

  18. IL-17A promotes protective IgA responses and expression of other potential effectors against the lumen-dwelling enteric parasite Giardia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dann, Sara M; Manthey, Carolin F; Le, Christine; Miyamoto, Yukiko; Gima, Lauren; Abrahim, Andrew; Cao, Anthony T; Hanson, Elaine M; Kolls, Jay K; Raz, Eyal; Cong, Yingzi; Eckmann, Lars

    2015-09-01

    Giardia lamblia is a leading protozoan cause of diarrheal disease worldwide. It colonizes the lumen and epithelial surface of the small intestine, but does not invade the mucosa. Acute infection causes only minimal mucosal inflammation. Effective immune defenses exist, yet their identity and mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Interleukin (IL)-17A has emerged as an important cytokine involved in inflammation and antimicrobial defense against bacterial pathogens at mucosal surfaces. In this study, we demonstrate that IL-17A has a crucial function in host defense against Giardia infection. Using murine infection models with G. muris and G. lamblia, we observed marked and selective induction of intestinal IL-17A with peak expression after 2 weeks. Th17 cells in the lamina propria and innate immune cells in the epithelial compartment of the small intestine were responsible for the IL-17A response. Experiments in gene-targeted mice revealed that the cytokine, and its cognate receptor IL-17RA, were required for eradication of the parasite. The actions of the cytokine were mediated by hematopoietic cells, and were required for the transport of IgA into the intestinal lumen, since IL-17A deficiency led to marked reduction of fecal IgA levels, as well as for increased intestinal expression of several other potential effectors, including β-defensin 1 and resistin-like molecule β. In contrast, intestinal hypermotility, another major antigiardial defense mechanism, was not impacted by IL-17A loss. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that IL-17A and IL-17 receptor signaling are essential for intestinal defense against the important lumen-dwelling intestinal parasite Giardia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Vaccination of domestic animals with a novel oral vaccine prevents Giardia infections, alleviates signs of giardiasis and reduces transmission to humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serradell, Marianela C; Saura, Alicia; Rupil, Lucia L; Gargantini, Pablo R; Faya, Marcela I; Furlan, Paulina J; Lujan, Hugo D

    2016-01-01

    Giardia lamblia is a human intestinal parasite and one of the most frequent enteric pathogen of companion animals. Clinical manifestations of giardiasis, such as diarrhoea, anorexia, weight loss and lethargy, have been associated with Giardia infections in both domestic and farm animals. A few anti-parasitic drugs are routinely used to treat giardiasis, but re-infections are common and drug-resistant strains have already been reported. Unfortunately, efficient vaccines against Giardia are not available. Giardia undergoes antigenic variation; through this mechanism, parasites can avoid the host’s immune defenses, causing chronic infections and/or re-infections. Antigenic variation is characterised by a continuous switch in the expression of members of a homologous family of genes encoding surface antigens. In a previous report, we indicated that in Giardia, the mechanism responsible for the exchange of variant-specific surface proteins (VSPs) involves the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway. From a repertoire of ~200 VSP genes, only one is expressed on the surface of single trophozoites; however, RNAi machinery disruption generates trophozoites that express the complete VSP repertoire. We also demonstrated that gerbils orally immunised with VSPs isolated from these altered parasites showed high levels of protection. Here we tested this vaccine in cats and dogs, and found that it is highly efficient in preventing new infections and reducing chronic giardiasis in domestic animals both in experimental and natural infections. Remarkably, immunisation of dogs in a highly endemic area strongly decreased the percentage of infected children in the community, suggesting that this vaccine would block the zoonotic transmission of the disease. PMID:29263857

  20. The efficacy of potassium ferrate as a chemical disinfectant on E. coli, Vibrio cholera, human adenovirus, and Giardia lamblia - Abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Drinking water and wastewater effluents go through numerous treatments to remove microorganisms and other contaminants in the United States. One of many processes along the treatment train is disinfection, and to date the most common disinfectants still remain chemi...

  1. The efficacy of potassium ferrate as a chemical disinfectant on E. coli, Vibrio cholera, human adenovirus, and Giardia lamblia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Drinking water and wastewater go through numerous treatments to remove microorganisms and other contaminants one of many processes along the treatment train is disinfection. There are different ways to disinfect these waters, however to date the most common disinf...

  2. Prevalence of Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Chronic Fatigue 10 Years After Giardia Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litleskare, Sverre; Rortveit, Guri; Eide, Geir Egil; Hanevik, Kurt; Langeland, Nina; Wensaas, Knut-Arne

    2018-03-06

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a complication that can follow gastrointestinal infection, but it is not clear if patients also develop chronic fatigue. We investigated the prevalence and odds ratio of IBS and chronic fatigue 10 years after an outbreak of Giardia lamblia, compared with a control cohort, and changes in prevalence over time. We performed a prospective follow-up study of 1252 laboratory-confirmed cases of giardiasis (exposed), which developed in Bergen, Norway in 2004. Statistics Norway provided us with information from 2504 unexposed individuals from Bergen, matched by age and sex (controls). Questionnaires were mailed to participants 3, 6, and 10 years after the outbreak. Results from the 3- and 6-year follow-up analyses have been published previously. We report the 10-year data and changes in prevalence among time points, determined by logistic regression using generalized estimating equations. The prevalence of IBS 10 years after the outbreak was 43% (n = 248) among 576 exposed individuals and 14% (n = 94) among 685 controls (adjusted odds ratio for development of IBS in exposed individuals, 4.74; 95% CI, 3.61-6.23). At this time point, the prevalence of chronic fatigue was 26% (n = 153) among 587 exposed individuals and 11% (n = 73) among 692 controls (adjusted odds ratio, 3.01; 95% CI, 2.22-4.08). The prevalence of IBS among exposed persons did not change significantly from 6 years after infection (40%) to 10 years after infection (43%; adjusted odds ratio for the change 1.03; 95% CI, 0.87-1.22). However, the prevalence of chronic fatigue decreased from 31% at 6 years after infection to 26% at 10 years after infection (adjusted odds ratio for the change 0.74; 95% CI, 0.61-0.90). The prevalence of IBS did not change significantly from 6 years after an outbreak of Giardia lamblia infection in Norway to 10 years after. However, the prevalence of chronic fatigue decreased significantly from 6 to 10 years afterward. IBS and chronic fatigue were

  3. Population-based laboratory surveillance for Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. infections in a large Canadian health region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laupland Kevin B

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Giardia lamblia (intestinalis and Cryptosporidium parvum are the two most important intestinal parasites infecting North Americans but there is a paucity of active population-based surveillance data from Canada. This study determined the incidence of and demographic risk factors for developing Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. infections in a general Canadian population. Methods Population-based laboratory surveillance was conducted among all residents of the Calgary Health Region (CHR; population ≅ 1 million during May 1, 1999 and April 30, 2002. Results Giardia sp. infection occurred at a rate of 19.6 per 100,000 populations per year. Although the yearly incidence was stable, a significant seasonal variation was observed with a peak in late summer to early fall. Males were at higher risk for development of this infection as compared to females (21.2 vs. 17.9 per 100,000/yr; relative risk (RR 1.19; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.00–1.40, p = 0.047, and there was a significant decrease in risk associated with an increasing age. Cryptosporidium sp. infection occurred at an overall rate of 6.0 per 100,000 populations per year although a large outbreak of Cryptosporidium sp. infections occurred in the second half of the summer of 2001. During August and September of 2001, the incidence of cryptosporidiosis was 55.1 per 100,000 per year as compared to 3.1 per 100,000 per year for the remainder of the surveillance period (p Conclusion This study provides important information on the occurrence and demographic risk groups for acquisition of giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis in a non-selected Canadian population.

  4. Symptomatic epilepsy in children

    OpenAIRE

    Еlaginykh E.S.

    2014-01-01

    Research goals were to evaluate the etiological structure of symptomatic epilepsy in children, age structure of period of disease manifestation, average length of latent period among children with different characters of lesions, dependence between frequency of seizures and character of lesion. Material and methods. A total of 180 case-records of patients with symptomatic epilepsy were analyzed by the next criteria: anamnesis, materials of electroencephalogram and neurovisualization. Results....

  5. Pathogenic Mechanisms of Cryptosporidium and Giardia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Certad, Gabriela; Viscogliosi, Eric; Chabé, Magali; Cacciò, Simone M

    2017-07-01

    Intestinal protozoa are important etiological agents of diarrhea, particularly in children, yet the public health risk they pose is often neglected. Results from the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS) showed that Cryptosporidium is among the leading causes of moderate to severe diarrhea in children under 2 years. Likewise, Giardia infects approximately 200 million individuals worldwide, and causes acute diarrhea in children under 5 years. Despite this recognized role as pathogens, the question is why and how these parasites cause disease in some individuals but not in others. This review focuses on known pathogenic mechanisms of Cryptosporidium and Giardia, and infection progress towards disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Giardia muris infection in mice is associated with a protective interleukin 17A response and induction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreesen, Leentje; De Bosscher, Karolien; Grit, Grietje; Staels, Bart; Lubberts, Erik; Bauge, Eric; Geldhof, Peter

    2014-08-01

    The protozoan parasite Giardia duodenalis (Giardia lamblia) is one of the most commonly found intestinal pathogens in mammals, including humans. In the current study, a Giardia muris-mouse model was used to analyze cytokine transcription patterns and histological changes in intestinal tissue at different time points during infection in C57BL/6 mice. Since earlier work revealed the upregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) in Giardia-infected calves, a second aim was to investigate the potential activation of PPARs in the intestines of infected mice. The most important observation in all mice was a strong upregulation of il17a starting around 1 week postinfection. The significance of interleukin 17A (IL-17A) in orchestrating a protective immune response was further demonstrated in an infection trial or experiment using IL-17 receptor A (IL-17RA) knockout (KO) mice: whereas in wild-type (WT) mice, cyst secretion dropped significantly after 3 weeks of infection, the IL-17RA KO mice were unable to clear the infection. Analysis of the intestinal response further indicated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) induction soon after the initial contact with the parasite, as characterized by the transcriptional upregulation of ppara itself and several downstream target genes such as pltp and cpt1. Overall, PPARα did not seem to have any influence on the immune response against G. muris, since PPARα KO animals expressed il-17a and could clear the infection similar to WT controls. In conclusion, this study shows for the first time the importance of IL-17 production in the clearance of a G. muris infection together with an early induction of PPARα. The effect of the latter, however, is still unclear. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Molecular characterization of Giardia duodenalis in Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyousefi, Naela A; Mahdy, Mohammed A K; Xiao, Lihua; Mahmud, Rohela; Lim, Yvonne A L

    2013-06-01

    Giardia duodenalis is an important intestinal protozoan in Yemen with infection rates ranging from 18% to 27%. To date, there has been no genotyping study to provide a better understanding of the transmission dynamic. This study was conducted to genotype and subtype G. duodenalis in Yemen. Stool samples were collected from 503 Yemeni outpatients between 1 and 80 years old, including 219 males and 284 females. Giardia cysts were detected via microscopy after the formal-ether concentration. Genotyping of Giardia was carried out using PCR and sequence analysis of the 16s rRNA and b-giardin genes. Of the 89 microscopy-positive Giardia samples, 65 were successfully sequenced, of which 66% (43 of 65) were identified as G. duodenalis assemblage A and 34% (22 of 65) as assemblage B. Further subtyping analysis based on b-giardin gene identified the presence of subtypes A2 and A3, which belong to the anthroponotic sub-assemblage AII. Data of the study suggest that anthroponotic transmission played a potential role in the transmission of giardiasis in the community. However, further genotyping and subtyping studies of specimens from humans and animals living in the same households are needed for a more definitive understanding of giardiasis transmission in Yemen. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Pathophysiology of enteric infections with Giardia duodenalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buret A.G.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Giardia is the most prevalent human intestinal parasitic protist in the world, and one of the most common parasite of companion animals and young livestock. Giardia is a major cause of diarrhea in children and in travelers. The host-microbial interactions that govern the outcome of infection remain incompletely understood. Findings available to date indicate that the infection causes diarrhea via a combination of intestinal malabsorption and hypersecretion. Malabsorption and maldigestion mainly result from a diffuse shortening of epithelial microvilli. This enterocytic injury is mediated by activated host T lymphocytes. Pathophysiological activation of lymphocytes is secondary to Giardia-induced disruption of epithelial tight junctions, which in turn increases intestinal permeability. Loss of epithelial barrier function is a result of Giardia-induced enterocyte apoptosis. Recent findings suggest that these effects may facilitate the development of chronic enteric disorders, including inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, and allergies, via mechanisms that remain poorly understood. A newly discovered SGLT-1 glucose uptake-mediated host cytoprotective mechanism may represent an effective modulator of the epithelial apoptosis induced by this parasite, and, possibly, by other enteropathogens. A better understanding of the pathogenesis of giardiasis will shed light on new potential therapeutic targets.

  9. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium species and Giardia intestinalis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cryptosporidium species and Giardia intestinalis cause diarrheal infections in humans and other vertebrate animals globally and are considered to be of great public health importance. The study was conducted to determine the prevalence Cryptosporidium species and G. intestinalis infections among patients attending ...

  10. Emissie van Cryptosporidium en Giardia door landbouwhuisdieren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrijven JF; Bruin HAM de; Engels GB; Leenen EJTM; MGB

    1999-01-01

    In this study, the relative contributions of the pathogenic protozoa Cryptosporidium and Giardia by manure of farm animals in The Netherlands to the total yearly environmental load was studied. Manure of veal calves forms a very large source of Cryptosporidium (1.5 m 10 square 16 oocysts per year)

  11. Emissie van Cryptosporidium en Giardia door landbouwhuisdieren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrijven JF; Bruin HAM de; Engels GB; Leenen EJTM; MGB

    1999-01-01

    Het hier gepresenteerde deelonderzoek richt zich op de relatieve bijdrage van verschillende populaties landbouwhuisdieren via mest en afvalwater aan de totale emissie van Cryptosporidium en Giardia in Nederland. Vleeskalveren vormen per jaar in Nederland via hun mest een grote emissiebron van

  12. Ocorrência de Giardia spp. em bezerros leiteiros no Brasil Occurrence of Giardia spp. in dairy calves in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Guimarães

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Fecal samples were collected from 50 female Holstein calves (1-90 days old from a commercial dairy cattle farm located in Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil and examined for presence of Giardia cysts using the zinc sulfate flotation method. A total of 120 samples were collected from March 1999 to April 2000, and fecal consistency (normal or diarrheic was noted prior to the examination for Giardia cysts. Giardia spp. cysts were found in 11 (9% of the 120 faecal samples of calves co-infected with Eimeria spp., in calves from 19 to 58 days of age (38±19. In 82% (9/11 calves assessed for mixed infections with Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia, oocysts of Cryptosporidium were found in three out of four diarrheic calves (75% positive for Giardia. Giardia cysts (n= 30 sized 13-16 x 10-12µm (mean of 15 x 11µm. They appeared to belong to the morphological group of G. intestinallis according to the size and morphological characteristic of the cysts. This is the first detection of Giardia spp. in calves in Brazil. Considering that Giardia has the potential to cause clinical disease in calves and that organisms infecting humans and domestic ruminants are morphologically and antigenically similar, and calves can shed Giardia cysts potentially infective for humans, the parasite in calves may be of major epidemiological significance, and suggests that naturally infected calves may be reservoirs of Giardia infections for man.

  13. Host-Parasite Interactions in Individuals with Type 1 and 2 Diabetes Result in Higher Frequency ofAscaris lumbricoidesandGiardia lambliain Type 2 Diabetic Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Eleuza Rodrigues; Matos, Núbia Oliveira; Rezende, Sinione Morais; Carlos, Daniela; Silva, Thauana Cristina; Rodrigues, Leônia; Almeida, Maria Jarlene Rodrigues; de Oliveira, Maria Regina Fernandes; Muniz-Junqueira, Maria Imaculada; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo

    2018-01-01

    Host-parasite interactions in diabetic patients might influence diabetes complications and intestinal parasitosis. The aim was to investigate the occurrence of enteroparasites in individuals with diabetes types 1 and 2. A descriptive study was designed to estimate frequencies of parasites and to compare them in individuals with diabetes types 1 and 2 from two Health Centers and one hospital in the Federal District of Brazil. Patients were allocated to the study by convenience. Three fecal samples of 156 diabetic individuals (120 type 1 and 36 type 2) were analyzed using two parasitological methods. Enteroparasites or commensals frequency in diabetics was 64%. Diabetics infected with up to six species of intestinal parasites or commensals were found. Frequencies of Ascaris lumbricoides and Giardia lamblia were higher in individuals with type 2 diabetes. The lower frequency of A. lumbricoides found in type 1 diabetes may be related to a strong Th2 response to parasites. Autoimmune response developed in type 1 diabetic individuals characterized by the production of Th1 cytokines could explain low frequency of G. lamblia . High frequency of parasites found in type 2 diabetes emphasizes the importance of periodic parasitological examinations in these individuals.

  14. Molecular identification of Giardia and Cryptosporidium from dogs and cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotiriadou, Isaia; Pantchev, Nikola; Gassmann, Doreen; Karanis, Panagiotis

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to diagnose the presence of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in household animals using nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequence analysis. One hundred faecal samples obtained from 81 dogs and 19 cats were investigated. The Cryptosporidium genotypes were determined by sequencing a fragment of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene, while the Giardia Assemblages were determined through analysis of the glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) locus. Isolates from five dogs and two cats were positive by PCR for the presence of Giardia, and their sequences matched the zoonotic Assemblage A of Giardia. Cryptosporidium spp. isolated from one dog and one cat were both found to be C. parvum. One dog isolate harboured a mixed infection of C. parvum and Giardia Assemblage A. These findings support the growing evidence that household animals are potential reservoirs of the zoonotic pathogens Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. for infections in humans. PMID:23477297

  15. Molecular identification of Giardia and Cryptosporidium from dogs and cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotiriadou Isaia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to diagnose the presence of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in household animals using nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR and sequence analysis. One hundred faecal samples obtained from 81 dogs and 19 cats were investigated. The Cryptosporidium genotypes were determined by sequencing a fragment of the small subunit (SSU rRNA gene, while the Giardia Assemblages were determined through analysis of the glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH locus. Isolates from five dogs and two cats were positive by PCR for the presence of Giardia, and their sequences matched the zoonotic Assemblage A of Giardia. Cryptosporidium spp. isolated from one dog and one cat were both found to be C. parvum. One dog isolate harboured a mixed infection of C. parvum and Giardia Assemblage A. These findings support the growing evidence that household animals are potential reservoirs of the zoonotic pathogens Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. for infections in humans.

  16. Ubiquity of the water-borne pathogens, Cryptosporidium and Giardia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of the diarrhoea disease caused by the water-borne pathogens Cryptosporidium and Giardia in KwaZulu-Natal, was determined from pathology laboratory data. Cryptosporidium and Giardia were found to be endemic in KwaZulu-Natal with laboratory-confirmed incidences ranging from 2.9 to 3.7% and 2.9 to ...

  17. Giardia fatty acyl-CoA synthetases as potential drug targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengguang eGuo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Giardiasis caused by Giardia intestinalis (syn. G. lamblia, G. duodenalis is one of the leading causes of diarrheal parasitic diseases worldwide. Although limited drugs to treat giardiasis are available, there are concerns regarding toxicity in some patients and the emerging drug resistance. By data-mining genome sequences, we observed that G. intestinalis is incapable of synthesizing fatty acids de novo. However, this parasite has five long-chain fatty acyl-CoA synthetases (GiACS1 to GiACS5 to activate fatty acids scavenged from the host. ACS is an essential enzyme because fatty acids need to be activated to form acyl-CoA thioesters before they can enter subsequent metabolism. In the present study, we performed experiments to explore whether some GiACS enzymes could serve as drug targets in Giardia. Based on the high-throughput datasets and protein modeling analyses, we initially studied the GiACS1 and GiACS2, because genes encoding these two enzymes were found to be more consistently expressed in varied parasite life cycle stages and when interacting with host cells based on previously reported transcriptome data. These two proteins were cloned and expressed as recombinant proteins. Biochemical analysis revealed that both had apparent substrate preference towards palmitic acid (C16:0 and myristic acid (C14:0, and allosteric or Michaelis-Menten kinetics on palmitic acid or ATP. The ACS inhibitor triacsin C inhibited the activity of both enzymes (IC50 = 1.56 µM, Ki = 0.18 µM for GiACS1 and IC50 = 2.28 µM, Ki = 0.23 µM for GiACS2, respectively and the growth of G. intestinalis in vitro (IC50 = 0.8 µM. As expected from giardial evolutionary characteristics, both GiACSs displayed differences in overall folding structure as compared with their human counterparts. These observations support the notion that some of the GiACS enzymes may be explored as drug targets in this parasite.

  18. Identification of zoonotic genotypes of Giardia duodenalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hein Sprong

    Full Text Available Giardia duodenalis, originally regarded as a commensal organism, is the etiologic agent of giardiasis, a gastrointestinal disease of humans and animals. Giardiasis causes major public and veterinary health concerns worldwide. Transmission is either direct, through the faecal-oral route, or indirect, through ingestion of contaminated water or food. Genetic characterization of G. duodenalis isolates has revealed the existence of seven groups (assemblages A to G which differ in their host distribution. Assemblages A and B are found in humans and in many other mammals, but the role of animals in the epidemiology of human infection is still unclear, despite the fact that the zoonotic potential of Giardia was recognised by the WHO some 30 years ago. Here, we performed an extensive genetic characterization of 978 human and 1440 animal isolates, which together comprise 3886 sequences from 4 genetic loci. The data were assembled into a molecular epidemiological database developed by a European network of public and veterinary health Institutions. Genotyping was performed at different levels of resolution (single and multiple loci on the same dataset. The zoonotic potential of both assemblages A and B is evident when studied at the level of assemblages, sub-assemblages, and even at each single locus. However, when genotypes are defined using a multi-locus sequence typing scheme, only 2 multi-locus genotypes (MLG of assemblage A and none of assemblage B appear to have a zoonotic potential. Surprisingly, mixtures of genotypes in individual isolates were repeatedly observed. Possible explanations are the uptake of genetically different Giardia cysts by a host, or subsequent infection of an already infected host, likely without overt symptoms, with a different Giardia species, which may cause disease. Other explanations for mixed genotypes, particularly for assemblage B, are substantial allelic sequence heterogeneity and/or genetic recombination. Although the

  19. Clonal diversity of the glutamate dehydrogenase gene in Giardia duodenalis from Thai Isolates: evidence of genetic exchange or Mixed Infections?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saksirisampant Wilai

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The glutamate dehydrogenase gene (gdh is one of the most popular and useful genetic markers for the genotypic analysis of Giardia duodenalis (syn. G. lamblia, G. intestinalis, the protozoan that widely causes enteric disease in humans. To determine the distribution of genotypes of G. duodenalis in Thai populations and to investigate the extent of sequence variation at this locus, 42 fecal samples were collected from 3 regions of Thailand i.e., Central, Northern, and Eastern regions. All specimens were analyzed using PCR-based genotyping and recombinant subcloning methods. Results The results showed that the prevalence of assemblages A and B among these populations was approximately equal, 20 (47.6% and 22 (52.4%, respectively. Sequence analysis revealed that the nucleotide diversity of assemblage B was significantly greater than that in assemblage A. Among all assemblage B positive specimens, the allelic sequence divergence within isolates was detected. Nine isolates showed mixed alleles, ranged from three to nine distinct alleles per isolate. Statistical analysis demonstrated the occurrence of genetic recombination within subassemblages BIII and BIV was likely. Conclusion This study supports increasing evidence that G. duodenalis has the potential for genetic exchange.

  20. Giardia duodenalis cathepsin B proteases degrade intestinal epithelial interleukin-8 and attenuate interleukin-8-induced neutrophil chemotaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, James A; Bhargava, Amol; Ferraz, Jose G; Yates, Robin M; Beck, Paul L; Buret, Andre G

    2014-07-01

    Giardia duodenalis (syn. G. intestinalis, G. lamblia) infections are a leading cause of waterborne diarrheal disease that can also result in the development of postinfectious functional gastrointestinal disorders via mechanisms that remain unclear. Parasite numbers exceed 10(6) trophozoites per centimeter of gut at the height of an infection. Yet the intestinal mucosa of G. duodenalis-infected individuals is devoid of signs of overt inflammation. G. duodenalis infections can also occur concurrently with infections with other proinflammatory gastrointestinal pathogens. Little is known of whether and how this parasite can attenuate host inflammatory responses induced by other proinflammatory stimuli, such as a gastrointestinal pathogen. Identifying hitherto-unrecognized parasitic immunomodulatory pathways, the present studies demonstrated that G. duodenalis trophozoites attenuate secretion of the potent neutrophil chemoattractant interleukin-8 (CXCL8); these effects were observed in human small intestinal mucosal tissues and from intestinal epithelial monolayers, activated through administration of proinflammatory interleukin-1β or Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. This attenuation is caused by the secretion of G. duodenalis cathepsin B cysteine proteases that degrade CXCL8 posttranscriptionally. Furthermore, the degradation of CXCL8 via G. duodenalis cathepsin B cysteine proteases attenuates CXCL8-induced chemotaxis of human neutrophils. Taken together, these data demonstrate for the first time that G. duodenalis trophozoite cathepsins are capable of attenuating a component of their host's proinflammatory response induced by a separate proinflammatory stimulus. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Immunological interaction between Giardia cyst extract and experimental toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashour, D S; Saad, A E; Dawood, L M; Zamzam, Y

    2018-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is mostly associated with other intestinal parasitic infections especially Giardia due to shared mode of peroral infection. Toxoplasma and Giardia induce a strong T-helper 1- immune response. Our aim was to induce a protective immune response that results in significant impact on intestinal and extra-intestinal phases of Toxoplasma infection. This study was conducted in experimental animals and assessment of Giardia cyst extract effect on Toxoplasma infection was investigated by histopathological examination of small intestine and brain, Toxoplasma cyst count and iNOS staining of the brain, measurement of IFN-γ and TGF-β in intestinal tissues. Results showed that the brain Toxoplasma cyst number was decreased in mice infected with Toxoplasma then received Giardia cyst extract as compared to mice infected with Toxoplasma only. This effect was produced because Giardia cyst extract augmented the immune response to Toxoplasma infection as evidenced by severe inflammatory reaction in the intestinal and brain tissues, increased levels of IFN-γ and TGF-β in intestinal tissues and strong iNOS staining of the brain. In conclusion, Giardia cyst extract generated a protective response against T. gondii infection. Therefore, Giardia antigen will be a suitable candidate for further researches as an immunomodulatory agent against Toxoplasma infection. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Symptomatic mesodiverticular bands in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and methods A computer-assisted (PubMed) search of the literature to identify all cases of symptomatic. MDB reported in English with patients' age ranging from. 0 to 14 years was performed. Results Eight cases of symptomatic MBD in pediatric age. (0–14 years) were found in the literature in the last. 50 years.

  3. Accurate diagnosis of Giardia spp and proper fecal examination procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryden, M W; Payne, P A; Smith, V

    2006-01-01

    A series of investigations evaluated the ability of different testing methods - a swing-head centrifugation technique using two flotation solutions (1.18-specific gravity zinc sulfate and 1.27-specific gravity Sheather's sugar solution), a passive commercial flotation technique, and the SNAP Giardia Test Kit from IDEXX Laboratories - to identify Giardia-positive dogs and recover the eggs of other intestinal parasites. It was determined that the SNAP Giardia test can improve a practice's ability to identify Giardia-infected dogs. Because of its higher specific gravity, the sugar solution was better for recovering heavy parasite eggs, such as Taenia spp, and thus is the flotation solution of choice when conducting routine centrifugation fecal examinations.

  4. Recent advances in the genomic and molecular biology of Giardia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Pierres, M Guadalupe; Jex, Aaron R; Ansell, Brendan R E; Svärd, Staffan G

    2017-09-06

    Giardia duodenalis is the most common gastrointestinal protozoan parasite of humans and a significant contributor to the global burden of both diarrheal disease and post-infectious chronic disorders. Robust tools for analyzing gene function in this parasite have been developed and a range of genetic tools are now available. These together with public databases have provided insights on the function of different genes in Giardia. In this review we provide a current perspective on different molecular aspects of Giardia related to genomics, regulation of encystation, trophozoite transcriptional responses to physiological and xenobiotic (drug-induced) stress, and mechanisms of drug resistance. We also examine recent insights that have contributed to gain knowledge in the study of VSPs, antigenic variation, epigenetics, DNA repair and in the direct manipulation of gene function in Giardia, with a particular focus on the inducible Cre/loxP system. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Giardia duodenalis genetic assemblages and hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heyworth Martin F.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Techniques for sub-classifying morphologically identical Giardia duodenalis trophozoites have included comparisons of the electrophoretic mobility of enzymes and of chromosomes, and sequencing of genes encoding β-giardin, triose phosphate isomerase, the small subunit of ribosomal RNA and glutamate dehydrogenase. To date, G. duodenalis organisms have been sub-classified into eight genetic assemblages (designated A–H. Genotyping of G. duodenalis organisms isolated from various hosts has shown that assemblages A and B infect the largest range of host species, and appear to be the main (or possibly only G. duodenalis assemblages that undeniably infect human subjects. In at least some cases of assemblage A or B infection in wild mammals, there is suggestive evidence that the infection had resulted from environmental contamination by G. duodenalis cysts of human origin.

  6. Multilocus genotyping of Giardia duodenalis in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huey, Choy Seow; Mahdy, Mohammed A K; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Nasr, Nabil A; Lim, Yvonne A L; Mahmud, Rohela; Surin, Johari

    2013-07-01

    Giardia duodenalis is considered the most common intestinal parasite in humans worldwide. In Malaysia, many studies have been conducted on the epidemiology of giardiasis. However, there is a scarcity of information on the genetic diversity and the dynamics of transmission of G. duodenalis. The present study was conducted to identify G. duodenalis assemblages and sub-assemblages based on multilocus analysis of the glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), beta-giardin (bg) and triose phosphate isomerase (tpi) genes. Faecal specimens were collected from 484 Orang Asli children with a mean age of 7 years and examined using light microscopy. Specimens positive for Giardia were subjected to PCR analysis of the three genes and subsequent sequencing in both directions. Sequences were edited and analysed by phylogenetic analysis. G. duodenalis was detected in 17% (84 of 484) of the examined specimens. Among them, 71 were successfully sequenced using at least one locus. Genotyping results showed that 30 (42%) of the isolates belonged to assemblage A, 32 (45%) belonged to assemblage B, while discordant genotype results were observed in 9 specimens. Mixed infections were detected in 43 specimens using a tpi-based assemblage specific protocol. At the sub-assemblages level, isolates belonged to assemblage A were AII. High nucleotide variation found in isolates of assemblage B made subtyping difficult to achieve. The finding of assemblage B and the anthroponotic genotype AII implicates human-to-human transmission as the most possible mode of transmission among Malaysian aborigines. The high polymorphism found in isolates of assemblage B warrants a more defining tool to discriminate assemblage B at the sub-assemblage level. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of a Screening Test for Detection of Giardia and Cryptosporidium Parasites ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Youn, Sojin; Kabir, Mamun; Haque, Rashidul; Petri, William A.

    2008-01-01

    The Giardia/Cryptosporidium Chek test (TechLab, Inc.), a screening test for Giardia and Cryptosporidium, was evaluated with 136 fecal samples. Using the results of the Giardia II test and Cryptosporidium II test as gold standards, it was 98.4% sensitive and 100% specific and had positive and negative predictive values of 98.7% and 99.3%.

  8. Crosstalk between Zinc Status and Giardia Infection: A New Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Astiazarán-García

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Zinc supplementation has been shown to reduce the incidence and prevalence of diarrhea; however, its anti-diarrheal effect remains only partially understood. There is now growing evidence that zinc can have pathogen-specific protective effects. Giardiasis is a common yet neglected cause of acute-chronic diarrheal illness worldwide which causes disturbances in zinc metabolism of infected children, representing a risk factor for zinc deficiency. How zinc metabolism is compromised by Giardia is not well understood; zinc status could be altered by intestinal malabsorption, organ redistribution or host-pathogen competition. The potential metal-binding properties of Giardia suggest unusual ways that the parasite may interact with its host. Zinc supplementation was recently found to reduce the rate of diarrhea caused by Giardia in children and to upregulate humoral immune response in Giardia-infected mice; in vitro and in vivo, zinc-salts enhanced the activity of bacitracin in a zinc-dose-dependent way, and this was not due to zinc toxicity. These findings reflect biological effect of zinc that may impact significantly public health in endemic areas of infection. In this paper, we shall explore one direction of this complex interaction, discussing recent information regarding zinc status and its possible contribution to the outcome of the encounter between the host and Giardia.

  9. Crosstalk between Zinc Status and Giardia Infection: A New Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astiazarán-García, Humberto; Iñigo-Figueroa, Gemma; Quihui-Cota, Luis; Anduro-Corona, Iván

    2015-06-03

    Zinc supplementation has been shown to reduce the incidence and prevalence of diarrhea; however, its anti-diarrheal effect remains only partially understood. There is now growing evidence that zinc can have pathogen-specific protective effects. Giardiasis is a common yet neglected cause of acute-chronic diarrheal illness worldwide which causes disturbances in zinc metabolism of infected children, representing a risk factor for zinc deficiency. How zinc metabolism is compromised by Giardia is not well understood; zinc status could be altered by intestinal malabsorption, organ redistribution or host-pathogen competition. The potential metal-binding properties of Giardia suggest unusual ways that the parasite may interact with its host. Zinc supplementation was recently found to reduce the rate of diarrhea caused by Giardia in children and to upregulate humoral immune response in Giardia-infected mice; in vitro and in vivo, zinc-salts enhanced the activity of bacitracin in a zinc-dose-dependent way, and this was not due to zinc toxicity. These findings reflect biological effect of zinc that may impact significantly public health in endemic areas of infection. In this paper, we shall explore one direction of this complex interaction, discussing recent information regarding zinc status and its possible contribution to the outcome of the encounter between the host and Giardia.

  10. Molecular Characterization of Giardia duodenalis in Children in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbae, C; Mulinge, E; Guleid, F; Wainaina, J; Waruru, A; Njiru, Z K; Kariuki, S

    2016-03-22

    Giardia duodenalis is an important intestinal protozoan in humans worldwide with high infection rates occurring in densely populated and low resource settings. The parasite has been recorded to cause diarrhea in children. This study was carried out to identify G. duodenalis assemblages and sub-assemblages in children presenting with diarrhea in Kenya. A total of 2112 faecal samples were collected from children aged ≤ 5 years and screened for the presence of Giardia cysts using microscopy. A total of 96 (4.5%) samples were identified as Giardia positive samples and were genotyped using glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), triose phosphate isomerase (tpi) and β-giardin loci. The three markers successfully genotyped 72 isolates and grouped 2 (1.4) isolates as Assemblage A, 64 (88.9) as Assemblage B and 7 (9.7%) consisted of mixed infections with assemblage A and B. A further analysis of 50 isolates using GDH Polymerase Chain Reaction and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) categorized 2 assemblage A isolates as sub-assemblage AII while 6 and 14 assemblage B isolates were categorized into sub-assemblage BIII and BIV respectively. A mixed infection with sub-assemblage BIII and BIV was recorded in 28 isolates. Over half (55.6%) of Giardia infections were recorded among the children between 13 to 48 months old. This paper reports the first data on the assemblages and sub-assemblages of Giardia duodenalis in children representing with diarrhea in Kenya.

  11. STRUCTURAL INSIGHTS INTO SUBSTRATE BINDING AND STEREOSELECTIVITY OF GIARDIA FRUCTOSE-1,6-BISPHOSPHATE ALDOLASE*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galkin, Andrey; Li, Zhimin; Li, Ling; Kulakova, Liudmila; Pal, Lipika R.; Dunaway-Mariano, Debra; Herzberg, Osnat

    2009-01-01

    Giardia lamblia fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (FBPA)1 is a member of the Class II zinc-dependent aldolase family that catalyzes the cleavage of D-fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP) into dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) and D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P). In addition to the active site zinc, the catalytic apparatus of FBPA employs an aspartic acid, Asp83 in the G. lamblia enzyme, which when replaced by an alanine residue renders the enzyme inactive. A comparison of the crystal structures of the D83A FBPA in complex with FBP and of the wild-type FBPA in the unbound state revealed a substrate induced conformational transition of loops in the vicinity of the active site and a shift in the location of Zn2+. Upon FBP binding, the Zn2+ shifts up to 4.6 Å towards the catalytic Asp83, which brings the metal within coordination distance to the Asp83 carboxylate group. In addition, the structure of wild-type FBPA was determined in complex with the competitive inhibitor D-tagatose 1,6-bisphosphate (TBP), a FBP stereoisomer. In this structure, the zinc binds in a site close to that previously seen in the structure of FBPA in complex with phosphoglycolohydroxamate, an analog of the postulated DHAP ene-diolate intermediate. Together, the ensemble of structures suggests that the zinc mobility is necessary to orient the Asp83 side chain and to polarize the substrate for proton transfer from the FBP C(4) hydroxyl group to the Asp83 carboxyl group. In the absence of FBP, the alternative zinc position is too remote for coordinating the Asp83. We propose a modification of the catalytic mechanism that incorporates the novel features observed in the FBPA/FBP structure. The mechanism invokes coordination and co-planarity of the Zn2+ with the FBP’s O-C(3)-C(4)-O concomitant with coordination of Asp83 carboxylic group. Catalysis is accompanied by movement of Zn2+ to a site co-planar with the O-C(2)-C(3)-O of the DHAP. glFBPA exhibit strict substrate specificity towards FBP and

  12. Deteção dos protozoários Giardia lamblia e Cryptosporidium sp. em saladas pré-embaladas

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Adelaide Carina Moreira

    2016-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado em Segurança Alimentar, apresentada à Faculdade de Farmácia da Universidade de Coimbra As saladas pré-embaladas, prontas para consumo, são cada vez mais procuradas pelos consumidores, por serem de fácil e rápida utilização, não necessitando de processamento, com um cariz muito prático que motiva a aquisição pelos consumidores em geral. As contaminações microbianas estão muitas vezes associadas ao consumo de saladas e são responsáveis pela grande parte das doenças...

  13. Detection of Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium spp. and Entamoeba histolytica in clinical stool samples by using multiplex real-time PCR after automated DNA isolation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Lint, P; Rossen, J W; Vermeiren, S; Ver Elst, K; Weekx, S; Van Schaeren, J; Jeurissen, A

    2013-01-01

    Diagnosis of intestinal parasites in stool samples is generally still carried out by microscopy; however, this technique is known to suffer from a low sensitivity and is unable to discriminate between certain protozoa. In order to overcome these limitations, a real-time multiplex PCR was evaluated

  14. Avaliação de técnicas de diagnóstico de Cryptosporidium spp. e Giardia lamblia em fezes humanas

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Doris Sobral Marques

    2002-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Ciências da Saúde. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Farmácia. A diarréia é responsável por mais de 3 milhões de mortes ao ano no mundo e a maioria dos casos ocorre em crianças de países em desenvolvimento. A diarréia em crianças, além dos problemas relacionados à desidratação, ainda pode ocasionar má absorção dos nutrientes causando um quadro de desnutrição afetando, até mesmo, as funções cognitivas. Muitos patógenos ca...

  15. Identification of scaffold/Matrix Attachment (S/MAR) like DNA element from the gastrointestinal protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia

    OpenAIRE

    Gautam Pennathur; Banerjee Santanu; Gupta Ravi; Lakshmanan Jagannathan; Padmaja Sushma S; Banerjee Sulagna

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Chromatin in the nucleus of all eukaryotes is organized into a system of loops and domains. These loops remain fastened at their bases to the fundamental framework of the nucleus, the matrix or the scaffold. The DNA sequences which anchor the bases of the chromatin loops to the matrix are known as Scaffold/Matrix Attachment Regions or S/MARs. Though S/MARs have been studied in yeast and higher eukaryotes and they have been found to be associated with gene organization and ...

  16. Encystation commitment in Giardia duodenalis: a long and winding road

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argüello-Garciá R.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol and bile salts are relevant modulators of Giardia encystation. Although several molecules within signaling cascades have been identified, and changes in their expression observed during giardial encystation, their underlying interactions leading to expression of cyst wall markers (CWPs and precursors of the GalNAc homopolymer are not well defined. Recent experimental data and the completion of the Giardia Genome Project Database (GiardiaDB allow us now to consider the role of bile salts as “natural stimuli” and the potential involvement of a Raf/MEK/ERK pathway mediating cholesterol-regulated expression of cyst-specific genes. These new findings may provide promising targets for diagnostics, drug design and prophylactic intervention against giardiasis.

  17. Giardia duodenalis induces pathogenic dysbiosis of human intestinal microbiota biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Jennifer K; Akierman, Sarah V; Motta, Jean-Paul; Muise, Stacy; Workentine, Matthew L; Harrison, Joe J; Bhargava, Amol; Beck, Paul L; Rioux, Kevin P; McKnight, Gordon Webb; Wallace, John L; Buret, Andre G

    2017-05-01

    Giardia duodenalis is a prevalent cause of acute diarrheal disease worldwide. However, recent outbreaks in Italy and Norway have revealed a link between giardiasis and the subsequent development of chronic post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome. While the mechanisms underlying the causation of post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome remain obscure, recent findings suggest that alterations in gut microbiota communities are linked to the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome. In the present study, we use a laboratory biofilm system to culture and enrich mucosal microbiota from human intestinal biopsies. Subsequently, we show that co-culture with Giardia induces disturbances in biofilm species composition and biofilm structure resulting in microbiota communities that are intrinsically dysbiotic - even after the clearance of Giardia. These microbiota abnormalities were mediated in part by secretory-excretory Giardia cysteine proteases. Using in vitro cell culture and germ-free murine infection models, we show that Giardia-induced disruptions of microbiota promote bacterial invasion, resulting in epithelial apoptosis, tight junctional disruption, and bacterial translocation across an intestinal epithelial barrier. Additionally, these dysbiotic microbiota communities resulted in increased activation of the Toll-like receptor 4 signalling pathway, and overproduction of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1beta in humanized germ-free mice. Previous studies that have sought explanations and risk factors for the development of post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome have focused on features of enteropathogens and attributes of the infected host. We propose that polymicrobial interactions involving Giardia and gut microbiota may cause persistent dysbiosis, offering a new interpretation of the reasons why those afflicted with giardiasis are predisposed to gastrointestinal disorders post-infection. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights

  18. Effect of Piper betle on Giardia intestinalis infection in vivo

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pecková, R.; Doležal, Karel; Sak, Bohumil; Květoňová, Dana; Kváč, Martin; Nurcahyo, W.; Foitová, I.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 184, JAN (2018), s. 39-45 ISSN 0014-4894 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP505/11/1163 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : Antigiardial activity * Drug of choice * Giardia intestinalis * Natural antiparasitics * Parasites * Piper betle Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 1.724, year: 2016

  19. Prevalence of Giardia intestinalis and Hymenolepis nana in Afghan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Present study aimed to investigate prevalence of Giardia intestinalis and Hymenolepis nana in Afghan refugees visiting Central Health Unit (CHU), Kot ... are common among Afghan refugees and serious preventive measures should be implemented to promote the safety and healthy lifestyle of these people.

  20. Eliminatie van virussen, Cryptosporidium en Giardia door drinkwaterzuiveringsprocessen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medema GJ; Theunissen J; MGB

    1996-01-01

    A study on the removal efficiency of drinking water treatment processes for viruses and protozoa (Cryptosporidium/Giardia). The description is based on the best available Dutch and, if data on the Dutch situation are absent, international research data. The approach is valid for well-designed and

  1. The search for Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in source ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    driniev

    associated with feacal pollution does not necessarily indicate the absence of Cryptosporidium or Giardia. Being a common cause of waterborne disease, the requirement for detecting the presence of these organisms in environmental and treated water samples is growing. Although cysts and oocysts can be found in natural ...

  2. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in domestic animals in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A single faecal sample per animal was collected from pigs, goats, dogs, ducks, chickens and pigeons and analysed by Merifluor Cryptosporidium/Giardia immunofluorescence antibody assay for the simultaneous detection of these parasites. The faecal consistency was noted and scored as non-diarrhoeic or diarrhoeic.

  3. Host parasite interactions and pathophysiology in Giardia infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, James A; Beatty, Jennifer K; Buret, Andre G

    2011-08-01

    Giardia is a protozoan parasite of the small intestine, and a leading cause of diarrhoeal disease worldwide in a variety of animals, including humans. The host-parasite interaction and pathophysiological processes of giardiasis remain incompletely understood. Current research suggests that Giardia-induced diarrhoeal disease is mediated by small intestinal malabsorption and maldigestion, chloride hypersecretion and increased rates of small intestinal transit. Small intestinal malabsorption and maldigestion results from the CD8+ lymphocyte-induced diffuse shortening of brush border microvilli. Activation of CD8+ lymphocytes occurs secondary to small intestinal barrier dysfunction, which results from heightened rates of enterocyte apoptosis and disruption of epithelial tight junctions. Both host and parasite factors contribute to the pathogenesis of giardiasis and ongoing research in this field may elucidate genotype/assemblage-specific pathogenic mechanisms. Giardia infections can result in chronic gastrointestinal disorders such as post-infectious Irritable Bowel Syndrome and symptoms may manifest at extra-intestinal sites, even though the parasite does not disseminate beyond the gastrointestinal tract. The infection can cause failure to thrive in children. Furthermore, there is now evidence suggesting that Giardia symptoms may vary between industrialised and developing areas of the world, for reasons that remain obscure. More research is needed to improve our understanding of this parasitic infection which was recently included in the World Health Organisation "Neglected Disease Initiative". Copyright © 2011 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Superoxide Reductase from the Early Diverging Eukaryote Giardia Intestinalis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabelli, D.E.; Testa, F.; Mastronicola, D.; Bordi, E.; Pucillo, L.P.; Sarti, P.; Saraiva, L.M.; Giuffre, A.; Teixeira, M.

    2011-01-01

    Unlike superoxide dismutases (SODs), superoxidereductases (SORs) eliminate superoxide anion (O 2 # sm b ullet# - ) not through its dismutation, but via reduction to hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) in the presence of an electron donor. The microaerobic protist Giardia intestinalis, responsible for a common intestinal disease in humans, though lacking SOD and other canonical reactive oxygen species-detoxifying systems, is among the very few eukaryotes encoding a SOR yet identified. In this study, the recombinant SOR from Giardia (SOR Gi ) was purified and characterized by pulse radiolysis and stopped-flow spectrophotometry. The protein, isolated in the reduced state, after oxidation by superoxide or hexachloroiridate(IV), yields a resting species (T final ) with Fe 3+ ligated to glutamate or hydroxide depending on pH (apparent pK a = 8.7). Although showing negligible SOD activity, reduced SOR Gi reacts with O 2 # sm b ullet# - with a pH-independent second-order rate constant k 1 = 1.0 x 10 9 M -1 s -1 and yields the ferric-(hydro)peroxo intermediate T 1 ; this in turn rapidly decays to the T final state with pH-dependent rates, without populating other detectable intermediates. Immunoblotting assays show that SOR Gi is expressed in the disease-causing trophozoite of Giardia. We propose that the superoxide-scavenging activity of SOR in Giardia may promote the survival of this air-sensitive parasite in the fairly aerobic proximal human small intestine during infection.

  5. Prevalence of Giardia intestinalis and Hymenolepis nana in Afghan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Present study aimed to investigate prevalence of Giardia intestinalis and Hymenolepis nana in Afghan refugees visiting Central Health Unit (CHU), Kot Chandana (Mianwali, Northern Punjab) during two years period (February 2007 to December 2009). Methods: A total of 687 stool samples were collected from ...

  6. Cryptosporidium and Giardia: new challenges to the water industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medema, Gerriet Jan

    1999-01-01

    The protozoan parasites Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia intestinalis have emerged as significant waterborne pathogens over the past decades. Many outbreaks of waterborne cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis have been recorded,primarily in the United States and the United Kingdom.Chapter 1 gives an

  7. First record of Giardia in cattle in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iburg, T.; Gasser, R.B.; Henriksen, S.A.

    1996-01-01

    Faecal samples from asymptomatic dairy cows and calves from a farm on the Island Falster, Denmark, were examined by a sucrose gradient flotation technique. Giardia cysts were found in 7.6% of the 92 samples, and estimated cyst excretion rates ranged from 50-200 cysts per gram faeces. Given that G...

  8. Giardia intestinalis incorporates heme into cytosolic cytochrome b₅.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrih, Jan; Harant, Karel; Martincová, Eva; Sutak, Robert; Lesuisse, Emmanuel; Hrdý, Ivan; Tachezy, Jan

    2014-02-01

    The anaerobic intestinal pathogen Giardia intestinalis does not possess enzymes for heme synthesis, and it also lacks the typical set of hemoproteins that are involved in mitochondrial respiration and cellular oxygen stress management. Nevertheless, G. intestinalis may require heme for the function of particular hemoproteins, such as cytochrome b5 (cytb5). We have analyzed the sequences of eukaryotic cytb5 proteins and identified three distinct cytb5 groups: group I, which consists of C-tail membrane-anchored cytb5 proteins; group II, which includes soluble cytb5 proteins; and group III, which comprises the fungal cytb5 proteins. The majority of eukaryotes possess both group I and II cytb5 proteins, whereas three Giardia paralogs belong to group II. We have identified a fourth Giardia cytb5 paralog (gCYTb5-IV) that is rather divergent and possesses an unusual 134-residue N-terminal extension. Recombinant Giardia cytb5 proteins, including gCYTb5-IV, were expressed in Escherichia coli and exhibited characteristic UV-visible spectra that corresponded to heme-loaded cytb5 proteins. The expression of the recombinant gCYTb5-IV in G. intestinalis resulted in the increased import of extracellular heme and its incorporation into the protein, whereas this effect was not observed when gCYTb5-IV containing a mutated heme-binding site was expressed. The electrons for Giardia cytb5 proteins may be provided by the NADPH-dependent Tah18-like oxidoreductase GiOR-1. Therefore, GiOR-1 and cytb5 may constitute a novel redox system in G. intestinalis. To our knowledge, G. intestinalis is the first anaerobic eukaryote in which the presence of heme has been directly demonstrated.

  9. Risk factors for Giardia infection among hospitalized children in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, J; Núñez, F A; González, O M; Fernández, R; Almirall, P; Escobedo, A A

    2011-01-01

    The risk factors associated with Giardia infection, in children hospitalized in Havana, Cuba, were recently explored. Children aged ≥5 years were more likely to be positive for Giardia infection than the younger children, with an odds ratio (OR) of 3·41 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1·36-9·69]. The risk factors found to be associated with Giardia infection in univariate analyses were rural residence (OR = 3·01; CI = 1·23-7·35), belonging to a household that did not receive water from an aqueduct (OR = 3·27; CI = 1·21-8·91), drinking unboiled water (OR = 3·64; CI = 2·14-6·26), nail biting (OR = 3·47; CI = 1·97-6·08), eating unwashed vegetables raw (OR = 4·84; CI = 2·33-10·14), and a personal (OR = 3·23; CI = 1·58-6·59) or family history (OR = 3·96; CI = 1·53-10·47) of previous parasitic infection. In multivariate analyses, however, only two (modifiable) risk factors were found to be independently and significantly associated with Giardia infection: nail biting and eating unwashed vegetables raw. It therefore seems that, at least at the individual level, giardiasis-prevention activities in Havana should be focussed on health education to improve personal hygiene and food-related practices. If appropriately managed, the surveillance of drinking water and foodstuffs, for Giardia and other parasites, might also help to reduce the hospitalization of Cuban children.

  10. MR Imaging in symptomatic osteochondromas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Soo Young; Kim, Jee Young; Kim, Sang Heum; Chun, Kyung Ah; Park, Young Ha

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the MR findings of symptomatic osteochondromas. We evaluated 31 patients who between July, 1994 and May, 1997 underwent MR imaging for symptomatic osteochondroma. Fourteen were males and 17 were females, and their ages ranged from 8 to 49 (mean, 23) years. Using T1WI, T2WI and gadolinium-DTPA-enhanced T1WI, images were analysed according to signal intensity in the osseous component of the osteochondroma, thickness of the cartilage cap, and associated change in surrounding soft tissue. Clinical manifestation included a palpable mass or tendency to grow (n=22) and pain on movement (n=9). Complications were of three types : that which followed change in the osseous component of the tumor, associated change in surrounding soft tissue, and malignant transformation. In the osseous component, bone marrow edema or contusion was seen in 21 cases (67.7%), and in two (65%), fracture was observed. In surrounding soft tissue, muscle impingement was seen in 21 cases (67.7%), bursitis was in 7 cases (22.6 %), tenosynovitis in seven (22.6 %), and vascular compression in five (16.1 %). In three cases (9.7%), transformation to chondrosarcoma had occurred; two of these were derived from osteochondromatosis and one from a single osteochondroma. The thickness of the cartilage cap was as follow : 10 mm (n=3). In patients with symptomatic osteochondroma, MR imaging is useful for detecting both complications and malignant transformation. (author). 21 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs

  11. Giardia assemblage A: human genotype in muskoxen in the Canadian Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagy John

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract As part of an ongoing program assessing the biodiversity and impacts of parasites in Arctic ungulates we examined 72 fecal samples from muskoxen on Banks Island, Northwest Territories, Canada for Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Cryptosporidium spp. were not detected, but 21% of the samples were positive for Giardia. Sequencing of four isolates of Giardia demonstrated G. duodenalis, Assemblage A, a zoonotic genotype.

  12. Evaluation of a Combination Rapid Immunoassay for Detection of Giardia and Cryptosporidium Antigens

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Raymond; Chen, Jing; York, Mary K.; Setijono, Norman; Kaplan, Raymond L.; Graham, Fitzroy; Tanowitz, Herbert B.

    2000-01-01

    A combination cassette format nonenzymatic rapid immunoassay for detection of Giardia and Cryptosporidium antigens was evaluated by using 556 patient stool specimens from three clinical laboratories. This assay (Genzyme Diagnostics Contrast Giardia/Cryptosporidium), which can be used with fresh or formalin-fixed specimens, had unadjusted sensitivities and specificities of 96.1 and 98.5% for Giardia and 100 and 98.7% for Cryptosporidium, respectively, in this study.

  13. MR Imaging in symptomatic osteochondromas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Soo Young; Kim, Jee Young; Kim, Sang Heum; Chun, Kyung Ah; Park, Young Ha [Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the MR findings of symptomatic osteochondromas. We evaluated 31 patients who between July, 1994 and May, 1997 underwent MR imaging for symptomatic osteochondroma. Fourteen were males and 17 were females, and their ages ranged from 8 to 49 (mean, 23) years. Using T1WI, T2WI and gadolinium-DTPA-enhanced T1WI, images were analysed according to signal intensity in the osseous component of the osteochondroma, thickness of the cartilage cap, and associated change in surrounding soft tissue. Clinical manifestation included a palpable mass or tendency to grow (n=22) and pain on movement (n=9). Complications were of three types : that which followed change in the osseous component of the tumor, associated change in surrounding soft tissue, and malignant transformation. In the osseous component, bone marrow edema or contusion was seen in 21 cases (67.7%), and in two (65%), fracture was observed. In surrounding soft tissue, muscle impingement was seen in 21 cases (67.7%), bursitis was in 7 cases (22.6 %), tenosynovitis in seven (22.6 %), and vascular compression in five (16.1 %). In three cases (9.7%), transformation to chondrosarcoma had occurred; two of these were derived from osteochondromatosis and one from a single osteochondroma. The thickness of the cartilage cap was as follow : < 5 mm (n=16), 5-10 mm (n=12), and > 10 mm (n=3). In patients with symptomatic osteochondroma, MR imaging is useful for detecting both complications and malignant transformation. (author). 21 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  14. Symptomatic management in multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushkar Shah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is the commonest cause of disability in young adults. While there is increasing choice and better treatments available for delaying disease progression, there are still, very few, effective symptomatic treatments. For many patients such as those with primary progressive MS (PPMS and those that inevitably become secondary progressive, symptom management is the only treatment available. MS related symptoms are complex, interrelated, and can be interdependent. It requires good understanding of the condition, a holistic multidisciplinary approach, and above all, patient education and empowerment.

  15. Giardia and Cryptosporidium in harp and hooded seals from the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbee, A J; Thompson, R C A; Measures, L M; Olson, M E

    2010-10-11

    Giardia and Cryptosporidium are protozoan parasites known to cause enteric disease in terrestrial wildlife species (mammals, reptiles and birds). Few surveys for Giardia and Cryptosporidium in marine wildlife species, such as pinnipeds, have been reported. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and genotype of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in two species of pinnipeds, harp seal (Phoca groenlandica) and hooded seal (Cystophora cristata), from the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada. Faecal samples were collected from pup and adult seals and examined for the presence of cysts of Giardia and oocysts of Cryptosporidium using microscopy and immunofluorescent staining. Tissues from the small intestine of adult seals were also collected and examined for infections using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Giardia cysts were found in the faeces of 42% (16/38) of adult harp seals, but in none of the harp seal pups (0/20). Although Giardia cysts were not detected in faeces of adult hooded seals (0/10) using microscopy, 80% tested positive for Giardia using PCR of intestinal tissue indicative of a true replicating infection. Both harp and hooded seals harboured infections with the zoonotic strain, Giardia duodenalis Assemblage A, as determined using a nested-PCR technique to amplify a small subunit ribosomal (SSU-rRNA) gene of Giardia. Cryptosporidium was not detected by microscopy, nor using the PCR technique on intestinal tissues from any of the 68 seals examined. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A simple fibril and lectin model for cyst walls of Entamoeba and perhaps Giardia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelson, John; Robbins, Phillips

    2010-01-01

    Cyst walls of Entamoeba and Giardia protect them from environmental insults, stomach acids, and intestinal proteases. Each cyst wall contains a sugar homopolymer: chitin in Entamoeba and a unique N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) homopolymer in Giardia. Entamoeba cyst wall proteins include Jacob lectins (carbohydrate-binding proteins) that cross-link chitin, chitinases that degrade chitin, and Jessie lectins that make walls impermeable. Giardia cyst wall proteins are also lectins that bind fibrils of the GalNAc homopolymer. While many of the details remain to be determined for the Giardia cyst wall, current data suggests a relatively simple fibril and lectin model for the Entamoeba cyst wall. PMID:20934911

  17. Evaluation of ColorPAC Giardia/Cryptosporidium Rapid Assay and ProSpecT Giardia/Cryptosporidium Microplate Assay for Detection of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in Fecal Specimens

    OpenAIRE

    Katanik, M. T.; Schneider, S. K.; Rosenblatt, J. E.; Hall, G. S.; Procop, G. W.

    2001-01-01

    Detection of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in clinical stool specimens using the ColorPAC and ProSpecT enzyme immunoassays revealed 98.7% agreement for Giardia detection and 98.1% agreement for Cryptosporidium detection. Sensitivities were uniformly 100%. The specificities of the ColorPAC immunoassay for Giardia and Cryptosporidium detection were 100 and 99.5%, respectively, and those for the ProSpecT assay were 98.4 and 98.6%, respectively. The false-positive reactions with the ProSpecT assay ...

  18. The Superoxide Reductase from the Early Diverging Eukaryote Giardia Intestinalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabelli, D.E.; Testa, F.; Mastronicola, D.; Bordi, E.; Pucillo, L.P.; Sarti, P.; Saraiva, L.M.; Giuffre, A.; Teixeira, M.

    2011-10-15

    Unlike superoxide dismutases (SODs), superoxidereductases (SORs) eliminate superoxide anion (O{sub 2}{sup {sm_bullet}-}) not through its dismutation, but via reduction to hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) in the presence of an electron donor. The microaerobic protist Giardia intestinalis, responsible for a common intestinal disease in humans, though lacking SOD and other canonical reactive oxygen species-detoxifying systems, is among the very few eukaryotes encoding a SOR yet identified. In this study, the recombinant SOR from Giardia (SOR{sub Gi}) was purified and characterized by pulse radiolysis and stopped-flow spectrophotometry. The protein, isolated in the reduced state, after oxidation by superoxide or hexachloroiridate(IV), yields a resting species (T{sub final}) with Fe{sup 3+} ligated to glutamate or hydroxide depending on pH (apparent pK{sub a} = 8.7). Although showing negligible SOD activity, reduced SOR{sub Gi} reacts with O{sub 2}{sup {sm_bullet}-} with a pH-independent second-order rate constant k{sub 1} = 1.0 x 10{sup 9} M{sup -1} s{sup -1} and yields the ferric-(hydro)peroxo intermediate T{sub 1}; this in turn rapidly decays to the T{sub final} state with pH-dependent rates, without populating other detectable intermediates. Immunoblotting assays show that SOR{sub Gi} is expressed in the disease-causing trophozoite of Giardia. We propose that the superoxide-scavenging activity of SOR in Giardia may promote the survival of this air-sensitive parasite in the fairly aerobic proximal human small intestine during infection.

  19. Giardia in a selected population of dogs and cats in Germany - diagnostics, coinfections and assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, M F; Rupp, P; Pietsch, M; Kaspar, A; Beelitz, P

    2018-01-15

    Infections with the zoonotic endoparasite Giardia duodenalis are widely spread among dogs and cats worldwide. Since the question whether the infection might be transmitted from domestic animals to their owners is still an important topic, a reliable detection of patent Giardia infections and the determination of the associated Giardia assemblages is of major concern. The objectives of the present study were to determine the prevalence of Giardia infections in dogs and cats living in Germany using different diagnostic tests and to identify the Giardia assemblages of infected animals. Furthermore, a possible correlation of coinfections with other endoparasites was analysed. All samples were investigated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), merthiolate-iodine-formalin concentration technique (MIFC) and zinc chloride flotation. ELISA-positive samples were additionally screened with a direct immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Faecal DNA was extracted from all Giardia cyst-positive samples and used for multilocus sequence typing with nested PCRs targeting the following gene loci: SSU rRNA (SSU), glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) and triosephosphate isomerase (tpi). Samples from dogs and cats tested positive for Giardia coproantigen (ELISA) in 30.6% and 17.9%, respectively. The MIFC technique revealed Giardia cysts in 33.9% of canine and in 34.6% of feline ELISA-positive samples, while using IFA, cysts were present in 90.4% of canine and in 76.9% of feline ELISA-positive samples. Coinfections with other endoparasites besides Giardia were found in both dogs and cats, yet a statistically significant correlation could solely be drawn for the canine samples. The success rate of the different PCR protocols varied between 23.1% (tpi) and 91.3% (SSU) for dogs and between 25.0% (gdh) and 90.0% (SSU) for cats. Dog-specific Giardia assemblages C and D were detected in 42 and 55 canine isolates, respectively. The cat-specific Giardia assemblage F was detected in 14 feline isolates

  20. Intrasellar Symptomatic Salivary Gland Rest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hao Chen

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic salivary gland tissue in sellar turcica is frequently observed in microscopic examination at autopsy. This tissue is considered clinically silent. Only 2 symptomatic cases have been previously reported. Here we report a 28-year-old woman presenting with galactorrhea and hyperprolactinemia. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 6×5-mm nodule in the posterior aspect of the pituitary gland. This nodule showed isointensity on T1- and T2-weighted images and less enhancement on post-contrast T1-weighted images. Transsphenoidal exploration revealed a cystic lesion within the pituitary gland, which consisted of a grayish gelatinous content. The pathologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of salivary gland rest.

  1. Desired Diversity and Symptomatic Anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis Christensen, Jannick; Muhr, Sara Louise

    2018-01-01

    This paper conceptualises organisational diversity as constituted by psychoanalytic lack. Empirically, we show how diversity as Lacanian lack is understood as nothing in or of itself, but as an empty signifier with no signified. The lack of diversity becomes a catalyst for desiring particular ideas...... of diversity that, however, constantly change due to the empty form of diversity. Anxiety manifests itself in the obsession of unobtainable idealised forms of diversity as well as in the uncertainty associated with the traumatic experience of always falling short of what is desired in an object...... – the experience of failed diversity. Conclusively, we discuss the productive potential of the power of lack. The impossibility of diversity is what, at once, conditions the possibility of diversity. We therefore suggest that the symptomatic anxiety provoked by the lack should be enjoyed in order to engage...

  2. Symptomatic outcome after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niranjan, B; Chumber, S; Kriplani, A K

    2000-01-01

    Patients with gallstones often present with multiple complaints. We wanted to study the major complaints of our patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy and the symptomatic relief afforded by the operation. We studied 113 patients with symptomatic gallstone disease who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a single surgical unit. Patients with proven common bile duct stones, obstructive jaundice, cholangitis, present or past associated abdominal pathology or cholecystoenteric fistula were excluded from the study. The mean follow up period was 18 months (range 10-22 months). A detailed account of the symptoms of gallstones, length of post-operative stay, persistence of symptoms, development of fresh symptoms and resumption of fat containing diet were assessed. The male to female ratio was 1:4. Common presenting symptoms were abdominal pain (96%), flatulence or feeling of fullness of abdomen (85%), heartburn (66%), belching (62%), sour eructation (52%), vomiting (48%) and nausea (45%). Mean postoperative hospital stay was 28 hours (range 9-68 hours). Biliary pain was relieved in 99% of patients after laparoscopic cholecystectomy (p cholecystectomy. Fresh symptoms that developed after laparoscopic cholecystectomy were heart-burn (6%), belching (3.5%), sour eructation (1%) and vomiting (0.5%). Post-cholecystectomy post-prandial diarrhoea occurred in 20% of the patients. The patients' appreciation of a satisfactory cosmetic result of operation scars was 100 percent. Fifteen female patients (13.5%) complained of increased weight gain of more than 5 kg after laparoscopic cholecystectomy [(p > 0.05; not significant (NS)]. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy significantly relieved symptoms of gall stone disease. Biliary pain, nausea, vomiting and sour eructations had better outcome compared to belching, flatulence and heartburn, which are also relieved in majority. Postcholecystectomy post-prandial diarrhea was a significant new symptom after cholecystectomy. Pre

  3. Studies on the prevalence of giardia cysts and cryptosporidium oocysts in South-African water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kfir, R

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available per sample and the number of positive samples. Almost 50% of sewage samples studied contained Giardia cysts and 30% contained both Giardia cysts and Cryptosporium oocysts. Treatment of sewage resulted in a reduction in the percentage of samples...

  4. Cryptosporidium oocysts and giardia cysts on salad products irrigated with contaminated water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorós, Inmaculada; Alonso, José L; Cuesta, Gonzalo

    2010-06-01

    A field study in Valencia, Spain, was done to determine the occurrence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium on salad products that are frequently eaten raw, such as lettuces and Chinese cabbage, and in irrigation waters. Four water samples were taken weekly 1 month before harvesting the vegetables. All water samples were analyzed using techniques included in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Method 1623. Standard methods for detecting protozoan parasites on salad vegetables are not available. Published techniques for the isolation of parasites from vegetables generally have low and variable recovery efficiencies. In this study, vegetables were analyzed using a recently reported method for detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts on salad products. The waters tested were positive for both Cryptosporidium and Giardia. Of 19 salad products studied, we observed Cryptosporidium in 12 samples and Giardia in 10 samples. Recoveries of the Texas Red-stained Cryptosporidium and Giardia, which were used as internal controls, were 24.5% +/- 3.5% for Cryptosporidium and 16.7% +/- 8.1% for Giardia (n = 8). This study provides data on the occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in salad products in Spain. The method was useful in the detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts on the vegetables tested, and it provides a useful analytical tool for occurrence monitoring.

  5. Drug-Free Approach To Study the Unusual Cell Cycle of Giardia intestinalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horlock-Roberts, Kathleen; Reaume, Chase; Dayer, Guillem; Ouellet, Christine; Cook, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Giardia intestinalis is a protozoan parasite that causes giardiasis, a form of severe and infectious diarrhea. Despite the importance of the cell cycle in the control of proliferation and differentiation during a giardia infection, it has been difficult to study this process due to the absence of a synchronization procedure that would not induce cellular damage resulting in artifacts. We utilized counterflow centrifugal elutriation (CCE), a size-based separation technique, to successfully obtain fractions of giardia cultures enriched in G1, S, and G2. Unlike drug-induced synchronization of giardia cultures, CCE did not induce double-stranded DNA damage or endoreplication. We observed increases in the appearance and size of the median body in the cells from elutriation fractions corresponding to the progression of the cell cycle from early G1 to late G2. Consequently, CCE could be used to examine the dynamics of the median body and other structures and organelles in the giardia cell cycle. For the cell cycle gene expression studies, the actin-related gene was identified by the program geNorm as the most suitable normalizer for reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis of the CCE samples. Ten of 11 suspected cell cycle-regulated genes in the CCE fractions have expression profiles in giardia that resemble those of higher eukaryotes. However, the RNA levels of these genes during the cell cycle differ less than 4-fold to 5-fold, which might indicate that large changes in gene expression are not required by giardia to regulate the cell cycle. IMPORTANCE Giardias are among the most commonly reported intestinal protozoa in the world, with infections seen in humans and over 40 species of animals. The life cycle of giardia alternates between the motile trophozoite and the infectious cyst. The regulation of the cell cycle controls the proliferation of giardia trophozoites during an active infection and contains the restriction point for the

  6. First record of Giardia assemblage D infection in farmed raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Solarczyk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Giardia genotypes was investigated in 18 raccoon dogs ( Nyctereutes procyonoides and 80 red foxes ( Vulpes vulpes on one farm. To demonstrate Giardia cysts, fresh and trichrome stained smears were microscopically screened. Two molecular markers were used for Giardia genotyping: a fragment of the beta-giardin gene and a fragment of the glutamate dehydrogenase gene. All faecal samples obtained from red foxes were negative. Giardia cysts were identified only in 2 of the 18 raccoon dogs. The result of genotyping and phylogenetic analysis showed that the G. duodenalis from both raccoon dogs belonged to the D assemblage. This finding of a new animal reservoir of G. duodenalis canids-specific genotypes is important in order to eliminate the risk of infecting other animals bred for fur. Further molecular analyses of Giardia isolates in raccoon dogs are required. The present study represents the first contribution to knowledge of G. duodenalis genotypes in raccoon dogs.

  7. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in water supplies of San Pedro Sula, Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solo-Gabriele Helena María

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available During June 1996, water supplies of the city of San Pedro Sula, Honduras, were sampled to obtain an assessment of Cryptosporidium oocyst and Giardia cyst concentrations. Each sample was concentrated and stained with an indirect immunofluorescent antibody, and parasites were counted through microscopic analysis. In three surface water supplies, Cryptosporidium oocyst concentrations ranged from 58 to 260 oocysts per 100 L, and Giardia cysts were present in concentrations ranging from 380 to 2100 cysts per 100 L. Unlike the surface water samples, groundwater had a higher concentration of Cryptosporidium oocysts (26/100 L than Giardia cysts (6/100 L, suggesting that the groundwater aquifer protects the water supply more effectively from larger Giardia cysts. Cryptosporidium oocyst concentrations are within the typical range for surface water supplies in North America whereas Giardia cyst concentrations are elevated. Efforts should be made to protect raw water from sources of contamination.

  8. Prevalence of Cyclospora cayetanensis among symptomatic and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Naguib M. Massoud

    2012-04-24

    Apr 24, 2012 ... There was no sig- nificant difference between symptomatic Cyclospora infected and noninfected cases as regards the duration of diarrhea and clinical presentations. Conclusion: Cyclospora infection in immune-competent symptomatic and asymptomatic children in Alexandria is common. Physicians should ...

  9. Symptomatic mesodiverticular bands in children | Bertozzi | Annals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Symptomatic mesodiverticular bands in children. ... Abstract. Objective: The aim of this study was to review the English literature about a rare condition such as symptomatic mesodiverticular bands (MDBs) in children. Background: The MDB is an ... All cases reported an intestinal occlusion as clinical picture. Internal hernia ...

  10. Burden of Giardia duodenalis infection and its adverse effects on growth of schoolchildren in rural Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham M Al-Mekhlafi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Giardia duodenalis infection and malnutrition are still considered as public health problems in many developing countries especially among children in rural communities. This study was carried out among Aboriginal (Orang Asli primary schoolchildren in rural peninsular Malaysia to investigate the burden and the effects of Giardia infection on growth (weight and height of the children. METHODS/FINDINGS: Weight and height of 374 children aged 7-12 years were assessed before and after treatment of Giardia infection. The children were screened for Giardia parasite using trichrome staining technique. Demographic and socioeconomic data were collected via face-to-face interviews using a pre-tested questionnaire. Overall, 22.2% (83/374 of the children were found to be infected with Giardia. Nutritional status of children was assessed and the results showed that the mean weight and height were 23.9 kg (95% CI = 23.3, 24.5 and 126.6 cm (95% CI = 125.6, 127.5, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of severe underweight, stunting and wasting were 28.3%, 23.8% and 21.0%, respectively. Multiple linear regression analyses showed sex, Giardia infection and household monthly income as the significant determinants of weight while sex and level of mother's education were the significant determinants of height. Weight and height were assessed at 3 and 6 months after treatment of Giardia infection. It was found that Giardia infection has a significant association with the weight of children but not with height. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study reveals high prevalence of Giardia infection and malnutrition among Aboriginal children in rural Malaysia and clearly highlights an urgent need to identify integrated measures to control these health problems in the rural communities. Essentially, proper attention should be given to the control of Giardia infection in Aboriginal communities as this constitutes one of the strategies to improve the

  11. Diagnosis of Giardia duodenalis Infection using Dot Blot in Comparison with Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, Hajar; Sharafi, Seyedeh Maryam; Yousefi, Hoseynali; Hadipur, Mahbobeh; Sepahvand, Akram; Darani, Hossein Yousofi

    2016-01-01

    Giardia duodenalis is an intestinal flagellate parasite which spreads all over the world and is considered as a health problem in the most rural and low sanitation areas. Many diagnostic tests have been developed for the detection of Giardia parasite in stool samples but all of them have some disadvantages such as lack of sensitivity and specificity. In search for a simple and accurate test, diagnosis of Giardia infection using dot blot method has been investigated in this work. In this descriptive study, 30 stool samples which their infection with Giardia were confirmed by direct examination and formalin ether considered as case group. Thirty stool samples without Giardia infection according to formalin ether examination were also considered as a control group. Giardia cysts were isolated from the stool samples using sucrose method. In order to raise antiserum against Giardia cysts, the purified cysts were then sonicated and injected to a rabbit. A mono specific antiserum against the 66KDa band of Giardia cyst antigen was also prepared. The two antisera were used in the dot blot test. Finally, the sensitivity and specificity of the dot-blot method were estimated by considering formalin ether as the gold standard. When Poly specific antiserum was used, the sensitivity and specificity of the dot blot for detection of Giardia infection were 77% and 64% respectively. However the sensitivity and specificity of this assay were 97% and 64% respectively when monospecific antiserum was used. It seems that dot blot is an easy method for the diagnosis of Giardia especially in the rural areas. However more work is recommended for further development of this test.

  12. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in the water resources of the Kuang River catchment, Northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuah, C Joon; Mukhaidin, Nabila; Choy, Seow Huey; Smith, Gavin J D; Mendenhall, Ian H; Lim, Yvonne A L; Ziegler, Alan D

    2016-08-15

    A catchment-scale investigation of the prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in the Kuang River Basin was carried out during the dry and rainy seasons. Water samples were collected from the Kuang River and its tributaries as well as a major irrigation canal at the study site. We also investigated the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasitic infection among dairy and beef cattle hosts. Cryptosporidium and/or Giardia were detected in all the rivers considered for this study, reflecting their ubiquity within the Kuang River Basin. The high prevalence of Cryptosporidium/Giardia in the upper Kuang River and Lai River is of a particular concern as both drain into the Mae Kuang Reservoir, a vital source of drinking-water to many local towns and villages at the research area. We did not, however, detected neither Cryptosporidium nor Giardia were in the irrigation canal. The frequency of Cryptosporidium/Giardia detection nearly doubled during the rainy season compared to the dry season, highlighting the importance of water as an agent of transport. In addition to the overland transport of these protozoa from their land sources (e.g. cattle manure, cess pits), Cryptosporidium/Giardia may also be re-suspended from the streambeds (a potentially important repository) into the water column of rivers during storm events. Faecal samples from dairy and beef cattle showed high infection rates from various intestinal parasites - 97% and 94%, respectively. However, Cryptosporidium and Giardia were only detected in beef cattle. The difference in management style between beef (freeranging) and dairy cattle (confined) may account for this disparity. Finally, phylogenetic analyses revealed that the Cryptosporidium/Giardia-positive samples contained C. ryanae (non-zoonotic) as well as Giardia intestinalis assemblages B (zoonotic) and E (non-zoonotic). With only basic water treatment facilities afforded to them, the communities of the rural area relying on these water supplies are

  13. Burden of Giardia duodenalis Infection and Its Adverse Effects on Growth of Schoolchildren in Rural Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M.; Al-Maktari, Mohamed T.; Jani, Rohana; Ahmed, Abdulhamid; Anuar, Tengku Shahrul; Moktar, Norhayati; Mahdy, Mohammed A. K.; Lim, Yvonne A. L.; Mahmud, Rohela; Surin, Johari

    2013-01-01

    Background Giardia duodenalis infection and malnutrition are still considered as public health problems in many developing countries especially among children in rural communities. This study was carried out among Aboriginal (Orang Asli) primary schoolchildren in rural peninsular Malaysia to investigate the burden and the effects of Giardia infection on growth (weight and height) of the children. Methods/Findings Weight and height of 374 children aged 7–12 years were assessed before and after treatment of Giardia infection. The children were screened for Giardia parasite using trichrome staining technique. Demographic and socioeconomic data were collected via face-to-face interviews using a pre-tested questionnaire. Overall, 22.2% (83/374) of the children were found to be infected with Giardia. Nutritional status of children was assessed and the results showed that the mean weight and height were 23.9 kg (95% CI = 23.3, 24.5) and 126.6 cm (95% CI = 125.6, 127.5), respectively. Overall, the prevalence of severe underweight, stunting and wasting were 28.3%, 23.8% and 21.0%, respectively. Multiple linear regression analyses showed sex, Giardia infection and household monthly income as the significant determinants of weight while sex and level of mother's education were the significant determinants of height. Weight and height were assessed at 3 and 6 months after treatment of Giardia infection. It was found that Giardia infection has a significant association with the weight of children but not with height. Conclusions/Significance This study reveals high prevalence of Giardia infection and malnutrition among Aboriginal children in rural Malaysia and clearly highlights an urgent need to identify integrated measures to control these health problems in the rural communities. Essentially, proper attention should be given to the control of Giardia infection in Aboriginal communities as this constitutes one of the strategies to improve the nutritional status of

  14. Burden of Giardia duodenalis infection and its adverse effects on growth of schoolchildren in rural Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Al-Maktari, Mohamed T; Jani, Rohana; Ahmed, Abdulhamid; Anuar, Tengku Shahrul; Moktar, Norhayati; Mahdy, Mohammed A K; Lim, Yvonne A L; Mahmud, Rohela; Surin, Johari

    2013-01-01

    Giardia duodenalis infection and malnutrition are still considered as public health problems in many developing countries especially among children in rural communities. This study was carried out among Aboriginal (Orang Asli) primary schoolchildren in rural peninsular Malaysia to investigate the burden and the effects of Giardia infection on growth (weight and height) of the children. Weight and height of 374 children aged 7-12 years were assessed before and after treatment of Giardia infection. The children were screened for Giardia parasite using trichrome staining technique. Demographic and socioeconomic data were collected via face-to-face interviews using a pre-tested questionnaire. Overall, 22.2% (83/374) of the children were found to be infected with Giardia. Nutritional status of children was assessed and the results showed that the mean weight and height were 23.9 kg (95% CI = 23.3, 24.5) and 126.6 cm (95% CI = 125.6, 127.5), respectively. Overall, the prevalence of severe underweight, stunting and wasting were 28.3%, 23.8% and 21.0%, respectively. Multiple linear regression analyses showed sex, Giardia infection and household monthly income as the significant determinants of weight while sex and level of mother's education were the significant determinants of height. Weight and height were assessed at 3 and 6 months after treatment of Giardia infection. It was found that Giardia infection has a significant association with the weight of children but not with height. This study reveals high prevalence of Giardia infection and malnutrition among Aboriginal children in rural Malaysia and clearly highlights an urgent need to identify integrated measures to control these health problems in the rural communities. Essentially, proper attention should be given to the control of Giardia infection in Aboriginal communities as this constitutes one of the strategies to improve the nutritional status of Aboriginal children.

  15. Symptomatic splenomegaly and palliative radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaneva, M.; Vlaikova, M.

    2005-01-01

    We analysed the effect of irradiation of an enlarged spleen in some hematologic diseases: chronic myelaemia, osteomyelophybrosis and chronic lymphadenosis, where splenectomy had been contraindicated and where pain has been a leading symptom and also the discomfort because of an enlarged spleen. For 20 years in the Clinic of Radiotherapy have been treated 23 patients with the above mentioned diseases. We have irradiated all patients using X-ray and later- Co-60. To reach a palliative effect we have irradiated patients with single doses from 50 cGy to 100 cGy with an interval of 2-3 days between each fraction, but the total doses have been different- from 400 cGy to 1500 cGy. The enlarged spleen has reached the pelvis in 3 cm to 17 cm below the costal margin, and in some patients has crossed the median line of the body going in some centimetres on the other side. The reduction of splenic size and volume is as follows: full reduction in 6 patients (26.1%) and partial in 17 (73.9%). All patients resulted in decreases in pain and tension in abdomen and the total discomfort. No serious side haematologic effects were encountered. Our experience indicates that cautious splenic irradiation can be a safe and useful therapeutic alternative. The symptomatic palliation in patients, where splenectomy is not an option, is effective and is an additional alternative for an improvement of their general condition

  16. Echinococcus, Giardia and Cryptosporidium: observational studies challenging accepted dogma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R C A

    2009-10-01

    The development of in vitro culture systems that allow the maintenance, and support the development of Echinococcus, Giardia and Cryptosporidium in the laboratory have had a significant impact on their biology and taxonomy and the epidemiology of infections they cause. This short retrospective review demonstrates how radical shifts in our understanding have occurred as a result of being able to grow these organisms in culture, and how molecular tools have helped in the interpretation of such research that often reflects the observations of earlier workers.

  17. Giardia duodenalis Infections in Humans and Other Animals in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junqiang; Wang, Haiyan; Wang, Rongjun; Zhang, Longxian

    2017-01-01

    Giardia duodenalis is an important zoonotic pathogen in both public and veterinary health, and has been genotyped into at least eight assemblages (A–H), each with a distinct host range. In recent years, this intestinal protozoan parasite has been identified widely in humans and various other animals, and has even been recorded in environmental contaminants. Along with whole genome sequencing of G. duodenalis, multilocus sequence typing is increasingly being used to characterize G. duodenalis isolates. Here, we review the epidemiology, genotyping, and subtyping of G. duodenalis from humans and a wide range of other animals, as well as from wastewater, in China. PMID:29081771

  18. Giardia duodenalis Infections in Humans and Other Animals in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junqiang Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Giardia duodenalis is an important zoonotic pathogen in both public and veterinary health, and has been genotyped into at least eight assemblages (A–H, each with a distinct host range. In recent years, this intestinal protozoan parasite has been identified widely in humans and various other animals, and has even been recorded in environmental contaminants. Along with whole genome sequencing of G. duodenalis, multilocus sequence typing is increasingly being used to characterize G. duodenalis isolates. Here, we review the epidemiology, genotyping, and subtyping of G. duodenalis from humans and a wide range of other animals, as well as from wastewater, in China.

  19. Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Swimming Pools, Atlanta, Georgia

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-05-29

    In this podcast, Dan Rutz speaks with Dr. Joan Shields, a guest researcher with the Healthy Swimming Program at CDC, about an article in June 2008 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases reporting on the results of a test of swimming pools in the greater Atlanta, Georgia area. Dr. Shields tested 160 pools in metro Atlanta last year for Cryptosporidium and Giardia. These germs cause most recreational water associated outbreaks.  Created: 5/29/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 5/29/2008.

  20. The prevalence of Giardia infection in dogs and cats, a systematic review and meta-analysis of prevalence studies from stool samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzid, Maha; Halai, Kapil; Jeffreys, Danielle; Hunter, Paul R

    2015-01-30

    Giardia has a wide range of host species and is a common cause of diarrhoeal disease in humans and animals. Companion animals are able to transmit a range of zoonotic diseases to their owners including giardiasis, but the size of this risk is not well known. The aim of this study was to analyse giardiasis prevalence rates in dogs and cats worldwide using a systematic search approach. Meta-analysis enabled to describe associations between Giardia prevalence and various confounding factors. Pooled prevalence rates were 15.2% (95% CI 13.8-16.7%) for dogs and 12% (95% CI 9.2-15.3%) for cats. However, there was very high heterogeneity between studies. Meta-regression showed that the diagnostic method used had a major impact on reported prevalence with studies using ELISA, IFA and PCR reporting prevalence rates between 2.6 and 3.7 times greater than studies using microscopy. Conditional negative binomial regression found that symptomatic animals had higher prevalence rates ratios (PRR) than asymptomatic animals 1.61 (95% CI 1.33-1.94) in dogs and 1.94 (95% CI 1.47-2.56) in cats. Giardia was much more prevalent in young animals. For cats >6 months, PRR=0.47 (0.42-0.53) and in dogs of the same age group PRR=0.36 (0.32-0.41). Additionally, dogs kept as pets were less likely to be positive (PRR=0.56 (0.41-0.77)) but any difference in cats was not significant. Faecal excretion of Giardia is common in dogs and slightly less so in cats. However, the exact rates depend on the diagnostic method used, the age and origin of the animal. What risk such endemic colonisation poses to human health is still unclear as it will depend not only on prevalence rates but also on what assemblages are excreted and how people interact with their pets. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Urban park-related risks for Giardia spp. infection in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A F; Rock, M; Neumann, N; Massolo, A

    2015-11-01

    Giardia spp. is a common gastrointestinal (GI) parasite of multiple host species, including dogs and humans, with the potential for zoonotic transmission. The risk of GI parasitism in dogs (including Giardia spp.) may increase with park use in urban areas. This study aimed to (1) determine whether park attendance is a risk factor for Giardia spp. infection in dogs and (2) characterize the behavioural and demographic risk factors for Giardia spp. infection in park-attending and non-park-attending dogs. From August to September 2012, a total of 1293 dog owners completed a survey and 860 corresponding dog faecal samples were collected. Dog faeces were screened for Giardia spp. using a direct immunofluorescence assay and associations assessed among behaviours, demographics, and Giardia spp. infection. Main results included off-leash and swimming frequencies within parks as significantly positively associated with Giardia spp. infection in dogs. Dog-owner age was negatively associated with off-leash and swimming frequencies in parks. The results suggest some recreational behaviours in parks and certain demographics are risk factors for parasitism in pet dogs.

  2. Giardia: a pathogen or commensal for children in high-prevalence settings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartelt, Luther A; Platts-Mills, James A

    2016-10-01

    Giardia is a common intestinal parasite worldwide, and infection can be associated with clear and sometimes persistent symptomatology. However, in children in high-prevalence settings, it is not associated with or is perhaps even protective against acute diarrhea, and the association with long-term outcomes has been difficult to discern. Recent studies have made progress in helping us disentangle this apparent paradox. First, prospective, well-characterized cohort studies have added to the data on the association between Giardia and diarrhea in these settings and have further characterized associations between Giardia infection and nutrition, gut function, and growth. Second, animal models have further characterized the host response to Giardia and helped elucidate mechanisms by which Giardia could impair child development. Finally, new work has shed light on the heterogeneity of human Giardia strains, which may both explain discrepant findings in the literature and help guide higher-resolution analyses of this pathogen in the future. The true clinical impact of endemic pediatric giardiasis remains unclear, but recent prospective studies have confirmed a high prevalence of persistent, subclinical Giardia infections and associated growth shortfalls. Integrating how nutritional, microbial, metabolic, and pathogen-strain variables influence these outcomes could sharpen delineations between pathogenic and potentially beneficial attributes of this enigmatic parasite.

  3. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG antagonizes Giardia intestinalis induced oxidative stress and intestinal disaccharidases: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Nisha; Rishi, Praveen; Shukla, Geeta

    2013-06-01

    The present study describes the in vivo modulatory potential of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG), an effective probiotic, in Giardia intestinalis-infected BALB/c mice. Experimentally, it was observed that oral administration of lactobacilli prior or simultaneous with Giardia trophozoites to mice, efficiently (p Giardia-infected mice, showed a significant increase in the levels of antioxidants [reduced glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)] and intestinal disaccharidases [sucrase and lactase] and decreased levels of oxidants in the small intestine, in comparison with Giardia-infected mice. Histopathological findings also revealed almost normal cellular morphology of the small intestine in probiotic-fed Giardia-infected mice compared with fused enterocytes, villous atrophy and increased infiltration of lymphocytes in Giardia-infected mice. The results of the present study has shed new light on the anti-oxidative properties of LGG in Giardia mediated tissue injury, thereby suggesting that the effects of probiotic LGG are biologically plausible and could be used as an alternative microbial interference therapy.

  4. Giardia: a pathogen or commensal for children in high prevalence settings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartelt, Luther A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review Giardia is a common intestinal parasite worldwide, and infection can be associated with clear and sometimes persistent symptomatology. However, in children in high prevalence settings, it is not associated with or is perhaps even protective against acute diarrhea, and the association with long-term outcomes has been difficult to discern. Recent findings Recent studies have made progress in helping us disentangle this apparent paradox. First, prospective, well-characterized cohort studies have added to the data on the association between Giardia and diarrhea in these settings and have further characterized associations between Giardia infection and nutrition, gut function, and growth. Second, animal models have further characterized the host response to Giardia and helped elucidate mechanisms by which Giardia could impair child development. Finally, new work has shed light on the heterogeneity of human Giardia strains, which may both explain discrepant findings in the literature and help guide higher-resolution analyses of this pathogen in the future. Summary The true clinical impact of endemic pediatric giardiasis remains unclear, but recent prospective studies have confirmed a high prevalence of persistent, subclinical Giardia infections and associated growth shortfalls. Integrating how nutritional, microbial, metabolic, and pathogen-strain variables influence these outcomes could sharpen delineations between pathogenic and potentially beneficial attributes of this enigmatic parasite. PMID:27479025

  5. Genome analysis and comparative genomics of a Giardia intestinalis assemblage E isolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersson Jan O

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Giardia intestinalis is a protozoan parasite that causes diarrhea in a wide range of mammalian species. To further understand the genetic diversity between the Giardia intestinalis species, we have performed genome sequencing and analysis of a wild-type Giardia intestinalis sample from the assemblage E group, isolated from a pig. Results We identified 5012 protein coding genes, the majority of which are conserved compared to the previously sequenced genomes of the WB and GS strains in terms of microsynteny and sequence identity. Despite this, there is an unexpectedly large number of chromosomal rearrangements and several smaller structural changes that are present in all chromosomes. Novel members of the VSP, NEK Kinase and HCMP gene families were identified, which may reveal possible mechanisms for host specificity and new avenues for antigenic variation. We used comparative genomics of the three diverse Giardia intestinalis isolates P15, GS and WB to define a core proteome for this species complex and to identify lineage-specific genes. Extensive analyses of polymorphisms in the core proteome of Giardia revealed differential rates of divergence among cellular processes. Conclusions Our results indicate that despite a well conserved core of genes there is significant genome variation between Giardia isolates, both in terms of gene content, gene polymorphisms, structural chromosomal variations and surface molecule repertoires. This study improves the annotation of the Giardia genomes and enables the identification of functionally important variation.

  6. Performance of microscopy and ELISA for diagnosing Giardia duodenalis infection in different pediatric groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Renata K N R; Pacheco, Flávia T F; Martins, Adson S; Menezes, Joelma F; Costa-Ribeiro, Hugo; Ribeiro, Tereza C M; Mattos, Ângela P; Oliveira, Ricardo R; Soares, Neci M; Teixeira, Márcia C A

    2016-12-01

    Techniques for Giardia diagnosis based on microscopy are usually applied as routine laboratory testing; however, they typically exhibit low sensitivity. This study aimed to evaluate Giardia duodenalis and other intestinal parasitic infections in different pediatric groups, with an emphasis on the comparison of Giardia diagnostic techniques. Feces from 824 children from different groups (diarrheic, malnourished, with cancer and from day care) were examined by microscopy and ELISA for Giardia, Cryptosporidium sp. and Entamoeba histolytica coproantigen detection. Giardia-positive samples from day-care children, identified by either microscopy or ELISA, were further tested by PCR targeting of the β-giardin and Gdh genes. Statistically significant differences (PGiardia duodenalis was more frequent in day-care children and Cryptosporidium sp. in diarrheic and malnourished groups; infections by Entamoeba histolytica were found only in children with diarrhea. Considering positivity for Giardia by at least one method, ELISA was found to be more sensitive than microscopy (97% versus 55%). To examine discrepancies among the diagnostic methods, 71 Giardia-positive stool samples from day-care children were tested by PCR; of these, DNA was amplified from 51 samples (77.4%). Concordance of positivity between microscopy and ELISA was found for 48 samples, with 43 confirmed by PCR. Parasite DNA was amplified from eleven of the 20 Giardia samples (55%) identified only by ELISA. This study shows the higher sensitivity of ELISA over microscopy for Giardia diagnosis when a single sample is analyzed and emphasizes the need for methods based on coproantigen detection to identify this parasite in diarrheic fecal samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Occurrence of Giardia in Swedish Red Foxes ( Vulpes vulpes ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debenham, John J; Landuyt, Hanne; Troell, Karin; Tysnes, Kristoffer; Robertson, Lucy J

    2017-07-01

    Giardia duodenalis is an intestinal protozoan capable of causing gastrointestinal disease in a range of vertebrate hosts. It is transmitted via the fecal-oral route. Understanding the epidemiology of G. duodenalis in animals is important, both for public health and for the health of the animals it infects. We investigated the occurrence of G. duodenalis in wild Swedish red foxes ( Vulpes vulpes ), with the aim of providing preliminary information on how this abundant predator might be involved in the transmission and epidemiology of G. duodenalis . Fecal samples (n=104) were analysed for G. duodenalis using a commercially available direct immunofluorescent antibody test. Giardia duodenalis cysts were found in 44% (46/104) of samples, with foxes excreting 100 to 140,500 cysts per gram of feces (mean, 4,930; median, 600). Molecular analysis, using PCR with sequencing of PCR amplicons, was performed on 14 samples, all containing over 2,000 cysts per gram feces. Amplification only occurred in four samples at the tpi gene, sequencing of which revealed assemblage B in all four samples. This study provides baseline information on the role of red foxes in the transmission dynamics of G. duodenalis in Sweden.

  8. Existence of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts and Giardia spp. cysts in well water in Nineveh governorate

    OpenAIRE

    R. G. Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    The study included examination of 110 water samples from well distributed in Mosul city and few towns and villages around it from May 2009 to March 2010 for detection of Cryptosporidium spp oocysts and Giardia spp cysts in well water. The results revealed that the prevalence of Cryptosporidium oocysts was 16.36% while the prevalence of Giardia cysts was 12.72%. The percentages of prevalence with Cryptosporidium and Giardia were in high rate in Bartilla and some villages around it 20% for Cryp...

  9. Detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia doudenalis in equines in Nineveh, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. T. Butty

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 107 fecal samples of equines from different regions in Nineveh, were colleted from January 2007 till December 2007 and examined for Cryptosporidium sp., and Giardia doudenalis by using different methods (wet mount, flotation, lugol's iodine, modified Ziehl Nelsecn (hot and Giemsa stain Just for Giardia doudenalis. The animal age examined ranged from 4 to 10 years. The total prevalence of cryptosporidium sp. was 27.10% (29 out of 107, while the prevalence of Giardia doudenalis was 19.63% (21 out of 107. This study represents the first trial to explore cryptosporidiosis, giardiasis in equines as in Nineveh there is no survey of these intestinal protozoa.

  10. Successful pulpal anesthesia for symptomatic irreversible pulpitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drum, Melissa; Reader, Al; Nusstein, John; Fowler, Sara

    2017-04-01

    Profound pulpal anesthesia after a successful inferior alveolar nerve block can be difficult to achieve when the clinical condition is a pulpal diagnosis of symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. The authors reviewed the literature as it relates to the anesthesia necessary for endodontic therapy of patients with painful, vital, mandibular teeth diagnosed with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. Supplemental anesthetic techniques and medications are available that can be used to improve pulpal anesthesia for patients with the clinical condition of symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. The authors identified treatment recommendations for anesthesia in the case of symptomatic irreversible pulpitis based on a review of the available evidence. Copyright © 2017 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Symptomatic pericardial cyst: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najib, Mohammad Q; Chaliki, Hari P; Raizada, Amol; Ganji, Jhansi L; Panse, Prasad M; Click, Roger L

    2011-11-01

    Pericardial cysts are most commonly located at the cardiophrenic angle or, rarely, in the posterior or anterior superior mediastinum. The majority of pericardial cysts are asymptomatic and are found incidentally. Symptomatic pericardial cysts present with dyspnoea, chest pain, or persistent cough. We describe four patients with symptomatic pericardial cysts who were treated with either echocardiographically guided percutaneous aspiration or video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery, or both; thoracotomy; or conservative therapy.

  12. Isolation and enumeration of Giardia cysts, cryptosporidium oocysts, and Ascaris eggs from fruits and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, L J; Gjerde, B

    2000-06-01

    Published techniques for recovering parasites from fruit and vegetables are generally inadequate, with low and variable recovery efficiencies. Here we describe an improved methodology for analyzing fruit and vegetables for Giardia cysts, Cryptosporidium oocysts, and Ascaris eggs. The method includes washing procedures, sonication, and, for Giardia and Cryptosporidium, immunomagnetic separation. Identification is by immunofluorescence (Giardia and Cryptosporidium) or brightfield microscopy (Ascaris). Recovery efficiencies from lettuce, Chinese leaves, and strawberries were found to be approximately 67% for Giardia, 42% for Cryptosporidium, and 72% for Ascaris. Recovery efficiencies from bean sprouts tended to be more variable and lower. This could be due to material removed with the parasites during the washing procedures, which, in turn, appeared related to the age of the bean sprouts. It is therefore recommended that fruit and vegetables should be as fresh as possible when analyzed for parasites.

  13. [A medium available in Czechoslovakia for the culture of Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia intestinalis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerva, L

    1989-07-01

    From nutritive media produced in the CSSR a modification of Diamond's medium TYI-S-33 was prepared which ensures the long-term axenic cultivation of Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia intestinalis. Details of the cultivation technique are also presented.

  14. Characterization of telomeres and telomerase from the single-celled eukaryote Giardia intestinalis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Uzlíková, M.; Fulnečková, Jana; Weisz, F.; Sýkorová, Eva; Nohýnková, E.; Tůmová, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 211, JAN 2017 (2017), s. 31-38 ISSN 0166-6851 Grant - others:Grantová agentura ČR - GA ČR(CZ) GAP305/12/1248 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : trypanosoma-brucei * parasitic protozoa * 2 nuclei * lamblia * evolution * rna * organization Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.536, year: 2016

  15. Temporal patterns of human and canine Giardia infection in the United States: 2003-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Ahmed S; Levine, Michael; Camp, Joseph W; Lund, Elisabeth; Yoder, Jonathan S; Glickman, Larry T; Moore, George E

    2014-02-01

    Giardia protozoa have been suspected to be of zoonotic transmission, including transmission from companion animals such as pet dogs to humans. Patterns of infection have been previously described for dogs and humans, but such investigations have used different time periods and locations for these two species. Our objective was to describe and compare the overall trend and seasonality of Giardia species infection among dogs and humans in the United States from 2003 through 2009 in an ecological study using public health surveillance data and medical records of pet dogs visiting a large nationwide private veterinary hospital. Canine data were obtained from all dogs visiting Banfield hospitals in the United States with fecal test results for Giardia species, from January 2003 through December 2009. Incidence data of human cases from the same time period were obtained from the CDC. Descriptive time plots, a seasonal trend decomposition (STL) procedure, and seasonal autoregressive moving-average (SARIMA) models were used to assess the temporal characteristics of Giardia infection in the two species. Canine incidence showed a gradual decline from 2003 to 2009 with no significant/distinct regular seasonal component. By contrast, human incidence showed a stable annual rate with a significant regular seasonal cycle, peaking in August and September. Different temporal patterns in human and canine Giardia cases observed in this study suggest that the epidemiological disease processes underlying both series might be different, and Giardia transmission between humans and their companion dogs seems uncommon. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Development of Sensitive Detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia from Surface Water in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Taghipour Lailabadi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The protozoan parasites Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia are known to occur widely in both raw and drinking waters. They are two of the causative agents of waterborne out-breaks of gastroenteritis throughout the world. In the present study, a PCR assay and FA were developed for detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cyst in environmental samples. Methods: We have detected Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts and Giardia cysts in seeded and un-seeded environmental water samples by PCR method. Water samples were spiked with oocysts (50, 100,300,500 and filtrated with a 1.2-µm pore size cellulose nitrate and follow by DNA extrac¬tion and purification by QIAamp DNA mini kit. Nested-PCR assay amplified an 850 bp fragment of 18s rRNA gene specific for Cryptosporidium and 435 bp fragment of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH target gene for Giardia. Also many river water from north of Iran, be checked by these methods. Results: Cryptosporidium and Giardia DNAs were detected in seeded water sample and Giardia was detected in all 5 water samples from river in north of Iran by nested- PCR and FA. Also in one river water sample, Cryptosporidium was detected.Conclusion: This protocol is effective for detection of these waterborne parasites in treated and untreated water samples. This study can also serve as a platform for further investigations and research water source in Iran.

  17. Existence of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts and Giardia spp. cysts in well water in Nineveh governorate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study included examination of 110 water samples from well distributed in Mosul city and few towns and villages around it from May 2009 to March 2010 for detection of Cryptosporidium spp oocysts and Giardia spp cysts in well water. The results revealed that the prevalence of Cryptosporidium oocysts was 16.36% while the prevalence of Giardia cysts was 12.72%. The percentages of prevalence with Cryptosporidium and Giardia were in high rate in Bartilla and some villages around it 20% for Cryptosporidium and 17.14% for Giardia, the low rates were in Mosul city 10% for both protozoa. The highest prevalence rate of Cryptosporidium was in March 38.46% and the lowest was in November and July 0%. The highest prevalence rate of Giardia was in October 23.53% and the lowest rate in July 0%. This first study shows the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in well water (Ground water in Nineveh governorate.

  18. Diagnosis of Giardia infections by PCR-based methods in children of an endemic area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EB David

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to estimate the prevalence of Giardia infection in preschool- and school-aged children living in an endemic area. Fecal samples from 573 children were processed by zinc sulfate centrifugal flotation, centrifugal sedimentation (using a commercial device for fecal concentration - TF-Test kit® and polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based methods. Of the stool samples assessed, 277 (48.3% were positive for intestinal parasites and/or commensal protozoa. Centrifugal flotation presented the highest diagnostic sensitivity for Giardia infections. The kappa index revealed that both coproparasitological techniques closely agreed on the Giardia diagnosis (86% versus satisfactory (72% and poor (35% concordances for commensal protozoan and helminth infections, respectively. Concerning Giardia molecular diagnosis, from the 71 microscopy-positive samples, specific amplification of gdh and tpi fragments was noted in 68 (95.7% and 64 (90% samples, respectively. Amplification of gdh and tpi genes was observed, respectively, in 95.7% and 90% of microscopy-positive Giardia samples. For 144 microscopy-negative samples, gdh and tpi gene amplification products were obtained from 8.3% and 35.9% samples, respectively. The agreement between these genes was about 40%. The centrifuge-flotation based method was the most suitable means of Giardia diagnosis assessed in the present study by combining accuracy and low cost.

  19. Prevalence of Giardia in dairy cattle in Lusaka and Chilanga districts, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakandelwa, Cliff; Siwila, Joyce; Nalubamba, King S; Muma, John B; Phiri, Isaac G K

    2016-01-15

    Giardia is an intestinal protozoan parasite of mammals including humans. A cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate prevalence of Giardia infections in smallholder and commercial dairy herds in Chilanga and Lusaka districts of Zambia. A total of 377 calves aged from 1 to 365 days were sampled on 34 farms. All faecal samples were analyzed for Giardia antigen using a commercially available ELISA kit. Overall prevalence of Giardia was 34.5% (95% CI=29.7-39.3). Among smallholder farms, animal level prevalence ranged from 0 to 100% (mean=44.6±36.9 standard deviations) and 12.5 to 60.9% (mean=33.5±16.7 standard deviations) within commercial herds. Prevalence was highest in calves less than three months old (p=0.010), and there was no significant difference in the prevalence between smallholder and commercial farms (p=0.300). Giardia prevalence was not associated with occurrence of diarrhoea in the calves (p=0.205). The study demonstrates that Giardia infections are common in dairy herds in the study areas, especially in calves less than three months of age. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Prevalence of intestinal parasites and genotyping of Giardia intestinalis in pet shop puppies in east Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, N; Itagaki, T; Kawabata, T; Konaka, T; Muraoka, N; Saeki, H; Kanai, K; Chikazawa, S; Hori, Y; Hoshi, F; Higuchi, S

    2011-02-28

    The current study examined the prevalence of intestinal parasites and genotypes of Giardia intestinalis in puppies from nine pet shops in east Japan. Fresh fecal samples from 1794 puppies (≦3 months old) were collected on one occasion. Giardia spp. was examined for specific coproantigen using ELISA kit (SNAP®Giardia, IDEXX Laboratories, Inc., USA). Other intestinal parasites were detected microscopically using the formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation technique. Genotyping was determined for the random 29 stool samples identified as Giardia spp. positive using PCR and direct sequencing of the glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) gene. Overall prevalence of protozoan Giardia spp. and Cystoisospora spp. revealed 23.4% and 11.3%, respectively. Prevalence of ascarids, Strongyloides spp. and hookworms were recorded 1.8%, 1.1% and 0.1%, respectively. Protozoan Giardia spp. and Cystoisospora spp., thus, represent important pathogens among pet shop puppies. All genotyped G. intestinalis isolates were belonged to assemblage C or D, identified as dog-specific genotypes. Zoonotic assemblage A and B were not demonstrated. The result suggests that the risk of zoonotic transmission of G. intestinalis from pet shops puppies to humans may be quite low in Japan. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The invasive potential of Giardia intestinalis in an in vivo model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynoso-Robles, R; Ponce-Macotela, M; Rosas-López, L E; Ramos-Morales, A; Martínez-Gordillo, M N; González-Maciel, A

    2015-10-16

    Giardiasis is a neglected parasitic disease that affects primarily children, in whom it delays physical and mental development. The pathophysiology of giardiasis in not well understood, and most reports have identified Giardia intestinalis trophozoites only in the lumen and on the brush border of the small intestine. We identified Giardia trophozoites within the epithelium of the small intestine of a lactose intolerance patient. The Giardia trophozoites were obtained and cultured in vitro. In addition, we demonstrated Giardia trophozoite invasion in an animal model. Giardia trophozoites invaded the intestinal mucosa and submucosa of infected gerbils. The invasive trophozoites were observed at 21, 30 and 60 days age, and the average numbers of invaded sites were 17 ± 5, 15 ± 4, and 9 ± 3, respectively. We found trophozoites between epithelial cells, at the base of empty goblet cells, in lacteal vessels and within the submucosa. The morphological integrity of the invasive trophozoites was demonstrated via electron microscopy. The analysis of the gerbils infected with the trophozoites of the WB reference strain did not show intraepithelial trophozoites. These results demonstrate another Giardia pathogenic mechanism, opening the door to numerous future studies.

  2. Life with eight flagella: flagellar assembly and division in Giardia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Scott C; House, Susan A

    2010-08-01

    Flagellar movement in Giardia, a common intestinal parasitic protist, is crucial to its survival in the host. Each axoneme is unique in possessing a long, cytoplasmic portion as well as a membrane-bound portion. Intraflagellar transport (IFT) is required for the assembly of membrane-bound regions, yet the cytoplasmic regions may be assembled by IFT-independent mechanisms. Steady-state axoneme length is maintained by IFT and by intrinsic and active microtubule dynamics. Following mitosis and before their segregation, giardial flagella undergo a multigenerational division cycle in which the parental eight flagella migrate and reposition to different cellular locations; eight new flagella are assembled de novo. Each daughter cell thus inherits four mature and four newly synthesized flagella. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. First studies on Giardia duodenalis in the water buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Cringoli

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional survey of Giardia duodenalis infection in the water buffalo was carried out in Central Italy. The survey was conducted on a sample of 90 farms, selected using a grid approach within a Geographical Information System, followed by proportional allocation. On each farm, faecal samples were collected from three to five asymptomatic buffalo calves, aged from 1 to 9 weeks (total number = 347. Each faecal sample was tested for the presence of copro-antigens of G. duodenalis using a commercially available ELISA. Out of the 90 farms, 27 (30.0% resulted positive. With respect to animals, out of the 347 faecal samples, 63 (18.1% were found to have antigens of G. duodenalis. The results of the logistic regression model showed a positive association between the positivity to G. duodenalis and the presence of sheep on farm.

  4. Genotyping and subtyping Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia duodenalis carried by flies on dairy farms in Henan, China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Zifang; Dong, Haiju; Wang, Rongjun; Zhao, Wei; Chen, Gongyi; Li, Shouyi; Qi, Meng; Zhang, Sumei; Jian, Fuchun; Zhao, Jinfeng; Zhang, Longxian; Wang, Haiyan; Liu, Aiqin

    2014-01-01

    Background Cryptosporidium and Giardia are important causes of diarrhea diseases in humans and animals worldwide, and both of them are transmitted by the fecal–oral route, either by direct contact or by the ingestion of contaminated food or water. The role of flies in the mechanical transmission of Cryptosporidium and Giardia has been receiving increasing attention. To date, no information is available in China about the occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in flies. We here investigated...

  5. Molecular Identification of Giardia duodenalis Isolates from Fars Province, Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rayani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Giardia duodenalis is one of the most common human intestinal protozoan parasites worldwide and is endemic throughout the world with a vast range of mammalian hosts. The present study aimed to identify the prevalence of G. duodenalis isolates and determine the most common of its assemblages in the patients referring to health centers and hospitals in Fars province, Iran that will be subjected to further molecular investigation.We collected 1000 human fecal samples from health centers and hospitals in Shiraz, Iran in a one year period from September 2009 to August 2010. Microscopic examination for the presence of G. duodenalis cysts and trophozoites was performed by direct wet mount before and after the concentration techniques. Extraction of DNA was performed by Phenol-Chloroform-Isoamylalcohol (PCI. G. duodenalis-positive specimens were analyzed by PCR. A fragment of the SSU-rDNA (292 bp gene was amplified by PCR using the forward primer RH11 and the reverse primer RH4. Genotyping was performed using sequence analysis of G. duodenalis glutamate dehydrogenase gene using primers GDHeF, GDHiF, and GDHiR.The prevalence of Giardia infection was 10.7% (107/1000 examined based on microscopic examination. PCR identified 80% (40/50 of the samples as positive for G. duodenalis based on SSU-rDNA amplification on sucrose gradient samples. Besides, genotyping results indicated 32 isolates (80% as assemblage AII and 8 isolates (20% as assemblage BIII and BIV based on the DNA sequence analysis of the glutamate dehydrogenase locus of G. duodenalis.The findings of this study emphasize that Iran (Fars Province is a favorable area for giardiasis with an anthroponotic infection route.

  6. Detection of Giardia duodenalis antigen in human fecal eluates by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using polyclonal antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofía Duque-Beltrán

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study developed and standardized an enzime-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA to detect Giardia antigen in feces using rabbit polyclonal antibodies. Giardia cysts were purified from human fecal samples by sucrose and percoll gradients. Gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus were infected to obtain trophozoites. Rabbits were inoculated with either cyst or trophozoite antigens of 14 Colombian Giardia isolates to develop antibodies against the respective stages. The IgG anti-Giardia were purified by sequential caprylic acid and ammonium sulfate precipitation. A portion of these polyclonal antibodies was linked to alkaline phosphatase (conjugate. One hundred and ninety six samples of human feces, from different patients, were tested by parasitologic diagnosis: 69 were positive for Giardia cysts, 56 had no Giardia parasites, and 71 revealed parasites other than Giardia. The optimal concentration of polyclonal antibodies for antigen capture was 40 µg/ml and the optimal conjugate dilution was 1:100. The absorbance cut-off value was 0.24. The parameters of the ELISA test for Giardia antigen detection were: sensitivity, 100% (95% CI: 93.4-100%; specificity, 95% (95% CI: 88.6-97.6%; positive predictive value, 91% (95% CI: 81.4-95.9%; and negative predictive value, 100% (95% CI: 96.1-100%. This ELISA will improve the diagnosis of Giardia infections in Colombia and will be useful in following patients after treatment.

  7. Detection of Giardia intestinalis infections in Polish soldiers deployed to Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof; Konior, Monika; Augustynowicz, Alina; Lass, Anna; Kowalska, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Members of the Polish Military Contingent (PMC) have been stationed in Afghanistan since 2002. They typically serve in areas characterised by low standards of sanitation which often leads to the development of food- and waterborne diseases. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of Giardia intestinalis infections among Polish soldiers deployed to Afghanistan. The research study was conducted as part of a programme for prevention of parasitic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract run by the Polish Armed Forces. The study was carried out in August 2011; it involved 630 asymptomatic Polish soldiers serving in the Forward Operational Base (FOB) Ghazni in eastern Afghanistan. Stool specimens obtained from members of the PMC were first tested in FOB Ghazni (detection of Giardia intestinalis by Rida Quick Giardia immunochromatographic tests and Ridascreen Giardia immunoenzymatic tests - single samples). Next, the same biological material and two other faecal specimens fixed in 10% formalin were transported to the Military Institute of Medicine in Poland, where they were tested for Giardia intestinalis under light microscopy (direct smear, decantation in distilled water). Parasitological tests performed under light microscopy showed that 2.7% (17/630) of the study group were infected with Giardia intestinalis. Some of these results were confirmed by immunochromatographic tests (6/630). In contrast, immunoenzymatic tests (ELISA) demonstrated a significantly higher detection rate reaching 18.1% (114/630). Immunoenzymatic tests confirmed all the positive results given by light microscopy and by immunochromatographic tests. The prevalence rate of Giardia intestinalis infections in Polish soldiers deployed to Afghanistan was found to be high. Microscopic methods exhibit low sensitivity and therefore may result in the underestimation of the true parasite prevalence. Immunoenzymatic tests (ELISA) showing a much higher sensitivity in comparison to light microscopy

  8. Surgically Treated Symptomatic Prolapsed Lumbar and Sacral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The intention of this study is to share the experience of the author in the occurrence, possible causative factors, and treatment of surgically symptomatic prolapsed lumbar and sacral intervertebral discs in females, and to compare this experience in Switzerland, Nigeria, and Jamaica using surgery records for a period of over ...

  9. Endovascular treatment of symptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed I Hussain

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Symptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic disease (ICAD is responsible for approximately 10% of all ischemic strokes in the United States. The risk of recurrent stroke may be as high as 35% in patient with critical stenosis greater than 70% in diameter narrowing. Recent advances in medical and endovascular therapy have placed ICAD at the forefront of clinical stroke research to optimize the best medical and endovascular approach to treat this important underlying stroke etiology. Analysis of symptomatic ICAD studies lead to the question that whether angioplasty and or stenting is a safe, suitable and efficacious therapeutic strategy in patients with critical stenoses that are deemed refractory to medical management. Most of the currently available data in support of angioplasty and or stenting in high risk patients with severe symptomatic ICAD is in the form of case series and randomized trial results of endovascular therapy versus medical treatment are awaited. This is a comprehensive review of the state of the art in the endovascular approach with angioplasty and or stenting of symptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic disease.

  10. Prevalence and incidence of symmetrical symptomatic peripheral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Symptomatic symmetrical peripheral neuropathy (SSPN) is common in patients with HIV infection. It is also a common adverse event associated with both tuberculosis (TB) treatment and antiretroviral therapy (ART), particularly stavudine. While tenofovir is the one of recommended first-line nucleotide reverse ...

  11. Constipation, diarrhea, and symptomatic hemorrhoids during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, Arnold

    2003-03-01

    Constipation, diarrhea, and symptomatic hemorrhoids are disorders common in the general population, particularly in women. These conditions, if mild, often are self-treated with various home remedies or nonprescription preparations. Few of these patients, moreover, are referred to gastroenterologists, as primary care providers generally are confident managing these conditions, unless they are severe, refractory to conventional management, or require additional diagnostic studies.

  12. Ethanol and isopropanol in concentrations present in hand sanitizers sharply reduce excystation of Giardia and Entamoeba and eliminate oral infectivity of Giardia cysts in gerbils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Aparajita; Bandini, Giulia; Motari, Edwin; Samuelson, John

    2015-11-01

    Enteric protozoan parasites, which are spread by the fecal-oral route, are important causes of diarrhea (Giardia duodenalis) and amebic dysentery (Entamoeba histolytica). Cyst walls of Giardia and Entamoeba have a single layer composed of fibrils of β-1,3-linked GalNAc and β-1,4-linked GlcNAc (chitin), respectively. The goal here was to determine whether hand sanitizers that contain ethanol or isopropanol as the active microbicide might reduce transmission of these parasites. We found that treatment with these alcohols with or without drying in a rotary evaporator (to model rapid evaporation of sanitizers on hands) kills 85 to 100% of cysts of G. duodenalis and 90 to 100% of cysts of Entamoeba invadens (a nonpathogenic model for E. histolytica), as shown by nuclear labeling with propidium iodide and failure to excyst in vitro. Alcohols with or without drying collapsed the cyst walls of Giardia but did not collapse the cyst walls of Entamoeba. To validate the in vitro results, we showed that treatment with alcohols eliminated oral infection of gerbils by 1,000 G. duodenalis cysts, while a commercial hand sanitizer (Purell) killed E. invadens cysts that were directly applied to the hands. These results suggest that expanded use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers might reduce the transmission of Giardia and Entamoeba. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Effect of Giardia infection on growth and psychomotor development of children aged 0-5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, Z; Zeyrek, F Yildiz; Kurcer, M A

    2004-04-01

    Giardiasis, an intestinal protozoan infection caused by Giardia intestinalis, is common in southeastern Anatolia, Turkey. In this cross-sectional survey, to investigate the role of giardiasis on growth and psychomotor development, we studied 160 children aged 0-5 years. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire, anthropometry, Ankara Developmental Screening Inventory, and laboratory analysis of fecal samples. The results showed that 50 per cent of the subjects were infected with at least one pathogen of intestinal parasitic infections. Giardia intestinalis was the most frequent pathogenic parasite. Giardia-infected children had a risk for stunted (OR = 7.67, 95 per cent CI = 2.25-26.16; p = 0.001) and poor psychomotor development (OR = 2.68, 95 per cent CI = 1.09-6.58; p = 0.030). The data indicate that Giardia intestinalis infection has an adverse impact on child linear growth and psychomotor development. In the primary healthcare centers, during the programme of the monitoring growth and developmental status of children, following children in terms of Giardia, diagnosis and treatment will have a positive effect on child health.

  14. Drinking Water Quality and Occurrence of Giardia in Finnish Small Groundwater Supplies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarja Pitkänen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The microbiological and chemical drinking water quality of 20 vulnerable Finnish small groundwater supplies was studied in relation to environmental risk factors associated with potential sources of contamination. The microbiological parameters analyzed included the following enteric pathogens: Giardia and Cryptosporidium, Campylobacter species, noroviruses, as well as indicator microbes (Escherichia coli, intestinal enterococci, coliform bacteria, Clostridium perfringens, Aeromonas spp. and heterotrophic bacteria. Chemical analyses included the determination of pH, conductivity, TOC, color, turbidity, and phosphorus, nitrate and nitrite nitrogen, iron, and manganese concentrations. Giardia intestinalis was detected from four of the water supplies, all of which had wastewater treatment activities in the neighborhood. Mesophilic Aeromonas salmonicida, coliform bacteria and E. coli were also detected. None of the samples were positive for both coliforms and Giardia. Low pH and high iron and manganese concentrations in some samples compromised the water quality. Giardia intestinalis was isolated for the first time in Finland in groundwater wells of public water works. In Europe, small water supplies are of great importance since they serve a significant sector of the population. In our study, the presence of fecal indicator bacteria, Aeromonas and Giardia revealed surface water access to the wells and health risks associated with small water supplies.

  15. Population genetic analysis of Giardia duodenalis: genetic diversity and haplotype sharing between clinical and environmental sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durigan, Mauricio; Ciampi-Guillardi, Maisa; Rodrigues, Ricardo C A; Greinert-Goulart, Juliane A; Siqueira-Castro, Isabel C V; Leal, Diego A G; Yamashiro, Sandra; Bonatti, Taís R; Zucchi, Maria I; Franco, Regina M B; de Souza, Anete P

    2017-04-01

    Giardia duodenalis is a flagellated intestinal protozoan responsible for infections in various hosts including humans and several wild and domestic animals. Few studies have correlated environmental contamination and clinical infections in the same region. The aim of this study was to compare groups of Giardia duodenalis from clinical and environmental sources through population genetic analyses to verify haplotype sharing and the degree of genetic similarity among populations from clinical and environmental sources in the metropolitan region of Campinas. The results showed high diversity of haplotypes and substantial genetic similarity between clinical and environmental groups of G. duodenalis. We demonstrated sharing of Giardia genotypes among the different populations studied. The comparison between veterinary and human sequences led us to identify new zoonotic genotypes, including human isolates from genetic assemblage C. The application of a population genetic analysis in epidemiological studies allows quantification of the degree of genetic similarity among populations of Giardia duodenalis from different sources of contamination. The genetic similarity of Giardia isolates among human, veterinary, and environmental groups reinforced the correlation between clinical and environmental isolates in this region, which is of great importance for public health. © 2017 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Genotyping and subtyping of Giardia and Cryptosporidium isolates from commensal rodents in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Z; Wang, R; Zhao, W; Qi, M; Zhao, J; Zhang, L; Li, J; Liu, A

    2015-05-01

    Cryptosporidium and Giardia are two important zoonotic intestinal parasites responsible for diarrhoea in humans and other animals worldwide. Rodents, as reservoirs or carriers of Cryptosporidium and Giardia, are abundant and globally widespread. In the present study, we collected 232 fecal specimens from commensal rodents captured in animal farms and farm neighbourhoods in China. We collected 33 Asian house rats, 168 brown rats and 31 house mice. 6.0% (14/232) and 8.2% (19/232) of these rodents were microscopy-positive for Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts, respectively. All 14 Giardia isolates were identified as Giardia duodenalis assemblage G at a minimum of one or maximum of three gene loci (tpi, gdh and bg). By small subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA) gene sequencing, Cryptosporidium parvum (n = 12) and Cryptosporidium muris (n = 7) were identified. The gp60 gene encoding the 60-kDa glycoprotein was successfully amplified and sequenced in nine C. parvum isolates, all of which belonged to the IIdA15G1 subtype. Observation of the same IIdA15G1 subtype in humans (previously) and in rodents (here) suggests that rodents infected with Cryptosporidium have the potential to transmit cryptosporidiosis to humans.

  17. Molecular identification of Giardia duodenalis isolates from domestic dogs and cats in Wroclaw, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piekarska, Jolanta; Bajzert, Joanna; Gorczykowski, Michał; Kantyka, Magdalena; Podkowik, Magdalena

    2016-09-01

    Giardia duodenalis (G. intestinalis) is a common protozoan causing gastrointestinal disorders in many species of mammals. The genus of Giardia has high molecular diversity. Dogs and cats, in addition to their typical infection with assemblages C, D and F, may be a reservoir of zoonotic assemblages (A and B). The aim of this study was a genetic characteristic of Giardia isolates of dogs and cats from the area of Wroclaw (Poland). A total of 128 and 33 faecal samples from dogs and cats, respectively, were analyzed by routine coprological methods. The animals were diagnosed on the presence of G. duodenalis antigens in faeces soluble with the use of SNAP Giardia (IDEXX Laboratories) immunosorbent assay. 27 DNA isolates of Giardia were subjected to molecular identification (PCR-RFLP). The prevalence of G. duodenalis was 21.1% (27/128) in dogs and 15.1% (5/33) in cats. In dogs, C assemblage was present in 18 (81%) positive stool samples, D assemblage in 2 (9%) samples, B assemblage present in one (4.5%), and mixed assemblages (C and D) occurred in one (4.5%) sample. F assemblage was found in 4 (80%) cats' positive stool samples and A assemblage occurred in one case (20%). Confirmation of the presence of A and B zoonotic assemblages suggests that infected pets can be a threat to human health. This study describes for the first time the presence of mixed infections within host-specific C and D assemblages in dogs in Poland.

  18. Occurrence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in wild birds in Galicia (Northwest Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboredo-Fernández, Aurora; Ares-Mazás, Elvira; Cacciò, Simone M; Gómez-Couso, Hipólito

    2015-06-01

    Faecal samples were obtained from 433 wild birds being treated in wildlife recovery centres in Galicia (Northwest Spain), between February 2007 and September 2009. The birds belonged to 64 species representing 17 different orders. Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected by an immunofluorescence antibody test and identified at the molecular level by established PCR-sequencing methods. The overall prevalence of Giardia was 2·1% and that of Cryptosporidium, 8·3%. To our knowledge, this is the first description of Giardia sp. in Tyto alba and Caprimulgus europaeus; and of Cryptosporidium sp. in Apus apus, Athene noctua, C. europaeus, Falco tinnunculus, Morus bassanus, Parabuteo unicinctus and Strix aluco. Furthermore, the first PCR-sequence confirmed detection of Giardia duodenalis assemblage B in, Buteo buteo, Coturnix coturnix and Pica pica; G. duodenalis assemblage D in Garrulus glandarius; and G. duodenalis assemblage F in Anas platyrhynchos; Cryptosporidium parvum in Accipiter nisus, B. buteo, Milvus migrans, Pernis apivorus and P. pica; and Cryptosporidium meleagridis in Streptopelia turtur. The study findings demonstrate the wide spread of Giardia and Cryptosporidium between wild birds.

  19. Interleukin-17 receptor A (IL-17RA) as a central regulator of the protective immune response against Giardia

    Science.gov (United States)

    The protozoan parasite Giardia is a highly prevalent intestinal pathogen with a wide host range. Data obtained in mice, cattle and humans revealed the importance of IL-17A in the development of a protective immune response against Giardia. The aim of this study was to further unravel the protective ...

  20. Interleukin-17 receptor A (IL-17RA) as a central regulator of the protective immune response against Giardia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paerewijck, O. (Oonagh); Maertens, B. (Brecht); L. Dreesen (Leentje); Van Meulder, F. (Frederik); Peelaers, I. (Iris); Ratman, D. (Dariusz); Li, R.W. (Robert W.); E.W. Lubberts (Erik); K. De Bosscher; P. Geldhof (Peter)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe protozoan parasite Giardia is a highly prevalent intestinal pathogen with a wide host range. Data obtained in mice, cattle and humans revealed the importance of IL-17A in the development of a protective immune response against Giardia. The aim of this study was to further unravel the

  1. New system for higher recovery rate of water borne Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Gad, Jens; Klinting, Mette

    2012-01-01

    Background: The two most common water borne pathogenic protozoa, Cryptosporidium and Giardia, cause diarrhea worldwide. Detecting these parasites in water samples depends on effective parasite recovery from the water matrix. The reported low recovery rates of the currently used filter methods...... motivate the development of systems with higher recovery rates. Materials and methods: Five replicates of IMS purified Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts (N=2x103) were injected into a specially coated filter unit with a carefully chosen pore size. Following filtration, sonication was performed...... at predetermined time intervals to loosen all parasites and other particles from the filter and break up clusters. The concentrated parasite suspension was backwashed and counted after immuno-fluorescence staining. Results and discussion: Without sonication the recovery rates of both Cryptosporidium and Giardia...

  2. Are species-specifi antigen detection tests needed in the diagnosis of Giardia duodenalis infection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Fernandes de Mendonça Uchôa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the diagnostic performance in human stool samples of a rapid, qualitative, solid-phase immunochromatographic test (Alere® originally developed to detect Giardia duodenalis antigens in fecal samples of dogs. Methods: Samples from 54 patients with a previous diagnosis of giardiasis were tested by the microscopic examination to assess the performance of an immunochromatographic kit developed to detect Giardia duodenalis coproantigen in dog feces. Results: The agreement between the microscopic and the immunological methods was 83.3%. These findings are consistent with those of other studies using human specific kits. Conclusions: It is suggested that the same immunochromatographic test could be used for Giardia diagnosis in both species.

  3. Gene expression changes during Giardia-host cell interactions in serum-free medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferella, Marcela; Davids, Barbara J; Cipriano, Michael J; Birkeland, Shanda R; Palm, Daniel; Gillin, Frances D; McArthur, Andrew G; Svärd, Staffan

    2014-10-01

    Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE) was used to quantify transcriptional changes in Giardia intestinalis during its interaction with human intestinal epithelial cells (IECs, HT-29) in serum free M199 medium. Transcriptional changes were compared to those in trophozoites alone in M199 and in TYI-S-33 Giardia growth medium. In total, 90 genes were differentially expressed, mainly those involved in cellular redox homeostasis, metabolism and small molecule transport but also cysteine proteases and structural proteins of the giardin family. Only 29 genes changed their expression due to IEC interaction and the rest were due to M199 medium. Although our findings generated a small dataset, it was consistent with our earlier microarray studies performed under different interaction conditions. This study has confined the number of genes in Giardia to a small subset that specifically change their expression due to interaction with IECs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Administration of kefir-fermented milk protects mice against Giardia intestinalis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Mariana Correa; Golowczyc, Marina A; De Antoni, Graciela L; Pérez, Pablo F; Humen, Martín; Serradell, María de los Angeles

    2013-12-01

    Giardiasis, caused by the protozoan Giardia intestinalis, is one of the most common intestinal diseases worldwide and constitutes an important problem for the public health systems of various countries. Kefir is a probiotic drink obtained by fermenting milk with 'kefir grains', which consist mainly of bacteria and yeasts that coexist in a complex symbiotic association. In this work, we studied the ability of kefir to protect mice from G. intestinalis infection, and characterized the host immune response to this probiotic in the context of the intestinal infection. Six- to 8-week-old C75BL/6 mice were separated into four groups: controls, kefir mice (receiving 1 : 100 dilution of kefir in drinking water for 14 days), Giardia mice (infected orally with 4×10(7) trophozoites of G. intestinalis at day 7) and Giardia-kefir mice (kefir-treated G. intestinalis-infected mice), and killed at 2 or 7 days post-infection. Kefir administration was able to significantly reduce the intensity of Giardia infection at 7 days post-infection. An increase in the percentage of CD4(+) T cells at 2 days post-infection was observed in the Peyer's patches (PP) of mice belonging to the Giardia group compared with the control and kefir groups, while the percentage of CD4(+) T cells in PP in the Giardia-kefir group was similar to that of controls. At 2 days post-infection, a reduction in the percentage of B220-positive major histocompatibility complex class II medium cells in PP was observed in infected mice compared with the other groups. At 7 days post-infection, Giardia-infected mice showed a reduction in RcFcε-positive cells compared with the control group, suggesting a downregulation of the inflammatory response. However, the percentages of RcFcε-positive cells did not differ from controls in the kefir and Giardia-kefir groups. An increase in IgA-positive cells was observed in the lamina propria of the kefir group compared with controls at 2 days post-infection. Interestingly, the

  5. Low risk for transmission of zoonotic Giardia duodenalis from dogs to humans in rural Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Inpankaew, Tawin; Schär, Fabian; Odermatt, Peter

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A number of epidemiological studies have demonstrated Giardia as prevalent in both humans and dogs worldwide and have postulated the occurrence of anthroponotic, zoonotic and animal-specific cycles of transmission, which may be geographically and regionally unique in its epidemiology....... The aim of this study was to utilise molecular tools to determine the prevalence and compare genotypes of Giardia duodenalis infecting humans and dogs living in a previously identified Giardia-endemic village in rural Cambodia in order to ascertain zoonotic transmission risk. FINDINGS: The prevalence of G....... duodenalis in humans and dogs was 18.3% (40/218) and 10.6% (10/94) by PCR, respectively. Molecular characterisation of the small subunit of ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene, triose phosphate isomerase (TPI) gene and sub-assemblage characterisation of the glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) gene placed 27.5% (11...

  6. Cryptosporidium cuniculus and Giardia duodenalis in rabbits: genetic diversity and possible zoonotic transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weizhe; Shen, Yujuan; Wang, Rongjun; Liu, Aiqin; Ling, Hong; Li, Yihong; Cao, Jianping; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Shu, Jing; Zhang, Longxian

    2012-01-01

    Cryptosporidium and Giardia are the two important zoonotic pathogens causing diarrhea of humans and animals worldwide. Considering the human cryptosporidiosis outbreak and sporadic cases caused by C. cuniculus, the important public health significance of G. duodenalis and little obtained information regarding rabbit infected with Cryptosporidium and Giardia in China, the aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and molecularly characterize Cryptosporidium and Giardia in rabbits in Heilongjiang Province, China. 378 fecal samples were obtained from rabbits in Heilongjiang Province. Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts were detected using Sheather's sugar flotation technique and Lugol's iodine stain method, respectively. The infection rates of Cryptosporidium and Giardia were 2.38% (9/378) and 7.41% (28/378), respectively. Genotyping of Cryptosporidium spp. was done by DNA sequencing of the small subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA) gene and all the nine isolates were identified as Cryptosporidium cuniculus. The nine isolates were further subtyped using the 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene and two subtypes were detected, including VbA32 (n = 3) and a new subtype VbA21 (n = 6). G. duodenalis genotypes and subtypes were identified by sequence analysis of the triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) gene. The assemblage B (belonging to eight different subtypes B-I to B-VIII) was found in 28 G. duodenalis-positive samples. The rabbits have been infected with Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Heilongjiang Province. The results show that the rabbits pose a threat to human health in the studied areas. Genotypes and subgenotypes of C. cuniculus and G. duodenalis in this study might present the endemic genetic characterization of population structure of the two parasites.

  7. Giardia and other intestinal parasites in different dog populations in Northern Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claerebout, E; Casaert, S; Dalemans, A-C; De Wilde, N; Levecke, B; Vercruysse, J; Geurden, T

    2009-04-06

    The objectives of this study were to obtain data on the prevalence of intestinal parasites in different dog populations in northern Belgium, to estimate the zoonotic risk associated with these infections and to identify potential risk factors. Between 2004 and 2007 a total of 1159 faecal samples were collected from 451 household dogs, 357 dogs from breeding kennels and 351 dogs with gastrointestinal disorders. The samples from dogs with gastrointestinal disorders were sent to the diagnostic Laboratory for Parasitology at Ghent University by veterinary practitioners. In household dogs the prevalence of intestinal parasites was relatively low. Giardia was the most commonly found parasite (9.3%, CI 5.5-13.1), followed by Toxocara canis (4.4%, CI 2.7-6.8). Much higher infection rates were observed in kennel dogs, especially for Giardia spp. (43.9%, CI 37.8-50.0); T. canis (26.3%, CI 21.8-31.2) and Cystoisospora spp. (26.3%, CI 21.8-31.2). Also in dogs with gastrointestinal problems, Giardia spp. (18.1%, CI 13.1-23.1), Cystoisospora spp. (8.8%, CI 6.1-12.3) and T. canis (7.4%, CI 4.9-10.7) were the most frequently detected parasites. In all dog populations pups were more frequently infected with Cystoisospora (PGiardia (PGiardia and T. canis (PGiardia spp. Breed and gender did not affect the risk of an infection in any of the study populations. Toxocara and Giardia present a zoonotic risk, especially in household dogs, where the majority of Giardia positive samples (80%) belonged to the zoonotic assemblage A. In kennel dogs and clinically affected dogs the host-specific Giardia assemblages C and D were most prevalent (94% and 80%, respectively).

  8. Determination of the recovery efficiency of cryptosporidium oocysts and giardia cysts from seeded bivalve mollusks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schets, Franciska M; van den Berg, Harold H J L; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria

    2013-01-01

    The intestinal parasites Cryptosporidium and Giardia are transmitted by water and food and cause human gastroenteritis. Filter-feeding bivalve mollusks, such as oysters and mussels, filter large volumes of water and thus concentrate such pathogens, which makes these bivalves potential vectors of disease. To assess the risk of infection from consumption of contaminated bivalves, parasite numbers and parasite recovery data are required. A modified immunomagnetic separation (IMS) procedure was used to determine Cryptosporidium oocyst and Giardia cyst numbers in individually homogenized oysters (Crassostrea gigas) and mussels (Mytilus edulis). About 12% of the commercial bivalves were positive, with low (oo)cyst numbers per specimen. The recovery efficiency of the IMS procedure was systematically evaluated. Experiments included seeding of homogenized bivalves and whole animals with 100 to 1,000 (oo)cysts. Both seeding procedures yielded highly variable recovery rates. Median Cryptosporidium recoveries were 7.9 to 21% in oysters and 62% in mussels. Median Giardia recoveries were 10 to 25% in oysters and 110% in mussels. Giardia recovery was significantly higher than Cryptosporidium recovery. (Oo)cysts were less efficiently recovered from seeded whole animals than from seeded homogenates, with median Cryptosporidium recoveries of 5.3% in oysters and 45% in mussels and median Giardia recoveries of 4.0% in oysters and 82% in mussels. Both bivalve homogenate seeding and whole animal seeding yielded higher (oo)cyst recovery in mussels than in oysters, likely because of the presence of less shellfish tissue in IMS when analyzing the smaller mussels compared with the larger oysters, resulting in more efficient (oo)cyst extraction. The data generated in this study may be used in the quantitative assessment of the risk of infection with Cryptosporidium or Giardia associated with the consumption of raw bivalve mollusks. This information may be used for making risk management

  9. Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia sp. in aquatic mammals in northern and northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, João Carlos; Lima, Danielle Dos; da Silva, Edson Moura; Moreira, André Lucas de Oliveira; Marmontel, Miriam; Carvalho, Vitor Luz; Amaral, Rodrigo de; Lazzarini, Stella Maris; Alves, Leucio Câmara

    2017-09-20

    Cryptosporidium and Giardia are protozoans that can infect humans and wild and domestic animals. Due to the growing importance of diseases caused by protozoan parasites in aquatic species, we aimed to evaluate the frequency of infection by Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia sp. in aquatic and marine mammals in the northern and northeastern regions of Brazil. We collected 553 fecal samples from 15 species of wild-ranging and captive aquatic mammals in northern and northeastern Brazil. All samples were analyzed by the Kinyoun technique for identification of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts. Giardia sp. cysts were identified by means of the centrifugal-flotation technique in zinc sulfate solution. Subsequently, all samples were submitted for direct immunofluorescence testing. The overall frequency of infection was 15.55% (86/553) for Cryptosporidium spp. and 9.04% (50/553) for Giardia sp. The presence of Cryptosporidium spp. was detected in samples from 5 species: neotropical river otter Lontra longicaudis (15.28%), giant otter Pteronura brasiliensis (41.66%), Guiana dolphin Sotalia guianensis (9.67%), Amazonian manatee Trichechus inunguis (16.03%), and Antillean manatee T. manatus (13.79%). Giardia sp. was identified in L. longicaudis (9.23%), P. brasiliensis (29.16%), pygmy sperm whale Kogia breviceps (100%), dwarf sperm whale K. sima (25%), S. guianensis (9.67%), T. inunguis (3.81%), and T. manatus (10.34%). This is the first report of Cryptosporidium spp. in L. longicaudis, P. brasiliensis, and S. guianensis, while the occurrence of Giardia sp., in addition to the 2 otter species, was also identified in manatees, thus extending the number of hosts susceptible to these parasitic agents.

  10. Cryptosporidium cuniculus and Giardia duodenalis in rabbits: genetic diversity and possible zoonotic transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weizhe Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidium and Giardia are the two important zoonotic pathogens causing diarrhea of humans and animals worldwide. Considering the human cryptosporidiosis outbreak and sporadic cases caused by C. cuniculus, the important public health significance of G. duodenalis and little obtained information regarding rabbit infected with Cryptosporidium and Giardia in China, the aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and molecularly characterize Cryptosporidium and Giardia in rabbits in Heilongjiang Province, China. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 378 fecal samples were obtained from rabbits in Heilongjiang Province. Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts were detected using Sheather's sugar flotation technique and Lugol's iodine stain method, respectively. The infection rates of Cryptosporidium and Giardia were 2.38% (9/378 and 7.41% (28/378, respectively. Genotyping of Cryptosporidium spp. was done by DNA sequencing of the small subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA gene and all the nine isolates were identified as Cryptosporidium cuniculus. The nine isolates were further subtyped using the 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60 gene and two subtypes were detected, including VbA32 (n = 3 and a new subtype VbA21 (n = 6. G. duodenalis genotypes and subtypes were identified by sequence analysis of the triosephosphate isomerase (TPI gene. The assemblage B (belonging to eight different subtypes B-I to B-VIII was found in 28 G. duodenalis-positive samples. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The rabbits have been infected with Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Heilongjiang Province. The results show that the rabbits pose a threat to human health in the studied areas. Genotypes and subgenotypes of C. cuniculus and G. duodenalis in this study might present the endemic genetic characterization of population structure of the two parasites.

  11. CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE KNOWLEDGE OF GIARDIA INTESTINALIS PARASITE IN THE ARGES POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Bărbuceanu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study, conducted in January-December 2007-2010 to the Argeş population releaved a high incidence of parazitization with Giardia intestinalis to the preschool children: 38.9%. There are not significant differences related to gender distribution of parasitization with G. intestinalis, and most cases come from urban areas. This study seeks to highlight the socio-medical importance of this pathology to Arges population, because infestation with Giardia intestinalis is the most common cause of acute and chronic diarrhea in children and in adults, too.

  12. Review of cryptosporidium and giardia in the eastern part of Europe, 2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plutzer, Judit; Lassen, Brian; Jokelainen, Pikka

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: This paper reviews the current knowledge and understanding of Cryptosporidium spp. an d Giardia spp. in humans, animals and the environment in 10 countries in the eastern part of Europe: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Poland, Romania, Serbia...... and research on these pathogens, as well as analyse knowledge gaps and areas for further research. Results: Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. were found to be common in eastern Europe, but the results from different countries are difficult to compare because of variations in reporting practices...

  13. New filtration system for efficient recovery of waterborne Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Gad, J. A.; Riber, Ulla

    2015-01-01

    AimsTo develop a filtration unit for efficient recovery of waterborne Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts ((oo-)cysts) in drinking water.Methods and ResultsThis unit utilizes a metallic filter and an ultrasound transducer for eluting (oo-)cysts, with a fixed retentate backwash volume; approx...... was assessed by seeding ColorSeed (10 replicates) into the filter unit followed by air backwash to a glass slide and counting of (oo-)cysts by epifluorescent microscopy. High recovery rates (meanSD) were found: 849%48 for Giardia cysts and 70%+/- 65 for Cryptosporidium oocysts. DNA of seeded wild type (oo...

  14. Molecular characterization of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium parvum in fecal samples of individuals in Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sung-Hee; Anu, Davaasuren; Jeong, Young-Il; Abmed, Davaajav; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Lee, Won-Ja; Lee, Sang-Eun

    2014-01-01

    The Giardia and Cryptosporidium species are widespread and frequent diarrhea-related parasites affecting humans and other mammalian species. The prevalence of these parasites in Mongolia is currently unknown. Therefore, we performed molecular analyses of G. duodenalis and C. parvum in stool samples from 138 patients hospitalized with diarrhea in Mongolia using nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total of 5 (3.62%) and 7 (5.07%) fecal samples were positive for G. duodenalis and C. parvum, respectively. Giardia duodenalis and C. parvum infections were prevalent in children Mongolia.

  15. High sensitivity of Giardia duodenalis to tetrahydrolipstatin (orlistat in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Hahn

    Full Text Available Giardiasis, a gastrointestinal disease caused by Giardia duodenalis, is currently treated mainly with nitroimidazoles, primarily metronidazole (MTZ. Treatment failure rates of up to 20 percent reflect the compelling need for alternative treatment options. Here, we investigated whether orlistat, a drug approved to treat obesity, represents a potential therapeutic agent against giardiasis. We compared the growth inhibitory effects of orlistat and MTZ on a long-term in vitro culture adapted G. duodenalis strain, WB-C6, and on a new isolate, 14-03/F7, from a patient refractory to MTZ treatment using a resazurin assay. The giardiacidal concentration of the drugs and their combined in vitro efficacy was determined by median-effect analysis. Morphological changes after treatment were analysed by light and electron microscopy. Orlistat inhibited the in vitro growth of G. duodenalis at low micromolar concentrations, with isolate 14-03/F7 (IC50(24h = 2.8 µM being more sensitive than WB-C6 (IC50(24h = 6.2 µM. The effect was significantly more potent compared to MTZ (IC50(24h = 4.3 µM and 11.0 µM, respectively and led to specific undulated morphological alterations on the parasite surface. The giardiacidal concentration of orlistat was >14 µM for 14-03/F7 and >43 µM for WB-C6, respectively. Importantly, the combination of both drugs revealed no interaction on their inhibitory effects. We demonstrate that orlistat is a potent inhibitor of G. duodenalis growth in vitro and kills parasites at concentrations achievable in the gut by approved treatment regimens for obesity. We therefore propose to investigate orlistat in controlled clinical studies as a new drug in giardiasis.

  16. [In vitro effect against Giardia of 14 plant extracts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce-Macotela, M; Navarro-Alegría, I; Martínez-Gordillo, M N; Alvarez-Chacón, R

    1994-01-01

    To investigate antigiardiasic activity in plants used in Mexico as antidiarrheics and/or antiparasitics. Fourteen species were evaluated. The antigiardiasic activity was measured in vitro in a blinded fashion using trophozoites of Giardia duodenalis incubated with plant extracts. The viability of trophozoites was ascertained using MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-il]-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) which is reduced to MTT-formazan by the activity of live trophozoites. The reduced MTT was extracted with an acidified alcohol (2-propanol with HCI 0.04 M) and measured in a spectrophotometer at 570 nm. Negative (trophozoites without extract) and positive controls (incubated with tinadazol) were included. The scientific and trivial names of the plants are given (trivials in Spanish marked by an asterisk). They had the following trophozoite mortality (mean +/- SD in percent): Justicia spicigera (muicle*) = 91 +/- 0.5; Lipia beriandieri (oregano) = 90 +/- 0.6; Psidium guajava (guava) = 87 +/- 1.0; positive control of tinidazol = 79 +/- 1.9; Punica granutus (granado*) = 78 +/- 1.3; Magnifera indica (mango) = 77 +/- 1.0; Plantago major (lante*) = 76 +/- 1.2; Cupressus semperbirens (cipres) = 73 +/- 1.2; Castella tormentosa (chaparro amargoso*) = 70 +/- 0.7; Hematoxilon campechanum (palo de Campeche*) = 67 +/- 1.2. Without or with a low mean activity were Prosopis juliflora (mesquite*) and Rizophora mangle (mangle*) with 0%, Oriza sativa (rice) with 5%, Capsicum annum (pimiento*) with 21% and Persea americana (avocado) with 23%. There were no associations of the antigiardiasic effect with concentration or osmolality of the extracts. A clear in vitro antigiardiasic effects was seen in nine species. Three of them were superior to tinidazol which is a drug of common use in the treatment of giardiasis.

  17. Presence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis through drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Hermida, José Antonio; García-Presedo, Ignacio; Almeida, André; González-Warleta, Marta; Correia Da Costa, José Manuel; Mezo, Mercedes

    2008-11-01

    To evaluate the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis in the influent and final effluent of sixteen drinking water treatment plants located in a hydrographic basin in Galicia (NW Spain) - in which the principal river is recognised as a Site of Community Importance (SCI) - estimate the efficiency of treatment plants in removing these protozoans and determine the species and genotypes of the parasites by means of a molecular assay. All plant samples of influent and final effluent (50-100 l) were examined in the spring, summer, autumn and winter of 2007. A total of 128 samples were analysed by method 1623, developed by US Environmental Protection Agency for isolation and detection of both parasites. To identify the genotypes present the following genes were amplified and sequenced: 18S SSU rRNA (Cryptosporidium spp.) and b-giardina (G. duodenalis). The mean concentrations of parasites in the influent were 0.0-10.5 Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts per litre and 1.0-12.8 of G. duodenalis cysts per litre. In the final treated effluent, the mean concentration of parasites ranged from 0.0-3.0 oocysts per litre and 0.5-4.0 cysts per litre. The distribution of results by season revealed that in all plants, the highest numbers of (oo)cysts were recorded in spring and summer. Cryptosporidium parvum, C. andersoni, C. hominis and assemblages A-I, A-II, E of G. duodenalis were detected. Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis were consistently found at high concentrations in drinking water destined for human and animal consumption in the hydrographic basin under study, in Galicia (NW Spain). It is important that drinking water treatment authorities rethink the relevance of contamination levels of both parasites in drinking water and develop adequate countermeasures.

  18. Prebiotic inulin supplementation modulates the immune response and restores gut morphology in Giardia duodenalis-infected malnourished mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Geeta; Bhatia, Ruchika; Sharma, Anuj

    2016-11-01

    Malnutrition induces a state of growth retardation and immunologic depression, enhancing the host susceptibility to various infections. In the present study, it was observed that prebiotic supplementation either prior or simultaneously with Giardia infection in malnourished mice significantly reduced the severity of giardiasis and increased the body and small intestine mass, along with increased lactobacilli counts in faeces compared with malnourished-Giardia-infected mice. More specifically, prebiotic supplementation significantly increased the levels of anti-giardial IgG and IgA antibodies and anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-10 and reduced the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α, along with increased levels of nitric oxide in both the serum and intestinal fluid of malnourished-prebiotic-Giardia-infected mice compared with malnourished-Giardia-infected mice. Histopathology and scanning electron microscopy of the small intestine also revealed less cellular and mucosal damage in the microvilli of prebiotic-supplemented malnourished-Giardia-infected mice compared with severely damaged mummified and blunted villi of malnourished-Giardia-infected mice. This is the first study to report that prebiotic supplementation modulated the gut morphology and improved the immune status even in malnourished-Giardia-infected mice.

  19. Assessment of zoonotic transmission of Giardia and Cryptosporidium between cattle and humans in rural villages in Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amimul M Ehsan

    Full Text Available Giardia and Cryptosporidium are important causes of diarrhoea in Bangladesh. The high prevalence of both parasites in humans and cattle in rural Bangladesh and the common use of water ponds by village inhabitants and their animals suggest a potential for zoonotic transmission. Direct transmission of Giardia and Cryptosporidium between cattle and their handlers and indirect transmission through water ponds was investigated. Faecal/stool samples were collected from 623 calves and 125 calf handlers in a cross-sectional survey. In two villages, water samples were collected monthly from water ponds and faecal/stool samples were collected monthly from inhabitants and their cattle. Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in water samples and in faecal/stool samples and positive samples were genotyped, to determine their human or animal origin. The prevalence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in calves was 22% and 5% respectively. In calf handlers, the prevalence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium was 11.2% and 3.2% respectively. Both in the cross-sectional survey and in the longitudinal study in the villages, G. duodenalis assemblage E was most prevalent in calves, while in humans assemblage AII, BIII and BIV were found. In cattle, Cryptosporidium parvum, C. bovis and C. andersoni were identified, but no Cryptosporidium sequences were obtained from humans. Giardia and Cryptosporidium were detected in 14/24 and 12/24 water samples respectively. G. duodenalis assemblage E and BIV (-like, as well as C. andersoni and C. hominis were identified. Although the presence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in both water ponds suggests that water-borne transmission of Giardia and Cryptosporidium is possible, the genotyping results indicate that there is no significant direct or indirect (water-borne transmission of Giardia between cattle and people in this area of rural Bangladesh. No conclusions could be drawn for Cryptosporidium, because of the low number

  20. [Therapy of polyneuropathies. Causal and symptomatic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Felber, W

    2001-05-28

    In the first instance, polyneuropathies are treated causally. The most common underlying cause is diabetes mellitus or alcohol abuse. In a large number of patients with polyneuropathy, however, the underlying cause cannot be definitively identified. For these--but equally for patients with etiologically clear polyneuropathy--a stock-taking of clinical symptoms should be carried out and, where indicated, symptomatic treatment initiated. In addition to medication aimed at combating pain, muscular spasm, autonomic functional disorders, and for the prevention of thrombosis, physical measures (physiotherapy, foot care, orthopedic shoes) are of primary importance.

  1. Evaluation of immunofluorescence microscopy and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections in asymptomatic dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rimhanen-Finne, R.; Enemark, Heidi L.; Kolehmainen, J.

    2007-01-01

    The performance of immunofluorescence microscopy (IF) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in canine feces was evaluated. IF and Cryptosporidium ELISA detected 10(5) oocysts/g, while the detection limit for Giardia ELISA was 10(4) cysts/g. The Cryptosporidium ELISA showed 94% specificity...... zoonotic character of Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections in 150 asymptomatic Finnish dogs from the Helsinki area were studied. The overall proportion of dogs positive for Cryptosporidium was 5% (7/150) and that for Giardia 5% (8/150). In dogs...

  2. Phosphonoxins: Rational design and discovery of a potent nucleotide anti-Giardia agent

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Suk, D. H.; Rejman, Dominik; Dykstra, Ch.; Pohl, Radek; Pankiewicz, K. W.; Patterson, S. E.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 10 (2007), s. 2811-2816 ISSN 0960-894X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Giardia * encystation * cyst wall synthase * nucleotide Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.604, year: 2007

  3. Occurrence and potential health risk of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in different water catchments in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsan, Amimul; Geurden, Thomas; Casaert, Stijn; Paulussen, Jef; De Coster, Lut; Schoemaker, Toon; Chalmers, Rachel; Grit, Grietje; Vercruysse, Jozef; Claerebout, Edwin

    2015-02-01

    Human wastewater and livestock can contribute to contamination of surface water with Cryptosporidium and Giardia. In countries where a substantial proportion of drinking water is produced from surface water, e.g., Belgium, this poses a constant threat on drinking water safety. Our objective was to monitor the presence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in different water catchment sites in Belgium and to discriminate between (oo)cysts from human or animal origin using genotyping. Monthly samples were collected from raw water and purified drinking water at four catchment sites. Cryptosporidium and Giardia were detected using USEPA method 1623 and positive samples were genotyped. No contamination was found in purified water at any site. In three catchments, only low numbers of (oo)cysts were recovered from raw water samples (agriculture may be a more important source of surface water contamination than human waste in this catchment. In catchment sites with contaminated surface water, such as the Blankaart, continuous monitoring of treated water for the presence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia would be justified and (point) sources of surface water contamination should be identified.

  4. Molecular identification of Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Cryptosporidium, and Giardia in brazilian captive birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    A total of 85 fecal samples from captive birds collected from October 2013 to September 2014 in Uberlândia and Belo Horizonte in the state of Minas Gerais (Brazil) were evaluated for the presence of Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Cryptosporidium, and Giardia by PCR. Of these, 3 birds were found positive f...

  5. Het rendement van de detectiemethode voor Cryptosporidium en Giardia in water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schets FM; Medema GJ; Schijven JF; MGB

    2004-01-01

    Nederlandse waterleidingbedrijven zijn verplicht om te berekenen of als gevolg van consumptie van drinkwater infectie met Cryptosporidium of Giardia kan optreden. De kans hierop moet kleiner dan een infectie per 10000 personen per jaar zijn. De berekening (risicoanalyse) wordt gebaseerd op de

  6. Multilocus genotyping of Giardia duodenalis in lambs from Spain reveals a high hetrogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecal specimens from 120 lambs in Valencia (Spain) were analyzed for Giardia duodenalis by IFA and nested-PCR using the beta giardin, glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), triose phosphate isomerase (tpi) and small subunit ribosomal RNA (ssurRNA) genes. The highest prevalence was obtained using the ssurRN...

  7. Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Giardia Infection among Indigenous Communities in Rural Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Seow Huey; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M.; Mahdy, Mohammed A. K.; Nasr, Nabil N.; Sulaiman, Maria; Lim, Yvonne A. L.; Surin, Johari

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of Giardia infection among indigenous people in rural Malaysia. Faecal samples were collected from 1,330 participants from seven states of Malaysia and examined by wet mount and formalin-ether sedimentation methods while demographic, socioeconomic and environmental information was collected using a pre-tested questionnaire. The overall prevalence of Giardia infection was 11.6% and was significantly higher among those aged ≤ 12 years compared to their older counterparts. Multivariate logistic regression identified age of ≤12 years, lacking of toilet at household, not washing hands before eating, not washing hands after playing with animals, not boiling water before consumption, bathing in the river, and not wearing shoes when outside as the significant risk factors of Giardia infection among these communities. Based on a multilocus genotyping approach (including tpi, gdh and bg gene sequences), 69 isolates were identified as assemblage A, and 69 as assemblage B. No association between the assemblages and presence of symptoms was found. Providing proper sanitation, as well as provision of clean drinking water and proper health education regarding good personal hygiene practices will help significantly in reducing the prevalence and burden of Giardia infection in these communities. PMID:25366301

  8. Prevalence and Multilocus Genotyping Analysis of Cryptosporidium and Giardia Isolates from Dogs in Chiang Mai, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangtrongsup, Sahatchai; Scorza, A Valeria; Reif, John S; Ballweber, Lora R; Lappin, Michael R; Salman, Mo D

    2017-05-10

    The occurrence and zoonotic potential of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis isolated from dogs in Chiang Mai, Thailand were determined. Fecal samples were collected from 109 dogs between July and August 2008. Cryptosporidium spp. infection was determined by immunofluorescent assay (IFA), PCR assays that amplify Cryptosporidium heat-shock protein 70 kDa (hsp70), and two PCR assays that amplify a small subunit-ribosomal RNA (SSU-rRNA). Giardia duodenalis infection was identified using zinc sulfate centrifugal flotation, IFA, and four PCR assays that amplify the Giardia glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), beta-giardin (bg), and generic and dog-specific assays of triosephosphate isomerase (tpi) genes. Overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis was 31.2% and 45.9%, respectively. Sequence analysis of 22 Cryptosporidium -positive samples and 21 Giardia -positive samples revealed the presence of C. canis in 15, and C. parvum in 7, G. duodenalis Assemblage C in 8, D in 11, and mixed of C and D in 2 dogs. Dogs in Chiang Mai were commonly exposed to Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis . Cryptosporidium parvum can be isolated from the feces of dogs, and all G. duodenalis assemblages were dog-specific. Dogs could be a reservoir for a zoonotic Cryptosporidium infection in humans, but further studies will be required to determine the clinical and zoonotic importance.

  9. Population-based analyses of Giardia duodenalis is consistent with the clonal assemblage structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takumi Katsuhisa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Giardia duodenalis is a common protozoan parasite of humans and animals. Genetic characterization of single loci indicates the existence of eight groups called assemblages, which differ in their host distribution. Molecular analyses challenged the idea that G. duodenalis is a strictly clonal diplomonad by providing evidence of recombination within and between assemblages. Particularly, inter-assemblage recombination events would complicate the interpretation of multi-locus genotyping data from field isolates: where is a host infected with multiple Giardia genotypes or with a single, recombined Giardia genotype. Methods Population genetic analyses on the single and multiple-locus level on an extensive dataset of G. duodenalis isolates from humans and animals were performed. Results Our analyses indicate that recombination between isolates from different assemblages are apparently very rare or absent in the natural population of Giardia duodenalis. At the multi-locus level, our statistical analyses are more congruent with clonal reproduction and can equally well be explained with the presence of multiple G. duodenalis genotypes within one field isolate. Conclusions We conclude that recombination between G. duodenalis assemblages is either very rare or absent. Recombination between genotypes from the same assemblage and genetic exchange between the nuclei of a single cyst needs further investigation.

  10. Viability staining of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts combined with flow cytometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schets FM; Medema GJ; MGB

    1998-01-01

    The incorporation of flow cytometry as an additional purification step has improved the detection method for Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in water. Flow cytometry allows separation of (oo)cysts from interfering debris particles present in water concentrates and thus enables the

  11. Het rendement van de detectiemethode voor Cryptosporidium en Giardia in water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schets FM; Medema GJ; Schijven JF; MGB

    2004-01-01

    Dutch drinking water legislation requires drinking water companies to perform a quantitative risk assessment for Cryptosporidium and Giardia. The risk of infection through consumption of drinking water should be below one infection in 10,000 persons per year. Risk assessment is based on the number

  12. Cytology Preparations of Formalin Fixative Aid Detection of Giardia in Duodenal Biopsy Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panarelli, Nicole C; Gobara, Nariman; Hoda, Rana S; Chaump, Michael; Jessurun, Jose; Yantiss, Rhonda K

    2017-04-01

    Giardiasis is the most common intestinal parasitic infection in the United States. The organism elicits no, or minimal, inflammatory changes in duodenal biopsy samples, so it can be easily overlooked. We performed this study to determine whether Giardia could be isolated from the formalin fixative of biopsy samples, and to evaluate the value of fluid analysis in the assessment for potential infection. We prospectively evaluated duodenal biopsy samples from 92 patients with a clinical suspicion of giardiasis or symptoms compatible with that diagnosis (ie, diarrhea, bloating, or abdominal pain) Biopsy samples were routinely processed and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Histologic diagnoses included giardiasis (5 cases, 4%), normal findings (64 cases, 70%), peptic injury/active duodenitis (12 cases, 13%), and intraepithelial lymphocytosis with villous blunting (10 cases, 12%). Fifteen cases (13%) showed detached degenerated epithelial cells or mucus droplets in the intervillous space that resembled Giardia. Cytology slides were prepared from formalin in the biopsy container using the standard Cytospin protocol and reviewed by a cytopathologist blinded to the biopsy findings. Cytologic evaluation revealed Giardia spp. in all 5 biopsy-proven cases, and identified an additional case that was not detected by biopsy analysis. Organisms were significantly more numerous (mean: 400 trophozoites; range, 120 to 810) and showed better morphologic features in cytology preparations compared with tissue sections (mean: 129 trophozoites; range, 37 to 253 organisms; P=0.05). Our findings suggest that cytology preparations from formalin fixative can resolve diagnostically challenging cases and even enhance Giardia detection in some cases.

  13. Plasmid vectors for proteomic analyses in Giardia: purification of virulence factors and analysis of the proteasome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerlström-Hultqvist, Jon; Stadelmann, Britta; Birkestedt, Sandra; Hellman, Ulf; Svärd, Staffan G

    2012-07-01

    In recent years, proteomics has come of age with the development of efficient tools for purification, identification, and characterization of gene products predicted by genome projects. The intestinal protozoan Giardia intestinalis can be transfected, but there is only a limited set of vectors available, and most of them are not user friendly. This work delineates the construction of a suite of cassette-based expression vectors for use in Giardia. Expression is provided by the strong constitutive ornithine carbamoyltransferase (OCT) promoter, and tagging is possible in both N- and C-terminal configurations. Taken together, the vectors are capable of providing protein localization and production of recombinant proteins, followed by efficient purification by a novel affinity tag combination, streptavidin binding peptide-glutathione S-transferase (SBP-GST). The option of removing the tags from purified proteins was provided by the inclusion of a PreScission protease site. The efficiency and feasibility of producing and purifying endogenous recombinant Giardia proteins with the developed vectors was demonstrated by the purification of active recombinant arginine deiminase (ADI) and OCT from stably transfected trophozoites. Moreover, we describe the tagging, purification by StrepTactin affinity chromatography, and compositional analysis by mass spectrometry of the G. intestinalis 26S proteasome by employing the Strep II-FLAG-tandem affinity purification (SF-TAP) tag. This is the first report of efficient production and purification of recombinant proteins in and from Giardia, which will allow the study of specific parasite proteins and protein complexes.

  14. Giardia Assemblages A and B in Diarrheic Patients: A Comparative Study in Egyptian Children and Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Basha, Noussa R; Zaki, Mayssa M; Hassanin, Omayma M; Rehan, Mohamed K; Omran, Dalia

    2016-02-01

    Giardia duodenalis is considered the most common intestinal parasite in humans worldwide. Children are especially affected, with more severe consequences than adults. The present study was designed to determine the distribution of assemblages A and B Giardia infection in children and adults, with the use of light microscopy and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) as diagnostic procedures, and to investigate its associations with clinical and epidemiological data collected from children and adult groups. This cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2012 to October 2013 by collecting fecal samples from 200 children and 200 adults complaining of diarrhea. Samples were subjected to parasitological examination by direct wet smear and formol-ether methods. Genotyping of G. doudenalis samples was conducted by PCR-RFLP analysis. Giardia duodenalis infection caused by assemblages A and B was identified in 60 samples, 34 from children and 26 from adults. Assemblage B was detected in 38 patients (63.34%), and assemblage A was detected in 22 patients (36.66%). Assemblage A was significantly more frequent in children with age range 2-8 yr, and assemblage B was higher in children with age range 6-16 yr old. Diarrhea frequency/day and recurrences per month affected patients infected with assemblage A (P value Giardia assemblages A and B were identified in children and adults, assemblage A infected younger children more frequently and was more closely related to severe clinical manifestations than assemblage B.

  15. Adaptive Immunity-Dependent Intestinal Hypermotility Contributes to Host Defense against Giardia spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Yolanda S.; Gillin, Frances D.; Eckmann, Lars

    2006-01-01

    Humans infected with Giardia exhibit intestinal hypermotility, but the underlying mechanisms and functional significance are uncertain. Here we show in murine models of giardiasis that small-intestinal hypermotility occurs in a delayed fashion relative to peak parasite burden, is dependent on adaptive immune defenses, and contributes to giardial clearance.

  16. Saliva and sera IgA and IgG in Egyptian Giardia-infected children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gebaly, Naglaa Saad M; Halawa, Eman Fawzy; Moussa, Hanaa M Ezzat; Rabia, Ibrahim; Abu-Zekry, Maha

    2012-08-01

    Giardiasis is a gastrointestinal infection of wide distribution that is more prevalent in childhood. Easy and rapid diagnosis of giardiasis is essential for reduction of this infection. This cross-sectional study included 62 children in which collection of saliva, stool and serum samples was performed. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique was evaluated to detect IgA and IgG responses in both saliva and serum samples. Twenty-two children were positive for Giardia duodenalis infection by direct examination of faecal specimens, 20 non-infected and 20 infected with other parasites. Salivary and serum IgA and IgG responses against G. duodenalis infection were significantly higher in Giardia parasitized than non-Giardia parasitized children (p < 0.001). This concludes that specific salivary IgA may serve as a diagnostic tool and specific salivary IgG as a screening tool in monitoring the exposure of various populations to Giardia duodenalis. The advantage of salivary assays over serum immunoglobulin assay is being easy and non-invasive in sampling technique which is important especially for young children.

  17. Evaluation of an inhouse rapid ELISA test for detection of giardia in domestic sheep (Ovis aries).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jolaine M; Hankenson, F Claire

    2010-11-01

    Sheep (Ovis aries) are increasingly used at our institution as models of human disease. Within the research environment, routine husbandry and handling of sheep has potential for transmission of zoonotic agents, including Giardia. The prevalence of Giardia in sheep may approach 68%. Classic diagnostic testing involves microscopic examination for fecal cysts or trophozoites; however, limitations of microscopy include time, labor, and potential false-negative results due to intermittent shedding. We wished to determine whether a commercial rapid ELISA used for Giardia detection in dogs and cats could be used in sheep. Fecal samples collected from sheep (n = 93) were tested with a combination of 6 methods: reference laboratory fecal flotation, reference laboratory ELISA, inhouse fecal flotation, and commercially available tests (enzyme immunoassay, direct fluorescence antibody assay, and rapid ELISA). Prevalence of Giardia infection in facility sheep was 11.8% (11 of 93 animals). Of the 11 samples considered positive, 3 were confirmed by multiple testing methods, and 5 were positive by microscopy alone. Inhouse fecal flotation for 8 samples was positive on only 1 of 2 consecutive testing days. The rapid ELISA test exhibited 0% sensitivity for sheep giardiasis. Overall, the examined methods had low sensitivities and low positive predictive values. Despite limitations, microscopic analysis of repeat fecal samples remained the most accurate diagnostic method for ovine giardiasis among the methods tested.

  18. Prevalence and Multilocus Genotyping Analysis of Cryptosporidium and Giardia Isolates from Dogs in Chiang Mai, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahatchai Tangtrongsup

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence and zoonotic potential of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis isolated from dogs in Chiang Mai, Thailand were determined. Fecal samples were collected from 109 dogs between July and August 2008. Cryptosporidium spp. infection was determined by immunofluorescent assay (IFA, PCR assays that amplify Cryptosporidium heat-shock protein 70 kDa (hsp70, and two PCR assays that amplify a small subunit-ribosomal RNA (SSU-rRNA. Giardia duodenalis infection was identified using zinc sulfate centrifugal flotation, IFA, and four PCR assays that amplify the Giardia glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh, beta-giardin (bg, and generic and dog-specific assays of triosephosphate isomerase (tpi genes. Overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis was 31.2% and 45.9%, respectively. Sequence analysis of 22 Cryptosporidium-positive samples and 21 Giardia-positive samples revealed the presence of C. canis in 15, and C. parvum in 7, G. duodenalis Assemblage C in 8, D in 11, and mixed of C and D in 2 dogs. Dogs in Chiang Mai were commonly exposed to Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis. Cryptosporidium parvum can be isolated from the feces of dogs, and all G. duodenalis assemblages were dog-specific. Dogs could be a reservoir for a zoonotic Cryptosporidium infection in humans, but further studies will be required to determine the clinical and zoonotic importance.

  19. Prevalence and associated risk factors of Giardia infection among indigenous communities in rural Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Seow Huey; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Mahdy, Mohammed A K; Nasr, Nabil N; Sulaiman, Maria; Lim, Yvonne A L; Surin, Johari

    2014-11-04

    This study was carried out to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of Giardia infection among indigenous people in rural Malaysia. Faecal samples were collected from 1,330 participants from seven states of Malaysia and examined by wet mount and formalin-ether sedimentation methods while demographic, socioeconomic and environmental information was collected using a pre-tested questionnaire. The overall prevalence of Giardia infection was 11.6% and was significantly higher among those aged ≤ 12 years compared to their older counterparts. Multivariate logistic regression identified age of ≤ 12 years, lacking of toilet at household, not washing hands before eating, not washing hands after playing with animals, not boiling water before consumption, bathing in the river, and not wearing shoes when outside as the significant risk factors of Giardia infection among these communities. Based on a multilocus genotyping approach (including tpi, gdh and bg gene sequences), 69 isolates were identified as assemblage A, and 69 as assemblage B. No association between the assemblages and presence of symptoms was found. Providing proper sanitation, as well as provision of clean drinking water and proper health education regarding good personal hygiene practices will help significantly in reducing the prevalence and burden of Giardia infection in these communities.

  20. A large scale molecular study of Giardia duodenalis in horses in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    The prevalence of Giardia duodenalis genotypes in horses is poorly known. The present study examined feces from 195 horses, 1 month to 17 years of age, in 4 locations in Colombia. Prevalence of infection was determined by PCR and all positives were sequenced to determine the genotypes. Thirty four (...

  1. Symptomatic and asymptomatic candidiasis in a pediatric intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslankoylu, Ali Ertug; Kuyucu, Necdet; Yilmaz, Berna Seker; Erdogan, Semra

    2011-11-21

    This study aimed to examine the incidence, epidemiology, and clinical characteristics of symptomatic and asymptomatic candidiasis in a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU), and to determine the risk factors associated with symptomatic candidiasis. This retrospective study included 67 patients from a 7-bed PICU in a tertiary care hospital that had Candida-positive cultures between April 2007 and July 2009. Demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients, Candida isolates, antimicrobial and antifungal treatments, and previously identified risk factors for symptomatic candidiasis were recorded, and symptomatic and asymptomatic patients were compared. In all, 36 (53.7%) of the patients with Candida-positive cultures had asymptomatic candidiasis and 31 (46.3%) had symptomatic candidiasis. Candida albicans was the most common Candida sp. in the asymptomatic patients (n = 20, 55.6%), versus Candida parapsilosis in the symptomatic patients (n = 15, 48.4%). The incidence of central venous catheter indwelling, blood transfusion, parenteral nutrition, and surgery was higher in the symptomatic patient group than in the asymptomatic patient group (P candidiasis according to forward stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis (OR: 6.1; 95% CI: 1.798-20.692). Surgery was the only risk factor significantly associated with symptomatic candidiasis and non-albicans Candida species were more common among the patients with symptomatic candidiasis. While treating symptomatic candidiasis in any PICU an increase in the incidence of non-albicans candidiasis should be considered.

  2. Radiological features of a symptomatic splenic hamartoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, S.E.; Walsh, E.A.; Cramer, B.C.; Pushpanathan, C.C.; Hollett, P.; Ingram, L.; Price, D.

    1996-01-01

    Symptomatic splenic hamartomas are rare in the pediatric age group, with only four previous reports in the literature. Splenic hamartoma has been reported as a solid homogeneous mass without calcification on CT and ultrasound (US), and only one previous report of the findings on MRI has been published. We report a case of a large symptomatic splenic hamartoma in a 14-year-old girl who presented with splenomegaly, pancytopenia and growth retardation. A solid mass with multiple punctate foci resembling calcifications was seen on US. The mass was heterogeneous and better demarcated on enhanced CT. Radiocolloid scintigraphy demonstrated uptake within the lesion, but less than that of normal spleen. The mass was isointense relative to normal splenic tissue on T1-weighted MRI (0.5 T) and of increased intensity with T2 weighting. At splenectomy, a red pulp hamartoma was identified, which contained nodules of hyalinization and necrosis thought to account for the punctate foci seen on US. (orig.). With 4 figs

  3. Palliative radiotherapy for symptomatic osseous metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shigematsu, Naoyuki; Ito, Hisao; Toya, Kazuhito; Ko, Weijey; Kutsuki, Shouji; Tsukamoto, Nobuhiro; Kubo, Atsushi; Dokiya, Takushi; Yorozu, Atsunori.

    1995-01-01

    Bone matastases are one of the most common and serious conditions requiring radiotherapy, but there is still a considerable lack of agreement on optimal radiation schedule. We analyzed patients with symptomatic osseous matastases from lung (72 patients) and breast (63 patients) carcinoma treated by palliative radiotherapy between 1983 and 1992. In this series, the incidences of symptomatic bone metastases appearing within 2 years after the first diagnosis of the primary lesion were 96% and 36% for lung and breast carcinomas, respectively. Thirty percent of bone metastases from breast carcinoma were diagnosed more than 5 years after the first diagnosis. Thus careful follow-up must be carried out for a prolonged period. Pain relief was achieved at almost the same rate for bone metastases from lung and breast carcinomas (81% and 85%, respectively), an the rapid onset of pain relief (15 Gy or less) was obtained in about half the patients for both diseases. The rapid onset of pain relief and the lack of association between the onset of pain relief and primary tumor argued against the conventional theory that tumor shrinkage is a component of the initial response. In contrast to the fact that almost all lung carcinoma patients had very poor prognoses, one third of the breast carcinoma patients were alive more than 2 years after palliative radiotherapy. Thust, the late effects of radiation, such as radiation myelopathy, must be always considered especially in breast carcinoma patients even when it is 'just' palliative radiotherapy for bone metastases. (author)

  4. Review of acute symptomatic urolithiasis in Auckland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeff, Stephanie; Saluja, Manmeet; Rice, Michael

    2018-02-02

    To evaluate the incidence of acute symptomatic urolithiasis in the Auckland region. Associated epidemiological factors and stone characteristics were also studied and compared to previous research conducted in order to analyse trends. All patients that presented acutely with symptomatic urolithiasis to the Auckland District Health Board (AHDB) between July 2014 and June 2015 were studied. Clinical data was obtained from medical records and population data was based on estimates provided by the Ministry of Health. Two-tailed tests and the Pearson Chi-Square tests were used for analysis. Overall, 1,125 patients (1,328 events) presented with an incidence of 85 per 100,000 per year, which was lower than that reported in 2006. The highest incidence was found among the Middle Eastern ethnic subgroup (0.130 %), followed by Māori (0.102%), Asian (0.087%), European (0.084%) and Pacific (0.041%) ethnicity. Males were more likely to be affected than females. Urolithiasis was most common in the fifth decade of life (25%). Forty-seven percent of the study population presented with multiple stones and 64% had recurrent urolithiasis or were 'high risk' stone formers. Distal ureteric stones Auckland. This deviation could be attributed to the large influx of Asian immigrants observed in this period of time. A caucasian male, between 40-49 years, with a calculus <5mm in the distal ureter with a history of a previous urolithiasis has the highest chance to present with renal colic.

  5. Radiological features of a symptomatic splenic hamartoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, S.E. [Department of Radiology, Janeway Child Health Centre and Memorial University of Newfoundland, Janeway Place, St. John`s, NF A1A 1R8 (Canada); Walsh, E.A. [Department of Radiology, Janeway Child Health Centre and Memorial University of Newfoundland, Janeway Place, St. John`s, NF A1A 1R8 (Canada); Cramer, B.C. [Department of Radiology, Janeway Child Health Centre and Memorial University of Newfoundland, Janeway Place, St. John`s, NF A1A 1R8 (Canada); Pushpanathan, C.C. [Department of Pathology, Janeway Child Health Centre and Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John`s, NF (Canada); Hollett, P. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Health Sciences Centre and Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John`s, NF (Canada); Ingram, L. [Department of Pediatrics, Janeway Child Health Centre and Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John`s, NF (Canada); Price, D. [Department of Surgery, Janeway Child Health Centre and Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John`s, NF (Canada)

    1996-09-01

    Symptomatic splenic hamartomas are rare in the pediatric age group, with only four previous reports in the literature. Splenic hamartoma has been reported as a solid homogeneous mass without calcification on CT and ultrasound (US), and only one previous report of the findings on MRI has been published. We report a case of a large symptomatic splenic hamartoma in a 14-year-old girl who presented with splenomegaly, pancytopenia and growth retardation. A solid mass with multiple punctate foci resembling calcifications was seen on US. The mass was heterogeneous and better demarcated on enhanced CT. Radiocolloid scintigraphy demonstrated uptake within the lesion, but less than that of normal spleen. The mass was isointense relative to normal splenic tissue on T1-weighted MRI (0.5 T) and of increased intensity with T2 weighting. At splenectomy, a red pulp hamartoma was identified, which contained nodules of hyalinization and necrosis thought to account for the punctate foci seen on US. (orig.). With 4 figs.

  6. Current status and future trends in Cryptosporidium and Giardia epidemiology in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Y A L; Ahmad, R A; Smith, H V

    2008-06-01

    Cryptosporidium and Giardia are major causes of diarrhoeal diseases of humans worldwide, and are included in the World Health Organisation's 'Neglected Diseases Initiative'. Cryptosporidium and Giardia occur commonly in Malaysian human and non-human populations, but their impact on disease, morbidity and cost of illness is not known. The commonness of contributions from human (STW effluents, indiscriminate defaecation) and non-human (calving, lambing, muck spreading, slurry spraying, pasturing/grazing of domestic animals, infected wild animals) hosts indicate that many Malaysian environments, particularly water and soil, are sufficiently contaminated to act as potential vehicles for the transmission of disease. To gain insight into the morbidity and mortality caused by human cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis, they should be included into differential diagnoses, and routine laboratory testing should be performed and (as for many infectious diseases) reported to a centralised public health agency. To understand transmission routes and the significance of environmental contamination better will require further multidisciplinary approaches and shared resources, including raising national perceptions of the parasitological quality of drinking water. Here, the detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia should be an integral part of the water quality requirement. A multidisciplinary approach among public health professionals in the water industry and other relevant health- and environment-associated agencies is also required in order to determine the significance of Cryptosporidium and Giardia contamination of Malaysian drinking water. Lastly, adoption of validated methods to determine the species, genotype and subgenotype of Cryptosporidium and Giardia present in Malaysia will assist in developing effective risk assessment, management and communication models.

  7. An audit of Cryptosporidium and Giardia detection in Scottish National Health Service Diagnostic Microbiology Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, C L; Currie, S; Pollock, K; Smith-Palmer, A; Jones, B L

    2017-06-01

    Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium species are protozoan parasites capable of causing gastrointestinal disease in humans and animals through the ingestion of infective faeces. Whereas Cryptosporidium species can be acquired locally or through foreign travel, there is the mis-conception that giardiasis is considered to be largely travel-associated, which results in differences in laboratory testing algorithms. In order to determine the level of variation in testing criteria and detection methods between diagnostic laboratories for both pathogens across Scotland, an audit was performed. Twenty Scottish diagnostic microbiology laboratories were invited to participate with questions on sample acceptance criteria, testing methods, testing rates and future plans for pathogen detection. Reponses were received from 19 of the 20 laboratories representing each of the 14 territorial Health Boards. Detection methods varied between laboratories with the majority performing microscopy, one using a lateral flow immunochromatographic antigen assay, another using a manually washed plate-based enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and one laboratory trialling a plate-based EIA automated with an EIA plate washer. Whereas all laboratories except one screened every stool for Cryptosporidium species, an important finding was that significant variation in the testing algorithm for detecting Giardia was noted with only four laboratories testing all diagnostic stools. The most common criteria were 'travel history' (11 laboratories) and/or 'when requested' (14 laboratories). Despite only a small proportion of stools being examined in 15 laboratories for Giardia (2%-18% of the total number of stools submitted), of interest is the finding that a higher positivity rate was observed for Giardia than Cryptosporidium in 10 of these 15 laboratories. These findings highlight that the underreporting of Giardia in Scotland is likely based on current selection and testing algorithms.

  8. D-xylose absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be seen in: Celiac disease (sprue) Crohn disease Giardia lamblia infestation Hookworm infestation Lymphatic obstruction Radiation enteropathy Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth Viral gastroenteritis Whipple disease

  9. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in domestic animals in peri-urban communities of Kafue district, Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwila, J.; Phiri, I. G. K.; Enemark, Heidi L.

    2013-01-01

    Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis are important parasites infecting a wide range of domestic animals worldwide. The aim of the present study was to determine the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia parasites in different domestic animals living in close contact with humans...... within rural/semiurban communities in Kafue district in Zambia. A single faecal sample per animal was collected from pigs, goats, dogs, ducks, chickens and pigeons and analysed by Merifluor Cryptosporidium/Giardia immunofluorescence antibody assay for the simultaneous detection of these parasites....... The faecal consistency was noted and scored as non-diarrhoeic or diarrhoeic. A total of 236 samples were collected. Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected in pigs (11.5%, 17/148), goats (5.9%; 1/17), ducks (10.0%; 3/30) and chickens (14.3%; 2/14) while Giardia cysts were detected in pigs (8.1%; 12...

  10. Detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in water samples with a Becton Dickinson FACSort flow cytometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schets FM; Medema GJ; Boschman GD; LWL; Becton Dickinson Europe, Aalst, Belgie

    1995-01-01

    Current detection techniques for Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in water samples combine filtration of large volumes of water, concentration by centrifugation and flotation and immunofluorescense microscopy. The techniques are extremely labour-intensive and inefficient. The various steps

  11. A light microscopic study of the course of cellular division of Giardia intestinalis trophozoites grown in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerva, L; Nohýnková, E

    1992-01-01

    The cellular division of trophozoites of Giardia intestinalis group was followed microscopically in stained preparations from axenic cultures. Eleven successive stages were described, documented by photomicrographs and their survival times calculated.

  12. First report of Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. in fecal samples in blue macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) in southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Matheus Hillard Farret; Vinicius da Rosa Fanfa; Luisa Ragagnin; Aleksandro Schafer da Silva; Silvia Gonzalez Monteiro

    2010-01-01

    This study reports the gastrointestinal parasitism by Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. in blue macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) in the southern region of Brazil. Fecal samples of two species kept in captivity in the state of Rio Grande do Sul were analyzed by the direct smear method, centrifugal flotation technique with zinc sulfate and Kinyoun staining technique for research of parasites. Mixed infection by eggs of Capillaria, cysts of Giardia sp. and oocysts of Cryptosporidium sp. was ...

  13. [Laparoscopic cleavage in splenic symptomatic cyst].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-López, Antonio-José; Candel-Arenas, Marifé; González-Valverde, Francisco-Miguel; Luján-Martínez, Delia; Medina-Manuel, Esther; Albarracín Marín-Blázquez, Antonio

    2017-12-01

    Splenic cysts are rare diseases that are diagnosed incidentally during imaging studies. When cysts are recognized, surgical treatment is recommended adapted to the particular case, depending on the size and location of the cyst and the age of the patient in order to avoid dangerous complications such as spleen rupture or cyst infection with abscess. We report 2patients with symptomatic splenic epidermoid cyst treated by laparoscopic cleavage. Laparoscopic cleavage is a surgical option for splenic cyst, with the goal of reducing postoperative complications while preserving splenic function. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  14. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and symptomatic ischemic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndum-Jacobsen, Peter; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Schnohr, Peter

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that low plasma concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D are associated with increased risk of symptomatic ischemic stroke in the general population. METHODS: We measured plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D in 10,170 individuals from the general population, the Copenhagen...... City Heart Study. During 21 years of follow-up, 1,256 and 164 persons developed ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, respectively. In a meta-analysis of ischemic stroke, we included 10 studies, 58,384 participants, and 2,644 events. RESULTS: Stepwise decreasing plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations...... were associated with stepwise increasing risk of ischemic stroke both as a function of seasonally adjusted percentile categories and as a function of clinical categories of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (p for trend ≤ 2 × 10(-3) ). In a Cox regression model comparing individuals with plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D...

  15. Determination of the level of parasitic infection (Cryptosporidium and Giardia of the vegetables marketed in Ilam city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moyad Avazpoor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infected with intestinal parasites is one of the most important health and economical problems, which could have different effects, such as diarrheal diseases or death associated. The purpose of this study was to determine the level of prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia parasites in the vegetable marketed in Ilam city. Methods: This study was performed on 280 samples of fresh vegetables and lettuce in Ilam. The samples were taken at the level of 500 grams from the places where vegetables and lettuce are sold. Micro liters of each sample was placed on the slide using automatic micropipette, and Logel and Zyl-Nelson stainings were performed in order to identify Cryptosporidium and Giardia. Results: From 200 samples, 54 samples were contaminated to Cryptosporidium oocyte and 13 samples to Giardia cysts. From 80 lettuce samples also 32 samples were contaminated to Cryptosporidium oocyte, and 6 samples contaminated to Giardia cysts. The results showed that the overall infection was 37%. Infection with Giardia cysts was 6.8% and infection with Cryptosporidium oocyte was 30.7%, and Cryptosporidium infection rates in vegetables and lettuce were different. This difference was statistically significant (P<0.05. Conclusion: As a result of this research it is determined that the prevalence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in Ilam vegetables is significantly higher, and the contamination of lettuce is far greater. Therefore, authorities should be more attentive to the field of education and the control of parasitic diseases.

  16. Giardia duodenalis-induced alterations of commensal bacteria kill Caenorhabditis elegans: a new model to study microbial-microbial interactions in the gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbaba, Teklu K; Gupta, Pratyush; Rioux, Kevin; Hansen, Dave; Buret, Andre G

    2015-03-15

    Giardia duodenalis is the most common cause of parasitic diarrhea worldwide and a well-established risk factor for postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome. We hypothesized that Giardia-induced disruptions in host-microbiota interactions may play a role in the pathogenesis of giardiasis and in postgiardiasis disease. Functional changes induced by Giardia in commensal bacteria and the resulting effects on Caenorhabditis elegans were determined. Although Giardia or bacteria alone did not affect worm viability, combining commensal Escherichia coli bacteria with Giardia became lethal to C. elegans. Giardia also induced killing of C. elegans with attenuated Citrobacter rodentium espF and map mutant strains, human microbiota from a healthy donor, and microbiota from inflamed colonic sites of ulcerative colitis patient. In contrast, combinations of Giardia with microbiota from noninflamed sites of the same patient allowed for worm survival. The synergistic lethal effects of Giardia and E. coli required the presence of live bacteria and were associated with the facilitation of bacterial colonization in the C. elegans intestine. Exposure to C. elegans and/or Giardia altered the expression of 172 genes in E. coli. The genes affected by Giardia included hydrogen sulfide biosynthesis (HSB) genes, and deletion of a positive regulator of HSB genes, cysB, was sufficient to kill C. elegans even in the absence of Giardia. Our findings indicate that Giardia induces functional changes in commensal bacteria, possibly making them opportunistic pathogens, and alters host-microbe homeostatic interactions. This report describes the use of a novel in vivo model to assess the toxicity of human microbiota. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Symptomatic relapse of HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. Cryptococcal meningitis is the most common cause of adult meningitis in southern Africa. Much of this disease burden is thought to be due to symptomatic relapse of previously treated infection. We studied the contribution of inadequate secondary fluconazole prophylaxis to symptomatic relapses of cryptococcal ...

  18. Symptomatic unruptured cerebral aneurysms. Features and surgical outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Date, Isao

    2010-01-01

    Development of less invasive imaging studies, such as magnetic resonance angiography, has increased the chances that unruptured cerebral aneurysms are found. The rupture risk of 'symptomatic' aneurysms is higher than for 'asymptomatic' aneurysms; so 'symptomatic' aneurysms are more often surgically treated. Many reviews examine 'asymptomatic' unruptured cerebral aneurysms, but few evaluate 'symptomatic' aneurysms. The author has treated many patients with symptomatic unruptured cerebral aneurysms and found that improved cranial nerve signs can be expected if the surgical treatment is performed before the symptoms become irreversible; the critical period is approximately 3 months. It is important to suppress the pulsation of the aneurysms compressing the cranial nerves; both a clipping procedure and endovascular coiling are effective. Cranial nerve signs are more commonly the symptoms of unruptured cerebral aneurysms, but large to giant aneurysms can also be the causes of hemiparesis, hydrocephalus, epilepsy, or even cerebral infarction. This review summarizes the features and surgical outcome of symptomatic unruptured cerebral aneurysms. (author)

  19. High occurrence of Blastocystis sp. subtypes 1-3 and Giardia intestinalis assemblage B among patients in Zanzibar, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsell, Joakim; Granlund, Margareta; Samuelsson, Linn; Koskiniemi, Satu; Edebro, Helén; Evengård, Birgitta

    2016-06-29

    Blastocystis is a common intestinal parasite with worldwide distribution but the distribution of Blastocystis and its subtypes in East Africa is largely unknown. In this study, we investigate the distribution of Blastocystis subtypes in Zanzibar, Tanzania and report the prevalence of intestinal parasites using both molecular methods and microscopy. Stool samples were collected from both diarrhoeic and non-diarrhoeic outpatients in Zanzibar. In addition to microscopy, real-time PCR for Blastocystis, Entamoeba histolytica and E. dispar, Giardia intestinalis, Cryptosporidium spp., and Dientamoeba fragilis was used. Blastocystis subtypes were determined by a conventional PCR followed by partial sequencing of the SSU-rRNA gene. Genetic assemblages of Giardia were determined by PCR with assemblage specific primers. Intestinal parasites were detected in 85 % of the 174 participants, with two or more parasites present in 56 %. Blastocystis sp. and Giardia intestinalis were the most common parasites, identified by PCR in 61 and 53 % of the stool samples respectively, but no correlation between carriage of Blastocystis and Giardia was found. The Blastocystis subtype distribution was ST1 34.0 %, ST2 26.4 %, ST3 25.5 %, ST7 0.9 %, and 13.2 % were positive only by qPCR (non-typable). The Giardia genetic assemblages identified were A 6.5 %, B 85 %, A + B 4.3 %, and non-typable 4.3 %. The detection rate with microscopy was substantially lower than with PCR, 20 % for Blastocystis and 13.8 % for Giardia. The prevalence of Blastocystis increased significantly with age while Giardia was most prevalent in children two to five years old. No correlation between diarrhoea and the identification of Giardia, Blastocystis, or their respective genetic subtypes could be shown and, as a possible indication of parasite load, the mean cycle threshold values in the qPCR for Giardia were equal in diarrhoeic and non-diarrhoeic patients. Carriage of intestinal parasites was very

  20. Prevalence and genotype of Giardia duodenalis in dairy cattle from Northern and Northeastern part of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inpankaew, Tawin; Jiyipong, Tawisa; Thadtapong, Nalumon; Kengradomkij, Chanya; Pinyopanuwat, Nongnuch; Chimnoi, Wissanuwat; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn

    2015-09-01

    The aims of this study were to determine prevalence and genotype of Giardia duodenalis in feces of dairy cattle from the northern part and the northeastern part of Thailand. A total of 900 fecal samples were collected directly from rectum and examined by using zinc sulphate centrifugal flotation technique and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The overall prevalence of G. duodenalis in dairy cows was 5.0 % (45/900) by zinc sulphate centrifugal flotation and 6.0 % (54/900) by PCR. Genotypes of G. duodenalis found in this study were Assemblage AI and E. The results indicated that dairy cattle may act as a potential risk of Giardia transmission among animals and humans (especially Assemblage AI).

  1. Modulation of human dendritic cell activity by Giardia and helminth antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Summan, Anneka; Nejsum, Peter; Williams, Andrew R

    2018-01-01

    Giardia duodenalis is a common intestinal protozoan parasite known to modulate host immune responses, including dendritic cell (DC) function. Co-infections of intestinal pathogens are common, and thus DCs may be concurrently exposed to antigens from multiple parasites. Here, we investigated...... and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α secretion. G. duodenalis and T. suis products also consistently up-regulated IL-10 production. Despite a similar modulation of cytokine secretion, additive effects between Giardia and helminth products were not observed, indicating a dominant effect of a single parasite...... by modulating cytokine secretion and/or inducing apoptosis, which may be a parasite driven mechanism to dampen host immunity and establish chronic infections. The differential mechanisms of DC modulation by intestinal parasites warrant further attention. This article is protected by copyright. All rights...

  2. Prevalence and genotyping of Giardia duodenalis among Arabian horses in Ahvaz, southwest of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Jafari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Giardia duodenalis is globally recognized as an important zoonotic intestinal protozoan parasite. So far, eight assemblages of G. duodenalis (A-H have been identified. Substantial evidence suggests the zoonotic potential of assemblages A, B, and E in livestock. In this study, the genotype of Giardia duodenalis isolates was genetically identified by determining the sequence of ssu-rRNA gene and performing polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP on glutamate dehydrogenase gene of the parasite in Arabian horses from Ahvaz, located in southwest of Iran. The results revealed that assemblages AI and E (livestock-associated G. duodenalis were present in horse isolates. Also, based on the findings, prevalence of G. duodenalis infection among horses was estimated at 35.7%. The results indicated that G. duodenalis is highly prevalent among Arabian horses, posing a zoonotic risk for giardiasis in Ahvaz, Iran.

  3. Interactions of Giardia sp. with the intestinal barrier: Epithelium, mucus, and microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allain, Thibault; Amat, Christina B; Motta, Jean-Paul; Manko, Anna; Buret, André G

    2017-01-02

    Understanding how intestinal enteropathogens cause acute and chronic alterations has direct animal and human health perspectives. Significant advances have been made on this field by studies focusing on the dynamic crosstalk between the intestinal protozoan parasite model Giardia duodenalis and the host intestinal mucosa. The concept of intestinal barrier function is of the highest importance in the context of many gastrointestinal diseases such as infectious enteritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and post-infectious gastrointestinal disorders. This crucial function relies on 3 biotic and abiotic components, first the commensal microbiota organized as a biofilm, then an overlaying mucus layer, and finally the tightly structured intestinal epithelium. Herein we review multiple strategies used by Giardia parasite to circumvent these 3 components. We will summarize what is known and discuss preliminary observations suggesting how such enteropathogen directly and/ or indirectly impairs commensal microbiota biofilm architecture, disrupts mucus layer and damages host epithelium physiology and survival.

  4. Giardia duodenalis in Alpine (Rupicapra rupicapra rupicapra) and Apennine (Rupicapra pyrenaica ornata) chamois

    OpenAIRE

    De Liberato, Claudio; Berrilli, Federica; Marangi, Marianna; Santoro, Maristella; Trogu, Tiziana; Putignani, Lorenza; Lanfranchi, Paolo; Ferretti, Francesco; D?Amelio, Stefano; Giangaspero, Annunziata

    2015-01-01

    Background Although chamois Rupicapra spp. are the most abundant mountain ungulates in Europe, no data are available on the presence of Giardia duodenalis infecting these species. Methods A total of 157 fecal samples from Alpine Rupicapra rupicapra rupicapra and Apennine Rupicapra pyrenaica ornata chamois were tested for the presence of G. duodenalis by immunofluorescence test, quantitative Real Time PCR and end-point PCR?for genotype characterization. Results G. duodenalis was detected in R....

  5. Presence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis in Drinking Water Samples in the North of Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Maria João; Soares, Sónia; de Lurdes Delgado, Maria; Figueiredo, João; Silva, Elisabete; Castro, António; Cosa, José Manuel Correida Da

    2010-01-01

    Cryptosporidium and Giardia are 2 protozoan parasites responsible for waterborne diseases outbreaks worldwide. In order to assess the prevalence of these protozoans in drinking water samples in the northern part of Portugal and the risk of human infection, we have established a long term program aiming at pinpointing the sources of surface water, drinking water, and environmental contamination, working with the water-supply industry. Total 43 sources of drinking water samples were selected, and a total of 167 samples were analyzed using the Method 1623. Sensitivity assays regarding the genetic characterization by PCR and sequencing of the genes, 18S SSU rRNA, for Cryptosporidium spp. and β,-giardin for G. duodenalis were set in the laboratory. According to the defined criteria, molecular analysis was performed over 4 samples. Environmental stages of the protozoa were detected in 25.7% (43 out of 167) of the water samples, 8.4% (14 out of 167) with cysts of Giardia, 10.2% (17 out of 167) with oocysts of Cryptosporidium and 7.2% (12 out of 167) for both species. The mean concentrations were 0.1-12.7 oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. per 10 L and 0.1-108.3 cysts of Giardia duodenalis per 10 L. Our results suggest that the efficiency in drinking water plants must be ameliorated in their efficiency in reducing the levels of contamination. We suggest the implementation of systematic monitoring programs for both protozoa. To authors' knowledge, this is the first report evaluating the concentration of environmental stages of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in drinking water samples in the northern part of Portugal. PMID:20333284

  6. Effective Concentration and Detection of Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and the Microsporidia from Environmental Matrices

    OpenAIRE

    Moss, Joseph A.; Gordy, John; Snyder, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia spp., and members of Microsporidia are enteropathogenic parasites of humans and animals, producing asymptomatic to severe intestinal infections. To circumvent various impediments associated with current detection methods, we tested a method providing multistage purification and separation in a single, confined step. Standard real-time PCR was used as a detection method. Samples spiked with C. parvum and G. intestinalis were split for comparison to standard Metho...

  7. Genetic variation in potential Giardia vaccine candidates cyst wall protein 2 and α1-giardin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radunovic, Matej; Klotz, Christian; Saghaug, Christina Skår; Brattbakk, Hans-Richard; Aebischer, Toni; Langeland, Nina; Hanevik, Kurt

    2017-08-01

    Giardia is a prevalent intestinal parasitic infection. The trophozoite structural protein a1-giardin (a1-g) and the cyst protein cyst wall protein 2 (CWP2) have shown promise as Giardia vaccine antigen candidates in murine models. The present study assesses the genetic diversity of a1-g and CWP2 between and within assemblages A and B in human clinical isolates. a1-g and CWP2 sequences were acquired from 15 Norwegian isolates by PCR amplification and 20 sequences from German cultured isolates by whole genome sequencing. Sequences were aligned to reference genomes from assemblage A2 and B to identify genetic variance. Genetic diversity was found between assemblage A and B reference sequences for both a1-g (90.8% nucleotide identity) and CWP2 (82.5% nucleotide identity). However, for a1-g, this translated into only 3 amino acid (aa) substitutions, while for CWP2 there were 41 aa substitutions, and also one aa deletion. Genetic diversity within assemblage B was larger; nucleotide identity 92.0% for a1-g and 94.3% for CWP2, than within assemblage A (nucleotide identity 99.0% for a1-g and 99.7% for CWP2). For CWP2, the diversity on both nucleotide and protein level was higher in the C-terminal end. Predicted antigenic epitopes were not affected for a1-g, but partially for CWP2. Despite genetic diversity in a1-g, we found aa sequence, characteristics, and antigenicity to be well preserved. CWP2 showed more aa variance and potential antigenic differences. Several CWP2 antigens might be necessary in a future Giardia vaccine to provide cross protection against both Giardia assemblages infecting humans.

  8. Transcriptomic Profiling of High-Density Giardia Foci Encysting in the Murine Proximal Intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Jonathan K; Nosala, Christopher; Scott, Erica Y; Nguyen, Kristofer F; Hagen, Kari D; Starcevich, Hannah N; Dawson, Scott C

    2017-01-01

    Giardia is a highly prevalent, understudied protistan parasite causing significant diarrheal disease worldwide. Its life cycle consists of two stages: infectious cysts ingested from contaminated food or water sources, and motile trophozoites that colonize and attach to the gut epithelium, later encysting to form new cysts that are excreted into the environment. Current understanding of parasite physiology in the host is largely inferred from transcriptomic studies using Giardia grown axenically or in co-culture with mammalian cell lines. The dearth of information about the diversity of host-parasite interactions occurring within distinct regions of the gastrointestinal tract has been exacerbated by a lack of methods to directly and non-invasively interrogate disease progression and parasite physiology in live animal hosts. By visualizing Giardia infections in the mouse gastrointestinal tract using bioluminescent imaging (BLI) of tagged parasites, we recently showed that parasites colonize the gut in high-density foci. Encystation is initiated in these foci throughout the entire course of infection, yet how the physiology of parasites within high-density foci in the host gut differs from that of cells in laboratory culture is unclear. Here we use BLI to precisely select parasite samples from high-density foci in the proximal intestine to interrogate in vivo Giardia gene expression in the host. Relative to axenic culture, we noted significantly higher expression (>10-fold) of oxidative stress, membrane transporter, and metabolic and structural genes associated with encystation in the high-density foci. These differences in gene expression within parasite foci in the host may reflect physiological changes associated with high-density growth in localized regions of the gut. We also identified and verified six novel cyst-specific proteins, including new components of the cyst wall that were highly expressed in these foci. Our in vivo transcriptome data support an

  9. Functional characterization of peroxiredoxins from the human protozoan parasite Giardia intestinalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Mastronicola

    Full Text Available The microaerophilic protozoan parasite Giardia intestinalis, causative of one of the most common human intestinal diseases worldwide, infects the mucosa of the proximal small intestine, where it has to cope with O2 and nitric oxide (NO. Elucidating the antioxidant defense system of this pathogen lacking catalase and other conventional antioxidant enzymes is thus important to unveil novel potential drug targets. Enzymes metabolizing O2, NO and superoxide anion (O2 (-• have been recently reported for Giardia, but it is yet unknown how the parasite copes with H2O2 and peroxynitrite (ONOO(-. Giardia encodes two yet uncharacterized 2-cys peroxiredoxins (Prxs, GiPrx1a and GiPrx1b. Peroxiredoxins are peroxidases implicated in virulence and drug resistance in several parasitic protozoa, able to protect from nitroxidative stress and repair oxidatively damaged molecules. GiPrx1a and a truncated form of GiPrx1b (deltaGiPrx1b were expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and functionally characterized. Both Prxs effectively metabolize H2O2 and alkyl-hydroperoxides (cumyl- and tert-butyl-hydroperoxide in the presence of NADPH and E. coli thioredoxin reductase/thioredoxin as the reducing system. Stopped-flow experiments show that both proteins in the reduced state react with ONOO(- rapidly (k = 4×10(5 M(-1 s(-1 and 2×10(5 M(-1 s(-1 at 4°C, for GiPrx1a and deltaGiPrx1b, respectively. Consistent with a protective role against oxidative stress, expression of GiPrx1a (but not deltaGiPrx1b is induced in parasitic cells exposed to air O2 for 24 h. Based on these results, GiPrx1a and deltaGiPrx1b are suggested to play an important role in the antioxidant defense of Giardia, possibly contributing to pathogenesis.

  10. Presence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis in drinking water samples in the north of Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, André; Moreira, Maria João; Soares, Sónia; Delgado, Maria de Lurdes; Figueiredo, João; Silva, Elisabete; Castro, António; Cosa, José Manuel Correida Da

    2010-03-01

    Cryptosporidium and Giardia are 2 protozoan parasites responsible for waterborne diseases outbreaks worldwide. In order to assess the prevalence of these protozoans in drinking water samples in the northern part of Portugal and the risk of human infection, we have established a long term program aiming at pinpointing the sources of surface water, drinking water, and environmental contamination, working with the water-supply industry. Total 43 sources of drinking water samples were selected, and a total of 167 samples were analyzed using the Method 1623. Sensitivity assays regarding the genetic characterization by PCR and sequencing of the genes, 18S SSU rRNA, for Cryptosporidium spp. and beta,-giardin for G. duodenalis were set in the laboratory. According to the defined criteria, molecular analysis was performed over 4 samples. Environmental stages of the protozoa were detected in 25.7% (43 out of 167) of the water samples, 8.4% (14 out of 167) with cysts of Giardia, 10.2% (17 out of 167) with oocysts of Cryptosporidium and 7.2% (12 out of 167) for both species. The mean concentrations were 0.1-12.7 oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. per 10 L and 0.1-108.3 cysts of Giardia duodenalis per 10 L. Our results suggest that the efficiency in drinking water plants must be ameliorated in their efficiency in reducing the levels of contamination. We suggest the implementation of systematic monitoring programs for both protozoa. To authors' knowledge, this is the first report evaluating the concentration of environmental stages of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in drinking water samples in the northern part of Portugal.

  11. Cytokines, antibodies and histopathological profiles during Giardia infection and VSP-based vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serradell, Marianela C; Gargantini, Pablo R; Saura, Alicia; Oms, Sergio R; Rupil, Lucía L; Berod, Luciana; Sparwasser, Tim; Luján, Hugo D

    2018-03-19

    Giardiasis is one of the most common human intestinal diseases worldwide. Several experimental animals have been used to evaluate Giardia infections, with gerbils ( Meriones unguiculatus ) being the most valuable model due to their high susceptibility to Giardia infection, abundant shedding of cysts, and pathophysiological alterations and signs of disease similar to those observed in humans. Here we report cytokine and antibody profiles both during the course of Giardia infection in gerbils and after immunization with a novel oral vaccine comprising a mixture of purified Variant-specific Surface Proteins (VSPs). Transcript levels of representative cytokines of different immune profiles as well as macro- and micro-tissue alterations were assessed in Peyer's patches, mesenteric lymph nodes and spleens. During infection, cytokine responses showed a biphasic profile: an early induction of Th1 (IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF), Th17 (IL-17) and Th2 (IL-4) cytokines, together with intestinal alterations typical of inflammation, followed by a shift toward a predominant Th2 (IL-5) response, likely associated with a counter-regulatory mechanism. Conversely, immunization with an oral vaccine comprising the entire repertoire of VSPs specifically showed high levels of IL-17, IL-6, IL-4 and IL-5, without obvious signs of inflammation. Both immunized and infected animals developed local (intestinal S-IgA) and systemic (serum IgG) humoral immune responses against VSPs; however, only infected animals showed evident signs of giardiasis. This is the first comprehensive report of cytokine expression and anti- Giardia antibody production during infection and VSP vaccination in gerbils, a reliable model of the human disease. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  12. Occurrence of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in the Temuan Orang Asli (aborigine) River System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Y A L; Aahmad, R A

    2004-12-01

    A survey of the river water frequently used by the Temuan Orang Asli (aborigine) indicated that 66.7% of the river water samples were Giardia cyst positive and 5.6% were Cryptosporidium oocyst positive. Although Giardia cysts were detected in samples from all the sites (e.g. upstream, midstream, and downstream), Cryptosporidium was only present in one river water sample taken from downstream from a village. The only sample of upstream water which contained Giardia cysts had a concentration of 0.7 cysts/l. All samples taken from midstream contained cysts with a mean concentration of 9.8 +/- 6.6 cysts/l (range = 1-20 cysts/l). Eighty-three point three percent of the samples collected from downstream contained cysts and 16.7% had oocysts. The average concentration of cysts was 12.9 +/- 16.4 cysts/l (range = 0-44 cysts/l), whereas the oocyst concentration was 0.4 oocysts/l. All river samples tested positive for the presence of E. coli, indicating fecal contamination. The results of this study imply that the river system is contaminated with fecal-oral transmitted parasites. The river water, used by the Orang Asli, is a probable route for Giardia and Cryptosporidium transmission in this community. Long term strategies, incorporating health education regarding personal hygiene, and provision of toilets and the importance of their proper usage, need to be embraced by this community in order to control the spread of these parasites.

  13. Local and global genetic diversity of protozoan parasites: Spatial distribution of Cryptosporidium and Giardia genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-R, Juan C; French, Nigel; Pita, Anthony; Velathanthiri, Niluka; Shrestha, Rima; Hayman, David

    2017-07-01

    Cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis are recognized as significant enteric diseases due to their long-term health effects in humans and their economic impact in agriculture and medical care. Molecular analysis is essential to identify species and genotypes causing these infectious diseases and provides a potential tool for monitoring. This study uses information on species and genetic variants to gain insights into the geographical distribution and spatial patterns of Cryptosporidium and Giardia parasites. Here, we describe the population heterogeneity of genotypic groups within Cryptosporidium and Giardia present in New Zealand using gp60 and gdh markers to compare the observed variation with other countries around the globe. Four species of Cryptosporidium (C. hominis, C. parvum, C. cuniculus and C. erinacei) and one species of Giardia (G. intestinalis) were identified. These species have been reported worldwide and there are not unique Cryptosporidium gp60 subtype families and Giardia gdh assemblages in New Zealand, most likely due to high gene flow of historical and current human activity (travel and trade) and persistence of large host population sizes. The global analysis revealed that genetic variants of these pathogens are widely distributed. However, genetic variation is underestimated by data biases (e.g. neglected submission of sequences to genetic databases) and low sampling. New genotypes are likely to be discovered as sampling efforts increase according to accumulation prediction analyses, especially for C. parvum. Our study highlights the need for greater sampling and archiving of genotypes globally to allow comparative analyses that help understand the population dynamics of these protozoan parasites. Overall our study represents a comprehensive overview for exploring local and global protozoan genotype diversity and advances our understanding of the importance for surveillance and potential risk associated with these infectious diseases.

  14. Local and global genetic diversity of protozoan parasites: Spatial distribution of Cryptosporidium and Giardia genotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C Garcia-R

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis are recognized as significant enteric diseases due to their long-term health effects in humans and their economic impact in agriculture and medical care. Molecular analysis is essential to identify species and genotypes causing these infectious diseases and provides a potential tool for monitoring. This study uses information on species and genetic variants to gain insights into the geographical distribution and spatial patterns of Cryptosporidium and Giardia parasites. Here, we describe the population heterogeneity of genotypic groups within Cryptosporidium and Giardia present in New Zealand using gp60 and gdh markers to compare the observed variation with other countries around the globe. Four species of Cryptosporidium (C. hominis, C. parvum, C. cuniculus and C. erinacei and one species of Giardia (G. intestinalis were identified. These species have been reported worldwide and there are not unique Cryptosporidium gp60 subtype families and Giardia gdh assemblages in New Zealand, most likely due to high gene flow of historical and current human activity (travel and trade and persistence of large host population sizes. The global analysis revealed that genetic variants of these pathogens are widely distributed. However, genetic variation is underestimated by data biases (e.g. neglected submission of sequences to genetic databases and low sampling. New genotypes are likely to be discovered as sampling efforts increase according to accumulation prediction analyses, especially for C. parvum. Our study highlights the need for greater sampling and archiving of genotypes globally to allow comparative analyses that help understand the population dynamics of these protozoan parasites. Overall our study represents a comprehensive overview for exploring local and global protozoan genotype diversity and advances our understanding of the importance for surveillance and potential risk associated with these infectious diseases.

  15. Characterization of RNase MRP RNA and novel snoRNAs from Giardia intestinalis and Trichomonas vaginalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Xiaowei S

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eukaryotic cells possess a complex network of RNA machineries which function in RNA-processing and cellular regulation which includes transcription, translation, silencing, editing and epigenetic control. Studies of model organisms have shown that many ncRNAs of the RNA-infrastructure are highly conserved, but little is known from non-model protists. In this study we have conducted a genome-scale survey of medium-length ncRNAs from the protozoan parasites Giardia intestinalis and Trichomonas vaginalis. Results We have identified the previously 'missing' Giardia RNase MRP RNA, which is a key ribozyme involved in pre-rRNA processing. We have also uncovered 18 new H/ACA box snoRNAs, expanding our knowledge of the H/ACA family of snoRNAs. Conclusions Results indicate that Giardia intestinalis and Trichomonas vaginalis, like their distant multicellular relatives, contain a rich infrastructure of RNA-based processing. From here we can investigate the evolution of RNA processing networks in eukaryotes.

  16. The concentration of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in water--the role and importance of recovery efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongerth, Jerry E

    2013-05-01

    The concentration of Cryptosporidium and of Giardia in surface water is a subject of importance to public health and public water supply. The term concentration is a fundamental property of any water quality parameter having a classical definition as used in chemistry and biology. Analytical methods for measuring the occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in water find only a fraction of the organisms actually present. This paper collects recently available data to examine the role and importance of recovery efficiency measurement to description of the concentrations of these organisms. Data from Australian sources graphically illustrate the variability of recovery efficiency at individual sites over relatively short time scales. Additional data on replicated recovery measurements establish their reproducibility. The recently released USEPA LT2 data along with those from Australia illustrate the independent variation of Cryptosporidium and Giardia occurrence and recovery efficiency at individual sampling locations. Calculation of concentration from paired raw numbers and recovery efficiency measurements clearly shows the magnitude and importance of taking recovery into account in expressing the concentration of these organisms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A study on protozoan infections (Giardia, Entamoeba, Isoapora and Cryptosporidium in stray dogs in Ilam province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Kakekhani

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Giardia, Entamoeba, Isospora and Cryptosporidium are important protozoan parastites that caused diarrhea in human and animals. In the present study, fecal samples were collected fresh, directly from the rectum of 112 stray dogs in Ilam province. Giardia and Entamoeba were concentrated by using the formalin ether sedimentation method followed by the trichrome and iodine staining technique andCryptosporidium  oocysts  were  concentrated  by  using  the  formalin  ether  sedimentation  method  followed by the modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique. Of 112 stray dogs, protozoan infections were detected from feces of 46 dogs (41.07% that Giardia infection was detected from feces of 21 dogs (18.75%, Isospora 17 (15.17%, Cryptosporidium 8 (7.14% and synchronization infection to 2 protozoan in 9 dogs (8.03% and to 3 protozoan in 3 (2.67%. In the present study not observed to Entamoeba. No statistically significant differences in prevalence of protozoan parasites occurred between female (34.21 % and male (55.5 % stray dogs (p>0/05. But statistically significant differences in prevalence occurred between 1≥0 and 0 ≥1 stray dogs (p>0/05. So that stray dogs of Ilam province can cause infection of human water and food sources.

  18. Multilocus sequence analysis of Giardia spp. isolated from patients with diarrhea in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mellesia F; Auer, Herbert; Lindo, John F; Walochnik, Julia

    2017-02-01

    Giardia duodenalis is a protozoan parasite causing intestinal infections in a wide range of mammals. Two distinct assemblages, A and B, infect humans predominantly; however, both are believed to be generally zoonotic. Giardia strains associated with infections in Austria have not been investigated at the molecular level. In this study, 65 human stool samples microscopically positive for Giardia spp. were subjected to DNA isolation and nested PCR targeting fragments of the glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), triose phosphate isomerase (tpi), and beta-gardin (bg) genes. A total of 52 samples were successfully analyzed using PCR and DNA sequencing. Assemblage B was detected most frequently and accounted for 65.4% (34/52) of infections, while Assemblage A accounted for 34.6% (18/52). There was a high level of genetic diversity among the isolates with 46.2% designated as sub-assemblage BIV (24/52), 25% sub-assemblage AII (13/52), 19.2% sub-assemblage BIII (10/52), and 9.6% sub-assemblage AI (5/52). No mixed infections were detected. The results suggest that the majority of infections were imported and that endemic anthroponotic transmission plays a minor role in Austria.

  19. Cysteine Protease-Dependent Mucous Disruptions and Differential Mucin Gene Expression in Giardia duodenalis Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amat, Christina B; Motta, Jean-Paul; Fekete, Elena; Moreau, France; Chadee, Kris; Buret, Andre G

    2017-11-01

    The intestinal mucous layer provides a critical host defense against pathogen exposure and epithelial injury, yet little is known about how enteropathogens may circumvent this physiologic barrier. Giardia duodenalis is a small intestinal parasite responsible for diarrheal disease and chronic postinfectious illness. This study reveals a complex interaction at the surface of epithelial cells, between G. duodenalis and the intestinal mucous layer. Here, we reveal mechanisms whereby G. duodenalis evades and disrupts the first line of host defense by degrading human mucin-2 (MUC2), depleting mucin stores and inducing differential gene expression in the mouse small and large intestines. Human colonic biopsy specimens exposed to G. duodenalis were depleted of mucus, and in vivo mice infected with G. duodenalis had a thinner mucous layer and demonstrated differential Muc2 and Muc5ac mucin gene expression. Infection in Muc2 -/- mice elevated trophozoite colonization in the small intestine and impaired weight gain. In vitro, human LS174T goblet-like cells were depleted of mucus and had elevated levels of MUC2 mRNA expression after G. duodenalis exposure. Importantly, the cysteine protease inhibitor E64 prevented mucous degradation, mucin depletion, and the increase in MUC2 expression. This article describes a novel role for Giardia's cysteine proteases in pathogenesis and how Giardia's disruptions of the mucous barrier facilitate bacterial translocation that may contribute to the onset and propagation of disease. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effective Concentration and Detection of Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and the Microsporidia from Environmental Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph A. Moss

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia spp., and members of Microsporidia are enteropathogenic parasites of humans and animals, producing asymptomatic to severe intestinal infections. To circumvent various impediments associated with current detection methods, we tested a method providing multistage purification and separation in a single, confined step. Standard real-time PCR was used as a detection method. Samples spiked with C. parvum and G. intestinalis were split for comparison to standard Method 1623. Results were equivalent to immunomagnetic procedures for Cryptosporidium, and Giardia. Overall percent recovery for Cryptosporidium with Method 1623 averaged 26.89% (std 21.44%; min = 0%; max = 73% and was similar but less variable for qPCR method at an estimated average of 27.67 (std 17.65%; min = 5%; max = 63%. For Giardia, Method 1623 had an overall average recovery of 27.11% (std 17.98%; min = 1%; max = 58%, while multistage purification and qPCR had an estimated lower overall recovery at 18.58% (std 13.95%; min = 0%; max = 35%. Microsporidia were also readily detected with an estimated recovery of 46.81% overall (std 17.66%; min = 18%; max = 70% for E. intestinalis and 38.90% (std 14.36%; min = 13%; max = 62% for E. bieneusi.

  1. Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) with simultaneous intestinal Giardia sp., Spironucleus sp., and trichomonad infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Barbara J; Stockdale Walden, Heather D; Kondo, Hirotaka

    2013-11-01

    A commercial facility producing hamsters with a history of infection by dwarf tapeworm (Hymenolepis nana) submitted 15 animals for necropsy and postmortem parasitological and microscopic examination. No tapeworms were detected grossly or microscopically. Fecal examination including gastrointestinal mucosal smears demonstrated mixed intestinal bacteria and low numbers of Giardia sp. Histologic examination of small intestine demonstrated filling of the small intestinal crypts by large numbers of 7-9 µm × 3 µm, rod to crescent or teardrop-shaped flagellates consistent with Spironucleus sp. These organisms had two 1-µm, basophilic, oval nuclei and multiple superficial flagella-like structures. Much larger 10-15 µm × 8-10 µm, oval to pear-shaped organisms were also present in lower numbers and usually located with the crypts. These larger flagellates had multiple flagella and a basophilic rod-shaped nucleus. The larger flagellates included Giardia sp., which had an intimate interface with the surface of the mucosal epithelium, bilaterally symmetry, and binucleation. Lower numbers of trichomonads were also present and were distinguished by an undulating surface membrane and a single nucleus. The mucosa was hyperplastic and moderately inflamed. Although the tapeworm infection was resolved, diagnosis of multiple intestinal flagellates by fecal examination is complicated by the varying sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy of different types of fecal analysis for different flagellate types. Key differences in the morphology and location of the different types of flagellates as observed by histology of intestinal tissues provide important additional diagnostic information to distinguish trichomonads, Spironucleus sp., and Giardia sp.

  2. First survey of Cryptosporidium, Giardia and Enterocytozoon in diarrhoeic children from Wuhan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Fan, Yingying; Koehler, Anson V; Ma, Guangxu; Li, Tao; Hu, Min; Gasser, Robin B

    2017-07-01

    Intestinal protozoan pathogens cause significant diarrhoeal diseases in children. However, to date, there has been limited genetic study of the intestinal pathogens Cryptosporidium, Giardia and Enterocytozoon in humans in China, with the exception of research in a small number of cities/provinces. In the present study, PCR-based tools were used to detect and characterise these protistan parasites from 500 children with a history of diarrhoea in Wuhan and environs, Hubei province, China. Genomic DNAs from faecal samples were screened for the particular protists by PCR utilising regions in the small subunit (SSU) of the nuclear ribosomal RNA, the 60kDa glycoprotein (gp60), the internal transcribed spacer of nuclear ribosomal DNA (ITS) and/or the triose phosphate isomerase (tpi) genes as markers. Cryptosporidium meleagridis subtype IIIb (10/500, 2.0%), Giardia duodenalis assemblage A (7/500, 1.4%) and Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotype D (1/500, 0.2%) were identified in small percentages of the 500 samples. No significant gender- or age-associated differences in the prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections were found. Future studies might focus on the occurrence of these protists in children as well as animals, with an emphasis on Cryptosporidium meleagridis in pets and agriculturally important birds, in different parts of Hubei province. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterization of RNase MRP RNA and novel snoRNAs from Giardia intestinalis and Trichomonas vaginalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Eukaryotic cells possess a complex network of RNA machineries which function in RNA-processing and cellular regulation which includes transcription, translation, silencing, editing and epigenetic control. Studies of model organisms have shown that many ncRNAs of the RNA-infrastructure are highly conserved, but little is known from non-model protists. In this study we have conducted a genome-scale survey of medium-length ncRNAs from the protozoan parasites Giardia intestinalis and Trichomonas vaginalis. Results We have identified the previously 'missing' Giardia RNase MRP RNA, which is a key ribozyme involved in pre-rRNA processing. We have also uncovered 18 new H/ACA box snoRNAs, expanding our knowledge of the H/ACA family of snoRNAs. Conclusions Results indicate that Giardia intestinalis and Trichomonas vaginalis, like their distant multicellular relatives, contain a rich infrastructure of RNA-based processing. From here we can investigate the evolution of RNA processing networks in eukaryotes. PMID:22053856

  4. Diagnostic challenges of symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremon, Cesare; Bellacosa, Lara; Barbaro, Maria R; Cogliandro, Rosanna F; Stanghellini, Vincenzo; Barbara, Giovanni

    2017-06-01

    Colonic diverticulosis is a common condition in Western industrialized countries occurring in up to 65% of people over the age of 60 years. Only a minority of these subjects (about 10-25%) experience symptoms, fulfilling Rome III Diagnostic Criteria for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) diagnosis (IBS-like symptoms) in 10% to 66% of cases. Symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease (SUDD) is a syndrome characterized by recurrent abdominal symptoms attributed to diverticula in the absence of macroscopically evident alterations other than the presence of diverticula. Due to the different peak of incidence, the overlap between SUDD and IBS is predominantly present in middle-aged or older patients. In these cases, it is very complex to establish if the symptoms are related to the presence of diverticula or due to an overlapping IBS. In fact, the link between gastrointestinal symptoms and diverticula is unclear, and the mechanism by which diverticula may induce the development of IBS-like symptoms remains to be elucidated. Currently, the etiology and pathophysiology of SUDD, particularly when IBS-like symptoms are present, are not completely understood, and thus these two entities remain a diagnostic challenge not only for the general practitioner but also for the gastroenterologist. Although many issues remain open and unresolved, some minimize the importance of a distinction of these two entities as dietary and pharmacological management may be largely overlapping.

  5. [Laparoscopic management of symptomatic urachal anomalies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Ismayel, Alexis; Cruz-González, Germán; Sánchez, Renata; Sánchez-Salas, Rodolfo; Rodríguez, Omaira; Sanabria, Erasmo; Sotelo, Rene; Sánchez-Salas, Rafael E

    2009-03-01

    Acquired urachal anomalies are a rare pathology. Gold-standard treatment for this clinical situation remains the resection of the urachus in its entire tract with or without partial resection of the bladder. Our aim is to up-date authors's experience in the minimally invasive surgical treatment of acquired urachal disease. From 2001 to 2007, 14 patients were operated for acquired urachal disease at our institution. A three portal technique previously described by the authors was employed. The diagnosis of acquired uracal disease was confirmed in all cases and the resection of the urachus in its entire tract performed in cephalocaudal direction onto the bladder. Operative and demographic data was prospectively collected and analysis retrospectively performed. Mean operative time was 63 minutes (45,110), minimal blood loss, and no conversions to open surgery or perioperative complications were verified. The majority of the patients were discharged in the first 24 hours. At a follow-up of 22 months no recurrences of urachal pathology recurrences have been verified. Laparoscopy plays a significant role in the management of symptomatic urachus anomalies. It allows objective confirmation of clinical diagnosis and adequate resection of the urachus in a safe and efficient fashion, while providing the well-known advantages of minimally acces surgery. Preoperative evaluation work-up has minimal impact of therapeutical decision.

  6. Acute symptomatic hyponatremia in a flight attendant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madero, Magdalena; Monares, Enrique; Domínguez, Aurelio Méndez; Ayus, Juan Carlos

    2015-08-01

    Acute symptomatic hyponatremia after thiazide diuretic initiation is a medical emergency. Here we describe the case of a flight attendant who developed acute hyponatremia during a flight and the potential risk factors for developing this condition. A 57-year-old flight attendant with history of essential hypertension was recently started on a thiazide diuretic. As she did routinely when working, she increased her water intake during a flight from London to Mexico City. She complained of nausea and headache during the flight. Upon arrival, she developed severe disorientation and presented to the hospital emergency room (ER) with a Glasgow scale of 12, hypoxia, and a generalized tonic clonic seizure. Her laboratory results on arrival were consistent with severe hyponatremia (serum Na 116 mEql/L) and severe cerebral edema by CT scan. She was treated with hypertonic saline, with complete resolution of the neurologic symptoms. We describe high water intake and hypoxia related to decreased partial pressure of oxygen in the cabin as the two main risk factors for thiazide-induced acute hyponatremia in this case.

  7. Neonatal management of symptomatic transplacental cryoglobulinaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugel, V; Goetz, J; Wolff, S; Beladdale, J; Sibilia, J; Messer, J

    2004-04-01

    This study reports the first case of symptomatic placental transfer of cryoglobulins and discusses the potential pathogenic processes and the basic guidelines for neonatal management. A 32-y-old woman was affected by essential type I cryoglobulinaemia and displayed the cold-triggered cutaneous symptoms of the disease due to a monoclonal immunoglobulin G (IgG) cryoglobulin. She gave birth to healthy dizygotic twins who were placed in incubators immediately after birth and did not show any cutaneous or visceral lesion in the first 2 d. Cyanotic macules appeared on the hand and foot of one of the newborns when they were removed from the incubators. The same monoclonal IgG-lambda cryoglobulin was identified in the two newborns' cord blood and in the mother's serum. The skin lesions disappeared within 1 wk as both twins were transiently replaced in incubators. No recurrence of skin lesions was observed even at room temperature and, 6 mo later, both twins were healthy and their clinical examination was normal. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of placental transfer of cryoglobulins and the first description of any neonatal effect. Neonates born to mothers suffering from IgG cryoglobulinaemia should be protected against cold to avoid precipitation of the pathogenic cryoglobulins, until spontaneous resolution.

  8. Characterization of the Giardia intestinalis secretome during interaction with human intestinal epithelial cells: The impact on host cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma'ayeh, Showgy Y; Liu, Jingyi; Peirasmaki, Dimitra; Hörnaeus, Katarina; Bergström Lind, Sara; Grabherr, Manfred; Bergquist, Jonas; Svärd, Staffan G

    2017-12-01

    Giardia intestinalis is a non-invasive protozoan parasite that causes giardiasis in humans, the most common form of parasite-induced diarrhea. Disease mechanisms are not completely defined and very few virulence factors are known. To identify putative virulence factors and elucidate mechanistic pathways leading to disease, we have used proteomics to identify the major excretory-secretory products (ESPs) when Giardia trophozoites of WB and GS isolates (assemblages A and B, respectively) interact with intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) in vitro. The main parts of the IEC and parasite secretomes are constitutively released proteins, the majority of which are associated with metabolism but several proteins are released in response to their interaction (87 and 41 WB and GS proteins, respectively, 76 and 45 human proteins in response to the respective isolates). In parasitized IECs, the secretome profile indicated effects on the cell actin cytoskeleton and the induction of immune responses whereas that of Giardia showed anti-oxidation, proteolysis (protease-associated) and induction of encystation responses. The Giardia secretome also contained immunodominant and glycosylated proteins as well as new candidate virulence factors and assemblage-specific differences were identified. A minor part of Giardia ESPs had signal peptides (29% for both isolates) and extracellular vesicles were detected in the ESPs fractions, suggesting alternative secretory pathways. Microscopic analyses showed ESPs binding to IECs and partial internalization. Parasite ESPs reduced ERK1/2 and P38 phosphorylation and NF-κB nuclear translocation. Giardia ESPs altered gene expression in IECs, with a transcriptional profile indicating recruitment of immune cells via chemokines, disturbances in glucose homeostasis, cholesterol and lipid metabolism, cell cycle and induction of apoptosis. This is the first study identifying Giardia ESPs and evaluating their effects on IECs. It highlights the importance of

  9. Characterization of the Giardia intestinalis secretome during interaction with human intestinal epithelial cells: The impact on host cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Showgy Y Ma'ayeh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Giardia intestinalis is a non-invasive protozoan parasite that causes giardiasis in humans, the most common form of parasite-induced diarrhea. Disease mechanisms are not completely defined and very few virulence factors are known.To identify putative virulence factors and elucidate mechanistic pathways leading to disease, we have used proteomics to identify the major excretory-secretory products (ESPs when Giardia trophozoites of WB and GS isolates (assemblages A and B, respectively interact with intestinal epithelial cells (IECs in vitro.The main parts of the IEC and parasite secretomes are constitutively released proteins, the majority of which are associated with metabolism but several proteins are released in response to their interaction (87 and 41 WB and GS proteins, respectively, 76 and 45 human proteins in response to the respective isolates. In parasitized IECs, the secretome profile indicated effects on the cell actin cytoskeleton and the induction of immune responses whereas that of Giardia showed anti-oxidation, proteolysis (protease-associated and induction of encystation responses. The Giardia secretome also contained immunodominant and glycosylated proteins as well as new candidate virulence factors and assemblage-specific differences were identified. A minor part of Giardia ESPs had signal peptides (29% for both isolates and extracellular vesicles were detected in the ESPs fractions, suggesting alternative secretory pathways. Microscopic analyses showed ESPs binding to IECs and partial internalization. Parasite ESPs reduced ERK1/2 and P38 phosphorylation and NF-κB nuclear translocation. Giardia ESPs altered gene expression in IECs, with a transcriptional profile indicating recruitment of immune cells via chemokines, disturbances in glucose homeostasis, cholesterol and lipid metabolism, cell cycle and induction of apoptosis.This is the first study identifying Giardia ESPs and evaluating their effects on IECs. It highlights the

  10. Vegetarian diet as a risk factor for symptomatic gallstone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, T J; Appleby, P N; Key, T J

    2017-06-01

    Previous small studies have shown either no difference or a lower risk of symptomatic gallstone disease in vegetarians than in non-vegetarians. This study examined the incidence of symptomatic gallstone disease in a cohort of British vegetarians and non-vegetarians, and investigated the associations between nutrient intake and risk of symptomatic gallstone disease. The data were analysed from 49 652 adults enroled in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Oxford study, one-third of whom were vegetarian. The linked databases of hospital records were used to identify incident cases. Risk by diet group was estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. Further analysis quantified risk by intakes of selected macronutrients. There were 1182 cases of symptomatic gallstone disease during 687 822 person-years of follow-up (mean=13.85 years). There was a large significant association between increasing body mass index (BMI) and risk of developing symptomatic gallstone disease (overall trend Pvegetarians had a moderately increased risk compared with non-vegetarians (HR: 1.22; 95% CI: 1.06-1.41; P=0.006). Although starch consumption was positively associated with gallstones risk (P=0.002 for trend), it did not explain the increased risk in vegetarians. There is a highly significant association of increased BMI with risk of symptomatic gallstone disease. After adjusting for BMI, there is a small but statistically significant positive association between vegetarian diet and symptomatic gallstone disease.

  11. Occurrence of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in sewage and their reduction in treatment process; Gesuichu no Giardia shisuto oyobi Cryptosporidium oshisuto noudo to gesui syori ni okeru jyokyosei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, A.; Hirata, T. [Azabu University, Kanagawa (Japan); Magara, Y. [National Institute of Public Health, Tokyo (Japan); Ogaki, S. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-06-10

    Recently, the water system infection owing to protozoan, virus and so on which is different from the conventional infection like represented by bacteria, is reported. There are few examples for the infection conditional study and epidemiological investigation of these protozoan and virus in Japan. Authors carried out a field survey at nine sewage treatment plants, in order to investigate the occurrence of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in raw sewage and the removal in sewage treatment processes. As a result, in all plants, Giardia cysts were detected in raw sewage and effluent of primary sedimentation. Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected from only one raw sewage sample. Indicator bacteria counts tested, C.perfringens spores, coliforms and E.coli, were statistically correlated with Giardia cyst densities and the most significant relationship was observed between C.perfringens spore counts and Giardia cyst densities. It was found that turbidity was the most appropriate indicator for Giardia cyst removal in activated sludge treatment process. 18 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Pediatric intracerebral hemorrhage: acute symptomatic seizures and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beslow, Lauren A; Abend, Nicholas S; Gindville, Melissa C; Bastian, Rachel A; Licht, Daniel J; Smith, Sabrina E; Hillis, Argye E; Ichord, Rebecca N; Jordan, Lori C

    2013-04-01

    Seizures are believed to be common presenting symptoms in neonates and children with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). However, few data are available on the epidemiology of acute symptomatic seizures or the risk for later epilepsy. To define the incidence of and explore risk factors for seizures and epilepsy in children with spontaneous ICH. Our a priori hypotheses were that younger age at presentation, cortical involvement of ICH, acute symptomatic seizures after presentation, ICH due to vascular malformation, and elevated intracranial pressure requiring urgent intervention would predict remote symptomatic seizures and epilepsy. Prospective cohort study conducted between March 1, 2007, and January 1, 2012. Three tertiary care pediatric hospitals. Seventy-three pediatric subjects with spontaneous ICH including 20 perinatal (≥37 weeks' gestation to 28 days) and 53 childhood subjects (>28 days to Acute symptomatic seizures (clinically evident and electrographic-only seizures within 7 days), remote symptomatic seizures, and epilepsy. Acute symptomatic seizures occurred in 35 subjects (48%). Acute symptomatic seizures as a presenting symptom of ICH occurred in 12 perinatal (60%) and 19 childhood (36%) subjects (P = .07). Acute symptomatic seizures after presentation occurred in 7 children. Electrographic-only seizures were present in 9 of 32 subjects (28%) with continuous electroencephalogram monitoring. One-year and 2-year remote symptomatic seizure-free survival rates were 82% (95% CI, 68-90) and 67% (95% CI, 46-82), respectively. One-year and 2-year epilepsy-free survival rates were 96% (95% CI, 83-99) and 87% (95% CI, 65-95), respectively. Elevated intracranial pressure requiring acute intervention was a risk factor for seizures after presentation (P = .01; Fisher exact test), remote symptomatic seizures, and epilepsy (P = .03, and P = .04, respectively; log-rank test). Presenting seizures are common in perinatal and childhood ICH. Continuous

  13. Placental histopathology lesions and pregnancy outcome in pregnancies complicated with symptomatic vs. non-symptomatic placenta previa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Eran; Miremberg, Hadas; Grinstein, Ehud; Schreiber, Letizia; Ginath, Shimon; Bar, Jacob; Kovo, Michal

    2016-10-01

    The mechanisms involved in bleeding in cases of placenta previa (PP) and the effect on pregnancy outcome is unclear. We aimed to compare pregnancy outcome and placental histopathology in pregnancies complicated with symptomatic (bleeding) vs. non-symptomatic PP, and to study the effects of the co-existence of histopathological retro-placental hemorrhage (RPH) in cases of symptomatic PP on neonatal and maternal outcomes. Labor and maternal characteristics, neonatal outcome and placental histopathology lesions of pregnancies with PP, delivered between 24 and 42weeks, during 2009-2015, were reviewed. Results were compared between PP who had elective cesarean delivery (CD) (previa group) and PP with bleeding necessitating emergent CD (symptomatic previa group). Placental lesions were classified to lesions consistent with maternal malperfusion or fetal thrombo-occlusive disease (vascular and villous changes), and inflammatory lesions. Compared to the previa group (n=63), the symptomatic previa group (n=74) was characterized by older patients (pPlacentas within the symptomatic previa group were smaller, with higher rates of weightplacenta previa is associated with increased placental malperfusion lesions suggesting an association of maternal malperfusion with abnormal placental separation. The coexisting finding of RPH with symptomatic placenta previa can be seen as a marker for more extensive/severe placental separation, hence the association with maternal transfusion requirements and poorer fetal outcome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in a public water-treatment system, Paraná, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonatas Campos Almeida

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in a public water-treatment system. Samples of raw and treated water were collected and concentrated using the membrane filtration technique. Direct Immunofluorescence Test was performed on the samples. DNA extraction using a commercial kit was performed and the DNA extracted was submitted to a nested-PCR reaction (n-PCR and sequencing. In the immunofluorescence, 2/24 (8.33% samples of raw water were positive for Giardia spp.. In n-PCR and sequencing, 2/24 (8.33% samples of raw water were positive for Giardia spp., and 2/24 (8.33% samples were positive for Cryptosporidium spp.. The sequencing showed Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia duodenalis DNA. In raw water, there was moderate correlation among turbidity, color and Cryptosporidium spp. and between turbidity and Giardia spp.. The presence of these protozoans in the water indicates the need for monitoring for water-treatment companies.

  15. Analysis of clinical manifestations of symptomatic acquired jejunoileal diverticular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Chia-Yuan; Chang, Wen-Hsiung; Lin, Shee-Chan; Chu, Cheng-Hsin; Wang, Tsang-En; Shih, Shou-Chuan

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To analyze systematically our experience over 22 years with symptomatic acquired diverticular disease of the jejunum and ileum, exploring the clinical manifestations and diagnosis of this rare but life-threatening disease.

  16. Surgical aspects of symptomatic cholecystolithiasis and acute cholecystitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keus, F.; Broeders, I. A. M. J.; van Laarhoven, C. J. H. M.

    2006-01-01

    Indications for cholecystectomy are limited to clearly symptomatic gallstones. Relatively high failure rates of pain relief are probably caused by incorrect selection of patients for the operation. Contraindications for (laparoscopic) cholecystectomy are related to anaesthesiological considerations.

  17. ACUTE NEUROINFECTIONS AND SYMPTOMATIC EPILEPSY IN CHILDREN: CAUSAL RELATIONSHIP (review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Yu. Gorelik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Convulsions in case of acute neuroinfections can both complicate the disease course and transfer to symptomatic epilepsy which is one of the most important medical and social problems. The review article presents the data on epidemiology of convulsive disorder and symptomatic epilepsy in case of neuroinfections in children. There are considered the current immune and biochemical aspects of epileptogenesis in case of infectious pathology. There is given the information on neurophysiological and radial features of symptomatic epilepsy developed in case of neuroinfections of different etiology. There is underlined the practical significance of timely complex etio-pathogenetic therapy for neuroinfections complicated by convulsion that allows to reduce the frequency of symptomatic epilepsy development. There are presented the data on the results of transcranial magnetic stimulation in case of refractory epilepsy.

  18. Urinary nitrite in symptomatic and asymptomatic urinary infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, H R; McCredie, D A; Ritchie, M A

    1987-01-01

    The dipstrip test for urinary nitrite is fairly unreliable in symptomatic urinary infections and only 104 (52%) of 200 symptomatic children with urinary infection attending an emergency department had a positive result. The test yielded positive results, however, in 83 of 100 outpatients with largely asymptomatic urinary infection attending a follow up clinic because of known predisposition to urinary infection. This difference was highly significant. The finding of urinary nitrite is highly ...

  19. The incidence of symptomatic malrotation post gastroschisis repair.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Abdelhafeez, A

    2011-12-01

    Gastroschisis is known to be associated with abnormal bowel rotation. Currently, the broadly accepted practice is not to perform Ladd\\'s procedure routinely at the time of closure of gastroschisis defects. However the incidence of symptomatic malrotation and volvulus post gastroschisis repair is unknown; this incidence is important in view of the current practice of bedside gastroschisis closure. This study examined the incidence of symptomatic malrotation and volvulus following gastroschisis repair.

  20. Mechanisms of symptomatic spinal cord ischemia after TEVAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czerny, Martin; Eggebrecht, Holger; Sodeck, Gottfried

    2012-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that simultaneous closure of at least 2 independent vascular territories supplying the spinal cord and/or prolonged hypotension may be associated with symptomatic spinal cord ischemia (SCI) after thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR).......To test the hypothesis that simultaneous closure of at least 2 independent vascular territories supplying the spinal cord and/or prolonged hypotension may be associated with symptomatic spinal cord ischemia (SCI) after thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR)....

  1. Symptomatic Diverticulosis Is Characterized By Loose Stools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järbrink-Sehgal, M Ellionore; Andreasson, Anna; Talley, Nicholas J; Agréus, Lars; Song, Jeong-Yeop; Schmidt, Peter T

    2016-12-01

    Symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease is considered to be a discreet clinical entity distinct from irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), but population-based data are unavailable. We aimed to investigate the prevalence and location of diverticulosis in the general population, and its association with colonic symptoms and mental health. We propose that individuals with diverticulosis would report more constipation and IBS. We performed a population-based study of randomly selected adults born in Sweden (age, 18-70 y; 57.2% women); 745 received a gastroenterology consultation, completed validated abdominal symptom and mental health questionnaires, and were examined by colonoscopy. Logistic regression was used to calculate the associations between diverticulosis and age, sex, gastrointestinal symptoms, anxiety, depression, and self-rated health. Among the 742 participants (54.6% women), 130 (17.5%) had diverticulosis. Age was the strongest predictor of diverticulosis (P diverticulosis was rare in participants younger than 40 years (0.7%). All participants with diverticulosis had sigmoid involvement. Participants with diverticulosis were more likely to report loose stools (odds ratio [OR], 1.88; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-2.96), urgency (OR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.02-2.63), passing mucus (OR, 2.26; 95% CI, 1.08-4.72), and a high stool frequency (OR, 2.02; 95% CI, 1.11-3.65). Diverticulosis was associated with abdominal pain (OR, 2.10; 95% CI, 1.01-4.36; P = .047) and diarrhea-predominant IBS (OR, 9.55; 95% CI, 1.08-84.08; P = .04) in participants older than 60 years. The presence of anxiety and depression and self-rated health were similar in participants with and without diverticulosis. The prevalence of diverticulosis is age-dependent. Diverticulosis is associated with diarrhea in subjects across all age ranges. In subjects older than age 60, diverticulosis is associated with abdominal pain and diarrhea-predominant IBS. Copyright © 2016 AGA Institute

  2. Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium occurrence in Australian sea lions (Neophoca cinerea exposed to varied levels of human interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany C. Delport

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Giardia and Cryptosporidium are amongst the most common protozoan parasites identified as causing enteric disease in pinnipeds. A number of Giardia assemblages and Cryptosporidium species and genotypes are common in humans and terrestrial mammals and have also been identified in marine mammals. To investigate the occurrence of these parasites in an endangered marine mammal, the Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea, genomic DNA was extracted from faecal samples collected from wild populations (n = 271 in Southern and Western Australia and three Australian captive populations (n = 19. These were screened using PCR targeting the 18S rRNA of Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Giardia duodenalis was detected in 28 wild sea lions and in seven captive individuals. Successful sequencing of the 18S rRNA gene assigned 27 Giardia isolates to assemblage B and one to assemblage A, both assemblages commonly found in humans. Subsequent screening at the gdh and β-giardin loci resulted in amplification of only one of the 35 18S rRNA positive samples at the β-giardin locus. Sequencing at the β-giardin locus assigned the assemblage B 18S rRNA confirmed isolate to assemblage AI. The geographic distribution of sea lion populations sampled in relation to human settlements indicated that Giardia presence in sea lions was highest in populations less than 25 km from humans. Cryptosporidium was not detected by PCR screening in either wild colonies or captive sea lion populations. These data suggest that the presence of G. duodenalis in the endangered Australian sea lion is likely the result of dispersal from human sources. Multilocus molecular analyses are essential for the determination of G. duodenalis assemblages and subsequent inferences on transmission routes to endangered marine mammal populations.

  3. Changing Patterns of Gastrointestinal Parasite Infections in Cambodian Children: 2006–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hor, Put Chhat; Soeng, Sona; Sun, Sopheary; Lee, Sue J.; Parry, Christopher M.; Day, Nicholas P. J.; Stoesser, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    We studied gastrointestinal parasites in symptomatic Cambodian children attending a provincial hospital in Siem Reap, Cambodia between 2006 and 2011. A total of 16 372 faecal samples were examined by direct microscopy. Parasites were detected in 3121 (19.1%) samples and most common were Giardia lamblia (8.0% of samples; 47.6% disease episodes), hookworm (5.1%; 30.3%) and Strongyloides stercoralis (2.6%; 15.6%). The proportion of infected children increased, and the number of disease episodes effectively treated with a single dose of mebendazole decreased, over the 5-year period. PMID:22723077

  4. Prevalence of Intestinal Protozoan Parasites Infection among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out to determine the prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia among primary school pupils in four communities of Bosso Local Government Area in Niger State, Nigeria. Stool samples from 250 pupils were collected and examined for Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia using ...

  5. First report of Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. in fecal samples in blue macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Hillard Farret

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the gastrointestinal parasitism by Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. in blue macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus in the southern region of Brazil. Fecal samples of two species kept in captivity in the state of Rio Grande do Sul were analyzed by the direct smear method, centrifugal flotation technique with zinc sulfate and Kinyoun staining technique for research of parasites. Mixed infection by eggs of Capillaria, cysts of Giardia sp. and oocysts of Cryptosporidium sp. was observed. This is the first report this protozoa in blue macaw.

  6. Estimating Cryptosporidium and Giardia disease burdens for children drinking untreated groundwater in a rural population in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Miles E; Smith, Woutrina A; Jenkins, Marion W

    2018-01-01

    In many low-income settings, despite improvements in sanitation and hygiene, groundwater sources used for drinking may be contaminated with enteric pathogens such as Cryptosporidium and Giardia, which remain important causes of childhood morbidity. In this study, we examined the contribution of diarrhea caused by Cryptosporidium and Giardia found in groundwater sources used for drinking to the total burden of diarrheal disease among children < 5 in rural India. We studied a population of 3,385 children < 5 years of age in 100 communities of Puri District, Odisha, India. We developed a coupled quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) and susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) population model based on observed levels of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in improved groundwater sources used for drinking and compared the QMRA-SIR estimates with independently measured all-cause (i.e., all fecal-oral enteric pathogens and exposure pathways) child diarrhea prevalence rates observed in the study population during two monsoon seasons (2012 and 2013). We used site specific and regional studies to inform assumptions about the human pathogenicity of the Cryptosporidium and Giardia species present in local groundwater. In all three human pathogenicity scenarios evaluated, the mean daily risk of Cryptosporidium or Giardia infection (0.06-1.53%), far exceeded the tolerable daily risk of infection from drinking water in the US (< 0.0001%). Depending on which protozoa species were present, median estimates of daily child diarrhea prevalence due to either Cryptosporidium or Giardia infection from drinking water was as high as 6.5% or as low as < 1% and accounted for at least 2.9% and as much as 65.8% of the all-cause diarrhea disease burden measured in children < 5 during the study period. Cryptosporidium tended to account for a greater share of estimated waterborne protozoa infections causing diarrhea than did Giardia. Diarrhea prevalence estimates for waterborne Cryptosporidium

  7. Prevalence of Giardia Duodenalis Infection in Household Cats of Ahvaz District, South-West of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR Alborzi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The occurrence of Giardia duodenalis in cats is of potential significance from both clinical and public health perspectives. The object of this study was antigenic detection of G. duo­denalis in house­hold cats of Ahvaz district, South-West of Iran.Methods: The prevalence of G. duodenalis was determined in fecal samples by two techniques: centrifuga­tion-flotation and a commercial Giardia Antigen Test Kit (immunochromatography assay in 150 household cats of different ages among referred cases to Veterinary Hospital of Ahvaz University from January 2008 to February 2010.Results: Five out of 150 fecal samples (3.33% were positive for antigen of G. duodenalis by immunochromatography assay. The prevalence was significantly higher in young cats less than 6 months (15.79% compared with adult cats 6 months - 3 years (1.37% (P=0.027 and above 3 years (1.72% (P=0.044. The infection had more prevalence in diarrheic cats (17.39% com­pared with non-diarrheic cats (0.79% and the difference was significant (P=0.02 as well. The prevalence was higher in male cats (3.41% than females (3.23% and in the season of autumn (6.06%, but the difference was not significant between the prevalence of infection relative to host gender and season (P>0.05. Microscopy examination on fecal samples showed that 2% of the studied cats were positive.Conclusion: The parasite antigen was present as a zoonotic infection in Ahvaz district, South-west of Iran. More sensitive techniques, such as immunochromatography assay, might yield more reli­able results, in the detection of low levels of Giardia in fecal samples of cats.

  8. Spatial and Molecular Epidemiology of Giardia intestinalis Deep in the Amazon, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Coronato Nunes

    Full Text Available Current control policies for intestinal parasitosis focuses on soil-transmitted helminths, being ineffective against Giardia intestinalis, a highly prevalent protozoon that impacts children's nutritional status in developing countries. The objective of this study was to explore spatial and molecular epidemiology of Giardia intestinalis in children of Amerindian descent in the Brazilian Amazon.A cross sectional survey was performed in the Brazilian Amazon with 433 children aged 1 to 14 years. Fecal samples were processed through parasitological techniques and molecular characterization. Prevalence of G. intestinalis infection was 16.9% (73/433, reaching 22.2% (35/158 among children aged 2-5 years, and a wide distribution throughout the city with some hot spots. Positivity-rate was similar among children living in distinct socioeconomic strata (48/280 [17.1%] and 19/116 [16.4%] below and above the poverty line, respectively. Sequencing of the β-giardin gene revealed 52.2% (n = 12 of assemblage A and 47.8% (n = 11 of assemblage B with high haplotype diversity for the latter. The isolates clustered into two well-supported G. intestinalis clades. A total of 38 haplotypes were obtained, with the following subassemblages distribution: 5.3% (n = 2 AII, 26.3% (n = 10 AIII, 7.9% (n = 3 BIII, and 60.5% (n = 23 new B genotypes not previously described.Giardia intestinalis infection presents a high prevalence rate among Amerindian descended children living in Santa Isabel do Rio Negro/Amazon. The wide distribution observed in a small city suggests the presence of multiple sources of infection, which could be related to environmental contamination with feces, possibly of human and animal origin, highlighting the need of improving sanitation, safe water supply and access to diagnosis and adequate treatment of infections.

  9. Molecular characterization of Giardia duodenalis cysts in the Oreto River (Sicily, Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Antonella Di Benedetto

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: The presence of Giardia was investigated along the Oreto river between January 2008 and May 2009 with the aim of understanding the source of contamination by molecular typing of cysts.

    Methods: A total of 38 water samples (10 collected from the river mouth, 24 from the whole Oreto basin and 4 sewage samples from the Monreale treatment plant were processed. In addition, 22 faecal samples of livestock living close to the Oreto area, were analyzed. The presence of Giardia was determined by immunofluorescence assay and their genetic characterization was achieved by a nested PCR assay targeting the triosephosphate isomerase gene.

    Results: All water samples from the river mouth were positive for Giardia, even if the concentration of cysts fluctuated considerably among sampling occasions. Our investigation showed that the Vadduneddu and Altofonte torrents, two influents of the river, were the principal sources of contamination. Moreover, the genotypes of Vadduneddu torrent were the same as those detected in human wastewater taken from the activated sludge plant of Monreale city. Assemblages A and B were found in water samples with a predominance of Assemblage A, subtype AII. Assemblage E was only found in a single calf isolate.

    Conclusions: The data show that the high cyst counts regularly detected in the Oreto river are due to contamination with wastewater of human origin. This finding is relevant for public health, particularly because river water is used for agricultural purposes.

  10. Molecular typing of Giardia duodenalis isolates from nonhuman primates housed IN a Brazilian zoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Érica Boarato; Patti, Mariella; Coradi, Silvana Torossian; Oliveira-Sequeira, Teresa Cristina Goulart; Ribolla, Paulo Eduardo Martins; Guimarães, Semíramis

    2014-01-01

    Giardia infections in captive nonhuman primates (NHP) housed at a Brazilian zoo were investigated in order to address their zoonotic potential. Fresh fecal samples were collected from the floors of 22 enclosures where 47 primates of 18 different species were housed. The diagnosis of intestinal parasites after concentration by sedimentation and flotation methods revealed the following parasites and their frequencies: Giardia (18%); Entamoeba spp. (18%); Endolimax nana (4.5%); Iodamoeba spp. (4.5%); Oxyurid (4.5%) and Strongylid (4.5%). Genomic DNA extracted from all samples was processed by PCR methods in order to amplify fragments of gdh and tpi genes of Giardia. Amplicons were obtained from samples of Ateles belzebuth, Alouatta caraya, Alouatta fusca and Alouatta seniculus. Clear sequences were only obtained for the isolates from Ateles belzebuth (BA1), Alouatta fusca (BA2) and Alouatta caraya (BA3). According to the phenetic analyses of these sequences, all were classified as assemblage A. For the tpi gene, all three isolates were grouped into sub-assemblage AII (BA1, BA2 and BA3) whereas for the gdh gene, only BA3 was sub-assemblage AII, and the BA1 and BA2 were sub-assemblage AI. Considering the zoonotic potential of the assemblage A, and that the animals of the present study show no clinical signs of infection, the data obtained here stresses that regular coproparasitological surveys are necessary to implement preventive measures and safeguard the health of the captive animals, of their caretakers and of people visiting the zoological gardens.

  11. Prevalence and genetic characterization of Cryptosporidium, Enterocytozoon, Giardia and Cyclospora in diarrheal outpatients in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hua; Shen, Yujuan; Yin, Jianhai; Yuan, Zhongying; Jiang, Yanyan; Xu, Yuxin; Pan, Wei; Hu, Yuan; Cao, Jianping

    2014-01-13

    Cryptosporidium spp., Enterocytozoon spp., Giardia spp. and Cyclospora spp. are important intestinal protozoan parasites causing diarrhea in humans, livestocks and wildlife and have a significant impact on public health. No reports exist about simultaneous prevalence rates or genotyping data of these four parasites in outpatients from China. Fecal specimens from 252 diarrhea patients in a pediatric clinic (n = 169) and an intestinal clinic (n = 83) of a hospital in Shanghai, China, were collected between October 2012 and March 2013. All samples were examined for the presence of the four parasites by using molecular methods. In total, 76/252 (30.16%) patients were positive for at least one intestinal parasite, of which Cryptosporidium spp., Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Giardia intestinalis were detected by nested PCR in 34 (13.49%), 34 (13.49%) and 17 (6.75%) of the fecal specimens, respectively. Sequence analysis showed that all Cryptosporidium-positive specimens were C. andersoni and that most G. intestinalis- positive patients were infected by assemblage C, which is usually found in canids, while only one sample was from assemblage B. Eight patients were co-infected with Cryptosporidium spp. and Enterocytozoon, while one was co-infected with Cryptosporidium and Giardia. The patients infected with Cryptosporidium and Enterocytozoon bieneusi had higher infection rates in winter than in spring in this area. Data indicated that C. andersoni is the fourth major Cryptosporidium species infecting humans in addition to C. hominis, C. parvum and C. meleagridis. Our study also revealed a short-term outbreak of cryptosporidiosis and microsporidiosis and sporadic cases of giardiasis that occurred among humans in Shanghai, China.

  12. Arginine consumption by the intestinal parasite Giardia intestinalis reduces proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadelmann, Britta; Merino, María C; Persson, Lo; Svärd, Staffan G

    2012-01-01

    In the field of infectious diseases the multifaceted amino acid arginine has reached special attention as substrate for the hosts production of the antimicrobial agent nitric oxide (NO). A variety of infectious organisms interfere with this part of the host immune response by reducing the availability of arginine. This prompted us to further investigate additional roles of arginine during pathogen infections. As a model we used the intestinal parasite Giardia intestinalis that actively consumes arginine as main energy source and secretes an arginine-consuming enzyme, arginine deiminase (ADI). Reduced intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) proliferation is a common theme during bacterial and viral intestinal infections, but it has never been connected to arginine-consumption. Our specific question was thereby, whether the arginine-consumption by Giardia leads to reduced IEC proliferation, in addition to NO reduction. In vitro cultivation of human IEC lines in arginine-free or arginine/citrulline-complemented medium, as well as in interaction with different G. intestinalis isolates, were used to study effects on host cell replication by MTT assay. IEC proliferation was further analyzed by DNA content analysis, polyamine measurements and expressional analysis of cell cycle regulatory genes. IEC proliferation was reduced upon arginine-withdrawal and also in an arginine-dependent manner upon interaction with G. intestinalis or addition of Giardia ADI. We show that arginine-withdrawal by intestinal pathogens leads to a halt in the cell cycle in IECs through reduced polyamine levels and upregulated cell cycle inhibitory genes. This is of importance with regards to intestinal tissue homeostasis that is affected through reduced cell proliferation. Thus, the slower epithelial cell turnover helps the pathogen to maintain a more stable niche for colonization. This study also shows why supplementation therapy of diarrhea patients with arginine/citrulline is helpful and that

  13. Evidence of heterozygosity and recombinant alleles in single cysts of Giardia duodenalis

    OpenAIRE

    Aguiar, Juliana Martins; Silva, Sheila Oliveira; Santos, Valdir Azevedo dos; Taniwaki, Sueli Akemi; Oliveira, Tricia Maria Ferreira de Sousa; Ferreira, Helena Lage; Keid, Lara Borges; Gregori, Fábio; Soares, Rodrigo Martins

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Giardia duodenalis is divided into eight assemblages (named A to H). Isolates of assemblage A are divided into four sub-assemblages (AI, AII, AIII and AIV). While isolates of sub-assemblage AII are almost exclusively detected in human hosts, isolates of assemblage B are encountered in a multitude of animal hosts and humans. Here, we isolated single cysts of G. duodenalis from a human stool sample and found that one of them had overlaps of assemblage AII and B alleles and an unexpecte...

  14. Age and sex distribution of infections with Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia intestinalis in the Lagos population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyerinde, J P; Ogunbi, O; Alonge, A A

    1977-09-01

    Stool samples were collected from 2,099 persons and examined for parasites: 9.5 percent were infected with Entamoeba histolytica, 7.9 percent were infected with Giardia intestinalis and 15.5 percent were infected with Iodamoeba butschlii. The infections with E. histolytica and I. butschlii occurred more frequently in females than in males and adults were also more frequently infected than children. Infection with G. intestinalis, on the other hand, was more prevalent in males than in females and children were more frequently infected than adults with the highest incidence of infection (13.8 percent) in the age-group 1-5 years.

  15. Evaluation of soil homogenization techniques for detection of Giardia duodenalis cysts

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Clarisse M. Boni de; Franco, Regina M Bueno

    2012-01-01

    O solo é uma das vias de transmissão do protozoário Giardia duodenalis, que pode causar a doença global giardiose, gastroenterite de severidade variável. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar diferentes formas de homogeneização de amostras de solo visando saber qual delas é mais eficiente para detecção e recuperação de cistos. Foram realizados quatro tratamentos de homogeneização com quatro réplicas cada. Cada réplica continha 10 g de solo contaminado com uma concentração 500 cistos, umedecid...

  16. One-hour PTH after thyroidectomy predicts symptomatic hypocalcemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Michael G; James, Benjamin C; Nocon, Cheryl; Nagar, Sapna; Kaplan, Edwin L; Angelos, Peter; Grogan, Raymon H

    2016-04-01

    A major morbidity after total thyroidectomy is hypocalcemia. Although many clinical factors and laboratory studies have been correlated with both biochemical and symptomatic hypocalcemia, the ideal use and timing of these tests remain unclear. We hypothesize 1-h (PACU) parathyroid hormone (PTH) will identify patients at risk for symptomatic hypocalcemia. This prospective study evaluated 196 patients undergoing total thyroidectomy. Serum calcium and PTH levels were measured 1 h after surgery and on postoperative day 1 (POD1). Performance of a central compartment lymph node dissection, parathyroid autotransplantation, indication for procedure, pathology, and presence of parathyroid tissue in the pathology specimen were recorded. Of 196 patients, nine (4.6%) developed symptomatic hypocalcemia. Thirty four (17.3%) had a 1-h PACU PTH ≤10 pg/dL, whereas 31 (15.8%) had a POD1 PTH of ≤10. Five (56%) of the nine symptomatic patients underwent central compartment lymph node dissection, four (44%) had parathyroid autotransplantation, and four (44%) had a PACU PTH ≤10. PACU and POD1 PTH levels were correlated (R(2) = 0.682). Multivariate regression identified central compartment dissection, autotransplantation, and PACU or POD1 PTH correlated with symptomatic hypocalcemia. PACU PTH, POD1 PTH, PACU Ca, malignant final pathology, and age ≤45 y correlated with biochemical hypocalcemia. A 1-h postoperative PACU PTH is equivalent to POD1 PTH in predicting the development of symptomatic hypocalcemia. Biochemical hypocalcemia was not predictive of symptoms in the immediate postoperative period. Lymph node dissection and parathyroid autotransplantation correlated with symptomatic hypocalcemia and improve the sensitivity of biochemical screening alone. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Physical activity and exercise performance in symptomatic Cambodia veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, M; Soetekouw, P M M B; Van Der Meer, J W M; Folgering, H; Bleijenberg, G

    2002-02-01

    Dutch (ex-)servicemen who encounter health problems since return from the 1992-3 peace operation UNTAC, commonly complain of reduced activity levels, decreases in physical fitness and aggravation of symptoms after strenuous exercise. To evaluate these symptoms. A prospective study of 26 symptomatic Cambodia veterans and 26 matched controls (healthy Cambodia veterans). Using an actometer and diaries, both groups were followed for a 12-day baseline period prior to an incremental maximal exercise test on a bicycle ergometer, followed by 7 days of post-ergometer data. During baseline, symptomatic Cambodia veterans reported more symptoms, had lower levels of physical activity and took longer periods of rest after high activity periods. Symptomatic veterans did not perceive the exercise test needing more exertion than healthy veterans did, although their physical fitness was decreased. Post-ergometer, daily observed symptoms did not aggravate in symptomatic veterans. Four days post-ergometer, actometer and daily observed activity scores were lowered in both groups. As compared to baseline, one day post-ergometer, levels of physical activity were changed in healthy veterans, but not in controls. Complaints about reduced activity levels and decreases in physical fitness in symptomatic Cambodia veterans were confirmed. Post-exertion malaise was not found. The observed post-exertion effects were traced back to weekday patterns.

  18. Functional Connectivity Networks in Asymptomatic and Symptomatic DYT1 Carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premi, Enrico; Diano, Matteo; Gazzina, Stefano; Cauda, Franco; Gualeni, Vera; Tinazzi, Michele; Fiorio, Mirta; Liberini, Paolo; Lazzarini, Clara; Archetti, Silvana; Biasiotto, Giorgio; Turla, Marinella; Bertasi, Valeria; Cotelli, Maria; Gasparotti, Roberto; Padovani, Alessandro; Borroni, Barbara

    2016-11-01

    DYT1 mutation is characterized by focal to generalized dystonia and incomplete penetrance. To explore the complex perturbations in the different neural networks and the mutual interactions among them, we studied symptomatic and asymptomatic DTY1 mutation carriers by resting-state functional MRI. A total of 7 symptomatic DYT1, 10 asymptomatic DYT1, and 26 healthy controls were considered. Resting-state functional MRI (Oxford Centre for Functional MRI of the Brain) [FMRIB] Software Library) (FSL) MELODIC, dual regression, (as a toolbox of FSL, with Nets is referred to "networks") (FSLNets) (http://fsl.fmrib.ox.ac.uk/fsl/fslwiki/FSLNets) was performed on 9 resting-state neural networks. DYT1 mutation signature (symptomatic DYT1 and asymptomatic DYT1) was characterized by increased connectivity in the dorsal attention network and in the left fronto-parietal network. Functional correlates of symptomatic DYT1 patients (symptomatic DYT1 vs healthy controls) showed increased connectivity in the sensorimotor network. This study argues that DYT1 dystonia is a network disorder, with crucial nodes in sensory-motor integration of posterior parietal structures. A better characterization of cortical networks involved in dystonia is crucial for possible neurophysiological therapeutic interventions. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  19. Identification and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in children and cattle populations from the province of Alava, North of Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardona, Guillermo A. [Livestock Laboratory, Regional Government of Alava, Ctra. de Azua 4, 01520 Vitoria-Gasteiz (Spain); Carabin, Helene [Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, College of Public Health, Oklahoma University Health Sciences Center, 801 Northeast 13th Street, Room 309, Oklahoma City, OK 73104 (United States); Goni, Pilar [Department of Microbiology, Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Zaragoza, Domingo Miral s/n, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Arriola, Larraitz [Epidemiology Unit, Public Health Division of Guipuzcoa, Basque Government, Av. Navarra 4, 2013 San Sebastian (Spain); Robinson, Guy [UK Cryptosporidium Reference Unit, Public Health Wales, Microbiology ABM, Swansea, Singleton Hospital, Swansea SA2 8QA (United Kingdom); Fernandez-Crespo, Juan C. [Sub-direction of Public Health of Alava, Department of Health, Basque Government, Avda. Santiago 11, 01002 Vitoria-Gasteiz (Spain); Clavel, Antonio [Department of Microbiology, Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Zaragoza, Domingo Miral s/n, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Chalmers, Rachel M. [UK Cryptosporidium Reference Unit, Public Health Wales, Microbiology ABM, Swansea, Singleton Hospital, Swansea SA2 8QA (United Kingdom); Carmena, David, E-mail: d.carmena@imperial.ac.uk [MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College, Hammersmith Hospital Campus, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN (United Kingdom)

    2011-12-15

    The prevalence of and factors associated with the protozoan enteropathogens Cryptosporidium and Giardia have been investigated in selected children and cattle populations from the province of Alava (Northern Spain). The presence of these organisms was detected in fecal samples using commercially available coproantigen-ELISA (CpAg-ELISA) and immunochromatographic (ICT) assays. A total of 327 caregivers of children participants were asked to answer questions on risk factors potentially associated to the prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia, including water-use practices, water sports and contact with domestic or pet animals. Molecular analyses were conducted using a nested-PCR technique to amplify the small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene of Cryptosporidium and the triosephosphate isomerase (tpi) gene of Giardia. Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts were found in 3 and 16 samples using the CpAg-ELISA, and in 5 and 9 samples using the ICT test, respectively. Cryptosporidium and Giardia were also found in 7 and 17 samples by CpAg-ELISA, and 4 and 14 samples by ICT, respectively, of 227 cattle fecal samples. The overall Cryptosporidium and Giardia infection prevalences, based on a Bayesian approach accounting for the imperfect sensitivities and specificities of both diagnostic tests, were estimated to 1.0% (95% BCI: 0.2%-2.8%) and 3.1% (1.5%-5.3%) in children and 3.0% (0.5%-9.2%) and 1.4% (0.0%-6.4%) in cattle, respectively. In humans, a single Cryptosporidium isolate was characterized as C. hominis. Of seven Giardia isolates, four were identified as assemblage B, two as assemblage A-II and one was a mixed assemblage B + A-II infection. No Cryptosporidium or Giardia isolates could be obtained from cattle samples. Although limited, these results seem to suggest that cattle are unlikely to be an important reservoir of zoonotic Cryptosporidium and/or Giardia in the province of Alava.

  20. Potential role of beavers (Castor fiber in contamination of water in the Masurian Lake District (north-eastern Poland with protozoan parasites Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sroka Jacek

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the possible influence of beavers on the contamination of lake water with zoonotic parasites Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp., with respect to the risk to human health. A total of 79 water samples were taken around the habitats of beavers from 14 localities situated in the recreational Masurian Lake District (north-eastern Poland. Water was sampled in the spring and autumn seasons, at different distances from beavers’ lodges (0-2, 10, 30, and 50 m. The samples were examined for the presence of (oocysts of zoonotic protozoa Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. by direct fluorescence assay (DFA and by nested and real time PCR. By DFA, the presence of Giardia cysts was found in 36 samples (45.6% and the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts in 26 samples (32.9%. Numbers of Giardia cysts, Cryptosporidium oocysts, and summarised (oocysts of both parasites showed a significant variation depending on locality. The numbers of Giardia cysts significantly decreased with the distance from beavers’ lodges while the numbers of Cryptosporidium oocysts did not show such dependence. The amount of Giardia cysts in samples collected in spring was approximately 3 times higher than in autumn. Conversely, a larger number of Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in samples collected in autumn than in spring. By PCR, Giardia DNA was found in 38 samples (48.1% whereas DNA of Cryptosporidium was found in only 7 samples (8.9%. Eleven Giardia isolates were subjected to phylogenetic analysis by restriction fragment length polymorphism PCR or sequencing which evidenced their belonging to zoonotic assemblages: A (3 isolates and B (8 isolates. In conclusion, water in the vicinity of beavers’ lodges in the tested region was markedly contaminated with (oocysts of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp., which confirms the potential role of beavers as a reservoir of these parasites and indicates a need for

  1. Giardia co-infection promotes the secretion of antimicrobial peptides beta-defensin 2 and trefoil factor 3 and attenuates attaching and effacing bacteria-induced intestinal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manko, Anna; Motta, Jean-Paul; Cotton, James A; Feener, Troy; Oyeyemi, Ayodele; Vallance, Bruce A; Wallace, John L; Buret, Andre G

    2017-01-01

    Our understanding of polymicrobial gastrointestinal infections and their effects on host biology remains incompletely understood. Giardia duodenalis is an ubiquitous intestinal protozoan parasite infecting animals and humans. Concomitant infections with Giardia and other gastrointestinal pathogens commonly occur. In countries with poor sanitation, Giardia infection has been associated with decreased incidence of diarrheal disease and fever, and reduced serum inflammatory markers release, via mechanisms that remain obscure. This study analyzed Giardia spp. co-infections with attaching and effacing (A/E) pathogens, and assessed whether and how the presence of Giardia modulates host responses to A/E enteropathogens, and alters intestinal disease outcome. In mice infected with the A/E pathogen Citrobacter rodentium, co-infection with Giardia muris significantly attenuated weight loss, macro- and microscopic signs of colitis, bacterial colonization and translocation, while concurrently enhancing the production and secretion of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) mouse β-defensin 3 and trefoil factor 3 (TFF3). Co-infection of human intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2) monolayers with G. duodenalis trophozoites and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) enhanced the production of the AMPs human β-defensin 2 (HBD-2) and TFF3; this effect was inhibited with treatment of G. duodenalis with cysteine protease inhibitors. Collectively, these results suggest that Giardia infections are capable of reducing enteropathogen-induced colitis while increasing production of host AMPs. Additional studies also demonstrated that Giardia was able to directly inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria. These results reveal novel mechanisms whereby Giardia may protect against gastrointestinal disease induced by a co-infecting A/E enteropathogen. Our findings shed new light on how microbial-microbial interactions in the gut may protect a host during concomitant infections.

  2. Giardia duodenalis in Alpine (Rupicapra rupicapra rupicapra) and Apennine (Rupicapra pyrenaica ornata) chamois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Liberato, Claudio; Berrilli, Federica; Marangi, Marianna; Santoro, Maristella; Trogu, Tiziana; Putignani, Lorenza; Lanfranchi, Paolo; Ferretti, Francesco; D'Amelio, Stefano; Giangaspero, Annunziata

    2015-12-21

    Although chamois Rupicapra spp. are the most abundant mountain ungulates in Europe, no data are available on the presence of Giardia duodenalis infecting these species. A total of 157 fecal samples from Alpine Rupicapra rupicapra rupicapra and Apennine Rupicapra pyrenaica ornata chamois were tested for the presence of G. duodenalis by immunofluorescence test, quantitative Real Time PCR and end-point PCR for genotype characterization. G. duodenalis was detected in R. r. rupicapra and R. p. ornata, with a percentage value of 4.45 (5.82 and 1.85 %, respectively), and a cyst burden of up to 31,800 cysts/g of feces. Assemblages A/AI and E were identified in R. r. rupicapra and assemblage A/AIII in R. p. ornata. The present study represents the first record of Giardia duodenalis in Rupicapra spp., suggesting that these wild bovids can play an epidemiological role in environmental contamination and transmission of both zoonotic and non-zoonotic genotypes.

  3. Molecular identification of Giardia duodenalis in Ecuador by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Atherton

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the genetic diversity of Giardia duodenalis present in a human population living in a northern Ecuadorian rain forest. All Giardia positive samples (based on an ELISA assay were analysed using a semi-nested polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay that targets the glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh gene; those amplified were subsequently genotyped using NlaIV and RsaI enzymes. The gdh gene was successfully amplified in 74 of 154 ELISA positive samples; 69 of the 74 samples were subsequently genotyped. Of these 69 samples, 42 (61% were classified as assemblage B (26 as BIII and 16 as BIV, 22 (32% as assemblage A (3 as AI and 19 as AII and five (7% as mixed AII and BIII types. In this study site we observe similar diversity in genotypes to other regions in Latin America, though in contrast to some previous studies, we found similar levels of diarrheal symptoms in those individuals infected with assemblage B compared with those infected with assemblage A.

  4. Morphological and physiological characteristics of a virulent and zoonotic assemblage A Giardia duodenalis canine strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Camila Henriques; Silva, Ana Carolina Carvalho; Costa, Adriana Oliveira; Fernandes, Ana Paula

    2017-10-01

    Giardiasis is an intestinal parasitosis that affects millions of people worldwide and is considered a zoonotic disease. Frequently in contact with humans, dogs are the main host involved in this zoonotic transmission. Here, we compared some aspects of Giardia duodenalis biology between two strains: a recently isolated dog strain (BHFC1) and a human reference strain (Portland-1). Growth curve analysis revealed that BHFC1 trophozoites multiply faster than the human isolate Portland-1 in axenic culture, but has a lower rate of cysts formation. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that BHFC1 trophozoites have the same conventional shape and morphological structures expected for G. duodenalis trophozoites, but presented a more prominent flange. For the best of our knowledge, this work is the first description of morphological aspects and encystation process of a G. duodenalis strain isolated from a dog. Since BHFC1 and Portland-1 have been maintained in axenic cultures for different periods of time, differences observed in growth, encystation rates and flange size may be attributed to adaptation of Portland-1 to axenic culture and lack of the environmental pressures. BHFC1 can be useful as tool for better understanding of Giardia duodenalis biology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Cryptosporidium,Giardia, Cryptococcus, Pneumocystis genetic variability: cryptic biological species or clonal near-clades?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Tibayrenc

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An abundant literature dealing with the population genetics and taxonomy of Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp., Pneumocystis spp., and Cryptococcus spp., pathogens of high medical and veterinary relevance, has been produced in recent years. We have analyzed these data in the light of new population genetic concepts dealing with predominant clonal evolution (PCE recently proposed by us. In spite of the considerable phylogenetic diversity that exists among these pathogens, we have found striking similarities among them. The two main PCE features described by us, namely highly significant linkage disequilibrium and near-clading (stable phylogenetic clustering clouded by occasional recombination, are clearly observed in Cryptococcus and Giardia, and more limited indication of them is also present in Cryptosporidium and Pneumocystis. Moreover, in several cases, these features still obtain when the near-clades that subdivide the species are analyzed separately ("Russian doll pattern". Lastly, several sets of data undermine the notion that certain microbes form clonal lineages simply owing to a lack of opportunity to outcross due to low transmission rates leading to lack of multiclonal infections ("starving sex hypothesis". We propose that the divergent taxonomic and population genetic inferences advanced by various authors about these pathogens may not correspond to true evolutionary differences and could be, rather, the reflection of idiosyncratic practices among compartmentalized scientific communities. The PCE model provides an opportunity to revise the taxonomy and applied research dealing with these pathogens and others, such as viruses, bacteria, parasitic protozoa, and fungi.

  6. Induction of virulence factors in Giardia duodenalis independent of host attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Samantha J.; Mirzaei, Mehdi; Vuong, Daniel; Pascovici, Dana; Chick, Joel M.; Lacey, Ernest; Haynes, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Giardia duodenalis is responsible for the majority of parasitic gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. Host-parasite interaction models in vitro provide insights into disease and virulence and help us to understand pathogenesis. Using HT-29 intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) as a model we have demonstrated that initial sensitisation by host secretions reduces proclivity for trophozoite attachment, while inducing virulence factors. Host soluble factors triggered up-regulation of membrane and secreted proteins, including Tenascins, Cathepsin-B precursor, cystatin, and numerous Variant-specific Surface Proteins (VSPs). By comparison, host-cell attached trophozoites up-regulated intracellular pathways for ubiquitination, reactive oxygen species (ROS) detoxification and production of pyridoxal phosphate (PLP). We reason that these results demonstrate early pathogenesis in Giardia involves two independent host-parasite interactions. Motile trophozoites respond to soluble secreted signals, which deter attachment and induce expression of virulence factors. Trophozoites attached to host cells, in contrast, respond by up-regulating intracellular pathways involved in clearance of ROS, thus anticipating the host defence response. PMID:26867958

  7. Giardia disrupts the arrangement of tight, adherens and desmosomal junction proteins of intestinal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia-Brigagão, C; Morgado-Díaz, J A; De Souza, W

    2012-06-01

    Giardia duodenalis is a parasitic protozoan that causes diarrhea and other symptoms which together constitute a disease known as giardiasis. Although the disease has been well defined, the mechanisms involving the establishment of the infection have not yet been fully elucidated. In this study, we show that after 24h of interaction between parasites and intestinal Caco-2 cells, there was an alteration of the paracellular permeability, as observed by an approximate 42% of reduction in the transepithelial electrical resistance and permeation to ruthenium red, which was concomitant with ultrastructural changes. Nevertheless, epithelium viability was not affected. We also demonstrate that there was no change in expression of junctional proteins (tight and adherens) but that the distribution of these proteins in Caco-2 cells after parasite adhesion was significantly altered, as observed via laser scanning confocal microscopy 3D reconstruction. The present work shows that adhesion of Giardia duodenalis trophozoites to intestinal cells in vitro induces disturbances of the tight, adherens and desmosomal junctions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Single dose of secnidazole treatment against naturally occuring Giardia duodenalis infection in Sakiz lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerem Ural

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purposes of this study were to determine whether secnidazole administered at a single dose of 10 mg/kg, orally, lessens or eliminates Giardia cyst shedding, and to validate the benefit of secnidazole treatment on clinical signs and faecal consistency in lambs naturally infected with Giardia duodenalis. Materials and methods. To this extent weaned 12 weeks of age lambs were selected and randomly assigned into two groups based on placebo (group C, n=7 untreated control group or treatment (group S, n=10 lambs treated with a single dose of secnidazole at 10 mg/kg. Results. On days 0 and 10, before and after treatment, respectively, reduction in cyst excretion was determined. The faecal consistency and general health were recorded at each sampling day. Conclusions. During the study there was a high (99.98% reduction in cyst excretion in the secnidazol treatment group compared to the positive control group on day 10, resulting in a significant (p<0.001 reduction, making secnidazole highly effective treatment option.

  9. Predominance of Giardia duodenalis Assemblage AII in Fresh Leafy Vegetables from a Market in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiyo, Rogerio; de Souza, Carla Zangari; Arruda Piovesani, Ana Flávia; Tiyo, Bruna Tiaki; Colli, Cristiane Maria; Marchioro, Ariella Andrade; Gomes, Monica Lucia; Falavigna-Guilherme, Ana Lucia

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the presence of Giardia duodenalis cysts and its genotypes in raw leafy vegetables sold in a Brazilian market. These products are different from those sold in most street markets because the producers themselves display and sell their products and rely on specialized technical and sanitary assistance. Vegetable and water samples were collected from 14 (80%) producers who cultivated vegetables that are typically consumed raw for sale at the market, obtained at the market and farms, respectively. A total of 128 samples of leafy greens (chives, parsley, cabbage, arugula, watercress, and chicory) and 14 water samples were analyzed by direct immunofluorescence and PCR techniques. The positive samples were genotyped (GHD gene) using PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism. The analyses indicated that 16 (12.5%) of 128 samples were positive by PCR, while 1 (0.8%) of 128 samples were positive by immunofluorescence. Giardia cysts were not detected in the water samples obtained at the farms. The molecular technique revealed a genotype with zoonotic potential, which underscores the challenge in the control of giardiasis dissemination via the consumption of raw vegetables.

  10. The presence of Giardia intestinalis in donkeys, Equus asinus, in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Zhang, Fu-Kai; Li, Fa-Cai; Hou, Jun-Ling; Zheng, Wen-Bin; Du, Shuai-Zhi; Zhao, Quan; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2017-01-03

    Giardia intestinalis is one of the most important zoonotic enteric parasites. As no information regarding prevalence and genotype of G. intestinalis in donkeys (Equus asinus) in China is available, 181 faecal samples from 48 donkeys from Jilin Province, from 104 from Shandong Province and from 29 from Liaoning Province were examined between May and December 2015. Twenty-eight (15.47%) out of 181 donkey samples were tested G. intestinalis-positive by nested amplification of the triosephosphate isomerase (tpi) gene. The prevalence in different regional groups varied from 10.42 to 18.27%. The prevalence in adult and young donkeys was 14.29 and 22.92%, respectively. Otherwise, the prevalence was 11.69% in summer and 18.27% in winter. However, no statistically significant differences were found in relation to region or age group. Sequence analysis of the tpi, glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) and beta giardin (bg) loci identified 4, 1 and 3 subtypes of assemblage B, respectively. Moreover, four novel multilocus genotypes (MLGs novel-1 to novel-4) were identified in assemblage B. This first report of G. intestinalis in donkeys in China indicates that further studies of nation-wide molecular epidemiology and geographical distribution of Giardia in donkeys are warranted. Effective strategies should be implemented to control G. intestinalis infection in donkeys, other animals and humans.

  11. Fate of Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis oocysts and Giardia duodenalis cysts during secondary wastewater treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hui-Wen A; Lucy, Frances E; Graczyk, Thaddeus K; Broaders, Michael A; Tamang, Leena; Connolly, Michelle

    2009-09-01

    This study investigates the fate of Cryptosporidium parvum and C. hominis oocysts and Giardia duodenalis cysts at four Irish municipal wastewater treatment plants (i.e., Plant A, B, C, and D) that utilize sludge activation or biofilm-coated percolating filter systems for secondary wastewater treatment. The fate of these pathogens through the sewage treatment processes was determined based on their viable transmissive stages, i.e., oocysts for Cryptosporidium and cysts for Giardia. Analysis of final effluent indicated that over 97% of viable oocysts and cysts were eliminated, except at Plant C, which achieved only 64% of oocyst removal. A significant correlation between the removal of oocysts and cysts was found at Plants A, B, and D (R = 0.98, P hominis, and G. duodenalis, with maximum concentrations of 20 oocysts and eight cysts per gram in primary sludge indicating the need for further sludge sanitization treatments. This study provides evidence that C. parvum and C. hominis oocysts and G. duodenalis cysts are present throughout the wastewater processes and in end-products, and can enter the aquatic environment with consequent negative implications for public health.

  12. Biological and Genetic Characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis Isolates from Five Hydrographical Basins in Northern Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Maria João; Soares, Sónia; de Lurdes Delgado, Maria; Figueiredo, João; Magalhães, Elisabete Silva; Castro, António; Viana Da Costa, Alexandra; Correia da Costa, José Manuel

    2010-01-01

    To understand the situation of water contamination with Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in the northern region of Portugal, we have established a long-term program aimed at pinpointing the sources of surface water and environmental contamination, working with the water-supply industry. Here, we describe the results obtained with raw water samples collected in rivers of the 5 hydrographical basins. A total of 283 samples were analyzed using the Method 1623 EPA, USA. Genetic characterization was performed by PCR and sequencing of genes 18S rRNA of Cryptosporidium spp. and β-giardin of Giardia spp. Infectious stages of the protozoa were detected in 72.8% (206 of 283) of the water samples, with 15.2% (43 of 283) positive for Giardia duodenalis cysts, 9.5% (27 of 283) positive for Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts, and 48.1% (136 of 283) samples positive for both parasites. The most common zoonotic species found were G. duodenalis assemblages A-I, A-II, B, and E genotypes, and Cryptosporidium parvum, Cryptosporidium andersoni, Cryptosporidium hominis, and Cryptosporidium muris. These results suggest that cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis are important public health issues in northern Portugal. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report evaluating the concentration of environmental stages of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in raw water samples in the northern region of Portugal. PMID:20585525

  13. Relationships between the occurrence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium and physicochemical properties of marine waters of the Pacific Coast of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magana-Ordorica, Dalia; Mena, Kristina; Valdez-Torres, Jose B; Soto-Beltran, Marcela; Leon-Felix, Josefina; Chaidez, Cristobal

    2010-12-01

    Untreated sewage has adversely affected the quality of marine recreational waters worldwide. Exposure to marine recreational water with poor microbial quality may pose a threat to bathers. The objectives of this study were to assess the effect of physicochemical parameters on Cryptosporidium and Giardia presence in marine recreational water of Sinaloa, Mexico, by Logistic Regression Analyses. Thirty-two 10-litre water samples were collected from two tourist beaches, Altata and Mazatlan, between November 2006 and May 2007. Water samples were processed by the EPA 1623 method and pH, temperature, salinity and turbidity were also determined. Cryptosporidium and Giardia were present in 71 and 57% of the samples collected from Altata, respectively. In Mazatlan, Cryptosporidium and Giardia were found in 83 and 72% of the samples, respectively. The overall concentration of Cryptosporidium ranged from 150 to 2,050 oocysts/10 L with an average of 581 oocysts/10 L and Giardia ranged from 10 to 300 cysts/10 L with an average of 73 cysts/10 L. The occurrence of both parasites increased in water with decreasing temperatures and increasing turbidity of the water.

  14. Investigation into Cryptosporidium and Giardia in bivalve mollusks farmed in Sardinia region and destined for human consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Tedde

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium and Giardia are protozoan parasites transmitted by fecal-oral ingestion of (oocysts, and are responsible for enteritis in several animal species and humans worldwide. These (oocysts can survive for over a year in aquatic environments and can accumulate in bivalve mollusks, which filter large volumes of water. The aim of this study is to evaluate the natural occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia contamination in different specimens of edible bivalves mollusks from farming sites of the western and north-eastern coasts of Sardinia. From April 2011 to February 2012, 1095 specimens of Mytilus galloprovincialis and 240 of Crassostrea gigas were sampled from Olbia and Oristano gulf and San Teodoro pond. Hepatopancreas and gills, including the labial palp, were examined for oocysts and cysts after pooling and homogenisation using different techniques: i staining for light and fluorescence microscopy; ii direct immunofluorescence (IF Merifluor® test Cryptosporidium/ Giardia (Meridian Bioscience Inc., Cincinnati, OH, USA; and iii molecular procedures. However, in the context under study, all mollusks examined with the three main diagnostic techniques were negative for both parasites pointing out the hypothetically low zoonotic risk related to Cryptosporidium and Giardia in bivalves, especially Mytilus galloprovincialis and Crassostrea gigas.

  15. Detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in water samples with a Becton Dickinson FACSort flow cytometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schets FM; Medema GJ; Boschman GD; LWL; Becton Dickinson Europe; Aalst; Belgie

    1995-01-01

    De huidige methode die in de Verenigde Staten, Groot- Brittannie en Nederland wordt gebruikt voor de detectie van Cryptosporidium en Giardia in water bestaat uit een combinatie van filtratie, concentratie door centrifugeren en flotatie en immuunfluorescentie microscopie. De methode is zeer

  16. Genotyping of Giardia duodenalis isolates in asymptomatic children attending daycare centre: evidence of high risk for anthroponotic transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Arbex, A P; David, E B; Oliveira-Sequeira, T C G; Bittencourt, G N; Guimarães, S

    2016-05-01

    Giardia duodenalis is a common intestinal parasite infecting children attending daycare centres. This study aimed to verify Giardia occurrence and the genotypes of isolates infecting children aged 0-6 years and workers at a daycare centre in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The families of children who tested positive for Giardia, were asked to provide stool samples from household members and their dogs. Samples (123 children, 14 centre employees, 44 household members, 19 children after treatment, and 20 dogs) were examined for intestinal parasites using concentration methods. DNA extracted from all samples was submitted for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing and the amplicons generated were used for multilocus sequence typing of beta-giardin (bg), triose phosphate isomerase (tpi) and glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) genes. Giardia was detected in 15·9% and 28·6% of the 220 samples by microscopy and PCR, respectively. Analysis of sequences retrieved from 29 isolates revealed both assemblages A (31%) and B (69%). Sub-assemblages AII, BIII and BIV were identified and the alignment of the bg, gdh and tpi sequences revealed the presence of some single nucleotide polymorphisms, especially in assemblage B sequences. The higher predominance of assemblage B and the identification of the AII type support the view that anthroponotic transmission appears to be an important route of transmission in environments that concentrate children at an age when poor hygiene practices make them more vulnerable to such infection.

  17. Molecular epidemiology and multilocus sequence analysis of potentially zoonotic Giardia spp. from humans and dogs in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mellesia F; Cadogan, Paul; Eytle, Sarah; Copeland, Sonia; Walochnik, Julia; Lindo, John F

    2017-01-01

    Giardia spp. are the causative agents of intestinal infections in a wide variety of mammals including humans and companion animals. Dogs may be reservoirs of zoonotic Giardia spp.; however, the potential for transmission between dogs and humans in Jamaica has not been studied. Conventional PCR was used to screen 285 human and 225 dog stool samples for Giardia targeting the SSU rDNA gene followed by multilocus sequencing of the triosephosphate isomerase (tpi), glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), and β-giardin (bg) genes. Prevalence of human infections based on PCR was 6.7 % (19/285) and canine infections 19.6 % (44/225). Nested PCR conducted on all 63 positive samples revealed the exclusive presence of assemblage A in both humans and dogs. Sub-assemblage A-II was responsible for 79.0 % (15/19) and 70.5 % (31/44) of the infections in humans and dogs, respectively, while sub-assemblage A-I was identified at a rate of 15.8 % (3/19) and 29.5 % (13/44) in humans and dogs, respectively. The predominance of a single circulating assemblage among both humans and dogs in Jamaica suggests possible zoonotic transmission of Giardia infections.

  18. Protection against diarrhea associated with Giardia intestinalis is lost with Multi-Nutrient Supplementation: A Study in Tanzanian Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenemans, J.; Mank, T.; Ottenhof, M.; Baidjoe, A.Y.; Mbugi, E.V.; Demir, A.Y.; Wielders, J.P.M.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Verhoef, J.C.M.

    2011-01-01

    Background - Asymptomatic carriage of Giardia intestinalis is highly prevalent among children in developing countries, and evidence regarding its role as a diarrhea-causing agent in these settings is controversial. Impaired linear growth and cognition have been associated with giardiasis, presumably

  19. Draft genome sequencing of giardia intestinalis assemblage B isolate GS: is human giardiasis caused by two different species?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Franzén

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Giardia intestinalis is a major cause of diarrheal disease worldwide and two major Giardia genotypes, assemblages A and B, infect humans. The genome of assemblage A parasite WB was recently sequenced, and the structurally compact 11.7 Mbp genome contains simplified basic cellular machineries and metabolism. We here performed 454 sequencing to 16x coverage of the assemblage B isolate GS, the only Giardia isolate successfully used to experimentally infect animals and humans. The two genomes show 77% nucleotide and 78% amino-acid identity in protein coding regions. Comparative analysis identified 28 unique GS and 3 unique WB protein coding genes, and the variable surface protein (VSP repertoires of the two isolates are completely different. The promoters of several enzymes involved in the synthesis of the cyst-wall lack binding sites for encystation-specific transcription factors in GS. Several synteny-breaks were detected and verified. The tetraploid GS genome shows higher levels of overall allelic sequence polymorphism (0.5 versus <0.01% in WB. The genomic differences between WB and GS may explain some of the observed biological and clinical differences between the two isolates, and it suggests that assemblage A and B Giardia can be two different species.

  20. Symptomatic retention of the Agile® patency capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egea Valenzuela, Juan; Estrella Díez, Esther; Alberca de Las Parras, Fernando

    2017-06-01

    The Agile® capsule has shown to be useful when evaluating the patency of the small bowel in patients prior to capsule endoscopy studies. It is a safe tool and a low rate of complications have been reported, highlighting symptomatic retention, although references in literature are scarce and it is only observed in 1.2% of the procedures. We present the case of a symptomatic retention of this device in a patient with previously known colonic Crohn's disease in who a small bowel study was indicated and was sent for prior patency test.

  1. Risk assessment of Giardia from a full scale MBR sewage treatment plant caused by membrane integrity failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Chen, Zhimin; An, Wei; Xiao, Shumin; Yuan, Hongying; Zhang, Dongqing; Yang, Min

    2015-04-01

    Membrane bioreactors (MBR) are highly efficient at intercepting particles and microbes and have become an important technology for wastewater reclamation. However, many pathogens can accumulate in activated sludge due to the long residence time usually adopted in MBR, and thus may pose health risks when membrane integrity problems occur. This study presents data from a survey on the occurrence of water-borne Giardia pathogens in reclaimed water from a full-scale wastewater treatment plant with MBR experiencing membrane integrity failure, and assessed the associated risk for green space irrigation. Due to membrane integrity failure, the MBR effluent turbidity varied between 0.23 and 1.90 NTU over a period of eight months. Though this turbidity level still met reclaimed water quality standards (≤5 NTU), Giardia were detected at concentrations of 0.3 to 95 cysts/10 L, with a close correlation between effluent turbidity and Giardia concentration. All β-giardin gene sequences of Giardia in the WWTP influents were genotyped as Assemblages A and B, both of which are known to infect humans. An exponential dose-response model was applied to assess the risk of infection by Giardia. The risk in the MBR effluent with chlorination was 9.83×10(-3), higher than the acceptable annual risk of 1.0×10(-4). This study suggested that membrane integrity is very important for keeping a low pathogen level, and multiple barriers are needed to ensure the biological safety of MBR effluent. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Detection and molecular characterization of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) stranded along the Galician coast (Northwest Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboredo-Fernández, A; Gómez-Couso, H; Martínez-Cedeira, J A; Cacciò, S M; Ares-Mazás, E

    2014-05-28

    The ubiquitous protozoan parasites Giardia and Cryptosporidium have been detected from many species of captive and free-living wildlife, representing most mammalian orders. Twenty species of marine mammals have been reported to inhabit Galician waters and the region has one of the highest rates of stranding in Europe. Evidence from stranding, reported by-catches and sightings, suggests that the common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) is the most abundant cetacean on the Galician coast (Northwest Spain). The objective of this study was to detect and molecularly characterize isolates of Giardia and Cryptosporidium obtained from common dolphins stranded in this area. Between 2005 and 2012, sections of large intestine from 133 common dolphins stranded along the Galician coast were collected by the personnel of the Galician Stranding Network (Coordinadora para o Estudo dos Mamíferos Mariños, CEMMA). Using direct immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) and PCR amplification and sequencing of the SSU-rDNA, β-giardin genes and the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region, Giardia and Cryptosporidium were detected in 8 (6.0%) and 12 samples (9.0%), respectively. In two samples, co-infection by both parasites was observed. The molecular characterization revealed the presence of Giardia duodenalis assemblages A (genotypes A1 and A2) and B and Cryptosporidium parvum in these samples. This constitutes the first study in which the presence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium has been investigated in common dolphins on the European Atlantic coast, and it is also the first report of C. parvum in this host. Our findings indicate that these animals could act as reservoir of these waterborne parasites or could be victims of the contamination originated by anthropogenic activities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Mammographic profiles of women with symptomatic breast diseases ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: This was a prospective descriptive analytical study of women with symptomatic breast diseases who had mammography between January 2012 and December 2016 at our health facilities. Data sheet was developed to record the patients' biodata, indication for referral, and mammographic findings. Results: During ...

  4. Symptomatic Neuroma Following Initial Amputation for Traumatic Digital Amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlot, Margot A; Wilkens, Suzanne C; Chen, Neal C; Eberlin, Kyle R

    2018-01-01

    We tested the null hypothesis that no factors are independently associated with the development of symptomatic neuroma after traumatic digital amputation. We performed a retrospective review of 1,083 patients who underwent revision amputation for traumatic digital amputation; we excluded those undergoing replantation or revascularization. Patients who developed a painful neuroma during follow-up were identified with a minimum follow-up of 1 week and a median of 3.3 months. We calculated the rate of developing a painful neuroma as a proportion of the total number of patients and performed multivariable logistic regression analysis to identify factors independently associated with its development. Of 1,083 patients, 71 (6.6%) developed a symptomatic neuroma. Mean time to diagnosis was 6.4 months. A total of 47 patients (66%) underwent surgery for painful neuroma. Mean time to surgical intervention was 11 months. Index finger injury and avulsion injury mechanism were significantly associated with a higher risk for symptomatic neuroma. Approximately 1 in 15 patients will develop a symptomatic neuroma after traumatic digital amputation and more than half of these patients will undergo revision surgery for neuroma, with a mean time to operative intervention of 11 months. Prognostic II. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of prognostic value of albumin and iron in symptomatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background & objectives: This study was designed to assess the prognostic value of albumin and iron in symptomatic HIV subjects on ART with or without malaria infection. Methods: 150 participants (male, n=65, female, n=85) aged between 17 and 70 years were recruited for the study at the HIV clinic of Nnamdi Azikiwe ...

  6. Symptomatic rubella re-infection in early pregnancy and subsequent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case of serologically proven symptomatic rubella re-infection in early pregnancy in a healthy multigravida who had been successfully vaccinated is reported to illustrate that the risk to the fetus is considerably less than with primary infection. The infant was infected, as evidenced by specific IgM in cord blood, but had no ...

  7. Symptomatic Tarlov Cysts: Surgical Treatment by Subcutaneous Infusion Port.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying; Zhu, Tong; Lin, Hongyi; Li, Jing; Zeng, Tao; Lin, Jian

    2018-05-01

    The treatment of Tarlov cysts is challenging and difficult. The objective of our study was to describe the security and efficacy of the subcutaneous infusion port for drainage of symptomatic Tarlov cysts. The authors executed a retrospective review of data from 5 symptomatic Tarlov cysts patients who were treated using a subcutaneous infusion port from June 2014 to July 2017. Numerical Rating Scale scores and the Japanese Orthopedic Association scores of back pain were analyzed. Complications and adverse effects on postoperative days 1, 7, 14, and 28 were also analyzed. The mean follow-up was 12.6 months. Five adults (3 females and 2 males) who had been symptomatic received a subcutaneous infusion port. After treatment, all patients experienced pain relief and pain alleviation lasted from 1 day to 3 years without complications and adverse effects. A subcutaneous infusion port is a useful treatment option for symptomatic Tarlov cysts. When the patients' symptoms returned and the cysts repressurized, we quickly and simply drained the cysts by using the infusion port. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Delayed treatment of symptomatic breast cancer: The experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. A cross-sectional study carried out at a teaching hospital in Kaduna, Nigeria, to investigate the extent and reasons for the delay between onset of symptoms and admission for treatment of symptomatic breast cancer. Methods. The patients had histologically proven breast cancer and had been admitted for ...

  9. urinary tract infections in symptomatic pregnant women attending

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    cause urinary tract infections. Several factors are known to predispose an individual to developing urinary tract infections; one of the factors is pregnancy. Therefore, this research set out to determine the bacteriologic profile of urinary tract infection and the susceptibility pattern among symptomatic pregnant women in Abuja.

  10. Symptomatic Bochdalek Hernia in Pregnancy: A Rare Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selçuk Yetkinel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Symptomatic Bochdalek hernia in pregnancy is quite rare. To the best of our knowledge, there are a total of 44 cases reported in the literature between 1959 and 2016 (Hernández-Aragon et al., 2015; Koca et al., 2016. Difficulty and delay in diagnosis may lead to life-threatening complications. Case Report. We report a case of Bochdalek hernia during the 30 gestational weeks’ pregnancy in whom pregnancy continued after surgical repair which resulted in term birth. Discussion. Bochdalek hernia is diagnosed with an incidence of 1 in 2200–12500 live births, while symptomatic diaphragm hernia is much less in adults. The actual incidence of diaphragmatic hernias during pregnancy is still unknown. Symptoms may include abdominal distension, recurrent abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, inability to defecate, dyspnea, and chest pain. The patient with diaphragmatic hernia may be asymptomatic until the late weeks of gestation, as in our case, or herniation may occur during advanced gestational weeks with increased intraabdominal pressure. Conclusion. In conclusion, diagnosis of the diaphragm hernia during pregnancy is very rare. Diagnosis is rarer in symptomatic patients due to its rarity and the duration of diagnosis may, therefore, be delayed. Diaphragm hernia should be kept in mind in symptomatic patients due to its high maternal and fetal mortality rates.

  11. Symptomatic Non-parasitic benign hepatic cyst: Evaluation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background/Purpose: Solitary non-parasitic cysts of the liver are commonly asymptomatic and do not require treatment. Rarely, however, the cysts become symptomatic and are then best treated surgically. The optimal surgical treatment is debatable. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of deroofing as a safe and ...

  12. Symptomatic HIV infection in infancy - clinical and laboratory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To investigate the usefulness of immunological tests in the diagnosis of HIV infection in young symptomatic children < 15 months of age). Design. Tests were evaluated in HIV-infected ... The test detected 16 of 19 infected infants (sensitivity 84%, negative predictive value 98%). With the exception of the finding of ...

  13. Symptomatic Raccoon Dogs and Sarcoptic Mange Along an Urban Gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Masayuki U; Sonoda, Yoichi

    2017-06-01

    We quantitatively evaluated the effects of landscape factors on the distribution of symptomatic raccoon dogs with sarcoptic mange along an urban gradient. We used 246 camera traps (182 traps from April 2005 to December 2006; 64 traps from September 2009 to October 2010) to record the occurrence of asymptomatic and symptomatic raccoon dogs at 21 survey sites along an urban-rural gradient in the Tama Hills area of Tokyo. Each occurrence was explained in terms of the surrounding forest, agricultural, and grassland areas and additional factors (i.e., seasonal variations and survey methods) at various spatial scales using a generalized additive mixed model (GAMM). In our analysis, a 1000-m radius was identified as the important spatial scale for asymptomatic and symptomatic raccoon dog occurrence. The peak of the predicted occurrence probability of asymptomatic raccoon dogs appeared in the intermediate forest landscape as opposed to non-forest and forest landscapes. However, a high occurrence probability of symptomatic raccoon dogs was detected in non-forest and intermediate forest landscapes (i.e., urban and suburban) as opposed to a forest landscape, presumably because of animals occurring at much higher densities in more urbanized areas. Therefore, our results suggest that human-modified landscapes play an important role in the high occurrence of sarcoptic mange in raccoon dogs.

  14. Symptomatic Uterine Leiomyoma in a 65-year old Postmenopausal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    She presented with constipation suggestive of intestinal obstruction with no history of previous surgery, and investigations confirmed a calcified uterine leiomyoma. She had exploratory ... Symptomatic uterine leiomyoma in an elderly postmenopausal woman is rare, and its coexistence with CIN III in a virgin, is even rarer.

  15. Symptomatic pelvic organ prolapse: Experience at a tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To determine the demographic characteristics in patients presenting with symptomatic POP to a tertiary urogynaecology .... regarding their vaginal symptoms, namely: 1. Are you aware of a dragging pain in your lower abdomen? 2. Are you aware of soreness in your vagina? 3. ... for each question on a scale from 1 to 10.

  16. Plasmodium falciparum multiplicity correlates with anaemia in symptomatic malaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mockenhaupt, Frank P.; Ehrhardt, Stephan; Eggelte, Teunis A.; Markert, Miriam; Anemana, Sylvester; Otchwemah, Rowland; Bienzle, Ulrich

    2003-01-01

    In 366 Ghanaian children with symptomatic Plasmodium falciparum malaria, low haemoglobin levels and severe anaemia were associated with a high multiplicity of infection (MOI) and with distinct merozoite surface protein alleles. High MOI not only reflects premunition but may also contribute to

  17. Symptomatic HIV infection in infancy - clinical and laboratory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in infancy - clinical and laboratory markers of infection. M P Meyer, Z Latief, C Haworlh, 5 Salie,. A van Dyk. Objective. To investigate the usefulness of immunological tests in the diagnosis of HIV infection in young symptomatic children « 15 months of age). Design. Tests were evaluated in HIV-infected (HIV antibody- and ...

  18. Prevalence and associations of symptomatic renal papillary necrosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To assess the prevalence and associations of symptomatic renal papillary necrosis (RPN) in sickle cell anemia patients. Patients and Methods: The case notes of homozygous hemoglobin (Hb) S patients diagnosed with RPN were retrospectively assessed. Diagnosis was based on microscopic hematuria and positive ...

  19. Prevalence of Giardia spp. in young dogs using a combination of two diagnostic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, João; Santos, Ana

    2016-03-01

    In this study, prevalence of the protozoan parasites from the genus Giardia spp, with zoonotic potential and worldwide dissemination, was accessed in young dogs, which are reported as having higher prevalence rates. With that purpose, 49 animals from the Grupo de Intervenção Cinotécnico of the Guarda Nacional Republicana (Portuguese Gendarmerie Canine Unit) were chosen. They were housed individually in areas with a high number of kennels (up to 100), with ages ragging from newborns to 10 years old. Dogs were divided in four groups, according their age: under 6 months (n = 16), 6-12 months (n = 6), 12-18 months (n = 13) and 18-24 months (n = 14), comprising 22 females and 27 males. Fecal samples were collected from every animal and all were submitted to two different diagnostic tests, a passive flotation technique with a ZnSO4 solution and a detection of fecal antigen using a commercially available ELISA test (Witness® Giardia - Zoetis). From the 49 samples, 5 (10.2%) were considered positive with ZnSO4 flotation technique and 6 (12.24%) with the Witness® Giardia test. When considering the combination of both tests, 5 animals (10.2%) were considered positive. Of these, 3 (60%) were from the group under 6 months old, 1 (20%) from the 6-12 months and 1 from the 18-24 (20%) months. Within each group, in the under 6 months group 18.75% (n = 16) were considered positive, 16.67% in the 6-12 month group (n = 6), 0% in the 12-18 month group (n=13) and 7.14% in 18-24 month group (n = 14). None of the animals had clinical signs and no significant differences were found when comparing prevalence according to age, breed or gender. A combination of fecal flotation and antigen ELISA tests have good sensitivity and are easy to perform in practice and, therefore, could be a good choice to perform a diagnostic and small animal veterinarians should have this possible diagnostic in mind when in the present of clinical signs, particularly in young dogs.

  20. Occurrence and diversity of Giardia duodenalis assemblages in livestock in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minetti, C; Taweenan, W; Hogg, R; Featherstone, C; Randle, N; Latham, S M; Wastling, J M

    2014-12-01

    Giardia duodenalis is a common intestinal parasite in humans and a wide range of livestock species. It is a genetically heterogeneous parasite that has been characterized in seven distinct genetic assemblages or cryptic species, and molecular markers can be used to differentiate both animal-specific and potentially zoonotic genotypes. Little is known about G. duodenalis and the range of assemblages occurring in domestic livestock species in the UK. Here, we present data on the occurrence and molecular diversity of G. duodenalis detected in the faeces or large intestinal contents of cattle, sheep, pigs, goats and camelids from farms in the north-west of England. Both healthy and clinically diseased animals were included in the survey. The presence of Giardia spp. and assemblages was determined by sequencing of the small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene. The potential association of infection with various clinical and epidemiological parameters was studied in cattle using both univariate and multivariate analyses. Giardia spp. were detected in 127 (34.3%) of the 370 animals tested. G. duodenalis assemblage E was found to be predominant in cattle and sheep, followed by assemblage A. Mixed infections with assemblages A and E were also detected. Interestingly, some cattle, sheep and pigs were found to be infected with more unexpected assemblages (C, D, F). Pre-weaned calves were more likely to test positive than adult animals, but no association between the occurrence of overt intestinal disease and G. duodenalis infection was detected. The common occurrence of assemblage A and the finding of unusual assemblages in atypical hosts suggest that in future, a multilocus analysis should be used to confirm the actual diversity of G. duodenalis in livestock and the presence of potentially zoonotic genotypes. These data also suggest that there is a need to re-evaluate the clinical significance of G. duodenalis infection in livestock. © 2014 The Authors. Transboundary and

  1. Relationship between longitudinal strain and symptomatic status in aortic stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attias, David; Macron, Laurent; Dreyfus, Julien; Monin, Jean-Luc; Brochet, Eric; Lepage, Laurent; Hekimian, Guillaume; Iung, Bernard; Vahanian, Alec; Messika-Zeitoun, David

    2013-08-01

    Global longitudinal strain (GLS) and basal longitudinal strain (BLS) assessed using two-dimensional speckle-tracking imaging have been proposed as subtle markers of left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction with potential prognostic value in patients with aortic stenosis (AS). The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between longitudinal strain and symptomatic status in patients with AS. GLS and BLS were measured in 171 patients with pure, isolated, at least mild AS prospectively enrolled at two institutions. The population was divided into four groups: asymptomatic nonsevere AS (n = 55), asymptomatic severe AS with preserved LV ejection fraction (LVEF; ≥50%) (n = 37), symptomatic severe AS with preserved LVEF (n = 60), and severe AS with reduced LVEF (<50%) (n = 19). GLS was significantly different among the four groups (P < .0001), but the difference was due mainly to patients with reduced LVEFs. In addition, there was an important overlap among the groups, and in multivariate analysis, after adjustment for age, gender, AS severity, and LVEF, GLS was not an independent predictor of symptomatic status (P = .07). BLS was also significantly different among the four groups (P < .0001) but in contrast was independently associated with symptomatic status (P < .0001). However, as for GLS, there was an important overlap between groups and differences were close to intraobserver or interobserver variability (1.3 ± 1.1% and 2.0 ± 1.6%, respectively). In this prospective multicenter cohort of patients with wide ranges of AS severity, symptoms, and LVEFs, BLS but not GLS was independently associated with symptomatic status. However, there was an important overlap among groups, and differences were close to measurements' reproducibility, raising caution regarding the use of longitudinal strain, at least as a single criterion, in the decision-making process for patients with severe asymptomatic AS. Copyright © 2013. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  2. Outcome of endovascular treatment in symptomatic intracranial vascular stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Dae Chul; Kim, Sang Joon; Lee, Duk Hee; Kim, Won; Choi, Choong Gon; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Kwon, Sun Uck; Kim, Jong Sung; Kim, Hyun Jeong

    2005-01-01

    The outcome evaluation for the revascularization of intracranial vascular stenoses has not been fully described due to the highly technical nature of the procedure. We report here on the early and late clinical outcome of angioplasty and/or stenting of symptomatic severe intracranial vascular stenoses at a single institute. Since 1995, we have treated 35 patients with symptomatic intracranial vascular stenosis (more than 70% stenosis, mean stenosis: 78.6% ± 6.2%). Angioplasty (n = 19) was performed for the horizontal segment of the middle cerebral artery (M1) (n = 16) and the basilar artery (BA) (n = 1), the intradural vertebral artery (VA) (n = 1), and the cavernous internal carotid artery (ICA) (n = 1). Stenting (n = 16) was performed for the cavernous or petrous ICAs (n = 9), the intradural VA (n = 3), BA (n = 2), and M1 (n = 2) artery. We assessed the angiographic success (defined as residual stenosis < 50%) rate, the periprocedural complications during the 30-day periprocedural period, the symptomatic recurrence and restenosis during a mean 22-month follow-up (FU) period. The Kaplan-Meier estimate of the cumulative even-free rate of the major cerebrovascular events, i.e. death, stroke or restenosis, was also done. Angiographic success was achieved in 97% of our patients (34/35). There were four procedure-related complications (11%) including a death and a minor stroke. During the mean 22-month FU, the asymptomatic restenosis rate was 9% and the symptomatic restenosis rate was 6% in the target lesion and 9% in all the vascular territories. The Kaplan-Meier estimate was 70.6% (95% confidence interval = 46.5-94.7) after 33 month of FU. In addition to a high angiographic success rate and an acceptable periprocedural complication rate, intracranial angioplasty and/or stenting revealed a relatively low symptomatic recurrence rate. Hemorrhage is a rare, but the physician must aware that potentially fatal periprocedural complications can occur

  3. Prevalence and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidum spp. and Giardia spp. in environmental samples in Hanam province, Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tram Thuy; Traub, Rebecca J.; Pham, Phuc Duc

    2016-01-01

    Cryptosporidium and Giardia are protozoan parasites that cause human diarrheal disease worldwide. This study was done to evaluate the prevalence and concentrations of these protozoa in environmental samples in Hanam, Vietnam and to assess potential contamination sources using molecular epidemiolo......Cryptosporidium and Giardia are protozoan parasites that cause human diarrheal disease worldwide. This study was done to evaluate the prevalence and concentrations of these protozoa in environmental samples in Hanam, Vietnam and to assess potential contamination sources using molecular...

  4. Does highly symptomatic class membership in the acute phase predict highly symptomatic classification in victims 6 months after traumatic exposure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Maj; Hyland, Philip; Armour, Cherie

    2016-05-01

    Recently studies have indicated the existence of both posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and acute stress disorder (ASD) subtypes but no studies have investigated their mutual association. Although ASD may not be a precursor of PTSD per se, there are potential benefits associated with early identification of victims at risk of developing PTSD subtypes. The present study investigates ASD and PTSD subtypes using latent class analysis (LCA) following bank robbery (N=371). Moreover, we assessed if highly symptomatic ASD and selected risk factors increased the probability of highly symptomatic PTSD. The results of LCA revealed a three class solution for ASD and a two class solution for PTSD. Negative cognitions about self (OR=1.08), neuroticism (OR=1.09) and membership of the 'High symptomatic ASD' class (OR=20.41) significantly increased the probability of 'symptomatic PTSD' class membership. Future studies are needed to investigate the existence of ASD and PTSD subtypes and their mutual relationship. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Occurrence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) and wild Zanzibar red colobus monkeys (Procolobus kirkii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debenham, John J; Atencia, Rebeca; Midtgaard, Fred; Robertson, Lucy J

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. in primates and determine their zoonotic or anthropozoonotic potential. Direct immunofluorescence was used to identify Giardia and Cryptosporidium from faecal samples. PCR and DNA sequencing was performed on positive results. Giardia cysts were identified from 5.5% (5/90) of captive chimpanzees and 0% (0/11) of captive mandrills in the Republic of Congo; 0% (0/10) of captive chimpanzees in Norway; and 0% of faecal samples (n = 49) from wild Zanzibar red colobus monkeys. Two Giardia positive samples were also positive on PCR, and sequencing revealed identical isolates of Assemblage B. Cryptosporidium oocysts were not detected in any of the samples. In these primate groups, in which interactions with humans and human environments are quite substantial, Giardia and Cryptosporidium are rare pathogens. In chimpanzees, Giardia may have a zoonotic or anthropozoonotic potential. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Influence of selected stool concentration techniques on the effectiveness of PCR examination in Giardia intestinalis diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojecki, K; Sroka, J; Karamon, J; Kusyk, P; Cencek, T

    2014-01-01

    Giardia intestinalis is a widespread parasitic protozoa which has great significance as a public health threat. Molecular diagnostics of stool sample can be unreliable because of the presence of inhibitors of enzymatic reactions. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of selected pre-treatment methods of fecal samples for further PCR-based diagnostics of G. intestinalis, and the effect of each component of pre-treatment solutions on PCR reactions. Seven stool concentration techniques were compared. The results showed that the most efficient concentration method for stool sample preparation for detection of G. intestinalis by PCR is centrifugal flotation with Percoll (with saturated NaNO3 as the flotation solution). This method is relatively inexpensive, less labor-intensive, and suitable for epidemiological monitoring and clinical investigations.

  7. Molecular and phylogenetic characterization of Cryptosporidium and Giardia from pigs and cattle in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Rikke Breinhold; Vigre, Håkan; Enemark, Heidi L.

    2007-01-01

    The genetic diversity of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis from dairy cattle and pigs in Denmark was determined in the present study. Faecal samples from 1237 pigs and 1150 cattle originating from 50 sow herds and 50 dairy herds, respectively, were analysed for the presence of the two...... parasites by immunofluorescence microscopy. A large proportion of the (oo)cyst containing samples were selected for molecular characterization. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the 18S rDNA locus and/or the HSP70 gene of 183 pig and 154 cattle isolates of Cryptosporidium revealed the presence of C....... suis, pig genotype II, C. parvum (cattle genotype), C. bovis, Cryptosporidium deer-like genotype and a novel C. suis-like genotype. For both cattle and pigs, a host age-related change in distribution of species/genotypes was observed. The zoonotic C. parvum (cattle genotype) was most prevalent in young...

  8. Effects of Ultrasound on the Survival and Characteristics of Cryptosporidium Oocysts and Giardia Cysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Gad, J.; Klinting, M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Sonication of fluids has been widely used for cell lyses and decontamination of water and food due to its three major physical and chemical effects: cavitation, implosion of water bubbles with subsequent increase in substrate temperature and liberation of free radicals such as O...... power and time durations on two of the most common waterborne protozoa Cryptosporidium and Giardia, and examined its effects on parasite characteristics and survival rate using immunofluorescence dyes; DAPI (4’,6-diamidino-2-phenylindol) staining/PI (propidium iodide), and analyzed by flow cytometry...... determine the effects of ultrasound on the parasite, including the sonication power of ultrasound as well as substrate temperature. Conclusions: Ultrasound is harmful for waterborne protozoa even when momentarily applied. However, a mode of operation may exist in which ultrasound can be used for collection...

  9. Prevalence of Giardia intestinalis and Hymenolepis nana in Afghan refugee population of Mianwali district, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrar Ul Haq, Khan; Gul, Naz Asma; Hammad, Hussain Muhammad; Bibi, Yasmeen; Bibi, Asma; Mohsan, Javed

    2015-06-01

    Present study aimed to investigate prevalence of Giardia intestinalis and Hymenolepis nana in Afghan refugees visiting Central Health Unit (CHU), Kot Chandana (Mianwali, Northern Punjab) during two years period (February 2007 to December 2009). A total of 687 stool samples were collected from different age groups of both genders. Samples were processed under sterile conditions after gross examination. Microscopic examination was done on same day along with eggs (H. nana), cyst and trophozoites (G. intestinalis) detection after staining. The prevalence of G. intestinalis was significantly higher (x2=59.54, pintestinal clinical symptoms observed in G. intestinalis. Whereas, bloody diarrhea (OR: 1.56, 95%CI=1.00-2.43) and rectal prolapse (OR: 5.79, 95%CI=1.87-17.91) were associated with H. nana infections. Intestinal parasitic infections are common among Afghan refugees and serious preventive measures should be implemented to promote the safety and healthy lifestyle of these people.

  10. Molecular characterization of Giardia duodenalis isolated from Semai Pahang Orang Asli (Peninsular Malaysia aborigines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdy, A K Mohammed; Surin, Johari; Mohd-Adnan, A; Wan, K-L; Lim, Y A L

    2009-09-01

    This study was conducted to determine the genotypes of Giardia duodenalis isolated from human faecal samples at Pos Betau, Pahang, Malaysia. Faecal specimens were collected and examined for G. duodenalis cysts using Trichrome staining techniques. Molecular identification was carried out by the amplification of a region of the small subunit of the nuclear ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene using nested PCR and subsequent sequencing. The sequences from 15 isolates from G. duodenalis were subjected to phylogenetic analysis (including appropriate outgroups) using the neighbor-joining and maximum parsimony methods. The trees identified G. duodenalis assemblages A and B, with a predominance of assemblage B. The predominance of anthroponotic genotypes indicates the possibility of anthroponotic transmission of these protozoa in this Semai Pahang Orang Asli community.

  11. Giardia duodenalis infection: risk factors for children living in sub-standard settlements in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio César Teixeira

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to characterize Giardia duodenalis infection among children living in sub-standard settlement areas in the municipality of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The cross-sectional epidemiological study included 590 children from 1 to 5 years of age. Data were collected from one child per selected family through home interviews with the parent or guardian and parasitological examination of stool samples. Thirty-one putative risk factors concerning family structure, socioeconomic status, and environmental factors were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression. Prevalence of G. duodenalis infection was 18% (106 children. Four potential risk factors were heavily associated with G. duodenalis infection: number of under-five children in the same household, index child's birth order, existence of a bathroom in the home, and drinking water source.

  12. Prevalence and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis in diarrhoeic patients in the Qikiqtani Region, Nunavut, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Iqbal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although the prevalences of infection with the protozoan parasites Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis in humans appear to be relatively high in the Canadian North, their transmission patterns are poorly understood. Objective: To determine the detection rate and the molecular characteristics of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis in diarrhoeic patients in the Qikiqtani (Baffin Island Region of Nunavut, Canada, in order to better understand the burden of illness and the potential mechanisms of transmission. Study design/methods: Diarrhoeal stool specimens (n=108 submitted to the Qikiqtani General Hospital for clinical testing were also tested for the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis using epifluorescence microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR. DNA sequencing and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP analyses were performed on PCR-positive specimens to determine the species, genotypes and sub-genotypes of the parasites. Results: Cryptosporidium was detected in 15.7% of the diarrhoeic patients, while Giardia was detected in 4.6%. DNA sequencing of a fragment of the small subunit rRNA gene indicated that all of the Cryptosporidium amplicons had a 100% homology to C. parvum, and a gp60 assay showed that all aligned with C. parvum sub-genotype IIa. Microsatellite analysis revealed 3 cases of sub-genotype IIaA15G2R1, 2 of IIaA15G1R and 1 case each of sub-genotypes IIaA16G1R1 and IIaA15R1. For Giardia, results based on the amplification of both the 16S rRNA gene and the gdh gene were generally in agreement, and both DNA sequencing and RFLP demonstrated the presence of the G. duodenalis Assemblage B genotype. Conclusions: Both C. parvum and G. duodenalis Assemblage B were present in human diarrhoeal stool specimens from Nunavut, which was suggestive of zoonotic transmission, although human-to-human transmission cannot be ruled out. To fully understand the public health significance of the

  13. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis in pigs in Lusaka, Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Siwila

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at determining the prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis in pigs which were being raised in intensive management systems. Faecal samples were collected from pigs of all age groups from three different piggery units. Samples were collected directly from the rectum for piglets and weaners and from the floor within 2 min – 5 min of excretion for sows and boars. At the time of collection, faecal consistency was noted as being normal, pasty or diarrhoeic. Samples were analysed further using the Merifluor® Cryptosporidium/Giardia immunofluorescence assay. All piggeries had at least one pig infected with either parasite. From a total 217 samples collected, 96 (44.2%; confidence interval [CI] = 37.6% – 50.9% were positive for Cryptosporidium spp., whilst 26 (12%; CI = 7.6% – 16.3% had G. duodenalis parasites. Of all the pigs, 6.9% (15/217 harboured both parasites. With regard to Cryptosporidium spp. infection, statistically significant differences were observed amongst the three units (p = 0.001, whereas no significant differences were observed for G. duodenalis infection (p = 0.13. Prevalence was higher in weaners as compared to other pig classes for both parasites, with significant differences being observed for G. duodenalis infection (p = 0.013. There was, however, no difference in infection between male and female pigs for both parasites. Furthermore, most infections were asymptomatic. From the study results it was clear that Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis infections were prevalent amongst pigs in the piggeries evaluated and, as such, may act as a source of infection for persons who come into contact with them.

  14. Intestinal parasites and genotypes of Giardia intestinalis in school children from Berisso, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Nora; Pezzani, Betina; Ciarmela, Maria; Orden, Alicia; Rosa, Diana; Apezteguía, Maria; Basualdo, Juan; Minvielle, Marta

    2011-07-27

    Intestinal parasitic infections have been reported in different regions of Argentina. Giardia intestinalis is recognized as "the national parasite". The aim of this work was to determine the prevalence of both intestinal parasites and G. intestinalis genotypes, as well as to analyze the clinical and epidemiological characteristics in schoolchildren from a suburban community. Serial coproparasitological analysis and perianal swab method were performed in 244 schoolchildren. Demographic, sociocultural and environmental variables were registered. The presence of signs/symptoms and risk behaviours were also recorded. Stools with G. intestinalis were selected for genotyping. Out of 244 schoolchildren, 179/244 (73.4%) were infected with intestinal parasites. The presence of intestinal parasitosis was associated only with house flooding. Multivariate analysis identified that use of a latrine is significantly correlated with G. intestinalis and age six to 11 years with E. vermicularis. Signs and symptoms were recorded in 62% of infected children and in 57.9% of those not infected. Genomic amplification was revealed that 65.7% (46/70) of Giardia positive samples corresponded to genotype B, 31.4% (22/70) to genotype AII, and two samples (2.8%) had mixed infection (AII + B). This study shows a high percentage of infected children living in a suburban community in poor sanitary conditions, and not visiting the doctor in spite of evident signs and symptoms associated a digestive pathology. This situation supports the need for continuing the development of community programs allowing the improvement of quality of life and control of parasitosis in deprived populations.

  15. Giardia duodenalis induces paracellular bacterial translocation and causes postinfectious visceral hypersensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliez, Marie C. M.; Motta, Jean-Paul; Feener, Troy D.; Guérin, Gaetan; LeGoff, Laetitia; François, Arnaud; Colasse, Elodie; Favennec, Loic; Gargala, Gilles; Lapointe, Tamia K.; Altier, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most frequent functional gastrointestinal disorder. It is characterized by abdominal hypersensitivity, leading to discomfort and pain, as well as altered bowel habits. While it is common for IBS to develop following the resolution of infectious gastroenteritis [then termed postinfectious IBS (PI-IBS)], the mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Giardia duodenalis is a cosmopolitan water-borne enteropathogen that causes intestinal malabsorption, diarrhea, and postinfectious complications. Cause-and-effect studies using a human enteropathogen to help investigate the mechanisms of PI-IBS are sorely lacking. In an attempt to establish causality between giardiasis and postinfectious visceral hypersensitivity, this study describes a new model of PI-IBS in neonatal rats infected with G. duodenalis. At 50 days postinfection with G. duodenalis (assemblage A or B), long after the parasite was cleared, rats developed visceral hypersensitivity to luminal balloon distension in the jejunum and rectum, activation of the nociceptive signaling pathway (increased c-fos expression), histological modifications (villus atrophy and crypt hyperplasia), and proliferation of mucosal intraepithelial lymphocytes and mast cells in the jejunum, but not in the rectum. G. duodenalis infection also disrupted the intestinal barrier, in vivo and in vitro, which in turn promoted the translocation of commensal bacteria. Giardia-induced bacterial paracellular translocation in vitro correlated with degradation of the tight junction proteins occludin and claudin-4. The extensive observations associated with gut hypersensitivity described here demonstrate that, indeed, in this new model of postgiardiasis IBS, alterations to the gut mucosa and c-fos are consistent with those associated with PI-IBS and, hence, offer avenues for new mechanistic research in the field. PMID:26744469

  16. Freqüência de Giardia spp. por duas técnicas de diagnóstico em fezes de cães Frequency of Giardia spp. for two diagnosis methods in feces of dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J.S. Mundim

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available One hundred fecal samples from male and female dogs of several ages and breeds were collected in kennels of Uberlândia in Minas Gerais, Brazil. These samples were analyzed to determine the frequency of Giardia spp. using two different diagnostic methods: zinc sulfate flotation technique and merthiolate-iodine-formaldehyde concentration (MIFC. The frequency of giardiasis was 41%. Dogs, which were less than 12 months of age, were the most parasitized (68.4%. No difference between male and female frequency of giardiasis (31.4% and 46.1%, respectively was observed. MIFC detected 38% of positive samples and zinc sulfate flotation technique 29%. Giardia spp. is present in dogs of Uberlândia's kennels in a high frequency.

  17. Occurrence of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in activated sludge samples in Campinas, SP, Brazil Ocorrência de cistos de Giardia e oocistos de Cryptosporidium em amostras de lodo ativado em Campinas, SP, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Urbano Santos

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Giardia and Cryptosporidium have caused several outbreaks of gastroenteritis in humans associated with drinking water. Contaminated sewage effluents are recognized as a potential source of waterborne protozoa. Due to the lack of studies about the occurrence of these parasites in sewage samples in Brazil, we compared the efficiency of two procedures for concentrating cysts and oocysts in activated sludge samples of one sewage treatment plant. For this, the samples were submitted to i concentration by the ether clarification procedure (ECP and to ii purification by sucrose flotation method (SFM and aliquots of the pellets were examined by immunofluorescence. Giardia cysts were present in all samples (100.0%; n = 8 when using ECP and kit 1 reagents, while kit 2 resulted in six positive samples (85.7%; n = 7. As for SFM, cysts were detected in 75.0% and 100.0% of these samples (for kit 1 and 2, respectively. Regarding Cryptosporidium, two samples (25.0%; kit 1 and 28.5% for kit 2 were detected positive by using ECP, while for SFM, only one sample (examined by kit 1 was positive (12.5%. The results of the control trial revealed Giardia and Cryptosporidium recovery efficiency rates for ECP of 54.5% and 9.6%, while SFM was 10.5% and 3.2%, respectively. Considering the high concentration detected, a previous evaluation of the activated sludge before its application in agriculture is recommended and with some improvement, ECP would be an appropriate simple technique for protozoa detection in sewage samples.Giardia e Cryptosporidium causaram vários surtos epidêmicos de gastroenterite, associados à água potável. Efluentes de esgoto contaminados foram incriminados como uma fonte potencial de cistos e oocistos. Uma investigação foi conduzida para verificar a presença de cistos de Giardia e oocistos de Cryptosporidium em amostras de lodo ativado de uma Estação de Tratamento de Esgoto. Para isto as amostras foram submetidas: i a concentração pelo

  18. Urine sampling techniques in symptomatic primary-care patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Anne; Aabenhus, Rune

    2016-01-01

    in primary care. The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of urine culture from different sampling-techniques in symptomatic non-pregnant women in primary care. Methods: A systematic review was conducted by searching Medline and Embase for clinical studies conducted in primary care using...... a randomized or paired design to compare the result of urine culture obtained with two or more collection techniques in adult, female, non-pregnant patients with symptoms of urinary tract infection. We evaluated quality of the studies and compared accuracy based on dichotomized outcomes. Results: We included...... seven studies investigating urine sampling technique in 1062 symptomatic patients in primary care. Mid-stream-clean-catch had a positive predictive value of 0.79 to 0.95 and a negative predictive value close to 1 compared to sterile techniques. Two randomized controlled trials found no difference...

  19. Prevalence of nutritional rickets among symptomatic children and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The prevalence of NR among symptomatic children aged 0-3 yearswas615 (95.35%). Males were 330 (53.7%), females were 285 (46.3%) with age ranging from 0 to three years. The prevalence of NR in the 6-12 months age group was 39.2% and 37.7% in the 1-1.5 year's age group. Exclusive breastfeeding rate at ...

  20. Plaque Characteristics of Patients with Symptomatic Mild Carotid Artery Stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai, Hiroki; Uemura, Juniti; Yagita, Yoshiki; Ogawa, Yukari; Kinoshita, Keita; Hirai, Satoshi; Ishihara, Manabu; Hara, Keijirou; Toi, Hiroyuki; Matsubara, Shunji; Nishimura, Hirotake; Uno, Masaaki

    2018-03-20

    Carotid revascularization may be considered for severe stenosis, but its use for symptomatic mild stenosis (<50%) with vulnerable plaque or ulcer remains uncertain. The characteristics of patients with symptomatic mild stenosis who underwent revascularization are reviewed. The subjects of this study were 18 patients with symptomatic mild stenosis (<50%) on angiography from among 175 patients who underwent revascularization in our department. The plaques were evaluated by black-blood magnetic resonance imaging (BB-MRI) and ultrasonography (US) and classified into 2 types: type 1 (n = 15), a lesion with an ulcer or mobile plaque or thrombosis on angiography or US; and type 2 (n = 3), a lesion without any of the above. Fourteen patients underwent carotid endarterectomy (CEA), and 4 patients underwent carotid artery stenting. The stenosis on angiography was 27.2% ± 10.7 (5%-41%), and the area carotid artery stenosis rate on US was 69.8 ± 14.5% (44.5%-97%). The stenosis rate of these 2 methods was not at all correlated. In type 1 plaque that underwent CEA, 10 of 11 patients had vulnerable plaque by histopathology, and 1 patient had thrombus on the plaque by operative findings. In type 2 plaque that underwent CEA, all patients had vulnerable plaque by histopathology. During the follow-up period, none of the patients had restenosis or stroke. The findings of US and BB-MRI in patients with symptomatic mild stenosis (<50%) on angiography are important for determining treatment. If BB-MRI or US shows the findings of vulnerable plaque in mild stenosis, surgical treatment may be considered for these patients. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.