Robertson, John M.; Benton, Stephen L.; Newton, Fred B.; Downey, Ronald G.; Marsh, Patricia A.; Benton, Sheryl A.; Tseng, Wen-Chih; Shin, Kang-Hyun
The K-State Problem Identification Rating Scales, a new screening instrument for college counseling centers, gathers information about clients' presenting symptoms, functioning levels, and readiness to change. Three studies revealed 7 scales: Mood Difficulties, Learning Problems, Food Concerns, Interpersonal Conflicts, Career Uncertainties,…
Bucciardini, Raffaella; Pugliese, Katherina; Francisci, Daniela; Costantini, Andrea; Schiaroli, Elisabetta; Cognigni, Miriam; Tontini, Chiara; Lucattini, Stefano; Fucili, Luca; Di Gregorio, Massimiliano; Mirra, Marco; Fragola, Vincenzo; Pompili, Sara; Murri, Rita; Vella, Stefano
To describe the development and the psychometric properties of the Istituto Superiore di Sanità-HIV symptoms scale (lSS-HIV symptoms scale). The ISS-HIV symptom scale was developed by an Italian working team including researchers, physicians and people living with HIV. The development process went through the following steps: (1) review of HIV/AIDS literature; (2) focus group; (3) pre-test analysis; (4) scale validation. The 22 symptoms of HIV-ISS symptoms scale were clustered in five factors: pain/general discomfort (7 items); depression/anxiety (4 items); emotional reaction/psychological distress (5 items); gastrointestinal discomfort (4 items); sexual discomfort (2 items). The internal consistence reliability was for all factors within the minimum accepted standard of 0.70. The results of this study provide a preliminary evidence of the reliability and validity of the ISS-HIV symptoms scale. In the new era where HIV infection has been transformed into a chronic diseases and patients are experiencing a complex range of symptoms, the ISS-HIV symptoms scale may represent an useful tool for a comprehensive symptom assessment with the advantage of being easy to fill out by patients and potentially attractive to physicians mainly because it is easy to understand and requires short time to interpret the results.
Gülçin Senel Özalp
Full Text Available Objective: Cancer patients often experience a large number of symptoms together. The aim of this study is to determine the symptom clusters in cancer patients at palliative care clinic. Methods: Hundred and seventy consecutive patients were enrolled in the study. Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale was used for symptom assessment of the patients. Results: The most experienced symptoms by the patients during the past week before hospitalization in palliative care clinic were lack of energy (95.4%, weight loss (91.2%, lack of appetite (89.4%, pain (88.2%, dry mouth (87.6%, feeling sad (87.6%, feeling nervous (82.9%, worrying (81.2%, and feeling irritable (80.6%. Five symptom clusters were defined. First cluster: pain, feeling nervous, dry mouth, worrying, feeling irritable, weight loss; second cluster: feeling drowsy, numbness/tingling in hands/feet, difficulty in sleeping, dizziness, constipation, I do not look like myself; third cluster: nausea, vomiting; fourth cluster: shortness of breath, difficulty in swallowing, cough, change in the way food tastes; and fifth cluster: feeling bloated, problems with urination, diarrhea, itching, mouth sores, hair loss, swelling of arm or legs, change in the skin. Conclusions: We encountered various symptom clusters in advanced cancer patients. Identification of symptom clusters and knowledge of cluster composition in oncological population may particularly contribute individualization of the treatment.
Polat Nazlı, Irmak; Ergül, Ceylan; Aydemir, Ömer; Chandhoke, Swati; Üçok, Alp; Gönül, Ali Saffet
Negative symptoms in schizophrenia have been assessed by many instruments. However, a current consensus on these symptoms has been built and new tools, such as the Brief Negative Symptom Scale (BNSS), are generated. This study aimed to evaluate reliability and validity of the Turkish version of BNSS. The scale was translated to Turkish and backtranslated to English. After the approval of the translation, 75 schizophrenia patients were interviewed with BNSS, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS) and Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale (ESRS). Reliability and validity analyses were then calculated. In the reliability analysis, the Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.96 and item-total score correlation coefficients were between 0.655-0.884. The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.665. The inter-rater reliability was 0.982 (p Symptoms Subscale, Negative Symptoms Subscale, and General Psychopathology Subscale. CDSS and ESRS were not correlated with BNSS-TR. The factor structure of the scale was consisting the same items as in the original version. Our study confirms that the Turkish version of BNSS is an applicable tool for the evaluation of negative symptoms in schizophrenia.
Lyne, John P
Collaborative research projects have the potential to answer important research questions, which may otherwise require huge resources, funding, and time to complete. There are several scales for measuring psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders, with the Scale for Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS), Scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS), Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS), and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) being among the most commonly used. High quality research efforts have used these three scales in different projects, and in order to merge study efforts, some means of combining data from these scales may be necessary. We reviewed correlations in published studies for these three scales, finding them to be highly correlated, however on comparison of the three scales there were considerable clinical differences between them. The paper discusses potential methods for combining the scales in collaborative research, including use of the recently developed standardised remission criteria for schizophrenia.
Carranza-Martínez, Martha Imelda; Valdés-Croda, Oscar; Jaspersen-Gastelum, Víctor; Chavolla-Magaña, Rogelio; Villaseñor-Sierra, Alberto
To evaluate the degree of identification of main signs and symptoms of streptococcal pharyngitis by resident doctors, general practitioners, family physicians and pediatricians. A prospective, cross-sectional and comparative study was done. A validated questionnaire was applied including the following topics: social demographic, main signs and symptoms, clinical cases; and clinical pictures. We interviewed resident doctors (n = 40), general physicians (n = 21), family physicians (n = 35) and pediatricians (n = 19) from different institutions (SSa, ISSSTE, IMSS) in Guadalajara, Mexico, from March to August 2005. Scores were interpreted as very good, good, regular and poor, and these scores were related with the specialty and clinical years of experience. chi2, student t test and linear regression. This study included 115 physicians between 22 to 60 years old (mean = 39) and with 0 to 31 (mean = 10) clinical years of experience. Regarding the conceptual identification of main signs and symptoms, tonsil exudates were recognized by 33 to 61% of physicians, and a clinical case of streptococcal tonsillitis was recognized by 50 to 70%. A clinical picture of tonsil caseum was misinterpreted as streptococcal tonsillitis by 13 to 35% of the physicians. There was no association between years of clinical experience and the scores obtained in clinical cases (r = 0.20) or clinical pictures (r = 0.09). The clinical identification of streptococcal tonsillitis was regular to poor among all the interviewed physicians, and there had no correlation with the years of clinical experience. The reinforcement in teaching to recognize the key signs and symptoms of streptococcal tonsillitis at medical school would result in better recognition, more rational use of antimicrobials and reduction in health institutions costs.
Lindelow, M; Hardy, R; Rodgers, B
OBJECTIVES: The psychiatric symptom frequency (PSF) scale was developed to assess symptoms of anxiety and depression (i.e. affective symptoms) experienced over the past year in the general population. This study aimed to examine the distribution of PSF scores, internal consistency, and factor structure and to investigate relationships between total scores for this scale and other indicators of poor mental health. PARTICIPANTS: The Medical Research Council national survey of health and development, a class stratified cohort study of men and women followed up from birth in 1946, with the most recent interview at age 43 when the PSF scale was administered. MAIN RESULTS: The PSF scale showed high internal consistency between the 18 items (Cronbach's alpha = 0.88). Ratings on items of the scale reflected one predominant factor, incorporating both depression and anxiety, and two additional factors of less statistical importance, one reflecting sleep problems and the other panic and situational anxiety. Total scores were calculated by adding 18 items of the scale, and high total scores were found to be strongly associated with reports of contact with a doctor or other health professional and use of prescribed medication for "nervous or emotional trouble or depression," and with suicidal ideas. CONCLUSIONS: The PSF is a useful and valid scale for evaluating affective symptoms in the general population. It is appropriate for administration by lay interviewers with minimal training, is relatively brief, and generates few missing data. The total score is a flexible measure which can be used in continuous or binary form to suit the purposes of individual investigations, and provides discrimination at lower as well as upper levels of symptom severity. PMID:9425466
Full Text Available Abstract Background Most scales that assess the presence and severity of psychotic symptoms often measure a broad range of experiences and behaviours, something that restricts the detailed measurement of specific symptoms such as delusions or hallucinations. The Psychotic Symptom Rating Scales (PSYRATS is a clinical assessment tool that focuses on the detailed measurement of these core symptoms. The goal of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the French version of the PSYRATS. Methods A sample of 103 outpatients suffering from schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders and presenting persistent psychotic symptoms over the previous three months was assessed using the PSYRATS. Seventy-five sample participants were also assessed with the Positive And Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS. Results ICCs were superior to .90 for all items of the PSYRATS. Factor analysis replicated the factorial structure of the original version of the delusions scale. Similar to previous replications, the factor structure of the hallucinations scale was partially replicated. Convergent validity indicated that some specific PSYRATS items do not correlate with the PANSS delusions or hallucinations. The distress items of the PSYRATS are negatively correlated with the grandiosity scale of the PANSS. Conclusions The results of this study are limited by the relatively small sample size as well as the selection of participants with persistent symptoms. The French version of the PSYRATS partially replicates previously published results. Differences in factor structure of the hallucinations scale might be explained by greater variability of its elements. The future development of the scale should take into account the presence of grandiosity in order to better capture details of the psychotic experience.
Kirkpatrick, Brian; Strauss, Gregory P; Nguyen, Linh; Fischer, Bernard A; Daniel, David G; Cienfuegos, Angel; Marder, Stephen R
The participants in the NIMH-MATRICS Consensus Development Conference on Negative Symptoms recommended that an instrument be developed that measured blunted affect, alogia, asociality, anhedonia, and avolition. The Brief Negative Symptom Scale (BNSS) is a 13-item instrument designed for clinical trials and other studies that measures these 5 domains. The interrater, test-retest, and internal consistency of the instrument were strong, with respective intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.93 for the BNSS total score and values of 0.89-0.95 for individual subscales. Comparisons with positive symptoms and other negative symptom instruments supported the discriminant and concurrent validity of the instrument.
Marc, Linda G.; Wang, Ming-Mei; Testa, Marcia A.
The objective of this paper is to psychometrically validate the HIV Symptom Distress Scale (SDS), an instrument that can be used to measure overall HIV symptom distress or clinically relevant groups of HIV symptoms. A secondary data analysis was conducted using the Collaborations in HIV Outcomes Research U.S. Cohort (CHORUS). Inclusion criteria required study participants (N=5,521) to have a valid baseline measure of the AIDS Clinical Trial Group Symptom Distress Module, with an SF-12 or SF-36 completed on the same day. Psychometric testing assessed unidimensionality, internal consistency and factor structure using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, and structural equation modeling (SEM). Construct validity examined whether the new measure discriminates across clinical significance (CD4 and HIV viral load). Findings show that the SDS has high reliability (α=0.92), and SEM supports a correlated second-order factor model (physical and mental distress) with acceptable fit (GFI=0.88, AGFI=0.85, NFI=0.99, NNFI=0.99; RMSEA=0.06, [90% CI 0.06 – 0.06]; Satorra Bentler Scaled, C2 =3274.20; p=0.0). Construct validity shows significant differences across categories for HIV-1 viral load (p< 0.001) and CD4 (p< 0.001). Differences in mean SDS scores exist across gender (p< 0.001), race/ethnicity (p< 0.05) and educational attainment (p < 0.001). Hence, the HIV Symptom Distress Scale is a reliable and valid instrument, which measures overall HIV symptoms or clinically relevant groups of symptoms. PMID:22409246
Gierk, Benjamin; Kohlmann, Sebastian; Kroenke, Kurt; Spangenberg, Lena; Zenger, Markus; Brähler, Elmar; Löwe, Bernd
Somatic symptoms are the core features of many medical diseases, and they are used to evaluate the severity and course of illness. The 8-item Somatic Symptom Scale (SSS-8) was recently developed as a brief, patient-reported outcome measure of somatic symptom burden, but its reliability, validity, and usefulness have not yet been tested. To investigate the reliability, validity, and severity categories as well as the reference scores of the SSS-8. A national, representative general-population survey was performed between June 15, 2012, and July 15, 2012, in Germany, including 2510 individuals older than 13 years. The SSS-8 mean (SD), item-total correlations, Cronbach α, factor structure, associations with measures of construct validity (Patient Health Questionnaire-2 depression scale, Generalized Anxiety Disorder-2 scale, visual analog scale for general health status, 12-month health care use), severity categories, and percentile rank reference scores. The SSS-8 had excellent item characteristics and good reliability (Cronbach α = 0.81). The factor structure reflects gastrointestinal, pain, fatigue, and cardiopulmonary aspects of the general somatic symptom burden. Somatic symptom burden as measured by the SSS-8 was significantly associated with depression (r = 0.57 [95% CI, 0.54 to 0.60]), anxiety (r = 0.55 [95% CI, 0.52 to 0.58]), general health status (r = -0.24 [95% CI, -0.28 to -0.20]), and health care use (incidence rate ratio, 1.12 [95% CI, 1.10 to 1.14]). The SSS-8 severity categories were calculated in accordance with percentile ranks: no to minimal (0-3 points), low (4-7 points), medium (8-11 points), high (12-15 points), and very high (16-32 points) somatic symptom burden. For every SSS-8 severity category increase, there was a 53% (95% CI, 44% to 63%) increase in health care visits. The SSS-8 is a reliable and valid self-report measure of somatic symptom burden. Cutoff scores identify individuals with low, medium, high, and very high somatic
Lange, Rael T; Brickell, Tracey A; French, Louis M
The purpose of this study was to examine the clinical utility of two validity scales designed for use with the Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory (NSI) and the PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C); the Mild Brain Injury Atypical Symptoms Scale (mBIAS) and Validity-10 scale. Participants were 63 U.S. military service members (age: M = 31.9 years, SD = 12.5; 90.5% male) who sustained a mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) and were prospectively enrolled from Walter Reed National Military Medical Center. Participants were divided into two groups based on the validity scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF): (a) symptom validity test (SVT)-Fail (n = 24) and (b) SVT-Pass (n = 39). Participants were evaluated on average 19.4 months postinjury (SD = 27.6). Participants in the SVT-Fail group had significantly higher scores (p scales (d = 0.69 to d = 2.47). Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive power values were calculated across the range of mBIAS and Validity-10 scores to determine the optimal cutoff to detect symptom exaggeration. For the mBIAS, a cutoff score of ≥8 was considered optimal, which resulted in low sensitivity (.17), high specificity (1.0), high positive predictive power (1.0), and moderate negative predictive power (.69). For the Validity-10 scale, a cutoff score of ≥13 was considered optimal, which resulted in moderate-high sensitivity (.63), high specificity (.97), and high positive (.93) and negative predictive power (.83). These findings provide strong support for the use of the Validity-10 as a tool to screen for symptom exaggeration when administering the NSI and PCL-C. The mBIAS, however, was not a reliable tool for this purpose and failed to identify the vast majority of people who exaggerated symptoms.
Phillips, Penny L.; Greenson, Jessica N.; Collett, Brent R.; Gimpel, Gretchen A.
This study examined the psychometric and normative properties of the ADHD-Symptoms Rating Scale with preschool children. Results shed light on normative levels of ADHD behaviors and preschool children and suggested that preschoolers may present with a somewhat different symptom pattern than school-age children. Parents were more likely to endorse…
Hobden, Breanne; Carey, Mariko; Bryant, Jamie; Sanson-Fisher, Rob; Oldmeadow, Christopher
Depression is common among those experiencing alcohol and other drug (AOD) disorders. It has been suggested that identifying depressive symptoms among this group is important for case management. Despite this, there is a lack of research examining how well clinicians perform this task within this setting. To determine the: (i) accuracy of clinician identified elevated symptoms of depression among clients seeking treatment for AOD misuse as compared to a standardized self-report psychiatric screening tool; and (ii) clinician and client characteristics associated with accurate identification of elevated symptoms of depression. The study used a descriptive cohort design. Participants from two Australian AOD outpatient clinics reported demographic data and completed the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) to identify elevated symptoms of depression. Clinicians were asked to indicate the presence or absence of depression for individual clients. Client and clinician data were compared. Sensitivity of clinician identified elevated symptoms of depression, compared with the PHQ-9, was moderate at 73.0% (95% CI=63.7, 81.0) and specificity was low with 49.5% (95% CI=39.9, 61.2) accurately identified as not having elevated symptoms of depression. AOD clinicians' years' of experience, clients' main substance and length of treatment were associated with accuracy of identification. Clinicians identify elevated symptoms of depression with moderate accuracy amongst individuals with AOD disorders. There is a tendency to over-identify which may contribute to inaccuracies. Routine screening may assist in improving identification of depressive symptoms and place greater focus on mental health comorbidities. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Klein, I; Trzepacz, P T; Roberts, M; Levey, G S
A hyperthyroid symptom scale (HSS) was designed and administered to ten subjects with untreated Graves' disease. All subjects had clinical and chemical evidence of hyperthyroidism and reproducible HSS scores of 20 or more points. During sequential treatments with propranolol hydrochloride (phase 2) followed by propylthiouracil (phase 3) there was a significant decline in the HSS scores at each phase. Accompanying the decrease in HSS scores was a decrease in heart rate, but there was no change in thyroid function test results at phase 2 and a decrease in heart rate, thyroid function test results, and goiter size at phase 3. This new scale includes ten categories of symptoms, it is sensitive to changes in both the adrenergic and metabolic components of hyperthyroidism, and it is useful in the clinical assessment and management of patients with thyrotoxicosis.
Lange, Rael T; Brickell, Tracey A; Lippa, Sara M; French, Louis M
The purpose of this study was to examine the clinical utility of three recently developed validity scales (Validity-10, NIM5, and LOW6) designed to screen for symptom exaggeration using the Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory (NSI). Participants were 272 U.S. military service members who sustained a mild, moderate, severe, or penetrating traumatic brain injury (TBI) and who were evaluated by the neuropsychology service at Walter Reed Army Medical Center within 199 weeks post injury. Participants were divided into two groups based on the Negative Impression Management scale of the Personality Assessment Inventory: (a) those who failed symptom validity testing (SVT-fail; n = 27) and (b) those who passed symptom validity testing (SVT-pass; n = 245). Participants in the SVT-fail group had significantly higher scores (pscales (range: d = 0.76 to 2.34). Similarly high sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive power (PPP), and negative predictive (NPP) values were found when using all three validity scales to differentiate SVT-fail versus SVT-pass groups. However, the Validity-10 scale consistently had the highest overall values. The optimal cutoff score for the Validity-10 scale to identify possible symptom exaggeration was ≥19 (sensitivity = .59, specificity = .89, PPP = .74, NPP = .80). For the majority of people, these findings provide support for the use of the Validity-10 scale as a screening tool for possible symptom exaggeration. When scores on the Validity-10 exceed the cutoff score, it is recommended that (a) researchers and clinicians do not interpret responses on the NSI, and (b) clinicians follow up with a more detailed evaluation, using well-validated symptom validity measures (e.g., Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form, MMPI-2-RF, validity scales), to seek confirmatory evidence to support an hypothesis of symptom exaggeration.
Strauss, Gregory P; Gold, James M
In 2005, the National Institute of Mental Health held a consensus development conference on negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Among the important conclusions of this meeting were that there are at least 5 commonly accepted domains of negative symptoms (blunted affect, alogia, avolition, anhedonia, asociality) and that new rating scales were needed to adequately assess these constructs. Two next-generation negative symptom scales resulted from this meeting: the Brief Negative Symptom Scale (BNSS) and Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS). Both measures are becoming widely used and studies have demonstrated good psychometric properties for each scale. The current study provides the first direct psychometric comparison of these scales. Participants included 65 outpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder who completed clinical interviews, questionnaires, and neuropsychological testing. Separate raters completed the BNSS and CAINS within the same week. Results indicated that both measures had good internal consistency, convergent validity, and discriminant validity. High correspondence was observed between CAINS and BNSS blunted affect and alogia items. Moderate convergence occurred for avolition and asociality items, and low convergence was seen among anhedonia items. Findings suggest that both scales have good psychometric properties, but that there are important distinctions among the items related to motivation and pleasure. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Strauss, Gregory P.; Hong, L. Elliot; Gold, James M.; Buchanan, Robert W.; McMahon, Robert P.; Keller, William R.; Fischer, Bernard A.; Catalano, Lauren T.; Culbreth, Adam J.; Carpenter, William T.; Kirkpatrick, Brian
The current study examined the factor structure of the Brief Negative Symptom Scale (BNSS), a next-generation negative symptom rating instrument developed in response to the NIMH-sponsored Consensus Development Conference on Negative Symptoms. Participants included 146 individuals with a DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Principal axis factoring indicated two distinct factors explaining 68.7% of the variance. Similar to previous findings, the factors reflected mot...
Engel, Maike; Lincoln, Tania Marie
Validated self-report instruments could provide a time efficient screening method for negative symptoms in people with schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of a German version of the Motivation and Pleasure Scale-Self-Report (MAP-SR) which is based on the Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS). In- and outpatients (N=50) with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were assessed with standardized interviews and questionnaires on negative and positive symptoms and general psychopathology in schizophrenia, depression, and global functioning. The German version of the MAP-SR showed high internal consistency. Convergent validity was supported by significant correlations between the MAP-SR with the experience sub-scale of the CAINS and the negative symptom sub-scale of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. The MAP-SR also exhibited discriminant validity indicated by its non-significant correlations with positive symptoms and general psychopathology, which is in line with the findings for the original version of the MAP-SR. However, the MAP-SR correlated moderately with depression. The German MAP-SR appears to be a valid and suitable diagnostic tool for the identification of negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wilhelm, Sabine; Greenberg, Jennifer L; Rosenfield, Elizabeth; Kasarskis, Irina; Blashill, Aaron J
The Body Dysmorphic Disorder Symptom Scale (BDD-SS) is a new self-report measure used to examine the severity of a wide variety of symptoms associated with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). The BDD-SS was designed to differentiate, for each group of symptoms, the number of symptoms endorsed and their severity. This report evaluates and compares the psychometric characteristics of the BDD-SS in relation to other measures of BDD, body image, and depression in 99 adult participants diagnosed with BDD. Total scores of the BDD-SS showed good reliability and convergent validity and moderate discriminant validity. Analyses of the individual BDD-SS symptom groups confirmed the reliability of the checking, grooming, weight/shape, and cognition groups. The current findings indicate that the BDD-SS can be quickly administered and used to examine the severity of heterogeneous BDD symptoms for research and clinical purposes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Klaassen, Rianne M. C.; Velthorst, Eva; Nieman, Dorien H.; de Haan, Lieuwe; Becker, Hiske E.; Dingemans, Peter M.; van de Fliert, J. Reinaud; van der Gaag, Mark; Linszen, Don H.
This study examines the ability of the Scale of Prodromal Symptoms (SOPS) to differentiate between negative and depression symptoms in a young help-seeking ultrahigh risk (UHR) group. SOPS data of 77 help-seeking patients at UHR for psychosis were analyzed with an exploratory factor analysis. The
Kirkpatrick, Brian; Strauss, Gregory P.; Nguyen, Linh; Fischer, Bernard A.; Daniel, David G.; Cienfuegos, Angel; Marder, Stephen R.
The participants in the NIMH-MATRICS Consensus Development Conference on Negative Symptoms recommended that an instrument be developed that measured blunted affect, alogia, asociality, anhedonia, and avolition. The Brief Negative Symptom Scale (BNSS) is a 13-item instrument designed for clinical trials and other studies that measures these 5 domains. The interrater, test–retest, and internal consistency of the instrument were strong, with respective intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.93...
Strauss, Gregory P; Keller, William R; Buchanan, Robert W; Gold, James M; Fischer, Bernard A; McMahon, Robert P; Catalano, Lauren T; Culbreth, Adam J; Carpenter, William T; Kirkpatrick, Brian
The current study examined the psychometric properties of the Brief Negative Symptom Scale (BNSS), a next-generation rating instrument developed in response to the NIMH sponsored consensus development conference on negative symptoms. Participants included 100 individuals with a DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder who completed a clinical interview designed to assess negative, positive, disorganized, and general psychiatric symptoms, as well as functional outcome. A battery of anhedonia questionnaires and neuropsychological tests were also administered. Results indicated that the BNSS has excellent internal consistency and temporal stability, as well as good convergent and discriminant validity in its relationships with other symptom rating scales, functional outcome, self-reported anhedonia, and neuropsychological test scores. Given its brevity (13-items, 15-minute interview) and good psychometric characteristics, the BNSS can be considered a promising new instrument for use in clinical trials. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Strauss, Gregory P; Hong, L Elliot; Gold, James M; Buchanan, Robert W; McMahon, Robert P; Keller, William R; Fischer, Bernard A; Catalano, Lauren T; Culbreth, Adam J; Carpenter, William T; Kirkpatrick, Brian
The current study examined the factor structure of the Brief Negative Symptom Scale (BNSS), a next-generation negative symptom rating instrument developed in response to the NIMH-sponsored Consensus Development Conference on Negative Symptoms. Participants included 146 individuals with a DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Principal axis factoring indicated two distinct factors explaining 68.7% of the variance. Similar to previous findings, the factors reflected motivation and pleasure and emotional expressivity. These findings provide further support for the construct validity of the BNSS, and for the existence of these two negative symptom factors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Menezes, Josiane Roberta de; Luvisaro, Bianca Maria Oliveira; Rodrigues, Claudia Fernandes; Muzi, Camila Drumond; Guimarães, Raphael Mendonça
To assess the test-retest reliability of the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale translated and culturally adapted into Brazilian Portuguese. The scale was applied in an interview format for 190 patients with various cancers type hospitalized in clinical and surgical sectors of the Instituto Nacional de Câncer José de Alencar Gomes da Silva and reapplied in 58 patients. Data from the test-retest were double typed into a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet and analyzed by the weighted Kappa. The reliability of the scale was satisfactory in test-retest. The weighted Kappa values obtained for each scale item had to be adequate, the largest item was 0.96 and the lowest was 0.69. The Kappa subscale was also evaluated and values were 0.84 for high frequency physic symptoms, 0.81 for low frequency physical symptoms, 0.81 for psychological symptoms, and 0.78 for Global Distress Index. High level of reliability estimated suggests that the process of measurement of Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale aspects was adequate. Avaliar a confiabilidade teste-reteste da versão traduzida e adaptada culturalmente para o português do Brasil do Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale. A escala foi aplicada em forma de entrevista em 190 pacientes com diversos tipos de câncer internados nos setores clínicos e cirúrgicos do Instituto Nacional de Câncer José de Alencar Gomes da Silva e reaplicada em 58 pacientes. Os dados dos testes-retestes foram inseridos num banco de dados por dupla digitação independente em Excel e analisados pelo Kappa ponderado. A confiabilidade da escala mostrou-se satisfatória nos testes-retestes. Os valores do Kappa ponderado obtidos para cada item da escala apresentaram-se adequados, sendo o maior item de 0,96 e o menor de 0,69. Também se avaliou o Kappa das subescalas, sendo de 0,84 para sintomas físicos de alta frequência, de 0,81 para sintomas físicos de baixa frequência, de 0,81 também para sintomas psicológicos, e de 0,78 para Índice Geral de Sofrimento
Vanessa Agustinho Cardillo
Full Text Available The study objectives were to determine the prevalence of depressive symptoms in adolescent mothers and to characterize them regarding sociodemographic, behavioral and mental health aspects. An observational study, descriptive and cross-sectional, developed in health units with 72 adolescent mothers through the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D. Within the participants, 20.8% presented depressive symptoms by the EPDS. The most frequent questions referred to the feelings of guilt, anxiety, and ideas to self-harm. We highlighted the feelings of guilt (60% and feelings of not being worth living (40%. Most participants (73.3% did not recognize to be depressed. The results show the importance to have an individualized prenatal, when is possible to know vulnerabilities, psychosocial and family aspects, to include tracking of depressive symptoms in the anamnesis and, to use it the attention network, the reference and the counter-reference.
Kumari, Suneeta; Malik, Mansoor; Florival, Christina; Manalai, Partam; Sonje, Snezana
Scales measuring positive and negative symptoms in schizophrenia remain the primary mo Scales measuring positive and negative symptoms in schizophrenia remain the primary mode of assessing and diagnosing schizophrenia by clinicians and researchers. The scales are mainly used to monitor the severity of positive and negative symptoms and track treatment response in schizophrenics. Although these scales are widely used, quality as well as general utility of each scale varies. The quality is determined by the validity and reliability of the scales. The utility of the scale is determined by the time of administration and the settings for which the scales can be administered in research or clinical settings. There are relatively fewer articles on the utility of newer scales like CAINS (Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms) and the BNSS (Brief Negative Symptom Scale) that compare them to the older scales PANSS (Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale), SAPS (Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms) SANS (the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms), NSA-16 (Negative Symptom Assessment-16) and CGI-SCH (Clinical Global Impression Schizophrenia. The older scales were developed more than 30 years ago. Since then, our understanding of negative symptoms has evolved and currently there are newer rating scales evaluating the validity of negative symptoms. The older scales do not incorporate the latest research on negative symptoms. CAINS and BNSS are attractive for both their reliability and their concise accessible format, however, a scale that is simpler, accessible, user-friendly, that incorporates a multidimensional model of schizophrenia, addresses the psychosocial and cognitive component has yet to be developed.
Gottlieb, Alice B; Kirby, Brian; Ryan, Caitriona; Naegeli, April N; Burge, Russel; Potts Bleakman, Alison; Anatchkova, Milena D; Yosipovitch, Gil
Patient-reported outcome measures (PROs) specific for genital psoriasis (GenPs) have not been described. In this cross-sectional, qualitative study in patients with moderate-to-severe GenPs, we sought to develop a PRO useful for GenPs symptom assessment. A literature review was performed to identify relevant psoriasis or GenPs symptoms and existing PROs that may be useful in the evaluation of symptom severity in GenPs patients. The literature review findings were discussed with clinicians, and then patients with GenPs. Relevant psoriasis or GenPs symptoms from the literature review included itch, pain, scaling, redness/erythema, and stinging/burning. The validity of these symptoms for GenPs and potentially relevant PROs was corroborated by clinical experts. After gap analysis, a draft symptom scale consisting of Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) items was constructed. We then conducted interviews with GenPs patients (n = 20) to support content validity and use of the draft symptom NRS items in routine practice and in clinical trials. Participants identified and confirmed relevant symptoms and evaluated the utility of the draft PRO. A new PRO was developed: the Genital Psoriasis Symptoms Scale (GPSS). Cognitive debriefing and cultural adaptation/translation interviews with a second group of patients confirmed cultural appropriateness of the GPSS. The GPSS may be useful for assessing symptoms before, during, and after treatment in routine clinical practice and in clinical trials involving patients with GenPs. Eli Lilly & Company. Plain language summary available for this article.
Marsh, Nicole; Mihala, Gabor; Ray-Barruel, Gillian; Webster, Joan; Wallis, Marianne C; Rickard, Claire M
Many peripheral intravenous catheter (PIVC) infusion phlebitis scales and definitions are used internationally, although no existing scale has demonstrated comprehensive reliability and validity. We examined inter-rater agreement between registered nurses on signs, symptoms and scales commonly used in phlebitis assessment. Seven PIVC-associated phlebitis signs/symptoms (pain, tenderness, swelling, erythema, palpable venous cord, purulent discharge and warmth) were observed daily by two raters (a research nurse and registered nurse). These data were modelled into phlebitis scores using 10 different tools. Proportions of agreement (e.g. positive, negative), observed and expected agreements, Cohen's kappa, the maximum achievable kappa, prevalence- and bias-adjusted kappa were calculated. Two hundred ten patients were recruited across three hospitals, with 247 sets of paired observations undertaken. The second rater was blinded to the first's findings. The Catney and Rittenberg scales were the most sensitive (phlebitis in >20% of observations), whereas the Curran, Lanbeck and Rickard scales were the most restrictive (≤2% phlebitis). Only tenderness and the Catney (one of pain, tenderness, erythema or palpable cord) and Rittenberg scales (one of erythema, swelling, tenderness or pain) had acceptable (more than two-thirds, 66.7%) levels of inter-rater agreement. Inter-rater agreement for phlebitis assessment signs/symptoms and scales is low. This likely contributes to the high degree of variability in phlebitis rates in literature. We recommend further research into assessment of infrequent signs/symptoms and the Catney or Rittenberg scales. New approaches to evaluating vein irritation that are valid, reliable and based on their ability to predict complications need exploration. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Sibley, Margaret H; Kuriyan, Aparajita B
This study evaluates the impact of the DSM-5 ADHD symptom wording changes on symptom endorsement among adolescents with ADHD. Parents of adolescents with systematically diagnosed DSM-IV-TR ADHD (N=78) completed counterbalanced DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 ADHD symptom checklists in a single sitting. General linear models were conducted to evaluate whether the new DSM-5 symptom descriptors influenced the total number of ADHD symptoms and overall ADHD symptom severity endorsed by parents, how demographic factors were associated with noted changes in symptom endorsement when moving to the DSM-5, and which DSM ADHD items displayed notable changes in endorsement rates under the new wording. On average, parents identified 1.15 additional symptoms of ADHD in adolescents when moving from the DSM-IV-TR to the DSM-5. Increased symptom identification was not specific to age, sex, ethnicity, race, or socioeconomic status. Over half of the sample experienced increased symptom endorsement when changing texts (59.0%). Under the new DSM-5 wording, four symptoms had statistically significant endorsement increases (range: 11.2-16.7%): difficulty sustaining attention, easily distracted, difficulty organizing tasks and activities, and does not seem to listen. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dauvilliers, Yves; Beziat, Severine; Pesenti, Carole; Lopez, Regis; Barateau, Lucie; Carlander, Bertrand; Luca, Gianina; Tafti, Mehdi; Morin, Charles M; Billiard, Michel; Jaussent, Isabelle
To validate the Narcolepsy Severity Scale (NSS), a brief clinical instrument to evaluate the severity and consequences of symptoms in patients with narcolepsy type 1 (NT1). A 15-item scale to assess the frequency and severity of excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy, hypnagogic hallucinations, sleep paralysis, and disrupted nighttime sleep was developed and validated by sleep experts with patients' feedback. Seventy untreated and 146 treated adult patients with NT1 were evaluated and completed the NSS in a single reference sleep center. The NSS psychometric properties, score changes with treatment, and convergent validity with other clinical parameters were assessed. The NSS showed good psychometric properties with significant item-total score correlations. The factor analysis indicated a 3-factor solution with good reliability, expressed by satisfactory Cronbach α values. The NSS total score temporal stability was good. Significant NSS score differences were observed between untreated and treated patients (dependent sample, 41 patients before and after sleep therapy; independent sample, 29 drug-free and 105 treated patients). Scores were lower in the treated populations (10-point difference between groups), without ceiling effect. Significant correlations were found among NSS total score and daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Mean Sleep Latency Test), depressive symptoms, and health-related quality of life. The NSS can be considered a reliable and valid clinical tool for the quantification of narcolepsy symptoms to monitor and optimize narcolepsy management. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.
Skogestad, Ingrid Johansen; Martinsen, Liv; Børsting, Tove Elisabet; Granheim, Tove Irene; Ludvigsen, Eirin Sigurdssøn; Gay, Caryl L; Lerdal, Anners
To evaluate medical inpatients' symptom experience and selected laboratory blood results as indicators of their pressure ulcer risk as measured by the Braden scale. Pressure ulcers reduce quality of life and increase treatment costs. The prevalence of pressure ulcers is 6-23% in hospital populations, but literature suggests that most pressure ulcers are avoidable. Prospective, cross-sectional survey. Three hundred and twenty-eight patients admitted to medical wards in an acute hospital in Oslo, Norway consented to participate. Data were collected on 10 days between 2012-2014 by registered nurses and nursing students. Pressure ulcer risk was assessed using the Braden scale, and scores indicated pressure ulcer risk. Skin examinations were categorised as normal or stages I-IV using established definitions. Comorbidities were collected by self-report. Self-reported symptom occurrence and distress were measured with 15 items from the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale, and pain was assessed using two numeric rating scales. Admission laboratory data were collected from medical records. Prevalence of pressure ulcers was 11·9, and 20·4% of patients were identified as being at risk for developing pressure ulcers. Multivariable analysis showed that pressure ulcer risk was positively associated with age ≥80 years, vomiting, severe pain at rest, urination problems, shortness of breath and low albumin and was negatively associated with nervousness. Our study indicates that using patient-reported symptoms and standard laboratory results as supplemental indicators of pressure ulcer risk may improve identification of vulnerable patients, but replication of these findings in other study samples is needed. Nurses play a key role in preventing pressure ulcers during hospitalisation. A better understanding of the underlying mechanisms may improve the quality of care. Knowledge about symptoms associated with pressure ulcer risk may contribute to a faster clinical judgment of
Silverstein, Michael J; Faraone, Stephen V; Alperin, Samuel; Leon, Terry L; Biederman, Joseph; Spencer, Thomas J; Adler, Lenard A
The aim of this study is to validate the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) and Adult ADHD Investigator Symptom Rating Scale (AISRS) expanded versions, including executive function deficits (EFDs) and emotional dyscontrol (EC) items, and to present ASRS and AISRS pilot normative data. Two patient samples (referred and primary care physician [PCP] controls) were pooled together for these analyses. Final analysis included 297 respondents, 171 with adult ADHD. Cronbach's alphas were high for all sections of the scales. Examining histograms of ASRS 31-item and AISRS 18-item total scores for ADHD controls, 95% cutoff scores were 70 and 23, respectively; histograms for pilot normative sample suggest cutoffs of 82 and 26, respectively. (a) ASRS- and AISRS-expanded versions have high validity in assessment of core 18 adult ADHD Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders ( DSM) symptoms and EFD and EC symptoms. (b) ASRS (31-item) scores 70 to 82 and AISRS (18-item) scores from 23 to 26 suggest a high likelihood of adult ADHD.
Ramos, Tatiana Dalpasquale; Brito, Maria José Azevedo de; Piccolo, Mônica Sarto; Rosella, Maria Fernanda Normanha da Silva Martins; Sabino, Miguel; Ferreira, Lydia Masako
Rhinoplasty is one of the most sought-after esthetic operations among individuals with body dysmorphic disorder. The aim of this study was to cross-culturally adapt and validate the Body Dysmorphic Symptoms Scale. Cross-cultural validation study conducted in a plastic surgery outpatient clinic of a public university hospital. Between February 2014 and March 2015, 80 consecutive patients of both sexes seeking rhinoplasty were selected. Thirty of them participated in the phase of cultural adaptation of the instrument. Reproducibility was tested on 20 patients and construct validity was assessed on 50 patients, with correlation against the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale for Body Dysmorphic Disorder. The Brazilian version of the instrument showed Cronbach's alpha of 0.805 and excellent inter-rater reproducibility (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC = 0.873; P Dysmorphic Disorder and the Body Dysmorphic Symptoms Scale. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.981, thus showing good accuracy for discriminating between presence and absence of symptoms of body dysmorphic disorder. Forty-six percent of the patients had body dysmorphic symptoms and 54% had moderate to severe appearance-related obsessive-compulsive symptoms. The Brazilian version of the Body Dysmorphic Symptoms Scale is a reproducible instrument that presents face, content and construct validity.
Tatiana Dalpasquale Ramos
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Rhinoplasty is one of the most sought-after esthetic operations among individuals with body dysmorphic disorder. The aim of this study was to cross-culturally adapt and validate the Body Dysmorphic Symptoms Scale. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-cultural validation study conducted in a plastic surgery outpatient clinic of a public university hospital. METHODS: Between February 2014 and March 2015, 80 consecutive patients of both sexes seeking rhinoplasty were selected. Thirty of them participated in the phase of cultural adaptation of the instrument. Reproducibility was tested on 20 patients and construct validity was assessed on 50 patients, with correlation against the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale for Body Dysmorphic Disorder. RESULTS: The Brazilian version of the instrument showed Cronbach's alpha of 0.805 and excellent inter-rater reproducibility (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC = 0.873; P < 0.001 and intra-rater reproducibility (ICC = 0.939; P < 0.001. Significant differences in total scores were found between patients with and without symptoms (P < 0.001. A strong correlation (r = 0.841; P < 0.001 was observed between the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale for Body Dysmorphic Disorder and the Body Dysmorphic Symptoms Scale. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.981, thus showing good accuracy for discriminating between presence and absence of symptoms of body dysmorphic disorder. Forty-six percent of the patients had body dysmorphic symptoms and 54% had moderate to severe appearance-related obsessive-compulsive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: The Brazilian version of the Body Dysmorphic Symptoms Scale is a reproducible instrument that presents face, content and construct validity.
Bekhet, Abir K; Garnier-Villarreal, Mauricio
Depression is currently considered the second leading cause of disability worldwide. Positive thinking is a cognitive process that helps individuals to deal with problems more effectively, and has been suggested as a useful strategy for coping with adversity, including depression. The Positive Thinking Skills Scale (PTSS) is a reliable and valid measure that captures the frequency of use of positive thinking skills that can help in the early identification of the possibility of developing depressive thoughts. However, no meaningful cutoff score has been established for the PTSS. To establish a cutoff score for the PTSS for early identification of risk for depression. This study used a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve to establish a PTSS cutoff score for risk for depression, using the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) as the gold standard measure. In a sample of 109 caregivers, the ROC showed that the cutoff score of PTSS that best classify the participants is 13.5. With this PTSS score, 77.8% of the subjects with low CES-D are classify correctly, and 69.6% of the subjects with high CES-D are classify correctly. Since the PTSS score should be integer numbers, functionally the cutoff would be 13. The study showed that a cut off score of 13 is a point at which referral, intervention, or treatment would be recommended. Consequently, this can help in the early identification of depressive symptoms that might develop because of the stress of caregiving. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dorian, Paul; Cvitkovic, Suzan S; Kerr, Charles R; Crystal, Eugene; Gillis, Anne M; Guerra, Peter G; Mitchell, L Brent; Roy, Denis; Skanes, Allan C; Wyse, D George
The severity of symptoms caused by atrial fibrillation (AF) is extremely variable. Quantifying the effect of AF on patient well-being is important but there is no simple, commonly accepted measure of the effect of AF on quality of life (QoL). Current QoL measures are cumbersome and impractical for clinical use. To create a simple, concise and readily usable AF severity score to facilitate treatment decisions and physician communication. The Canadian Cardiovascular Society (CCS) Severity of Atrial Fibrillation (SAF) Scale is analogous to the CCS Angina Functional Class. The CCS-SAF score is determined using three steps: documentation of possible AF-related symptoms (palpitations, dyspnea, dizziness/syncope, chest pain, weakness/fatigue); determination of symptom-rhythm correlation; and assessment of the effect of these symptoms on patient daily function and QoL. CCS-SAF scores range from 0 (asymptomatic) to 4 (severe impact of symptoms on QoL and activities of daily living). Patients are also categorized by type of AF (paroxysmal versus persistent/permanent). The CCS-SAF Scale will be validated using accepted measures of patient-perceived severity of symptoms and impairment of QoL and will require 'field testing' to ensure its applicability and reproducibility in the clinical setting. This type of symptom severity scale, like the New York Heart Association Functional Class for heart failure symptoms and the CCS Functional Class for angina symptoms, trades precision and comprehensiveness for simplicity and ease of use at the bedside. A common language to quantify AF severity may help to improve patient care.
Badger, Terry A; Segrin, Chris; Meek, Paula
Symptom assessment has increasingly focused on the evaluation of total symptom distress or burden rather than assessing only individual symptoms. The challenge for clinicians and researchers alike is to assess symptoms, and to determine the symptom distress associated with the symptoms and the patient's ability for symptom management without a lengthy and burdensome assessment process. The objective of this article was to discuss the psychometric evaluation of a brief general symptom distress scale (GSDS) developed to assess specific symptoms and how they rank in relation to each other, the overall symptom distress associated with the symptom schema, and provide an assessment of how well or poorly that symptom schema is managed. Results from a pilot study about the initial development of the GSDS with 76 hospitalized patients are presented, followed by a more complete psychometric evaluation of the GSDS using three samples of cancer patients (n=190) and their social network members, called partners in these studies (n=94). Descriptive statistics were used to describe the GSDS symptoms, symptom distress, and symptom management. Point biserial correlations indexed the associations between dichotomous symptoms and continuous measures, and conditional probabilities were used to illustrate the substantial comorbidities of this sample. Internal consistency was examined using the KR-20 coefficient, and test-retest reliability was examined. Construct validity and predictive validity also were examined. The GSDS demonstrated satisfactory internal consistency and test-retest reliability, and good construct validity and predictive validity. The total score on the GSDS, symptom distress, and symptom management correlated significantly with related constructs of depression, positive and negative affect, and general health. The GSDS was able to demonstrate its ability to distinguish between those with or without chronic illness, and was able to significantly predict scores on
Spencer, Thomas J.; Adler, Lenard A.; Qiao, Meihua; Saylor, Keith E.; Brown, Thomas E.; Holdnack, James A.; Schuh, Kory J.; Trzepacz, Paula T.; Kelsey, Douglas K.
Objective: Validation of the Adult ADHD Investigator Symptom Rating Scale (AISRS) that measures aspects of ADHD in adults. Method: Psychometric properties of the AISRS total and AISRS subscales are analyzed and compared to the Conners' Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Rating Scale-Investigator Rated: Screening Version (CAARS-Inv:SV)…
Kirkpatrick, Brian; Saoud, Jay B; Strauss, Gregory P; Ahmed, Anthony O; Tatsumi, Kazunori; Opler, Mark; Luthringer, Remy; Davidson, Michael
The Brief Negative Symptom Scale (BNSS) grew out of a recommendation by the NIMH-sponsored Consensus Development Conference on Negative Symptoms that a scale based on contemporary concepts be developed. We assessed sensitivity to change of the BNSS in a trial of MIN-101, which showed efficacy for negative symptoms (PANSS pentagonal model) at daily doses of 32 and 64mg/day. Using mixed-effects model for repeated measures, we examined change in BNSS total score and in the BNSS factors of anhedonia/avolition/asociality (AAA), and expressivity (EXP). Compared to placebo, the 64mg group (N=83) showed a significant decrease in BNSS total score (effect size d [ES] 0.56, psymptom scores; covarying for disorganization, positive symptoms, or anxiety/depression did not cause a meaningful change in the significance of the BNSS total or factor scores in this group. The 32mg group (N=78) did not differ significantly from placebo (N=83) on BNSS total score (ES=0.33, p<0.09), AAA (ES=0.25, p<0.20) or EXP (ES=0.30, p<0.12) scores. These results demonstrate the BNSS is sensitive to change. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Fulford, Daniel; Pearson, Rahel; Stuart, Barbara K; Fisher, Melissa; Mathalon, Daniel H; Vinogradov, Sophia; Loewy, Rachel L
Symptom assessment in early psychosis research typically relies on scales validated in chronic schizophrenia samples. Our goal was to inform investigators who are selecting symptom scales for early psychosis research. We described measure characteristics, baseline scores, and scale inter-relationships in clinical-high-risk (CHR) and recent-onset psychotic disorder (RO) samples using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms, and Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms; for the CHR group only, we included the Scale of Prodromal Symptoms. For investigators selecting symptom measures in intervention or longitudinal studies, we also examined the relationship of symptom scales with psychosocial functioning. In both samples, symptom subscales in the same domain, across measures, were moderately to highly intercorrelated. Within all measures, positive symptoms were not correlated with negative symptoms, but disorganized symptoms overlapped with both positive and negative symptoms. Functioning was significantly related to negative and disorganized, but not positive, symptoms in both samples on most measures. Findings suggest strong overlap in symptom severity ratings among the most common scales. In recent-onset samples, each has strengths and weaknesses. In CHR samples, they appear to add little information above and beyond the SOPS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nilsson, Björn Mikael; Holm, Gunnar; Ekselius, Lisa
Studies on both personality dimensions and cognition in schizophrenia are scarce. The objective of the present study was to examine personality traits and the relation to cognitive function and psychotic symptoms in a sample of patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. In total 23 patients with schizophrenia and 14 controls were assessed with the Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP). A broad cognitive test programme was used, including the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales, the Finger-Tapping Test, the Trail Making Test, the Verbal Fluency Test, the Benton Visual Retention Test, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test . Compared with controls, the patients exhibited prominent elevations on KSP scales measuring anxiety proneness and neuroticism (P = 0.000005-0.0001), on the Detachment scale (P < 0.00009) and lower value on the Socialization scale (P < 0.0002). The patients also scored higher on the Inhibition of Aggression, Suspicion, Guilt and Irritability scales (P = 0.002-0.03) while the remaining five scales did not differ between patients and controls. KSP anxiety-related scales correlated with the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS) general psychopathology subscale. Cognitive test results were uniformly lower in the patient group and correlated with PANSS negative symptoms subscale. There was no association between KSP scale scores and PANSS positive or negative symptoms. The patients revealed a highly discriminative KSP test profile with elevated scores in neuroticism- and psychoticism-related scales as compared to controls. Results support previous findings utilizing other personality inventories in patients with schizophrenia. Cognitive test performance correlated inversely with negative symptoms.
Kistler, Brandon M; Biruete, Annabel; Chapman-Novakofski, Karen; Wilund, Kenneth R
Intradialytic nutrition has been shown to improve nutritional status in maintenance hemodialysis (HD) patients but remains controversial due in part to concerns over hemodynamic stability and gastrointestinal (GI) distress. There are limited data on the relationship between intradialytic nutrition and GI symptoms, possibly due to the lack of a validated tool. Therefore, we intended to validate a questionnaire to measure GI symptoms associated with a single HD treatment and determine the relationship between intradialytic nutrition and GI symptoms. Cross-sectional study. Forty-eight maintenance HD patients. GI symptoms and dietary intake during HD treatment. In general, we found acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha >0.5, exception reflux domain) and repeatability in all 5 domains of a modified version of the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale. The prevalence of GI symptoms associated with a single HD treatment (generalized score greater than 1) was 54.2, 43.7, 6.2, 41.7, and 45.8% for the abdominal pain, indigestion, reflux, diarrhea, and constipation domains, respectively. More than two-thirds of patients chose to eat during treatment (168.6 ± 165.6 kcal) with the most commonly consumed items being candy, oral supplements, and cookies. There was no difference in GI symptoms among patients who did or did not eat (P > .05). However, the amount of total dietary fat and fiber consumed during treatment was associated with greater indigestion (P < .05) prior to accounting for outliers or multiple comparisons. In this sample, the modified version of the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale was a generally valid tool for measuring GI symptoms associated with a single HD treatment. Patients who ate during treatment did not experience greater GI symptoms than those who did not; however, high amounts of fat and fiber may be associated with greater GI symptoms. Prospective trials should examine the relationship between GI symptoms and dietary intake
Lindström, Eva; Jedenius, Erik; Levander, Sten
The objective of the study was to validate a self-administrated symptom rating scale for use in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders by item analysis, exploration of factor structure, and analyses of reliability and validity. Data on 151 patients, initially treated by risperidone, obtained within the framework of a naturalistic Phase IV longitudinal study, were analysed by comparing patient and clinician ratings of symptoms, side-effects and global indices of illness. The Symptom Self-rating Scale for Schizophrenia (4S) is psychometrically adequate (item analysis, internal consistency, factor structure). Side-effect ratings were reliable. Symptom ratings displayed consistent associations with clinicians' ratings of corresponding symptom dimensions, suggesting construct validity. Patients had most difficulties assessing negative symptom items. Patients were well able to assess their own symptoms and drug side-effects. The factor structure of symptom ratings differs between patients and clinicians as well as how they construe global indices of illness. Clinicians focus on psychotic, patients on affective symptoms. Use of symptom self-ratings is one way to improve communication and thereby strengthen the therapeutic alliance and increase treatment adherence.
Spiller , Robin; Humes , David; Campbell , Eugene; Hastings , Margaret; Neal , Keith; Dukes , George; Whorwell , Peter
Abstract BACKGROUND Anxiety, depression and non-gastrointestinal symptoms are often prominent in IBS but their relative value in patient management has not been quantitatively assessed. We modified the Patient Health Questionnaire 15 (PHQ-15) by excluding the 3 gastrointestinal items to create the PHQ-12 Somatic Symptom scale (PHQ-12 SS). AIMS To compare the value of the PHQ-12 SS scale to the Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) scale in predicting symptoms and patient beha...
W.H. Oldenmenger (Wendy); P.J. de Raaf (Pleun); C. de Klerk (Cora); C.C.D. van der Rijt (Carin)
textabstractContext: To improve the management of cancer-related symptoms, systematic screening is necessary, often performed by using 0-10 numeric rating scales. Cut points are used to determine if scores represent clinically relevant burden. Objectives: The aim of this systematic review was to
How Informative Are Self-Reported Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms? An Examination of the Agreement Between the Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Self-Report Scale V1.1 and Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Investigator Symptom Rating Scale.
Silverstein, Michael J; Faraone, Stephen V; Alperin, Samuel; Biederman, Joseph; Spencer, Thomas J; Adler, Lenard A
Assess agreement between self-ratings via the adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Self-Report Scale (ASRS)-v1.1 Symptom Checklist and clinician ratings via the adult ADHD Investigator Symptom Rating Scale (AISRS) expanded version using DSM-5 adult ADHD patients (referred sample) and ADHD controls (recruited from a primary care physician practice). The ASRS v1.1 Symptom Checklist was administered to measure self-reported ADHD symptoms and impairment, the Adult ADHD Clinical Diagnostic Scale v1.2 was used to establish an adult ADHD diagnosis and the childhood and adult/current sections of the scale were used to provide scores to measure symptoms of childhood ADHD and recent symptoms of adult ADHD, the AISRS to measure ADHD current symptom severity. Participants (n = 299; range 18-58), of which 171 were ADHD+ and 128 ADHD-. ASRS and AISRS total scores and individual subsections examining inattention, hyperactivity, emotional dysfunction (EF), and emotional dyscontrol (EC) were all significantly correlated (Spearman's ρ's = 0.78-0.89, ps < 0.01). Correlations remained significant when controlling for demographic factors and psychiatric conditions. The ASRS (self) and AISRS (clinician rated) scales have high agreement. This agreement extended not only the to the core 18 DSM symptoms, but also to the additional 13 symptoms that examine EC and EF.
Weems, Carl F.; Feaster, Daniel J.; Horigian, Viviana E.; Robbins, Michael S.
Growing recognition of the negative impact of anxiety disorders in the lives of youth has made their identification an important clinical task. Multiple perspective assessment (e.g., parents, children) is generally considered a preferred method in the assessment of anxiety disorder symptoms, although it has been generally thought that disagreement…
Kircanski, Katharina; Woods, Douglas W.; Chang, Susanna W.; Ricketts, Emily J.; Piacentini, John C.
Tic disorders are heterogeneous, with symptoms varying widely both within and across patients. Exploration of symptom clusters may aid in the identification of symptom dimensions of empirical and treatment import. This article presents the results of two studies investigating tic symptom clusters using a sample of 99 youth (M age = 10.7, 81% male,…
Cao, Xin; Zheng, Xinqi; Li, Qiangzi; Du, Xin; Zhang, Miao
Crop identification and acreage estimation with remote sensing were the main issues for crop production estimation. Object-oriented classification has been involved in crop extraction from high spatial resolution images. However, different imagery segmentation scales for object-oriented classification always yield quite different crop identification accuracy. In this paper, multi-scale image segmentation was conducted to carry out crop identification using HJ CCD imagery in Red Star Farm in Heilongjiang province. Corn, soybean and wheat were identified as the final crop classes. Crop identification features at different segmentation scale were generated. Crop separability based on different feature-combinations was evaluated using class separation distance. Nearest Neighbour classifier (NN) was then used for crop identification. The results showed that the best segmentation scale was 8, and the overall crop identification accuracy was about 0.969 at that scale
Rasmussen, Sanne; Søndergaard, Jens; Larsen, Pia Veldt
experience, symptom characteristics, reaction in response to symptom experience, external factors, and personality characteristics with potential influence on the symptom experience. In total, 49 706 questionnaires were completed, yielding a response rate of 52.2%. Conclusion. We developed a comprehensive......Introduction. In order to develop strategies to prevent delay in diagnosis, it is important to gain knowledge of symptoms and healthcare-seeking processes in the population. This paper describes a combined survey and register-based study with (1) focus on development of a questionnaire concerning...... was developed. The methodological framework for the development included defining the domains to be measured, identification of previous items, scales and questionnaires in the literature, and pilot and field testing. Results. A total of five domains and 16 subdomains were defined covering the area of symptom...
Full Text Available Retinal identification based on retinal vasculatures in the retina provides the most secure and accurate means of authentication among biometrics and has primarily been used in combination with access control systems at high security facilities. Recently, there has been much interest in retina identification. As digital retina images always suffer from deformations, the Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT, which is known for its distinctiveness and invariance for scale and rotation, has been introduced to retinal based identification. However, some shortcomings like the difficulty of feature extraction and mismatching exist in SIFT-based identification. To solve these problems, a novel preprocessing method based on the Improved Circular Gabor Transform (ICGF is proposed. After further processing by the iterated spatial anisotropic smooth method, the number of uninformative SIFT keypoints is decreased dramatically. Tested on the VARIA and eight simulated retina databases combining rotation and scaling, the developed method presents promising results and shows robustness to rotations and scale changes.
Diogo Fajardo Nunes Hildebrand
Full Text Available Consumer-Company Identification is a relatively new issue in the marketing academia. Bhattacharya and Sen(2003 explored the Social Identity theory and established Consumer-Company Identification as the primary psychological substrate for deep relationships between the organization and its customers. In the present study a new instrument was constructed and validated that permits the empirical verification of the phenomenon described by Bhattacharya and Sen (2003. The scale validated in the present study is the first to embrace the idiosyncrasies of the identification between consumers and organizations. The process was conducted through 3 independent data collections. The first one was collected using literature search and in-depth interviews with 12 undergraduate students and bachelors from different professional fields. The second data base was obtained from a survey of 226 undergraduate students from 3 universities in 2 big Brazilian cities. This data base was used for purification purposes using Explanatory Factorial Analysis. Finally, the Structural Equation Modeling technique was applied to analyze a third data base composed of 387 observations collected from the same 3 universities of the second study. The results confirm the content, convergent and discriminant validity of the new scale proposed.
Delucchi, Kevin L; Katerberg, Hilga; Stewart, S Evelyn; Denys, Damiaan A J P; Lochner, Christine; Stack, Denise E; den Boer, Johan A; van Balkom, Anton J L M; Jenike, Michael A; Stein, Dan J; Cath, Danielle C; Mathews, Carol A
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is phenomenologically heterogeneous, and findings of underlying structure classification based on symptom grouping have been ambiguous to date. Variable-centered approaches, primarily factor analysis, have been used to identify homogeneous groups of symptoms; but person-centered latent methods have seen little use. This study was designed to uncover sets of homogeneous groupings within 1611 individuals with OCD based on symptoms. Latent class analysis models using 61 obsessive-compulsive symptoms collected from the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale were fit. Relationships between latent class membership and treatment response, sex, symptom severity, and comorbid tic disorders were tested for relationship to class membership. Latent class analysis models of best fit yielded 3 classes. Classes differed only in frequency of symptom endorsement. Classes with higher symptom endorsement were associated with earlier age of onset, being male, higher Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale symptom severity scores, and comorbid tic disorders. There were no differences in treatment response between classes. These results provide support for the validity of a single underlying latent OCD construct, in addition to the distinct symptom factors identified previously via factor analyses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This paper proposes a multi-scale parameter identification algorithm for the lithium-ion battery (LIB electric model by using a combination of particle swarm optimization (PSO and Levenberg-Marquardt (LM algorithms. Two-dimensional Poisson equations with unknown parameters are used to describe the potential and current density distribution (PDD of the positive and negative electrodes in the LIB electric model. The model parameters are difficult to determine in the simulation due to the nonlinear complexity of the model. In the proposed identification algorithm, PSO is used for the coarse-scale parameter identification and the LM algorithm is applied for the fine-scale parameter identification. The experiment results show that the multi-scale identification not only improves the convergence rate and effectively escapes from the stagnation of PSO, but also overcomes the local minimum entrapment drawback of the LM algorithm. The terminal voltage curves from the PDD model with the identified parameter values are in good agreement with those from the experiments at different discharge/charge rates.
Kircanski, Katharina; Woods, Douglas W.; Chang, Susanna W.; Ricketts, Emily J.; Piacentini, John C.
Tic disorders are heterogeneous, with symptoms varying widely both within and across patients. Exploration of symptom clusters may aid in the identification of symptom dimensions of empirical and treatment import. This article presents the results of two studies investigating tic symptom clusters using a sample of 99 youth (M age = 10.7, 81% male, 77% Caucasian) diagnosed with a primary tic disorder (Tourette?s disorder or chronic tic disorder), across two university-based outpatient clinics ...
Tolin, David F.; Steenkamp, Maria M.; Marx, Brian P.; Litz, Brett T.
Although validity scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2; J. N. Butcher, W. G. Dahlstrom, J. R. Graham, A. Tellegen, & B. Kaemmer, 1989) have proven useful in the detection of symptom exaggeration in criterion-group validation (CGV) studies, usually comparing instructed feigners with known patient groups, the…
Chavarria, Jesus; Rueger, Sandra Y; King, Andrea C
Alcohol hangovers have been found to be a common and costly consequence of alcohol misuse. However, there is only limited psychometric support for instruments to accurately measure hangovers beyond the college-age years. This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Hangover Symptom Scale (HSS) and the Hangover Symptom Scale-Short Form (HSS-5) including the internal consistency, convergent and discriminant validity, construct validity, and the measurement invariance of these scales between light and heavy drinkers, individuals with a positive and negative family history of alcohol use disorder (AUD), and men and women in a post-college-aged sample. The association of the HSS and HSS-5 with alcohol use problems was also tested. Participants were 294 nonalcoholic light and heavy social drinkers (age range 21 to 35 years; 57.8% male) enrolled in the Chicago Social Drinking Project. They completed the HSS as part of a take-home packet completed outside of the laboratory. The psychometric properties of the HSS and HSS-5 were tested. Stronger psychometric support was found for the HSS-5 relative to the full HSS. While both measures demonstrated strong internal consistency reliability, convergent and discriminant validity, and an association with alcohol use problems, only the HSS-5 showed construct validity as determined by confirmatory factor analysis. Further, only the HSS-5 showed measurement invariance between men and women, light and heavy drinkers, and individuals with a positive and negative family history of AUD. This was the first study to examine the psychometric properties of the HSS and HSS-5 in a post-college-aged sample and the first to investigate the measurement invariance of these measures as a function of sex, drinking history, and family history of AUD. This study supports the use of the HSS-5 as a reliable and valid brief measure of frequency of hangover symptoms. Copyright © 2018 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Merritt, Victoria C; Bradson, Megan L; Meyer, Jessica E; Arnett, Peter A
The Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) is a commonly used tool in sports concussion assessment. While test-retest reliabilities have been established for the ImPACT cognitive composites, few studies have evaluated the psychometric properties of the ImPACT's Post-Concussion Symptom Scale (PCSS). The purpose of this study was to establish the test-retest reliability of symptom indices associated with the PCSS. Participants included 38 undergraduate students (50.0% male) who underwent neuropsychological testing as part of their participation in their psychology department's research subject pool. The majority of the participants were Caucasian (94.7%) and had no history of concussion (73.7%). All participants completed the ImPACT at two time points, approximately 6 weeks apart. The PCSS was the main outcome measure, and eight symptom indices were calculated (a total symptom score, three symptom summary indices, and four symptom clusters). Pearson correlations (r) and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were computed as measures of test-retest reliability. Overall, reliabilities ranged from low to high (r = .44 to .80; ICC = .44 to .77). The cognitive symptom cluster exhibited the highest test-retest reliability (r = .80, ICC = .77), followed by the positive symptom total (PST) index, an indicator of the total number of symptoms endorsed (r = .71, ICC = .69). In contrast, the commonly used total symptom score showed lower test-retest reliability (r = .67, ICC = .62). Paired-samples t tests revealed no significant differences between test and retest for any of the symptom variables (all p > .01). Finally, reliable change indices (RCI) were computed to determine whether differences observed between test and retest represented clinically significant change. RCI values were provided for each symptom index at the 80%, 90%, and 95% confidence intervals. These results suggest that evaluating additional symptom
Varni, James W; Shulman, Robert J; Self, Mariella M; Nurko, Samuel; Saps, Miguel; Saeed, Shehzad A; Bendo, Cristiane B; Patel, Ashish S; Dark, Chelsea Vaughan; Zacur, George M; Pohl, John F
Patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures of gastrointestinal symptoms are recommended to determine treatment effects for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and functional abdominal pain (FAP). Study objectives were to compare the symptom profiles of pediatric patients with IBS or FAP with healthy controls and with each other using the PedsQL Gastrointestinal Symptoms and Gastrointestinal Worry Scales, and to establish clinical interpretability of PRO scale scores through identification of minimal important difference (MID) scores. Gastrointestinal Symptoms and Worry Scales were completed in a 9-site study by 154 pediatric patients and 161 parents (162 families; IBS n = 46, FAP n = 119). Gastrointestinal Symptoms Scales measuring stomach pain, stomach discomfort when eating, food and drink limits, trouble swallowing, heartburn and reflux, nausea and vomiting, gas and bloating, constipation, blood in poop, and diarrhea were administered along with Gastrointestinal Worry Scales. A matched sample of 447 families with healthy children completed the scales. Gastrointestinal Symptoms and Worry Scales distinguished between patients with IBS or FAP compared with healthy controls (P 1.50) for symptoms indicative of IBS or FAP, demonstrating a broad multidimensional gastrointestinal symptom profile and clinical interpretability with MID scores for individual PRO scales. Patients with IBS manifested more symptoms of constipation, gas and bloating, and diarrhea than patients with FAP. Patients with IBS or FAP manifested a broad gastrointestinal symptom profile compared with healthy controls with large differences, indicating the critical need for more effective interventions to bring patient functioning within the range of healthy functioning.
Strauss, Gregory P; Vertinski, Mary; Vogel, Sally J; Ringdahl, Erik N; Allen, Daniel N
Past studies have demonstrated that the Brief Negative Symptom Scale (BNSS) has excellent psychometric properties in patients with schizophrenia. In the current study, we extended this literature by examining psychometric properties of the BNSS in outpatients diagnosed with bipolar disorder (n=46), outpatients with schizophrenia (n=50), and healthy controls (n=27). Participants completed neuropsychological testing and a clinical interview designed to assess negative, positive, disorganized, mood, and general psychiatric symptoms. Results indicated differences among the 3 groups in the severity of all BNSS items, with SZ and BD scoring higher than CN; however, SZ and BD only differed on blunted affect and alogia items, not anhedonia, avolition, or asociality. BD patients with a history of psychosis did not differ from those without a history of psychosis on negative symptom severity. The BNSS had excellent internal consistency in SZ, BD, and CN groups. Good convergent and discriminant validity was apparent in SZ and BD groups, as indicated by relationships between the BNSS and other clinical rating scales. These findings support the validity of the BNSS in broadly defined serious mental illness populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Greiffenstein, Manfred F.
The Symptom Validity Scale (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-FBS [MMPI-2-FBS]) is a standard MMPI-2 validity scale measuring overstatement of somatic distress and subjective disability. Some critics assert the MMPI-2-FBS misclassifies too many medically impaired persons as malingering symptoms. This study tests the assertion of…
Chien, Wai-Tong; Lee, Isabella Yuet-Ming; Wang, Li-Qun
The purpose of this study was to test the reliability, validity, and factor structure of a Chinese version of the Psychotic Symptom Rating Scale (PSYRATS) in 198 and 202 adult patients with recent-onset and chronic psychosis, respectively. The PSYRATS has been translated into different language versions and has been validated for clinical and research use mainly in chronic psychotic patients but not in recent-onset psychosis patients or in Chinese populations. The psychometric analysis of the translated Chinese version included assessment of its content validity, semantic equivalence, interrater and test-retest reliability, reproducibility, sensitivity to changes in psychotic symptoms, internal consistency, concurrent validity (compared to a valid psychotic symptom scale), and factor structure. The Chinese version demonstrated very satisfactory content validity as rated by an expert panel, good semantic equivalence with the original version, and high interrater and test-retest (at 2-week interval) reliability. It also indicated very good reproducibility of and sensitivity to changes in psychotic symptoms in line with the symptom severity measured with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). The scale consisted of four factors for the hallucination subscale and two factors for the delusion subscale, explaining about 80% of the total variance of the construct, indicating satisfactory correlations between the hallucination and delusion factors themselves, between items, factors, subscales, and overall scale, and between factors and relevant item and subscale scores of the PANSS. The Chinese version of the PSYRATS is a reliable and valid instrument to measure symptom severity in Chinese psychotic patients complementary to other existing measures mainly in English language.
Lee, Jie Eun; Lee, Dong Hwa; Oh, Tae Jung; Kim, Kyoung Min; Choi, Sung Hee; Lim, Soo; Park, Young Joo; Park, Do Joon; Jang, Hak Chul; Moon, Jae Hoon
Thyrotoxicosis is a common disease resulting from an excess of thyroid hormones, which affects many organ systems. The clinical symptoms and signs are relatively nonspecific and can vary depending on age, sex, comorbidities, and the duration and cause of the disease. Several symptom rating scales have been developed in an attempt to assess these symptoms objectively and have been applied to diagnosis or to evaluation of the response to treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the hyperthyroidism symptom scale (K-HSS). Twenty-eight thyrotoxic patients and 10 healthy subjects completed the K-HSS at baseline and after follow-up at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital. The correlation between K-HSS scores and thyroid function was analyzed. K-HSS scores were compared between baseline and follow-up in patient and control groups. Cronbach's α coefficient was calculated to demonstrate the internal consistency of K-HSS. The mean age of the participants was 34.7±9.8 years and 13 (34.2%) were men. K-HSS scores demonstrated a significant positive correlation with serum free thyroxine concentration and decreased significantly with improved thyroid function. K-HSS scores were highest in subclinically thyrotoxic subjects, lower in patients who were euthyroid after treatment, and lowest in the control group at follow-up, but these differences were not significant. Cronbach's α coefficient for the K-HSS was 0.86. The K-HSS is a reliable and valid instrument for evaluating symptoms of thyrotoxicosis in Korean patients. Copyright © 2018 Korean Endocrine Society.
Full Text Available BackgroundThyrotoxicosis is a common disease resulting from an excess of thyroid hormones, which affects many organ systems. The clinical symptoms and signs are relatively nonspecific and can vary depending on age, sex, comorbidities, and the duration and cause of the disease. Several symptom rating scales have been developed in an attempt to assess these symptoms objectively and have been applied to diagnosis or to evaluation of the response to treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the hyperthyroidism symptom scale (K-HSS.MethodsTwenty-eight thyrotoxic patients and 10 healthy subjects completed the K-HSS at baseline and after follow-up at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital. The correlation between K-HSS scores and thyroid function was analyzed. K-HSS scores were compared between baseline and follow-up in patient and control groups. Cronbach's α coefficient was calculated to demonstrate the internal consistency of K-HSS.ResultsThe mean age of the participants was 34.7±9.8 years and 13 (34.2% were men. K-HSS scores demonstrated a significant positive correlation with serum free thyroxine concentration and decreased significantly with improved thyroid function. K-HSS scores were highest in subclinically thyrotoxic subjects, lower in patients who were euthyroid after treatment, and lowest in the control group at follow-up, but these differences were not significant. Cronbach's α coefficient for the K-HSS was 0.86.ConclusionThe K-HSS is a reliable and valid instrument for evaluating symptoms of thyrotoxicosis in Korean patients.
Lee, Dong Hwa
Background Thyrotoxicosis is a common disease resulting from an excess of thyroid hormones, which affects many organ systems. The clinical symptoms and signs are relatively nonspecific and can vary depending on age, sex, comorbidities, and the duration and cause of the disease. Several symptom rating scales have been developed in an attempt to assess these symptoms objectively and have been applied to diagnosis or to evaluation of the response to treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the hyperthyroidism symptom scale (K-HSS). Methods Twenty-eight thyrotoxic patients and 10 healthy subjects completed the K-HSS at baseline and after follow-up at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital. The correlation between K-HSS scores and thyroid function was analyzed. K-HSS scores were compared between baseline and follow-up in patient and control groups. Cronbach's α coefficient was calculated to demonstrate the internal consistency of K-HSS. Results The mean age of the participants was 34.7±9.8 years and 13 (34.2%) were men. K-HSS scores demonstrated a significant positive correlation with serum free thyroxine concentration and decreased significantly with improved thyroid function. K-HSS scores were highest in subclinically thyrotoxic subjects, lower in patients who were euthyroid after treatment, and lowest in the control group at follow-up, but these differences were not significant. Cronbach's α coefficient for the K-HSS was 0.86. Conclusion The K-HSS is a reliable and valid instrument for evaluating symptoms of thyrotoxicosis in Korean patients. PMID:29589389
Velligan, Dawn I; Alphs, Larry; Lancaster, Scott; Morlock, Robert; Mintz, Jim
We examined whether changes in negative symptoms, as measured by scores on the 16-item Negative Symptom Assessment scale (NSA-16), were associated with changes in functional outcome. A group of 125 stable outpatients with schizophrenia were assessed at baseline and at 6 months using the NSA-16, the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, and multiple measures of functional outcome. Baseline adjusted regression coefficients indicated moderate correlations between negative symptoms and functional outcomes when baseline values of both variables were controlled. Results were nearly identical when we controlled for positive symptoms. Cross-lag panel correlations and Structural Equation Modeling were used to examine whether changes in negative symptoms drove changes in functional outcomes over time. Results indicated that negative symptoms drove the changes in the Social and Occupational Functioning Scale (SOFAS) rather than the reverse. Measures of Quality of Life and measures of negative symptoms may be assessing overlapping constructs or changes in both may be driven by a third variable. Negative symptoms were unrelated over time to scores on a performance-based measure of functional capacity. This study indicates that the relationship between negative symptom change and the change in functional outcomes is complex, and points to potential issues in selection of assessments.
Lam, Wendy Wing Tak; Law, Chi Ching; Fu, Yiu Tung; Wong, Kam Hung; Chang, Victor T; Fielding, Richard
There are very few symptom assessment instruments in Chinese. We present the validity and reliability of the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale Short Form (MSAS-SF) and the Condensed Form MSAS (CMSAS) in Chinese cancer patients. The Chinese version of the 32-item MSAS-SF, a self-report measure for assessing symptom distress and frequency in cancer patients, was administered to 256 Chinese patients with colorectal cancer at a clinical oncology outpatient unit. Highly prevalent symptoms included worrying (59%), dry mouth (54%), lack of energy (54%), feeling sad (48%), feeling irritable (48%), and pain (41%). Both the MSAS-SF and CMSAS demonstrated good validity and reliability. For the MSAS-SF subscales, Cronbach alphas ranged from 0.84 to 0.91, and for CMSAS subscales, from 0.79 to 0.87. Moderate-to-high correlations of MSAS-SF and CMSAS subscales with appropriate European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C30 subscales (0.42-0.71, PsRosenberg Self-Esteem and Optimism Scale (0.22, Pscales--the Chinese Health Questionnaire (CHQ) and the Life Orientation Scale. Construct validity of both MSAS versions was demonstrated by effective differentiation between clinically distinct patient groups (Karnofsky scores or =80% [P4 [Pscales (0.31-0.64, P<0.001). The average time to complete the MSAS-SF was six minutes. The Chinese versions of the MSAS-SF and CMSAS are valid and practical measures. Further validation is needed for Chinese patients with other cancer types and with other symptom instruments.
Fulford, Daniel; Pearson, Rahel; Stuart, Barbara K.; Fisher, Melissa; Mathalon, Daniel H.; Vinogradov, Sophia; Loewy, Rachel L.
Symptom assessment in early psychosis research typically relies on scales validated in chronic schizophrenia samples. Our goal was to inform investigators who are selecting symptom scales for early psychosis research. We described measure characteristics, baseline scores, and scale inter-relationships in clinical high-risk (CHR) and recent-onset psychotic disorder (RO) samples using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, Scale for the Assessment of Positive ...
Gihan M Omar; Shereen R Kamel; Rasha A Abdel-Magied; Nashwa M Abd-Allah
Background Fibromyalgia (FM) is a complex syndrome associated with significant impairment in the quality of life and function. The ability to evaluate and measure the severity of FM is likely to provide several benefits. Objective This study aimed to assess symptom severity in Egyptian FM patients using the Symptom Severity Scale (SS Scale), Revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQR), and Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire Visual Analog Scales (FIQ VASs). Patients and method...
Full Text Available Radio Frequency Identification (RFID is an emerging technology for electronic labeling of objects for the purpose of automatically identifying, categorizing, locating, and tracking the objects. But in their current form RFID systems are susceptible to cloning attacks that seriously threaten RFID applications but are hard to prevent. Existing protocols aimed at detecting whether there are cloning attacks in single-reader RFID systems. In this paper, we investigate the cloning attacks identification in the multireader scenario and first propose a time-efficient protocol, called the time-efficient Cloning Attacks Identification Protocol (CAIP to identify all cloned tags in multireaders RFID systems. We evaluate the performance of CAIP through extensive simulations. The results show that CAIP can identify all the cloned tags in large-scale RFID systems fairly fast with required accuracy.
Full Text Available Aim of the Study: This study aimed to evaluate the symptom profile, including somatic symptoms among elderly patients with first episode depression using the Geriatric depression scale (GDS-30 and Patient Health Questionnaire-15 (PHQ-15 items version scale. Additional aims were to carry out the factor analysis of symptoms reported on GDS-30 and PHQ-15 among elderly. Methodology: Seventy-nine elderly patients (age ≥60 years were evaluated on GDS-30 item Hindi version and Hindi version of the PHQ-15. Results: As per GDS-30, the most common symptom noted among elderly was “dropped many of your activities and interests” (91.1%, mind not as clear as it used (88.6%, feeling that life is empty (86.1%, bothered by thoughts you cannot get out of your head (86.1% and hard to get started on new projects (86.1%, prefer to avoid social gatherings (86.1%. All patients reported at least one somatic complaint as per PHQ-15. The most common somatic symptoms were trouble sleeping (97.5%, feeling tired or having little energy (96.2%, feeling that the heart is racing (52.9%, constipation, loose bowels, or diarrhea (49.6%, shortness of breath (46.8%, nausea, gas or indigestion (45.6%, pain in the arms, legs, or joints (43.3%, and back pain (41.8%. The prevalence of somatic symptoms was not influenced to a large extent by the demographic variables, clinical variables and presence or absence of physical comorbidity. However, the severity of somatic symptoms correlated positively with GDS-30 score. Factor analysis of Hindi version of GDS-30 yielded a four-factor solution, which was similar to many studies across the world. The addition of items of PHQ-15 items of factor analysis still yielded a four-factor solution. Factor 1 of combined GDS-30 and PHQ-15 items included items only from GDS-30 and Factor 3 and 4 included items only from PHQ-15. There was some overlap of items on Factor 2. Conclusion: The present study suggests that GDS-30 does not tap all the
Watson, David; O'Hara, Michael W.; Naragon-Gainey, Kristin; Koffel, Erin; Chmielewski, Michael; Kotov, Roman; Stasik, Sara M.; Ruggero, Camilo J.
The original Inventory of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms (IDAS) contains 11 nonoverlapping scales assessing specific depression and anxiety symptoms. In creating the expanded version of the IDAS (the IDAS-II), our goal was to create new scales assessing other important aspects of the anxiety disorders as well as key symptoms of bipolar disorder.…
Gierk, Benjamin; Kohlmann, Sebastian; Toussaint, Anne; Wahl, Inka; Brünahl, Christian A; Murray, Alexandra M; Löwe, Bernd
The Patient Health Questionnaire-15 (PHQ-15) is a frequently used questionnaire to assess somatic symptom burden. Recently, the Somatic Symptom Scale-8 (SSS-8) has been published as a short version of the PHQ-15. This study examines whether the instruments' psychometric properties and estimates of symptom burden are comparable. Psychosomatic outpatients (N=131) completed the PHQ-15, the SSS-8 and other questionnaires (PHQ-9, GAD-7, WI-7, SF-12). Item characteristics and measures of reliability, validity, and symptom severity were determined and compared. The reliabilities of the PHQ-15 and SSS-8 were α=0.80 and α=0.76, respectively and both scales were highly correlated (r=0.83). The item characteristics were comparable. Both instruments showed the same pattern of correlations with measures of depression, anxiety, health anxiety and health-related quality of life (r=0.32 to 0.61). On both scales a 1-point increase was associated with a 3% increase in health care use. The percentile distributions of the PHQ-15 and the SSS-8 were similar. Using the same thresholds for somatic symptom severity (5, 10, and 15 points), both instruments identified nearly identical subgroups of patients with respect to health related quality of life. The PHQ-15 and the SSS-8 showed similar reliability and validity but the comparability of severity classifications needs further evaluation in other populations. Until then we recommend the use of the previously established thresholds. Overall, the SSS-8 performed well as a short version of the PHQ-15 which makes it preferable for assessment in time restricted settings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Toussaint, Anne; Murray, Alexandra M; Voigt, Katharina; Herzog, Annabel; Gierk, Benjamin; Kroenke, Kurt; Rief, Winfried; Henningsen, Peter; Löwe, Bernd
To develop and validate a new self-report questionnaire for the assessment of the psychological features of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition somatic symptom disorder. The Somatic Symptom Disorder-B Criteria Scale (SSD-12) was developed in several steps from an initial pool of 98 items. The SSD-12 is composed of 12 items; each of the three psychological subcriteria is measured by four items. In a cross-sectional study, the SSD-12 was administered to 698 patients (65.8% female, mean [standard deviation] age = 38.79 [14.15] years) from a psychosomatic outpatient clinic. Item and scale characteristics as well as measures of reliability and validity were determined. The SSD-12 has good item characteristics and excellent reliability (Cronbach α = .95). Confirmatory factor analyses suggested that a three-factorial structure that reflects the three psychological criteria interpreted as cognitive, affective, and behavioral aspects (n = 663, Comparative Fit Index > 0.99, Tucker-Lewis Index > 0.99, Root Mean Square Error of Approximation = 0.06, 90% confidence interval = 0.01-0.08). SSD-12 total sum score was significantly associated with somatic symptom burden (r = 0.47, p psychological symptom burden reported higher general physical and mental health impairment and significantly higher health care use. The SSD-12 is the first self-report questionnaire that operationalizes the new psychological characteristics of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition somatic symptom disorder. Initial assessment indicates that the SSD-12 has sufficient reliability and validity to warrant further testing in both research and clinical settings.
Full Text Available Introduction: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a common comorbid disorder in patients suffering from substance use disorder (SUD. Individuals with co-occurring SUD and ADHD are more likely than SUD patients without ADHD to have developed SUD at a younger age, be polysubstance users, and need inpatient treatment more often. The present study investigates whether individuals with polysubstance use disorder who remain abstinent for a year after entering treatment have a more substantial reduction in ADHD symptoms than those who relapsed and controls. Material and methods: Subjects were SUD patients (N=115 and healthy controls (N=34. ADHD symptoms were assessed using the adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS. Substance use was assessed by self-reports on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT and the Drug Use Disorders Identification Test (DUDIT. Participants were defined as having relapsed if they had an AUDIT scoreâ¥8 or a DUDIT scoreâ¥2 for women andâ¥6 for men. Results: Patients who remained abstinent for one year reported a substantial reduction of ADHD symptoms compared to patients who relapsed and controls. Conclusions: Abstinence alleviates ADHD symptoms among patients with polysubstance use disorder. We suggest that confirmation of an ADHD diagnosis should follow a period of abstinence to avoid identification of false-positive cases. Keywords: Polysubstance, Recovery, ADHD, Substance use disorder
Stander, Nielen [Livermore Software Technology Corporation, CA (United States); Basudhar, Anirban [Livermore Software Technology Corporation, CA (United States); Basu, Ushnish [Livermore Software Technology Corporation, CA (United States); Gandikota, Imtiaz [Livermore Software Technology Corporation, CA (United States); Savic, Vesna [General Motors, Flint, MI (United States); Sun, Xin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hu, XiaoHua [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pourboghrat, Farhang [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Park, Taejoon [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Mapar, Aboozar [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Kumar, Sharvan [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States); Ghassemi-Armaki, Hassan [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States); Abu-Farha, Fadi [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)
Ever-tightening regulations on fuel economy and carbon emissions demand continual innovation in finding ways for reducing vehicle mass. Classical methods for computational mass reduction include sizing, shape and topology optimization. One of the few remaining options for weight reduction can be found in materials engineering and material design optimization. Apart from considering different types of materials by adding material diversity, an appealing option in automotive design is to engineer steel alloys for the purpose of reducing thickness while retaining sufficient strength and ductility required for durability and safety. Such a project was proposed and is currently being executed under the auspices of the United States Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP) funded by the Department of Energy. Under this program, new steel alloys (Third Generation Advanced High Strength Steel or 3GAHSS) are being designed, tested and integrated with the remaining design variables of a benchmark vehicle Finite Element model. In this project the principal phases identified are (i) material identification, (ii) formability optimization and (iii) multi-disciplinary vehicle optimization. This paper serves as an introduction to the LS-OPT methodology and therefore mainly focuses on the first phase, namely an approach to integrate material identification using material models of different length scales. For this purpose, a multi-scale material identification strategy, consisting of a Crystal Plasticity (CP) material model and a Homogenized State Variable (SV) model, is discussed and demonstrated. The paper concludes with proposals for integrating the multi-scale methodology into the overall vehicle design.
Choi, Edmond P H; Chin, Weng Yee; Lam, Cindy L K; Wan, Eric Y F
To examine the responsiveness of a combined symptom severity and health-related quality of life measure, condition-specific health-related quality of life measure and mental health measure in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms. To establish the responsiveness of measures that accurately capture the change in health status of patients is crucial before any longitudinal studies can be appropriately planned and evaluated. Prospective longitudinal observational study. 402 patients were surveyed at baseline and 1-year using the International Prostate Symptom Score, the Incontinence Impact Questionnaire-7 and Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales-21. The internal and external responsiveness were assessed. Surveys were conducted from March 2013-July 2014. In participants with improvements, the internal responsiveness for detecting positive changes was satisfactory in males and females for all scales, expect for the Depression subscale. The health-related quality of life question of the International Prostate Symptom Score was more externally responsive than the Incontinence Impact Questionnaire-7. The International Prostate Symptom Score and Anxiety and Stress subscales were more responsive in males than in females. The symptom questions of the International Prostate Symptom Score and Anxiety and Stress subscales were not externally responsive in females. The health-related quality of life question of the International Prostate Symptom Score outperformed the Incontinence Impact Questionnaire-7 in both males and females, in terms of external responsiveness. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Härdén, Marie; Nyström, Britta; Kulich, Károly; Carlsson, Jonas; Bengtson, Ann; Edvardsson, Nils
Symptoms related to atrial fibrillation and their impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) are often evaluated in clinical trials. However, there remains a need for a properly validated instrument. We aimed to develop and validate a short symptoms scale for patients with AF. One hundred and eleven patients with a variety of symptoms related to AF were scheduled for DC cardioversion. The mean age was 67.1 +/- 12.1 years, and 80% were men. The patients completed the new symptoms scale, the Toronto Symptoms Check List (SCL) and the generic Short Form 36 (SF-36) the day before the planned DC cardioversion. Compliance was excellent, with only 1 of 666 answers missing. One item, 'limitations in working capability', was deleted because of a low numerical response rate, as many of the patients were retired. The internal consistency reliability of the remaining six items was 0.81 (Cronbach's alpha). Patients scored highest in the items of 'dyspnoea on exertion', 'limitations in daily life due to AF' and 'fatigue due to AF', with scores of 4.5, 3.3 and 4.5, respectively. There was a good correlation to all relevant SF-36 domains and to the relevant questions of the SCL. The Rasch analyses showed that the items are unidimensional and that they are clearly separated and cover an adequate range. Test-retest reliability was performed in patients who failed DC and was adequate for three of six items, > 0.70. The psychometric characteristics of the new short symptoms scale were found to have satisfactory reliability and validity.
Mucci, A; Galderisi, S; Merlotti, E; Rossi, A; Rocca, P; Bucci, P; Piegari, G; Chieffi, M; Vignapiano, A; Maj, M
The Brief Negative Symptom Scale (BNSS) was developed to address the main limitations of the existing scales for the assessment of negative symptoms of schizophrenia. The initial validation of the scale by the group involved in its development demonstrated good convergent and discriminant validity, and a factor structure confirming the two domains of negative symptoms (reduced emotional/verbal expression and anhedonia/asociality/avolition). However, only relatively small samples of patients with schizophrenia were investigated. Further independent validation in large clinical samples might be instrumental to the broad diffusion of the scale in clinical research. The present study aimed to examine the BNSS inter-rater reliability, convergent/discriminant validity and factor structure in a large Italian sample of outpatients with schizophrenia. Our results confirmed the excellent inter-rater reliability of the BNSS (the intraclass correlation coefficient ranged from 0.81 to 0.98 for individual items and was 0.98 for the total score). The convergent validity measures had r values from 0.62 to 0.77, while the divergent validity measures had r values from 0.20 to 0.28 in the main sample (n=912) and in a subsample without clinically significant levels of depression and extrapyramidal symptoms (n=496). The BNSS factor structure was supported in both groups. The study confirms that the BNSS is a promising measure for quantifying negative symptoms of schizophrenia in large multicenter clinical studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Lange, Rael T; Edmed, Shannon L; Sullivan, Karen A; French, Louis M; Cooper, Douglas B
Brief self-report symptom checklists are often used to screen for postconcussional disorder (PCD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and are highly susceptible to symptom exaggeration. This study examined the utility of the five-item Mild Brain Injury Atypical Symptoms Scale (mBIAS) designed for use with the Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory (NSI) and the PTSD Checklist-Civilian (PCL-C). Participants were 85 Australian undergraduate students who completed a battery of self-report measures under one of three experimental conditions: control (i.e., honest responding, n = 24), feign PCD (n = 29), and feign PTSD (n = 32). Measures were the mBIAS, NSI, PCL-C, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2, Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF), and the Structured Inventory of Malingered Symptomatology (SIMS). Participants instructed to feign PTSD and PCD had significantly higher scores on the mBIAS, NSI, PCL-C, and MMPI-2-RF than did controls. Few differences were found between the feign PCD and feign PTSD groups, with the exception of scores on the NSI (feign PCD > feign PTSD) and PCL-C (feign PTSD > feign PCD). Optimal cutoff scores on the mBIAS of ≥8 and ≥6 were found to reflect "probable exaggeration" (sensitivity = .34; specificity = 1.0; positive predictive power, PPP = 1.0; negative predictive power, NPP = .74) and "possible exaggeration" (sensitivity = .72; specificity = .88; PPP = .76; NPP = .85), respectively. Findings provide preliminary support for the use of the mBIAS as a tool to detect symptom exaggeration when administering the NSI and PCL-C.
Jang, Shinae; Sim, Sung-Han; Jo, Hongki; Spencer Jr, Billie F
Wireless smart sensor networks (WSSN) facilitate a new paradigm for structural health monitoring (SHM) of civil infrastructure. Conventionally, SHM systems employing wired sensors and centralized data acquisition have been used to characterize the state of a structure; however, widespread implementation has been limited due to high costs and difficulties in installation. WSSN offer a unique opportunity to overcome such difficulties. Recent developments have realized low-cost, smart sensors with on-board computation and wireless communication capabilities, making deployment of a dense array of sensors on large civil structures both economical and feasible. Wireless smart sensors (WSS) have shown their tremendous potential for SHM in recent full-scale bridge monitoring examples. However, structural damage identification using on-board computation capability in a WSSN, a primary objective of SHM, has yet to reach its full potential. This paper presents full-scale validation of a damage identification strategy using a decentralized network of Imote2 nodes on a historic steel truss bridge. A total of 24 WSS nodes with 144 sensor channels are deployed on the bridge to validate the developed damage identification software. The performance of this decentralized damage identification strategy is demonstrated on the WSSN by comparing its results with those from the traditional centralized approach, as well as visual inspection. (paper)
Vanderploeg, Rodney D; Cooper, Douglas B; Belanger, Heather G; Donnell, Alison J; Kennedy, Jan E; Hopewell, Clifford A; Scott, Steven G
To develop and cross-validate internal validity scales for the Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory (NSI). Four existing data sets were used: (1) outpatient clinical traumatic brain injury (TBI)/neurorehabilitation database from a military site (n = 403), (2) National Department of Veterans Affairs TBI evaluation database (n = 48 175), (3) Florida National Guard nonclinical TBI survey database (n = 3098), and (4) a cross-validation outpatient clinical TBI/neurorehabilitation database combined across 2 military medical centers (n = 206). Secondary analysis of existing cohort data to develop (study 1) and cross-validate (study 2) internal validity scales for the NSI. The NSI, Mild Brain Injury Atypical Symptoms, and Personality Assessment Inventory scores. Study 1: Three NSI validity scales were developed, composed of 5 unusual items (Negative Impression Management [NIM5]), 6 low-frequency items (LOW6), and the combination of 10 nonoverlapping items (Validity-10). Cut scores maximizing sensitivity and specificity on these measures were determined, using a Mild Brain Injury Atypical Symptoms score of 8 or more as the criterion for invalidity. Study 2: The same validity scale cut scores again resulted in the highest classification accuracy and optimal balance between sensitivity and specificity in the cross-validation sample, using a Personality Assessment Inventory Negative Impression Management scale with a T score of 75 or higher as the criterion for invalidity. The NSI is widely used in the Department of Defense and Veterans Affairs as a symptom-severity assessment following TBI, but is subject to symptom overreporting or exaggeration. This study developed embedded NSI validity scales to facilitate the detection of invalid response styles. The NSI Validity-10 scale appears to hold considerable promise for validity assessment when the NSI is used as a population-screening tool.
Flood, Emuella; Silberg, Debra G; Romero, Beverly; Beusterien, Kathleen; Erder, M Haim; Cuffari, Carmen
The purpose of this study is to develop patient-reported (PRO) and observer-reported (ObsRO) outcome measures of ulcerative colitis (UC) signs/symptoms in children aged 5-17 with mild/moderate UC. The daily ulcerative colitis signs and symptoms scale (DUCS) was developed in two phases. Phase I involved concept elicitation interviews with patients and healthcare providers, review of website posts and item generation. Phase II involved cognitive debriefing and assessment of usability and feasibility of the eDiaries. Participants were recruited from five US clinical sites, a research recruitment agency, and internet advertising. Thematic and content analysis was performed to identify concepts from Phase I. The Phase II cognitive debriefing interviews were analyzed iteratively to identify problems with clarity and relevance of eDiary content. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) also reviewed and provided feedback on the eDiaries. Phase I included 32 participants (22 remission; 10 active disease). Phase II included 38 participants (22 remission; 16 active disease). A core set of seven signs and symptoms emerged that were reported by at least 30% of the patients interviewed: abdominal pain, blood in stool, frequent stools, diarrhea, stool urgency, nighttime stools, and tiredness. Participant input influenced changes such as refinement of item wording, revision of graphics, and selection of response scales. Revisions suggested by FDA included simplifying the response scale and adding questions to capture symptoms during sleeping hours. The findings of instrument development suggest that the DUCS PRO and ObsRO eDiaries are content-valid instruments for capturing the daily signs and symptoms of pediatric patients with mild to moderate UC in a clinical trial setting.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Symptoms related to atrial fibrillation and their impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL are often evaluated in clinical trials. However, there remains a need for a properly validated instrument. We aimed to develop and validate a short symptoms scale for patients with AF. Methods One hundred and eleven patients with a variety of symptoms related to AF were scheduled for DC cardioversion. The mean age was 67.1 ± 12.1 years, and 80% were men. The patients completed the new symptoms scale, the Toronto Symptoms Check List (SCL and the generic Short Form 36 (SF-36 the day before the planned DC cardioversion. Compliance was excellent, with only 1 of 666 answers missing. Results One item, 'limitations in working capability', was deleted because of a low numerical response rate, as many of the patients were retired. The internal consistency reliability of the remaining six items was 0.81 (Cronbach's α. Patients scored highest in the items of 'dyspnoea on exertion', 'limitations in daily life due to AF' and 'fatigue due to AF', with scores of 4.5, 3.3 and 4.5, respectively. There was a good correlation to all relevant SF-36 domains and to the relevant questions of the SCL. The Rasch analyses showed that the items are unidimensional and that they are clearly separated and cover an adequate range. Test-retest reliability was performed in patients who failed DC and was adequate for three of six items, >0.70. Conclusion The psychometric characteristics of the new short symptoms scale were found to have satisfactory reliability and validity.
Van Cleave, Janet H; Egleston, Brian L; Ercolano, Elizabeth; McCorkle, Ruth
Symptom distress remains a significant health problem among older adults with cancer following surgery. Understanding factors influencing older adults' symptom distress may lead to early identification and interventions, decreasing morbidity and improving outcomes. We conducted this study to identify factors associated with symptom distress following surgery among 326 community-residing patients 65 years or older with a diagnosis of thoracic, digestive, gynecologic, and genitourinary cancers. This secondary analysis used combined subsets of data from 5 nurse-directed intervention clinical trials targeting patients after surgery at academic cancer centers in northwest and northeastern United States. Symptom distress was assessed by the Symptom Distress Scale at baseline and at 3 and 6 months. A multivariable analysis, using generalized estimating equations, showed that symptom distress was significantly less at 3 and 6 months (3 months: P psychological, treatment, and function covariates. Thoracic cancer, comorbidities, worse mental health, and decreased function were, on average, associated with increased symptom distress (all P cancer, comorbidities, mental health, and function may influence older adults' symptom distress following cancer surgery. Older adults generally experience decreasing symptom distress after thoracic, abdominal, or pelvic cancer surgery. Symptom management over time for those with thoracic cancer, comorbidities, those with worse mental health, those with decreased function, and those 75 years or older may prevent morbidity and improve outcomes of older adults following surgery.
Khan, Anzalee; Liharska, Lora; Harvey, Philip D; Atkins, Alexandra; Ulshen, Daniel; Keefe, Richard S E
Objective: Recognizing the discrete dimensions that underlie negative symptoms in schizophrenia and how these dimensions are understood across localities might result in better understanding and treatment of these symptoms. To this end, the objectives of this study were to 1) identify the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale negative symptom dimensions of expressive deficits and experiential deficits and 2) analyze performance on these dimensions over 15 geographical regions to determine whether the items defining them manifest similar reliability across these regions. Design: Data were obtained for the baseline Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale visits of 6,889 subjects across 15 geographical regions. Using confirmatory factor analysis, we examined whether a two-factor negative symptom structure that is found in schizophrenia (experiential deficits and expressive deficits) would be replicated in our sample, and using differential item functioning, we tested the degree to which specific items from each negative symptom subfactor performed across geographical regions in comparison with the United States. Results: The two-factor negative symptom solution was replicated in this sample. Most geographical regions showed moderate-to-large differential item functioning for Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale expressive deficit items, especially N3 Poor Rapport, as compared with Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale experiential deficit items, showing that these items might be interpreted or scored differently in different regions. Across countries, except for India, the differential item functioning values did not favor raters in the United States. Conclusion: These results suggest that the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale negative symptom factor can be better represented by a two-factor model than by a single-factor model. Additionally, the results show significant differences in responses to items representing the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale expressive
Liquid chromatography (LC) coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) has enabled researchers to analyze complex biological samples with unprecedented depth. It facilitates the identification and quantification of modifications within thousands of proteins in a single large-scale proteomic experiment. Analysis of phosphorylation, one of the most common and important post-translational modifications, has particularly benefited from such progress in the field. Here, detailed protocols are provided for a few well-regarded, common sample preparation methods for an effective phosphoproteomic experiment. © 2018 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Stander, Nielen; Basudhar, Anirban; Basu, Ushnish; Gandikota, Imtiaz; Savic, Vesna; Sun, Xin; Choi, Kyoo Sil; Hu, Xiaohua; Pourboghrat, F.; Park, Taejoon; Mapar, Aboozar; Kumar, Shavan; Ghassemi-Armaki, Hassan; Abu-Farha, Fadi
Test Ban Treaty of 1996 which banned surface testing of nuclear devices . This had the effect that experimental work was reduced from large scale tests to multiscale experiments to provide material models with validation at different length scales. In the subsequent years industry realized that multi-scale modeling and simulation-based design were transferable to the design optimization of any structural system. Horstemeyer  lists a number of advantages of the use of multiscale modeling. Among these are: the reduction of product development time by alleviating costly trial-and-error iterations as well as the reduction of product costs through innovations in material, product and process designs. Multi-scale modeling can reduce the number of costly large scale experiments and can increase product quality by providing more accurate predictions. Research tends to be focussed on each particular length scale, which enhances accuracy in the long term. This paper serves as an introduction to the LS-OPT and LS-DYNA methodology for multi-scale modeling. It mainly focuses on an approach to integrate material identification using material models of different length scales. As an example, a multi-scale material identification strategy, consisting of a Crystal Plasticity (CP) material model and a homogenized State Variable (SV) model, is discussed and the parameter identification of the individual material models of different length scales is demonstrated. The paper concludes with thoughts on integrating the multi-scale methodology into the overall vehicle design.
Brinkkemper, Tijn; van Norel, Arjanne M; Szadek, Karolina M; Loer, Stephan A; Zuurmond, Wouter W A; Perez, Roberto S G M
Palliative sedation is the intentional lowering of consciousness of a patient in the last phase of life to relieve suffering from refractory symptoms such as pain, delirium and dyspnoea. In this systematic review, we evaluated the use of monitoring scales to assess the degree of control of refractory symptoms and/or the depth of the sedation. A database search of PubMed and Embase was performed up to January 2010 using the search terms 'palliative sedation' OR 'terminal sedation'. Retro- and prospective studies as well as reviews and guidelines containing information about monitoring of palliative sedation, written in the English, German or Dutch language were included. The search yielded 264 articles of which 30 were considered relevant. Most studies focused on monitoring refractory symptoms (pain, fatigue or delirium) or the level of awareness to control the level of sedation. Four prospective and one retrospective study used scales validated in other settings: the Numeric Pain Rating Scale, the Visual Analogue Scale, the Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale, the Communication Capacity Scale and Agitation Distress Scale. Only the Community Capacity Scale was partially validated for use in a palliative sedation setting. One guideline described the use of a scale validated in another setting. A minority of studies reported the use of observational scales to monitor the effect of palliative sedation. Future studies should be focused on establishing proper instruments, most adequate frequency and timing of assessment, and interdisciplinary evaluation of sedation depth and symptom control for palliative sedation.
Mathyssek, Christina M.; Olino, Thomas M.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Van Oort, Floor V. A.
We assessed if the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) measures anxiety symptoms similarly across age groups within adolescence. This is crucial for valid comparison of anxiety levels between different age groups. Anxiety symptoms were assessed biennially in a representative
C.M. Mathyssek (Christina); T.M. Olino (Thomas); C.A. Hartman; J. Ormel (Johan Hans); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); F.V.A. van Oort (Floor)
textabstractWe assessed if the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) measures anxiety symptoms similarly across age groups within adolescence. This is crucial for valid comparison of anxiety levels between different age groups. Anxiety symptoms were assessed biennially in a
Ista, Erwin; Te Beest, Harma; van Rosmalen, Joost; de Hoog, Matthijs; Tibboel, Dick; van Beusekom, Babette; van Dijk, Monique
Delirium in critically ill children is a severe neuropsychiatric disorder which has gained increased attention from clinicians. Early identification of delirium is essential for successful management. The Sophia Observation withdrawal Symptoms-Paediatric Delirium (SOS-PD) scale was developed to detect Paediatric Delirium (PD) at an early stage. The aim of this study was to determine the measurement properties of the PD component of the SOS-PD scale in critically ill children. A prospective, observational study was performed in patients aged 3 months or older and admitted for more than 48h. These patients were assessed with the SOS-PD scale three times a day. If the SOS-PD total score was 4 or higher in two consecutive observations, the child psychiatrist was consulted to assess the diagnosis of PD using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV criteria as the "gold standard". The child psychiatrist was blinded to outcomes of the SOS-PD. The interrater reliability of the SOS-PD between the care-giving nurse and a researcher was calculated with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). A total of 2088 assessments were performed in 146 children (median age 49 months; IQR 13-140). The ICC of 16 paired nurse-researcher observations was 0.90 (95% CI 0.70-0.96). We compared 63 diagnoses of the child psychiatrist versus SOS-PD assessments in 14 patients, in 13 of whom the diagnosis of PD was confirmed. The sensitivity was 96.8% (95% CI 80.4-99.5%) and the specificity was 92.0% (95% CI 59.7-98.9%). The SOS-PD scale shows promising validity for early screening of PD. Further evidence should be obtained from an international multicentre study. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Critical Care Nurses Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gillihan, Seth J.; Aderka, Idan M.; Conklin, Phoebe H.; Capaldi, Sandra; Foa, Edna B.
Traumatic experiences are common among youths and can lead to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In order to identify traumatized children who need PTSD treatment, instruments that can accurately and efficiently evaluate pediatric PTSD are needed. One such measure is the Child PTSD Symptom Scale (CPSS), which has been found to be a reliable and…
Levine, Stephen Z; Leucht, Stefan
Despite recent emphasis on the measurement and treatment of negative symptoms, studies of the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) identify different symptom clusters, offer mixed support for its psychometric properties and suggest that it is shortened. The current study objective is to examine the psychometric properties of the SANS and the feasibility of a short research version of the SANS. Data were re-analyzed from three clinical trials that compared placebo and amisulpride to 60 days. Participants had chronic schizophrenia and predominantly negative symptoms (n=487). Baseline data were examined with exploratory factor analysis and Item Response Theory (IRT) to identify a short SANS. The short and original SANS were compared: with confirmatory factor analysis at endpoint; and on symptom response with mixed modeling to compare. Results showed that at baseline the SANS consisted of three factors labeled Affective-flattening, Asociality and Alogia-inattentiveness. IRT suggested a short SANS with 11 items and 3 response options. Comparisons of the original and short SANS showed: the short version was a better fit to the data based on confirmatory factor analysis at endpoint; similar significant (pnegative symptoms in chronic schizophrenia in research settings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.
Bech, Per; Gormsen, Lise; Loldrup, Dorte
-malignant pain were included (87 patients received placebo and 84 clomipramine). On the SSASS, clomipramine's (mean dose 125 mg daily) advantage over placebo in the planned 6-weeks' treatment period for all patients (intention-to-treat analysis) showed an effect size of 0.37. For completers only, the effect size......, the effect size was below 0.40. LIMITATIONS: No attempt has been made to measure the degree of pure neuropathic pain in the patients. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with chronic non-malignant pain, clomipramine is superior to placebo as regards anxiolytic effect measured by Spielberger State Anxiety Symptom Scale......BACKGROUND: We have re-analysed our previous double-blind, placebo-controlled clomipramine study, changing the focus from depression to anxiety both in the response analysis and in the classification of minor affective states. METHODS: The Spielberger State Anxiety Symptom Scale (SSASS) including...
Sprafkin, Joyce; Mattison, Richard E.; Gadow, Kenneth D.; Schneider, Jayne; Lavigne, John V.
Objective: To examine the psychometric properties of the 30-item teacher's version of the Child and Adolescent Symptom Inventory Progress Monitor (CASI-PM-T), a "DSM-IV"-referenced rating scale for monitoring change in ADHD and co-occurring symptoms in youths receiving behavioral or pharmacological interventions. Method: Three separate studies…
Woodward, Todd S; Jung, Kwanghee; Smith, Geoffrey N; Hwang, Heungsun; Barr, Alasdair M; Procyshyn, Ric M; Flynn, Sean W; van der Gaag, Mark; Honer, William G
Refractory psychosis units currently have little information regarding which symptoms profiles should be expected to respond to treatment. In the current study, we provide this information using structural equation modeling of Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) ratings at admission and discharge on a sample of 610 patients admitted to a treatment refractory psychosis program at a Canadian tertiary care unit between 1990 and 2011. The hypothesized five-dimensional structure of the PANSS fit the data well at both admission and discharge, and the latent variable scores are reported as a function of symptom dimension and diagnostic category. The results suggest that, overall, positive symptoms (POS) responded to treatment better than all other symptoms dimensions, but for the schizoaffective and bipolar groups, greater response on POS was observed relative to the schizophrenia and major depression groups. The major depression group showed the most improvement on negative symptoms and emotional distress, and the bipolar group showed the most improvement on disorganization. Schizophrenia was distinct from schizoaffective disorder in showing reduced treatment response on all symptom dimensions. These results can assist refractory psychosis units by providing information on how PANSS symptom dimensions respond to treatment and how this depends on diagnostic category.
Fan, Jianping; Zhou, Ning; Peng, Jinye; Gao, Ling
In this paper, a hierarchical multi-task structural learning algorithm is developed to support large-scale plant species identification, where a visual tree is constructed for organizing large numbers of plant species in a coarse-to-fine fashion and determining the inter-related learning tasks automatically. For a given parent node on the visual tree, it contains a set of sibling coarse-grained categories of plant species or sibling fine-grained plant species, and a multi-task structural learning algorithm is developed to train their inter-related classifiers jointly for enhancing their discrimination power. The inter-level relationship constraint, e.g., a plant image must first be assigned to a parent node (high-level non-leaf node) correctly if it can further be assigned to the most relevant child node (low-level non-leaf node or leaf node) on the visual tree, is formally defined and leveraged to learn more discriminative tree classifiers over the visual tree. Our experimental results have demonstrated the effectiveness of our hierarchical multi-task structural learning algorithm on training more discriminative tree classifiers for large-scale plant species identification.
Full Text Available The presence of several inattentive or hyperactive, impulsive symptoms in two or more situations (at home, school, in other activities is required for the diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. There is clear evidence that the symptoms interfere with, orreduce the quality of, social, academic, or occupational functioning. The National Initiative for Children’s Healthcare Quality, American Academy of Pediatrics, recommended a toolkit with standardized assessment scales: NICHQ Vanderbilt Assessment Scale – Parent Informant (VADPRS and NICHQ Vanderbilt Assessment Scale – Teacher Informant (VADTRS, each divided into two sections: symptoms and performance. The aim of the research was to determine whether there is a correlation between categorial symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and results obtained in the assessment scales: VADPRS and VADTRS, and a comparative analysis of assessments made by parents and teachers regarding the symptoms and performance of children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The study group comprised 132 children (87.1% of boys, 12.9% of girls with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, aged between 6 and 12 years (mean age: 9.29 years; SD 1.96 who had been referred for specialized psychiatric diagnosis and therapy to the Day Care Psychiatric Unit. Diagnoses of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder were conducted pursuant to DSM-IV criteria. Each child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder was assessed by its parent and teacher using the VADPRS and VADTRS. The statistical analysis (based on Statistica, StatSoft 10 revealed high correlations between categorial DSM-IV symptoms and VADPRS/VADTRS. These tools can be helpful in diagnosis, treatment and evaluation of the effects of therapy in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
Woodward, T.S.; Jung, K.; Smith, G.N.; Hwang, H.; Barr, A.M.; Procyshyn, R.M.; Flynn, S.W.; van der Gaag, M.; Honer, W.G.
Refractory psychosis units currently have little information regarding which symptoms profiles should be expected to respond to treatment. In the current study, we provide this information using structural equation modeling of Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) ratings at admission and
Full Text Available Abstract Background Diagnosis and treatment of ovarian cancer (OC entail severe symptom burden and a significant loss of quality of life (QOL. Somatic and psychological impairments may persist well beyond active therapy. Although essential for optimal symptom management as well as for the interpretation of treatment outcomes, knowledge on the course of QOL-related issues is scarce. This study aimed at assessing the course of depressive symptoms, anxiety, fatigue and QOL in patients with OC over the course of chemotherapy until early after-care. Methods 23 patients were assessed longitudinally (eight time points with regard to symptom burden (depression, anxiety, fatigue, and QOL by means of patient-reported outcome instruments (HADS, MFI-20, EORTC QLQ-C30/-OV28 and clinician ratings (HAMA/D at each chemotherapy cycle and at the first two aftercare visits. Results Statistically significant decrease over time was found for depressive symptoms and anxiety as well as for all fatigue scales. With regard to QOL, results indicated significant increase for 11 of 15 QOL scales, best for Social (effect size = 1.95; p p p p = 0.009 decreased, Attitudes towards Disease and Treatment (e.s. = 1.80; p Conclusions The present study underlines the importance of longitudinal assessment of QOL in order to facilitate the identification of symptom burden in OC patients. We found that patients show high levels of fatigue, anxiety and depressive symptoms and severely impaired QOL post-surgery (i.e. at start of chemotherapy but condition improves considerably throughout chemotherapy reaching nearly general population symptoms levels until aftercare.
Gross, Thomas J.; Duppong Hurley, Kristin; Lambert, Matthew C.; Epstein, Michael H.; Stevens, Amy L.
Background: There is a need for brief progress monitoring measures of behavioral and emotional symptoms for youth in out-of-home care. The Symptoms and Functioning Severity Scale (SFSS; Bickman et al. in Manual of the peabody treatment progress battery. Vanderbilt University, Nashville, 2010) is one measure that has clinician and youth short forms…
Full Text Available Ji-Sun Kim,1 Seon-Kyeong Jang,1 Seon-Cheol Park,2 Jung-Seo Yi,3 Joong-Kyu Park,4 Jung Suk Lee,5 Kee-Hong Choi,6 Seung-Hwan Lee1,7 1Clinical Emotion and Cognition Research Laboratory, Goyang, 2Department of Psychiatry, Inje University Haeundae Paik Hospital, Busan, 3Department of Psychiatry, Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul, 4Department of Rehabilitation Psychology, Daegu University, Daegu, 5Department of Psychiatry, National Health Insurance Service Ilsan Hospital, Goyang, 6Department of Psychology, Korea University, Seoul, 7Department of Psychiatry, Ilsan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Goyang, Republic of Korea Background: The Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS is one of the validated interview measures of negative symptoms in psychotic disorders. The Motivation and Pleasure Scale-Self-Report (MPSR is a self-report measure that assesses the motivation and pleasure domains of negative symptoms based on the CAINS. This study evaluated the reliability and validity of a Korean version of the MPSR.Methods: A total of 139 patients with schizophrenia completed the MPSR, CAINS, Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scales, Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia, and other measures of trait and cognitive function.Results: The 15-item MPSR showed good internal consistency. In addition, it also had a good convergent validity with the Motivation and Pleasure subscale of the CAINS and the anhedonia/avolition subscale of the SANS. The scale was not associated with psychotic symptoms, agitation/mania, and depression/anxiety, and it showed good discriminant validity. MPSR scores were significantly correlated with Behavioral Activation System total score for trait measure.Conclusion: The Korean version of the MPSR is a notable self-report method for examining the severity of negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Keywords: Korean
Vadlin, Sofia; Åslund, Cecilia; Hellström, Charlotta; Nilsson, Kent W
The aim of the present study was to investigate associations between problematic gaming and psychiatric symptoms among adolescents. Data from adolescents in the SALVe cohort, including adolescents in Västmanland who were born in 1997 and 1999 (N=1868; 1034 girls), and data from consecutive adolescent psychiatric outpatients in Västmanland (N=242; 169 girls) were analyzed. Adolescents self-rated on the Gaming Addiction Identification Test (GAIT), Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale Adolescent version (ASRS-A), Depression Self-Rating Scale Adolescent version (DSRS-A), Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS), and psychotic-like experiences (PLEs). Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed, and adjusted for sex, age, study population, school bullying, family maltreatment, and interactions by sex, with two-way interactions between psychiatric measurements. Boys had higher self-rated problematic gaming in both samples, whereas girls self-rated higher in all psychiatric domains. Boys had more than eight times the probability, odds ratio (OR), of having problematic gaming. Symptoms of ADHD, depression and anxiety were associated with ORs of 2.43 (95% CI 1.44-4.11), 2.47 (95% CI 1.44-4.25), and 2.06 (95% CI 1.27-3.33), respectively, in relation to coexisting problematic gaming. Problematic gaming was associated with psychiatric symptoms in adolescents; when problematic gaming is considered, the probability of coexisting psychiatric symptoms should also be considered, and vice versa. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mancuso, Carol A; Ranawat, Amar S; Meftah, Morteza; Koob, Trevor W; Ranawat, Chitranjan S
The Patient Administered Questionnaires (PAQ) incorporate physical and psychological symptoms into one scale and permit more comprehensive self-reports for hip and knee disorders. We tested the psychometric properties of the PAQ-Hip and PAQ-Knee. Correlations between baseline PAQ-Hip and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) were .39 to .72 (n = 102), .39 to .69 for score change (n = 68 post-total hip arthroplasty), and most κ values > .60 (n = 50). Correlations between baseline PAQ-Knee and WOMAC were .35 to .64 (n = 100), .62 to .79 for score change (n = 43 post-total knee arthroplasty), and most κ values >.60 (n = 51). For both scales, effect sizes were higher than for the WOMAC, and there was modest correlation between physical and psychological questions, indicating these concepts are not completely interchangeable. Thus, the PAQ scales have strong psychometric properties and are unique compared with existing scales by including physical and psychological symptoms. Copyright Â© 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rehn, L M H; Meririnne, E; Höök-Nikanne, J; Isometsä, E; Henriksson, M
To investigate the association among acne, depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation in Finnish male military conscripts. Consecutive 165 acne patients and 150 patients with mild knee symptoms for comparison were enrolled in the study conducted in the Central Military Hospital, Helsinki, Finland. They filled out the following questionnaires: General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. The Leeds acne grading scale was used to estimate the severity of acne. Sixteen (9.7%) acne patients and 20 (13.3%) comparison patients had at least moderate level of depressive symptoms (BDI score 10; P > 0.05, between groups). Suicidal ideation (BDI suicidal item score 1) was reported by 24 (14.5%) acne patients and 16 (10.7%) comparison patients (P > 0.05, between groups). When comparing the mild facial acne patients (Leeds score 0-3) with those with moderate-severe facial acne (Leeds score 4), there were no statistical differences in depressive symptoms (9.5% vs. 10.0%) or suicidal ideation (13.7% vs. 15.7%). No linear relationship was observed between the BDI and facial Leeds scores (P > 0.05). Risk factors for suicidal ideation among the acne patients were depression and alcohol risk use. Young male patients with acne do not suffer more depressive symptoms or suicidal ideation than patients with mild knee symptoms, and the severity of acne is not associated with the presence of depressive symptoms. The risk factors for suicidal ideation among acne patients seem to be similar to those found in the general population.
Hibbeln, Joseph R; Northstone, Kate; Evans, Jonathan; Golding, Jean
Vegetarian diets are associate with cardiovascular and other health benefits, but little is known about mental health benefits or risks. To determine whether self-identification of vegetarian dietary habits is associated with significant depressive symptoms in men. Self-report data from 9668 adult male partners of pregnant women in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) included identification as vegetarian or vegan, dietary frequency data and the Edinburgh Post Natal Depression Scale (EPDS). Continuous and binary outcomes were assessed using multiple linear and logistic regression taking account of potential confounding variables including: age, marital status, employment status, housing tenure, number of children in the household, religion, family history of depression previous childhood psychiatric contact, cigarette and alcohol consumption. Vegetarians [n = 350 (3.6% of sample)], had higher depression scores on average than non-vegetarians (mean difference 0.96 points [95%CI + 0.53, + 1.40]) and a greater risk for EPDS scores above 10 (adjusted OR = 1.67 [95% CI: 1.14,2.44]) than non-vegetarians after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Vegetarian men have more depressive symptoms after adjustment for socio-demographic factors. Nutritional deficiencies (e.g. in cobalamin or iron) are a possible explanation for these findings, however reverse causation cannot be ruled out. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Terluin, B.; Oosterbaan, D.B.; Brouwers, E.P.; van Straten, A.; van de Ven, P.M.; Langerak, W.; van Marwijk, H.W.
Background: Anxiety scales may help primary care physicians to detect specific anxiety disorders among the many emotionally distressed patients presenting in primary care. The anxiety scale of the Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ) consists of an admixture of symptoms of specific anxiety
Zwakhalen, Sandra Mg; Hamers, Jan Ph; van Rossum, Erik; Ambergen, Ton; Kempen, Gertrudis Ijm; Verbeek, Hilde
This paper reports on a quasi-experimental, longitudinal study on the effects of working in a new type of dementia care facility (i.e. small-scale living facilities) on staff burnout symptoms and job characteristics (job autonomy, social support, physical demands and workload). It is hypothesised that nursing staff working in small-scale facilities experience fewer burnout symptoms, more autonomy and social support, and fewer symptoms of physical demands and workload compared with staff in regular wards. Two types of long-term institutional nursing care settings were included: 28 houses in small-scale living facilities and 21 regular psychogeriatric wards in nursing homes. At baseline and at follow-ups after 6 and 12 months nursing staff were assessed by means of self-report questionnaires. In total, 305 nursing staff members were included in the study, 114 working in small-scale living facilities (intervention group) and 191 in regular wards (control group). No overall effects on burnout symptoms were detected. Significantly fewer physical demands and lower workload were experienced by staff working in small-scale living facilities compared with staff in regular wards. They also experienced more job autonomy. No significant effect was found for overall social support in the total group. This study suggests positive effects of the work environment on several work characteristics. Organisational climate differs in the two conditions, which might account for our results. This may influence nursing staff well-being and has important implications for nursing home managers and policy makers. Future studies should enhance our understanding of the influence of job characteristics on outcomes.
Jang, Seon-Kyeong; Choi, Hye-Im; Park, Soohyun; Jaekal, Eunju; Lee, Ga-Young; Cho, Young Il; Choi, Kee-Hong
Acknowledging separable factors underlying negative symptoms may lead to better understanding and treatment of negative symptoms in individuals with schizophrenia. The current study aimed to test whether the negative symptoms factor (NSF) of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) would be better represented by expressive and experiential deficit factors, rather than by a single factor model, using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Two hundred and twenty individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorders completed the PANSS; subsamples additionally completed the Brief Negative Symptom Scale (BNSS) and the Motivation and Pleasure Scale-Self-Report (MAP-SR). CFA results indicated that the two-factor model fit the data better than the one-factor model; however, latent variables were closely correlated. The two-factor model's fit was significantly improved by accounting for correlated residuals between N2 (emotional withdrawal) and N6 (lack of spontaneity and flow of conversation), and between N4 (passive social withdrawal) and G16 (active social avoidance), possibly reflecting common method variance. The two NSF factors exhibited differential patterns of correlation with subdomains of the BNSS and MAP-SR. These results suggest that the PANSS NSF would be better represented by a two-factor model than by a single-factor one, and support the two-factor model's adequate criterion-related validity. Common method variance among several items may be a potential source of measurement error under a two-factor model of the PANSS NSF.
Bredemeier, Keith; Spielberg, Jeffery M.; Silton, Rebecca Levin; Berenbaum, Howard; Heller, Wendy; Miller, Gregory A.
The present study examined the utility of the anhedonic depression scale from the Mood and Anxiety Symptoms Questionnaire (MASQ-AD scale) as a way to screen for depressive disorders. Using receiver-operating characteristic analysis, we examined the sensitivity and specificity of the full 22-item MASQ-AD scale, as well as the 8- and 14-item…
Full Text Available Depressive symptoms in adolescence have been a subject of considerable controversy in terms of their nature, severity and identification. The aim of the study was to investigate the possible association between weight status and depressive symptoms among 18 year-old Greek adolescents. A cross-sectional study design was used. The study population consisted of 200 students of the University of Athens who fulfilled the following criteria: age 18 years, absence of clinical depression, no history of hospitalization in a mental institution, no history of alcohol abuse. Weight status was assessed by Body Mass Index (BMI (kg/m2 and calculated from weight and height measurements. Severity of depressive symptoms was assessed by Centre for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D. In univariate analysis, CES-D score was significantly associated with adolescents’ gender and BMI. The multivariate analysis showed that CES-D score was negatively related to BMI even after controlling the confounding effect of gender (P=0.018, B=-0.378. Depressive symptoms are related to weight status of adolescents.
Runeson, R; Norbäck, D; Klinteberg, B; Edling, C
The aim was to study possible relationships between personality traits as measured by the Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP), a self-report personality inventory based on psychobiological theory, and medical symptoms, in subjects with previous work history in suspected sick buildings. The study comprised 195 participants from 19 consecutive cases of suspected sick buildings, initially collected in 1988-92. In 1998-89, the KSP inventory and a symptoms questionnaire were administered in a postal follow-up study. There were 16 questions on symptoms, including symptoms from the eyes, nose, throat, skin, and headache, tiredness, and a symptom score (SC), ranging from 0 to 16, was calculated. The questionnaire also requested information on personal factors, including age, gender, smoking habits, allergy and diagnosed asthma. The KSP ratings in the study group did not differ from the mean personality scale norm scores, calculated from an external reference group. Females had higher scores for somatic anxiety (P < 0.01), muscular tension (P < 0.001), psychic anxiety (P < 0.01), psychasthenia (P < 0.05), indirect aggression (P < 0.05), and guilt (P < 0.05), while males scored higher on detachment (P < 0.001). Subjects with higher SC were found to display higher degree of somatic anxiety (P < 0.001), muscular tension (P < 0.001), psychic anxiety (P < 0.001), psychasthenia (P < 0.001), inhibition of aggression (P < 0.05), detachment (P < 0.05), suspicion (P < 0.01), indirect aggression (P < 0.01), and verbal aggression (P < 0.05). In addition, ocular, respiratory, dermal, and systemic symptoms (headache and tiredness) were significantly related to anxiety- and aggressivity-related scales. There were associations between personality scales and change of symptom score (SC) during the 9-year period. The associations between KSP personality traits and symptoms were more pronounced in females. In conclusion, there are gender differences in personality and SBS symptoms
Khan, Anzalee; Liharska, Lora; Harvey, Philip D.; Atkins, Alexandra; Ulshen, Daniel; Keefe, Richard S.E.
Objective: Recognizing the discrete dimensions that underlie negative symptoms in schizophrenia and how these dimensions are understood across localities might result in better understanding and treatment of these symptoms. To this end, the objectives of this study were to 1) identify the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale negative symptom dimensions of expressive deficits and experiential deficits and 2) analyze performance on these dimensions over 15 geographical regions to determine whet...
Aujla, N.; Skinner, T. C.; Khunti, K.
Aims To compare the identification of prevalent depressive symptoms by the World Health Organization-5 Wellbeing Index (WHO-5) and Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) for South Asian and white European people, male and female, attending a diabetes screening programme, and ...
Yalin Sapmaz, Şermin; Ergin, Dilek; Özek Erkuran, Handan; Şen Celasin, Nesrin; Öztürk, Masum; Karaarslan, Duygu; Köroğlu, Ertuğrul; Aydemir, Ömer
This study assessed the validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the DSM-5 Posttraumatic Stress Symptom Severity Scale-Child Form for use among the Turkish population. The study group consisted of 30 patients that had been treated in a child psychiatry unit and diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder and 83 healthy volunteers that were attending middle or high school during the study period. For reliability analyses, the internal consistency coefficient and the test-retest correlation coefficient were measured. For validity analyses, the exploratory factor analysis and correlation analysis with the Child Posttraumatic Stress Reaction Index for concurrent validity were measured. The Cronbach's alpha (the internal consistency coefficient) of the scale was 0.909, and the test-retest correlation coefficient was 0.663. One factor that could explain 58.5% of the variance was obtained and was congruent with the original construct of the scale. As for concurrent validity, the scale showed high correlation with the Child Posttraumatic Stress Reaction Index. It was concluded that the Turkish version of the DSM-5 Posttraumatic Stress Symptom Severity Scale-Child Form can be used as a valid and reliable tool.
Passalacqua, P.; Sangireddy, H.; Stark, C. P.
With the advent of digital terrain data, detailed information on terrain characteristics and on scale and location of geomorphic features is available over extended areas. Our ability to observe landscapes and quantify topographic patterns has greatly improved, including the estimation of fluxes of mass and energy across landscapes. Challenges still remain in the analysis of high resolution topography data; the presence of features such as roads, for example, challenges classic methods for feature extraction and large data volumes require computationally efficient extraction and analysis methods. Moreover, opportunities exist to define new robust metrics of landscape characterization for landscape comparison and model validation. In this presentation we cover recent research in multi-scale and objective analysis of high resolution topography data. We show how the analysis of the probability density function of topographic attributes such as slope, curvature, and topographic index contains useful information for feature localization and extraction. The analysis of how the distributions change across scales, quantified by the behavior of modal values and interquartile range, allows the identification of landscape characteristic scales, such as terrain roughness. The methods are introduced on synthetic signals in one and two dimensions and then applied to a variety of landscapes of different characteristics. Validation of the methods includes the analysis of modeled landscapes where the noise distribution is known and features of interest easily measured.
Bischof, Martin; Obermann, Caitriona; Hartmann, Matthias N; Hager, Oliver M; Kirschner, Matthias; Kluge, Agne; Strauss, Gregory P; Kaiser, Stefan
Negative symptoms are considered core symptoms of schizophrenia. The Brief Negative Symptom Scale (BNSS) was developed to measure this symptomatic dimension according to a current consensus definition. The present study examined the psychometric properties of the German version of the BNSS. To expand former findings on convergent validity, we employed the Temporal Experience Pleasure Scale (TEPS), a hedonic self-report that distinguishes between consummatory and anticipatory pleasure. Additionally, we addressed convergent validity with observer-rated assessment of apathy with the Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES), which was completed by the patient's primary nurse. Data were collected from 75 in- and outpatients from the Psychiatric Hospital, University Zurich diagnosed with either schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. We assessed convergent and discriminant validity, internal consistency and inter-rater reliability. We largely replicated the findings of the original version showing good psychometric properties of the BNSS. In addition, the primary nurses evaluation correlated moderately with interview-based clinician rating. BNSS anhedonia items showed good convergent validity with the TEPS. Overall, the German BNSS shows good psychometric properties comparable to the original English version. Convergent validity extends beyond interview-based assessments of negative symptoms to self-rated anhedonia and observer-rated apathy.
Arnao, Valentina; Cinturino, Antonio; Valentino, Francesca; Perini, Valentina; Mastrilli, Sergio; Bellavia, Gabriele; Savettieri, Giovanni; Realmuto, Sabrina; D'Amelio, Marco
Autonomic symptoms and sleep disorders are common non-motor symptoms of Parkinson disease (PD), which are correlated with poor quality of life for patients. To assess the frequency of autonomic symptoms in a consecutive series of PD patients and to correlate them with other motor and non-motor symptoms. All consecutive non-demented PD patients who underwent an extensive evaluation including Hoehn and Yahr staging, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, Beck's Depression Inventory, Neuropsychiatric Inventory, PDQ-39 Scale, the Parkinson's diseases Sleep Scale, the Epworth Sleepiness Scale and SCOPA-AUT scale were enrolled. Comorbidity has been also considered. Supine to standing position blood pressure and cardiac frequency changes were also measured. 135 PD patients were included (mean age at interview 67.7; mean disease duration: 5.3 years). Patients were stratified according to mean SCOPA-AUT scale score (13.1). Those with higher SCOPA-AUT scale score were significantly older, had longer disease duration, worse disease stage, worse quality of sleep, were more severely affected, and were also taking a higher dosage of levodopa. At multivariate analysis, older age, longer disease duration, and worse quality of sleep were independently associated with higher SCOPA-AUT scale scores. Our results remark the role of autonomic symptoms in PD. In our patient population, characterized by mild to moderate disease severity, most of the patients complained of autonomic nervous system involvement (84%). A significant association between autonomic symptoms and sleep disorders was also observed.
Strauss, Gregory P; Chapman, Hannah C
Preliminary psychometric properties of an adapted version of the Brief Negative Symptom Scale (BNSS) are reported in youth at Clinical High-Risk for psychosis (CHR). Participants included 29 CHR youth who met criteria for a prodromal syndrome on the Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes (SIPS). The adapted BNSS demonstrated excellent internal consistency, convergent validity, and discriminant validity, suggesting that the BNSS has utility for assessing negative symptoms in a CHR population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Park, Jumin; Johantgen, Mary E
An understanding of symptoms in heart failure (HF) among different cultural groups has become increasingly important. The purpose of this study was to compare symptom reporting and symptom clusters in HF patients between a Western (the United States) and an Eastern Asian sample (China and Taiwan). A secondary analysis of a cross-sectional observational study was conducted. The data were obtained from a matched HF patient sample from the United States and China/Taiwan ( N = 240 in each). Eight selective items related to HF symptoms from the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire were analyzed. Compared with the U.S. sample, HF patients from China/Taiwan reported a lower level of symptom distress. Analysis of two different regional groups did not result in the same number of clusters using latent class approach: the United States (four classes) and China/Taiwan (three classes). The study demonstrated that symptom reporting and identification of symptom clusters might be influenced by cultural factors.
Park, Seon-Cheol; Jang, Eun Young; Kim, Daeho; Jun, Tae-Youn; Lee, Min-Soo; Kim, Jae-Min; Kim, Jung-Bum; Jo, Sun-Jin; Park, Yong Chon
Although major depressive disorder (MDD) has a variety of symptoms beyond the affective dimensions, the factor structure and contents of comprehensive psychiatric symptoms of this disorder have rarely been explored using the 18-item Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). We aimed to identify the factor structure of the 18-item BPRS in Korean MDD patients. A total of 258 MDD patients were recruited from a multicenter sample of the Clinical Research Center for Depression of South Korea study. Psychometric scales were used to assess overall psychiatric symptoms (BPRS), depression (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale), anxiety (Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale), global severity (Clinical Global Impression of Severity Scale), suicidal ideation (Scale for Suicide Ideation), functioning (Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale), and quality of life (World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment-abbreviated version). Common factor analysis with oblique rotation was used to yield factor structure. A four-factor structure was designed and interpreted by the symptom dimensions to reflect mood disturbance, positive symptoms/apathy, bipolarity, and thought distortion/mannerism. These individual factors were also significantly correlated with clinical variables. The findings of this study support the view that the BPRS may be a promising measuring tool for the initial assessment of MDD patients. In addition, the four-factor structure of the BPRS may be useful in understanding the mood and psychotic characteristics of these patients. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.
Full Text Available Although major depressive disorder (MDD has a variety of symptoms beyond the affective dimensions, the factor structure and contents of comprehensive psychiatric symptoms of this disorder have rarely been explored using the 18-item Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS. We aimed to identify the factor structure of the 18-item BPRS in Korean MDD patients. A total of 258 MDD patients were recruited from a multicenter sample of the Clinical Research Center for Depression of South Korea study. Psychometric scales were used to assess overall psychiatric symptoms (BPRS, depression (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, anxiety (Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, global severity (Clinical Global Impression of Severity Scale, suicidal ideation (Scale for Suicide Ideation, functioning (Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale, and quality of life (World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment-abbreviated version. Common factor analysis with oblique rotation was used to yield factor structure. A four-factor structure was designed and interpreted by the symptom dimensions to reflect mood disturbance, positive symptoms/apathy, bipolarity, and thought distortion/mannerism. These individual factors were also significantly correlated with clinical variables. The findings of this study support the view that the BPRS may be a promising measuring tool for the initial assessment of MDD patients. In addition, the four-factor structure of the BPRS may be useful in understanding the mood and psychotic characteristics of these patients.
Melnyk Olga G.
Full Text Available The method for identification of the scale of changes in personnel motivation techniques at mechanical-engineering enterprises based on structural and logical sequence of implementation of relevant stages (identification of the mission, strategy and objectives of the enterprise; forecasting the development of the enterprise business environment; SWOT-analysis of actual motivation techniques, deciding on the scale of changes in motivation techniques, choosing providers for changing personnel motivation techniques, choosing an alternative to changing motivation techniques, implementation of changes in motivation techniques; control over changes in motivation techniques. It has been substantiated that the improved method enables providing a systematic and analytical justification for management decisionmaking in this field and choosing the best for the mechanical-engineering enterprise scale and variant of changes in motivation techniques. The method for identification of the scale of changes in motivation techniques at mechanical-engineering enterprises takes into account the previous, current and prospective character. Firstly, the approach is based on considering the past state in the motivational sphere of the mechanical-engineering enterprise; secondly, the method involves identifying the current state of personnel motivation techniques; thirdly, within the method framework the prospective, which is manifested in strategic vision of the enterprise development as well as in forecasting the development of its business environment, is taken into account. The advantage of the proposed method is that the level of its specification may vary depending on the set goals, resource constraints and necessity. Among other things, this method allows integrating various formalized and non-formalized causal relationships in the sphere of personnel motivation at machine-building enterprises and management of relevant processes. This creates preconditions for a
Monterrosa, Alvaro; Blumel, Juan E; Chedraui, Peter
Increased frequency and severity of menopausal symptoms have been associated to black race. However, this situation has not been described in any Latin American population. Compare frequency and severity of menopausal symptoms among Afro and non-Afro Hispanic Colombian climacteric women. In this cross-sectional study, healthy Afro and non-Afro-Colombian women aged 40-59 years were asked to fill out the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS) questionnaire in order to compare symptom frequency and intensity. A total of 578 women were surveyed (201 Afro-Colombian and 377 non-Afro-Colombian). Mean age of the whole sample was 47.9+/-5.9 years (median 47), with no differences among studied groups in terms of age, parity, and hormone therapy (HT) use. Intensity of menopausal symptoms, assessed with the total MRS score, was found to be significantly higher among Afro-Colombian women (10.6+/-6.7 vs. 7.5+/-5.7, p=0.0001), which was due to higher somatic and psychological subscale scores. In this group, the frequency of somatic symptoms, heart discomfort and muscle and joint problems, was found to be higher than in non-Afro-Colombian women (38.8% vs. 26.8% and 77.1% vs. 43.5%, respectively, pColombian ones presented more bladder problems (24.9% vs. 14.9%, p=0.005). After adjusting for confounding factors, logistic regression analysis determined that black race increased the risk for presenting higher total MRS scorings (OR: 2.31; CI 95%: 1.55-3.45, p=0.0001). Despite the limitations of this study, as determined with the MRS Afro-Colombian women exhibited more impaired quality of life (QoL) when compared to non-Afro-Colombian ones, due to a higher rate and severity of menopausal somatic and psychological symptoms.
Gass, Carlton S; Odland, Anthony P
The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) Symptom Validity (Fake Bad Scale [FBS]) Scale is widely used to assist in determining noncredible symptom reporting, despite a paucity of detailed research regarding its itemmetric characteristics. Originally designed for use in civil litigation, the FBS is often used in a variety of clinical settings. The present study explored its fundamental psychometric characteristics in a sample of 303 patients who were consecutively referred for a comprehensive examination in a Veterans Affairs (VA) neuropsychology clinic. FBS internal consistency (reliability) was .77. Its underlying factor structure consisted of three unitary dimensions (Tiredness/Distractibility, Stomach/Head Discomfort, and Claimed Virtue of Self/Others) accounting for 28.5% of the total variance. The FBS's internal structure showed factoral discordance, as Claimed Virtue was negatively related to most of the FBS and to its somatic complaint components. Scores on this 12-item FBS component reflected a denial of socially undesirable attitudes and behaviors (Antisocial Practices Scale) that is commonly expressed by the 1,138 males in the MMPI-2 normative sample. These 12 items significantly reduced FBS reliability, introducing systematic error variance. In this VA neuropsychological referral setting, scores on the FBS have ambiguous meaning because of its structural discordance.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Menopausal symptoms can be assessed by several tools, and can be influenced by various socio-demographic factors. Objectives To determine the commonly reported menopausal symptoms among Sarawakian women using a modified Menopause Rating Scale (MRS. Methods By using modified MRS questionnaire, 356 Sarawakian women aged 40-65 years were interview to document of 11 symptoms (divided into somatic, psychological and urogenital domain commonly associated with menopause. Results The mean age of menopause was 51.3 years (range 47 - 56 years. The most prevalent symptoms reported were joint and muscular discomfort (80.1%; physical and mental exhaustion (67.1%; and sleeping problems (52.2%. Followed by symptoms of hot flushes and sweating (41.6%; irritability (37.9%; dryness of vagina (37.9%; anxiety (36.5%; depressive mood (32.6%. Other complaints noted were sexual problem (30.9%; bladder problem (13.8% and heart discomfort (18.3%. Perimenopausal women (n = 141 experienced higher prevalence of somatic and psychological symptoms compared to premenopausal (n = 82 and postmenopausal (n = 133 women. However urogenital symptoms mostly occur in the postmenopausal group of women. Conclusions The prevalence of menopausal symptoms using modified MRS in this study correspond to other studies on Asian women however the prevalence of classical menopausal symptoms of hot flushes, sweating was lower compared to studies on Caucasian women.
Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Skjærbæk, P. S.; Nielsen, Søren R. K.
The aim of the present report is to supply the identification results from the tests performed with a laboratory model of a plane 6-storey, 2-bay scale 1:5 RC-frame at Aalborg University, Denmark during the autumn 1996. The tests were performed as a part of a Ph.D study considering evaluation of ...
Terluin, B.; Oosterbaan, D.B.; Brouwers, E.P.; Straten, A. van; Ven, P.M. van de; Langerak, W.; Marwijk, H.W.J. van
BACKGROUND: Anxiety scales may help primary care physicians to detect specific anxiety disorders among the many emotionally distressed patients presenting in primary care. The anxiety scale of the Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ) consists of an admixture of symptoms of specific anxiety
Terluin, B.; Oosterbaan, D.B.; Brouwers, E.P.M.; van Straten, A.H.M.; van de Ven, P.; Langerak, W.; van Marwijk, H.W.J.
Background Anxiety scales may help primary care physicians to detect specific anxiety disorders among the many emotionally distressed patients presenting in primary care. The anxiety scale of the Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ) consists of an admixture of symptoms of specific anxiety
The paper focuses on two research instruments, the Kohn Social Competence Scale and the Kohn Symptom Checklist, designed to assess the behavior of children in a preschool setting as well as on two factor-analytically derived dimensions of social-emotional functioning which the instruments measure. (SBH)
Heading, Robert C; Thomas, Edward C M; Sandy, Phil; Smith, Gary; Fass, Ronnie; Hungin, Pali S
The objective of this study was to develop a self-administered questionnaire for upper gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms using lay vocabulary uninfluenced by established medical terminology or concepts and to conduct a survey of symptom occurrence among sufferers in four countries. The questionnaire was designed by integrating information gained from the vocabulary used by 38 upper GI symptom sufferers. There was no medical input to its development. The questionnaire was then used, after appropriate translation, in Brazil, Russia, the UK and the USA. Details of 10 659 symptom episodes were obtained from 2665 individuals. Nine symptoms described in lay vocabulary were identified during questionnaire development. Of these, one corresponded to regurgitation, whereas two that were distinguished by survey participants might both be interpreted as heartburn. One chest symptom for which a corresponding medical term was uncertain occurred in ∼30% of the respondents. Five different 'stomach' or abdominal symptoms were identified. The predominant symptom and the pattern of concurrent symptoms often varied from one symptom episode to another. Use of the terms 'heartburn', 'reflux', 'indigestion' and 'burning stomach' to describe symptoms varied between countries. Some common upper GI symptoms described by those who suffer them have no clear counterpart in conventional medical terminology. Inadequacy of the conventional terminology in this respect deserves attention, first, to characterize it fully, and thereafter to construct enquiry that delivers more precise symptom identification. Our results suggest that improvement may require the use of vocabulary of individuals suffering the symptoms without imposing conformity with established symptom concepts.
Good, Kimberley P; Tibbo, Philip; Milliken, Heather; Whitehorn, David; Alexiadis, Maria; Robertson, Nancy; Kopala, Lili C
Olfactory identification deficits are found in a significant proportion of patients with schizophrenia spectrum psychotic disorders and appear to be predictive of incomplete remission of negative and cognitive symptoms. In the current study, we examined whether patients with first episode psychosis who have olfactory identification deficits (microsmic) have poorer functional outcome than those whose olfactory status is normal (normosmic). Sixty-six (66) first episode psychosis patients (46 M and 20 F) were assessed with the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) at baseline. UPSIT scores served to classify patients into subgroups. The patients' psychiatrists completed the Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale (SOFAS) and the Levels of Functioning Scale (LOFS) after at least 6 months of treatment. The Premorbid Assessment Scale (PAS) was rated by a parent at baseline. Thirty-eight percent (38%) of the sample was identified as 'microsmic'. LOFS and SOFAS scores were significantly lower in the microsmic group than in the normosmic group. Symptoms were significantly worse in the microsmic group in comparison to the normosmic group. PAS scores did not differ between groups. First episode patients identified as microsmic at baseline assessment went on to demonstrate poorer functional outcome compared to normosmic patients despite no differences in premorbid adjustment. Olfactory identification deficits at first episode may provide a marker for poorer outcome. Testing olfaction is simple and inexpensive, and could provide clinically valuable information at first episode to identify those patients who might benefit from more intensive interventions promoting functional recovery. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Polku, Hannele; Mikkola, Tuija M; Portegijs, Erja; Rantakokko, Merja; Kokko, Katja; Kauppinen, Markku; Rantanen, Taina; Viljanen, Anne
To examine the association between life-space mobility and different dimensions of depressive symptoms among older community-dwelling people. Cross-sectional analyses of baseline data of the 'Life-Space Mobility in Old Age' cohort study were carried out. The participants were community-dwelling women and men aged 75-90 years (N = 848). Data were gathered via structured interviews in participants' home. Life-space mobility (the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) Life-Space Assessment - questionnaire) and depressive symptoms (Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, CES-D) were assessed. Other factors examined included sociodemographic factors, difficulties walking 500 m, number of chronic diseases and the sense of autonomy in participation outdoors (subscale of Impact on Participation and Autonomy questionnaire). Poorer life-space mobility was associated with higher prevalence of different dimensions of depressive symptoms. The associations were partially mediated through walking difficulties, health and the sense of autonomy in participation outdoor activities. Poorer life-space mobility interrelates with higher probability for depressive symptoms, thus compromising older adults' mental wellbeing. A focus on older adults' life-space mobility may assist early identification of persons, who have elevated risk for depressive symptoms. The association between life-space mobility and depressive symptoms should be studied further utilizing longitudinal study designs to examine temporality and potential causality.
Tuohy, Alan; McVey, Cynthia
There has been considerable research and clinical interest in the comorbidity of anxiety and depression in the post-partum period, and specifically in the possibility that the commonly used Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) incorporates an anxiety component. We hypothesized that the recommended version of factor analysis (Fabrigar, Wegener, MacCallum, & Strahan, 1999) would identify such covert dimensions more reliably than the commonly used principal components analysis with varimax rotation and eigenvalues greater than 1. Principal axis factor extraction with parallel analysis and oblique (direct quartimin) factor rotation was applied to the 10 EPDS items. The study used a sample of recent mothers recruited and assessed via e-mail and the Internet (N=440). In addition to the EPDS, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Positive and Negative Affect Scales (PANAS) were also administered. Three factors were found, which were identified as 'non-specific depressive symptoms', 'anhedonia', and 'anxietal symptoms' subscales, respectively. These subscales were regressed on the HADS anxiety and depression and the PANAS positive and negative affectivity scales, with results substantially consistent with current structural models of the taxonomy of the emotional disorders. The data were obtained from a self-selected non-clinical sample. In addition, it is known that the use of computer-based assessment may tend to inflate self-report scores. It was concluded that there is now sufficient evidence that clinicians should not assume the EPDS to be unidimensional, but should assess all three subscales when screening for susceptibility to post-partum depression and/or post-partum anxiety.
Stoeber, Joachim; Hoyle, Alison J.; Last, Freyja
This study investigated the Consequences of Perfectionism Scale (COPS) and its relationships with perfectionism, performance perfectionism, affect, and depressive symptoms in 202 university students using confirmatory factor analysis, correlations, and regression analyses. Results suggest that the COPS is a reliable and valid measure of positive and negative consequences of perfectionism.
Dretsch, Michael N; Silverberg, Noah D; Iverson, Grant L
The extent to which multiple past concussions are associated with lingering symptoms or mental health problems in military service members is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between lifetime concussion history, cognitive functioning, general health, and psychological health in a large sample of fit-for-duty U.S. Army soldiers preparing for deployment. Data on 458 active-duty soldiers were collected and analyzed. A computerized cognitive screening battery (CNS-Vital Signs(®)) was used to assess complex attention (CA), reaction time (RT), processing speed (PS), cognitive flexibility (CF), and memory. Health questionnaires included the Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory (NSI), PTSD Checklist-Military Version (PCL-M), Zung Depression and Anxiety Scales (ZDS; ZAS), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and the Alcohol Use and Dependency Identification Test (AUDIT). Soldiers with a history of multiple concussions (i.e., three or more concussions) had significantly greater post-concussive symptom scores compared with those with zero (d=1.83, large effect), one (d=0.64, medium effect), and two (d=0.64, medium effect) prior concussions. Although the group with three or more concussions also reported more traumatic stress symptoms, the results revealed that traumatic stress was a mediator between concussions and post-concussive symptom severity. There were no significant differences on neurocognitive testing between the number of concussions. These results add to the accumulating evidence suggesting that most individuals recover from one or two prior concussions, but there is a greater risk for ongoing symptoms if one exceeds this number of injuries.
Vaccarino, Anthony L; Evans, Kenneth R; Sills, Terrence L; Kalali, Amir H
Although diagnostically dissociable, anxiety is strongly co-morbid with depression. To examine further the clinical symptoms of anxiety in major depressive disorder (MDD), a non-parametric item response analysis on "blinded" data from four pharmaceutical company clinical trials was performed on the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAMA) across levels of depressive severity. The severity of depressive symptoms was assessed using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD). HAMA and HAMD measures were supplied for each patient on each of two post-screen visits (n=1,668 observations). Option characteristic curves were generated for all 14 HAMA items to determine the probability of scoring a particular option on the HAMA in relation to the total HAMD score. Additional analyses were conducted using Pearson's product-moment correlations. Results showed that anxiety-related symptomatology generally increased as a function of overall depressive severity, though there were clear differences between individual anxiety symptoms in their relationship with depressive severity. In particular, anxious mood, tension, insomnia, difficulties in concentration and memory, and depressed mood were found to discriminate over the full range of HAMD scores, increasing continuously with increases in depressive severity. By contrast, many somatic-related symptoms, including muscular, sensory, cardiovascular, respiratory, gastro-intestinal, and genito-urinary were manifested primarily at higher levels of depression and did not discriminate well at lower HAMD scores. These results demonstrate anxiety as a core feature of depression, and the relationship between anxiety-related symptoms and depression should be considered in the assessment of depression and evaluation of treatment strategies and outcome.
Efendov, Adele A.; Sellbom, Martin; Bagby, R. Michael
The authors examined the comparative predictive capacity of the Trauma Symptom Inventory (TSI) Atypical Response Scale (ATR) and the standard set of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) fake-bad validity scales (i.e., F, F[subscript B[prime
Sprenger, Linda; Bühler, Eva; Poustka, Luise; Bach, Christiane; Heinzel-Gutenbrunner, Monika; Kamp-Becker, Inge; Bachmann, Christian
Despite the official exclusion criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the DSM-IV and ICD-10, patients with ASD often show ADHD symptoms. We aimed to examine the potential influence of ADHD symptoms on autistic psychopathology in a large sample of patients with ASD. We tested the hypothesis that patients with ASD and an additional ADHD (ASD+) would show a higher severity of autistic symptoms than those with ASD only (ASD-). We measured autistic symptoms using the autism diagnostic observation schedule (ADOS-G), the autism diagnostic interview (ADI-R), and the social responsiveness scale (SRS). To measure overall psychopathology and ADHD symptoms, we used the child behavior checklist (CBCL) and the ADHD rating scale (FBB-ADHS), respectively. Group differences between the ASD+ and the ASD- group (group division was conducted according to the results of the FBB-ADHS) were calculated using a univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA). The ASD+ group showed a greater severity of autistic symptoms than the ASD- group, measured by the SRS and the ADI-R. Especially in the social interaction subscale (ADI-R), a significantly higher symptom severity was found in the ASD+ group. No significant group differences were found regarding autistic symptoms measured by the ADOS-G. Patients with ASD and an additional ADHD expressed a stronger severity of autistic symptoms than patients with ASD only. According to our results, the possibility of a co-diagnosis of ADS and ADHD, as is being planned in the DSM-5, is in line with earlier studies, is highly reasonable, will simplify research, and have therapeutic implications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kim, Lenise Jihe; Coelho, Fernando Morgadinho; Hirotsu, Camila; Araujo, Paula; Bittencourt, Lia; Tufik, Sergio; Andersen, Monica Levy
Narcolepsy is a disabling disease with a delayed diagnosis. At least 3 years before the disorder identification, several comorbidities can be observed in patients with narcolepsy. The early recognition of narcolepsy symptoms may improve long-term prognosis of the patients. Thus, we aimed to investigate the prevalence of the symptoms associated with narcolepsy and its social and psychological association in a sample of Sao Paulo city inhabitants. We performed a cross-sectional evaluation with 1,008 individuals from the Sao Paulo Epidemiologic Sleep Study (EPISONO). Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) was assessed by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Volunteers were also asked about the occurrence of cataplectic-like, hypnagogic or hypnopompic hallucinations, and sleep paralysis symptoms. The participants underwent a full-night polysomnography and completed questionnaires about psychological, demographic, and quality of life parameters. We observed a prevalence of 39.2% of EDS, 15.0% of cataplectic-like symptom, 9.2% of hypnagogic or hypnopompic hallucinations, and 14.9% of sleep paralysis in Sao Paulo city inhabitants. A frequency of 6.9% was observed when EDS and cataplectic-like symptoms were grouped. The other associations were EDS + hallucinations (4.7%) and EDS + sleep paralysis (7.5%). Symptomatic participants were predominantly women and younger compared with patients without any narcolepsy symptom (n = 451). Narcolepsy symptomatology was also associated with a poor quality of life and symptoms of depression, anxiety, and fatigue. Narcolepsy-related symptoms are associated with poor quality of life and worse psychological parameters. © 2015 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.
Hay, D.A.; Bennett, K.S.; Levy, J.; Sergeant, J.A.; Swanson, J.
Background: When symptom rating scales are used in the general population, there is severe skewness, with many individuals having no symptoms. While this has major implications for genetic designs that require extremely discordant and concordant (EDAC) siblings, little is known of the genetics of
Re, Anna Maria; Cornoldi, Cesare
Objective: Two new rating scales are presented for the assessment of ADHD symptoms in Italian preschool children, and the agreement between parents and teachers on the presence of an ADHD profile is examined. Method: The scales were administered to parents and teachers of 180 children with a mean age of 5 years and 9 months, attending final year…
Chen, Kuan-Lin; Lin, Chien-Ho; Yu, Tzu-Ying; Huang, Chien-Yu; Chen, Ying-Dar
This study aimed to compare symptoms of autism spectrum disorder using the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) and the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS™-2) and to investigate their influencing factors. The diagnostic agreement was 92.7%, but with a fair Kappa value (0.247). Children's verbal comprehension was related to the CARS scores, and no variables were related to the SRS™-2 scores. Generally, significant small correlations were found between the two measures in children with normal or borderline to below average verbal comprehension (rs = 0.32 ~ 0.49, p < .005), but not in those with impaired verbal comprehension. The CARS and the SRS™-2 may contain different explicit behaviors and collect different perspectives (i.e., those of caregivers and professionals). Therefore, they appear to complement each other.
Gloster, Andrew T.; Rhoades, Howard M.; Novy, Diane; Klotsche, Jens; Senior, Ashley; Kunik, Mark; Wilson, Nancy; Stanley, Melinda A.
The Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS) was designed to efficiently measure the core symptoms of anxiety and depression and has demonstrated positive psychometric properties in adult samples of anxiety and depression patients and student samples. Despite these findings, the psychometric properties of the DASS remain untested in older adults, for whom the identification of efficient measures of these constructs is especially important.
Forbes, Courtney; Blanchard, Jack J; Bennett, Melanie; Horan, William P; Kring, Ann; Gur, Raquel
As part of an ongoing scale development process, this study provides an initial examination of the psychometric properties and validity of a new interview-based negative symptom instrument, the Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS), in outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (N = 37). The scale was designed to address limitations of existing measures and to comprehensively assess five consensus-based negative symptoms: asociality, avolition, anhedonia (consummatory and anticipatory), affective flattening, and alogia. Results indicated satisfactory internal consistency reliability for the total CAINS scale score and promising inter-rater agreement, with clear areas identified in need of improvement. Convergent validity was evident in general agreement between the CAINS and alternative negative symptom measures. Further, CAINS subscales significantly correlated with relevant self-report emotional experience measures as well as with social functioning. Discriminant validity of the CAINS was strongly supported by its small, non-significant relations with positive symptoms, general psychiatric symptoms, and depression. These preliminary data on an early beta-version of the CAINS provide initial support for this new assessment approach to negative symptoms and suggest directions for further scale development. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Peng, Yu; Wang, Qinghui; Fan, Min
When assessing re-vegetation project performance and optimizing land management, identification of the key ecological factors inducing vegetation degradation has crucial implications. Rainfall, temperature, elevation, slope, aspect, land use type, and human disturbance are ecological factors affecting the status of vegetation index. However, at different spatial scales, the key factors may vary. Using Helin County, Inner-Mongolia, China as the study site and combining remote sensing image interpretation, field surveying, and mathematical methods, this study assesses key ecological factors affecting vegetation degradation under different spatial scales in a semi-arid agro-pastoral ecotone. It indicates that the key factors are different at various spatial scales. Elevation, rainfall, and temperature are identified as crucial for all spatial extents. Elevation, rainfall and human disturbance are key factors for small-scale quadrats of 300 m × 300 m and 600 m × 600 m, temperature and land use type are key factors for a medium-scale quadrat of 1 km × 1 km, and rainfall, temperature, and land use are key factors for large-scale quadrats of 2 km × 2 km and 5 km × 5 km. For this region, human disturbance is not the key factor for vegetation degradation across spatial scales. It is necessary to consider spatial scale for the identification of key factors determining vegetation characteristics. The eco-restoration programs at various spatial scales should identify key influencing factors according their scales so as to take effective measurements. The new understanding obtained in this study may help to explore the forces which driving vegetation degradation in the degraded regions in the world.
Barresi, Margherita J; Shadbolt, Bruce; Byrne, Don; Stuart-Harris, Robin
Patients with advanced (incurable) tumours usually experience a diverse burden of symptoms. Although many symptom assessment instruments are available, we examined whether these addressed tumour-related symptoms. We reviewed existing symptom assessment instruments and found a number of deficiencies such as instruments being too long or burdensome, too short, or measuring quality of life rather than tumour-related symptoms. Others focused on emotional, rather than physical symptoms. Therefore, we decided to devise a new symptom instrument. A list of 20 symptoms common in patients with advanced tumours generated from the literature and existing instruments, was ranked according to prevalence by 202 Australian clinicians. Following clinicians' responses, the list was revised and two severity assessment scales (functional severity and distress severity) added. The resultant 18-item list was assessed in 44 outpatients with advanced tumours. Patient responses indicated that a shorter questionnaire of 11 items, reflecting three main symptom clusters, provided a good representation of physical symptoms. An additional symptom that is an important predictor of survival was added, making a 12-item questionnaire, which was entitled 'The Canberra Symptom Scorecard' (CSS). For symptom severity, the distress severity scale was more appropriate than the functional severity scale. The CSS focuses on tumour-related physical symptoms. It is about to be assessed in patients with advanced tumours receiving palliative treatments, when it will also be validated against existing instruments
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is devoted to developing a chaotic artificial bee colony algorithm (CABC for the system identification of a small-scale unmanned helicopter state-space model in hover condition. In order to avoid the premature of traditional artificial bee colony algorithm (ABC, which is stuck in local optimum and can not reach the global optimum, a novel chaotic operator with the characteristics of ergodicity and irregularity was introduced to enhance its performance. With input-output data collected from actual flight experiments, the identification results showed the superiority of CABC over the ABC and the genetic algorithm (GA. Simulations are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed algorithm and the accuracy of the identified helicopter model.
Haug, Elisabeth; Øie, Merete G; Andreassen, Ole A; Bratlien, Unni; Romm, Kristin L; Møller, Paul; Melle, Ingrid
Background: Anomalous self-experiences (ASEs) aggregate in schizophrenia spectrum disorders, but the relationship between ASEs, and depression has been studied to a limited extent. Lower self-esteem has been shown to be associated with depression in early psychosis. Our hypothesis is that ASEs in early phases of schizophrenia are linked to lower levels of self-esteem, which in turn is associated with depression. Aim: The aim is to examine the relationship between ASEs, self-esteem and depression in first-episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Method: ASEs were assessed in 55 patients with first-episode schizophrenia by means of the Examination of anomalous Self-Experience (EASE) instrument. Assessment of depression was based on the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS). Self-esteem was measured using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES). Symptom severity was assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (SCI-PANSS). Substance misuse was measured with the Drug Use Disorder Identification Test (DUDIT), and alcohol use was measured with the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT). Data on childhood adjustment were collected using the Premorbid Adjustment Scale (PAS). Data on childhood trauma were collected using the Norwegian version of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, short form (CTQ-SF). Results: Analyses detected a significant association between current depression and ASEs as measured by the EASE in women, but not in men. The effect of ASEs on depression appeared to be mediated by self-esteem. No other characteristics associated with depression influenced the relationship between depression, self-esteem and ASEs. Conclusion: Evaluating ASEs can assist clinicians in understanding patients' experience of self-esteem and depressive symptoms. The complex interaction between ASEs, self-esteem, depression and suicidality could be a clinical target for the prevention of suicidality in this
Shayesteh, Alexander; Boman, Jens; Janlert, Urban; Brulin, Christine; Nylander, Elisabet
Primary hyperhidrosis affects approximately 3% of the population and reduces quality of life in affected persons. Few studies have investigated the symptoms of anxiety, depression and hazardous alcohol consumption among those with hyperhidrosis and the effect of treatment with botulinum toxin. The first aim of this study was to investigate the effect of primary hyperhidrosis on mental and physical health, and alcohol consumption. Our second aim was to study whether and how treatment with botulinum toxin changed these effects. One hundred and fourteen patients answered questionnaires regarding hyperhidrosis and symptoms, including hyperhidrosis disease severity scale (HDSS), visual analog scale (VAS) 10-point scale for hyperhidrosis symptoms, hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS), alcohol use disorder identification test (AUDIT) and short-form health survey (SF-36) before treatment with botulinum toxin and 2 weeks after. The age of onset of hyperhidrosis was on average 13.4 years and 48% described heredity for hyperhidrosis. Significant improvements were noted in patients with axillary and palmar hyperhidrosis regarding mean HDSS, VAS 10-point scale, HADS, SF-36 and sweat-related health problems 2 weeks after treatment with botulinum toxin. Changes in mean AUDIT for all participants were not significant. Primary hyperhidrosis mainly impairs mental rather than physical aspects of life and also interferes with specific daily activities of the affected individuals. Despite this, our patients did not show signs of anxiety, depression or hazardous alcohol consumption. Treatment with botulinum toxin reduced sweat-related problems and led to significant improvements in HDSS, VAS, HADS and SF-36 in our patients. © 2016 Japanese Dermatological Association.
Key issues affecting quality of life and patient-reported outcomes in prostate cancer: an analysis conducted in 2128 patients with initial psychometric assessment of the prostate cancer symptom scale (PCSS).
Msaouel, Pavlos; Gralla, Richard J; Jones, Randy A; Hollen, Patricia J
Evidence-based quality of life (QL) questionnaires require the identification of issues of importance to patients. The primary aim of this study was to inform providers on patient-expressed issues while enhancing the content validity of instruments assessing QL and patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in prostate cancer. The study provided additional psychometric properties for the new PRO and QL instrument, the Prostate Cancer Symptom Scale (PCSS). An anonymous web-based survey of 2128 patients with prostate cancer was conducted with patients rating 18 QL items on a five-point scale. Most respondents (74%) were aged 55-74 years, had early stage disease at diagnosis (81%) and were diagnosed within 2 years of the survey (81%). The top five-rated issues were: overall QL, ability to perform normal activities, maintaining independence, ability to sleep and not being a burden. These items were ranked as either 'very important' or 'important' by at least 88% of patients. None of the most highly ranked issues were symptoms. Instead, the highest ranked items were global issues reflecting the impact of symptoms on patients. In addition to the enhanced content validity findings, good reliability results and initial support for construct validity are reported for the PCSS. This is the largest survey providing patient-expressed background for content validity for QL and PRO measures. The findings of this study should aid development of newer practical questionnaires, such as the PCSS, which can be adapted to electronic platforms enhancing rapid and accurate PRO and QL evaluation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Langeveld, N E; Grootenhuis, M A; Voûte, P A; de Haan, R J
Previous research suggests that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is present in survivors of childhood cancer. The aim of the current study was to explore posttraumatic stress symptoms in a sample of young adult survivors of childhood cancer. In addition, the impact of demographic, medical and treatment factors on survivors' posttraumatic stress symptoms was studied. Participants were 500 long-term survivors of childhood cancer. The median age at follow-up was 24 years (age range, 16- 49 years, 47% female). To assess symptoms of posttraumatic stress, all participants completed the Impact of Event Scale (IES), a self-report instrument consisting of two subscales, intrusion and avoidance. Twelve percent of this sample of adult survivors of childhood cancer had scores in the severe range, indicating they are unable to cope with the impact of their disease and need professional help. Twenty percent of the female survivors had scores in the severe range as compared with 6% of the male survivors. Linear regression models revealed that being female, unemployed, a lower educational level, type of diagnosis and severe late effects/health problems were associated with posttraumatic stress symptoms. The results indicate that, although the proportion of survivors reporting symptoms is well within the proportions found in the general population, a substantial subset of survivors report symptoms of posttraumatic stress. This finding supports the outcomes reported previously that diagnosis and treatment for childhood cancer may have significant long-term effects, which are manifested in symptoms of posttraumatic stress. The investigated factors could explain posttraumatic stress symptoms only to a limited extent. Further research exploring symptoms of posttraumatic stress in childhood cancer survivors in more detail is clearly warranted. From a clinical perspective, health care providers must pay attention to these symptoms during evaluations in the follow-up clinic. Early
Full Text Available Accurate identification of tension in multiwire strands is a key issue to ensure structural safety and durability of prestressed concrete structures, cable-stayed bridges, and hoist elevators. This paper proposes a method to identify strand tensions based on scale energy entropy spectra of ultrasonic guided waves (UGWs. A numerical method was first developed to simulate UGW propagation in a seven-wire strand, employing the wavelet transform to extract UGW time-frequency energy distributions for different loadings. Mode separation and frequency band loss of L(0,1 were then found for increasing tension, and UGW scale energy entropy spectra were extracted to establish a tension identification index. A good linear relationship was found between the proposed identification index and tensile force, and effects of propagation distance and propagation path were analyzed. Finally, UGWs propagation was examined experimentally for a long seven-wire strand to investigate attenuation and long distance propagation. Numerical and experimental results verified that the proposed method not only can effectively identify strand tensions but can also adapt to long distance tests for practical engineering.
Gomez, Rapson; Vance, Alasdair
This study examined differential symptom functioning (DSF) in ADHD symptoms across Malay and Chinese children in Malaysia. Malay (N = 571) and Chinese (N = 254) parents completed the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale, which lists the DSM-IV ADHD symptoms. DSF was examined using the multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC) structural equation…
Schonfeld, I S
In the summer following graduation a sample of 125 female college graduates (mean age = 28) completed Cohen & Wills' ISEL (1985) which includes scales measuring four social support functions: belonging (social companionship), appraisal (availability of confidants), tangible (instrumental), and self-esteem support. In the summer and fall subject status on two outcome scales was ascertained: the Psychophysiologic Symptom Scale and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Reliability of the difference scores suggested that the ISEL scales do not measure entirely different constructs and the ISEL Self-esteem Scale is operationally redundant with the Rosenberg Self-esteem scale and the CES-D. Cross-sectional analyses indicated that the ISEL scales were related to symptoms. By contrast, standard longitudinal and prospective MLR analyses indicated that only the Belonging Scale was significantly related to future symptoms. The issues of confounding support with symptoms and the dimensionality of the subscales were discussed. The study suggests that specific functions of support take on greater importance during major life transitions and that any one supportive behaviour often serves multiple functions.
Huisman-van Dijk, Hilde M.; van de Schoot, Rens; Rijkeboer, Marleen M.; Mathews, Carol A; Cath, Dainelle C
Gilles de la Tourette’s syndrome (GTS) is a disorder in which co-morbid obsessive-compulsive (OC), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and autism symptoms occur in up to 60% of patients, suggesting shared etiology. We aimed to explore the phenotypic structure underlying GTS, taking tic, OC, ADHD, and autism symptoms into account as measured by various symptom scales (YGTSS, Y-BOCS, CAARS and AQ) in 225 GTS patients and 371 family members. First, Confirmatory Factor Analyses (CFA) were performed on the symptom structure of each separate symptom scale. Second, the symptom dimensions derived from each scale were combined in one model, and correlations between them were calculated. Using the correlation matrix, Exploratory Factor Analyses (EFA) were performed on the symptom dimensions across the scales. EFA revealed a five factor structure: tic/aggression/symmetry; OC symptoms/compulsive tics/numbers and patterns; ADHD symptoms; autism symptoms; and hoarding/inattention symptoms. The symptom factors found in this study are partly in line with the traditional categorical boundaries of the symptom scales used, and partly reveal a symptom structure that cuts through the diagnostic categories. This phenotypic structure might more closely reflect underlying etiologies than a structure that classically describes GTS patients according to absence or presence of comorbid OCD, ADHD and autism, and might inform both future genetic and treatment studies. PMID:26826899
Dekker, Alain D.; Sacco, Silvia; Carfi, Angelo; Benejam, Bessy; Vermeiren, Yannick; Beugelsdijk, Gonny; Schippers, Mieke; Hassefras, Lyanne; Eleveld, José; Grefelman, Sharina; Fopma, Roelie; Bomer-Veenboer, Monique; Boti, Mariángeles; Oosterling, G. Danielle E.; Scholten, Esther; Tollenaere, Marleen; Checkley, Laura; Strydom, André; Van Goethem, Gert; Onder, Graziano; Blesa, Rafael; zu Eulenburg, Christine; Coppus, Antonia M.W.; Rebillat, Anne-Sophie; Fortea, Juan; De Deyn, Peter P.
People with Down syndrome (DS) are prone to develop Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are core features, but have not been comprehensively evaluated in DS. In a European multidisciplinary study, the novel Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia in Down Syndrome (BPSD-DS) scale was developed to identify frequency and severity of behavioral changes taking account of life-long characteristic behavior. 83 behavioral items in 12 clinically defined sections were evaluated. The central aim was to identify items that change in relation to the dementia status, and thus may differentiate between diagnostic groups. Structured interviews were conducted with informants of persons with DS without dementia (DS, n = 149), with questionable dementia (DS+Q, n = 65), and with diagnosed dementia (DS+AD, n = 67). First exploratory data suggest promising interrater, test-retest, and internal consistency reliability measures. Concerning item relevance, group comparisons revealed pronounced increases in frequency and severity in items of anxiety, sleep disturbances, agitation & stereotypical behavior, aggression, apathy, depressive symptoms, and eating/drinking behavior. The proportion of individuals presenting an increase was highest in DS+AD, intermediate in DS+Q, and lowest in DS. Interestingly, among DS+Q individuals, a substantial proportion already presented increased anxiety, sleep disturbances, apathy, and depressive symptoms, suggesting that these changes occur early in the course of AD. Future efforts should optimize the scale based on current results and clinical experiences, and further study applicability, reliability, and validity. Future application of the scale in daily care may aid caregivers to understand changes, and contribute to timely interventions and adaptation of caregiving. PMID:29689719
Dekker, Alain D; Sacco, Silvia; Carfi, Angelo; Benejam, Bessy; Vermeiren, Yannick; Beugelsdijk, Gonny; Schippers, Mieke; Hassefras, Lyanne; Eleveld, José; Grefelman, Sharina; Fopma, Roelie; Bomer-Veenboer, Monique; Boti, Mariángeles; Oosterling, G Danielle E; Scholten, Esther; Tollenaere, Marleen; Checkley, Laura; Strydom, André; Van Goethem, Gert; Onder, Graziano; Blesa, Rafael; Zu Eulenburg, Christine; Coppus, Antonia M W; Rebillat, Anne-Sophie; Fortea, Juan; De Deyn, Peter P
People with Down syndrome (DS) are prone to develop Alzheimer's disease (AD). Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are core features, but have not been comprehensively evaluated in DS. In a European multidisciplinary study, the novel Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia in Down Syndrome (BPSD-DS) scale was developed to identify frequency and severity of behavioral changes taking account of life-long characteristic behavior. 83 behavioral items in 12 clinically defined sections were evaluated. The central aim was to identify items that change in relation to the dementia status, and thus may differentiate between diagnostic groups. Structured interviews were conducted with informants of persons with DS without dementia (DS, n = 149), with questionable dementia (DS+Q, n = 65), and with diagnosed dementia (DS+AD, n = 67). First exploratory data suggest promising interrater, test-retest, and internal consistency reliability measures. Concerning item relevance, group comparisons revealed pronounced increases in frequency and severity in items of anxiety, sleep disturbances, agitation & stereotypical behavior, aggression, apathy, depressive symptoms, and eating/drinking behavior. The proportion of individuals presenting an increase was highest in DS+AD, intermediate in DS+Q, and lowest in DS. Interestingly, among DS+Q individuals, a substantial proportion already presented increased anxiety, sleep disturbances, apathy, and depressive symptoms, suggesting that these changes occur early in the course of AD. Future efforts should optimize the scale based on current results and clinical experiences, and further study applicability, reliability, and validity. Future application of the scale in daily care may aid caregivers to understand changes, and contribute to timely interventions and adaptation of caregiving.
Thomas, Justin; Quadflieg, Susanne; O'Hara, Lily
Studies exploring the relationship between acculturation and eating disorders symptoms have proven equivocal. Socially desirable responding associated with the use of explicit measures may account for these mixed findings. This study explores the relationship between in-group identity, acculturation and eating disorders symptoms using both implicit and explicit assessments. Emirati female college students (N=94) completed an affective priming task (APT) designed to implicitly assess Emirati in-group evaluations. Participants also completed explicit measures, including the Westernization Survey and the Multicomponent In-group Identification Scale. Eating disorders symptoms were assessed using the Eating Attitudes Test. Only implicit in-group evaluations were correlated with eating disorders symptoms. Specifically, increases in in-group preference were associated with lower levels of eating disorders symptomatology. Furthermore, participants with an actual out-group preference had significantly higher levels of eating disorders symptomatology compared with those demonstrating an in-group preference. These findings support the acculturative stress hypothesis, and suggest that the relationship between eating disorders and acculturation may be better understood with reference to implicit rather than explicit in-group evaluations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zaers, Stefanie; Waschke, Melanie; Ehlert, Ulrike
This study examined the course of psychological problems in women from late pregnancy to six months postpartum, the rates of psychiatric, especially depressive and post-traumatic stress symptoms and possible related antecedent variables. During late pregnancy, one to three days postpartum, six weeks and six months postpartum, 47 of the 60 participating women completed a battery of questionnaires including the General Health Questionnaire, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, and the PTSD Symptom Scale. In general, most women recovered from psychiatric and somatic problems over the period of investigation. However, depressive and post-traumatic stress symptoms in particular were not found to decline significantly. Six weeks postpartum, 22% of the women had depressive symptoms, with this figure remaining at 21.3% six months postpartum. In addition, 6% of the women studied reported clinically significant PTSD symptoms at six weeks postpartum with 14.9% reporting such symptoms at six months postpartum. The most important predictor for depressive and post-traumatic stress symptoms was the block variable "anxiety in late pregnancy". Other predictors were the variables "psychiatric symptoms in late pregnancy", "critical life events" and the "experience of delivery". The results of our study show a high prevalence rate of psychiatric symptoms in women after childbirth and suggest, besides the experience of the delivery itself, a vulnerability or predisposing history that makes the development of psychiatric symptoms after childbirth more probable.
Chantal J. Slor
Full Text Available Background. Features that may allow early identification of patients at risk of prolonged delirium, and therefore of poorer outcomes, are not well understood. The aim of this study was to determine if preoperative delirium risk factors and delirium symptoms (at onset and clinical symptomatology during the course of delirium are associated with delirium duration. Methods. This study was conducted in prospectively identified cases of incident delirium. We compared patients experiencing delirium of short duration (1 or 2 days with patients who had more prolonged delirium (≥3 days with regard to DRS-R-98 (Delirium Rating Scale Revised-98 symptoms on the first delirious day. Delirium symptom profile was evaluated daily during the delirium course. Results. In a homogenous population of 51 elderly hip-surgery patients, we found that the severity of individual delirium symptoms on the first day of delirium was not associated with duration of delirium. Preexisting cognitive decline was associated with prolonged delirium. Longitudinal analysis using the generalised estimating equations method (GEE identified that more severe impairment of long-term memory across the whole delirium episode was associated with longer duration of delirium. Conclusion. Preexisting cognitive decline rather than severity of individual delirium symptoms at onset is strongly associated with delirium duration.
Takeuchi, Hiroyoshi; Fervaha, Gagan; Lee, Jimmy; Agid, Ofer; Remington, Gary
Brief assessments have the potential to be widely adopted as outcome measures in research but also routine clinical practice. Existing brief rating scales that assess symptoms of schizophrenia or psychosis have a number of limitations including inability to capture five symptom domains of psychosis and a lack of clearly defined operational anchor points for scoring. We developed a new brief rating scale for five symptom domains of psychosis with clearly defined operational anchor points - the Brief Evaluation of Psychosis Symptom Domains (BE-PSD). To examine the psychometric properties of the BE-PSD, fifty patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were included in this preliminary cross-sectional study. To test the convergent and discriminant validity of the BE-PSD, correlational analyses were employed using the consensus Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) five-factor model. To examine the inter-rater reliability of the BE-PSD, single measures intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated for 11 patients. The BE-PSD domain scores demonstrated high convergent validity with the corresponding PANSS factor score (rs = 0.81-0.93) as well as good discriminant validity, as evidenced by lower correlations with the other PANSS factors (rs = 0.23-0.62). The BE-PSD also demonstrated excellent inter-rater reliability for each of the domain scores and the total scores (ICC(2,1) = 0.79-0.96). The present preliminary study found the BE-PSD measure to be valid and reliable; however, further studies are needed to establish the psychometric properties of the BE-PSD because of the limitations such as the small sample size and lacking data on test-retest reliability or sensitivity to change. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The degrees to which residual symptoms in major depressive disorder (MDD adversely affect patient functioning is not known. This post-hoc analysis explored the association between different residual symptoms and patient functioning. Methods Patients with MDD who responded (≥50% on the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression; HAMD-17 after 3 months of treatment (624/930 were included. Residual core mood-symptoms (HAMD-17 core symptom subscale ≥1, residual insomnia-symptoms (HAMD-17 sleep subscale ≥1, residual anxiety-symptoms (HAMD-17-anxiety subscale ≥1, residual somatic-symptoms (HAMD-17 Item 13 ≥1, pain (Visual Analogue Scale ≥30, and functioning were assessed after 3 months treatment. A stepwise logistic regression model with normal functioning (Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale ≥80 as the dependent variable was used. Results After 3 months, 59.5% of patients (371/624 achieved normal functioning and 66.0% (412/624 were in remission. Residual symptom prevalence was: core mood symptoms 72%; insomnia 63%; anxiety 78%; and somatic symptoms 41%. Pain reported in 18%. Factors associated with normal functioning were absence of core mood symptoms (odds ratio [OR] 8.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.6–16.7, absence of insomnia symptoms (OR 1.8; 95% CI, 1.2–2.7, episode length (4–24 weeks vs. ≥24 weeks [OR 2.0; 95% CI, 1.1–3.6] and better baseline functioning (OR 1.0; 95% CI, 1.0–1.1. A significant interaction between residual anxiety symptoms and pain was found (p = 0.0080. Conclusions Different residual symptoms are associated to different degrees with patient functioning. To achieve normal functioning, specific residual symptoms domains might be targeted for treatment.
Rodríguez-Orozco, Alain R; Kanán-Cedeño, E G; Guillén Martínez, E; Campos Garibay, M J
Emotional factors and a recurrent psychosomatic environment, have been implicated in the evolution of atopic dermatitis. These, in turn, affect the disease. This study was under taken to evaluate the functioning of families with a child that has atopic dermatitis without skin symptoms and the parents' perceptions of their child's disease.Semi-quantitative and cross-sectional study in which questionnaires were applied: one to study family functioning (Espejel et al. scale) and the second to determine aspects of parental perception of their child's atopic dermatitis. Pearson's correlation was used to analyze the correlation between the categories of the Family Function Scale.The most affected categories of family functioning were authority, handling of disruptive conduct, communication, and negative affect. The most significant positive correlations between the categories of family functioning were: authority and support, r=0.867, pparents, 66.4% thought that the pharmacotherapy used for their child's atopic dermatitis was not effective, and 33.3% of parents stated that the disease had affected their child's daily activities.In families of children with atopic dermatitis, various family environment factors facilitate the recurrence of symptoms even when no cutaneous lesions have been found on the child. The identification and use of family resources to face this disease are aspects that should be taken into consideration during the psychotherapeutic management of these families, putting emphasis on the most affected functional categories of these families in a strategy that should be implanted in a multi-disciplinary context.
Using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) to Define Different Domains of Negative Symptoms: Prediction of Everyday Functioning by Impairments in Emotional Expression and Emotional Experience.
Harvey, Philip D; Khan, Anzalee; Keefe, Richard S E
Background: Reduced emotional experience and expression are two domains of negative symptoms. The authors assessed these two domains of negative symptoms using previously developed Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) factors. Using an existing dataset, the authors predicted three different elements of everyday functioning (social, vocational, and everyday activities) with these two factors, as well as with performance on measures of functional capacity. Methods: A large (n=630) sample of people with schizophrenia was used as the data source of this study. Using regression analyses, the authors predicted the three different aspects of everyday functioning, first with just the two Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale factors and then with a global negative symptom factor. Finally, we added neurocognitive performance and functional capacity as predictors. Results: The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale reduced emotional experience factor accounted for 21 percent of the variance in everyday social functioning, while reduced emotional expression accounted for no variance. The total Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale negative symptom factor accounted for less variance (19%) than the reduced experience factor alone. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale expression factor accounted for, at most, one percent of the variance in any of the functional outcomes, with or without the addition of other predictors. Implications: Reduced emotional experience measured with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, often referred to as "avolition and anhedonia," specifically predicted impairments in social outcomes. Further, reduced experience predicted social impairments better than emotional expression or the total Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale negative symptom factor. In this cross-sectional study, reduced emotional experience was specifically related with social outcomes, accounting for essentially no variance in work or everyday activities, and being the
Giri, Rajendra Kumar; Khatri, Resham Bahadur; Mishra, Shiva Raj; Khanal, Vishnu; Sharma, Vidya Dev; Gartoula, Ritu Prasad
Post-partum depression is a common complication of women after childbirth. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of and factors associated with depressive symptoms among post-partum mothers attending a child immunization clinic at a maternity hospital in Kathmandu, Nepal. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 346 post-partum mothers at six to ten weeks after delivery using systematic random sampling. Mothers were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was used to screen for depressive symptoms. Logistic regression analysis was used to calculate the association of post-partum depressive symptoms with socio-demographic and maternal factors. The prevalence of post-partum depressive symptoms among mothers was 30%. Mothers aged 20 to 29 years were less likely to have depressive symptoms (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 0.40; 95% CI: 0.21-0.76) compared to older mothers. Similarly, mothers with a history of pregnancy-induced health problems were more likely to have depressive symptoms (aOR = 2.16; CI: 1.00-4.66) and subjective feelings of stress (aOR = 3.86; CI: 1.84-4.66) than mothers who did not. The number of post-partum mothers experiencing depressive symptoms was high; almost one-third of the participants reported having them. Pregnancy-induced health problems and subjective feelings of stress during pregnancy in the post-partum period were found to be associated with depressive symptoms among these women. Screening of depressive symptoms should be included in routine antenatal and postnatal care services for early identification and prevention.
van Erp, Theo G M; Preda, Adrian; Nguyen, Dana; Faziola, Lawrence; Turner, Jessica; Bustillo, Juan; Belger, Aysenil; Lim, Kelvin O; McEwen, Sarah; Voyvodic, James; Mathalon, Daniel H; Ford, Judith; Potkin, Steven G; Fbirn
The Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS), the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS), and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale for Schizophrenia (PANSS) are the most widely used schizophrenia symptom rating scales, but despite their co-existence for 25 years no easily usable between-scale conversion mechanism exists. The aim of this study was to provide equations for between-scale symptom rating conversions. Two-hundred-and-five schizophrenia patients [mean age±SD=39.5±11.6, 156 males] were assessed with the SANS, SAPS, and PANSS. Pearson's correlations between symptom scores from each of the scales were computed. Linear regression analyses, on data from 176 randomly selected patients, were performed to derive equations for converting ratings between the scales. Intraclass correlations, on data from the remaining 29 patients, not part of the regression analyses, were performed to determine rating conversion accuracy. Between-scale positive and negative symptom ratings were highly correlated. Intraclass correlations between the original positive and negative symptom ratings and those obtained via conversion of alternative ratings using the conversion equations were moderate to high (ICCs=0.65 to 0.91). Regression-based equations may be useful for conversion between schizophrenia symptom severity as measured by the SANS/SAPS and PANSS, though additional validation is warranted. This study's conversion equations, implemented at http:/converteasy.org, may aid in the comparison of medication efficacy studies, in meta- and mega-analyses examining symptoms as moderator variables, and in retrospective combination of symptom data in multi-center data sharing projects that need to pool symptom rating data when such data are obtained using different scales. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Huisman-van Dijk, Hilde M; Schoot, Rens van de; Rijkeboer, Marleen M; Mathews, Carol A; Cath, Daniëlle C
Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome (GTS) is a disorder in which obsessive-compulsive (OC), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and autism symptoms occur in up to 60% of patients, suggesting shared etiology. We explored the phenotypic structure of tic, OC, ADHD, and autism symptoms as measured by the YGTSS,Y-BOCS,CAARS and AQ, in 225 GTS patients and 371 family members. First, Confirmatory Factor Analyses (CFA) were performed on the symptom structure of each separate symptom scale. Second, the symptom dimensions derived from each scale were combined in one model, and correlations between them were calculated. Using the correlation matrix, Exploratory Factor Analyses (EFA) were performed on the symptom dimensions across the scales. EFA revealed a five factor structure: tic/aggression/symmetry; OC symptoms/compulsive tics/ numbers and patterns; ADHD symptoms; autism symptoms; and hoarding/inattention symptoms. The results are partly in line with the traditional categorical boundaries of the symptom scales used, and partly reveal a symptom structure that cuts through the diagnostic categories. This phenotypic structure might more closely reflect underlying etiologies than a structure that classically describes GTS patients according to absence or presence of comorbid OCD, ADHD and autism, and might inform both future genetic and treatment studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tomitaka, Shinichiro; Kawasaki, Yohei; Ide, Kazuki; Yamada, Hiroshi; Miyake, Hirotsugu; Furukawa, Toshiaki A; Furukaw, Toshiaki A
In a previous study, we reported that the distribution of total depressive symptoms scores according to the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) in a general population is stable throughout middle adulthood and follows an exponential pattern except for at the lowest end of the symptom score. Furthermore, the individual distributions of 16 negative symptom items of the CES-D exhibit a common mathematical pattern. To confirm the reproducibility of these findings, we investigated the distribution of total depressive symptoms scores and 16 negative symptom items in a sample of Japanese employees. We analyzed 7624 employees aged 20-59 years who had participated in the Northern Japan Occupational Health Promotion Centers Collaboration Study for Mental Health. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the CES-D. The CES-D contains 20 items, each of which is scored in four grades: "rarely," "some," "much," and "most of the time." The descriptive statistics and frequency curves of the distributions were then compared according to age group. The distribution of total depressive symptoms scores appeared to be stable from 30-59 years. The right tail of the distribution for ages 30-59 years exhibited a linear pattern with a log-normal scale. The distributions of the 16 individual negative symptom items of the CES-D exhibited a common mathematical pattern which displayed different distributions with a boundary at "some." The distributions of the 16 negative symptom items from "some" to "most" followed a linear pattern with a log-normal scale. The distributions of the total depressive symptoms scores and individual negative symptom items in a Japanese occupational setting show the same patterns as those observed in a general population. These results show that the specific mathematical patterns of the distributions of total depressive symptoms scores and individual negative symptom items can be reproduced in an occupational population.
Meijer, Julia H; van Harten, Peter; Meijer, Carin J; Koeter, Maarten W; Bruggeman, Richard; Cahn, Wiepke; Kahn, René S; de Haan, L
Olfactory identification deficits (OIDs) are seen in schizophrenia patients and individuals at increased risk for psychosis but its pathophysiology remains unclear. Although dopaminergic imbalance is known to lie at the core of schizophrenia symptomatology, its role in the development of OIDs has not been elucidated yet. This study investigated the association between OIDs and symptoms of parkinsonism as a derivative of dopaminergic functioning. In 320 patients diagnosed with non-affective psychosis, olfactory identification performance was assessed by means of the Sniffin' Sticks task. Level of parkinsonian symptoms was assessed by means of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS-III). By means of multiple linear regression with bootstrapping, the association between UPDRS and Sniffin' Sticks score was investigated while correcting for potential confounders. A Bonferroni corrected P-value of 0.007 was used. Higher UPDRS scores significantly predicted worse olfactory identification in patients with non-affective psychosis with an unadjusted b = -0.07 (95% CI -0.10 to -0.04) and an adjusted b = -0.04 (95% CI -0.07 to -0.01). Results provide preliminary evidence that the same vulnerability may underlie the development of parkinsonism and OIDs in patients with non-affective psychosis. Further investigation should evaluate the clinical value of OIDs as a marker of dopaminergic vulnerability that may predict psychosis. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Mander, Johannes; Schaller, Georg; Bents, Hinrich; Dinger, Ulrike; Zipfel, Stephan; Junne, Florian
Therapeutic intervention programs for somatic symptom disorder (SSD) show only small-to-moderate effect sizes. These effects are partly explained by the motivational problems of SSD patients. Hence, fostering treatment motivation could increase treatment success. One central aspect in SSD patients might be damage to motivation because of symptomatic relapses. Consequently, the aim of the present study was to investigate associations between motivational relapse struggle and therapeutic outcome in SSD patients. We assessed 84 inpatients diagnosed with SSD in the early, middle and late stages of their inpatient treatment. The maintenance subscale of the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment-Short (URICA-S) was applied as a measure to assess motivational relapse struggle. Additionally, patients completed measures of treatment outcome that focus on clinical symptoms, stress levels and interpersonal functioning. The results from multiple regression analyses indicate that higher URICA-S maintenance scores assessed in early stages of inpatient treatment were related to more negative treatment outcomes in SSD patients. SSD patients with ambivalent treatment motivation may fail in their struggle against relapse over the course of therapy. The URICA-S maintenance score assessed at therapy admission facilitated early identification of SSD patients who are at greater risk of relapse. Future studies should incorporate randomized controlled trials to investigate whether this subgroup could benefit from motivational interventions that address relapse.
Cordova, M J; Studts, J L; Hann, D M; Jacobsen, P B; Andrykowski, M A
Identification of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and diagnoses in survivors of cancer is a growing area of research, but no published data exist regarding the symptom structure of PTSD in survivors of malignant disease. Findings from investigations of the PTSD symptom structure in other trauma populations have been inconsistent and have not been concordant with the re-experiencing, avoidance/numbing, and arousal symptom clusters specified in DSM-IV. The present study employed confirmatory factor analysis to evaluate the extent to which the implied second-order factor structure of PTSD was replicated in a sample of 142 breast cancer survivors. PTSD symptoms were measured using the PTSD Checklist--Civilian Version (PCL-C). Fit indices reflected a moderate fit of the symptom structure implied by the DSM-IV. These findings provide some tentative support for the DSM-IV clustering of PTSD symptoms and for the validity of cancer-related PTSD.
Egberts, P; Bennewitz, R
Indentation experiments on the nanometre scale have been performed by means of atomic force microscopy in ultra-high vacuum on KBr(100) surfaces. The surfaces yield in the form of discrete surface displacements with a typical length scale of 1 A. These surface displacements are detected in both normal and lateral directions. Measurement of the lateral tip displacement requires a load-dependent calibration due to the load dependence of the effective lateral compliance. Correlation of the lateral and normal displacements for each glide event allow identification of the activated slip system. The results are discussed in terms of the resolved shear stress in indentation experiments and of typical results in atomistic simulations of nanometre-scale indentation.
Zainun, Zuraida; Zakaria, Mohd Normani; Sidek, Dinsuhaimi; Ismail, Zalina
The Vertigo symptom scale (VSS) is a well established tool for the evaluation of vestibular disorders and the associated symptoms of autonomic arousal and somatosensation. By using a validated Malay version of vertigo symptom scale (MVVSS) questionnaire, the severity of the vertigo from patients' perspective can be determined and rated. Before MVVSS can be applied clinically among Malaysians, it was of interest to determine its clinical value in identifying vestibular disorders. Forty normal and 65 PVD subjects participated in this cross-sectional study. Normal subjects were recruited amongst Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) staff and students who had no history of ear and vestibular disorders. Mean total score of MVVSS in normal and PVD subjects were 13.9 +/- 11.1 and 30.1 +/- 20.9, respectively. When the total scores of normal and PVD group were compared, the Mann-Whitney U test showed that there was a significant difference between the two groups (p PVD [benign paroxymal positional vertigo (BPPV), Meniere's disease, labyrinthitis and unknown] have different MVVSS results. However, analysis of variance (ANOVA) found no significant difference in term of outcomes of MVVSS among the different PVD pathologies. Using receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) method, the sensitivity and specificity of MVVSS were 71% and 60%, respectively. MVVSS is able to discriminate clinically among the normal and PVD subjects. However, it is not a good indicator for differential diagnosis of PVD subtypes, at least in this study. Its sensitivity and specificity in clinical diagnosis are reasonably high. Perhaps a bigger sample size would be useful to further study the clinical usefulness of MVVSS.
Full Text Available The behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD have been a difficult management area for neurologists and psychiatrists alike. The correct identification of each symptom and the underlying precipitating cause is the key to proper management-nonpharmacological as well as pharmacological. BPSD has been well documented in all types of dementia in various stages of the disease and in all dementias at an advanced stage. The proper management is not only rewarding in terms of responsiveness in an otherwise "incurable" and progressive disease, but also improves the quality of life of the patients and the caregivers alike. The caregiver burden is greatly decreased by an efficient management of BPSD. This review discusses the implications and boundaries of the term BPSD and unravels each symptom and its identification. Manifestations of psychological symptoms such as delusion, hallucination, misidentification, psychosis, depression, apathy, and anxiety are briefly described. Correct identification of behavior symptoms such as wandering, agitation, catastrophic reaction, disinhibition, and delirium has been outlined. While the subtle differences in each entity make the precise identification difficult, the different therapeutics of each make the exercise necessary. Pharmacological recommendations and side effects of medications have been mentioned thereafter. The review will help in the identification and correct pharmacological management of BPSD.
Full Text Available Elite young athletes have to cope with multiple psychological demands such as training volume, mental and physical fatigue, spatial separation of family and friends or time management problems may lead to reduced mental and physical recovery. While normative data regarding symptoms of anxiety and depression for the general population is available (Hinz and Brähler, 2011, hardly any information exists for adolescents in general and young athletes in particular. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess overall symptoms of anxiety and depression in young athletes as well as possible sex differences. The survey was carried out within the scope of the study “Resistance Training in Young Athletes” (KINGS-Study. Between August 2015 and September 2016, 326 young athletes aged (mean ± SD 14.3 ± 1.6 years completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD Scale. Regarding the analysis of age on the anxiety and depression subscales, age groups were classified as follows: late childhood (12–14 years and late adolescence (15–18 years. The participating young athletes were recruited from Olympic weight lifting, handball, judo, track and field athletics, boxing, soccer, gymnastics, ice speed skating, volleyball, and rowing. Anxiety and depression scores were (mean ± SD 4.3 ± 3.0 and 2.8 ± 2.9, respectively. In the subscale anxiety, 22 cases (6.7% showed subclinical scores and 11 cases (3.4% showed clinical relevant score values. When analyzing the depression subscale, 31 cases (9.5% showed subclinical score values and 12 cases (3.7% showed clinically important values. No significant differences were found between male and female athletes (p ≥ 0.05. No statistically significant differences in the HADS scores were found between male athletes of late childhood and late adolescents (p ≥ 0.05. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing questionnaire based indicators of symptoms of anxiety and depression in young
Full Text Available Abstract Background Family members of relatives with eating disorders experience high levels of distress due to the difficulties in their care giving role. However no measures have been developed to measure the specific impact that an individual with an eating disorder has on family life. The aim of this study was to develop a measure to assess the specific caregiving burden of both anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. A secondary aim was to examine whether this measure was sensitive to change. Methods A new scale, the Eating Disorders Symptom Impact Scale (EDSIS, was generated by a panel of clinicians and researchers based upon quantitative and qualitative work with carers and reviewed by a panel of "expert carers". A cross-sectional study was conducted among carers of relatives with an eating disorder to examine the properties of the new scale. In addition, participants from an ongoing pre-and-post design study completed several self-report questionnaires to assess the sensitivity of the EDSIS to change. Results A sample of 196 carers of relatives with an eating disorder aged 25–68 compted the scale. A 24-item EDSIS scale was derived with four factors: nutrition, guilt, dysregulated behaviour and social isolation. These explained 58.4% of the variance in carer distress. Reliability was acceptable (Cronbach's alpha ranged from 0.84 to 0.90. The convergent validity of the EDSIS subscales was moderately supported by correlations with a general caregiving measure (Experience of Caregiving Inventory (ECI, r = 0.42 to 0.60, psychological distress (General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12, r = 0.33 and perceived functioning of the relative (Children Global Assessment Scale (CGAS, r = -30. A sample of 57 primary caregivers completed pre-post intervention assessments and the overall scale (t = 2.3, p Conclusion The EDSIS instrument has good psychometric properties and may be of value to assess the impact of eating disorder symptoms on family members. It
Benoussaad, Mourad; Poignet, Philippe; Hayashibe, Mitsuhiro; Azevedo-Coste, Christine; Fattal, Charles; Guiraud, David
We investigated the parameter identification of a multi-scale physiological model of skeletal muscle, based on Huxley's formulation. We focused particularly on the knee joint controlled by quadriceps muscles under electrical stimulation (ES) in subjects with a complete spinal cord injury. A noninvasive and in vivo identification protocol was thus applied through surface stimulation in nine subjects and through neural stimulation in one ES-implanted subject. The identification protocol included initial identification steps, which are adaptations of existing identification techniques to estimate most of the parameters of our model. Then we applied an original and safer identification protocol in dynamic conditions, which required resolution of a nonlinear programming (NLP) problem to identify the serial element stiffness of quadriceps. Each identification step and cross validation of the estimated model in dynamic condition were evaluated through a quadratic error criterion. The results highlighted good accuracy, the efficiency of the identification protocol and the ability of the estimated model to predict the subject-specific behavior of the musculoskeletal system. From the comparison of parameter values between subjects, we discussed and explored the inter-subject variability of parameters in order to select parameters that have to be identified in each patient.
Stasik, Sara M.; Naragon-Gainey, Kristin; Chmielewski, Michael; Watson, David
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a heterogeneous condition, comprised of multiple symptom domains. This study used aggregate composite scales representing three core OCD dimensions (Checking, Cleaning, Rituals), as well as Hoarding, to examine the discriminant validity, diagnostic specificity, and predictive ability of OCD symptom scales. The core OCD scales demonstrated strong patterns of convergent and discriminant validity – suggesting that these dimensions are distinct from other self-reported symptoms – whereas hoarding symptoms correlated just as strongly with OCD and non-OCD symptoms in most analyses. Across analyses, our results indicated that Checking is a particularly strong, specific marker of OCD diagnosis, whereas the specificity of Cleaning and Hoarding to OCD was less strong. Finally, the OCD Checking scale was the only significant predictor of OCD diagnosis in logistic regression analyses. Results are discussed with regard to the importance of assessing OCD symptom dimensions separately and implications for classification. PMID:23026094
Gomez, Rapson; Vance, Alasdair
This study examined differential symptom functioning (DSF) in ADHD symptoms across Malay and Chinese children in Malaysia. Malay (N=571) and Chinese (N=254) parents completed the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale, which lists the DSM-IV ADHD symptoms. DSF was examined using the multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC) structural equation modeling procedure. Although DSF was found for a single inattention (IA) symptom and three hyperactivity-impulsivity (HI) symptoms, all these differences had low effect sizes. Controlling for these DSF, Chinese children had higher IA and HI latent factor scores. However the effect sizes were small. Together, these findings suggest adequate support for invariance of the ADHD symptoms across these ethno-cultural groups. The implications of the findings for cross-cultural invariance of the ADHD symptoms are discussed.
Full Text Available Since the number and proportion of old people increases worldwide, health professionals and systems should be made aware and prepared to deal with their problems. Cognitive deficit and symptoms of depression are commom among the elderly, and may occur in relation to various risk factors such as health conditions and psychosocial variables. In order to study cognitive deficit and the presence of signs and symptoms of depression, 62 elderly community subjects enrolled at a Community Health Unit in Porto Alegre, southern Brazil, were interviewed. They were evaluated by means of the Mini Mental State Exam, the Montgomery-Asberg Depression rating scale, and a questionnaire on health conditions, living arrangements and social variables. Higher levels of symptoms of depression were observed among subjects exposed to major risk factors for cerebrovascular diseases (diabetes and coronary disease, while impaired cognitive performance was seen among individuals who could not count on the presence of a confidant (social network variable. The results suggest that the early identification of major risk groups among old people can help to prevent institutionalization and keep individuals in the community.
King, Madeleine T; Stockler, Martin R; Butow, Phyllis; O'Connell, Rachel; Voysey, Merryn; Oza, Amit M; Gillies, Kim; Donovan, Heidi S; Mercieca-Bebber, Rebecca; Martyn, Julie; Sjoquist, Katrin; Friedlander, Michael L
The aim of this study was to determine the optimal patient-reported outcome measure (PROM) for assessing symptom benefit in trials of palliative chemotherapy for women with symptomatic ovarian cancer. Candidate PROMs were EORTC QLQ-C30 plus ovarian-specific QLQ-OV28, Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Ovarian (FACT-O), FACT Ovarian Symptom Index (FOSI), and gynecologic cancer-specific Symptom Representation Questionnaire. Predefined optimality criteria were inclusion of all symptoms necessary for the specified purpose, recall period covering typical length of palliative chemotherapy, numerical item rating scales, and all necessary symptoms included in a single symptom index. Qualitative and quantitative methods were applied to data from stage 1 of the Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup Symptom Benefit Study to determine the set of necessary symptoms and to objectively assess candidate PROMs against the optimality criteria. Ten necessary symptoms were identified: pain, fatigue, abdominal bloating/discomfort, sleep disturbance, bowel disturbance, nausea and vomiting, shortness of breath, poor appetite, urinary symptoms, and weight changes. Although QLQ-C30 and QLQ-OV28 together cover all these symptoms, they split them into numerous scales, dissipating potential symptom-benefit signal. Conversely, FACT-O does not cover all necessary symptoms and contains many other HRQoL-related items and treatment side effects, diluting potential symptom-benefit signal when summed into scales. Item response scales and composite scoring of all candidate PROMs were suboptimal to our specific purpose. We therefore developed a new PROM, the Measure of Ovarian Symptoms and Treatment (MOST) concerns, to provide optimal measurement for the specified purpose. This article documents the development of the MOST, a new PROM designed to assess patient-reported benefits and burden as end points in clinical trials of palliative chemotherapy for women with symptomatic ovarian cancer. The validity
Full Text Available Abstract Background Fibromyalgia (FM is a pain condition with associated symptoms contributing to distress. The Fibromyalgia Survey Diagnostic Criteria and Severity Scale (FSDC is a patient-administered questionnaire assessing diagnosis and symptom severity. Locations of body pain measured by the Widespread Pain Index (WPI, and the Symptom Severity scale (SS measuring fatigue, unrefreshing sleep, cognitive and somatic complaints provide a score (0–31, measuring a composite of polysymptomatic distress. The reliability and validity of the translated French version of the FSDC was evaluated. Methods The French FSDC was administered twice to 73 FM patients, and was correlated with measures of symptom status including: Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ, Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ, McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ, and a visual analogue scale (VAS for global severity and pain. Test-retest reliability, internal consistency, and construct validity were evaluated. Results Test-retest reliability was between .600 and .888 for the 25 single items of the FSDC, and .912 for the total FSDC, with all correlations significant (p Conclusions The French FSDC is a valid instrument in French FM patients with reliability and construct validity. It is easily completed, simple to score, and has the potential to become the standard for measurement of polysymptomatic distress in FM.
Holmquist, Sofie; Mattsson, Sabina; Schele, Ingrid; Nordström, Peter; Nordström, Anna
The identification of potential high-risk groups for depression is of importance. The purpose of the present study was to identify high-risk profiles for depressive symptoms in older individuals, with a focus on functional performance. The population-based Healthy Ageing Initiative included 2,084 community-dwelling individuals (49% women) aged 70. Explorative cluster analysis was used to group participants according to functional performance level, using measures of basic mobility skills, gait variability, and grip strength. Intercluster differences in depressive symptoms (measured by the Geriatric Depression Scale [GDS]-15), physical activity (PA; measured objectively with the ActiGraph GT3X+), and a rich set of covariates were examined. The cluster analysis yielded a seven-cluster solution. One potential high-risk cluster was identified, with overrepresentation of individuals with GDS scores >5 (15.1 vs. 2.7% expected; relative risk = 6.99, P risk cluster had significant overrepresentations of obese individuals (39.7 vs. 17.4% expected) and those with type 2 diabetes (24.7 vs. 8.5% expected), and underrepresentation of individuals who fulfilled the World Health Organization's PA recommendations (15.6 vs. 59.1% expected; all P risk profile for depressive symptoms among elderly community-dwelling individuals, which included low levels functional performance combined with low levels of PA. Including PA in medical screening of the elderly may aid in identification of potential high-risk individuals for depressive symptoms. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
van Zijl, Floris V W J; Timman, Reinier; Datema, Frank R
The nasal obstruction symptom evaluation (NOSE) scale is a validated disease-specific, self-completed questionnaire for the assessment of quality of life related to nasal obstruction. The aim of this study was to validate the Dutch (NL-NOSE) questionnaire. A prospective instrument validation study was performed in a tertiary academic referral center. Guidelines for the cross-cultural adaptation process from the original English language scale into a Dutch language version were followed. Patients undergoing functional septoplasty or septorhinoplasty and asymptomatic controls completed the questionnaire both before and 3 months after surgery to test reliability and validity. Additionally, we explored the possibility to reduce the NOSE scale even further using graded response models. 129 patients and 50 controls were included. Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha 0.82) and test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.89) were good. The instrument showed excellent between-group discrimination (Mann-Whitney U = 85, p Dutch version of the NOSE (NL-NOSE) demonstrated satisfactory reliability and validity. We recommend the use of the NL-NOSE as a validated instrument to measure subjective severity of nasal obstruction in Dutch adult patients.
Cerrillo-Urbina, Alberto José; García-Hermoso, Antonio; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente; Pardo-Guijarro, María Jesús; Ruiz-Hermosa, Abel; Sánchez-López, Mairena
The aims of our study were to: (i) determine the prevalence of children aged 4 to 6 years with probable Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms in the Spanish population; and (ii) analyse the association of probable ADHD symptoms with sex, age, type of school, origin (native or foreign) and socio-economic status in these children. This cross-sectional study included 1189 children (4 to 6 years-old) from 21 primary schools in 19 towns from the Ciudad Real and Cuenca provinces, Castilla-La Mancha region, Spain. The ADHD Rating Scales IV for parents and teachers was administered to determine the probability of ADHD. The 90th percentile cut-off was used to establish the prevalence of inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity and combined subtype. The prevalence of children with probable ADHD symptoms was 5.4% (2.6% inattention subtype symptoms, 1.5% hyperactivity/impulsivity subtype symptoms, and 1.3% combined subtype symptoms). Children aged 4 to 5 years showed a higher prevalence of probable ADHD in the inattention subtype symptoms and in total of all subtypes than children aged 6 years, and children with low socio-economic status reported a higher prevalence of probable ADHD symptoms (each subtype and total of all of them) than those with medium and high socio-economic status. Early diagnosis and an understanding of the predictors of being probable ADHD are needed to direct appropriate identification and intervention efforts. These screening efforts should be especially addressed to vulnerable groups, particularly low socio-economic status families and younger children.
Christianini, AR; Conti, MA; Hearst, N; Cordás, TA; De Abreu, CN; Tavares, H
© 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Background Kleptomania is characterized by repetitive stealing and has severe consequences for patients. Stigma, a lack of standardized therapy and a limited number of assessment tools hinder advances in treatment. This study provides preliminary data on the Portuguese-language version of the Kleptomania Symptom Assessment Scale (P-K-SAS) and preliminary data on an outpatient program. Methods Experts in the field analyzed an initial P-K-SAS version, p...
Lipskaya, Lena; Jarus, Tal; Kotler, Moshe
People with schizophrenia experience difficulties with instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), which are required for independent living. Yet, factors that influence IADL performance are still poorly understood. Identification of such factors will contribute to the rehabilitation process and recovery. The present study aimed to examine the influence of cognitive abilities, schizophrenia symptoms, and demographic variables on IADL functioning during acute hospital admission. The participants were 81 adults with DSM-IV chronic schizophrenia. They were assessed on the Revised Observed Tasks of Daily Living (OTDL-R), the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), the Neurobehavioral Cognitive Status Examination (Cognistat), and the Kitchen Task Assessment (KTA) at acute hospitalization. The prediction model of IADL performance at this time consists of executive functioning (explained 21% of variance), memory and abstract thinking (explained 13.5%), negative symptoms (explained 13%), age of illness onset and years of education (explained 8%). The total explained variance is 53.5%. These results provide evidence-based guidelines for the evaluation process in inpatient settings. Such guidelines are important since planning of intervention processes and appropriate community integration programs often occurs during acute hospitalization, while the structured nature of inpatient settings limits natural variability in occupational performance.
Zhong, Qiuyue; Gelaye, Bizu; Rondon, Marta; Sánchez, Sixto E; García, Pedro J; Sánchez, Elena; Barrios, Yasmin V; Simon, Gregory E.; Henderson, David C.; Cripe, Swee May; Williams, Michelle A
Objective We sought to evaluate the psychometric properties of two widely used screening scales: the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) among pregnant Peruvian women. Methods This cross-sectional study included 1,517 women receiving prenatal care from February 2012 to March 2013. A structured interview was used to collect data using PHQ-9 and EPDS. We examined reliability, construct and concurrent validity between two scales using internal consistency indices, factor structures, correlations, and Cohen’s kappa. Results Both scales had good internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha > 0.8). Correlation between PHQ-9 and EPDS scores was fair (rho=0.52). Based on exploratory factor analysis (EFA), both scales yielded a two-factor structure. EFA including all items from PHQ-9 and EPDS yielded four factors, namely, “somatization”, “depression and suicidal ideation”, “anxiety and depression”, and “anhedonia”. The agreement between the two scales was generally fair at different cutoff scores with the highest Cohen’s kappa being 0.46. Conclusions Both the PHQ-9 and EPDS are reliable and valid scales for antepartum depression assessment. The PHQ-9 captures somatic symptoms, while EPDS detects depressive symptoms comorbid with anxiety during early pregnancy. Our findings suggest simultaneous administration of both scales may improve identification of antepartum depressive disorders in clinical settings. PMID:24766996
Brinkkemper, T.; van Norel, A.M.; Szadek, K.M.; Loer, S.A.; Zuurmond, W.W.A.; Perez, R.S.G.M.
Background: Palliative sedation is the intentional lowering of consciousness of a patient in the last phase of life to relieve suffering from refractory symptoms such as pain, delirium and dyspnoea. Aim: In this systematic review, we evaluated the use of monitoring scales to assess the degree of
Meijer, J. L.; Beijers, C.; van Pampus, M. G.; Verbeek, T.; Stolk, R. P.; Milgrom, J.; Bockting, C. L. H.; Burger, H.
ObjectiveTo investigate whether the 10-item Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) administered antenatally is accurate in predicting postpartum depressive symptoms, and whether a two-item EPDS has similar predictive accuracy. DesignProspective cohort study. SettingObstetric care in the
O’Flynn, D; Crews, C; Drakos, I; Christodoulou, C; Speller, R D; Wilson, M D; Veale, M C; Seller, P
A transmission x-ray diffraction system has been developed using a pixellated, energy-resolving detector (HEXITEC) and a small-scale, mains operated x-ray source (Amptek Mini-X). HEXITEC enables diffraction to be measured without the requirement of incident spectrum filtration, or collimation of the scatter from the sample, preserving a large proportion of the useful signal compared with other diffraction techniques. Due to this efficiency, sufficient molecular information for material identification can be obtained within 5 s despite the relatively low x-ray source power. Diffraction data are presented from caffeine, hexamine, paracetamol, plastic explosives and narcotics. The capability to determine molecular information from aspirin tablets inside their packaging is demonstrated. Material selectivity and the potential for a sample classification model is shown with principal component analysis, through which each different material can be clearly resolved. (paper)
Mori, Mihoko; Hoshiko, Michiko; Hara, Kunio; Ishitake, Tatsuya; Saga, Tsuyoshi; Yamaki, Koichi
To examine the effect of large-scale repair work on indoor formaldehyde (FA) levels and subjective symptoms in medical students during a gross anatomy dissection course. We measured the indoor FA levels, room air temperature, and room humidity during a gross anatomy dissection course. In addition, the prevalence of subjective symptoms, keeping allergy state, and wearing personal protective equipment were surveyed in two groups of students using a self-administered questionnaire. The mean indoor FA levels before and after repair work were 1.22 ppm and 0.14 ppm, respectively. The mean indoor FA level significantly decreased after repair work. The prevalences of most subjective symptoms before the anatomy practice were similar before and after the repair work. However, the prevalences of most subjective symptoms during the anatomy practice were lower after the repair work. The mean indoor FA levels and prevalences of subjective symptoms decreased after the repair work. We have to continuously monitor indoor FA levels, carry out private countermeasures to minimize exposure to FA, and maintain equipment for ventilation to be able to conduct practice in a comfortable environment.
Peitl, Vjekoslav; Štefanović, Mario; Karlović, Dalibor
Although depressive symptoms seem to be frequent in schizophrenia they have received significantly less attention than other symptom domains. As impaired serotonergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission is implicated in the pathogenesis of depression and schizophrenia this study sought to investigate the putative association between several functional gene polymorphisms (SERT 5-HTTLPR, MAO-A VNTR, COMT Val158Met and DAT VNTR) and schizophrenia. Other objectives of this study were to closely examine schizophrenia symptom domains by performing factor analysis of the two most used instruments in this setting (Positive and negative syndrome scale - PANSS and Calgary depression rating scale - CDSS) and to examine the influence of investigated gene polymorphisms on the schizophrenia symptom domains, focusing on depressive scores. A total of 591 participants were included in the study (300 schizophrenic patients and 291 healthy volunteers). 192 (64%) of schizophrenic patients had significant depressive symptoms. Genotype distribution revealed no significant differences regarding all investigated polymorphisms except the separate gender analysis for MAO-A gene polymorphism which revealed significantly more allele 3 carriers in schizophrenic males. Factor analysis of the PANSS scale revealed the existence of five separate factors (symptom domains), while the CDSS scale revealed two distinct factors. Several investigated gene polymorphisms (mostly SERT and MAO-A, but also COMT) significantly influenced two factors from the PANSS (aggressive/impulsive and negative symptoms) and one from the CDSS scale (suicidality), respectively. Depressive symptoms in schizophrenic patients may be influenced by functional gene polymorphisms, especially those implicated in serotonergic neurotransmission. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Astafiev, A.; Orlov, A.; Privezencev, D.
The article is devoted to the development of technology and software for the construction of positioning and control systems for small mechanization in industrial plants based on radio frequency identification methods, which will be the basis for creating highly efficient intelligent systems for controlling the product movement in industrial enterprises. The main standards that are applied in the field of product movement control automation and radio frequency identification are considered. The article reviews modern publications and automation systems for the control of product movement developed by domestic and foreign manufacturers. It describes the developed algorithm for positioning of small-scale mechanization means in an industrial enterprise. Experimental studies in laboratory and production conditions have been conducted and described in the article.
de Silva H Janaka
Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD symptoms are common in asthma and have been extensively studied, but less so in the Asian continent. Reflux-associated respiratory symptoms (RARS have, in contrast, been little-studied globally. We report the prevalence of GORD symptoms and RARS in adult asthmatics, and their association with asthma severity and medication use. Methods A cross-sectional analytical study. A validated interviewer-administered GORD scale was used to assess frequency and severity of seven GORD symptoms. Subjects were consecutive asthmatics attending medical clinics. Controls were matched subjects without respiratory symptoms. Results The mean (SD composite GORD symptom score of asthmatics was significantly higher than controls (21.8 (17.2 versus 12.0 (7.6; P P Conclusions GORD symptoms and RARS were more prevalent in a cohort of Sri Lankan adult asthmatics compared to non-asthmatics. Increased prevalence of RARS is associated with both typical and atypical symptoms of GORD. Asthma disease and its severity, but not asthma medication, appear to influence presence of GORD symptoms.
Lyons, Eli; Sheridan, Paul; Tremmel, Georg; Miyano, Satoru; Sugano, Sumio
High-throughput screens allow for the identification of specific biomolecules with characteristics of interest. In barcoded screens, DNA barcodes are linked to target biomolecules in a manner allowing for the target molecules making up a library to be identified by sequencing the DNA barcodes using Next Generation Sequencing. To be useful in experimental settings, the DNA barcodes in a library must satisfy certain constraints related to GC content, homopolymer length, Hamming distance, and blacklisted subsequences. Here we report a novel framework to quickly generate large-scale libraries of DNA barcodes for use in high-throughput screens. We show that our framework dramatically reduces the computation time required to generate large-scale DNA barcode libraries, compared with a naїve approach to DNA barcode library generation. As a proof of concept, we demonstrate that our framework is able to generate a library consisting of one million DNA barcodes for use in a fragment antibody phage display screening experiment. We also report generating a general purpose one billion DNA barcode library, the largest such library yet reported in literature. Our results demonstrate the value of our novel large-scale DNA barcode library generation framework for use in high-throughput screening applications.
Khazaal, Yasser; Chatton, Anne; Horn, Alessandra; Achab, Sophia; Thorens, Gabriel; Zullino, Daniele; Billieux, Joël
The popularity of using the Internet and related applications has grown in European countries in the last two decades. Despite numerous advantages in terms of optimizing communications among individuals and social systems, the use of the Internet may be associated with excessive use and possible Internet addiction. The goals of the current study were to validate a French version of the compulsive Internet use scale (CIUS) and to assess its links with common psychiatric symptoms such as depression (assessed with the Beck depression inventory: BDI), anxiety (assessed with the trait anxiety inventory: STAI) and alcohol misuse (assessed with the alcohol use disorder identification test: AUDIT). The French versions of the CIUS, BDI, STAI and AUDIT were administered to a sample of Internet users. Exploratory and confirmatory analyses, correlation analysis and logistic regression were performed. As previously found with the original version, a one-factor model of the CIUS had good psychometric properties and fit the data well. Excessive use of the Internet was associated with depressive symptoms.
Madhavan, Aarthi; Carnaby, Giselle D; Crary, Michael A
Prevalence of the symptom of food 'sticking' during swallowing has been reported to range from 5 to 50%, depending on the assessment setting. However, limited objective evidence has emerged to clarify factors that contribute to this symptom. Three hundred and fifteen patient records from an outpatient dysphagia clinic were reviewed to identify patients with symptoms of 'food sticking in the throat.' Corresponding videofluoroscopic swallowing studies for patients with this complaint were reviewed for the following variables: accuracy of symptom localization, identification and characteristics (anatomic, physiologic) of an explanatory cause for the symptom, and the specific swallowed material that identified the explanatory cause. One hundred and forty one patients (45%) were identified with a complaint of food 'sticking' in their throat during swallowing. Prevalence of explanatory findings on fluoroscopy was 76% (107/141). Eighty five percent (91/107) of explanatory causes were physiologic in nature, while 15% (16/107) were anatomic. The majority of explanatory causes were identified in the esophagus (71%). Symptom localization was more accurate when the explanatory cause was anatomic versus physiologic (75 vs. 18%). A non-masticated marshmallow presented with the highest diagnostic yield in identification of explanatory causes (71%). Patients complaining of 'food sticking in the throat' are likely to present with esophageal irregularities. Thus, imaging studies of swallowing function should include the esophagus. A range of materials, including a non-masticated marshmallow, is helpful in determining the location and characteristics of swallowing deficits contributing to this symptom.
Yu, Rwei-Ling; Wu, Ruey-Meei; Chan, Anne Y Y; Mok, Vincent; Wu, Yih-Ru; Tilley, Barbara C; Luo, Sheng; Wang, Lu; LaPelle, Nancy R; Stebbins, Glenn T; Goetz, Christopher G
Given the importance of ethnic differences in the evaluation of various aspects of symptoms in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), we present the formal procedure for completing the traditional Chinese translation of the International and Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society/UPDRS (MDS-UPDRS) and highlight the discrepancy in nonmotor symptoms (NMS) between patients in Eastern and Western countries. A total of 350 native Chinese-speaking PD patients were recruited from multiple hospitals in Eastern countries; they completed the MDS-UPDRS. The translation process was executed and factor analysis was performed to determine the structure of the scale. Chi-squared and t tests were used to compare frequency and severity of PD symptoms between the Chinese-speaking and English-speaking groups (n = 876). NMS and motor symptoms were more severe in the Western population (Part I: t (1205) = 5.36, P < 0.0001; and Part III: t (1205) = 7.64, P < 0.0001); however, the prevalence of cognitive dysfunction and impairments in activities of daily living were more frequent in the Eastern patients. The comparative fit index was 0.93 or greater, and the exploratory factor analysis revealed compatible results between the translated scale and the original version. The traditional Chinese version of the MDS-UPDRS can be designated as an official translation of the original scale, and it is now available for use. Moreover, NMS in PD constitute a major issue worldwide, and the pattern of NMS among the Chinese population is more marked in terms of cognition-based symptoms and activities of daily living.
Early Psychosis Initiative of British Columbia
This document is an educational resource concerning the early identification of psychosis. Primary topics addressed include: an outline of the importance of early intervention; signs and symptoms of psychosis; and strategies for recognizing psychosis.
Kristensen, Ann Suhl; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Mors, Ole
The association between anxiety disorders and different measures of personality has been extensively studied to further the understanding of etiology, course, and treatment, and to possibly prevent the development of anxiety disorders. We have proposed a hierarchical model of bodily anxiety...... symptoms with 1 second-order severity factor and 5 first-order factors: cardio-respiratory, gastro-intestinal, autonomic, vertigo, and tension. The aim of this study was to investigate whether personality traits were differentially related to distinct symptom subdimensions or exclusively related...... to the general severity factor. Structural equation modeling of data on 120 patients with a primary diagnosis of social phobia and 207 patients with a primary diagnosis of panic disorder was used to examine the association between anxiety symptom dimensions and the scales of the Temperament and Character...
Terluin, B.; Smits, N.; Brouwers, E.P.M.; de Vet, H.C.W.
Background: The Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ) is a self-report questionnaire measuring distress, depression, anxiety and somatization with separate scales. The 4DSQ has extensively been validated in clinical samples, especially from primary care settings. Information about
Anderson, Ariana E; Reise, Steven P; Marder, Stephen R; Mansolf, Maxwell; Han, Carol; Bilder, Robert M
Objective: Total scale scores derived by summing ratings from the 30-item PANSS are commonly used in clinical trial research to measure overall symptom severity, and percentage reductions in the total scores are sometimes used to document the efficacy of treatment. Acknowledging that some patients may have substantial changes in PANSS total scores but still be sufficiently symptomatic to warrant diagnosis, ratings on a subset of 8 items, referred to here as the "Remission set," are sometimes used to determine if patients' symptoms no longer satisfy diagnostic criteria. An unanswered question remains: is the goal of treatment better conceptualized as reduction in overall symptom severity, or reduction in symptoms below the threshold for diagnosis? We evaluated the psychometric properties of PANSS total scores, to assess whether having low symptom severity post-treatment is equivalent to attaining Remission. Design: We applied a bifactor item response theory (IRT) model to post-treatment PANSS ratings of 3,647 subjects diagnosed with schizophrenia assessed at the termination of 11 clinical trials. The bifactor model specified one general dimension to reflect overall symptom severity, and five domain-specific dimensions. We assessed how PANSS item discrimination and information parameters varied across the range of overall symptom severity (θ), with a special focus on low levels of symptoms (i.e., θexpected PANSS item score of 1.83, a rating between "Absent" and "Minimal" for a PANSS symptom. Results: The application of the bifactor IRT model revealed: (1) 88% of total score variation was attributable to variation in general symptom severity, and only 8% reflected secondary domain factors. This implies that a general factor may provide a good indicator of symptom severity, and that interpretation is not overly complicated by multidimensionality; (2) Post-treatment, 534 individuals (about 15% of the whole sample) scored in the "Relief" range of general symptom
Terluin, B.; Smits, N.; Brouwers, E.P.M.; De Vet, H.C.W.
Background The Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ) is a self-report questionnaire measuring distress, depression, anxiety and somatization with separate scales. The 4DSQ has extensively been validated in clinical samples, especially from primary care settings. Information about measurement
Huang, Vivian; Beshai, Shadi; Korol, Stephanie; Nicholas Carleton, R
Depression is a significant contributor of global disease burden. Previous studies have revealed cross-cultural and gender differences in the presentation of depressive symptoms. Using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D), the present study examined differences in self-reported somatic, negative affective, and anhedonia symptoms of depression among Egyptian and Canadian university students. A total of 338 university students completed study questionnaires from two major universities in Egypt (n=152) and Canada (n=186). Symptom domains were calculated based on the 14-item model of the CES-D. We found significant culture by gender interactions of total CES-D scores, wherein Egyptian females reported higher scores compared to their Canadian and Egyptian male counterparts. Limitations include using analogue student samples and using only one self-report measure to examine different depressive symptom domains. Findings of this study provided support that males and females may differentially report depressive symptoms across cultures. Implications of these results are further discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Freyberger, H J; Spitzer, C; Stieglitz, R D; Kuhn, G; Magdeburg, N; Bernstein-Carlson, E
The "Fragebogen zu dissoziativen Symptomen (FDS)" represents the authorised German translation and adaptation of the "Dissociative Experience Scale" (DES; Bernstein and Putnam 1986). The original scale comprises 28 items covering dissociative experiences with regard to memory, identity, awareness and cognition according to DSM-III-R and DSM-IV. For the German version, 16 items were added to cover dissociative phenomena according to ICD-10, mainly pseudoneurological conversion symptoms. Reliability and validity of the German version were studied in a total sample of 813 persons and were compared to the results of the original version. Test-retest reliability of the FDS was rtt = 0.88 and Cronbach's consistency coefficient was alpha = 0.93, which is comparable to the results of the DES. The instrument differentiates between different samples (healthy control subjects, students, unselected neurological and psychiatric inpatients, neurological and psychiatric patients with a dissociative disorder and schizophrenics). The FDS is an easily applicable, reliable and valid measure to quantify dissociative experiences.
Grigolon, A.B.; Kemperman, A.D.A.M.; Timmermans, H.J.P.
In this paper, we report the results of a small–scale experiment to explore the potential of using social network technology for respondent recruitment. Of particular interest are the following questions (i) can social media be used for the identification of sampling frames, (ii) what response rates
Kong, X-b; Guan, H-t; Li, H-g; Zhou, Y; Xiong, C-l
In this study, the ageing males' symptoms (AMS) scale was translated into Chinese following methodological recommendations for linguistic and cultural adaptation. This study aimed to confirm the reliability, validation and applicability of the simplified Chinese version of the scale (CN-AMS) in older Chinese men, a free health screening for men older than 40 years was conducted. All participants completed a health questionnaire, which consisted of personal health information, AMS scale, the generic quality of life (QoL) instrument SF36 and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). The fasting blood samples of participants were collected on the day of completing the health questionnaire. Serum total testosterone (TT), albumin and sex hormone-binding globulin levels were measured and the level of free testosterone was calculated (calculated free testosterone, CFT). A total of 244 men (mean age: 52 ± 7.3 years, range: 40-79 years) were involved in the investigation and provided informed consent before their participation. The reliability of CN-AMS was analysed as internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha was 0.91) as well as a 4-week-interval test-retest stability (Pearson's correlation was 0.83) and found to be good. The validation of CN-AMS was analysed as the internal structure analysis (Pearson's correlation between total score and each item score r = 0.48-0.75), total-domain-correlation (among the three domains r = 0.47-0.68, p < 0.01; domains with the total score r = 0.81-0.88, p < 0.01), and cross-validation with other scales (with SF36 r = -0.59, p < 0.01; with BDI r = 0.50, p < 0.01). Androgen deficiency (AD) was defined as the presence of three sexual symptoms (decreased frequency of morning erections, sexual thoughts and erectile dysfunction) in combination with TT < 11 nmol/L and CFT < 220 pmol/L, and the sensitivity and specificity for CN-AMS was 68.8 and 6.8% respectively. The CN-AMS had sufficient sensitivity in
Kim, Yeowon A; Morales, Knashawn H; Bogner, Hillary R
To examine the role of ethnicity and primary care physician (PCP) identification of anxiety in older adults. A cross-sectional survey conducted between 2001 and 2003. Primary care offices in the Baltimore, Maryland, area. A sample of 330 adults aged 65 and older from Maryland primary care practices with complete information on psychological status and physician assessments. PCPs were asked to rate anxiety on a Likert scale. Patient interviews included measures of psychological status and patient use of psychotropic medications. Older black patients were less likely than older white patients to be identified as anxious (unadjusted odds ratio (OR)=0.34, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.18-0.64) and less likely to be taking psychotropic medications (unadjusted OR=0.40, 95% CI=0.20-0.81). In multivariate models that controlled for potentially influential characteristics including depression and anxiety symptoms, the association between identification (OR=0.30, 95% CI=0.15-0.61) with patient ethnicity remained significantly unchanged. PCPs were less likely to identify older black Americans as anxious than white patients. An understanding of the role of ethnicity in the identification of anxiety is important for the screening and management of anxiety in elderly people.
Hatłas, Marcin; Beluch, Witold
The paper is devoted to the evolutionary identification of the material constants of porous structures based on measurements conducted on a macro scale. Numerical homogenization with the RVE concept is used to determine the equivalent properties of a macroscopically homogeneous material. Finite element method software is applied to solve the boundary-value problem in both scales. Global optimization methods in form of evolutionary algorithm are employed to solve the identification task. Modal analysis is performed to collect the data necessary for the identification. A numerical example presenting the effectiveness of proposed attitude is attached.
Larrabee, Glenn J; Bianchini, Kevin J; Boone, Kyle B; Rohling, Martin L
To address (1) Whether there is empirical evidence for the contention of Nichols and Gass that the MMPI-2/MMPI-2-RF FBS/FBS-r Symptom Validity Scale is a measure of Litigation Response Syndrome (LRS), representing a credible set of responses and reactions of claimants to the experience of being in litigation, rather than a measure of non-credible symptom report, as the scale is typically used; and (2) to address their stated concerns about the validity of FBS/FBS-r meta-analytic results, and the risk of false positive elevations in persons with bona-fide medical conditions. Review of published literature on the FBS/FBS-r, focusing in particular on associations between scores on this symptom validity test and scores on performance validity tests (PVTs), and FBS/FBS-r score elevations in patients with genuine neurologic, psychiatric and medical problems. (1) several investigations show significant associations between FBS/FBS-r scores and PVTs measuring non-credible performance; (2) litigants who pass PVTs do not produce significant elevations on FBS/FBS-r; (3) non-litigating medical patients (bariatric surgery candidates, persons with sleep disorders, and patients with severe traumatic brain injury) who have multiple physical, emotional and cognitive symptoms do not produce significant elevations on FBS/FBS-r. Two meta-analytic studies show large effect sizes for FBS/FBS-r of similar magnitude. FBS/FBS-r measures non-credible symptom report rather than legitimate experience of litigation stress. Importantly, the absence of significant FBS/FBS-r elevations in litigants who pass PVTs demonstrating credible performance, directly contradicts the contention of Nichols and Gass that the scale measures LRS. These data, meta-analytic publications, and recent test use surveys support the admissibility of FBS/FBS-r under both Daubert and the older Frye criteria.
Zhan, Weihai; Shaboltas, Alla V.; Skochilov, Roman V.; Kozlov, Andrei P.; Krasnoselskikh, Tatiana V.; Abdala, Nadia
Background Gender differences in the relationship between alcohol use and depressive symptoms are inconsistent, and few studies have addressed this issue in Russia. Because this finding may have important implications for interventions to reduce alcohol misuse or alcohol related problems in Russia, we conducted a study to investigate whether the association between alcohol use and depressive symptoms differs by gender at high risk for HIV. Methods We used the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and the 10-item Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale to measure alcohol use and depressive symptoms among 307 patients who attended a clinic for sexually transmitted infections in St. Petersburg, Russia. Logistic regression models were applied for the analysis. Results The comparison of data between men and women revealed a significant quadratic term of alcohol use and significant interactions between alcohol use and gender on depressive symptoms. Men with an AUDIT score in the first and fourth quartiles were more likely to report depressive symptoms in comparison to men in the second quartile. Their odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were 7.54 (2.00–28.51) and 5.06 (1.31–19.63), respectively. Among women, a linear trend was observed such that those who misused alcohol were three times more likely to have depressive symptoms than those who did not misuse alcohol (OR = 3.03, 95% CI, 1.05–8.80). Conclusion The association between alcohol use and depressive symptoms differed by gender. Additional research is needed to investigate this relationship in Russia. Strategies to reduce alcohol-related problems in Russia may need to consider these differences. PMID:23240098
Evatt, Marian L; Chaudhuri, K Ray; Chou, Kelvin L; Cubo, Ester; Hinson, Vanessa; Kompoliti, Katie; Yang, Chengwu; Poewe, Werner; Rascol, Olivier; Sampaio, Cristina; Stebbins, Glenn T; Goetz, Christopher G
Upper and lower gastrointestinal dysautonomia symptoms (GIDS)--sialorrhea, dysphagia, and constipation are common in Parkinson's disease (PD) and often socially as well as physically disabling for patients. Available invasive quantitative measures for assessing these symptoms and their response to therapy are time-consuming, require specialized equipment, can cause patient discomfort and present patients with risk. The Movement Disorders Society commissioned a task force to assess available clinical rating scales, critique their clinimetric properties, and make recommendations regarding their clinical utility. Six clinical researchers and a biostatistician systematically searched the literature for scales of sialorrhea, dysphagia, and constipation, evaluated the scales' previous use, performance parameters, and quality of validation data (if available). A scale was designated "Recommended" if the scale was used in clinical studies beyond the group that developed it, has been specifically used in PD reports, and clinimetric studies have established that it is a valid, reliable, and sensitive. "Suggested" scales met at least part of the above criteria, but fell short of meeting all. Based on the systematic review, scales for individual symptoms of sialorrhea, dysphagia, and constipation were identified along with three global scales that include these symptoms in the context of assessing dysautonomia or nonmotor symptoms. Three sialorrhea scales met criteria for Suggested: Drooling Severity and Frequency Scale (DSFS), Drooling Rating Scale, and Sialorrhea Clinical Scale for PD (SCS-PD). Two dysphagia scales, the Swallowing Disturbance Questionnaire (SDQ) and Dysphagia-Specific Quality of Life (SWAL-QOL), met criteria for Suggested. Although Rome III constipation module is widely accepted in the gastroenterology community, and the earlier version from the Rome II criteria has been used in a single study of PD patients, neither met criteria for Suggested or Recommended
Dawber, Rebecca; Armour, Kathy; Ferry, Peter; Mukherjee, Bhaskar; Carter, Christopher; Meystre, Chantal
A prospective study of symptom assessments made by a healthcare professional (HCP; named nurse) and an informal caregiver (ICG) compared with that of the patient with a terminal diagnosis. To look at the validity of HCP and ICG as proxies, which symptoms they can reliably assess, and to determine who is the better proxy between HCP and ICG. A total of 50 triads of patient (>65 years) in the terminal phase, ICG and named nurse on medical wards of an acute general hospital. Assessments were made using the patient and caregiver versions of the palliative outcome scale (POS), all taken within a 24 h period. Agreement between patient-rated, ICG-rated and HCP-rated POS and POS for symptoms (POS-S) was measured using weighted-κ statistics. Demographic and clinical data on each group of participants were collected. ICG assessments have higher agreement with those of the patient than HCP. Better agreement in both groups was found for physical symptoms, and best agreement was for pain. The worst agreements were for psychological symptoms, such as anxiety and depression, and for satisfaction with information given. Psychological symptoms are overestimated by both ICG and HCP. ICGs are more reliable proxies than HCPs. A trend for overestimation of symptoms was found in both groups which may lead to undervaluation of the quality of life by proxy and overtreatment of symptoms. This highlights the need to always use the patient report when possible, and to be aware of the potential flaws in proxy assessment. Reasons for overestimation by proxies deserve further research. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Bødtger, Uffe; Poulsen, L K; Malling, H-J
in a double-blind study. Assessment of severity of symptoms from the nose, eyes and lungs were performed daily during the season 2000, and post-seasonally 6 months after the season in 1999 and 2000. A four-point verbal descriptor scale (VDS-4) was used at all occasions. A mean in-seasonal symptom rating...
Geukes, Marije; van Aalst, Mariëlle P; Nauta, Mary C E; Oosterhof, Henk
Menopause is an important life event that may have a negative influence on quality of life. Work ability, a concept widely used in occupational health, can predict both future impairment and duration of sickness absence. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of menopausal symptoms on work ability. This was a cross-sectional study that used a sample of healthy working Dutch women aged 44 to 60 years. Work ability was measured using the Work Ability Index, and menopausal symptoms were measured using the Greene Climacteric Scale. Stepwise multiple linear regression models were used to examine the relationship between menopausal symptoms and work ability. A total of 208 women were included in this study. There was a significant negative correlation between total Greene Climacteric Scale score and Work Ability Index score. Total Greene Climacteric Scale score predicted 33.8% of the total variance in the Work Ability Index score. Only the psychological and somatic subscales of the Greene Climacteric Scale were significant predictors in multiple linear regression analysis. Together, they accounted for 36.5% of total variance in Work Ability Index score. Menopausal symptoms are negatively associated with work ability and may increase the risk of sickness absence.
Bidikar, Mukta Pritam; Jagtap, Gayatri J; Chakor, Rahul T
Dysautonomia and non-motor symptoms (NMS) in Parkinson's disease (PD) are frequent, disabling and reduce quality of life of patient. There is a paucity of studies on autonomic dysfunction in PD in Indian population. The study aimed to evaluate autonomic dysfunction in PD patients and co-relate the findings with severity of PD and Non-Motor Symptoms Scale (NMSS) score. We evaluated autonomic function in 30 diagnosed patients of PD (age 55-70 years) and 30 healthy age-matched controls by 3 min deep breathing test (DBT). NMSS was used to identify non-motor symptoms and Hoehn and Yahr (HY) Scale to grade severity of PD. The DBT findings were co-related with severity of PD (HY staging) and NMSS score. DBT was found to be abnormal in 40% while it was on borderline in 33.3% of PD patients. There was a statistically significant difference (psymptom. A negative co-relation was found between results of deep breathing test and clinical severity of disease and NMSS score. Abnormalities of autonomic function and NMS were integral and present across all the stages of PD patients. Early recognition and treatment of these may decrease morbidity and improve quality of life of PD patients.
Alidjanov, J; Wolf, J; Schuppe, H-C; Weidner, W; Diemer, T; Linn, T; Halefeldt, I; Wagenlehner, F; Wiltink, J; Pilatz, A
As commonly used self-reported screening instruments for male hypogonadism demonstrated lack of specificity, a Hypogonadism Related Symptom Scale (HRS) was developed in 2009 as a novel self-rating screening tool. As the questionnaire has not been validated, the purpose of our study was to perform a validation in patients presenting with different disorders (e.g. infertility, HIV infection or metabolic syndrome) and disease-related risk to develop hypogonadism. Two hundred and eighteen patients aged 19-71 years (40.1 ± 9.5) who completed the HRS and other common questionnaires [International Index Of Erectile Function (IIEF), National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), short form (SF)-12] were included. In all patients, blood levels of total testosterone, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, oestradiol and sex hormone-binding globulin were determined and free testosterone was calculated. Cronbach's α for the scale was 0.896, split-half 0.871 for the 1st half and 0.807 for the 2nd half. Spearman-Brown coefficient was 0.767, and Guttman split-half coefficient was 0.759. Consistent correlations were found between HRS and IIEF5 (ρ = 0.57, P males with suspected hypogonadism. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Lee, Chin-Pang; Chiu, Yu-Wen; Chu, Chun-Lin; Chen, Yu; Jiang, Kun-Hao; Chen, Jiun-Liang; Chen, Ching-Yen
The aging males' symptoms (AMS) scale is an instrument used to determine the health-related quality of life in adult and elderly men. The purpose of this study was to synthesize internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) and test-retest reliability for the AMS scale and its three subscales. Of the 123 studies reviewed, 12 provided alpha coefficients which were then used in the meta-analyses of internal consistency. Seven of the 12 included studies provided test-retest coefficients, and these were used in the meta-analyses of test-retest reliability. The AMS scale had excellent internal consistency [α = 0.89 (95% CI 0.88-0.90)]; the mean alpha estimates across the AMS subscales ranged from 0.79 to 0.82. The AMS scale also had good test-retest reliability [r = 0.85 (95% CI 0.82-0.88]; the test-retest reliability coefficients of the AMS subscales ranged from 0.76 to 0.83. There was significant heterogeneity among the included studies. The AMS scale and the three subscales had fairly good internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Future psychometric studies of the AMS scale should report important characteristics of the participants, details of item scores, and test-retest reliability.
Ritsner, Michael S; Mar, Maria; Arbitman, Marina; Grinshpoon, Alexander
Innovations in DSM5 include dimensional diagnosis of schizophrenia (SZ) and other psychotic (OP) disorders using the symptom severity scale (SS-DSM5). We evaluated the psychometric properties and diagnostic validity of the SS-DSM5 scale using a cross-sectional design and an unselected convenience unselected sample of 314 inpatients and outpatients with SZ/OP and mood disorders who received standard care in routine clinical practice. The SS-DSM5 scale, the Clinical Global Impression-Severity scale (CGI-S), the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), and the Bech-Rafaelsen Mania Scale (BRMS) were administered. Factor structure, reliability, internal consistency, convergent and diagnostic ability of the DSM5-SS were evaluated. Factor analysis indicated two latent factors underlying the SS-DSM5 (Psychotic and Deficit sub-scales). Cronbach's alpha was >0.70. Convergent validity of the SS-DSM5 was highly significant. Patients with SZ/PO disorders were correctly diagnosed (77.9%) using the SS-DSM5 scale (72% using PANSS). The agreement of the diagnostic decisions between the SS-DSM5 and PANSS was substantial for SZ/PO disorders (Kappa=0.75). Classifying participants with SZ/PO versus mood disorders using SS-DSM5 provided a sensitivity of 95%, and specificity of 34%. Thus, this study suggests that the SS-DSM5 has acceptable psychometric properties and that its use in clinical practice and research is feasible in clinical settings. The dimensional option for the diagnosis of schizophrenia and related disorders using SS-DSM5 is discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Fangxin Hong,1,2 Traci M Blonquist,1 Barbara Halpenny,3 Donna L Berry,3,4 1Department of Biostatistics and Computational Biology, Dana‑Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA, USA;2Department of Biostatistics, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA; 3Department of Nursing and Patient Care Services, The Phyllis F. Cantor Center, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA, USA; 4Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA Introduction: Frequently reported symptoms and treatment side effects may not be the most bothersome issues to patients with cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate patient-reported symptom distress and bothersome issues among participants with cancer. Methods: Participants completed the Symptom Distress Scale-15 before treatment (T1 and during cancer treatment (T2 and reported up to two most bothersome issues among symptoms rated with moderate-to-severe distress. We compared symptom ratings and perceived bother and explored two approaches predicting patients’ most bothersome issues: worst absolute symptom score or worst change from pretreatment. Results: Significantly, (P≤0.0002 more patients reported moderate-to-severe distress at T2 for eight of 13 symptoms. At T1, 81% of patients reported one and 56% reported multiple symptoms with moderate-to-severe distress, while at T2, 89% reported one and 69% reported multiple symptoms with moderate-to-severe distress. Impact on sexual activity/interest, pain, fatigue, and insomnia were the most prevalent symptoms with moderate-to-severe distress. Fatigue, pain, and insomnia were perceived most often as bothersome. When one symptom was rated moderate-to-severe, predictive accuracy of the absolute score was 46% and 48% (T1 & T2 and 38% with the change score (T2–T1. When two or more symptoms were rated moderate-to-severe, predictive accuracy of the absolute score was 76% and 79% (T1 & T2 and 70% with the change score (T2–T1. Conclusion: More
Urban-Kowalczyk, M; Śmigielski, J; Strzelecki, D
The relationship between the olfactory system and emotional processing is an area of growing interest in schizophrenia research. Both the orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala are involved in the processing of olfactory information, and olfactory deficits may be also influenced by endogenous opioids and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), which is probably involved in dopaminergic transmission. However, the relationship between endorphins and dopaminergic transmission has not been fully explored. Odor identification performance and valence interaction was evaluated among 50 schizophrenic patients and 50 controls. Schizophrenia symptoms were assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). All study participants were subjected to the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT), blood β-endorphin (BE) and CGRP measurement. Insignificantly higher BE concentrations were observed in the patient group, while significantly higher UPSIT scores were seen in controls (mean UPSIT 32.48 vs 26.82). The patients demonstrated significantly more identification errors for pleasant (P=0.000) and neutral (P=0.055) odors than for unpleasant odors. Patients with higher BE concentrations made more identification errors concerning pleasant (R s =-0.292; P=0.04) and neutral odors (R s =-0.331; P=0.019). Although the concentration of CGRP was significantly higher in the patient sample (Pidentification by valence for pleasant and neutral odors (UPSIT n/16: R s =-0.450, P=0.001; UPSIT n/15: R s =-0.586, P=0.000), and a weak negative correlation between PANSS N score and identification of unpleasant odors (UPSIT n/9: R s =-0.325, P=0.021). Schizophrenic patients present a unique pattern of smell identification characterized by aberrant hedonic ratings for pleasant odors but not unpleasant ones. Individuals with predominant negative symptoms and higher BE concentrations are most able to identify negative odors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights
Luo, Yun; Xiang, Zhoulei; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Zhenhong
The association between interpersonal relationships, perceived social support, and depressive symptoms in adolescents was investigated in the present study. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depressive Symptoms Scale (CES-D-SF), Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), and Interpersonal Relationship Scale (IRS) were…
Mason, Susan M; Flint, Alan J; Roberts, Andrea L; Agnew-Blais, Jessica; Koenen, Karestan C; Rich-Edwards, Janet W
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) appears to increase obesity risk but the pathways by which PTSD leads to weight gain are not known. Identification of the links between PTSD and obesogenic eating behaviors is necessary to clarify this pathway and inform development of obesity prevention strategies in PTSD-affected populations. To determine whether women with PTSD symptoms are more likely to report food addiction, a measure of perceived dependence on food, than women without PTSD symptoms. Also, to determine whether age at PTSD symptom onset and type of trauma influence the PTSD-food addiction association. Cross-sectional analysis of 49,408 participants in the Nurses' Health Study II, a cohort comprising women nurses who were aged 25 to 42 years at the 1989 recruitment from 14 US states. The Nurses' Health Study II ascertained lifetime trauma exposure and PTSD symptoms in 2008 and current food addiction in 2009. Food addiction was defined as 3 or more clinically significant symptoms on a modified version of the Yale Food Addiction Scale. Confounder-adjusted prevalence ratios and 95% CIs were estimated using modified Poisson regression. Approximately 80% of the study sample reported some type of trauma exposure, with 66% of the trauma-exposed participants reporting at least 1 lifetime PTSD symptom. Eight percent of the cohort met the criteria for food addiction. The prevalence of food addiction increased with the number of lifetime PTSD symptoms, and women with the greatest number of PTSD symptoms (6-7 symptoms) had more than twice the prevalence of food addiction as women with neither PTSD symptoms nor trauma histories (prevalence ratio, 2.68; 95% CI, 2.41-2.97). Symptoms of PTSD were more strongly related to food addiction when symptom onset occurred at an earlier age. The PTSD-food addiction association did not differ substantially by trauma type. Symptoms of PTSD were associated with increased food addiction prevalence in this cohort of women. Strategies to
Full Text Available The establishment of the Aircraft Dynamic Model (ADM constitutes the prerequisite for the design of the navigation and control system, but the aerodynamic parameters in the model could not be readily obtained especially for small-scaled fixed-wing UAVs. In this paper, the procedure of computing the aerodynamic parameters is developed. All the longitudinal and lateral aerodynamic derivatives are firstly calculated through semi-empirical method based on the aerodynamics, rather than the wind tunnel tests or fluid dynamics software analysis. Secondly, the residuals of each derivative are proposed to be identified or estimated further via Extended Kalman Filter(EKF, with the observations of the attitude and velocity from the airborne integrated navigation system. Meanwhile, the observability of the targeted parameters is analyzed and strengthened through multiple maneuvers. Based on a small-scaled fixed-wing aircraft driven by propeller, the airborne sensors are chosen and the model of the actuators are constructed. Then, real flight tests are implemented to verify the calculation and identification process. Test results tell the rationality of the semi-empirical method and show the improvement of accuracy of ADM after the compensation of the parameters.
Shen, Jieliang; Su, Yan; Liang, Qing; Zhu, Xinhua
The establishment of the Aircraft Dynamic Model(ADM) constitutes the prerequisite for the design of the navigation and control system, but the aerodynamic parameters in the model could not be readily obtained especially for small-scaled fixed-wing UAVs. In this paper, the procedure of computing the aerodynamic parameters is developed. All the longitudinal and lateral aerodynamic derivatives are firstly calculated through semi-empirical method based on the aerodynamics, rather than the wind tunnel tests or fluid dynamics software analysis. Secondly, the residuals of each derivative are proposed to be identified or estimated further via Extended Kalman Filter(EKF), with the observations of the attitude and velocity from the airborne integrated navigation system. Meanwhile, the observability of the targeted parameters is analyzed and strengthened through multiple maneuvers. Based on a small-scaled fixed-wing aircraft driven by propeller, the airborne sensors are chosen and the model of the actuators are constructed. Then, real flight tests are implemented to verify the calculation and identification process. Test results tell the rationality of the semi-empirical method and show the improvement of accuracy of ADM after the compensation of the parameters.
Xue, Wenwen; Xu, Xian; Zou, Haidong
To determine which utility value assessment method is more suitable to evaluate changes in the quality of life due to dry eye symptoms. Dry eye outpatients with a presenting visual acuity of 20/25 or better in the worse-seeing eye were recruited. Presenting distance visual acuity, tear film break-up time, Schirmer I test and fluorescein were assessed. The severity of dry eye symptoms was assessed using the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI), and utility values were measured using the time trade-off (TTO), standard gamble (SG1 and SG2) and rating scale (RS) methods. Different utility values were compared with each other. The most appropriate utility value method to evaluate quality-of-life changes solely due to dry eye symptoms is determined by calculating the correlation between the OSDI score and different utility values. A total of 104 patients were enrolled. The three sections of OSDI in the order of high to low scores were as follows: "environmental trigger," "eye discomfort" and "visual function." The utility scores measured with TTO, SG1, SG2 and RS were 0.95 ± 0.11, 0.96 ± 0.10, 0.99 ± 0.07 and 0.89 ± 0.10, respectively. The utility scores evaluated by the TTO, SG1, SG2 and RS methods were significantly different from each other (p eye discomfort" section scores (p dry eye symptoms.
Picavet, Valerie A; Prokopakis, Emmanuel P; Gabriëls, Lutgardis; Jorissen, Mark; Hellings, Peter W
Nasal aesthetic deformities may be associated with significant body image dissatisfaction. The only diagnostic category in the current list of psychiatric disorders that directly addresses these concerns is body dysmorphic disorder. This large-scale study determined the prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder and its symptoms in patients seeking rhinoplasty and evaluated the clinical profile of these patients. Two hundred twenty-six patients were given questionnaires including demographic characteristics, visual analogue scales for nasal shape, the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale modified for body dysmorphic disorder to assess severity of symptoms, a generic quality-of-life questionnaire, and the Derriford Appearance Scale 59, to assess appearance-related disruption of everyday living. Independent observers scored the nasal shape. Thirty-three percent of patients showed at least moderate symptoms of body dysmorphic disorder. Aesthetic goals (p dysmorphic disorder scores correlated inversely with the subjective nasal scoring (n = 210, p dysmorphic disorder symptoms significantly reduced the generic quality of life (n = 160, p dysmorphic disorder symptoms in an aesthetic rhinoplasty population is high. Patients undergoing revision rhinoplasty and with psychiatric history are particularly at risk. Body dysmorphic disorder symptoms significantly reduce the quality of life and cause significant appearance-related disruption of everyday living. Risk, III.
Full Text Available Postpartum parental depression, even of mild intensity and short duration, has negative consequences on child development, including increased externalizing and internalizing symptoms. Studies revealed that the links between parental depression and child development are mediated by parenting difficulties. On the other hand, the mediating role of problematic family-level relationships, such as low coparenting support and high conflict between the parents, has rarely been considered, although coparenting difficulties have been linked with both increased depressive symptoms in parents and increased symptoms in toddlers. In the present study, we proposed testing a comprehensive mediation model linking parental depression, coparenting, and child symptoms. At 3 months postpartum, a convenience sample of 69 parental couples completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. In addition, we assessed levels of coparenting support and conflict during a mother–father–infant play situation, the Lausanne Trilogue Play. At 18 months postpartum, both parents assessed child symptoms with the Symptom Checklist Questionnaire. The results showed that coparenting support mediated the links between parental depressive symptoms and child symptoms, but only for mothers: Maternal depressive symptoms were linked with lower coparenting support, which in turn predicted increased psychofunctional symptoms and behavior problems assessed by mothers. Although coparenting conflict behaviors were not predicted by parents’ depressive symptoms, higher conflict was unexpectedly linked with fewer behavior problems assessed by both parents. The present study allowed us to unveil complex pathways between mild parental mood disturbances, family-level relationships, and child development in the first months of the child’s life.
Hoyt, Michael A; Carpenter, Kristen M
The years following prostate cancer treatment are characterized by changes in sexual functioning and risk for depressive symptoms. Sexual self-schema (SSS) is a cognitive generalization about sexual aspects of the self that are associated with sexual behavior, affect, and the processing of sexually relevant information. This study tested if men's SSS moderates the impact of sexual morbidity on depressive symptoms. Men (N = 66) treated for localized prostate cancer in the preceding 2 years were assessed at T1 and 4 months later (T2). Questionnaires included the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, Sexual Self-schema Scale for Men, Sexual Experience Scale, and Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite. Regressions controlled for age, sexual activity, and T1 depressive symptoms revealed no significant effect of SSS on depressive symptoms; however, better sexual functioning was related to fewer depressive symptoms (B = -0.25, p < 0.05). Results showed significant interactions between SSS and sexual outcomes. Among men with high SSS, poor sexual functioning was associated with increased depressive symptoms; loss of sexual function was particularly distressing. There was no significant effect of sexual functioning. Among men with high SSS, there was an inverse relationship between sexual engagement and depressive symptoms. Among men with lower SSS, greater frequency of sexual behavior was associated with increased depressive symptoms. SSS may be an important individual difference in determining the impact of sexual morbidity on psychological adjustment. Men high on SSS are more vulnerable to psychological consequences of lower sexual functioning and less engagement in sexual activities. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Hergüner, Sabri; Harmancı, Hatice; Toy, Harun
Several studies suggest that androgens are involved in the etiology of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this study, we investigated the ADHD symptoms in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a complex endocrine, hormonal, and metabolic condition associated with hyperandrogenism. Forty women between the ages of 18 and 35 years with PCOS were recruited for the study group. For comparison, 40 healthy women who had regular menses were included. Current and childhood ADHD symptoms were assessed by using the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale and Wender-Utah Rating Scale, respectively. Women with PCOS had higher total Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale and total Wender-Utah Rating Scale scores than controls. According to the Wender-Utah Rating Scale, the frequency of childhood ADHD was significantly higher in PCOS group than the control. Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale: Hyperactivity-Impulsivity and Wender-Utah Rating Scale: Behavioral Problems/Impulsivity scores were significantly higher in women with PCOS. However, there were no significant differences between groups in both current and childhood inattention scores. We found no correlations between ADHD symptoms and serum hormone levels including testosterone in women with PCOS. These results suggest that women with PCOS have higher ADHD symptoms. Further studies are needed to investigate the association between PCOS and ADHD. © The Author(s) 2015.
Bech, Per; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Bukh, Jens Drachmann
In long-term follow-up studies on depression, the Eysenck Neuroticism Scale (ENS) at the score level of dysthymia has been found to be valid at predicting poor outcome. The ENS dysthymia level was compared with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) level to predict the prevalence of depressive symptoms at the 5-year follow-up of patients initially diagnosed with first episode depression using the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D) to express depressive symptoms. A total of 301 in- or outpatients aged 18-70 years with a recent single depressive episode were assessed by ENS, BDI, and HAM-D from 2005-2007. At 5-year follow-up from 2011-2013, the participants were re-assessed by HAM-D. The HAM-D was used to measure depressive symptoms at the 5-year follow-up. The Mokken analysis was used to indicate scalability of the BDI and ENS. A total of 185 participants were available for the psychometric analysis of the ESN and BDI, and the scalability was found acceptable. In total, 99 patients were available for the predictive analysis. Both the ENS and the BDI were significantly associated with depressive symptoms (HAM-D17 ≥ 8) at the 5-year follow-up (p Dysthymia as measured by the two self-rating scales ENS and BDI can be considered part of a 'double depression' in patients with first episode depression, implying an existence of depressive symptoms at the 5-year follow-up. Evaluation of dysthymia or neuroticism is important to perform, even in patients with first episode depression, in order to identify 'double depression'.
Landazabal, Maite Garaigordobil
The purpose of this study is two-fold: (a) to study the concomitant relationships between psychopathological symptoms, cooperation, social skills, and other personality traits; and (b) to identify the predictive variables of psychopathological symptoms. The sample consists of 322 adolescents aged 14 to 17 years old. This study uses correlational methodology. In order to assess psychopathological symptoms, cooperation, social skills, and personality traits, the following scales are used: the Symptom Checklist (SCL-90-R; Derogatis, 1983), the Cooperativeness Scale (CS; Rigby, Cox, and Black, 1997), the MESSY social skills scale (Matson, Rotatori, and Helsel, 1983), and the TPT Personality Test (Corral, Pamos, Pereña, and& Seisdedos, 2002). Pearson coefficients suggest that adolescents with many psychopathological symptoms have low levels of cooperative behaviors and social skills. They also score high in inappropriate assertiveness, impulsiveness, overconfidence, and jealousy-withdrawal and have low levels of emotional stability, sociability, and responsibility. Through multiple regression analyses, the following variables were identified as predictors of psychopathological symptoms: jealousy-withdrawal, low social integration, impulsiveness, and low self-concept. The role played by intervention programs promoting socio-emotional development to prevent psychopathological symptoms and enhance mental health is discussed.
Further Validation of the Conner's Adult Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Rating Scale Infrequency Index (CII) for Detection of Non-Credible Report of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms.
Cook, Carolyn M; Bolinger, Elizabeth; Suhr, Julie
Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can be easily presented in a non-credible manner, through non-credible report of ADHD symptoms and/or by non-credible performance on neuropsychological tests. While most studies have focused on detection of non-credible performance using performance validity tests, there are few studies examining the ability to detect non-credible report of ADHD symptoms. We provide further validation data for a recently developed measure of non-credible ADHD symptom report, the Conner's Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS) Infrequency Index (CII). Using archival data from 86 adults referred for concerns about ADHD, we examined the accuracy of the CII in detecting extreme scores on the CAARS and invalid reporting on validity indices of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Format (MMPI-2-RF). We also examined the accuracy of the CII in detecting non-credible performance on standalone and embedded performance validity tests. The CII was 52% sensitive to extreme scores on CAARS DSM symptom subscales (with 97% specificity) and 20%-36% sensitive to invalid responding on MMPI-2-RF validity scales (with near 90% specificity), providing further evidence for the interpretation of the CII as an indicator of non-credible ADHD symptom report. However, the CII detected only 18% of individuals who failed a standalone performance validity test (Word Memory Test), with 87.8% specificity, and was not accurate in detecting non-credible performance using embedded digit span cutoffs. Future studies should continue to examine how best to assess for non-credible symptom report in ADHD referrals. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Slabbinck, Bram; De Baets, Bernard; Dawyndt, Peter; De Vos, Paul
In the last decade, bacterial taxonomy witnessed a huge expansion. The swift pace of bacterial species (re-)definitions has a serious impact on the accuracy and completeness of first-line identification methods. Consequently, back-end identification libraries need to be synchronized with the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature. In this study, we focus on bacterial fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiling as a broadly used first-line identification method. From the BAME@LMG database, we have selected FAME profiles of individual strains belonging to the genera Bacillus, Paenibacillus and Pseudomonas. Only those profiles resulting from standard growth conditions have been retained. The corresponding data set covers 74, 44 and 95 validly published bacterial species, respectively, represented by 961, 378 and 1673 standard FAME profiles. Through the application of machine learning techniques in a supervised strategy, different computational models have been built for genus and species identification. Three techniques have been considered: artificial neural networks, random forests and support vector machines. Nearly perfect identification has been achieved at genus level. Notwithstanding the known limited discriminative power of FAME analysis for species identification, the computational models have resulted in good species identification results for the three genera. For Bacillus, Paenibacillus and Pseudomonas, random forests have resulted in sensitivity values, respectively, 0.847, 0.901 and 0.708. The random forests models outperform those of the other machine learning techniques. Moreover, our machine learning approach also outperformed the Sherlock MIS (MIDI Inc., Newark, DE, USA). These results show that machine learning proves very useful for FAME-based bacterial species identification. Besides good bacterial identification at species level, speed and ease of taxonomic synchronization are major advantages of this computational species
Identification of heat transfer resistance of scale deposit from fixedhardness of liquid waste in the form of CaSO 4 and MgSO 4 ratio 2:1 has beendone on the evaporation system of Serpong Nuclear Facilities fordetermination of the quality of heat transfer obstruction from heating sourceto solution. Evaporation simulation of solution containing hardness withconcentration 0.5; 1; 2; and 2.5% mass were done on the stainless steelcontainer of 1 / volume with electrical heater in which a stainless-steeltube is put down on the base container. After 24, 168, 336, 504 and 672 hoursevaporation process it is obtained the thickness of scale deposit on thesurface of tube for determining the fouling factor. Heat transfer resistanceof scale deposit from 672 hours evaporation of solution 2.5% concentrationhampered heat transfer, the value of fouling factor be superior to limitsvalue of 0.000515 hours.m 2 . o C/kcal.The fouling factor from the evaporationof solution of 0.5; 1; and 2% concentration during 672 hours be inferior tolimits value. (author)
Picavet, Valerie A; Gabriëls, Loes; Grietens, Jente; Jorissen, Mark; Prokopakis, Emmanuel P; Hellings, Peter W
In patients seeking aesthetic rhinoplasty, a high prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder symptoms has recently been reported. However, the impact of these symptoms on the outcomes after rhinoplasty remains elusive. This large-scale study determines the influence of preoperative body dysmorphic disorder symptoms on patients' postoperative satisfaction and quality of life, using validated questionnaires. A 1-year prospective study of 166 adult patients undergoing cosmetic rhinoplasty in a tertiary referral center was performed. Severity of body dysmorphic disorder symptoms was assessed by the modified Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale. Postoperative satisfaction was evaluated using a visual analog scale for patients' appraisal of nasal shape and the Rhinoplasty Outcome Evaluation. Generic quality of life was quantified by the Sheehan Disability Scale, whereas the appearance-related disruption of everyday life was measured by the Derriford Appearance Scale-59. Preoperative body dysmorphic disorder symptom scores inversely correlated with postoperative satisfaction at 3 months (visual analog scale nasal shape: rho = -0.43, p dysmorphic disorder symptom scores positively correlated with Sheehan Disability Scale scores and Derriford Appearance Scale-59 scores at 3 months (rho = 0.43, p dysmorphic disorder symptoms on subjective outcomes after rhinoplasty, hence unveiling a crucial factor in patient dissatisfaction after aesthetic rhinoplasty.
Hatzichristou, Dimitris; Kirana, Paraskevi-Sofia; Banner, Linda; Althof, Stanley E; Lonnee-Hoffmann, Risa A M; Dennerstein, Lorraine; Rosen, Raymond C
A detailed sexual history is the cornerstone for all sexual problem assessments and sexual dysfunction diagnoses. Diagnostic evaluation is based on an in-depth sexual history, including sexual and gender identity and orientation, sexual activity and function, current level of sexual function, overall health and comorbidities, partner relationship and interpersonal factors, and the role of cultural and personal expectations and attitudes. To propose key steps in the diagnostic evaluation of sexual dysfunctions, with special focus on the use of symptom scales and questionnaires. Critical assessment of the current literature by the International Consultation on Sexual Medicine committee. A revised algorithm for the management of sexual dysfunctions, level of evidence, and recommendation for scales and questionnaires. The International Consultation on Sexual Medicine proposes an updated algorithm for diagnostic evaluation of sexual dysfunction in men and women, with specific recommendations for sexual history taking and diagnostic evaluation. Standardized scales, checklists, and validated questionnaires are additional adjuncts that should be used routinely in sexual problem evaluation. Scales developed for specific patient groups are included. Results of this evaluation are presented with recommendations for clinical and research uses. Defined principles, an algorithm and a range of scales may provide coherent and evidence based management for sexual dysfunctions. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
O Donnchadha, Seán
BACKGROUND: The validity of self-rated anxiety inventories in people with multiple sclerosis (pwMS) is unclear. However, the appropriateness of self-reported depression scales has been widely examined. Given somatic symptom overlap between depression and MS, research emphasises caution when using such scales. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates symptom overlap between anxiety and MS in a group of 33 individuals with MS, using the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). METHODS: Participants underwent a neurological examination and completed the BAI. RESULTS: A novel procedure using hierarchical cluster analysis revealed three distinct symptom clusters. Cluster one (\\'wobbliness\\' and \\'unsteady\\') grouped separately from all other BAI items. These symptoms are well-recognised MS-related symptoms and we question whether their endorsement in pwMS can be considered to reflect anxiety. A modified 19-item BAI (mBAI) was created which excludes cluster one items. This removal reduced the number of MS participants considered \\'anxious\\' by 21.21% (low threshold) and altered the level of anxiety severity for a further 27.27%. CONCLUSION: Based on these data, it is suggested that, as with depression measures, researchers and clinicians should exercise caution when using brief screening measures for anxiety in pwMS.
Full Text Available Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the phenomenology of delirium in patients admitted in a Respiratory Intensive Care Unit (RICU. Methods: Consecutive patients admitted to RICU were screened for delirium using Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale (RASS, Confusion Assessment Method for ICU (CAM-ICU assessment tool and those found positive for delirium were evaluated by a psychiatrist to confirm the diagnosis. Those with a diagnosis of delirium as per the psychiatrist were evaluated on Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-98 (DRS-R-98 to study phenomenology. Results: All the 75 patients fulfilled the criteria of “acute onset of symptoms” and “presence of an underlying physical disorder” as per the DRS-R-98. Commonly seen symptoms of delirium included disturbances in attention (100%, thought process abnormality (100%, fluctuation in symptoms (97.33% disturbance in, sleep-wake cycle, language disturbance (94.7%, disorientation (81.33%, and short-term memory impairments (73.33%. No patient had delusions and very few (5.3% reported perceptual disturbances. According to RASS subtyping, hypoactive delirium was the most common subtype (n = 34; 45.33%, followed by hyperactive subtype (n = 28; 37.33% and a few patients had mixed subtype of delirium (n = 13; 17.33%. Factor structure of DRS-R-98 symptoms yielded 3 factors (Factor-1: cognitive factor; Factor-2: motoric factor; Factor-3; thought, language, and fluctuation factor. Conclusion: The phenomenology of delirium in ICU patients is similar to non-ICU patients, but hypoactive delirium is the most common subtype.
Using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) to Define Different Domains of Negative Symptoms: Prediction of Everyday Functioning by Impairments in Emotional Expression and Emotional Experience
Harvey, Philip D.; Khan, Anzalee; Keefe, Richard S. E.
Background: Reduced emotional experience and expression are two domains of negative symptoms. The authors assessed these two domains of negative symptoms using previously developed Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) factors. Using an existing dataset, the authors predicted three different elements of everyday functioning (social, vocational, and everyday activities) with these two factors, as well as with performance on measures of functional capacity. Methods: A large (n=630) sampl...
Evatt, Marian L.; Chaudhuri, K. Ray; Chou, Kelvin L.; Cubo, Ester; Hinson, Vanessa; Kompoliti, Katie; Yang, Chengwu; Poewe, Werner; Rascol, Olivier; Sampaio, Cristina; Stebbins, Glenn T.; Goetz, Christopher G.
Upper and lower gastrointestinal dysautonomia symptoms (GIDS)—sialorrhea, dysphagia, and constipation are common in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and often socially as well as physically disabling for patients. Available invasive quantitative measures for assessing these symptoms and their response to therapy are time-consuming, require specialized equipment, can cause patient discomfort and present patients with risk. The Movement Disorders Society commissioned a task force to assess available clinical rating scales, critique their clinimetric properties, and make recommendations regarding their clinical utility. Six clinical researchers and a biostatistician systematically searched the literature for scales of sialorrhea, dysphagia, and constipation, evaluated the scales’ previous use, performance parameters, and quality of validation data (if available). A scale was designated “Recommended” if the scale was used in clinical studies beyond the group that developed it, has been specifically used in PD reports, and clinimetric studies have established that it is a valid, reliable, and sensitive. “Suggested” scales met at least part of the above criteria, but fell short of meeting all. Based on the systematic review, scales for individual symptoms of sialorrhea, dysphagia, and constipation were identified along with three global scales that include these symptoms in the context of assessing dysautonomia or nonmotor symptoms. Three sialorrhea scales met criteria for Suggested: Drooling Severity and Frequency Scale (DSFS), Drooling Rating Scale, and Sialorrhea Clinical Scale for PD (SCS-PD). Two dysphagia scales, the Swallowing Disturbance Questionnaire (SDQ) and Dysphagia-Specific Quality of Life (SWAL-QOL), met criteria for Suggested. Although Rome III constipation module is widely accepted in the gastroenterology community, and the earlier version from the Rome II criteria has been used in a single study of PD patients, neither met criteria for Suggested
Background Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) symptoms are common in asthma and have been extensively studied, but less so in the Asian continent. Reflux-associated respiratory symptoms (RARS) have, in contrast, been little-studied globally. We report the prevalence of GORD symptoms and RARS in adult asthmatics, and their association with asthma severity and medication use. Methods A cross-sectional analytical study. A validated interviewer-administered GORD scale was used to assess frequency and severity of seven GORD symptoms. Subjects were consecutive asthmatics attending medical clinics. Controls were matched subjects without respiratory symptoms. Results The mean (SD) composite GORD symptom score of asthmatics was significantly higher than controls (21.8 (17.2) versus 12.0 (7.6); P < 0.001) as was frequency of each symptom and RARS. Prevalence of GORD symptoms in asthmatics was 59.4% (95% CI, 59.1%-59.6%) versus 28.5% in controls (95% CI, 29.0% - 29.4%). 36% of asthmatics experienced respiratory symptoms in association with both typical and atypical GORD symptoms, compared to 10% of controls (P < 0.001). An asthmatic had a 3.5 times higher risk of experiencing a GORD symptom after adjusting for confounders (OR 3.5; 95% CI 2.5-5.3). Severity of asthma had a strong dose-response relationship with GORD symptoms. Asthma medication use did not significantly influence the presence of GORD symptoms. Conclusions GORD symptoms and RARS were more prevalent in a cohort of Sri Lankan adult asthmatics compared to non-asthmatics. Increased prevalence of RARS is associated with both typical and atypical symptoms of GORD. Asthma disease and its severity, but not asthma medication, appear to influence presence of GORD symptoms. PMID:20843346
Alphs, Larry; Morlock, Robert; Coon, Cheryl; van Willigenburg, Arjen; Panagides, John
Objective. To assess the ability of mental health professionals to use the 4-item Negative Symptom Assessment instrument, derived from the Negative Symptom Assessment-16, to rapidly determine the severity of negative symptoms of schizophrenia.Design. Open participation.Setting. Medical education conferences.Participants. Attendees at two international psychiatry conferences.Measurements. Participants read a brief set of the 4-item Negative Symptom Assessment instructions and viewed a videotape of a patient with schizophrenia. Using the 1 to 6 4-item Negative Symptom Assessment severity rating scale, they rated four negative symptom items and the overall global negative symptoms. These ratings were compared with a consensus rating determination using frequency distributions and Chi-square tests for the proportion of participant ratings that were within one point of the expert rating.Results. More than 400 medical professionals (293 physicians, 50% with a European practice, and 55% who reported past utilization of schizophrenia ratings scales) participated. Between 82.1 and 91.1 percent of the 4-items and the global rating determinations by the participants were within one rating point of the consensus expert ratings. The differences between the percentage of participant rating scores that were within one point versus the percentage that were greater than one point different from those by the consensus experts was significant (pnegative symptoms using the 4-item Negative Symptom Assessment did not generally differ among the geographic regions of practice, the professional credentialing, or their familiarity with the use of schizophrenia symptom rating instruments.Conclusion. These findings suggest that clinicians from a variety of geographic practices can, after brief training, use the 4-item Negative Symptom Assessment effectively to rapidly assess negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia.
Bech, Per; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Bukh, Jens Drachmann
BACKGROUND: In long-term follow-up studies on depression, the Eysenck Neuroticism Scale (ENS) at the score level of dysthymia has been found to be valid at predicting poor outcome. AIMS: The ENS dysthymia level was compared with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) level to predict the prevalence...... of depressive symptoms at the 5-year follow-up of patients initially diagnosed with first episode depression using the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D) to express depressive symptoms. METHODS: A total of 301 in- or outpatients aged 18-70 years with a recent single depressive episode were assessed by ENS, BDI......, and HAM-D from 2005-2007. At 5-year follow-up from 2011-2013, the participants were re-assessed by HAM-D. The HAM-D was used to measure depressive symptoms at the 5-year follow-up. The Mokken analysis was used to indicate scalability of the BDI and ENS. RESULTS: A total of 185 participants were available...
Tavares, Elaine L M; Martins, Regina H G
The aim of this study was to perform voice evaluation in teachers with and without vocal symptoms, identifying etiologic factors of dysphonia, voice symptoms, vocal qualities, and laryngeal lesions. Eighty teachers were divided into two groups: GI (without or sporadic symptoms, 40) and GII (with frequent vocal symptoms, 40). They answered a specific questionnaire, and were subject to a perceptual vocal assessment (maximum phonation time, glottal attack, resonance, coordination of breathing and voicing, pitch, and loudness), GIRBAS scale, and to videolaryngoscopy. Females were predominant in both groups, and the age range was from 36 to 50 years. Elementary teachers predominated, working in classes with 31-40 students. Voice symptoms and alterations in the perceptual vocal analysis and in the GIRBAS scale were more frequent in GII. In 46 teachers (GI-16; GII-30), videolaryngoscopy exams were abnormal with the vocal nodules being the most frequent lesions. These results indicate that a teacher's voice is compromised, and requires more attention including control of environmental factors and associated diseases, preventive vocal hygiene, periodic laryngeal examinations, and access to adequate specialist treatment.
Price, Elizabeth C; Gregg, Jeffrey J; Smith, Merideth D; Fiske, Amy
Evidence suggests that men who strongly endorse masculine traits display an atypical presentation of depression, including more externalizing symptoms (e.g., anger or substance use), but fewer typical, internalizing symptoms (e.g., depressed mood or crying). This phenomenon has not been adequately explored in older adults or women. The current study used the externalizing subscale of the Masculine Depression Scale in older and younger men and women to detect atypical symptoms. It was predicted that individuals who more strongly endorsed masculine traits would have higher scores on the measure of externalizing symptoms relative to a measure of typical depressive symptoms Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale. It was anticipated that results would differ by age-group but not by gender. Multigroup path analysis was used to test the hypothesis. The hypothesized path model, in which endorsement of masculine traits was associated with lower scores on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale and with scores on the externalizing, but not internalizing, factor of the Masculine Depression Scale, fit the data well. Results differed significantly by age-group and gender. Masculine individuals reported lower levels of typical depressive symptoms relative to externalizing symptoms, but further research is needed within age- and gender groups. Results are consistent with the gendered responding framework and suggest that current assessment tools, which tend to focus on internalizing symptoms of depression, may not detect depression in individuals who endorse masculine traits.
The Symptom Checklist - Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Scale (SCL-PTSD), also known as Crime-Related PTSD Scale has been validated in survivors of interpersonal trauma in the general population. However, the psychometric properties have not been investigated in a clinical setting for patients with PTSD from diverse traumatic events. This study investigates the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the SCL-PTSD among 104 psychiatric outpatients with PTSD, caused by interpersonal (n = 50) or non-interpersonal trauma (n = 54). Self-report data of the SCL-PTSD, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and Impact of Events Scale-Revised (IES-R) were gathered. The Korean version of the SCL-PTSD showed excellent internal consistency and moderate-to-good four-week temporal stability in both the interpersonal and non-interpersonal trauma groups. In comparison with other diagnostic groups, the scores of the SCL-PTSD were significantly higher compared to those of adjustment disorder, depression, other anxiety disorders, and schizophrenia, demonstrating its criteria-related validity. Convergent validity was confirmed because the scores of the SCL-PTSD were significantly correlated with BDI, SAI and TAI scores. Concurrent validity was demonstrated by significant correlation with the IES-R score. This study demonstrated the favorable psychometric prosperities of the Korean version of the SCL-PTSD, supporting its use in clinical research and practice. PMID:27134501
Beable, Sarah; Fulcher, Mark; Lee, Arier C; Hamilton, Bruce
Our study aims to estimate the prevalence of symptoms of depression and daily life hassles in elite athletes. A cross-sectional prospective epidemiological study design. An online anonymous survey was administered during a 2-month period from May to July 2015. Athletes 18 years of age (or older) who were members of the High Performance Sport New Zealand programme were invited to participate. Of 370 potential participants, 187 completed responses were received (51%). Symptoms of depression were measured by the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale-Revised (CESD-R). Life stress was measured by the Daily Hassles Questionnaire. Overall 21% (n=39) of participants reported symptoms consistent with depression. Only 2 of the 39 athletes were currently taking an anti-depressant medication. Those contemplating retirement, partaking in individual sport, and who were less than 25 years old had significantly increased odds of experiencing depression. Reported life stressors were higher in females, in those who play an individual sport and those in a centralised programme. There was a significant correlation between higher levels of life stress and experiencing depressive symptoms. This study highlights that depressive symptoms are prevalent in elite athletes with multiple potential risk factors identified including high life stress. These variables warrant further exploration to enable the early identification of athletes with depressive symptoms, screening and support for elite athletes. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kalomiris, Konstantinos; Tegos, Thomas J; Sabetai, Michael; Nicolaides, Andrew N [Irvine Laboratory for Cardiovascular Investigations and Research, Imperial College School of Medicine at St Mary` , Praed Street, London W2 1NY (United Kingdom)
This work has studied the relationship between ultrasonic texture characteristics, ultrasonic shape characteristics, cerebral infarctions on CT, and cerebrovascular symptoms, in an attempt to identify the unstable carotid plaque, i.e. the plaque associated with high prevalence of ipsilateral cerebral infarctions on CT, and cerebrovascular symptoms. The morphological features used were : the grey scale median (GSM) for the texture, and the bending energy (BE) for the shape. It has been shown that echoluscent plaques (plaques with low GSM) with irregular shape (high BE) are associated with high prevalence of ipsilateral cerebral infarctions on CT and cerebrovascular symptoms, whereas echogenic plaques (high GSM) with smooth shape (low BE) are associated with low prevalence of ipsilateral cerebral infarctions on CT and cerebrovascular symptoms. Previous work has demonstrated the significance of the GSM in identifying the unstable carotid plaques, but no attempt, to our knowledge, has been made to establish the clinical significance of the ultrasonic shape characteristics of the carotid plaque. The importance of the ultrasonic texture and shape characteristics will be established in prospective studies of patients with asymptomatic carotid plaques, aiming at the identification of patients with a high risk for stroke, and therefore for a better selection of asymptomatic patients who might benefit from a carotid endarterectomy. (authors) 5 refs., 3 figs.
Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health ... A Cultural Orientation Scale, a Student Stress Scale, and a Self Reporting Questionnaire were administered to collect data on socioeconomic background, ... Sex, cultural orientation, socioeconomic status, and student stress were not associated with brain fag symptoms.
Afzali, Mohammad H; Sunderland, Matthew; Teesson, Maree; Carragher, Natacha; Mills, Katherine; Slade, Tim
The role of symptom overlap between major depressive disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder in comorbidity between two disorders is unclear. The current study applied network analysis to map the structure of symptom associations between these disorders. Data comes from a sample of 909 Australian adults with a lifetime history of trauma and depressive symptoms. Data analysis consisted of the construction of two comorbidity networks of PTSD/MDD with and without overlapping symptoms, identification of the bridging symptoms, and computation of the centrality measures. The prominent bridging role of four overlapping symptoms (i.e., sleep problems, irritability, concentration problems, and loss of interest) and five non-overlapping symptoms (i.e., feeling sad, feelings of guilt, psychomotor retardation, foreshortened future, and experiencing flashbacks) is highlighted. The current study uses DSM-IV criteria for PTSD and does not take into consideration significant changes made to PTSD criteria in DSM-5. Moreover, due to cross-sectional nature of the data, network estimates do not provide information on whether a symptom actively triggers other symptoms or whether a symptom mostly is triggered by other symptoms. The results support the role of dysphoria-related symptoms in PTSD/MDD comorbidity. Moreover, Identification of central symptoms and bridge symptoms will provide useful targets for interventions that seek to intervene early in the development of comorbidity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Prospective evaluations of the associations between depressive symptoms and suicide deaths have been mainly performed in high-risk populations, such as individuals with psychiatric disorders or histories of self-harm. The purpose of this study was to prospectively examine whether more severe depressive symptoms assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) were associated with a greater risk of death from suicide in a general-risk population. A total of 113 478 men from the Korean Veterans Health Study (mean age, 58.9 years) who participated in a postal survey in 2004 were followed up for suicide mortality until 2010. Over 6.4 years of follow-up, 400 men died by suicide (56.7 deaths per 100 000 person-years). More severe depressive symptoms were associated with greater risk of suicide death (p for trend depression were 2.18 for mild depression, 2.13 for moderate depression, 3.33 for severe depression, and 3.67 for extreme depression. After adjusting for potential confounders, men with a potential depressive disorder had an approximate 90% higher mortality from suicide (adjusted HR, 1.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.38 to 2.68; pdepression. Each five-point increase in the GDS score was associated with a higher risk of death by suicide (adjusted HR, 1.22; psuicide deaths was 0.61 (95% CI, 0.58 to 0.64). Depressive symptoms assessed using the GDS were found to be a strong independent predictor of future suicide. However, the estimate of relative risk was weaker than would be expected based on retrospective psychological autopsy studies.
DISC Predictive Scales (DPS): Factor Structure and Uniform Differential Item Functioning Across Gender and Three Racial/Ethnic Groups for ADHD, Conduct Disorder, and Oppositional Defiant Disorder Symptoms
Wiesner, Margit; Kanouse, David E.; Elliott, Marc N.; Windle, Michael; Schuster, Mark A.
The factor structure and potential uniform differential item functioning (DIF) among gender and three racial/ethnic groups of adolescents (African American, Latino, White) were evaluated for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conduct disorder (CD), and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptom scores of the DISC Predictive Scales (DPS; Leung et al., 2005; Lucas et al., 2001). Primary caregivers reported on DSM–IV ADHD, CD, and ODD symptoms for a probability sample of 4,491 chi...
Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria; Frost, Mads; Vinberg, Maj
The daily electronic self-monitoring Smartphone software "MONARCA" was used by 17 patients with bipolar disorder for 3 consecutive months. Patients were rated fortnightly using Hamilton Depression rating Scale 17 items (HDRS-17) and Young Mania rating Scale (YMRS) (102 ratings) with blinding...... for Smartphone data. Objective Smartphone measures such as physical and social activity correlated with clinically rated depressive symptoms. Self-monitored depressive symptoms correlated significantly with HDRS-17 items score....
Blanchard, Jack J; Kring, Ann M; Horan, William P; Gur, Raquel
Negative symptoms in schizophrenia are related to poor functional outcome, persistent over time, a source of burden for caregivers, and only minimally responsive to currently available medications. A major challenge to developing efficacious interventions concerns the valid and reliable assessment of negative symptoms. In a recent consensus statement on negative symptoms, a central recommendation was the need to develop new assessment approaches that address the limitations of existing instruments. In the current report, we summarize the background and rationale for the Collaboration to Advance Negative Symptom Assessment in Schizophrenia (CANSAS). The CANSAS project is an National Institute of Mental Health-funded multisite study that is constructing a next-generation negative symptom scale, the Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS). The CAINS is being developed within a data-driven iterative process that seeks to ensure the measure's reliability, validity, and utility for both basic psychopathology and treatment development research.
Gelhorn, Heather L; Skalicky, Anne M; Balantac, Zaneta; Eremenco, Sonya; Cimms, Tricia; Halling, Katarina; Hollen, Patricia J; Gralla, Richard J; Mahoney, Martin C; Sexton, Chris
Obtaining qualitative data directly from the patient perspective enhances the content validity of patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments. The objective of this qualitative study was to evaluate the content validity of the Lung Cancer Symptom Scale for Mesothelioma (LCSS-Meso) and its usability on an electronic device. A cross-sectional methodological study, using a qualitative approach, was conducted among patients recruited from four clinical sites. The primary target population included patients with pleural mesothelioma; data were also collected from patients with peritoneal mesothelioma on an exploratory basis. Semi-structured interviews were conducted consisting of concept elicitation, cognitive interviewing, and evaluation of electronic patient-reported outcome (ePRO) usability. Participants (n = 21) were interviewed in person (n = 9) or by telephone (n = 12); 71% were male with a mean age of 69 years (SD = 14). The most common signs and symptoms experienced by participants with pleural mesothelioma (n = 18) were shortness of breath, fluid build-up, pain, fatigue, coughing, and appetite loss. The most commonly described symptoms for those with peritoneal mesothelioma (n = 4) were bloating, changes in appetite, fatigue, fluid build-up, shortness of breath, and pain. Participants with pleural mesothelioma commonly described symptoms assessed by the LCSS-Meso in language consistent with the questionnaire and a majority understood and easily completed each of the items. The ePRO version was easy to use, and there was no evidence that the electronic formatting changed the way participants responded to the questions. Results support the content validity of the LCSS-Meso and the usability of the electronic format for use in assessing symptoms among patients with pleural mesothelioma.
Harold G. Koenig
Full Text Available The Moral Injury Symptom Scale-Military Version (MISS-M is a 45-item measure of moral injury (MI symptoms designed to use in Veterans and Active Duty Military with PTSD. This paper reviews the psychometric properties of the MISS-M identified in a previous report, discusses the rationale for the development of the scale, and explores its possible clinical and research applications. The MISS-M consists of 10 theoretically grounded subscales that assess the psychological and spiritual/religious symptoms of MI: guilt, shame, betrayal, moral concerns, loss of meaning/purpose, difficulty forgiving, loss of trust, self-condemnation, spiritual/religious struggles, and loss of religious faith/hope. The scale has high internal reliability, high test-retest reliability, and a factor structure that can be replicated. The MISS-M correlates strongly with PTSD severity, depressive symptoms, and anxiety symptoms, indicating convergent validity, and is relatively weakly correlated with social, spiritual, and physical health constructs, suggesting discriminant validity. The MISS-M is the first multidimensional scale that measures both the psychological and spiritual/religious symptoms of MI and is a reliable and valid measure for assessing symptom severity in clinical practice and in conducting research that examines the efficacy of treatments for MI in Veterans and Active Duty Military personnel.
de Carvalho, Luciane Bizari Coin; do Prado, Lucila Bizari Fernandes; Ferrreira, Vanessa Ruotolo; da Rocha Figueiredo, Mariana Bezerra; Jung, Aline; de Morais, José Fausto; do Prado, Gilmar Fernandes
We aimed to compare the academic performance of children with and without symptoms of sleep disorders (SSD). We distributed 5400 questionnaires (Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children [SDSC], Brazilian version) to 7- to 10-year-old children at public elementary schools in São Paulo, Brazil. We analyzed the academic grades of Portuguese (Port) and Mathematics (Math) in 2384 children (1224 girls; 51%). Grades were assigned on a scale of 0-10 and five was considered a passing grade. Children with symptoms of sleep disorders (SSD) and symptoms of sleep-breathing disorders (SSBD) were compared to children with no symptoms of SSD (no-SSD). Mean Port (6.6±2.2) and Math (6.3±2.2) grades were lower in children with SSD or sleep-breathing disorders (SBD) than those among children with no-SSD (Port, 7.1±2.1 and Math, 7.1±2.1; Pacademic performance in Math and Port. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Jung, Stefanie; Wollmer, M Axel; Kruger, Tillmann H C
Agitation has long been underestimated as a symptom occurring across psychiatric disorders. While several instruments exist for highly specific clinical target groups (e.g., dementia, traumatic brain injury), no tool captures agitation in a broader range of psychiatric patients. The Hamburg-Hannover Agitation Scale (H2A) has been designed to satisfy this demand. This study concentrated on the development and validation of the scale in a psychiatric and a healthy control sample. The H2A was developed, tested in an expert sample, and revised. The German version was validated in a study involving two clinical institutions. Patients (n = 180) completed the H2A and several other questionnaires in order to test for congruent and discriminant validity. Healthy subjects (n = 685) completed the H2A only. The H2A was translated into English. The H2A showed very satisfying quality criteria (reliability, selectivity, item difficulty) and regression analysis demonstrated the H2A's ability to distinguish between subjects with a psychiatric diagnosis and healthy subjects with or without psychiatric record. Factor analysis revealed a three-factorial structure representing a physiological/somatic, a mental and a mixed ('psychophysiological') dimension of agitation. Although validation showed promising quality criteria and predictive value of the H2A, calibration tests with bigger and more balanced sample sizes are necessary. Agitation has become more clinically relevant as a symptom occurring in various affective disorders, yet its assessment is limited. The H2A was developed in order to meet this need. Validation of the H2A revealed very satisfactory item and scale quality criteria promoting its utility. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
McCray, Laura W; Bogner, Hillary R; Sammel, Mary D; Gallo, Joseph J
Our aim was to evaluate whether personality factors significantly contribute to the identification of depression in older primary care patients, even after controlling for depressive symptoms. We examined the association between personality factors and the identification of depression among 318 older adults who participated in the Spectrum study. High neuroticism (unadjusted Odds Ratio (OR) 2.36, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) [1.42, 3.93]) and low extraversion (adjusted OR 2.24, CI [1.26, 4.00]) were associated with physician identification of depression. Persons with high conscientiousness were less likely to be identified as depressed by the doctor (adjusted OR 0.45, CI [0.22, 0.91]). Personality factors influence the identification of depression among older persons in primary care over and above the relationship of depressive symptoms with physician identification. Knowledge of personality may influence the diagnosis and treatment of depression in primary care. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Craddock, Kirsten E S; Zhou, Xueping; Liu, Siyuan; Gochman, Peter; Dickinson, Dwight; Rapoport, Judith L
This study investigated symptom dimensions and subgroups in the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS) cohort and their similarities to adult-onset schizophrenia (AOS) literature. Scores from the Scales for the Assessment of Positive and Negative Symptoms (SAPS & SANS) from 125 COS patients were assessed for fit with previously established symptom dimensions from AOS literature using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). K-means cluster analysis of each individual's scores on the best fitting set of dimensions was used to form patient clusters, which were then compared using demographic and clinical data. CFA showed the SAPS & SANS data was well suited to a 2-dimension solution, including positive and negative dimensions, out of five well established models. Cluster analysis identified three patient groups characterized by different dimension scores: (1) low scores on both dimensions, (2) high negative, low positive scores, and (3) high scores on both dimensions. These groups had different Full scale IQ, Children's Global Assessment Scale (CGAS) scores, ages of onset, and prevalence of some co-morbid behavior disorders (all psymptom-based subgroups within the NIMH COS cohort using an established AOS symptom structure. These findings confirm the heterogeneity of COS and were generally consistent with AOS literature. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Mian, Nicholas D.; Wainwright, Laurel; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.; Carter, Alice S.
Childhood anxiety is impairing and associated with later emotional disorders. Studying risk factors for child anxiety may allow earlier identification of at-risk children for prevention efforts. This study applied an ecological risk model to address how early childhood anxiety symptoms, child temperament, maternal anxiety and depression symptoms,…
Choi, Jiae; Lee, Hye Won; Lee, Ju Ah; Lim, Hyun-Ja; Lee, Myeong Soo
Abstract Background: Aromatherapy is often used as a complementary therapy for women's health. This systematic review aims to evaluate the therapeutic effects of aromatherapy as a management for menopausal symptoms. Methods: Eleven electronic databases will be searched from inception to February 2018. Randomized controlled trials that evaluated any type of aromatherapy against any type of control in individuals with menopausal symptoms will be eligible. The methodological quality will be assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Two authors will independently assess each study for eligibility and risk of bias and to extract data. Results: This study will provide a high quality synthesis of current evidence of aromatherapy for menopausal symptoms measured with Menopause Rating Scale, the Kupperman Index, the Greene Climacteric Scale, or other validated questionnaires. Conclusions: The conclusion of our systematic review will provide evidence to judge whether aromatherapy is an effective intervention for patient with menopausal women. Ethics and dissemination: Ethical approval will not be required, given that this protocol is for a systematic review. The systematic review will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. The review will also be disseminated electronically and in print. Systematic review registration: PROSPERO CRD42017079191. PMID:29419673
Full Text Available Self-compassion, typically operationalized as the total score of the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS; Neff, 2003b, has been shown to be related to increased psychological well-being and lower depression in students of the social sciences, users of psychology websites and psychotherapy patients. The current study builds on the existing literature by examining the link between self-compassion and depressive symptomatology in a sample representative of the German general population (n = 2,404. The SCS subscales of self-judgment, isolation, and over-identification, and the "self-coldness", composite score, which encompass these three negative subscales, consistently differed between subsamples of individuals without any depressive symptoms, with any depressive syndromes, and with major depressive disorder. The contribution of the positive SCS subscales of self-kindness, common humanity, and mindfulness to the variance in depressive symptomatology was almost negligible. However, when combined to a "self-compassion composite", the positive SCS subscales significantly moderated the relationship between "self-coldness" and depressive symptoms in the general population. This speaks for self-compassion having the potential to buffer self-coldness related to depression--providing an argument for interventions that foster self-caring, kind, and forgiving attitudes towards oneself.
Gabriels, R L; Wamboldt, M Z; McCormick, D R; Adams, T L; McTaggart, S R
This study examines the relationship between children's abilities to perceive their symptoms of asthma via several previously researched subjective and objective procedures compared with their performance on a standardized children's drawing task and scale criteria. Results indicated that girls verbalized significantly more emotions about their drawings and were better able to detect airflow changes in their small airways than boys. The Gabriels Asthma Perception Drawing Scales (GAPDS) is a promising clinical tool for assessing children's perceptions and emotions about asthma via nonverbal methods. Varying methods of measuring asthma symptom awareness are not highly correlated; thus, more than one methodology is appropriate for use with children.
Lee, Caroline E; Yong, Paul J; Williams, Christina; Allaire, Catherine
This study sought to examine factors associated with severity of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) by using the Birmingham IBS symptom scale in patients presenting with endometriosis to a tertiary referral centre. A prospective research cohort of patients presenting to a tertiary referral centre for endometriosis was evaluated for the presence and severity of IBS between December 2013 and April 2015. Patients with endometriosis had a diagnosis of IBS by using the Rome III criteria and were evaluated for severity of IBS symptoms by using the Birmingham IBS symptom scale. Multifactorial variables, including stage of endometriosis at the time of previous surgery, clinical examination findings, mood disorder questionnaire scores, and lifestyle factors, were evaluated using the t test and Spearman rank correlation test. A total of 194 of 373 (52%) women with confirmed endometriosis had a diagnosis of IBS. Factors associated with severity of IBS symptoms in patients with endometriosis included lower-stage endometriosis (P = 0.004), presence of mood disorders (P IBS symptom scale revealed a strong association between the previously identified factors and the pain subscale. Using the Birmingham IBS symptom scale, our study revealed more severe IBS symptoms in patients with lower-stage endometriosis and identified other variables highly associated with severity of IBS. Continued research is required to characterize further the clinical importance of IBS symptoms in patients with endometriosis-associated pelvic pain. Copyright © 2018 Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Iancu, Iulian; Levin, Jennifer; Hermesh, Haggai; Dannon, Pinhas; Poreh, Amir; Ben-Yehuda, Yoram; Kaplan, Zeev; Marom, Sofi; Kotler, Moshe
Social phobia (SP) is a highly prevalent disorder in Western countries, but is rather rare in Eastern societies. Prevalence rates range from 0.5% in Eastern samples up to 16% in Western studies. Its prevalence in Israel, an Asian state characterized by Western culture, has not yet been studied. The present study aimed to assess the prevalence of SP symptoms in a nonclinical sample of Israeli adolescents, to characterize sociodemographic correlates of SP symptoms and to evaluate comorbidity with specific phobia symptoms. Participants included 850 young soldiers from the Israel Defense Forces. Measures included the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS; self-report version), a questionnaire on specific fears and phobias, and a sociodemographic questionnaire. Clinical and demographic correlates of SP were also examined. Probable SP (LSAS >or=80) was present in 4.5% of the sample. Overall, SP symptoms were reported by a great percentage of the subjects, as displayed by the rather high mean LSAS scores (29; SD = 23.79) in this nonclinical sample. The following variables were accompanied by higher LSAS scores according to our regression model: inability to perform command activities, receiving psychotropic medication before army service, having less than two friends, shy family members, and treatment during military service. Subjects with probable SP had a rate of comorbidity with specific phobia symptoms of 44%. Our findings corroborate those from other studies in Western countries, both regarding the high prevalence of SP symptoms and its demographic and clinical correlates, as well as regarding the high overlap rate with specific phobia symptoms.
Stefanovics, Elina A; Krystal, John H; Rosenheck, Robert A
To describe and compare the structure and relative severity of symptoms in clinical trial patients diagnosed with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) or schizophrenia using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), developed originally to evaluate symptoms of schizophrenia. This secondary data analysis used baseline PANSS symptom ratings (n=267) from a six-month multicenter randomized placebo-controlled trial of adjunctive risperidone in patients with chronic military-related PTSD. First, using a split-half design, Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) was employed to identify independent factors which were then compared to published factor structures for schizophrenia. Next, Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was applied to the second half of the sample to compare the results of the EFA and published factor structures. Finally, T-tests were used to compare the severity of factor scores between the PTSD sample and the baseline PANSS ratings from the Clinical Antipsychotic Trial for Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) schizophrenia sample (n=1460). EFA suggested five factors similar to those identified in a summary of 29 schizophrenia studies by Wallwork (Schizophrenia Research, 137:246-250). CFA showed that the five factor Wallwork model fit the data better than the EFA, although both had relatively high goodness of fit. T-tests showed that the PTSD sample had more severe symptoms on the Depressive factor, and the schizophrenia sample on the Positive, Negative, and Disorganized factors, with no significant difference on the Excited factor. Veterans with PTSD had similar symptom structure to patients with schizophrenia on the PANSS, but were less symptomatic on psychosis-related factors and more symptomatic on depression. Dimensional symptom factors can be virtually the same across diagnoses. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Park, Cholhee; Lee, Youn-Woo; Yoon, Duck Mi; Kim, Do Wan; Nam, Da Jeong
Distinction between neuropathic pain and nociceptive pain helps facilitate appropriate management of pain; however, diagnosis of neuropathic pain remains a challenge. The aim of this study was to develop a Korean version of the Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs (LANSS) pain scale and assess its reliability and validity. The translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the original LANSS pain scale into Korean was established according to the published guidelines. The Korean version of the LANSS pain scale was applied to a total of 213 patients who were expertly diagnosed with neuropathic (n = 113) or nociceptive pain (n = 100). The Korean version of the scale had good reliability (Cronbach's α coefficient = 0.815, Guttman split-half coefficient = 0.800). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.928 with a 95% confidence interval of 0.885-0.959 (P < 0.001), suggesting good discriminate value. With a cut-off score ≥ 12, sensitivity was 72.6%, specificity was 98.0%, and the positive and negative predictive values were 98% and 76%, respectively. The Korean version of the LANSS pain scale is a useful, reliable, and valid instrument for screening neuropathic pain from nociceptive pain. PMID:26339176
Öksüz, Emine; Guvenc, Gulten
The aim of this study is to determine the relationship of premenstrual and menstrual symptoms to alexithymia among nursing students. This descriptive study was conducted with 284 undergraduate nursing students. Data were collected using Premenstrual Syndrome Scale (PMSS), Menstrual Symptom Scale (MSQ), and Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 (TAS-20). The PMSS, MSQ, and TAS-20 mean scores were 103.56 ± 35.08, 2.92 ± 0.8, and 45.22 ± 9.17, respectively. There was statistically significant positive correlation between TAS-20 and PMSS and MSQ mean scores (p < .05). Women should be evaluated for alexithymia to prevent the adverse effects of premenstrual and menstrual symptoms. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Yasmin Cristina Feitosa Rodrigues
Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2017v19n1p96 The aim of this study was to make a comparison between fatigue and eating disorders in professional dancers in Brazil. Overall, 108 Classical Ballet or Contemporary Dance dancers (28.6 ± 7.7 years (49 women and 59 men of companies from São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais and Rio Grande do Sul participated in this study. The following validated instruments were used (Eating Attitudes Test; Bulimic Inventory Test Edinburgh; Yoshitake Fatigue Questionnaire, general Information. Results: 16% of dancers have symptoms of anorexia; 25% in the symptomatic bulimia scale and 30% in the bulimia scale. Significant data were identified in the comparison of bulimia nervosa scales with fatigue domains; on the symptomatic scale with drowsiness and lack of attention at work domain (p = 0.015, on the severity scale with fatigue projections to the body domain (p = 0.014, and in both scales in the impaired concentration and attention domain (p = 0.003 and p = 0.047 and in the general fatigue score (p = 0.016. Dancers with higher scores for difficulty in concentration and attention are 1.558 (95% CI 1.113 to 2.179 times more likely to have symptoms of bulimia. This study showed that there is a relationship between fatigue and symptoms of bulimia.
Jaber Alizadeh G
Full Text Available Objective: This study is aimed to predict substance abuse from child and adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms. Method: To this purpose 361 students were selected via stratified random sampling from different faculties of Tabriz University and completed Canners Adult ADHD Rating scale-self report Form & Subscale Questionnaire, Wender Utah Rating Scale, Addiction Acknowledgment Scale & Mac Andrew Alcoholism-Revised Scale. Findings: To analyze the data Pearson correlation and multiple regressions (step by step were used. Results indicated that there is significant relation between addiction acknowledgment and alcoholism via child and adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms. Also, results indicated that child and adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms predicted addiction acknowledgment and alcoholism. Conclusion: According to this results these can be explained that behavioral disorders, especially ADHD have effect in tendency to drug and therefore primary treatments of behavioral disorders can prevent drug abuse.
Timal, Sharita; Hoischen, Alexander; Lehle, Ludwig; Adamowicz, Maciej; Huijben, Karin; Sykut-Cegielska, Jolanta; Paprocka, Justyna; Jamroz, Ewa; van Spronsen, Francjan J.; Koerner, Christian; Gilissen, Christian; Rodenburg, Richard J.; Eidhof, Ilse; Van den Heuvel, Lambert; Thiel, Christian; Wevers, Ron A.; Morava, Eva; Veltman, Joris; Lefeber, Dirk J.
Congenital disorders of glycosylation type I (CDG-I) form a growing group of recessive neurometabolic diseases. Identification of disease genes is compromised by the enormous heterogeneity in clinical symptoms and the large number of potential genes involved. Until now, gene identification included
Souza, Rosely Almeida; Desani da Costa, Gislaine; Yamashita, Cintia Hitomi; Amendola, Fernanda; Gaspar, Jaqueline Correa; Alvarenga, Márcia Regina Martins; Faccenda, Odival; Oliveira, Maria Amélia de Campos
To classify families of elderly with depressive symptoms regarding their functioning and to ascertain the presence of an association between these symptoms, family functioning and the characteristics of the elderly. This was an observational, analytical, cross-sectional study performed with 33 teams of the Family Health Strategy in Dourados, MS. The sample consisted of 374 elderly divided into two groups (with and without depressive symptoms). The instruments for data collection were a sociodemographic instrument, the GeriatricDepression Scale (15 items) and the Family Apgar. An association was observed between depressive symptoms and family dysfunction, female gender, four or more people living together, and physical inactivity. The functional family may represent effective support for the elderly with depressive symptoms, because it offers a comfortable environment that ensures the well-being of its members. The dysfunctional family can barely provide necessary care for the elderly, which can exacerbate depressive symptoms.
Meins, W; Frey, A; Thiesemann, R
The purpose of this study was to examine whether premorbid personality traits predispose to noncognitive symptoms in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The Munich Personality Test was used to evaluate caregivers' perception of personality prior to symptom onset in 56 outpatients with probable AD. Caregivers also completed the "mood" and "disturbed behavior" scales of the Nurses' Observation Scale for Geriatric Patients. A neuropsychiatrist rated depressive symptoms on the Cornell Scale for Depression and the occurrence of personality change in four domains according to ICD-10. Under statistical control of confounding variables, results showed a moderate association between (high) premorbid neuroticism, subsequent troublesome behavior, and personality change, on the one hand, and (low) frustration tolerance and depression, on the other. Premorbid personality traits may indeed predispose to subsequent noncognitive symptoms in AD.
Dogan, Bulent; Canturk, Gurol; Canturk, Nergis; Guney, Sevgi; Özcan, Ebru
The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of suicide probability and relevant sociodemographic features and to provide information for preventing suicide in private security guards working under the stressful conditions and continuous exposure to the negative and traumatic life events. 200 private security guards and 200 personnels of Ankara University participated in the study. A sociodemographic information questionnaire, the Suicide Probability Scale (SPS) and the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) were used to collect the data. Gender, marital status, income, religious beliefs, experiencing a life-threatening situation, history of a suicide attempt, smoking and not having a chronic disease caused statistically significant differences in the scores for SPS between the private security guards group and the controls. Moreover there was a statistically significant positive correlation between the total scores of the subscales of SPS and the total scores of BSI. Like police officers and gendarmes, private security guards are at high risk of committing and attempting suicide because of being at stressful work settings and also suffering from secondary trauma. It is required that they should be aware of their tendency to commit suicide and have regular psychiatric screenings.
Benito, Adolfo; Lahera, Guillermo; Herrera, Sara; Muncharaz, Ramón; Benito, Guillermo; Fernández-Liria, Alberto; Montes, José Manuel
To analyze the recognition, identification, and discrimination of facial emotions in a sample of outpatients with bipolar disorder (BD). Forty-four outpatients with diagnosis of BD and 48 matched control subjects were selected. Both groups were assessed with tests for recognition (Emotion Recognition-40 - ER40), identification (Facial Emotion Identification Test - FEIT), and discrimination (Facial Emotion Discrimination Test - FEDT) of facial emotions, as well as a theory of mind (ToM) verbal test (Hinting Task). Differences between groups were analyzed, controlling the influence of mild depressive and manic symptoms. Patients with BD scored significantly lower than controls on recognition (ER40), identification (FEIT), and discrimination (FEDT) of emotions. Regarding the verbal measure of ToM, a lower score was also observed in patients compared to controls. Patients with mild syndromal depressive symptoms obtained outcomes similar to patients in euthymia. A significant correlation between FEDT scores and global functioning (measured by the Functioning Assessment Short Test, FAST) was found. These results suggest that, even in euthymia, patients with BD experience deficits in recognition, identification, and discrimination of facial emotions, with potential functional implications.
Full Text Available Background: Obsessive compulsive symptoms in schizophrenia are well recognized but are a less-researched entity. These symptoms have important implications for management and prognosis. Aim: To find out the prevalence of obsessive compulsive symptoms among patients with schizophrenia. Materials and Methods: A total of 90 hospitalized patients with schizophrenia diagnosed according to DCR of ICD-10 criteria were selected for the study. Padua inventory and Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale were applied to find out the prevalence and nature of obsessive compulsive symptoms . Results: It was found that 10% of schizophrenic patients had obsessive compulsive symptoms. Conclusion: Obsessive compulsive symptoms are prevalent in patients with schizophrenia. The presence of comorbidity should be explored for adequate management.
Full Text Available Objectives: Prospective evaluations of the associations between depressive symptoms and suicide deaths have been mainly performed in high-risk populations, such as individuals with psychiatric disorders or histories of self-harm. The purpose of this study was to prospectively examine whether more severe depressive symptoms assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS were associated with a greater risk of death from suicide in a general-risk population. Methods: A total of 113 478 men from the Korean Veterans Health Study (mean age, 58.9 years who participated in a postal survey in 2004 were followed up for suicide mortality until 2010. Results: Over 6.4 years of follow-up, 400 men died by suicide (56.7 deaths per 100 000 person-years. More severe depressive symptoms were associated with greater risk of suicide death (p for trend <0.001. The unadjusted hazard ratios (HRs in comparison to the absence of depression were 2.18 for mild depression, 2.13 for moderate depression, 3.33 for severe depression, and 3.67 for extreme depression. After adjusting for potential confounders, men with a potential depressive disorder had an approximate 90% higher mortality from suicide (adjusted HR, 1.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.38 to 2.68; p<0.001 than men without depression. Each five-point increase in the GDS score was associated with a higher risk of death by suicide (adjusted HR, 1.22; p<0.001. The value of the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve of GDS scores for suicide deaths was 0.61 (95% CI, 0.58 to 0.64. Conclusions: Depressive symptoms assessed using the GDS were found to be a strong independent predictor of future suicide. However, the estimate of relative risk was weaker than would be expected based on retrospective psychological autopsy studies.
Denollet, Johan; Smolderen, Kim G E; van den Broek, Krista C; Pedersen, Susanne S
Dysfunctional parenting styles are associated with poor mental and physical health. The 10-item Remembered Relationship with Parents (RRP(10)) scale retrospectively assesses Alienation (dysfunctional communication and intimacy) and Control (overprotection by parents), with an emphasis on deficiencies in empathic parenting. We examined the 2-factor structure of the RRP(10) and its relationship with adult depression. 664 respondents from the general population (48% men, mean age 54.6+/-14.2 years) completed the RRP(10), Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), and Beck Depression Inventory. The Alienation and Control dimensions of the RRP(10) displayed a sound factor structure, good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha=0.83-0.86), and convergent validity against the PBI scales. No significant gender differences were found on the RRP(10) scales. Stratifying by RRP(10) dimensions showed that respondents high in Alienation and Control, for both father (33.3% vs. 14.5%, pparental Alienation and Control. High Alienation and Control were independently related to increased risk of depressive symptoms. Given the brevity of the RRP(10), it can easily be used in epidemiological/clinical research on the link between the remembered relationship with parents and mental/physical health.
Barbosa, Margarida; Bennett, Michael I; Verissimo, Ramiro; Carvalho, Davide
Chronic pain is a well-known phenomenon. The differential diagnosis between neuropathic and nociceptive pain syndromes is a challenge. Consequently, assessment instruments that can distinguish between these conditions in a standardized way are of the utmost importance. The Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs (LANSS) is a screening tool developed to identify chronic neuropathic pain. The aim of this study was the Portuguese language translation, linguistic adaptation of the LANSS pain scale, its semantic validation, internal consistency, temporal stability, as well its validity and discriminative power. LANSS Portuguese version scale was applied to 165 consecutive patients attending the pain clinic: 103 fulfilled the clinical criteria for the diagnosis of pain of neuropathic origin and the remaining 62 fulfilled the criteria for nociceptive pain. The scale proved to be an internally consistent (Cronbach's alpha = 0.78) and reliable instrument with good test-retest stability (r = 0.7; P cross-cultural version is a reliable and valid instrument for the differentiation of this type of pain. Its usage is recommended. © 2013 World Institute of Pain.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Upper gastrointestinal (GI symptoms such as nausea and vomiting are common adverse events associated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs, and may result in discontinuation of drug therapy in patients with depressive disorder. Rikkunshi-to (formulation TJ-43, a traditional herbal medicine, has been reported to improve upper GI symptoms and comorbid depressive symptoms in patients with functional dyspepsia. The aim of the present study was to determine if TJ-43 reduces GI symptoms and potentiates an antidepressant effect in a randomized controlled study of depressed patients treated with fluvoxamine (FLV. Methods Fifty patients with depressive disorder (19–78 years, mean age 40.2 years were treated with FLV (n = 25 or FLV in combination with TJ-43 (FLV+TJ-43 (n = 25 for eight weeks. The following parameters of the two groups were compared: The number of patients who complained of adverse events and their symptoms; GI symptoms quality of life (QOL score, assessed by the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS, Japanese edition, before and two weeks after beginning treatment; and depressive symptoms assessed by the Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS, before and 2, 4, and 8 weeks after beginning treatment. Results The number of patients who complained of adverse events in the FLV+TJ-43 group (n = 6 was significantly lower than the number complaining in the FLV group (n = 13 (P P Conclusion This study suggests that Rikkunshi-to reduces FLV-induced adverse events, especially nausea, and improves QOL related to GI symptoms without affecting the antidepressant effect of FLV.
Shin, Kyoung Min; Chang, Hyoung Yoon; Cho, Sun-Mi; Kim, Nam Hee; Kim, Kyoung Ah; Chung, Young Ki
Victimization by sexual violence is strongly associated with the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). While several psychological and cognitive factors are known to be associated with PTSD prognosis, multivariable analysis is scarce. This study examined factors affecting the severity of PTSD symptoms in early stage of traumatic experience of sexual violence, including initial post-traumatic symptoms and cognitive characteristics. Participants were recruited from the center for women and children victims of violence in a university hospital. Thirty-four sexual assault victims were assessed at the baseline and the second visit one to five months after the baseline. At the baseline, an array of posttraumatic symptoms and cognitive functions were measured: at follow-up, PTSD symptoms were determined by Clinician Administered PTSD Scale. Stepwise multiple regression showed that avoidance symptoms (β = 0.551, P PTSD symptoms one to five month later. The regression model, factoring in avoidance and delayed verbal memory, showed a 34.9% explanatory power regarding the PTSD symptom severity. This study suggests that avoidance symptoms and verbal memory at the early stage of trauma are associated with later PTSD symptoms. It is also suggested that early intervention targeting avoidance symptoms may be beneficial in decreasing PTSD symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the current study was to assess the reliability, validity and the psychometric properties of the Greek translation of the Symptoms Rating Scale For Depression and Anxiety. The scale consists of 42 items and permits the calculation of the scores of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-21, the BDI 13, the Melancholia Subscale, the Asthenia Subscale, the Anxiety Subscale and the Mania Subscale Methods 29 depressed patients 30.48 ± 9.83 years old, and 120 normal controls 27.45 ± 10.85 years old entered the study. In 20 of them (8 patients and 12 controls the instrument was re-applied 1–2 days later. Translation and Back Translation was made. Clinical Diagnosis was reached by consensus of two examiners with the use of the SCAN v.2.0 and the IPDE. CES-D and ZDRS were used for cross-validation purposes. The Statistical Analysis included ANOVA, the Spearman Correlation Coefficient, Principal Components Analysis and the calculation of Cronbach's alpha. Results The optimal cut-off points were: BDI-21: 14/15, BDI-13: 7/8, Melancholia: 8/9, Asthenia: 9/10, Anxiety: 10/11. Chronbach's alpha ranged between 0.86 and 0.92 for individual scales. Only the Mania subscale had very low alpha (0.12. The test-retest reliability was excellent for all scales with Spearman's Rho between 0.79 and 0.91. Conclusions The Greek translation of the SRSDA and the scales that consist it are both reliable and valid and are suitable for clinical and research use with satisfactory properties. Their properties are close to those reported in the international literature. However one should always have in mind the limitations inherent in the use of self-report scales.
Peres, Mario Fernando Prieto; Mercante, Juliane P P; Tobo, Patricia R; Kamei, Helder; Bigal, Marcelo Eduardo
Anxiety and mood disorders have been shown to be the most relevant psychiatric comorbidities associated with migraine, influencing its clinical course, treatment response, and clinical outcomes. Limited information is available on how specific anxiety and depression symptoms are related to migraine. Symptoms-based approach, a current trend in mental health research, may improve our understanding in migraine comorbidity. The purpose of this study was to analyze how anxiety and depression aspects are related to migraine through a symptom-based approach. We studied 782 patients from the general population who completed a self-administered questionnaire assessing demographics, headache features, anxiety and depression symptoms. A binary logistic regression analyses were conducted to test the association between all four ratings in GAD-7 (anxiety) and PHQ-9 (depression) scales subitems as covariates, and migraine vs no headache as the outcome. The leading Odd Ratios (OR) observed in individuals with migraine relative to those without migraine were anxiety related, "Not being able to stop or control worrying" on a daily basis [OR (CI 95%)] 49.2 (13.6-178.2), "trouble relaxing" 25.7 (7.1-92.6), "Feeling nervous, anxious or on edge" on a daily basis 25.4 (6.9-93.8), and "worrying too much about different things" 24.4 (7.7-77.6). Although the hallmark symptoms of depression are emotional (hopelessness and sadness), the highest scores found were physical: apetite, fatigue, and poor sleep. Irritability had a significant increase in migraine risk [OR 3.8 (1.9-7.8) if experienced some days, 7.5 (2.7-20.7) more than half the days, and 22.0 (5.7-84.9) when experienced nearly every day]. Anxiety was more robustly associated with increase in migraine risk than depression. Lack of ability to properly control worrying and to relax are the most prominent issues in migraine psychiatric comorbidity. Physical symptoms in depression are more linked to migraine than emotional symptoms. A
Thomas, Randy; Stueber, Thomas J.
The System Identification (SysID) Rack is a real-time hardware-in-the-loop data acquisition (DAQ) and control instrument rack that was designed and built to support inlet testing in the NASA Glenn Research Center 10- by 10-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel. This instrument rack is used to support experiments on the Combined-Cycle Engine Large-Scale Inlet for Mode Transition Experiment (CCE? LIMX). The CCE?LIMX is a testbed for an integrated dual flow-path inlet configuration with the two flow paths in an over-and-under arrangement such that the high-speed flow path is located below the lowspeed flow path. The CCE?LIMX includes multiple actuators that are designed to redirect airflow from one flow path to the other; this action is referred to as "inlet mode transition." Multiple phases of experiments have been planned to support research that investigates inlet mode transition: inlet characterization (Phase-1) and system identification (Phase-2). The SysID Rack hardware design met the following requirements to support Phase-1 and Phase-2 experiments: safely and effectively move multiple actuators individually or synchronously; sample and save effector control and position sensor feedback signals; automate control of actuator positioning based on a mode transition schedule; sample and save pressure sensor signals; and perform DAQ and control processes operating at 2.5 KHz. This document describes the hardware components used to build the SysID Rack including their function, specifications, and system interface. Furthermore, provided in this document are a SysID Rack effectors signal list (signal flow); system identification experiment setup; illustrations indicating a typical SysID Rack experiment; and a SysID Rack performance overview for Phase-1 and Phase-2 experiments. The SysID Rack described in this document was a useful tool to meet the project objectives.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Parkinson's Disease (PD is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder of the central nervous system. Motor symptoms are the focus of pharmacotherapy, yet non-motor features of the disease (e.g. fatigue, mood disturbances, sleep disturbances and symptoms of anxiety are both common and disabling for the patient. The pathophysiological mechanisms behind the non-motor symptoms in PD are yet to be untangled. The main objective of this study was to investigate associations between pro-inflammatory substances and non-motor symptoms in patients with PD. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We measured C-reactive protein, interleukin (IL-6, soluble IL-2 receptor (sIL-2R and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α in blood samples from PD patients (n=86 and healthy controls (n=40. Symptoms of fatigue, depression, anxiety and sleeping difficulties were assessed using the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue (FACIT, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD, and the Scales for Outcome in PD-Sleep Scale respectively. RESULTS: IL-6 was significantly higher in PD patients than in healthy controls. Compared to healthy controls, PD patients displayed significantly higher mean scores on HAD and lower scores on FACIT, thus indicating more severe symptoms as measured with these scales. Within the PD sample, high levels of both sIL-2R and TNF-α were significantly associated with more severe symptoms assessed by means of FACIT and HAD (depression and anxiety subscales. SIL-2-R levels were able to significantly predict FACIT and HAD scores after the effects of age, gender, anti-parkinsonian medications, and severity of motor symptoms were controlled for. DISCUSSION: We suggest that non-motor symptoms in PD patients, such as fatigue and depressive symptoms, might be generated via inflammatory mechanisms. This knowledge might contribute to the development of novel treatment options in PD, specifically targeting non-motor symptoms.
Full Text Available Background and Objective Insomnia is very common in depression and especially medical students are easy to experience sleep disturbance because of their studies. Also depressive symptoms are closely related to stress. Stress is an interaction between an individual and the environment, involving subjective perception and assessment of stressors, thus constituting a highly personalized process. Different personality traits can create different levels of stress. In this study, we tried to explore the relationship between insomnia and depressive symptoms or stress of medical students, and whether their personality may play a role on this relationship or not. Methods We enrolled 154 medical students from University of Ulsan College of Medicine. We used the Medical Stress Scale, the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, the Academic Motivation Scale, the Insomnia Severity Index, and The revised NEO Personality Inventory (PI. Results Insomnia severity, amotivation, medical stress, mental health index and neuroticism traits of NEO-PI significantly correlated with depressive symptom severity (p < 0.001. And stepwise linear regression analysis indicated insomnia, amotivation and neuroticism traits of NEO-PI are expecting factors for students’ depressive symptoms is related to (p < 0.001. Conclusions Student who tend to be perfect feel more academic stress. The high level of depressive symptom is associated with insomnia, amotivation, academic stress in medical student. Moreover, personality trait also can influence their depressive symptoms.
Rosely Almeida Souza
Full Text Available Objective: To classify families of elderly with depressive symptoms regarding their functioning and to ascertain the presence of an association between these symptoms, family functioning and the characteristics of the elderly. Method: This was an observational, analytical, cross-sectional study performed with 33 teams of the Family Health Strategy in Dourados, MS. The sample consisted of 374 elderly divided into two groups (with and without depressive symptoms. The instruments for data collection were a sociodemographic instrument, the GeriatricDepression Scale (15 items and the Family Apgar. Results: An association was observed between depressive symptoms and family dysfunction, female gender, four or more people living together, and physical inactivity. Conclusion: The functional family may represent effective support for the elderly with depressive symptoms, because it offers a comfortable environment that ensures the well-being of its members. The dysfunctional family can barely provide necessary care for the elderly, which can exacerbate depressive symptoms.
Cho, Sungkun; Cho, Yongrae
Depressive symptoms have been recognized as one of the most frequent complaints among natural disaster survivors. One of the most frequently used self-report measures of depressive symptoms is the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). To our knowledge, no study has yet examined the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the CES-D in a sample of natural disaster survivors. Thus, the present study investigated the factor structure, reliability, and validity of a Korean language version of the CES-D (KCES-D) for natural disaster survivors. We utilized two archived datasets collected independently for two different periods in 2008 in the same region of Korea (n = 192 for sample 1; n = 148 for sample 2). Participants were survivors of torrential rains in the mid-eastern region of the Korean peninsula. For analysis, Samples 1 and 2 were merged (N = 340). Confirmatory factor analysis was performed to evaluate the one-factor model, the four-factor model, and the bi-factor models, as well as the second-order factor model. Composite reliability was computed to examine the internal consistency of the KCES-D total and subscale scores. Finally, Pearson's r was computed to examine the relationship between the KCES-D and the trauma-related measures. The four-factor model provided the best fit to the data among the alternatives. The KCES-D showed adequate internal consistency, except for the 'interpersonal difficulties' subscale. Also regarding concurrent validity, weak to moderate positive correlations were observed between the KCES-D and the trauma-related measures. The results support the four-factor model and indicate that the KCES-D has adequate psychometric properties for natural disaster survivors. If these findings are further confirmed, the KCES-D can be used as a useful, rapid, and inexpensive screening tool for assessing depressive symptoms in natural disaster survivors.
Yavuz, Burcu Goksan; Yavuz, Mesut; Onal, Arzu
We hypothesized that attention deficit hyperactivity symptoms would negatively correlate with the level of mindfulness. Seventy-six subjects referred to the outpatient psychiatry unit and 32 healthy control subjects filled out the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS), the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS), the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS), and the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS). Patients scored higher on ADH symptoms compared to controls (p ≤ .001). Higher scores on the ASRS and WURS revealed lower mindfulness in the study group (p ≤ .001). WURS, DASS depression, ASRS attention subscale-based scores (p < .05) were significant predictors on MAAS scores. Besides emotional symptoms ADH symptoms had a significant predictive value on mindfulness. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Jung, Ha Bum; Choi, Don Kyoung; Lee, Seong Ho; Cho, Sung Tae; Na, Hae Ri; Park, Moon Ho
To examine an association between the overactive bladder symptom score (OABSS) and neuropsychological parameters. Moreover, we investigate the factors that affect each item in the questionnaire. A total of 376 patients (males: 184; females: 192) with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) were recruited. Cognitive testing was conducted using the Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE), Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scale, Global Deterioration Scale (GDS), and Barthel Activities of Daily Living (ADL). Lower urinary tract symptom (LUTS) was assessed using OABSS and voiding diary. The prevalence of overactive bladder (OAB) (defined as OABSS ≥3 with na urgency score of ≥2) in patients with AD was 72.6%. Among the OAB subjects, the most common severity of symptom was moderate (72.6%), followed by mild (21.2%), and severe (5.8%). It was found that OABSS had a very high correlation with aging (r=0.75; pincontinence was highly correlated with the CDR scores (r=0.43; pincontinence, and CDR scores. Copyright® by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.
Lozano, B E; Johnson, S L
There has been limited research investigating personality traits as predictors of manic and depressive symptoms in bipolar individuals. The present study investigated the relation between personality traits and the course of bipolar disorder. The purpose of this study was to identify specific personality traits that predict the course of manic and depressive symptoms experienced by bipolar individuals. The sample consisted of 39 participants with bipolar I disorder assessed by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. Personality was assessed using the NEO Five-Factor Inventory. The Modified Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression and the Bech-Rafaelsen Mania Rating Scale were used to assess symptom severity on a monthly basis. Consistent with previous research on unipolar depression, high Neuroticism predicted increases in depressive symptoms across time while controlling for baseline symptoms. Additionally, high Conscientiousness, particularly the Achievement Striving facet, predicted increases in manic symptoms across time. The current study was limited by the small number of participants, the reliance on a shortened version of a self-report personality measure, and the potential state-dependency of the personality measures. Specific personality traits may assist in predicting bipolar symptoms across time. Further studies are needed to tease apart the state-dependency of personality.
Ghaeli, Padideh; Nikvarz, Naemeh; Alaghband-Rad, Javad; Alimadadi, Abbas; Tehrani-Doost, Mehdi
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of risperidone in patients afflicted by autistic disorder especially with regards to its three core symptoms, including "relating to others", "communication skills", and "stereotyped behaviors" based on Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS). An 8-week open-label study of risperidone for treatment of autistic disorder in children 4-17 years old was designed. Risperidone dose titration was as follow: 0.02 mg/kg/day at the first week, 0.04 mg/kg/day at the second week, and 0.06 mg/kg/day at the third week and thereafter. The outcome measures were scores obtained by CARS, Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC), and Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I) scale. Fifteen patients completed this study. After 8 weeks, CARS total score decreased significantly, (P=0.001). At the end of the study, social interactions and verbal communication skills of the patients were significantly improved (Pautistic disorder.
Tau leptons play a central role in the LHC physics programme, in particular as an important signature in many Higgs boson and supersymmetry searches. They are further used in Standard Model electroweak measurements, as well as detector-related studies like the determination of the missing transverse energy scale. Copious backgrounds from QCD processes call for both efficient identification of hadronically decaying tau leptons, as well as large suppression of fake candidates. A solid understanding of the combined performance of the calorimeter and tracking detectors is also required. We present the current status of the tau reconstruction, energy calibration and identification with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. Identification efficiencies are measured in W →τν events in data and compared with predictions from Monte Carlo simulations, whereas the misidentification probabilities of QCD jets and electrons are determined from various jet-enriched data samples and from Z → ee events, respectively. The tau energy scale calibration is described and systematic uncertainties on both energy scale and identification efficiencies discussed. (author)
Doty, Tasha; Foster, Erin R; Marshall, Bess; Ranck, Samantha; Hershey, Tamara
To investigate daily function among individuals with Wolfram Syndrome (WFS) and examine whether any limitations are related to disease-related symptoms. WFS ( n = 31), Type 1 diabetic (T1DM; n = 25), and healthy control (HC; n = 29) participants completed the Pediatric Quality of Life Questionnaire (PEDSQL) Self and Parent Report. PEDSQL domain scores were compared among these groups and between WFS patients with and without specific disease-related symptoms. Relationships between PEDSQL scores and symptom severity as assessed by the Wolfram Unified Rating Scale (WURS) Physical Scale were also examined. Across most domains, the WFS group had lower PEDSQL Self and Parent Report scores than the T1DM and HC groups. WFS participants with urinary, sleep, and temperature regulation problems had lower PEDSQL scores than those without. The WURS Physical Scale correlated with Self and Parent Report PEDSQL domains. WFS group Self and Parent Reports correlated with each other. The WFS group reported lower daily function compared to T1DM and HC groups. Within WFS, worse symptom severity and the specific symptoms of sleep, temperature regulation, and urinary problems were associated with poorer daily function. These findings provide rationale for an increased emphasis on identifying, treating and understanding these less well-known symptoms of WFS.
Santiago Perez Lloret
Full Text Available Nonmotor symptoms (NMS like neuropsychiatric symptoms, sleep disturbances or autonomic symptoms are a common feature of Parkinson's disease (PD. To explore the existence of groups of NMS and to relate them to PD characteristics, 71 idiopathic non-demented PD out-patients were recruited. Sleep was evaluated by the PD Sleep Scale (PDSS. Several neuropsychiatric, gastrointestinal and urogenital symptoms were obtained from the NMSQuest. Sialorrhea or dysphagia severity was obtained from the Unified PD Rating Scale activities of daily living section. MADRS depression scale was also administered. Exploratory factor analysis revealed the presence of 5 factors, explaining 70% of variance. The first factor included PDSS measurement of sleep quality, nocturnal restlessness, off-related problems and daytime somnolence; the second factor included nocturia (PDSS and nocturnal activity; the third one included gastrointestinal and genitourinary symptoms; the forth one included nocturnal psychosis (PDSS, sialorrhea and dysphagia (UPDRS; and the last one included the MADRS score as well as neuropsychiatric symptoms. Sleep disorders correlated with presence of wearing-off, nocturia with age >69 years, and nocturnal psychosis with levodopa equivalent dose or UPDRS II score. Neuropsychiatric symptoms correlated with UPDRS II+III score and non-tricyclic antidepressants. These results support the occurrence of significant NMS grouping in PD patients.
Wetzel, R D; Brim, J; Guze, S B; Cloninger, C R; Martin, R L; Clayton, P J
44 items on the MMPI were identified which appear to correspond to some of the symptoms in nine of the 10 groups on the Perley-Guze checklist for somatization disorder (hysteria). This list was organized into two scales, one reflecting the total number of symptoms endorsed and the other the number of organ systems with at least one endorsed symptom. Full MMPIs were then obtained from 29 women with primary affective disorder and 37 women with somatization disorder as part of a follow-up study of a consecutive series of 500 psychiatric clinic patients seen at Washington University. Women with the diagnosis of somatization disorder scored significantly higher on the somatization disorder scales created from the 44 items than did women with only major depression. These new scales appeared to be slightly more effective in identifying somatization disorder than the use of the standard MMPI scales for hypochondriasis and hysteria. Further development is needed.
Tiikkainen, P; Heikkinen, R-L
This study explores the associations of loneliness with depressive symptoms in a five-year follow-up and describes how the six dimensions of perceived togetherness explain loneliness and depressive symptoms at baseline. The data were collected on 207 residents of Jyväskylä, central Finland, who at baseline in 1990 were aged 80; and 133 residents who at follow-up in 1995 were aged 85. Loneliness was assessed using a questionnaire item with four preset response options, perceived togetherness using the Social Provisions Scale, and depressive symptoms using the CES-D scale. A recursive structural equation model showed that in women but not in men, depressive symptoms predicted more experiences of loneliness. Those who were lonely were more depressed (CES-D score 16 or over) and experienced less togetherness than those who were not. Loneliness was explained by reliable alliance, social integration and attachment; and depressive symptoms were explained by guidance, reassurance of worth, reliable alliance and attachment. A common feature in both loneliness and depressive symptoms was a lower level of perceived emotional togetherness in social interaction.
Muris, Peter; Simon, Ellin; Lijphart, Hester; Bos, Arjan; Hale, William; Schmeitz, Kelly
The Youth Anxiety Measure for DSM-5 (YAM-5) is a new self- and parent-report questionnaire to assess anxiety disorder symptoms in children and adolescents in terms of the contemporary classification system. International panels of childhood anxiety researchers and clinicians were used to construct a scale consisting of two parts: part one consists of 28 items and measures the major anxiety disorders including separation anxiety disorder, selective mutism, social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder, whereas part two contains 22 items that focus on specific phobias and (given its overlap with situational phobias) agoraphobia. In general, the face validity of the new scale was good; most of its items were successfully linked to the intended anxiety disorders. Notable exceptions were the selective mutism items, which were frequently considered as symptoms of social anxiety disorder, and some specific phobia items especially of the natural environment, situational and other type, that were regularly assigned to an incorrect category. A preliminary investigation of the YAM-5 in non-clinical (N = 132) and clinically referred (N = 64) children and adolescents indicated that the measure was easy to complete by youngsters. In addition, support was found for the psychometric qualities of the measure: that is, the internal consistency was good for both parts, as well as for most of the subscales, the parent-child agreement appeared satisfactory, and there was also evidence for the validity of the scale. The YAM-5 holds promise as a tool for assessing anxiety disorder symptoms in children and adolescents.
To determine symptom overlaps between functional heartburn (FH), functional dyspepsia (FD), and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). One hundred and ten patients with frequent heartburn but no mucosa breakage under endoscopy were enrolled consecutively. They were required to fill out a questionnaire. The overlapped symptoms of FD and IBS symptoms were screened using Rome ill criteria. The participants were also examined using Hamilton anxiety scale/Hamilton depression scale. All of the participants were followed with 24 h esophageal multichannel intra-luminal impedance monitoring with pH sensor (MII-pH) monitoring and proton pump inhibitor (PPI) trials. The participants were divided into non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) and FH groups. The prevalence of symptom overlaps FD and IBS, between NERD and FH groups was analyzed. Women were more likely to present with FH than with NERD (P heartburn symptom had FD symptoms; 31 (28.2%) had IBS symptoms, and 10 (9.09%) had both FD and IBS symptoms. Patients with FH were more likely to have symptom overlaps of FD and IBS than those with NERD (62% vs. 35%, 48% vs. 11.7%, respectively; P 0.05). IBS-diarrhea was also slightly more likely to have overlapped NERD and FH symptoms than IBS-constipation. Again, the difference was not significant (16.4% vs. 11.8%, P > 0.05). Female, higher prevalence of anxiety and depression, overlapped FD and IBS symptoms are more likely to appear in FH patients than in NERD patients.
Cetin, Orkun; Guzel Ozdemir, Pınar; Kurdoglu, Zehra; Sahin, Hanım Guler
The aim of the current study was to investigate the psychopathological symptoms, psycho-emotional state, dream anxiety, and insomnia in healthy, mild and severe preeclamptic postpartum women and their relation to the severity of preeclampsia (PE). This observational study included 45 healthy, 41 mild preeclamptic and 44 severe preeclamptic postpartum women. The 90-item Symptom Checklist Revised, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Insomnia Severity Index, and Van Dream Anxiety Scale (VDAS) were used to evaluate the psychopathological symptoms, psycho-emotional state, insomnia, and dream anxiety of the participants after delivery. Severe preeclamptic women had higher VDAS scores than mild preeclamptic and healthy postpartum women (p: 0.001). The psychopathological symptoms were more frequent in preeclamptic women than in healthy controls (p: 0.001). Severe preeclamptic women had the highest scores in Hospital Anxiety-Depression Scale and Insomnia Severity Index (p: 0.001, p: 0.001, respectively). Preeclampsia negatively affects the psycho-emotional state, psychopathological symptoms and sleep patterns. Further, disturbed dreaming was more frequent in PE and also, all of these conditions became worse with the severity of PE. We speculated that the obstetricians should offer their preeclamptic patients an appropriate mental health care at bedside and postpartum period as needed.
Li, Chia-Ying; Chen, Mei-Ling
Chemotherapy is a common adjuvant therapy for breast cancer that improves survival rates by killing residual cancer cells. However, this intervention may damage the germ cells within the ovary and interrupt the menstrual cycle, ultimately leading to chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea (CIA). The incidence of CIA depends on how broadly this term is defined. Around 75% of premenopausal breast cancer women treated with chemotherapy will develop CIA. Age, having a relatively long chemotherapy cycle duration, being estrogen-receptor positive, and using Tamoxifen all increase the risk of CIA. Although CIA may be associated with better prognosis outcomes, breast cancer women must subsequently deal with the various menopausal symptoms that are associated with a CIA-induced drop in estrogen level (such as cognitive function decline, physical and psychological symptoms, vasomotor symptoms, reproductive and sexual function problems, and body weight change). The present article describes the female menstrual cycle, the mechanism and risk factors of CIA, and the range of menopausal symptoms. Furthermore, we summarized methods of assessing menopausal symptoms and compared five common rating scales of menopausal symptoms. By better understanding the potential menopausal symptoms, researchers and clinicians may then select the most appropriate scale based on the situational needs in order to evaluate the severity of menopausal symptoms that are experienced by breast cancer women.
Kontis, Dimitrios; Theochari, Eirini; Nikolakopoulou, Mary; Andreopoulou, Angeliki; Vassos, Dimitrios; Grigoriou, Vasileios; Vassilouli, Spyridoula; Giannakopoulou, Dimitra; Kouloumbi, Maria; Tsaltas, Eleftheria
Although the relationship of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCSs) with both cognition and social functioning (SF) has already been the focus of research in schizophrenia, the moderation of the relationship of OCSs with SF by cognition has not been explored to date. We investigated the association of OCSs with SF and its interaction with cognition in schizophrenia. We recruited 110 schizophrenia patients and assessed OCSs (Yale-Brown Scale), schizophrenia symptoms (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale), SF (Strauss-Carpenter Scale) and cognition. 51 patients had one obsessive-compulsive symptom or more, whereas 59 patients had no obsessive compulsive-symptom, according to the Yale-Brown Scale. We mainly investigated: a) the predictive effect of OCSs on SF, controlling for cognition, illness duration and symptoms' severity and b) the moderating effect of cognition on the OCSs-SF relationship. The mean score of OCSs for patients having at least one symptom was 13.43 (SD=8.32). Higher OCSs predicted increased SF (B=0.98, t=2.41, df=88, p=0.018). This relationship was driven by the association of compulsions with job functioning (B=0.074, t=2.029, df=88, p=0.046). Patients without OCSs demonstrated worse functioning compared with those having at least one obsessive-compulsive symptom (mean difference=2.496, t=3.732, df=88, p<0.001). We failed to find evidence that cognition moderates the effect of OCSs on SF. There may be a beneficial effect of OCSs on SF in patients with schizophrenia which is independent of their cognitive performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Borderline personality disorder, conversion disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder frequently have dissociative symptoms. The literature has demonstrated that the level of dissociation might be correlated with the severity of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and that those not responding to treatment had high dissociative symptoms. The structured clinical interview for DSM-IV dissociative disorders, dissociation questionnaire, somatoform dissociation questionnaire and dissociative experiences scale can be used for screening dissociative symptoms and detecting dissociative disorders in patients with OCD. However, a history of neglect and abuse during childhood is linked to a risk factor in the pathogenesis of dissociative psychopathology in adults. The childhood trauma questionnaire-53 and childhood trauma questionnaire-40 can be used for this purpose. Clinicians should not fail to notice the hidden dissociative symptoms and childhood traumatic experiences in OCD cases with severe symptoms that are resistant to treatment. Symptom screening and diagnostic tools used for this purpose should be known. Knowing how to treat these pathologies in patients who are diagnosed with OCD can be crucial.
Konkolÿ Thege Barna
Full Text Available Abstract Background In our research we examined the frequency of somatic symptoms among bereaved (N = 185 and non-bereaved men and women in a national representative sample (N = 4041 and investigated the possible mediating factors between bereavement status and somatic symptoms. Methods Somatic symptoms were measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-15, anxiety with a four-point anxiety rating scale, and depression with a nine-item shortened version of the Beck Depression Inventory. Results Among the bereaved, somatic symptoms proved to be significantly more frequent in both genders when compared to the non-bereaved, as did anxiety and depression. On the multivariate level, the results show that both anxiety and depression proved to be a mediator between somatic symptoms and bereavement. The effect sizes indicated that for both genders, anxiety was a stronger predictor of somatic symptoms than depression. Conclusions The results of our research indicate that somatic symptoms accompanying bereavement are not direct consequences of this state but they can be traced back to the associated anxiety and depression. These results draw attention to the need to recognize anxiety and depression looming in the background of somatic complaints in bereavement and to the importance of the dissemination of related information.
Schlink, Uwe; Fritz, Gisela; Herbarth, Olf; Richter, Matthias
A panel of 277 children, aged 3-7 years, was used to study the association between air pollution (O3, SO2, NO2, and total suspended particles), meteorological factors (global radiation, maximum daytime temperature, daily averages of vapour pressure and air humidity) and respiratory symptoms. For 759 days the symptoms were recorded in a diary and modelling was based on a modification of the method proposed by Korn and Whittemore (Biometrics 35: 795-798, 1979). This approach (1) comprises an extension using environmental parameters at different time scales, (2) addresses the suitability of using the daily fraction of symptomatic individuals to account for inter-individual interactions and (3) enables the most significant weather effects to be identified. The resulting model consisted of (1) an individual specific intercept that takes account of the population's heterogeneity, (2) the individual's health status the day before, (3) a long-term meteorological effect, which may be either the squared temperature or global radiation in interaction with temperature, (4) the short-term effect of sulfur dioxide, and (5) the short-term effect of an 8-h ozone concentration above 60 µg/m3. Using the estimated parameters as input to a simulation study, we checked the quality of the model and demonstrate that the annual cycle of the prevalence of respiratory symptoms is associated to atmospheric covariates. Individuals suffering from allergy have been identified as a group of a particular susceptibility to ozone. The duration of respiratory symptoms appears to be free of scale and follows an exponential distribution function, which confirms that the symptom record of each individual follows a Poisson point-process. This supports the assumption that not only respiratory diseases, but also respiratory symptoms can be considered an independent measure for the health status of a population sample. Since a point process is described by only one parameter (namely the intensity of the
Kita, Yosuke; Inoue, Yuki
The present study aimed to reveal the influences of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms on self-esteem and self-perception during early adolescence and to clarify the spillover effect of self-esteem on depressive symptoms. ADHD symptoms in 564 early adolescents were evaluated via teacher-rating scales. Self-esteem and depressive symptoms were assessed via self-reported scales. We analyzed the relationships among these symptoms using...
Prayson, Brigid E; Floden, Darlene P; Ferguson, Lisa; Kim, Kevin H; Jehi, Lara; Busch, Robyn M
This retrospective study examined the potential role of side and site of surgery in psychological symptom change after epilepsy surgery and determined the base rate of psychological change at the individual level. Two-hundred twenty-eight adults completed the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) before and after temporal (TLR; n=190) or frontal lobe resection (FLR; n=38). Repeated measures ANOVAs with bootstrapping examined differences in psychological outcome as a function of surgical site separately in patients who underwent left- versus right-sided resections. Individual's PAI score changes were then used to determine the prevalence of clinically meaningful postoperative symptom change. Following left-sided resections, there were significant group-by-time interactions on Somatic Complaints, Anxiety, and Anxiety Related Disorders. There was also a trend in this direction on the Depression scale. TLR patients endorsed greater preoperative symptoms than FLR patients on all of these scales, except the Somatic Complaints scale. After surgery, TLR patients reported symptom improvement on all four scales, while scores of FLR patients remained relatively stable over time. Endorsement of Mania-related symptoms increased in both TLR and FLR groups from pre-to post-surgical testing. Following right-sided resections, both groups endorsed symptom improvements on Somatic Complaints, Anxiety, and Depression scales following surgery. In addition, the TLR group endorsed more Mania-related symptoms than the FLR group regardless of time. Patterns of meaningful change in individual patients were generally consistent with group findings, with the most frequent improvements observed following TLR. However, there were a small subset of patients who reported symptom exacerbation after surgery. Our results suggest that surgical lateralization and localization are important factors in postoperative psychological outcome and highlight the importance of considering psychological change
Grover, Sandeep; Sharma, Akhilesh; Aggarwal, Munish; Mattoo, Surendra K; Chakrabarti, Subho; Malhotra, Savita; Avasthi, Ajit; Kulhara, Parmanand; Basu, Debasish
The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between delirium motor subtypes and other symptoms of delirium. Three hundred and twenty-one (n = 321) consecutive patients referred to consultation-liaison psychiatry services were evaluated on Delirium Rating scale-Revised-98 version and amended Delirium Motor Symptom Scale. Half of the patients had hyperactive subtype (n = 161; 50.15%) delirium. One-quarter of the study sample met the criteria for mixed subtype (n = 79; 24.61%), about one-fifth of the study sample met the criteria for hypoactive delirium subtype (n = 64; 19.93%), and only very few patients (n = 17; 5.29%) did not meet the required criteria for any of these three subtypes and were categorized as 'no subtype'. When the hyperactive and hypoactive subtypes were compared, significant differences were seen in the prevalence of perceptual disturbances, delusions, lability of affect, thought process abnormality, motor agitation and motor retardation. All the symptoms were more common in the hyperactive subtype except for thought process abnormality and motor retardation. Compared to hyperactive subtype, the mixed subtype had significantly higher prevalence of thought process abnormality and motor retardation. Significant differences emerged with regard to perceptual disturbances, delusions, lability of affect and motor agitation when comparing the patients with mixed subtype with those with hypoactive subtype. All these symptoms were found to be more common in the mixed subtype. No significant differences emerged for the cognitive symptoms as assessed on Delirium Rating scale-Revised-98 across the different motoric subtypes. Different motoric subtypes of delirium differ on non-cognitive symptoms. © 2013 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2013 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.
Skinner, T. C.; Carey, M. E.; Cradock, S.
the Depression scale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale after diagnosis and at 4, 8 and 12 months follow-up. Participants also completed the Problem Areas in Diabetes scale at 8 and 12 months follow-up. We present descriptive statistics on prevalence and persistence of depressive symptoms. Logistic......Aims To describe the course of depressive symptoms during the first year after diagnosis of Type 2 diabetes. Methods Post hoc analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial of self-management education for 824 individuals newly diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes. Participants completed...... regression is used to predict possible depression cases, and multiple regression to predict depressive symptomatology. Results The prevalence of depressive symptoms in individuals recently diagnosed with diabetes (18-22% over the year) was not significantly different from normative data for the general...
Adriaanse, M C; Dekker, J M; Nijpels, G
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The association between depression and insulin resistance has been investigated in only a few studies, with contradictory results reported. The aim of this study was to determine whether the association between symptoms of depression and insulin resistance varies across glucose...... established type 2 diabetes mellitus. Main outcome measures were insulin resistance defined by the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and symptoms of depression using the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). RESULTS: In the total sample, we found a weak.......942). The association between depressive symptoms and insulin resistance was similar for men and women. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: We found only weak associations between depressive symptoms and insulin resistance, which did not differ among different glucose metabolism subgroups or between men and women....
MICLUTIA, IOANA VALENTINA
Background and aims The relationship between negative symptoms and cognition in schizophrenia is not clear, inconsistent findings have been reported by multiple authors and meta analyses. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between cognition and primary negative symptoms. Methods 67 outpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia were evaluated using PANSS and the NSA-16 scale. Correlation and regression analyses were used in the present study to investigate the relationship between the primary negative symptoms and cognition. Results No relationship was found between the PANSS Cognitive factor and Negative factor, but when investigating the relationship of the Cognitive PANSS factor with the negative symptoms evaluated with the NSA-16 scale, it was shown that there is a significant association between cognition and motor retardation. Conclusions Our study reveals the relative independence of cognitive factor from the global negative domain of the psychopathology, even though the association with motor retardation was clear. These findings also support the need of using appropriate assessment tools in order to gain a more refined understanding of the phenomenology of schizophrenia. PMID:29440953
Keeley, R; Smith, M; Miller, J
To examine whether somatoform symptoms, specifically symptoms of conversion, somatization, and hypochondriasis, are associated with side-effect reporting and treatment nonadherence in depressed family medicine outpatients, and to measure whether symptoms improve with pharmacotherapy. Inception cohort study with 14-week follow-up. Inner-city family medicine residency clinic. Thirty-nine consecutive adults with major depressive disorder were asked to participate, and 30 consented. Antidepressants for 14 weeks. The Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) was administered before treatment. The PAI is a self-reported inventory compatible with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, designed to measure a broad range of personality characteristics. After 14 weeks, the side-effect incidence and treatment nonadherence rates were determined, and 12 patients were readministered the PAI. Depressed family medicine patients demonstrated trends toward elevated Somatic Complaints scale and conversion subscale scores and a lower Suicidal Ideation scale score relative to those of a standardized depressed psychiatric patient profile. Conversion and hypochondriacal symptoms were associated with side-effect reporting and treatment nonadherence. Somatization and hypochondriacal symptoms improved clinically and statistically during treatment for depression. Somatoform distress is a complex, common, and understudied phenomenon in primary care that can adversely affect the treatment of depression. Somatoform symptoms of conversion and hypochondriasis, but not somatization, were found to be risk factors for treatment nonadherence. Somatization and hypochondriacal symptoms may represent personality states that improve with pharmacotherapy, and conversion symptoms may be a personality trait resistant to medical treatment for depression.
Hoogewerf, Cornelis Johannes; van Baar, Margriet Elisabeth; Middelkoop, Esther; van Loey, Nancy Elisa
This study assessed the role of self-reported facial scar severity as a possible influencing factor on self-esteem and depressive symptoms in patients with facial burns. A prospective multicentre cohort study with a 6 months follow-up was conducted including 132 patients with facial burns. Patients completed the Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale, the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Structural Equation Modeling was used to assess the relations between depressive symptoms, self-esteem and scar severity. The model showed that patient-rated facial scar severity was not predictive for self-esteem and depressive symptoms six months post-burn. There was, however, a significant relationship between early depressive symptoms and both patient-rated facial scar severity and subsequent self-esteem. The variables in the model accounted for 37% of the variance in depressive symptoms six months post-burn and the model provided a moderately well-fitting representation of the data. The study suggests that self-esteem and depressive symptoms were not affected by self-reported facial scar severity but that earlier depressive symptoms were indicative for a more severe self-reported facial scar rating. Therefore, routine psychological screening during hospitalisation is recommended in order to identify patients at risk and to optimise their treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Anema, Cheryl; Johnson, Mary; Zeller, Janice M; Fogg, Louis; Zetterlund, Joan
This study examined relationships among symptom pattern variability, uncertainty, spiritual well-being, and psychosocial adaptation in individuals with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). A survey design was used with 58 individuals with FMS. The Fibromyalgia Symptom Pattern Questionnaire, Mishel Uncertainty in Illness Scale--Community Form, Spiritual Well-Being Scale, and Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale-Self Report were used to collect data. Positive relationships were found between symptom pattern variability and uncertainty and between uncertainty and poor psychosocial adaptation; spiritual well-being moderated the relationship between uncertainty and psychosocial adaptation. A positive sense of well-being aided adaptation to symptoms and uncertainties of FMS. Spiritual well-being had a greater effect on the relationship between symptom pattern variability and uncertainty than expected.
Gierk, Benjamin; Kohlmann, Sebastian; Hagemann-Goebel, Marion; Löwe, Bernd; Nestoriuc, Yvonne
The SSS-8 is a brief questionnaire for the assessment of somatic symptom burden. This study examines its sensitivity to change and the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) in patients with mental disorders. 55 outpatients with mental disorders completed the SSS-8 and measures of anxiety, depression, and disability before and after receiving treatment. Effect sizes and correlations between the change scores were calculated. The MCID was estimated using a one standard error of measurement threshold and the change in disability as an external criterion. There was a medium decline in somatic symptom burden for the complete sample (n=55, d z =0.53) and a large decline in a subgroup with very high somatic symptom burden at baseline (n=11, d z =0.94). Decreases in somatic symptom burden were associated with decreases in anxiety (r=0.68, pSSS-8 is sensitive to change. A 3-point decrease reflects a clinically important improvement. Due to its brevity and sound psychometric properties, the SSS-8 is useful for monitoring somatic symptom burden. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bechtold, Kathleen T; Rebman, Alison W; Crowder, Lauren A; Johnson-Greene, Doug; Aucott, John N
Understanding the Lyme disease (LD) literature is challenging given the lack of consistent methodology and standardized measurement of symptoms and the impact on functioning. This prospective study incorporates well-validated measures to capture the symptom picture of individuals with early LD from time of diagnosis through 6-months post-treatment. One hundred seven patients with confirmed early LD and 26 healthy controls were evaluated using standardized instruments for pain, fatigue, depressive symptoms, functional impact, and cognitive functioning. Prior to antibiotic treatment, patients experience notable symptoms of fatigue and pain statistically higher than controls. After treatment, there are no group differences, suggesting that symptoms resolve and that there are no residual cognitive impairments at the level of group analysis. However, using subgroup analyses, some individuals experience persistent symptoms that lead to functional decline and these individuals can be identified immediately post-completion of standard antibiotic treatment using well-validated symptom measures. Overall, the findings suggest that ideally-treated early LD patients recover well and experience symptom resolution over time, though a small subgroup continue to suffer with symptoms that lead to functional decline. The authors discuss use of standardized instruments for identification of individuals who warrant further clinical follow-up. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Rettie, Sebastien; The ATLAS collaboration
Muon reconstruction and identification play a fundamental role in many analyses of central importance in the LHC run-2 Physics programme. The algorithms and the criteria used in ATLAS for the reconstruction and identification of muons with transverse momentum from a few GeV to the TeV scale will be presented. Their performance is measured in data based on the decays of Z and J/$\\psi$ to a pair of muons, that provide a large statistics calibration sample. Reconstruction and identification efficiencies are evaluated, as well as momentum scales and resolutions, and the results are used to derive precise MC simulation corrections. Isolation selection criteria and their performances in presence of high pileup will also be presented.
Shanbehzadeh, Sanaz; Salavati, Mahyar; Tavahomi, Mahnaz; Khatibi, Ali; Talebian, Saeed; Khademi-Kalantari, Khosro
Psychometric testing of the Persian version of Pain Anxiety Symptom Scale 20. The aim of this study was to assess the reliability and construct validity of the PASS-20 in nonspecific chronic low back pain (LBP) patients. The PASS-20 is a self-report questionnaire that assesses pain-related anxiety. The Psychometric properties of this instrument have not been assessed in Persian-speaking chronic LBP patients. One hundred and sixty participants with chronic LBP completed the Persian version of PASS-20, Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia (TSK), Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire (FABQ), Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS), trait form of the State-Trait Anxiety (STAI-T), Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Index (ODI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II), and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). To evaluate test-retest reliability, 60 patients filled out the PASS-20, 6 to 8 days after the first visit. Test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC], standard error of measurement [SEM], and minimal detectable change [MDC]), internal consistency, dimensionality, and construct validity were examined. The ICCs of the PASS-20 subscales and total score ranged from 0.71 to 0.8. The SEMs for PASS-20 total score was 7.29 and for the subscales ranged from 2.43 to 2.98. The MDC for the total score was 20.14 and for the subscales ranged from 6.71 to 8.23. The Cronbach alpha values for the subscales and total score ranged from 0.70 to 0.91. Significant positive correlations were found between the PASS-20 total score and PCS, TSK, FABQ, ODI, BDI, STAI-T, and pain intensity. The Persian version of the PASS-20 showed acceptable psychometric properties for the assessment of pain-related anxiety in Persian-speaking patients with chronic LBP. 3.
Kjellström, Barbro; Gustafsson, Anders; Nordendal, Eva; Norhammar, Anna; Nygren, Åke; Näsman, Per; Rydén, Lars; Åsberg, Marie
Psychosocial stress and depression are established risk factors for cardiovascular disease and a relationship to periodontitis has been suggested. We studied symptoms of depression and their relation to myocardial infarction and periodontitis. In a Swedish case-control study, 805 patients, stress at home and work, and symptoms of depression (Montgomery Åsberg Depression Scale). A Montgomery Åsberg Depression Scale score ⩾13 was considered clinically relevant. A family history of cardiovascular disease, smoking and divorce was more frequent among patients than controls. Patients had more symptoms of depression than controls (14 vs 7%; pless anti-depressive treatment (16 vs 42%; pless anti-depressive treatment. A relationship between depression and periodontitis could not be confirmed.
Vanegas Berrouet, Katherin M; Gutierrez Sanchez, Pablo A; Marin Montoya, Mauricio A
In this work, endophytic fungi from leaves and pods of bean presenting anthracnose symptoms were isolated from plants collected at different municipalities in the province of Antioquia (Colombia). Isolates were identified by sequencing the RDNA its regions together with the examination of reproductive structures during sporulation in culture media. Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, the causal agent of anthracnose was isolated in all samples showing symptoms of this disease. These results were confirmed by duplex PCR using the specific primers CD1/CD2 and CY1/CY2. Additionally, 17 endophytic fungi were obtained. Fourteen isolates did not sporulate in culture media (Mycelia sterilia) but were identified by phylogenetic analysis of the regions as the Ascomycetes: Leptosphaerulina (3), Diaporthe (3), Gibberella (1), Plectosphaerella (1) and Biscogniauxia (1) and the Mitosporic genera phoma (2), Alternaria (2) and Stemphylium (1) Three isolates were identified combining morphological and molecular analysis as Fusarium (2) and Curvularia lunata (1). This work increases our knowledge of the mycobiota of legume plants and will serve as support of future studies aimed at determining the effect of these fungi on the development of anthracnose as well as other problems affecting the bean crop.
Romirowsky, Abigail Mintz; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea
Background Maternal psychopathology robustly predicts poor developmental and treatment outcomes for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Despite the high heritability of ADHD, few studies have examined associations between paternal ADHD symptoms and child adjustment, and none have also considered degree of paternal involvement in childrearing. Identification of modifiable risk factors for child conduct problems is particularly important in this population given the serious adverse outcomes resulting from this comorbidity. Methods This cross-sectional study examined the extent to which paternal involvement in childrearing moderated the association between paternal ADHD symptoms and child conduct problems among 37 children with ADHD and their biological fathers. Results Neither paternal ADHD symptoms nor involvement was independently associated with child conduct problems. However, the interaction between paternal ADHD symptoms and involvement was significant, such that paternal ADHD symptoms were positively associated with child conduct problems only when fathers were highly involved in childrearing. Conclusions The presence of adult ADHD symptoms may determine whether father involvement in childrearing has a positive or detrimental influence on comorbid child conduct problems. PMID:25250402
Romirowsky, A M; Chronis-Tuscano, A
Maternal psychopathology robustly predicts poor developmental and treatment outcomes for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Despite the high heritability of ADHD, few studies have examined associations between paternal ADHD symptoms and child adjustment, and none have also considered degree of paternal involvement in childrearing. Identification of modifiable risk factors for child conduct problems is particularly important in this population given the serious adverse outcomes resulting from this comorbidity. This cross-sectional study examined the extent to which paternal involvement in childrearing moderated the association between paternal ADHD symptoms and child conduct problems among 37 children with ADHD and their biological fathers. Neither paternal ADHD symptoms nor involvement was independently associated with child conduct problems. However, the interaction between paternal ADHD symptoms and involvement was significant, such that paternal ADHD symptoms were positively associated with child conduct problems only when fathers were highly involved in childrearing. The presence of adult ADHD symptoms may determine whether father involvement in childrearing has a positive or detrimental influence on comorbid child conduct problems.
Malla, Ashok K; Takhar, Jatinder J; Norman, Ross M G; Manchanda, Rahul; Cortese, Leonard; Haricharan, Raj; Verdi, Mary; Ahmed, Rashid
To determine the prevalence of negative symptoms and to examine secondary sources of influence on negative symptoms and the role of specific negative symptoms in delay associated with seeking treatment in first episode non-affective psychosis. One hundred and ten patients who met Diagnostic Statistical Manual-IV (DSM-IV) criteria for a first episode of schizophrenia spectrum psychoses were rated for assessment of negative, positive, depressive and extrapyramidal symptoms, the premorbid adjustment scale and assessment of demographic and clinical characteristics including duration of untreated psychosis (DUP). Alogia/flat affect and avolition/anhedonia were strongly influenced by parkinsonian and depressive symptoms, respectively. A substantial proportion (26.8%) of patients showed at a least moderate level of negative symptoms not confounded by depression and Parkinsonism. DUP was related only to avolition/anhedonia while flat affect/alogia was related to male gender, diagnosis of schizophrenia, age of onset and the length of the prodrome. Negative symptoms that are independent of the influence of positive symptoms, depression and extra pyramidal symptoms (EPS) are present in a substantial proportion of first episode psychosis patients and delay in seeking treatment is associated mainly with avolition and anhedonia.
Moser, Rosemarie Scolaro; Schatz, Philip
Research documents increased symptoms in adolescents with a history of two or more concussions. This study examined baseline evaluations of 2,526 younger athletes, ages 10 to 14. Between-groups analyses examined Post Concussion Symptom Scale symptoms by concussion history group (None, One, Two+) and clusters of Physical, Cognitive, Emotional, and Sleep symptoms. Healthy younger athletes with a concussion history reported greater physical, emotional, and sleep-related symptoms than those with no history of concussion, with a greater endorsement in physical/sleep symptom clusters. Findings suggest younger athletes with a history of multiple concussions may experience residual symptoms.
Wang, Zheng; Xue, Zhimin; Pu, Weidan; Yang, Bo; Li, Li; Yi, Wenyin; Wang, Peng; Liu, Chang; Wu, Guowei; Liu, Zhening; Rosenheck, Robert A
There has been considerable interest in identifying and addressing the specific needs of early-episode patients diagnosed with schizophrenia in the hope that by addressing such needs early, chronic disabilities can be avoided. One hundred twenty-eight early-episode and 571 chronic patients were compared on socio-demographic characteristics, clinical symptoms and history of childhood trauma. Symptoms were measured with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), and trauma with the short version of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. First-episode patients scored 9.3% higher than chronic patients on the PANSS positive symptom scale and 16.3% lower on the negative symptom scale. More first episode patients reported childhood sexual abuse (P = 0.033); however, fewer reported childhood emotional neglect (P = 0.01). Childhood trauma was associated with positive symptoms, specifically with hallucinations in first-episode patients (r = 0.174; P = 0.049). Moreover, fewer parents of first episode patients were living alone (P = 0.008). On multiple logistic regression, the first-episode patients were younger (odds ratio = 0.92), had higher PANSS positive symptom scores (odds ratio 1.04) and lower negative symptom scores (odds ratio 0.948 recalculate). More positive symptoms, fewer negative symptoms, less isolated parents and greater risk of childhood sexual abuse might warrant attention in first episode schizophrenia and perhaps should be a focus for the development of targeted interventions. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Mitsui, Takahiko; Kira, Satoru; Ihara, Tatsuya; Sawada, Norifumi; Nakagomi, Hiroshi; Miyamoto, Tatsuya; Shimura, Hiroshi; Yokomichi, Hiroshi; Takeda, Masayuki
We identified metabolites using a metabolomics approach and investigated the association between these metabolites and lower urinary tract symptoms. We used a 24-hour bladder diary and I-PSS (International Prostate Symptom Score) to assess micturition behavior and lower urinary tract symptoms in 58 male patients without apparent neurological disease. Lower urinary tract symptoms were defined as a total I-PSS score of 8 or greater. Patients with a score of 7 or less were placed in the control group. A comprehensive study of plasma metabolites was also performed by capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Metabolites were compared between the lower urinary tract symptoms and control groups using the Mann-Whitney U test. Biomarkers of male lower urinary tract symptoms from the metabolites were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression analysis to determine the OR. Of the 58 men 32 were in the lower urinary tract symptoms group and the remaining 26 were in the control group. The 24-hour bladder diary showed that nocturnal urine volume, 24-hour micturition frequency, nocturnal micturition frequency and the nocturia index were significantly higher in the lower urinary tract symptoms group. Metabolomics analysis identified 60 metabolites from patient plasma. Multivariate analysis revealed that increased glutamate and decreased arginine, asparagine and inosine monophosphate were significantly associated with lower urinary tract symptoms in males. Decreases in citrulline and glutamine could also be associated with male lower urinary tract symptoms. Male lower urinary tract symptoms may develop due to abnormal metabolic processes in some pathways. Potential new treatments for lower urinary tract symptoms can be developed by identifying changes in the amino acid profiles. Copyright © 2018 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ahmadi, Atefeh; Mustaffa, Mohamed Sharif; Udin, Amirmudin; Haghdoost, AliAkbar
Pediatric anxiety disorders are the most common mental health disorders in the middle-childhood age group. The purpose of this study is to assess anxiety disorder symptoms, as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV), in a large community sample of low socioeconomic level rural children and to investigate some of the psychometric properties (internal consistency, construct and convergent validity and items rated as often or always experienced) of the Malay version of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale - Child version (SCAS-C). Six hundred children aged 9-11 and 424 of their parents completely answered the child or parent versions of the SCAS. Results indicated that the internal reliability of subscales were moderate to adequate. Significant correlations between child and parent reports supported the measure's concurrent validity. Additionally, anxiety levels in this Malaysian sample were lower than among South-African children and higher than among their Western peers. There were both similarities and differences between symptom items reported as often or always experienced by Malaysian students and by children from other cultures. Confirmatory factor analysis provided evidence of the existence of five inter-correlated factors for anxiety disorders based on SCAS-C. Although some of the instrument's psychometric properties deviated from those observed in some other countries, it nevertheless appears to be useful for assessing childhood anxiety symptoms in this country.
Gilworth, G; Smyth, M G; Smith, J; Tennant, A
Increasing awareness of the burden of absenteeism and reduced performance at work highlights the importance of early identification of individuals experiencing work instability (WI), a mismatch between functional and cognitive abilities and job demands. To develop and validate a screening questionnaire to measure WI in manual workers. Questionnaire items were generated via qualitative interviews with manual workers and a draft survey instrument was completed by workers in a variety of fields. Rasch analysis was used interactively to assess the psychometric aspects of the emerging scale, including unidimensionality and absence of item bias (differential item functioning). A total of 17 qualitative interviews generated 110 potential items for the questionnaire. The item set resolved to a 25-item scale, which satisfied model expectations (item residual mean = -0.13, SD = 1.04; person residual mean = -0.29, SD = 0.75), had good reliability (alpha = 0.86) and strict unidimensionality (t-test 7.5% confidence interval 3.8-11.2). The Manual Work Instability Scale is a short psychometrically robust questionnaire based on the concept of WI, which incorporates both musculoskeletal symptoms and relevant psychosocial factors. It may prove effective in screening and identifying WI in workers in predominantly physical occupations. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Briese, Volker; Stammwitz, Ute; Friede, Michael; Henneicke-von Zepelin, Hans-Heinrich
To evaluate usage pattern, effectiveness and safety of Black cohosh alone or in fixed combination with St. John's wort on menopausal symptoms in general clinical practice. Prospective, controlled open-label observational study of 6141 women at 1287 outpatient gynecologists in Germany. Subjects were treated with recommended doses of study therapies, with treatment chosen by the participating physicians. Patients were followed up for 6 months, optionally 12 months. The primary effectiveness variable was Menopause Rating Scale (MRS) subscore PSYCHE at Month 3 evaluated by ANCOVA. The treatment groups were comparable at baseline, excepting the main MRS score and the PSYCHE score (monotherapy: 0.31+/-0.22; combination therapy: 0.42+/-0.23). Reductions from baseline were seen with both regimens for all variables. The changes in the primary variable remained significantly different between groups (p<0.001) when adjusted for differences at baseline with the combination therapy being superior: from 0.37 (adjusted) to 0.25 (95% CI: 0.24-0.25) and 0.23 (95% CI: 0.22-0.23) at Month 3 in the monotherapy and combination-therapy groups, respectively. The improvement by both therapies was maintained at 6 and 12 months. The rate of possibly treatment-related adverse events was 0.16%, all non-serious. The results support the effectiveness and tolerability profiles of two Black cohosh-based therapies for menopausal symptoms in general practice. They were used differentially: the monotherapy for neurovegetative symptoms, the combination for patients with more pronounced mood complaints. The fixed combination of Black cohosh and St. John's wort was superior to Black cohosh alone in alleviating climacteric mood symptoms.
Frazier, Thomas W.; Hardan, Antonio Y.
This study investigated equivalence of autism symptom domains in males and females with autism. Symptom data were obtained from 2643 children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (352 females, 2291 males; age range = 4-17 years) included in the Simons Simplex Collection. Items from the Social Responsiveness Scale and Autism Diagnostic…
Besèr, Aniella; Sorjonen, Kimmo; Wahlberg, Kristina; Peterson, Ulla; Nygren, Ake; Asberg, Marie
Prolonged stress (≥ six months) may cause a condition which has been named exhaustion disorder (ED) with ICD-10 code F43.8. ED is characterised by exhaustion, cognitive problems, poor sleep and reduced tolerance to further stress. ED can cause long term disability and depressive symptoms may develop. The aim was to construct and evaluate a self-rating scale, the Karolinska Exhaustion Disorder Scale (KEDS), for the assessment of ED symptoms. A second aim was to examine the relationship between self-rated symptoms of ED, depression, and anxiety using KEDS and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD). Items were selected based on their correspondence to criteria for ED as formulated by the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare (NBHW), with seven response alternatives in a Likert-format. Self-ratings performed by 317 clinically assessed participants were used to analyse the scale's psychometric properties. KEDS consists of nine items with a scale range of 0-54. Receiver operating characteristics analysis demonstrated that a cut-off score of 19 was accompanied by high sensitivity and specificity (each above 95%) in the discrimination between healthy subjects and patients with ED. Reliability was satisfactory and confirmatory factor analysis revealed that ED, depression and anxiety are best regarded as different phenomena. KEDS may be a useful tool in the assessment of symptoms of Exhaustion Disorder in clinical as well as research settings. There is evidence that the symptom clusters of ED, anxiety and depression, respectively, reflect three different underlying dimensions. © 2013 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology published by Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Objective: There are many traumatic events (including natural disasters, physical, psychological and sexual abuse that may befall children and there is clear evidence that such experiences can produce a plethora of negative psychological effects. Children’s exposure to such traumas has been associated with a wide variety of negative mental health outcomes, including anxiety and depression, post-traumatic stress and dissociation and anger and aggression. It seems that the impacts of traumatic events are significantly related to type and intensity of trauma. Materials & Method: Through a systematized clustral sampling 3042 male and female students from junior high school who were participated in a survey study for investigating point prevalence of child abuse, completed Trauma Symptoms Checklist for Children-Alternate Version (TSCC-A and Child Abuse Self-report Scale (CASRS. After recognition of abused children, they were compared based on trauma symptoms. TSCC-A is a self-report measure of post-traumatic distress and related psychological symptomatology in male and female children aged 8-16 years. It is useful in the evaluation of children who have experienced traumatic events, including physical and sexual assault, victimization by peers, major losses, the witnessing of violence done to others and natural disasters. TSCC-A makes no reference to sexual issues. CASRS is a self-report scale to assess child abuse and neglect with 38 items and four subscales (psychological abuse, neglect, physical and sexual abuse. Results: Considering the type of traumatic experiences, the results showed that abused children significantly received higher scores in scales and subscales of TSCC-A than nonabused group. They specially reported more symptoms (depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress, anger and dissociation comparing normal children. Conclusion: It is concluded that the type and rate of traumatic event is related to intensity of symptomatology.
Ijaz, Tazvin; Nasir, Attikah; Sarfraz, Naema; Ijaz, Shirmeen
To revise conversion disorder scale and to establish the psychometric properties of the revised scale. This case-control study was conducted from February to June, 2014, at the Government College University, Lahore, Pakistan, and comprised schoolchildren and children with conversion disorder. In order to generate items for revised version of conversion disorder scale, seven practising mental health professionals were consulted. A list of 42 items was finalised for expert ratings. After empirical validation, a scale of 40 items was administered on the participants and factor analysis was conducted. Of the240 participants, 120(50%) were schoolchildren (controls group) and 120(50%)were children with conversion disorder (clinical group).The results of factor analysis revealed five factors (swallowing and speech symptoms, motor symptoms, sensory symptoms, weakness and fatigue, and mixed symptoms) and retention of all 40 items of revised version of conversion disorder scale. Concurrent validity of the revised scale was found to be 0.81 which was significantly high. Similarly, discriminant validity of the scale was also high as both clinical and control groups had significant difference (pconversion disorder scale was 76% sensitive to predicting conversion disorder while specificity showed that the scale was 73% accurate in specifying participants of the control group. The revised version of conversion disorder scale was a reliable and valid tool to be used for screening of children with conversion disorder.
Tülek, Zeliha; Polat, Cansu; Kürtüncü, Murat; Eraksoy, Mefkure
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease that causes different symptoms in each attack and has an individual-specific course. Detailed questioning and recording of MS symptoms is important for developing a management plan for individual-specific symptoms. The present study was planned to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Turkish version of "Multiple Sclerosis-Related Symptom Checklist" (MS-RS), which has been developed for patients to personally follow-up the symptoms they experience. The study was conducted in the outpatient MS clinic of the Istanbul University Istanbul Faculty of Medicine between January and October 2013 and included a sample group of 148 patients who were aged >18 years, could easily communicate, had a definite diagnosis of MS, and had no other medical problems besides MS. The data were collected using patient information forms, including sociodemographic and MS-RS forms. To assess the linguistic validity, the Likert-type scale with 26 items was first applied to a group of 30 patients. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to test the construct validity. Furthermore, the correlation of the scale with the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Mini-Mental Status Evaluation (MMSE) scale, and Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life Scale-54 (MSQL-54) was evaluated. The scale comprised five factors with factor loading values between 0.39 and 0.86. The item-total correlation coefficients revealed values of 0.27-0.88. The Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficient for the whole scale was determined to be 0.89 and for the subscales to be 0.60-0.85. The test-retest analysis revealed no difference between the scale and its subscales in terms of invariance with time (p>0.05). Moreover, MS-RS was significantly correlated with EDSS, HADS, MMSE, and MSQL-54. The Turkish version of MS-RS is a valid and reliable scale that can be used in the Turkish population.
Slor, C.J.; Witlox, J.; Adamis, D.; Meagher, D.J.; van der Ploeg, T.; Jansen, R.W.M.M.; van Stijn, M.F.M.; Houdijk, A.P.J.; van Gool, W.A.; Eikelenboom, P.; de Jonghe, J.F.M.
Background. Features that may allow early identification of patients at risk of prolonged delirium, and therefore of poorer outcomes, are not well understood. The aim of this study was to determine if preoperative delirium risk factors and delirium symptoms (at onset and clinical symptomatology
Lin, Ching-Hua; Yang, Wei-Cheng
We aimed to compare the degree of symptom relief to psychosocial functional (abbreviated as "functional") improvement and explore the relationships between symptom relief and functional improvement during acute electroconvulsive therapy for patients with major depressive disorder. Major depressive disorder inpatients (n=130) requiring electroconvulsive therapy were recruited. Electroconvulsive therapy was generally performed for a maximum of 12 treatments. Symptom severity, using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and psychosocial functioning (abbreviated as "functioning"), using the Modified Work and Social Adjustment Scale, were assessed before electroconvulsive therapy, after every 3 electroconvulsive therapy treatments, and after the final electroconvulsive therapy. Both 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Modified Work and Social Adjustment Scale scores were converted to T-score units to compare the degrees of changes between depressive symptoms and functioning after electroconvulsive therapy. Structural equation modeling was used to test the relationships between 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Modified Work and Social Adjustment Scale during acute electroconvulsive therapy. One hundred sixteen patients who completed at least the first 3 electroconvulsive therapy treatments entered the analysis. Reduction of 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale T-scores was significantly greater than that of Modified Work and Social Adjustment Scale T-scores at assessments 2, 3, 4, and 5. The model analyzed by structural equation modeling satisfied all indices of goodness-of-fit (chi-square = 32.882, P =.107, TLI = 0.92, CFI = 0.984, RMSEA = 0.057). The 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale change did not predict subsequent Modified Work and Social Adjustment Scale change. Functioning improved less than depressive symptoms during acute electroconvulsive therapy. Symptom reduction did not predict subsequent functional improvement
Snoer, Agneta; Lund, Nunu; Beske, Rasmus; Jensen, Rigmor; Barloese, Mads
Introduction In contrast to the premonitory phase of migraine, little is known about the pre-attack (prodromal) phase of a cluster headache. We aimed to describe the nature, prevalence, and duration of pre-attack symptoms in cluster headache. Methods Eighty patients with episodic cluster headache or chronic cluster headache, according to ICHD-3 beta criteria, were invited to participate. In this observational study, patients underwent a semi-structured interview where they were asked about the presence of 31 symptoms/signs in relation to a typical cluster headache attack. Symptoms included previously reported cluster headache pre-attack symptoms, premonitory migraine symptoms and accompanying symptoms of migraine and cluster headache. Results Pre-attack symptoms were reported by 83.3% of patients, with an average of 4.25 (SD 3.9) per patient. Local and painful symptoms, occurring with a median of 10 minutes before attack, were reported by 70%. Local and painless symptoms and signs, occurring with a median of 10 minutes before attack, were reported by 43.8% and general symptoms, occurring with a median of 20 minutes before attack, were reported by 62.5% of patients. Apart from a dull/aching sensation in the attack area being significantly ( p cluster headache. Since the origin of cluster headache attacks is still unresolved, studies of pre-attack symptoms could contribute to the understanding of cluster headache pathophysiology. Furthermore, identification and recognition of pre-attack symptoms could potentially allow earlier abortive treatment.
Davis, Mellar P; Lagman, Ruth; Parala, Armida; Patel, Chirag; Sanford, Tanya; Fielding, Flannery; Brumbaugh, Anita; Gross, James; Rao, Archana; Majeed, Sumreen; Shinde, Shivani; Rybicki, Lisa A
Hope is important to patients with cancer. Identifying factors that influence hope is important. Anxiety, depression, fatigue, and pain are reported to impair hope. The objective of this study was to determine whether age, gender, marital status, duration of cancer, symptoms, or symptom burden measured by the sum of severity scores on the Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale (ESAS) correlated with hope measured by the Herth Hope Index (HHI). Patients with advanced cancer in a palliative care unit participated. Demographics including age, gender, marital status, cancer site, and duration of cancer were collected. Individuals completed the ESAS and HHI. Spearman correlation and linear regression were used to assess associations adjusting for gender (male vs female), age ( 12 months). One hundred and ninety-seven were participated in the study, of which 55% were female with a mean age of 61 years (standard deviation 11). Hope was not associated with gender, age, marital status, or duration of cancer. In univariable analysis, hope inversely correlated with ESAS score (-0.28), lack of appetite (-0.22), shortness of breath (-0.17), depression (-0.39), anxiety (-0.32), and lack of well-being (-0.33); only depression was clinically relevant. In multivariable analysis, total symptom burden weakly correlated with hope; only depression remained clinically significant. This study found correlation between symptom burden and hope was not clinically relevant but was so for depression. Among 9 ESAS symptoms, only depression had a clinically relevant correlation with hope.
Bridging the Measurement Gap Between Research and Clinical Care in Schizophrenia: Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale-6 (PANSS-6) and Other Assessments Based on the Simplified Negative and Positive Symptoms Interview (SNAPSI).
Østergaard, Søren D; Opler, Mark G A; Correll, Christoph U
There is currently a "measurement gap" between research and clinical care in schizophrenia. The main reason behind this gap is that the most widely used rating scale in schizophrenia research, the 30-item Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), takes so long to administer that it is rarely used in clinical practice. This compromises the translation of research findings into clinical care and vice versa. The aim of this paper is to discuss how this measurement gap can be closed. Specifically, the main points of discussion are 1) the practical problems associated with using the full 30-item PANSS in clinical practice; 2) how the brief, six-item version of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS-6) was derived empirically from the full 30-item PANSS and what the initial results obtained with PANSS-6 entail; and 3) how PANSS-6 ratings, guided by the newly developed, 15-25-minute, stand-alone Simplified Negative and Positive Symptoms Interview (SNAPSI), might help bridge the measurement gap between research and clinical care in schizophrenia. The full 30-item PANSS is often used in research studies, but is too time consuming to allow for routine clinical use. Recent studies suggest that the much briefer PANSS-6 is a psychometrically valid measure of core positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia and that the scale is sensitive to symptom improvement following pharmacological treatment. SNAPSI is a brief interview that yields the information needed to rate PANSS-6 (and other brief rating scales). We believe that PANSS-6 ratings guided by SNAPSI will help bridge the measurement gap between research and clinical care in schizophrenia.
Sharp, Linda; O'Leary, Eamonn; Kinnear, Heather; Gavin, Anna; Drummond, Frances J
Prostate cancer treatments are associated with a range of symptoms and physical side-effects. Cancer can also adversely impact on psychological wellbeing. Because many prostate cancer-related symptoms and side-effects are potentially modifiable, we investigated associations between symptoms and psychological wellbeing among prostate cancer survivors. Postal questionnaires were distributed to men diagnosed with prostate cancer 2-18 years previously identified through cancer registries. General and prostate cancer-specific symptoms were assessed using the EORTC QLQ-C30 and QLQ-PR25, with higher symptom scores indicating more/worse symptomatology. Psychological wellbeing was assessed by the DASS-21. Associations between symptoms and each outcome were investigated using multivariate logistic regression, controlling for socio-demographic and clinical factors. A total 3348 men participated (response rate = 54%). Seventeen percent (95%CI 15.2%-17.9%), 16% (95%CI 15.1%-17.8%) and 11% (95%CI 9.5%-11.8%) of survivors scored in the range for depression, anxiety and distress on the DASS scales, respectively. In multivariate models, risk of depression on the DASS scale was significantly higher in men with higher urinary and androgen deprivation therapy (ADT)-related symptoms, and higher scores for fatigue, insomnia and financial difficulties. Risk of anxiety on the DASS scale was higher in men with higher scores for urinary, bowel and ADT-related symptoms and fatigue, dyspnoea and financial difficulties. Risk of distress on the DASS scale was positively associated with urinary, bowel and ADT-related symptoms, fatigue, insomnia and financial difficulties. Cancer-related symptoms significantly predict psychological wellbeing among prostate cancer survivors. Greater use of interventions and medications and to alleviate symptoms might improve psychological wellbeing of prostate cancer survivors. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Sanchez, Alvaro; Romero, Nuria; Maurage, Pierre; De Raedt, Rudi
Interpersonal difficulties are common in depression, but their underlying mechanisms are not yet fully understood. The role of depression in the identification of mixed emotional signals with a direct interpersonal value remains unclear. The present study aimed to clarify this question. A sample of 39 individuals reporting a broad range of depression levels completed an emotion identification task where they viewed faces expressing three emotional categories (100% disgusted and 100% happy faces, as well as their morphed 50% disgusted - 50% happy exemplars). Participants were asked to identify the corresponding depicted emotion as "clearly disgusted", "mixed", or "clearly happy". Higher depression levels were associated with lower identification of positive emotions in 50% disgusted - 50% happy faces. The study was conducted with an analogue sample reporting individual differences in subclinical depression levels. Further research must replicate these findings in a clinical sample and clarify whether differential emotional identification patterns emerge in depression for different mixed negative-positive emotions (sad-happy vs. disgusted-happy). Depression may account for a lower bias to perceive positive states when ambiguous states from others include subtle signals of social threat (i.e., disgust), leading to an under-perception of positive social signals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rosales, Roberto S; Martin-Hidalgo, Yolanda; Reboso-Morales, Luis; Atroshi, Isam
The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability and construct validity of the Spanish version of the 6-item carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) symptoms scale (CTS-6). In this cross-sectional study 40 patients diagnosed with CTS based on clinical and neurophysiologic criteria, completed the standard Spanish versions of the CTS-6 and the disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (QuickDASH) scales on two occasions with a 1-week interval. Internal-consistency reliability was assessed with the Cronbach alpha coefficient and test-retest reliability with the intraclass correlation coefficient, two way random effect model and absolute agreement definition (ICC2,1). Cross-sectional precision was analyzed with the Standard Error of the Measurement (SEM). Longitudinal precision for test-retest reliability coefficient was assessed with the Standard Error of the Measurement difference (SEMdiff) and the Minimal Detectable Change at 95 % confidence level (MDC95). For assessing construct validity it was hypothesized that the CTS-6 would have a strong positive correlation with the QuickDASH, analyzed with the Pearson correlation coefficient (r). The standard Spanish version of the CTS-6 presented a Cronbach alpha of 0.81 with a SEM of 0.3. Test-retest reliability showed an ICC of 0.85 with a SRMdiff of 0.36 and a MDC95 of 0.7. The correlation between CTS-6 and the QuickDASH was concordant with the a priori formulated construct hypothesis (r 0.69) CONCLUSIONS: The standard Spanish version of the 6-item CTS symptoms scale showed good internal consistency, test-retest reliability and construct validity for outcomes assessment in CTS. The CTS-6 will be useful to clinicians and researchers in Spanish speaking parts of the world. The use of standardized outcome measures across countries also will facilitate comparison of research results in carpal tunnel syndrome.
Kita, Yosuke; Inoue, Yuki
The present study aimed to reveal the influences of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms on self-esteem and self-perception during early adolescence and to clarify the spillover effect of self-esteem on depressive symptoms. ADHD symptoms in 564 early adolescents were evaluated via teacher-rating scales. Self-esteem and depressive symptoms were assessed via self-reported scales. We analyzed the relationships among these symptoms using structural equation modeling. Severe inattentive symptoms decreased self-esteem and hyperactive-impulsive symptoms affected self-perception for non-academic domains. Although these ADHD symptoms did not directly affect depressive symptoms, low self-esteem led to severe depression. ODD symptoms had a direct impact on depression without the mediating effects of self-esteem. These results indicated that inattentive symptoms had a negative impact on self-esteem and an indirect negative effect on depressive symptoms in adolescents, even if ADHD symptoms were subthreshold. Severe ODD symptoms can be directly associated with depressive symptoms during early adolescence.
Turkoz, Ibrahim; Fu, Dong-Jing; Bossie, Cynthia A; Alphs, Larry
This analysis evaluates improvement in symptoms of depression in patients with schizoaffective disorder administered oral paliperidone extended-release by accounting for the magnitude of direct and indirect (changes in negative and positive symptoms and worsening of extrapyramidal symptoms) treatment effects on depressive symptoms. Data for this post hoc analysis were drawn from two six-week, randomized, placebo-controlled studies of paliperidone extended-release versus placebo in adult subjects with schizoaffective disorder (N=614; NCT00412373, NCT00397033). Subjects with baseline 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression scores of 16 or greater were included. Structural equation models (path analyses) were used to separate total effects into direct and indirect effects on depressive symptoms. Change from baseline in 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression score at the Week 6 end point was the dependent variable; changes in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale positive and negative factors and Simpson-Angus Scale (to evaluate extrapyramidal symptoms) scores were independent variables. At baseline, 332 of 614 (54.1%) subjects had a 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression score of 16 or greater. Path analysis determined that up to 26.4 percent of the paliperidone extended-release versus placebo effect on depressive symptoms may be attributed to a direct treatment effect, and 45.8 percent and 28.4 percent were mediated indirectly through improvements on positive and negative symptoms, respectively. No effects were identified as mediated through extrapyramidal symptoms changes (-0.7%). RESULTS of this analysis suggest that paliperidone's effect on depressive symptoms in subjects with schizoaffective disorder participating in two six-week, randomized, placebo-controlled studies is mediated through indirect effects (e.g., positive and negative symptom changes) and a direct treatment effect.
Villadsen, Anna; Thorgaard, Mette V; Hybel, Katja A; Jensen, Jens Søndergaard; Thomsen, Per H; Rask, Charlotte U
Health anxiety (HA) is an overlooked area in paediatric research. Little is known about the occurrence of HA symptoms in a child and adolescent psychiatric setting, and there are no age-appropriate diagnostic criteria and only limited number of assessment tools. It is therefore likely that HA is seen as part of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) due to construct overlap and the diagnostic uncertainty of HA in this age group. In the present study, the extent of HA symptoms was investigated in 94 children and adolescents with a primary ICD-10 diagnosis of OCD. Self-reported HA symptoms were assessed using the Childhood Illness Attitude Scales. Clinician-rated OCD symptoms and severity were measured using the Children's Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale. Information on socio-demographics was obtained from the child's/adolescent's medical record. The distribution of HA symptoms resembled a normal curve shifted to the right compared with a normal population of Danish children, and 30 % presented with high HA symptoms. Chi-squared tests were used to examine the proportion of children and adolescents with high HA symptoms in relation to various clinical characteristics. Clinician-rated illness worries and comorbid anxiety disorder were associated with high self-reported HA symptoms. The results contribute to the understanding of how HA and OCD overlap conceptually in young patients and bring attention to the need for improved recognition of OCD patients dominated by illness worries. Further research in the description of childhood HA is important in order to understand whether HA is a distinct disorder early in life.
Hu, Xiaolin; Huang, Wenxia; Su, Yonglin; Qu, Moying; Peng, Xingchen
Abstract Depressive symptoms are related to negative health outcomes in caregivers of patients with HF. Understanding the factors that are associated with depressive symptoms among caregivers is essential to providing appropriate interventions. Little is known about which status and factors are related to depressive symptoms among Chinese caregivers of patients with heart failure. This study aimed to investigate the status of depressive symptoms and to identify the factors that are associated with depressive symptoms in family caregivers of patients with heart failure in China. A cross-sectional design and a convenience sample were used. Participants (N = 134) from 1 hospital in Chengdu were recruited from June 2013 to June 2014. The following measurement tools were used in this study: Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Coping Strategies Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire, and Zarit Burden Interview. A hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine which factors were associated with depressive symptoms. The results showed that 31% of the caregivers experienced depressive symptoms. The type of payment for treatment (b = −0.312, P caregiving (b = −0.213, P caregiver burden (b = 0.299, P caregivers’ depressive symptoms. Fifty-four percent of the variance in caregivers’ depressive symptoms was explained by these factors. The caregiver depressive symptoms in China were higher than those reported in studies that were conducted in Western countries. Caregiver depressive symptoms can be improved by providing support for new caregivers (with a caregiving duration of less than 1 year), reducing readmissions, easing caregiver burden, and promoting their coping strategies. PMID:28353589
Jeong, Hyeonseok S; Jeon, Yujin; Ma, Jiyoung; Choi, Yera; Ban, Soonhyun; Lee, Sooyeon; Lee, Bora; Im, Jooyeon Jamie; Yoon, Sujung; Kim, Jieun E; Lim, Jae-Ho; Lyoo, In Kyoon
Sleep problems are a major cause of occupational stress in firefighters and rescue workers. We evaluated the psychometric properties of the Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS) among South Korean firefighters and rescue workers. Structured clinical interviews and self-report questionnaires were administered to 221 firefighters and rescue workers. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Short-Form 36-item Health Survey (SF36), and Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C) were used to examine convergent and divergent validity. Test-retest reliability was calculated from a subsample (n = 24). Analysis of internal consistency, factor analysis, and receiver operator characteristic curve analysis were conducted. Cronbach's alpha was 0.88. The mean item-total correlation coefficient was 0.73. The test-retest reliability was excellent (ICC = 0.94). Significant correlations of the AIS with the PSQI, ISI, ESS, and SF36 confirmed convergent validity. Nonsignificant associations of the AIS with the AUDIT-C and socioeconomic status showed divergent validity. Factor analysis revealed a one-factor structure. For groups with different symptom severity, group-specific cutoff scores which may improve positive predictive values were suggested. The AIS may be a useful tool with good reliability and validity for screening insomnia symptoms in firefighters and rescue workers.
Davis, Lorie L; Kroenke, Kurt; Monahan, Patrick; Kean, Jacob; Stump, Timothy E
Sleep disturbance, pain, anxiety, depression, and low energy/fatigue, the SPADE pentad, are the most prevalent and co-occurring symptoms in the general population and clinical practice. Co-occurrence of SPADE symptoms may produce additive impairment and negatively affect treatment response, potentially undermining patients' health and functioning. The purpose of this paper is to determine: (1) prevalence and comorbidity (ie, clustering) of SPADE symptoms; (2) internal reliability and construct validity of a composite SPADE symptom score derived from the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) measures; and (3) whether improvement in somatic symptom burden represented by a composite score predicted subsequent measures of functional status at 3 and 12 months follow-up. Secondary analysis of data from the Stepped Care to Optimize Pain care Effectiveness study, a randomized trial of a collaborative care intervention for Veterans with chronic pain. Most patients had multiple SPADE symptoms; only 9.6% of patients were monosymptomatic. The composite PROMIS symptom score had good internal reliability (Cronbach's alpha=0.86) and construct validity and strongly correlated with multiple measures of functional status; improvement in the composite score significantly correlated with higher scores for 5 of 6 functional status outcomes. The standardized error of measurement (SEM) for the composite T-score was 2.84, suggesting a 3-point difference in an individual's composite score may be clinically meaningful. Brief PROMIS measures may be useful in evaluating SPADE symptoms and overall symptom burden. Because symptom burden may predict functional status outcomes, better identification and management of comorbid symptoms may be warranted.
Gloster, Andrew T; Rhoades, Howard M; Novy, Diane; Klotsche, Jens; Senior, Ashley; Kunik, Mark; Wilson, Nancy; Stanley, Melinda A
The Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS) was designed to efficiently measure the core symptoms of anxiety and depression and has demonstrated positive psychometric properties in adult samples of anxiety and depression patients and student samples. Despite these findings, the psychometric properties of the DASS remain untested in older adults, for whom the identification of efficient measures of these constructs is especially important. To determine the psychometric properties of the DASS 21-item version in older adults, we analyzed data from 222 medical patients seeking treatment to manage worry. Consistent with younger samples, a three-factor structure best fit the data. Results also indicated good internal consistency, excellent convergent validity, and good discriminative validity, especially for the Depression scale. Receiver operating curve analyses indicated that the DASS-21 predicted the diagnostic presence of generalized anxiety disorder and depression as well as other commonly used measures. These data suggest that the DASS may be used with older adults in lieu of multiple scales designed to measure similar constructs, thereby reducing participant burden and facilitating assessment in settings with limited assessment resources.
Pick, S; Mellers, J D C; Goldstein, L H
This study aimed to extend the current understanding of dissociative symptoms experienced by patients with dissociative (psychogenic, non-epileptic) seizures (DS), including psychological and somatoform types of symptomatology. An additional aim was to assess possible relationships between dissociation, traumatic experiences, post-traumatic symptoms and seizure manifestations in this group. A total of 40 patients with DS were compared with a healthy control group (n = 43), matched on relevant demographic characteristics. Participants completed several self-report questionnaires, including the Multiscale Dissociation Inventory (MDI), Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire-20, Traumatic Experiences Checklist and the Post-Traumatic Diagnostic Scale. Measures of seizure symptoms and current emotional distress (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) were also administered. The clinical group reported significantly more psychological and somatoform dissociative symptoms, trauma, perceived impact of trauma, and post-traumatic symptoms than controls. Some dissociative symptoms (i.e. MDI disengagement, MDI depersonalization, MDI derealization, MDI memory disturbance, and somatoform dissociation scores) were elevated even after controlling for emotional distress; MDI depersonalization scores correlated positively with trauma scores while seizure symptoms correlated with MDI depersonalization, derealization and identity dissociation scores. Exploratory analyses indicated that somatoform dissociation specifically mediated the relationship between reported sexual abuse and DS diagnosis, along with depressive symptoms. A range of psychological and somatoform dissociative symptoms, traumatic experiences and post-traumatic symptoms are elevated in patients with DS relative to healthy controls, and seem related to seizure manifestations. Further studies are needed to explore peri-ictal dissociative experiences in more detail.
Svedström-Oristo, Anna-Liisa; Ekholm, Heidi; Tolvanen, Mimmi; Peltomäki, Timo
The objective of this study is to analyze the association between self-reported symptoms of temporomandibular joint disorder (TMD) and the severity of malocclusion in prospective orthognathic-surgical patients. The subjects consisted of 50 consecutive patients (13 males and 37 females) referred to two university clinics for assessment of orthodontic-surgical treatment need. Data considering self-reported TMD symptoms were gathered using a semi-structured diary. At the first appointment, all patients rated the importance of treatment (on a scale of 1-10) and assessed self-perceived dental appearance using a VAS scale. The scale was anchored with photographs 1 and 10 from the Aesthetic Component (AC) of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN). Study models were assessed by an experienced orthodontic specialist using the Peer Assessment Rating (PAR) index and the Index of Complexity, Outcome and Need (ICON). Association between the PAR and ICON scores and the number of reported symptoms was analyzed statistically. Seventy-one percent of patients reported experiencing TMD symptoms. The most prevalent symptoms were pain in the head and/or neck region and fatigue in the TMJ region. The number of symptoms was highest in the morning. Ninety percent of males and 86% of females rated the importance of treatment as high; males experiencing TMD symptoms tended to rate surgery as more important compared with males with no symptoms (p = 0.056). In this sample, the results cannot unambiguously confirm an association between self-reported symptoms of TMD and objectively defined severity of malocclusion.
Augustussen, Mikaela; Sjøgren, Per; Timm, Helle
PURPOSE: The aims were to describe symptoms and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Greenlandic patients with advanced cancer and to assess the applicability and internal consistency of the Greenlandic version of the EORTC-QLQ-C30 core version 3.0. METHODS: A Greenlandic version of the EORTC...... functioning. This indicates a potential for improving palliative care service and increasing the focus on symptom management. The Greenlandic version of the EORTC-QLQ-C30 represents an applicable and reliable tool to describe symptoms and health-related quality of life among Greenlandic patients with advanced...... cancer receiving palliative treatment was conducted. Internal consistency was examined by calculating Cronbach's alpha coefficients for five function scales and three symptom scales. RESULTS: Of the 58 patients who participated in the study, 47% had reduced social functioning, 36% had reduced physical...
Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chou, Wen-Jiun; Liu, Tai-Ling; Yang, Pinchen; Hu, Huei-Fan
The aims of this study were to examine the associations of the severity of Internet addiction symptoms with various dimensions of anxiety (physical anxiety symptoms, harm avoidance, social anxiety, and separation/panic) and depression symptoms (depressed affect, somatic symptoms, interpersonal problems, and positive affect) and self-esteem among adolescents diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Taiwan. A total of 287 adolescents aged between 11 and 18 years who had been diagnosed with ADHD participated in this study. Their severity of Internet addiction symptoms was assessed using the Chen Internet Addiction Scale. Anxiety and depression symptoms and self-esteem were assessed using the Taiwanese version of the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC-T), the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), respectively. The association between the severity of Internet addiction symptoms and anxiety and depression symptoms and self-esteem were examined using multiple regression analyses. The results indicated that higher physical symptoms and lower harm avoidance scores on the MASC-T, higher somatic discomfort/retarded activity scores on the CES-D, and lower self-esteem scores on the RSES were significantly associated with more severe Internet addiction symptoms. Prevention and intervention programs for Internet addiction in adolescents with ADHD should take anxiety, depression, and self-esteem into consideration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Petrinec, Amy B; Daly, Barbara J
Family members of intensive care unit (ICU) patients are at risk for symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following ICU discharge. The aim of this systematic review is to examine the current literature regarding post-ICU family PTSD symptoms with an emphasis on methodological issues in conducting research on this challenging phenomenon. An extensive review of the literature was performed confining the search to English language studies reporting PTSD symptoms in adult family members of adult ICU patients. Ten studies were identified for review published from 2004 to 2012. Findings demonstrate a significant prevalence of family PTSD symptoms in the months following ICU hospitalization. However, there are several methodological challenges to the interpretation of existing studies and to the conduct of future research including differences in sampling, identification of risk factors and covariates of PTSD, and lack of consensus regarding the most appropriate PTSD symptom measurement tools and timing. © The Author(s) 2014.
Tate, Judith A; Sereika, Susan; Divirgilio, Dana; Nilsen, Marci; Demerci, Jill; Campbell, Grace; Happ, Mary Beth
Symptom communication is integral to quality patient care. Communication between patients and nurses in the intensive care unit (ICU) is complicated by oral or endotracheal intubation and fluctuating neurocognitive status or delirium. We report the (a) prevalence of delirium and its subtypes in non-vocal, mechanically ventilated, critically ill patients; (b) impact of age on delirium; and (c) influence of delirium and age on symptom communication. Videorecorded interactions between patients (N = 89) and nurses (N = 30) were analyzed for evidence of patient symptom communication at four time points across 2 consecutive days. Delirium was measured at enrollment and following sessions. Delirium prevalence was 23.6% at enrollment and 28.7% across sessions. Participants age >60 were more likely to be delirious on enrollment and during observational sessions. Delirium was associated with self-report of pain, drowsiness, and feeling cold. Patients were significantly less likely to initiate symptom communication when delirious. Symptom identification should be carefully undertaken in older adults with or without delirium. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.
Gudjonsson, Gisli H.; Sigurdsson, Jon Fridrik; Adalsteinsson, Tomas F.; Young, Susan
Objective: To investigate the relative importance of ADHD symptoms, mood instability, and antisocial personality disorder traits in predicting self-reported offending. Method: A total of 295 Icelandic students completed two scales of offending behavior and measures of ADHD symptoms, mood instability, and antisocial personality traits. Results:…
Doty, Tasha; Foster, Erin R.; Marshall, Bess; Ranck, Samantha; Hershey, Tamara
OBJECTIVE: To investigate daily function among individuals with Wolfram Syndrome (WFS) and examine whether any limitations are related to disease-related symptoms. METHODS: WFS (n = 31), Type 1 diabetic (T1DM; n = 25), and healthy control (HC; n = 29) participants completed the Pediatric Quality of Life Questionnaire (PEDSQL) Self and Parent Report. PEDSQL domain scores were compared among these groups and between WFS patients with and without specific disease-related symptoms. Relationships between PEDSQL scores and symptom severity as assessed by the Wolfram Unified Rating Scale (WURS) Physical Scale were also examined. RESULTS: Across most domains, the WFS group had lower PEDSQL Self and Parent Report scores than the T1DM and HC groups. WFS participants with urinary, sleep, and temperature regulation problems had lower PEDSQL scores than those without. The WURS Physical Scale correlated with Self and Parent Report PEDSQL domains. WFS group Self and Parent Reports correlated with each other. CONCLUSIONS: The WFS group reported lower daily function compared to T1DM and HC groups. Within WFS, worse symptom severity and the specific symptoms of sleep, temperature regulation, and urinary problems were associated with poorer daily function. These findings provide rationale for an increased emphasis on identifying, treating and understanding these less well-known symptoms of WFS. PMID:29130034
Langerak, W.; Langeland, W.; van Balkom, A.J.L.M.; Draisma, S.; Terluin, B.; Draijer, P.J.
Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the criterion validity and the diagnostic accuracy of the Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ) regarding the identification of depressive and anxiety disorders in an insurance medicine setting. Participants: Our sample consisted of 230 individuals who
Bogart, Laura M.; Wagner, Glenn J.; Galvan, Frank H.; Landrine, Hope; Klein, David J.; Sticklor, Laurel A.
Objective People living with HIV (PLWH) exhibit more severe mental health symptoms than do members of the general public (including depression and post-traumatic stress disorder/PTSD symptoms). We examined whether perceived discrimination, which has been associated with poor mental health in prior research, contributes to greater depression and PTSD symptoms among HIV-positive Black men who have sex with men (MSM), who are at high risk for discrimination from multiple stigmatized characteristics (HIV-serostatus, race/ethnicity, sexual orientation). Method A total of 181 Black MSM living with HIV completed audio computer-assisted self-interviews (ACASI) that included measures of mental health symptoms (depression, PTSD) and scales assessing perceived discrimination due to HIV-serostatus, race/ethnicity, and sexual orientation. Results In bivariate tests, all three perceived discrimination scales were significantly associated with greater symptoms of depression and PTSD (i.e., re-experiencing, avoidance, and arousal subscales) (all p-values discrimination types (p discrimination was negatively associated with depression symptoms when considered in isolation from other forms of discrimination, but positively associated when all three types of discrimination were present. In multivariate tests, only perceived HIV-related discrimination was associated with PTSD symptoms (p discrimination contribute to poor mental health among PLWH. Researchers need to take into account intersecting stigmas when developing interventions to improve mental health among PLWH. PMID:21787061
Torres, Elisa R; Sampselle, Carolyn M; Ronis, David L; Neighbors, Harold W; Gretebeck, Kimberlee A
The purpose of this study was to examine the frequency of gardening/yard work in relation to depressive symptoms in African-Americans while controlling for biological and social factors. A secondary analysis was performed on the National Survey of American Life (n=2,903) using logistic regression for complex samples. Gardening/Yard work was measured by self-reported frequency. Depressive symptoms were measured with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale. Biological and social factors, not gardening/yard work, were associated with depressive symptoms. Biological and social factors may need to be addressed before the association between gardening/yard work and depressive symptoms can be determined. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Claes, Laurence; Bijttebier, Patricia; Mitchell, James E; de Zwaan, Martina; Mueller, Astrid
The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between compulsive buying (CB), eating disorder symptoms, and temperament (controlling for depression) in a sample of female students. We assessed 211 female undergraduate students using the Compulsive Buying Scale, the Eating Disorder Inventory, the Behavioral Inhibition System and Behavioral Activation System scales, the Adult Temperament Questionnaire, and the Physical Health Questionnaire-Depression. The results show a positive association between CB and the Eating Disorder Inventory-II drive for thinness and bulimia subscales. Both CB and eating disorder symptoms were related to low levels of effortful control. Finally, CB was also related to high levels of Behavioral Activation Scale reactivity (impulsivity), whereas eating disorder symptoms (especially drive for thinness) were more strongly related to high levels of Behavioral Inhibition Scale reactivity (anxiety). The implications of these findings for the treatment of CB and eating disorder symptoms will be discussed. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Shafie Asrul A
Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of the linguistic validation of the Wisconsin Smoking Withdrawal Scale (WSWS was to produce a translated version in Malay language which was "conceptually equivalent" to the original U.S. English version for use in clinical practice and research. Methods A seven-member translation committee conducted the translation process using the following methodology: production of two independent forward translations; comparison and reconciliation of the translations; backward translation of the first reconciled version; comparison of the original WSWS and the backward version leading to the production of the second reconciled version; pilot testing and review of the translation, and finalization. Results Linguistic and conceptual issues arose during the process of translating the instrument, particularly pertaining to the title, instructions, and some of the items of the scale. In addition, the researchers had to find culturally acceptable equivalents for some terms and idiomatic phrases. Notable among these include expressions such as "irritability", "feeling upbeat", and "nibbling on snacks", which had to be replaced by culturally acceptable expressions. During cognitive debriefing and clinician's review processes, the Malay translated version of WSWS was found to be easily comprehensible, clear, and appropriate for the smoking withdrawal symptoms intended to be measured. Conclusions We applied a rigorous translation method to ensure conceptual equivalence and acceptability of WSWS in Malay prior to its utilization in research and clinical practice. However, to complete the cultural adaptation process, future psychometric validation is planned to be conducted among Malay speakers.
Debret, M.; Masson-Delmotte, V.; Christophe, C.; de Vernal, A.; Massei, N.; Eynaud, F.; Nicolle, M.; Frank, N.; Mary, Y.; Magny, M.
Millennial (1500-year) cycles were evidenced decades ago from the advance and retreat of glaciers but many subsequent studies failed to demonstrate the unequivocal character of such oscillation from paleoclimate time series. Hence, the identification of a persistent 1500 year periodicity remains controversial both for the last glacial episode and the Holocene. Applying wavelet analysis to Holocene climate records, we have identified synchronous millennial-scale oscillations which permit to establish a North Atlantic millennial variability index (NAV-Index), maximum at 5330 ± 245, 3560 ± 190, 1810 ± 160 cal years BP and minimum at 4430 ± 250, 2640 ± 225 and 970 ± 200 years before present. This NAV-index was compared with the millennial variability of cosmogenic 10Be isotope, a proxy of solar activity. Differences between the two sets of records suggest that an internal mechanism (Ocean/atmosphere) must be at the origin of the North Atlantic millennial scale variability. Our data document an increased coherence and magnitude of the North Atlantic millennial variability since 6000 cal. years BP, with a frequency of 1780 ± 240 years. During the early Holocene, deglacial meltwater fluxes had strong regional impact and the coupling between subpolar gyre migration and Atlantic meridional oceanic circulation observed since afterward seems to be related to the end of the Laurentide and Inuitian ice sheet meltwater discharge. Hence, we may conclude that the evolution of this millennial oscillation in the future will depend upon the Greenland stability or melting.
Peuskens, Joseph; Porsdal, Vibeke; Pecenak, Jan
: At baseline, 434 (36.8%) patients had minimal Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) symptoms but seriously impaired Heinrich Carpenter's Quality of Life Scale (QLS) functioning; 303 (25.6%) had moderate to severe symptoms and seriously impaired function; 208 (17.6%) had mild to moderate symptoms...... but good functioning, and 162 (13.7%) had minimal symptoms and good functioning. Baseline category was significantly associated with Clinical Global Impression - Severity (CGI-S), extrapyramidal symptoms, working status, age, and number of previous episodes. The majority of all patients starting OLAI...... treatment maintained or improved (62% 6 months and 52% 12 months) their symptom and functioning levels on OLAI maintenance treatment. Less than 8% of the patients showed worsening of symptoms or functioning. An improvement in category was associated with high PANSS positive and low CGI-S scores at baseline...
Secher, Anna; Kelstrup, Christian D; Conde-Frieboes, Kilian W
was integrated with publically available databases. We developed and applied an algorithm that reduces the peptide complexity for identification of biologically relevant peptides. The developed pipeline was applied to rat hypothalamus and identifies thousands of neuropeptides and their post...
Gibbons Heidi E
Full Text Available Abstract Background Research on quality and satisfaction with care during palliative chemotherapy in oncology patients has been limited. The objective was to assess the association between patient's satisfaction with care and symptom severity and to evaluate test-retest of a satisfaction survey in this study population. Methods A prospective cohort of patients with recurrent gynecologic malignancies receiving chemotherapy were enrolled after a diagnosis of recurrent cancer. Patients completed the Quality of End-of-Life care and satisfaction with treatment scale (QUEST once upon enrollment in an outpatient setting and again a week later. Patients also completed the Mini-Mental Status Exam, the Hospital Anxiety/Depression Scale, a symptom severity scale and a demographic survey. Student's t-test, correlation statistics and percent agreement were used for analysis. Results Data from 39 patients were analyzed. Mean (SD quality of care summary score was 41.95 (2.75 for physicians and 42.23 (5.42 for nurses (maximum score was 45; p = 0.76 for difference in score between providers. Mean (SD satisfaction of care summary score was 29.03 (1.92 for physicians and 29.28 (1.70 for nurses (maximum score was 30; p = 0.49 for difference between providers. Test-retest for 33 patients who completed both QUEST surveys had high percent agreement (74–100%, with the exception of the question regarding the provider arriving late (45 and 53%. There was no correlation between quality and satisfaction of care and symptom severity. Weakness was the most common symptom reported. Symptom severity correlated with depression (r = 0.577 p Conclusion The QUEST Survey has test-retest reliability when used as a written instrument in an outpatient setting. However, there was no correlation between this measure and symptom severity. Patient evaluation of care may be more closely related to the interpersonal aspects of the health care provider relationship than it is to physical
Although long working hours have been suspected to be a risk factor for depressive symptoms (DS), it is not well understood the conditions under which long working hours are associated with it. This study investigated the moderating effect of job satisfaction on the relationship between working hours and DS. A total of 2,375 full-time non-shift day workers (73% men), aged 18?79 (mean 45) years, in 296 small- and medium-scale businesses were surveyed using a self-administered questionnaire eva...
Jain, Gaurav; Chakrabarti, Subho; Kulhara, Parmanand
Factor analytic studies of delirium symptoms among patients referred through consultation-liaison psychiatric services are rare. We examined the factor structure of delirium symptoms in referred patients and determined whether combining items from several delirium rating scales influenced the factor structure of delirium symptoms. Eighty-six patients with delirium (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision) referred though the consultation-liaison services were assessed with structured rating scales. Nineteen symptom items extracted from the Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-98 (DRS-R-98), the Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale and the Confusional State Evaluation Scale were subjected to an exploratory (principal component) factor analysis. A second such analysis was conducted on 15 items of the DRS-R-98 for comparison. Compared with prior studies, patients were younger and the majority had hyperactive delirium. Principal components analysis identified two factors: (1) a "cognitive" factor comprising of disturbances in language, thought processes, orientation, attention, short- and long-term memory, visuospatial ability, consciousness (awareness) and perseveration accounted for 28.9% of the variance and (2) a "behavioral" factor consisting of sleep-wake cycle disturbances, delusions, perceptual disturbances, motor agitation, affect-lability, distractibility, irritability and temporal onset accounted for 18.9% of the variance. An identical factor structure was obtained with the DRS-R-98 items. Similar to previous factor analytic studies, the present study supported the existence of two principal dimensions of delirium, cognitive and behavioral. Additionally, it extended the results of earlier investigations to a wider group of patients with delirium, suggesting that these dimensions might provide important clues to the neurobiology of delirium. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ramos, Rosa; Freire, Carmen; Julvez, Jordi; Fernández, Mariana F; García-Esteban, Raquel; Torrent, Maties; Sunyer, Jordi; Olea, Nicolás
We aimed to investigate the association of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and social competence outcomes with cognitive status in preschool children. The study population was drawn from three birth cohorts belonging to the Spanish INMA (Infancia y Medio Ambiente) project: Menorca (n = 289), Ribera d'Ebre (n = 60), and Granada (n = 108). Children were assessed at the age of 4 years for cognitive functions (McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities, MSCA) by psychologists and for inattention and hyperactivity symptoms (ADHD Criteria of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, ADHD-DSM-IV) and social competence (California Preschool Social Competence Scale) by their teachers. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine potential associations between behavioral outcomes (ADHD symptoms and social competence) and MSCA cognitive outcomes, adjusting for confounders. The presence of general ADHD symptoms (inattention, hyperactivity, or both) and poorer social competence both showed negative associations with cognitive outcomes. When we compared children according to ADHD subtypes, those with inattention symptoms alone and those with both inattention and hyperactivity symptoms showed significantly lower cognitive function scores in comparison to children with no ADHD symptoms. Behavioral dysfunctions in preschoolers may be associated with impairment of cognitive functions.
Charnsil, Chawanun; Sriapai, Payupol
(1) to examine the co-occurrence of attention deficit and hyperactivity symptoms in children with autistic disorder, and (2) to study the correlation between attention deficit hyperactivity symptoms and the severity of autistic disorder. This was a clinical based study. The authors used Childhood Autistic Rating scale (CARs) to evaluate the severity of autistic disorder Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham Teacher and Parent Rating Scale, Version IV (SNAP-IV) was used to measure attention deficit and hyperactive symptoms in children with autism. Thirty (n=30) children enrolled in this study. All participants displayed attention deficit symptoms and 18 participants demonstrated hyperactivity as well. Nonparametric correlation showed a high positive correlation (Spa = 0.90, p = 0.00) between the severity of autistic disorder and hyperactivity and not the attention deficit symptoms (Spa = 0.29, p = 0.16). The authors finding shows a high comorbid rate of attention deficit and hyperactive symptoms among the participants.
... Patient scale. (a) Identification. A patient scale is a device intended for medical purposes that is used... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Patient scale. 880.2720 Section 880.2720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES...
Full Text Available Introduction Pediatric anxiety disorders are the most common mental health disorders in the middle-childhood age group. The purpose of this study is to assess anxiety disorder symptoms, as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV, in a large community sample of low socioeconomic level rural children and to investigate some of the psychometric properties (internal consistency, construct and convergent validity and items rated as often or always experienced of the Malay version of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale - Child version (SCAS-C. Method Six hundred children aged 9-11 and 424 of their parents completely answered the child or parent versions of the SCAS. Results Results indicated that the internal reliability of subscales were moderate to adequate. Significant correlations between child and parent reports supported the measure's concurrent validity. Additionally, anxiety levels in this Malaysian sample were lower than among South-African children and higher than among their Western peers. There were both similarities and differences between symptom items reported as often or always experienced by Malaysian students and by children from other cultures. Confirmatory factor analysis provided evidence of the existence of five inter-correlated factors for anxiety disorders based on SCAS-C. Conclusion Although some of the instrument's psychometric properties deviated from those observed in some other countries, it nevertheless appears to be useful for assessing childhood anxiety symptoms in this country.
Berganzo, K; Tijero, B; González-Eizaguirre, A; Somme, J; Lezcano, E; Gabilondo, I; Fernandez, M; Zarranz, J J; Gómez-Esteban, J C
The aim of the present study is to analyse the influence that motor and non-motor symptoms have on the quality of life (QoL) of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), and to study the relationship between the two types of symptoms. This cross-sectional study included 103 patients with PD (55 men and 48 women). Quality of life was measured on the PDQ-39 scale. The UPDRS scale (I-IV) was also used, and different items were grouped to analyse the presence of tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, and axial symptoms. The non-motor symptoms scale (NMSS) was administered to assess non-motor symptoms. We performed correlation analyses between different scales to analyse the influence of motor and non-motor symptoms on QoL. Correlations were observed between the PDQ-39 summary index (PDQ39_SI) and the NMSS (correlation coefficient [cc], 0.56; pde Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Tibaek, Sigrid; Jensen, Rigmor; Klarskov, Peter
. The questionnaire consists of 12 questions related to lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). The participants were asked to state the frequency and severity of their symptoms (symptom score) and its impact on their daily life (bother score). Seventy-one stroke patients were included and 59 (83%) answered...... the questionnaire twice. The reliability test was done in two aspects: (a) detecting the frequency of each symptom and its bother factor, the scores were reduced to a two-category scale (=0, >0) and simple kappa statistics was used; (b) detecting the severity of each symptom and its bother factor, the total scale...... (kappa(w) = 0.48) to good (kappa(w) = 0.68). CONCLUSIONS: The DAN-PSS-1 questionnaire had acceptable test-retest reliability and may be suitable for measuring the frequency and severity of LUTS and its bother factor in stroke patients....
Barkl, Sophie J; Lah, Suncica; Starling, Jean; Hainsworth, Cassandra; Harris, Anthony W F; Williams, Leanne M
Facial emotion identification (FEI) deficits are common in patients with chronic schizophrenia and are strongly related to impaired functioning. The objectives of this study were to determine whether FEI deficits are present and emotion specific in people experiencing early-onset psychosis (EOP), and related to current clinical symptoms and functioning. Patients with EOP (n=34, mean age=14.11, 53% female) and healthy controls (HC, n=42, mean age 13.80, 51% female) completed a task of FEI that measured accuracy, error pattern and response time. Relative to HC, patients with EOP (i) had lower accuracy for identifying facial expressions of emotions, especially fear, anger and disgust, (ii) were more likely to misattribute other emotional expressions as fear or disgust, and (iii) were slower at accurately identifying all facial expressions. FEI accuracy was not related to clinical symptoms or current functioning. Deficits in FEI (especially for fear, anger and disgust) are evident in EOP. Our findings suggest that while emotion identification deficits may reflect a trait susceptibility marker, functional deficits may represent a sequelae of illness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
van der Waerden, Judith; Bernard, Jonathan Y; De Agostini, Maria; Saurel-Cubizolles, Marie-Josèphe; Peyre, Hugo; Heude, Barbara; Melchior, Maria
This study assessed the association between timing and course of maternal depression from pregnancy onwards and children's cognitive development at ages 5 to 6. Potential interaction effects with child sex and family socioeconomic status were explored. One thousand thirty-nine mother-child pairs from the French EDEN mother-child birth cohort were followed from 24 to 28 weeks of pregnancy onwards. Based on Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) scores assessed at six timepoints, longitudinal maternal depressive symptom trajectories were calculated with a group-based semiparametric method. Children's cognitive function was assessed at ages 5 to 6 by trained interviewers with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence Third Edition (WPPSI-III), resulting in three composite scores: Verbal IQ (VIQ), Performance IQ (PIQ), and Full-Scale IQ (FSIQ). Five trajectories of maternal symptoms of depression could be distinguished: no symptoms, persistent intermediate-level depressive symptoms, persistent high depressive symptoms, high symptoms in pregnancy only, and high symptoms in the child's preschool period only. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that, compared to children of mothers who were never depressed, children of mothers with persistent high levels of depressive symptoms had reduced VIQ, PIQ, and FSIQ scores. This association was moderated by the child's sex, boys appearing especially vulnerable in case of persistent maternal depression. Chronicity of maternal depression predicts children's cognitive development at school entry age, particularly in boys. As maternal mental health is an early modifiable influence on child development, addressing the treatment needs of depressed mothers may help reduce the associated burden on the next generation. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Norris, Anne E; Aroian, Karen J
This study investigates whether the avoidance symptom criterion required for a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is overly conservative. Arab immigrant women (N = 453), many of whom reported experiencing multiple traumatic events, completed the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale in Arabic as part of a face to face interview. Analyses indicated all but one avoidance symptom was reported less frequently than reexperiencing and arousal symptoms. However, those who fully met reexperiencing, avoidance, and arousal symptom criteria had worse symptom severity and functioning than those who fully met reexperiencing and arousal symptom criteria, but only partially met avoidance symptom criterion. Study findings support importance of the PTSD avoidance symptom criterion.
Jung, Ha Bum; Choi, Don Kyoung; Lee, Seong Ho; Cho, Sung Tae; Na, Hae Ri; Park, Moon Ho
ABSTRACT Purpose To examine an association between the overactive bladder symptom score (OABSS) and neuropsychological parameters. Moreover, we investigate the factors that affect each item in the questionnaire. Materials and Methods A total of 376 patients (males: 184; females: 192) with probable Alzheimer’s disease (AD) were recruited. Cognitive testing was conducted using the Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE), Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scale, Global Deterioration Scale (GDS), and Barthel Activities of Daily Living (ADL). Lower urinary tract symptom (LUTS) was assessed using OABSS and voiding diary. Results The prevalence of overactive bladder (OAB) (defined as OABSS ≥3 with an urgency score of ≥2) in patients with AD was 72.6%. Among the OAB subjects, the most common severity of symptom was moderate (72.6%), followed by mild (21.2%), and severe (5.8%). It was found that OABSS had a very high correlation with aging (r=0.75; p<0.001). When compared with neuropsychological parameters, it was found that OABSS was highly correlated with the CDR scores (r=0.446; p<0.001). However, no significant correlation was found between the changes in OABSS scores and those in other neuropsychological parameters. Based on the individual symptom scores, urgency incontinence was highly correlated with the CDR scores (r=0.43; p<0.001). Conclusions OABSS is a useful tool in assessing AD patients with LUTS. There was a consistent positive association between OABSS severity, including urgency incontinence, and CDR scores. PMID:27802001
Lutz, Stephen T.; Norrell, Ruth; Johnson, Christopher R.; Kachnic, Lisa A.; Arthur, Douglas W.; Huang, David T.
Purpose/Objective: To prospectively determine symptom response in patients receiving radiation therapy for primary lung cancer. Materials and Methods: Thirty-three consecutive lung cancer patients were evaluated between March 1996 and February 1997 at the Medical College of Virginia satellite facility which serves a local community hospital. The LCSS, a validated quality of life scale, was used prospectively during the consultation and upon subsequent follow-up. The scale allowed scoring of symptom improvement, worsening, or stability following therapy. One patient declined therapy, while another was not offered XRT. The 31 remaining patients received a median dose of 54 Gy. Eleven patients received radiotherapy with curative intent to doses between 60 and 70 Gy, 5 small cell lung carcinoma (SmCCa) patients received 54 Gy consolidative therapy, and 13 patients received 15 to 30 Gy with palliative intent. Eight patients received chemotherapy as part of their initial treatment course, including all of those diagnosed with SmCCa. Twenty-one patients completed the LCSS at least once in the three month interval after therapy, while 6 died prior to follow-up, 2 were under treatment at the time of this analysis, and 2 were lost to follow-up. Survival analysis was completed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: Median follow-up was 4 months (range = 1 to 14), with an estimated median survival of 5 months. Fourteen patients died of lung cancer, 12 are alive with disease, 6 are alive without disease, and 1 died without disease. Patient characteristics were median age of 69 years (range = 43 to 91), male to female ratio of 4.5 to 1, mean weight loss of 12 pounds (range = 0 to 27), and mean duration of symptoms of 3 months (range = 0 to 12). Stage was: I 9%, II = 0%, IIIA = 6%, IIIB = 43%, IV = 27%, and limited stage SmCCa = 15%. Histology was: squamous cell carcinoma = 21%, adenocarcinoma = 23%, large cell carcinoma = 23%, poorly differentiated carcinoma = 15%, mesothelioma
Full Text Available The present study aimed to reveal the influences of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD symptoms on self-esteem and self-perception during early adolescence and to clarify the spillover effect of self-esteem on depressive symptoms. ADHD symptoms in 564 early adolescents were evaluated via teacher-rating scales. Self-esteem and depressive symptoms were assessed via self-reported scales. We analyzed the relationships among these symptoms using structural equation modeling. Severe inattentive symptoms decreased self-esteem and hyperactive–impulsive symptoms affected self-perception for non-academic domains. Although these ADHD symptoms did not directly affect depressive symptoms, low self-esteem led to severe depression. ODD symptoms had a direct impact on depression without the mediating effects of self-esteem. These results indicated that inattentive symptoms had a negative impact on self-esteem and an indirect negative effect on depressive symptoms in adolescents, even if ADHD symptoms were subthreshold. Severe ODD symptoms can be directly associated with depressive symptoms during early adolescence.
Kita, Yosuke; Inoue, Yuki
The present study aimed to reveal the influences of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms on self-esteem and self-perception during early adolescence and to clarify the spillover effect of self-esteem on depressive symptoms. ADHD symptoms in 564 early adolescents were evaluated via teacher-rating scales. Self-esteem and depressive symptoms were assessed via self-reported scales. We analyzed the relationships among these symptoms using structural equation modeling. Severe inattentive symptoms decreased self-esteem and hyperactive–impulsive symptoms affected self-perception for non-academic domains. Although these ADHD symptoms did not directly affect depressive symptoms, low self-esteem led to severe depression. ODD symptoms had a direct impact on depression without the mediating effects of self-esteem. These results indicated that inattentive symptoms had a negative impact on self-esteem and an indirect negative effect on depressive symptoms in adolescents, even if ADHD symptoms were subthreshold. Severe ODD symptoms can be directly associated with depressive symptoms during early adolescence. PMID:28824468
McKetin, Rebecca; Dawe, Sharon; Burns, Richard A; Hides, Leanne; Kavanagh, David J; Teesson, Maree; McD Young, Ross; Voce, Alexandra; Saunders, John B
Methamphetamine use can produce symptoms almost indistinguishable from schizophrenia. Distinguishing between the two conditions has been hampered by the lack of a validated symptom profile for methamphetamine-induced psychiatric symptoms. We use data from a longitudinal cohort study to examine the profile of psychiatric symptoms that are acutely exacerbated by methamphetamine use. 164 methamphetamine users, who did not meet DSM-IV criteria for a lifetime primary psychotic disorder, were followed monthly for one year to assess the relationship between days of methamphetamine use and symptom severity on the 24-item Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. Exacerbation of psychiatric symptoms with methamphetamine use was quantified using random coefficient models. The dimensions of symptom exacerbation were examined using principal axis factoring and a latent profile analysis. Symptoms exacerbated by methamphetamine loaded on three factors: positive psychotic symptoms (suspiciousness, unusual thought content, hallucinations, bizarre behavior); affective symptoms (depression, suicidality, guilt, hostility, somatic concern, self-neglect); and psychomotor symptoms (tension, excitement, distractibility, motor hyperactivity). Methamphetamine use did not significantly increase negative symptoms. Vulnerability to positive psychotic and affective symptom exacerbation was shared by 28% of participants, and this vulnerability aligned with a past year DSM-IV diagnosis of substance-induced psychosis (38% vs. 22%, χ(2)(df1)=3.66, p=0.056). Methamphetamine use produced a symptom profile comprised of positive psychotic and affective symptoms, which aligned with a diagnosis of substance-induced psychosis, with no evidence of a negative syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the suitability of the Chinese version of the Hypomania Symptom Checklist (HCL-32 scale for psychiatric department outpatients with mood disorders in Chinese general hospitals, and provide a theoretical basis for the application of the HCL-32 scale. METHODS: Outpatients with mood disorders receiving continuous treatment in the psychiatric medicine department of three top-ranking general hospitals in three cities completed scoring the HCL-32 scale. RESULTS: A total of 1010 patients were recruited. 417 were diagnosed with bipolar disorder (236 for type I and 181 for type II and 593 were depression. Four factors with eigenvalues >1 were considered. Factor 1 with an eigenvalue of 5.5 was labeled "active/cheerful". Factor 2 with an eigenvalue of 2.7 was labeled "adventurous/irritable." The coefficient of internal consistency reliability of the HCL-32 total scale was 0.84, and the coefficients for factors 1 and 2 were 0.84 and 0.88, respectively. With the total score of HCL-32≥14 as positive standard, the sensitivity of HCL-32 was calculated at 69.30% and the specificity was 97.81%. CONCLUSIONS: Results showed that HCL-32 had a preferable reliability and validity and was suitable as auxiliary means for bipolar disorder screening in general hospitals.
Full Text Available Objective: To assess the level of depressive symptoms and mother-infant-attachment among mothers of preterms admitted in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU and find the relationship between of depressive symptoms and mother-infant-attachment. Materials and methods: A cross sectional survey was conducted among 100 mothers whose preterm babies were admitted in NICU of Kasturba Hospital, Manipal, Karnataka using purposive sampling. Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and Mother Infant Attachment Scale were used to collect the data. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: The mother’s age ranged from 20 to 40 years. The mild depressive symptoms were experienced by 28 (28% mothers, moderate 25(25% and 17 (17% had severe level of depressive symptoms. Majority mothers 77(77% of preterms had good-attachment and 18% had moderate attachment. Mean depressive symptom score and mother-infant-attachment score was 14.36±7.47 and 58.00 ±12.95 respectively. Depressive symptoms and mother-infant-attachment showed moderate negative correlation, (ρ=--0.506, (p=0.001. Conclusion: Increased levels of depressive symptoms among the mothers of preterm neonates affects the mother–infant-interactions. Interventions to decrease the level of depressive symptoms need to be planned for promoting good mother infant interaction.
Marčinko, Darko; Jakšić, Nenad; Ivezić, Ena; Skočić, Milena; Surányi, Zsuzsanna; Lončar, Mladen; Franić, Tomislav; Jakovljević, Miro
The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between pathological narcissism (narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability), dysfunctional attitudes (perfectionism and dependency on other people), and depressive symptoms in psychiatric outpatients. A sample of 234 adult psychiatric outpatients (57.3% male; mean age 44.39 years) completed the Pathological Narcissism Inventory, the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale-Form A, and the Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scales-21. Narcissistic vulnerability exhibited unique positive correlations with depressive symptoms, whereas narcissistic grandiosity showed substantially weaker correlations with depressive symptoms. Perfectionism partially mediated the relationship between narcissistic vulnerability and depressive symptoms. The mediating role of dependency was not confirmed. Among adult psychiatric outpatients, narcissistic vulnerability is more strongly related to depressive symptoms than narcissistic grandiosity, and dysfunctional perfectionism represents one of the underlying mechanisms of this relationship. The implications of these findings are discussed in relation to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders diagnostic criteria and the treatment of pathological narcissism. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Significant impairments in social functioning frequently occur simultaneously with depressive symptoms. The implications of such impairments extend beyond the depressed individual to their family, friends and society at large. Classical rating scales such as the Hamilton rating scale for depression primarily assess the core symptoms of depression. A range of rating scales are available, both self-reporting and administered by clinician; however, many have been criticised for their unspecified conceptual background and for being complex and time-consuming. While antidepressants in general appear to improve social functioning, no clear advantage for any single class of agent has been reported. Recently, a new self-report rating scale, the Social Adaptation Self-evaluation Scale, has been developed and used to compare the novel selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, reboxetine, with the selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor, fluoxetine. The noradrenergic agent, reboxetine, was shown to be significantly more effective in improving social functioning than the serotonergic agent, fluoxetine. These findings are consistent with previous observations that noradrenaline may preferentially improve vigilance, motivation and self-perception.
Körner, Philipp; Ehrmann, Katja; Hartmannsgruber, Johann; Metz, Michaela; Steigerwald, Sabrina; Flentje, Michael; van Oorschot, Birgitt
The benefits of patient-reported symptom assessment combined with integrated palliative care are well documented. This study assessed the symptom burden of palliative and curative-intent radiation oncology patients. Prior to first consultation and at the end of RT, all adult cancer patients planned to receive fractionated percutaneous radiotherapy (RT) were asked to answer the Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale (ESAS; nine symptoms from 0 = no symptoms to 10 = worst possible symptoms). Mean values were used for curative vs. palliative and pre-post comparisons, and the clinical relevance was evaluated (symptom values ≥ 4). Of 163 participating patients, 151 patients (90.9%) completed both surveys (116 curative and 35 palliative patients). Before beginning RT, 88.6% of palliative and 72.3% of curative patients showed at least one clinically relevant symptom. Curative patients most frequently named decreased general wellbeing (38.6%), followed by tiredness (35.0%), anxiety (32.4%), depression (30.0%), pain (26.3%), lack of appetite (23.5%), dyspnea (17.8%), drowsiness (8.0%) and nausea (6.1%). Palliative patients most frequently named decreased general wellbeing (62.8%), followed by pain (62.8%), tiredness (60.0%), lack of appetite (40.0%), anxiety (38.0%), depression (33.3%), dyspnea (28.5%), drowsiness (25.7%) and nausea (14.2%). At the end of RT, the proportion of curative and palliative patients with a clinically relevant symptom had increased significantly to 79.8 and 91.4%, respectively; whereas the proportion of patients reporting clinically relevant pain had decreased significantly (42.8 vs. 62.8%, respectively). Palliative patients had significantly increased tiredness. Curative patients reported significant increases in pain, tiredness, nausea, drowsiness, lack of appetite and restrictions in general wellbeing. Assessment of patient-reported symptoms was successfully realized in radiation oncology routine. Overall, both groups showed a high symptom
Koerner, Philipp; Ehrmann, Katja; Hartmannsgruber, Johann; Metz, Michaela; Steigerwald, Sabrina; Flentje, Michael; Oorschot, Birgitt van
The benefits of patient-reported symptom assessment combined with integrated palliative care are well documented. This study assessed the symptom burden of palliative and curative-intent radiation oncology patients. Prior to first consultation and at the end of RT, all adult cancer patients planned to receive fractionated percutaneous radiotherapy (RT) were asked to answer the Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale (ESAS; nine symptoms from 0 = no symptoms to 10 = worst possible symptoms). Mean values were used for curative vs. palliative and pre-post comparisons, and the clinical relevance was evaluated (symptom values ≥ 4). Of 163 participating patients, 151 patients (90.9%) completed both surveys (116 curative and 35 palliative patients). Before beginning RT, 88.6% of palliative and 72.3% of curative patients showed at least one clinically relevant symptom. Curative patients most frequently named decreased general wellbeing (38.6%), followed by tiredness (35.0%), anxiety (32.4%), depression (30.0%), pain (26.3%), lack of appetite (23.5%), dyspnea (17.8%), drowsiness (8.0%) and nausea (6.1%). Palliative patients most frequently named decreased general wellbeing (62.8%), followed by pain (62.8%), tiredness (60.0%), lack of appetite (40.0%), anxiety (38.0%), depression (33.3%), dyspnea (28.5%), drowsiness (25.7%) and nausea (14.2%). At the end of RT, the proportion of curative and palliative patients with a clinically relevant symptom had increased significantly to 79.8 and 91.4%, respectively; whereas the proportion of patients reporting clinically relevant pain had decreased significantly (42.8 vs. 62.8%, respectively). Palliative patients had significantly increased tiredness. Curative patients reported significant increases in pain, tiredness, nausea, drowsiness, lack of appetite and restrictions in general wellbeing. Assessment of patient-reported symptoms was successfully realized in radiation oncology routine. Overall, both groups showed a high symptom burden
Yu, Xuelian; Shi, Bisheng; Gong, Yan; Zhang, Xiaonan; Shen, Silan; Qian, Fangxing; Gu, Shimin; Hu, Yunwen; Yuan, Zhenghong
Several viral diseases exhibit measles-like symptoms. Differentiation of suspected cases of measles with molecular epidemiological techniques in the laboratory is useful for measles surveillance. In this study, a random PCR screening system was undertaken for the identification of isolates from patients with measles-like symptoms who exhibited cytopathic effects, but who had negative results for measles virus-specific reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and indirect immunofluorescence assays. Sequence analysis of random amplified PCR products showed that they were highly homologous to type 1 human herpes simplex virus (HSV-1). The results were further confirmed by an HSV-1-specific TaqMan real-time PCR assay. The random PCR screening system described in this study provides an efficient procedure for the identification of unknown viral pathogens. Measles-like symptoms can also be caused by HSV-1, suggesting the need to include HSV-1 in differential diagnoses of measles-like diseases.
Gan, Joanna J; Lin, Andrew; Samimi, Mersal S; Mendez, Mario F
Semantic dementia (SD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by loss of semantic knowledge. SD may be associated with somatic symptom disorder due to excessive preoccupation with unidentified somatic sensations. To evaluate the frequency of somatic symptom disorder among patients with SD in comparison to comparably demented patients with Alzheimer׳s disease. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using clinical data from a referral-based behavioral neurology program. Fifty-three patients with SD meeting criteria for imaging-supported semantic variant primary progressive aphasia (another term for SD) were compared with 125 patients with clinically probable Alzheimer disease. Logistic regression controlled for sex, age, disease duration, education, overall cognitive impairment, and depression. The prevalence of somatic symptom disorder was significantly higher among patients with SD (41.5%) compared to patients with Alzheimer disease (11.2%) (odds ratio = 6:1; p Cotard syndrome or the delusion that unidentified somatic symptoms signify death or deterioration. SD, a disorder of semantic knowledge, is associated with somatic symptom disorder from impaired identification of somatic sensations. Their inability to read and name somatic sensations, or "alexisomia," results in disproportionate and persistent concern about somatic sensations with consequent significant disability. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Proper identification of soft scales (Hemiptera:Coccidae) requires preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare soft scale specimens on microscope slides for examination and identification. Steps ranging from collection, speci...
Full Text Available Background: People in Iraq have been more or less continually exposed to war for more than three decades. Studies with Iraqi participants report high prevalence rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and related problems. Methods: The aim of this study is to measure the prevalence of traumatic events and to screen the prevalence of PTSD symptoms among Iraqi secondary school students. Four self-report scales were administered to 403 secondary school students, aged 16–19 (61% male and 31% female. These scales were Baghdad Trauma History Screen, the Scale of Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms (SPTSS, Social Support Scale, and Scale of Religious Coping. Results: The results showed that 84% of participants experienced at least one traumatic event. Of these, 61% fully met the criteria for PTSD; 65% of the females and 58% of the males. PTSD symptoms were correlated with 20 positive religious coping but not with social support. Conclusions: It’s clear that traumatic events were speared widely among the participants and the result showed that the vast majority of participants were exposed to different types of traumatic events. In addition, many of the participants have met full PTSD criteria and others had partial PTSD.
Wan Salwina, Wan Ismail; Baharudin, Azlin; Nik Ruzyanei, Nik Jaafar; Midin, Marhani; Rahman, Fairuz Nazri Abdul
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a clinical diagnosis relying on persistence of symptoms across different settings. Information are gathered from different informants including adolescents, parents and teachers. In this cross-sectional study involving 410 twelve-year old adolescents, 37 teachers and 367 parents from seven schools in the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur, reliability of ADHD symptoms among the various informants were reported. ADHD symptoms (i.e. predominantly hyperactive, predominantly inattentive and combined symptoms) were assessed by adolescents, teachers and parents, using Conners-Wells' Adolescent Self-report Scale (CASS), Conner's Teachers Rating Scale (CTRS) and Conner's Parents Rating Scale (CPRS) respectively. For predominantly hyperactive symptoms, there were statistically significant, weak positive correlations between parents and teachers reporting (r=0.241, pADHD symptoms among Malaysian adolescents. While multiple informant ratings are required to facilitate the diagnosis of ADHD, effort should be taken to minimize the disagreement in reporting and better utilize the information. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Suchitra, Sureshrao P; Devika, Honagalli S; Gangadhar, Bangalore N; Nagarathna, Raghuram; Nagendra, Hongasamudra R; Kulkarni, Ravi
This is a preliminary report on the development of a scale to measure the symptoms of unmāda (psychosis) attributable to tridosa (metabolic principles) by using the concepts of Ayurvedic medicine. The 67-item unmāda specific symptom scale was developed on the basis of translation of Sanskrit verses describing vātaja (V), pittaja (P), and kaphaja (K) unmāda (specific symptoms of psychosis due to the imbalances of metabolic components) and by taking the opinions of experts (15 Ayurveda experts, 5 psychiatrists, and 5 psychologists). The setting for this study was Spandana Psychiatric Nursing Home Bangalore, India. The scale was administered by an unblinded assessor to 30 consecutive patients with nonaffective psychotic disorders. The unmāda specific symptom scale was associated with excellent internal consistency. The Cronbach's alpha for V, P, and K scales were 0.98, 0.98, and 0.97, respectively. The split-half reliability for V, P, and K scales were 0.97, 0.97, and 0.88 respectively. Scores on vātaja, pittaja, and kaphaja scales were inversely correlated, suggesting that they are mutually exclusive. The three subgroups of psychoses--paranoid schizophrenia, schizophrenia (unspecified), and unspecified nonorganic psychosis--had significantly different loadings on the three scores, having high scores on vātaja, pittaja, and kaphaja, respectively. The tridoshas in psychotic disorders can be measured reliably by this instrument. The scores on each of these doşas help in differentiating three types of psychosis (according to Ayurveda) that have good correspondence with prevailing classification. However, this scale must also be applied to the other 28 separate subcategories of the psychoses that are identified in the International Statistical Classifications of Diseases (version 10) and to the 10 variants of psychosis as defined by the American Psychiatric Association Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV-R to help better understand the true utility for use here
Lívia Maria Santiago
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of depressive symptoms among institutionalized elderly individuals and to analyze factors associated with this condition. METHODS This was a cross-sectional study involving 462 individuals aged 60 or older, residents in long stay institutions in four Brazilian municipalities. The dependent variable was assessed using the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale. Poisson’s regression was used to evaluate associations with co-variables. We investigated which variables were most relevant in terms of presence of depressive symptoms within the studied context through factor analysis. RESULTS Prevalence of depressive symptoms was 48.7%. The variables associated with depressive symptoms were: regular/bad/very bad self-rated health; comorbidities; hospitalizations; and lack of friends in the institution. Five components accounted for 49.2% of total variance of the sample: functioning, social support, sensory deficiency, institutionalization and health conditions. In the factor analysis, functionality and social support were the components which explained a large part of observed variance. CONCLUSIONS A high prevalence of depressive symptoms, with significant variation in distribution, was observed. Such results emphasize the importance of health conditions and functioning for institutionalized older individuals developing depression. They also point to the importance of providing opportunities for interaction among institutionalized individuals.
Karolina G. César
Full Text Available Depression is a major growing public health problem. Many population studies have found a significant relationship between depression and the presence of cognitive disorders. OBJECTIVE: To establish the correlation between the Visual Analogue Scale of Happiness and the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia in the population aged 60 years or over in the city of Tremembé, state of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: An epidemiological survey involving home visits was carried out in the city of Tremembé. The sample was randomly selected by drawing 20% of the population aged 60 years or older from each of the city's census sectors. In this single-phase study, the assessment included clinical history, physical and neurological examination, cognitive evaluation, and application of both the Cornell Scale and the Analogue Scale of Happiness for psychiatric symptoms. The presence of depressive symptoms was defined as scores greater than or equal to 8 points on the Cornell Scale. RESULTS: A total of 623 subjects were evaluated and of these 251 (40.3% had clinically significant depressive symptoms on the Cornell Scale, with a significant association with female gender (p<0.001 and with lower education (p=0.012. One hundred and thirty-six participants (21.8% chose the unhappiness faces, with a significant association with age (p<0.001, female gender (p=0.020 and low socioeconomic status (p=0.012. Although there was a statistically significant association on the correlation test, the correlation was not high (rho=0.47. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of depressive symptoms was high in this sample and the Visual Analogue Scale of Happiness and Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia should not be used as similar alternatives for evaluating the presence of depressive symptoms, at least in populations with low educational level.
Heckman, Carolyn J; Cohen-Filipic, Jessye; Darlow, Susan; Kloss, Jacqueline D; Manne, Sharon L; Munshi, Teja
Indoor tanning (IT) increases risk for melanoma and is particularly common among young adult women. IT has also been linked with some psychiatric symptoms, and frequent tanning may indicate tanning dependence (addiction) associated with endorphin release during ultraviolet radiation exposure. The objective of the current study was to investigate associations between IT, tanning dependence, and psychiatric and substance use symptoms in young adult women. Cross-sectional survey and psychiatric interview. Online, except for the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), which was completed over the telephone. Participants were 306 female university students aged 18 to 25 years. MINI, Seasonal Scale Index, tanning dependence scales, reporting ever having used a tanning bed or booth with tanning lamps (single item), reporting smoking a cigarette in the last 30 days (single item). Descriptive statistics, χ(2) analysis, multivariate logistic regression. Forty-six percent of the sample reported a history of IT, and 25% were classified as tanning dependent. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that IT was significantly associated with symptoms of alcohol use disorders, generalized anxiety, and not having social anxiety. Tanning dependence was associated with symptoms of alcohol use disorders. Tanning is of concern not only for its association with skin cancer but for its association with psychiatric and substance use symptoms. Young women with certain psychological problems may seek relief from their symptoms by IT. These findings suggest that indoor tanners may benefit from health behavior and other psychosocial interventions.
Posttraumatic growth, depressive symptoms, posttraumatic stress symptoms, post-migration stressors and quality of life in multi-traumatized psychiatric outpatients with a refugee background in Norway.
Teodorescu, Dinu-Stefan; Siqveland, Johan; Heir, Trond; Hauff, Edvard; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Lien, Lars
Psychiatric outpatients with a refugee background have often been exposed to a variety of potentially traumatizing events, with numerous negative consequences for their mental health and quality of life. However, some patients also report positive personal changes, posttraumatic growth, related to these potentially traumatic events. This study describes posttraumatic growth, posttraumatic stress symptoms, depressive symptoms, post-migration stressors, and their association with quality of life in an outpatient psychiatric population with a refugee background in Norway. Fifty five psychiatric outpatients with a refugee background participated in a cross-sectional study using clinical interviews to measure psychopathology (SCID-PTSD, MINI), and four self-report instruments measuring posttraumatic growth, posttraumatic stress symptoms, depressive symptoms, and quality of life (PTGI-SF, IES-R, HSCL-25-depression scale, and WHOQOL-Bref) as well as measures of social integration, social network and employment status. All patients reported some degree of posttraumatic growth, while only 31% reported greater amounts of growth. Eighty percent of the patients had posttraumatic stress symptoms above the cut-off point, and 93% reported clinical levels of depressive symptoms. Quality of life in the four domains of the WHOQOL-Bref levels were low, well below the threshold for the'life satisfaction' standard proposed by Cummins. A hierarchic regression model including depressive symptoms, posttraumatic stress symptoms, posttraumatic growth, and unemployment explained 56% of the total variance found in the psychological health domain of the WHOQOL-Bref scale. Posttraumatic growth made the strongest contribution to the model, greater than posttraumatic stress symptoms or depressive symptoms. Post-migration stressors like unemployment, weak social network and poor social integration were moderately negatively correlated with posttraumatic growth and quality of life, and positively
Background Psychiatric outpatients with a refugee background have often been exposed to a variety of potentially traumatizing events, with numerous negative consequences for their mental health and quality of life. However, some patients also report positive personal changes, posttraumatic growth, related to these potentially traumatic events. This study describes posttraumatic growth, posttraumatic stress symptoms, depressive symptoms, post-migration stressors, and their association with quality of life in an outpatient psychiatric population with a refugee background in Norway. Methods Fifty five psychiatric outpatients with a refugee background participated in a cross-sectional study using clinical interviews to measure psychopathology (SCID-PTSD, MINI), and four self-report instruments measuring posttraumatic growth, posttraumatic stress symptoms, depressive symptoms, and quality of life (PTGI-SF, IES-R, HSCL-25-depression scale, and WHOQOL-Bref) as well as measures of social integration, social network and employment status. Results All patients reported some degree of posttraumatic growth, while only 31% reported greater amounts of growth. Eighty percent of the patients had posttraumatic stress symptoms above the cut-off point, and 93% reported clinical levels of depressive symptoms. Quality of life in the four domains of the WHOQOL-Bref levels were low, well below the threshold for the’life satisfaction’ standard proposed by Cummins. A hierarchic regression model including depressive symptoms, posttraumatic stress symptoms, posttraumatic growth, and unemployment explained 56% of the total variance found in the psychological health domain of the WHOQOL-Bref scale. Posttraumatic growth made the strongest contribution to the model, greater than posttraumatic stress symptoms or depressive symptoms. Post-migration stressors like unemployment, weak social network and poor social integration were moderately negatively correlated with posttraumatic growth and
Busija, Lucy; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Osborne, Richard H
To estimate the prevalence and co-occurrence of self-reported doctor-diagnosed arthritis, chronic joint symptoms (pain, aching, stiffness, or swelling on most days for a month), and transient joint symptoms (pain, aching, stiffness, or swelling but not on most days for a month), and to compare the sociodemographic characteristics, activity limitations, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of people with joint conditions with those who have no self-reported doctor-diagnosed arthritis and no joint symptoms. Data from the 2004 population-based South Australian Health Omnibus Survey (n = 2,840, ages 18-96 years) were used in the study. Activity limitations were assessed using 10 activity limitations questions from the Short Form 36 health survey. HRQOL was assessed using the Assessment of Quality of Life scale. Half of all respondents reported having joint problems, with 26%, 11%, and 13% reporting self-reported doctor-diagnosed arthritis, chronic joint symptoms, and transient joint symptoms, respectively. Chronic joint conditions (self-reported doctor-diagnosed arthritis and chronic joint symptoms) accounted for 74% of all joint problems and were associated with higher odds of activity limitations and poorer HRQOL. The frequency of transient and chronic joint symptoms was highest among middle-aged participants (ages 45-54 years for transient and 45-64 years for chronic joint symptoms) and those who had a body mass index in the obese range. Prevalence of self-reported doctor-diagnosed arthritis increased with age and was higher among women and those who were overweight or obese. This study documented the high prevalence and impact of joint conditions in the community. Chronic joint conditions affect daily life and are substantial barriers for effective public health interventions aimed at reducing obesity and inactivity.
Self-reported perinatal depressive symptoms and postnatal symptom severity after treatment with antidepressants in pregnancy: a cross-sectional study across 12 European countries using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale
postnatal depressive symptoms by severity across multiple countries and the association between antidepressant treatment in pregnancy and postnatal symptom severity. Materials and methods: This was a multinational web-based study conducted across 12 European countries (n=8069. Uniform data collection was ensured via an electronic questionnaire. Pregnant women at any gestational week and mothers of children with <1 year of age could participate. We used the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS to measure the prevalence of antenatal and postnatal depressive symptoms according to severity, which were corrected by survey weight adjustment (descriptive analysis. Within mothers with a psychiatric disorder (n=173, we estimated the association between antidepressant treatment in pregnancy and postnatal depressive symptom severity, as standardized EPDS mean scores, via the inverse probability of treatment weight (association analysis. Results: In the descriptive analysis (n=8069, the period prevalence of moderate-to-very severe depressive symptoms was higher in the western and eastern regions relative to the northern region, both in the antenatal period (6.8%–7.5% vs 4.3% and in the postnatal period (7.6% vs 4.7%. One in two mothers with psychiatric disorders used an antidepressant in pregnancy (86 of 173. In the association analysis, women medicated at any time during pregnancy (adjusted β=−0.34, 95% confidence interval [CI] =−0.66, −0.02 had a significant postnatal symptom severity reduction compared with the nonmedicated counterpart. This effect was larger (β=−0.74, 95% CI =−1.24, −0.24 when the analysis was restricted to mothers within 6 months after childbirth. Conclusion: The prevalence of self-reported antenatal and postnatal depressive symptoms differs across European countries. Among women with psychiatric disorders, those who had been on treatment with antidepressants during pregnancy were less likely to report postnatal depressive symptoms
Fuermaier, Anselm B. M.; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Weisbrod, Matthias; Grabemann, Marco; Zimmermann, Marco; Mette, Christian; Aschenbrenner, Steffen; Tucha, Oliver
The reliance on self-reports in detecting noncredible symptom report of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adulthood (aADHD) has been questioned due to findings showing that symptoms can easily be feigned on self-report scales. In response, Suhr and colleagues developed an infrequency index for the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scale (CII)…
Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Agnew, J. P.; Alexeev, G. D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Askew, A.; Atkins, S.; Augsten, K.; Avila, C.; Badaud, F.; Bagby, L.; Baldin, B.; Bandurin, D. V.; Banerjee, S.; Barberis, E.; Baringer, P.; Bartlett, J. F.; Bassler, U.; Bazterra, V.; Bean, A.; Begalli, M.; Bellantoni, L.; Beri, S. B.; Bernardi, G.; Bernhard, R.; Bertram, I.; Besançon, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatia, S.; Bhatnagar, V.; Blazey, G.; Blessing, S.; Bloom, K.; Boehnlein, A.; Boline, D.; Boos, E. E.; Borissov, G.; Borysova, M.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, O.; Brock, R.; Bross, A.; Brown, D.; Bu, X. B.; Buehler, M.; Buescher, V.; Bunichev, V.; Burdin, S.; Buszello, C. P.; Camacho-Pérez, E.; Casey, B. C. K.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Caughron, S.; Chakrabarti, S.; Chan, K. M.; Chandra, A.; Chapon, E.; Chen, G.; Cho, S. W.; Choi, S.; Choudhary, B.; Cihangir, S.; Claes, D.; Clutter, J.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, W. E.; Corcoran, M.; Couderc, F.; Cousinou, M. -C.; Cutts, D.; Das, A.; Davies, G.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Déliot, F.; Demina, R.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Desai, S.; Deterre, C.; DeVaughan, K.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; Ding, P. F.; Dominguez, A.; Dubey, A.; Dudko, L. V.; Duperrina, A.; Dutt, S.; Eads, M.; Edmunds, D.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Enari, Y.; Evans, H.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Feng, L.; Ferbel, T.; Fiedler, F.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, H. E.; Fortner, M.; Fox, H.; Fuess, S.; Garbincius, P. H.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; García-González, J. A.; Gavrilov, V.; Geng, W.; Gerber, C. E.; Gershtein, Y.; Ginther, G.; Golovanov, G.; Grannis, P. D.; Greder, S.; Greenlee, H.; Grenier, G.; Gris, Ph.; Grivaz, J. -F.; Grohsjean, A.; Grünendahl, S.; Grünewald, M. W.; Guillemin, T.; Gutierrez, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Haley, J.; Han, L.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hays, J.; Head, T.; Hebbeker, T.; Hedin, D.; Hegab, H.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Hensel, C.; Heredia-De La Cruz, I.; Herner, K.; Hesketh, G.; Hildreth, M. D.; Hirosky, R.; Hoang, T.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hogan, J.; Hohlfeld, M.; Holzbauer, J. L.; Howley, I.; Hubacek, Z.; Hynek, V.; Iashvili, I.; Ilchenko, Y.; Illingworth, R.; Ito, A. S.; Jabeen, S.; Jaffré, M.; Jayasinghe, A.; Jeong, M. S.; Jesik, R.; Jiang, P.; Johns, K.; Johnson, E.; Johnson, M.; Jonckheere, A.; Jonsson, P.; Joshi, J.; Jung, A. W.; Juste, A.; Kajfasz, E.; Karmanov, D.; Katsanos, I.; Kehoe, R.; Kermiche, S.; Khalatyan, N.; Khanov, A.; Kharchilava, A.; Kharzheev, Y. N.; Kiselevich, I.; Kohli, J. M.; Kozelov, A. V.; Kraus, J.; Kumar, A.; Kupco, A.; Kurča, T.; Kuzmin, V. A.; Lammers, S.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, S. W.; Lee, W. M.; Lei, X.; Lellouch, J.; Li, D.; Li, H.; Li, L.; Li, Q. Z.; Lim, J. K.; Lincoln, D.; Linnemann, J.; Lipaev, V. V.; Lipton, R.; Liu, H.; Liu, Y.; Lobodenko, A.; Lokajicek, M.; Lopes de Sa, R.; Luna-Garcia, R.; Lyon, A. L.; Maciel, A. K. A.; Madar, R.; Magaña-Villalba, R.; Malik, S.; Malyshev, V. L.; Mansour, J.; Martínez-Ortega, J.; McCarthy, R.; McGivern, C. L.; Meijer, M. M.; Melnitchouk, A.; Menezes, D.; Mercadante, P. G.; Merkin, M.; Meyer, A.; Meyer, J.; Miconi, F.; Mondal, N. K.; Mulhearn, M.; Nagy, E.; Narain, M.; Nayyar, R.; Neal, H. A.; Negret, J. P.; Neustroev, P.; Nguyen, H. T.; Nunnemann, T.; Orduna, J.; Osman, N.; Osta, J.; Pal, A.; Parashar, N.; Parihar, V.; Park, S. K.; Partridge, R.; Parua, N.; Patwa, A.; Penning, B.; Perfilov, M.; Peters, Y.; Petridis, K.; Petrillo, G.; Pétroff, P.; Pleier, M. -A.; Podstavkov, V. M.; Popov, A. V.; Prewitt, M.; Price, D.; Prokopenko, N.; Qian, J.; Quadt, A.; Quinn, B.; Raja, R.; Ratoff, P. N.; Razumov, I.; Ripp-Baudot, I.; Rizatdinova, F.; Rominsky, M.; Ross, A.; Royon, C.; Rubinov, P.; Ruchti, R.; Sajot, G.; Sánchez-Hernández, A.; Sanders, M. P.; Santos, A. S.; Savage, G.; Sawyer, L.; Scanlon, T.; Schamberger, R. D.; Scheglov, Y.; Schellman, H.; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwienhorst, R.; Sekaric, J.; Severini, H.; Shabalina, E.; Shary, V.; Shaw, S.; Shchukin, A. A.; Simak, V.; Skubic, P.; Slattery, P.; Smirnov, D.; Snow, G. R.; Snow, J.; Snyder, S.; Söldner-Rembold, S.; Sonnenschein, L.; Soustruznik, K.; Stark, J.; Stoyanova, D. A.; Strauss, M.; Suter, L.; Svoisky, P.; Titov, M.; Tokmenin, V. V.; Tsai, Y. -T.; Tsybychev, D.; Tuchming, B.; Tully, C.; Uvarov, L.; Uvarov, S.; Uzunyan, S.; Van Kooten, R.; van Leeuwen, W. M.; Varelas, N.; Varnes, E. W.; Vasilyev, I. A.; Verkheev, A. Y.; Vertogradov, L. S.; Verzocchi, M.; Vesterinen, M.; Vilanova, D.; Vokac, P.; Wahl, H. D.; Wang, M. H. L. S.; Warchol, J.; Watts, G.; Wayne, M.; Weichert, J.; Welty-Rieger, L.; Williams, M. R. J.; Wilson, G. W.; Wobisch, M.; Wood, D. R.; Wyatt, T. R.; Xie, Y.; Yamada, R.; Yang, S.; Yasuda, T.; Yatsunenko, Y. A.; Ye, W.; Ye, Z.; Yin, H.; Yip, K.; Youn, S. W.; Yu, J. M.; Zennamo, J.; Zhao, T. G.; Zhou, B.; Zhu, J.; Zielinski, M.; Zieminska, D.; Zivkovic, L.
The electron and photon reconstruction and identification algorithms used by the D0 Collaboration at the Fermilab Tevatron collider are described. The determination of the electron energy scale and resolution is presented. Studies of the performance of the electron and photon reconstruction and identification are summarized.
Full Text Available Abstract Objectives 1 to evaluate the role of the pediatrician in detecting postnatal depression (PD symptoms by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS; 2 to detect factors increasing the risk of PD and, 3 to assess the importance of scores gained from fathers' questionnaire. Methods we surveyed 1122 mothers and 499 fathers who were assessed using the EPDS during the first well-child visit. After 5 weeks, high scoring parents, completed a second EPDS. High scoring parents were examined by a psychiatrist who had to confirm the PD diagnosis. Results 26.6% of mothers and 12.6% of fathers at the first visit, 19.0% of mothers and 9.1% of fathers at the second visit, gained scores signaling the risk of PD. Four mothers and two fathers had confirmed PD diagnosis. Younger maternal age, non-Italian nationality and low socio-economic condition were related to higher EPDS scores. Conclusion PD is common in the average population. Using a simple and standardized instrument, pediatricians are able to detect parents with higher risk of suffering from PD.
Karaman, Bedriye; Selph, James; Burdine, Joselyn; Graham, Cole Blease; Sen, Souvik
Patient candidacy for acute stroke intervention, is currently assessed using brain computed tomography angiography (CTA) evidence of significant stenosis/occlusion (SSO) with a high National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) (>6). This study examined the association between CTA without significant stenosis/occlusion (NSSO) and lower NIHSS (≤ 6) with transient ischemic attack (TIA) and other good clinical outcomes at discharge. Patients presenting TIA, modified Rankin Score [mRS] ≤ 1, and home as the discharge disposition. Eighty-five patients received both an NIHSS at presentation and a CTA at 4.2 ± 2.2 hours from stroke symptom onset. Patients with NSSO on CTA as well as those with NIHSS≤6 had better outcomes at discharge (pTIA (pTIA. Addition of NIHSS ≤ 6 to NSSO on CTA proved to be a stronger independent predictor of TIA (Adjusted OR 18.7 95% CI: 3.5-98.9, p=0.001).
Full Text Available Francesca Assogna,1 Sabrina Fagioli,1 Luca Cravello,1 Giuseppe Meco,2 Mariangela Pierantozzi,3 Alessandro Stefani,3 Francesca Imperiale,2 Carlo Caltagirone,1,3 Francesco E Pontieri,4 Gianfranco Spalletta11I.R.C.C.S. Santa Lucia Foundation, Rome, Italy; 2Department of Neurology and Psychiatry (Parkinson’s Centre and Research Centre of Social Diseases (CIMS, University “Sapienza”, Rome, Italy; 3Department of Neuroscience, University “Tor Vergata”, Rome, Italy; 4Department of Neuroscience, Mental Health and Sensory Systems, University “Sapienza”, Movement Disorder Unit, Sant’Andrea Hospital, Rome, ItalyBackground: Patients with neurological and non-neurological medical illnesses very often complain of depressive symptoms that are associated with cognitive and functional impairments. We compared the profile of depressive symptoms in Parkinson’s disease (PD patients with that of control subjects (CS suffering from non-neurological medical illnesses.Methods: One-hundred PD patients and 100 CS were submitted to a structured clinical interview for identification of major depressive disorder (MDD and minor depressive disorder (MIND, according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, text revision (DSM-IV-TR, criteria. The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI were also administered to measure depression severity.Results: When considering the whole groups, there were no differences in depressive symptom frequency between PD and CS apart from worthlessness/guilt, and changes in appetite reduced rates in PD. Further, total scores and psychic and somatic subscores of HDRS and BDI did not differ between PD and CS. After we separated PD and CS in those with MDD, MIND, and no depression (NODEP, comparing total scores and psychic/somatic subscores of HDRS and BDI, we found increased total depression severity in NODEP PD and reduced severity of the psychic symptoms of
Obsessive compulsive symptoms are commonly reported in those with schizophrenia. Clozapine has previously been reported to induce, aggravate and alleviate these symptoms. It is unclear if these are similar to the symptoms experienced by those with obsessive compulsive disorder. This study describes the obsessive compulsive symptom profile of a population of patients with schizophrenia treated with clozapine (n = 62) and compares this with patients with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (n = 35). All participants were attending an outpatient community mental health service. The Obsessive Compulsive Inventory (which measures the frequency and associated distress of a range of "behavioural" and "cognitive" symptoms), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and a demographic questionnaire were completed. In addition the schizophrenia group treated with clozapine completed the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. The OCD group reported significantly more symptoms for all OCI subscales compared to the clozapine group. Overall fourteen (22%) of the schizophrenia treated with clozapine group had clinically significant total OCI scores. Two (3%) had documented OCS pre clozapine. De novo OCS was reported in twelve (19%) cases. Nine (11%) had documented OC symptoms pre-clozapine while only two (3%) had symptoms after clozapine was initiated. In terms of OC symptom profile, the clozapine group scored highest on the Doubting scale, a cognitive symptom whereas the OCD group scored highest on Washing, a behavioural symptom. Both groups reported greater distress with cognitive rather than behavioural symptoms. Medication including clozapine dose was not correlated with symptom severity. Anxiety correlated highly with obsessive compulsive symptoms in the Clozapine group but not the OCD group. Within the Clozapine group, Obsessing correlated highly with Unusual Thought Content. Findings suggest that obsessive compulsive symptoms in the Clozapine group may reflect a subtype of \\'schizo
Full Text Available Objective : This is a clinical report about the 77-years-old man patient with polymyositis treated by oriental medicine. Methods : The paitent was treated by acupuncture and herb medication. The improvement of the patient was judged by MRC scale and CPK, LDH. Results & Conclusions : 1. Patient's symptoms(paraplegia rapidly improved. 2. The level of CPK, LDH and Potassium are recovered to the normal range. 3. Associated with respiratory symptoms are getting better.
Alphs, Larry; Morlock, Robert; Coon, Cheryl; Cazorla, Pilar; Szegedi, Armin; Panagides, John
The 16-item Negative Symptom Assessment (NSA-16) scale is a validated tool for evaluating negative symptoms of schizophrenia. The psychometric properties and predictive power of a four-item version (NSA-4) were compared with the NSA-16. Baseline data from 561 patients with predominant negative symptoms of schizophrenia who participated in two identically designed clinical trials were evaluated. Ordered logistic regression analysis of ratings using NSA-4 and NSA-16 were compared with ratings using several other standard tools to determine predictive validity and construct validity. Internal consistency and test--retest reliability were also analyzed. NSA-16 and NSA-4 scores were both predictive of scores on the NSA global rating (odds ratio = 0.83-0.86) and the Clinical Global Impressions--Severity scale (odds ratio = 0.91-0.93). NSA-16 and NSA-4 showed high correlation with each other (Pearson r = 0.85), similar high correlation with other measures of negative symptoms (demonstrating convergent validity), and lesser correlations with measures of other forms of psychopathology (demonstrating divergent validity). NSA-16 and NSA-4 both showed acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach α, 0.85 and 0.64, respectively) and test--retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.87 and 0.82). This study demonstrates that NSA-4 offers accuracy comparable to the NSA-16 in rating negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
O'Neil, Gina L.; Goodall, Jonathan L.; Watson, Layne T.
Wetlands are important ecosystems that provide many ecological benefits, and their quality and presence are protected by federal regulations. These regulations require wetland delineations, which can be costly and time-consuming to perform. Computer models can assist in this process, but lack the accuracy necessary for environmental planning-scale wetland identification. In this study, the potential for improvement of wetland identification models through modification of digital elevation model (DEM) derivatives, derived from high-resolution and increasingly available light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data, at a scale necessary for small-scale wetland delineations is evaluated. A novel approach of flow convergence modelling is presented where Topographic Wetness Index (TWI), curvature, and Cartographic Depth-to-Water index (DTW), are modified to better distinguish wetland from upland areas, combined with ancillary soil data, and used in a Random Forest classification. This approach is applied to four study sites in Virginia, implemented as an ArcGIS model. The model resulted in significant improvement in average wetland accuracy compared to the commonly used National Wetland Inventory (84.9% vs. 32.1%), at the expense of a moderately lower average non-wetland accuracy (85.6% vs. 98.0%) and average overall accuracy (85.6% vs. 92.0%). From this, we concluded that modifying TWI, curvature, and DTW provides more robust wetland and non-wetland signatures to the models by improving accuracy rates compared to classifications using the original indices. The resulting ArcGIS model is a general tool able to modify these local LiDAR DEM derivatives based on site characteristics to identify wetlands at a high resolution.
Mangweth-Matzek, Barbara; Kummer, Kai K; Pope, Harrison G
Few studies have assessed symptoms of eating disorders in older men. We administered anonymous questionnaires to 470 men, aged 40-75 years, in and around Innsbruck, Austria, to assess eating behavior, body image, and exercise activities. We defined current eating disorder symptoms (EDS) as (1) BMI men, 32 (6.8%) reported one of the four eating disorder symptoms. The 32 men with eating disorder symptoms, compared to the 438 men with normal eating, showed significantly greater pathology on scales assessing eating behavior, exercise addiction, satisfaction with body shape, and weight. However, the EDE-Q cutoff score for eating disturbance identified only three (9%) of the EDS men. Symptoms of disordered eating, sometimes involving purging via excessive exercise, do occur in older men, and may be missed by conventional instruments. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.(Int J Eat Disord 2016; 49:953-957). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Ise, Elena; Görtz-Dorten, Anja; Döpfner, Manfred
It is recommended to use information from multiple informants when making diagnostic decisions concerning oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD). The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability and validity of teacher-rated symptoms of ODD and CD in a clinical sample. The sample comprised 421 children (84% boys; 6-17 years) diagnosed with ODD, CD, and/or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Teachers completed a standardized ODD/CD symptom rating scale and the Teacher Report Form (TRF). The reliability (internal consistency) of the symptom rating scale was high (α = 0.90). Convergent and divergent validity were demonstrated by substantial correlations with similar TRF syndrome scales and low-to-moderate correlations with dissimilar TRF scales. Discriminant validity was shown by the ability of the symptom rating scale to differentiate between children with ODD/CD and those with ADHD. Factorial validity was demonstrated by principal component analysis, which produced a two-factor solution that is largely consistent with the two-dimensional model of ODD and CD proposed by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IV-TR, although some CD symptoms representing aggressive behavior loaded on the ODD dimension. These findings suggest that DSM-IV-TR-based teacher rating scales are useful instruments for assessing disruptive behavior problems in children and adolescents.
Selten, JP; Wiersma, D; van den Bosch, RJ
The purpose of the study was to examine (1) to which negative symptoms schizophrenia patients attribute distress and (2) whether clinical variables can predict the levels of reported distress. With the help of a research assistant, 86 hospitalized patients completed a self-rating scale for negative
Lerdal, Anners; Lee, Kathryn A; Rokne, Berit; Knudsen, Øistein; Wahl, Astrid K; Dahl, Alv A
This study explores current experience with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and other variables (sociodemographic, mental distress, somatic morbidity, self-rated health, and quality of life [QoL]) in relation to fatigue. A representative sample of the Norwegian population (N = 3,944) was invited to participate in a mailed survey, and 1,857 (47%) returned valid responses on the questionnaire that included the Fatigue Severity Scale and the Posttraumatic Symptom Scale-10. Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms showed a strong association with fatigue in univariate (β = .41) and multivariate analyses (β = .33). Associations between psychosocial health variables, QoL, and fatigue were confirmed. However, PTSD symptoms showed the strongest association with fatigue in the analyses. Findings need to be replicated in other population samples and in clinical samples with PTSD and fatigue.
Li, Yingtao; Zeng, Yingchun; Zhu, Wei; Cui, Ying; Li, Jie
Antenatal maternal mental health problems have numerous consequences for the well-being of both mother and child. This study aimed to test and construct a pertinent model of antenatal depressive symptoms within the conceptual framework of a stress process model. This study utilized a cross-sectional study design. participants were adult women (18 years or older) having a healthy pregnancy, in their third trimester (the mean weeks gestation was 34.71). depressive and anxiety symptoms were measured by Zung's Self-rating Depressive and Anxiety Scale, stress was measured by Pregnancy-related Pressure Scale, social support and coping strategies were measured by Social Support Rating Scale and Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire, respectively. path analysis was applied to examine the hypothesized causal paths between study variables. A total of 292 subjects were enrolled. The final testing model showed good fit, with normed χ (2) = 32.317, p = 0.061, CFI = 0.961, TLI = 0.917, IFI = 0.964, NFI = 0.900, RMSEA = 0.042. This path model supported the proposed model within the theoretical framework of the stress process model. Pregnancy-related stress, financial strain and active coping have both direct and indirect effects on depressive symptoms. Psychological preparedness for delivery, social support and anxiety levels have direct effects on antenatal depressive symptoms. Good preparedness for delivery could reduce depressive symptoms, while higher levels of anxiety could significantly increase depressive symptoms. Additionally, there were indirect effects of miscarriage history, irregular menstruation, partner relationship and passive coping with depressive symptoms. The empirical support from this study has enriched theories on the determinants of depressive symptoms among Chinese primipara, and could facilitate the formulation of appropriate interventions for reducing antenatal depressive symptoms, and enhancing the mental health of
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wheelchair platform scale. 890.3940 Section 890.3940 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... platform scale. (a) Identification. A wheelchair platform scale is a device with a base designed to...
Frazier, Thomas W; Hardan, Antonio Y
This study investigated equivalence of autism symptom domains in males and females with autism. Symptom data were obtained from 2643 children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (352 females, 2291 males; age range = 4-17 years) included in the Simons Simplex Collection. Items from the Social Responsiveness Scale and Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised were mapped to nine a priori symptom dimensions. Multi-group confirmatory factor models, including measurement equivalence and item response theory analyses, examined whether males and females showed measurement or structural differences in autism symptom constructs. Results indicated mean differences in restricted interests that were not due to measurement bias. No other symptom dimension showed evidence of measurement bias and autism symptom structure was highly similar between males and females. Future studies are needed to carefully estimate any sex differences in the content, frequency, or intensity/severity of restricted interests in females and males.
Blümel, Juan E; Chedraui, Peter; Aedo, Sócrates; Fica, Juan; Mezones-Holguín, Edward; Barón, Germán; Bencosme, Ascanio; Benítez, Zully; Bravo, Luz M; Calle, Andrés; Flores, Daniel; Espinoza, María T; Gómez, Gustavo; Hernández-Bueno, José A; Laribezcoa, Fiorella; Martino, Mabel; Lima, Selva; Monterrosa, Alvaro; Mostajo, Desiree; Ojeda, Eliana; Onatra, William; Sánchez, Hugo; Tserotas, Konstatinos; Vallejo, María S; Witis, Silvina; Zúñiga, María C
The prevalence of obesity increases during female mid-life and although many factors have been identified, data from Latin America is lacking. To assess factors related to obesity among middle-aged women and determine the association with depressive symptoms, sedentary lifestyle and other factors. A total of 6079 women aged 40-59 years of 11 Latin American countries were asked to fill out the Goldberg Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Menopause Rating Scale, the Athens Insomnia Scale, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and a general questionnaire containing personal socio-demographic data, anthropometric measures and lifestyle information. Obesity was defined as a body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m(2). Obesity was observed in 18.5% and sedentary lifestyle in 63.9%. A 55.5% presented vasomotor symptoms, 12.2% had severe menopausal symptoms and 13.2% used hormone therapy for the menopause. Prevalence of depressive symptoms was 46.5% and anxiety 59.7%. Our logistic regression model found that significant factors associated to obesity included: arterial hypertension (OR: 1.87), depressive symptoms (OR: 1.57), sedentary lifestyle (OR: 1.50) diabetes mellitus (OR: 1.34), higher number of individuals living at home (OR: 1.31), sleep problems (OR:1.22), anxiety (OR: 1.21), having a stable partner (OR: 1.20), parity (OR: 1.16) and vasomotor symptoms (OR:1.14). A lower risk for obesity was found among women using hormonal contraceptives (OR: 0.69). Obesity in middle-aged women is the consequence of the interaction of multiple factors. It was associated to hypertension, depressive symptoms, sedentary lifestyle, climacteric symptoms and other factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pourrezaei Khaligh, Sepehr
Model-based control design of small-scale helicopters involves considerable challenges due to their nonlinear and underactuated dynamics with strong couplings between the different degrees-of-freedom (DOFs). Most nonlinear model-based multi-input multi-output (MIMO) control approaches require the dynamic model of the system to be affine-in-control and fully actuated. Since the existing formulations for helicopter nonlinear dynamic model do not meet these requirements, these MIMO approaches cannot be applied for control of helicopters and control designs in the literature mostly use the linearized model of the helicopter dynamics around different trim conditions instead of directly using the nonlinear model. The purpose of this thesis is to derive the 6-DOF nonlinear model of the helicopter in an affine-in-control, non-iterative and square input-output formulation to enable many nonlinear control approaches, that require a control-affine and square model such as the sliding mode control (SMC), to be used for control design of small-scale helicopters. A combination of the first-principles approach and system identification is used to derive this model. To complete the nonlinear model of the helicopter required for the control design, the inverse kinematics of the actuating mechanisms of the main and tail rotors are also derived using an approach suitable for the real-time control applications. The parameters of the new control-oriented formulation are identified using a time-domain system identification strategy and the model is validated using flight test data. A robust sliding mode control (SMC) is then designed using the new formulation of the helicopter dynamics and its robustness to parameter uncertainties and wind disturbances is tested in simulations. Next, a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) testbed is designed to allow for the control implementation and gain tuning as well as testing the robustness of the controller to external disturbances in a controlled
Song, Ji Hyun; Chung, Su Jin; Lee, Jun Haeng; Kim, Young-Ho; Chang, Dong Kyung; Son, Hee Jung; Kim, Jae J; Rhee, Jong Chul; Rhee, Poong-Lyul
The incidence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is increasing in Korea. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between GERD symptoms and dietary factors in Korea. From January 2007 to April 2008, 162 subjects were enrolled (81 in GERD group and 81 in control group). They were asked to complete the questionnaires about GERD symptoms and dietary habits. The symptom severity score was recorded by visual analogue scale. Subjects with overweight or obesity had an increased risk for GERD (OR, 2.52; 95% CI, 1.18-5.39). Irregular dietary intake was one of the risk factors for GERD (OR, 2.33; 95% CI, 1.11-4.89). Acid regurgitation was the most suffering (2.85 ± 2.95 by visual analogue scale) and frequent reflux-related symptom (57.5%) in GERD. Noodles (OR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.12-1.34), spicy foods (OR, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.02-1.16), fatty meals (OR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.09-1.33), sweets (OR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.00-2.02), alcohol (OR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.03-1.31), breads (OR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.01-1.34), carbonated drinks (OR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.04-2.74) and caffeinated drinks (OR,1.41; 95% CI, 1.15-1.73) were associated with symptom aggravation in GERD. Among the investigated noodles, ramen (instant noodle) caused reflux-related symptoms most frequently (52.4%). We found that noodles, spicy foods, fatty meals, sweets, alcohol, breads, carbonated drinks and caffeinated drinks were associated with reflux-related symptoms.
Buizer-Voskamp, Jacobine E.; Franke, Lude; Staal, Wouter G.; van Daalen, Emma; Kemner, Chantal; Ophoff, Roel A.; Vorstman, Jacob A. S.; van Engeland, Herman; Wijmenga, Cisca
Many genetic studies in autism have been performed, resulting in the identification of multiple linkage regions and cytogenetic aberrations, but little unequivocal evidence for the involvement of specific genes exists. By identifying novel symptoms in these patients, enhanced phenotyping of autistic
Mahony, Talia; Sidell, Douglas; Gans, Hayley; Brown, Kayla; Farhadian, Bahare; Gustafson, Melissa; Sherr, Janell; Thienemann, Margo; Frankovich, Jennifer
Accumulating evidence supports a role for inflammation in psychiatric illness, and the onset or exacerbation of psychiatric symptoms may follow non-CNS infections. Here, we provide the first detailed description of obsessive-compulsive and related psychiatric symptoms arising concurrently with sinusitis. We reviewed the charts of 150 consecutive patients evaluated in our Pediatric Acute-onset Neuropsychiatric Syndromes clinic for documented sinusitis as defined by the American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines. Sinusitis treatments, sinonasal imaging, and neuropsychiatric symptoms before, during, and after sinusitis onset were noted. Patients were included in the final review if they had a clear diagnosis of isolated sinusitis (without concurrent illness and/or immunodeficiency), and were evaluated during an episode of sinusitis. 10/150 (6.6%) patients had isolated sinusitis at the time of their neuropsychiatric deterioration. Eight patients received antibiotics to treat sinusitis, three of whom also received sinus surgery. Neuropsychiatric symptoms improved in all eight patients concurrent with resolution of sinusitis per parent report and clinician assessment. One patient did not follow through with recommended sinus surgery or antibiotics and her psychiatric symptoms persisted. One patient was lost to follow-up. Improvement of psychiatric symptoms correlated with resolution of sinus disease in this retrospective study. Identification, treatment, and resolution of underlying infections, including sinusitis, may have the potential to change the trajectory of some neuropsychiatric illnesses. Randomized clinical trials are needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mu, Jesse; Chaudhuri, Kallol R; Bielza, Concha; de Pedro-Cuesta, Jesus; Larrañaga, Pedro; Martinez-Martin, Pablo
Parkinson's disease is now considered a complex, multi-peptide, central, and peripheral nervous system disorder with considerable clinical heterogeneity. Non-motor symptoms play a key role in the trajectory of Parkinson's disease, from prodromal premotor to end stages. To understand the clinical heterogeneity of Parkinson's disease, this study used cluster analysis to search for subtypes from a large, multi-center, international, and well-characterized cohort of Parkinson's disease patients across all motor stages, using a combination of cardinal motor features (bradykinesia, rigidity, tremor, axial signs) and, for the first time, specific validated rater-based non-motor symptom scales. Two independent international cohort studies were used: (a) the validation study of the Non-Motor Symptoms Scale ( n = 411) and (b) baseline data from the global Non-Motor International Longitudinal Study ( n = 540). k -means cluster analyses were performed on the non-motor and motor domains (domains clustering) and the 30 individual non-motor symptoms alone (symptoms clustering), and hierarchical agglomerative clustering was performed to group symptoms together. Four clusters are identified from the domains clustering supporting previous studies: mild, non-motor dominant, motor-dominant, and severe. In addition, six new smaller clusters are identified from the symptoms clustering, each characterized by clinically-relevant non-motor symptoms. The clusters identified in this study present statistical confirmation of the increasingly important role of non-motor symptoms (NMS) in Parkinson's disease heterogeneity and take steps toward subtype-specific treatment packages.
Parke, Elyse M; Mayfield, Abigail R; Barchard, Kimberly A; Thaler, Nicholas S; Etcoff, Lewis M; Allen, Daniel N
There is disagreement on whether attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms are best characterized along two dimensions consisting of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity or three dimensions where hyperactivity and impulsivity are separate. To address this, the current study investigated the underlying symptom dimensions of ADHD by examining two- and three-factor models of ADHD symptom ratings in 400 children and adolescents diagnosed with ADHD. ADHD symptom ratings for each of the 18 DSM-IV Criteria A symptoms were obtained from mothers using a standardized symptom rating scale. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to examine whether the 18 symptoms were best explained by two or three latent constructs. Results of the CFA demonstrated that a three-factor model was superior to a two-factor model. Findings support three distinct symptom dimensions that are consistent with previous research demonstrating unique clinical presentations of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Differentiating between these three domains may aid in predicting behavioral outcomes in children with ADHD. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Lin, Chiao-Fan; Juang, Yeong-Yuh; Wen, Jung-Kwang; Liu, Chia-Yih; Hung, Ching-I
The purpose of this study was to investigate the degree of correlation between sexual dysfunction and depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms among patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and to identify the dimension most predictive of sexual dysfunction. One-hundred and thirty-five outpatients with MDD were enrolled and were treated with open-label venlafaxine 75 mg daily for one month. The Arizona Sexual Experience Scale-Chinese Version (ASEX-CV), Depression and Somatic Symptoms Scale (DSSS), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were administered at baseline and at one-month follow-up and the improvement percentage (IP) of each scale posttreatment was calculated. Multiple linear regression was used to determine the dimension most predictive of the total ASEX-CV score. Seventy subjects (20 men, 50 women) completed the one-month pharmacotherapy and the four scales. The depression subscale of the HADS was most strongly correlated with the ASEX-CV scale and was the only subscale to independently predict the total ASEX-CV score at the two points. However, the somatic subscale of the DSSS was not correlated with any ASEX-CV item. At the endpoint, depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms were significantly improved (IP 48.5% to 26.0%); however, very little improvement was observed in the total ASEX-CV score (IP -1.6%). The severity of sexual dysfunction among patients with MDD was most correlated with the severity of the depressive dimension, but not the severity of the somatic dimension. Further studies are indicated to explore the relationships between sexual dysfunction, depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms.
Scioli-Salter, Erica R.; Johnides, Benjamin D.; Mitchell, Karen S.; Smith, Brian N.; Resick, Patricia A.; Rasmusson, Ann M.
Objective To investigate the relative contributions of depression and dissociation, as well as PTSD, to physical health symptoms and to examine the relationships among somatic symptoms, PTSD, depression, and dissociation in relation to childhood and adult trauma exposure. Method Cross-sectional data are from 132 female rape survivors with PTSD assessed prior to engaging in a study of trauma-focused cognitive therapy for PTSD. Measures included the Pennebaker Inventory of Limbic Languidness, Clinician Administered PTSD Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, Trauma Symptom Inventory-Dissociation Subscale, Childhood Sexual Abuse Exposure Questionnaire, and Assessing Environments-III-Physical Punishment Scale. Results Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that only dissociative and depression symptoms contributed significantly to physical health symptoms. Similarly, among the subsample of women with either childhood sexual or physical abuse, depression and dissociation were significant predictors of somatic symptoms. However, among women without childhood abuse, only dissociation significantly predicted somatic symptoms. Conclusion Understanding the psychological and biological mechanisms that link childhood versus adult trauma exposure, PTSD, and comorbid depression or dissociation to physical health symptoms may aid development of individualized treatments for the physical and psychological consequences of trauma. PMID:27149157
Levine, Stephen Z; Leucht, Stefan
The treatment and measurement of negative symptoms are currently at issue in schizophrenia, but the clinical meaning of symptom severity and change is unclear. To offer a clinically meaningful interpretation of severity and change scores on the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS). Patients were intention-to-treat participants (n=383) in two double-blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials that compared amisulpride with placebo for the treatment of predominant negative symptoms. Equipercentile linking was used to examine extrapolation from (a) CGI-S to SANS severity ratings, and (b) CGI-I to SANS percentage change (n=383). Linking was conducted at baseline, 8-14 days, 28-30 days, and 56-60 days of the trials. Across visits, CGI-S ratings of 'not ill' linked to SANS scores of 0-13, and ranged to 'extreme' ratings that linked to SANS scores of 102-105. The relationship between the CGI-S and the SANS severity scores assumed a linear trend (1=0-13, 2=15-56, 3=37-61, 4=49-66, 5=63-75, 6=79-89, 7=102-105). Similarly the relationship between CGI-I ratings and SANS percentage change followed a linear trend. For instance, CGI-I ratings of 'very much improved' were linked to SANS percent changes of -90 to -67, 'much improved' to -50 to -42, and 'minimally improved' to -21 to -13. The current results uniquely contribute to the debate surrounding negative symptoms by providing clinical meaning to SANS severity and change scores and so offer direction regarding clinically meaningful response cut-off scores to guide treatment targets of predominant negative symptoms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bornheimer, Lindsay A.
Background Suicide is among the leading causes of death for adults diagnosed with schizophrenia, with risk estimates being over eight folds greater than the general population. While the majority of research to date focuses on the role of symptoms of depression in suicide risk, there is a lack of consensus and understanding of the relationship between positive symptoms of psychosis and both suicidal ideation and attempt. The current study examined pathways of influence between symptoms of depression, positive symptoms of psychosis (i.e. hallucinations and delusions), hopelessness, and suicidal ideation among a population of adults diagnosed with schizophrenia. Methods Data were obtained from the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE; n = 1460) at baseline. Suicidal ideation, hopelessness, and symptoms of depression were measured by the Calgary Depression Scale (CDRS) and hallucinations and delusions by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Data were analyzed with Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) using Mplus 7. Results Symptoms of depression, positive symptoms of psychosis, and hopelessness independently predicted suicidal ideation. Hopelessness significantly mediated the relationship between symptoms of depression and suicidal ideation. Lastly, positive symptoms of psychosis were found to moderate the relationship between symptoms of depression and suicidal ideation. Conclusions The current study provides evidence for the role that positive symptoms of psychosis (specifically hallucinations and delusions) play in suicidal ideation, pointing towards the implication that beyond symptoms of depression, positive symptoms must be evaluated for and treated. PMID:27450776
Ramos-Marcuse, Fatima; Oberlander, Sarah E; Papas, Mia A; McNary, Scot W; Hurley, Kristen M; Black, Maureen M
Maternal depressive symptomatology is an important public health issue with negative consequences for both mothers and infants. This study examined prevalence and patterns of depressive symptoms among 181 urban, low-income, first-time, African American adolescent mothers recruited from urban hospitals following delivery. Follow-up evaluations were conducted at 6 (N=148; 82%) and 24 (N=147; 81%) month home visits. Depressive symptoms were measured with Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Half of mothers (49%) had BDI scores >9 at baseline, with significant correlations between BDI scores across all visits (r=0.28-0.50). Depressive symptom trajectories analyzed using group-based trajectory modeling revealed three trajectories of depressive symptoms: Low (41%), Medium (45%), and High (14%). The high depressive symptom group reported lower self-esteem, more negative life events, and lower parenting satisfaction than the low and moderate depressive symptoms groups. Depressive symptoms were self-reported and not verified with a clinical interview. Findings are limited to urban, low-income, African American adolescent mothers and may not be generalizable to other populations. The high prevalence and relative stability of depressive symptoms through 2years of parenting suggest the need for early identification and treatment of maternal depressive symptoms. Brief screening for maternal depressive symptoms conducted during pediatric well-child visits is a feasible and effective method for identifying mothers with depressive symptoms, however, screening measures can not differentiate between high and low levels of depressive symptoms. Brief intervention may be an effective treatment for mothers with mild symptoms of depression; mothers with moderate to severe symptoms may require more intensive intervention. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Soler, Maria Dolors; Moriña, David; Rodríguez, Neus; Saurí, Joan; Vidal, Joan; Navarro, Albert; Navarro, Xavier
Individuals experiencing neuropathic pain (NP) after spinal cord injury (SCI) present with a variety of pain descriptors in different combinations and at different intensities. These sensory features form distinct patterns, known as sensory symptom profiles. In the present cross-sectional study, we have used a multivariate statistical method (multiple correspondence analysis) to categorize the sensory symptom profiles of a cohort of 338 patients with at-level or below-level NP after SCI. We also investigated possible associations between positive neuropathic symptoms and features of the neurological lesion. The majority of participants had a combination of pain descriptors, with 59% presenting with 3 or 4 pain subtypes. No significant associations were found between specific pain profiles and etiology or clinical degree of the neurological lesion. Furthermore, similar symptom profiles were seen in patients with at-level and below-level NP. The most frequent pattern observed in patients with cervical SCI consisted predominantly of electric shocks and tingling, without burning, pressure pain, or allodynia. Classification of SCI-NP patients into the 5 groups identified in the present study based on their distinct sensory symptom profiles may allow identification of those most likely to respond to a specific analgesic approach.
Crittenden, Kathleen S.; And Others
A study of self-report depressive symptoms measured by the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale was conducted in Korea, the Philippines, Taiwan, and the United States with 953 college students. There are marked differences among countries in symptoms reported. Research designs and measurement strategies for cross-cultural research are discussed. (SLD)
Zhao, Yan-Qing; Li, Qing-Song; Xiang, Min-Hong; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Xing-Ru
To investigate the distribution of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) Syndromes of diabetic retinopathy and explore the correlation between various symptoms. Based on the literature in databases of China Journal Full-text Database (CNKI), Wanfang database, VIP network, China biomedical literature database (CBM) and PubMed, SPSS 20.0 and IBM SPSS Modeler 14.1 software were used to analyze the location of disease, symptoms, tongue and pulse, and syndrome type distribution through frequency statistics. In addition, association rule algorithm was used to explore the basic rules for underlying symptoms combinations of diabetic retinopathy. A total of 560 articles were retrieved, and a total of 240 articles met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. In these documents, 62 types of TCM syndromes were found, involving 9 820 cases, 201 symptoms, 29 tongue conditions, and 36 pulses conditions; the first two locations for the disease were liver and kidney. Then the association rule analysis of high frequency symptoms was used to dig out 15 groups of latent syndrome, and 3 underlying symptom combinations among high frequency symptoms, tongue conditions and pulse conditions. The results of the study showed that Qi and yin deficiency was most common for the diabetic retinopathy, and the location of the disease was closely related to liver and kidney. In addition, these high-frequency symptoms and tongue conditions, pulse conditions, and underlying symptom combinations can occur as main symptoms at diagnosis, providing reference for us to study the epidemiology of PRO scale of the disease. They can also increase the weight of these symptoms directly as the main symptoms, which can be also used as an alternative entry pool for TCM syndrome diagnostic scale, laying foundation for the construction and optimization of TCM symptom database of diabetic retinopathy. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Wolford, Elina; Lahti, Marius; Tuovinen, Soile; Lahti, Jari; Lipsanen, Jari; Savolainen, Katri; Heinonen, Kati; Hämäläinen, Esa; Kajantie, Eero; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Villa, Pia M; Laivuori, Hannele; Reynolds, Rebecca M; Räikkönen, Katri
Maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy have been associated with child behavioural symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in early childhood. However, it remains unclear if depressive symptoms throughout pregnancy are more harmful to the child than depressive symptoms only during certain times, and if maternal depressive symptoms after pregnancy add to or mediate any prenatal effects. 1,779 mother-child dyads participated in the Prediction and Prevention of Pre-eclampsia and Intrauterine Growth Restriction (PREDO) study. Mothers filled in the Center of Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale biweekly from 12+0-13+6 to 38+0-39+6 weeks+days of gestation or delivery, and the Beck Depression Inventory-II and the Conners' Hyperactivity Index at the child's age of 3 to 6 years (mean 3.8 years, standard deviation [SD] 0.5). Maternal depressive symptoms were highly stable throughout pregnancy, and children of mothers with consistently high depressive symptoms showed higher average levels (mean difference = 0.46 SD units, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 0.36, 0.56, p maternal depressive symptoms after pregnancy, which both added to and partially mediated the prenatal effects. Maternal depressive symptoms throughout pregnancy are associated with increased ADHD symptomatology in young children. Maternal depressive symptoms after pregnancy add to, but only partially mediate, the prenatal effects. Preventive interventions suited for the pregnancy period may benefit both maternal and offspring mental health.
Full Text Available Introduction: Antipsychotic treatment can improve the symptoms of schizophrenia; however, residual symptoms after antipsychotic treatment are frequent. The effects of exercise on the symptoms of schizophrenic patients under antipsychotic treatment are inconclusive. The aim of this randomized case-control study was to examine the effects of aerobic exercise (AE on the symptoms of schizophrenic patients receiving antipsychotic treatment.Methods: In total, 33 and 29 participants being treated with antipsychotics for schizophrenia were randomly assigned into the aerobic exercise (AE group and the control group, respectively. The severities of schizophrenic symptoms were measured using the Chinese version of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS before, immediately after, and 3 months after the intervention in both groups.Results: In total, 24 participants (72.7% in the AE group and 22 (75.9% in the control group completed the study. The results indicated that the severities of positive symptoms and general psychopathology in the AE group significantly decreased during the 12 weeks of intervention but did not further significantly change during the 3-month follow-up period. The severities of negative symptoms in the AE group decreased significantly after 12 weeks of intervention and continued decreasing during the 3-month follow-up period. Interaction effects between time and group on the severities of symptoms on the negative and general psychopathology scales were observed.Conclusion: AE can improve the severities of symptoms on the negative and general psychopathology scales in individuals with schizophrenia being treated with antipsychotics.