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Sample records for symptom validity tests

  1. Validation of Symptom Validity Tests Using a "Child-model" of Adult Cognitive Impairments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rienstra, A.; Spaan, P. E. J.; Schmand, B.

    2010-01-01

    Validation studies of symptom validity tests (SVTs) in children are uncommon. However, since children's cognitive abilities are not yet fully developed, their performance may provide additional support for the validity of these measures in adult populations. Four SVTs, the Test of Memory Malingering

  2. Effort, symptom validity testing, performance validity testing and traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigler, Erin D

    2014-01-01

    To understand the neurocognitive effects of brain injury, valid neuropsychological test findings are paramount. This review examines the research on what has been referred to a symptom validity testing (SVT). Above a designated cut-score signifies a 'passing' SVT performance which is likely the best indicator of valid neuropsychological test findings. Likewise, substantially below cut-point performance that nears chance or is at chance signifies invalid test performance. Significantly below chance is the sine qua non neuropsychological indicator for malingering. However, the interpretative problems with SVT performance below the cut-point yet far above chance are substantial, as pointed out in this review. This intermediate, border-zone performance on SVT measures is where substantial interpretative challenges exist. Case studies are used to highlight the many areas where additional research is needed. Historical perspectives are reviewed along with the neurobiology of effort. Reasons why performance validity testing (PVT) may be better than the SVT term are reviewed. Advances in neuroimaging techniques may be key in better understanding the meaning of border zone SVT failure. The review demonstrates the problems with rigidity in interpretation with established cut-scores. A better understanding of how certain types of neurological, neuropsychiatric and/or even test conditions may affect SVT performance is needed.

  3. Validation of symptom validity tests using a "child-model" of adult cognitive impairments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rienstra, A.; Spaan, P.E.J.; Schmand, B.

    2010-01-01

    Validation studies of symptom validity tests (SVTs) in children are uncommon. However, since children’s cognitive abilities are not yet fully developed, their performance may provide additional support for the validity of these measures in adult populations. Four SVTs, the Test of Memory Malingering

  4. On the limits of effort testing: symptom validity tests and severity of neurocognitive symptoms in nonlitigant patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merten, Thomas; Bossink, Linda; Schmand, Ben

    2007-01-01

    Modern symptom validity tests (SVTs) use empirical cutoffs for decision making. However, limits to the applicability of these cutoffs may arise when severe cognitive symptoms are present. The purpose of the studies presented here was to explore these limits of applicability. In Experiment 1, a group

  5. Coverage of the Test of Memory Malingering, Victoria Symptom Validity Test, and Word Memory Test on the Internet: is test security threatened?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Lyndsey; McCaffrey, Robert J

    2006-01-01

    In forensic neuropsychological settings, maintaining test security has become critically important, especially in regard to symptom validity tests (SVTs). Coaching, which can entail providing patients or litigants with information about the cognitive sequelae of head injury, or teaching them test-taking strategies to avoid detection of symptom dissimulation has been examined experimentally in many research studies. Emerging evidence supports that coaching strategies affect psychological and neuropsychological test performance to differing degrees depending on the coaching paradigm and the tests administered. The present study sought to examine Internet coverage of SVTs because it is potentially another source of coaching, or information that is readily available. Google searches were performed on the Test of Memory Malingering, the Victoria Symptom Validity Test, and the Word Memory Test. Results indicated that there is a variable amount of information available about each test that could threaten test security and validity should inappropriately interested parties find it. Steps that could be taken to improve this situation and limitations to this exploration are discussed.

  6. Symptom validity testing in memory clinics: Hippocampal-memory associations and relevance for diagnosing mild cognitive impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rienstra, Anne; Groot, Paul F. C.; Spaan, Pauline E. J.; Majoie, Charles B. L. M.; Nederveen, Aart J.; Walstra, Gerard J. M.; de Jonghe, Jos F. M.; van Gool, Willem A.; Olabarriaga, Silvia D.; Korkhov, Vladimir V.; Schmand, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) do not always convert to dementia. In such cases, abnormal neuropsychological test results may not validly reflect cognitive symptoms due to brain disease, and the usual brain-behavior relationships may be absent. This study examined symptom validity in

  7. Victoria Symptom Validity Test performance in children and adolescents with neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Brian L

    2012-12-01

    It is becoming increasingly more important to study, use, and promote the utility of measures that are designed to detect non-compliance with testing (i.e., poor effort, symptom non-validity, response bias) as part of neuropsychological assessments with children and adolescents. Several measures have evidence for use in pediatrics, but there is a paucity of published support for the Victoria Symptom Validity Test (VSVT) in this population. The purpose of this study was to examine the performance on the VSVT in a sample of pediatric patients with known neurological disorders. The sample consisted of 100 consecutively referred children and adolescents between the ages of 6 and 19 years (mean = 14.0, SD = 3.1) with various neurological diagnoses. On the VSVT total items, 95% of the sample had performance in the "valid" range, with 5% being deemed "questionable" and 0% deemed "invalid". On easy items, 97% were "valid", 2% were "questionable", and 1% was "invalid." For difficult items, 84% were "valid," 16% were "questionable," and 0% was "invalid." For those patients given two effort measures (i.e., VSVT and Test of Memory Malingering; n = 65), none was identified as having poor test-taking compliance on both measures. VSVT scores were significantly correlated with age, intelligence, processing speed, and functional ratings of daily abilities (attention, executive functioning, and adaptive functioning), but not objective performance on the measure of sustained attention, verbal memory, or visual memory. The VSVT has potential to be used in neuropsychological assessments with pediatric patients.

  8. Symptom validity testing in memory clinics: Hippocampal-memory associations and relevance for diagnosing mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rienstra, Anne; Groot, Paul F C; Spaan, Pauline E J; Majoie, Charles B L M; Nederveen, Aart J; Walstra, Gerard J M; de Jonghe, Jos F M; van Gool, Willem A; Olabarriaga, Silvia D; Korkhov, Vladimir V; Schmand, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) do not always convert to dementia. In such cases, abnormal neuropsychological test results may not validly reflect cognitive symptoms due to brain disease, and the usual brain-behavior relationships may be absent. This study examined symptom validity in a memory clinic sample and its effect on the associations between hippocampal volume and memory performance. Eleven of 170 consecutive patients (6.5%; 13% of patients younger than 65 years) referred to memory clinics showed noncredible performance on symptom validity tests (SVTs, viz. Word Memory Test and Test of Memory Malingering). They were compared to a demographically matched group (n = 57) selected from the remaining patients. Hippocampal volume, measured by an automated volumetric method (Freesurfer), was correlated with scores on six verbal memory tests. The median correlation was r = .49 in the matched group. However, the relation was absent (median r = -.11) in patients who failed SVTs. Memory clinic samples may include patients who show noncredible performance, which invalidates their MCI diagnosis. This underscores the importance of applying SVTs in evaluating patients with cognitive complaints that may signify a predementia stage, especially when these patients are relatively young.

  9. How'd they do it? Malingering strategies on symptom validity tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jing Ee; Slick, Daniel J; Strauss, Esther; Hultsch, David F

    2002-12-01

    Twenty-five undergraduate students were instructed to feign believable impairment following a brain injury from a car accident and 27 students were told to perform like they had recovered from such an injury. Three forced-choice tests, the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM), Victoria Symptom Validity Test (VSVT), and Word Memory Test (WMT) were given. Test-taking strategies were evaluated by means of a questionnaire given at the end of the test session. The results revealed that all the tasks differentiated between groups. Using conventional cut-scores, the WMT proved most efficient while the VSVT captured the most participants in the definitive below-chance category. Individuals instructed to feign injury were more likely to prepare prior to the experiment, with feigning of memory loss as the most frequently reported strategy. Regardless, preparation effort did not translate into believable performance on the tests.

  10. Towards the development of improved tests for negative symptoms of schizophrenia in a validated animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Ceren; Doostdar, Nazanin; Neill, Joanna C

    2016-10-01

    Negative symptoms in schizophrenia remain an unmet clinical need. There is no licensed treatment specifically for this debilitating aspect of the disorder and effect sizes of new therapies are too small to make an impact on quality of life and function. Negative symptoms are multifactorial but often considered in terms of two domains, expressive deficit incorporating blunted affect and poverty of speech and avolition incorporating asociality and lack of drive. There is a clear need for improved understanding of the neurobiology of negative symptoms which can be enabled through the use of carefully validated animal models. While there are several tests for assessing sociability in animals, tests for blunted affect in schizophrenia are currently lacking. Two paradigms have recently been developed for assessing negative affect of relevance to depression in rats. Here we assess their utility for studying negative symptoms in schizophrenia using our well validated model for schizophrenia of sub-chronic (sc) treatment with Phencyclidine (PCP) in adult female rats. Results demonstrate that sc PCP treatment produces a significant negative affect bias in response to a high value reward in the optimistic and affective bias tests. Our results are not easily explained by the known cognitive deficits induced by sc PCP and support the hypothesis of a negative affective bias in this model. We suggest that further refinement of these two tests will provide a means to investigate the neurobiological basis of negative affect in schizophrenia, thus supporting the assessment of efficacy of new targets for this currently untreated symptom domain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Performance and Symptom Validity Testing as a Function of Medical Board Evaluation in U.S. Military Service Members with a History of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armistead-Jehle, Patrick; Cole, Wesley R; Stegman, Robert L

    2018-02-01

    The study was designed to replicate and extend pervious findings demonstrating the high rates of invalid neuropsychological testing in military service members (SMs) with a history of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) assessed in the context of a medical evaluation board (MEB). Two hundred thirty-one active duty SMs (61 of which were undergoing an MEB) underwent neuropsychological assessment. Performance validity (Word Memory Test) and symptom validity (MMPI-2-RF) test data were compared across those evaluated within disability (MEB) and clinical contexts. As with previous studies, there were significantly more individuals in an MEB context that failed performance (MEB = 57%, non-MEB = 31%) and symptom validity testing (MEB = 57%, non-MEB = 22%) and performance validity testing had a notable affect on cognitive test scores. Performance and symptom validity test failure rates did not vary as a function of the reason for disability evaluation when divided into behavioral versus physical health conditions. These data are consistent with past studies, and extends those studies by including symptom validity testing and investigating the effect of reason for MEB. This and previous studies demonstrate that more than 50% of SMs seen in the context of an MEB will fail performance validity tests and over-report on symptom validity measures. These results emphasize the importance of using both performance and symptom validity testing when evaluating SMs with a history of mTBI, especially if they are being seen for disability evaluations, in order to ensure the accuracy of cognitive and psychological test data. Published by Oxford University Press 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  12. Development and validation of an instrument for rapidly assessing symptoms: the general symptom distress scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badger, Terry A; Segrin, Chris; Meek, Paula

    2011-03-01

    Symptom assessment has increasingly focused on the evaluation of total symptom distress or burden rather than assessing only individual symptoms. The challenge for clinicians and researchers alike is to assess symptoms, and to determine the symptom distress associated with the symptoms and the patient's ability for symptom management without a lengthy and burdensome assessment process. The objective of this article was to discuss the psychometric evaluation of a brief general symptom distress scale (GSDS) developed to assess specific symptoms and how they rank in relation to each other, the overall symptom distress associated with the symptom schema, and provide an assessment of how well or poorly that symptom schema is managed. Results from a pilot study about the initial development of the GSDS with 76 hospitalized patients are presented, followed by a more complete psychometric evaluation of the GSDS using three samples of cancer patients (n=190) and their social network members, called partners in these studies (n=94). Descriptive statistics were used to describe the GSDS symptoms, symptom distress, and symptom management. Point biserial correlations indexed the associations between dichotomous symptoms and continuous measures, and conditional probabilities were used to illustrate the substantial comorbidities of this sample. Internal consistency was examined using the KR-20 coefficient, and test-retest reliability was examined. Construct validity and predictive validity also were examined. The GSDS demonstrated satisfactory internal consistency and test-retest reliability, and good construct validity and predictive validity. The total score on the GSDS, symptom distress, and symptom management correlated significantly with related constructs of depression, positive and negative affect, and general health. The GSDS was able to demonstrate its ability to distinguish between those with or without chronic illness, and was able to significantly predict scores on

  13. Clinical utility of the Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory validity scales to screen for symptom exaggeration following traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Rael T; Brickell, Tracey A; Lippa, Sara M; French, Louis M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the clinical utility of three recently developed validity scales (Validity-10, NIM5, and LOW6) designed to screen for symptom exaggeration using the Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory (NSI). Participants were 272 U.S. military service members who sustained a mild, moderate, severe, or penetrating traumatic brain injury (TBI) and who were evaluated by the neuropsychology service at Walter Reed Army Medical Center within 199 weeks post injury. Participants were divided into two groups based on the Negative Impression Management scale of the Personality Assessment Inventory: (a) those who failed symptom validity testing (SVT-fail; n = 27) and (b) those who passed symptom validity testing (SVT-pass; n = 245). Participants in the SVT-fail group had significantly higher scores (pscales (range: d = 0.76 to 2.34). Similarly high sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive power (PPP), and negative predictive (NPP) values were found when using all three validity scales to differentiate SVT-fail versus SVT-pass groups. However, the Validity-10 scale consistently had the highest overall values. The optimal cutoff score for the Validity-10 scale to identify possible symptom exaggeration was ≥19 (sensitivity = .59, specificity = .89, PPP = .74, NPP = .80). For the majority of people, these findings provide support for the use of the Validity-10 scale as a screening tool for possible symptom exaggeration. When scores on the Validity-10 exceed the cutoff score, it is recommended that (a) researchers and clinicians do not interpret responses on the NSI, and (b) clinicians follow up with a more detailed evaluation, using well-validated symptom validity measures (e.g., Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form, MMPI-2-RF, validity scales), to seek confirmatory evidence to support an hypothesis of symptom exaggeration.

  14. Swiss population-based reference data for six symptom validity tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Giger

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Los resultados encontrados en la evaluación de la validez de los síntomas (SVT deberían ser inmunes a las variables sociodemográficas. Así, los sujetos sanos y cooperadores deberían superar los tests de SVT. El ob- jetivo de este estudio es obtener datos de referencia de una serie de pruebas utilizadas en la evaluación de la validez de los síntomas, en una muestra representativa de 100 ciudadanos suizos, germano-hablantes, de entre 18 y 60 años: Medical Symptom Validity Test, Structured Inventory of Malingered Symptomatology, Amsterdam Short-Term Memory Test, Emotional Numbing Test, Reliable Digit Span y Maximum Span Forward. Los análisis de regresión múltiple reflejaron que las variables edad e inteligencia verbal afectaron a los resultados de varias de las pruebas, mientras que no fue así para las variables sexo y nivel educativo. La tasa de resultados positivos osciló entre el 1% (Emotional Numbing Test, Structured Inventory of Malin- gered Symptomatology y el 4% (Maximum Span Forward. Una cuestión relevante que se desprende de este estudio es si dichos resultados positivos en las muestras de referencia

  15. Validation of a self-reported HIV symptoms list: the ISS-HIV symptoms scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucciardini, Raffaella; Pugliese, Katherina; Francisci, Daniela; Costantini, Andrea; Schiaroli, Elisabetta; Cognigni, Miriam; Tontini, Chiara; Lucattini, Stefano; Fucili, Luca; Di Gregorio, Massimiliano; Mirra, Marco; Fragola, Vincenzo; Pompili, Sara; Murri, Rita; Vella, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    To describe the development and the psychometric properties of the Istituto Superiore di Sanità-HIV symptoms scale (lSS-HIV symptoms scale). The ISS-HIV symptom scale was developed by an Italian working team including researchers, physicians and people living with HIV. The development process went through the following steps: (1) review of HIV/AIDS literature; (2) focus group; (3) pre-test analysis; (4) scale validation. The 22 symptoms of HIV-ISS symptoms scale were clustered in five factors: pain/general discomfort (7 items); depression/anxiety (4 items); emotional reaction/psychological distress (5 items); gastrointestinal discomfort (4 items); sexual discomfort (2 items). The internal consistence reliability was for all factors within the minimum accepted standard of 0.70. The results of this study provide a preliminary evidence of the reliability and validity of the ISS-HIV symptoms scale. In the new era where HIV infection has been transformed into a chronic diseases and patients are experiencing a complex range of symptoms, the ISS-HIV symptoms scale may represent an useful tool for a comprehensive symptom assessment with the advantage of being easy to fill out by patients and potentially attractive to physicians mainly because it is easy to understand and requires short time to interpret the results.

  16. [German validation of the Acute Cystitis Symptom Score].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alidjanov, J F; Pilatz, A; Abdufattaev, U A; Wiltink, J; Weidner, W; Naber, K G; Wagenlehner, F

    2015-09-01

    The Uzbek version of the Acute Cystitis Symptom Score (ACSS) was developed as a simple self-reporting questionnaire to improve diagnosis and therapy of women with acute cystitis (AC). The purpose of this work was to validate the ACSS in the German language. The ACSS consists of 18 questions in four subscales: (1) typical symptoms, (2) differential diagnosis, (3) quality of life, and (4) additional circumstances. Translation of the ACSS into German was performed according to international guidelines. For the validation process 36 German-speaking women (age: 18-90 years), with and without symptoms of AC, were included in the study. Classification of participants into two groups (patients or controls) was based on the presence or absence of typical symptoms and significant bacteriuria (≥ 10(3) CFU/ml). Statistical evaluations of reliability, validity, and predictive ability were performed. ROC curve analysis was performed to assess sensitivity and specificity of ACSS and its subscales. The Mann-Whitney's U test and t-test were used to compare the scores of the groups. Of the 36 German-speaking women (age: 40 ± 19 years), 19 were diagnosed with AC (patient group), while 17 women served as controls. Cronbach's α for the German ACSS total scale was 0.87. A threshold score of ≥ 6 points in category 1 (typical symptoms) significantly predicted AC (sensitivity 94.7%, specificity 82.4%). There were no significant differences in ACSS scores in patients and controls compared to the original Uzbek version of the ACSS. The German version of the ACSS showed a high reliability and validity. Therefore, the German version of the ACSS can be reliably used in clinical practice and research for diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of patients suffering from AC.

  17. Next-generation negative symptom assessment for clinical trials: validation of the Brief Negative Symptom Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Gregory P; Keller, William R; Buchanan, Robert W; Gold, James M; Fischer, Bernard A; McMahon, Robert P; Catalano, Lauren T; Culbreth, Adam J; Carpenter, William T; Kirkpatrick, Brian

    2012-12-01

    The current study examined the psychometric properties of the Brief Negative Symptom Scale (BNSS), a next-generation rating instrument developed in response to the NIMH sponsored consensus development conference on negative symptoms. Participants included 100 individuals with a DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder who completed a clinical interview designed to assess negative, positive, disorganized, and general psychiatric symptoms, as well as functional outcome. A battery of anhedonia questionnaires and neuropsychological tests were also administered. Results indicated that the BNSS has excellent internal consistency and temporal stability, as well as good convergent and discriminant validity in its relationships with other symptom rating scales, functional outcome, self-reported anhedonia, and neuropsychological test scores. Given its brevity (13-items, 15-minute interview) and good psychometric characteristics, the BNSS can be considered a promising new instrument for use in clinical trials. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Validation of a pediatric caregiver diary to measure symptoms of postacute respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santanello, Nancy C; Norquist, Josephine M; Nelsen, Linda M

    2005-01-01

    consistent, supporting a unidimensional scale structure. Test-retest reliabilities for the percentage of SFD and CSS were above the recommended cut point of 0.70. Cross-sectional and longitudinal correlations were sizeable and statistically significant, demonstrating construct validity. Hypothesized known......Acute respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-induced bronchiolitis is often associated with continuing respiratory symptoms following hospitalization. To date, there is no validated objective measure to evaluate symptoms of RSV-induced bronchiolitis. We report on the reliability, validity...... the 4-week treatment period of the reported prospective, placebo-controlled trial of montelukast for treatment of postacute RSV were used to assess reliability (internal consistency and test-retest), construct validity (cross-sectional and longitudinal correlations), discriminant validity (known...

  19. Effort testing in children: can cognitive and symptom validity measures differentiate malingered performances?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambo, Philip L; Callahan, Jennifer L; Hogan, Lindsey R; Hullmann, Stephanie; Wrape, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Recent efforts have contributed to significant advances in the detection of malingered performances in adults during cognitive assessment. However, children's ability to purposefully underperform has received relatively little attention. The purpose of the present investigation was to examine children's performances on common intellectual measures, as well as two symptom validity measures: the Test of Memory Malingering and the Dot-Counting Test. This was accomplished through the administration of measures to children ages 6 to 12 years old in randomly assigned full-effort (control) and poor-effort (treatment) conditions. Prior to randomization, children's general intellectual functioning (i.e., IQ) was estimated via administration of the Kaufman Brief Intellectual Battery-Second Edition (KBIT-2). Multivariate analyses revealed that the conditions significantly differed on some but not all administered measures. Specifically, children's estimated IQ in the treatment condition significantly differed from the full-effort IQ initially obtained from the same children on the KBIT-2, as well as from the IQs obtained in the full-effort control condition. These findings suggest that children are fully capable of willfully underperforming during cognitive testing; however, consistent with prior investigations, some measures evidence greater sensitivity than others in evaluating effort.

  20. Validation of leaf ozone symptoms in natural vegetation using microscopical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollenweider, P.; Ottiger, M.; Guenthardt-Goerg, M.S

    2003-01-01

    Integration of markers of oxidative stress, from the subcellular to the leaf and needle level, proved to be a useful tool for the differential diagnosis and validation of ozone injury. - Ozone injury to natural vegetation is being increasingly surveyed throughout the northern hemisphere. There exists a growing list of species showing visible 'ozone-like' symptoms which needs to be validated. This study presents the results from a test survey of ozone injury to forest vegetation in the light exposed sites of five Swiss level II plots, for the new ICP-Forests protocol. With AOT40 from 14 to 28 ppm·h in 2000, ten out of 49 woody plant species displayed typical symptoms, and four showed untypical symptoms. Symptom origin was investigated in nine and validated in seven species, using morphological, histological and cellular markers of oxidative stress and ozone-induced plant response. Independent of taxonomic position, ozone effects were characterized by the induction of oxidative stress in the mesophyll resulting in discrete and light-dependent hypersensitive-like responses and in accelerated cell senescence. The presented combination of cellular and morphological markers allows differential diagnosis of visible ozone injury

  1. Body Dysmorphic Symptoms Scale for patients seeking esthetic surgery: cross-cultural validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Tatiana Dalpasquale; Brito, Maria José Azevedo de; Piccolo, Mônica Sarto; Rosella, Maria Fernanda Normanha da Silva Martins; Sabino, Miguel; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2016-01-01

    Rhinoplasty is one of the most sought-after esthetic operations among individuals with body dysmorphic disorder. The aim of this study was to cross-culturally adapt and validate the Body Dysmorphic Symptoms Scale. Cross-cultural validation study conducted in a plastic surgery outpatient clinic of a public university hospital. Between February 2014 and March 2015, 80 consecutive patients of both sexes seeking rhinoplasty were selected. Thirty of them participated in the phase of cultural adaptation of the instrument. Reproducibility was tested on 20 patients and construct validity was assessed on 50 patients, with correlation against the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale for Body Dysmorphic Disorder. The Brazilian version of the instrument showed Cronbach's alpha of 0.805 and excellent inter-rater reproducibility (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC = 0.873; P Dysmorphic Disorder and the Body Dysmorphic Symptoms Scale. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.981, thus showing good accuracy for discriminating between presence and absence of symptoms of body dysmorphic disorder. Forty-six percent of the patients had body dysmorphic symptoms and 54% had moderate to severe appearance-related obsessive-compulsive symptoms. The Brazilian version of the Body Dysmorphic Symptoms Scale is a reproducible instrument that presents face, content and construct validity.

  2. Validation of a 4-item Negative Symptom Assessment (NSA-4): a short, practical clinical tool for the assessment of negative symptoms in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alphs, Larry; Morlock, Robert; Coon, Cheryl; Cazorla, Pilar; Szegedi, Armin; Panagides, John

    2011-06-01

    The 16-item Negative Symptom Assessment (NSA-16) scale is a validated tool for evaluating negative symptoms of schizophrenia. The psychometric properties and predictive power of a four-item version (NSA-4) were compared with the NSA-16. Baseline data from 561 patients with predominant negative symptoms of schizophrenia who participated in two identically designed clinical trials were evaluated. Ordered logistic regression analysis of ratings using NSA-4 and NSA-16 were compared with ratings using several other standard tools to determine predictive validity and construct validity. Internal consistency and test--retest reliability were also analyzed. NSA-16 and NSA-4 scores were both predictive of scores on the NSA global rating (odds ratio = 0.83-0.86) and the Clinical Global Impressions--Severity scale (odds ratio = 0.91-0.93). NSA-16 and NSA-4 showed high correlation with each other (Pearson r = 0.85), similar high correlation with other measures of negative symptoms (demonstrating convergent validity), and lesser correlations with measures of other forms of psychopathology (demonstrating divergent validity). NSA-16 and NSA-4 both showed acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach α, 0.85 and 0.64, respectively) and test--retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.87 and 0.82). This study demonstrates that NSA-4 offers accuracy comparable to the NSA-16 in rating negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Symptom validity issues in the psychological consultative examination for social security disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafetz, Michael D

    2010-08-01

    This article is about Social Security Administration (SSA) policy with regard to the Psychological Consultative Examination (PCE) for Social Security Disability, particularly with respect to validation of the responses and findings. First, the nature of the consultation and the importance of understanding the boundaries and ethics of the psychologist's role are described. Issues particular to working with low-functioning claimants usually form a large part of these examinations. The psychologist must understand various forms of non-credible behavior during the PCE, and how malingering might be considered among other non-credible presentations. Issues pertaining to symptom validity testing in low-functioning claimants are further explored. SSA policy with respect to symptom validity testing is carefully examined, with an attempt to answer specific concerns and show how psychological science can be of assistance, particularly with evidence-based practice. Additionally, the nature and importance of techniques to avoid the mislabeling of claimants as malingerers are examined. SSA requires the use of accepted diagnostic techniques with which to establish impairment, and this article describes the implementation of that requirement, particularly with respect to validating the findings.

  4. Detecting Symptom Exaggeration in Combat Veterans Using the MMPI-2 Symptom Validity Scales: A Mixed Group Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolin, David F.; Steenkamp, Maria M.; Marx, Brian P.; Litz, Brett T.

    2010-01-01

    Although validity scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2; J. N. Butcher, W. G. Dahlstrom, J. R. Graham, A. Tellegen, & B. Kaemmer, 1989) have proven useful in the detection of symptom exaggeration in criterion-group validation (CGV) studies, usually comparing instructed feigners with known patient groups, the…

  5. The MMPI-2 Symptom Validity Scale (FBS) Not Influenced by Medical Impairment: A Large Sleep Center Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiffenstein, Manfred F.

    2010-01-01

    The Symptom Validity Scale (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-FBS [MMPI-2-FBS]) is a standard MMPI-2 validity scale measuring overstatement of somatic distress and subjective disability. Some critics assert the MMPI-2-FBS misclassifies too many medically impaired persons as malingering symptoms. This study tests the assertion of…

  6. Validity of the Danish Prostate Symptom Score questionnaire in stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tibaek, S.; Dehlendorff, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Objective – To determine the content and face validity of the Danish Prostate Symptom Score (DAN-PSS-1) questionnaire in stroke patients. Materials and methods – Content validity was judged among an expert panel in neuro-urology. The judgement was measured by the content validity index (CVI). Face...... validity was indicated in a clinical sample of 482 stroke patients in a hospital-based, cross-sectional survey. Results – I-CVI was rated >0.78 (range 0.94–1.00) for 75% of symptom and bother items corresponding to adequate content validity. The expert panel rated the entire DAN-PSS-1 questionnaire highly...... questionnaire appears to be content and face valid for measuring lower urinary tract symptoms after stroke....

  7. To work or not to work: motivation (not low IQ) determines symptom validity test findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafetz, Michael D; Prentkowski, Erica; Rao, Aparna

    2011-06-01

    Social Security Disability Determinations Service (DDS) claimants are seeking compensation for an inability to work (Chafetz, 2010). These usually low-functioning claimants fail Symptom Validity Tests (SVTs) at high rates (Chafetz, 2008), typically over 40%. In contrast, claimants for the Rehabilitation Service in Louisiana (LRS) are seeking to work. Individuals referred by the Department of Child and Family Services (DCFS) are seeking reunification with their children. All three groups consisted of equivalently low-IQ claimants when considering only those who passed SVTs. Only the DDS group failed SVTs at high rates, whereas LRS claimants failed at minimal rates and DCFS claimants did not fail. Thus, intrinsic motivation explains effort in this particular study of low-functioning claimants: those seeking to work or to look good to reunify with their children pass SVTs at high rates.

  8. Development and Validation of a Test for Bulimia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Marcia C.; Thelen, Mark H.

    1984-01-01

    Developed the Bulimia Test (BULIT) based on responses of clinically identified females (N=18) and normal female college students (N=119) to preliminary test items. Results showed that the BULIT provided an objective, reliable, and valid measure by which to identify individuals with symptoms of bulimia. (Instrument is appended.) (LLL)

  9. Body Dysmorphic Symptoms Scale for patients seeking esthetic surgery: cross-cultural validation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Dalpasquale Ramos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Rhinoplasty is one of the most sought-after esthetic operations among individuals with body dysmorphic disorder. The aim of this study was to cross-culturally adapt and validate the Body Dysmorphic Symptoms Scale. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-cultural validation study conducted in a plastic surgery outpatient clinic of a public university hospital. METHODS: Between February 2014 and March 2015, 80 consecutive patients of both sexes seeking rhinoplasty were selected. Thirty of them participated in the phase of cultural adaptation of the instrument. Reproducibility was tested on 20 patients and construct validity was assessed on 50 patients, with correlation against the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale for Body Dysmorphic Disorder. RESULTS: The Brazilian version of the instrument showed Cronbach's alpha of 0.805 and excellent inter-rater reproducibility (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC = 0.873; P < 0.001 and intra-rater reproducibility (ICC = 0.939; P < 0.001. Significant differences in total scores were found between patients with and without symptoms (P < 0.001. A strong correlation (r = 0.841; P < 0.001 was observed between the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale for Body Dysmorphic Disorder and the Body Dysmorphic Symptoms Scale. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.981, thus showing good accuracy for discriminating between presence and absence of symptoms of body dysmorphic disorder. Forty-six percent of the patients had body dysmorphic symptoms and 54% had moderate to severe appearance-related obsessive-compulsive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: The Brazilian version of the Body Dysmorphic Symptoms Scale is a reproducible instrument that presents face, content and construct validity.

  10. Examination of the Mild Brain Injury Atypical Symptom Scale and the Validity-10 Scale to detect symptom exaggeration in US military service members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Rael T; Brickell, Tracey A; French, Louis M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the clinical utility of two validity scales designed for use with the Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory (NSI) and the PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C); the Mild Brain Injury Atypical Symptoms Scale (mBIAS) and Validity-10 scale. Participants were 63 U.S. military service members (age: M = 31.9 years, SD = 12.5; 90.5% male) who sustained a mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) and were prospectively enrolled from Walter Reed National Military Medical Center. Participants were divided into two groups based on the validity scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF): (a) symptom validity test (SVT)-Fail (n = 24) and (b) SVT-Pass (n = 39). Participants were evaluated on average 19.4 months postinjury (SD = 27.6). Participants in the SVT-Fail group had significantly higher scores (p scales (d = 0.69 to d = 2.47). Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive power values were calculated across the range of mBIAS and Validity-10 scores to determine the optimal cutoff to detect symptom exaggeration. For the mBIAS, a cutoff score of ≥8 was considered optimal, which resulted in low sensitivity (.17), high specificity (1.0), high positive predictive power (1.0), and moderate negative predictive power (.69). For the Validity-10 scale, a cutoff score of ≥13 was considered optimal, which resulted in moderate-high sensitivity (.63), high specificity (.97), and high positive (.93) and negative predictive power (.83). These findings provide strong support for the use of the Validity-10 as a tool to screen for symptom exaggeration when administering the NSI and PCL-C. The mBIAS, however, was not a reliable tool for this purpose and failed to identify the vast majority of people who exaggerated symptoms.

  11. Convergent validity test, construct validity test and external validity test of the David Liberman algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Maldavsky

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The author first exposes a complement of a previous test about convergent validity, then a construct validity test and finally an external validity test of the David Liberman algorithm.  The first part of the paper focused on a complementary aspect, the differential sensitivity of the DLA 1 in an external comparison (to other methods, and 2 in an internal comparison (between two ways of using the same method, the DLA.  The construct validity test exposes the concepts underlined to DLA, their operationalization and some corrections emerging from several empirical studies we carried out.  The external validity test examines the possibility of using the investigation of a single case and its relation with the investigation of a more extended sample.

  12. Symptom and performance validity with veterans assessed for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shura, Robert D; Denning, John H; Miskey, Holly M; Rowland, Jared A

    2017-12-01

    Little is known about attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in veterans. Practice standards recommend the use of both symptom and performance validity measures in any assessment, and there are salient external incentives associated with ADHD evaluation (stimulant medication access and academic accommodations). The purpose of this study was to evaluate symptom and performance validity measures in a clinical sample of veterans presenting for specialty ADHD evaluation. Patients without a history of a neurocognitive disorder and for whom data were available on all measures (n = 114) completed a clinical interview structured on DSM-5 ADHD symptoms, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF), and the Test of Memory Malingering Trial 1 (TOMM1) as part of a standardized ADHD diagnostic evaluation. Veterans meeting criteria for ADHD were not more likely to overreport symptoms on the MMPI-2-RF nor to fail TOMM1 (score ≤ 41) compared with those who did not meet criteria. Those who overreported symptoms did not endorse significantly more ADHD symptoms; however, those who failed TOMM1 did report significantly more ADHD symptoms (g = 0.90). In the total sample, 19.3% failed TOMM1, 44.7% overreported on the MMPI-2-RF, and 8.8% produced both an overreported MMPI-2-RF and invalid TOMM1. F-r had the highest correlation to TOMM1 scores (r = -.30). These results underscore the importance of assessing both symptom and performance validity in a clinical ADHD evaluation with veterans. In contrast to certain other conditions (e.g., mild traumatic brain injury), ADHD as a diagnosis is not related to higher rates of invalid report/performance in veterans. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Validation of Turkish version of brief negative symptom scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat Nazlı, Irmak; Ergül, Ceylan; Aydemir, Ömer; Chandhoke, Swati; Üçok, Alp; Gönül, Ali Saffet

    2016-11-01

    Negative symptoms in schizophrenia have been assessed by many instruments. However, a current consensus on these symptoms has been built and new tools, such as the Brief Negative Symptom Scale (BNSS), are generated. This study aimed to evaluate reliability and validity of the Turkish version of BNSS. The scale was translated to Turkish and backtranslated to English. After the approval of the translation, 75 schizophrenia patients were interviewed with BNSS, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS) and Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale (ESRS). Reliability and validity analyses were then calculated. In the reliability analysis, the Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.96 and item-total score correlation coefficients were between 0.655-0.884. The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.665. The inter-rater reliability was 0.982 (p Symptoms Subscale, Negative Symptoms Subscale, and General Psychopathology Subscale. CDSS and ESRS were not correlated with BNSS-TR. The factor structure of the scale was consisting the same items as in the original version. Our study confirms that the Turkish version of BNSS is an applicable tool for the evaluation of negative symptoms in schizophrenia.

  14. Screening for postdeployment conditions: development and cross-validation of an embedded validity scale in the neurobehavioral symptom inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderploeg, Rodney D; Cooper, Douglas B; Belanger, Heather G; Donnell, Alison J; Kennedy, Jan E; Hopewell, Clifford A; Scott, Steven G

    2014-01-01

    To develop and cross-validate internal validity scales for the Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory (NSI). Four existing data sets were used: (1) outpatient clinical traumatic brain injury (TBI)/neurorehabilitation database from a military site (n = 403), (2) National Department of Veterans Affairs TBI evaluation database (n = 48 175), (3) Florida National Guard nonclinical TBI survey database (n = 3098), and (4) a cross-validation outpatient clinical TBI/neurorehabilitation database combined across 2 military medical centers (n = 206). Secondary analysis of existing cohort data to develop (study 1) and cross-validate (study 2) internal validity scales for the NSI. The NSI, Mild Brain Injury Atypical Symptoms, and Personality Assessment Inventory scores. Study 1: Three NSI validity scales were developed, composed of 5 unusual items (Negative Impression Management [NIM5]), 6 low-frequency items (LOW6), and the combination of 10 nonoverlapping items (Validity-10). Cut scores maximizing sensitivity and specificity on these measures were determined, using a Mild Brain Injury Atypical Symptoms score of 8 or more as the criterion for invalidity. Study 2: The same validity scale cut scores again resulted in the highest classification accuracy and optimal balance between sensitivity and specificity in the cross-validation sample, using a Personality Assessment Inventory Negative Impression Management scale with a T score of 75 or higher as the criterion for invalidity. The NSI is widely used in the Department of Defense and Veterans Affairs as a symptom-severity assessment following TBI, but is subject to symptom overreporting or exaggeration. This study developed embedded NSI validity scales to facilitate the detection of invalid response styles. The NSI Validity-10 scale appears to hold considerable promise for validity assessment when the NSI is used as a population-screening tool.

  15. Validity and Reliability of the Turkish Version of the Multiple Sclerosis-Related Symptom Checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tülek, Zeliha; Polat, Cansu; Kürtüncü, Murat; Eraksoy, Mefkure

    2017-12-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease that causes different symptoms in each attack and has an individual-specific course. Detailed questioning and recording of MS symptoms is important for developing a management plan for individual-specific symptoms. The present study was planned to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Turkish version of "Multiple Sclerosis-Related Symptom Checklist" (MS-RS), which has been developed for patients to personally follow-up the symptoms they experience. The study was conducted in the outpatient MS clinic of the Istanbul University Istanbul Faculty of Medicine between January and October 2013 and included a sample group of 148 patients who were aged >18 years, could easily communicate, had a definite diagnosis of MS, and had no other medical problems besides MS. The data were collected using patient information forms, including sociodemographic and MS-RS forms. To assess the linguistic validity, the Likert-type scale with 26 items was first applied to a group of 30 patients. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to test the construct validity. Furthermore, the correlation of the scale with the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Mini-Mental Status Evaluation (MMSE) scale, and Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life Scale-54 (MSQL-54) was evaluated. The scale comprised five factors with factor loading values between 0.39 and 0.86. The item-total correlation coefficients revealed values of 0.27-0.88. The Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficient for the whole scale was determined to be 0.89 and for the subscales to be 0.60-0.85. The test-retest analysis revealed no difference between the scale and its subscales in terms of invariance with time (p>0.05). Moreover, MS-RS was significantly correlated with EDSS, HADS, MMSE, and MSQL-54. The Turkish version of MS-RS is a valid and reliable scale that can be used in the Turkish population.

  16. Development and Initial Validation of the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms-34

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Benjamin D.; McAleavey, Andrew A.; Zhao, Yu; Lei, Pui-Wa; Hayes, Jeffrey A.; Castonguay, Louis G.; Li, Hongli; Tate, Robin; Lin, Yu-Chu

    2012-01-01

    A short version of the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms-62 (CCAPS-62) was created via three studies. The final short version (CCAPS-34), which contains 34 items and 7 subscales, demonstrated good discrimination power, support for the proposed factor structure, strong initial convergent validity, and adequate test-retest…

  17. The validity of upper-limb neurodynamic tests for detecting peripheral neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nee, Robert J; Jull, Gwendolen A; Vicenzino, Bill; Coppieters, Michel W

    2012-05-01

    The validity of upper-limb neurodynamic tests (ULNTs) for detecting peripheral neuropathic pain (PNP) was assessed by reviewing the evidence on plausibility, the definition of a positive test, reliability, and concurrent validity. Evidence was identified by a structured search for peer-reviewed articles published in English before May 2011. The quality of concurrent validity studies was assessed with the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies tool, where appropriate. Biomechanical and experimental pain data support the plausibility of ULNTs. Evidence suggests that a positive ULNT should at least partially reproduce the patient's symptoms and that structural differentiation should change these symptoms. Data indicate that this definition of a positive ULNT is reliable when used clinically. Limited evidence suggests that the median nerve test, but not the radial nerve test, helps determine whether a patient has cervical radiculopathy. The median nerve test does not help diagnose carpal tunnel syndrome. These findings should be interpreted cautiously, because diagnostic accuracy might have been distorted by the investigators' definitions of a positive ULNT. Furthermore, patients with PNP who presented with increased nerve mechanosensitivity rather than conduction loss might have been incorrectly classified by electrophysiological reference standards as not having PNP. The only evidence for concurrent validity of the ulnar nerve test was a case study on cubital tunnel syndrome. We recommend that researchers develop more comprehensive reference standards for PNP to accurately assess the concurrent validity of ULNTs and continue investigating the predictive validity of ULNTs for prognosis or treatment response.

  18. Development and Validation of the Somatic Symptom Disorder-B Criteria Scale (SSD-12).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussaint, Anne; Murray, Alexandra M; Voigt, Katharina; Herzog, Annabel; Gierk, Benjamin; Kroenke, Kurt; Rief, Winfried; Henningsen, Peter; Löwe, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    To develop and validate a new self-report questionnaire for the assessment of the psychological features of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition somatic symptom disorder. The Somatic Symptom Disorder-B Criteria Scale (SSD-12) was developed in several steps from an initial pool of 98 items. The SSD-12 is composed of 12 items; each of the three psychological subcriteria is measured by four items. In a cross-sectional study, the SSD-12 was administered to 698 patients (65.8% female, mean [standard deviation] age = 38.79 [14.15] years) from a psychosomatic outpatient clinic. Item and scale characteristics as well as measures of reliability and validity were determined. The SSD-12 has good item characteristics and excellent reliability (Cronbach α = .95). Confirmatory factor analyses suggested that a three-factorial structure that reflects the three psychological criteria interpreted as cognitive, affective, and behavioral aspects (n = 663, Comparative Fit Index > 0.99, Tucker-Lewis Index > 0.99, Root Mean Square Error of Approximation = 0.06, 90% confidence interval = 0.01-0.08). SSD-12 total sum score was significantly associated with somatic symptom burden (r = 0.47, p psychological symptom burden reported higher general physical and mental health impairment and significantly higher health care use. The SSD-12 is the first self-report questionnaire that operationalizes the new psychological characteristics of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition somatic symptom disorder. Initial assessment indicates that the SSD-12 has sufficient reliability and validity to warrant further testing in both research and clinical settings.

  19. Refining Ovarian Cancer Test accuracy Scores (ROCkeTS): protocol for a prospective longitudinal test accuracy study to validate new risk scores in women with symptoms of suspected ovarian cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundar, Sudha; Rick, Caroline; Dowling, Francis; Au, Pui; Rai, Nirmala; Champaneria, Rita; Stobart, Hilary; Neal, Richard; Davenport, Clare; Mallett, Susan; Sutton, Andrew; Kehoe, Sean; Timmerman, Dirk; Bourne, Tom; Van Calster, Ben; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Deeks, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Ovarian cancer (OC) is associated with non-specific symptoms such as bloating, making accurate diagnosis challenging: only 1 in 3 women with OC presents through primary care referral. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines recommends sequential testing with CA125 and routine ultrasound in primary care. However, these diagnostic tests have limited sensitivity or specificity. Improving accurate triage in women with vague symptoms is likely to improve mortality by streamlining referral and care pathways. The Refining Ovarian Cancer Test Accuracy Scores (ROCkeTS; HTA 13/13/01) project will derive and validate new tests/risk prediction models that estimate the probability of having OC in women with symptoms. This protocol refers to the prospective study only (phase III). Methods and analysis ROCkeTS comprises four parallel phases. The full ROCkeTS protocol can be found at http://www.birmingham.ac.uk/ROCKETS. Phase III is a prospective test accuracy study. The study will recruit 2450 patients from 15 UK sites. Recruited patients complete symptom and anxiety questionnaires, donate a serum sample and undergo ultrasound scored as per International Ovarian Tumour Analysis (IOTA) criteria. Recruitment is at rapid access clinics, emergency departments and elective clinics. Models to be evaluated include those based on ultrasound derived by the IOTA group and novel models derived from analysis of existing data sets. Estimates of sensitivity, specificity, c-statistic (area under receiver operating curve), positive predictive value and negative predictive value of diagnostic tests are evaluated and a calibration plot for models will be presented. ROCkeTS has received ethical approval from the NHS West Midlands REC (14/WM/1241) and is registered on the controlled trials website (ISRCTN17160843) and the National Institute of Health Research Cancer and Reproductive Health portfolios. PMID:27507231

  20. A validated model for the 22-item Sino-Nasal Outcome Test subdomain structure in chronic rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Allen L; Wesely, Nicholas C; Hoehle, Lloyd P; Phillips, Katie M; Yamasaki, Alisa; Campbell, Adam P; Gregorio, Luciano L; Killeen, Thomas E; Caradonna, David S; Meier, Josh C; Gray, Stacey T; Sedaghat, Ahmad R

    2017-12-01

    Previous studies have identified subdomains of the 22-item Sino-Nasal Outcome Test (SNOT-22), reflecting distinct and largely independent categories of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) symptoms. However, no study has validated the subdomain structure of the SNOT-22. This study aims to validate the existence of underlying symptom subdomains of the SNOT-22 using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and to develop a subdomain model that practitioners and researchers can use to describe CRS symptomatology. A total of 800 patients with CRS were included into this cross-sectional study (400 CRS patients from Boston, MA, and 400 CRS patients from Reno, NV). Their SNOT-22 responses were analyzed using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) to determine the number of symptom subdomains. A CFA was performed to develop a validated measurement model for the underlying SNOT-22 subdomains along with various tests of validity and goodness of fit. EFA demonstrated 4 distinct factors reflecting: sleep, nasal, otologic/facial pain, and emotional symptoms (Cronbach's alpha, >0.7; Bartlett's test of sphericity, p Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin >0.90), independent of geographic locale. The corresponding CFA measurement model demonstrated excellent measures of fit (root mean square error of approximation, 0.95; Tucker-Lewis index, >0.95) and measures of construct validity (heterotrait-monotrait [HTMT] ratio, 0.7), again independent of geographic locale. The use of the 4-subdomain structure for SNOT-22 (reflecting sleep, nasal, otologic/facial pain, and emotional symptoms of CRS) was validated as the most appropriate to calculate SNOT-22 subdomain scores for patients from different geographic regions using CFA. © 2017 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  1. Initial development and preliminary validation of a new negative symptom measure: the Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Courtney; Blanchard, Jack J; Bennett, Melanie; Horan, William P; Kring, Ann; Gur, Raquel

    2010-12-01

    As part of an ongoing scale development process, this study provides an initial examination of the psychometric properties and validity of a new interview-based negative symptom instrument, the Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS), in outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (N = 37). The scale was designed to address limitations of existing measures and to comprehensively assess five consensus-based negative symptoms: asociality, avolition, anhedonia (consummatory and anticipatory), affective flattening, and alogia. Results indicated satisfactory internal consistency reliability for the total CAINS scale score and promising inter-rater agreement, with clear areas identified in need of improvement. Convergent validity was evident in general agreement between the CAINS and alternative negative symptom measures. Further, CAINS subscales significantly correlated with relevant self-report emotional experience measures as well as with social functioning. Discriminant validity of the CAINS was strongly supported by its small, non-significant relations with positive symptoms, general psychiatric symptoms, and depression. These preliminary data on an early beta-version of the CAINS provide initial support for this new assessment approach to negative symptoms and suggest directions for further scale development. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Detection of early psychotic symptoms: Validation of the Spanish version of the "Symptom Onset in Schizophrenia (SOS) inventory".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezquida, Gisela; Cabrera, Bibiana; Martínez-Arán, Anabel; Vieta, Eduard; Bernardo, Miguel

    2018-03-01

    The period of subclinical signs that precedes the onset of psychosis is referred to as the prodrome or high-risk mental state. The "Symptom Onset in Schizophrenia (SOS) inventory" is an instrument to characterize and date the initial symptoms of a psychotic illness. The present study aims to provide reliability and validity data for clinical and research use of the Spanish version of the SOS. Thirty-six participants with a first-episode of psychosis meeting DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia/schizoaffective/schizophreniform disorder were administered the translated SOS and other clinical assessments. The internal validity, intrarater and interrater reliability were studied. We found strong interrater reliability. To detect the presence/absence of prodromal symptoms, Kappa coefficients ranged between 0.8 and 0.7. Similarly, the raters obtained an excellent level of agreement regarding the onset of each symptom and the duration of symptoms until first treatment (intraclass correlation coefficients between 0.9 and 1.0). Cronbach's alpha was 0.9-1.0 for all the items. The interrater reliability and concurrent validity were also excellent in both cases. This study provides robust psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the SOS. The translated version is adequate in terms of good internal validity, intrarater and interrater reliability, and is as time-efficient as the original version. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Further Validation of the Conner's Adult Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Rating Scale Infrequency Index (CII) for Detection of Non-Credible Report of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Carolyn M; Bolinger, Elizabeth; Suhr, Julie

    2016-06-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can be easily presented in a non-credible manner, through non-credible report of ADHD symptoms and/or by non-credible performance on neuropsychological tests. While most studies have focused on detection of non-credible performance using performance validity tests, there are few studies examining the ability to detect non-credible report of ADHD symptoms. We provide further validation data for a recently developed measure of non-credible ADHD symptom report, the Conner's Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS) Infrequency Index (CII). Using archival data from 86 adults referred for concerns about ADHD, we examined the accuracy of the CII in detecting extreme scores on the CAARS and invalid reporting on validity indices of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Format (MMPI-2-RF). We also examined the accuracy of the CII in detecting non-credible performance on standalone and embedded performance validity tests. The CII was 52% sensitive to extreme scores on CAARS DSM symptom subscales (with 97% specificity) and 20%-36% sensitive to invalid responding on MMPI-2-RF validity scales (with near 90% specificity), providing further evidence for the interpretation of the CII as an indicator of non-credible ADHD symptom report. However, the CII detected only 18% of individuals who failed a standalone performance validity test (Word Memory Test), with 87.8% specificity, and was not accurate in detecting non-credible performance using embedded digit span cutoffs. Future studies should continue to examine how best to assess for non-credible symptom report in ADHD referrals. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Refining Ovarian Cancer Test accuracy Scores (ROCkeTS): protocol for a prospective longitudinal test accuracy study to validate new risk scores in women with symptoms of suspected ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundar, Sudha; Rick, Caroline; Dowling, Francis; Au, Pui; Snell, Kym; Rai, Nirmala; Champaneria, Rita; Stobart, Hilary; Neal, Richard; Davenport, Clare; Mallett, Susan; Sutton, Andrew; Kehoe, Sean; Timmerman, Dirk; Bourne, Tom; Van Calster, Ben; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Menon, Usha; Deeks, Jon

    2016-08-09

    Ovarian cancer (OC) is associated with non-specific symptoms such as bloating, making accurate diagnosis challenging: only 1 in 3 women with OC presents through primary care referral. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines recommends sequential testing with CA125 and routine ultrasound in primary care. However, these diagnostic tests have limited sensitivity or specificity. Improving accurate triage in women with vague symptoms is likely to improve mortality by streamlining referral and care pathways. The Refining Ovarian Cancer Test Accuracy Scores (ROCkeTS; HTA 13/13/01) project will derive and validate new tests/risk prediction models that estimate the probability of having OC in women with symptoms. This protocol refers to the prospective study only (phase III). ROCkeTS comprises four parallel phases. The full ROCkeTS protocol can be found at http://www.birmingham.ac.uk/ROCKETS. Phase III is a prospective test accuracy study. The study will recruit 2450 patients from 15 UK sites. Recruited patients complete symptom and anxiety questionnaires, donate a serum sample and undergo ultrasound scored as per International Ovarian Tumour Analysis (IOTA) criteria. Recruitment is at rapid access clinics, emergency departments and elective clinics. Models to be evaluated include those based on ultrasound derived by the IOTA group and novel models derived from analysis of existing data sets. Estimates of sensitivity, specificity, c-statistic (area under receiver operating curve), positive predictive value and negative predictive value of diagnostic tests are evaluated and a calibration plot for models will be presented. ROCkeTS has received ethical approval from the NHS West Midlands REC (14/WM/1241) and is registered on the controlled trials website (ISRCTN17160843) and the National Institute of Health Research Cancer and Reproductive Health portfolios. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted

  5. A symptom self-rating scale for schizophrenia (4S): psychometric properties, reliability and validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Eva; Jedenius, Erik; Levander, Sten

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the study was to validate a self-administrated symptom rating scale for use in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders by item analysis, exploration of factor structure, and analyses of reliability and validity. Data on 151 patients, initially treated by risperidone, obtained within the framework of a naturalistic Phase IV longitudinal study, were analysed by comparing patient and clinician ratings of symptoms, side-effects and global indices of illness. The Symptom Self-rating Scale for Schizophrenia (4S) is psychometrically adequate (item analysis, internal consistency, factor structure). Side-effect ratings were reliable. Symptom ratings displayed consistent associations with clinicians' ratings of corresponding symptom dimensions, suggesting construct validity. Patients had most difficulties assessing negative symptom items. Patients were well able to assess their own symptoms and drug side-effects. The factor structure of symptom ratings differs between patients and clinicians as well as how they construe global indices of illness. Clinicians focus on psychotic, patients on affective symptoms. Use of symptom self-ratings is one way to improve communication and thereby strengthen the therapeutic alliance and increase treatment adherence.

  6. The Body Dysmorphic Disorder Symptom Scale: Development and preliminary validation of a self-report scale of symptom specific dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Sabine; Greenberg, Jennifer L; Rosenfield, Elizabeth; Kasarskis, Irina; Blashill, Aaron J

    2016-06-01

    The Body Dysmorphic Disorder Symptom Scale (BDD-SS) is a new self-report measure used to examine the severity of a wide variety of symptoms associated with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). The BDD-SS was designed to differentiate, for each group of symptoms, the number of symptoms endorsed and their severity. This report evaluates and compares the psychometric characteristics of the BDD-SS in relation to other measures of BDD, body image, and depression in 99 adult participants diagnosed with BDD. Total scores of the BDD-SS showed good reliability and convergent validity and moderate discriminant validity. Analyses of the individual BDD-SS symptom groups confirmed the reliability of the checking, grooming, weight/shape, and cognition groups. The current findings indicate that the BDD-SS can be quickly administered and used to examine the severity of heterogeneous BDD symptoms for research and clinical purposes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Validity and Reliability of the Turkish Version of the DSM-5 Posttraumatic Stress Symptom Severity Scale-Child Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalin Sapmaz, Şermin; Ergin, Dilek; Özek Erkuran, Handan; Şen Celasin, Nesrin; Öztürk, Masum; Karaarslan, Duygu; Köroğlu, Ertuğrul; Aydemir, Ömer

    2017-09-01

    This study assessed the validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the DSM-5 Posttraumatic Stress Symptom Severity Scale-Child Form for use among the Turkish population. The study group consisted of 30 patients that had been treated in a child psychiatry unit and diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder and 83 healthy volunteers that were attending middle or high school during the study period. For reliability analyses, the internal consistency coefficient and the test-retest correlation coefficient were measured. For validity analyses, the exploratory factor analysis and correlation analysis with the Child Posttraumatic Stress Reaction Index for concurrent validity were measured. The Cronbach's alpha (the internal consistency coefficient) of the scale was 0.909, and the test-retest correlation coefficient was 0.663. One factor that could explain 58.5% of the variance was obtained and was congruent with the original construct of the scale. As for concurrent validity, the scale showed high correlation with the Child Posttraumatic Stress Reaction Index. It was concluded that the Turkish version of the DSM-5 Posttraumatic Stress Symptom Severity Scale-Child Form can be used as a valid and reliable tool.

  8. Evaluating symptom outcomes in gastroparesis clinical trials: validity and responsiveness of the Gastroparesis Cardinal Symptom Index-Daily Diary (GCSI-DD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revicki, D A; Camilleri, M; Kuo, B; Szarka, L A; McCormack, J; Parkman, H P

    2012-05-01

    Patient-reported symptom scales are needed to evaluate treatments for gastroparesis. The Gastroparesis Cardinal Symptom Index-Daily Diary (GCSI-DD) was developed to assess daily symptoms of gastroparesis. This study evaluated the validity and responsiveness of the GCSI-DD in patients with gastroparesis. Symptomatic patients were started with a new treatment for gastroparesis. Patients completed the GCSI-DD each evening during a baseline week and for 8 weeks of treatment. Responders were defined based on patient and clinician global rating of change. Minimal important differences (MID) were estimated based on baseline to 4 week changes in symptoms scores for small improvements. Of 69 patients participating, 46 had idiopathic, 19 diabetic, and four postfundoplication gastroparesis. Excellent test-retest reliability was seen for GCSI-DD scores, and there were significant correlations between GCSI-DD scores and clinician ratings of symptom severity. Responders to treatment reported improvements in nausea [effect size (ES) = 0.42, P < 0.001], postprandial fullness, ES = 0.83, P < 0.001), bloating (ES = 0.34, P < 0.001), early satiety (ES = 0.53, P < 0.001), but lower responses for upper abdominal pain (ES = 0.29), and vomiting (ES = 0.22; P = 0.119). MIDs were 0.55 for nausea, 0.97 for excessive fullness, 0.63 for bloating, 0.77 for postprandial fullness, and 0.30 for abdominal pain. A composite score of four symptoms (Composite-1; nausea, bloating, excessive fullness, postprandial fullness) had ES of 0.61 and MID of 0.73. Composite-2 score (nausea, early satiety, bloating, abdominal pain) had a lower ES of 0.47. Symptoms of early satiety, nausea, postprandial fullness, and bloating were responsive to treatment for gastroparesis. A composite of these symptoms also demonstrates validity and responsiveness to treatment for gastroparesis, and may represent an acceptable endpoint for evaluating the effectiveness of medical treatments in clinical trials for gastroparesis.

  9. Validity and reliability of a new, short symptom rating scale in patients with persistent atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härdén, Marie; Nyström, Britta; Kulich, Károly; Carlsson, Jonas; Bengtson, Ann; Edvardsson, Nils

    2009-07-15

    Symptoms related to atrial fibrillation and their impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) are often evaluated in clinical trials. However, there remains a need for a properly validated instrument. We aimed to develop and validate a short symptoms scale for patients with AF. One hundred and eleven patients with a variety of symptoms related to AF were scheduled for DC cardioversion. The mean age was 67.1 +/- 12.1 years, and 80% were men. The patients completed the new symptoms scale, the Toronto Symptoms Check List (SCL) and the generic Short Form 36 (SF-36) the day before the planned DC cardioversion. Compliance was excellent, with only 1 of 666 answers missing. One item, 'limitations in working capability', was deleted because of a low numerical response rate, as many of the patients were retired. The internal consistency reliability of the remaining six items was 0.81 (Cronbach's alpha). Patients scored highest in the items of 'dyspnoea on exertion', 'limitations in daily life due to AF' and 'fatigue due to AF', with scores of 4.5, 3.3 and 4.5, respectively. There was a good correlation to all relevant SF-36 domains and to the relevant questions of the SCL. The Rasch analyses showed that the items are unidimensional and that they are clearly separated and cover an adequate range. Test-retest reliability was performed in patients who failed DC and was adequate for three of six items, > 0.70. The psychometric characteristics of the new short symptoms scale were found to have satisfactory reliability and validity.

  10. Spanish validation of the Negative Symptom Assessment-16 (NSA-16) in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Alvarez, Leticia; Garcia-Portilla, María Paz; Saiz, Pilar Alejandra; Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Bobes-Bascaran, María Teresa; Gomar, Jesús; Muñiz, José; Bobes, Julio

    2018-04-05

    Negative symptoms are prevalent in schizophrenia and associated with a poorer outcome. Validated newer psychometric instruments could contribute to better assessment and improved treatment of negative symptoms. The Negative Symptom Assessment-16 (NSA-16) has been shown to have strong psychometric properties, but there is a need for validation in non-English languages. This study aimed to examine the psychometric properties of a Spanish version of the NSA-16 (Sp-NSA-16). Observational, cross-sectional validation study in a sample of 123 outpatients with schizophrenia. NSA-16, PANSS, HDRS, CGI-SCH and PSP. The results indicate appropriate psychometric properties, high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha=0.86), convergent validity (PANSS negative scale, PANSS Marder Negative Factor and CGI-negative symptoms r values between 0.81 and 0.94) and divergent validity (PANSS positive scale and the HDRS r values between 0.10 and 0.34). In addition, the NSA-16 also exhibited discriminant validity (ROC curve=0.97, 95% CI=0.94 to 1.00; 94.3% sensitivity and 83.3% specificity). The Sp-NSA-16 is reliable and valid for measuring negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. This provides Spanish clinicians with a new tool for clinical practice and research. However, it is necessary to provide further information about its inter-rater reliability. Copyright © 2018 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Development and validation of a simple and multifaceted instrument, GERD-TEST, for the clinical evaluation of gastroesophageal reflux and dyspeptic symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakada, Koji; Matsuhashi, Nobuyuki; Iwakiri, Katsuhiko; Oshio, Atsushi; Joh, Takashi; Higuchi, Kazuhide; Haruma, Ken

    2017-07-28

    To evaluate the psychometric properties of a newly developed questionnaire, known as the gastroesophageal reflux and dyspepsia therapeutic efficacy and satisfaction test (GERD-TEST), in patients with GERD. Japanese patients with predominant GERD symptoms recruited according to the Montreal definition were treated for 4 wk using a standard dose of proton pump inhibitor (PPI). The GERD-TEST and the Medical Outcome Study Short Form-8 Health Survey (SF-8) were administered at baseline and after 4 wk of treatment. The GERD-TEST contains three domains: the severity of GERD and functional dyspepsia (FD) symptoms (5 items), the level of dissatisfaction with daily life (DS) (4 items), and the therapeutic efficacy as assessed by the patients and medication compliance (4 items). A total of 290 patients were eligible at baseline; 198 of these patients completed 4 wk of PPI therapy. The internal consistency reliability as evaluated using the Cronbach's α values for the GERD, FD and DS subscales ranged from 0.75 to 0.82. The scores for the GERD, FD and DS items/subscales were significantly correlated with the physical and mental component summary scores of the SF-8. After 4 wk of PPI treatment, the scores for the GERD items/subscales were greatly reduced, ranging in value from 1.51 to 1.87 and with a large effect size ( P GERD items/subscales were observed between treatment responders and non-responders ( P GERD-TEST has a good reliability, a good convergent and concurrent validity, and is responsive to the effects of treatment. The GERD-TEST is a simple, easy to understand, and multifaceted PRO instrument applicable to both clinical trials and the primary care of GERD patients.

  12. Development and psychometric validation of the verbal affective memory test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Gaden; Hjordt, Liv V; Stenbæk, Dea S

    2015-01-01

    . Furthermore, larger seasonal decreases in positive recall significantly predicted larger increases in depressive symptoms. Retest reliability was satisfactory, rs ≥ .77. In conclusion, VAMT-24 is more thoroughly developed and validated than existing verbal affective memory tests and showed satisfactory...... psychometric properties. VAMT-24 seems especially sensitive to measuring positive verbal recall bias, perhaps due to the application of common, non-taboo words. Based on the psychometric and clinical results, we recommend VAMT-24 for international translations and studies of affective memory.......We here present the development and validation of the Verbal Affective Memory Test-24 (VAMT-24). First, we ensured face validity by selecting 24 words reliably perceived as positive, negative or neutral, respectively, according to healthy Danish adults' valence ratings of 210 common and non...

  13. Validation of hindi translation of DSM-5 level 1 cross-cutting symptom measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Ankit; Kataria, Dinesh

    2018-04-01

    The DSM-5 Level 1 Cross-Cutting Symptom Measure is a self- or informant-rated measure that assesses mental health domains which are important across psychiatric diagnoses. The absence of this self- or informant-administered instrument in Hindi, which is a major language in India, is an important limitation in using this scale. To translate the English version of the DSM-5 Level 1 Cross-Cutting Symptom Measure to Hindi and evaluate its psychometric properties. The study was conducted at a tertiary care hospital in Delhi. The DSM-5 Level 1 Cross-Cutting Symptom Measure was translated into Hindi using the World Health Organization's translation methodology. Mean and standard deviation were evaluated for continuous variables while for categorical variables frequency and percentages were calculated. The translated version was evaluated for cross-language equivalence, test-retest reliability, internal consistency, and split half reliability. Hindi version was found to have good cross-language equivalence and test-retest reliability at the level of items and domains. Twenty two of the 23 items and all the 23 items had a significant correlation (ρ Cutting Symptom Measure as translated in this study is a valid instrument. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Validering af det patientadministrerede Danske Prostate Symptom Scoringsskema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, B J; Flyger, H L; Brasso, K

    1997-01-01

    prostatectomy and 65% after four months of treatment with an alpha-blocker. The DAN-PSS-1 is reliable, valid and responsive, and therefore can be recommended for assessing the severity of symptoms among patients presenting with lower urinary tract complaints suggestive of BPH and during follow-up....

  15. The accuracy of Internet search engines to predict diagnoses from symptoms can be assessed with a validated scoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenker, Bennett S

    2014-02-01

    To validate a scoring system that evaluates the ability of Internet search engines to correctly predict diagnoses when symptoms are used as search terms. We developed a five point scoring system to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of Internet search engines. We identified twenty diagnoses common to a primary care setting to validate the scoring system. One investigator entered the symptoms for each diagnosis into three Internet search engines (Google, Bing, and Ask) and saved the first five webpages from each search. Other investigators reviewed the webpages and assigned a diagnostic accuracy score. They rescored a random sample of webpages two weeks later. To validate the five point scoring system, we calculated convergent validity and test-retest reliability using Kendall's W and Spearman's rho, respectively. We used the Kruskal-Wallis test to look for differences in accuracy scores for the three Internet search engines. A total of 600 webpages were reviewed. Kendall's W for the raters was 0.71 (psearch engines is a valid and reliable instrument. The scoring system may be used in future Internet research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Validity and reliability of a new, short symptom rating scale in patients with persistent atrial fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengtson Ann

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Symptoms related to atrial fibrillation and their impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL are often evaluated in clinical trials. However, there remains a need for a properly validated instrument. We aimed to develop and validate a short symptoms scale for patients with AF. Methods One hundred and eleven patients with a variety of symptoms related to AF were scheduled for DC cardioversion. The mean age was 67.1 ± 12.1 years, and 80% were men. The patients completed the new symptoms scale, the Toronto Symptoms Check List (SCL and the generic Short Form 36 (SF-36 the day before the planned DC cardioversion. Compliance was excellent, with only 1 of 666 answers missing. Results One item, 'limitations in working capability', was deleted because of a low numerical response rate, as many of the patients were retired. The internal consistency reliability of the remaining six items was 0.81 (Cronbach's α. Patients scored highest in the items of 'dyspnoea on exertion', 'limitations in daily life due to AF' and 'fatigue due to AF', with scores of 4.5, 3.3 and 4.5, respectively. There was a good correlation to all relevant SF-36 domains and to the relevant questions of the SCL. The Rasch analyses showed that the items are unidimensional and that they are clearly separated and cover an adequate range. Test-retest reliability was performed in patients who failed DC and was adequate for three of six items, >0.70. Conclusion The psychometric characteristics of the new short symptoms scale were found to have satisfactory reliability and validity.

  17. The brief negative symptom scale: validation of the German translation and convergent validity with self-rated anhedonia and observer-rated apathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischof, Martin; Obermann, Caitriona; Hartmann, Matthias N; Hager, Oliver M; Kirschner, Matthias; Kluge, Agne; Strauss, Gregory P; Kaiser, Stefan

    2016-11-22

    Negative symptoms are considered core symptoms of schizophrenia. The Brief Negative Symptom Scale (BNSS) was developed to measure this symptomatic dimension according to a current consensus definition. The present study examined the psychometric properties of the German version of the BNSS. To expand former findings on convergent validity, we employed the Temporal Experience Pleasure Scale (TEPS), a hedonic self-report that distinguishes between consummatory and anticipatory pleasure. Additionally, we addressed convergent validity with observer-rated assessment of apathy with the Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES), which was completed by the patient's primary nurse. Data were collected from 75 in- and outpatients from the Psychiatric Hospital, University Zurich diagnosed with either schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. We assessed convergent and discriminant validity, internal consistency and inter-rater reliability. We largely replicated the findings of the original version showing good psychometric properties of the BNSS. In addition, the primary nurses evaluation correlated moderately with interview-based clinician rating. BNSS anhedonia items showed good convergent validity with the TEPS. Overall, the German BNSS shows good psychometric properties comparable to the original English version. Convergent validity extends beyond interview-based assessments of negative symptoms to self-rated anhedonia and observer-rated apathy.

  18. Adaptation and validation of the Dutch version of the nasal obstruction symptom evaluation (NOSE) scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zijl, Floris V W J; Timman, Reinier; Datema, Frank R

    2017-06-01

    The nasal obstruction symptom evaluation (NOSE) scale is a validated disease-specific, self-completed questionnaire for the assessment of quality of life related to nasal obstruction. The aim of this study was to validate the Dutch (NL-NOSE) questionnaire. A prospective instrument validation study was performed in a tertiary academic referral center. Guidelines for the cross-cultural adaptation process from the original English language scale into a Dutch language version were followed. Patients undergoing functional septoplasty or septorhinoplasty and asymptomatic controls completed the questionnaire both before and 3 months after surgery to test reliability and validity. Additionally, we explored the possibility to reduce the NOSE scale even further using graded response models. 129 patients and 50 controls were included. Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha 0.82) and test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.89) were good. The instrument showed excellent between-group discrimination (Mann-Whitney U = 85, p Dutch version of the NOSE (NL-NOSE) demonstrated satisfactory reliability and validity. We recommend the use of the NL-NOSE as a validated instrument to measure subjective severity of nasal obstruction in Dutch adult patients.

  19. Independent validation of the MMPI-2-RF Somatic/Cognitive and Validity scales in TBI Litigants tested for effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngjohn, James R; Wershba, Rebecca; Stevenson, Matthew; Sturgeon, John; Thomas, Michael L

    2011-04-01

    The MMPI-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008) is replacing the MMPI-2 as the most widely used personality test in neuropsychological assessment, but additional validation studies are needed. Our study examines MMPI-2-RF Validity scales and the newly created Somatic/Cognitive scales in a recently reported sample of 82 traumatic brain injury (TBI) litigants who either passed or failed effort tests (Thomas & Youngjohn, 2009). The restructured Validity scales FBS-r (restructured symptom validity), F-r (restructured infrequent responses), and the newly created Fs (infrequent somatic responses) were not significant predictors of TBI severity. FBS-r was significantly related to passing or failing effort tests, and Fs and F-r showed non-significant trends in the same direction. Elevations on the Somatic/Cognitive scales profile (MLS-malaise, GIC-gastrointestinal complaints, HPC-head pain complaints, NUC-neurological complaints, and COG-cognitive complaints) were significant predictors of effort test failure. Additionally, HPC had the anticipated paradoxical inverse relationship with head injury severity. The Somatic/Cognitive scales as a group were better predictors of effort test failure than the RF Validity scales, which was an unexpected finding. MLS arose as the single best predictor of effort test failure of all RF Validity and Somatic/Cognitive scales. Item overlap analysis revealed that all MLS items are included in the original MMPI-2 Hy scale, making MLS essentially a subscale of Hy. This study validates the MMPI-2-RF as an effective tool for use in neuropsychological assessment of TBI litigants.

  20. Content Validity of the Hypogonadism Impact of Symptoms Questionnaire (HIS-Q): A Patient-Reported Outcome Measure to Evaluate Symptoms of Hypogonadism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelhorn, Heather L; Vernon, Margaret K; Stewart, Katie D; Miller, Michael G; Brod, Meryl; Althof, Stanley E; DeRogatis, Leonard R; Dobs, Adrian; Seftel, Allen D; Revicki, Dennis A

    2016-04-01

    Hypogonadism, or low testosterone, is a common disorder. There are currently no patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments designed to comprehensively evaluate the symptoms of hypogonadism and to detect changes in these symptoms in response to treatment. The purpose of this study was to develop a PRO instrument, the Hypogonadism Impact of Symptoms Questionnaire (HIS-Q) and to assess its content validity. A literature review, expert clinician input, and qualitative concept elicitation with 39 male hypogonadism patients (four focus groups: n = 25; individual interviews: n = 14; mean age 52.3 ± 14.3 years) from the USA were used to develop the draft HIS-Q. Subsequent cognitive interviews (n = 29; mean age 51.5 ± 15.4 years) were used to evaluate content validity. Emergent discussion with participants yielded symptoms within the sexual, physical, energy, sleep, cognition, and mood domains. Low libido and tiredness were most commonly reported. The initial version of the HIS-Q includes 53 items that were consistently understood by the participants, who found the instrument to be relevant to their experiences with hypogonadism and comprehensive in the content coverage of symptoms. The HIS-Q is a comprehensive PRO measure of hypogonadism symptom severity in males. Its design elements, including the response options and recall period, were suitable, and content validity was confirmed.

  1. Validity of measures of pain and symptoms in HIV/AIDS infected households in resources poor settings: results from the Dominican Republic and Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morineau Guy

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV/AIDS treatment programs are currently being mounted in many developing nations that include palliative care services. While measures of palliative care have been developed and validated for resource rich settings, very little work exists to support an understanding of measurement for Africa, Latin America or Asia. Methods This study investigates the construct validity of measures of reported pain, pain control, symptoms and symptom control in areas with high HIV-infected prevalence in Dominican Republic and Cambodia Measures were adapted from the POS (Palliative Outcome Scale. Households were selected through purposive sampling from networks of people living with HIV/AIDS. Consistencies in patterns in the data were tested used Chi Square and Mantel Haenszel tests. Results The sample persons who reported chronic illness were much more likely to report pain and symptoms compared to those not chronically ill. When controlling for the degrees of pain, pain control did not differ between the chronically ill and non-chronically ill using a Mantel Haenszel test in both countries. Similar results were found for reported symptoms and symptom control for the Dominican Republic. These findings broadly support the construct validity of an adapted version of the POS in these two less developed countries. Conclusion The results of the study suggest that the selected measures can usefully be incorporated into population-based surveys and evaluation tools needed to monitor palliative care and used in settings with high HIV/AIDS prevalence.

  2. Autism Spectrum Disorders and Self-Reports: Testing Validity and Reliability Using the NEO-PI-R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselmark, Eva; Eriksson, Jonna M.; Westerlund, Joakim; Bejerot, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Although self-reported measures are frequently used to assess adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), the validity of self-reports is under-researched in ASD. The core symptoms of ASD may negatively affect the psychometric properties of self-reported measures. The aim of the present study was to test the validity and reliability of…

  3. Translation and validation of the Uterine Fibroid Symptom and Quality of Life (UFS-QOL questionnaire for the Brazilian Portuguese language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gustavo Oliveira Brito

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Uterine fibroids (UF, also known as leiomyomas, are the most prevalent gynecological tumors. The Uterine Fibroid Symptoms and Quality of Life (UFS-QOL is the only specific questionnaire that assesses symptom intensity and quality-of-life issues for women with symptomatic UF; however, it only exists in the English language. Thus, we aimed to translate and culturally validate the UFS-QOL questionnaire for the Brazilian Portuguese language. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, FMRP-USP. METHODS: 113 patients with UF (case group and 55 patients without UF (control group were interviewed using the UFS-QOL questionnaire after translation and cultural adaptation. The Short Form-36 questionnaire was used as a control. Demographic and psychometric variables were analyzed. RESULTS: Women with UF presented higher mean age, body mass index, weight, parity and comorbidities than the control group (P < 0.05. The most prevalent complaints were abnormal uterine bleeding (93.8%, pelvic pain (36.3% and extrinsic compression (10.6% and these presented adequate construct validity regarding UFS-QOL severity (P < 0.05. The UFS-QOL questionnaire presented good internal consistency regarding symptom severity and quality-of-life-related domains (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC = 0.82/0.88. Structural validity presented correlation coefficients ranging from 0.59 to 0.91. Test-retest comparison did not show differences among the UFS-QOL subscales. After treatment, women with UF presented improvements on all subscales. CONCLUSION: The UFS-QOL questionnaire presented adequate translation to the Brazilian Portuguese language, with good internal consistency, discriminant validity, construct validity, structural validity and responsiveness, along with adequate test-retest results.

  4. Validity of DSM-IV attention–deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptom dimensions and subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willcutt, Erik G.; Nigg, Joel T.; Pennington, Bruce F.; Solanto, Mary V.; Rohde, Luis A.; Tannock, Rosemary; Loo, Sandra K.; Carlson, Caryn L.; McBurnett, Keith; Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2013-01-01

    DSM-IV criteria for ADHD specify two dimensions of inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms that are used to define three nominal subtypes: predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type (ADHD-H), predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-I), and combined type (ADHD-C). To aid decision-making for DSM-5 and other future diagnostic systems, a comprehensive literature review and meta-analysis of 546 studies was completed to evaluate the validity of the DSM-IV model of ADHD. Results indicated that DSM-IV criteria identify individuals with significant and persistent impairment in social, academic, occupational, and adaptive functioning when intelligence, demographic factors, and concurrent psychopathology are controlled. Available data overwhelmingly support the concurrent, predictive, and discriminant validity of the distinction between inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms, and indicate that nearly all differences among the nominal subtypes are consistent with the relative levels of inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms that define the subtypes. In contrast, the validity of the DSM-IV subtype model is compromised by weak evidence for the validity of ADHD-H after first grade, minimal support for the distinction between ADHD-I and ADHD-C in studies of etiological influences, academic and cognitive functioning, and treatment response, and the marked longitudinal instability of all three subtypes. Overall, it is concluded that the DSM-IV ADHD subtypes provide a convenient clinical shorthand to describe the functional and behavioral correlates of current levels of inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms, but do not identify discrete subgroups with sufficient long-term stability to justify the classification of distinct forms of the disorder. Empirical support is stronger for an alternative model that would replace the subtypes with dimensional modifiers that reflect the number of inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms at the

  5. Development and validation of a medical chart review checklist for symptom management performance of oncologists in the routine care of patients with advanced cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, David; Rosa, Daniel; deWolf-Linder, Susanne; Hayoz, Stefanie; Ribi, Karin; Koeberle, Dieter; Strasser, Florian

    2014-12-01

    Oncologists perform a range of pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions to manage the symptoms of outpatients with advanced cancer. The aim of this study was to develop and test a symptom management performance checklist (SyMPeC) to review medical charts. First, the content of the checklist was determined by consensus of an interprofessional team. The SyMPeC was tested using the data set of the SAKK 96/06 E-MOSAIC (Electronical Monitoring of Symptoms and Syndromes Associated with Cancer) trial, which included six consecutive visits from 247 patients. In a test data set (half of the data) of medical charts, two people extracted and quantified the definitions of the parameters (content validity). To assess the inter-rater reliability, three independent researchers used the SyMPeC on a random sample (10% of the test data set), and Fleiss's kappa was calculated. To test external validity, the interventions retrieved by the SyMPeC chart review were compared with nurse-led assessment of patient-perceived oncologists' palliative interventions. Five categories of symptoms were included: pain, fatigue, anorexia/nausea, dyspnea, and depression/anxiety. Interventions were categorized as symptom specific or symptom unspecific. In the test data set of 123 patients, 402 unspecific and 299 symptom-specific pharmacological interventions were detected. Nonpharmacological interventions (n = 242) were mostly symptom unspecific. Fleiss's kappa for symptom and intervention detections was K = 0.7 and K = 0.86, respectively. In 1003 of 1167 visits (86%), there was a match between SyMPeC and nurse-led assessment. Seventy-nine percent (195 of 247) of patients had no or one mismatch. Chart review by SyMPeC seems reliable to detect symptom management interventions by oncologists in outpatient clinics. Nonpharmacological interventions were less symptom specific. A template for documentation is needed for standardization. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Hospice and

  6. Patient-reported speech in noise difficulties and hyperacusis symptoms and correlation with test results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyridakou, Chrysa; Luxon, Linda M; Bamiou, Doris E

    2012-07-01

    To compare self-reported symptoms of difficulty hearing speech in noise and hyperacusis in adults with auditory processing disorders (APDs) and normal controls; and to compare self-reported symptoms to objective test results (speech in babble test, transient evoked otoacoustic emission [TEOAE] suppression test using contralateral noise). A prospective case-control pilot study. Twenty-two participants were recruited in the study: 10 patients with reported hearing difficulty, normal audiometry, and a clinical diagnosis of APD; and 12 normal age-matched controls with no reported hearing difficulty. All participants completed the validated Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability questionnaire, a hyperacusis questionnaire, a speech in babble test, and a TEOAE suppression test using contralateral noise. Patients had significantly worse scores than controls in all domains of the Amsterdam Inventory questionnaire (with the exception of sound detection) and the hyperacusis questionnaire (P reported symptoms of difficulty hearing speech in noise and speech in babble test results in the right ear (ρ = 0.624, P = .002), and between self-reported symptoms of hyperacusis and TEOAE suppression test results in the right ear (ρ = -0.597 P = .003). There was no significant correlation between the two tests. A strong correlation was observed between right ear speech in babble and patient-reported intelligibility of speech in noise, and right ear TEOAE suppression by contralateral noise and hyperacusis questionnaire. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  7. Clinical utility of the mBIAS and NSI validity-10 to detect symptom over-reporting following mild TBI: A multicenter investigation with military service members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armistead-Jehle, Patrick; Cooper, Douglas B; Grills, Chad E; Cole, Wesley R; Lippa, Sara M; Stegman, Robert L; Lange, Rael T

    2018-04-01

    Self-report measures are commonly relied upon in military healthcare environments to assess service members following a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). However, such instruments are susceptible to over-reporting and rarely include validity scales. This study evaluated the utility of the mild Brain Injury Atypical Symptoms scale (mBIAS) and the Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory Validity-10 scale to detect symptom over-reporting. A total of 359 service members with a reported history of mTBI were separated into two symptom reporting groups based on MMPI-2-RF validity scales (i.e., non-over-reporting versus symptom over-reporting). The clinical utility of the mBIAS and Validity-10 as diagnostic indicators and screens of symptom over-reporting were evaluated by calculating sensitivity, specificity, positive test rate, positive predictive power (PPP), and negative predictive power (NPP) values. An mBIAS cut score of ≥10 was optimal as a diagnostic indicator, which resulted in high specificity and PPP; however, sensitivity was low. The utility of the mBIAS as a screening instrument was limited. A Validity-10 cut score of ≥33 was optimal as a diagnostic indicator. This resulted in very high specificity and PPP, but low sensitivity. A Validity-10 cut score of ≥7 was considered optimal as a screener, which resulted in moderate sensitivity, specificity, NPP, but relatively low PPP. Owing to low sensitivity, the current data suggests that both the mBIAS and Validity-10 are insufficient as stand-alone measures of symptom over-reporting. However, Validity-10 scores above the identified cut-off of ≥7should be taken as an indication that further evaluation to rule out symptom over-reporting is necessary.

  8. A preliminary examination of the validity and reliability of a new brief rating scale for symptom domains of psychosis: Brief Evaluation of Psychosis Symptom Domains (BE-PSD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Hiroyoshi; Fervaha, Gagan; Lee, Jimmy; Agid, Ofer; Remington, Gary

    2016-09-01

    Brief assessments have the potential to be widely adopted as outcome measures in research but also routine clinical practice. Existing brief rating scales that assess symptoms of schizophrenia or psychosis have a number of limitations including inability to capture five symptom domains of psychosis and a lack of clearly defined operational anchor points for scoring. We developed a new brief rating scale for five symptom domains of psychosis with clearly defined operational anchor points - the Brief Evaluation of Psychosis Symptom Domains (BE-PSD). To examine the psychometric properties of the BE-PSD, fifty patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were included in this preliminary cross-sectional study. To test the convergent and discriminant validity of the BE-PSD, correlational analyses were employed using the consensus Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) five-factor model. To examine the inter-rater reliability of the BE-PSD, single measures intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated for 11 patients. The BE-PSD domain scores demonstrated high convergent validity with the corresponding PANSS factor score (rs = 0.81-0.93) as well as good discriminant validity, as evidenced by lower correlations with the other PANSS factors (rs = 0.23-0.62). The BE-PSD also demonstrated excellent inter-rater reliability for each of the domain scores and the total scores (ICC(2,1) = 0.79-0.96). The present preliminary study found the BE-PSD measure to be valid and reliable; however, further studies are needed to establish the psychometric properties of the BE-PSD because of the limitations such as the small sample size and lacking data on test-retest reliability or sensitivity to change. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessment of lower urinary tract symptoms in women by a self-administered questionnaire: test-retest reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernstein, Inge Thomsen; Sejr, T; Able, I

    1996-01-01

    A self-administered questionnaire assessing female lower urinary tract symptoms and their impact on quality of life is described and validated, on 56 females in six participating departments. The patients answered two identical questionnaires on separate occasions before treatment. Test-retest re...

  10. Psychological and interactional characteristics of patients with somatoform disorders: Validation of the Somatic Symptoms Experiences Questionnaire (SSEQ) in a clinical psychosomatic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Annabel; Voigt, Katharina; Meyer, Björn; Wollburg, Eileen; Weinmann, Nina; Langs, Gernot; Löwe, Bernd

    2015-06-01

    The new DSM-5 Somatic Symptom Disorder (SSD) emphasizes the importance of psychological processes related to somatic symptoms in patients with somatoform disorders. To address this, the Somatic Symptoms Experiences Questionnaire (SSEQ), the first self-report scale that assesses a broad range of psychological and interactional characteristics relevant to patients with a somatoform disorder or SSD, was developed. This prospective study was conducted to validate the SSEQ. The 15-item SSEQ was administered along with a battery of self-report questionnaires to psychosomatic inpatients. Patients were assessed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV to confirm a somatoform, depressive, or anxiety disorder. Confirmatory factor analyses, tests of internal consistency and tests of validity were performed. Patients (n=262) with a mean age of 43.4 years, 60.3% women, were included in the analyses. The previously observed four-factor model was replicated and internal consistency was good (Cronbach's α=.90). Patients with a somatoform disorder had significantly higher scores on the SSEQ (t=4.24, pquality of life. Sensitivity to change was shown by significantly higher effect sizes of the SSEQ change scores for improved patients than for patients without improvement. The SSEQ appears to be a reliable, valid, and efficient instrument to assess a broad range of psychological and interactional features related to the experience of somatic symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Overweight children report qualitatively distinct asthma symptoms: analysis of validated symptom measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Jason E; Hossain, Md Jobayer; Lima, John J

    2015-04-01

    Past studies of asthma in overweight/obese children have been inconsistent. The reason overweight/obese children commonly report worse asthma control remains unclear. To determine qualitative differences in symptoms between lean and overweight/obese children with early-onset, atopic asthma. We conducted a cross-sectional analytic study of lean (20% to 65% body mass index) and overweight/obese (≥85% body mass index) 10- to 17-year-old children with persistent, early-onset asthma. Participants completed 2 to 3 visits to provide a complete history, qualitative and quantitative asthma symptom characterization, and lung function testing. We determined associations between weight status and symptoms using multivariable linear and logistic regression methods. Overweight/obese and lean asthmatic children displayed similar lung function. Despite lower fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (30.0 vs 62.6 ppb; P = .037) and reduced methacholine responsiveness (PC20FEV1 1.87 vs 0.45 mg/mL; P overweight/obese children reported more than thrice frequent rescue treatments (3.7 vs 1.1 treatments/wk; P = .0002) than did lean children. Weight status affected the child's primary symptom reported with loss of asthma control (Fisher exact test; P = .003); overweight/obese children more often reported shortness of breath (odds ratio = 11.8; 95% CI, 1.41-98.7) and less often reported cough (odds ratio = 0.26; 95% CI, 0.08-0.82). Gastroesophageal reflux scores were higher in overweight/obese children (9.6 vs 23.2; P = .003) and appear to mediate overweight/obesity-related asthma symptoms. Overweight/obese children with early-onset asthma display poorer asthma control and a distinct pattern of symptoms. Greater shortness of breath and β-agonist use appears to be partially mediated via esophageal reflux symptoms. Overweight children with asthma may falsely attribute exertional dyspnea and esophageal reflux to asthma, leading to excess rescue medication use. Copyright © 2014 American

  12. Validation of a Spanish version of the Test Your Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero-Arias, J; Turrión-Rojo, M Á

    2016-01-01

    To validate a Spanish version of the TYM, a self-administered cognitive screening test designed for the detection of Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive defect. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a neurology outpatient clinic. The TYM was administered to individuals of 50 years o more who came to the clinic for whatever the symptom. Their cognitive state was evaluated regardless of the outcome of TYM. They were categorized into 3 groups: 1) Cognitively normal (739), 2) with mild cognitive impairment (183), 3) with dementia (127). An analysis of items was made and the psychometric properties of the TYM were defined. There was a cross-validation, and the predictive validity of the TYM score, adjusted to the demographic variables, was determined by evaluating their performance in ROC curves. The internal consistency, interobserver reliability, short term and long-term test-retest reliability were adequate. The TYM correlated with the MMSE (r=0.779, Pde Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. The 2010 American college of rheumatology fibromyalgia survey diagnostic criteria and symptom severity scale is a valid and reliable tool in a French speaking fibromyalgia cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitzcharles Mary-Ann

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fibromyalgia (FM is a pain condition with associated symptoms contributing to distress. The Fibromyalgia Survey Diagnostic Criteria and Severity Scale (FSDC is a patient-administered questionnaire assessing diagnosis and symptom severity. Locations of body pain measured by the Widespread Pain Index (WPI, and the Symptom Severity scale (SS measuring fatigue, unrefreshing sleep, cognitive and somatic complaints provide a score (0–31, measuring a composite of polysymptomatic distress. The reliability and validity of the translated French version of the FSDC was evaluated. Methods The French FSDC was administered twice to 73 FM patients, and was correlated with measures of symptom status including: Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ, Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ, McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ, and a visual analogue scale (VAS for global severity and pain. Test-retest reliability, internal consistency, and construct validity were evaluated. Results Test-retest reliability was between .600 and .888 for the 25 single items of the FSDC, and .912 for the total FSDC, with all correlations significant (p  Conclusions The French FSDC is a valid instrument in French FM patients with reliability and construct validity. It is easily completed, simple to score, and has the potential to become the standard for measurement of polysymptomatic distress in FM.

  14. Validation of the Spanish version of the Test for Respiratory and Asthma Control in Kids (TRACK) in a population of Hispanic preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Carlos E; Nino, Gustavo; Castro-Rodriguez, Jose A

    2014-01-01

    There is a critical need for validation studies of questionnaires designed to assess the level of control of asthma in children younger than 5 years old. To validate the Spanish version of the Test for Respiratory and Asthma Control in Kids (TRACK) questionnaire in children younger than age 5 years with symptoms consistent with asthma. In a prospective cohort validation study, parents and/or caregivers of children younger than age 5 years and with symptoms consistent with asthma, during a baseline and a follow-up visit 2 to 6 weeks later, completed the information required to assess the content validity, criterion validity, construct validity, test-retest reliability, sensitivity to change, internal consistency reliability, and usability of the TRACK questionnaire. Median (interquartile range) of the TRACK scores were significantly different between patients with well-controlled asthma, patients with not well-controlled asthma, and patients with very poorly controlled asthma (90.0 [75.0-95.0], 75.0 [55.0-85.0], and 35.0 [25.0-55.0], respectively, P Spanish version of the TRACK questionnaire has excellent sensitivity to change and usability; adequate criterion validity, construct validity, and test-retest reliability; and an acceptable internal consistency, when used in children younger than age 5 years with symptoms consistent with asthma. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Cross-cultural validated adaptation of dysfunctional voiding symptom score (DVSS) to Japanese language and cognitive linguistics in questionnaire for pediatric patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Masaaki; Usui, Tomoko; Johnin, Kazuyoshi; Yoshimura, Koji; Farhat, Walid; Kanematsu, Akihiro; Ogawa, Osamu

    2014-07-01

    Validated questionnaire for evaluation of pediatric lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) is of a great need. We performed cross-cultural validated adaptation of Dysfunctional Voiding Symptom Score (DVSS) to Japanese language, and assessed whether children understand and respond to questionnaire correctly, using cognitive linguistic approach. We translated DVSS into two Japanese versions according to a standard validation methodology: translation, synthesis, back-translation, expert review, and pre-testing. One version was written in adult language for parents, and the other was written in child language for children. Pre-testing was done with 5 to 15-year-old patients visiting us, having normal intelligence. A specialist in cognitive linguistics observed the response by children and parents to DVSS as an interviewer. When a child could not understand a question without adding or paraphrasing the question by the parents, it was defined as 'misidentification'. We performed pretesting with 2 trial versions of DVSS before having the final version. The pre-testing for the first trial version was done for 32 patients (male to female ratio was 19 : 13). The pre-testing for the second trial version was done for 11 patients (male to female ratio was 8 : 3). In DVSS in child language, misidentification was consistently observed for representation of time or frequency. We completed the formal validated translation by amending the problems raised in the pre-testing. The cross-cultural validated adaptation of DVSS to child and adult Japanese was completed. Since temporal perception is not fully developed in children, caution should be taken for using the terms related with time or frequency in the questionnaires for children.

  16. Using Self- and Parent-Reports to Test the Association between Peer Victimization and Internalizing Symptoms in Verbally Fluent Adolescents with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Ryan E.; Fredstrom, Bridget K.; Duncan, Amie W.; Holleb, Lauren J.; Bishop, Somer L.

    2014-01-01

    The current study tested the associations between peer victimization and internalizing symptoms in 54 verbally fluent adolescent males with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder. Adolescent- and parent-reports of multiple types of peer victimization and internalizing symptoms were used. First, the validity and reliability of the…

  17. Validation of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Premenstrual Symptoms Screening Tool (PSST) and association of PSST scores with health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Câmara, Rachel de A; Köhler, Cristiano A; Frey, Benicio N; Hyphantis, Thomas N; Carvalho, André F

    2017-01-01

    To develop and validate a Brazilian Portuguese version of the Premenstrual Symptoms Screening Tool (PSST), a questionnaire used for the screening of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and of the most severe form of PMS, premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). The PSST also rates the impact of premenstrual symptoms on daily activities. A consecutive sample of 801 women aged ≥ 18 years completed the study protocol. The internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and content validity of the Brazilian PSST were determined. The independent association of a positive screen for PMS or PMDD and quality of life determined by the World Health Organization Quality of Life instrument-Abbreviated version (WHOQOL-Bref) was also assessed. Of 801 participants, 132 (16.5%) had a positive screening for PMDD. The Brazilian PSST had adequate internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.91) and test-retest reliability. The PSST also had adequate convergent/discriminant validity, without redundancy. Content validity ratio and content validity index were 0.61 and 0.94 respectively. Finally, a positive screen for PMS/PMDD was associated with worse WHOQOL-Bref scores. These findings suggest that PSST is a reliable and valid instrument to screen for PMS/PMDD in Brazilian women.

  18. Psychomotor symptoms in depressed elderly patients: Assessment of the construct validity of the Dutch CORE by accelerometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Attu, S.D.; Rhebergen, D.; Comijs, H.C.; Parker, G.; Stek, M.L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Psychomotor symptoms are putative distinguishing features of melancholia that may guide treatment decisions. Hence, there is a need for valid instruments to assess psychomotor symptoms. The objective of this study is to examine the construct validity of the CORE, an observational

  19. Testing the Construct Validity of Proposed Criteria for "DSM-5" Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandy, William P. L.; Charman, Tony; Skuse, David H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To use confirmatory factor analysis to test the construct validity of the proposed "DSM-5" symptom model of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), in comparison to alternative models, including that described in "DSM-IV-TR." Method: Participants were 708 verbal children and young persons (mean age, 9.5 years) with mild to severe autistic…

  20. Validity of DSM-IV attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptom dimensions and subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willcutt, Erik G; Nigg, Joel T; Pennington, Bruce F; Solanto, Mary V; Rohde, Luis A; Tannock, Rosemary; Loo, Sandra K; Carlson, Caryn L; McBurnett, Keith; Lahey, Benjamin B

    2012-11-01

    Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition (DSM-IV) criteria for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) specify two dimensions of inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms that are used to define three nominal subtypes: predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type (ADHD-H), predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-I), and combined type (ADHD-C). To aid decision making for DSM-5 and other future diagnostic systems, a comprehensive literature review and meta-analysis of 546 studies was completed to evaluate the validity of the DSM-IV model of ADHD. Results indicated that DSM-IV criteria identify individuals with significant and persistent impairment in social, academic, occupational, and adaptive functioning when intelligence, demographic factors, and concurrent psychopathology are controlled. Available data overwhelmingly support the concurrent, predictive, and discriminant validity of the distinction between inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms, and indicate that nearly all differences among the nominal subtypes are consistent with the relative levels of inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms that define the subtypes. In contrast, the DSM-IV subtype model is compromised by weak evidence for the validity of ADHD-H after first grade, minimal support for the distinction between ADHD-I and ADHD-C in studies of etiological influences, academic and cognitive functioning, and treatment response, and the marked longitudinal instability of all three subtypes. Overall, we conclude that the DSM-IV ADHD subtypes provide a convenient clinical shorthand to describe the functional and behavioral correlates of current levels of inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms, but do not identify discrete subgroups with sufficient long-term stability to justify the classification of distinct forms of the disorder. Empirical support is stronger for an alternative model that would replace the subtypes with dimensional

  1. Validation of the Adult ADHD Investigator Symptom Rating Scale (AISRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Thomas J.; Adler, Lenard A.; Qiao, Meihua; Saylor, Keith E.; Brown, Thomas E.; Holdnack, James A.; Schuh, Kory J.; Trzepacz, Paula T.; Kelsey, Douglas K.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Validation of the Adult ADHD Investigator Symptom Rating Scale (AISRS) that measures aspects of ADHD in adults. Method: Psychometric properties of the AISRS total and AISRS subscales are analyzed and compared to the Conners' Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Rating Scale-Investigator Rated: Screening Version (CAARS-Inv:SV)…

  2. Uterine Fibroid Symptom - Quality of Life questionnaire translation and validation into Brazilian Portuguese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rita Oliveira da; Gomes, Mariano Tamura Vieira; Castro, Rodrigo de Aquino; Bonduki, Cláudio Emílio; Girão, Manoel João Batista Castello

    2016-10-01

    Purpose  To translate into Portuguese, culturally adapt and validate the Uterine Fibroid Symptom - Quality of Life (UFS-QoL) questionnaire for Brazilian women with uterine leiomyoma. Methods  Initially, the UFS-QoL questionnaire was translated into Brazilian Portuguese in accordance with international standards, with subsequent cultural, structural, conceptual and semantic adaptations, so that patients were able to properly answer the questionnaire. Fifty patients with uterine leiomyoma and 19 patients without the disease, confirmed by abdominal pelvic examination and/or transvaginal ultrasound, were selected at the outpatient clinics of the Department of Gynecology of the Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp). The UFS-QoL questionnaire was administered to all women twice on the same day, with two different interviewers, with an interval of 15 minutes between interviews. After 15 days, the questionnaire was re-administered by the first interviewer. Reliability (internal consistency and test-retest), construct and discriminative validity were tested to ratify the questionnaire. Results  The reliability of the instrument was assessed by Cronbach's α coefficient with an overall result of 0.97, indicating high reliability. The survey results showed a high correlation ( p  = 0.94; p  ≤ 0.001). Conclusion  The UFS-QoL questionnaire was successfully adapted to the Brazilian Portuguese language and Brazilian culture, showing reliability and validity. Thieme Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  3. The Brief Negative Symptom Scale (BNSS): Independent validation in a large sample of Italian patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucci, A; Galderisi, S; Merlotti, E; Rossi, A; Rocca, P; Bucci, P; Piegari, G; Chieffi, M; Vignapiano, A; Maj, M

    2015-07-01

    The Brief Negative Symptom Scale (BNSS) was developed to address the main limitations of the existing scales for the assessment of negative symptoms of schizophrenia. The initial validation of the scale by the group involved in its development demonstrated good convergent and discriminant validity, and a factor structure confirming the two domains of negative symptoms (reduced emotional/verbal expression and anhedonia/asociality/avolition). However, only relatively small samples of patients with schizophrenia were investigated. Further independent validation in large clinical samples might be instrumental to the broad diffusion of the scale in clinical research. The present study aimed to examine the BNSS inter-rater reliability, convergent/discriminant validity and factor structure in a large Italian sample of outpatients with schizophrenia. Our results confirmed the excellent inter-rater reliability of the BNSS (the intraclass correlation coefficient ranged from 0.81 to 0.98 for individual items and was 0.98 for the total score). The convergent validity measures had r values from 0.62 to 0.77, while the divergent validity measures had r values from 0.20 to 0.28 in the main sample (n=912) and in a subsample without clinically significant levels of depression and extrapyramidal symptoms (n=496). The BNSS factor structure was supported in both groups. The study confirms that the BNSS is a promising measure for quantifying negative symptoms of schizophrenia in large multicenter clinical studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Relationship Between Abdominal Symptoms and Fructose Ingestion in Children with Chronic Abdominal Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Veronika; Hammer, Katharina; Memaran, Nima; Huber, Wolf-Dietrich; Hammer, Karin; Hammer, Johann

    2018-05-01

    Limited valid data are available regarding the association of fructose-induced symptoms, fructose malabsorption, and clinical symptoms. To develop a questionnaire for valid symptom assessment before and during a carbohydrate breath test and to correlate symptoms with fructose breath test results in children/adolescents with functional abdominal pain. A Likert-type questionnaire assessing symptoms considered relevant for hydrogen breath test in children was developed and underwent initial validation. Fructose malabsorption was determined by increased breath hydrogen in 82 pediatric patients with functional abdominal pain disorders; fructose-induced symptoms were quantified by symptom score ≥2 and relevant symptom increase over baseline. The results were correlated with clinical symptoms. The time course of symptoms during the breath test was assessed. The questionnaire exhibited good psychometric properties in a standardized assessment of the severity of carbohydrate-related symptoms. A total of 40 % (n = 33) had malabsorption; symptoms were induced in 38 % (n = 31), but only 46 % (n = 15) with malabsorption were symptomatic. There was no significant correlation between fructose malabsorption and fructose-induced symptoms. Clinical symptoms correlated with symptoms evoked during the breath test (p Fructose-induced symptoms but not fructose malabsorption are related to increased abdominal symptoms and have distinct timing patterns.

  5. The Hamburg-Hannover Agitation Scale (H2A): Development and validation of a self-assessment tool for symptoms of agitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Stefanie; Wollmer, M Axel; Kruger, Tillmann H C

    2015-10-01

    Agitation has long been underestimated as a symptom occurring across psychiatric disorders. While several instruments exist for highly specific clinical target groups (e.g., dementia, traumatic brain injury), no tool captures agitation in a broader range of psychiatric patients. The Hamburg-Hannover Agitation Scale (H2A) has been designed to satisfy this demand. This study concentrated on the development and validation of the scale in a psychiatric and a healthy control sample. The H2A was developed, tested in an expert sample, and revised. The German version was validated in a study involving two clinical institutions. Patients (n = 180) completed the H2A and several other questionnaires in order to test for congruent and discriminant validity. Healthy subjects (n = 685) completed the H2A only. The H2A was translated into English. The H2A showed very satisfying quality criteria (reliability, selectivity, item difficulty) and regression analysis demonstrated the H2A's ability to distinguish between subjects with a psychiatric diagnosis and healthy subjects with or without psychiatric record. Factor analysis revealed a three-factorial structure representing a physiological/somatic, a mental and a mixed ('psychophysiological') dimension of agitation. Although validation showed promising quality criteria and predictive value of the H2A, calibration tests with bigger and more balanced sample sizes are necessary. Agitation has become more clinically relevant as a symptom occurring in various affective disorders, yet its assessment is limited. The H2A was developed in order to meet this need. Validation of the H2A revealed very satisfactory item and scale quality criteria promoting its utility. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Evaluating the test-retest reliability of symptom indices associated with the ImPACT post-concussion symptom scale (PCSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Victoria C; Bradson, Megan L; Meyer, Jessica E; Arnett, Peter A

    2018-05-01

    The Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) is a commonly used tool in sports concussion assessment. While test-retest reliabilities have been established for the ImPACT cognitive composites, few studies have evaluated the psychometric properties of the ImPACT's Post-Concussion Symptom Scale (PCSS). The purpose of this study was to establish the test-retest reliability of symptom indices associated with the PCSS. Participants included 38 undergraduate students (50.0% male) who underwent neuropsychological testing as part of their participation in their psychology department's research subject pool. The majority of the participants were Caucasian (94.7%) and had no history of concussion (73.7%). All participants completed the ImPACT at two time points, approximately 6 weeks apart. The PCSS was the main outcome measure, and eight symptom indices were calculated (a total symptom score, three symptom summary indices, and four symptom clusters). Pearson correlations (r) and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were computed as measures of test-retest reliability. Overall, reliabilities ranged from low to high (r = .44 to .80; ICC = .44 to .77). The cognitive symptom cluster exhibited the highest test-retest reliability (r = .80, ICC = .77), followed by the positive symptom total (PST) index, an indicator of the total number of symptoms endorsed (r = .71, ICC = .69). In contrast, the commonly used total symptom score showed lower test-retest reliability (r = .67, ICC = .62). Paired-samples t tests revealed no significant differences between test and retest for any of the symptom variables (all p > .01). Finally, reliable change indices (RCI) were computed to determine whether differences observed between test and retest represented clinically significant change. RCI values were provided for each symptom index at the 80%, 90%, and 95% confidence intervals. These results suggest that evaluating additional symptom

  7. Translation and linguistic validation of the Persian version of the Bristol Female Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourmomeny, Abbas Ali; Rezaeian, Zahra Sadat; Soltanmohamadi, Mahsa

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Persian version of the International Consultation on Incontinence Modular Questionnaire for Female Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (ICIQ-FLUTS) in patients with urinary tract dysfunction. After gaining permission from the International Consultation on Incontinence Modular Questionnaire (ICIQ) advisory board, the English Female Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (FLUTS) questionnaire was translated into Persian and then translated back into English. One hundred fourteen women with pelvic floor dysfunction were asked to complete the Persian FLUTS and International Consultation on Incontinence Modular Questionnaire Overactive Bladder Questionnaire (ICIQ-OAB). The Persian FLUTS questionnaire was also readministered to 20 patients 2 weeks after their initial visit. Study data were analyzed using SPSS V16.0. To validate the translated questionnaire, we assayed content/face validity, internal consistency/reliability, and construct validity. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were assessed using Cronbach's alpha and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) respectively. The mean age of the patients was 48.8 years old, 84% were married, and 59% had at least one Caesarean. Except for very few missing data, there is no any ambiguity in the Persian version of the FLUTS questionnaire. The Cronbach's alpha was 0.83, indicating a high internal consistency. Concerning criterion validity, correlation between the Persian FLUTS and the OAB was 0.77 (p Persian version of the FLUTS questionnaire demonstrates good internal consistency, content validity, and reliability.

  8. The MMPI-2/MMPI-2-RF Symptom Validity Scale (FBS/FBS-r) is not a measure of 'litigation response syndrome': commentary on Nichols and Gass (2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrabee, Glenn J; Bianchini, Kevin J; Boone, Kyle B; Rohling, Martin L

    2017-11-01

    To address (1) Whether there is empirical evidence for the contention of Nichols and Gass that the MMPI-2/MMPI-2-RF FBS/FBS-r Symptom Validity Scale is a measure of Litigation Response Syndrome (LRS), representing a credible set of responses and reactions of claimants to the experience of being in litigation, rather than a measure of non-credible symptom report, as the scale is typically used; and (2) to address their stated concerns about the validity of FBS/FBS-r meta-analytic results, and the risk of false positive elevations in persons with bona-fide medical conditions. Review of published literature on the FBS/FBS-r, focusing in particular on associations between scores on this symptom validity test and scores on performance validity tests (PVTs), and FBS/FBS-r score elevations in patients with genuine neurologic, psychiatric and medical problems. (1) several investigations show significant associations between FBS/FBS-r scores and PVTs measuring non-credible performance; (2) litigants who pass PVTs do not produce significant elevations on FBS/FBS-r; (3) non-litigating medical patients (bariatric surgery candidates, persons with sleep disorders, and patients with severe traumatic brain injury) who have multiple physical, emotional and cognitive symptoms do not produce significant elevations on FBS/FBS-r. Two meta-analytic studies show large effect sizes for FBS/FBS-r of similar magnitude. FBS/FBS-r measures non-credible symptom report rather than legitimate experience of litigation stress. Importantly, the absence of significant FBS/FBS-r elevations in litigants who pass PVTs demonstrating credible performance, directly contradicts the contention of Nichols and Gass that the scale measures LRS. These data, meta-analytic publications, and recent test use surveys support the admissibility of FBS/FBS-r under both Daubert and the older Frye criteria.

  9. Doubtful outcome of the validation of the Rome II questionnaire: validation of a symptom based diagnostic tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nylin Henry BO

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Questionnaires are used in research and clinical practice. For gastrointestinal complaints the Rome II questionnaire is internationally known but not validated. The aim of this study was to validate a printed and a computerized version of Rome II, translated into Swedish. Results from various analyses are reported. Methods Volunteers from a population based colonoscopy study were included (n = 1011, together with patients seeking general practice (n = 45 and patients visiting a gastrointestinal specialists' clinic (n = 67. The questionnaire consists of 38 questions concerning gastrointestinal symptoms and complaints. Diagnoses are made after a special code. Our validation included analyses of the translation, feasibility, predictability, reproducibility and reliability. Kappa values and overall agreement were measured. The factor structures were confirmed using a principal component analysis and Cronbach's alpha was used to test the internal consistency. Results and Discussion Translation and back translation showed good agreement. The questionnaire was easy to understand and use. The reproducibility test showed kappa values of 0.60 for GERS, 0.52 for FD, and 0.47 for IBS. Kappa values and overall agreement for the predictability when the diagnoses by the questionnaire were compared to the diagnoses by the clinician were 0.26 and 90% for GERS, 0.18 and 85% for FD, and 0.49 and 86% for IBS. Corresponding figures for the agreement between the printed and the digital version were 0.50 and 92% for GERS, 0.64 and 95% for FD, and 0.76 and 95% for IBS. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for GERS was 0.75 with a span per item of 0.71 to 0.76. For FD the figures were 0.68 and 0.54 to 0.70 and for IBS 0.61 and 0.56 to 0.66. The Rome II questionnaire has never been thoroughly validated before even if diagnoses made by the Rome criteria have been compared to diagnoses made in clinical practice. Conclusion The accuracy of the Swedish version of

  10. Incremental Validity of Test Session and Classroom Observations in a Multimethod Assessment of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConaughy, Stephanie H.; Harder, Valerie S.; Antshel, Kevin M.; Gordon, Michael; Eiraldi, Ricardo; Dumenci, Levent

    2010-01-01

    This study tested the incremental validity of behavioral observations, over and above parent and teacher reports, for assessing symptoms of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children ages 6 to 12, using the Test Observation Form (TOF) and Direct Observation Form (DOF) from the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment. The…

  11. Validation and Reliability of a Smartphone Application for the International Prostate Symptom Score Questionnaire: A Randomized Repeated Measures Crossover Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Sung Ryul; Sun, Hwa Yeon; Ko, Young Myoung; Chun, Dong-Il; Yang, Won Jae

    2014-01-01

    Background Smartphone-based assessment may be a useful diagnostic and monitoring tool for patients. There have been many attempts to create a smartphone diagnostic tool for clinical use in various medical fields but few have demonstrated scientific validity. Objective The purpose of this study was to develop a smartphone application of the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and to demonstrate its validity and reliability. Methods From June 2012 to May 2013, a total of 1581 male participants (≥40 years old), with or without lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), visited our urology clinic via the health improvement center at Soonchunhyang University Hospital (Republic of Korea) and were enrolled in this study. A randomized repeated measures crossover design was employed using a smartphone application of the IPSS and the conventional paper form of the IPSS. Paired t test under a hypothesis of non-inferior trial was conducted. For the reliability test, the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was measured. Results The total score of the IPSS (P=.289) and each item of the IPSS (P=.157-1.000) showed no differences between the paper version and the smartphone version of the IPSS. The mild, moderate, and severe LUTS groups showed no differences between the two versions of the IPSS. A significant correlation was noted in the total group (ICC=.935, Psmartphones could participate. Conclusions The validity and reliability of the smartphone application version were comparable to the conventional paper version of the IPSS. The smartphone application of the IPSS could be an effective method for measuring lower urinary tract symptoms. PMID:24513507

  12. Validity evidence based on test content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sireci, Stephen; Faulkner-Bond, Molly

    2014-01-01

    Validity evidence based on test content is one of the five forms of validity evidence stipulated in the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing developed by the American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, and National Council on Measurement in Education. In this paper, we describe the logic and theory underlying such evidence and describe traditional and modern methods for gathering and analyzing content validity data. A comprehensive review of the literature and of the aforementioned Standards is presented. For educational tests and other assessments targeting knowledge and skill possessed by examinees, validity evidence based on test content is necessary for building a validity argument to support the use of a test for a particular purpose. By following the methods described in this article, practitioners have a wide arsenal of tools available for determining how well the content of an assessment is congruent with and appropriate for the specific testing purposes.

  13. Psychiatric symptoms and response quality to self-rated personality tests: Evidence from the PsyCoLaus study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis, Marc; Meier, Emanuele; Rudaz, Dominique; Strippoli, Marie-Pierre F; Castelao, Enrique; Preisig, Martin; Capel, Roland; Vandeleur, Caroline L

    2017-06-01

    Despite the fact that research has demonstrated consistent associations between self-rated measures of personality dimensions and mental disorders, little has been undertaken to investigate the relation between psychiatric symptoms and response patterns to self-rated tests. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between psychiatric symptoms and response quality using indices from our functional method. A sample of 1,784 participants from a Swiss population-based cohort completed a personality inventory (NEO-FFI) and a symptom checklist of 90 items (SCL-90-R). Different indices of response quality were calculated based on the responses given to the NEO-FFI. Associations among the responses to indices of response quality, sociodemographic characteristics and the SCL-90-R dimensions were then established. Psychiatric symptoms were associated with several important differences in response quality, questioning subjects' ability to provide valid information using self-rated instruments. As suggested by authors, psychiatric symptoms seem associated with differences in personality scores. Nonetheless, our study shows that symptoms are also related to differences in terms of response patterns as sources of differences in personality scores. This could constitute a bias for clinical assessment. Future studies could still determine whether certain subpopulations of subjects are more unable to provide valid information to self-rated questionnaires than others. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Mollusc reproductive toxicity tests - Development and validation of test guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ducrot, Virginie; Holbech, Henrik; Kinnberg, Karin Lund

    . Draft standard operating procedures (SOPs) have been designed based upon literature and expert knowledge from project partners. Pre-validation studies have been implemented to validate the proposed test conditions and identify issues in performing the SOPs and analyzing test results. Pre-validation work......The Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development is promoting the development and validation of mollusc toxicity tests within its test guidelines programme, eventually aiming for the standardization of mollusc apical toxicity tests. Through collaborative work between academia, industry...... and stakeholders, this study aims to develop innovative partial life-cycle tests on the reproduction of the freshwater gastropods Potamopyrgus antipodarum and Lymnaea stagnalis, which are relevant candidate species for the standardization of mollusc apical toxicity tests assessing reprotoxic effects of chemicals...

  15. Validity and Reliability of the Korean Version of the Hyperthyroidism Symptom Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jie Eun; Lee, Dong Hwa; Oh, Tae Jung; Kim, Kyoung Min; Choi, Sung Hee; Lim, Soo; Park, Young Joo; Park, Do Joon; Jang, Hak Chul; Moon, Jae Hoon

    2018-03-01

    Thyrotoxicosis is a common disease resulting from an excess of thyroid hormones, which affects many organ systems. The clinical symptoms and signs are relatively nonspecific and can vary depending on age, sex, comorbidities, and the duration and cause of the disease. Several symptom rating scales have been developed in an attempt to assess these symptoms objectively and have been applied to diagnosis or to evaluation of the response to treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the hyperthyroidism symptom scale (K-HSS). Twenty-eight thyrotoxic patients and 10 healthy subjects completed the K-HSS at baseline and after follow-up at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital. The correlation between K-HSS scores and thyroid function was analyzed. K-HSS scores were compared between baseline and follow-up in patient and control groups. Cronbach's α coefficient was calculated to demonstrate the internal consistency of K-HSS. The mean age of the participants was 34.7±9.8 years and 13 (34.2%) were men. K-HSS scores demonstrated a significant positive correlation with serum free thyroxine concentration and decreased significantly with improved thyroid function. K-HSS scores were highest in subclinically thyrotoxic subjects, lower in patients who were euthyroid after treatment, and lowest in the control group at follow-up, but these differences were not significant. Cronbach's α coefficient for the K-HSS was 0.86. The K-HSS is a reliable and valid instrument for evaluating symptoms of thyrotoxicosis in Korean patients. Copyright © 2018 Korean Endocrine Society.

  16. Validity and Reliability of the Korean Version of the Hyperthyroidism Symptom Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie-Eun Lee

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThyrotoxicosis is a common disease resulting from an excess of thyroid hormones, which affects many organ systems. The clinical symptoms and signs are relatively nonspecific and can vary depending on age, sex, comorbidities, and the duration and cause of the disease. Several symptom rating scales have been developed in an attempt to assess these symptoms objectively and have been applied to diagnosis or to evaluation of the response to treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the hyperthyroidism symptom scale (K-HSS.MethodsTwenty-eight thyrotoxic patients and 10 healthy subjects completed the K-HSS at baseline and after follow-up at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital. The correlation between K-HSS scores and thyroid function was analyzed. K-HSS scores were compared between baseline and follow-up in patient and control groups. Cronbach's α coefficient was calculated to demonstrate the internal consistency of K-HSS.ResultsThe mean age of the participants was 34.7±9.8 years and 13 (34.2% were men. K-HSS scores demonstrated a significant positive correlation with serum free thyroxine concentration and decreased significantly with improved thyroid function. K-HSS scores were highest in subclinically thyrotoxic subjects, lower in patients who were euthyroid after treatment, and lowest in the control group at follow-up, but these differences were not significant. Cronbach's α coefficient for the K-HSS was 0.86.ConclusionThe K-HSS is a reliable and valid instrument for evaluating symptoms of thyrotoxicosis in Korean patients.

  17. Validity and Reliability of the Korean Version of the Hyperthyroidism Symptom Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Hwa

    2018-01-01

    Background Thyrotoxicosis is a common disease resulting from an excess of thyroid hormones, which affects many organ systems. The clinical symptoms and signs are relatively nonspecific and can vary depending on age, sex, comorbidities, and the duration and cause of the disease. Several symptom rating scales have been developed in an attempt to assess these symptoms objectively and have been applied to diagnosis or to evaluation of the response to treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the hyperthyroidism symptom scale (K-HSS). Methods Twenty-eight thyrotoxic patients and 10 healthy subjects completed the K-HSS at baseline and after follow-up at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital. The correlation between K-HSS scores and thyroid function was analyzed. K-HSS scores were compared between baseline and follow-up in patient and control groups. Cronbach's α coefficient was calculated to demonstrate the internal consistency of K-HSS. Results The mean age of the participants was 34.7±9.8 years and 13 (34.2%) were men. K-HSS scores demonstrated a significant positive correlation with serum free thyroxine concentration and decreased significantly with improved thyroid function. K-HSS scores were highest in subclinically thyrotoxic subjects, lower in patients who were euthyroid after treatment, and lowest in the control group at follow-up, but these differences were not significant. Cronbach's α coefficient for the K-HSS was 0.86. Conclusion The K-HSS is a reliable and valid instrument for evaluating symptoms of thyrotoxicosis in Korean patients. PMID:29589389

  18. Clinical Validity of the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms-62 (CCAPS-62): Further Evaluation and Clinical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAleavey, Andrew A.; Nordberg, Samuel S.; Hayes, Jeffrey A.; Castonguay, Louis G.; Locke, Benjamin D.; Lockard, Allison J.

    2012-01-01

    Self-report instruments of psychological symptoms are increasingly used in counseling centers but rely on rigorous evaluation of their clinical validity. Three studies reported here (total N = 26,886) investigated the validity of the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms-62 (CCAPS-62; Locke et al., 2011) as an assessment and…

  19. Validation of a stroke symptom questionnaire for epidemiological surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Ivana Makita; Goulart, Alessandra Carvalho; Santos Júnior, Waldyr Rodrigues; Lotufo, Paulo Andrade; Benseñor, Isabela Martins

    2010-07-01

    Stroke is a relevant issue within public health and requires epidemiological surveillance tools. The aim here was to validate a questionnaire for evaluating individuals with stroke symptoms in the Stroke Morbidity and Mortality Study (Estudo de Mortalidade e Morbidade do Acidente Vascular Cerebral, EMMA), São Paulo, Brazil. This was a cross-sectional study performed among a sample of the inhabitants of Butantã, an area in the western zone of the city of São Paulo. For all households in the coverage area of a primary healthcare unit, household members over the age of 35 years answered a stroke symptom questionnaire addressing limb weakness, facial weakness, speech problems, sensory disorders and impaired vision. Thirty-six participants were randomly selected for a complete neurological examination (gold standard). Considering all the questions in the questionnaire, the sensitivity was 72.2%, specificity was 94.4%, positive predictive value was 92.9% and negative predictive value was 77.3%. The positive likelihood ratio was 12.9, the negative likelihood ratio was 0.29 and the kappa coefficient was 0.67. Limb weakness was the most sensitive symptom, and speech problems were the most specific. The stroke symptom questionnaire is a useful tool and can be applied by trained interviewers with the aim of identifying community-dwelling stroke patients, through the structure of the Family Health Program.

  20. Validation of the Danish Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination as a screening test in a memory clinic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, Jette; Vogel, Asmus; Johannsen, Peter

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE) is a cognitive screening test developed to detect dementia. It has been validated in several countries. Validation studies have predominantly included patients with various degrees of dementia and healthy controls. OBJECTIVE: The aim...... (MMSE >or=20), 30 non-demented patients diagnosed with depression (originally referred for evaluation of cognitive symptoms), and 63 healthy volunteers, all between 60 and 85 years of age, were included. All patients were given the ACE as a supplement to the standard diagnostic work-up. RESULTS: The cut...

  1. Development and content validity of a patient reported outcomes measure to assess symptoms of major depressive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lasch Kathryn

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although many symptoms of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD are assessed through patient-report, there are currently no patient-reported outcome (PRO instruments that incorporate documented evidence of patient input in PRO instrument development. A review of existing PROs used in MDD suggested the need to conduct qualitative research with patients with MDD to better understand their experience of MDD and develop an evaluative instrument with content validity. The aim of this study was to develop a disease-specific questionnaire to assess symptoms important and relevant to adult MDD patients. Methods The questionnaire development involved qualitative interviews for concept elicitation, instrument development, and cognitive interviews to support content validity. For concept elicitation, ten MDD severity-specific focus group interviews with thirty-eight patients having clinician-confirmed diagnoses of MDD were conducted in January 2009. A semi-structured discussion guide was used to elicit patients' spontaneous descriptions of MDD symptoms. Verbatim transcripts of focus groups were coded and analyzed to develop a conceptual framework to describe MDD. A PRO instrument was developed by operationalizing concepts elicited in the conceptual framework. Cognitive interviews were carried out in patients (n = 20 to refine and test the content validity of the instrument in terms of item relevance and comprehension, instructions, recall period, and response categories. Results Concept elicitation focus groups identified thirty-five unique concepts falling into several domains: i emotional, ii cognitive, iii motivation, iv work, v sleep, vi appetite, vii social, viii activities of daily living, ix tired/fatigue, x body pain, and xi suicidality. Concept saturation, the point at which no new relevant information emerges in later interviews, was achieved for each of the concepts. Based on the qualitative findings, the PRO instrument developed

  2. French version validation of the psychotic symptom rating scales (PSYRATS for outpatients with persistent psychotic symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favrod Jerome

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most scales that assess the presence and severity of psychotic symptoms often measure a broad range of experiences and behaviours, something that restricts the detailed measurement of specific symptoms such as delusions or hallucinations. The Psychotic Symptom Rating Scales (PSYRATS is a clinical assessment tool that focuses on the detailed measurement of these core symptoms. The goal of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the French version of the PSYRATS. Methods A sample of 103 outpatients suffering from schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders and presenting persistent psychotic symptoms over the previous three months was assessed using the PSYRATS. Seventy-five sample participants were also assessed with the Positive And Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS. Results ICCs were superior to .90 for all items of the PSYRATS. Factor analysis replicated the factorial structure of the original version of the delusions scale. Similar to previous replications, the factor structure of the hallucinations scale was partially replicated. Convergent validity indicated that some specific PSYRATS items do not correlate with the PANSS delusions or hallucinations. The distress items of the PSYRATS are negatively correlated with the grandiosity scale of the PANSS. Conclusions The results of this study are limited by the relatively small sample size as well as the selection of participants with persistent symptoms. The French version of the PSYRATS partially replicates previously published results. Differences in factor structure of the hallucinations scale might be explained by greater variability of its elements. The future development of the scale should take into account the presence of grandiosity in order to better capture details of the psychotic experience.

  3. Validation of the Sinhala translation of the International Consultation on Incontinence Modular Questionnaire for female lower urinary tract symptoms among women in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Silva, Gayan; Furukan, Rameez; Goonewardene, Malik

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study was to translate the International Consultation on Incontinence Modular Questionnaire for female lower urinary tract symptoms (ICIQ-FLUTS) into Sinhala and validate the Sinhala translation for use in clinical practice. The ICIQ-FLUTS was translated into Sinhala in accordance with the ICIQ validation protocol. The Sinhala translation was validated by administering it to 133 women with FLUTS, mainly urinary incontinence and or urgency, and to 118 women with symptoms other than FLUTS during the period 25 October 2013 to 23 December 2016, in the Academic Obstetrics and Gynaecology Unit, Teaching Hospital Mahamodara, Galle, Sri Lanka. The Sinhala translation had good content validity (assessed by a panel of clinicians including a content specialist, and a group of women with and without FLUTS), good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha coefficient in the range 0.69-0.75) was stable (no significant differences between median test-retest scores in a subgroup of 24 women with FLUTS), had good construct validity (marked difference between median scores in women presenting with and without FLUTS, p urinary incontinence and/or urgency.

  4. Reliability and validity of teacher-rated symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder in a clinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ise, Elena; Görtz-Dorten, Anja; Döpfner, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    It is recommended to use information from multiple informants when making diagnostic decisions concerning oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD). The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability and validity of teacher-rated symptoms of ODD and CD in a clinical sample. The sample comprised 421 children (84% boys; 6-17 years) diagnosed with ODD, CD, and/or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Teachers completed a standardized ODD/CD symptom rating scale and the Teacher Report Form (TRF). The reliability (internal consistency) of the symptom rating scale was high (α = 0.90). Convergent and divergent validity were demonstrated by substantial correlations with similar TRF syndrome scales and low-to-moderate correlations with dissimilar TRF scales. Discriminant validity was shown by the ability of the symptom rating scale to differentiate between children with ODD/CD and those with ADHD. Factorial validity was demonstrated by principal component analysis, which produced a two-factor solution that is largely consistent with the two-dimensional model of ODD and CD proposed by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IV-TR, although some CD symptoms representing aggressive behavior loaded on the ODD dimension. These findings suggest that DSM-IV-TR-based teacher rating scales are useful instruments for assessing disruptive behavior problems in children and adolescents.

  5. Behavioral Indicators on a Mobile Sensing Platform Predict Clinically Validated Psychiatric Symptoms of Mood and Anxiety Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Place, Skyler; Blanch-Hartigan, Danielle; Rubin, Channah; Gorrostieta, Cristina; Mead, Caroline; Kane, John; Marx, Brian P; Feast, Joshua; Deckersbach, Thilo; Pentland, Alex Sandy; Nierenberg, Andrew; Azarbayejani, Ali

    2017-03-16

    There is a critical need for real-time tracking of behavioral indicators of mental disorders. Mobile sensing platforms that objectively and noninvasively collect, store, and analyze behavioral indicators have not yet been clinically validated or scalable. The aim of our study was to report on models of clinical symptoms for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression derived from a scalable mobile sensing platform. A total of 73 participants (67% [49/73] male, 48% [35/73] non-Hispanic white, 33% [24/73] veteran status) who reported at least one symptom of PTSD or depression completed a 12-week field trial. Behavioral indicators were collected through the noninvasive mobile sensing platform on participants' mobile phones. Clinical symptoms were measured through validated clinical interviews with a licensed clinical social worker. A combination hypothesis and data-driven approach was used to derive key features for modeling symptoms, including the sum of outgoing calls, count of unique numbers texted, absolute distance traveled, dynamic variation of the voice, speaking rate, and voice quality. Participants also reported ease of use and data sharing concerns. Behavioral indicators predicted clinically assessed symptoms of depression and PTSD (cross-validated area under the curve [AUC] for depressed mood=.74, fatigue=.56, interest in activities=.75, and social connectedness=.83). Participants reported comfort sharing individual data with physicians (Mean 3.08, SD 1.22), mental health providers (Mean 3.25, SD 1.39), and medical researchers (Mean 3.03, SD 1.36). Behavioral indicators passively collected through a mobile sensing platform predicted symptoms of depression and PTSD. The use of mobile sensing platforms can provide clinically validated behavioral indicators in real time; however, further validation of these models and this platform in large clinical samples is needed. ©Skyler Place, Danielle Blanch-Hartigan, Channah Rubin, Cristina Gorrostieta

  6. QUOTAC: QUestionnaire On day and night Time respiratory symptoms in Asthmatic Children -- a validity study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zaane, B.; Droog, R. P.; Stouthard, M. E. A.; van Aalderen, W. M. C.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate the QUOTAC, a questionnaire on day and night time respiratory symptoms in asthmatic children. Validity was examined by measuring agreement between the QUOTAC and a self-report diary in children aged 6 to 16 years, divided in an asthma group and a control group.

  7. Instrument for assessing coronary symptoms in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cándida Rosa Castañeda Valencia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To design and validate an instrument for assessing the symptoms in women with coronary disease framed in the Theory of the Unpleasant Symptoms. Methodology: Methodological, psychometric study oriented by The symptoms, first concept of the Theory of Unpleasant Symptoms by Lenz et al. Theoretical critique of the construct chosen was performed proving usefulness in research and practice discipline. From the empirical, 260 evidences were weighted through methodological and empirical critique, applying the Integrative Review System articulated to the Empirical Conceptual Model by Fawcett Garity. Only 30 research pieces were obtained, used for the construction of the items. To the Lenz symptoms were added the reported psychosocial symptoms in women with coronary disease, generating a first design composed of 87 items. Results:The design was done by experts Content Validation with the Escobar and Cuervo Model 2008 (statistical analysis spss, 20 with Kendall Correlation Coefficient k = 0.682 (p ; 0.05 with good agreement between judges. Lawshe Model normalized by Tristán 2008 reported a Content Validity Ratio = 0.57 and Content Validity Index = 0.797, showing that items are units of essential analysis. Finally, Validation Facial made by means of the pilot test, conducted on 21 women who met the inclusion criteria, allowed the discrimination semiotics of items, obtaining an instrument consisting of 67 items.  Conclusions:This is a remnant of research that requires further validation to increase its psychometric capacity.

  8. Test re-test reliability and construct validity of the star-track test of manual dexterity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildebro, Niels; Amirian, Ilda; Gögenur, Ismail

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We wished to determine test re-test reliability and construct validity of the star-track test of manual dexterity. Design. Test re-test reliability was examined in a controlled study. Construct validity was tested in a blinded randomized crossover study. Setting. The study was performed...... at a university hospital in Denmark. Participants. A total of 11 subjects for test re-test and 20 subjects for the construct validity study were included. All subjects were healthy volunteers. Intervention. The test re-test trial had two measurements with 2 days pause in between. The interventions...... in the construct validity study included baseline measurement, intervention 1: fatigue, intervention 2: stress, and intervention 3: fatigue and stress. There was a 2 day pause between each intervention. Main outcome measure. An integrated measure of completion time and number of errors was used. Results. All...

  9. [Reliability and validity of the Chinese version on Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C; Yang, G P; Li, Z; Li, X N; Li, Y; Hu, J; Zhang, F Y; Zhang, X J

    2017-08-10

    Objective: To assess the reliability and validity of the Chinese version on Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) among medical students in China and to provide correct way of application on the recommended scales. Methods: An E-questionnaire was developed and sent to medical students in five different colleges. Students were all active volunteers to accept the testings. Cronbach's α and split-half reliability were calculated to evaluate the reliability of AUDIT while content, contract, discriminant and convergent validity were performed to measure the validity of the scales. Results: The overall Cronbach's α of AUDIT was 0.782 and the split-half reliability was 0.711. Data showed that the domain Cronbach's α and split-half reliability were 0.796 and 0.794 for hazardous alcohol use, 0.561 and 0.623 for dependence symptoms, and 0.647 and 0.640 for harmful alcohol use. Results also showed that the content validity index on the levels of items I-CVI) were from 0.83 to 1.00, the content validity index of scale level (S-CVI/UA) was 0.90, content validity index of average scale level (S-CVI/Ave) was 0.99 and the content validity ratios (CVR) were from 0.80 to 1.00. The simplified version of AUDIT supported a presupposed three-factor structure which could explain 61.175% of the total variance revealed through exploratory factor analysis. AUDIT semed to have good convergent and discriminant validity, with the success rate of calibration experiment as 100%. Conclusion: AUDIT showed good reliability and validity among medical students in China thus worth for promotion on its use.

  10. Construct Validity of Neuropsychological Tests in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Daniel N.; Aldarondo, Felito; Goldstein, Gerald; Huegel, Stephen G.; Gilbertson, Mark; van Kammen, Daniel P.

    1998-01-01

    The construct validity of neuropsychological tests in patients with schizophrenia was studied with 39 patients who were evaluated with a battery of six tests assessing attention, memory, and abstract reasoning abilities. Results support the construct validity of the neuropsychological tests in patients with schizophrenia. (SLD)

  11. The Cognitive Symptom Checklist-Work in cancer patients is related with work functioning, fatigue and depressive symptoms : a validation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorland, H. F.; Abma, F. I.; Roelen, C. A. M.; Smink, A.; Feuerstein, M.; Amick, B. C.; Ranchor, A. V.; Bultmann, U.

    The study objectives are to translate the 21-item Cognitive Symptom Checklist-Work (CSC-W21) to Dutch (CSC-W DV) and to validate the CSC-W DV in working cancer patients. The CSC-W21 was cross-culturally translated and adapted to a Dutch version. In this 19-item version, the dichotomous response

  12. The validation of language tests

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KATEVG

    Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics, Vol. ... validation is necessary because of the major impact which test results can have on the many ... Messick (1989: 20) introduces his much-quoted progressive matrix (cf. table 1), which ... argue that current accounts of validity only superficially address theories of measurement.

  13. Valid methods: the quality assurance of test method development, validation, approval, and transfer for veterinary testing laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegers, Ann L

    2003-07-01

    Third-party accreditation is a valuable tool to demonstrate a laboratory's competence to conduct testing. Accreditation, internationally and in the United States, has been discussed previously. However, accreditation is only I part of establishing data credibility. A validated test method is the first component of a valid measurement system. Validation is defined as confirmation by examination and the provision of objective evidence that the particular requirements for a specific intended use are fulfilled. The international and national standard ISO/IEC 17025 recognizes the importance of validated methods and requires that laboratory-developed methods or methods adopted by the laboratory be appropriate for the intended use. Validated methods are therefore required and their use agreed to by the client (i.e., end users of the test results such as veterinarians, animal health programs, and owners). ISO/IEC 17025 also requires that the introduction of methods developed by the laboratory for its own use be a planned activity conducted by qualified personnel with adequate resources. This article discusses considerations and recommendations for the conduct of veterinary diagnostic test method development, validation, evaluation, approval, and transfer to the user laboratory in the ISO/IEC 17025 environment. These recommendations are based on those of nationally and internationally accepted standards and guidelines, as well as those of reputable and experienced technical bodies. They are also based on the author's experience in the evaluation of method development and transfer projects, validation data, and the implementation of quality management systems in the area of method development.

  14. French Validation of the “reading the Mind in the Eyes Test” : Relation with Subclinical Psychotic Positive Symptoms in General Population

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, R.F.; Tubiana-Potiez, A.; Deprun, Samuel; Kahn, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Very few tests are available to assess the " Theory of Mind " (ToM) in adults in French. The aim of our study was to validate a French version of a ToM task: the " Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test " (RMET ; Baron-Cohen et al. 2001 1). The ToM takes part in the social cognition processes which have impacts on the everyday functioning of schizophrenic patients 2 but also in bipolar disorder patients 3. According to some authors, some psychotic symptoms are present even ...

  15. How to measure the impact of premenstrual symptoms? Development and validation of the German PMS-Impact Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kues, Johanna N; Janda, Carolyn; Kleinstäuber, Maria; Weise, Cornelia

    2016-10-01

    With 75% of women of reproductive age affected, premenstrual symptoms are very common, ranging from emotional and cognitive to physical symptoms. Premenstrual Syndrome and Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder can lead to substantial functional interference and psychological distress comparable to that of dysthymic disorders. The assessment of this impact is required as a part of the diagnostic procedure in the DSM-5. In the absence of a specific measure, the authors developed the PMS-Impact Questionnaire. A sample of 101 women reporting severe premenstrual complaints was assessed with the twenty-two items in the questionnaire during their premenstrual phase in an ongoing intervention study at the Philipps-University Marburg from August 2013 until January 2015. An exploratory factor analysis revealed a two-factor solution (labeled Psychological Impact and Functional Impact) with 18 items. A Cronbach's alpha of 0.90 for Psychological Impact and of 0.90 for Functional Impact indicated good reliability. Convergent construct validity was demonstrated by moderate to high correlations with the Pain Disability Index. Low correlations with the Big Five Inventory-10 indicated good divergent validity. The PMS-Impact Questionnaire was found to be a valid, reliable, and an economic measure to assess the impact of premenstrual symptoms. In future research, cross validations and confirmatory factor analyses should be conducted.

  16. [Questionnaire on dissociative symptoms. German adaptation, reliability and validity of the American Dissociative Experience Scale (DES)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyberger, H J; Spitzer, C; Stieglitz, R D; Kuhn, G; Magdeburg, N; Bernstein-Carlson, E

    1998-06-01

    The "Fragebogen zu dissoziativen Symptomen (FDS)" represents the authorised German translation and adaptation of the "Dissociative Experience Scale" (DES; Bernstein and Putnam 1986). The original scale comprises 28 items covering dissociative experiences with regard to memory, identity, awareness and cognition according to DSM-III-R and DSM-IV. For the German version, 16 items were added to cover dissociative phenomena according to ICD-10, mainly pseudoneurological conversion symptoms. Reliability and validity of the German version were studied in a total sample of 813 persons and were compared to the results of the original version. Test-retest reliability of the FDS was rtt = 0.88 and Cronbach's consistency coefficient was alpha = 0.93, which is comparable to the results of the DES. The instrument differentiates between different samples (healthy control subjects, students, unselected neurological and psychiatric inpatients, neurological and psychiatric patients with a dissociative disorder and schizophrenics). The FDS is an easily applicable, reliable and valid measure to quantify dissociative experiences.

  17. A validation study of the Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ) in insurance medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langerak, W.; Langeland, W.; van Balkom, A.J.L.M.; Draisma, S.; Terluin, B.; Draijer, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the criterion validity and the diagnostic accuracy of the Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ) regarding the identification of depressive and anxiety disorders in an insurance medicine setting. Participants: Our sample consisted of 230 individuals who

  18. 15 CFR 995.27 - Format validation software testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of NOAA ENC Products § 995.27 Format validation software testing. Tests shall be performed verifying... specification. These tests may be combined with testing of the conversion software. ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Format validation software testing...

  19. The Utility and Comparative Incremental Validity of the MMPI-2 and Trauma Symptom Inventory Validity Scales in the Detection of Feigned PTSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efendov, Adele A.; Sellbom, Martin; Bagby, R. Michael

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined the comparative predictive capacity of the Trauma Symptom Inventory (TSI) Atypical Response Scale (ATR) and the standard set of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) fake-bad validity scales (i.e., F, F[subscript B[prime

  20. Validation of the Information/Communications Technology Literacy Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Technical Report 1360 Validation of the Information /Communications Technology Literacy Test D. Matthew Trippe Human Resources Research...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Validation of the Information /Communications Technology Literacy Test 5a. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER W91WAS-09-D-0013 5b...validate a measure of cyber aptitude, the Information /Communications Technology Literacy Test (ICTL), in predicting trainee performance in Information

  1. Validity and Reliability Study of the Korean Tinetti Mobility Test for Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jinse; Koh, Seong-Beom; Kim, Hee Jin; Oh, Eungseok; Kim, Joong-Seok; Yun, Ji Young; Kwon, Do-Young; Kim, Younsoo; Kim, Ji Seon; Kwon, Kyum-Yil; Park, Jeong-Ho; Youn, Jinyoung; Jang, Wooyoung

    2018-01-01

    Postural instability and gait disturbance are the cardinal symptoms associated with falling among patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). The Tinetti mobility test (TMT) is a well-established measurement tool used to predict falls among elderly people. However, the TMT has not been established or widely used among PD patients in Korea. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the TMT for PD patients. Twenty-four patients diagnosed with PD were enrolled in this study. For the interrater reliability test, thirteen clinicians scored the TMT after watching a video clip. We also used the test-retest method to determine intrarater reliability. For concurrent validation, the unified Parkinson's disease rating scale, Hoehn and Yahr staging, Berg Balance Scale, Timed-Up and Go test, 10-m walk test, and gait analysis by three-dimensional motion capture were also used. We analyzed receiver operating characteristic curve to predict falling. The interrater reliability and intrarater reliability of the Korean Tinetti balance scale were 0.97 and 0.98, respectively. The interrater reliability and intra-rater reliability of the Korean Tinetti gait scale were 0.94 and 0.96, respectively. The Korean TMT scores were significantly correlated with the other clinical scales and three-dimensional motion capture. The cutoff values for predicting falling were 14 points (balance subscale) and 10 points (gait subscale). We found that the Korean version of the TMT showed excellent validity and reliability for gait and balance and had high sensitivity and specificity for predicting falls among patients with PD.

  2. Reliability and construct validity of the Spanish version of the 6-item CTS symptoms scale for outcomes assessment in carpal tunnel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales, Roberto S; Martin-Hidalgo, Yolanda; Reboso-Morales, Luis; Atroshi, Isam

    2016-03-03

    The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability and construct validity of the Spanish version of the 6-item carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) symptoms scale (CTS-6). In this cross-sectional study 40 patients diagnosed with CTS based on clinical and neurophysiologic criteria, completed the standard Spanish versions of the CTS-6 and the disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (QuickDASH) scales on two occasions with a 1-week interval. Internal-consistency reliability was assessed with the Cronbach alpha coefficient and test-retest reliability with the intraclass correlation coefficient, two way random effect model and absolute agreement definition (ICC2,1). Cross-sectional precision was analyzed with the Standard Error of the Measurement (SEM). Longitudinal precision for test-retest reliability coefficient was assessed with the Standard Error of the Measurement difference (SEMdiff) and the Minimal Detectable Change at 95 % confidence level (MDC95). For assessing construct validity it was hypothesized that the CTS-6 would have a strong positive correlation with the QuickDASH, analyzed with the Pearson correlation coefficient (r). The standard Spanish version of the CTS-6 presented a Cronbach alpha of 0.81 with a SEM of 0.3. Test-retest reliability showed an ICC of 0.85 with a SRMdiff of 0.36 and a MDC95 of 0.7. The correlation between CTS-6 and the QuickDASH was concordant with the a priori formulated construct hypothesis (r 0.69) CONCLUSIONS: The standard Spanish version of the 6-item CTS symptoms scale showed good internal consistency, test-retest reliability and construct validity for outcomes assessment in CTS. The CTS-6 will be useful to clinicians and researchers in Spanish speaking parts of the world. The use of standardized outcome measures across countries also will facilitate comparison of research results in carpal tunnel syndrome.

  3. The somatic symptom scale-8 (SSS-8): a brief measure of somatic symptom burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierk, Benjamin; Kohlmann, Sebastian; Kroenke, Kurt; Spangenberg, Lena; Zenger, Markus; Brähler, Elmar; Löwe, Bernd

    2014-03-01

    Somatic symptoms are the core features of many medical diseases, and they are used to evaluate the severity and course of illness. The 8-item Somatic Symptom Scale (SSS-8) was recently developed as a brief, patient-reported outcome measure of somatic symptom burden, but its reliability, validity, and usefulness have not yet been tested. To investigate the reliability, validity, and severity categories as well as the reference scores of the SSS-8. A national, representative general-population survey was performed between June 15, 2012, and July 15, 2012, in Germany, including 2510 individuals older than 13 years. The SSS-8 mean (SD), item-total correlations, Cronbach α, factor structure, associations with measures of construct validity (Patient Health Questionnaire-2 depression scale, Generalized Anxiety Disorder-2 scale, visual analog scale for general health status, 12-month health care use), severity categories, and percentile rank reference scores. The SSS-8 had excellent item characteristics and good reliability (Cronbach α = 0.81). The factor structure reflects gastrointestinal, pain, fatigue, and cardiopulmonary aspects of the general somatic symptom burden. Somatic symptom burden as measured by the SSS-8 was significantly associated with depression (r = 0.57 [95% CI, 0.54 to 0.60]), anxiety (r = 0.55 [95% CI, 0.52 to 0.58]), general health status (r = -0.24 [95% CI, -0.28 to -0.20]), and health care use (incidence rate ratio, 1.12 [95% CI, 1.10 to 1.14]). The SSS-8 severity categories were calculated in accordance with percentile ranks: no to minimal (0-3 points), low (4-7 points), medium (8-11 points), high (12-15 points), and very high (16-32 points) somatic symptom burden. For every SSS-8 severity category increase, there was a 53% (95% CI, 44% to 63%) increase in health care visits. The SSS-8 is a reliable and valid self-report measure of somatic symptom burden. Cutoff scores identify individuals with low, medium, high, and very high somatic

  4. Test-driven verification/validation of model transformations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    László LENGYEL; Hassan CHARAF

    2015-01-01

    Why is it important to verify/validate model transformations? The motivation is to improve the quality of the trans-formations, and therefore the quality of the generated software artifacts. Verified/validated model transformations make it possible to ensure certain properties of the generated software artifacts. In this way, verification/validation methods can guarantee different requirements stated by the actual domain against the generated/modified/optimized software products. For example, a verified/ validated model transformation can ensure the preservation of certain properties during the model-to-model transformation. This paper emphasizes the necessity of methods that make model transformation verified/validated, discusses the different scenarios of model transformation verification and validation, and introduces the principles of a novel test-driven method for verifying/ validating model transformations. We provide a solution that makes it possible to automatically generate test input models for model transformations. Furthermore, we collect and discuss the actual open issues in the field of verification/validation of model transformations.

  5. Validity and reliability of the NAB Naming Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Bonnie C; Rush, Beth K; Pedraza, Otto

    2016-05-01

    Confrontation naming is commonly assessed in neuropsychological practice, but few standardized measures of naming exist and those that do are susceptible to the effects of education and culture. The Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (NAB) Naming Test is a 31-item measure used to assess confrontation naming. Despite adequate psychometric information provided by the test publisher, there has been limited independent validation of the test. In this study, we investigated the convergent and discriminant validity, internal consistency, and alternate forms reliability of the NAB Naming Test in a sample of adults (Form 1: n = 247, Form 2: n = 151) clinically referred for neuropsychological evaluation. Results indicate adequate-to-good internal consistency and alternate forms reliability. We also found strong convergent validity as demonstrated by relationships with other neurocognitive measures. We found preliminary evidence that the NAB Naming Test demonstrates a more pronounced ceiling effect than other commonly used measures of naming. To our knowledge, this represents the largest published independent validation study of the NAB Naming Test in a clinical sample. Our findings suggest that the NAB Naming Test demonstrates adequate validity and reliability and merits consideration in the test arsenal of clinical neuropsychologists.

  6. Psychometric evaluation of the HIV symptom distress scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marc, Linda G.; Wang, Ming-Mei; Testa, Marcia A.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to psychometrically validate the HIV Symptom Distress Scale (SDS), an instrument that can be used to measure overall HIV symptom distress or clinically relevant groups of HIV symptoms. A secondary data analysis was conducted using the Collaborations in HIV Outcomes Research U.S. Cohort (CHORUS). Inclusion criteria required study participants (N=5,521) to have a valid baseline measure of the AIDS Clinical Trial Group Symptom Distress Module, with an SF-12 or SF-36 completed on the same day. Psychometric testing assessed unidimensionality, internal consistency and factor structure using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, and structural equation modeling (SEM). Construct validity examined whether the new measure discriminates across clinical significance (CD4 and HIV viral load). Findings show that the SDS has high reliability (α=0.92), and SEM supports a correlated second-order factor model (physical and mental distress) with acceptable fit (GFI=0.88, AGFI=0.85, NFI=0.99, NNFI=0.99; RMSEA=0.06, [90% CI 0.06 – 0.06]; Satorra Bentler Scaled, C2 =3274.20; p=0.0). Construct validity shows significant differences across categories for HIV-1 viral load (p< 0.001) and CD4 (p< 0.001). Differences in mean SDS scores exist across gender (p< 0.001), race/ethnicity (p< 0.05) and educational attainment (p < 0.001). Hence, the HIV Symptom Distress Scale is a reliable and valid instrument, which measures overall HIV symptoms or clinically relevant groups of symptoms. PMID:22409246

  7. The penile cuff test: A clinically useful non-invasive urodynamic investigation to diagnose men with lower urinary tract symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Harding

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To summarize the development of a novel non-invasive test to categorize voiding dysfunction in men complaining of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS - the penile cuff test. Methods: The test involves the controlled inflation of a penile cuff during micturition to interrupt voiding and hence estimate isovolumetric bladder pressure (p ves.isv . The validity, reliability, and clinical usefulness of the test were determined in a number of studies in men with LUTS. Results: The penile cuff test can be successfully performed in over 90% of men with LUTS. The reading of cuff pressure at flow interruption (p cuff.int gives a valid and reliable estimate of invasively-measured p ves.isv and when combined with the reading for maximum flow rate obtained during the test (Q max produces an accurate categorization of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO. Use of this categorization prior to treatment allows improved prediction of outcome from prostatectomy. Conclusion: The penile cuff test fulfils the criteria as a useful clinical measurement technique applicable to the diagnosis and treatment planning of men with LUTS.

  8. ADHD symptoms and benefit from extended time testing accommodations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovett, Benjamin J; Leja, Ashley M

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the relationship between ADHD symptoms, executive functioning problems, and benefit from extended time testing accommodations. College students completed a battery of measures assessing processing speed and reading fluency, reading comprehension (under two different time limits), symptoms of ADHD, executive functioning deficits, and perceptions of need for extended time. Students reporting more symptoms of ADHD and executive functioning deficits actually benefited less from extended time, and students' perceptions of their timing needs did not predict benefit. Students with more ADHD symptoms are less likely to use extended time effectively, possibly because of their associated executive functioning problems. These results suggest there may be little justification for examining a student's ADHD symptoms when making extended time accommodation decisions. © 2013 SAGE Publications.

  9. Validity of the Greek version of the PHQ 15-item Somatic Symptom Severity Scale in patients with chronic medical conditions and correlations with emergency department use and illness perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyphantis, Thomas; Kroenke, Kurt; Papatheodorou, Eugenia; Paika, Vassiliki; Theocharopoulos, Nicholaos; Ninou, Aggeliki; Tomenson, Barbara; Carvalho, Andre F; Guthrie, Elspeth

    2014-11-01

    The PHQ-15 is a brief measure assessing the severity of somatic symptoms and is widely used in different health care settings. We aimed to assess the psychometric properties of its Greek version in patients with chronic physical illnesses seeking urgent or unscheduled care in the Accident and Emergency Department (AED). The PHQ-15 was translated into Greek using back-translation, and it was administered to 303 patients with diabetes, COPD and rheumatic diseases visiting our AED during a one-year period. Patients were interviewed with the MINI. Depressive (PHQ-9) and somatization symptoms (SCL-12), illness perceptions (B-IPQ) and health-related quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF) were also assessed to test criterion and concurrent validity. The Greek version of the PHQ-15 showed acceptable internal consistency. Convergent validity was established by the strong associations observed between PHQ-15 scores and functional status, depressive symptom severity and AED visits during the previous year. PHQ-15 scores were also associated with the patients' concerns about personal and treatment illness's control and their beliefs regarding the number of bodily symptoms attributed to their illness (illness identity). The highly acceptable convergent and discriminant validity of the five individual bodily symptoms assessed by both the PHQ-15 and SCL-12 is a further construct validity indicator. The present findings support the applicability of the Greek version of PHQ-15 in assessing common somatic symptoms either medically explained or unexplained in patients seeking care in the AED, further confirming that it can be considered suitable for use in a broad range of populations in clinical research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Validation of the Expanded Versions of the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale v1.1 Symptom Checklist and the Adult ADHD Investigator Symptom Rating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Michael J; Faraone, Stephen V; Alperin, Samuel; Leon, Terry L; Biederman, Joseph; Spencer, Thomas J; Adler, Lenard A

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study is to validate the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) and Adult ADHD Investigator Symptom Rating Scale (AISRS) expanded versions, including executive function deficits (EFDs) and emotional dyscontrol (EC) items, and to present ASRS and AISRS pilot normative data. Two patient samples (referred and primary care physician [PCP] controls) were pooled together for these analyses. Final analysis included 297 respondents, 171 with adult ADHD. Cronbach's alphas were high for all sections of the scales. Examining histograms of ASRS 31-item and AISRS 18-item total scores for ADHD controls, 95% cutoff scores were 70 and 23, respectively; histograms for pilot normative sample suggest cutoffs of 82 and 26, respectively. (a) ASRS- and AISRS-expanded versions have high validity in assessment of core 18 adult ADHD Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders ( DSM) symptoms and EFD and EC symptoms. (b) ASRS (31-item) scores 70 to 82 and AISRS (18-item) scores from 23 to 26 suggest a high likelihood of adult ADHD.

  11. Depressive symptoms and perceived chronic stress predict test anxiety in nursing students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Augner

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to identify predictors of test anxiety in nursing students. Design: Cross sectional pilot study. Methods: A questionnaire was administered to 112 students of an Austrian nursing school (mean age = 21.42, SD = 5.21. Test anxiety (measured by the standardized PAF Test Anxiety Questionnaire, perceived chronic stress, depressive symptoms, pathological eating and further psychological and health parameters were measured. Results: We found highly significant correlations between test anxiety and working hours (0.25, depression score (0.52, emotional stability (-0.31, and perceived chronic stress (0.65 (p < 0.01, for all. Regression analysis revealed chronic stress and emotional instability as best predictors for test anxiety. Furthermore, path analysis revealed that past negative academic performance outcomes contribute to test anxiety via depressive symptoms and perceived chronic stress. Conclusion: Depressive symptoms and perceived chronic stress are strongly related to test anxiety. Therefore therapy and training methods that address depressive symptoms and perceived chronic stress, and thereby aim to modify appraisal of potential stressful situations, may be successful in addressing test anxiety.

  12. Convergent and discriminant validity of psychiatric symptoms reported in The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study at age 3 years with independent clinical assessment in the Longitudinal ADHD Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Biele

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies often use parent questionnaires to assess children's development and mental health. To date, few studies have investigated the validity of parent questionnaires with standardized clinical assessments as criterion. The current study examines discriminant and convergent validity of parent questionnaires for symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD, Oppositional Defiance Disorder (ODD, and Conduct Disorder (CD as well as symptoms of Separation Anxiety employed in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study by using structured clinical interviews performed 5 months later in the Longitudinal ADHD Cohort Study as a criterion. The comparison of confirmatory factor analysis models and examination of factor correlations indicate convergent and discriminant validity of MoBa parent questionnaires for preschool children, especially for the assessment of ADHD and ODD/CD. Future research should attempt to further improve parent questionnaires, examine their validity in representative samples, and explicitly test their utility for screening.

  13. The Short French Internet Addiction Test Adapted to Online Sexual Activities: Validation and Links With Online Sexual Preferences and Addiction Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wéry, Aline; Burnay, Jonathan; Karila, Laurent; Billieux, Joël

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of a French version of the short Internet Addiction Test adapted to online sexual activities (s-IAT-sex). The French version of the s-IAT-sex was administered to a sample of 401 men. The participants also completed a questionnaire that screened for sexual addiction (PATHOS). The relationships of s-IAT-sex scores with time spent online for online sexual activities (OSAs) and the types of OSAs favored were also considered. Confirmatory analyses supported a two-factor model of s-IAT-sex, corresponding to the factorial structure found in earlier studies that used the short IAT. The first factor regroups loss of control and time management, whereas the second factor regroups craving and social problems. Internal consistency for each factor was evaluated with Cronbach's α coefficient, resulting in .87 for Factor 1, .76 for Factor 2, and .88 for the global scale. Concurrent validity was supported by relationships with symptoms of sexual addiction, types of OSAs practiced, and time spent online for OSAs. The prevalence of sexual addiction (measured by PATHOS) was 28.1% in the current sample of self-selected male OSA users. The French version of the s-IAT-sex presents good psychometric properties and constitutes a useful tool for researchers and practitioners.

  14. Allergy Testing in Children With Low-Risk Penicillin Allergy Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyles, David; Adams, Juan; Chiu, Asriani; Simpson, Pippa; Nimmer, Mark; Brousseau, David C

    2017-08-01

    Penicillin allergy is commonly reported in the pediatric emergency department (ED). True penicillin allergy is rare, yet the diagnosis results from the denial of first-line antibiotics. We hypothesize that all children presenting to the pediatric ED with symptoms deemed to be low-risk for immunoglobulin E-mediated hypersensitivity will return negative results for true penicillin allergy. Parents of children aged 4 to 18 years old presenting to the pediatric ED with a history of parent-reported penicillin allergy completed an allergy questionnaire. A prespecified 100 children categorized as low-risk on the basis of reported symptoms completed penicillin allergy testing by using a standard 3-tier testing process. The percent of children with negative allergy testing results was calculated with a 95% confidence interval. Five hundred ninety-seven parents completed the questionnaire describing their child's reported allergy symptoms. Three hundred two (51%) children had low-risk symptoms and were eligible for testing. Of those, 100 children were tested for penicillin allergy. The median (interquartile range) age at testing was 9 years (5-12). The median (interquartile range) age at allergy diagnosis was 1 year (9 months-3 years). Rash (97 [97%]) and itching (63 [63%]) were the most commonly reported allergy symptoms. Overall, 100 children (100%; 95% confidence interval 96.4%-100%) were found to have negative results for penicillin allergy and had their labeled penicillin allergy removed from their medical record. All children categorized as low-risk by our penicillin allergy questionnaire were found to have negative results for true penicillin allergy. The utilization of this questionnaire in the pediatric ED may facilitate increased use of first-line penicillin antibiotics. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  15. Test-retest reliability of Brazilian version of Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale for assessing symptoms in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Josiane Roberta de; Luvisaro, Bianca Maria Oliveira; Rodrigues, Claudia Fernandes; Muzi, Camila Drumond; Guimarães, Raphael Mendonça

    2017-01-01

    To assess the test-retest reliability of the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale translated and culturally adapted into Brazilian Portuguese. The scale was applied in an interview format for 190 patients with various cancers type hospitalized in clinical and surgical sectors of the Instituto Nacional de Câncer José de Alencar Gomes da Silva and reapplied in 58 patients. Data from the test-retest were double typed into a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet and analyzed by the weighted Kappa. The reliability of the scale was satisfactory in test-retest. The weighted Kappa values obtained for each scale item had to be adequate, the largest item was 0.96 and the lowest was 0.69. The Kappa subscale was also evaluated and values were 0.84 for high frequency physic symptoms, 0.81 for low frequency physical symptoms, 0.81 for psychological symptoms, and 0.78 for Global Distress Index. High level of reliability estimated suggests that the process of measurement of Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale aspects was adequate. Avaliar a confiabilidade teste-reteste da versão traduzida e adaptada culturalmente para o português do Brasil do Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale. A escala foi aplicada em forma de entrevista em 190 pacientes com diversos tipos de câncer internados nos setores clínicos e cirúrgicos do Instituto Nacional de Câncer José de Alencar Gomes da Silva e reaplicada em 58 pacientes. Os dados dos testes-retestes foram inseridos num banco de dados por dupla digitação independente em Excel e analisados pelo Kappa ponderado. A confiabilidade da escala mostrou-se satisfatória nos testes-retestes. Os valores do Kappa ponderado obtidos para cada item da escala apresentaram-se adequados, sendo o maior item de 0,96 e o menor de 0,69. Também se avaliou o Kappa das subescalas, sendo de 0,84 para sintomas físicos de alta frequência, de 0,81 para sintomas físicos de baixa frequência, de 0,81 também para sintomas psicológicos, e de 0,78 para Índice Geral de Sofrimento

  16. Test validation of nuclear and fossil fuel control operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moffie, D.J.

    1976-01-01

    To establish job relatedness, one must go through a procedure of concurrent and predictive validation. For concurrent validity a group of employees is tested and the test scores are related to performance concurrently or during the same time period. For predictive validity, individuals are tested but the results of these tests are not used at the time of employment. The tests are sealed and scored at a later date, and then related to job performance. Job performance data include ratings by supervisors, actual job performance indices, turnover, absenteeism, progress in training, etc. The testing guidelines also stipulate that content and construct validity can be used

  17. Measuring negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia: reliability and validity of the Korean version of the Motivation and Pleasure Scale-Self-Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim JS

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Ji-Sun Kim,1 Seon-Kyeong Jang,1 Seon-Cheol Park,2 Jung-Seo Yi,3 Joong-Kyu Park,4 Jung Suk Lee,5 Kee-Hong Choi,6 Seung-Hwan Lee1,7 1Clinical Emotion and Cognition Research Laboratory, Goyang, 2Department of Psychiatry, Inje University Haeundae Paik Hospital, Busan, 3Department of Psychiatry, Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul, 4Department of Rehabilitation Psychology, Daegu University, Daegu, 5Department of Psychiatry, National Health Insurance Service Ilsan Hospital, Goyang, 6Department of Psychology, Korea University, Seoul, 7Department of Psychiatry, Ilsan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Goyang, Republic of Korea Background: The Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS is one of the validated interview measures of negative symptoms in psychotic disorders. The Motivation and Pleasure Scale-Self-Report (MPSR is a self-report measure that assesses the motivation and pleasure domains of negative symptoms based on the CAINS. This study evaluated the reliability and validity of a Korean version of the MPSR.Methods: A total of 139 patients with schizophrenia completed the MPSR, CAINS, Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scales, Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia, and other measures of trait and cognitive function.Results: The 15-item MPSR showed good internal consistency. In addition, it also had a good convergent validity with the Motivation and Pleasure subscale of the CAINS and the anhedonia/avolition subscale of the SANS. The scale was not associated with psychotic symptoms, agitation/mania, and depression/anxiety, and it showed good discriminant validity. MPSR scores were significantly correlated with Behavioral Activation System total score for trait measure.Conclusion: The Korean version of the MPSR is a notable self-report method for examining the severity of negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Keywords: Korean

  18. Validation and test report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Meldgaard; Andersen, T. Bull

    2012-01-01

    . As a consequence of extensive movement artefacts seen during dynamic contractions, the following validation and test report consists of a report that investigates the physiological responses to a static contraction in a standing and a supine position. Eight subjects performed static contractions of the ankle...

  19. Validation of the Rome III criteria and alarm symptoms for recurrent abdominal pain in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijsbers, Carolien F. M.; Benninga, Marc A.; Schweizer, Joachim J.; Kneepkens, C. M. Frank; Vergouwe, Yvonne; Büller, Hans A.

    2014-01-01

    Rome criteria were formulated to define functional gastrointestinal disorders (Rome III criteria, 2006) excluding organic diagnoses when alarm symptoms were absent. The aims of the study were to validate the Rome III criteria as to their capacity to differentiate between organic and functional

  20. IP validation in remote microelectronics testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osseiran, Adam; Eshraghian, Kamran; Lachowicz, Stefan; Zhao, Xiaoli; Jeffery, Roger; Robins, Michael

    2004-03-01

    This paper presents the test and validation of FPGA based IP using the concept of remote testing. It demonstrates how a virtual tester environment based on a powerful, networked Integrated Circuit testing facility, aimed to complement the emerging Australian microelectronics based research and development, can be employed to perform the tasks beyond the standard IC test. IC testing in production consists in verifying the tested products and eliminating defective parts. Defects could have a number of different causes, including process defects, process migration and IP design and implementation errors. One of the challenges in semiconductor testing is that while current fault models are used to represent likely faults (stuck-at, delay, etc.) in a global context, they do not account for all possible defects. Research in this field keeps growing but the high cost of ATE is preventing a large community from accessing test and verification equipment to validate innovative IP designs. For these reasons a world class networked IC teletest facility has been established in Australia under the support of the Commonwealth government. The facility is based on a state-of-the-art semiconductor tester operating as a virtual centre spanning Australia and accessible internationally. Through a novel approach the teletest network provides virtual access to the tester on which the DUT has previously been placed. The tester software is then accessible as if the designer is sitting next to the tester. This paper presents the approach used to test and validate FPGA based IPs using this remote test approach.

  1. Reliability and Validity of the Persian Language Version of the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire - Male Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (ICIQ-MLUTS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourmomeny, Abbas Ali; Ghanei, Behnaz; Alizadeh, Farshid

    2018-05-01

    Assessment instruments are essential for research, allowing diagnosis and evaluating treatment outcomes in subjects with lower urinary tract disorders of both genders. The purpose of this study was to translate the Male Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (MLUTS) Questionnaire and determine its psychometric properties in Persian subjects. After getting permission from the International Consultation on Incontinence Modular Questionnaire (ICIQ) web site, the forward and backward translation of the MLUTS questionnaire were carried out by researcher team. The content/face validity, construct validity and reliability were assessed in a sample of MLUTS Iranian patients by measuring with the Cronbach's alpha test. In total, 121 male patients were included in the study. The mean age of the patients was 60.5 years. Cronbach alpha value was 0.757, consecrated the internal consistency of the form (r > 0.7). The internal consistency of each question was examined separately and found to be over 0.7. For the evaluation of reliability test-retest was done, the test was administered to 20% of the patients for a second time with an interval of 1-2 weeks. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) score was 0.901. The Correlation coefficient between the MLUTS and International Prostate Symptoms Score (IPSS) was 0.879. ICIQ-MLUTS is a robust instrument, which can be used for evaluating male LUTS in Persian patients. We believe that the Persian version of the MLUTS is an important tool for research and clinical setting. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  2. Construct Validity of the Nepalese School Leaving English Reading Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawadi, Saraswati; Shrestha, Prithvi N.

    2018-01-01

    There has been a steady interest in investigating the validity of language tests in the last decades. Despite numerous studies on construct validity in language testing, there are not many studies examining the construct validity of a reading test. This paper reports on a study that explored the construct validity of the English reading test in…

  3. Validation test case generation based on safety analysis ontology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Chin-Feng; Wang, Wen-Shing

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Current practice in validation test case generation for nuclear system is mainly ad hoc. ► This study designs a systematic approach to generate validation test cases from a Safety Analysis Report. ► It is based on a domain-specific ontology. ► Test coverage criteria have been defined and satisfied. ► A computerized toolset has been implemented to assist the proposed approach. - Abstract: Validation tests in the current nuclear industry practice are typically performed in an ad hoc fashion. This study presents a systematic and objective method of generating validation test cases from a Safety Analysis Report (SAR). A domain-specific ontology was designed and used to mark up a SAR; relevant information was then extracted from the marked-up document for use in automatically generating validation test cases that satisfy the proposed test coverage criteria; namely, single parameter coverage, use case coverage, abnormal condition coverage, and scenario coverage. The novelty of this technique is its systematic rather than ad hoc test case generation from a SAR to achieve high test coverage.

  4. Validation testing of safety-critical software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hang Bae; Han, Jae Bok

    1995-01-01

    A software engineering process has been developed for the design of safety critical software for Wolsung 2/3/4 project to satisfy the requirements of the regulatory body. Among the process, this paper described the detail process of validation testing performed to ensure that the software with its hardware, developed by the design group, satisfies the requirements of the functional specification prepared by the independent functional group. To perform the tests, test facility and test software were developed and actual safety system computer was connected. Three kinds of test cases, i.e., functional test, performance test and self-check test, were programmed and run to verify each functional specifications. Test failures were feedback to the design group to revise the software and test results were analyzed and documented in the report to submit to the regulatory body. The test methodology and procedure were very efficient and satisfactory to perform the systematic and automatic test. The test results were also acceptable and successful to verify the software acts as specified in the program functional specification. This methodology can be applied to the validation of other safety-critical software. 2 figs., 2 tabs., 14 refs. (Author)

  5. A Chinese version of the Psychotic Symptom Rating Scales: psychometric properties in recent-onset and chronic psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Wai-Tong; Lee, Isabella Yuet-Ming; Wang, Li-Qun

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the reliability, validity, and factor structure of a Chinese version of the Psychotic Symptom Rating Scale (PSYRATS) in 198 and 202 adult patients with recent-onset and chronic psychosis, respectively. The PSYRATS has been translated into different language versions and has been validated for clinical and research use mainly in chronic psychotic patients but not in recent-onset psychosis patients or in Chinese populations. The psychometric analysis of the translated Chinese version included assessment of its content validity, semantic equivalence, interrater and test-retest reliability, reproducibility, sensitivity to changes in psychotic symptoms, internal consistency, concurrent validity (compared to a valid psychotic symptom scale), and factor structure. The Chinese version demonstrated very satisfactory content validity as rated by an expert panel, good semantic equivalence with the original version, and high interrater and test-retest (at 2-week interval) reliability. It also indicated very good reproducibility of and sensitivity to changes in psychotic symptoms in line with the symptom severity measured with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). The scale consisted of four factors for the hallucination subscale and two factors for the delusion subscale, explaining about 80% of the total variance of the construct, indicating satisfactory correlations between the hallucination and delusion factors themselves, between items, factors, subscales, and overall scale, and between factors and relevant item and subscale scores of the PANSS. The Chinese version of the PSYRATS is a reliable and valid instrument to measure symptom severity in Chinese psychotic patients complementary to other existing measures mainly in English language.

  6. The importance of assessing for validity of symptom report and performance in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): Introduction to the special section on noncredible presentation in ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhr, Julie A; Berry, David T R

    2017-12-01

    Invalid self-report and invalid performance occur with high base rates in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; Harrison, 2006; Musso & Gouvier, 2014). Although much research has focused on the development and validation of symptom validity tests (SVTs) and performance validity tests (PVTs) for psychiatric and neurological presentations, less attention has been given to the use of SVTs and PVTs in ADHD evaluation. This introduction to the special section describes a series of studies examining the use of SVTs and PVTs in adult ADHD evaluation. We present the series of studies in the context of prior research on noncredible presentation and call for future research using improved research methods and with a focus on assessment issues specific to ADHD evaluation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. The brief negative symptom scale: psychometric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Brian; Strauss, Gregory P; Nguyen, Linh; Fischer, Bernard A; Daniel, David G; Cienfuegos, Angel; Marder, Stephen R

    2011-03-01

    The participants in the NIMH-MATRICS Consensus Development Conference on Negative Symptoms recommended that an instrument be developed that measured blunted affect, alogia, asociality, anhedonia, and avolition. The Brief Negative Symptom Scale (BNSS) is a 13-item instrument designed for clinical trials and other studies that measures these 5 domains. The interrater, test-retest, and internal consistency of the instrument were strong, with respective intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.93 for the BNSS total score and values of 0.89-0.95 for individual subscales. Comparisons with positive symptoms and other negative symptom instruments supported the discriminant and concurrent validity of the instrument.

  8. Motivation and Pleasure Scale-Self-Report (MAP-SR): Validation of the German version of a self-report measure for screening negative symptoms in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Maike; Lincoln, Tania Marie

    2016-02-01

    Validated self-report instruments could provide a time efficient screening method for negative symptoms in people with schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of a German version of the Motivation and Pleasure Scale-Self-Report (MAP-SR) which is based on the Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS). In- and outpatients (N=50) with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were assessed with standardized interviews and questionnaires on negative and positive symptoms and general psychopathology in schizophrenia, depression, and global functioning. The German version of the MAP-SR showed high internal consistency. Convergent validity was supported by significant correlations between the MAP-SR with the experience sub-scale of the CAINS and the negative symptom sub-scale of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. The MAP-SR also exhibited discriminant validity indicated by its non-significant correlations with positive symptoms and general psychopathology, which is in line with the findings for the original version of the MAP-SR. However, the MAP-SR correlated moderately with depression. The German MAP-SR appears to be a valid and suitable diagnostic tool for the identification of negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. DTU PMU Laboratory Development - Testing and Validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Valle, Rodrigo; Yang, Guang-Ya; Martin, Kenneth E.

    2010-01-01

    This is a report of the results of phasor measurement unit (PMU) laboratory development and testing done at the Centre for Electric Technology (CET), Technical University of Denmark (DTU). Analysis of the PMU performance first required the development of tools to convert the DTU PMU data into IEEE...... standard, and the validation is done for the DTU-PMU via a validated commercial PMU. The commercial PMU has been tested from the authors' previous efforts, where the response can be expected to follow known patterns and provide confirmation about the test system to confirm the design and settings....... In a nutshell, having 2 PMUs that observe same signals provides validation of the operation and flags questionable results with more certainty. Moreover, the performance and accuracy of the DTU-PMU is tested acquiring good and precise results, when compared with a commercial phasor measurement device, PMU-1....

  10. Validating the Interpretations and Uses of Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    To validate an interpretation or use of test scores is to evaluate the plausibility of the claims based on the scores. An argument-based approach to validation suggests that the claims based on the test scores be outlined as an argument that specifies the inferences and supporting assumptions needed to get from test responses to score-based…

  11. Validity of selected cardiovascular field-based test among Malaysian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on emerge obese problem among Malaysian, this research is formulated to validate published tests among healthy female adult. Selected test namely; 20 meter multi-stage shuttle run, 2.4km run test, 1 mile walk test and Harvard Step test were correlated with laboratory test (Bruce protocol) to find the criterion validity ...

  12. Validation of the Vanderbilt Holistic Face Processing Test

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Chao-Chih; Ross, David A.; Gauthier, Isabel; Richler, Jennifer J.

    2016-01-01

    The Vanderbilt Holistic Face Processing Test (VHPT-F) is a new measure of holistic face processing with better psychometric properties relative to prior measures developed for group studies (Richler et al., 2014). In fields where psychologists study individual differences, validation studies are commonplace and the concurrent validity of a new measure is established by comparing it to an older measure with established validity. We follow this approach and test whether the VHPT-F measures the ...

  13. Validation of the Vanderbilt Holistic Face Processing Test.

    OpenAIRE

    Chao-Chih Wang; Chao-Chih Wang; David Andrew Ross; Isabel Gauthier; Jennifer Joanna Richler

    2016-01-01

    The Vanderbilt Holistic Face Processing Test (VHPT-F) is a new measure of holistic face processing with better psychometric properties relative to prior measures developed for group studies (Richler et al., 2014). In fields where psychologists study individual differences, validation studies are commonplace and the concurrent validity of a new measure is established by comparing it to an older measure with established validity. We follow this approach and test whether the VHPT-F measures the ...

  14. Continuous validation of ASTEC containment models and regression testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowack, Holger; Reinke, Nils; Sonnenkalb, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The focus of the ASTEC (Accident Source Term Evaluation Code) development at GRS is primarily on the containment module CPA (Containment Part of ASTEC), whose modelling is to a large extent based on the GRS containment code COCOSYS (COntainment COde SYStem). Validation is usually understood as the approval of the modelling capabilities by calculations of appropriate experiments done by external users different from the code developers. During the development process of ASTEC CPA, bugs and unintended side effects may occur, which leads to changes in the results of the initially conducted validation. Due to the involvement of a considerable number of developers in the coding of ASTEC modules, validation of the code alone, even if executed repeatedly, is not sufficient. Therefore, a regression testing procedure has been implemented in order to ensure that the initially obtained validation results are still valid with succeeding code versions. Within the regression testing procedure, calculations of experiments and plant sequences are performed with the same input deck but applying two different code versions. For every test-case the up-to-date code version is compared to the preceding one on the basis of physical parameters deemed to be characteristic for the test-case under consideration. In the case of post-calculations of experiments also a comparison to experimental data is carried out. Three validation cases from the regression testing procedure are presented within this paper. The very good post-calculation of the HDR E11.1 experiment shows the high quality modelling of thermal-hydraulics in ASTEC CPA. Aerosol behaviour is validated on the BMC VANAM M3 experiment, and the results show also a very good agreement with experimental data. Finally, iodine behaviour is checked in the validation test-case of the THAI IOD-11 experiment. Within this test-case, the comparison of the ASTEC versions V2.0r1 and V2.0r2 shows how an error was detected by the regression testing

  15. Test Method Facet and the Construct Validity of Listening Comprehension Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Khoii

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of listening abilities is one of the least understood, least developed and, yet, one of the most important areas of language testing and assessment. It is particularly important because of its potential wash-back effects on classroom practices. Given the fact that listening tests play a great role in assessing the language proficiency of students, they are expected to enjoy a high level of construct validity. The present study was dedicated to investigating the construct validity of three different test formats, namely, multiple-choice, gap filling on summary (also called listening summary cloze, and fill-in-the-blank, used to evaluate the listening comprehension of EFL learners. In order to achieve the purpose of the study, three passages with relatively similar readability levels were used for the construction of 9 listening tests, that is, each appeared in three formats. Following a counter-balanced design, the tests were administered to 91homogeneous EFL learners divided into three groups. The statistical analysis of the results revealed that the multiple-choice test enjoyed the highest level of construct validity. Moreover, a repeated measure one-way ANOVA demonstrated that the fill-in-the-blank task was the most difficult with the MC test as the easiest for the participants.

  16. Test of Gross Motor Development : Expert Validity, confirmatory validity and internal consistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Cristina Valentini

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2 is an instrument used to evaluate children’s level of motordevelopment. The objective of this study was to translate and verify the clarity and pertinence of the TGMD-2 items by expertsand the confirmatory factorial validity and the internal consistence by means of test-retest of the Portuguese TGMD-2. Across-cultural translation was used to construct the Portuguese version. The participants of this study were 7 professionalsand 587 children, from 27 schools (kindergarten and elementary from 3 to 10 years old (51.1% boys and 48.9% girls.Each child was videotaped performing the test twice. The videotaped tests were then scored. The results indicated thatthe Portuguese version of the TGMD-2 contains clear and pertinent motor items; demonstrated satisfactory indices ofconfirmatory factorial validity (χ2/gl = 3.38; Goodness-of-fit Index = 0.95; Adjusted Goodness-of-fit index = 0.92 and Tuckerand Lewis’s Index of Fit = 0.83 and test-retest internal consistency (locomotion r = 0.82; control of object: r = 0.88. ThePortuguese TGMD-2 demonstrated validity and reliability for the sample investigated.

  17. Test of Gross Motor Development: expert validity, confirmatory validity and internal consistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Cristina Valentini

    2008-01-01

    The Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2 is an instrument used to evaluate children’s level of motor development. The objective of this study was to translate and verify the clarity and pertinence of the TGMD-2 items by experts and the confirmatory factorial validity and the internal consistence by means of test-retest of the Portuguese TGMD-2. A cross-cultural translation was used to construct the Portuguese version. The participants of this study were 7 professionals and 587 children, from 27 schools (kindergarten and elementary from 3 to 10 years old (51.1% boys and 48.9% girls. Each child was videotaped performing the test twice. The videotaped tests were then scored. The results indicated that the Portuguese version of the TGMD-2 contains clear and pertinent motor items; demonstrated satisfactory indices of confirmatory factorial validity (÷2/gl = 3.38; Goodness-of-fit Index = 0.95; Adjusted Goodness-of-fit index = 0.92 and Tucker and Lewis’s Index of Fit = 0.83 and test-retest internal consistency (locomotion r = 0.82; control of object: r = 0.88. The Portuguese TGMD-2 demonstrated validity and reliability for the sample investigated.

  18. Test rig overview for validation and reliability testing of shutdown system software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, M.; McDonald, A.; Dick, P.

    2007-01-01

    The test rig for Validation and Reliability Testing of shutdown system software has been upgraded from the AECL Windows-based test rig previously used for CANDU6 stations. It includes a Virtual Trip Computer, which is a software simulation of the functional specification of the trip computer, and a real-time trip computer simulator in a separate chassis, which is used during the preparation of trip computer test cases before the actual trip computers are available. This allows preparation work for Validation and Reliability Testing to be performed in advance of delivery of actual trip computers to maintain a project schedule. (author)

  19. Psychometric validation of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (SCL-90) subscales for depression, anxiety, and interpersonal sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, P; Bille, J; Møller, S B

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The psychometric validity of many subscales of the 90-item Hopkins Symptom Checklist (SCL-90) remains largely unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the "Hamilton-subscales" for depression (SCL-D16), anxiety (SCL-A14), their 6......-item core-measures (SCL-D6 and SCL-A6), the anxiety symptom scale (SCL-ASS8) and the interpersonal sensitivity scale (IPS5). METHODS: The psychometric properties of the SCL-D16, SCL-A14, SCL-D6, SCL-A6, SCL-ASS8, and the IPS5 were evaluated based on SCL-90 ratings from 850 day patients from a Danish...... SCL-90 subscales were identified. Using these scales it is possible to perform a psychometrically valid evaluation of psychiatric patients regarding the severity of depression (HAM-D6), specific anxiety (SCL-ASS8) and interpersonal sensitivity (IPS5)....

  20. Predicting Streptococcal Pharyngitis in Adults in Primary Care: A Systematic Review of the Diagnostic Accuracy of Symptoms and Signs and Validation of the Centor Score

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Aalbers, Jolien

    2011-06-01

    Abstract Background Stratifying patients with a sore throat into the probability of having an underlying bacterial or viral cause may be helpful in targeting antibiotic treatment. We sought to assess the diagnostic accuracy of signs and symptoms and validate a clinical prediction rule (CPR), the Centor score, for predicting group A β-haemolytic streptococcal (GABHS) pharyngitis in adults (> 14 years of age) presenting with sore throat symptoms. Methods A systematic literature search was performed up to July 2010. Studies that assessed the diagnostic accuracy of signs and symptoms and\\/or validated the Centor score were included. For the analysis of the diagnostic accuracy of signs and symptoms and the Centor score, studies were combined using a bivariate random effects model, while for the calibration analysis of the Centor score, a random effects model was used. Results A total of 21 studies incorporating 4,839 patients were included in the meta-analysis on diagnostic accuracy of signs and symptoms. The results were heterogeneous and suggest that individual signs and symptoms generate only small shifts in post-test probability (range positive likelihood ratio (+LR) 1.45-2.33, -LR 0.54-0.72). As a decision rule for considering antibiotic prescribing (score ≥ 3), the Centor score has reasonable specificity (0.82, 95% CI 0.72 to 0.88) and a post-test probability of 12% to 40% based on a prior prevalence of 5% to 20%. Pooled calibration shows no significant difference between the numbers of patients predicted and observed to have GABHS pharyngitis across strata of Centor score (0-1 risk ratio (RR) 0.72, 95% CI 0.49 to 1.06; 2-3 RR 0.93, 95% CI 0.73 to 1.17; 4 RR 1.14, 95% CI 0.95 to 1.37). Conclusions Individual signs and symptoms are not powerful enough to discriminate GABHS pharyngitis from other types of sore throat. The Centor score is a well calibrated CPR for estimating the probability of GABHS pharyngitis. The Centor score can enhance appropriate

  1. Predicting asthma in preschool children with asthma-like symptoms : Validating and updating the PIAMA risk score

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hafkamp-de Groen, Esther; Lingsma, Hester F.; Caudri, Daan; Levie, Deborah; Wijga, Alet; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Duijts, Liesbeth; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Smit, Henriette A.; Kerkhof, Marjan; Moll, Henriette A.; Hofman, Albert; Steyerberg, Ewout W.; de Jongste, Johan C.; Raat, Hein

    2013-01-01

    Background: The Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) risk score predicts the probability of having asthma at school age among preschool children with suggestive symptoms. Objective: We sought to externally validate the PIAMA risk score at different ages and in ethnic and

  2. Development and validation of a theoretical test in basic laparoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandbygaard, Jeanett; Maagaard, Mathilde; Larsen, Christian Rifbjerg

    2013-01-01

    for first-year residents in obstetrics and gynecology. This study therefore aimed to develop and validate a framework for a theoretical knowledge test, a multiple-choice test, in basic theory related to laparoscopy. METHODS: The content of the multiple-choice test was determined by conducting informal...... conversational interviews with experts in laparoscopy. The subsequent relevance of the test questions was evaluated using the Delphi method involving regional chief physicians. Construct validity was tested by comparing test results from three groups with expected different clinical competence and knowledge.......001). Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) was 0.82. There was no evidence of differential item functioning between the three groups tested. CONCLUSIONS: A newly developed knowledge test in basic laparoscopy proved to have content and construct validity. The formula for the development and validation...

  3. Assessing Asthma Symptoms in Adolescents and Adults: Qualitative Research Supporting Development of the Asthma Daily Symptom Diary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gater, Adam; Nelsen, Linda; Fleming, Sarah; Lundy, J Jason; Bonner, Nicola; Hall, Rebecca; Marshall, Chris; Staunton, Hannah; Krishnan, Jerry A; Stoloff, Stuart; Schatz, Michael; Haughney, John

    2016-06-01

    Despite the widespread availability of patient-reported asthma questionnaires, instruments developed in accordance with present regulatory expectations are lacking. To address this gap, the Patient-Reported Outcome (PRO) Consortium's Asthma Working Group has developed a patient-reported asthma daily symptom diary (ADSD) for use in clinical research to assess outcomes and support medical product labeling claims in adults and adolescents with asthma. To summarize the qualitative research conducted to inform the initial development of the ADSD and to provide evidence for content validity of the instrument in accordance with the Food and Drug Administration's PRO Guidance. Research informing the initial development and confirming the content validity of the ADSD is summarized. This comprised a review of published qualitative research, semi-structured concept elicitation interviews (n = 55), and cognitive interviews (n = 65) with a diverse and representative sample of adults and adolescents with a clinician-confirmed diagnosis of asthma in the United States to understand the asthma symptom experience and to assess the relevance and understanding of the newly developed ADSD. From the qualitative literature review and concept elicitation interviews, eight core asthma symptoms emerged. These were broadly categorized as breathing symptoms (difficulty breathing, shortness of breath, and wheezing), chest symptoms (chest tightness, chest pain, and pressure/weight on chest), and cough symptoms (cough and the presence of mucus/phlegm). Conceptual saturation was achieved and differences in the experience of participants according to socio-demographic or clinical characteristics were not observed. Subsequent testing of the ADSD confirmed participant relevance and understanding. The ADSD is a new patient-reported asthma symptom diary developed in accordance with the Food and Drug Administration's PRO Guidance. Evidence to date supports the content validity of the instrument. Item

  4. Dynamic testing in schizophrenia: does training change the construct validity of a test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedl, Karl H; Schöttke, Henning; Green, Michael F; Nuechterlein, Keith H

    2004-01-01

    Dynamic testing typically involves specific interventions for a test to assess the extent to which test performance can be modified, beyond level of baseline (static) performance. This study used a dynamic version of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) that is based on cognitive remediation techniques within a test-training-test procedure. From results of previous studies with schizophrenia patients, we concluded that the dynamic and static versions of the WCST should have different construct validity. This hypothesis was tested by examining the patterns of correlations with measures of executive functioning, secondary verbal memory, and verbal intelligence. Results demonstrated a specific construct validity of WCST dynamic (i.e., posttest) scores as an index of problem solving (Tower of Hanoi) and secondary verbal memory and learning (Auditory Verbal Learning Test), whereas the impact of general verbal capacity and selective attention (Verbal IQ, Stroop Test) was reduced. It is concluded that the construct validity of the test changes with dynamic administration and that this difference helps to explain why the dynamic version of the WCST predicts functional outcome better than the static version.

  5. Investigating structure and function in the healthy human brain: validity of acute versus chronic lesion-symptom mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnath, Hans-Otto; Rennig, Johannes

    2017-07-01

    Modern voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) analyses techniques provide powerful tools to examine the relationship between structure and function of the healthy human brain. However, there is still uncertainty on the type of and the appropriate time point of imaging and of behavioral testing for such analyses. Here we tested the validity of the three most common combinations of structural imaging data and behavioral scores used in VLSM analyses. Given the established knowledge about the neural substrate of the primary motor system in humans, we asked the mundane question of where the motor system is represented in the normal human brain, analyzing individual arm motor function of 60 unselected stroke patients. Only the combination of acute behavioral scores and acute structural imaging precisely identified the principal brain area for the emergence of hemiparesis after stroke, i.e., the corticospinal tract (CST). In contrast, VLSM analyses based on chronic behavior-in combination with either chronic or acute imaging-required the exclusion of patients who had recovered from an initial paresis to reveal valid anatomical results. Thus, if the primary research aim of a VLSM lesion analysis is to uncover the neural substrates of a certain function in the healthy human brain and if no longitudinal designs with repeated evaluations are planned, the combination of acute imaging and behavior represents the ideal dataset.

  6. Methodology for testing and validating knowledge bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, C.; Padalkar, S.; Sztipanovits, J.; Purves, B. R.

    1987-01-01

    A test and validation toolset developed for artificial intelligence programs is described. The basic premises of this method are: (1) knowledge bases have a strongly declarative character and represent mostly structural information about different domains, (2) the conditions for integrity, consistency, and correctness can be transformed into structural properties of knowledge bases, and (3) structural information and structural properties can be uniformly represented by graphs and checked by graph algorithms. The interactive test and validation environment have been implemented on a SUN workstation.

  7. DTU PMU Laboratory Development - Testing and Validation

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Valle, Rodrigo; Yang, Guang-Ya; Martin, Kenneth E.; Nielsen, Arne Hejde; Østergaard, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    This is a report of the results of phasor measurement unit (PMU) laboratory development and testing done at the Centre for Electric Technology (CET), Technical University of Denmark (DTU). Analysis of the PMU performance first required the development of tools to convert the DTU PMU data into IEEE standard, and the validation is done for the DTU-PMU via a validated commercial PMU. The commercial PMU has been tested from the authors' previous efforts, where the response can be expected to foll...

  8. Assessment of validity with polytrauma Veteran populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Shane S; Bass, Carmela

    2015-01-01

    Veterans with polytrauma have suffered injuries to multiple body parts and organs systems, including the brain. The injuries can generate a triad of physical, neurologic/cognitive, and emotional symptoms. Accurate diagnosis is essential for the treatment of these conditions and for fair allocation of benefits. To accurately diagnose polytrauma disorders and their related problems, clinicians take into account the validity of reported history and symptoms, as well as clinical presentations. The purpose of this article is to describe the assessment of validity with polytrauma Veteran populations. Review of scholarly and other relevant literature and clinical experience are utilized. A multimethod approach to validity assessment that includes objective, standardized measures increases the confidence that can be placed in the accuracy of self-reported symptoms and physical, cognitive, and emotional test results. Due to the multivariate nature of polytrauma and the multiple disciplines that play a role in diagnosis and treatment, an ideal model of validity assessment with polytrauma Veteran populations utilizes neurocognitive, neurological, neuropsychiatric, and behavioral measures of validity. An overview of these validity assessment approaches as applied to polytrauma Veteran populations is presented. Veterans, the VA, and society are best served when accurate diagnoses are made.

  9. Several submaximal exercise tests are reliable, valid and acceptable in people with chronic pain, fibromyalgia or chronic fatigue: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratter, Julia; Radlinger, Lorenz; Lucas, Cees

    2014-09-01

    Are submaximal and maximal exercise tests reliable, valid and acceptable in people with chronic pain, fibromyalgia and fatigue disorders? Systematic review of studies of the psychometric properties of exercise tests. People older than 18 years with chronic pain, fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue disorders. Studies of the measurement properties of tests of physical capacity in people with chronic pain, fibromyalgia or chronic fatigue disorders were included. Studies were required to report: reliability coefficients (intraclass correlation coefficient, alpha reliability coefficient, limits of agreements and Bland-Altman plots); validity coefficients (intraclass correlation coefficient, Spearman's correlation, Kendal T coefficient, Pearson's correlation); or dropout rates. Fourteen studies were eligible: none had low risk of bias, 10 had unclear risk of bias and four had high risk of bias. The included studies evaluated: Åstrand test; modified Åstrand test; Lean body mass-based Åstrand test; submaximal bicycle ergometer test following another protocol other than Åstrand test; 2-km walk test; 5-minute, 6-minute and 10-minute walk tests; shuttle walk test; and modified symptom-limited Bruce treadmill test. None of the studies assessed maximal exercise tests. Where they had been tested, reliability and validity were generally high. Dropout rates were generally acceptable. The 2-km walk test was not recommended in fibromyalgia. Moderate evidence was found for reliability, validity and acceptability of submaximal exercise tests in patients with chronic pain, fibromyalgia or chronic fatigue. There is no evidence about maximal exercise tests in patients with chronic pain, fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Validating a Spanish Developmental Spelling Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferroli, Lou; Krajenta, Marilyn

    The creation and validation of a Spanish version of an English developmental spelling test (DST) is described. An introductory section reviews related literature on the rationale for and construction of DSTs, spelling development in the early grades, and Spanish-English bilingual education. Differences between the English and Spanish test versions…

  11. Validation of the Rome III criteria and alarm symptoms for recurrent abdominal pain in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gijsbers, Carolien F M; Benninga, Marc A; Schweizer, Joachim J; Kneepkens, C M Frank; Vergouwe, Yvonne; Büller, Hans A

    2014-06-01

    Rome criteria were formulated to define functional gastrointestinal disorders (Rome III criteria, 2006) excluding organic diagnoses when alarm symptoms were absent. The aims of the study were to validate the Rome III criteria as to their capacity to differentiate between organic and functional abdominal pain and to assess the role of alarm symptoms in this differentiation. During 2 years all of the patients (ages 4-16 years) presenting with recurrent abdominal pain (Apley criteria) and referred to secondary care were included. Clinical diagnoses were based on protocolized evaluation and intervention with 6-month follow-up. Alarm symptoms were registered. Rome III criteria for functional pain syndromes were assigned independently. Descriptive statistical analyses were performed. In 200 patients (87 boys, mean age 8.8 years), organic (17%), functional (40%), combined organic and functional (9%), spontaneous recovery (27%), and other (8%) clinical diagnoses were established. Alarm symptoms were found in 57.5% (organic causes 56%, functional causes 61%). The evaluation for Rome symptom clusters revealed symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome in 27%, functional dyspepsia in 15%, functional abdominal pain in 28%, functional abdominal pain syndrome in 14.5%, and no pain syndrome in 15.5%. Rome diagnoses, based on symptoms and absence of alarm symptoms, predicted functional clinical diagnosis with sensitivity 0.35 (95% confidence interval 0.27-0.43), specificity 0.60 (0.46-0.73), positive predictive value 0.71 (0.61-0.82), and negative predictive value of 0.24 (0.17-0.32). The Rome III criteria for abdominal pain are not specific enough to rule out organic causes. Alarm symptoms do not differentiate between organic and functional abdominal pain.

  12. Development and Validation of the Cognition Test Battery for Spaceflight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basner, Mathias; Savitt, Adam; Moore, Tyler M; Port, Allison M; McGuire, Sarah; Ecker, Adrian J; Nasrini, Jad; Mollicone, Daniel J; Mott, Christopher M; McCann, Thom; Dinges, David F; Gur, Ruben C

    2015-11-01

    Sustained high-level cognitive performance is of paramount importance for the success of space missions, which involve environmental, physiological, and psychological stressors that may affect brain functions. Despite subjective symptom reports of cognitive fluctuations in spaceflight, the nature of neurobehavioral functioning in space has not been clarified. We developed a computerized cognitive test battery (Cognition) that has sensitivity to multiple cognitive domains and was specifically designed for the high-performing astronaut population. Cognition consists of 15 unique forms of 10 neuropsychological tests that cover a range of cognitive domains, including emotion processing, spatial orientation, and risk decision making. Cognition is based on tests known to engage specific brain regions as evidenced by functional neuroimaging. Here we describe the first normative and acute total sleep deprivation data on the Cognition test battery as well as several efforts underway to establish the validity, sensitivity, feasibility, and acceptability of Cognition. Practice effects and test-retest variability differed substantially between the 10 Cognition tests, illustrating the importance of normative data that both reflect practice effects and differences in stimulus set difficulty in the population of interest. After one night without sleep, medium to large effect sizes were observed for 3 of the 10 tests addressing vigilant attention (Cohen's d = 1.00), cognitive throughput (d = 0.68), and abstract reasoning (d = 0.65). In addition to providing neuroimaging-based novel information on the effects of spaceflight on a range of cognitive functions, Cognition will facilitate comparing the effects of ground-based analogues to spaceflight, increase consistency across projects, and thus enable meta-analyses.

  13. The translation and validation of Chinese overactive bladder symptom score for assessing overactive bladder syndrome and response to solifenacin treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Chieh-Lung Chou

    2014-08-01

    Conclusion: The Chinese OABSS has been validated as a reliable instrument for assessing OAB. Solifenacin 5 mg once daily improved urgency and other symptoms of OAB including frequency, urge incontinence, OABSS and International Prostatic Symptom Score. The adverse effects were acceptable and became less significant with time in the three months of treatment.

  14. Psychophysiological tests and provocation of subjects with mobile phone related symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilén, Jonna; Johansson, Amanda; Kalezic, Nebojsa; Lyskov, Eugene; Sandström, Monica

    2006-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of exposure to a mobile phone-like radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic field on persons experiencing subjective symptoms when using mobile phones (MP). Twenty subjects with MP-related symptoms were recruited and matched with 20 controls without MP-related symptoms. Each subject participated in two experimental sessions, one with true exposure and one with sham exposure, in random order. In the true exposure condition, the test subjects were exposed for 30 min to an RF field generating a maximum SAR(1g) in the head of 1 W/kg through an indoor base station antenna attached to a 900 MHz GSM MP. The following physiological and cognitive parameters were measured during the experiment: heart rate and heart rate variability (HRV), respiration, local blood flow, electrodermal activity, critical flicker fusion threshold (CFFT), short-term memory, and reaction time. No significant differences related to RF exposure conditions were detected. Also no differences in baseline data were found between subject groups, except for the reaction time, which was significantly longer among the cases than among the controls the first time the test was performed. This difference disappeared when the test was repeated. However, the cases differed significantly from the controls with respect to HRV as measured in the frequency domain. The cases displayed a shift in low/high frequency ratio towards a sympathetic dominance in the autonomous nervous system during the CFFT and memory tests, regardless of exposure condition. This might be interpreted as a sign of differences in the autonomous nervous system regulation between persons with MP related subjective symptoms and persons with no such symptoms. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Test-retest reliability and predictive validity of the Implicit Association Test in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, James R; Olson, Kristina R

    2018-02-01

    The Implicit Association Test (IAT) is increasingly used in developmental research despite minimal evidence of whether children's IAT scores are reliable across time or predictive of behavior. When test-retest reliability and predictive validity have been assessed, the results have been mixed, and because these studies have differed on many factors simultaneously (lag-time between testing administrations, domain, etc.), it is difficult to discern what factors may explain variability in existing test-retest reliability and predictive validity estimates. Across five studies (total N = 519; ages 6- to 11-years-old), we manipulated two factors that have varied in previous developmental research-lag-time and domain. An internal meta-analysis of these studies revealed that, across three different methods of analyzing the data, mean test-retest (rs of .48, .38, and .34) and predictive validity (rs of .46, .20, and .10) effect sizes were significantly greater than zero. While lag-time did not moderate the magnitude of test-retest coefficients, whether we observed domain differences in test-retest reliability and predictive validity estimates was contingent on other factors, such as how we scored the IAT or whether we included estimates from a unique sample (i.e., a sample containing gender typical and gender diverse children). Recommendations are made for developmental researchers that utilize the IAT in their research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Educational testing validity and reliability in pharmacy and medical education literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Matthew J; Jung, Rose; Jacobs, David M; Peeters, Michael J

    2013-12-16

    To evaluate and compare the reliability and validity of educational testing reported in pharmacy education journals to medical education literature. Descriptions of validity evidence sources (content, construct, criterion, and reliability) were extracted from articles that reported educational testing of learners' knowledge, skills, and/or abilities. Using educational testing, the findings of 108 pharmacy education articles were compared to the findings of 198 medical education articles. For pharmacy educational testing, 14 articles (13%) reported more than 1 validity evidence source while 83 articles (77%) reported 1 validity evidence source and 11 articles (10%) did not have evidence. Among validity evidence sources, content validity was reported most frequently. Compared with pharmacy education literature, more medical education articles reported both validity and reliability (59%; particles in pharmacy education compared to medical education, validity, and reliability reporting were limited in the pharmacy education literature.

  17. Symptom scoring systems to diagnose distal polyneuropathy in diabetes : the Diabetic Neuropathy Symptom score

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, J.W.G.; Smit, A.J.; van Sonderen, E.; Groothoff, J.W.; Eisma, W.H.; Links, T.P.

    2002-01-01

    AIMS: To provide one of the diagnostic categories for distal diabetic polyneuro-pathy,several symptom scoring systems are available, which are often extensive andlack in validation. We validated a new four-item Diabetic Neuropathy Symptom (DNS) scorefor diagnosing distal diabetic polyneuropathy.

  18. Content validity and electronic PRO (ePRO) usability of the Lung Cancer Symptom Scale-Mesothelioma (LCSS-Meso) in mesothelioma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelhorn, Heather L; Skalicky, Anne M; Balantac, Zaneta; Eremenco, Sonya; Cimms, Tricia; Halling, Katarina; Hollen, Patricia J; Gralla, Richard J; Mahoney, Martin C; Sexton, Chris

    2018-02-01

    Obtaining qualitative data directly from the patient perspective enhances the content validity of patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments. The objective of this qualitative study was to evaluate the content validity of the Lung Cancer Symptom Scale for Mesothelioma (LCSS-Meso) and its usability on an electronic device. A cross-sectional methodological study, using a qualitative approach, was conducted among patients recruited from four clinical sites. The primary target population included patients with pleural mesothelioma; data were also collected from patients with peritoneal mesothelioma on an exploratory basis. Semi-structured interviews were conducted consisting of concept elicitation, cognitive interviewing, and evaluation of electronic patient-reported outcome (ePRO) usability. Participants (n = 21) were interviewed in person (n = 9) or by telephone (n = 12); 71% were male with a mean age of 69 years (SD = 14). The most common signs and symptoms experienced by participants with pleural mesothelioma (n = 18) were shortness of breath, fluid build-up, pain, fatigue, coughing, and appetite loss. The most commonly described symptoms for those with peritoneal mesothelioma (n = 4) were bloating, changes in appetite, fatigue, fluid build-up, shortness of breath, and pain. Participants with pleural mesothelioma commonly described symptoms assessed by the LCSS-Meso in language consistent with the questionnaire and a majority understood and easily completed each of the items. The ePRO version was easy to use, and there was no evidence that the electronic formatting changed the way participants responded to the questions. Results support the content validity of the LCSS-Meso and the usability of the electronic format for use in assessing symptoms among patients with pleural mesothelioma.

  19. The association between methacholine challenge test and respiratory symptoms: a study on 146 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paknejad O

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Asthma is a life-threatening disease that can cause death due to bronchospasm. In addition to clinical symptoms such as wheezing, acute paroxysmal dyspnea, chronic cough after exposure to cold air or cough after exercise, spirometry is also necessary for the diagnosis of asthma. The association between respiratory symptoms and a positive methacholine challenge test (MCT is still controversial. The aim of this study was to determine the association between methacholine test results and respiratory symptoms and allergy."n "nMethods: One hundred and forty-six patients with respiratory symptoms and normal baseline pulmonary function tests were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. The participants were divided into two groups according to their positive or negative response to MCT. The association between MCT and the clinical symptoms and allergy was later evaluated statistically."n "nResults: Out of 146 participants of the study 59 (40.4% were female and 87 (59.6% were male. The mean age of the participants was 33.8±13.8 years. Sixty-one patients (41.8% had positive results for the test. There was an association between a history of allergy, wheezing and age with positive MCT results. The other clinical signs had no association with the test."n "nConclusion: Methacholine challenge test is the best diagnostic test for ruling out asthma in patients with normal pulmonary function tests in whom we cannot definitely rule out asthma based solely on clinical symptoms. Nevertheless, in adults with a history of allergy, wheezing and also in patients below 30, the probability for a positive MCT is high.

  20. Safe and secure South Africa. Vehicle landmine protection validation testing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Reinecke, JD

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of vehicle landmine protection validation testing in South Africa. A short history of validation test standards is given, followed by a summary of current open test standards in general use...

  1. Test Your Memory is sensitive to cognitive change but lacks prospective validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero-Arias, J; Turrión-Rojo, M Á

    2016-03-01

    To determine the prospective validity of Test Your Memory (TYM) and its sensitivity to change in cognitive state. This longitudinal prospective study followed 71 patients with subjective cognitive symptoms and 48 with mild cognitive impairment for a mean time period of 35.2 ± 15 months. Subjects did not have dementia or depression at the beginning of follow-up and each participant was given the TYM at least two times. A psychometric threshold was established to determine presence of a cognitive deficit (z-score ≤ 1.5 on at least one cognitive domain) and the Disability Assessment for Dementia scale was used to ensure full functional ability. The criterion for deterioration was a change in the stage on the Global Deterioration Scale. Sixty-one patients remained cognitively stable and 58 worsened. There were no differences between them with respect to sex, educational attainment, the initial stage on the GDS, or the score on the first TYM. Subjects who worsened were older than those who did not. The TYM increased an average of 0.04 points per month in patients who remained stable or improved (95% CI, -0.01 to 0.08) and decreased an average of 0.14 points per month in those whose condition worsened (95% CI, -0.19 to -0.09). Subjects with mild cognitive impairment who worsened displayed a sharper loss of TYM points than did subjects with subjective cognitive symptoms. While the TYM lacks prospective validity, it is sensitive to changes in cognitive state. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Validating safeguards effectiveness given inherently limited test data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sicherman, A.

    1987-01-01

    A key issue in designing and evaluating nuclear safeguards systems is how to validate safeguards effectiveness against a spectrum of potential threats. Safeguards effectiveness is measured by a performance indicator such as the probability of defeating an adversary attempting a malevolent act. Effectiveness validation means a testing program that provides sufficient evidence that the performance indicator is at an acceptable level. Traditional statistical program when numerous independent system trials are possible. However, within the safeguards environment, many situations arise for which traditional statistical approaches may be neither feasible nor appropriate. Such situations can occur, for example, when there are obvious constraints on the number of possible tests due to operational impacts and testing costs. Furthermore, these tests are usually simulations (e.g., staged force-on-force exercises) rather than actual tests, and the system is often modified after each test. Under such circumstances, it is difficult to make and justify inferences about system performance by using traditional statistical techniques. In this paper, the authors discuss several alternative quantitative techniques for validating system effectiveness. The techniques include: (1) minimizing the number of required tests using sequential testing; (2) combining data from models inspections and exercises using Bayesian statistics to improve inferences about system performance; and (3) using reliability growth and scenario modeling to help specify which safeguards elements and scenarios to test

  3. Certification Testing as an Illustration of Argument-Based Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The theories of validity developed over the past 60 years are quite sophisticated, but the methodology of validity is not generally very effective. The validity evidence for major testing programs is typically much weaker than the evidence for more technical characteristics such as reliability. In addition, most validation efforts have a strong…

  4. Psychometric Evaluation of the Diabetes Symptom Checklist-Revised (DSC-R)-A Measure of Symptom Distress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arbuckle, R.A.; Humphrey, L.; Vardeva, K.; Arondekar, B.; Scott, J.A.; Snoek, F.J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To assess the psychometric validity, reliability, responsiveness, and minimal important differences of the Diabetes Symptoms Checklist-Revised (DSC-R), a widely used patient-reported outcome measure of diabetes symptom distress. Research Design and Methods: Psychometric validity of the

  5. Testing the relations between impulsivity-related traits, suicidality, and nonsuicidal self-injury: a test of the incremental validity of the UPPS model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynam, Donald R; Miller, Joshua D; Miller, Drew J; Bornovalova, Marina A; Lejuez, C W

    2011-04-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) has received significant attention as a predictor of suicidal behavior (SB) and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI). Despite significant promise, trait impulsivity has received less attention. Understanding the relations between impulsivity and SB and NSSI is confounded, unfortunately, by the heterogeneous nature of impulsivity. This study examined the relations among 4 personality pathways to impulsive behavior studied via the UPPS model of impulsivity and SB and NSSI in a residential sample of drug abusers (N = 76). In this study, we tested whether these 4 impulsivity-related traits (i.e., Negative Urgency, Sensation Seeking, Lack of Premeditation, and Lack of Perseverance) provide incremental validity in the statistical prediction of SB and NSSI above and beyond BPD; they do. We also tested whether BPD symptoms provide incremental validity in the prediction of SB and NSSI above and beyond these impulsivity-related traits; they do not. In addition to the main effects of Lack of Premeditation and Negative Urgency, we found evidence of a robust interaction between these 2 personality traits. The current results argue strongly for the consideration of these 2 impulsivity-related domains--alone and in interaction--when attempting to understand and predict SB and NSSI.

  6. A pilot study on the validity of using pictures and videos for individualized symptom provocation in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Daniela; Kischkel, Eva; Spielberg, Rüdiger; Kathmann, Norbert

    2012-06-30

    Distressing symptom-related anxiety is difficult to study in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) due to the disorder's heterogeneity. Our aim was to develop and validate a set of pictures and films comprising a variety of prominent OCD triggers that can be used for individually tailored symptom provocation in experimental studies. In a two-staged production procedure a large pool of OCD triggers and neutral contents was produced and preselected by three psychotherapists specialized in OCD. A sample of 13 OCD patients and 13 controls rated their anxiety, aversiveness and arousal during exposure to OCD-relevant, aversive and neutral control stimuli. Our findings demonstrate differences between the responses of patients and controls to OCD triggers only. Symptom-related anxiety was stronger in response to dynamic compared with static OCD-relevant stimuli. Due to the small number of 13 patients included in the study, only tentative conclusions can be drawn and this study merely provides a first step of validation. These standardized sets constitute valuable tools that can be used in experimental studies on the brain correlates of OCD symptoms and for the study of therapeutic interventions in order to contribute to future developments in the field. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Development and Validation of the Cognition Test Battery for Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basner, Mathias; Savitt, Adam; Moore, Tyler M.; Port, Allison M.; McGuire, Sarah; Ecker, Adrian J.; Nasrini, Jad; Mollicone, Daniel J.; Mott, Christopher M.; McCann, Thom; Dinges, David F.; Gur, Ruben C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Sustained high-level cognitive performance is of paramount importance for the success of space missions, which involve environmental, physiological and psychological stressors that may affect brain functions. Despite subjective symptom reports of cognitive fluctuations in spaceflight, the nature of neurobehavioral functioning in space has not been clarified. Methods We developed a computerized cognitive test battery (Cognition) that has sensitivity to multiple cognitive domains and was specifically designed for the high-performing astronaut population. Cognition consists of 15 unique forms of 10 neuropsychological tests that cover a range of cognitive domains including emotion processing, spatial orientation, and risk decision making. Cognition is based on tests known to engage specific brain regions as evidenced by functional neuroimaging. Here we describe the first normative and acute total sleep deprivation data on the Cognition test battery as well as several efforts underway to establish the validity, sensitivity, feasibility, and acceptability of Cognition. Results Practice effects and test-retest variability differed substantially between the 10 Cognition tests, illustrating the importance of normative data that both reflect practice effects and differences in stimulus set difficulty in the population of interest. After one night without sleep, medium to large effect sizes were observed for 3 of the 10 tests addressing vigilant attention (Cohen’s d=1.00), cognitive throughput (d=0.68), and abstract reasoning (d=0.65). Conclusions In addition to providing neuroimaging-based novel information on the effects of spaceflight on a range of cognitive functions, Cognition will facilitate comparing the effects of ground-based analogs to spaceflight, increase consistency across projects, and thus enable meta-analyses. PMID:26564759

  8. Development and Validation of a Theoretical Test in Endosonography for Pulmonary Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savran, Mona M; Clementsen, Paul Frost; Annema, Jouke T

    2014-01-01

    evidence for this test. METHODS: Initially, 78 questions were constructed after informal conversational interviews with 4 international experts in endosonography. The clarity and content validity of the questions were tested using a Delphi-like approach. Construct validity was explored by administering......BACKGROUND: Theoretical testing provides the necessary foundation to perform technical skills. Additionally, testing improves the retention of knowledge. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to develop a multiple-choice test in endosonography for pulmonary diseases and to gather validity...... consistently than the novices (p = 0.037) and the intermediates (p Validity evidence was gathered, and the test demonstrated content and construct validity....

  9. A Psychometric Comparison of the Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms and the Brief Negative Symptom Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Gregory P; Gold, James M

    2016-11-01

    In 2005, the National Institute of Mental Health held a consensus development conference on negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Among the important conclusions of this meeting were that there are at least 5 commonly accepted domains of negative symptoms (blunted affect, alogia, avolition, anhedonia, asociality) and that new rating scales were needed to adequately assess these constructs. Two next-generation negative symptom scales resulted from this meeting: the Brief Negative Symptom Scale (BNSS) and Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS). Both measures are becoming widely used and studies have demonstrated good psychometric properties for each scale. The current study provides the first direct psychometric comparison of these scales. Participants included 65 outpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder who completed clinical interviews, questionnaires, and neuropsychological testing. Separate raters completed the BNSS and CAINS within the same week. Results indicated that both measures had good internal consistency, convergent validity, and discriminant validity. High correspondence was observed between CAINS and BNSS blunted affect and alogia items. Moderate convergence occurred for avolition and asociality items, and low convergence was seen among anhedonia items. Findings suggest that both scales have good psychometric properties, but that there are important distinctions among the items related to motivation and pleasure. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Fructose and lactose intolerance and malabsorption testing: the relationship with symptoms in functional gastrointestinal disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder-Smith, C H; Materna, A; Wermelinger, C; Schuler, J

    2013-01-01

    Background The association of fructose and lactose intolerance and malabsorption with the symptoms of different functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) remains unclear. Aim To investigate the prevalence of fructose and lactose intolerance (symptom induction) and malabsorption and their association with clinical gastrointestinal (GI) as well as non-GI symptoms in FGID and the outcome of dietary intervention. Methods Fructose and lactose intolerance (defined by positive symptom index) and malabsorption (defined by increased hydrogen/methane) were determined in 1372 FGID patients in a single centre using breath testing. Results were correlated with clinical symptoms in different FGID Rome III subgroups. The effectiveness of a targeted saccharide-reduced diet was assessed after 6–8 weeks. Results Intolerance prevalence across all FGIDs was 60% to fructose, 51% to lactose and 33% to both. Malabsorption occurred in 45%, 32% and 16% respectively. There were no differences in intolerance or malabsorption prevalence between FGID subgroups. FGID symptoms correlated with symptoms evoked during testing (r = 0.35–0.61. P 80% of intolerant patients, irrespective of malabsorption. Conclusions Fructose and lactose intolerances are common in FGID and associated with increased non-GI symptoms, but not with specific FGID subtypes. Symptoms experienced during breath testing, but not malabsorption, correlate with FGID symptoms. Effective symptom relief with dietary adaptation is not associated with malabsorption. Mechanisms relating to the generation of GI and non-GI symptoms due to lactose and fructose in FGID need to be explored further. PMID:23574302

  11. Fructose and lactose intolerance and malabsorption testing: the relationship with symptoms in functional gastrointestinal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder-Smith, C H; Materna, A; Wermelinger, C; Schuler, J

    2013-06-01

    The association of fructose and lactose intolerance and malabsorption with the symptoms of different functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) remains unclear. To investigate the prevalence of fructose and lactose intolerance (symptom induction) and malabsorption and their association with clinical gastrointestinal (GI) as well as non-GI symptoms in FGID and the outcome of dietary intervention. Fructose and lactose intolerance (defined by positive symptom index) and malabsorption (defined by increased hydrogen/methane) were determined in 1372 FGID patients in a single centre using breath testing. Results were correlated with clinical symptoms in different FGID Rome III subgroups. The effectiveness of a targeted saccharide-reduced diet was assessed after 6-8 weeks. Intolerance prevalence across all FGIDs was 60% to fructose, 51% to lactose and 33% to both. Malabsorption occurred in 45%, 32% and 16% respectively. There were no differences in intolerance or malabsorption prevalence between FGID subgroups. FGID symptoms correlated with symptoms evoked during testing (r = 0.35-0.61. P intolerances. Methane breath levels were not associated with constipation using several cut-off thresholds. Adequate symptom relief was achieved in >80% of intolerant patients, irrespective of malabsorption. Fructose and lactose intolerances are common in FGID and associated with increased non-GI symptoms, but not with specific FGID subtypes. Symptoms experienced during breath testing, but not malabsorption, correlate with FGID symptoms. Effective symptom relief with dietary adaptation is not associated with malabsorption. Mechanisms relating to the generation of GI and non-GI symptoms due to lactose and fructose in FGID need to be explored further. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. The Value of Suppressor Effects in Explicating the Construct Validity of Symptom Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, David; Clark, Lee Anna; Chmielewski, Michael; Kotov, Roman

    2013-01-01

    Suppressor effects are operating when the addition of a predictor increases the predictive power of another variable. We argue that suppressor effects can play a valuable role in explicating the construct validity of symptom measures by bringing into clearer focus opposing elements that are inherent—but largely hidden—in the measure’s overall score. We illustrate this point using theoretically grounded, replicated suppressor effects that have emerged in analyses of the original Inventory of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms (IDAS; Watson et al., 2007) and its expanded second version (IDAS-II; Watson et al., 2012). In Study 1, we demonstrate that the IDAS-II Appetite Gain and Appetite Loss scales contain both (a) a shared distress component that creates a positive correlation between them and (b) a specific symptom component that produces a natural negative association between them (i.e., people who recently have experienced decreased interest in food/loss of appetite are less likely to report a concomitant increase in appetite/weight). In Study 2, we establish that mania scales also contain two distinct elements—namely, high energy/positive emotionality and general distress/dysfunction—that oppose each another in many instances. In both studies, we obtained evidence of suppression effects that were highly robust across different types of respondents (e.g., clinical outpatients, community adults, college students) and using both self-report and interview-based measures. These replicable suppressor effects establish that many homogeneous, unidimensional symptom scales actually contain distinguishable components with distinct—at times, even antagonistic—properties. PMID:23795886

  13. Validation of Clinical Testing for Warfarin Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, Michael R.; Booker, Jessica K.; Evans, James P.; McLeod, Howard L.; Weck, Karen E.

    2009-01-01

    Responses to warfarin (Coumadin) anticoagulation therapy are affected by genetic variability in both the CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genes. Validation of pharmacogenetic testing for warfarin responses includes demonstration of analytical validity of testing platforms and of the clinical validity of testing. We compared four platforms for determining the relevant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in both CYP2C9 and VKORC1 that are associated with warfarin sensitivity (Third Wave Invader Plus, ParagonDx/Cepheid Smart Cycler, Idaho Technology LightCycler, and AutoGenomics Infiniti). Each method was examined for accuracy, cost, and turnaround time. All genotyping methods demonstrated greater than 95% accuracy for identifying the relevant SNPs (CYP2C9 *2 and *3; VKORC1 −1639 or 1173). The ParagonDx and Idaho Technology assays had the shortest turnaround and hands-on times. The Third Wave assay was readily scalable to higher test volumes but had the longest hands-on time. The AutoGenomics assay interrogated the largest number of SNPs but had the longest turnaround time. Four published warfarin-dosing algorithms (Washington University, UCSF, Louisville, and Newcastle) were compared for accuracy for predicting warfarin dose in a retrospective analysis of a local patient population on long-term, stable warfarin therapy. The predicted doses from both the Washington University and UCSF algorithms demonstrated the best correlation with actual warfarin doses. PMID:19324988

  14. Defining surgical criteria for empty nose syndrome: Validation of the office-based cotton test and clinical interpretability of the validated Empty Nose Syndrome 6-Item Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamboo, Andrew; Velasquez, Nathalia; Habib, Al-Rahim R; Zarabanda, David; Paknezhad, Hassan; Nayak, Jayakar V

    2017-08-01

    The validated Empty Nose Syndrome 6-Item Questionnaire (ENS6Q) identifies empty nose syndrome (ENS) patients. The unvalidated cotton test assesses improvement in ENS-related symptoms. By first validating the cotton test using the ENS6Q, we define the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) score for the ENS6Q. Individual case-control study. Fifteen patients diagnosed with ENS and 18 controls with non-ENS sinonasal conditions underwent office cotton placement. Both groups completed ENS6Q testing in three conditions-precotton, cotton in situ, and postcotton-to measure the reproducibility of ENS6Q scoring. Participants also completed a five-item transition scale ranging from "much better" to "much worse" to rate subjective changes in nasal breathing with and without cotton placement. Mean changes for each transition point, and the ENS6Q MCID, were then calculated. In the precotton condition, significant differences (P < .001) in all ENS6Q questions between ENS and controls were noted. With cotton in situ, nearly all prior ENS6Q differences normalized between ENS and control patients. For ENS patients, the changes in the mean differences between the precotton and cotton in situ conditions compared to postcotton versus cotton in situ conditions were insignificant among individuals. Including all 33 participants, the mean change in the ENS6Q between the parameters "a little better" and "about the same" was 4.25 (standard deviation [SD] = 5.79) and -2.00 (SD = 3.70), giving an MCID of 6.25. Cotton testing is a validated office test to assess for ENS patients. Cotton testing also helped to determine the MCID of the ENS6Q, which is a 7-point change from the baseline ENS6Q score. 3b. Laryngoscope, 127:1746-1752, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  15. Development and validation of the Chinese Overactive Bladder Symptom Score for assessing overactive bladder syndrome in a RESORT study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man-Jung Hung

    2013-05-01

    Conclusion: The Chinese OABSS has been developed and validated as a reliable instrument for assessing OAB symptoms. OABSS can be an alternative to, but not a replacement for, a 3-day bladder diary for assessing patients.

  16. Validation of the Italian Version of the Dizziness Handicap Inventory, the Situational Vertigo Questionnaire, and the Activity-Specific Balance Confidence Scale for Peripheral and Central Vestibular Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Colnaghi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Neurophysiological measurements of the vestibular function for diagnosis and follow-up evaluations provide an objective assessment, which, unfortunately, does not necessarily correlate with the patients’ self-feeling. The literature provides many questionnaires to assess the outcome of rehabilitation programs for disequilibrium, but only for the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI is an Italian translation available, validated on a small group of patients suffering from a peripheral acute vertigo. We translated and validated the reliability and validity of the DHI, the Situational Vertigo Questionnaire (SVQ, and the Activities-Specific Balance Confidence Scale (ABC in 316 Italian patients complaining of dizziness due either to a peripheral or to a central vestibular deficit, or in whom vestibular signs were undetectable by means of instrumental testing or clinical evaluation. Cronbach’s coefficient alpha, the homogeneity index, and test–retest reproducibility, confirmed reliability of the Italian version of the three questionnaires. Validity was confirmed by correlation test between questionnaire scores. Correlations with clinical variables suggested that they can be used as a complementary tool for the assessment of vestibular symptoms. In conclusion, the Italian versions of DHI, SVQ, and ABC are reliable and valid questionnaires for assessing the impact of dizziness on the quality of life of Italian patients with peripheral or central vestibular deficit.

  17. Validating High-Stakes Testing Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Makes the point that the interpretations and use of high-stakes test scores rely on policy assumptions about what should be taught and the content standards and performance standards that should be applied. The assumptions built into an assessment need to be subjected to scrutiny and criticism if a strong case is to be made for the validity of the…

  18. Validity and Reliability of the Arabic Token Test for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhamra, Rana A.; Al-Jazi, Aya B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Token Test for Children (2nd edition) (TTFC) is a measure for assessing receptive language. In this study we describe the translation process, validity and reliability of the Arabic Token Test for Children (A-TTFC). Aims: The aim of this study is to translate, validate and establish the reliability of the Arabic Token Test for…

  19. Conceptualizing Essay Tests' Reliability and Validity: From Research to Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badjadi, Nour El Imane

    2013-01-01

    The current paper on writing assessment surveys the literature on the reliability and validity of essay tests. The paper aims to examine the two concepts in relationship with essay testing as well as to provide a snapshot of the current understandings of the reliability and validity of essay tests as drawn in recent research studies. Bearing in…

  20. Construction of Valid and Reliable Test for Assessment of Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osadebe, P. U.

    2015-01-01

    The study was carried out to construct a valid and reliable test in Economics for secondary school students. Two research questions were drawn to guide the establishment of validity and reliability for the Economics Achievement Test (EAT). It is a multiple choice objective test of five options with 100 items. A sample of 1000 students was randomly…

  1. The test-retest reliability and criterion validity of a high-intensity, netball-specific circuit test: The Net-Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungovan, Sean F; Peralta, Paula J; Gass, Gregory C; Scanlan, Aaron T

    2018-04-12

    To examine the test-retest reliability and criterion validity of a high-intensity, netball-specific fitness test. Repeated measures, within-subject design. Eighteen female netball players competing in an international competition completed a trial of the Net-Test, which consists of 14 timed netball-specific movements. Players also completed a series of netball-relevant criterion fitness tests. Ten players completed an additional Net-Test trial one week later to assess test-retest reliability using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), typical error of measurement (TEM), and coefficient of variation (CV). The typical error of estimate expressed as CV and Pearson correlations were calculated between each criterion test and Net-Test performance to assess criterion validity. Five movements during the Net-Test displayed moderate ICC (0.84-0.90) and two movements displayed high ICC (0.91-0.93). Seven movements and heart rate taken during the Net-Test held low CV (Test possessed low CV and significant (pTest possesses acceptable reliability for the assessment of netball fitness. Further, the high criterion validity for the Net-Test suggests a range of important netball-specific fitness elements are assessed in combination. Copyright © 2018 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. BENDER GESTALT VISUALMOTOR TEST AND CARAS TEST: A EXAM OF CONSTRUCT VALIDITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Merino Soto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Research with new versions of the Bender Gestalt Test (TGB has hardly attracted attention to the researchers of the Hispanic world, onsidering that this test is one of the most widely used psychological assessments. This study evaluates the construct validity of the modified version of TGB for children, elative to sustainedattention assessed by the Caras Test. Both tests were applied to 90 children, aged between 5 and 8, in standardized conditions. The esults indicate that the shared variance between the two measures is zero, even when applied disattenuated correlations for measurement error; also, no non-linear patterns were detected between the two variables. These correlations were consistent in the total sample and among subgroups of children. We discuss these results with respect to the limits of validity of this modified version of TGB in the Spanish language.

  3. Validation of the Danish Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination as a screening test in a memory clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokholm, Jette; Vogel, Asmus; Johannsen, Peter; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2009-01-01

    Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE) is a cognitive screening test developed to detect dementia. It has been validated in several countries. Validation studies have predominantly included patients with various degrees of dementia and healthy controls. The aim of this study was to evaluate the Danish version of ACE as a screening test for early dementia in an outpatient memory clinic. Further, we wanted to investigate the ability of the ACE to discriminate patients with early Alzheimer's disease (AD) from patients with depression. 78 patients with mild AD (MMSE >or=20), 30 non-demented patients diagnosed with depression (originally referred for evaluation of cognitive symptoms), and 63 healthy volunteers, all between 60 and 85 years of age, were included. All patients were given the ACE as a supplement to the standard diagnostic work-up. The cut-off points for optimal trade-off between sensitivity and specificity for ACE were 85/86 (sensitivity 0.99, specificity 0.94). When these cut-off points were applied to the group of depressive patients, the specificity dropped to 0.64, indicating a great overlap in individual test scores for demented and depressed patients. The optimal cut-off points for ACE found in this Danish study were close to what is reported in most other European studies. The great overlap in ACE scores for demented and depressed patients emphasize that test scores must be interpreted with great caution when used in diagnostic work-up.

  4. Modeling Run Test Validity: A Meta-Analytic Approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vickers, Ross

    2002-01-01

    .... This study utilized data from 166 samples (N = 5,757) to test the general hypothesis that differences in testing methods could account for the cross-situational variation in validity. Only runs >2 km...

  5. Measuring Symptoms of Moral Injury in Veterans and Active Duty Military with PTSD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold G. Koenig

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Moral Injury Symptom Scale-Military Version (MISS-M is a 45-item measure of moral injury (MI symptoms designed to use in Veterans and Active Duty Military with PTSD. This paper reviews the psychometric properties of the MISS-M identified in a previous report, discusses the rationale for the development of the scale, and explores its possible clinical and research applications. The MISS-M consists of 10 theoretically grounded subscales that assess the psychological and spiritual/religious symptoms of MI: guilt, shame, betrayal, moral concerns, loss of meaning/purpose, difficulty forgiving, loss of trust, self-condemnation, spiritual/religious struggles, and loss of religious faith/hope. The scale has high internal reliability, high test-retest reliability, and a factor structure that can be replicated. The MISS-M correlates strongly with PTSD severity, depressive symptoms, and anxiety symptoms, indicating convergent validity, and is relatively weakly correlated with social, spiritual, and physical health constructs, suggesting discriminant validity. The MISS-M is the first multidimensional scale that measures both the psychological and spiritual/religious symptoms of MI and is a reliable and valid measure for assessing symptom severity in clinical practice and in conducting research that examines the efficacy of treatments for MI in Veterans and Active Duty Military personnel.

  6. The validation of Huffaz Intelligence Test (HIT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Mohd Azrin Mohammad; Ahmad, Tahir; Awang, Siti Rahmah; Safar, Ajmain

    2017-08-01

    In general, a hafiz who can memorize the Quran has many specialties especially in respect to their academic performances. In this study, the theory of multiple intelligences introduced by Howard Gardner is embedded in a developed psychometric instrument, namely Huffaz Intelligence Test (HIT). This paper presents the validation and the reliability of HIT of some tahfiz students in Malaysia Islamic schools. A pilot study was conducted involving 87 huffaz who were randomly selected to answer the items in HIT. The analysis method used includes Partial Least Square (PLS) on reliability, convergence and discriminant validation. The study has validated nine intelligences. The findings also indicated that the composite reliabilities for the nine types of intelligences are greater than 0.8. Thus, the HIT is a valid and reliable instrument to measure the multiple intelligences among huffaz.

  7. Reliability and Validity of the Pain Anxiety Symptom Scale in Persian Speaking Chronic Low Back Pain Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanbehzadeh, Sanaz; Salavati, Mahyar; Tavahomi, Mahnaz; Khatibi, Ali; Talebian, Saeed; Khademi-Kalantari, Khosro

    2017-11-01

    Psychometric testing of the Persian version of Pain Anxiety Symptom Scale 20. The aim of this study was to assess the reliability and construct validity of the PASS-20 in nonspecific chronic low back pain (LBP) patients. The PASS-20 is a self-report questionnaire that assesses pain-related anxiety. The Psychometric properties of this instrument have not been assessed in Persian-speaking chronic LBP patients. One hundred and sixty participants with chronic LBP completed the Persian version of PASS-20, Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia (TSK), Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire (FABQ), Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS), trait form of the State-Trait Anxiety (STAI-T), Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Index (ODI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II), and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). To evaluate test-retest reliability, 60 patients filled out the PASS-20, 6 to 8 days after the first visit. Test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC], standard error of measurement [SEM], and minimal detectable change [MDC]), internal consistency, dimensionality, and construct validity were examined. The ICCs of the PASS-20 subscales and total score ranged from 0.71 to 0.8. The SEMs for PASS-20 total score was 7.29 and for the subscales ranged from 2.43 to 2.98. The MDC for the total score was 20.14 and for the subscales ranged from 6.71 to 8.23. The Cronbach alpha values for the subscales and total score ranged from 0.70 to 0.91. Significant positive correlations were found between the PASS-20 total score and PCS, TSK, FABQ, ODI, BDI, STAI-T, and pain intensity. The Persian version of the PASS-20 showed acceptable psychometric properties for the assessment of pain-related anxiety in Persian-speaking patients with chronic LBP. 3.

  8. An alcohol withdrawal test battery measuring multiple behavioral symptoms in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metten, Pamela; Schlumbohm, Jason P; Huang, Lawrence C; Greenberg, Gian D; Hack, Wyatt R; Spence, Stephanie E; Crabbe, John C

    2018-05-01

    Despite acceptance that risk for alcohol-use disorder (AUD) has a large genetic component, the identification of genes underlying various components of risk for AUD has been hampered in humans, in part by the heterogeneity of expression of the phenotype. One aspect of AUD is physical dependence. Alcohol withdrawal is a serious consequence of alcohol dependence with multiple symptoms, many of which are seen in multiple species, and can be experienced over a wide-ranging time course. In the present three studies, we developed a battery of withdrawal tests in mice, examining behavioral symptoms from multiple domains that could be measured over time. To permit eventual use of the battery in different strains of mice, we used male and female mice of a genetically heterogeneous stock developed from intercrossing eight inbred strains. Withdrawal symptoms were assessed using commonly used tests after administration of ethanol in vapor for 72 continuous hours. We found significant effects of ethanol withdrawal versus air-breathing controls on nearly all symptoms, spanning 4 days following ethanol vapor inhalation. Withdrawal produced hypothermia, greater neurohyperexcitability (seizures and tremor), anxiety-like behaviors using an apparatus (such as reduced transitions between light and dark compartments), anhedonia (reduced sucrose preference), Straub tail, backward walking, and reductions in activity; however, there were no changes in thermal pain sensitivity, hyper-reactivity to handling, or anxiety-like emergence behaviors in other apparatus. Using these data, we constructed a refined battery of withdrawal tests. Individual differences in severity of withdrawal among different tests were weakly correlated at best. This battery should be useful for identifying genetic influences on particular withdrawal behaviors, which should reflect the influences of different constellations of genes. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. The role of low cognitive effort and negative symptoms in neuropsychological impairment in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Gregory P; Morra, Lindsay F; Sullivan, Sara K; Gold, James M

    2015-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine whether insufficient effort, negative symptoms (e.g., avolition, anhedonia), and psychological variables (e.g., anhedonia and perception of low cognitive resources) predict generalized neurocognitive impairment in individuals with schizophrenia (SZ). In Experiment 1, participants included 97 individuals with SZ and 63 healthy controls (CN) who completed the Victoria Symptom Validity Test (VSVT), the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB), and self-report anhedonia questionnaires. In Experiment 2, participants included 46 individuals with SZ and 33 CN who completed Green's Word Memory Test (WMT), the MCCB, and self-reports of anhedonia, defeatist performance beliefs, and negative expectancy appraisals. RESULTS indicated that a low proportion of individuals with SZ failed effort testing (1.0% Experiment 1; 15.2% Experiment 2); however, global neurocognitive impairment was significantly predicted by low effort and negative symptoms. Findings indicate that low effort does not threaten the validity of neuropsychological test results in the majority of individuals with schizophrenia; however, effort testing may be useful in SZ patients with severe negative symptoms who may be more likely to put forth insufficient effort due to motivational problems. Although the base rate of failure is relatively low, it may be beneficial to screen for insufficient effort in SZ and exclude individuals who fail effort testing from pharmacological or cognitive remediation trials. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Testing the Relations Between Impulsivity-Related Traits, Suicidality, and Nonsuicidal Self-Injury: A Test of the Incremental Validity of the UPPS Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynam, Donald R.; Miller, Joshua D.; Miller, Drew J.; Bornovalova, Marina A.; Lejuez, C. W.

    2011-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) has received significant attention as a predictor of suicidal behavior (SB) and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI). Despite significant promise, trait impulsivity has received less attention. Understanding the relations between impulsivity and SB and NSSI is confounded, unfortunately, by the heterogeneous nature of impulsivity. This study examined the relations among 4 personality pathways to impulsive behavior studied via the UPPS model of impulsivity and SB and NSSI in a residential sample of drug abusers (N = 76). In this study, we tested whether these 4 impulsivity-related traits (i.e., Negative Urgency, Sensation Seeking, Lack of Premeditation, and Lack of Perseverance) provide incremental validity in the statistical prediction of SB and NSSI above and beyond BPD; they do. We also tested whether BPD symptoms provide incremental validity in the prediction of SB and NSSI above and beyond these impulsivity-related traits; they do not. In addition to the main effects of Lack of Premeditation and Negative Urgency, we found evidence of a robust interaction between these 2 personality traits. The current results argue strongly for the consideration of these 2 impulsivity-related domains—alone and in interaction—when attempting to understand and predict SB and NSSI. PMID:21833346

  11. The Internet Game Use-Elicited Symptom Screen proved to be a valid tool for adolescents aged 10-19 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Sun-Jin; Yim, Hyeon Woo; Lee, Hae-Kook; Lee, Hyung Cho; Choi, Jung-Seok; Baek, Kyung-Young

    2018-03-01

    This study tested the diagnostic validity of the nine-item Internet Game Use-Elicited Symptom Screen (IGUESS) tool, which was developed by the authors after the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition, identified Internet gaming as a condition that needed further study. A self-report screening test comprising IGUESS and Young's Internet Addiction Test was administered to 121 adolescents (74% boys) with a median age of 14 (range 10-19) recruited from school and health settings in Korea. After the screening test, a clinician conducted one-to-one interviews with all of the subjects to set a gold standard for diagnosis. The sensitivity and specificity of IGUESS were 87.0 and 86.7%, respectively, for a cut-off score of 10 points, with an area under the curve value of 0.93. Its reliability, as determined by Cronbach's alpha, was 0.94, and the correlation coefficient between IGUESS and Young's Internet Addiction Test was r = 0.902. The findings suggest that a cut-off score of 10 is appropriate for administering the IGUESS in various community-based settings, including schools, to screen for potential subjects in need of further assessment for Internet gaming problems. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Diagnostic testing for celiac disease among patients with abdominal symptoms a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Windt, D.A.W.M.; Jellema, A.P.; Mulder, C.J.J.; Kneepkens, C.M.F.; van der Horst, H.E.

    2010-01-01

    Context: The symptoms and consequences of celiac disease usually resolve with a lifelong gluten-free diet. However, clinical presentation is variable and most patients presenting with abdominal symptoms in primary care will not have celiac disease and unnecessary diagnostic testing should be

  13. Diagnostic testing for celiac disease among patients with abdominal symptoms: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Windt, Daniëlle A. W. M.; Jellema, Petra; Mulder, Chris J.; Kneepkens, C. M. Frank; van der Horst, Henriëtte E.

    2010-01-01

    The symptoms and consequences of celiac disease usually resolve with a lifelong gluten-free diet. However, clinical presentation is variable and most patients presenting with abdominal symptoms in primary care will not have celiac disease and unnecessary diagnostic testing should be avoided. To

  14. Validation of Helicopter Gear Condition Indicators Using Seeded Fault Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Paula; Brandon, E. Bruce

    2013-01-01

    A "seeded fault test" in support of a rotorcraft condition based maintenance program (CBM), is an experiment in which a component is tested with a known fault while health monitoring data is collected. These tests are performed at operating conditions comparable to operating conditions the component would be exposed to while installed on the aircraft. Performance of seeded fault tests is one method used to provide evidence that a Health Usage Monitoring System (HUMS) can replace current maintenance practices required for aircraft airworthiness. Actual in-service experience of the HUMS detecting a component fault is another validation method. This paper will discuss a hybrid validation approach that combines in service-data with seeded fault tests. For this approach, existing in-service HUMS flight data from a naturally occurring component fault will be used to define a component seeded fault test. An example, using spiral bevel gears as the targeted component, will be presented. Since the U.S. Army has begun to develop standards for using seeded fault tests for HUMS validation, the hybrid approach will be mapped to the steps defined within their Aeronautical Design Standard Handbook for CBM. This paper will step through their defined processes, and identify additional steps that may be required when using component test rig fault tests to demonstrate helicopter CI performance. The discussion within this paper will provide the reader with a better appreciation for the challenges faced when defining a seeded fault test for HUMS validation.

  15. Gastroesophageal reflux symptoms are not sufficient to guide esophageal function testing in lung transplant candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, S; Zheng, J; Wood, R K; Shimpi, R A; Hartwig, M G; Chow, S-C; Leiman, D A

    2018-05-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease and esophageal dysmotility are prevalent in patients with advanced lung disease and are associated with graft dysfunction following lung transplantation. As a result, many transplant centers perform esophageal function testing as part of the wait-listing process but guidelines for testing in this population are lacking. The aim of this study is to describe whether symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux correlate with abnormal results on pH-metry and high-resolution manometry and can be used to identify those who require testing. We performed a retrospective cohort study of 226 lung transplant candidates referred for high-resolution manometry and pH-metry over a 12-month period in 2015. Demographic data, results of a standard symptom questionnaire and details of esophageal function testing were obtained. Associations between the presence of symptoms and test results were analyzed using Fisher's exact tests and multivariable logistic regression. The most common lung disease diagnosis was interstitial lung disease (N = 131, 58%). Abnormal pH-metry was seen in 116 (51%) patients and the presence of symptoms was significantly associated with an abnormal study (p advanced lung disease, symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux increase the likelihood of elevated acid exposure on pH-metry but were not associated with dysmotility. Given the proportion of asymptomatic patients with abnormal studies and associated post-transplant risks, a practice of universal high-resolution manometry and pH-metry testing in this population is justifiable.

  16. Validation of the French version of the yale food addiction scale: an examination of its factor structure, reliability, and construct validity in a nonclinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunault, Paul; Ballon, Nicolas; Gaillard, Philippe; Réveillère, Christian; Courtois, Robert

    2014-05-01

    The concept of food addiction has recently been proposed by applying the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision, criteria for substance dependence to eating behaviour. Food addiction has received increased attention given that it may play a role in binge eating, eating disorders, and the recent increase in obesity prevalence. Currently, there is no psychometrically sound tool for assessing food addiction in French. Our study aimed to test the psychometric properties of a French version of the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) by establishing its factor structure and construct validity in a nonclinical population. A total of 553 participants were assessed for food addiction (French version of the YFAS) and binge eating behaviour (Bulimic Investigatory Test Edinburgh and Binge Eating Scale). We tested the scale's factor structure (factor analysis for dichotomous data based on tetrachoric correlation coefficients), internal consistency, and construct validity with measures of binge eating. Our results supported a 1-factor structure, which accounted for 54.1% of the variance. This tool had adequate reliability and high construct validity with measures of binge eating in this population, both in its diagnosis and symptom count version. A 2-factor structure explained an additional 9.1% of the variance, and could differentiate between patients with high, compared with low, levels of insight regarding addiction symptoms. In our study, we validated a psychometrically sound French version of the YFAS, both in its symptom count and diagnostic version. Future studies should validate this tool in clinical samples.

  17. Psychometric evaluation of a daily gastro-oesophageal reflux disease symptom measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bytzer, Peter; Reimer, Christina; Smith, Gary; Anatchkova, Milena D; Hsieh, Ray; Wilkinson, Joanne; Thomas, S Jane; Lenderking, William R

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the validity of the Heartburn Reflux Dyspepsia Questionnaire (HRDQ), a newly developed measure of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) symptoms. Specifically, the HRDQ was developed for patients, who still experience symptoms with proton pump inhibitor (PPI) treatment. The psychometric properties of HRDQ were evaluated based on data from two clinical trials of patients with GORD with a partial response to PPIs, one from the UK and one from Denmark and Germany. The HRDQ had good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha range .83-.88) and test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient range .71-.90). Convergent and discriminant validity were supported by high correlations with ReQuest™ and ability to differentiate between groups based on ReQuest™ cut-off values. Responsiveness of HRDQ was demonstrated by moderate to high correlations with ReQuest™ change scores and time with symptoms. An HRDQ cut-off value of 0.70 for definition of 'bad day' was also evaluated. Based on existing evidence, the HRDQ is a valid and reliable measure of GORD symptoms that can be used as a study outcome in clinical trials.

  18. Test anxiety and the validity of cognitive tests: A confirmatory factor analysis perspective and some empirical findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicherts, J.M.; Zand Scholten, A.

    2010-01-01

    The validity of cognitive ability tests is often interpreted solely as a function of the cognitive abilities that these tests are supposed to measure, but other factors may be at play. The effects of test anxiety on the criterion related validity (CRV) of tests was the topic of a recent study by

  19. Hematoma Locations Predicting Delirium Symptoms After Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidech, Andrew M; Polnaszek, Kelly L; Berman, Michael D; Voss, Joel L

    2016-06-01

    Delirium symptoms are associated with later worse functional outcomes and long-term cognitive impairments, but the neuroanatomical basis for delirium symptoms in patients with acute brain injury is currently uncertain. We tested the hypothesis that hematoma location is predictive of delirium symptoms in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage, a model disease where patients are typically not sedated or bacteremic. We prospectively identified 90 patients with intracerebral hemorrhage who underwent routine twice-daily screening for delirium symptoms with a validated examination. Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping with acute computed tomography was used to identify hematoma locations associated with delirium symptoms (N = 89). Acute delirium symptoms were predicted by hematoma of right-hemisphere subcortical white matter (superior longitudinal fasciculus) and parahippocampal gyrus. Hematoma including these locations had an odds ratio for delirium of 13 (95 % CI 3.9-43.3, P delirium symptoms. Higher odds ratio for delirium was increased due to hematoma location. The location of neurological injury could be of high prognostic value for predicting delirium symptoms.

  20. Development and Validation of the Computerized Family Relations Test for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoczń, Ilona; Cieciuch, Jan; Oud, Johan H L; Welzen, Kai

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop and investigate the psychometric properties of the Computerized Family Relations Test (CFRT) for children. This test assesses the quality of family relationships with the mother and father from a child's perspective. The CFRT consists of six scales relating to control (Restrictiveness and Justice), and support (Affection, Vulnerability, Acknowledgment, and Trust) within the family relationships. CFRT is an innovative approach to the Dutch Nijmegen Family Relations Test (NFRT) developed by Oud and Welzen (1989). The administration of the test has been computerized and graphical representations of female and male silhouettes were included to facilitate the child's parental identification. In total, 404 primary school children, aged 8 to 13 years (M = 11.0; SD = 1.17), took part in this study. The CFRT's reliability was assessed by McDonald's omega coefficients, and ranged from 0.71 to 0.86, except for Vulnerability which achieved the lowest reliability 0.57 for mothers' ratings and 0.56 for fathers' ratings. The test-retest procedure revealed higher stability for the ratings on father-child relationships of 0.71 compared to mother-child relationships of 0.67. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that a six-factor model provided an adequate fit. Measurement invariance across the children's assessments of the quality of family relationships was achieved. The construct validity of CFRT was assessed by examining differences in the child's ratings of the relationships with the mother and father, the child's gender, and associations of CFRT scales with other variables such as depression, anxiety symptoms, and prosocial behavior.

  1. Validation of the Malayalam version of Leeds assessment of neuropathic symptoms and signs pain scale in cancer patients in the Regional Cancer Centre, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoukkathali Anzar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The Self-administered Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs (S-LANSS is a 7-item self-report scale developed to identify pain which is of predominantly neuropathic origin. The aim of this study was to develop a Malayalam version of the LANSS and to test its validity and reliability in chronic pain patients. Methodology: We enrolled 101 Malayalam-speaking chronic pain patients who visited the Division of Palliative Medicine, Regional Cancer Centre, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India. The translated version of S- LANSS was constructed by standard means. Fifty-one neuropathic pain and fifty nociceptive pain patients were identified by an independent pain physician and were subjected to the new pain scale by a palliative care nurse who was blinded to the diagnosis. The “gold standard diagnosis” is what the physician makes after clinical examination. Its validation, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were determined. Results: Fifty-one neuropathic pain and fifty nociceptive pain patients were subjected to the Malayalam version of S-LANSS pain scale for validity testing. The agreement by Cohen's Kappa 0.743, Chi-square test P < 0.001, sensitivity 89.58, specificity 84.91, positive predictive value 84.31, negative predictive value 90.00, accuracy by 87.13, and likelihood ratio 5.94. Conclusion: The Malayalam version of S-LANSS pain scale is a validated screening tool for identifying neuropathic pain in chronic pain patients in Malayalam-speaking regions.

  2. Evaluation of the psychometric properties of the Nighttime Symptoms of COPD Instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocarski, Michelle; Zaiser, Erica; Trundell, Dylan; Make, Barry J; Hareendran, Asha

    2015-01-01

    Nighttime symptoms can negatively impact the quality of life of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The Nighttime Symptoms of COPD Instrument (NiSCI) was designed to measure the occurrence and severity of nighttime symptoms in patients with COPD, the impact of symptoms on nighttime awakenings, and rescue medication use. The objective of this study was to explore item reduction, inform scoring recommendations, and evaluate the psychometric properties of the NiSCI. COPD patients participating in a Phase III clinical trial completed the NiSCI daily. Item analyses were conducted using weekly mean and single day scores. Descriptive statistics (including percentage of respondents at floor/ceiling and inter-item correlations), factor analyses, and Rasch model analyses were conducted to examine item performance and scoring. Test-retest reliability was assessed for the final instrument using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Correlations with assessments conducted during study visits were used to evaluate convergent and known-groups validity. Data from 1,663 COPD patients aged 40-93 years were analyzed. Item analyses supported the generation of four scores. A one-factor structure was confirmed with factor analysis and Rasch analysis for the symptom severity score. Test-retest reliability was confirmed for the six-item symptom severity (ICC, 0.85), number of nighttime awakenings (ICC, 0.82), and rescue medication (ICC, 0.68) scores. Convergent validity was supported by significant correlations between the NiSCI, St George's Respiratory Questionnaire, and Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Tool-Respiratory Symptoms scores. The results suggest that the NiSCI can be used to determine the severity of nighttime COPD symptoms, the number of nighttime awakenings due to COPD symptoms, and the nighttime use of rescue medication. The NiSCI is a reliable and valid instrument to evaluate these concepts in COPD patients in clinical

  3. Reliability, factor structure, and validity of the German version of the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children in a sample of adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matulis, Simone; Loos, Laura; Langguth, Nadine; Schreiber, Franziska; Gutermann, Jana; Gawrilow, Caterina; Steil, Regina

    2015-01-01

    Background The Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children (TSC-C) is the most widely used self-report scale to assess trauma-related symptoms in children and adolescents on six clinical scales. The purpose of the present study was to develop a German version of the TSC-C and to investigate its psychometric properties, such as factor structure, reliability, and validity, in a sample of German adolescents. Method A normative sample of N=583 and a clinical sample of N=41 adolescents with a history of physical or sexual abuse aged between 13 and 21 years participated in the study. Results The Confirmatory Factor Analysis on the six-factor model (anger, anxiety, depression, dissociation, posttraumatic stress, and sexual concerns with the subdimensions preoccupation and distress) revealed acceptable to good fit statistics in the normative sample. One item had to be excluded from the German version of the TSC-C because the factor loading was too low. All clinical scales presented acceptable to good reliability, with Cronbach's α's ranging from .80 to .86 in the normative sample and from .72 to .87 in the clinical sample. Concurrent validity was also demonstrated by the high correlations between the TSC-C scales and instruments measuring similar psychopathology. TSC-C scores reliably differentiated between adolescents with trauma history and those without trauma history, indicating discriminative validity. Conclusions In conclusion, the German version of the TSC-C is a reliable and valid instrument for assessing trauma-related symptoms on six different scales in adolescents aged between 13 and 21 years. PMID:26498182

  4. ASTM Validates Air Pollution Test Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1973

    1973-01-01

    The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) has validated six basic methods for measuring pollutants in ambient air as the first part of its Project Threshold. Aim of the project is to establish nationwide consistency in measuring pollutants; determining precision, accuracy and reproducibility of 35 standard measuring methods. (BL)

  5. An Integrated Approach to Establish Validity and Reliability of Reading Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razi, Salim

    2012-01-01

    This study presents the processes of developing and establishing reliability and validity of a reading test by administering an integrative approach as conventional reliability and validity measures superficially reveals the difficulty of a reading test. In this respect, analysing vocabulary frequency of the test is regarded as a more eligible way…

  6. Validation of the Brazilian version of the childhood asthma control test (c-ACT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Suelen G; Sarria, Edgar E; Roncada, Cristian; Stein, Renato T; Pitrez, Paulo M; Mattiello, Rita

    2016-04-01

    Children's perception of their symptoms has proved reliable and relevant to disease management and should be considered when assessing their asthma control. The aim of the study is to validate the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Childhood Asthma Control Test (c-ACT) in children aged 4-11 years. This is a cross-sectional study in children diagnosed with asthma undergoing treatment in a pediatric pulmonology outpatient clinic in Porto Alegre, Brazil. The translation and linguistic adaptation of the instrument were performed in accordance with international recommendations for questionnaire validation. A total of 105 participants were included, aged 4-11 years. all correlations between the total score and items on the questionnaire were significant and obtained values of r ≥ 0.3, and c-ACT means showed statistically significant differences between the GINA categories (P ACT scores than those of uncontrolled asthma group (controlled 22.0 ± 2.9 vs. uncontrolled 16.3 ± 5.3 P ACT scores than those of uncontrolled asthma group (partially controlled 20.0 ± 4.0 vs. uncontrolled 16.3 ± 5.3 P = 0.03). Correlations between the c-ACT total score and spirometry and nitric oxide were poor (r = 0.020; P = 0.866 and r = 0.035; P = 0.753, respectively). Reliability: the α-C coefficient for the c-ACT total score was 0.677 (95%CI 0.573-0763). Sensitivity to change had an effect size of 0.8 and an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.598. No floor or ceiling effects were observed. The Brazilian version of the Childhood Asthma Control Test proved to be valid and reliable in children aged 4-11 years. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. A reliable and valid questionnaire was developed to measure computer vision syndrome at the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguí, María del Mar; Cabrero-García, Julio; Crespo, Ana; Verdú, José; Ronda, Elena

    2015-06-01

    To design and validate a questionnaire to measure visual symptoms related to exposure to computers in the workplace. Our computer vision syndrome questionnaire (CVS-Q) was based on a literature review and validated through discussion with experts and performance of a pretest, pilot test, and retest. Content validity was evaluated by occupational health, optometry, and ophthalmology experts. Rasch analysis was used in the psychometric evaluation of the questionnaire. Criterion validity was determined by calculating the sensitivity and specificity, receiver operator characteristic curve, and cutoff point. Test-retest repeatability was tested using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and concordance by Cohen's kappa (κ). The CVS-Q was developed with wide consensus among experts and was well accepted by the target group. It assesses the frequency and intensity of 16 symptoms using a single rating scale (symptom severity) that fits the Rasch rating scale model well. The questionnaire has sensitivity and specificity over 70% and achieved good test-retest repeatability both for the scores obtained [ICC = 0.802; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.673, 0.884] and CVS classification (κ = 0.612; 95% CI: 0.384, 0.839). The CVS-Q has acceptable psychometric properties, making it a valid and reliable tool to control the visual health of computer workers, and can potentially be used in clinical trials and outcome research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The prioritization of symptom beliefs over illness beliefs: The development and validation of the Pain Perception Questionnaire for Young People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghio, Daniela; Thomson, Wendy; Calam, Rachel; Ulph, Fiona; Baildam, Eileen M; Hyrich, Kimme; Cordingley, Lis

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the suitability of the revised Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ-R) for use with adolescents with a long-term pain condition and to validate a new questionnaire for use with this age group. A three-phase mixed-methods study. Phase 1 comprised in-depth qualitative analyses of audio-recorded cognitive interviews with 20 adolescents with juvenile idiopathic arthritis who were answering IPQ-R items. Transcripts were coded using framework analysis. A content analysis of their intended responses to individual items was also conducted. In Phase 2, a new questionnaire was developed and its linguistic and face validity were assessed with 18 adolescents without long-term conditions. In Phase 3, the construct validity of the new questionnaire was assessed with 240 adolescents with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. A subset of 43 adolescents completed the questionnaire a second time to assess test-retest reliability. All participants were aged 11-16 years. Participants described both conceptual and response format difficulties when answering IPQ-R items. In response, the Pain Perception Questionnaire for Young People (PPQ-YP) was designed which incorporated significant modifications to both wording and response formats when compared with the IPQ-R. A principal component analysis of the PPQ-YP identified ten constructs in the new questionnaire. Emotional representations were separated into two constructs, responsive and anticipatory emotions. The PPQ-YP showed high test-retest reliability. Symptom beliefs appear to be more salient to adolescents with a long-term pain condition than beliefs about the illness as a whole. A new questionnaire to assess pain beliefs of adolescents was designed. Further validation work may be needed to assess its suitability for use with other pain conditions. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Versions of the adult Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ-R) have been adapted for adolescents and

  9. Validity and Reliability of a Medicine Ball Explosive Power Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockbrugger, Barry A.; Haennel, Robert G.

    2001-01-01

    Evaluated the validity and reliability of a medicine ball throw test to evaluate explosive power. Data on competitive sand volleyball players who performed a medicine ball throw and a standard countermovement jump indicated that the medicine ball throw test was a valid and reliable way to assess explosive power for an analogous total-body movement…

  10. Correlation of Gastroesophageal reflux disease Assessment Symptom Questionnaire to impedance-pH measurements in children

    OpenAIRE

    Prachuapthunyachart, Sittichoke; Jarasvaraparn, Chaowapong; Gremse, David A

    2017-01-01

    Background: Esophageal multichannel intraluminal impedance-pH monitoring has become one of the preferred tests to correlate observed reflux-like behaviors with esophageal reflux events. The Gastroesophageal reflux disease Assessment Symptom Questionnaire is a validated tool used to distinguish infants with gastroesophageal reflux disease from healthy children. The aim of this study was to determine whether the Gastroesophageal reflux disease Assessment Symptom Questionnaire composite symptom ...

  11. Optimal number of tests to achieve and validate product reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Hussam; Chateauneuf, Alaa

    2014-01-01

    The reliability validation of engineering products and systems is mandatory for choosing the best cost-effective design among a series of alternatives. Decisions at early design stages have a large effect on the overall life cycle performance and cost of products. In this paper, an optimization-based formulation is proposed by coupling the costs of product design and validation testing, in order to ensure the product reliability with the minimum number of tests. This formulation addresses the question about the number of tests to be specified through reliability demonstration necessary to validate the product under appropriate confidence level. The proposed formulation takes into account the product cost, the failure cost and the testing cost. The optimization problem can be considered as a decision making system according to the hierarchy of structural reliability measures. The numerical examples show the interest of coupling design and testing parameters. - Highlights: • Coupled formulation for design and testing costs, with lifetime degradation. • Cost-effective testing optimization to achieve reliability target. • Solution procedure for nested aleatoric and epistemic variable spaces

  12. How Can Consumers Be Sure a Genetic Test Is Valid and Useful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a genetic test is valid and useful? How can consumers be sure a genetic test is valid ... particular gene or genetic change. In other words, can the test accurately detect whether a specific genetic ...

  13. Solar Sail Models and Test Measurements Correspondence for Validation Requirements Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Anthony; Adams, Charles

    2004-01-01

    Solar sails are being developed as a mission-enabling technology in support of future NASA science missions. Current efforts have advanced solar sail technology sufficient to justify a flight validation program. A primary objective of this activity is to test and validate solar sail models that are currently under development so that they may be used with confidence in future science mission development (e.g., scalable to larger sails). Both system and model validation requirements must be defined early in the program to guide design cycles and to ensure that relevant and sufficient test data will be obtained to conduct model validation to the level required. A process of model identification, model input/output documentation, model sensitivity analyses, and test measurement correspondence is required so that decisions can be made to satisfy validation requirements within program constraints.

  14. Validation of measured friction by process tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Morten; Henningsen, Poul; Tan, Xincai

    The objective of sub-task 3.3 is to evaluate under actual process conditions the friction formulations determined by simulative testing. As regards task 3.3 the following tests have been used according to the original project plan: 1. standard ring test and 2. double cup extrusion test. The task...... has, however, been extended to include a number of new developed process tests: 3. forward rod extrusion test, 4. special ring test at low normal pressure, 5. spike test (especially developed for warm and hot forging). Validation of the measured friction values in cold forming from sub-task 3.1 has...... been made with forward rod extrusion, and very good agreement was obtained between the measured friction values in simulative testing and process testing....

  15. Assessing the Construct Validity and Internal Reliability of the Screening Tool Test Your Memory in Patients with Chronic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda, B.; Salazar, A.; Dueñas, M.; Torres, L. M.; Mico, J. A.; Failde, I.

    2016-01-01

    Patients with chronic pain often complain about cognitive difficulties, and since these symptoms represent an additional source of suffering and distress, evaluating the cognitive status of these patients with valid and reliable tests should be an important part of their overall assessment. Although cognitive impairment is a critical characteristic of pain, there is no specific measure designed to detect these effects in this population. The objective was to analyze the psychometric properties of the “Test Your Memory” (TYM) test in patients with chronic pain of three different origins. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 72 subjects free of pain and 254 patients suffering from different types of chronic pain: neuropathic pain (104), musculoskeletal pain (99) and fibromyalgia (51). The construct validity of the TYM was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADs), Index-9 from MOS-sleep, SF-12, and through the intensity (Visual Analogical Scale) and duration of pain. An exploratory factor analysis was also performed and internal reliability was assessed using Cronbach’s alpha. After adjusting for potential confounders the TYM could distinguish between pain and pain-free patients, and it was correlated with the: MMSE (0.89, pmental components (0.55, p valid and reliable screening instrument to assess cognitive function in chronic pain patients that will be of particular value in clinical situations. PMID:27119165

  16. Development and validation of a patient symptom questionnaire to facilitate early diagnosis of thyroid-associated orbitopathy in graves' disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohaseb, Kam; Linder, Mark; Rootman, Jack; Wilkins, G E; Schechter, Martin T; Dolman, Peter J; Singer, Joel

    2008-01-01

    To construct a patient-based symptom questionnaire to facilitate early referral of thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO) in Graves' hyperthyroidism (GH). Phase I of our study involved developing a symptomatology-based questionnaire for the self-reporting of TAO symptoms in patients recently diagnosed with GH. Phase II involved administering the questionnaire along with a standard ophthalmic examination to a screening cohort of patients newly diagnosed with GH. Symptoms highly associated with the clinical diagnosis of TAO were used to construct a tool with the highest possible sensitivity. Phase III involved validation of this tool in a new cohort of patients recently diagnosed with GH. For each patient, the diagnosis of TAO was made by both a standardized orbital ophthalmic exam and the questionnaire. Results from the questionnaire were then compared to the clinical examination. The questionnaire was compared to the standardized examination and found to have a sensitivity of 0.76 and a specificity of 0.82 in the validation phase of the study. This questionnaire may be a useful tool in clinical practice to allow identification of patients with TAO secondary to GH. Future studies using this questionnaire are needed to determine whether earlier identification and management of these patients is associated with reduced morbidity from TAO.

  17. Construction and Evaluation of Reliability and Validity of Reasoning Ability Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Mehraj A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper is based on the construction and evaluation of reliability and validity of reasoning ability test at secondary school students. In this paper an attempt was made to evaluate validity, reliability and to determine the appropriate standards to interpret the results of reasoning ability test. The test includes 45 items to measure six types…

  18. Measurement of nicotine withdrawal symptoms: linguistic validation of the Wisconsin Smoking Withdrawal Scale (WSWS in Malay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafie Asrul A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of the linguistic validation of the Wisconsin Smoking Withdrawal Scale (WSWS was to produce a translated version in Malay language which was "conceptually equivalent" to the original U.S. English version for use in clinical practice and research. Methods A seven-member translation committee conducted the translation process using the following methodology: production of two independent forward translations; comparison and reconciliation of the translations; backward translation of the first reconciled version; comparison of the original WSWS and the backward version leading to the production of the second reconciled version; pilot testing and review of the translation, and finalization. Results Linguistic and conceptual issues arose during the process of translating the instrument, particularly pertaining to the title, instructions, and some of the items of the scale. In addition, the researchers had to find culturally acceptable equivalents for some terms and idiomatic phrases. Notable among these include expressions such as "irritability", "feeling upbeat", and "nibbling on snacks", which had to be replaced by culturally acceptable expressions. During cognitive debriefing and clinician's review processes, the Malay translated version of WSWS was found to be easily comprehensible, clear, and appropriate for the smoking withdrawal symptoms intended to be measured. Conclusions We applied a rigorous translation method to ensure conceptual equivalence and acceptability of WSWS in Malay prior to its utilization in research and clinical practice. However, to complete the cultural adaptation process, future psychometric validation is planned to be conducted among Malay speakers.

  19. Measurement of narcolepsy symptoms: The Narcolepsy Severity Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauvilliers, Yves; Beziat, Severine; Pesenti, Carole; Lopez, Regis; Barateau, Lucie; Carlander, Bertrand; Luca, Gianina; Tafti, Mehdi; Morin, Charles M; Billiard, Michel; Jaussent, Isabelle

    2017-04-04

    To validate the Narcolepsy Severity Scale (NSS), a brief clinical instrument to evaluate the severity and consequences of symptoms in patients with narcolepsy type 1 (NT1). A 15-item scale to assess the frequency and severity of excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy, hypnagogic hallucinations, sleep paralysis, and disrupted nighttime sleep was developed and validated by sleep experts with patients' feedback. Seventy untreated and 146 treated adult patients with NT1 were evaluated and completed the NSS in a single reference sleep center. The NSS psychometric properties, score changes with treatment, and convergent validity with other clinical parameters were assessed. The NSS showed good psychometric properties with significant item-total score correlations. The factor analysis indicated a 3-factor solution with good reliability, expressed by satisfactory Cronbach α values. The NSS total score temporal stability was good. Significant NSS score differences were observed between untreated and treated patients (dependent sample, 41 patients before and after sleep therapy; independent sample, 29 drug-free and 105 treated patients). Scores were lower in the treated populations (10-point difference between groups), without ceiling effect. Significant correlations were found among NSS total score and daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Mean Sleep Latency Test), depressive symptoms, and health-related quality of life. The NSS can be considered a reliable and valid clinical tool for the quantification of narcolepsy symptoms to monitor and optimize narcolepsy management. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  20. Predicting Persistent Back Symptoms by Psychosocial Risk Factors: Validity Criteria for the ÖMPSQ and the HKF-R 10 in Germany.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Riewe

    Full Text Available 10% of all individuals in Germany develop persistent symptoms due to nonspecific back pain (NSBP causing up to 90% of direct and indirect expenses for health care systems. Evidence indicates a strong relationship between chronic nonspecific back pain and psychosocial risk factors. The Örebro Musculoskeletal Pain Screening Questionnaire (ÖMPSQ and the German Heidelberger Kurzfragebogen Rückenschmerz (HKF-R 10 are deemed valid in prediction of persistent pain, functional loss or amount of sick leave. This study provides and discusses validity criteria for these questionnaires using ROC-curve analyses. Quality measurements included sensitivity and specificity, likelihood-ratio related test-efficiencies and clinical utility in regard to predictive values.265 patients recruited from primary and secondary care units completed both questionnaires during the same timeframe. From the total, 133 patients returned a 6-month follow-up questionnaire to assess the validity criteria for outcomes of pain, function and sick leave.Based on heterogeneous cut-offs for the ÖMPSQ, sensitivity and specificity were moderate for outcome of pain (72%/75%. Very high sensitivity was observed for function (97%/57% and high specificity for sick leave (63%/85%. The latter also applied to the HKF-R 10 (pain 50%/84%. Proportions between sensitivity and specificity were unbalanced except for the ÖMPSQ outcome of pain. Likelihood-ratios and positive predictive values ranged from low to moderate.Although the ÖMPSQ may be considered useful in identification of long-term functional loss or pain, over- and underestimation of patients at risk of chronic noncspecific back pain led to limited test-efficiencies and clinical utility for both questionnaires. Further studies are required to quantify the predictive validity of both questionnaires in Germany.

  1. Validity of an Interactive Functional Reach Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galen, Sujay S; Pardo, Vicky; Wyatt, Douglas; Diamond, Andrew; Brodith, Victor; Pavlov, Alex

    2015-08-01

    Videogaming platforms such as the Microsoft (Redmond, WA) Kinect(®) are increasingly being used in rehabilitation to improve balance performance and mobility. These gaming platforms do not have built-in clinical measures that offer clinically meaningful data. We have now developed software that will enable the Kinect sensor to assess a patient's balance using an interactive functional reach test (I-FRT). The aim of the study was to test the concurrent validity of the I-FRT and to establish the feasibility of implementing the I-FRT in a clinical setting. The concurrent validity of the I-FRT was tested among 20 healthy adults (mean age, 25.8±3.4 years; 14 women). The Functional Reach Test (FRT) was measured simultaneously by both the Kinect sensor using the I-FRT software and the Optotrak Certus(®) 3D motion-capture system (Northern Digital Inc., Waterloo, ON, Canada). The feasibility of implementing the I-FRT in a clinical setting was assessed by performing the I-FRT in 10 participants with mild balance impairments recruited from the outpatient physical therapy clinic (mean age, 55.8±13.5 years; four women) and obtaining their feedback using a NASA Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) questionnaire. There was moderate to good agreement between FRT measures made by the two measurement systems. The greatest agreement between the two measurement system was found with the Kinect sensor placed at a distance of 2.5 m [intraclass correlation coefficient (2,k)=0.786; PNASA/TLX questionnaire. FRT measures made using the Kinect sensor I-FRT software provides a valid clinical measure that can be used with the gaming platforms.

  2. Differential Weighting of Items to Improve University Admission Test Validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Backhoff Escudero

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives an evaluation of different ways to increase university admission test criterion-related validity, by differentially weighting test items. We compared four methods of weighting multiple-choice items of the Basic Skills and Knowledge Examination (EXHCOBA: (1 punishing incorrect responses by a constant factor, (2 weighting incorrect responses, considering the levels of error, (3 weighting correct responses, considering the item’s difficulty, based on the Classic Measurement Theory, and (4 weighting correct responses, considering the item’s difficulty, based on the Item Response Theory. Results show that none of these methods increased the instrument’s predictive validity, although they did improve its concurrent validity. It was concluded that it is appropriate to score the test by simply adding up correct responses.

  3. Overview of CSNI separate effects tests validation matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aksan, N. [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland); Auria, F.D. [Univ. of Pisa (Italy); Glaeser, H. [Gesellschaft fuer anlagen und Reaktorsicherheit, (GRS), Garching (Germany)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    An internationally agreed separate effects test (SET) Validation Matrix for thermal-hydraulic system codes has been established by a sub-group of the Task Group on Thermal Hydraulic System Behaviour as requested by the OECD/NEA Committee on Safety of Nuclear Installations (SCNI) Principal Working Group No. 2 on Coolant System Behaviour. The construction of such a Matrix is an attempt to collect together in a systematic way the best sets of openly available test data for code validation, assessment and improvement and also for quantitative code assessment with respect to quantification of uncertainties to the modeling of individual phenomena by the codes. The methodology, that has been developed during the process of establishing CSNI-SET validation matrix, was an important outcome of the work on SET matrix. In addition, all the choices which have been made from the 187 identified facilities covering the 67 phenomena will be investigated together with some discussions on the data base.

  4. [Translation and linguistic validation in classical Arabic of the urinary symptom profile (USP) questionnaire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabi, H; Bendeddouche, I; Khalfaoui, S; Louardi, N; Ameur, A; Lebreton, F; Amarenco, G

    2013-04-01

    The objective was to translate and linguistically validate in classical Arabic; the French version of the Urinary Symptom Profile (USP), the scale adapted to vesico-sphincter disorders. Prospective study of 30 patients suffering the vesico-sphincter disorders. The translation was obtained by the method: translation back-translation. Patients completed the final questionnaire on day 0 and day 15. The feasibility, acceptability, internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha and test-retest repeatability by the interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) with the confidence interval (CI) were studied. The sample consisted of 30 subjects including 20 men (66.6%) and 10 women (33.3%). The mean age was 48±18, 14 years ranging from 25 to 70 years. The questionnaire was feasible and acceptable. The Cronbach's alpha of the three dimensions, urinary stress incontinence, overactive bladder and voiding difficulties was respectively 0.9880, 0.9774 and 0.9683, respectively; the ICC was 0.9762 (95% CI: 0.9307-0.9919), 0.9558 (CI 95%: 0.8738-0.9849) and 0.9385 (95% CI: 0.8274-0.9789). The Arabic version of the classic USP had excellent internal consistency and excellent repeatability enable a full assessment of all urinary disorders and their severity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Performance Validity Testing in Neuropsychology: Scientific Basis and Clinical Application-A Brief Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greher, Michael R; Wodushek, Thomas R

    2017-03-01

    Performance validity testing refers to neuropsychologists' methodology for determining whether neuropsychological test performances completed in the course of an evaluation are valid (ie, the results of true neurocognitive function) or invalid (ie, overly impacted by the patient's effort/engagement in testing). This determination relies upon the use of either standalone tests designed for this sole purpose, or specific scores/indicators embedded within traditional neuropsychological measures that have demonstrated this utility. In response to a greater appreciation for the critical role that performance validity issues play in neuropsychological testing and the need to measure this variable to the best of our ability, the scientific base for performance validity testing has expanded greatly over the last 20 to 30 years. As such, the majority of current day neuropsychologists in the United States use a variety of measures for the purpose of performance validity testing as part of everyday forensic and clinical practice and address this issue directly in their evaluations. The following is the first article of a 2-part series that will address the evolution of performance validity testing in the field of neuropsychology, both in terms of the science as well as the clinical application of this measurement technique. The second article of this series will review performance validity tests in terms of methods for development of these measures, and maximizing of diagnostic accuracy.

  6. Diagnostic depressive symptoms of the mixed bipolar episode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, F; Ahearn, E; Murry, E; Forest, K; Carroll, B J

    2000-03-01

    There is not yet consensus on the best diagnostic definition of mixed bipolar episodes. Many have suggested the DSM-III-R/-IV definition is too rigid. We propose alternative criteria using data from a large patient cohort. We evaluated 237 manic in-patients using DSM-III-R criteria and the Scale for Manic States (SMS). A bimodally distributed factor of dysphoric mood has been reported from the SMS data. We used both the factor and the DSM-III-R classifications to identify candidate depressive symptoms and then developed three candidate depressive symptom sets. Using ROC analysis we determined the optimal threshold number of symptoms in each set and compared the three ROC solutions. The optimal solution was tested against the DSM-III-R classification for crossvalidation. The optimal ROC solution was a set, derived from both the DSM-III-R and the SMS, and the optimal threshold for diagnosis was two or more symptoms. Applying this set iteratively to the DSM-III-R classification produced the identical ROC solution. The prevalence of mixed episodes in the cohort was 13.9% by DSM-III-R, 20.2% by the dysphoria factor and 27.4% by the new ROC solution. A diagnostic set of six dysphoric symptoms (depressed mood, anhedonia, guilt, suicide, fatigue and anxiety), with a threshold of two symptoms, is proposed for a mixed episode. This new definition has a foundation in clinical data, in the proved diagnostic performance of the qualifying symptoms, and in ROC validation against two previous definitions that each have face validity.

  7. Validity of the Eating Attitude Test among Exercisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Helen J; Lane, Andrew M; Matheson, Hilary

    2004-12-01

    Theory testing and construct measurement are inextricably linked. To date, no published research has looked at the factorial validity of an existing eating attitude inventory for use with exercisers. The Eating Attitude Test (EAT) is a 26-item measure that yields a single index of disordered eating attitudes. The original factor analysis showed three interrelated factors: Dieting behavior (13-items), oral control (7-items), and bulimia nervosa-food preoccupation (6-items). The primary purpose of the study was to examine the factorial validity of the EAT among a sample of exercisers. The second purpose was to investigate relationships between eating attitudes scores and selected psychological constructs. In stage one, 598 regular exercisers completed the EAT. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to test the single-factor, a three-factor model, and a four-factor model, which distinguished bulimia from food pre-occupation. CFA of the single-factor model (RCFI = 0.66, RMSEA = 0.10), the three-factor-model (RCFI = 0.74; RMSEA = 0.09) showed poor model fit. There was marginal fit for the 4-factor model (RCFI = 0.91, RMSEA = 0.06). Results indicated five-items showed poor factor loadings. After these 5-items were discarded, the three models were re-analyzed. CFA results indicated that the single-factor model (RCFI = 0.76, RMSEA = 0.10) and three-factor model (RCFI = 0.82, RMSEA = 0.08) showed poor fit. CFA results for the four-factor model showed acceptable fit indices (RCFI = 0.98, RMSEA = 0.06). Stage two explored relationships between EAT scores, mood, self-esteem, and motivational indices toward exercise in terms of self-determination, enjoyment and competence. Correlation results indicated that depressed mood scores positively correlated with bulimia and dieting scores. Further, dieting was inversely related with self-determination toward exercising. Collectively, findings suggest that a 21-item four-factor model shows promising validity coefficients among

  8. Validity and Reliability of Baseline Testing in a Standardized Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Kathryn L; Caze, Todd; Maerlender, Arthur

    2017-08-11

    The Immediate Postconcussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) is a computerized neuropsychological test battery commonly used to determine cognitive recovery from concussion based on comparing post-injury scores to baseline scores. This model is based on the premise that ImPACT baseline test scores are a valid and reliable measure of optimal cognitive function at baseline. Growing evidence suggests that this premise may not be accurate and a large contributor to invalid and unreliable baseline test scores may be the protocol and environment in which baseline tests are administered. This study examined the effects of a standardized environment and administration protocol on the reliability and performance validity of athletes' baseline test scores on ImPACT by comparing scores obtained in two different group-testing settings. Three hundred-sixty one Division 1 cohort-matched collegiate athletes' baseline data were assessed using a variety of indicators of potential performance invalidity; internal reliability was also examined. Thirty-one to thirty-nine percent of the baseline cases had at least one indicator of low performance validity, but there were no significant differences in validity indicators based on environment in which the testing was conducted. Internal consistency reliability scores were in the acceptable to good range, with no significant differences between administration conditions. These results suggest that athletes may be reliably performing at levels lower than their best effort would produce. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Evaluating the clinical utility of the Validity-10 for detecting amplified symptom reporting for patients with mild traumatic brain injury and comorbid psychological health conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dretsch, Michael N; Williams, Kathy; Staver, Tara; Grammer, Geoffrey; Bleiberg, Joseph; DeGraba, Thomas; Lange, Rael T

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the Validity-10 scale with the PAI Negative Impression Management Scale (PAI-NIM) for detecting exaggerated symptom reporting in active-duty military service members (SMs) admitted with unremitting mild TBI symptoms and comorbid psychological health conditions (mTBI/PH). Data were analyzed from 254 SMs who completed the Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory (NSI) and Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) as a part of a larger battery of self-report symptom scales upon admission to the intensive-outpatient TBI treatment program at a military medical center. Symptom exaggeration was operationalized using the PAI Negative Impression Management Scale (PAI-NIM). A PAI-NIM score of ≥73 was categorized as positive for symptom exaggeration (SVTpos), while a lower score was categorized as negative for symptom exaggeration (SVTneg). SMs in the SVTpos group (n = 34) had significantly higher scores (p ≤ .004) on the PAI clinical scales as well as on the NSI total score (range: d = 0.59-1.91) compared to those who were SVTneg (n = 220). The optimal cut-score for the NSI Val-10 scale to identify possible symptom exaggeration was ≥26 (sensitivity = .29, specificity = .95, PPP = .74, NPP = .71). In patients suffering from mTBI/PH, the Validity-10 requires a higher cut-score than previously reported to be useful as a metric of exaggerated symptom reporting.

  10. ExEP yield modeling tool and validation test results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Rhonda; Turmon, Michael; Delacroix, Christian; Savransky, Dmitry; Garrett, Daniel; Lowrance, Patrick; Liu, Xiang Cate; Nunez, Paul

    2017-09-01

    EXOSIMS is an open-source simulation tool for parametric modeling of the detection yield and characterization of exoplanets. EXOSIMS has been adopted by the Exoplanet Exploration Programs Standards Definition and Evaluation Team (ExSDET) as a common mechanism for comparison of exoplanet mission concept studies. To ensure trustworthiness of the tool, we developed a validation test plan that leverages the Python-language unit-test framework, utilizes integration tests for selected module interactions, and performs end-to-end crossvalidation with other yield tools. This paper presents the test methods and results, with the physics-based tests such as photometry and integration time calculation treated in detail and the functional tests treated summarily. The test case utilized a 4m unobscured telescope with an idealized coronagraph and an exoplanet population from the IPAC radial velocity (RV) exoplanet catalog. The known RV planets were set at quadrature to allow deterministic validation of the calculation of physical parameters, such as working angle, photon counts and integration time. The observing keepout region was tested by generating plots and movies of the targets and the keepout zone over a year. Although the keepout integration test required the interpretation of a user, the test revealed problems in the L2 halo orbit and the parameterization of keepout applied to some solar system bodies, which the development team was able to address. The validation testing of EXOSIMS was performed iteratively with the developers of EXOSIMS and resulted in a more robust, stable, and trustworthy tool that the exoplanet community can use to simulate exoplanet direct-detection missions from probe class, to WFIRST, up to large mission concepts such as HabEx and LUVOIR.

  11. Negative symptoms in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia: A psychometric evaluation of the brief negative symptom scale across diagnostic categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Gregory P; Vertinski, Mary; Vogel, Sally J; Ringdahl, Erik N; Allen, Daniel N

    2016-02-01

    Past studies have demonstrated that the Brief Negative Symptom Scale (BNSS) has excellent psychometric properties in patients with schizophrenia. In the current study, we extended this literature by examining psychometric properties of the BNSS in outpatients diagnosed with bipolar disorder (n=46), outpatients with schizophrenia (n=50), and healthy controls (n=27). Participants completed neuropsychological testing and a clinical interview designed to assess negative, positive, disorganized, mood, and general psychiatric symptoms. Results indicated differences among the 3 groups in the severity of all BNSS items, with SZ and BD scoring higher than CN; however, SZ and BD only differed on blunted affect and alogia items, not anhedonia, avolition, or asociality. BD patients with a history of psychosis did not differ from those without a history of psychosis on negative symptom severity. The BNSS had excellent internal consistency in SZ, BD, and CN groups. Good convergent and discriminant validity was apparent in SZ and BD groups, as indicated by relationships between the BNSS and other clinical rating scales. These findings support the validity of the BNSS in broadly defined serious mental illness populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Development and Validation of a Dissolution Test Method for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop and validate a dissolution test method for dissolution release of artemether and lumefantrine from tablets. Methods: A single dissolution method for evaluating the in vitro release of artemether and lumefantrine from tablets was developed and validated. The method comprised of a dissolution medium of ...

  13. Validation of Metagenomic Next-Generation Sequencing Tests for Universal Pathogen Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaberg, Robert; Chiu, Charles Y; Miller, Steve; Procop, Gary W; Weinstock, George

    2017-06-01

    - Metagenomic sequencing can be used for detection of any pathogens using unbiased, shotgun next-generation sequencing (NGS), without the need for sequence-specific amplification. Proof-of-concept has been demonstrated in infectious disease outbreaks of unknown causes and in patients with suspected infections but negative results for conventional tests. Metagenomic NGS tests hold great promise to improve infectious disease diagnostics, especially in immunocompromised and critically ill patients. - To discuss challenges and provide example solutions for validating metagenomic pathogen detection tests in clinical laboratories. A summary of current regulatory requirements, largely based on prior guidance for NGS testing in constitutional genetics and oncology, is provided. - Examples from 2 separate validation studies are provided for steps from assay design, and validation of wet bench and bioinformatics protocols, to quality control and assurance. - Although laboratory and data analysis workflows are still complex, metagenomic NGS tests for infectious diseases are increasingly being validated in clinical laboratories. Many parallels exist to NGS tests in other fields. Nevertheless, specimen preparation, rapidly evolving data analysis algorithms, and incomplete reference sequence databases are idiosyncratic to the field of microbiology and often overlooked.

  14. Validity and reliability of tests determining performance-related components of wheelchair basketball

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Groot, Sonja; Balvers, Inge J. M.; Kouwenhoven, Sanne M.; Janssen, Thomas W. J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability and validity of wheelchair basketball field tests. Nineteen wheelchair basketball players performed 10 test items twice to determine the reliability. The validity of the tests was assessed by relating the scores to the players'

  15. Validity and reliability of tests determining performance-related components of wheelchair basketball

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Sonja; Balvers, Inge J.M.; Kouwenhoven, Sanne M.; Janssen, Thomas W.J.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability and validity of wheelchair basketball field tests. Nineteen wheelchair basketball players performed 10 test items twice to determine the reliability. The validity of the tests was assessed by relating the scores to the players'

  16. The ageing males' symptoms scale for Chinese men: reliability,validation and applicability of the Chinese version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, X-b; Guan, H-t; Li, H-g; Zhou, Y; Xiong, C-l

    2014-11-01

    In this study, the ageing males' symptoms (AMS) scale was translated into Chinese following methodological recommendations for linguistic and cultural adaptation. This study aimed to confirm the reliability, validation and applicability of the simplified Chinese version of the scale (CN-AMS) in older Chinese men, a free health screening for men older than 40 years was conducted. All participants completed a health questionnaire, which consisted of personal health information, AMS scale, the generic quality of life (QoL) instrument SF36 and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). The fasting blood samples of participants were collected on the day of completing the health questionnaire. Serum total testosterone (TT), albumin and sex hormone-binding globulin levels were measured and the level of free testosterone was calculated (calculated free testosterone, CFT). A total of 244 men (mean age: 52 ± 7.3 years, range: 40-79 years) were involved in the investigation and provided informed consent before their participation. The reliability of CN-AMS was analysed as internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha was 0.91) as well as a 4-week-interval test-retest stability (Pearson's correlation was 0.83) and found to be good. The validation of CN-AMS was analysed as the internal structure analysis (Pearson's correlation between total score and each item score r = 0.48-0.75), total-domain-correlation (among the three domains r = 0.47-0.68, p < 0.01; domains with the total score r = 0.81-0.88, p < 0.01), and cross-validation with other scales (with SF36 r = -0.59, p < 0.01; with BDI r = 0.50, p < 0.01). Androgen deficiency (AD) was defined as the presence of three sexual symptoms (decreased frequency of morning erections, sexual thoughts and erectile dysfunction) in combination with TT < 11 nmol/L and CFT < 220 pmol/L, and the sensitivity and specificity for CN-AMS was 68.8 and 6.8% respectively. The CN-AMS had sufficient sensitivity in

  17. Validation of the Vanderbilt Holistic Face Processing Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao-Chih; Ross, David A; Gauthier, Isabel; Richler, Jennifer J

    2016-01-01

    The Vanderbilt Holistic Face Processing Test (VHPT-F) is a new measure of holistic face processing with better psychometric properties relative to prior measures developed for group studies (Richler et al., 2014). In fields where psychologists study individual differences, validation studies are commonplace and the concurrent validity of a new measure is established by comparing it to an older measure with established validity. We follow this approach and test whether the VHPT-F measures the same construct as the composite task, which is group-based measure at the center of the large literature on holistic face processing. In Experiment 1, we found a significant correlation between holistic processing measured in the VHPT-F and the composite task. Although this correlation was small, it was comparable to the correlation between holistic processing measured in the composite task with the same faces, but different target parts (top or bottom), which represents a reasonable upper limit for correlations between the composite task and another measure of holistic processing. These results confirm the validity of the VHPT-F by demonstrating shared variance with another measure of holistic processing based on the same operational definition. These results were replicated in Experiment 2, but only when the demographic profile of our sample matched that of Experiment 1.

  18. Validation of the Vanderbilt Holistic Face Processing Test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Chih Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Vanderbilt Holistic Face Processing Test (VHPT-F is a new measure of holistic face processing with better psychometric properties relative to prior measures developed for group studies (Richler et al., 2014. In fields where psychologists study individual differences, validation studies are commonplace and the concurrent validity of a new measure is established by comparing it to an older measure with established validity. We follow this approach and test whether the VHPT-F measures the same construct as the composite task, which is group-based measure at the center of the large literature on holistic face processing. In Experiment 1, we found a significant correlation between holistic processing measured in the VHPT-F and the composite task. Although this correlation was small, it was comparable to the correlation between holistic processing measured in the composite task with the same faces, but different target parts (top or bottom, which represents a reasonable upper limit for correlations between the composite task and another measure of holistic processing. These results confirm the validity of the VHPT-F by demonstrating shared variance with another measure of holistic processing based on the same operational definition. These results were replicated in Experiment 2, but only when the demographic profile of our sample matched that of Experiment 1.

  19. [Relationship between clinical symptoms and Hiragana reading ability in children with difficulties in reading and writing:usefulness of a clinical-symptoms-checklist].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kita, Yosuke; Kobayashi, Tomoka; Koike, Toshihide; Koeda, Tatsuya; Wakamiya, Eiji; Hosokawa, Torn; Kaga, Makiko; Inagaki, Masumi

    2010-11-01

    We investigated the clinical symptoms of children with developmental dyslexia (DD) and evaluated the relationship between these symptoms and their Hiragana reading abilities. In order to detect the clinical symptoms of DD, we newly developed a clinical-symptoms-checklist (CL), which consisted of a total of 30 yes/no questions regarding symptoms linked to reading (15 questions) and writing (15 questions). Subjects were 98 Japanese school grade (1 to 9) children, aged 6 to 15 years old, with normal intelligence confirmed by the Wechsler Intelligence Test for Children (WISC-Ill) and they were divided into 2 groups according to their diagnosis. Twenty four children diagnosed as developmental dyslexia consisted the DD group, and the remaining 74 children were grouped in the non-DD group. CL showed significant construct validity (pHiragana reading ability of articulation time in all Hiragana reading tasks (pJapanese children.

  20. Detecting feigned postconcussional and posttraumatic stress symptoms with the structured inventory of malingered symptomatology (SIMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Adam C; Gfeller, Jeffrey; Emmert, Natalie; Lammert, Hannah

    2017-01-01

    The Structured Inventory of Malingered Symptomatology (SIMS) is a standalone symptom validity test (SVT) designed as a screening measure to detect a variety of exaggerated psychological symptoms. A number of studies have explored the accuracy of the SIMS in litigious and clinical populations, yet few have examined the validity of the SIMS in detecting feigned symptoms of postconcussional disorder (PCD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The present study examined the sensitivity of the SIMS in detecting undergraduate simulators (N = 78) feigning symptoms of PCD, PTSD, and the comorbid presentation of both PCD and PTSD symptomatologies. Overall, the SIMS Total score produced the highest sensitivities for the PCD symptoms and PCD+PTSD symptoms groups (.89 and .85, respectively), and to a lesser extent, the PTSD symptoms group (.69). The Affective Disorders (AF) subscale was most sensitive to the PTSD symptoms group compared to the PCD and PCD+PTSD symptoms groups. Additional sensitivity values are presented and examined at multiple scale cutoff scores. These findings support the use of the SIMS as a SVT screening measure for PCD and PTSD symptom exaggeration in neuropsychological assessment.

  1. Traumatic brain injury–Modeling neuropsychiatric symptoms in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oz eMalkesman

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Each year in the United States, approximately 1.5 million people sustain a traumatic brain injury (TBI. Victims of TBI can suffer from chronic post-TBI symptoms, such as sensory and motor deficits, cognitive impairments including problems with memory, learning, and attention, and neuropsychiatric symptoms such as depression, anxiety, irritability, aggression, and suicidal rumination. Although partially associated with the site and severity of injury, the biological mechanisms associated with many of these symptoms—and why some patients experience differing assortments of persistent maladies—are largely unknown. The use of animal models is a promising strategy for elucidation of the mechanisms of impairment and treatment, and learning, memory, sensory and motor tests have widespread utility in rodent models of TBI and psychopharmacology. Comparatively, behavioral tests for the evaluation of neuropsychiatric symptomatology are rarely employed in animal models of TBI and, as determined in this review, the results have been inconsistent. Animal behavioral studies contribute to the understanding of the biological mechanisms by which TBI is associated with neurobehavioral symptoms and offer a powerful means for pre-clinical treatment validation. Therefore, further exploration of the utility of animal behavioral tests for the study of injury mechanisms and therapeutic strategies for the alleviation of emotional symptoms are relevant and essential.

  2. Validity Theory: Reform Policies, Accountability Testing, and Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalhoub-Deville, Micheline

    2016-01-01

    Educational policies such as Race to the Top in the USA affirm a central role for testing systems in government-driven reform efforts. Such reform policies are often referred to as the global education reform movement (GERM). Changes observed with the GERM style of testing demand socially engaged validity theories that include consequential…

  3. Validation of a clinical critical thinking skills test in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sujin; Jung, Dukyoo; Kim, Sungeun

    2015-01-27

    The purpose of this study was to develop a revised version of the clinical critical thinking skills test (CCTS) and to subsequently validate its performance. This study is a secondary analysis of the CCTS. Data were obtained from a convenience sample of 284 college students in June 2011. Thirty items were analyzed using item response theory and test reliability was assessed. Test-retest reliability was measured using the results of 20 nursing college and graduate school students in July 2013. The content validity of the revised items was analyzed by calculating the degree of agreement between instrument developer intention in item development and the judgments of six experts. To analyze response process validity, qualitative data related to the response processes of nine nursing college students obtained through cognitive interviews were analyzed. Out of initial 30 items, 11 items were excluded after the analysis of difficulty and discrimination parameter. When the 19 items of the revised version of the CCTS were analyzed, levels of item difficulty were found to be relatively low and levels of discrimination were found to be appropriate or high. The degree of agreement between item developer intention and expert judgments equaled or exceeded 50%. From above results, evidence of the response process validity was demonstrated, indicating that subjects respondeds as intended by the test developer. The revised 19-item CCTS was found to have sufficient reliability and validity and will therefore represents a more convenient measurement of critical thinking ability.

  4. Development and validation of the Computerized Family Relation Test (CFRT for children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona eSkoczeń

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to develop and investigate the psychometric properties of the Computerized Family Relations Test (CFRT for children. This test assesses the quality of family relationships with the mother and father from a child’s perspective. The CFRT consists of six scales relating to control (Restrictiveness and Justice, and support (Affection, Vulnerability, Acknowledgement, and Trust within the family relationships. CFRT is an innovative approach to the Dutch Nijmegen Family Relations Test (NFRT developed by Oud and Welzen (1989. The administration of the test has been computerized and graphical representations of female and male silhouettes were included to facilitate the child’s parental identification. In total, 404 primary school children, aged 8 to 13 years (M = 11.0; SD = 1.17, took part in this study. The CFRT’s reliability was assessed by McDonald’s omega coefficients, and ranged from .71 to .86, except for Vulnerability which achieved the lowest reliability.57 for mothers’ ratings and .56 for fathers’ ratings. The test-retest procedure revealed higher stability for the ratings on father-child relationships of .71 compared to mother-child relationships of .67. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that a six-factor model provided an adequate fit. Measurement invariance across the children’s assessments of the quality of family relationships was achieved. The construct validity of CFRT was assessed by examining differences in the child’s ratings of the relationships with the mother and father, the child’s gender, and associations of CFRT scales with other variables such as depression, anxiety symptoms, and prosocial behavior.

  5. Reproducibility and validity of the DynaPort KneeTest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mokkink, L.B.; Terwee, C.B.; Slikke, van der R.M.; Lummel, van R.C.; Benink, R.J.; Bouter, L.M.; Vet, de H.C.W.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the reproducibility and validity of the DynaPort KneeTest, a performance-based test that measures quality of movement of patients undergoing total knee replacement (TKR). METHODS: A total of 92 patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee performed the KneeTest twice on the

  6. Diagnostic testing for celiac disease among patients with abdominal symptoms: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Windt, Daniëlle A W M; Jellema, Petra; Mulder, Chris J; Kneepkens, C M Frank; van der Horst, Henriëtte E

    2010-05-05

    The symptoms and consequences of celiac disease usually resolve with a lifelong gluten-free diet. However, clinical presentation is variable and most patients presenting with abdominal symptoms in primary care will not have celiac disease and unnecessary diagnostic testing should be avoided. To summarize evidence on the performance of diagnostic tests for identifying celiac disease in adults presenting with abdominal symptoms in primary care or similar settings. A literature search via MEDLINE (beginning in January 1966) and EMBASE (beginning in January 1947) through December 2009 and a manual search of references for additional relevant studies. Diagnostic studies were selected if they had a cohort or nested case-control design, enrolled adults presenting with nonacute abdominal symptoms, the prevalence of celiac disease was 15% or less, and the tests used included gastrointestinal symptoms or serum antibody tests. Quality assessment using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies tool and data extraction were performed by 2 reviewers independently. Sensitivities and specificities were calculated for each study and pooled estimates were computed using bivariate analysis if there was clinical and statistical homogeneity. Sixteen studies were included in the review (N = 6085 patients). The performance of abdominal symptoms varied widely. The sensitivity of diarrhea, for example, ranged from 0.27 to 0.86 and specificity from 0.21 to 0.86. Pooled estimates for IgA antiendomysial antibodies (8 studies) were 0.90 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.80-0.95) for sensitivity and 0.99 (95% CI, 0.98-1.00) for specificity (positive likelihood ratio [LR] of 171 and negative LR of 0.11). Pooled estimates for IgA antitissue transglutaminase antibodies (7 studies) were 0.89 (95% CI, 0.82-0.94) and 0.98 (95% CI, 0.95-0.99), respectively (positive LR of 37.7 and negative LR of 0.11). The IgA and IgG antigliadin antibodies showed variable results, especially for

  7. Reliability and Validity of Selected PROMIS Measures in People with Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan J Bartlett

    Full Text Available To evaluate the reliability and validity of 11 PROMIS measures to assess symptoms and impacts identified as important by people with rheumatoid arthritis (RA.Consecutive patients (N = 177 in an observational study completed PROMIS computer adapted tests (CATs and a short form (SF assessing pain, fatigue, physical function, mood, sleep, and participation. We assessed test-test reliability and internal consistency using correlation and Cronbach's alpha. We assessed convergent validity by examining Pearson correlations between PROMIS measures and existing measures of similar domains and known groups validity by comparing scores across disease activity levels using ANOVA.Participants were mostly female (82% and white (83% with mean (SD age of 56 (13 years; 24% had ≤ high school, 29% had RA ≤ 5 years with 13% ≤ 2 years, and 22% were disabled. PROMIS Physical Function, Pain Interference and Fatigue instruments correlated moderately to strongly (rho's ≥ 0.68 with corresponding PROs. Test-retest reliability ranged from .725-.883, and Cronbach's alpha from .906-.991. A dose-response relationship with disease activity was evident in Physical Function with similar trends in other scales except Anger.These data provide preliminary evidence of reliability and construct validity of PROMIS CATs to assess RA symptoms and impacts, and feasibility of use in clinical care. PROMIS instruments captured the experiences of RA patients across the broad continuum of RA symptoms and function, especially at low disease activity levels. Future research is needed to evaluate performance in relevant subgroups, assess responsiveness and identify clinically meaningful changes.

  8. LADO as a Language Test: Issues of Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Tim; Van Den Hazelkamp, Carolien; Verrips, Maaike

    2016-01-01

    This article brings together the theoretical field of language testing and the practical field of language analysis for the determination of the origin of asylum seekers. It considers what it would mean to think of language analysis as a form of language test, subject to the same validity constraints, and proposes a research agenda.

  9. Reliability and Validity of the Korean Version of the Symptom Checklist-Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The Symptom Checklist - Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Scale (SCL-PTSD), also known as Crime-Related PTSD Scale has been validated in survivors of interpersonal trauma in the general population. However, the psychometric properties have not been investigated in a clinical setting for patients with PTSD from diverse traumatic events. This study investigates the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the SCL-PTSD among 104 psychiatric outpatients with PTSD, caused by interpersonal (n = 50) or non-interpersonal trauma (n = 54). Self-report data of the SCL-PTSD, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and Impact of Events Scale-Revised (IES-R) were gathered. The Korean version of the SCL-PTSD showed excellent internal consistency and moderate-to-good four-week temporal stability in both the interpersonal and non-interpersonal trauma groups. In comparison with other diagnostic groups, the scores of the SCL-PTSD were significantly higher compared to those of adjustment disorder, depression, other anxiety disorders, and schizophrenia, demonstrating its criteria-related validity. Convergent validity was confirmed because the scores of the SCL-PTSD were significantly correlated with BDI, SAI and TAI scores. Concurrent validity was demonstrated by significant correlation with the IES-R score. This study demonstrated the favorable psychometric prosperities of the Korean version of the SCL-PTSD, supporting its use in clinical research and practice. PMID:27134501

  10. Testing ESL sociopragmatics development and validation of a web-based test battery

    CERN Document Server

    Roever, Carsten; Elder, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Testing of second language pragmatics has grown as a research area but still suffers from a tension between construct coverage and practicality. In this book, the authors describe the development and validation of a web-based test of second language pragmatics for learners of English. The test has a sociopragmatic orientation and strives for a broad coverage of the construct by assessing learners'' metapragmatic judgments as well as their ability to co-construct discourse. To ensure practicality, the test is delivered online and is scored partially automatically and partially by human raters.

  11. Technique for unit testing of safety software verification and validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Duo; Zhang Liangju; Feng Junting

    2008-01-01

    The key issue arising from digitalization of the reactor protection system for nuclear power plant is how to carry out verification and validation (V and V), to demonstrate and confirm the software that performs reactor safety functions is safe and reliable. One of the most important processes for software V and V is unit testing, which verifies and validates the software coding based on concept design for consistency, correctness and completeness during software development. The paper shows a preliminary study on the technique for unit testing of safety software V and V, focusing on such aspects as how to confirm test completeness, how to establish test platform, how to develop test cases and how to carry out unit testing. The technique discussed here was successfully used in the work of unit testing on safety software of a digital reactor protection system. (authors)

  12. Test-Retest Reliability and Predictive Validity of the Implicit Association Test in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, James R.; Olson, Kristina R.

    2018-01-01

    The Implicit Association Test (IAT) is increasingly used in developmental research despite minimal evidence of whether children's IAT scores are reliable across time or predictive of behavior. When test-retest reliability and predictive validity have been assessed, the results have been mixed, and because these studies have differed on many…

  13. Was the Conconi test validated by sporting success, expert opinion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Was the Conconi test validated by sporting success, expert opinion or good science? ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... Despite scientific evidence to the contrary, a popular incremental field test for endurance athletes (Conconi Test) ...

  14. Validation of SSC using the FFTF natural-circulation tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horak, W.C.; Guppy, J.G.; Kennett, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    As part of the Super System Code (SSC) validation program, the 100% power FFTF natural circulation test has been simulated using SSC. A detailed 19 channel, 2 loop model was used in SSC. Comparisons showed SSC calculations to be in good agreement with the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), test data. Simulation of the test was obtained in real time

  15. Hangover in Post-College-Aged Drinkers: Psychometric Properties of the Hangover Symptom Scale (HSS) and the Hangover Symptom Scale-Short Form (HSS-5).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavarria, Jesus; Rueger, Sandra Y; King, Andrea C

    2018-04-16

    Alcohol hangovers have been found to be a common and costly consequence of alcohol misuse. However, there is only limited psychometric support for instruments to accurately measure hangovers beyond the college-age years. This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Hangover Symptom Scale (HSS) and the Hangover Symptom Scale-Short Form (HSS-5) including the internal consistency, convergent and discriminant validity, construct validity, and the measurement invariance of these scales between light and heavy drinkers, individuals with a positive and negative family history of alcohol use disorder (AUD), and men and women in a post-college-aged sample. The association of the HSS and HSS-5 with alcohol use problems was also tested. Participants were 294 nonalcoholic light and heavy social drinkers (age range 21 to 35 years; 57.8% male) enrolled in the Chicago Social Drinking Project. They completed the HSS as part of a take-home packet completed outside of the laboratory. The psychometric properties of the HSS and HSS-5 were tested. Stronger psychometric support was found for the HSS-5 relative to the full HSS. While both measures demonstrated strong internal consistency reliability, convergent and discriminant validity, and an association with alcohol use problems, only the HSS-5 showed construct validity as determined by confirmatory factor analysis. Further, only the HSS-5 showed measurement invariance between men and women, light and heavy drinkers, and individuals with a positive and negative family history of AUD. This was the first study to examine the psychometric properties of the HSS and HSS-5 in a post-college-aged sample and the first to investigate the measurement invariance of these measures as a function of sex, drinking history, and family history of AUD. This study supports the use of the HSS-5 as a reliable and valid brief measure of frequency of hangover symptoms. Copyright © 2018 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  16. Validation of the Narrowing Beam Walking Test in Lower Limb Prosthesis Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawers, Andrew; Hafner, Brian

    2018-04-11

    To evaluate the content, construct, and discriminant validity of the Narrowing Beam Walking Test (NBWT), a performance-based balance test for lower limb prosthesis users. Cross-sectional study. Research laboratory and prosthetics clinic. Unilateral transtibial and transfemoral prosthesis users (N=40). Not applicable. Content validity was examined by quantifying the percentage of participants receiving maximum or minimum scores (ie, ceiling and floor effects). Convergent construct validity was examined using correlations between participants' NBWT scores and scores or times on existing clinical balance tests regularly administered to lower limb prosthesis users. Known-groups construct validity was examined by comparing NBWT scores between groups of participants with different fall histories, amputation levels, amputation etiologies, and functional levels. Discriminant validity was evaluated by analyzing the area under each test's receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. No minimum or maximum scores were recorded on the NBWT. NBWT scores demonstrated strong correlations (ρ=.70‒.85) with scores/times on performance-based balance tests (timed Up and Go test, Four Square Step Test, and Berg Balance Scale) and a moderate correlation (ρ=.49) with the self-report Activities-specific Balance Confidence scale. NBWT performance was significantly lower among participants with a history of falls (P=.003), transfemoral amputation (P=.011), and a lower mobility level (P.50 (ie, chance). The results provide strong evidence of content, construct, and discriminant validity for the NBWT as a performance-based test of balance ability. The evidence supports its use to assess balance impairments and fall risk in unilateral transtibial and transfemoral prosthesis users. Copyright © 2018 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Translation, Cultural Adaptation and Validation of the Simple Shoulder Test to Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcuri, Francisco; Barclay, Fernando; Nacul, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Background: The validation of widely used scales facilitates the comparison across international patient samples. Objective: The objective was to translate, culturally adapt and validate the Simple Shoulder Test into Argentinian Spanish. Methods: The Simple Shoulder Test was translated from English into Argentinian Spanish by two independent translators, translated back into English and evaluated for accuracy by an expert committee to correct the possible discrepancies. It was then administered to 50 patients with different shoulder conditions.Psycometric properties were analyzed including internal consistency, measured with Cronbach´s Alpha, test-retest reliability at 15 days with the interclass correlation coefficient. Results: The internal consistency, validation, was an Alpha of 0,808, evaluated as good. The test-retest reliability index as measured by intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.835, evaluated as excellent. Conclusion: The Simple Shoulder Test translation and it´s cultural adaptation to Argentinian-Spanish demonstrated adequate internal reliability and validity, ultimately allowing for its use in the comparison with international patient samples.

  18. [Validation of the IBS-SSS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betz, C; Mannsdörfer, K; Bischoff, S C

    2013-10-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal disorder characterised by abdominal pain, associated with stool abnormalities and changes in stool consistency. Diagnosis of IBS is based on characteristic symptoms and exclusion of other gastrointestinal diseases. A number of questionnaires exist to assist diagnosis and assessment of severity of the disease. One of these is the irritable bowel syndrome - severity scoring system (IBS-SSS). The IBS-SSS was validated 1997 in its English version. In the present study, the IBS-SSS has been validated in German language. To do this, a cohort of 60 patients with IBS according to the Rome III criteria, was compared with a control group of healthy individuals (n = 38). We studied sensitivity and reproducibility of the score, as well as the sensitivity to detect changes of symptom severity. The results of the German validation largely reflect the results of the English validation. The German version of the IBS-SSS is also a valid, meaningful and reproducible questionnaire with a high sensitivity to assess changes in symptom severity, especially in IBS patients with moderate symptoms. It is unclear if the IBS-SSS is also a valid questionnaire in IBS patients with severe symptoms because this group of patients was not studied. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Face Validity of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast Symptom Index (FACT- B into Formal Arabic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loulou Kobeissi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer affects over one million women annually and is the most common global malignancy among women. Extensive improvements have taken place in the management of breast cancer in recent years and a higher percentage of women are cured from this disease. A proper assessment of the quality of life of women with breast cancer is an essential component in disease management. The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy- Breast Symptom Index has been commonly used and well-validated among English speaking populations as well as other populations. To date, no formal translation and evaluation of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast System Index exists in Arabic. Therefore, this study intends to translate, adapt and face-validate the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast System Index into Arabic, specifically in the context of the Lebanese culture. Methods: We conducted forward and backward translation in Arabic, combined with face validity by clinicians. This was followed by pre-testing to ensure the instrument’s adequacy and cultural sensitivity conducted by the administration of face-to-face interviews with individual breast cancer patients (n=33 and two focus groups (4 women/group to evaluate the relevance and appropriateness of each item and words used in the questionnaire. Results: Study results reinforced the value of the Arabic translated version of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast System Index in capturing the quality of life of women with breast cancer in Lebanon. Conclusion: The instrument was perceived to be adequate, appropriate for use, culturally sensitive, simple as well as exhaustive. Suggestions have been made to enrich the instruments’ ability to incorporate other quality of life dimensions not captured, as well to enhance the cultural specificity of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast System Index, when administered among Lebanese women diagnosed with

  20. Validation of a clinical critical thinking skills test in nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujin Shin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a revised version of the clinical critical thinking skills test (CCTS and to subsequently validate its performance. Methods: This study is a secondary analysis of the CCTS. Data were obtained from a convenience sample of 284 college students in June 2011. Thirty items were analyzed using item response theory and test reliability was assessed. Test-retest reliability was measured using the results of 20 nursing college and graduate school students in July 2013. The content validity of the revised items was analyzed by calculating the degree of agreement between instrument developer intention in item development and the judgments of six experts. To analyze response process validity, qualitative data related to the response processes of nine nursing college students obtained through cognitive interviews were analyzed. Results: Out of initial 30 items, 11 items were excluded after the analysis of difficulty and discrimination parameter. When the 19 items of the revised version of the CCTS were analyzed, levels of item difficulty were found to be relatively low and levels of discrimination were found to be appropriate or high. The degree of agreement between item developer intention and expert judgments equaled or exceeded 50%. Conclusion: From above results, evidence of the response process validity was demonstrated, indicating that subjects respondeds as intended by the test developer. The revised 19-item CCTS was found to have sufficient reliability and validity and will therefore represents a more convenient measurement of critical thinking ability.

  1. Validation of Alternative In Vitro Methods to Animal Testing: Concepts, Challenges, Processes and Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesinger, Claudius; Desprez, Bertrand; Coecke, Sandra; Casey, Warren; Zuang, Valérie

    This chapter explores the concepts, processes, tools and challenges relating to the validation of alternative methods for toxicity and safety testing. In general terms, validation is the process of assessing the appropriateness and usefulness of a tool for its intended purpose. Validation is routinely used in various contexts in science, technology, the manufacturing and services sectors. It serves to assess the fitness-for-purpose of devices, systems, software up to entire methodologies. In the area of toxicity testing, validation plays an indispensable role: "alternative approaches" are increasingly replacing animal models as predictive tools and it needs to be demonstrated that these novel methods are fit for purpose. Alternative approaches include in vitro test methods, non-testing approaches such as predictive computer models up to entire testing and assessment strategies composed of method suites, data sources and decision-aiding tools. Data generated with alternative approaches are ultimately used for decision-making on public health and the protection of the environment. It is therefore essential that the underlying methods and methodologies are thoroughly characterised, assessed and transparently documented through validation studies involving impartial actors. Importantly, validation serves as a filter to ensure that only test methods able to produce data that help to address legislative requirements (e.g. EU's REACH legislation) are accepted as official testing tools and, owing to the globalisation of markets, recognised on international level (e.g. through inclusion in OECD test guidelines). Since validation creates a credible and transparent evidence base on test methods, it provides a quality stamp, supporting companies developing and marketing alternative methods and creating considerable business opportunities. Validation of alternative methods is conducted through scientific studies assessing two key hypotheses, reliability and relevance of the

  2. 40 CFR 1045.501 - How do I run a valid emission test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I run a valid emission test... Procedures § 1045.501 How do I run a valid emission test? (a) Applicability. This subpart is addressed to you... maximum test speed. (g) Special and alternate procedures. If you are unable to run the duty cycle...

  3. 40 CFR 1054.501 - How do I run a valid emission test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I run a valid emission test... Procedures § 1054.501 How do I run a valid emission test? (a) Applicability. This subpart is addressed to you... provisions of 40 CFR 1065.405 describes how to prepare an engine for testing. However, you may consider...

  4. S.E.T., CSNI Separate Effects Test Facility Validation Matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    1 - Description of test facility: The SET matrix of experiments is suitable for the developmental assessment of thermal-hydraulics transient system computer codes by selecting individual tests from selected facilities, relevant to each phenomena. Test facilities differ from one another in geometrical dimensions, geometrical configuration and operating capabilities or conditions. Correlation between SET facility and phenomena were calculated on the basis of suitability for model validation (which means that a facility is designed in such a way as to stimulate the phenomena assumed to occur in a plant and is sufficiently instrumented); limited suitability for model variation (which means that a facility is designed in such a way as to stimulate the phenomena assumed to occur in a plant but has problems associated with imperfect scaling, different test fluids or insufficient instrumentation); and unsuitability for model validation. 2 - Description of test: Whereas integral experiments are usually designed to follow the behaviour of a reactor system in various off-normal or accident transients, separate effects tests focus on the behaviour of a single component, or on the characteristics of one thermal-hydraulic phenomenon. The construction of a separate effects test matrix is an attempt to collect together the best sets of openly available test data for code validation, assessment and improvement, from the wide range of experiments that have been carried out world-wide in the field of thermal hydraulics. In all, 2094 tests are included in the SET matrix

  5. Development of an Agility Test for Badminton Players and Assessment of Its Validity and Test-Retest Reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loureiro, Luiz de França Bahia; de Freitas, Paulo Barbosa

    2016-04-01

    Badminton requires open and fast actions toward the shuttlecock, but there is no specific agility test for badminton players with specific movements. To develop an agility test that simultaneously assesses perception and motor capacity and examine the test's concurrent and construct validity and its test-retest reliability. The Badcamp agility test consists of running as fast as possible to 6 targets placed on the corners and middle points of a rectangular area (5.6 × 4.2 m) from the start position located in the center of it, following visual stimuli presented in a luminous panel. The authors recruited 43 badminton players (17-32 y old) to evaluate concurrent (with shuttle-run agility test--SRAT) and construct validity and test-retest reliability. Results revealed that Badcamp presents concurrent and construct validity, as its performance is strongly related to SRAT (ρ = 0.83, P < .001), with performance of experts being better than nonexpert players (P < .01). In addition, Badcamp is reliable, as no difference (P = .07) and a high intraclass correlation (ICC = .93) were found in the performance of the players on 2 different occasions. The findings indicate that Badcamp is an effective, valid, and reliable tool to measure agility, allowing coaches and athletic trainers to evaluate players' athletic condition and training effectiveness and possibly detect talented individuals in this sport.

  6. Screening Tool to Determine Risk of Having Muscle Dysmorphia Symptoms in Men Who Engage in Weight Training at a Gym.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazón-Bru, Antonio; Rizo-Baeza, María M; Martínez-Segura, Asier; Folgado-de la Rosa, David M; Gil-Guillén, Vicente F; Cortés-Castell, Ernesto

    2018-03-01

    Although 2 screening tests exist for having a high risk of muscle dysmorphia (MD) symptoms, they both require a long time to apply. Accordingly, we proposed the construction, validation, and implementation of such a test in a mobile application using easy-to-measure factors associated with MD. Cross-sectional observational study. Gyms in Alicante (Spain) during 2013 to 2014. One hundred forty-one men who engaged in weight training. The variables are as follows: age, educational level, income, buys own food, physical activity per week, daily meals, importance of nutrition, special nutrition, guilt about dietary nonadherence, supplements, and body mass index (BMI). A points system was constructed through a binary logistic regression model to predict a high risk of MD symptoms by testing all possible combinations of secondary variables (5035). The system was validated using bootstrapping and implemented in a mobile application. High risk of having MD symptoms (Muscle Appearance Satisfaction Scale). Of the 141 participants, 45 had a high risk of MD symptoms [31.9%, 95% confidence interval (CI), 24.2%-39.6%]. The logistic regression model combination providing the largest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (0.76) included the following: age [odds ratio (OR) = 0.90; 95% CI, 0.84-0.97, P = 0.007], guilt about dietary nonadherence (OR = 2.46; 95% CI, 1.06-5.73, P = 0.037), energy supplements (OR = 3.60; 95% CI, 1.54-8.44, P = 0.003), and BMI (OR = 1.33, 95% CI, 1.12-1.57, P < 0.001). The points system was validated through 1000 bootstrap samples. A quick, easy-to-use, 4-factor test that could serve as a screening tool for a high risk of MD symptoms has been constructed, validated, and implemented in a mobile application.

  7. Toward the next generation of negative symptom assessments: the collaboration to advance negative symptom assessment in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Jack J; Kring, Ann M; Horan, William P; Gur, Raquel

    2011-03-01

    Negative symptoms in schizophrenia are related to poor functional outcome, persistent over time, a source of burden for caregivers, and only minimally responsive to currently available medications. A major challenge to developing efficacious interventions concerns the valid and reliable assessment of negative symptoms. In a recent consensus statement on negative symptoms, a central recommendation was the need to develop new assessment approaches that address the limitations of existing instruments. In the current report, we summarize the background and rationale for the Collaboration to Advance Negative Symptom Assessment in Schizophrenia (CANSAS). The CANSAS project is an National Institute of Mental Health-funded multisite study that is constructing a next-generation negative symptom scale, the Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS). The CAINS is being developed within a data-driven iterative process that seeks to ensure the measure's reliability, validity, and utility for both basic psychopathology and treatment development research.

  8. A brief symptom index for advanced renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cella David

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our objective was to test a brief, symptom index for advanced renal cell carcinoma, a disease affecting over 38,000 Americans each year and often diagnosed in late stages. Methods We conducted secondary data analyses on patient-reported outcomes of 209 metastatic renal cell carcinoma patients participating in a Phase III clinical trial. Patient-reported outcomes, obtained from the FACT-Biological Response Modifier (FACT-BRM scale, were available at baseline, 2, and 8 weeks. We analyzed data from eight FACT-BRM items previously identified by clinical experts to represent the most important symptoms of advanced renal cell carcinoma. Items comprising this index assess nausea, pain, appetite, perceived sickness, fatigue and weakness, with higher scores indicating fewer symptoms. We determined reliability and validity of the index and estimated a minimally important difference. Results The index had excellent internal reliability at all three time points (alphas ≥ 0.83. Baseline scores were able to discriminate patients across Karnofsky performance status, number of metastatic sites, and risk group categories (ps Conclusion The 8-item index of patient-reported symptoms of renal cell carcinoma appears to be a psychometrically sound measure. It is a brief, reliable, and valid measure that can easily be adapted for use in clinical trials and observational studies.

  9. Validation of the Arabic Version of the Internet Gaming Disorder-20 Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawi, Nazir S; Samaha, Maya

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, researchers have been trying to shed light on gaming addiction and its association with different psychiatric disorders and psychological determinants. The latest edition version of the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) included in its Section 3 Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) as a condition for further empirical study and proposed nine criteria for the diagnosis of IGD. The 20-item Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD-20) Test was developed as a valid and reliable tool to assess gaming addiction based on the nine criteria set by the DSM-5. The aim of this study is to validate an Arabic version of the IGD-20 Test. The Arabic version of IGD-20 will not only help in identifying Arabic-speaking pathological gamers but also stimulate cross-cultural studies that could contribute to an area in need of more research for insight and treatment. After a process of translation and back-translation and with the participation of a sizable sample of Arabic-speaking adolescents, the present study conducted a psychometric validation of the IGD-20 Test. Our confirmatory factor analysis showed the validity of the Arabic version of the IGD-20 Test. The one-factor model of the Arabic IGD-20 Test had very good psychometric properties, and it fitted the sample data extremely well. In addition, correlation analysis between the IGD-20 Test and the daily duration on weekdays and weekends gameplay revealed significant positive relationships that warranted a criterion-related validation. Thus, the Arabic version of the IGD-20 Test is a valid and reliable measure of IGD among Arabic-speaking populations.

  10. A Human Proximity Operations System test case validation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Justin; Straub, Jeremy

    A Human Proximity Operations System (HPOS) poses numerous risks in a real world environment. These risks range from mundane tasks such as avoiding walls and fixed obstacles to the critical need to keep people and processes safe in the context of the HPOS's situation-specific decision making. Validating the performance of an HPOS, which must operate in a real-world environment, is an ill posed problem due to the complexity that is introduced by erratic (non-computer) actors. In order to prove the HPOS's usefulness, test cases must be generated to simulate possible actions of these actors, so the HPOS can be shown to be able perform safely in environments where it will be operated. The HPOS must demonstrate its ability to be as safe as a human, across a wide range of foreseeable circumstances. This paper evaluates the use of test cases to validate HPOS performance and utility. It considers an HPOS's safe performance in the context of a common human activity, moving through a crowded corridor, and extrapolates (based on this) to the suitability of using test cases for AI validation in other areas of prospective application.

  11. Validity and Reliability Testing of an e-learning Questionnaire for Chemistry Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guspatni, G.; Kurniawati, Y.

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine validity and reliability of a questionnaire used to evaluate e-learning implementation in chemistry instruction. 48 questionnaires were filled in by students who had studied chemistry through e-learning system. The questionnaire consisted of 20 indicators evaluating students’ perception on using e-learning. Parametric testing was done as data were assumed to follow normal distribution. Item validity of the questionnaire was examined through item-total correlation using Pearson’s formula while its reliability was assessed with Cronbach’s alpha formula. Moreover, convergent validity was assessed to see whether indicators building a factor had theoretically the same underlying construct. The result of validity testing revealed 19 valid indicators while the result of reliability testing revealed Cronbach’s alpha value of .886. The result of factor analysis showed that questionnaire consisted of five factors, and each of them had indicators building the same construct. This article shows the importance of factor analysis to get a construct valid questionnaire before it is used as research instrument.

  12. Identification of low allergenic apple cultivars using skin prick tests and oral food challenge tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlieg-Boerstra, B.J.; Weg, van de W.E.; Heide, van der S.; Arens, P.F.P.; Heijerman-Peppelman, G.; Dubois, A.E.J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: As oral allergy syndrome (OAS) symptoms to apple are frequent, we aimed to identify low allergenic apple cultivars and to validate the prick-to-prick skin prick test (SPT) as a suitable screening method. Methods: Sixty-eight apple cultivars were tested by SPTs in 33 Dutch adults with

  13. Establishing the Test-Retest Reliability & Concurrent Validity for the Repeat Ice Skating Test (RIST) in Adolescent Male Ice Hockey Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Allan; Faught, Brent E.; Przysucha, Eryk; McPherson, Moira; Montelpare, William

    2012-01-01

    In this study the authors examine the test-retest reliability and concurrent validity of the Repeat Ice Skating Test (RIST). This was an on-ice field anaerobic test that measured average peak power and was validated with 3 anaerobic lab tests: (a) vertical jump, (b) the Margaria-Kalamen stair test, and (c) the Wingate Anaerobic Test. The…

  14. Symptom Dimensions and Neurocognitive Functioning in Adult ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    Butcher, Andrew Timothy

    2000-01-01

    Ongoing controversies regarding the clinical and nosological status of ADHD in adults emphasize the need for studies examining whether DSM-IV ADHD symptom dimensions and subtypes identified in research with children are valid for adults. Firm symptom criteria validated by data from adult samples have not been developed. Moreover, many clinic-referred adults present with attentional complaints and exhibit symptoms, neurocognitive weaknesses, and secondary problems similar to those seen in A...

  15. Perfectionism, weight and shape concerns, and low self-esteem: Testing a model to predict bulimic symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Mela, Carmelo; Maglietta, Marzio; Caini, Saverio; Casu, Giuliano P; Lucarelli, Stefano; Mori, Sara; Ruggiero, Giovanni Maria

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies have tested multivariate models of bulimia pathology development, documenting that a confluence of perfectionism, body dissatisfaction, and low self-esteem is predictive of disordered eating. However, attempts to replicate these results have yielded controversial findings. The objective of the present study was to test an interactive model of perfectionism, weight and shape concerns, and self-esteem in a sample of patients affected by Eating Disorder (ED). One-hundred-sixty-seven ED patients received the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I (SCID-I), and they completed the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), and the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (MPS-F). Several mediation analysis models were fit to test whether causal effects of concern over weight and shape on the frequency of bulimic episodes were mediated by perfectionism and moderated by low levels of self-esteem. Contrary to our hypotheses, we found no evidence that the causal relationship investigated was mediated by any of the dimensions of perfectionism. As a secondary finding, the dimensions of perfectionism, perceived criticism and parental expectations, were significantly correlated with the presence of bulimic symptoms. The validity of the interactive model remains controversial, and may be limited by an inadequate conceptualization of the perfectionism construct.

  16. Reliability and validity of the revised Gibson Test of Cognitive Skills, a computer-based test battery for assessing cognition across the lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Amy Lawson; Miller, Terissa M

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to evaluate the validity and reliability of the revised Gibson Test of Cognitive Skills, a computer-based battery of tests measuring short-term memory, long-term memory, processing speed, logic and reasoning, visual processing, as well as auditory processing and word attack skills. This study included 2,737 participants aged 5-85 years. A series of studies was conducted to examine the validity and reliability using the test performance of the entire norming group and several subgroups. The evaluation of the technical properties of the test battery included content validation by subject matter experts, item analysis and coefficient alpha, test-retest reliability, split-half reliability, and analysis of concurrent validity with the Woodcock Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities and Tests of Achievement. Results indicated strong sources of evidence of validity and reliability for the test, including internal consistency reliability coefficients ranging from 0.87 to 0.98, test-retest reliability coefficients ranging from 0.69 to 0.91, split-half reliability coefficients ranging from 0.87 to 0.91, and concurrent validity coefficients ranging from 0.53 to 0.93. The Gibson Test of Cognitive Skills-2 is a reliable and valid tool for assessing cognition in the general population across the lifespan.

  17. Content validity and reliability of test of gross motor development in Chilean children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Cano-Cappellacci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To validate a Spanish version of the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2 for the Chilean population. METHODS Descriptive, transversal, non-experimental validity and reliability study. Four translators, three experts and 92 Chilean children, from five to 10 years, students from a primary school in Santiago, Chile, have participated. The Committee of Experts has carried out translation, back-translation and revision processes to determine the translinguistic equivalence and content validity of the test, using the content validity index in 2013. In addition, a pilot implementation was achieved to determine test reliability in Spanish, by using the intraclass correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman method. We evaluated whether the results presented significant differences by replacing the bat with a racket, using T-test. RESULTS We obtained a content validity index higher than 0.80 for language clarity and relevance of the TGMD-2 for children. There were significant differences in the object control subtest when comparing the results with bat and racket. The intraclass correlation coefficient for reliability inter-rater, intra-rater and test-retest reliability was greater than 0.80 in all cases. CONCLUSIONS The TGMD-2 has appropriate content validity to be applied in the Chilean population. The reliability of this test is within the appropriate parameters and its use could be recommended in this population after the establishment of normative data, setting a further precedent for the validation in other Latin American countries.

  18. Cross-Cultural Validation of TEMAS, a Minority Projective Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, Giuseppe; And Others

    The theoretical framework and cross-cultural validation of Tell-Me-A-Story (TEMAS), a projective test developed to measure personality development in ethnic minority children, is presented. The TEMAS test consists of 23 chromatic pictures which incorporate the following characteristics: (1) representation of antithetical concepts which the…

  19. Some Findings from Thermal-Hydraulic Validation Tests for SMART Passive Safety System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyun Sik; Bae, Hwang; Ryu, Sung-Uk; Ryu, Hyobong; Shin, Yong-Cheol; Min, Kyoung-Ho; Yi, Sung-Jae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    To satisfy the domestic and international needs for nuclear safety improvement after the Fukushima accident, an effort to improve its safety has been studied, and a Passive Safety System (PSS) for SMART has been designed. In addition, an Integral Test Loop for the SMART design (SMART-ITL, or FESTA) has been constructed and it finished its commissioning tests in 2012. Consequently, a set of Design Base Accident (DBA) scenarios have been simulated using SMARTITL. Recently, a test program to validate the performance of the SMART PSS was launched and its scaled-down test facility was additionally installed at the existing SMART-ITL facility. In this paper, some findings from the validation tests for the SMART PSS will be summarized. The acquired data will be used to validate the safety analysis code and its related models, to evaluate the performance of SMART PSS, and to provide base data during the application phase of SDA revision and construction licensing. A test program to validate the performance of SMARS PSS was launched with an additional scaleddown test facility of SMART PSS, which will be installed at the existing SMART-ITL facility. In this paper, some findings from the validation tests of the SMART passive safety system during 2013-2014 were summarized. They include a couple of SMART PSS tests using active pumps and several 1-train SMART PSS tests. From the test results it was estimated that the SMART PSS has sufficient cooling capability to deal with the SBLOCA scenario of SMART. During the SBLOCA scenario, in the CMT the water layer inventory was well stratified thermally and the safety injection water was injected efficiently into the RPV from the initial period and cools down the RCS properly.

  20. Clinical Functional Capacity Testing in Patients With Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy: Construct Validity and Interrater Reliability of Antigravity Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijken, Noortje H; van Engelen, Baziel G; Weerdesteyn, Vivian; Geurts, Alexander C

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the construct validity and interrater reliability of 4 simple antigravity tests in a small group of patients with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD). Case-control study. University medical center. Patients with various severity levels of FSHD (n=9) and healthy control subjects (n=10) were included (N=19). Not applicable. A 4-point ordinal scale was designed to grade performance on the following 4 antigravity tests: sit to stance, stance to sit, step up, and step down. In addition, the 6-minute walk test, 10-m walking test, Berg Balance Scale, and timed Up and Go test were administered as conventional tests. Construct validity was determined by linear regression analysis using the Clinical Severity Score (CSS) as the dependent variable. Interrater agreement was tested using a κ analysis. Patients with FSHD performed worse on all 4 antigravity tests compared with the controls. Stronger correlations were found within than between test categories (antigravity vs conventional). The antigravity tests revealed the highest explained variance with regard to the CSS (R(2)=.86, P=.014). Interrater agreement was generally good. The results of this exploratory study support the construct validity and interrater reliability of the proposed antigravity tests for the assessment of functional capacity in patients with FSHD taking into account the use of compensatory strategies. Future research should further validate these results in a larger sample of patients with FSHD. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Use of American urological association symptom index of measuring urinary symptoms in radiotherapy as a quality of life instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Misa M.; Mamo, Carol; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan

    1997-01-01

    PURPOSE/INTRODUCTION: In newly diagnosed prostate cancer patients, urinary symptoms due to a comorbid diagnosis of BPH is a common presentation. Furthermore, following radiotherapy patients often experience further urinary symptoms. However, it is not clear how much of these urinary symptoms impairing the quality of life are due to the radiotherapy versus the BPH. To objectively measure the influence of urinary symptoms on quality of life in BPH, the American Urological Association (AUA) has developed an evaluative instrument, AUA Symptom Index(AUASI). This self-administered questionnaire eliminates potential problems of interviewer bias and allows one to measure change in symptom levels over the time as well as with therapy. Its reliability and validity, including internal and external consistency and test-retest reliability have been well-documented. Because of its simplicity, concise-nature, already documented validity, and self-administered design, a survey using AUASI questionnaire was conducted pre- and post-radiotherapy for the following purposes: (1) to measure the difference in urinary symptoms after radiotherapy, thus identifying the treatment induced symptom profile; (2) to assess the feasibility of utilizing AUASI as a rational post-therapy toxicity measurement. MATERIALS and METHODS: A total of 18 patients with newly diagnosed prostate cancer were questioned regarding their urinary symptoms using AUASI. The AUASI which consists of 7 questions about irritative and obstructive symptoms was provided prospectively prior to the start of radiotherapy. Each patient indicated the presence of their symptoms on a scale rating from 0(not at all) to 5(almost always). The scores on the individual questions were then summed to give total index(range:0-35). Out of 18, 8 patients who completed a definitive radiotherapy were identified and surveyed with the same questionnaire to compare the pre- and post-therapy related urinary symptoms. RESULTS: There was no

  2. Validity, Reliability and Standardization Study of the Language Assessment Test for Aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bülent Toğram

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Aphasia assessment is the first step towards a well- founded language therapy. Language tests need to consider cultural as well as typological linguistic aspects of a given language. This study was designed to determine the standardization, validity and reliability of Language Assessment Test for Aphasia, which consists of eight subtests including spontaneous speech and language, auditory comprehension, repetition, naming, reading, grammar, speech acts, and writing. METHODS: The test was administered to 282 healthy participants and 92 aphasic participants in age, education and gender matched groups. The validity study of the test was investigated with analysis of content, structure and criterion-related validity. For reliability of the test, the analysis of internal consistency, stability and equivalence reliability was conducted. The influence of variables on healhty participants’ sub-test scores, test score and language score was examined. According to significant differences, norms and cut-off scores based on language score were determined. RESULTS: The group with aphasia performed highly lower than healthy participants on subtest, test and language scores. The test scores of healthy group were mostly affected by age and educational level but not affected by gender. According to significant differences, age and educational level for both groups were determined. Considering age and educational levels, the reference values for the cut-off scores were presented. CONCLUSION: The test was found to be a highly reliable and valid aphasia test for Turkish- speaking aphasic patients either in Turkey or other Turkish communities around the world

  3. Recent trends on Software Verification and Validation Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyungtae; Jeong, Choongheui

    2013-01-01

    Verification and Validation (V and V) include the analysis, evaluation, review, inspection, assessment, and testing of products. Especially testing is an important method to verify and validate software. Software V and V testing covers test planning to execution. IEEE Std. 1012 is a standard on the software V and V. Recently, IEEE Std. 1012-2012 was published. This standard is a major revision to IEEE Std. 1012-2004 which defines only software V and V. It expands the scope of the V and V processes to include system and hardware as well as software. This standard describes the scope of V and V testing according to integrity level. In addition, independent V and V requirement related to software V and V testing in IEEE 7-4.3.2-2010 have been revised. This paper provides a recent trend of software V and V testing by reviewing of IEEE Std. 1012-2012 and IEEE 7-4.3.2-2010. There are no major changes of software V and V testing activities and tasks in IEEE 1012-2012 compared with IEEE 1012-2004. But the positions on the responsibility to perform software V and V testing are changed. In addition IEEE 7-4.3.2-2010 newly describes the positions on responsibility to perform Software V and V Testing. However, the positions of these standards on the V and V testing are different. For integrity level 3 and 4, IEEE 1012-2012 basically requires that V and V organization shall conduct all of V and V testing tasks such as test plan, test design, test case, and test procedure except test execution. If V and V testing is conducted by not V and V but another organization, the results of that testing shall be analyzed by the V and V organization. For safety-related software, IEEE 7-4.3.2-2010 requires that test procedures and reports shall be independently verified by the alternate organization regardless of who writes the procedures and/or conducts the tests

  4. Development and validation of the Dyspnea Index (DI): a severity index for upper airway-related dyspnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartner-Schmidt, Jackie L; Shembel, Adrianna C; Zullo, Thomas G; Rosen, Clark A

    2014-11-01

    To (1) develop and validate the Dyspnea Index (DI); (2) quantify severity of symptoms in upper airway dyspnea; and (3) validate the DI as an outcome measure. Survey development and validation. Three hundred sixty-nine participants were recruited for different phases of the study. Two hundred participants with chief complaints of dyspnea were given a 41-item questionnaire addressing common symptoms of dyspnea related to the upper airway. The questions were then reduced based on principal component analysis (PCA) and internal consistency resulting in a 10-item questionnaire. Cognitive interviews were conducted with 15 participants. Test-retest reliability and discriminant validity were measured from 51 participants. The DI was further validated by administering the index to 57 healthy controls (HC). Validation of the DI as a treatment outcome tool occurred with 46 participants' pre- and post-treatment scores. PCA revealed that only a single factor was being measured in both the original 41- and 10-item questionnaires. Additional cognitive interviewing suggested that no modification was needed to the DI. Test-retest reliability was r = 0.83. Discriminant validity was r = 0.62. The Mann-Whitney test demonstrated significant differences between healthy/symptomatic participants. Scores from the HC cohort resulted in a mean of 3.12 (SEM = 0.484; SD = 3.65) for the normative values. The DI is an effective and efficient instrument to quantify patients' symptoms of upper airway dyspnea. It is a statistically robust index, with significant reliability and validity, and can be dependably used as a treatment outcome measure. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Parametric oesophageal multiple swallow scintigraphy for validation of dysphageal symptoms during external beam irradiation of mediastinal tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt-Mainz, K.; Eising, E.G.; Bockisch, A. [Essen Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Mallek, D. von; Poettgen, C.; Stuschke, M.; Sack, H. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie, Universitaetsklinikum Essen (Germany)

    2001-03-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate dysphageal symptoms and to measure the effect of local analgesic treatment using parametric oesophageal multiple swallow scintigraphy (PES) during external beam irradiation of the mediastinal region. Fifteen patients (most with lung cancer) with dysphagia grade II underwent PES during external beam radiotherapy of the mediastinum before and after application of local analgesics. Dynamic parametric condensed images were recorded. The intensity of clinical symptoms was correlated with the emptying rate at 10 s (ER-10 s) and the mean transit time (MTT). Visual analysis of the images was performed and the results were correlated with the fields of irradiation portals. Of the 15 patients, 12 showed a correlation between irradiation portals and the region of oesophageal motility disorder. Concordant results of clinical symptoms and PES data were found. In nine patients with a decrease in dysphagia following local analgesia, an increase in mean ER-10 s and a decrease in MTT were observed. In three patients with deterioration in clinical symptoms after analgesic treatment, a similar decrease in mean ER-10 s was found, though MTT remained constant. In three patients with normal values, motility disorders were detected in the dynamic study. In conclusion, PES was found to be a sensitive tool for the validation of dysphageal symptoms in patients during external beam irradiation of mediastinal tumours and for the evaluation and quantification of the efficacy of local analgesic treatment. Additional visual analysis of the dynamic study is helpful in diagnosing minimal disorders. (orig.)

  6. Parametric oesophageal multiple swallow scintigraphy for validation of dysphageal symptoms during external beam irradiation of mediastinal tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt-Mainz, K.; Eising, E.G.; Bockisch, A.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate dysphageal symptoms and to measure the effect of local analgesic treatment using parametric oesophageal multiple swallow scintigraphy (PES) during external beam irradiation of the mediastinal region. Fifteen patients (most with lung cancer) with dysphagia grade II underwent PES during external beam radiotherapy of the mediastinum before and after application of local analgesics. Dynamic parametric condensed images were recorded. The intensity of clinical symptoms was correlated with the emptying rate at 10 s (ER-10 s) and the mean transit time (MTT). Visual analysis of the images was performed and the results were correlated with the fields of irradiation portals. Of the 15 patients, 12 showed a correlation between irradiation portals and the region of oesophageal motility disorder. Concordant results of clinical symptoms and PES data were found. In nine patients with a decrease in dysphagia following local analgesia, an increase in mean ER-10 s and a decrease in MTT were observed. In three patients with deterioration in clinical symptoms after analgesic treatment, a similar decrease in mean ER-10 s was found, though MTT remained constant. In three patients with normal values, motility disorders were detected in the dynamic study. In conclusion, PES was found to be a sensitive tool for the validation of dysphageal symptoms in patients during external beam irradiation of mediastinal tumours and for the evaluation and quantification of the efficacy of local analgesic treatment. Additional visual analysis of the dynamic study is helpful in diagnosing minimal disorders. (orig.)

  7. Predicting asthma in preschool children with asthma symptoms: study rationale and design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafkamp-de Groen Esther

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In well-child care it is difficult to determine whether preschool children with asthma symptoms actually have or will develop asthma at school age. The PIAMA (Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy Risk Score has been proposed as an instrument that predicts asthma at school age, using eight easy obtainable parameters, assessed at the time of first asthma symptoms at preschool age. The aim of this study is to present the rationale and design of a study 1 to externally validate and update the PIAMA Risk Score, 2 to develop an Asthma Risk Appraisal Tool to predict asthma at school age in (specific subgroups of preschool children with asthma symptoms and 3 to test implementation of the Asthma Risk Appraisal Tool in well-child care. Methods and design The study will be performed within the framework of Generation R, a prospective multi-ethnic cohort study. In total, consent for postnatal follow-up was obtained from 7893 children, born between 2002 and 2006. At preschool age the PIAMA Risk Score will be assessed and used to predict asthma at school age. Discrimination (C-index and calibration will be assessed for the external validation. We will study whether the predictive ability of the PIAMA Risk Score can be improved by removing or adding predictors (e.g. preterm birth. The (updated PIAMA Risk Score will be converted to the Asthma Risk Appraisal Tool- to predict asthma at school age in preschool children with asthma symptoms. Additionally, we will conduct a pilot study to test implementation of the Asthma Risk Appraisal Tool in well-child care. Discussion Application of the Asthma Risk Appraisal Tool in well-child care will help to distinguish preschool children at high- and low-risk of developing asthma at school age when asthma symptoms appear. This study will increase knowledge about the validity of the PIAMA risk score and might improve risk assessment of developing asthma at school age in (specific subgroups

  8. Reliability and Validity of the Inline Skating Skill Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radman, Ivan; Ruzic, Lana; Padovan, Viktoria; Cigrovski, Vjekoslav; Podnar, Hrvoje

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the reliability and validity of the inline skating skill test. Based on previous skating experience forty-two skaters (26 female and 16 male) were randomized into two groups (competitive level vs. recreational level). They performed the test four times, with a recovery time of 45 minutes between sessions. Prior to testing, the participants rated their skating skill using a scale from 1 to 10. The protocol included performance time measurement through a course, combining different skating techniques. Trivial changes in performance time between the repeated sessions were determined in both competitive females/males and recreational females/males (-1.7% [95% CI: -5.8–2.6%] – 2.2% [95% CI: 0.0–4.5%]). In all four subgroups, the skill test had a low mean within-individual variation (1.6% [95% CI: 1.2–2.4%] – 2.7% [95% CI: 2.1–4.0%]) and high mean inter-session correlation (ICC = 0.97 [95% CI: 0.92–0.99] – 0.99 [95% CI: 0.98–1.00]). The comparison of detected typical errors and smallest worthwhile changes (calculated as standard deviations × 0.2) revealed that the skill test was able to track changes in skaters’ performances. Competitive-level skaters needed shorter time (24.4–26.4%, all p skating skills in amateur competitive and recreational level skaters. Further studies are needed to evaluate the reproducibility of this skill test in different populations including elite inline skaters. Key points Study evaluated the reliability and construct validity of a newly developed inline skating skill test. Evaluated test is a first protocol designed to assess specific inline skating skill. Two groups of amateur skaters with different skating proficiency repeated the skill test in four separate occasions. The results suggest that evaluated test is reliable and valid to evaluate inline skating skill in amateur skaters. PMID:27803616

  9. Development and validation of a partial life-cycle test with Potamopyrgus antipodarum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiss, Cornelia; Holbech, Henrik; Kinnberg, Karin Lund

    endpoints. The present study aims to develop and validate the partial life-cycle test on the reproduction of P. antipodarum. Here, results from two pre-validation studies of the reproduction test with the chemicals tributyltin (TBT) with nominal concentrations of 10 - 400 ng TBT-Sn/L and cadmium...

  10. Test your memory-Turkish version (TYM-TR): reliability and validity study of a cognitive screening test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maviş, Ilknur; Özbabalik Adapinar, Belgin Demet; Yenilmez, Çinar; Aydin, Ayşe; Olgun, Engin; Bal, Cengiz

    2015-01-01

    The test your memory (TYM) is reported to be a sensitive cognitive function assessment scale for people with dementia. The aim of the present study was to investigate the reliability and validity of an adapted Turkish version of the TYM (TYM-TR) among Turkish dementia patients. The TYM-TR was given to 59 patients with dementia aged 60+ and 336 normal controls aged 23-75+. The diagnostic utility of the TYM-TR was compared with that of the mini-mental state examination (MMSE) to validate it. The internal consistency of the TYM-TR was a = 0.85. The test-retest reliability was 0.97 (P reliability and validity to distinguish dementia in the Turkish population.

  11. Urine specimen validity test for drug abuse testing in workplace and court settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shin-Yu; Lee, Hei-Hwa; Lee, Jong-Feng; Chen, Bai-Hsiun

    2018-01-01

    In recent decades, urine drug testing in the workplace has become common in many countries in the world. There have been several studies concerning the use of the urine specimen validity test (SVT) for drug abuse testing administered in the workplace. However, very little data exists concerning the urine SVT on drug abuse tests from court specimens, including dilute, substituted, adulterated, and invalid tests. We investigated 21,696 submitted urine drug test samples for SVT from workplace and court settings in southern Taiwan over 5 years. All immunoassay screen-positive urine specimen drug tests were confirmed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. We found that the mean 5-year prevalence of tampering (dilute, substituted, or invalid tests) in urine specimens from the workplace and court settings were 1.09% and 3.81%, respectively. The mean 5-year percentage of dilute, substituted, and invalid urine specimens from the workplace were 89.2%, 6.8%, and 4.1%, respectively. The mean 5-year percentage of dilute, substituted, and invalid urine specimens from the court were 94.8%, 1.4%, and 3.8%, respectively. No adulterated cases were found among the workplace or court samples. The most common drug identified from the workplace specimens was amphetamine, followed by opiates. The most common drug identified from the court specimens was ketamine, followed by amphetamine. We suggest that all urine specimens taken for drug testing from both the workplace and court settings need to be tested for validity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Known-Groups and Concurrent Validity of the Mandarin Tone Identification Test (MTIT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shufeng Zhu

    Full Text Available The Mandarin Tone Identification Test (MTIT is a new test designed to assess the tone identification abilities of children with hearing impairment (HI. Evidence for reliability and sensitivity has been reported. The present study aimed to evaluate the known-groups and concurrent validity of the MTIT.The MTIT and Mandarin Pediatric Speech Intelligibility test (MPSI were administered in quiet and in noise conditions. The known-groups validity was evaluated by comparing the performance of the MTIT on children with two different levels of HI. The MPSI was included to evaluate the concurrent validity of the MTIT.81 children with HI were recruited in the present study. They were Mandarin-speaking children with profound HI (mean age = 9; 0, n = 41 and with moderate to severe HI (mean age = 8; 9, n = 40.Scores on the MTIT differed between the two groups with different hearing levels suggesting good known-groups validity. A strong relationship between tone and sentence perception both in quiet and in noise provided preliminary evidence for concurrent validity.The present study confirmed that the MTIT has good known-groups validity and provided preliminary evidence for concurrent validity. The MTIT could be used to evaluate tone identification ability in children with HI with confidence.

  13. Validity of the international consultation on incontinence questionnaire-pediatric lower urinary tract symptoms: a screening questionnaire for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gennaro, Mario; Niero, Mauro; Capitanucci, Maria Luisa; von Gontard, Alexander; Woodward, Mark; Tubaro, Andrea; Abrams, Paul

    2010-10-01

    Lower urinary tract symptoms are common in pediatric patients. To our knowledge no validated instruments properly designed to screen lower urinary tract symptoms in the pediatric population have been published to date. In the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Committee the psychometric properties of a screening questionnaire for pediatric lower urinary tract symptoms were assessed. The 12-item International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Pediatric Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms was developed in child and parent self-administered versions, and produced in English, Italian and German using a standard cross-cultural adaptation process. The questionnaire was self-administered to children 5 to 18 years old and their parents presenting for lower urinary tract symptoms (cases) or to pediatric/urological clinics for other reasons (controls). A case report form included history, urinalysis, bladder diary, flowmetry/post-void residual urine volume and clinician judgment on whether each child did or did not have lower urinary tract symptoms. Questionnaire psychometric properties were evaluated and data were stratified into 3 age groups, including 5 to 9, 10 to 13 and 14 to 18 years. A total of 345 questionnaires were completed, of which 147 were negative and 198 were positive for lower urinary tract symptoms. A mean of 1.67% and 2.10% of items were missing in the child and parent versions, respectively. Reliability (Cronbach's α) was unacceptable in only the 5 to 9-year-old group. The high ICC of 0.847 suggested fair child/parent equivalence. Sensitivity and specificity were 89% and 76% in the child version, and 91% and 73.5% in the parent version, respectively. The questionnaire is an acceptable, reliable tool with high sensitivity and specificity to screen for lower urinary tract symptoms in pediatric practice. Problems related to literacy suggest use of the child versions for patients older than 9 years. In research this questionnaire

  14. Validation of a health-related quality of life instrument for primary ciliary dyskinesia (QOL-PCD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behan, Laura; Leigh, Margaret W; Dell, Sharon D; Dunn Galvin, Audrey; Quittner, Alexandra L; Lucas, Jane S

    2017-09-01

    Quality of life (QOL)-primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is the first disease-specific, health-related QOL instrument for PCD. Psychometric validation of QOL-PCD assesses the performance of this measure in adults, including its reliability, validity and responsiveness to change. Seventy-two adults (mean (range) age: 33 years (18-79 years); mean (range) FEV 1 % predicted: 68 (26-115)) with PCD completed the 49-item QOL-PCD and generic QOL measures: Short-Form 36 Health Survey, Sino-Nasal Outcome Test 20 (SNOT-20) and St George Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ)-C. Thirty-five participants repeated QOL-PCD 10-14 days later to measure stability or reproducibility of the measure. Multitrait analysis was used to evaluate how the items loaded on 10 hypothesised scales: physical, emotional, role and social functioning, treatment burden, vitality, health perceptions, upper respiratory symptoms, lower respiratory symptoms and ears and hearing symptoms. This analysis of item-to-total correlations led to 9 items being dropped; the validated measure now comprises 40 items. Each scale had excellent internal consistency (Cronbach's α: 0.74 to 0.94). Two-week test-retest demonstrated stability for all scales (intraclass coefficients 0.73 to 0.96). Significant correlations were obtained between QOL-PCD scores and age and FEV 1 . Strong relationships were also found between QOL-PCD scales and similar constructs on generic questionnaires, for example, lower respiratory symptoms and SGRQ-C (r=0.72, pmeasures of different constructs. QOL-PCD has demonstrated good internal consistency, test-retest reliability, convergent and divergent validity. QOL-PCD offers a promising tool for evaluating new therapies and for measuring symptoms, functioning and QOL during routine care. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  15. Validation of Linguistic and Communicative Oral Language Tests for Spanish-English Bilingual Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politzer, Robert L.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The development, administration, and scoring of a communicative test and its validation with tests of linguistic and sociolinguistic competence in English and Spanish are reported. Correlation with measures of home language use and school achievement are also presented, and issues of test validation for bilingual programs are discussed. (MSE)

  16. Reasoning with Inductive Argument Test: A Study of Validity and Reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Emrah Karadere

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Reasoning with Inductive Argument Test:A Study of Validity and Reliability Objective: The aim of our study is to research reliability and validity and to evaluate the usability of Turkish version of Reasoning with Inductive Argument Test (RIAT in Turkish healty population. Method: 51 healty volunteers who work in Ankara Dıskapi Yildirim Beyazit Research and Training Hospital participated in this study. Reasoning with Inductive Argument Test (RIAT was translated into Turkish by three clinical good knowledge of English. Participants were given a sociodemographic data form, and RIAT were performed by clinicians. To test the reliability of the Turkish version of RIAT, Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was calculated and the halving method was used for the test. Results: The internal consistency of the Reasoning with Inductive Argument Test (RIAT items, Cronbach’s alpha internal consistency coefficient measurements of 0.73 was found to be statistically significant. Spearman-Brown coefficient that determines the reliability of the whole test r=0.74 was found. Kurtosis values of all the items was below 1.5 and the percentages in the second evaluation were mainly lower. At the same time, both change in belief between self produced RIAT options and given RIAT options (p=0.02, z=-2296 as well as changes in beliefs between related and unrelated items for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD difference (p=0.03, z=-2.199 were significant. Conclusion: The preliminary data obtained from the study of reliability and validity of the scale shows that ‘Reasoning with Inductive Argument Test’ supports reliability and validity in Turkish population.

  17. [The Additional Role of Symptom-Reflux Association Analysis of Diagnosis of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Using Bravo Capsule pH Test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kyoungwon; Park, Moo In; Park, Seun Ja; Moon, Won; Kim, Sung Eun; Kim, Jae Hyun

    2017-10-25

    Since the development of ambulatory esophageal pH monitoring test to diagnose gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), several parameters have been introduced. The aim of this study was to assess whether using the symptom index (SI), symptom sensitivity index (SSI), and symptom association probability (SAP), in addition to the DeMeester score (DS), would be useful for interpreting the Bravo pH monitoring test. A retrospective study, which included 68 patients with reflux symptoms refractory to proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy who underwent a Bravo capsule pH test between October 2006 and May 2015, was carried out. Acid reflux parameters and symptom reflux association parameters were analyzed. The median percent time of total pHvariation in percent time of total pHpH test, diagnosis of GERD, including reflux hypersensitivity, can be improved by performing an analysis of the symptom-reflux association and of the day-to-day variation.

  18. Neurocognitive performance and symptom profiles of Spanish-speaking Hispanic athletes on the ImPACT test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Summer; Schatz, Philip; Solomon, Gary; Ryan, Joseph J

    2014-03-01

    This study documented baseline neurocognitive performance of 23,815 athletes on the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) test. Specifically, 9,733 Hispanic, Spanish-speaking athletes who completed the ImPACT test in English and 2,087 Hispanic, Spanish-speaking athletes who completed the test in Spanish were compared with 11,955 English-speaking athletes who completed the test in English. Athletes were assigned to age groups (13-15, 16-18). Results revealed a significant effect of language group (p Spanish-speaking athletes completing the test in Spanish scored more poorly than Spanish-speaking and English-speaking athletes completing the test in English, on all Composite scores and Total Symptom scores. Spanish-speaking athletes completing the test in English also performed more poorly than English-speaking athletes completing the test in English on three Composite scores. These differences in performance and reported symptoms highlight the need for caution in interpreting ImPACT test data for Hispanic Americans.

  19. Brief implicit association test: Validity and utility in prediction of voting behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Maša D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We employed the Brief Implicit Association Test (a recently developed short version of IAT to measure implicit political attitudes toward four political parties running for Serbian parliament. To test its criterion validity, we measured voting intention and actual voting behavior. In addition, we introduced political involvement as a potential moderator of the BIAT’s predictive and incremental validity. The BIAT demonstrated good internal and predictive validity, but lacked incremental validity over self-report measures. Predictive power of the BIAT was moderated by political involvement - the BIAT scores were stronger predictors of voting intention and behavior among voters highly involved in politics. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179018

  20. Validity of a cross-specialty test in basic laparoscopic techniques (TABLT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thinggaard, Ebbe; Bjerrum, Flemming; Strandbygaard, Jeanett

    2015-01-01

    . The aim of this study was to establish validity evidence for the Training and Assessment of Basic Laparoscopic Techniques (TABLT) test, a tablet-based training system. METHODS: Laparoscopic surgeons and trainees were recruited from departments of general surgery, gynaecology and urology. Participants...... included novice, intermediate and experienced surgeons. All participants performed the TABLT test. Performance scores were calculated based on time taken and errors made. Evidence of validity was explored using a contemporary framework of validity. RESULTS: Some 60 individuals participated. The TABLT...... was shown to be reliable, with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0·99 (P value of 0·73 (P 

  1. Evaluating the Predictive Validity of Graduate Management Admission Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sireci, Stephen G.; Talento-Miller, Eileen

    2006-01-01

    Admissions data and first-year grade point average (GPA) data from 11 graduate management schools were analyzed to evaluate the predictive validity of Graduate Management Admission Test[R] (GMAT[R]) scores and the extent to which predictive validity held across sex and race/ethnicity. The results indicated GMAT verbal and quantitative scores had…

  2. Measurement of Dietary Restraint: Validity Tests of Four Questionnaires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Donald A.; Martin, Corby K.; York-Crowe, Emily; Anton, Stephen D.; Redman, Leanne M.; Han, Hongmei; Ravussin, Eric

    2007-01-01

    This study tested the validity of four measures of dietary restraint: Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire, Eating Inventory (EI), Revised Restraint Scale (RS), and the Current Dieting Questionnaire. Dietary restraint has been implicated as a determinant of overeating and binge eating. Conflicting findings have been attributed to different methods for measuring dietary restraint. The validity of four self-report measures of dietary restraint and dieting behavior was tested using: 1) factor analysis, 2) changes in dietary restraint in a randomized controlled trial of different methods to achieve calorie restriction, and 3) correlation of changes in dietary restraint with an objective measure of energy balance, calculated from the changes in fat mass and fat-free mass over a six-month dietary intervention. Scores from all four questionnaires, measured at baseline, formed a dietary restraint factor, but the RS also loaded on a binge eating factor. Based on change scores, the EI Restraint scale was the only measure that correlated significantly with energy balance expressed as a percentage of energy require d for weight maintenance. These findings suggest that that, of the four questionnaires tested, the EI Restraint scale was the most valid measure of the intent to diet and actual caloric restriction. PMID:17101191

  3. Testing Longitudinal Relationships Between Binge Drinking, Marijuana Use, and Depressive Symptoms and Moderation by Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Andra L; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Herring, Amy H; Shanahan, Meghan; Ennett, Susan T; Hussey, Jon M; Harris, Kathleen Mullan

    2016-12-01

    Both substance use and depression are common in adolescence and often comorbid. Past research has produced conflicting results on whether there is a temporal relationship, and if so, in which direction it operates and how it may vary by sex. We examined the longitudinal associations between substance use frequency and depressive symptoms from adolescence into young adulthood and whether the associations were moderated by sex. With data from Waves I, III, and IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (n = 9,816), we used growth curve models to test if depressive symptoms predicted marijuana use or binge drinking frequency (Self-Medication Model) or if substance use frequency predicted depressive symptoms (Stress Model). Moderation by sex and age was tested for both potential pathways. Increases in adolescent depressive symptoms, compared to no symptoms, were associated with a steeper predicted increase in marijuana use frequency from adolescence to young adulthood. Increases in persistent binge drinking or marijuana use frequency had concurrent positive associations with depressive symptoms from adolescence to young adulthood, and these associations were significantly stronger for females compared to males. The results not only support the Self-Medication Model for marijuana use but also provide modest support for the Stress Model, that substance use is associated with depressive symptoms, especially for females. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A Low-Cost Point-of-Care Testing System for Psychomotor Symptoms of Depression Affecting Standing Balance: A Preliminary Study in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Arindam; Kumar, Robins; Malhotra, Suruchi; Chugh, Sanjay; Banerjee, Alakananda; Dutta, Anirban

    2013-01-01

    The World Health Organization estimated that major depression is the fourth most significant cause of disability worldwide for people aged 65 and older, where depressed older adults reported decreased independence, poor health, poor quality of life, functional decline, disability, and increased chronic medical problems. Therefore, the objectives of this study were (1) to develop a low-cost point-of-care testing system for psychomotor symptoms of depression and (2) to evaluate the system in community dwelling elderly in India. The preliminary results from the cross-sectional study showed a significant negative linear correlation between balance and depression. Here, monitoring quantitative electroencephalography along with the center of pressure for cued response time during functional reach tasks may provide insights into the psychomotor symptoms of depression where average slope of the Theta-Alpha power ratio versus average slope of baseline-normalized response time may be a candidate biomarker, which remains to be evaluated in our future clinical studies. Once validated, the biomarker can be used for monitoring the outcome of a comprehensive therapy program in conjunction with pharmacological interventions. Furthermore, the frequency of falls can be monitored with a mobile phone-based application where the propensity of falls during the periods of psychomotor symptoms of depression can be investigated further.

  5. 40 CFR 1039.501 - How do I run a valid emission test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I run a valid emission test? 1039.501 Section 1039.501 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Procedures § 1039.501 How do I run a valid emission test? (a) Use the equipment and procedures for...

  6. Predictive validity of the Biomedical Admissions Test: an evaluation and case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, I C; Ferguson, Eamonn; Wakeford, Richard; Powis, David; James, David

    2011-01-01

    There has been an increase in the use of pre-admission selection tests for medicine. Such tests need to show good psychometric properties. Here, we use a paper by Emery and Bell [2009. The predictive validity of the Biomedical Admissions Test for pre-clinical examination performance. Med Educ 43:557-564] as a case study to evaluate and comment on the reporting of psychometric data in the field of medical student selection (and the comments apply to many papers in the field). We highlight pitfalls when reliability data are not presented, how simple zero-order associations can lead to inaccurate conclusions about the predictive validity of a test, and how biases need to be explored and reported. We show with BMAT that it is the knowledge part of the test which does all the predictive work. We show that without evidence of incremental validity it is difficult to assess the value of any selection tests for medicine.

  7. The greek translation of the symptoms rating scale for depression and anxiety: preliminary results of the validation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gougoulias Kyriakos

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the current study was to assess the reliability, validity and the psychometric properties of the Greek translation of the Symptoms Rating Scale For Depression and Anxiety. The scale consists of 42 items and permits the calculation of the scores of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-21, the BDI 13, the Melancholia Subscale, the Asthenia Subscale, the Anxiety Subscale and the Mania Subscale Methods 29 depressed patients 30.48 ± 9.83 years old, and 120 normal controls 27.45 ± 10.85 years old entered the study. In 20 of them (8 patients and 12 controls the instrument was re-applied 1–2 days later. Translation and Back Translation was made. Clinical Diagnosis was reached by consensus of two examiners with the use of the SCAN v.2.0 and the IPDE. CES-D and ZDRS were used for cross-validation purposes. The Statistical Analysis included ANOVA, the Spearman Correlation Coefficient, Principal Components Analysis and the calculation of Cronbach's alpha. Results The optimal cut-off points were: BDI-21: 14/15, BDI-13: 7/8, Melancholia: 8/9, Asthenia: 9/10, Anxiety: 10/11. Chronbach's alpha ranged between 0.86 and 0.92 for individual scales. Only the Mania subscale had very low alpha (0.12. The test-retest reliability was excellent for all scales with Spearman's Rho between 0.79 and 0.91. Conclusions The Greek translation of the SRSDA and the scales that consist it are both reliable and valid and are suitable for clinical and research use with satisfactory properties. Their properties are close to those reported in the international literature. However one should always have in mind the limitations inherent in the use of self-report scales.

  8. Self-assessed health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in men who completed radiotherapy for prostate cancer: Instrument validation and its relation to patient-assessed importance of symptoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Herbert; Huang, Edward; Dale, William; Ignacio, Lani; Ray, Paul; Kopnick, Mitchell; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: The focus of this study is on the development of a questionnaire designed to assess the disease-specific dimensions of health related quality of life (HRQOL) in the urinary function (UF), bowel function (BF), and sexual function (SF) domains in prostate cancer (PC) patients treated with radiation therapy. The scales created were tested for reliability and validity. In addition, we assessed the relationship between these dimensions and the degree to which a decreased HRQOL increases the degrees to which patients feel bothered about their symptoms. A similar study was conducted for patients during radiotherapy for PC, and similar validation was performed. Materials and Methods: Patients were given a six-page questionnaire during their follow-up visits after completing radiotherapy for PC. Questionnaire design is based on clinical experience and a literature review for assessment of three HRQOL dimensions. Likert-type questions were employed related to BF (12 items), UR (11 items), and SF (9 items), as well as a single question for each asking how bothersome the reported symptoms are to the patient. Items in each section were analyzed with principal components factor analysis for identifying factors from which were formed scales. Items found to have high factor loadings were grouped together to form 6 scales, two for each dimension, and the reliability and validity of the created scales were assessed. The scale scores were used for assessment whether increased symptoms resulted in increases in the perceived importance of the symptoms to patients. Results: For 93 cases, 2 scales were identified within each dimension from the factor analysis. For BF, the 2 scales were an Urgency scale (4 items) and a Daily Living scale (3 items). For UF, the 2 scales were an Urgency scale (5 items) and a Weakness of (Urinary) Stream scale (3 items). For SF, the 2 scales were an Interest/Satisfaction scale (5 items) and an Impotence scale (3 items). Internal

  9. Stressful Psychosocial Work Environment, Poor Sleep, and Depressive Symptoms among Primary School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluschkoff, Kia; Elovainio, Marko; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Hintsanen, Mirka; Mullola, Sari; Hintsa, Taina

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: We examined the associations and proportionate contributions of three well-validated models of stressful psychosocial work environment (job strain, effort-reward imbalance, and organizational injustice) in explaining depressive symptoms among primary school teachers. In addition, we tested the mediating role of different types of…

  10. Validation testing of a soil macronutrient sensing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapid on-site measurements of soil macronutrients (i.e., nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium) are needed for site-specific crop management, where fertilizer nutrient application rates are adjusted spatially based on local requirements. This study reports on validation testing of a previously develop...

  11. Validation of new prognostic and predictive scores by sequential testing approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieder, Carsten; Haukland, Ellinor; Pawinski, Adam; Dalhaug, Astrid

    2010-01-01

    Background and Purpose: For practitioners, the question arises how their own patient population differs from that used in large-scale analyses resulting in new scores and nomograms and whether such tools actually are valid at a local level and thus can be implemented. A recent article proposed an easy-to-use method for the in-clinic validation of new prediction tools with a limited number of patients, a so-called sequential testing approach. The present study evaluates this approach in scores related to radiation oncology. Material and Methods: Three different scores were used, each predicting short overall survival after palliative radiotherapy (bone metastases, brain metastases, metastatic spinal cord compression). For each scenario, a limited number of consecutive patients entered the sequential testing approach. The positive predictive value (PPV) was used for validation of the respective score and it was required that the PPV exceeded 80%. Results: For two scores, validity in the own local patient population could be confirmed after entering 13 and 17 patients, respectively. For the third score, no decision could be reached even after increasing the sample size to 30. Conclusion: In-clinic validation of new predictive tools with sequential testing approach should be preferred over uncritical adoption of tools which provide no significant benefit to local patient populations. Often the necessary number of patients can be reached within reasonable time frames even in small oncology practices. In addition, validation is performed continuously as the data are collected. (orig.)

  12. Validation of new prognostic and predictive scores by sequential testing approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieder, Carsten [Radiation Oncology Unit, Nordland Hospital, Bodo (Norway); Inst. of Clinical Medicine, Univ. of Tromso (Norway); Haukland, Ellinor; Pawinski, Adam; Dalhaug, Astrid [Radiation Oncology Unit, Nordland Hospital, Bodo (Norway)

    2010-03-15

    Background and Purpose: For practitioners, the question arises how their own patient population differs from that used in large-scale analyses resulting in new scores and nomograms and whether such tools actually are valid at a local level and thus can be implemented. A recent article proposed an easy-to-use method for the in-clinic validation of new prediction tools with a limited number of patients, a so-called sequential testing approach. The present study evaluates this approach in scores related to radiation oncology. Material and Methods: Three different scores were used, each predicting short overall survival after palliative radiotherapy (bone metastases, brain metastases, metastatic spinal cord compression). For each scenario, a limited number of consecutive patients entered the sequential testing approach. The positive predictive value (PPV) was used for validation of the respective score and it was required that the PPV exceeded 80%. Results: For two scores, validity in the own local patient population could be confirmed after entering 13 and 17 patients, respectively. For the third score, no decision could be reached even after increasing the sample size to 30. Conclusion: In-clinic validation of new predictive tools with sequential testing approach should be preferred over uncritical adoption of tools which provide no significant benefit to local patient populations. Often the necessary number of patients can be reached within reasonable time frames even in small oncology practices. In addition, validation is performed continuously as the data are collected. (orig.)

  13. Reasoning with Inductive Argument Test: A Study of Validity and Reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Emrah Karadere

    2013-12-01

    Conclusion: The preliminary data obtained from the study of reliability and validity of the scale shows that ‘Reasoning with Inductive Argument Test’ supports reliability and validity in Turkish population. [JCBPR 2013; 2(3.000: 156-161

  14. Validity of the Eating Attitudes Test and the Eating Disorders Inventory in Bulimia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Janet; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Assessed criterion and concurrent validity of the Eating Attitudes Test and the Eating Disorder Inventory in 82 women with bulimia nervosa. Both tests demonstrated criterion validity by discriminating bulimia nervosa subjects from normals. Only weak support was found for concurrent validity within bulimia subjects. Recommends combination of…

  15. Impact on participation and autonomy: test of validity and reliability for older persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Ottenvall Hammar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In research and healthcare it is important to measure older persons’ self-determination in order to improve their possibilities to decide for themselves in daily life. The questionnaire Impact on Participation and Autonomy (IPA assesses self-determination, but is not constructed for older persons. The aim of this study was to examine the validity and reliability of the IPA-S questionnaire for persons aged 70 years and older. The study was performed in two steps; first a validity test of the Swedish version of the questionnaire, IPA-S, followed by a reliability test-retest of an adjusted version. The validity was tested with focus groups and individual interviews on persons aged 77-88 years, and the reliability on persons aged 70-99 years. The validity test result showed that IPA-S is valid for older persons but it was too extensive and the phrasing of the items needed adjustments. The reliability test-retest on the adjusted questionnaire, IPA-Older persons (IPA-O, showed that 15 of 22 items had high agreement. IPA-O can be used to measure older persons’ self-determination in their care and rehabilitation.

  16. Validation of the German version of the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieck, Arne; Helbig, Susanne; Drake, Christopher L; Backhaus, Jutta

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of a German version of the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test with groups with and without sleep problems. Three studies were analysed. Data set 1 was based on an initial screening for a sleep training program (n = 393), data set 2 was based on a study to test the test-retest reliability of the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test (n = 284) and data set 3 was based on a study to examine the influence of competitive sport on sleep (n = 37). Data sets 1 and 2 were used to test internal consistency, factor structure, convergent validity, discriminant validity and test-retest reliability of the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test. Content validity was tested using data set 3. Cronbach's alpha of the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test was good (α = 0.80) and test-retest reliability was satisfactory (r = 0.72). Overall, the one-factor model showed the best fit. Furthermore, significant positive correlations between the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test and impaired sleep quality, depression and stress reactivity were in line with the expectations regarding the convergent validity. Subjects with sleep problems had significantly higher scores in the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test than subjects without sleep problems (P Stress Test had significantly lower sleep quality (P = 0.01), demonstrating that vulnerability for stress-induced sleep disturbances accompanies poorer sleep quality in stressful episodes. The findings show that the German version of the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test is a reliable and valid questionnaire to assess the vulnerability to stress-induced sleep disturbances. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.

  17. The Trapeziometacarpal Arthrosis Symptoms and Disability Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Stéphanie J. E.; Teunis, Teun; Ring, David; Vranceanu, Ana-Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background: Symptoms and disability at the trapeziometacarpal (TMC) joint are typically assessed with general measures that may not be able to accurately discriminate between TMC arthrosis–specific versus other hand and arm condition concerns. The objective was to develop and preliminary validate the Trapeziometacarpal Arthrosis Symptoms and Disability (TASD) questionnaire designed to assess symptoms and disability at the TMC joint. Methods: English-speaking patients (50 years or older) were enrolled in 1 of 2 samples (sample 1, 64 patients specifically presented for treatment of TMC arthrosis; sample 2, 64 patients received an incidental diagnosis of previously undiagnosed TMC arthrosis when presenting for treatment of another, not thumb-related condition). Principal component analysis identified the number of subscales (factors) and factor loadings of all items (ie, structural construct validity). Internal consistency was assessed with Cronbach alpha. Convergent, discriminant, and known-groups construct validity of the subscales were assessed with Spearman correlations. Results: The final TASD has 12 items and 2 subscales, as confirmed by principal component analysis: symptoms (7 items) and disability (5 items). The subscales’ internal consistency was good to excellent in both samples. The TASD showed good convergent validity as evidenced by moderate to strong correlations between both subscales and upper extremity disability, pain intensity, depression, self-efficacy, and key pinch strength (sample 1). The TASD also showed good discriminant, and good known-groups validity. Conclusions: The concise TASD is useful in assessing symptoms and disability related to TMC arthrosis, has a simple scoring system and administration mode (self-administered), and is free. PMID:27390563

  18. Video game addiction test: validity and psychometric characteristics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij, A.J. van; Schoenmakers, T.M.; Eijnden, R.J.J.M. van den; Vermulst, A.A.; Mheen, D. van de

    2012-01-01

    The study explores the reliability, validity, and measurement invariance of the Video game Addiction Test (VAT). Game-addiction problems are often linked to Internet enabled online games; the VAT has the unique benefit that it is theoretically and empirically linked to Internet addiction. The study

  19. Video Game Addiction Test: Validity and Psychometric Characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij, A.J. van; Schoenmakers, T.M.; Eijnden, R.J.J.M. van den; Vermulst, A.A.; Mheen, H. van de

    2012-01-01

    The study explores the reliability, validity, and measurement invariance of the Video game Addiction Test (VAT). Game-addiction problems are often linked to Internet enabled online games; the VAT has the unique benefit that it is theoretically and empirically linked to Internet addiction. The study

  20. Mediation and Moderation: Testing Relationships between Symptom Status, Functional Health, and Quality of Life in HIV Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Ehri; West, Stephen G.; Sousa, Karen H.

    2009-01-01

    We extended Wilson and Cleary's (1995) health-related quality of life model to examine the relationships among symptom status (Symptoms), functional health (Disability), and quality of life (QOL). Using a community sample (N = 956) of male HIV positive patients, we tested a mediation model in which the relationship between Symptoms and QOL is…

  1. Development and validation status of the IFMIF High Flux Test Module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbeiter, Frederik; Abou-Sena, Ali; Chen Yuming; Dolensky, Bernhard; Heupel, Tobias; Klein, Christine; Scheel, Nicola; Schlindwein, Georg

    2011-01-01

    The development of the IFMIF (International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility) High Flux Test Module in the EVEDA (Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activities) phase up to 2013 includes conceptual design, engineering analyses, as well as design and engineering validation by building of prototypes and their testing. The High Flux Test Module is the device to facilitate the irradiation of SSTT samples of RAFM steels at temperatures 250-550 deg. C and up to an accumulated irradiation damage of 150 dpa. The requirements, the current design and the performance of the module are discussed, and the development process is outlined.

  2. Development and validation status of the IFMIF High Flux Test Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbeiter, Frederik, E-mail: frederik.arbeiter@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology (KIT-INR), Karlsruhe (Germany); Abou-Sena, Ali; Chen Yuming; Dolensky, Bernhard; Heupel, Tobias; Klein, Christine; Scheel, Nicola; Schlindwein, Georg [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology (KIT-INR), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    The development of the IFMIF (International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility) High Flux Test Module in the EVEDA (Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activities) phase up to 2013 includes conceptual design, engineering analyses, as well as design and engineering validation by building of prototypes and their testing. The High Flux Test Module is the device to facilitate the irradiation of SSTT samples of RAFM steels at temperatures 250-550 deg. C and up to an accumulated irradiation damage of 150 dpa. The requirements, the current design and the performance of the module are discussed, and the development process is outlined.

  3. Reliability and validity of the revised Gibson Test of Cognitive Skills, a computer-based test battery for assessing cognition across the lifespan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moore AL

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Amy Lawson Moore, Terissa M Miller Gibson Institute of Cognitive Research, Colorado Springs, CO, USA Purpose: The purpose of the current study is to evaluate the validity and reliability of the revised Gibson Test of Cognitive Skills, a computer-based battery of tests measuring short-term memory, long-term memory, processing speed, logic and reasoning, visual processing, as well as auditory processing and word attack skills.Methods: This study included 2,737 participants aged 5–85 years. A series of studies was conducted to examine the validity and reliability using the test performance of the entire norming group and several subgroups. The evaluation of the technical properties of the test battery included content validation by subject matter experts, item analysis and coefficient alpha, test–retest reliability, split-half reliability, and analysis of concurrent validity with the Woodcock Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities and Tests of Achievement.Results: Results indicated strong sources of evidence of validity and reliability for the test, including internal consistency reliability coefficients ranging from 0.87 to 0.98, test–retest reliability coefficients ranging from 0.69 to 0.91, split-half reliability coefficients ranging from 0.87 to 0.91, and concurrent validity coefficients ranging from 0.53 to 0.93.Conclusion: The Gibson Test of Cognitive Skills-2 is a reliable and valid tool for assessing cognition in the general population across the lifespan. Keywords: testing, cognitive skills, memory, processing speed, visual processing, auditory processing

  4. The validity of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, H; Nielsen, S D; Gluud, C

    1994-01-01

    This review examines the validity of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST) as a screening instrument for alcohol problems. Studies that compare the MAST-questionnaire with other defined diagnostic criteria of alcohol problems were retrieved through MEDLINE and a cross-bibliographic check....... A total of 20 validity studies were included. The studies varied considerably regarding the prevalence of alcohol problems, the diagnostic criteria, and the examined patient categories. The MAST compared with other diagnostic criteria of alcohol problems gave validity measures with the following span...... and the specificities show substantial variations. The variables that seem to have the largest influence on the PVpos seem to be the prevalence of alcohol problems, the diagnostic method against which the MAST-questionnaire is validated, and the populations on which the MAST is applied. The MAST should in the future...

  5. The ad-libitum alcohol 'taste test': secondary analyses of potential confounds and construct validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Andrew; Button, Emily; Rose, Abigail K; Robinson, Eric; Christiansen, Paul; Di Lemma, Lisa; Field, Matt

    2016-03-01

    Motivation to drink alcohol can be measured in the laboratory using an ad-libitum 'taste test', in which participants rate the taste of alcoholic drinks whilst their intake is covertly monitored. Little is known about the construct validity of this paradigm. The objective of this study was to investigate variables that may compromise the validity of this paradigm and its construct validity. We re-analysed data from 12 studies from our laboratory that incorporated an ad-libitum taste test. We considered time of day and participants' awareness of the purpose of the taste test as potential confounding variables. We examined whether gender, typical alcohol consumption, subjective craving, scores on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test and perceived pleasantness of the drinks predicted ad-libitum consumption (construct validity). We included 762 participants (462 female). Participant awareness and time of day were not related to ad-libitum alcohol consumption. Males drank significantly more alcohol than females (p alcohol consumption (p = 0.04), craving (p alcohol consumption. The construct validity of the taste test was supported by relationships between ad-libitum consumption and typical alcohol consumption, craving and pleasantness ratings of the drinks. The ad-libitum taste test is a valid method for the assessment of alcohol intake in the laboratory.

  6. Validity and test-retest reliability of a novel simple back extensor muscle strength test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Amy T; Weeks, Benjamin Kurt; Horan, Sean A; Little, Andrew; Watson, Steven L; Beck, Belinda Ruth

    2017-01-01

    To develop and determine convergent validity and reliability of a simple and inexpensive clinical test to quantify back extensor muscle strength. Two testing sessions were conducted, 7 days apart. Each session involved three trials of standing maximal isometric back extensor muscle strength using both the novel test and isokinetic dynamometry. Lumbar spine bone mineral density was examined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Validation was examined with Pearson correlations ( r ). Test-retest reliability was examined with intraclass correlation coefficients and limits of agreement. Pearson correlations and intraclass correlation coefficients are presented with corresponding 95% confidence intervals. Linear regression was used to examine the ability of peak back extensor muscle strength to predict indices of lumbar spine bone mineral density and strength. A total of 52 healthy adults (26 men, 26 women) aged 46.4 ± 20.4 years were recruited from the community. A strong positive relationship was observed between peak back extensor strength from hand-held and isokinetic dynamometry ( r  = 0.824, p  strength test, short- and long-term reliability was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.983 (95% confidence interval, 0.971-0.990), p  strength measures with the novel back extensor strength protocol were -6.63 to 7.70 kg, with a mean bias of +0.71 kg. Back extensor strength predicted 11% of variance in lumbar spine bone mineral density ( p  strength ( p  strength is quick, relatively inexpensive, and reliable; demonstrates initial convergent validity in a healthy population; and is associated with bone mass at a clinically important site.

  7. Assessing the Construct Validity and Internal Reliability of the Screening Tool Test Your Memory in Patients with Chronic Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda, B; Salazar, A; Dueñas, M; Torres, L M; Mico, J A; Failde, I

    2016-01-01

    Patients with chronic pain often complain about cognitive difficulties, and since these symptoms represent an additional source of suffering and distress, evaluating the cognitive status of these patients with valid and reliable tests should be an important part of their overall assessment. Although cognitive impairment is a critical characteristic of pain, there is no specific measure designed to detect these effects in this population. The objective was to analyze the psychometric properties of the "Test Your Memory" (TYM) test in patients with chronic pain of three different origins. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 72 subjects free of pain and 254 patients suffering from different types of chronic pain: neuropathic pain (104), musculoskeletal pain (99) and fibromyalgia (51). The construct validity of the TYM was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADs), Index-9 from MOS-sleep, SF-12, and through the intensity (Visual Analogical Scale) and duration of pain. An exploratory factor analysis was also performed and internal reliability was assessed using Cronbach's alpha. After adjusting for potential confounders the TYM could distinguish between pain and pain-free patients, and it was correlated with the: MMSE (0.89, pmental components (0.55, p reliable screening instrument to assess cognitive function in chronic pain patients that will be of particular value in clinical situations.

  8. AULA virtual reality test as an attention measure: convergent validity with Conners' Continuous Performance Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Orueta, Unai; Garcia-López, Cristina; Crespo-Eguílaz, Nerea; Sánchez-Carpintero, Rocío; Climent, Gema; Narbona, Juan

    2014-01-01

    The majority of neuropsychological tests used to evaluate attention processes in children lack ecological validity. The AULA Nesplora (AULA) is a continuous performance test, developed in a virtual setting, very similar to a school classroom. The aim of the present study is to analyze the convergent validity between the AULA and the Continuous Performance Test (CPT) of Conners. The AULA and CPT were administered correlatively to 57 children, aged 6-16 years (26.3% female) with average cognitive ability (IQ mean = 100.56, SD = 10.38) who had a diagnosis of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) according to DSM-IV-TR criteria. Spearman correlations analyses were conducted among the different variables. Significant correlations were observed between both tests in all the analyzed variables (omissions, commissions, reaction time, and variability of reaction time), including for those measures of the AULA based on different sensorial modalities, presentation of distractors, and task paradigms. Hence, convergent validity between both tests was confirmed. Moreover, the AULA showed differences by gender and correlation to Perceptual Reasoning and Working Memory indexes of the WISC-IV, supporting the relevance of IQ measures in the understanding of cognitive performance in ADHD. In addition, the AULA (but not Conners' CPT) was able to differentiate between ADHD children with and without pharmacological treatment for a wide range of measures related to inattention, impulsivity, processing speed, motor activity, and quality of attention focus. Additional measures and advantages of the AULA versus Conners' CPT are discussed.

  9. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci: validation of susceptibility testing and in vitro activity of novel antibiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathe, Mathias; Lise, Kristensen,; Ellermann-Eriksen, Svend

    Vancomycin-resistant enterococci: validation of susceptibility testing and in vitro activity of novel antibiotics......Vancomycin-resistant enterococci: validation of susceptibility testing and in vitro activity of novel antibiotics...

  10. [Comparison of the Wechsler Memory Scale-III and the Spain-Complutense Verbal Learning Test in acquired brain injury: construct validity and ecological validity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Lario, P; Pena, J; Ojeda, N

    2017-04-16

    To perform an in-depth examination of the construct validity and the ecological validity of the Wechsler Memory Scale-III (WMS-III) and the Spain-Complutense Verbal Learning Test (TAVEC). The sample consists of 106 adults with acquired brain injury who were treated in the Area of Neuropsychology and Neuropsychiatry of the Complejo Hospitalario de Navarra and displayed memory deficit as the main sequela, measured by means of specific memory tests. The construct validity is determined by examining the tasks required in each test over the basic theoretical models, comparing the performance according to the parameters offered by the tests, contrasting the severity indices of each test and analysing their convergence. The external validity is explored through the correlation between the tests and by using regression models. According to the results obtained, both the WMS-III and the TAVEC have construct validity. The TAVEC is more sensitive and captures not only the deficits in mnemonic consolidation, but also in the executive functions involved in memory. The working memory index of the WMS-III is useful for predicting the return to work at two years after the acquired brain injury, but none of the instruments anticipates the disability and dependence at least six months after the injury. We reflect upon the construct validity of the tests and their insufficient capacity to predict functionality when the sequelae become chronic.

  11. Development and Validation of a Food-Associated Olfactory Test (FAOT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denzer-Lippmann, Melanie Yvonne; Beauchamp, Jonathan; Freiherr, Jessica; Thuerauf, Norbert; Kornhuber, Johannes; Buettner, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Olfactory tests are an important tool in human nutritional research for studying food preferences, yet comprehensive tests dedicated solely to food odors are currently lacking. Therefore, within this study, an innovative food-associated olfactory test (FAOT) system was developed. The FAOT comprises 16 odorant pens that contain representative food odors relating to different macronutrient classes. The test underwent a sensory validation based on identification rate, intensity, hedonic value, and food association scores. The accuracy of the test was further compared to the accuracy of the established Sniffin' Sticks identification test. The identification rates and intensities of this new FAOT were found to be comparable to the Sniffin' Sticks olfactory identification test. The odorant pens were also assessed chemo-analytically and were found to be chemically stable for at least 24 weeks. Overall, this new identification test for use in assessing olfaction in a food-associated context is valid both in terms of its use in sensory perception studies and its chemical stability. The FOAT is particularly suited to examinations of the sense of smell regarding food odors. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Suitability Screening Test for Marine Corps Air Traffic Controllers Phase 3: Non-cognitive Test Validation and Cognitive Test Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    developed, pilot tested, and in its Beta form. Findings or Results The subset of NCAPS traits that demonstrated statistically significant prediction for...development and initial pilot testing of the Prototype Marine ATC Cognitive Test. Method The validation approach chosen for this project was a criterion... multitasking ability, and 5) inductive reasoning ability. A working memory capacity test was developed because working memory has been linked to

  13. Mediation and moderation: Testing relationships between symptom status, functional health, and quality of life in HIV patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Ehri; West, Stephen G.; Sousa, Karen H.

    2010-01-01

    We extended Wilson and Cleary's (1995) health-related quality of life model to examine the relationships among symptoms status (Symptoms), functional health (Disability), and quality of life (QOL). Using a community sample (N = 956) of male HIV positive patients, we tested a mediation model in which the relationship between Symptoms and QOL is partially mediated by Disability. Common and unique ideas from three approaches to examining moderation of effects in mediational models (Edwards & Lambert, 2007; Preacher, Rucker, & Hayes, 2007; MacKinnon, 2008) were used to test whether (a) the direct relationship of Symptoms to QOL and (b) the relationship of Disability to QOL are moderated by age. In the mediation model, both the direct and the indirect (mediated) effects were significant. The direct relationship of Symptoms to QOL was significantly moderated by age, but the relationship of Disability to QOL was not. High Symptoms were associated with lower QOL at all ages, but that this relationship became stronger at older ages. We compare the three approaches and consider their advantages over traditional approaches to combining mediation and moderation. PMID:20706561

  14. Adult Liver Cancer Symptoms, Tests, Prognosis, and Stages (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common type of adult primary liver cancer. The Barcelona Clinical Liver Cancer (BCLC) Staging System is used to stage liver cancer. Learn more about risk factors, signs and symptoms, tests to diagnose, prognosis, and stages of adult primary liver cancer.

  15. 40 CFR 1048.501 - How do I run a valid emission test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I run a valid emission test... § 1048.501 How do I run a valid emission test? (a) Use the equipment and procedures for spark-ignition... 86.132-96(h) and then operate the engine for 60 minutes over repeat runs of the duty cycle specified...

  16. Validation of a questionnaire to monitor symptoms in HIV-infected patients during hepatitis C treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cachay, Edward R; Ballard, Craig; Colwell, Bradford; Torriani, Francesca; Hicks, Charles; Mathews, Wm Christopher

    2017-09-20

    Clinicians are incorporating patient-reported outcomes in the management of HIV-infected persons co-infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), but there are no validated inventories to monitor symptoms of patients during HCV therapy. Five-year retrospective cohort analysis of persons living with HIV (PLWH) treated for HCV. The HCV symptom-inventory (HCV-SI) was administered before, during, and after HCV treatment. Discriminant validity was assessed, separately, in mixed model linear regression of HCV-SI T-scores on treatment regimens (pegylated-interferon and ribavirin; pegylated-interferon, ribavirin, and telaprevir; and interferon-free antivirals); and side effect-related premature treatment discontinuation (SE-DC). From the 103 patients who completed the HCV-SI, 7% were female, 26% non-white, 32% cirrhotics and 91% had undetectable HIV viral loads. Most had genotype 1 (83%) and were HCV treatment-naïve (78%). We treated 19% of patients with pegylated-interferon and ribavirin, 22% with pegylated-interferon, ribavirin, and telaprevir and 59% received interferon-free antivirals. Overall, 77% achieved a sustained virologic response, and 6% discontinued HCV treatment due to side effects. In the treatment discrimination model, compared to the no treatment period, HCV-SI scores were significantly (p < 0.01) lower for interferon-free antivirals and higher for interferon-containing regimens. In the SE-DC model, the total HCV-SI, somatic and neuropsychiatric scores significantly predicted those patients who prematurely discontinued HCV treatment (P < 0.05). The HCV-SI effectively differentiated among treatment regimens known to vary by side effect profiles and between patients with and without treatment discontinuation due to side effects. The HCV-SI may have value as a patient-reported outcome instrument predicting the risk of HCV treatment discontinuation.

  17. Unit testing, model validation, and biological simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Gopal P; Jacobs, Travis W; Watts, Mark D; Ghayoomie, S Vahid; Larson, Stephen D; Gerkin, Richard C

    2016-01-01

    The growth of the software industry has gone hand in hand with the development of tools and cultural practices for ensuring the reliability of complex pieces of software. These tools and practices are now acknowledged to be essential to the management of modern software. As computational models and methods have become increasingly common in the biological sciences, it is important to examine how these practices can accelerate biological software development and improve research quality. In this article, we give a focused case study of our experience with the practices of unit testing and test-driven development in OpenWorm, an open-science project aimed at modeling Caenorhabditis elegans. We identify and discuss the challenges of incorporating test-driven development into a heterogeneous, data-driven project, as well as the role of model validation tests, a category of tests unique to software which expresses scientific models.

  18. Development and Validation of a Persian Version of Dichotic Emotional Word Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefe Davudazde

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Emotional words in comparison with neutral words have different hemispheric specialization. It is assumed that the right hemisphere has a role in processing every kind of emotional word. The objective of the present study was the development of a Persian version of the dichotic emotional word test and evaluate its validation among adult Persian speakers.   Materials and Methods: The present study was done on 60 adults, with the age ranging from 18-30 years for both genders, who had no history of neurological disorders with normal hearing. The developed test included eight main lists; each had several dichotic emotional/ neutral pairs of words. Participants were asked to recall as many words in each list as they could after they listened to them. A content validity index was used to analyze the validity of the test.   Results: The mean content validity index score was 0.94. The findings showed that in the left ear, emotional words were remembered more than neutral ones (P=0.007. While in the right ear, neutral words were remembered more (P=0.009. There were no significant differences in male and female scores.   Conclusion:  Dichotic emotional word test has a high content validity. The ability to remember emotional words better in the left ear supports the dominant role of the right hemisphere in emotional word perception.

  19. Portuguese validation of the children's eating attitudes test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Del Carmen Bento Teixeira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT is the most widely used instrument for evaluating eating disorders in adults and adolescents in a variety of cultures and samples. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyse the psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the Children's Eating Attitudes Test (ChEAT. METHOD: Nine hundred and fifty-six Portuguese secondary students (565 girls and 391 boys answered the ChEAT. The test-retest reliability was obtained with data from 206 participants from the total sample who re-answered the questionnaire after 4-6 weeks. Psychometric analyses were carried out for the total sample and separately for girls and boys. RESULTS: Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were satisfactory. Principal components factorial analysis yielded four factors in the total sample, accounting for 42.35% of the total variance. Factor structure was similar in the total sample and in both genders. Factors were labelled: F1 "Fear of Getting Fat", F2 "Restrictive and Purgative Behaviours", F3 "Food Preoccupation" and F4 "Social Pressure to Eat". The concurrent validity, explored using the Contour Drawing Figure Rating Scale (CDRS was high. DISCUSSION: The Portuguese version of the ChEAT is a valid and useful instrument for the evaluation of abnormal eating attitudes and behaviours among Portuguese adolescents.

  20. Validation of a short form Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey (WURSS-21

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Highstrom Alex D

    2009-08-01

    .75 for the WURSS-44. Factorial analysis suggested an eight dimension structure for the WURSS-44 and a three dimension structure for the WURSS-21, with composite reliability coefficients ranging from 0.87 to 0.97, and Cronbach's alpha ranging from 0.76 to 0.96. Both WURSS versions correlated significantly with the Jackson scale (W-21 R = 0.85; W-44 R = 0.88, with the SF-8 physical health (W-21 R = -0.79; W-44 R = -0.80 and SF-8 mental health (W-21 R = -0.55; W-44 R = -0.60. Conclusion The WURSS-44 and WURSS-21 perform well as illness-specific quality-of-life evaluative outcome instruments. Construct validity is supported by the data presented here. While the WURSS-44 covers more symptoms, the WURSS-21 exhibits similar performance in terms of reliability, responsiveness, importance-to-patients, and convergence with other measures.

  1. Testing the adaptation to poverty-related stress model: predicting psychopathology symptoms in families facing economic hardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, Martha E; Raviv, Tali; Santiago, Catherine Decarlo; Etter, Erica M

    2011-01-01

    This study tested the Adaptation to Poverty-related Stress Model and its proposed relations between poverty-related stress, effortful and involuntary stress responses, and symptoms of psychopathology in an ethnically diverse sample of low-income children and their parents. Prospective Hierarchical Linear Modeling analyses conducted with 98 families (300 family members: 136 adults, 82 adolescents and preadolescents, 82 school-age children) revealed that, consistent with the model, primary and secondary control coping were protective against poverty-related stress primarily for internalizing symptoms. Conversely, disengagement coping exacerbated externalizing symptoms over time. In addition, involuntary engagement stress responses exacerbated the effects of poverty-related stress for internalizing symptoms, whereas involuntary disengagement responses exacerbated externalizing symptoms. Age and gender effects were found in most models, reflecting more symptoms of both types for parents than children and higher levels of internalizing symptoms for girls.

  2. Simulation tests for cervical nonorganic signs: a study of face validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, Howard; Proctor, Dan; Bakalovski, Dianna; Moreton, Jesse

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and determine the face validity of additional cervical nonorganic simulation tests. Four simulation tests were either selected from the literature or newly designed: simulated sitting trunk/shoulder rotation (SR; test no. 1), active vs passive cervical rotation (CR; test no. 2), Libman's test (LT; test no. 3) of pressure over the mastoid process, and side-lying passive shoulder abduction (SA; test no. 4). Three groups, 1 without neck pain (n = 44) and 2 with neck pain (n = 43 and 27), were formed. Outcome measures consisted of questions on provocation of pain (Yes/No) and appropriateness (Yes/No) as well as measurements of cervical rotation (goniometric) and pressure pain threshold (pressure algometer). Group test responses were evaluated and scored. A threshold of acceptance was established at 80% agreement for face validity. Ranges of rotation and pressure threshold values were analyzed with the Student t test. In nonneck pain subjects, all 4 tests were rated as nonpainful and 3 were rated as "appropriate" for neck pain examination (not SR). In neck pain subjects, this test and SA were rated as nonpainful, whereas LT was rated as painful in 26% of subjects. Only CR and LT were rated as "appropriate." In neck pain subjects, passive rotations exceeded actives by 10% to 14% (P = .000). On a second round of testing with a slightly modified method, SR and SA achieved acceptable "appropriateness." Once 2 tests were slightly modified, all 4 tests were found to have acceptable face validity. Further research into the reliability of these tests as well as into the combinations of these tests is warranted. Copyright 2010 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. How diagnostic tests help to disentangle the mechanisms underlying neuropathic pain symptoms in painful neuropathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truini, Andrea; Cruccu, Giorgio

    2016-02-01

    Neuropathic pain, ie, pain arising directly from a lesion or disease affecting the somatosensory afferent pathway, manifests with various symptoms, the commonest being ongoing burning pain, electrical shock-like sensations, and dynamic mechanical allodynia. Reliable insights into the mechanisms underlying neuropathic pain symptoms come from diagnostic tests documenting and quantifying somatosensory afferent pathway damage in patients with painful neuropathies. Neurophysiological investigation and skin biopsy studies suggest that ongoing burning pain primarily reflects spontaneous activity in nociceptive-fiber pathways. Electrical shock-like sensations presumably arise from high-frequency ectopic bursts generated in demyelinated, nonnociceptive, Aβ fibers. Although the mechanisms underlying dynamic mechanical allodynia remain debatable, normally innocuous stimuli might cause pain by activating spared and sensitized nociceptive afferents. Extending the mechanistic approach to neuropathic pain symptoms might advance targeted therapy for the individual patient and improve testing for new drugs.

  4. The Relationship Between Intradialytic Nutrition and Gastrointestinal Symptoms Using a Modified Version of the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, Brandon M; Biruete, Annabel; Chapman-Novakofski, Karen; Wilund, Kenneth R

    2018-03-01

    Intradialytic nutrition has been shown to improve nutritional status in maintenance hemodialysis (HD) patients but remains controversial due in part to concerns over hemodynamic stability and gastrointestinal (GI) distress. There are limited data on the relationship between intradialytic nutrition and GI symptoms, possibly due to the lack of a validated tool. Therefore, we intended to validate a questionnaire to measure GI symptoms associated with a single HD treatment and determine the relationship between intradialytic nutrition and GI symptoms. Cross-sectional study. Forty-eight maintenance HD patients. GI symptoms and dietary intake during HD treatment. In general, we found acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha >0.5, exception reflux domain) and repeatability in all 5 domains of a modified version of the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale. The prevalence of GI symptoms associated with a single HD treatment (generalized score greater than 1) was 54.2, 43.7, 6.2, 41.7, and 45.8% for the abdominal pain, indigestion, reflux, diarrhea, and constipation domains, respectively. More than two-thirds of patients chose to eat during treatment (168.6 ± 165.6 kcal) with the most commonly consumed items being candy, oral supplements, and cookies. There was no difference in GI symptoms among patients who did or did not eat (P > .05). However, the amount of total dietary fat and fiber consumed during treatment was associated with greater indigestion (P < .05) prior to accounting for outliers or multiple comparisons. In this sample, the modified version of the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale was a generally valid tool for measuring GI symptoms associated with a single HD treatment. Patients who ate during treatment did not experience greater GI symptoms than those who did not; however, high amounts of fat and fiber may be associated with greater GI symptoms. Prospective trials should examine the relationship between GI symptoms and dietary intake

  5. Weight bias internalization in treatment-seeking overweight adults: Psychometric validation and associations with self-esteem, body image, and mood symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durso, Laura E; Latner, Janet D; Ciao, Anna C

    2016-04-01

    Internalized weight bias has been previously associated with impairments in eating behaviors, body image, and psychological functioning. The present study explored the psychological correlates and psychometric properties of the Weight Bias Internalization Scale (WBIS) among overweight adults enrolled in a behavioral weight loss program. Questionnaires assessing internalized weight bias, anti-fat attitudes, self-esteem, body image concern, and mood symptoms were administered to 90 obese or overweight men and women between the ages of 21 and 73. Reliability statistics suggested revisions to the WBIS. The resulting 9-item scale was shown to be positively associated with body image concern, depressive symptoms, and stress, and negatively associated with self-esteem. Multiple linear regression models demonstrated that WBIS scores were significant and independent predictors of body image concern, self-esteem, and depressive symptoms. These results support the use of the revised 9-item WBIS in treatment-seeking samples as a reliable and valid measure of internalized weight bias. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Depressive Symptoms, Disclosure, HIV-Related Stigma, and Coping Following HIV Testing Among Outpatients in Uganda: A Daily Process Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiene, Susan M; Dove, Meredith; Wanyenze, Rhoda K

    2018-05-01

    As efforts to end the HIV epidemic accelerate there is emphasis on reaching those living with undiagnosed HIV infection. Newly diagnosed individuals face a number of psychosocial challenges, yet we know little about depressive symptoms in the weeks immediately following diagnosis and how disclosure, coping, and other factors may affect short and longer-term depressive symptoms. Purposively sampled Ugandan outpatients completed structured interviews immediately prior to testing for HIV, daily for 28 days after receiving their test results, and at 3 and 6 months post-test. The sample included a total of 244 participants: 20 who tested HIV positive at baseline and who provided 342 daily data points, and 224 who tested HIV negative at baseline and who provided 4388 daily data points. We used linear mixed effects modeling to examine changes in depressive symptom scores over the 28 day daily interview period and predictors of depressive symptom scores and changes over time. Results from the mixed modeling revealed that while those diagnosed with HIV showed initially high depressive symptoms following diagnosis, their symptoms decreased significantly and on average fell below the cutoff for possible depression approximately 15 days after diagnosis. Among those who tested HIV-negative, on average their depressive symptoms were below the cutoff for possible depression and did not change over time. Among those diagnosed with HIV, disclosure, especially to a partner, on a particular day was associated with higher depressive symptoms that day. However, those who disclosed to their partner during the 28 days after diagnosis had significantly lower depression scores by the end of the 28 days as well as lower depression scores 3 and 6 months after diagnosis than did those who did not disclose to their partner during the 28 days after diagnosis. Scoring higher on HIV-related stigma on a particular day was associated with higher depressive symptoms that day and engaging

  7. The Validation of NAA Method Used as Test Method in Serpong NAA Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rina-Mulyaningsih, Th.

    2004-01-01

    The Validation Of NAA Method Used As Test Method In Serpong NAA Laboratory. NAA Method is a non standard testing method. The testing laboratory shall validate its using method to ensure and confirm that it is suitable with application. The validation of NAA methods have been done with the parameters of accuracy, precision, repeatability and selectivity. The NIST 1573a Tomato Leaves, NIES 10C Rice flour unpolished and standard elements were used in this testing program. The result of testing with NIST 1573a showed that the elements of Na, Zn, Al and Mn are met from acceptance criteria of accuracy and precision, whereas Co is rejected. The result of testing with NIES 10C showed that Na and Zn elements are met from acceptance criteria of accuracy and precision, but Mn element is rejected. The result of selectivity test showed that the value of quantity is between 0.1-2.5 μg, depend on the elements. (author)

  8. The Pareidolia Test: A Simple Neuropsychological Test Measuring Visual Hallucination-Like Illusions

    OpenAIRE

    Mamiya, Yasuyuki; Nishio, Yoshiyuki; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Yokoi, Kayoko; Uchiyama, Makoto; Baba, Toru; Iizuka, Osamu; Kanno, Shigenori; Kamimura, Naoto; Kazui, Hiroaki; Hashimoto, Mamoru; Ikeda, Manabu; Takeshita, Chieko; Shimomura, Tatsuo; Mori, Etsuro

    2016-01-01

    Background Visual hallucinations are a core clinical feature of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and this symptom is important in the differential diagnosis and prediction of treatment response. The pareidolia test is a tool that evokes visual hallucination-like illusions, and these illusions may be a surrogate marker of visual hallucinations in DLB. We created a simplified version of the pareidolia test and examined its validity and reliability to establish the clinical utility of this test....

  9. Validity of the American Sign Language Discrimination Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochner, Joseph H.; Samar, Vincent J.; Hauser, Peter C.; Garrison, Wayne M.; Searls, J. Matt; Sanders, Cynthia A.

    2016-01-01

    American Sign Language (ASL) is one of the most commonly taught languages in North America. Yet, few assessment instruments for ASL proficiency have been developed, none of which have adequately demonstrated validity. We propose that the American Sign Language Discrimination Test (ASL-DT), a recently developed measure of learners' ability to…

  10. Functional Literacy Tests: A Case of Anticipatory Validity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lorin W.; Anderson, Jo Craig

    1981-01-01

    Development of the mathematics functional literacy test (MFLT) is described, issues of predictive and content validity are discussed, and implications for educational policy are presented. Ten basic skill areas identified by the National Council of Supervisors of Mathematics were used as the basis for the development of the MFLT. (RL)

  11. Validation of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the pelvic floor bother questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Thais Villela; Pinto, Rodrigo Ambar; Davila, G Willy; Nahas, Sérgio Carlos; Baracat, Edmund Chada; Haddad, Jorge Milhem

    2018-03-16

    The Pelvic Floor Bother Questionnaire (PFBQ) was designed to identify the presence and degree of bother associated with common pelvic floor symptoms. The PFBQ can be used in clinical practice and for research purposes, but it is not available in Brazilian Portuguese. We aimed to validate a cross-culturally adapted Brazilian Portuguese version of the PFBQ. A pilot-tested version of the PFBQ translated from English was evaluated with Brazilian patients suffering from pelvic floor disorders. Internal reliability, test-retest reliability, validity, and responsiveness to change were assessed. A total of 147 patients (mean age, 60.49 years) were enrolled in the study. The Brazilian Portuguese version of the PFBQ demonstrated good reliability (α = 0.625; ICC = 0.981). There was strong agreement beyond chance for each item (κ = 0.895-1.00). The PFBQ correlated with stage of prolapse (p Portuguese version of the PFBQ is a reliable, valid, and user-friendly instrument that can be used for assessing the presence and severity of pelvic floor symptoms in clinical and research settings in Brazil.

  12. Radiologic findings after fundoplication compared with a pH reflux test and symptoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fransson, S.G.; Soekjer, H.; Johansson, K.E.; Tibbling, L.

    In a follow-up after fundoplication, 61 patients underwent a double contrast examination of the stomach and a radiologic examination to detect any gastro-oesophageal reflux. The radiologic findings were compared with pH reflux test and symptoms. Gastro-oesophageal reflux was found in 7 patients at radiologic examination. None of these patients had an adequate fundoplication at a double contrast examination of the stomach and all had symptoms indicating reflux. Recurrence of gastro-oesophageal reflux may be shown at the radiologic examination and predicted by the morphologic appearances at the double contrast examination.

  13. Radiologic findings after fundoplication compared with a pH reflux test and symptoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fransson, S.G.; Soekjer, H.; Johansson, K.E.; Tibbling, L.; Linkoeping Univ.; Linkoeping Univ.

    1986-01-01

    In a follow-up after fundoplication, 61 patients underwent a double contrast examination of the stomach and a radiologic examination to detect any gastro-oesophageal reflux. The radiologic findings were compared with pH reflux test and symptoms. Gastro-oesophageal reflux was found in 7 patients at radiologic examination. None of these patients had an adequate fundoplication at a double contrast examination of the stomach and all had symptoms indicating reflux. Recurrence of gastro-oesophageal reflux may be shown at the radiologic examination and predicted by the morphologic appearances at the double contrast examination. (orig.)

  14. The Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ): a validation study of a multidimensional self-report questionnaire to assess distress, depression, anxiety and somatization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terluin, B.; van Marwijk, H.W.J.; Ader, H.J.; de Vet, H.C.W.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Hermens, M.L.M.; van Boeijen, C.A.; van Balkom, A.J.L.M.; van der Klink, J.J.L.; Stalman, W.A.B.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ) is a self-report questionnaire that has been developed in primary care to distinguish non-specific general distress from depression, anxiety and somatization. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate its criterion and construct validity.

  15. Factorial Validity and Invariance Testing of the Exercise Dependence Scale-Revised in Swedish and Portuguese Exercisers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindwall, Magnus; Palmeira, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the factorial validity and factorial invariance of the 21-item Exercise Dependence Scale-Revised using 162 Swedish and 269 Portuguese exercisers. In addition, the prevalence of exercise dependence symptoms and links to exercise behavior, gender, and age in the two samples was also studied. Confirmatory factor…

  16. Validation of a diabetes numeracy test in Arabic

    OpenAIRE

    Alghodaier, Hussah; Jradi, Hoda; Mohammad, Najwa Samantha; Bawazir, Amen

    2017-01-01

    Background The prevalence of diabetes Mellitus in Saudi Arabia is 24%, ranking it among the top ten Worldwide. Diabetes education focuses on self-management and relies on numeracy skills. Poor numeracy may go unrecognized and it is important to have an assessment tool in Arabic to measure such a skill in diabetes care. Objectives To validate a 15-item Diabetes Numeracy Test (DNT-15) in the Arabic Language as a tool to assess the numeracy skills of patients with diabetes and to test its proper...

  17. Testing ESL pragmatics development and validation of a web-based assessment battery

    CERN Document Server

    Roever, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Although second language learners' pragmatic competence (their ability to use language in context) is an essential part of their general communicative competence, it has not been a part of second language tests. This book helps fill this gap by describing the development and validation of a web-based test of ESL pragmalinguistics. The instrument assesses learners' knowledge of routine formulae, speech acts, and implicature in 36 multiple-choice and brief-response items. The test's quantitative and qualitative validation with 300 learners showed high reliability and provided strong evidence of

  18. Translation, Cultural Adaptation and Validation of the Simple Shoulder Test to Spanish

    OpenAIRE

    Arcuri, Francisco; Barclay, Fernando; Nacul, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Background: The validation of widely used scales facilitates the comparison across international patient samples. Objective: The objective was to translate, culturally adapt and validate the Simple Shoulder Test into Argentinian Spanish. Methods: The Simple Shoulder Test was translated from English into Argentinian Spanish by two independent translators, translated back into English and evaluated for accuracy by an expert committee to correct the possible discrepancies. It was then administer...

  19. Intra-tester Reliability and Construct Validity of a Hip Abductor Eccentric Strength Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brindle, Richard A; Ebaugh, D David; Milner, Clare E

    2017-11-15

    Side-lying hip abductor strength tests are commonly used to evaluate muscle strength. In a 'break' test the tester applies sufficient force to lower the limb to the table while the patient resists. The peak force is postulated to occur while the leg is lowering, thus representing the participant's eccentric muscle strength. However, it is unclear whether peak force occurs before or after the leg begins to lower. To determine intra-rater reliability and construct validity of a hip abductor eccentric strength test. Intra-rater reliability and construct validity study. Twenty healthy adults (26 ±6 years; 1.66 ±0.06 m; 62.2 ±8.0 kg) made two visits to the laboratory at least one week apart. During the hip abductor eccentric strength test, a hand-held dynamometer recorded peak force and time to peak force and limb position was recorded via a motion capture system. Intra-rater reliability was determined using intra-class correlation (ICC), standard error of measurement (SEM), and minimal detectable difference (MDD). Construct validity was assessed by determining if peak force occurred after the start of the lowering phase using a one-sample t-test. The hip abductor eccentric strength test had substantial intra-rater reliability (ICC( 3,3 ) = 0.88; 95% confidence interval: 0.65-0.95), SEM of 0.9%BWh, and a MDD of 2.5%BWh. Construct validity was established as peak force occurred 2.1s (±0.6s; range 0.7s to 3.7s) after the start of the lowering phase of the test (p ≤ 0.001). The hip abductor eccentric strength test is a valid and reliable measure of eccentric muscle strength. This test may be used clinically to assess changes in eccentric muscle strength over time.

  20. The Unified Language Testing Plan: Speaking Proficiency Test. Spanish and English Pilot Validation Studies. Report Number 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Julie A.

    This report describes one segment of the Federal Language Testing Board's Unified Language Testing Plan (ULTP), the validation of speaking proficiency tests in Spanish and English. The ULTP is a project to increase standardization of foreign language proficiency measurement and promote sharing of resources among testing programs in the federal…

  1. Development of a youth-report measure of DPN symptoms: Conceptualization and content validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Moser

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions: This study is the first to generate a content valid self-report measure of youth’s lived experiences with DPN that uses developmentally appropriate terminology. With further psychometric testing, the measure could be used to advance research on pediatric DPN and enhance clinicians’ capacity to identify the condition in childhood.

  2. A behavioral and pharmacological validation of the acetone spray test in gerbils with a chronic constriction injury.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, K.C.P.; Meert, T.F.

    2005-01-01

    Cold and mechanical allodynia are important symptoms in patients with neuropathic pain. The study of cold allodynia in animals can help us to understand the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of neuropathic pain and to validate drugs. The evaluation of cold allodynia in gerbils with a chronic

  3. Screening for cognitive impairment in older individuals. Validation study of a computer-based test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, R C; Green, J; Harrison, J M; Kutner, M H

    1994-08-01

    This study examined the validity of a computer-based cognitive test that was recently designed to screen the elderly for cognitive impairment. Criterion-related validity was examined by comparing test scores of impaired patients and normal control subjects. Construct-related validity was computed through correlations between computer-based subtests and related conventional neuropsychological subtests. University center for memory disorders. Fifty-two patients with mild cognitive impairment by strict clinical criteria and 50 unimpaired, age- and education-matched control subjects. Control subjects were rigorously screened by neurological, neuropsychological, imaging, and electrophysiological criteria to identify and exclude individuals with occult abnormalities. Using a cut-off total score of 126, this computer-based instrument had a sensitivity of 0.83 and a specificity of 0.96. Using a prevalence estimate of 10%, predictive values, positive and negative, were 0.70 and 0.96, respectively. Computer-based subtests correlated significantly with conventional neuropsychological tests measuring similar cognitive domains. Thirteen (17.8%) of 73 volunteers with normal medical histories were excluded from the control group, with unsuspected abnormalities on standard neuropsychological tests, electroencephalograms, or magnetic resonance imaging scans. Computer-based testing is a valid screening methodology for the detection of mild cognitive impairment in the elderly, although this particular test has important limitations. Broader applications of computer-based testing will require extensive population-based validation. Future studies should recognize that normal control subjects without a history of disease who are typically used in validation studies may have a high incidence of unsuspected abnormalities on neurodiagnostic studies.

  4. Patients With Fibromyalgia Have Significant Autonomic Symptoms But Modest Autonomic Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Ann; Whipple, Mary O; Low, Phillip A; Joyner, Michael; Hoskin, Tanya L

    2016-05-01

    Research suggests that disordered autonomic function may be one contributor to deconditioning reported in fibromyalgia; however, no study to date has assessed these variables simultaneously with comprehensive measures. To characterize physical fitness and autonomic function with the use of clinically validated measures and subjective questionnaires between patients with fibromyalgia and healthy controls. Cross-sectional, observational, controlled study. Community sample of patients with fibromyalgia and healthy controls. Thirty patients with fibromyalgia and 30 pain and fatigue-free controls. Participants completed a battery of self-report questionnaires and physiological measures, including clinically validated measures of physical fitness and autonomic function. Six-Minute Walk Test total distance, maximal oxygen consumption as assessed by cardiopulmonary exercise testing, total steps using activity monitor, Composite Autonomic Scoring Scale as assessed by Autonomic Reflex Screen, total metabolic equivalents per week using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and self-reported autonomic symptoms via the 31-item Composite Autonomic Symptom Score questionnaire. Autonomic function, as assessed by self-report, was significantly different between patients and controls (P physical activity was not significantly different between patients and controls (P = .99), but levels of moderate and vigorous physical activity as measured by actigraphy were significantly lower in patients (P = .012 and P = .047, respectively). Exercise capacity (6-Minute Walk) was poorer in patients (P = .0006), but there was no significant difference in maximal volume of oxygen consumption (P = .07). Patients with fibromyalgia report more severe symptoms across all domains, including physical activity and autonomic symptoms, compared with controls, but the objective assessments only showed modest differences. Our results suggest that patients with widespread subjective impairment of

  5. Experimental validation of a new heterogeneous mechanical test design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, J.; Campos, A. Andrade; Souto, N.; Thuillier, S.

    2018-05-01

    Standard material parameters identification strategies generally use an extensive number of classical tests for collecting the required experimental data. However, a great effort has been made recently by the scientific and industrial communities to support this experimental database on heterogeneous tests. These tests can provide richer information on the material behavior allowing the identification of a more complete set of material parameters. This is a result of the recent development of full-field measurements techniques, like digital image correlation (DIC), that can capture the heterogeneous deformation fields on the specimen surface during the test. Recently, new specimen geometries were designed to enhance the richness of the strain field and capture supplementary strain states. The butterfly specimen is an example of these new geometries, designed through a numerical optimization procedure where an indicator capable of evaluating the heterogeneity and the richness of strain information. However, no experimental validation was yet performed. The aim of this work is to experimentally validate the heterogeneous butterfly mechanical test in the parameter identification framework. For this aim, DIC technique and a Finite Element Model Up-date inverse strategy are used together for the parameter identification of a DC04 steel, as well as the calculation of the indicator. The experimental tests are carried out in a universal testing machine with the ARAMIS measuring system to provide the strain states on the specimen surface. The identification strategy is accomplished with the data obtained from the experimental tests and the results are compared to a reference numerical solution.

  6. Psychometric validation of patient-reported outcome measures assessing chronic constipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson LM

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Lauren M Nelson,1 Valerie SL Williams,1 Sheri E Fehnel,1 Robyn T Carson,2 James MacDougall,3 Mollie J Baird,3 Stavros Tourkodimitris,2 Caroline B Kurtz,3 Jeffrey M Johnston31RTI Health Solutions, Durham, NC, USA; 2Forest Research Institute, Jersey City, NJ, USA; 3Ironwood Pharmaceuticals, Cambridge, MA, USABackground: Measures assessing treatment outcomes in previous CC clinical trials have not met the requirements described in the US Food and Drug Administration's guidance on patient-reported outcomes.Aim: Psychometric analyses using data from one Phase IIb study and two Phase III trials of linaclotide for the treatment of chronic constipation (CC were conducted to document the measurement properties of patient-reported CC Symptom Severity Measures.Study methods: Each study had a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group design, comparing placebo to four doses of oral linaclotide taken once daily for 4 weeks in the Phase IIb dose-ranging study (n=307 and to two doses of linaclotide taken once daily for 12 weeks in the Phase III trials (n=1,272. The CC Symptom Severity Measures addressing bowel function (Bowel Movement Frequency, Stool Consistency, Straining and abdominal symptoms (Bloating, Abdominal Discomfort, Abdominal Pain were administered daily using interactive voice-response system technology. Intraclass correlations, Pearson correlations, factor analyses, F-tests, and effect sizes were computed.Results: The CC Symptom Severity Measures demonstrated satisfactory test–retest reliability and construct validity. Factor analyses indicated one factor for abdominal symptoms and another for bowel symptoms. Known-groups F-tests substantiated the discriminating ability of the CC Symptom Severity Measures. Responsiveness statistics were moderate to strong, indicating that these measures are capable of detecting change.Conclusion: In large studies of CC patients, linaclotide significantly improved abdominal and

  7. Tamsulosin, Solifenacin, and Their Combination for the Treatment of Stent-Related Symptoms: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellis, Athanasios E; Papatsoris, Athanasios G; Keeley, Francis X; Bamias, Aristotelis; Deliveliotis, Charalambos; Skolarikos, Andreas A

    2017-01-01

    To properly use the Ureteric Symptom Score Questionnaire (USSQ) to evaluate, in a randomized control study, the effect of tamsulosin, solifenacin, and their combination in improving symptoms and quality of life in patients with indwelling ureteral stents. After institutional review board approval, 260 patients with a ureteral stent were randomly assigned to receive tamsulosin 0.4 mg, solifenacin 5 mg, or placebo and further randomized to receive their combination. The validated USSQ was completed 1 and 4 weeks after stent insertion and 4 weeks after stent removal. Kruskal-Wallis test, chi-squared test (or Fisher's exact test), one-way analysis of variance, and T-test (or Wilcoxon rank-sum test if not normal data) were used for statistical analysis. The results were considered significant at p tamsulosin or solifenacin expressed significantly lower urinary (p tamsulosin and solifenacin alone or in combination, improves stent-related symptoms and has a positive impact on quality of life.

  8. Exploring the Reliability and Validity of the Social-Moral Awareness Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livesey, Alexandra; Dodd, Karen; Pote, Helen; Marlow, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Background: The aim of the study was to explore the validity of the social-moral awareness test (SMAT) a measure designed for assessing socio-moral rule knowledge and reasoning in people with learning disabilities. Comparisons between Theory of Mind and socio-moral reasoning allowed the exploration of construct validity of the tool. Factor…

  9. Premonitory symptoms in migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurell, Katarina; Artto, Ville; Bendtsen, Lars

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To describe the frequency and number of premonitory symptoms (PS) in migraine, the co-occurrence of different PS, and their association with migraine-related factors. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, a validated questionnaire was sent to Finnish migraine families between 2002 and 2013...... to obtain data on 14 predefined PS, migraine diagnoses, demographic factors, and migraine characteristics. The estimated response rate was 80%. RESULTS: Out of 2714 persons, 2223 were diagnosed with migraine. Among these, 77% reported PS, with a mean number of 3.0 symptoms compared to 30% (p ....5 symptoms (p migraine headaches. Yawning was the most commonly reported symptom (34%) among migraineurs. Females reported PS more frequently than males (81 versus 64%, p 

  10. Experimental Testing Procedures and Dynamic Model Validation for Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Storage System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baccino, Francesco; Marinelli, Mattia; Nørgård, Per Bromand

    2013-01-01

    The paper aims at characterizing the electrochemical and thermal parameters of a 15 kW/320 kWh vanadium redox flow battery (VRB) installed in the SYSLAB test facility of the DTU Risø Campus and experimentally validating the proposed dynamic model realized in Matlab-Simulink. The adopted testing...... efficiency of the battery system. The test procedure has general validity and could also be used for other storage technologies. The storage model proposed and described is suitable for electrical studies and can represent a general model in terms of validity. Finally, the model simulation outputs...

  11. Phase 1 Validation Testing and Simulation for the WEC-Sim Open Source Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruehl, K.; Michelen, C.; Gunawan, B.; Bosma, B.; Simmons, A.; Lomonaco, P.

    2015-12-01

    WEC-Sim is an open source code to model wave energy converters performance in operational waves, developed by Sandia and NREL and funded by the US DOE. The code is a time-domain modeling tool developed in MATLAB/SIMULINK using the multibody dynamics solver SimMechanics, and solves the WEC's governing equations of motion using the Cummins time-domain impulse response formulation in 6 degrees of freedom. The WEC-Sim code has undergone verification through code-to-code comparisons; however validation of the code has been limited to publicly available experimental data sets. While these data sets provide preliminary code validation, the experimental tests were not explicitly designed for code validation, and as a result are limited in their ability to validate the full functionality of the WEC-Sim code. Therefore, dedicated physical model tests for WEC-Sim validation have been performed. This presentation provides an overview of the WEC-Sim validation experimental wave tank tests performed at the Oregon State University's Directional Wave Basin at Hinsdale Wave Research Laboratory. Phase 1 of experimental testing was focused on device characterization and completed in Fall 2015. Phase 2 is focused on WEC performance and scheduled for Winter 2015/2016. These experimental tests were designed explicitly to validate the performance of WEC-Sim code, and its new feature additions. Upon completion, the WEC-Sim validation data set will be made publicly available to the wave energy community. For the physical model test, a controllable model of a floating wave energy converter has been designed and constructed. The instrumentation includes state-of-the-art devices to measure pressure fields, motions in 6 DOF, multi-axial load cells, torque transducers, position transducers, and encoders. The model also incorporates a fully programmable Power-Take-Off system which can be used to generate or absorb wave energy. Numerical simulations of the experiments using WEC-Sim will be

  12. A twin study of specific bulimia nervosa symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzeo, S E; Mitchell, K S; Bulik, C M; Aggen, S H; Kendler, K S; Neale, M C

    2010-07-01

    Twin studies have suggested that additive genetic factors significantly contribute to liability to bulimia nervosa (BN). However, the diagnostic criteria for BN remain controversial. In this study, an item-factor model was used to examine the BN diagnostic criteria and the genetic and environmental contributions to BN in a population-based twin sample. The validity of the equal environment assumption (EEA) for BN was also tested. Participants were 1024 female twins (MZ n=614, DZ n=410) from the population-based Mid-Atlantic Twin Registry. BN was assessed using symptom-level (self-report) items consistent with DSM-IV and ICD-10 diagnostic criteria. Items assessing BN were included in an item-factor model. The EEA was measured by items assessing similarity of childhood and adolescent environment, which have demonstrated construct validity. Scores on the EEA factor were used to specify the degree to which twins shared environmental experiences in this model. The EEA was not violated for BN. Modeling results indicated that the majority of the variance in BN was due to additive genetic factors. There was substantial variability in additive genetic and environmental contributions to specific BN symptoms. Most notably, vomiting was very strongly influenced by additive genetic factors, while other symptoms were much less heritable, including the influence of weight on self-evaluation. These results highlight the importance of assessing eating disorders at the symptom level. Refinement of eating disorder phenotypes could ultimately lead to improvements in treatment and targeted prevention, by clarifying sources of variation for specific components of symptomatology.

  13. Reliability, Validity and Factor Structure of Drug Abuse Screening Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Hadi Sayed Alitabar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: According to the increasing of substance use in the country, more researches about this phenomenon are necessary. This Study Investigates the Validity, Reliability and Confirmatory Factor Structure of the Drug Abuse Screening test (DAST. Materials and Methods: The Sample Consisted of 381 Patients (143 Women and 238 Men with a Multi-Stage Cluster Sampling of Areas 2, 6 and 12 of Tehran Were Selected from Each Region, 6 Randomly Selected Drug Rehabilitation Center. The DAST Was Used as Instrument. Divergent & Convergent Validity of this Scale Was Assessed with Problems Assessment for Substance Using Psychiatric Patients (PASUPP and Relapse Prediction Scale (RPS.Results: The DAST after the First Time Factor Structure of Using Confirmatory Factor Analysis Was Confirmed. The DAST Had a Good Internal Consistency (Cranach’s Alpha, and the Reliability of the Test Within a Week, 0.9, 0.8. Also this Scale Had a Positive Correlation with Problems Assessment for Substance Using Psychiatric Patients and Relapse Prediction Scale (P<0.01.Conclusion: The Overall Results Showed that the Drug Abuse Screening Test in Iranian Society Is Valid. It Can Be Said that Self-Report Scale Tool Is Useful for Research Purposes and Addiction.

  14. Testing specificity among parents' depressive symptoms, parenting, and child internalizing and externalizing symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruhn, Meredith A; Dunbar, Jennifer P; Watson, Kelly H; Reising, Michelle M; McKee, Laura; Forehand, Rex; Cole, David A; Compas, Bruce E

    2016-04-01

    The present study examined the specificity in relations between observed withdrawn and intrusive parenting behaviors and children's internalizing and externalizing symptoms in an at-risk sample of children (ages 9 to 15 years old) of parents with a history of depression (N = 180). Given past findings that parental depression and parenting behaviors may differentially impact boys and girls, gender was examined as a moderator of the relations between these factors and child adjustment. Correlation and linear regression analyses showed that parental depressive symptoms were significantly related to withdrawn parenting for parents of boys and girls and to intrusive parenting for parents of boys only. When controlling for intrusive parenting, preliminary analyses demonstrated that parental depressive symptoms were significantly related to withdrawn parenting for parents of boys, and this association approached significance for parents of girls. Specificity analyses yielded that, when controlling for the other type of problem (i.e., internalizing or externalizing), withdrawn parenting specifically predicted externalizing problems but not internalizing problems in girls. No evidence of specificity was found for boys in this sample, suggesting that impaired parenting behaviors are diffusely related to both internalizing and externalizing symptoms for boys. Overall, results highlight the importance of accounting for child gender and suggest that targeting improvement in parenting behaviors and the reduction of depressive symptoms in interventions with parents with a history of depression may have potential to reduce internalizing and externalizing problems in this high-risk population. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Testing Specificity Among Parents’ Depressive Symptoms, Parenting, and Child Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruhn, Meredith A.; Dunbar, Jennifer P.; Watson, Kelly H.; Reising, Michelle M.; McKee, Laura; Forehand, Rex; Cole, David A.; Compas, Bruce E.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the specificity in relations between observed withdrawn and intrusive parenting behaviors and children's internalizing and externalizing symptoms in an at risk sample of children (ages 9 to 15-years-old) of parents with a history of depression (N = 180). Given past findings that parental depression and parenting behaviors may differentially impact boys and girls, gender was examined as a moderator of the relations between these factors and child adjustment. Correlation and linear regression analyses showed that parental depressive symptoms were significantly related to withdrawn parenting for parents of boys and girls and to intrusive parenting for parents of boys only. When controlling for intrusive parenting, preliminary analyses demonstrated that parental depressive symptoms were significantly related to withdrawn parenting for parents of boys, and this association approached significance for parents of girls. Specificity analyses yielded that, when controlling for the other type of problem (i.e., internalizing or externalizing), withdrawn parenting specifically predicted externalizing problems but not internalizing problems in girls. No evidence of specificity was found for boys in this sample, suggesting that impaired parenting behaviors are diffusely related to both internalizing and externalizing symptoms for boys. Overall, results highlight the importance of accounting for child gender and suggest that targeting improvement in parenting behaviors and the reduction of depressive symptoms in interventions with parents with a history of depression may have potential to reduce internalizing and externalizing problems in this high-risk population. PMID:26882467

  16. Test of Creative Imagination: Validity and Reliability Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundogan, Aysun; Ari, Meziyet; Gonen, Mubeccel

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate validity and reliability of the test of creative imagination. This study was conducted with the participation of 1000 children, aged between 9-14 and were studying in six primary schools in the city center of Denizli Province, chosen by cluster ratio sampling. In the study, it was revealed that the…

  17. Reliability and validity of two isometric squat tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazevich, Anthony J; Gill, Nicholas; Newton, Robert U

    2002-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was first to examine the reliability of isometric squat (IS) and isometric forward hack squat (IFHS) tests to determine if repeated measures on the same subjects yielded reliable results. The second purpose was to examine the relation between isometric and dynamic measures of strength to assess validity. Fourteen male subjects performed maximal IS and IFHS tests on 2 occasions and 1 repetition maximum (1-RM) free-weight squat and forward hack squat (FHS) tests on 1 occasion. The 2 tests were found to be highly reliable (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC](IS) = 0.97 and ICC(IFHS) = 1.00). There was a strong relation between average IS and 1-RM squat performance, and between IFHS and 1-RM FHS performance (r(squat) = 0.77, r(FHS) = 0.76; p squat and FHS test performances (r squat and FHS test performance can be attributed to differences in the movement patterns of the tests

  18. Validity and reliability of skill-related fitness tests for wheelchair-using youth with Spina Bifida.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemen, M.A.; Takken, T.; Backx, F.J.; Vos, M.; Kruitwagen, C.L.; Groot, J.F. de

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To determine content validity of the Muscle Power Sprint Test (MPST), and construct validity and reliability of the MPST, 10x5 Meter Sprint Test (10x5MST), slalom test, and One Stroke Push Test (1SPT) in wheelchair-using youth with spina bifida (SB). Design: Clinimetric study. Setting:

  19. Validity and Reliability of Skill-Related Fitness Tests for Wheelchair-Using Youth With Spina Bifida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemen, Manon A.; Takken, Tim; Backx, Frank J.; Vos, Marleen; Kruitwagen, Cas L.; de Groot, Janke F.

    OBJECTIVE: To determine content validity of the Muscle Power Sprint Test (MPST) and construct validity and reliability of the MPST, 10x5 Meter Sprint Test (10x5MST), slalom test and one stroke push test (1SPT) in wheelchair-using youth with spina bifida (SB). DESIGN: Clinimetric study SETTING:

  20. Validity and Reliability of Skill-Related Fitness Tests for Wheelchair-Using Youth with Spina Bifida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cas L.J.J. Kruitwagen; Frank J.G. Backx; Tim Takken; Janke de Groot; Marleen Vos; Manon A.T. Bloemen

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine content validity of the Muscle Power Sprint Test (MPST) and construct validity and reliability of the MPST, 10x5 Meter Sprint Test (10x5MST), slalom test and one stroke push test (1SPT) in wheelchair-using youth with spina bifida (SB). Design: Clinimetric study Setting:

  1. The validity and reliability of a dynamic neuromuscular stabilization-heel sliding test for core stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Young Joo; Lee, Jae Jin; Kim, Do Hyun; You, Joshua Sung H

    2017-10-23

    Core stabilization plays an important role in the regulation of postural stability. To overcome shortcomings associated with pain and severe core instability during conventional core stabilization tests, we recently developed the dynamic neuromuscular stabilization-based heel sliding (DNS-HS) test. The purpose of this study was to establish the criterion validity and test-retest reliability of the novel DNS-HS test. Twenty young adults with core instability completed both the bilateral straight leg lowering test (BSLLT) and DNS-HS test for the criterion validity study and repeated the DNS-HS test for the test-retest reliability study. Criterion validity was determined by comparing hip joint angle data that were obtained from BSLLT and DNS-HS measures. The test-retest reliability was determined by comparing hip joint angle data. Criterion validity was (ICC2,3) = 0.700 (preliability was (ICC3,3) = 0.953 (pvalidity data demonstrated a good relationship between the gold standard BSLLT and DNS-HS core stability measures. Test-retest reliability data suggests that DNS-HS core stability was a reliable test for core stability. Clinically, the DNS-HS test is useful to objectively quantify core instability and allow early detection and evaluation.

  2. Gut transit is associated with gastrointestinal symptoms and gut hormone profile in patients with cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalaitzakis, Evangelos; Sadik, Riadh; Holst, Jens Juul

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Liver cirrhosis is associated with increased prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms, insulin resistance, and altered gut transit. We aimed to assess the prevalence of gut transit abnormalities in patients with cirrhosis, compared with healthy controls, and to evaluate the rela......BACKGROUND & AIMS: Liver cirrhosis is associated with increased prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms, insulin resistance, and altered gut transit. We aimed to assess the prevalence of gut transit abnormalities in patients with cirrhosis, compared with healthy controls, and to evaluate...... the relation of gut transit with gastrointestinal symptoms and postprandial glucose and hormone profiles. METHODS: Half gastric emptying, small bowel residence, and colonic filling times were measured with a validated radiologic procedure in 42 consecutive patients with cirrhosis. In a subgroup of 25 patients......, gastrointestinal symptoms were evaluated by using a validated questionnaire and a caloric satiation test. Postprandial glucose, insulin, leptin, ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide 1, and PYY responses were also studied. Eighty-three healthy subjects served as controls for the transit studies and 10 for the hormone...

  3. Assessing cultural validity in standardized tests in stem education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassant, Lunes

    This quantitative ex post facto study examined how race and gender, as elements of culture, influence the development of common misconceptions among STEM students. Primary data came from a standardized test: the Digital Logic Concept Inventory (DLCI) developed by Drs. Geoffrey L. Herman, Michael C. Louis, and Craig Zilles from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The sample consisted of a cohort of 82 STEM students recruited from three universities in Northern Louisiana. Microsoft Excel and the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) were used for data computation. Two key concepts, several sub concepts, and 19 misconceptions were tested through 11 items in the DLCI. Statistical analyses based on both the Classical Test Theory (Spearman, 1904) and the Item Response Theory (Lord, 1952) yielded similar results: some misconceptions in the DLCI can reliably be predicted by the Race or the Gender of the test taker. The research is significant because it has shown that some misconceptions in a STEM discipline attracted students with similar ethnic backgrounds differently; thus, leading to the existence of some cultural bias in the standardized test. Therefore the study encourages further research in cultural validity in standardized tests. With culturally valid tests, it will be possible to increase the effectiveness of targeted teaching and learning strategies for STEM students from diverse ethnic backgrounds. To some extent, this dissertation has contributed to understanding, better, the gap between high enrollment rates and low graduation rates among African American students and also among other minority students in STEM disciplines.

  4. Translation and validation of the Malay version of the Stroke Knowledge Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowtali, Siti Noorkhairina; Yusoff, Dariah Mohd; Harith, Sakinah; Mohamed, Monniaty

    2016-04-01

    To date, there is a lack of published studies on assessment tools to evaluate the effectiveness of stroke education programs. This study developed and validated the Malay language version of the Stroke Knowledge Test research instrument. This study involved translation, validity, and reliability phases. The instrument underwent backward and forward translation of the English version into the Malay language. Nine experts reviewed the content for consistency, clarity, difficulty, and suitability for inclusion. Perceived usefulness and utilization were obtained from experts' opinions. Later, face validity assessment was conducted with 10 stroke patients to determine appropriateness of sentences and grammar used. A pilot study was conducted with 41 stroke patients to determine the item analysis and reliability of the translated instrument using the Kuder Richardson 20 or Cronbach's alpha. The final Malay version Stroke Knowledge Test included 20 items with good content coverage, acceptable item properties, and positive expert review ratings. Psychometric investigations suggest that Malay version Stroke Knowledge Test had moderate reliability with Kuder Richardson 20 or Cronbach's alpha of 0.58. Improvement is required for Stroke Knowledge Test items with unacceptable difficulty indices. Overall, the average rating of perceived usefulness and perceived utility of the instruments were both 72.7%, suggesting that reviewers were likely to use the instruments in their facilities. Malay version Stroke Knowledge Test was a valid and reliable tool to assess educational needs and to evaluate stroke knowledge among participants of group-based stroke education programs in Malaysia.

  5. Development and Validation of a Symptom-Based Activity Index for Adults with Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoepfer, Alain M.; Straumann, Alex; Panczak, Radoslaw; Coslovsky, Michael; Kuehni, Claudia E.; Maurer, Elisabeth; Haas, Nadine A.; Romero, Yvonne; Hirano, Ikuo; Alexander, Jeffrey A.; Gonsalves, Nirmala; Furuta, Glenn T.; Dellon, Evan S.; Leung, John; Collins, Margaret H.; Bussmann, Christian; Netzer, Peter; Gupta, Sandeep K.; Aceves, Seema S.; Chehade, Mirna; Moawad, Fouad J.; Enders, Felicity T.; Yost, Kathleen J.; Taft, Tiffany H.; Kern, Emily; Zwahlen, Marcel; Safroneeva, Ekaterina

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS Standardized instruments are needed to assess the activity of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), to provide endpoints for clinical trials and observational studies. We aimed to develop and validate a patient-reported outcome (PRO) instrument and score, based on items that could account for variations in patients’ assessments of disease severity. We also evaluated relationships between patients’ assessment of disease severity and EoE-associated endoscopic, histologic, and laboratory findings. METHODS We collected information from 186 patients with EoE in Switzerland and the US (69.4% male; median age, 43 years) via surveys (n = 135), focus groups (n = 27), and semi-structured interviews (n = 24). Items were generated for the instruments to assess biologic activity based on physician input. Linear regression was used to quantify the extent to which variations in patient-reported disease characteristics could account for variations in patients’ assessment of EoE severity. The PRO instrument was prospectively used in 153 adult patients with EoE (72.5% male; median age, 38 years), and validated in an independent group of 120 patients with EoE (60.8% male; median age, 40.5 years). RESULTS Seven PRO factors that are used to assess characteristics of dysphagia, behavioral adaptations to living with dysphagia, and pain while swallowing accounted for 67% of the variation in patients’ assessment of disease severity. Based on statistical consideration and patient input, a 7-day recall period was selected. Highly active EoE, based on endoscopic and histologic findings, was associated with an increase in patient-assessed disease severity. In the validation study, the mean difference between patient assessment of EoE severity and PRO score was 0.13 (on a scale from 0 to 10). CONCLUSIONS We developed and validated an EoE scoring system based on 7 PRO items that assesses symptoms over a 7-day recall period. Clinicaltrials.gov number: NCT00939263. PMID

  6. Assessing the Construct Validity and Internal Reliability of the Screening Tool Test Your Memory in Patients with Chronic Pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Ojeda

    Full Text Available Patients with chronic pain often complain about cognitive difficulties, and since these symptoms represent an additional source of suffering and distress, evaluating the cognitive status of these patients with valid and reliable tests should be an important part of their overall assessment. Although cognitive impairment is a critical characteristic of pain, there is no specific measure designed to detect these effects in this population. The objective was to analyze the psychometric properties of the "Test Your Memory" (TYM test in patients with chronic pain of three different origins. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 72 subjects free of pain and 254 patients suffering from different types of chronic pain: neuropathic pain (104, musculoskeletal pain (99 and fibromyalgia (51. The construct validity of the TYM was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADs, Index-9 from MOS-sleep, SF-12, and through the intensity (Visual Analogical Scale and duration of pain. An exploratory factor analysis was also performed and internal reliability was assessed using Cronbach's alpha. After adjusting for potential confounders the TYM could distinguish between pain and pain-free patients, and it was correlated with the: MMSE (0.89, p<0.001; HAD-anxiety (-0.50, p<0.001 and HAD-depression scales (-0.52, p<0.001; MOS-sleep Index-9 (-0.49, p<0.001; and the physical (0.49, p < .001 and mental components (0.55, p < .001 of SF-12. The exploratory structure of the TYM showed an 8-factor solution that explained 53% of the variance, and Cronbach's alpha was 0.66. The TYM is a valid and reliable screening instrument to assess cognitive function in chronic pain patients that will be of particular value in clinical situations.

  7. Social anxiety questionnaire (SAQ): Development and preliminary validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łakuta, Patryk

    2018-05-30

    The Social Anxiety Questionnaire (SAQ) was designed to assess five dimensions of social anxiety as posited by the Clark and Wells' (1995; Clark, 2001) cognitive model. The development of the SAQ involved generation of an item pool, followed by a verification of content validity and the theorized factor structure (Study 1). The final version of the SAQ was then assessed for reliability, temporal stability (test re-test reliability), and construct, criterion-related, and contrasted-group validity (Study 2, 3, and 4). Following a systematic process, the results provide support for the SAQ as reliable, and both theoretically and empirically valid measure. A five-factor structure of the SAQ verified and replicated through confirmatory factor analyses reflect five dimensions of social anxiety: negative self-processing; self-focused attention and self-monitoring; safety behaviours; somatic and cognitive symptoms; and anticipatory and post-event rumination. Results suggest that the SAQ possesses good psychometric properties, while recognizing that additional validation is a required future research direction. It is important to replicate these findings in diverse populations, including a large clinical sample. The SAQ is a promising measure that supports social anxiety as a multidimensional construct, and the foundational role of self-focused cognitive processes in generation and maintenance of social anxiety symptoms. The findings make a significant contribution to the literature, moreover, the SAQ is a first instrument that offers to assess all, proposed by the Clark-Wells model, specific cognitive-affective, physiological, attitudinal, and attention processes related to social anxiety. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Ecological validity of the five digit test and the oral trails test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Gabrielle Chequer de Castro; Fialho, Mariana Braga; Costa, Danielle de Souza; Paula, Jonas Jardim de

    2016-01-01

    Tests evaluating the attentional-executive system are widely used in clinical practice. However, proximity of an objective cognitive test with real-world situations (ecological validity) is not frequently investigated. The present study evaluate the association between measures of the Five Digit Test (FDT) and the Oral Trails Test (OTT) with self-reported cognitive failures in everyday life as measured by the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ). Brazilian adults from 18-to-65 years old voluntarily performed the FDT and OTT tests and reported the frequency of cognitive failures in their everyday life through the CFQ. After controlling for the age effect, the measures of controlled attentional processes were associated with cognitive failures, yet the cognitive flexibility of both FDT and OTT accounted for by the majority of variance in most aspects of the CFQ factors. The FDT and the OTT measures were predictive of real-world problems such as cognitive failures in everyday activities/situations.

  9. Development and validation of the nasopharyngeal cancer scale among the system of quality of life instruments for cancer patients (QLICP-NA V2.0): combined classical test theory and generalizability theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiayuan; Hu, Liren; Zhang, Gaohua; Liang, Qilian; Meng, Qiong; Wan, Chonghua

    2016-08-01

    This research was designed to develop a nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) scale based on quality of life (QOL) instruments for cancer patients (QLICP-NA). This scale was developed by using a modular approach and was evaluated by classical test and generalizability theories. Programmed decision procedures and theories on instrument development were applied to create QLICP-NA V2.0. A total of 121 NPC inpatients were assessed using QLICP-NA V2.0 to measure their QOL data from hospital admission until discharge. Scale validity, reliability, and responsiveness were evaluated by correlation, factor, parallel, multi-trait scaling, and t test analyses, as well as by generalizability (G) and decision (D) studies of the generalizability theory. Results of multi-trait scaling, correlation, factor, and parallel analyses indicated that QLICP-NA V2.0 exhibited good construct validity. The significant difference of QOL between the treated and untreated NPC patients indicated a good clinical validity of the questionnaire. The internal consistency (α) and test-retest reliability coefficients (intra-class correlations) of each domain, as well as the overall scale, were all >0.70. Ceiling effects were not found in all domains and most facets, except for common side effects (24.8 %) in the domain of common symptoms and side effects, tumor early symptoms (27.3 %) and therapeutic side effects (23.2 %) in specific domain, whereas floor effects did not exist in each domain/facet. The overall changes in the physical and social domains were significantly different between pre- and post-treatments with a moderate effective size (standard response mean) ranging from 0.21 to 0.27 (p theory. QLICP-NA V2.0 exhibited reasonable degrees of validity, reliability, and responsiveness. However, this scale must be further improved before it can be used as a practical instrument to evaluate the QOL of NPC patients in China.

  10. Designing and validation of a yoga-based intervention for obsessive compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Shubha; Varambally, Shivarama; Karmani, Sneha; Govindaraj, Ramajayam; Gangadhar, B N

    2016-06-01

    Some yoga-based practices have been found to be useful for patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). The authors could not find a validated yoga therapy module available for OCD. This study attempted to formulate a generic yoga-based intervention module for OCD. A yoga module was designed based on traditional and contemporary yoga literature. The module was sent to 10 yoga experts for content validation. The experts rated the usefulness of the practices on a scale of 1-5 (5 = extremely useful). The final version of the module was pilot-tested on patients with OCD (n = 17) for both feasibility and effect on symptoms. Eighty-eight per cent (22 out of 25) of the items in the initial module were retained, with modifications in the module as suggested by the experts along with patients' inputs and authors' experience. The module was found to be feasible and showed an improvement in symptoms of OCD on total Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (YBOCS) score (p = 0.001). A generic yoga therapy module for OCD was validated by experts in the field and found feasible to practice in patients. A decrease in the symptom scores was also found following yoga practice of 2 weeks. Further clinical validation is warranted to confirm efficacy.

  11. Use of the color trails test as an embedded measure of performance validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, George K; Algina, James

    2013-01-01

    One hundred personal injury litigants and disability claimants referred for a forensic neuropsychological evaluation were administered both portions of the Color Trails Test (CTT) as part of a more comprehensive battery of standardized tests. Subjects who failed two or more free-standing tests of cognitive performance validity formed the Failed Performance Validity (FPV) group, while subjects who passed all free-standing performance validity measures were assigned to the Passed Performance Validity (PPV) group. A cutscore of ≥45 seconds to complete Color Trails 1 (CT1) was associated with a classification accuracy of 78%, good sensitivity (66%) and high specificity (90%), while a cutscore of ≥84 seconds to complete Color Trails 2 (CT2) was associated with a classification accuracy of 82%, good sensitivity (74%) and high specificity (90%). A CT1 cutscore of ≥58 seconds, and a CT2 cutscore ≥100 seconds was associated with 100% positive predictive power at base rates from 20 to 50%.

  12. Validity, Reliability, and Sensitivity of a Volleyball Intermittent Endurance Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Marroyo, Jose A; Medina-Carrillo, Javier; García-López, Juan; Morante, Juan C; Villa, José G; Foster, Carl

    2017-03-01

    To analyze the concurrent and construct validity of a volleyball intermittent endurance test (VIET). The VIET's test-retest reliability and sensitivity to assess seasonal changes was also studied. During the preseason, 71 volleyball players of different competitive levels took part in this study. All performed the VIET and a graded treadmill test with gas-exchange measurement (GXT). Thirty-one of the players performed an additional VIET to analyze the test-retest reliability. To test the VIET's sensitivity, 28 players repeated the VIET and GXT at the end of their season. Significant (P volleyball players.

  13. COMMUNICATIVE VALIDITY OF THE NEW CET-4 LISTENING COMPREHENSION TEST IN CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Wang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Based on the major dimensions of a communicative language test that Bachman proposed, this paper aims to have an investigation on the validity of the new CET-4 listening subtest in China from a communicative point of view. Both qualitative and quantitative methods are involved in the study. Material analysis falls into qualitative study, including analysis of the CET-4 testing syllabus and eight new CET-4 listening comprehension tests. Students’ scores of two tests and the questionnaires are analyzed quantitatively. Through analysis, it is found that the new CET-4 listening subtest has a high validity and can measure test-takers’ listening ability in real communication. First, the new CET-4 listening subtest has the quality of reliability. Second, the seven listening skills tested in this subtest can measure the communicative language ability required in the testing syllabus. The intra-correlation analysis shows that each part of the new CET-4 listening subtest focuses on different language abilities related to listening. Third, the authenticity of the new CET-4 listening subtest reaches a satisfactory level. The materials chosen in the test cover various topics and genres. Speakers’ pronunciation, tone and speed are in accordance with the real situation. However, some shortcomings also exist in the test design and should be improved later. For example, its limited item types cannot represent the task types in real life, and the actual input is too ideal to be authentic.   Keywords: Communicative language ability, communicative language testing, listening comprehension, test validity

  14. Validation of Cardiovascular Parameters during NASA's Functional Task Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzeno, N. M.; Stenger, M. B.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Platts, S. H.

    2009-01-01

    Microgravity exposure causes physiological deconditioning and impairs crewmember task performance. The Functional Task Test (FTT) is designed to correlate these physiological changes to performance in a series of operationally-relevant tasks. One of these, the Recovery from Fall/Stand Test (RFST), tests both the ability to recover from a prone position and cardiovascular responses to orthostasis. PURPOSE: Three minutes were chosen for the duration of this test, yet it is unknown if this is long enough to induce cardiovascular responses similar to the operational 5 min stand test. The purpose of this study was to determine the validity and reliability of heart rate variability (HRV) analysis of a 3 min stand and to examine the effect of spaceflight on these measures. METHODS: To determine the validity of using 3 vs. 5 min of standing to assess HRV, ECG was collected from 7 healthy subjects who participated in a 6 min RFST. Mean R-R interval (RR) and spectral HRV were measured in minutes 0-3 and 0-5 following the heart rate transient due to standing. Significant differences between the segments were determined by a paired t-test. To determine the reliability of the 3-min stand test, 13 healthy subjects completed 3 trials of the FTT on separate days, including the RFST with a 3 min stand. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed on the HRV measures. One crewmember completed the FTT before a 14-day mission, on landing day (R+0) and one (R+1) day after returning to Earth. RESULTS VALIDITY: HRV measures reflecting autonomic activity were not significantly different during the 0-3 and 0-5 min segments. RELIABILITY: The average coefficient of variation for RR, systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressures during the RFST were less than 8% for the 3 sessions. ANOVA results yielded a greater inter-subject variability (p0.05) for HRV in the RFST. SPACEFLIGHT: Lower RR and higher SBP were observed on R+0 in rest and stand. On R+1, both RR and SBP trended towards preflight

  15. Excellent cross-cultural validity, intra-test reliability and construct validity of the dutch rivermead mobility index in patients after stroke undergoing rehabilitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roorda, Leo D.; Green, John; De Kluis, Kiki R. A.; Molenaar, Ivo W.; Bagley, Pam; Smith, Jane; Geurts, Alexander C. H.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the cross-cultural validity of international Dutch-English comparisons when using the Dutch Rivermead Mobility Index (RMI), and the intra-test reliability and construct validity of the Dutch RMI. Methods: Cross-cultural validity was studied in a combined data-set of Dutch

  16. Vertical jumping tests in volleyball: reliability, validity, and playing-position specifics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattler, Tine; Sekulic, Damir; Hadzic, Vedran; Uljevic, Ognjen; Dervisevic, Edvin

    2012-06-01

    Vertical jumping is known to be important in volleyball, and jumping performance tests are frequently studied for their reliability and validity. However, most studies concerning jumping in volleyball have dealt with standard rather than sport-specific jumping procedures and tests. The aims of this study, therefore, were (a) to determine the reliability and factorial validity of 2 volleyball-specific jumping tests, the block jump (BJ) test and the attack jump (AJ) test, relative to 2 frequently used and systematically validated jumping tests, the countermovement jump test and the squat jump test and (b) to establish volleyball position-specific differences in the jumping tests and simple anthropometric indices (body height [BH], body weight, and body mass index [BMI]). The BJ was performed from a defensive volleyball position, with the hands positioned in front of the chest. During an AJ, the players used a 2- to 3-step approach and performed a drop jump with an arm swing followed by a quick vertical jump. A total of 95 high-level volleyball players (all men) participated in this study. The reliability of the jumping tests ranged from 0.97 to 0.99 for Cronbach's alpha coefficients, from 0.93 to 0.97 for interitem correlation coefficients and from 2.1 to 2.8 for coefficients of variation. The highest reliability was found for the specific jumping tests. The factor analysis extracted one significant component, and all of the tests were highly intercorrelated. The analysis of variance with post hoc analysis showed significant differences between 5 playing positions in some of the jumping tests. In general, receivers had a greater jumping capacity, followed by libero players. The differences in jumping capacities should be emphasized vis-a-vis differences in the anthropometric measures of players, where middle hitters had higher BH and body weight, followed by opposite hitters and receivers, with no differences in the BMI between positions.

  17. Brief assessment of priority symptoms in hormone refractory prostate cancer: The FACT Advanced Prostate Symptom Index (FAPSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banik Donald

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to construct and validate a brief, clinically-relevant symptom index for advanced prostate cancer. Methods Questions were extracted from a commonly-used multi-dimensional cancer quality of life instrument with prostate-specific items, the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Prostate (FACT-P. Surveys of disease-related symptoms were presented to an international sample of 44 expert physicians. Each expert narrowed the list to no more than five of the most important symptoms or concerns to monitor when assessing the value of treatment for advanced prostate cancer. Symptoms/concerns endorsed at a frequency greater than chance probability (17% were retained for the symptom index and called the FACT Advanced Prostate Symptom Index-8 (FAPSI-8: pain (three items, fatigue, weight loss, urinary difficulties (two items, and concern about the condition becoming worse. The FAPSI-8 was validated using data from a clinical trial of 288 men being treated for hormone refractory prostate cancer. Results The FAPSI-8 showed good internal consistency (r = 0.67–0.80; association with existing FACT scales (e.g., FACT-P, Physical Well-being, Functional Well-being; r = 0.44–0.85, p Conclusions This project produced a reliable and valid list of the eight most important clinician-rated targets of drug therapy for advanced prostate cancer. These questions perform comparably to the longer derivative questionnaire. Examination of patient agreement with this priority list and the extent to which changes in these 8 targets are related to meaningful clinical benefit to the patient are important next steps for future research.

  18. Psychometrics of the PHQ-9 as a measure of depressive symptoms in patients with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammash, Muna H; Hall, Lynne A; Lennie, Terry A; Heo, Seongkum; Chung, Misook L; Lee, Kyoung Suk; Moser, Debra K

    2013-10-01

    Depression in patients with heart failure commonly goes undiagnosed and untreated. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) is a simple, valid measure of depressive symptoms that may facilitate clinical assessment. It has not been validated in patients with heart failure. To test the reliability, and concurrent and construct validity of the PHQ-9 in patients with heart failure. A total of 322 heart failure patients (32% female, 61 ± 12 years, 56% New York Heart Association class III/IV) completed the PHQ-9, the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), and the Control Attitudes Scale (CAS). Cronbach's alpha of .83 supported the internal consistency reliability of the PHQ-9 in this sample. Inter-item correlations (range .22-.66) and item-total correlation (except item 9) supported homogeneity of the PHQ-9. Spearman's rho of .80, (p < .001) between the PHQ-9 and the BDI-II supported the concurrent validity as did the agreement between the PHQ-9 and the BDI-II (Kappa = 0.64, p < .001). At cut-off score of 10, the PHQ-9 was 70% sensitive and 92% specific in identifying depressive symptoms, using the BDI-II scores as the criterion for comparison. Differences in PHQ-9 scores by level of perceived control measured by CAS (t(318) = -5.05, p < .001) supported construct validity. The PHQ-9 is a reliable, valid measure of depressive symptoms in patients with heart failure.

  19. Diagnostic Validity of Clinical Signs Associated with a Large Exophoria at Near

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Cacho-Martínez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To analyze the diagnostic validity of accommodative and binocular tests in a sample of patients with a large near exophoria with moderate to severe symptoms. Methods. Two groups of patients between 19 and 35 years were recruited from a university clinic: 33 subjects with large exophoria at near vision and moderate or high visual discomfort and 33 patients with normal heterophoria and low visual discomfort. Visual discomfort was defined using the Conlon survey. A refractive exam and an exhaustive evaluation of accommodation and vergence were assessed. Diagnostic validity by means of receiver operator characteristic (ROC curves, sensitivity (S, specificity (Sp, and positive and negative likelihood ratios (LR+, LR− were assessed. This analysis was also carried out considering multiple tests as serial testing strategy. Results. ROC analysis showed the best diagnostic accuracy for receded near point of convergence (NPC recovery (area = 0.929 and binocular accommodative facility (BAF (area = 0.886. Using the cut-offs obtained with ROC analysis, the best diagnostic validity was obtained for the combination of NPC recovery and BAF (S  =  0.77, Sp = 1, LR+ = value tending to infinity, LR− = 0.23 and the combination of NPC break and recovery with BAF (S  =  0.73, Sp = 1, LR+ = tending to infinity, LR− = 0.27. Conclusions. NPC and BAF tests were the tests with the best diagnostic accuracy for subjects with large near exophoria and moderate to severe symptoms.

  20. Validation of the oesophageal hypervigilance and anxiety scale for chronic oesophageal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taft, T H; Triggs, J R; Carlson, D A; Guadagnoli, L; Tomasino, K N; Keefer, L; Pandolfino, J E

    2018-05-01

    Oesophageal hypervigilance and anxiety can drive symptom experience in chronic oesophageal conditions, including gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, achalasia and functional oesophageal disorders. To date, no validated self-report measure exists to evaluate oesophageal hypervigilance and anxiety. This study aims to develop a brief and reliable questionnaire assessing these constructs, the oesophageal hypervigilance and anxiety scale (EHAS). Questions for the EHAS were drawn from 4 existing validated measures that assessed hypervigilance and anxiety adapted for the oesophagus. Patients who previously underwent high-resolution manometry testing at a university-based oesophageal motility clinic were retrospectively identified. Patients were included in the analysis if they completed the EHAS as well as questionnaires assessing symptom severity and health-related quality of life at the time of the high-resolution manometry. Nine hundred and eighty-two patients aged 18-85 completed the study. The EHAS demonstrates excellent internal consistency (α = 0.93) and split-half reliability (Guttman = 0.87). Inter-item correlations indicated multicollinearity was not achieved; thus, no items were removed from the original 15-item scale. Principal components factor analysis revealed two subscales measuring symptom-specific anxiety and symptom-specific hypervigilance. Construct validity for total and subscale scores was supported by positive correlations with symptom severity and negative correlations with health-related quality of life. The EHAS is a 15-item scale assessing oesophageal hypervigilance and symptom-specfic anxiety. The EHAS could be useful in evaluating the role of these constructs in several oesophageal conditions in which hypersensitivity, hypervigilance and anxiety may contribute to symptoms and impact treatment outcomes. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Validation of new CFD release by Ground-Coupled Heat Transfer Test Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sehnalek Stanislav

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article is presented validation of ANSYS Fluent with IEA BESTEST Task 34. Article stars with outlook to the topic, afterward are described steady-state cases used for validation. Thereafter is mentioned implementation of these cases on CFD. Article is concluded with presentation of the simulated results with a comparison of those from already validated simulation software by IEA. These validation shows high correlation with an older version of tested ANSYS as well as with other main software. The paper ends by discussion with an outline of future research.

  2. Reliability and criterion-related validity testing (construct) of the Endotracheal Suction Assessment Tool (ESAT©).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Kylie; Bulsara, Max K; Ramelet, Anne-Sylvie; Monterosso, Leanne

    2018-05-01

    To establish criterion-related construct validity and test-retest reliability for the Endotracheal Suction Assessment Tool© (ESAT©). Endotracheal tube suction performed in children can significantly affect clinical stability. Previously identified clinical indicators for endotracheal tube suction were used as criteria when designing the ESAT©. Content validity was reported previously. The final stages of psychometric testing are presented. Observational testing was used to measure construct validity and determine whether the ESAT© could guide "inexperienced" paediatric intensive care nurses' decision-making regarding endotracheal tube suction. Test-retest reliability of the ESAT© was performed at two time points. The researchers and paediatric intensive care nurse "experts" developed 10 hypothetical clinical scenarios with predetermined endotracheal tube suction outcomes. "Experienced" (n = 12) and "inexperienced" (n = 14) paediatric intensive care nurses were presented with the scenarios and the ESAT© guiding decision-making about whether to perform endotracheal tube suction for each scenario. Outcomes were compared with those predetermined by the "experts" (n = 9). Test-retest reliability of the ESAT© was measured at two consecutive time points (4 weeks apart) with "experienced" and "inexperienced" paediatric intensive care nurses using the same scenarios and tool to guide decision-making. No differences were observed between endotracheal tube suction decisions made by "experts" (n = 9), "inexperienced" (n = 14) and "experienced" (n = 12) nurses confirming the tool's construct validity. No differences were observed between groups for endotracheal tube suction decisions at T1 and T2. Criterion-related construct validity and test-retest reliability of the ESAT© were demonstrated. Further testing is recommended to confirm reliability in the clinical setting with the "inexperienced" nurse to guide decision-making related to endotracheal tube

  3. Cognitive Impairment Questionnaire (CIMP-QUEST): reported topographic symptoms in MCI and dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astrand, R; Rolstad, S; Wallin, A

    2010-06-01

    The Cognitive Impairment Questionnaire (CIMP-QUEST) is an instrument based on information obtained by key informants to identify symptoms of dementia and dementia-like disorders. The questionnaire consists of three subscales reflecting impairment in parietal-temporal (PT), frontal (F) and subcortical (SC) brain regions. The questionnaire includes a memory scale and lists non-cognitive symptoms. The reliability and validity of the questionnaire were examined in 131 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or mild dementia at a university-based memory unit. Cronbach alpha for all subscales was calculated at r = 0.90. Factor analysis supported the tri-dimensionality of CIMP-QUEST's brain region-oriented construct. Test-retest reliability for a subgroup of cognitively stable MCI-patients (n = 25) was found to be r = 0.83 (P = 0.0005). The correlation between the score on the cognitive subscales (PT + F + M) and Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly was r = 0.83 (P = 0.0005, n = 123). The memory subscale correlated significantly with episodic memory tests, the PT subscale with visuospatial and language-oriented tests, and the SC and F subscales with tests of attention, psychomotor tempo and executive function. CIMP-QUEST has high reliability and validity, and provides information about cognitive impairment and brain region-oriented symptomatology in patients with MCI and mild dementia.

  4. Validating a UAV artificial intelligence control system using an autonomous test case generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Jeremy; Huber, Justin

    2013-05-01

    The validation of safety-critical applications, such as autonomous UAV operations in an environment which may include human actors, is an ill posed problem. To confidence in the autonomous control technology, numerous scenarios must be considered. This paper expands upon previous work, related to autonomous testing of robotic control algorithms in a two dimensional plane, to evaluate the suitability of similar techniques for validating artificial intelligence control in three dimensions, where a minimum level of airspeed must be maintained. The results of human-conducted testing are compared to this automated testing, in terms of error detection, speed and testing cost.

  5. Ecological validity of the Yo-Yo SFIE2 test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krustrup, Peter; Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Horton, J

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the movement pattern of Portuguese top-level futsal referees (n=16) during competitive games and the ecological validity of the new Yo-Yo Sideways-Forwards Intermittent Endurance level 2 test (Yo-Yo SFIE2). Total distance covered (TD), high-intensity running (HIR...

  6. Validation of a Short Form of an Indecision Test: The Vocational Assessment Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, France; Frenette, Éric; Guay, Frédéric; Labrosse, Julie

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to validate the scores of a short form of a new instrument, "l'Épreuve de décision vocationnelle, forme scolaire" (EDV-9S; vocational assessment test), which measures six indecision-related problems (lack of self-knowledge, lack of readiness, lack of method in decision making, lack of information,…

  7. Prevalence of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease symptoms and reflux-associated respiratory symptoms in asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Silva H Janaka

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD symptoms are common in asthma and have been extensively studied, but less so in the Asian continent. Reflux-associated respiratory symptoms (RARS have, in contrast, been little-studied globally. We report the prevalence of GORD symptoms and RARS in adult asthmatics, and their association with asthma severity and medication use. Methods A cross-sectional analytical study. A validated interviewer-administered GORD scale was used to assess frequency and severity of seven GORD symptoms. Subjects were consecutive asthmatics attending medical clinics. Controls were matched subjects without respiratory symptoms. Results The mean (SD composite GORD symptom score of asthmatics was significantly higher than controls (21.8 (17.2 versus 12.0 (7.6; P P Conclusions GORD symptoms and RARS were more prevalent in a cohort of Sri Lankan adult asthmatics compared to non-asthmatics. Increased prevalence of RARS is associated with both typical and atypical symptoms of GORD. Asthma disease and its severity, but not asthma medication, appear to influence presence of GORD symptoms.

  8. Methods for assessing diabetic polyneuropathy : validity and reproducibility of the measurement of sensory symptom severity and nerve function tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk, G D; Grootenhuis, P A; van Eijk, J T; Bouter, L M; Bertelsmann, F W

    The usefulness of sensory symptoms in the assessment of diabetic polyneuropathy is unclear. In the present study, we studied the hypothesis that pain is associated with small nerve fibre function, and that sensory alteration is associated with large nerve fibre function. In addition, we assessed the

  9. Wave Tank Testing and Model Validation of an Autonomous Wave Energy Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bret Bosma

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A key component in bringing ocean wave energy converters from concept to commercialization is the building and testing of scaled prototypes to provide model validation. A one quarter scale prototype of an autonomous two body heaving point absorber was modeled, built, and tested for this work. Wave tank testing results are compared with two hydrodynamic and system models—implemented in both ANSYS AQWA and MATLAB/Simulink—and show model validation over certain regions of operation. This work will serve as a guide for future developers of wave energy converter devices, providing insight in taking their design from concept to prototype stage.

  10. Validation Testing for Automated Solubility Measurement Equipment Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lachut, J. S. [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC, Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-01-11

    Laboratory tests have been completed to test the validity of automated solubility measurement equipment using sodium nitrate and sodium chloride solutions (see test plan WRPS-1404441, “Validation Testing for Automated Solubility Measurement Equipment”). The sodium nitrate solution results were within 2-3% of the reference values, so the experiment is considered successful using the turbidity meter. The sodium chloride test was done by sight, as the turbidity meter did not work well using sodium chloride. For example, the “clear” turbidity reading was 53 FNU at 80 °C, 107 FNU at 55 °C, and 151 FNU at 20 °C. The sodium chloride did not work because it is granular and large; as the solution was stirred, the granules stayed to the outside of the reactor and just above the stir bar level, having little impact on the turbidity meter readings as the meter was aimed at the center of the solution. Also, the turbidity meter depth has an impact. The salt tends to remain near the stir bar level. If the meter is deeper in the slurry, it will read higher turbidity, and if the meter is raised higher in the slurry, it will read lower turbidity (possibly near zero) because it reads the “clear” part of the slurry. The sodium chloride solution results, as measured by sight rather than by turbidity instrument readings, were within 5-6% of the reference values.

  11. Six factors of adult dyslexia assesed by cognitive tests and self-report questions: Very high predictive validity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamboer, P.; Vorst, H.C.M.; de Jong, P.F.

    2017-01-01

    The Multiple Diagnostic Digital Dyslexia Test for Adults (MDDDT-A) consists of 12 newly developed tests and self-report questions in the Dutch language. Predictive validity and construct validity were investigated and compared with validity of a standard test battery of dyslexia (STB) in a sample of

  12. A set of pathological tests to validate new finite elements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M. Senthilkumar (Newgen Imaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    The finite element method entails several approximations. Hence it ... researchers have designed several pathological tests to validate any new finite element. The .... Three dimensional thick shell elements using a hybrid/mixed formu- lation.

  13. Validation of the dyspnea index in adolescents with exercise-induced paradoxical vocal fold motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Guzman, Vanessa; Ballif, Catherine L; Maurer, Rie; Hartnick, Christopher J; Raol, Nikhila

    2014-09-01

    Paradoxical vocal fold motion (PVFM) affects almost 1 million adolescents in the United States. However, to date, no disease-specific objective measure exists to assess symptom severity and response to treatment in adolescents with exercise-induced PVFM. To validate the Dyspnea Index (DI) quality-of-life instrument (previously validated for adults with breathing disorders) in children aged 12 to 18 years with exercise-induced PVFM and to determine the minimum significant DI change corresponding to patient-reported or caregiver-reported improvement or worsening of symptoms. A longitudinal study of 56 patients (age range, 12-18 years) diagnosed as having exercise-induced PVFM and their caregivers from February 1, 2013, to September 30, 2013, in an outpatient pediatric otolaryngology office practice. The DI was administered to patients and caregivers, with items modified to reflect the perspective of caregivers. Appropriate DI change was measured to reflect improvement or worsening of symptoms. Test-retest reliability was accomplished by having a subset of patients and caregivers complete the instrument twice within 2 weeks before therapy. Internal consistency was assessed by calculation of Cronbach α. Discriminant validity and convergent validity were determined by comparing DIs with assessment of global change in symptoms. The patient and caregiver mean (SD) DI changes were -12.9 (9.6) and -14.7 (9.3), respectively (P therapy.

  14. WEC-SIM Phase 1 Validation Testing -- Numerical Modeling of Experiments: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruehl, Kelley; Michelen, Carlos; Bosma, Bret; Yu, Yi-Hsiang

    2016-08-01

    The Wave Energy Converter Simulator (WEC-Sim) is an open-source code jointly developed by Sandia National Laboratories and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. It is used to model wave energy converters subjected to operational and extreme waves. In order for the WEC-Sim code to be beneficial to the wave energy community, code verification and physical model validation is necessary. This paper describes numerical modeling of the wave tank testing for the 1:33-scale experimental testing of the floating oscillating surge wave energy converter. The comparison between WEC-Sim and the Phase 1 experimental data set serves as code validation. This paper is a follow-up to the WEC-Sim paper on experimental testing, and describes the WEC-Sim numerical simulations for the floating oscillating surge wave energy converter.

  15. Recommendations for elaboration, transcultural adaptation and validation process of tests in Speech, Hearing and Language Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernambuco, Leandro; Espelt, Albert; Magalhães, Hipólito Virgílio; Lima, Kenio Costa de

    2017-06-08

    to present a guide with recommendations for translation, adaptation, elaboration and process of validation of tests in Speech and Language Pathology. the recommendations were based on international guidelines with a focus on the elaboration, translation, cross-cultural adaptation and validation process of tests. the recommendations were grouped into two Charts, one of them with procedures for translation and transcultural adaptation and the other for obtaining evidence of validity, reliability and measures of accuracy of the tests. a guide with norms for the organization and systematization of the process of elaboration, translation, cross-cultural adaptation and validation process of tests in Speech and Language Pathology was created.

  16. The Utility of the helicobacter pylori stool antigen test in managing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion and recommendations: The HPSAT may be used in the test and treat strategy for young patients with dyspep- sia without alarm signs and symptoms in low resource settings. However, because of its low validity in predicting H.pylori associated disease, it is important to follow up patients so that if symptoms ...

  17. Validation of the Spanish Addiction Severity Index Multimedia Version (S-ASI-MV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Stephen F; Redondo, José Pedro; Fernandez, Kathrine C; Villapiano, Albert

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to develop and test the reliability and validity of a Spanish adaptation of the ASI-MV, a computer administered version of the Addiction Severity Index, called the S-ASI-MV. Participants were 185 native Spanish-speaking adult clients from substance abuse treatment facilities serving Spanish-speaking clients in Florida, New Mexico, California, and Puerto Rico. Participants were administered the S-ASI-MV as well as Spanish versions of the general health subscale of the SF-36, the work and family unit subscales of the Social Adjustment Scale Self-Report, the Michigan Alcohol Screening Test, the alcohol and drug subscales of the Personality Assessment Inventory, and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-90. Three-to-five-day test-retest reliability was examined along with criterion validity, convergent/discriminant validity, and factorial validity. Measurement invariance between the English and Spanish versions of the ASI-MV was also examined. The S-ASI-MV demonstrated good test-retest reliability (ICCs for composite scores between .59 and .93), criterion validity (rs for composite scores between .66 and .87), and convergent/discriminant validity. Factorial validity and measurement invariance were demonstrated. These results compared favorably with those reported for the original interviewer version of the ASI and the English version of the ASI-MV.

  18. Cross-validation of the Dot Counting Test in a large sample of credible and non-credible patients referred for neuropsychological testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaul, Courtney; Boone, Kyle B; Ermshar, Annette; Cottingham, Maria; Victor, Tara L; Ziegler, Elizabeth; Zeller, Michelle A; Wright, Matthew

    2018-01-18

    To cross-validate the Dot Counting Test in a large neuropsychological sample. Dot Counting Test scores were compared in credible (n = 142) and non-credible (n = 335) neuropsychology referrals. Non-credible patients scored significantly higher than credible patients on all Dot Counting Test scores. While the original E-score cut-off of ≥17 achieved excellent specificity (96.5%), it was associated with mediocre sensitivity (52.8%). However, the cut-off could be substantially lowered to ≥13.80, while still maintaining adequate specificity (≥90%), and raising sensitivity to 70.0%. Examination of non-credible subgroups revealed that Dot Counting Test sensitivity in feigned mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) was 55.8%, whereas sensitivity was 90.6% in patients with non-credible cognitive dysfunction in the context of claimed psychosis, and 81.0% in patients with non-credible cognitive performance in depression or severe TBI. Thus, the Dot Counting Test may have a particular role in detection of non-credible cognitive symptoms in claimed psychiatric disorders. Alternative to use of the E-score, failure on ≥1 cut-offs applied to individual Dot Counting Test scores (≥6.0″ for mean grouped dot counting time, ≥10.0″ for mean ungrouped dot counting time, and ≥4 errors), occurred in 11.3% of the credible sample, while nearly two-thirds (63.6%) of the non-credible sample failed one of more of these cut-offs. An E-score cut-off of 13.80, or failure on ≥1 individual score cut-offs, resulted in few false positive identifications in credible patients, and achieved high sensitivity (64.0-70.0%), and therefore appear appropriate for use in identifying neurocognitive performance invalidity.

  19. Course of Skin Symptoms and Quality of Life in Children Referred for Patch Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Anne B; Sommerlund, Mette; Deleuran, Mette

    2015-01-01

    Children are patch tested in the same manner as adults, but little has been done to establish whether positive or negative findings influence the course of skin symptoms. To uncover the course of skin symptoms and the impact of persistent eczema on life quality in paediatric patients referred...... to follow-up. Among patients without atopic dermatitis, 23.5% reported to suffer from chronic eczema. Persistent eczema increased the risk of severe impairment of life quality. Our findings indicate a significant risk of childhood eczema becoming chronic and affecting life quality considerably. Patch...

  20. Proposal and validation of a clinical trunk control test in individuals with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinzaños, J; Villa, A R; Flores, A A; Pérez, R

    2014-06-01

    One of the problems that arise in spinal cord injury (SCI) is alteration in trunk control. Despite the need for standardized scales, these do not exist for evaluating trunk control in SCI. To propose and validate a trunk control test in individuals with SCI. National Institute of Rehabilitation, Mexico. The test was developed and later evaluated for reliability and criteria, content, and construct validity. We carried out 531 tests on 177 patients and found high inter- and intra-rater reliability. In terms of criterion validity, analysis of variance demonstrated a statistically significant difference in the test score of patients with adequate or inadequate trunk control according to the assessment of a group of experts. A receiver operating characteristic curve was plotted for optimizing the instrument's cutoff point, which was determined at 13 points, with a sensitivity of 98% and a specificity of 92.2%. With regard to construct validity, the correlation between the proposed test and the spinal cord independence measure (SCIM) was 0.873 (P=0.001) and that with the evolution time was 0.437 (P=0.001). For testing the hypothesis with qualitative variables, the Kruskal-Wallis test was performed, which resulted in a statistically significant difference between the scores in the proposed scale of each group defined by these variables. It was proven experimentally that the proposed trunk control test is valid and reliable. Furthermore, the test can be used for all patients with SCI despite the type and level of injury.

  1. Validation of a clinical critical thinking skills test in nursing

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Sujin; Jung, Dukyoo; Kim, Sungeun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a revised version of the clinical critical thinking skills test (CCTS) and to subsequently validate its performance. Methods: This study is a secondary analysis of the CCTS. Data were obtained from a convenience sample of 284 college students in June 2011. Thirty items were analyzed using item response theory and test reliability was assessed. Test-retest reliability was measured using the results of 20 nursing college and graduate school stud...

  2. Reliability and Validity of the Inline Skating Skill Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Radman, Lana Ruzic, Viktoria Padovan, Vjekoslav Cigrovski, Hrvoje Podnar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the reliability and validity of the inline skating skill test. Based on previous skating experience forty-two skaters (26 female and 16 male were randomized into two groups (competitive level vs. recreational level. They performed the test four times, with a recovery time of 45 minutes between sessions. Prior to testing, the participants rated their skating skill using a scale from 1 to 10. The protocol included performance time measurement through a course, combining different skating techniques. Trivial changes in performance time between the repeated sessions were determined in both competitive females/males and recreational females/males (-1.7% [95% CI: -5.8–2.6%] – 2.2% [95% CI: 0.0–4.5%]. In all four subgroups, the skill test had a low mean within-individual variation (1.6% [95% CI: 1.2–2.4%] – 2.7% [95% CI: 2.1–4.0%] and high mean inter-session correlation (ICC = 0.97 [95% CI: 0.92–0.99] – 0.99 [95% CI: 0.98–1.00]. The comparison of detected typical errors and smallest worthwhile changes (calculated as standard deviations × 0.2 revealed that the skill test was able to track changes in skaters’ performances. Competitive-level skaters needed shorter time (24.4–26.4%, all p < 0.01 to complete the test in comparison to recreational-level skaters. Moreover, moderate correlation (ρ = 0.80–0.82; all p < 0.01 was observed between the participant’s self-rating and achieved performance times. In conclusion, the proposed test is a reliable and valid method to evaluate inline skating skills in amateur competitive and recreational level skaters. Further studies are needed to evaluate the reproducibility of this skill test in different populations including elite inline skaters.

  3. Converting Hangar High Expansion Foam Systems to Prevent Cockpit Damage: Full-Scale Validation Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    AFCEC-CO-TY-TR-2018-0001 CONVERTING HANGAR HIGH EXPANSION FOAM SYSTEMS TO PREVENT COCKPIT DAMAGE: FULL-SCALE VALIDATION TESTS Gerard G...manufacturer, or otherwise does not constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation , or approval by the United States Air Force. The views and...09-2017 Final Test Report May 2017 Converting Hangar High Expansion Foam Systems to Prevent Cockpit Damage: Full-Scale Validation Tests N00173-15-D

  4. The bogus taste test: Validity as a measure of laboratory food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Eric; Haynes, Ashleigh; Hardman, Charlotte A; Kemps, Eva; Higgs, Suzanne; Jones, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    Because overconsumption of food contributes to ill health, understanding what affects how much people eat is of importance. The 'bogus' taste test is a measure widely used in eating behaviour research to identify factors that may have a causal effect on food intake. However, there has been no examination of the validity of the bogus taste test as a measure of food intake. We conducted a participant level analysis of 31 published laboratory studies that used the taste test to measure food intake. We assessed whether the taste test was sensitive to experimental manipulations hypothesized to increase or decrease food intake. We examined construct validity by testing whether participant sex, hunger and liking of taste test food were associated with the amount of food consumed in the taste test. In addition, we also examined whether BMI (body mass index), trait measures of dietary restraint and over-eating in response to palatable food cues were associated with food consumption. Results indicated that the taste test was sensitive to experimental manipulations hypothesized to increase or decrease food intake. Factors that were reliably associated with increased consumption during the taste test were being male, have a higher baseline hunger, liking of the taste test food and a greater tendency to overeat in response to palatable food cues, whereas trait dietary restraint and BMI were not. These results indicate that the bogus taste test is likely to be a valid measure of food intake and can be used to identify factors that have a causal effect on food intake. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. VALIDITY OF THE EATING ATTITUDE TEST AMONG EXERCISERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary Matheson

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Theory testing and construct measurement are inextricably linked. To date, no published research has looked at the factorial validity of an existing eating attitude inventory for use with exercisers. The Eating Attitude Test (EAT is a 26-item measure that yields a single index of disordered eating attitudes. The original factor analysis showed three interrelated factors: Dieting behavior (13-items, oral control (7-items, and bulimia nervosa-food preoccupation (6-items. The primary purpose of the study was to examine the factorial validity of the EAT among a sample of exercisers. The second purpose was to investigate relationships between eating attitudes scores and selected psychological constructs. In stage one, 598 regular exercisers completed the EAT. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA was used to test the single-factor, a three-factor model, and a four-factor model, which distinguished bulimia from food pre-occupation. CFA of the single-factor model (RCFI = 0.66, RMSEA = 0.10, the three-factor-model (RCFI = 0.74; RMSEA = 0.09 showed poor model fit. There was marginal fit for the 4-factor model (RCFI = 0.91, RMSEA = 0.06. Results indicated five-items showed poor factor loadings. After these 5-items were discarded, the three models were re-analyzed. CFA results indicated that the single-factor model (RCFI = 0.76, RMSEA = 0.10 and three-factor model (RCFI = 0.82, RMSEA = 0.08 showed poor fit. CFA results for the four-factor model showed acceptable fit indices (RCFI = 0.98, RMSEA = 0.06. Stage two explored relationships between EAT scores, mood, self-esteem, and motivational indices toward exercise in terms of self-determination, enjoyment and competence. Correlation results indicated that depressed mood scores positively correlated with bulimia and dieting scores. Further, dieting was inversely related with self-determination toward exercising. Collectively, findings suggest that a 21-item four-factor model shows promising validity coefficients

  6. Independent verification and validation testing of the FLASH computer code, Versiion 3.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martian, P.; Chung, J.N.

    1992-06-01

    Independent testing of the FLASH computer code, Version 3.0, was conducted to determine if the code is ready for use in hydrological and environmental studies at various Department of Energy sites. This report describes the technical basis, approach, and results of this testing. Verification tests, and validation tests, were used to determine the operational status of the FLASH computer code. These tests were specifically designed to test: correctness of the FORTRAN coding, computational accuracy, and suitability to simulating actual hydrologic conditions. This testing was performed using a structured evaluation protocol which consisted of: blind testing, independent applications, and graduated difficulty of test cases. Both quantitative and qualitative testing was performed through evaluating relative root mean square values and graphical comparisons of the numerical, analytical, and experimental data. Four verification test were used to check the computational accuracy and correctness of the FORTRAN coding, and three validation tests were used to check the suitability to simulating actual conditions. These tests cases ranged in complexity from simple 1-D saturated flow to 2-D variably saturated problems. The verification tests showed excellent quantitative agreement between the FLASH results and analytical solutions. The validation tests showed good qualitative agreement with the experimental data. Based on the results of this testing, it was concluded that the FLASH code is a versatile and powerful two-dimensional analysis tool for fluid flow. In conclusion, all aspects of the code that were tested, except for the unit gradient bottom boundary condition, were found to be fully operational and ready for use in hydrological and environmental studies

  7. Accurate diagnosis of myalgic encephalomyelitis and chronic fatigue syndrome based upon objective test methods for characteristic symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twisk, Frank NM

    2015-01-01

    Although myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) are considered to be synonymous, the definitional criteria for ME and CFS define two distinct, partially overlapping, clinical entities. ME, whether defined by the original criteria or by the recently proposed criteria, is not equivalent to CFS, let alone a severe variant of incapacitating chronic fatigue. Distinctive features of ME are: muscle weakness and easy muscle fatigability, cognitive impairment, circulatory deficits, a marked variability of the symptoms in presence and severity, but above all, post-exertional “malaise”: a (delayed) prolonged aggravation of symptoms after a minor exertion. In contrast, CFS is primarily defined by (unexplained) chronic fatigue, which should be accompanied by four out of a list of 8 symptoms, e.g., headaches. Due to the subjective nature of several symptoms of ME and CFS, researchers and clinicians have questioned the physiological origin of these symptoms and qualified ME and CFS as functional somatic syndromes. However, various characteristic symptoms, e.g., post-exertional “malaise” and muscle weakness, can be assessed objectively using well-accepted methods, e.g., cardiopulmonary exercise tests and cognitive tests. The objective measures acquired by these methods should be used to accurately diagnose patients, to evaluate the severity and impact of the illness objectively and to assess the positive and negative effects of proposed therapies impartially. PMID:26140274

  8. Construct validation of the hybrid model of posttraumatic stress disorder: Distinctiveness of the new symptom clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Madison W; Dieujuste, Nathalie; Kramer, Lindsay B; Lee, Daniel J; Weathers, Frank W

    2018-03-01

    Despite the factor analytic support for the seven-factor hybrid model (Armour et al., 2015) of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), little research has examined the degree to which newly established symptom clusters (i.e., negative affect, anhedonia, dysphoric arousal, anxious arousal, externalizing behavior) functionally and meaningfully differ in their associations with other clinical phenomena. The aim of the current study was to examine the degree to which newly established PTSD symptom clusters differentially relate to co-occurring psychopathology and related clinical phenomena through Wald testing using latent variable modeling. Participants were 535 trauma-exposed undergraduates who completed the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5; Weathers et al., 2013) and Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991). As expected and in line with results from previous studies, significant heterogeneity emerged for dysphoric arousal, anxious arousal, and externalizing behavior. However, there was less evidence for the distinctiveness of negative affect and anhedonia. Results indicate that only some of the newly established symptom clusters significantly differ in their associations with related clinical phenomena and that the hybrid model might not provide a meaningful framework for understanding which PTSD symptoms relate to associated features. Limitations include a non-clinical sample and reliance on retrospective self-report assessment measures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Using Smartphones to Monitor Bipolar Disorder Symptoms: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiwinkel, Till; Kindermann, Sally; Maier, Andreas; Kerl, Christopher; Moock, Jörn; Barbian, Guido; Rössler, Wulf

    2016-01-06

    Relapse prevention in bipolar disorder can be improved by monitoring symptoms in patients' daily life. Smartphone apps are easy-to-use, low-cost tools that can be used to assess this information. To date, few studies have examined the usefulness of smartphone data for monitoring symptoms in bipolar disorder. We present results from a pilot test of a smartphone-based monitoring system, Social Information Monitoring for Patients with Bipolar Affective Disorder (SIMBA), that tracked daily mood, physical activity, and social communication in 13 patients. The objective of this study was to investigate whether smartphone measurements predicted clinical symptoms levels and clinical symptom change. The hypotheses that smartphone measurements are (1) negatively related to clinical depressive symptoms and (2) positively related to clinical manic symptoms were tested. Clinical rating scales were administered to assess clinical depressive and manic symptoms. Patients used a smartphone with the monitoring app for up to 12 months. Random-coefficient multilevel models were computed to analyze the relationship between smartphone data and externally rated manic and depressive symptoms. Overall clinical symptom levels and clinical symptom changes were predicted by separating between-patient and within-patient effects. Using established clinical thresholds from the literature, marginal effect plots displayed clinical relevance of smartphone data. Overall symptom levels and change in clinical symptoms were related to smartphone measures. Higher overall levels of clinical depressive symptoms were predicted by lower self-reported mood measured by the smartphone (beta=-.56, Psmartphone (ie, cell tower movements: beta=-.11, P=.03). Higher overall levels of clinical manic symptoms were predicted by lower physical activity on the smartphone (ie, distance travelled: beta=-.37, Psmartphone (beta=-.17, Psmartphone measurements, but not all smartphone measures predicted the occurrence of

  10. New insights in symptom assessment: the Chinese Versions of the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale Short Form (MSAS-SF) and the Condensed MSAS (CMSAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Wendy Wing Tak; Law, Chi Ching; Fu, Yiu Tung; Wong, Kam Hung; Chang, Victor T; Fielding, Richard

    2008-12-01

    There are very few symptom assessment instruments in Chinese. We present the validity and reliability of the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale Short Form (MSAS-SF) and the Condensed Form MSAS (CMSAS) in Chinese cancer patients. The Chinese version of the 32-item MSAS-SF, a self-report measure for assessing symptom distress and frequency in cancer patients, was administered to 256 Chinese patients with colorectal cancer at a clinical oncology outpatient unit. Highly prevalent symptoms included worrying (59%), dry mouth (54%), lack of energy (54%), feeling sad (48%), feeling irritable (48%), and pain (41%). Both the MSAS-SF and CMSAS demonstrated good validity and reliability. For the MSAS-SF subscales, Cronbach alphas ranged from 0.84 to 0.91, and for CMSAS subscales, from 0.79 to 0.87. Moderate-to-high correlations of MSAS-SF and CMSAS subscales with appropriate European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C30 subscales (0.42-0.71, PsRosenberg Self-Esteem and Optimism Scale (0.22, Pscales--the Chinese Health Questionnaire (CHQ) and the Life Orientation Scale. Construct validity of both MSAS versions was demonstrated by effective differentiation between clinically distinct patient groups (Karnofsky scores or =80% [P4 [Pscales (0.31-0.64, P<0.001). The average time to complete the MSAS-SF was six minutes. The Chinese versions of the MSAS-SF and CMSAS are valid and practical measures. Further validation is needed for Chinese patients with other cancer types and with other symptom instruments.

  11. Validation study of the Leeds Dyspepsia Questionnaire in a multi-ethnic Asian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadeva, Sanjiv; Chan, Wah-Kheong; Mohazmi, Mohammed; Sujarita, Ramanujam; Goh, Khean-Lee

    2011-11-01

    Outcome measures for clinical trials in dyspepsia require an assessment of symptom response. There is a lack of validated instruments assessing dyspepsia symptoms in the Asian region. We aimed to translate and validate the Leeds Dyspepsia Questionnaire (LDQ) in a multi-ethnic Asian population. A Malay and culturally adapted English version of the LDQ were developed according to established protocols. Psychometric evaluation was performed by assessing the validity, internal consistency, test-retest reliability and responsiveness of the instruments in both primary and secondary care patients. Between April and September 2010, both Malay (n=166) and Malaysian English (n=154) versions were assessed in primary and secondary care patients. Both language versions were found to be reliable (internal consistency was 0.80 and 0.74 (Cronbach's α) for Malay and English, respectively; spearman's correlation coefficient for test-retest reliability was 0.98 for both versions), valid (area under receiver operating curve for accuracy of diagnosing dyspepsia was 0.71 and 0.77 for Malay and English versions, respectively), discriminative (median LDQ score discriminated between primary and secondary care patients in Malay (11.0 vs 20.0, PAsian population with dyspepsia. © 2011 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  12. Testing direct and moderating effects of coping styles on the relationship between perceived stress and antenatal anxiety symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Ying; Wang, Yuqiong; Kwong, Dennis Ho Keung; Wang, Ying

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the direct and moderating effects of different coping styles in mitigating perceived stress associated with antenatal anxiety symptoms among 755 pregnant women in Chengdu. A cross-sectional study using a questionnaire survey was carried out. The Perceived Stress Scale, the Trait Coping Style Questionnaire and the Zung Self-rating Anxiety Scale were used to measure stress, coping and anxiety symptoms, respectively. Hierarchical regression analysis was used to test the direct and moderating effects of coping styles in the relationship between perceived stress and antenatal anxiety symptoms. Direct effects of negative coping (NC) styles were found. Women with higher NC scores were more likely to have anxiety symptoms. Positive coping (PC) styles had moderating effects on perceived stress, whereas NC styles did not. The findings of this study highlight the direct and moderating effects of coping styles. This knowledge is important to healthcare professionals in planning health service provision. Health services should dedicate resources to teaching pregnant women how to enhance PC styles, alter NC styles and cultivate optimistic thinking to alleviate anxiety symptoms.

  13. Testing the Predictive Validity of the Hendrich II Fall Risk Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyesil; Park, Hyeoun-Ae

    2018-03-01

    Cumulative data on patient fall risk have been compiled in electronic medical records systems, and it is possible to test the validity of fall-risk assessment tools using these data between the times of admission and occurrence of a fall. The Hendrich II Fall Risk Model scores assessed during three time points of hospital stays were extracted and used for testing the predictive validity: (a) upon admission, (b) when the maximum fall-risk score from admission to falling or discharge, and (c) immediately before falling or discharge. Predictive validity was examined using seven predictive indicators. In addition, logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors that significantly affect the occurrence of a fall. Among the different time points, the maximum fall-risk score assessed between admission and falling or discharge showed the best predictive performance. Confusion or disorientation and having a poor ability to rise from a sitting position were significant risk factors for a fall.

  14. Validation of the Athens Insomnia Scale for screening insomnia in South Korean firefighters and rescue workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hyeonseok S; Jeon, Yujin; Ma, Jiyoung; Choi, Yera; Ban, Soonhyun; Lee, Sooyeon; Lee, Bora; Im, Jooyeon Jamie; Yoon, Sujung; Kim, Jieun E; Lim, Jae-Ho; Lyoo, In Kyoon

    2015-10-01

    Sleep problems are a major cause of occupational stress in firefighters and rescue workers. We evaluated the psychometric properties of the Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS) among South Korean firefighters and rescue workers. Structured clinical interviews and self-report questionnaires were administered to 221 firefighters and rescue workers. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Short-Form 36-item Health Survey (SF36), and Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C) were used to examine convergent and divergent validity. Test-retest reliability was calculated from a subsample (n = 24). Analysis of internal consistency, factor analysis, and receiver operator characteristic curve analysis were conducted. Cronbach's alpha was 0.88. The mean item-total correlation coefficient was 0.73. The test-retest reliability was excellent (ICC = 0.94). Significant correlations of the AIS with the PSQI, ISI, ESS, and SF36 confirmed convergent validity. Nonsignificant associations of the AIS with the AUDIT-C and socioeconomic status showed divergent validity. Factor analysis revealed a one-factor structure. For groups with different symptom severity, group-specific cutoff scores which may improve positive predictive values were suggested. The AIS may be a useful tool with good reliability and validity for screening insomnia symptoms in firefighters and rescue workers.

  15. Feasibility testing of a web-based symptom self-management system for persons living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnall, Rebecca; Wantland, Dean; Velez, Olivia; Cato, Kenrick; Jia, Haomiao

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the feasibility of using a Web-based tool to provide tailored symptom management strategies for persons living with HIV (PLWH) and to estimate the effect size of the tool for future studies. Testing the components of the Web-based system was done by incorporating a repeated-measures design measuring the outcomes of symptom frequency and intensity, use of symptom management strategies, and engagement with health care providers. We recruited 42 PLWH; participants were enrolled in the study for 12 weeks and were asked to use the system and complete the questionnaires every 2 weeks. Our results showed that participants who used the strategies were more likely to have a decrease in symptom frequency and intensity. Findings from this feasibility study provide preliminary evidence for the use of a Web-based HIV symptom management tool with self-management strategies for individuals living with HIV infection. Copyright © 2014 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Validation of a Video-based Game-Understanding Test Procedure in Badminton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomqvist, Minna T.; Luhtanen, Pekka; Laakso, Lauri; Keskinen, Esko

    2000-01-01

    Reports the development and validation of video-based game-understanding tests in badminton for elementary and secondary students. The tests included different sequences that simulated actual game situations. Players had to solve tactical problems by selecting appropriate solutions and arguments for their decisions. Results suggest that the test…

  17. Depressive-like symptoms in a reserpine-induced model of fibromyalgia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco-Serra, Arantxa; Escrihuela-Vidal, Francesc; González-Soler, Eva M; Martínez-Expósito, Fernando; Blasco-Ausina, M Carmen; Martínez-Bellver, Sergio; Cervera-Ferri, Ana; Teruel-Martí, Vicent; Valverde-Navarro, Alfonso A

    2015-11-01

    Since the pathogenesis of fibromyalgia is unknown, treatment options are limited, ineffective and in fact based on symptom relief. A recently proposed rat model of fibromyalgia is based on central depletion of monamines caused by reserpine administration. This model showed widespread musculoskeletal pain and depressive-like symptoms, but the methodology used to measure such symptoms has been criticized. Evidence relates the high prevalence of pain and depression in fibromyalgia to common pathogenic pathways, most probably focused on the monoaminergic system. The present study aims at a validation of the reserpine model of fibromyalgia. For this purpose, rats undergoing this model have been tested for depressive-like symptoms with a Novelty-Suppressed Feeding Test adaptation. Animals administered with reserpine and subjected to forced food deprivation performed a smaller number of incursions to the center of the open field, evidenced by a decrease in the per-minute rate of the rats' approaching, smelling or touching the food. They also took more time to eat from the central food than control rats. These NSFT findings suggest the presence of depressive-like disorders in this animal model of fibromyalgia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Development, content validity, and cross-cultural adaptation of a patient-reported outcome measure for real-time symptom assessment in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vork, L; Keszthelyi, D; Mujagic, Z; Kruimel, J W; Leue, C; Pontén, I; Törnblom, H; Simrén, M; Albu-Soda, A; Aziz, Q; Corsetti, M; Holvoet, L; Tack, J; Rao, S S; van Os, J; Quetglas, E G; Drossman, D A; Masclee, A A M

    2018-03-01

    End-of-day questionnaires, which are considered the gold standard for assessing abdominal pain and other gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), are influenced by recall and ecological bias. The experience sampling method (ESM) is characterized by random and repeated assessments in the natural state and environment of a subject, and herewith overcomes these limitations. This report describes the development of a patient-reported outcome measure (PROM) based on the ESM principle, taking into account content validity and cross-cultural adaptation. Focus group interviews with IBS patients and expert meetings with international experts in the fields of neurogastroenterology & motility and pain were performed in order to select the items for the PROM. Forward-and-back translation and cognitive interviews were performed to adapt the instrument for the use in different countries and to assure on patients' understanding with the final items. Focus group interviews revealed 42 items, categorized into five domains: physical status, defecation, mood and psychological factors, context and environment, and nutrition and drug use. Experts reduced the number of items to 32 and cognitive interviewing after translation resulted in a few slight adjustments regarding linguistic issues, but not regarding content of the items. An ESM-based PROM, suitable for momentary assessment of IBS symptom patterns was developed, taking into account content validity and cross-cultural adaptation. This PROM will be implemented in a specifically designed smartphone application and further validation in a multicenter setting will follow. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Development and Validation of a Questionnaire for the Assessment of Pelvic Floor Disorders and Their Risk Factors During Pregnancy and Post Partum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Melanie; Junginger, Bärbel; Henrich, Wolfgang; Baeßler, Kaven

    2017-04-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to develop and validate a questionnaire for the assessment of pelvic floor disorders, their symptoms and risk factors in pregnancy and after birth including symptom course, severity and impact on quality of life. Methods The validated German pelvic floor questionnaire was modified and a new risk factor domain developed. The questionnaire was initially completed by 233 nulliparous women in the third trimester of pregnancy and at six weeks (n = 148) and one year (n = 120) post partum. Full pyschometric testing was performed. The clinical course of symptoms and the influence of risk factors were analysed. Results Study participants had a median age of 31 (19-46) years. 63 % had spontaneous vaginal deliveries, 15 % operative vaginal deliveries and 22 % were delivered by caesarean section. Content validity: Missing answers never exceeded 4 %. Construct validity: The questionnaire distinguished significantly between women who reported bothersome symptoms and those who did not. Reliability: Cronbach's alpha values exceeded 0.7 for bladder, bowel and support function, and 0.65 for sexual function. The test-retest analysis showed moderate to almost complete concordance. The intraclass coefficients for domain scores (between 0.732 and 0.818) were in acceptable to optimal range. Reactivity: The questionnaire was able to track changes significantly with good effect size for each domain. Risk factors for pelvic floor symptoms included familial predisposition, maternal age over 35 years, BMI above 25, nicotine abuse, subjective inability to voluntarily contract the pelvic floor musculature and postpartum wound pain. Conclusion This pelvic floor questionnaire proved to be valid, reliable and reactive for the assessment of pelvic floor disorders, their risk factors, incidence and impact on quality of life during pregnancy and post partum. The questionnaire can be utilised to assess the course of symptoms and treatment effects

  20. The Validity of Value-Added Estimates from Low-Stakes Testing Contexts: The Impact of Change in Test-Taking Motivation and Test Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finney, Sara J.; Sundre, Donna L.; Swain, Matthew S.; Williams, Laura M.

    2016-01-01

    Accountability mandates often prompt assessment of student learning gains (e.g., value-added estimates) via achievement tests. The validity of these estimates have been questioned when performance on tests is low stakes for students. To assess the effects of motivation on value-added estimates, we assigned students to one of three test consequence…

  1. Validation of the Stroke Specific Quality of Life Scale (SS-QOL): test of reliability and validity of the Danish version (SS-QOL-DK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muus, Ingrid; Williams, Linda S; Ringsberg, Karin C

    2007-07-01

    To test the reliability and validity of the Danish version of the Stroke Specific Quality of Life Scale version 2.0 (SS-QOL-DK), an instrument for evaluation of health-related quality of life. A correlational study. A stroke unit that provides acute care and rehabilitation for stroke patients in Frederiksborg County, Denmark. One hundred and fifty-two stroke survivors participated; 24 of these performed test-retest. Questionnaires were sent out and returned by mail. A subsequent telephone interview assessed functional level and missing items. Test-retest was measured using Spearman's r, internal consistency was estimated using Cronbach's alpha, and evaluation of floor and ceiling values in proportion of minimum and maximum scores. Construct validity was assessed by comparing patients' scores on the SS-QOL-DK with those obtained by other test methods: Beck's Depression Index, the General Health Survey Short Form 36 (SF-36), the Barthel Index and the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, evaluating shared variance using coefficient of determination, r2. Comparing groups with known scores assessed known-group validity. Convergent and discriminant validity were assessed. Test-retest of SS-QOL-DK showed excellent stability, Spearman's r = 0.65-0.99. Internal consistency for all domains showed Cronbach's alpha = 0.81-0.94. Missing items rate was 1.0%. Most SS-QOL-DK domains showed moderately shared variance with similar domains of other test methods, r2 = 0.03-0.62. Groups with known differences showed statistically significant difference in scores. Item-to-scale correlation coefficients of 0.37-0.88 supported convergent validity. SS-QOL-DK is a reliable and valid instrument for measuring self-reported health-related quality of life on group level among people with mild to moderate stroke.

  2. Simple shoulder test and Oxford Shoulder Score: Persian translation and cross-cultural validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghdi, Soofia; Nakhostin Ansari, Noureddin; Rustaie, Nilufar; Akbari, Mohammad; Ebadi, Safoora; Senobari, Maryam; Hasson, Scott

    2015-12-01

    To translate, culturally adapt, and validate the simple shoulder test (SST) and Oxford Shoulder Score (OSS) into Persian language using a cross-sectional and prospective cohort design. A standard forward and backward translation was followed to culturally adapt the SST and the OSS into Persian language. Psychometric properties of floor and ceiling effects, construct convergent validity, discriminant validity, internal consistency reliability, test-retest reliability, standard error of the measurement (SEM), smallest detectable change (SDC), and factor structure were determined. One hundred patients with shoulder disorders and 50 healthy subjects participated in the study. The PSST and the POSS showed no missing responses. No floor or ceiling effects were observed. Both the PSST and POSS detected differences between patients and healthy subjects supporting their discriminant validity. Construct convergent validity was confirmed by a very good correlation between the PSST and POSS (r = 0.68). There was high internal consistency for both the PSST (α = 0.73) and the POSS (α = 0.91 and 0.92). Test-retest reliability with 1-week interval was excellent (ICCagreement = 0.94 for PSST and 0.90 for POSS). Factor analyses demonstrated a three-factor solution for the PSST (49.7 % of variance) and a two-factor solution for the POSS (61.6 % of variance). The SEM/SDC was satisfactory for PSST (5.5/15.3) and POSS (6.8/18.8). The PSST and POSS are valid and reliable outcome measures for assessing functional limitations in Persian-speaking patients with shoulder disorders.

  3. How is symptom flare defined in musculoskeletal conditions: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Nathalia; Ferreira, Manuela L; Cross, Marita; Makovey, Joanna; Hodges, Paul W

    2018-01-31

    To systematically review the definitions for "flare" in musculoskeletal conditions, the derivation processes, and validation of definitions for the 12 most burdensome musculoskeletal conditions. A literature search was conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, PsycInfo and Lilacs to identify studies that investigated derivation or validation of a flare definition, which we considered as a phrase or group of domains. Reports of derivation of flare definitions were identified for 9/12 musculoskeletal conditions. Validation of flare definitions was initiated for 4/12. For each condition, different derivation and validation methods have been used, with variable levels of consumer involvement, and in some cases different groups have worked on the process in parallel. Although some flare definitions began simply as "symptom worsening" or "change in treatment", most evolved into multidimensional definitions that include: pain, impact on function, joint symptoms, and emotional elements. Frequently initial attempts to create phrase to define the term flare evolved into consensus on the breadth of domains involved. Validation has compared flare definitions/domains against measures of disease activity, clinicians' diagnosis, response to drug therapy, or a combination. This review suggests that greater characterisation and definition of flares in musculoskeletal conditions are linked to the inclusion of multiple perspectives, multifaceted domains and compound comparators for their validation. Further work is required to optimise and test the derived definitions for most musculoskeletal conditions. As some elements are disease-specific, flare definitions cannot be extrapolated to other conditions. Research regarding flare in back pain (most burdensome disease) is limited. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Role of atopy patch test for diagnosis of food allergy-related gastrointestinal symptoms in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonyaviwat, Onsuree; Pacharn, Punchama; Jirapongsananuruk, Orathai; Vichyanond, Pakit; Visitsunthorn, Nualanong

    2015-12-01

    Double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge is the gold standard for diagnosing food allergy. However, it is a time-consuming procedure and requires onsite medical supervision and resuscitating medicines and devices on hand. The objective of this study was to compare the atopy patch test (APT) with the oral food challenge test (OFC) in children with suspected food allergy-related gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. A prospective self-controlled study enrolled children with a history of suspected food allergy-related GI symptoms. Skin prick test (SPT) and APT using lyophilized and commercial allergen extracts for cow's milk, egg, wheat, soy, and shrimp were evaluated, and OFC was performed. Thirty-nine patients (25 boys, median age 2.4 yrs) with 76 events of suspected food allergy-related GI symptoms were enrolled. SPT was positive in 11/76 events (14.5%). Sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and likelihood ratio were calculated related to the food challenge outcome. Of 41 OFC, 30 (73.2%) were positive. APT using lyophilized allergen extracts yielded high sensitivity (80%) and high positive predictive value (85.7%). APT using commercial allergen extracts yielded low sensitivity (30%) but high specificity (90%). The negative predictive value of APT using lyophilized and commercial allergen extracts was 53.8% and 32.2%, respectively. All cases with positive APT using lyophilized allergen extracts together with positive SPT also had positive OFC. In contrast to commercial extracts, APT with lyophilized allergen extracts is reliable, safe, and maybe useful for the diagnosis of suspected food allergy-related GI symptoms in children. OFC is still needed in most of the cases. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Exploring the reliability and validity of the social-moral awareness test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livesey, Alexandra; Dodd, Karen; Pote, Helen; Marlow, Elizabeth

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the validity of the social-moral awareness test (SMAT) a measure designed for assessing socio-moral rule knowledge and reasoning in people with learning disabilities. Comparisons between Theory of Mind and socio-moral reasoning allowed the exploration of construct validity of the tool. Factor structure, reliability and discriminant validity were also assessed. Seventy-one participants with mild-moderate learning disabilities completed the two scales of the SMAT and two False Belief Tasks for Theory of Mind. Reliability of the SMAT was very good, and the scales were shown to be uni-dimensional in factor structure. There was a significant positive relationship between Theory of Mind and both SMAT scales. There is early evidence of the construct validity and reliability of the SMAT. Further assessment of the validity of the SMAT will be required. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Publishing nutrition research: validity, reliability, and diagnostic test assessment in nutrition-related research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Philip M; Harris, Jeffrey; Sheean, Patricia M; Boushey, Carol J; Bruemmer, Barbara

    2010-03-01

    This is the sixth in a series of monographs on research design and analysis. The purpose of this article is to describe and discuss several concepts related to the measurement of nutrition-related characteristics and outcomes, including validity, reliability, and diagnostic tests. The article reviews the methodologic issues related to capturing the various aspects of a given nutrition measure's reliability, including test-retest, inter-item, and interobserver or inter-rater reliability. Similarly, it covers content validity, indicators of absolute vs relative validity, and internal vs external validity. With respect to diagnostic assessment, the article summarizes the concepts of sensitivity and specificity. The hope is that dietetics practitioners will be able to both use high-quality measures of nutrition concepts in their research and recognize these measures in research completed by others. Copyright 2010 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Performance Validity Testing in Neuropsychology: Methods for Measurement Development and Maximizing Diagnostic Accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodushek, Thomas R; Greher, Michael R

    2017-05-01

    In the first column in this 2-part series, Performance Validity Testing in Neuropsychology: Scientific Basis and Clinical Application-A Brief Review, the authors introduced performance validity tests (PVTs) and their function, provided a justification for why they are necessary, traced their ongoing endorsement by neuropsychological organizations, and described how they are used and interpreted by ever increasing numbers of clinical neuropsychologists. To enhance readers' understanding of these measures, this second column briefly describes common detection strategies used in PVTs as well as the typical methods used to validate new PVTs and determine cut scores for valid/invalid determinations. We provide a discussion of the latest research demonstrating how neuropsychologists can combine multiple PVTs in a single battery to improve sensitivity/specificity to invalid responding. Finally, we discuss future directions for the research and application of PVTs.

  8. Building a Validity Argument for the Test of English as a Foreign Language™

    CERN Document Server

    Chapelle, Carol A; Jamieson, Joan M

    2007-01-01

    Building a Validity Argument for the Test of English as a Foreign Language™ is distinctive in its attempt to develop a coherent story of the rationale for a test or its revision, explain the research and development process, and provide the results of the validation process. This volume is particularly relevant for professionals and graduate students in educational measurement, applied linguistics, and second language acquisition as well as anyone interested in assessment issues.

  9. Validation of the Hwalek-Sengstock Elder Abuse Screening Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, Anne Victoria; And Others

    Elder abuse is recognized as an under-detected and under-reported social problem. Difficulties in detecting elder abuse are compounded by the lack of a standardized, psychometrically valid instrument for case finding. The development of the Hwalek-Sengstock Elder Abuse Screening Test (H-S/EAST) followed a larger effort to identify indicators and…

  10. Construct validity and reliability of automated body reaction test ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Automated Body Reaction Test (ABRT) is a new device for skills and physical assessment instrument to measure ability on react, move quickly and accurately in accordance with stimulus. A total of 474 subjects aged 7-17 years old were randomly selected for the construct validity (n=330) and reliability (n=144). The ABRT ...

  11. Italian version of Dyspnoea-12: cultural-linguistic validation, quantitative and qualitative content validity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Rosario; Arrigoni, Cristina; Groppelli, Katia; Magon, Arianna; Dellafiore, Federica; Pittella, Francesco; Grugnetti, Anna Maria; Chessa, Massimo; Yorke, Janelle

    2018-01-16

    Dyspnoea-12 is a valid and reliable scale to assess dyspneic symptom, considering its severity, physical and emotional components. However, it is not available in Italian version due to it was not yet translated and validated. For this reason, the aim of this study was to develop an Italian version Dyspnoea-12, providing a cultural and linguistic validation, supported by the quantitative and qualitative content validity. This was a methodological study, divided into two phases: phase one is related to