WorldWideScience

Sample records for symphalangus syndactylus comparison

  1. Chromosomal distribution of rDNA in Pan paniscus, Gorilla gorilla beringei, and Symphalangus syndactylus: comparison to related primates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, A.S.; Atwood, K.C.; Warburton, D.

    1976-01-01

    Hybridization in situ was used to identify rDNA in chromosomes of the pygmy chimpanzee, mountain gorilla, and siamang gibbon. In contrast to other Pongids, and man, the gorilla has only two pairs of rDNA-containing chromosomes. The single pair in the siamang bears no resemblance to the nucleolar chromosome of the closely related lar gibbon. Pan paniscus and P. troglodytes have the same rDNA distribution, and similar karyotypes except in the structure of chromosome 23p. Grain counts over unbanded preparations show that the human, orangutan, and both chimpanzees have about the same total rDNA multiplicity.

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-STRI-01-1265 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-STRI-01-1265 sp|Q95NC5|CCR5_HYLSY RecName: Full=C-C chemokine receptor type 5; Short=C-C CKR-5; Short...=CC-CKR-5; Short=CCR-5; Short=CCR5; AltName: CD_antigen=CD195 gb|AAK43367.1|AF177884_1 C-C chemokine receptor 5 [Symphalangus syndactylus] Q95NC5 1e-160 86% ...

  3. Looking in apes as a source of human pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keita, Mamadou B; Hamad, Ibrahim; Bittar, Fadi

    2014-12-01

    Because of the close genetic relatedness between apes and humans, apes are susceptible to many human infectious agents and can serve as carriers of these pathogens. Consequently, they present a serious health hazard to humans. Moreover, many emerging infectious diseases originate in wildlife and continue to threaten human populations, especially vector-borne diseases described in great apes, such as malaria and rickettsiosis. These wild primates may be permanent reservoirs and important sources of human pathogens. In this special issue, we report that apes, including chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), bonobos (Pan paniscus), gorillas (Gorilla gorilla and Gorilla beringei), orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus and Pongo abelii), gibbons (Hylobates spp., Hoolock spp. and Nomascus spp) and siamangs (Symphalangus syndactylus syndactylus and Symphalangus continentis), have many bacterial, viral, fungal and parasitic species that are capable of infecting humans. Serious measures should be adopted in tropical forests and sub-tropical areas where habitat overlaps are frequent to survey and prevent infectious diseases from spreading from apes to people. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of Pelvic Sexual Dimorphism in Hylobatids: Testing the Obstetric Constraints Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollikofer, Christoph P E; Scherrer, Marc; Ponce de León, Marcia S

    2017-05-01

    Pelvic sexual dimorphism in primates is typically seen as the result of female-specific adaptations to obstetric constraints, which arise from the tight fit between the neonate head and the maternal pelvis. However, it remains debated to which extent pelvic dimorphism is a correlate of obstetric constraints, of body size dimorphism, and/or of other factors. Also, little is known on how pelvic dimorphism develops. Here we use methods of biomedical imaging and geometric morphometrics to address these questions in two hylobatid species, Hylobates lar and Symphalangus syndactylus. These species differ markedly in body size, but within each species, there is only little body size dimorphism. Results show that the neonates of H. lar are large compared to the maternal pelvis, resulting in high cephalopelvic proportions and substantial obstetric constraints. Pelvic sexual dimorphism is moderate but significant: During puberty, females develop a more capacious pelvic inlet than males, while overall pelvic size is similar in both sexes. S. syndactylus has substantially larger pelves than H. lar, but neonates are similar in size to those of H. lar. Cephalopelvic proportions are thus low, and there are no obstetric constraints. Pelvic sexual dimorphism is absent. Overall, these data indicate that pelvic sexual dimorphism in hylobatids reflects obstetric constraints. Anat Rec, 300:859-869, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Evolutionary modifications of human milk composition: evidence from long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid composition of anthropoid milks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milligan, Lauren A; Bazinet, Richard P

    2008-12-01

    Brain growth in mammals is associated with increased accretion of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) in brain phospholipids. The period of maximum accumulation is during the brain growth spurt. Humans have a perinatal brain growth spurt, selectively accumulating docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and other LCPUFA from the third trimester through the second year of life. The emphasis on rapid postnatal brain growth and LCPUFA transfer during lactation has led to the suggestion that human milk LCPUFA composition may be unique. Our study tests this hypothesis by determining fatty acid composition for 11 species of captive anthropoids (n=53; Callithrix jacchus, Cebus apella, Gorilla gorilla, Hylobates lar, Leontopithecus rosalia, Macaca mulatta, Pan troglodytes, Pan paniscus, Pongo pygmaeus, Saimiri boliviensis, and Symphalangus syndactylus). Results are compared to previously published data on five species of wild anthropoids (n=28; Alouatta paliatta, Callithrix jacchus, Gorilla beringei, Leontopithecus rosalia, and Macaca sinica) and human milk fatty acid profiles. Milk LCPUFA profiles of captive anthropoids (consuming diets with a preformed source of DHA) are similar to milk from women on a Western diet, and those of wild anthropoids are similar to milk from vegan women. Collectively, the range of DHA percent composition values from nonhuman anthropoid milks (0.03-1.1) is nearly identical to that from a cross-cultural analysis of human milk (0.06-1.4). Humans do not appear to be unique in their ability to secrete LCPUFA in milk but may be unique in their access to dietary LCPUFA.

  6. NADAC Comparison

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The NADAC Weekly Comparison identifies the drug products with current NADAC rates that are replaced with new NADAC rates. Other changes (e.g. NDC additions and...

  7. Social Comparison Seeking: Providing General Comparison Curtails Local Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham, Justin T.; Zell, Ethan; Schurtz, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Past research shows that people use local social comparison information more than general social comparison information when both are given (Zell & Alicke, 2010). The present studies examined the extent to which people seek local comparisons when they have already received general comparison information. In Study 1, students received their…

  8. New evidence for diet and niche partitioning in Rudapithecus and Anapithecus from Rudabánya, Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deane, Andrew S; Nargolwalla, Mariam C; Kordos, László; Begun, David R

    2013-12-01

    Rudabánya is rare among Eurasian Miocene fossil primate localities in preserving both a hominid and pliopithecoid, and as such provides the unique opportunity to reconstruct the nature of sympatry and niche partitioning in these taxa. Rudapithecus and Anapithecus have similar locomotor and positional behavior and overlapping body mass ranges. While prior analyses of molar occlusal anatomy and microwear identify Rudapithecus as a soft-object frugivore, reconstructing the dietary behavior of Anapithecus has been more problematic. This taxon has been interpreted to be more folivorous by some, and more frugivorous by others. Here, we use high-resolution polynomial curve fitting (HR-PCF) to quantify and evaluate the mesiodistal and cervico-incisal curvatures of the incisor crowns of Rudapithecus and Anapithecus to identify diet-specific morphological variation in these taxa. Results are consistent with the interpretation that Anapithecus and Rudapithecus were primarily frugivorous and had diets that included similar resource types. However, Anapithecus may have consumed greater amounts of foliage, similar to extant mixed folivore-frugivores (i.e., Gorilla gorilla gorilla, Symphalangus syndactylus), while Rudapithecus generated elevated compressive loads in the incisor region consistent with a specialized role for the anterior dentition in food processing (i.e., removal of tough protective fruit pericarps). We interpret these findings in light of the paleoecology at Rudabánya and conclude that, if these taxa were indeed sympatric, Anapithecus may have used additional leaf consumption as a seasonal fallback resource to avoid direct competition with Rudapithecus. Conversely, Rudapithecus may have relied on less preferred and harder fruiting resources as a seasonal fallback resource during periods of fruit scarcity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Preliminary investigation of flexibility in learning color-reward associations in gibbons (Hylobatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, Justin; Cunningham, Clare

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies in learning set formation have shown that most animal species can learn to learn with subsequent novel presentations being solved in fewer presentations than when they first encounter a task. Gibbons (Hylobatidae) have generally struggled with these tasks and do not show the learning to learn pattern found in other species. This is surprising given their phylogenetic position and level of cortical development. However, there have been conflicting results with some studies demonstrating higher level learning abilities in these small apes. This study attempts to clarify whether gibbons can in fact use knowledge gained during one learning task to facilitate performance on a similar, but novel problem that would be a precursor to development of a learning set. We tested 16 captive gibbons' ability to associate color cues with provisioned food items in two experiments where they experienced a period of learning followed by experimental trials during which they could potentially use knowledge gained in their first learning experience to facilitate solution I subsequent novel tasks. Our results are similar to most previous studies in that there was no evidence of gibbons being able to use previously acquired knowledge to solve a novel task. However, once the learning association was made, the gibbons performed well above chance. We found no differences across color associations, indicating learning was not affected by the particular color / reward association. However, there were variations in learning performance with regard to genera. The hoolock (Hoolock leuconedys) and siamang (Symphalangus syndactylus) learned the fastest and the lar group (Hylobates sp.) learned the slowest. We caution these results could be due to the small sample size and because of the captive environment in which these gibbons were raised. However, it is likely that environmental variability in the native habitats of the subjects tested could facilitate the evolution of flexible

  10. Cost comparisons

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    How much does the LHC cost? And how much does this represent in other currencies? Below we present a table showing some comparisons with the cost of other projects. Looking at the figures, you will see that the cost of the LHC can be likened to that of three skyscrapers, or two seasons of Formula 1 racing! One year's budget of a single large F1 team is comparable to the entire materials cost of the ATLAS or CMS experiments.   Please note that all the figures are rounded for ease of reading.    CHF € $   LHC 4.6 billions 3 billions  4 billions   Space Shuttle Endeavour (NASA) 1.9 billion 1.3 billion 1.7 billion   Hubble Space Telescope (cost at launch – NASA/...

  11. Dimensional comparison theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Jens; Marsh, Herb W

    2013-07-01

    Although social comparison (Festinger, 1954) and temporal comparison (Albert, 1977) theories are well established, dimensional comparison is a largely neglected yet influential process in self-evaluation. Dimensional comparison entails a single individual comparing his or her ability in a (target) domain with his or her ability in a standard domain (e.g., "How good am I in math compared with English?"). This article reviews empirical findings from introspective, path-analytic, and experimental studies on dimensional comparisons, categorized into 3 groups according to whether they address the "why," "with what," or "with what effect" question. As the corresponding research shows, dimensional comparisons are made in everyday life situations. They impact on domain-specific self-evaluations of abilities in both domains: Dimensional comparisons reduce self-concept in the worse off domain and increase self-concept in the better off domain. The motivational basis for dimensional comparisons, their integration with recent social cognitive approaches, and the interdependence of dimensional, temporal, and social comparisons are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Statistical Group Comparison

    CERN Document Server

    Liao, Tim Futing

    2011-01-01

    An incomparably useful examination of statistical methods for comparisonThe nature of doing science, be it natural or social, inevitably calls for comparison. Statistical methods are at the heart of such comparison, for they not only help us gain understanding of the world around us but often define how our research is to be carried out. The need to compare between groups is best exemplified by experiments, which have clearly defined statistical methods. However, true experiments are not always possible. What complicates the matter more is a great deal of diversity in factors that are not inde

  13. Public opinion: Country comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Debbie

    2015-11-01

    Climate change awareness, risk perception and policy support vary between and within countries. National-scale comparisons can help to explain this variability and be used to develop targeted interventions.

  14. Matrix comparison, Part 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Jesper Wiborg; Borlund, Pia

    2007-01-01

    The present two-part article introduces matrix comparison as a formal means for evaluation purposes in informetric studies such as cocitation analysis. In the first part, the motivation behind introducing matrix comparison to informetric studies, as well as two important issues influencing such c...... and Procrustes analysis can be used as statistical validation tools in informetric studies and thus help choosing suitable proximity measures....

  15. Model comparison in ANOVA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouder, Jeffrey N; Engelhardt, Christopher R; McCabe, Simon; Morey, Richard D

    2016-12-01

    Analysis of variance (ANOVA), the workhorse analysis of experimental designs, consists of F-tests of main effects and interactions. Yet, testing, including traditional ANOVA, has been recently critiqued on a number of theoretical and practical grounds. In light of these critiques, model comparison and model selection serve as an attractive alternative. Model comparison differs from testing in that one can support a null or nested model vis-a-vis a more general alternative by penalizing more flexible models. We argue this ability to support more simple models allows for more nuanced theoretical conclusions than provided by traditional ANOVA F-tests. We provide a model comparison strategy and show how ANOVA models may be reparameterized to better address substantive questions in data analysis.

  16. Resolution of the African hominoid trichotomy by use of a mitochondrial gene sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruvolo, M.; Disotell, T.R.; Allard, M.W. (Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)); Brown, W.M. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor (United States)); Honeycutt, R.L. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station (United States))

    1991-02-15

    Mitochondrial DNA sequences encoding the cytochrome oxidase subunit II gene have been determined for five primate species, siamang (Hylobates syndactylus), lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla), pygmy chimpanzee (Pan paniscus), crab-eating macaque (Macaca fascicularis), and green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops), and compared with published sequences of other primate and nonprimate species. Comparisons of cytochrome oxidase subunit II gene sequences provide clear-cut evidence from the mitochondrial genome for the separation of the African ape trichotomy into two evolutionary lineages, one leading to gorillas and the other to humans and chimpanzees. Several different tree-building methods support this same phylogenetic tree topology. The comparisons also yield trees in which a substantial length separates the divergence point of gorillas from that of humans and chimpanzees, suggesting that the lineage most immediately ancestral to humans and chimpanzees may have been in existence for a relatively long time.

  17. MCNP and GADRAS Comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klasky, Marc Louis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Myers, Steven Charles [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); James, Michael R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mayo, Douglas R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-04-19

    To facilitate the timely execution of System Threat Reviews (STRs) for DNDO, and also to develop a methodology for performing STRs, LANL performed comparisons of several radiation transport codes (MCNP, GADRAS, and Gamma-Designer) that have been previously utilized to compute radiation signatures. While each of these codes has strengths, it is of paramount interest to determine the limitations of each of the respective codes and also to identify the most time efficient means by which to produce computational results, given the large number of parametric cases that are anticipated in performing STR's. These comparisons serve to identify regions of applicability for each code and provide estimates of uncertainty that may be anticipated. Furthermore, while performing these comparisons, examination of the sensitivity of the results to modeling assumptions was also examined. These investigations serve to enable the creation of the LANL methodology for performing STRs. Given the wide variety of radiation test sources, scenarios, and detectors, LANL calculated comparisons of the following parameters: decay data, multiplicity, device (n,γ) leakages, and radiation transport through representative scenes and shielding. This investigation was performed to understand potential limitations utilizing specific codes for different aspects of the STR challenges.

  18. Comparisons and lessons learned

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker; van der Voordt, Theo; Coenen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To create an overview and evaluation of the achievements of the contributions in this book by identifying, summarising and discussing cross-cutting themes and essential learning points across the former chapters. Methodology: Based on a purposeful reading of all chapters comparisons...

  19. Satisfaction and 'comparison sharing'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amilon, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Despite the high degree of flexibility and generosity in Sweden’s parental leave program, one fifth of parents are not satisfied with the sharing of parental leave. This paper investigates whether ‘comparison sharing’, the sharing of parental leave by other comparable couples, influences the prob...

  20. Multivariate normative comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizenga, Hilde M; Smeding, Harriet; Grasman, Raoul P P P; Schmand, Ben

    2007-06-18

    In neuropsychological evaluations and single case research generally a number of tests are administered, since the interest is not in a single, but in multiple characteristics of a patient. The typical problem is to decide whether or not a patient is different from normal controls with respect to one or more of these characteristics. Consideration of each characteristic separately entails an increased risk of a false positive decision (a wrongful decision that the patient is abnormal, or a type 1 error). From a statistical point of view this calls for a multivariate analysis. In this paper, we propose two approaches to perform normative comparisons for such multivariate data: Bonferroni corrected univariate comparisons and a multivariate comparison. Both approaches allow for the testing of unidirectional (two-sided) as well as directional (one-sided) hypothesis, i.e. the hypothesis that a patient deviates in a negative sense from the norm. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to check if the type I error of both approaches is adequately controlled, and to investigate the power of both approaches to detect deviation from the norm. The results indicate that the type I error rate of both approaches is correct, even in small samples. The results also indicate that the power is higher for the univariate approach if the normative sample size is very small (i.e. just exceeds the number of tests administered). In larger samples, the multivariate comparison has in general increased power. We illustrate both approaches with a clinical example of patients with Parkinson disease, who received deep brain stimulation to alleviate motor symptoms, and who were neuropsychologically evaluated to detect possible cognitive side effects.

  1. Brain networks of social comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedia, Gayannée; Lindner, Michael; Mussweiler, Thomas; Ihssen, Niklas; Linden, David E J

    2013-03-27

    Social comparison, that is, the process of comparing oneself to other people, is a ubiquitous social cognitive mechanism; however, so far its neural correlates have remained unknown. The present study tested the hypothesis that social comparisons are supported by partly dissociated networks, depending on whether the dimension under comparison concerns a physical or a psychological attribute. We measured brain activity with functional MRI, whereas participants were comparing their own height or intelligence to that of individuals they personally know. Height comparisons were associated with higher activity in a frontoparietal network involved in spatial and numerical cognition. Conversely, intelligence comparisons recruited a network of midline areas that have been previously implicated in the attribution of mental states to oneself and others (Theory of mind). These findings suggest that social comparisons rely on diverse domain-specific mechanisms rather than on one unitary process.

  2. Comparison of CIE chromaticity values

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Tonder, N

    1999-02-02

    Full Text Available for the exchange of measurement values via comparisons and technical expertise via interlabora- tory visits was established. The ?rst series of compar- isons was conducted in 1994 and included the ?elds of temperature, acoustics, pressure and mass. The 1996... comparison on CIE chromaticity values formed part of the second series of comparisons which included the ?elds of dimension, acoustics, inductance and photo- metry. 2. Experimental 2.1. Requirements Each laboratory was requested to measure the spectral re...

  3. CIRP Interlaboratory Comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Morace, Renata Erica

    An interlaboratory comparison on mechanical and optical coordinate measuring machines (CMMs) was organized by the Centre for Geometrical Metrology (CGM), Department of Manufacturing Engineering and Management (IPL), Technical University of Denmark (DTU) and carried out within Collège International......, USA. A total of 23 CMMs (12 mechanical and 11 optical) were used to measure an optomechanical hole plate designed and manufactured by DTU. A measurement procedure was sent to each participant together with a plate to be measured. The measurement procedure refers to the German DKD guideline, using...... the reversal method with traceability achieved by a comparator measurement. Using the optomechanical hole plate, the measurement procedure can be carried out on optical as well as mechanical measuring machines. Circulation started in March 2003, and was completed in September 2003, whit three optomechanical...

  4. Social Comparison in the Classroom: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Pieternel; Kuyper, Hans; van der Werf, Greetje; Buunk, Abraham P.; van der Zee, Yvonne G.

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews research conducted on social comparison processes in the classroom since Festinger proposed his theory of social comparison. It covers the theoretical framework of social comparison theory, and it is organized around the following themes: motives for social comparison, dimensions of social comparison, direction of social…

  5. Rankings from Fuzzy Pairwise Comparisons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, P.M.; Noppen, J.A.R.; Mohammadian, M.

    2006-01-01

    We propose a new method for deriving rankings from fuzzy pairwise comparisons. It is based on the observation that quantification of the uncertainty of the pairwise comparisons should be used to obtain a better crisp ranking, instead of a fuzzified version of the ranking obtained from crisp pairwise

  6. Social Comparison Processes in Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Jerald; Ashton-James, Claire E.; Ashkanasy, Neal M.

    2007-01-01

    We systematically analyze the role of social comparison processes in organizations. Specifically, we describe how social comparison processes have been used to explain six key areas of organizational inquiry: (1) organizational justice, (2) performance appraisal, (3) virtual work environments, (4) affective behavior in the workplace, (5) stress,…

  7. Improving the DGK comparison protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veugen, P.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    When processing signals in the encrypted domain, homomorphic encryption can be used to enable linear operations on encrypted data. Comparison of encrypted data however requires an additional protocol between the parties and will be relatively expensive. A well-known and frequently used comparison

  8. Homomorphic encryption and secure comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Geisler, Martin; Krøigaard, Mikkel

    2008-01-01

    Computation (MPC). We show how our comparison protocol can be used to improve security of online auctions, and demonstrate that it is efficient enough to be used in practice. For comparison of 16 bits numbers with security based on 1024 bits RSA (executed by two parties), our implementation takes 0.28 sec...

  9. Benchmarking the state comparison amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleczkowska, Klaudia; Puthoor, Ittoop Vergheese; Bain, Lauren; Andersson, Erika

    2017-10-01

    The state comparison amplifier is a recently proposed probabilistic quantum amplifier, intended especially for amplifying coherent states. Its realization is simple and uses only linear optics and photodetectors, and the preparation of a "guess" state, typically a coherent state. Fidelity and success probability can be high compared with other probabilistic amplifiers. State comparison amplification does, however, extract information about the amplified state, which means that it is especially important to benchmark it against a simple measure-and-resend procedure. We compare state comparison quantum amplifiers to measure-and-resend strategies, and identify parameter regimes and scenarios where these can and where they cannot provide an advantage.

  10. International comparisons in mathematics education

    CERN Document Server

    Huntly, Ian; Luna, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    This text explores international comparisons in mathematics education and highlights strengths and weaknesses in various systems world-wide, allowing teachers, researchers and academics to compare and contrast different approaches.

  11. Social comparisons in cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham P. Buunk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Social comparison refers to relating one ́s own characteristics to those of other individuals. Due to the enhanced degree of physical distress, depression, and uncertainty, cancer patients tend to compare themselves often with other patients, especially when they are high in social comparison orientation, i.e. in the dispositional tendency to compare themselves with others. Downward comparison, i.e. with others who are worse- off, may contribute to the well-being of cancer patients when it is interpreted as a contrast, i.e. when it is emphased how much better-off one is oneself. Nevertheless, cancer patients tend to prefer information about other patients who are better-off, and such upward comparison may improve coping and contribute to well-being. 

  12. Comparison of Artificial Compressibility Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiris, Cetin; Housman, Jeffrey; Kwak, Dochan

    2004-01-01

    Various artificial compressibility methods for calculating the three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are compared. Each method is described and numerical solutions to test problems are conducted. A comparison based on convergence behavior, accuracy, and robustness is given.

  13. [Comparison between paraphilia and psychosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, G; Vlatkovic, D; Dallon, C

    2008-03-26

    It is difficult in principle to make a diagnosis of psychoses in most cases of paraphilic behaviour. It is possible, on the contrary, to discover some structural similarities between a psychotic state and paraphilic tendencies. In any case as we assume psychoses to be a severe disorder in comparison to, for instance, a neurotic syndrome, the same comparison can be made between a permanent paraphilic disorder and a dysfunctional sexual disturbance.

  14. Visual comparison for information visualization

    KAUST Repository

    Gleicher, M.

    2011-09-07

    Data analysis often involves the comparison of complex objects. With the ever increasing amounts and complexity of data, the demand for systems to help with these comparisons is also growing. Increasingly, information visualization tools support such comparisons explicitly, beyond simply allowing a viewer to examine each object individually. In this paper, we argue that the design of information visualizations of complex objects can, and should, be studied in general, that is independently of what those objects are. As a first step in developing this general understanding of comparison, we propose a general taxonomy of visual designs for comparison that groups designs into three basic categories, which can be combined. To clarify the taxonomy and validate its completeness, we provide a survey of work in information visualization related to comparison. Although we find a great diversity of systems and approaches, we see that all designs are assembled from the building blocks of juxtaposition, superposition and explicit encodings. This initial exploration shows the power of our model, and suggests future challenges in developing a general understanding of comparative visualization and facilitating the development of more comparative visualization tools. © The Author(s) 2011.

  15. Large-Scale Sequence Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Devi; Verma, Mansi

    2017-01-01

    There are millions of sequences deposited in genomic databases, and it is an important task to categorize them according to their structural and functional roles. Sequence comparison is a prerequisite for proper categorization of both DNA and protein sequences, and helps in assigning a putative or hypothetical structure and function to a given sequence. There are various methods available for comparing sequences, alignment being first and foremost for sequences with a small number of base pairs as well as for large-scale genome comparison. Various tools are available for performing pairwise large sequence comparison. The best known tools either perform global alignment or generate local alignments between the two sequences. In this chapter we first provide basic information regarding sequence comparison. This is followed by the description of the PAM and BLOSUM matrices that form the basis of sequence comparison. We also give a practical overview of currently available methods such as BLAST and FASTA, followed by a description and overview of tools available for genome comparison including LAGAN, MumMER, BLASTZ, and AVID.

  16. Social Comparison in the Classroom : A Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Pieternel; Kuyper, Hans; van der Werf, Greetje; Buunk, Abraham P.; van der Zee, Yvonne G.

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews research conducted on social comparison processes in the classroom since Festinger proposed his theory of social comparison. It covers the theoretical framework of social comparison theory, and it is organized around the following themes: motives for social comparison,

  17. Ordinal Comparison of Multidimensional Deprivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne-Schmidt, Christoffer Scavenius; Tarp, Finn; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    This paper develops an ordinal method of comparison of multidimensional inequality. In our model, population distribution g is more unequal than f when the distributions have common median and can be obtained from f  by one or more shifts in population density that increase inequality. For our be...... benchmark 2x2 case (i.e. the case of two binary outcome variables), we derive an empirical method for making inequality comparisons. As an illustration, we apply the model to childhood poverty in Mozambique....

  18. Easyfig: a genome comparison visualizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Mitchell J; Petty, Nicola K; Beatson, Scott A

    2011-04-01

    Easyfig is a Python application for creating linear comparison figures of multiple genomic loci with an easy-to-use graphical user interface. BLAST comparisons between multiple genomic regions, ranging from single genes to whole prokaryote chromosomes, can be generated, visualized and interactively coloured, enabling a rapid transition between analysis and the preparation of publication quality figures. Easyfig is freely available (under a GPL license) for download (for Mac OS X, Unix and Microsoft Windows) from the SourceForge web site: http://easyfig.sourceforge.net/.

  19. Cross-National Yardstick Comparisons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kasper Møller; Olsen, Asmus Leth; Bech, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Comparing performance between countries is both a theoretically and intuitively useful yardstick for voters. Cross-national comparisons provide voters with heuristics that are less cognitively demanding, less ambiguous, and less uncertain than solely national, absolute performance measurements. We...... compared to their positive response to cross-national gains—indicating a negativity bias in voters’ preferences....

  20. Matrixed business support comparison study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsons, Josh D.

    2004-11-01

    The Matrixed Business Support Comparison Study reviewed the current matrixed Chief Financial Officer (CFO) division staff models at Sandia National Laboratories. There were two primary drivers of this analysis: (1) the increasing number of financial staff matrixed to mission customers and (2) the desire to further understand the matrix process and the opportunities and challenges it creates.

  1. Social comparison and risky choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linde, J.; Sonnemans, J.

    2009-01-01

    This study attempts to combine two traditional fields in microeconomics: individual decision making under risk and decision making in an interpersonal context. The influence of social comparison on risky choices is explored in an experiment in which participants make a series of choices between

  2. The cosmic code comparison project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heitmann, Katrin; Fasel, Patricia; Habib, Salman; Warren, Michael S; Ahrens, James; Ankeny, Lee; O' Shea, Brian [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Lukic, Zarija; Ricker, Paul M [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); White, Martin [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Armstrong, Ryan [Department of Computer Science, UC Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Springel, Volker [Max-Planck-Institute for Astrophysics, 85741 Garching (Germany); Stadel, Joachim [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Zurich, 8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Trac, Hy [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, NJ 08544 (United States)], E-mail: heitmann@lanl.gov

    2008-10-01

    Current and upcoming cosmological observations allow us to probe structures on smaller and smaller scales, entering highly nonlinear regimes. In order to obtain theoretical predictions in these regimes, large cosmological simulations have to be carried out. The promised high accuracy from observations makes the simulation task very demanding: the simulations have to be at least as accurate as the observations. This requirement can only be fulfilled by carrying out an extensive code verification program. The first step of such a program is the comparison of different cosmology codes including gravitational interactions only. In this paper, we extend a recently carried out code comparison project to include five more simulation codes. We restrict our analysis to a small cosmological volume which allows us to investigate properties of halos. For the matter power spectrum and the mass function, the previous results hold, with the codes agreeing at the 10% level over wide dynamic ranges. We extend our analysis to the comparison of halo profiles and investigate the halo count as a function of local density. We introduce and discuss ParaView as a flexible analysis tool for cosmological simulations, the use of which immensely simplifies the code comparison task.

  3. Pluralism and Objectivism: Cornerstones for Interpersonal Comparisons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse

    2012-01-01

    comparison, and between a subjectivist and objectivist standard of interpersonal comparison. The paper provides a normative argument for pluralism and objectivism with regard to interpersonal comparison, and it suggests that the Capability Approach as developed by Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum fits...

  4. Residential energy usage comparison: Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, B.A.; Uhlaner, R.T.; Cason, T.N.; Courteau, S. (Quantum Consulting, Inc., Berkeley, CA (United States))

    1991-08-01

    This report presents the research methods and results from the Residential Energy Usage Comparison (REUC) project, a joint effort by Southern California Edison Company (SCE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The REUC project design activities began in early 1986. The REUC project is an innovative demand-site project designed to measure and compare typical energy consumption patterns of energy efficient residential electric and gas appliances. 95 figs., 33 tabs.

  5. How collective comparisons emerge without individual comparisons of the options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Elva J H; Feinerman, Ofer; Franks, Nigel R

    2014-07-22

    Collective decisions in animal groups emerge from the actions of individuals who are unlikely to have global information. Comparative assessment of options can be valuable in decision-making. Ant colonies are excellent collective decision-makers, for example when selecting a new nest-site. Here, we test the dependency of this cooperative process on comparisons conducted by individual ants. We presented ant colonies with a choice between new nests: one good and one poor. Using individually radio-tagged ants and an automated system of doors, we manipulated individual-level access to information: ants visiting the good nest were barred from visiting the poor one and vice versa. Thus, no ant could individually compare the available options. Despite this, colonies still emigrated quickly and accurately when comparisons were prevented. Individual-level rules facilitated this behavioural robustness: ants allowed to experience only the poor nest subsequently searched more. Intriguingly, some ants appeared particularly discriminating across emigrations under both treatments, suggesting they had stable, high nest acceptance thresholds. Overall, our results show how a colony of ants, as a cognitive entity, can compare two options that are not both accessible by any individual ant. Our findings illustrate a collective decision process that is robust to differences in individual access to information.

  6. Comparison of turbulence mitigation algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozacik, Stephen T.; Paolini, Aaron; Sherman, Ariel; Bonnett, James; Kelmelis, Eric

    2017-07-01

    When capturing imagery over long distances, atmospheric turbulence often degrades the data, especially when observation paths are close to the ground or in hot environments. These issues manifest as time-varying scintillation and warping effects that decrease the effective resolution of the sensor and reduce actionable intelligence. In recent years, several image processing approaches to turbulence mitigation have shown promise. Each of these algorithms has different computational requirements, usability demands, and degrees of independence from camera sensors. They also produce different degrees of enhancement when applied to turbulent imagery. Additionally, some of these algorithms are applicable to real-time operational scenarios while others may only be suitable for postprocessing workflows. EM Photonics has been developing image-processing-based turbulence mitigation technology since 2005. We will compare techniques from the literature with our commercially available, real-time, GPU-accelerated turbulence mitigation software. These comparisons will be made using real (not synthetic), experimentally obtained data for a variety of conditions, including varying optical hardware, imaging range, subjects, and turbulence conditions. Comparison metrics will include image quality, video latency, computational complexity, and potential for real-time operation. Additionally, we will present a technique for quantitatively comparing turbulence mitigation algorithms using real images of radial resolution targets.

  7. RISKIND verification and benchmark comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biwer, B.M.; Arnish, J.J.; Chen, S.Y.; Kamboj, S.

    1997-08-01

    This report presents verification calculations and benchmark comparisons for RISKIND, a computer code designed to estimate potential radiological consequences and health risks to individuals and the population from exposures associated with the transportation of spent nuclear fuel and other radioactive materials. Spreadsheet calculations were performed to verify the proper operation of the major options and calculational steps in RISKIND. The program is unique in that it combines a variety of well-established models into a comprehensive treatment for assessing risks from the transportation of radioactive materials. Benchmark comparisons with other validated codes that incorporate similar models were also performed. For instance, the external gamma and neutron dose rate curves for a shipping package estimated by RISKIND were compared with those estimated by using the RADTRAN 4 code and NUREG-0170 methodology. Atmospheric dispersion of released material and dose estimates from the GENII and CAP88-PC codes. Verification results have shown the program to be performing its intended function correctly. The benchmark results indicate that the predictions made by RISKIND are within acceptable limits when compared with predictions from similar existing models.

  8. The Timing of Social Comparison in Crowds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-18

    and second, it is inspired by social psychology theory. In particular, the model is based on Social Comparison Theory (SCT) ( Festinger , 1954), a...evaluate its own progress ( Festinger , 1954). This approach, in which the social comparison process is triggered only when the agent is uncertain as to how to...developing a model of social behavior inspired by Festinger’s social comparison theory ( Festinger , 1954). To the best of our knowl- edge, social

  9. Computational Chemistry Comparison and Benchmark Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 101 NIST Computational Chemistry Comparison and Benchmark Database (Web, free access)   The NIST Computational Chemistry Comparison and Benchmark Database is a collection of experimental and ab initio thermochemical properties for a selected set of molecules. The goals are to provide a benchmark set of molecules for the evaluation of ab initio computational methods and allow the comparison between different ab initio computational methods for the prediction of thermochemical properties.

  10. The neural correlates of beauty comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedia, Gayannée; Mussweiler, Thomas; Mullins, Paul; Linden, David E J

    2014-05-01

    Beauty is in the eye of the beholder. How attractive someone is perceived to be depends on the individual or cultural standards to which this person is compared. But although comparisons play a central role in the way people judge the appearance of others, the brain processes underlying attractiveness comparisons remain unknown. In the present experiment, we tested the hypothesis that attractiveness comparisons rely on the same cognitive and neural mechanisms as comparisons of simple nonsocial magnitudes such as size. We recorded brain activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while participants compared the beauty or height of two women or two dogs. Our data support the hypothesis of a common process underlying these different types of comparisons. First, we demonstrate that the distance effect characteristic of nonsocial comparisons also holds for attractiveness comparisons. Behavioral results indicated, for all our comparisons, longer response times for near than far distances. Second, the neural correlates of these distance effects overlapped in a frontoparietal network known for its involvement in processing simple nonsocial quantities. These results provide evidence for overlapping processes in the comparison of physical attractiveness and nonsocial magnitudes.

  11. The neural correlates of beauty comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussweiler, Thomas; Mullins, Paul; Linden, David E. J.

    2014-01-01

    Beauty is in the eye of the beholder. How attractive someone is perceived to be depends on the individual or cultural standards to which this person is compared. But although comparisons play a central role in the way people judge the appearance of others, the brain processes underlying attractiveness comparisons remain unknown. In the present experiment, we tested the hypothesis that attractiveness comparisons rely on the same cognitive and neural mechanisms as comparisons of simple nonsocial magnitudes such as size. We recorded brain activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while participants compared the beauty or height of two women or two dogs. Our data support the hypothesis of a common process underlying these different types of comparisons. First, we demonstrate that the distance effect characteristic of nonsocial comparisons also holds for attractiveness comparisons. Behavioral results indicated, for all our comparisons, longer response times for near than far distances. Second, the neural correlates of these distance effects overlapped in a frontoparietal network known for its involvement in processing simple nonsocial quantities. These results provide evidence for overlapping processes in the comparison of physical attractiveness and nonsocial magnitudes. PMID:23508477

  12. The distribution of interlaboratory comparison data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj

    2008-01-01

    The distribution of mutually consistent results from interlaboratory comparisons is expected to be leptokurtic, and readers are warned against accepting conclusions based on simulations assuming normality....

  13. Neuroticism and social comparison orientation as moderators of affective responses to social comparison at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, Abraham P.; Van der Zee, K.I.; Van Yperen, N.W.

    2001-01-01

    In a study among 72 nurses, the affective consequences of social comparison were examined and related to neuroticism, (N) and to social comparison orientation (SCO). Participants were confronted with a bogus interview with an upward versus a downward comparison target. Positive affect and

  14. 16 CFR 233.2 - Retail price comparisons; comparable value comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Retail price comparisons; comparable value comparisons. 233.2 Section 233.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES... useful and legitimate purpose when it is made clear to the consumer that a comparison is being made with...

  15. The affective consequences of social comparison as related to professional burnout and social comparison orientation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, BP; Ybema, J.F.; Gibbons, FX; Ipenburg, M

    2001-01-01

    In a study among sociotherapists, the affective consequences of social comparison were examined and related to professional burnout and to individual differences in social comparison orientation. Participants were confronted with a bogus interview with an upward versus a downward comparison target.

  16. The affective consequenses of social comparison as related to professional burnout and social comparison orientation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, B.P.; Ybema, J.F.; Gibbons, F.X.; Ipenburg, M.L.

    2001-01-01

    In a study among sociotherapists, the affective consequences of social comparison were examined and related to professional burnout and to individual differences in social comparison orientation. Participants were confronted with a bogus interview with an upward versus a downward comparison target.

  17. Reidentification by Relative Distance Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei-Shi; Gong, Shaogang; Xiang, Tao

    2013-03-01

    Matching people across nonoverlapping camera views at different locations and different times, known as person reidentification, is both a hard and important problem for associating behavior of people observed in a large distributed space over a prolonged period of time. Person reidentification is fundamentally challenging because of the large visual appearance changes caused by variations in view angle, lighting, background clutter, and occlusion. To address these challenges, most previous approaches aim to model and extract distinctive and reliable visual features. However, seeking an optimal and robust similarity measure that quantifies a wide range of features against realistic viewing conditions from a distance is still an open and unsolved problem for person reidentification. In this paper, we formulate person reidentification as a relative distance comparison (RDC) learning problem in order to learn the optimal similarity measure between a pair of person images. This approach avoids treating all features indiscriminately and does not assume the existence of some universally distinctive and reliable features. To that end, a novel relative distance comparison model is introduced. The model is formulated to maximize the likelihood of a pair of true matches having a relatively smaller distance than that of a wrong match pair in a soft discriminant manner. Moreover, in order to maintain the tractability of the model in large scale learning, we further develop an ensemble RDC model. Extensive experiments on three publicly available benchmarking datasets are carried out to demonstrate the clear superiority of the proposed RDC models over related popular person reidentification techniques. The results also show that the new RDC models are more robust against visual appearance changes and less susceptible to model overfitting compared to other related existing models.

  18. How to Analyze Paired Comparison Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    How to Analyze Paired Comparison Data Kristi Tsukida and Maya R. Gupta Department of Electrical Engineering University of Washington Seattle, WA...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE How to Analyze Paired Comparison Data 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

  19. utilizing constitutional values in constitutional comparison

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    COMPARISON. Francois Venter. 1. Constitutional comparison. We are living in an era in which constitutional law has become a comparative science. This is not true .... inevitably followed by a search for authoritative native interpretation. Such a ..... an approach of "colour-blind" interpretation of the Constitution, allowing for.

  20. Inter laboratory comparison on Industrial Computed Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angel, Jais Andreas Breusch; De Chiffre, Leonardo; Larsen, Erik

    The ‘CIA-CT comparison - Inter laboratory comparison on industrial Computed Tomography” is organized by DTU Department of Mechanical Engineering within the Danish project “Centre for Industrial Application of CT scanning - CIA-CT”. The project is co-financed by the Danish Ministry of Science...

  1. Inferior or superior : socials comparison in Dutch and Spanish organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmona Rodriguez, Carmen

    2006-01-01

    SUMMARY Social comparison is an automatic and daily process through which individuals acquire information about themselves. Since Festinger (1954) postulated his assumptions on social comparison, extensive research has focused on understanding and explaining the social comparison process. In

  2. Comparison intercuspal mandible position twins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kučević Esad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The twins are the miracle of fetal biology, medical reproductive challenge, the closest and most durable biological connection. The aim is to identify, evaluate and compare the type, number and location interjaw functional contacts in the intercuspal position of the mandible, with MZ monozygotic (identical twins. Analysis of occlusal relationships in the most stable-intercuspal comparison was done on a sample of 60 identical twins, by 15 female and 15 male pairs, chronological ages 18 to 40, in which the means of articulation papers specific localization and distribution of contact relationships, in the region of the lateral teeth. Results of this study showed that in the lateral region, 57 respondents or 95%, has the modalities of occlusal relationships lump-ridges-marginal edge. Average more occlusal contacts identified in males (25.1 than in female twin pairs (19.1. Also, in male couples registered more three points (M: F = 7: 1, two points by gender is equal 24:12, and contacts at one point they outnumber men (22, compared to female respondents (18. Less Similarities than expected sameness, proving that the number, distribution and intensity of occlusal contacts in the mandible vary individually.

  3. Comparison of Composite Restoration Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    András Katona

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article briefly presents the classification, and possible ways of application of composites. Our objective was to compare three different restoration technique in class II cavity preparations, with the aim to determine which technique is the most advantageous in practical point of view. Artificial teeth fabricated from self-curing acrylic resin were used as models. Comparison of marginal sealing was performed macroscopically via direct visual inspection and via tactile control. Two parameters were examined on esthetic evaluation, which were the anatomical shape and the optical appearance. The time required to prepare the restorations were also measured. After the evaluation of the results, the bulk-fill technique was demonstrated to require the shortest time to be performed. This was followed by the oblique (Z technique, whereas the horizontal incremental technique appeared to be the most time-consuming method. Based on the esthetic evaluation, a remarkable difference can be observed between the bulk-fill technique and the other two incremental techniques, while the mean scores for the oblique and the horizontal techniques were comparable. Based on the results of the visual inspection and instrumental examination, there were no differences in terms of marginal sealing between the three applied methods. Based on these, the use of the appropriate incremental technique can reduce the development of secondary caries and increasing the longevity of composite restorations.

  4. RTU Comparison Calculator Enhancement Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, James D.; Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas

    2014-03-31

    Over the past two years, Department of Energy’s Building Technologies Office (BTO) has been investigating ways to increase the operating efficiency of the packaged rooftop units (RTUs) in the field. First, by issuing a challenge to the RTU manufactures to increase the integrated energy efficiency ratio (IEER) by 60% over the existing ASHRAE 90.1-2010 standard. Second, by evaluating the performance of an advanced RTU controller that reduces the energy consumption by over 40%. BTO has previously also funded development of a RTU comparison calculator (RTUCC). RTUCC is a web-based tool that provides the user a way to compare energy and cost savings for two units with different efficiencies. However, the RTUCC currently cannot compare savings associated with either the RTU Challenge unit or the advanced RTU controls retrofit. Therefore, BTO has asked PNNL to enhance the tool so building owners can compare energy and savings associated with this new class of products. This document provides the details of the enhancements that are required to support estimating energy savings from use of RTU challenge units or advanced controls on existing RTUs.

  5. RTU Comparison Calculator Enhancement Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, James D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Weimin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Katipamula, Srinivas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Over the past two years, Department of Energy’s Building Technologies Office (BTO) has been investigating ways to increase the operating efficiency of the packaged rooftop units (RTUs) in the field. First, by issuing a challenge to the RTU manufactures to increase the integrated energy efficiency ratio (IEER) by 60% over the existing ASHRAE 90.1-2010 standard. Second, by evaluating the performance of an advanced RTU controller that reduces the energy consumption by over 40%. BTO has previously also funded development of a RTU comparison calculator (RTUCC). RTUCC is a web-based tool that provides the user a way to compare energy and cost savings for two units with different efficiencies. However, the RTUCC currently cannot compare savings associated with either the RTU Challenge unit or the advanced RTU controls retrofit. Therefore, BTO has asked PNNL to enhance the tool so building owners can compare energy and savings associated with this new class of products. This document provides the details of the enhancements that are required to support estimating energy savings from use of RTU challenge units or advanced controls on existing RTUs.

  6. Construction contract revenue recording comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Bohušová

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Publicly traded companies prepare their consolidated accounts in conformity with the international accounting standards (IAS/IFRS in accordance with the Regulation No. 1606/2002. This is obliged for all publicly traded joint-stock companies in the Czech Republic. Other companies prepare financial statements in accordance with national accounting standards. There are Accounting Act No. 563/1991 of Coll. and Regulation No. 500/2002 of Coll., Czech Accounting Standards in the Czech Republic. Both systems are based on different principles so there are many differences. The Czech Accounting System (CAS is based on the rules while IAS/IFRS are based on principles (Kovanicová, 2005. These differences are mainly caused by the different philosophy. CAS prefers the fiscal policy to the economic substance while IAS/IFRS prefere the economic substance. One of the most significant dif­fe­ren­ces is in the field of revenue recording. There are two standards concerning the revenues recording (IAS 18 − Revenue, IAS 11 – Construction Contracts in IAS/IFRS. CAS 019 – Expenses and Revenue are dealing with the revenue recording in the Czech Republic. The paper is aimed at the comparison of the methodical approaches for revenue recording used by IAS/IFRS and by CAS. The most important differences are caused by the different approach to the long term contracts (construction contracts, software development contracts revenues recording.

  7. Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-12-01

    Power through Policy: 'Best Practices' for Cost-Effective Distributed Wind is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-funded project to identify distributed wind technology policy best practices and to help policymakers, utilities, advocates, and consumers examine their effectiveness using a pro forma model. Incorporating a customized feed from the Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency (DSIRE), the Web-based Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool (Policy Tool) is designed to assist state, local, and utility officials in understanding the financial impacts of different policy options to help reduce the cost of distributed wind technologies. The Policy Tool can be used to evaluate the ways that a variety of federal and state policies and incentives impact the economics of distributed wind (and subsequently its expected market growth). It also allows policymakers to determine the impact of policy options, addressing market challenges identified in the U.S. DOE’s '20% Wind Energy by 2030' report and helping to meet COE targets.

  8. Comparison of Vehicle Choice Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Thomas S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Levinson, Rebecca S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brooker, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Liu, Changzheng [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lin, Zhenhong [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Birky, Alicia [Energetics Incorporated, Columbia, MD (United States); Kontou, Eleftheria [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-31

    Five consumer vehicle choice models that give projections of future sales shares of light-duty vehicles were compared by running each model using the same inputs, where possible, for two scenarios. The five models compared — LVCFlex, MA3T, LAVE-Trans, ParaChoice, and ADOPT — have been used in support of the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Vehicle Technologies Office in analyses of future light-duty vehicle markets under different assumptions about future vehicle technologies and market conditions. The models give projections of sales shares by powertrain technology. Projections made using common, but not identical, inputs showed qualitative agreement, with the exception of ADOPT. ADOPT estimated somewhat lower advanced vehicle shares, mostly composed of hybrid electric vehicles. Other models projected large shares of multiple advanced vehicle powertrains. Projections of models differed in significant ways, including how different technologies penetrated cars and light trucks. Since the models are constructed differently and take different inputs, not all inputs were identical, but were the same or very similar where possible. Projections by all models were in close agreement only in the first few years. Although the projections from LVCFlex, MA3T, LAVE-Trans, and ParaChoice were in qualitative agreement, there were significant differences in sales shares given by the different models for individual powertrain types, particularly in later years (2030 and later). For example, projected sales shares of conventional spark-ignition vehicles in 2030 for a given scenario ranged from 35% to 74%. Reasons for such differences are discussed, recognizing that these models were not developed to give quantitatively accurate predictions of future sales shares, but to represent vehicles markets realistically and capture the connections between sales and important influences. Model features were also compared at a high level, and suggestions for further comparison

  9. UAV PHOTOGRAMMETRY: BLOCK TRIANGULATION COMPARISONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gini

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available UAVs systems represent a flexible technology able to collect a big amount of high resolution information, both for metric and interpretation uses. In the frame of experimental tests carried out at Dept. ICA of Politecnico di Milano to validate vector-sensor systems and to assess metric accuracies of images acquired by UAVs, a block of photos taken by a fixed wing system is triangulated with several software. The test field is a rural area included in an Italian Park ("Parco Adda Nord", useful to study flight and imagery performances on buildings, roads, cultivated and uncultivated vegetation. The UAV SenseFly, equipped with a camera Canon Ixus 220HS, flew autonomously over the area at a height of 130 m yielding a block of 49 images divided in 5 strips. Sixteen pre-signalized Ground Control Points, surveyed in the area through GPS (NRTK survey, allowed the referencing of the block and accuracy analyses. Approximate values for exterior orientation parameters (positions and attitudes were recorded by the flight control system. The block was processed with several software: Erdas-LPS, EyeDEA (Univ. of Parma, Agisoft Photoscan, Pix4UAV, in assisted or automatic way. Results comparisons are given in terms of differences among digital surface models, differences in orientation parameters and accuracies, when available. Moreover, image and ground point coordinates obtained by the various software were independently used as initial values in a comparative adjustment made by scientific in-house software, which can apply constraints to evaluate the effectiveness of different methods of point extraction and accuracies on ground check points.

  10. Using automated comparisons to quantify handwriting individuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Christopher P; Davis, Linda J; Buscaglia, JoAnn

    2011-05-01

    The proposition that writing profiles are unique is considered a key premise underlying forensic handwriting comparisons. An empirical study cannot validate this proposition because of the impossibility of observing sample documents written by every individual. The goal of this paper is to illustrate what can be stated about the individuality of writing profiles using a database of handwriting samples and an automated comparison procedure. In this paper, we provide a strategy for bounding the probability of observing two writers with indistinguishable writing profiles (regardless of the comparison methodology used) with a random match probability that can be estimated statistically. We illustrate computation of this bound using a convenience sample of documents and an automated comparison procedure based on Pearson's chi-squared statistic applied to frequency distributions of letter shapes extracted from handwriting samples. We also show how this bound can be used when designing an empirical study of individuality. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  11. Adjusted indirect treatment comparisons of bioequivalence studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gwaza, L

    2016-01-01

    Generic medicines are approved by regulatory authorities based on demonstration of bioequivalence with the innovator, however, current regulatory systems do not require direct comparison between all available generics of the same innovator to ensure interchangeability. As such, interchangeability

  12. Sentence Comparison: An Activity for Teaching Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Edgar H.

    2005-01-01

    An English teacher provides some sentence comparison activities that enlarge students' linguistic resources for writing. He believes that students can learn to revise for style if they recognize the stylistic choices writers make.

  13. Comparison between Weber's electrodynamics and classical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 55; Issue 3. Comparison ... Keywords. Weber's electrodynamics; Maxwell's equations; Lorentz's force; classical electromagnetism ... Finally, we discuss some experiments performed and proposed with which we can distinguish Weber's force from Lorentz's one.

  14. Medicare Managed Care plan Performance, A Comparison...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The study evaluates the performance of Medicare managed care, Medicare Advantage, Plans in comparison to Medicare fee-for-service Plans in three states with...

  15. Micro Foundations for International Productivity Comparisons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gersbach, Hans; Ark, Bart van

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology and procedures of international comparisons of productivity levels for twelve manufacturing industries (producing food products, beer, soap and detergents, iron and steel, machine tools, various types of machinery, computers, audio and video equipment, industrial

  16. Mobile price comparison application using localisation techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Dingli, Alexiei; Seychell, Dylan; 3rd International Conference on Web Science (ACM WebSci'11)

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we are proposing an Android mobile application. The main idea behind this system is to make use of localisation techniques together with information extraction techniques in order to develop a localised mobile price comparison application. This system extracts information from the web given a particular location and a source and provides price-comparison information to the end user on the mobile device. This paper briefly shows the background, methodology and evaluation of this ...

  17. Go Glocal: Intercultural Comparison of Leadership Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Capurro

    2013-01-01

    This article deals with basic concepts of leadership based on the research of the French sinologist François Jullien. It addresses particularly the concept of efficacy in Greek thought in comparison with Daoist thought (Zhuangzi). This comparison is particularly relevant because classical Chinese philosophy developed over thousands of years with hardly any influence from the West. The spirit of Daoist strategic thinking is to avoid the trap of particularity by getting the opponent to adapt an...

  18. A comparison of goniophotometric measurement facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorseth, Anders; Lindén, Johannes; Dam-Hansen, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present the preliminary results of a comparison between widely different goniophotometric and goniospectroradiometric measurement facilities. The objective of the comparison is to increase consistency and clarify the capabilities among Danish test laboratories. The study will seek...... needed to represent the data. The model shows good agreement with data, while also highlighting the differences between the measurements. We conclude that the method could be useful for comparing large sets of goniophotometric data....

  19. Rankings, Standards, and Competition: Task vs. Scale Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Stephen M.; Tor, Avishalom

    2007-01-01

    Research showing how upward social comparison breeds competitive behavior has so far conflated local comparisons in "task" performance (e.g. a test score) with comparisons on a more general "scale" (i.e. an underlying skill). Using a ranking methodology (Garcia, Tor, & Gonzalez, 2006) to separate task and scale comparisons, Studies 1-2 reveal that…

  20. The role of comparison motives in the relationship between personality and comparison level choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggens, L.; Hendriks, A. A. J.; Bosker, R. J.; van der Werf, M. P. C.

    2011-01-01

    This article studied whether the motives for comparison of grades with those of others play a mediating role in the relationship between the Big Five personality traits and the choice of the level of comparison of students. The study was conducted among about 1,500 students in higher education. Of

  1. Sonic Boom Prediction Exercise: Experimental Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Eugene; Cheung, Samson; Edwards, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    The success of a future High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) depends on the ability to accurately assess and, possibly, modify the sonic boom signatures of potential designs. In 1992, the Sonic Boom Steering Committee initiated a prediction exercise to assess the current computational capabilities for the accurate and efficient prediction of sonic boom signatures and loudness levels. A progress report of this effort was given at the Sonic Boom Workshop held at NASA Ames Research Center in 1993 where predictions from CFD and Modified Linear Theory (MLT) methods were given. Comparisons between the methods were made at near-, mid- and far-field locations. However, at that time, experimental data from wind-tunnel tests were not available. The current paper presents a comparison of computational results with the now available experimental data. Further comparisons between the computational methods and analyses of the discrepancies in the results are presented.

  2. Photon/Electron Benchmarks for Intercode Comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Henry Grady III [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sweezy, Jeremy Ed [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lemaire, Sebastien [CEA/DIF (France); Caillaud, M. [CEA/DIF (France); Sauvestre, J. E. [CEA/DIF (France); Umbert, A. [CEA/DIF (France)

    2015-07-21

    The goal of this work was to improve accuracy and efficiency of two Monte-Carlo transport codes (MCNP and DIANE) with an emphasis on γ+electron physics. The approach involved intercode comparisons + measurements for gamma/e- energy deposition in a cylinder with a photon source and different materials (C, Pb) and the bombardment of 15-MeV electrons on thick targets (Al, Be, Pb). Comparisons of the codes DIANE and MCNP6 showed good agreement (differences < 3%) for gamma-electron energy deposition in a 2D cylinder, except for the first 0.1 μm of lead (difference < 10%). Comparisons with measurements showed generally good agreement, often better than 10%; best-performing codes/options are problem-dependent; and single-event discrepancies are in active use in reviewing electron elastic scattering.

  3. Real medical benefit assessed by indirect comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falissard, Bruno; Zylberman, Myriam; Cucherat, Michel; Izard, Valérie; Meyer, François

    2009-01-01

    Frequently, in data packages submitted for Marketing Approval to the CHMP, there is a lack of relevant head-to-head comparisons of medicinal products that could enable national authorities responsible for the approval of reimbursement to assess the Added Therapeutic Value (ASMR) of new clinical entities or line extensions of existing therapies.Indirect or mixed treatment comparisons (MTC) are methods stemming from the field of meta-analysis that have been designed to tackle this problem. Adjusted indirect comparisons, meta-regressions, mixed models, Bayesian network analyses pool results of randomised controlled trials (RCTs), enabling a quantitative synthesis.The REAL procedure, recently developed by the HAS (French National Authority for Health), is a mixture of an MTC and effect model based on expert opinions. It is intended to translate the efficacy observed in the trials into effectiveness expected in day-to-day clinical practice in France.

  4. ACIX: Atmospheric Correction Inter-comparison Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doxani, Georgia; Gascon, Ferran; Vermote, Éric; Roger, Jean-Claude

    2017-04-01

    The free and open data access policy to Sentinel-2 (S-2) and Landsat-8 (L-8) satellite imagery has stimulated the development of atmospheric correction (AC) processors for generating Bottom-of-Atmosphere (BOA) products. Several entities have started to generate (or plan to generate in the short term) BOA reflectance products at global scale for S-2 and L-8 missions. To this end, the European Space Agency (ESA) and NASA are organizing an exercise on AC processors inter-comparison. The results of the exercise are expected to point out the strengths and weaknesses, as well as communalities and discrepancies of various AC processors, in order to suggest and define ways for their further improvement. In particular, 13 atmospheric processors from five different countries participate in ACIX with the aim to inter-compare their performance when applied to L-8 and S-2 data. A protocol describing the inter-comparison process and the test dataset, which is based on the AERONET sites, will be presented. The protocol has been defined according to what was agreed among the participants during the 1st ACIX workshop held in June 2016. It includes the comparison of aerosol optical thickness and water vapour products of the processors with the AERONET measurements. Moreover, concerning the surface reflectances, the protocol describes the inter-comparison among the processors, as well as the comparison with the MODIS surface reflectance and with a reference surface reflectance product. Such a reference product will be obtained using the AERONET characterization of the aerosol (size distribution and refractive indices) and an accurate radiative transfer code. The inter-comparison outcomes will be presented and discussed among the participants in the 2nd ACIX workshop, which will be held on 11-12 April 2017 (ESRIN/ESA). The proposed presentation is an opportunity for the user community to be informed for the first time about the ACIX results and conclusions.

  5. Key comparison of liquid density standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchner, Christian; Zelenka, Zoltan; Kajastie, Heikki; Madec, Tanguy; Wolf, Henning; Vámossy, Csilla; Lorefice, Salvatore; Garberg, Torgunn; Lenard, Elżbieta; Spohr, Isabel; Mares, Gabriela; Spurný, Robert; Lumbreras, Angel; Medina, Nieves; Y Akçadağ, Ümit; Perkin, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Hydrostatic density determination for liquids is mainly performed by laboratories to provide means for calibrating liquid density measuring instruments such as oscillation-type density meters. From 2002 to 2005 the CIPM key comparison CCM.D-K2 'comparison of liquid density standards' was carried out piloted by the PTB. The aim was to compare the results of the density determination by the participating laboratories to support entries to the CMC tables in this sub-field. To provide further laboratories the possibility to support their entries to the CMC tables at the meeting of the EUROMET Working Group on Density in 2007 this comparison was agreed on. BEV (Austria) organized the comparison supported by the PTB (Germany). For the comparison samples of pentadecane, water, tetrachloroethylene and of an oil of high viscosity were measured in the temperature range from 5 °C to 60 °C at atmospheric pressure by hydrostatic weighing. The measurements were completed in 2008. The reference values of the first reports based on the draft of the CCM.D-K2. After the official publication of the CCM.D-K2 the reference values were recalculated and the report was finalised in 2015. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  6. Ordinal Welfare Comparisons with Multiple Discrete Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Distante, Roberta; Hussain, M. Azhar

    We develop an ordinal method for making welfare comparisons between populations with multidimensional discrete well-being indicators observed at the micro level. The approach assumes that, for each well-being indicator, the levels can be ranked from worse to better; however, no assumptions are ma...... another on the basis of available binary indicators by drawing upon linear programming theory. These approaches are applied to household survey data from Vietnam and Mozambique with a focus on child poverty comparisons over time and between regions....

  7. Risks of advanced technology - Nuclear: risk comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latarjet, R. (Institut du Radium, Orsay (France))

    The author presents a general definition of the concept of risk and makes a distinction between the various types of risk - the absolute and the relative; the risk for oneself and for others. The quantitative comparison of risks presupposes their ''interchangeability''. In the case of major risks in the long term - or genotoxic risks - there is a certain degree of interchangeability which makes this quantitative comparison possible. It is expressed by the concept of rad-equivalence which the author defines and explains giving as a concrete example the work conducted on ethylene and ethylene oxide.

  8. Inter laboratory comparison on Industrial Computed Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angel, Jais Andreas Breusch; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    An interlaboratory comparison on industrial X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) was organized by the Centre for Geometrical Metrology (CGM), Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark (DTU) and carried out within the project “Centre for Industrial Application of CT scanning...... - CIA-CT”. In the comparison, 27 laboratories from 8 countries were involved, and CT scanned two items selected among common industrial parts: a polymer part and a metal part. Altogether, 27 sets of items were circulated in parallel to the participants. Different measurands are considered, encompassing...

  9. Comparison of Temperature Loadings of Bridge Girders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Římal

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the effect of temperature changes on the superstructure of bridges, above all the effect of non-uniform temperature. Loadings according to standards ESN 73 6203, ENV 1991-1-5 and DIN 1072 are compared here. The paper shows a short summary of temperature loading according to each standard and shows the comparison of bending moments arisen from these temperature loadings on superstructure made from continuous girder from a steel-concrete box girder with a composite concrete slab. With respect to a variety of design processes, the comparison is made without any coefficient of loading, combination or material. 

  10. Comparison between rotary and conventional flaring processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamang, Subha; Bylya, Olga; Ward, Michael; Luo, Xichun; Halliday, Steven; Tuffs, Martin

    2017-10-01

    Rotary forming is one of the promising incremental processes. However, a wide industrial implementation of it strongly depends on the deep understanding of the mechanics of this process. This paper attempts to develop this understanding via a comparison of the rotary forming process with conventional flaring. Both the processes were simulated using commercial metal forming software QForm. The results of the simulation were validated by comparison with the experimental trials. The main focus was made on the triaxiality states taking place during forming, as it seems to be the main factor determining the success of the process.

  11. Comparison of energy performance requirements levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spiekman, Marleen; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Rose, Jørgen

    This summary report provides a synthesis of the work within the EU SAVE project ASIEPI on developing a method to compare the energy performance (EP) requirement levels among the countries of Europe. Comparing EP requirement levels constitutes a major challenge. From the comparison of for instance...... the present Dutch requirement level (EPC) of 0,8 with the present Flemish level of E80, it can easily be seen that direct comparison is not possible. The conclusions and recommendations of the study are presented in part A. These constitute the most important result of the project. Part B gives an overview...

  12. "Units of Comparison" across Languages, across Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Lardiere's keynote article adverts to a succession of "units of comparison" that have been employed in the study of cross-linguistic differences, including mid-twentieth-century structural patterns, generative grammar's parameters, and (within contemporary Minimalism) features. This commentary expands on the idea of units of cross-linguistic…

  13. Improving the quality by a competitive comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bujaloboková Beáta

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The improvement of the competitiveness of a company assumes the use of efficient tools and methods of analysis and assessment of production and processes. There is no doubt that one of these tools is benchmarking. The paper discusses the scope of benchmarking and his classification. The Advance of benchmarking have four points: Planning, Analysis, Integration and Implementation, Upgrade. Benchmarking is a methods of development supports orientation on the inside and outside background. The category of benchmarking focuses on the comparison of processes and products. Benchmarking is not a simple comparison of certain information. It is the comparison which is evaluated and which emphasis es the necessity for the actions after the comparisons and necessity of the implementation of findings. In order to make benchmarking significant for the company, it is important, to direct it on the quality factors. Keywords of quality factors rank among marketing, human factors, finances, management. In case of benchmarking entrepreneur’s, processes are analysed and compared to entrepreneur’s processes. This processes do not depend on the production.This method significantly contributes to the identification of the quality improvement and also helps to solve specific problems in these processes or products and the effective entrepreneur’s strategy.

  14. 78 FR 38075 - International Labor Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    .... ADDRESSES: Send inquiries to John Ruser, Office of Productivity and Technology, Bureau of Labor Statistics... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: John Ruser, Office of Productivity and Technology, Bureau of Labor Statistics... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Bureau of Labor Statistics International Labor Comparisons ACTION: Notice...

  15. A comparison of short distance transport modes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, M.E.; Sucharov, LJ

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison of seven transport modes in both urban and rural settings, based on four characteristics of transport modes: space use, energy use, costs and travel time. The characteristics are calculated with a computer model and based on these results the modes can be ranked.

  16. ACIX: Atmospheric Correction Inter-comparison Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermote, E.; Roger, J. C.; Gascon, F.; Doxani, G.

    2016-12-01

    Surface reflectance is one of the key products used in developing several higher-order land products. Understanding and characterizing the uncertainties of surface reflectance is critical for downstream users. The purpose of ACIX is to inter-compare the performance of 14 atmospheric processors from five different countries for the Landsat8 OLI and Sentinel 2 MSI data. The exercise is expected to point out the strengths and weaknesses as well as the commonalities and differences of the different atmospheric correction processors with aim to enable further improvements. A carefully crafted protocol for the inter-comparison and the test dataset focused on the AERONET sites will be described, according to what was agreed during the first ACIX workshop held in June 2016. The protocol includes the comparison of aerosol optical thickness and water vapor products of the processors with the AERONET measurements.. Concerning the surface reflectances, the protocol describes the inter-comparison among the processors, as well as the comparison with the MODIS surface reflectance and with a reference surface reflectance product. Such a reference product will be obtained using the AERONET characterization of the aerosol (size distribution and refractive indices) and an accurate radiative transfer code. We will present the first results and lessons learned from the first phase of this exercise.

  17. Comparison and evaluation of mathematical lactation curve ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison and evaluation of mathematical lactation curve functions of Iranian primiparous Holsteins. ... South African Journal of Animal Science ... The suitability of seven mathematical models (with three, four and five parameters) for describing the 305-day milk yield lactation curve of Holstein cows, were examined in this ...

  18. Comparison of spectrum normalization techniques for univariate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Optimization of the number of laser shots per spectrum was carried out to obtain the best analytical results. Internal normalization technique model was used for selecting the bestemission lines having sufficient intensity and spectral purity for Cr, Mn and Ni for comparison of different normalization techniques. For detailed ...

  19. Privacy Preserving Mapping Schemes Supporting Comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, Qiang

    2010-01-01

    To cater to the privacy requirements in cloud computing, we introduce a new primitive, namely Privacy Preserving Mapping (PPM) schemes supporting comparison. An PPM scheme enables a user to map data items into images in such a way that, with a set of images, any entity can determine the <, =, >

  20. Algorithmic parameterization of mixed treatment comparisons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Valkenhoef, Gert; Tervonen, Tommi; de Brock, Bert; Hillege, Hans

    Mixed Treatment Comparisons (MTCs) enable the simultaneous meta-analysis (data pooling) of networks of clinical trials comparing a parts per thousand yen2 alternative treatments. Inconsistency models are critical in MTC to assess the overall consistency between evidence sources. Only in the absence

  1. Labels Facilitate Infants' Comparison of Action Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerson, Sarah A.; Woodward, Amanda L.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the actions of others depends on the insight that these actions are structured by intentional relations. In a number of conceptual domains, comparison with familiar instances has been shown to support children's and adults' ability to discern the relational structure of novel instances. Recent evidence suggests that this process…

  2. Comparison of mimo radar concepts: Detection performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossum, W.L. van; Huizing, A.G.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, four different array radar concepts are compared: pencil beam, floodlight, monostatic MIMO, and multistatic MIMO. The array radar concepts show an increase in complexity accompanied by an increase in diversity. The comparison between the radar concepts is made by investigating the

  3. Comparison of Effects of Oligosaccharides on Physicochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/tjpr.v13i7.7. Original Research Article. Comparison of Effects of Oligosaccharides on. Physicochemical Properties of Corn Starch. Jie Zeng*, Haiyan Gao, GuangLei Li, Junliang Sun and Hanjun Ma. School of Food Science, Henan Institute of Science and Technology, Xinxiang, 453003, China.

  4. Comparison in religion: a methodological contribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, C.A.M.; Sterkens, C.J.A.

    2014-01-01

    How do we build theory on religion in cross-religious research? This article deals with four methodological issues in answering this question. What are the goals of cross-religious comparison? What is the object of cross-religious research? What kind of definition of religion is used in

  5. Synthesis of functionalized pyrazolopyran derivatives: comparison of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A library of pyrazolopyran heterocycles was synthesized first by the traditional heating techniques using two-step and one-step procedures and then by microwave-assisted (MWA) multicomponent condensation of ethyl acetoacetate, hydrazine, malonodinitrile and a variety of substituted aldehydes. A comparison of the ...

  6. Using MDE for Generic Comparison of Views

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, B.S.; Van Deursen, A.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the application of technologies for modeldriven engineering to check the conformance of two software models. This involves their model-based comparison, and visualisation of the results. To generalise our approach we use reflection, metamodel generalisation, and higher-order

  7. COMPARISON OF THREE METHODS OF COLLECTING NASAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2004-06-01

    Jun 1, 2004 ... East African Medical Journal Vol. 81 No. 6 June 2004. COMPARISON OF THREE METHODS OF COLLECTING NASAL SPECIMENS FOR RESPIRATORY VIRUS ANALYSIS. M.J. Ngama, Clinical Officer, B., Ouma, HND, Microbiology Senior Laboratory Technician, Kenya Medical Research Insitute, Centre ...

  8. Sequence Comparison: Close and Open problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenzini, Gabriele; Cerrai, P.; Freguglia, P.

    Comparing sequences is a very important activity both in computer science and in a many other areas as well. For example thank to text editors, everyone knows the particular instance of a sequence comparison problem knonw as ``string mathcing problem''. It consists in searching a given work

  9. New directions in social comparison research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, Abraham (Bram); Mussweiler, T

    2001-01-01

    This article notices that social comparison theory has developed from being a focused theoretical statement on the use of others for self-evaluation into a lively and varied area of research encompassing many different paradigms, approaches and applications. A recent 'renaissance' in social

  10. Ranking health between countries in international comparisons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Cross-national comparisons and ranking of summary measures of population health sometimes give rise to inconsistent and diverging conclusions. In order to minimise confusion, international comparative studies ought to be based on well-harmonised data with common standards of definitions...

  11. Comparison on Computed Tomography using industrial items

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angel, Jais Andreas Breusch; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    In a comparison involving 27 laboratories from 8 countries, measurements on two common industrial items, a polymer part and a metal part, were carried out using X-ray Computed Tomography. All items were measured using coordinate measuring machines before and after circulation, with reference...

  12. An International Comparison of Children's Television Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleiss, David; Ambrosino, Lillian

    The results of a comparison of television programming for children in the United States, Canada, Japan, and the democracies of Western Europe are presented. It was found that: in European countries no advertiser is allowed to sponsor a children's program, almost none of these programs carries commercials, and except in Italy, no host of a…

  13. Switches and Bridges - Comparison and Contrast

    OpenAIRE

    Marian M. Pope

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison and contrast of switches and bridges. The paper discusses the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model for the layers used by the devices. The intelligence and specific functions of each device are also mentioned. The paper also presents the location of each device in a network

  14. Affective response to social comparison in the classroom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, Abraham (Bram); Kuyper, H.; Van der Zee, Y.G.

    In a study among 609 secondary school students, the affective reactions to social comparisons of grades were examined. Overall, the students reported more frequent responses to upward than to downward comparison, more identification than contrast in their comparisons, and more frequent responses

  15. The Performance versus Ability Distinction Following Social Comparison Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham, Justin T.; LeBeau, Lavonia Smith; Klein, William M. P.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research suggests that self-evaluations can be influenced by social comparison feedback. The present study tested whether social comparison feedback has stronger effects on self-evaluations of performance than ability. Participants received social comparison feedback indicating that they had performed above or below average. In addition…

  16. The relationship between social comparison processes and personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanderZee, K; Buunk, B; Sanderman, R

    The relationship between social comparison processes and personality was examined in a sample of cancer patients (Study 1) and in a random population sample (Study 2). Previous studies showed that the need for comparison, its affective consequences and the tendency to make self-enhancing comparisons

  17. Visual comparison testing of automotive paint simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Gary; Fan, Hua-Tzu; Seubert, Christopher; Evey, Curtis; Meseth, Jan; Schnackenberg, Ryan

    2015-03-01

    An experiment was performed to determine whether typical industrial automotive color paint comparisons made using real physical samples could also be carried out using a digital simulation displayed on a calibrated color television monitor. A special light booth, designed to facilitate evaluation of the car paint color with reflectance angle, was employed in both the real and virtual color comparisons. Paint samples were measured using a multi-angle spectrophotometer and were simulated using a commercially available software package. Subjects performed the test quicker using the computer graphic simulation, and results indicate that there is only a small difference between the decisions made using the light booth and the computer monitor. This outcome demonstrates the potential of employing simulations to replace some of the time consuming work with real physical samples that still characterizes material appearance work in industry.

  18. Cirrus Parcel Model Comparison Phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ruei-Fong; Starr, David OC.; DeMott, Paul J.; Cotton, Richard; Jensen, Eric; Kaercher, Bernd; Liu, Xiaohong

    2002-01-01

    The Cirrus Parcel Model Comparison (CPMC) project, a project of the GEWEX Cloud System Study Working Group on cirrus clouds (GCSS WG2), is an international effort to advance our knowledge of numerical simulations of cirrus cloud initiation. This project was done in two phases. In Phase 1 of CPMC, the critical components determining the predicted cloud microphysical properties were identified using parcel models in which the aerosol and ice crystal size distributions are explicitly resolved, the formulation of the homogeneous freezing of aqueous solution droplets, especially the gradient of nucleation rate with respect to solution concentration; aerosol growth modeling; and the mass accommodation coefficient of water vapor on ice surface (the deposition coefficient). In Phase 1, all simulations were conducted using a given background aerosol distribution. To complete the comparison study, participant model responses to a range of background aerosol distributions are investigated in Phase 2.

  19. Supplier Evaluation Process by Pairwise Comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Kawa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose to assess suppliers by using consistency-driven pairwise comparisons for tangible and intangible criteria. The tangible criteria are simpler to compare (e.g., the price of a service is lower than that of another service with identical characteristics. Intangible criteria are more difficult to assess. The proposed model combines assessments of both types of criteria. The main contribution of this paper is the presentation of an extension framework for the selection of suppliers in a procurement process. The final weights are computed from relative pairwise comparisons. For the needs of the paper, surveys were conducted among Polish managers dealing with cooperation with suppliers in their enterprises. The Polish practice and restricted bidding are discussed, too.

  20. Explosive Infrasonic Events: Sensor Comparison Experiment (SCE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnurr, J. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Garces, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rodgers, A. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-02-06

    SCE (sensor comparison experiment) 1 through 4 consists of a series of four controlled above-ground explosions designed to provide new data for overpressure propagation. Infrasound data were collected by LLNL iPhones and other sensors. Origin times, locations HOB, and yields are not being released at this time and are therefore not included in this report. This preliminary report will be updated as access to additional data changes, or instrument responses are determined.

  1. Cirrus Parcel Model Comparison Project. Phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, R . F.; Starr, D.; DeMott, P. J.; Cotton, R.; Sassen, K.; Jensen, E.

    2001-01-01

    The Cirrus Parcel Model Comparison is a project of the GEWEX Cloud System Study Working Group on Cirrus Cloud Systems (GCSS WG2). The primary goal of this project is to identify and quantify cirrus model sensitivities to the state of our knowledge of nucleation and microphysics. These factors are key to understanding microphysical development in cirrus and for developing realistic treatments of such processes in larger-scale models. Phase 1 of the project will be described.

  2. Traditional marketing vs. Internet marketing. A comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Varfan, Mona; Shima, Alfa

    2008-01-01

    Title: Traditional marketing vs. Internet marketing: A comparison Problem: Marketing is an important strategy for businesses and it contains numerous effective tools. Traditional marketing has been in use for many years and nowadays Internet has brought new ways of doing business for companies and that has affected marketing. What are the main differences between Internet marketing and traditional marketing? Which one of the two approaches contains the most used and effective marketing tools ...

  3. Comparison of environmental sustainability of pharmaceutical packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Geo Raju; Prabir Sarkar; Ekta Singla; Harpreet Singh; Rachit Kumar Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Pharmaceutical companies are increasingly imparting a lot of importance on becoming more sustainable by developing medicines that are having same medicinal value but with reduced environmental impact. Type of packaging of tablets affects the emission generated during packaging of medicines. Selection of an appropriate packaging of medicine also influences the emission added to the environment. This paper aims at the comparison of environmental impacts of two different types of packaging of ta...

  4. A Comparison of Parallel Graph Processing Implementations

    OpenAIRE

    POLLARD, SAMUEL; Norris, Boyana

    2017-01-01

    The rapidly growing number of large network analysis problems has led to the emergence of many parallel and distributed graph processing systems---one survey in 2014 identified over 80. Since then, the landscape has evolved; some packages have become inactive while more are being developed. Determining the best approach for a given problem is infeasible for most developers. To enable easy, rigorous, and repeatable comparison of the capabilities of such systems, we present an approach and asso...

  5. Cost Comparison Among Provable Data Possession Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    one more than the total number of blocks or one more than `, whichever is less. min ( f s/bs, `) + 1 (4.10) 4.3.1 MAC-PDP For local data experiments, we...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS COST COMPARISON AMONG PROVABLE DATA POSSESSION SCHEMES by Stephen J. Bremer March 2016 Thesis...response, including the time for reviewing instruction, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and

  6. Comparison of Bayesian and frequentist approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Ageyeva, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The thesis deals with Bayesian approach to statistics and its comparison to frequentist approach. The main aim of the thesis is to compare frequentist and Bayesian approaches to statistics by analyzing statistical inferences, examining the question of subjectivity and objectivity in statistics. Another goal of the thesis is to draw attention to the importance and necessity to teach Bayesian statistics at our University more profound. The thesis includes three chapters. The first chapter prese...

  7. Task-Driven Comparison of Topic Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Eric; Gleicher, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Topic modeling, a method of statistically extracting thematic content from a large collection of texts, is used for a wide variety of tasks within text analysis. Though there are a growing number of tools and techniques for exploring single models, comparisons between models are generally reduced to a small set of numerical metrics. These metrics may or may not reflect a model's performance on the analyst's intended task, and can therefore be insufficient to diagnose what causes differences between models. In this paper, we explore task-centric topic model comparison, considering how we can both provide detail for a more nuanced understanding of differences and address the wealth of tasks for which topic models are used. We derive comparison tasks from single-model uses of topic models, which predominantly fall into the categories of understanding topics, understanding similarity, and understanding change. Finally, we provide several visualization techniques that facilitate these tasks, including buddy plots, which combine color and position encodings to allow analysts to readily view changes in document similarity.

  8. Comparison of psychoacoustic-based reverberance parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Doheon; van Dorp Schuitman, Jasper; Cabrera, Densil; Qiu, Xiaojun; Burnett, Ian

    2017-10-01

    This study compared psychoacoustic reverberance parameters to each other, as well as to reverberation time (RT) and early decay time (EDT) under various acoustic conditions. The psychoacoustic parameters were loudness-based RT (TN), loudness-based EDT [EDTN; Lee, Cabrera, and Martens, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 131, 1194-1205 (2012a)], and parameter for reverberance [PREV; van Dorp Schuitman, de Vries, and Lindau., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 133, 1572-1585 (2013)]. For the comparisons, a wide range of sound pressure levels (SPLs) from 20 dB to 100 dB and RTs from 0.5 s to 5.0 s were evaluated, and two sets of subjective data from the previous studies were used for the cross-validation and comparison. Results of the comparisons show that the psychoacoustic reverberance parameters provided better matches to reverberance than RT and EDT; however, the performance of these psychoacoustic reverberance parameters varied with the SPL range, the type of audio sample, and the reverberation conditions. This study reveals that PREV is the most relevant for estimating a relative change in reverberance between samples when the SPL range is small, while EDTN is useful in estimating the absolute reverberance. This study also suggests the use of PREV and EDTN for speech and music samples, respectively.

  9. Dronedarone: a safety comparison to amiodarone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clem, James R; Farver, Debra K; Fischer, Janet R; Johnson, Thomas J

    2010-07-02

    Dronedarone is an oral Class III antiarrhythmic agent which was recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for use in nonpermanent atrial fibrillation. Structurally similar to amiodarone, dronedarone is a benzofuran derivative but it lacks the iodine moiety attached to amiodarone. Based upon the investigational clinical trials to date, it appears that dronedarone has an established efficacy when compared to placebo along with exhibiting a minimal adverse effect profile. The efficacy of dronedarone will need to be further evaluated in comparison trials with established antiarrhythmics for atrial fibrillation. The adverse profile of dronedarone appears to be substantially safer in comparison to amiodarone, although there is still little data available. The adverse effect profile of amiodarone necessitates close and extensive monitoring. Although a risk of pulmonary toxicity was identified in animals, long term studies in humans are needed to determine the significance of this adverse effect with dronedarone. One noted effect of dronedarone is an isolated increase in serum creatinine levels, and the clinical relevance of this effect needs further evaluation. Based on supporting evidence, the use of dronedarone is contraindicated in advanced or decompensated heart failure. Some clinically significant dronedarone drug interactions have been identified. Although the potential differences between dronedarone and amiodarone have been evaluated there have been no direct comparison trials published to date. This article reviews the chemistry, antiarrhythmic effects, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, adverse effects and drug interactions of dronedarone.

  10. On the role of code comparisons in verification and validation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberkampf, William Louis; Trucano, Timothy Guy; Pilch, Martin M.

    2003-08-01

    This report presents a perspective on the role of code comparison activities in verification and validation. We formally define the act of code comparison as the Code Comparison Principle (CCP) and investigate its application in both verification and validation. One of our primary conclusions is that the use of code comparisons for validation is improper and dangerous. We also conclude that while code comparisons may be argued to provide a beneficial component in code verification activities, there are higher quality code verification tasks that should take precedence. Finally, we provide a process for application of the CCP that we believe is minimal for achieving benefit in verification processes.

  11. PROMPT: a protein mapping and comparison tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frishman Dmitrij

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparison of large protein datasets has become a standard task in bioinformatics. Typically researchers wish to know whether one group of proteins is significantly enriched in certain annotation attributes or sequence properties compared to another group, and whether this enrichment is statistically significant. In order to conduct such comparisons it is often required to integrate molecular sequence data and experimental information from disparate incompatible sources. While many specialized programs exist for comparisons of this kind in individual problem domains, such as expression data analysis, no generic software solution capable of addressing a wide spectrum of routine tasks in comparative proteomics is currently available. Results PROMPT is a comprehensive bioinformatics software environment which enables the user to compare arbitrary protein sequence sets, revealing statistically significant differences in their annotation features. It allows automatic retrieval and integration of data from a multitude of molecular biological databases as well as from a custom XML format. Similarity-based mapping of sequence IDs makes it possible to link experimental information obtained from different sources despite discrepancies in gene identifiers and minor sequence variation. PROMPT provides a full set of statistical procedures to address the following four use cases: i comparison of the frequencies of categorical annotations between two sets, ii enrichment of nominal features in one set with respect to another one, iii comparison of numeric distributions, and iv correlation of numeric variables. Analysis results can be visualized in the form of plots and spreadsheets and exported in various formats, including Microsoft Excel. Conclusion PROMPT is a versatile, platform-independent, easily expandable, stand-alone application designed to be a practical workhorse in analysing and mining protein sequences and associated annotation

  12. Physical appearance comparisons in ethnically diverse college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Lauren M; Thibodaux, Lia K; Krenik, Daniel; Arnold, Elysse; Thompson, J Kevin

    2015-09-01

    Research demonstrates ethnic differences in rates of body dissatisfaction and disordered eating. Appearance comparison frequency is related to these outcomes, however, research has not examined possible ethnic differences in levels of appearance comparisons nor their relation to body dissatisfaction and disordered eating. The current study examined the frequency of appearance comparisons and the strength of the relationships between appearance comparisons, appearance evaluation, and disordered eating among White, Black, and Hispanic women. Measures of appearance comparison, appearance evaluation, and disordered eating were administered to 895 college women. Compared with White and Hispanic women, Black women reported fewer appearance comparisons, more positive appearance evaluation, and lower levels of disordered eating. Associations between examined variables were generally weaker among Black women. Results suggest that the reduced frequency and impact of appearance comparisons may contribute to more positive appearance evaluation and reduced levels of disordered eating among Black women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. ACCELERATION RENDERING METHOD ON RAY TRACING WITH ANGLE COMPARISON AND DISTANCE COMPARISON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana liliana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In computer graphics applications, to produce realistic images, a method that is often used is ray tracing. Ray tracing does not only model local illumination but also global illumination. Local illumination count ambient, diffuse and specular effects only, but global illumination also count mirroring and transparency. Local illumination count effects from the lamp(s but global illumination count effects from other object(s too. Objects that are usually modeled are primitive objects and mesh objects. The advantage of mesh modeling is various, interesting and real-like shape. Mesh contains many primitive objects like triangle or square (rare. A problem in mesh object modeling is long rendering time. It is because every ray must be checked with a lot of triangle of the mesh. Added by ray from other objects checking, the number of ray that traced will increase. It causes the increasing of rendering time. To solve this problem, in this research, new methods are developed to make the rendering process of mesh object faster. The new methods are angle comparison and distance comparison. These methods are used to reduce the number of ray checking. The rays predicted will not intersect with the mesh, are not checked weather the ray intersects the mesh. With angle comparison, if using small angle to compare, the rendering process will be fast. This method has disadvantage, if the shape of each triangle is big, some triangles will be corrupted. If the angle to compare is bigger, mesh corruption can be avoided but the rendering time will be longer than without comparison. With distance comparison, the rendering time is less than without comparison, and no triangle will be corrupted.

  14. Rooftop Unit Comparison Calculator User Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, James D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-04-30

    This document serves as a user manual for the Packaged rooftop air conditioners and heat pump units comparison calculator (RTUCC) and is an aggregation of the calculator’s website documentation. Content ranges from new-user guide material like the “Quick Start” to the more technical/algorithmic descriptions of the “Methods Pages.” There is also a section listing all the context-help topics that support the features on the “Controls” page. The appendix has a discussion of the EnergyPlus runs that supported the development of the building-response models.

  15. Comparison of Alternative Processes for Support Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Martínez-Álvarez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available There are many tasks that revolve around combinatorial analysis problems, same tasks found in Decision Support Systems (DSS as most of these are responsible for assessing a number of possibilities to deliver the best options. Within the analysis of possible solutions is performed by the DSS there are alternative procedures inside the engine for making decisions that involve them. As part of these alternative procedures today has highlighted the use of metaheuristics, thus in this paper we propose a comparison of some of them trying to broaden the spectrum we have for the applications nowadays.

  16. A comparison of RISKIND and RADTRAN 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brumburgh, G.P.; Alesso, H.P.

    1993-11-01

    Our objective in this paper is to provide preliminary comparisons between the two computer codes RISKIND and RADTRAN 4. These codes have utility in evaluating radiological consequences during the transportation of radioactive materials. We reviewed the codes to three criteria: (1) the code`s evaluation capability for accident sequences, frequencies, and environmental consequences, (2) the code`s ``user friendliness`` (as well as how much specific technical expertise the user needed to apply to it), and (3) compatibility with other code output or modules.

  17. Comparison of alternate fuels for aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witcofski, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    A comparison of candidate alternate fuels for aircraft is presented. The fuels discussed include liquid hydrogen, liquid methane, and synthetic aviation kerosene. Each fuel is evaluated from the standpoint of production, transmission, airport storage and distribution facilities, and use in aircraft. Technology deficient areas for cryogenic fuels, which should be advanced prior to the introduction of the fuels into the aviation industry, are identified, as are the cost and energy penalties associated with not achieving those advances. Environmental emissions and safety aspects of fuel selection are discussed. A detailed description of the various fuel production and liquefaction processes and their efficiencies and economics is given.

  18. Comparison of ionospheric characteristic parameters obtained by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper presents a comparison of ionospheric characteristic parameters obtained by a GPS networkand three ionosondes at Mohe (122.4^◦E, 53.5^◦N, dip angle 70.983^◦N), Zuolingzhen (114.6^◦E, 30.5^◦N, dipangle 46.350^◦N), and Fuke (109.1^◦E, 19.5^◦N, dip angle 27.083^◦N) located in China with an IRI model inthe ...

  19. Model selection and comparison for independents sinusoids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Kjær; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2014-01-01

    this method by considering the problem in a full Bayesian framework instead of the approximate formulation, on which the asymptotic MAP criterion is based. This leads to a new model selection and comparison method, the lp-BIC, whose computational complexity is of the same order as the asymptotic MAP criterion....... Through simulations, we demonstrate that the lp-BIC outperforms the asymptotic MAP criterion and other state of the art methods in terms of model selection, de-noising and prediction performance. The simulation code is available online....

  20. Quantum Private Comparison Protocol with Linear Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qing-bin; Yang, Guo-wu; She, Kun; Li, Xiaoyu

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we propose an innovative quantum private comparison(QPC) protocol based on partial Bell-state measurement from the view of linear optics, which enabling two parties to compare the equality of their private information with the help of a semi-honest third party. Partial Bell-state measurement has been realized by using only linear optical elements in experimental measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution(MDI-QKD) schemes, which makes us believe that our protocol can be realized in the near future. The security analysis shows that the participants will not leak their private information.

  1. Individual differences on social comparison : properties of the orientation Spanish scale towards social comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, AP; Belmonte, J; Peiro, JM; Zurriaga, R; Gibbons, FX

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the development and the properties of the INCOM-E, the Spanish language version of the INCOM, a measure to assess individual differences in social comparison orientation that was originally developed simultaneously in English and in Dutch. In both Study 1 (including 212

  2. Transfer Standard Uncertainty Can Cause Inconclusive Inter-Laboratory Comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, John; Toman, Blaza; Mickan, Bodo; Wübbeler, Gerd; Bodnar, Olha; Elster, Clemens

    2016-12-01

    Inter-laboratory comparisons use the best available transfer standards to check the participants' uncertainty analyses, identify underestimated uncertainty claims or unknown measurement biases, and improve the global measurement system. For some measurands, instability of the transfer standard can lead to an inconclusive comparison result. If the transfer standard uncertainty is large relative to a participating laboratory's uncertainty, the commonly used standardized degree of equivalence ≤ 1 criterion does not always correctly assess whether a participant is working within their uncertainty claims. We show comparison results that demonstrate this issue and propose several criteria for assessing a comparison result as passing, failing, or inconclusive. We investigate the behavior of the standardized degree of equivalence and alternative comparison measures for a range of values of the transfer standard uncertainty relative to the individual laboratory uncertainty values. The proposed alternative criteria successfully discerned between passing, failing, and inconclusive comparison results for the cases we examined.

  3. How social neuroscience can inform theories of social comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swencionis, Jillian K; Fiske, Susan T

    2014-04-01

    Social comparison pervades our interactions with others, informing us of our standing and motivating improvement, but producing negative emotional and behavioral consequences that can harm relationships and lead to poor health outcomes. Social neuroscience research has begun to illuminate some mechanisms by which status divides lead to interpersonal consequences. This review integrates core findings on the neuroscience of social comparison processes, showing the effects of comparing the self to relevant others on dimensions of competence and warmth. The literature converges to suggest that relative status divides initiate social comparison processes, that upward and downward comparisons initiate pain- and pleasure-related neural responses, and that these responses can predict people׳s kindly or aggressive intentions toward one another. Across different types of comparisons, brain regions involved in mentalizing are also sometimes involved. Along with future work, the research reviewed here may inform efforts to mitigate negative outcomes of constant social comparisons. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Social comparisons and well-being following widowhood and divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Zur, Hasida; Michael, Keren

    2009-03-01

    A sample of 196 participants (mean age 45.94 years, 54% women) completed inventories assessing upward and downward positive and negative social comparisons and general well-being. Widows and widowers were higher on upward negative comparisons than divorced or married persons while being lower on well-being measures of life satisfaction and psychosocial adjustment. The divorced were higher than the widowed or married people on upward or downward positive social comparisons. Upward negative social comparisons were associated with lower levels of well-being measures whereas upward positive social comparisons showed an opposite tendency. Upward negative comparisons were found to mediate the effects of widowhood on well-being. It is concluded that cognitive adaptation contributes to the well-being of widowed and divorced persons.

  5. SUPPLEMENTARY COMPARISON: EUROMET.L-S10 Comparison of squareness measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokros, Jiri

    2005-01-01

    The idea of performing a comparison of squareness resulted from the need to review the MRA Appendix C, Category 90° square. At its meeting in October 1999 (in Prague) it was decided upon a first comparison of squareness measurements in the framework of EUROMET, numbered #570, starting in 2000, with the Slovak Institute of Metrology (SMU) as the pilot laboratory. During the preparation stage of the project, it was agreed that it should be submitted as a EUROMET supplementary comparison in the framework of the Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA) of the Metre Convention and would boost confidence in calibration and measurement certificates issued by the participating national metrology institutes. The aim of the comparison of squareness measurement was to compare and verify the declared calibration measurement capabilities of participating laboratories and to investigate the effect of systematic influences in the measurement process and their elimination. Eleven NMIs from the EUROMET region carried out this project. Two standards were calibrated: granite squareness standard of rectangular shape, cylindrical squareness standard of steel with marked positions for the profile lines. The following parameters had to be calibrated: granite squareness standard: interior angle γB between two lines AB and AC (envelope - LS regression) fitted through the measured profiles, and/or granite squareness standard: interior angle γLS between two LS regression lines AB and AC fitted through the measured profiles, cylindrical squareness standard: interior angles γ0°, γ90°, γ180°, γ270° between the LS regression line fitted through the measurement profiles at 0°, 90°, 180°, 270° and the envelope plane of the basis (resting on a surface plate), local LS straightness deviation for all measured profiles (2 and 4) of both standards. The results of the comparison are the deviations of profiles and angles measured by the individual NMIs from the reference values. These resulted

  6. The cg Package for Comparison of Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Pikounis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In research of medicines, the comparison of treatments, test articles, conditions, administrations, etc., is very common. Studies are completed, and the data are then most often analyzed with a default mixture of equal variance t tests, analysis of variance, and multiple comparison procedures. But even for an implicit, presumed one-factor linear model to compare groups, more often than not there is the added need to accommodate data which is better suited for expression of multiplicative effects, potential outliers, and limits of detection. Base R and contributed packages provide all the pieces to develop a comprehensive strategy to account for these needs. Such an approach includes exploration of the data, fitting models, formal analysis to gauge the magnitude of effects, and checking of assumptions. The cg package is developed with those goals in mind, using a flow of wrapper functions to guide the full analysis and interpretation of the data. Examples from our non-clinical world of research will be used to illustrate the package and strategy.

  7. Data for Room Fire Model Comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Richard D; Davis, Sanford; Babrauskas, Vytenis

    1991-01-01

    With the development of models to predict fire growth and spread in buildings, there has been a concomitant evolution in the measurement and analysis of experimental data in real-scale fires. This report presents the types of analyses that can be used to examine large-scale room fire test data to prepare the data for comparison with zone-based fire models. Five sets of experimental data which can be used to test the limits of a typical two-zone fire model are detailed. A standard set of nomenclature describing the geometry of the building and the quantities measured in each experiment is presented. Availability of ancillary data (such as smaller-scale test results) is included. These descriptions, along with the data (available in computer-readable form) should allow comparisons between the experiment and model predictions. The base of experimental data ranges in complexity from one room tests with individual furniture items to a series of tests conducted in a multiple story hotel equipped with a zoned smoke control system.

  8. Comparison of model and observed nearshore circulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allender, J. H.; Ditmars, J. D.; Harrison, W.; Paddock, R. A.

    1978-01-01

    Results from a two-dimensional numerical model for nearshore circulation induced by waves and wind are compared with observations made during two storms at a beach on Lake Michigan. Model-input data include bathymetry, offshore wave characteristics, wind histories, and local water-level changes. The predicted locations of the breaker zone are in rough accord with those observed during the storms. Data for comparison with model results consist of wave and current observations across the surf zone, especially those acquired by using a towed, instrumented sled. The comparisons show that the model often predicts peak currents near the breaker zone quite well, but underestimates the decay of wave height and the strength of longshore currents across the surf zone. Wave breaking on the bar-trough beach structure prevalent in this study apparently is not well represented by the model. An improved breaking criterion, treatment of breaking waves as traveling bores, and inclusion of horizontal mixing of momentum might add to better simulation of surf-zone currents.

  9. The interpretation of shoeprint comparison class correspondences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Sheida; Morgan-Smith, Rian; Buckleton, John

    2012-12-01

    The underlying principles involved in the interpretation of shoeprint comparisons have become a topical subject due to criticisms in the 2009 National Academy of Science (NAS) report on forensic sciences [1]. Difficulties in the application and understanding of these principles were also highlighted in a recent court ruling [2-5]. We report here a survey that may inform some aspects of this interpretation and discuss the implications of findings from this survey in the light of that court ruling and more importantly the NAS report. Five hundred shoeprints taken from student volunteers in Auckland, New Zealand were compared against each other for the presence of any pattern correspondences. Comparisons were undertaken of the full outsole and of smaller portions of the more common patterns. Of the 500 shoe impressions collected 488 (97.6%) were ultimately represented only once in the survey. The greatest number of corresponding patterns was for the most common brand of shoe (Converse Chuck Taylor All Star) and occurred in 3 of 500 observations. No instances of an imitation brand matching the authentic brand were found. Smaller sections of the common patterns showed a greater number of corresponding prints. However, the greatest number of matching partial patterns was again for the most common brand of shoe (Converse Chuck Taylor All Star) and occurred in 29 of 500 observations. We conclude that pattern match alone is of considerable evidential value even when the print is partial. Copyright © 2012 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of environmental sustainability of pharmaceutical packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geo Raju

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceutical companies are increasingly imparting a lot of importance on becoming more sustainable by developing medicines that are having same medicinal value but with reduced environmental impact. Type of packaging of tablets affects the emission generated during packaging of medicines. Selection of an appropriate packaging of medicine also influences the emission added to the environment. This paper aims at the comparison of environmental impacts of two different types of packaging of tablets viz., PVC blister and aluminium blister packaging. Life cycle assessment (LCA methodology is used for this comparison. The study includes stages from Cradle to Gate that is, extraction till the packaging processes focused mainly on manufacturing. The functional unit is taken as material required for packing 1 lakh (100,000, 500 mg of paracetamol tablets. Primary data is provided by a pharmaceutical formulation industry and secondary data is obtained from a commercial LCA database available in GaBi and from literature. LCA software GaBi 7.0 is used to carry out the life cycle assessment of both kinds of packaging. Life cycle impact assessment (LCIA method, CML 2001, is used in this study. The study indicates that the PVC blister packaging performs better compared to the aluminium blister packaging in most of the impact categories considered. It is observed that the process of manufacturing of aluminium foils is a significant contributor to the overall environmental impact of aluminium blister packaging.

  11. Methods for peptide identification by spectral comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrillo Brian

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tandem mass spectrometry followed by database search is currently the predominant technology for peptide sequencing in shotgun proteomics experiments. Most methods compare experimentally observed spectra to the theoretical spectra predicted from the sequences in protein databases. There is a growing interest, however, in comparing unknown experimental spectra to a library of previously identified spectra. This approach has the advantage of taking into account instrument-dependent factors and peptide-specific differences in fragmentation probabilities. It is also computationally more efficient for high-throughput proteomics studies. Results This paper investigates computational issues related to this spectral comparison approach. Different methods have been empirically evaluated over several large sets of spectra. First, we illustrate that the peak intensities follow a Poisson distribution. This implies that applying a square root transform will optimally stabilize the peak intensity variance. Our results show that the square root did indeed outperform other transforms, resulting in improved accuracy of spectral matching. Second, different measures of spectral similarity were compared, and the results illustrated that the correlation coefficient was most robust. Finally, we examine how to assemble multiple spectra associated with the same peptide to generate a synthetic reference spectrum. Ensemble averaging is shown to provide the best combination of accuracy and efficiency. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that when combined, these methods can boost the sensitivity and specificity of spectral comparison. Therefore they are capable of enhancing and complementing existing tools for consistent and accurate peptide identification.

  12. Comparison of Fast Neutron Detector Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stange, Sy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mckigney, Edward Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-02-09

    This report documents the work performed for the Department of Homeland Security Domestic Nuclear Detection O ce as the project Fast Neutron Detection Evaluation under contract HSHQDC-14-X-00022. This study was performed as a follow-on to the project Study of Fast Neutron Signatures and Measurement Techniques for SNM Detection - DNDO CFP11-100 STA-01. That work compared various detector technologies in a portal monitor con guration, focusing on a comparison between a number of fast neutron detection techniques and two standard thermal neutron detection technologies. The conclusions of the earlier work are contained in the report Comparison of Fast Neutron Detector Technologies. This work is designed to address questions raised about assumptions underlying the models built for the earlier project. To that end, liquid scintillators of two di erent sizes{ one a commercial, o -the-shelf (COTS) model of standard dimensions and the other a large, planer module{were characterized at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The results of those measurements were combined with the results of the earlier models to gain a more complete picture of the performance of liquid scintillator as a portal monitor technology.

  13. YBYRÁ facilitates comparison of large phylogenetic trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Denis Jacob

    2015-07-01

    The number and size of tree topologies that are being compared by phylogenetic systematists is increasing due to technological advancements in high-throughput DNA sequencing. However, we still lack tools to facilitate comparison among phylogenetic trees with a large number of terminals. The "YBYRÁ" project integrates software solutions for data analysis in phylogenetics. It comprises tools for (1) topological distance calculation based on the number of shared splits or clades, (2) sensitivity analysis and automatic generation of sensitivity plots and (3) clade diagnoses based on different categories of synapomorphies. YBYRÁ also provides (4) an original framework to facilitate the search for potential rogue taxa based on how much they affect average matching split distances (using MSdist). YBYRÁ facilitates comparison of large phylogenetic trees and outperforms competing software in terms of usability and time efficiency, specially for large data sets. The programs that comprises this toolkit are written in Python, hence they do not require installation and have minimum dependencies. The entire project is available under an open-source licence at http://www.ib.usp.br/grant/anfibios/researchSoftware.html .

  14. Social comparison, personal relative deprivation, and materialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunji; Callan, Mitchell J; Gheorghiu, Ana I; Matthews, William J

    2017-06-01

    Across five studies, we found consistent evidence for the idea that personal relative deprivation (PRD), which refers to resentment stemming from the belief that one is deprived of deserved outcomes compared to others, uniquely contributes to materialism. In Study 1, self-reports of PRD positively predicted materialistic values over and above socioeconomic status, personal power, self-esteem, and emotional uncertainty. The experience of PRD starts with social comparison, and Studies 2 and 3 found that PRD mediated the positive relation between a tendency to make social comparisons of abilities and materialism. In Study 4, participants who learned that they had less (vs. similar) discretionary income than people like them reported a stronger desire for more money relative to donating more to charity. In Study 5, during a windfall-spending task, participants higher in PRD spent more on things they wanted relative to other spending categories (e.g., paying off debts). © 2016 The Authors. British Journal of Social Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Psychological Society.

  15. Comparison of radar data versus rainfall data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, B.; Hromadka, T.V.; Perez, R.

    2015-01-01

    Doppler radar data are increasingly used in rainfall-runoff synthesis studies, perhaps due to radar data availability, among other factors. However, the veracity of the radar data are often a topic of concern. In this paper, three Doppler radar outcomes developed by the United States National Weather Service at three radar sites are examined and compared to actual rain gage data for two separate severe storm events in order to assess accuracy in the published radar estimates of rainfall. Because the subject storms were very intense rainfall events lasting approximately one hour in duration, direct comparisons between the three radar gages themselves can be made, as well as a comparison to rain gage data at a rain gage location subjected to the same storm cells. It is shown that topographic interference with the radar outcomes can be a significant factor leading to differences between radar and rain gage readings, and that care is needed in calibrating radar outcomes using available rain gage data in order to interpolate rainfall estimates between rain gages using the spatial variation observed in the radar readings. The paper establishes and describes•the need for “ground-truthing” of radar data, and•possible errors due to topographic interference. PMID:26649276

  16. Comparison between four dissimilar solar panel configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleiman, K.; Ali, U. A.; Yusuf, Ibrahim; Koko, A. D.; Bala, S. I.

    2017-03-01

    Several studies on photovoltaic systems focused on how it operates and energy required in operating it. Little attention is paid on its configurations, modeling of mean time to system failure, availability, cost benefit and comparisons of parallel and series-parallel designs. In this research work, four system configurations were studied. Configuration I consists of two sub-components arranged in parallel with 24 V each, configuration II consists of four sub-components arranged logically in parallel with 12 V each, configuration III consists of four sub-components arranged in series-parallel with 8 V each, and configuration IV has six sub-components with 6 V each arranged in series-parallel. Comparative analysis was made using Chapman Kolmogorov's method. The derivation for explicit expression of mean time to system failure, steady state availability and cost benefit analysis were performed, based on the comparison. Ranking method was used to determine the optimal configuration of the systems. The results of analytical and numerical solutions of system availability and mean time to system failure were determined and it was found that configuration I is the optimal configuration.

  17. Multiple comparison analysis testing in ANOVA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Mary L

    2011-01-01

    The Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) test has long been an important tool for researchers conducting studies on multiple experimental groups and one or more control groups. However, ANOVA cannot provide detailed information on differences among the various study groups, or on complex combinations of study groups. To fully understand group differences in an ANOVA, researchers must conduct tests of the differences between particular pairs of experimental and control groups. Tests conducted on subsets of data tested previously in another analysis are called post hoc tests. A class of post hoc tests that provide this type of detailed information for ANOVA results are called "multiple comparison analysis" tests. The most commonly used multiple comparison analysis statistics include the following tests: Tukey, Newman-Keuls, Scheffee, Bonferroni and Dunnett. These statistical tools each have specific uses, advantages and disadvantages. Some are best used for testing theory while others are useful in generating new theory. Selection of the appropriate post hoc test will provide researchers with the most detailed information while limiting Type 1 errors due to alpha inflation.

  18. Comparisons of Yield Calculations with Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dugan, G.

    1986-02-01

    Given what is claimed to a reasonably accurate technique for calculating the pbar yield, it is useful to ask for comparisons with the data available from the recent commissioning run. The simplest comparison to make is that of the yield. The number of pbars circulating in the Debuncher was measured many times; the total number of secondaries at IC728 in AP-2 was also measured many times. The ratio of pbars to total flux at IC728 was measured once (Bk. I, p 166); this number was {bar P}/total = 0.032. Typically, the ratio of secondaries at IC728 to protons on target was about 0.0012 (this was about the same number, independent of whether the lens was operated at 600 or 1000 T/m.). Thus, at IC728 we have N{sub P}/N{sub {bar P}} {approx} 1.2 x 10{sup -3} x 3.2 x 10{sup -2} = 3.8 x 10{sup -5} = 38 ppm.

  19. Multidimensional first-order dominance comparisons of population wellbeing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Thomas Channing; Siersbæk, Nikolaj; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    In this paper, we convey the concept of first-order dominance (FOD) with particular focus on applications to multidimensional population welfare comparisons. We give an account of the fundamental equivalent definitions of FOD, illustrated with simple numerical examples. An implementable method...... for detecting dominances is explained along with a bootstrapping procedure that yields additional information relative to what can be obtained from dominance comparisons alone. We discuss strengths and weaknesses of FOD, compared to other multidimensional population comparison concepts, and describe practical...

  20. PR Personnel and Print Journalists: A Comparison of Professionalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayman, Oguz; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Reports on a comparison of Colorado public relations personnel and newspaper journalists, which focused on demographic characteristics, professional orientation, job satisfaction, and attitude toward professional improvement. (GW)

  1. Dismantling prevention: Comparison of outcomes following media literacy and appearance comparison modules in a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Siân A; Wertheim, Eleanor H; Marques, Mathew D; Paxton, Susan J

    2016-11-01

    A dismantling study of body dissatisfaction prevention was conducted. Adolescent girls ( N = 260) were randomly allocated to a media literacy (Happy Being Me - Media Literacy) or appearance comparison (Happy Being Me - Appearance Comparison) intervention or healthy eating behaviour control (Happy Being Me - Healthy Eating Behaviour) condition. In the Happy Being Me - Appearance Comparison condition, improvements from baseline to post-programme and follow-up for upward appearance comparison and fear of negative appearance evaluation were observed. In the Happy Being Me - Media Literacy condition, improvements were observed from baseline to post-programme for upward appearance comparison and realism scepticism. Findings were similar in a high-risk subsample and overall are moderately supportive of appearance comparison-based interventions, but less supportive of a stand-alone media literacy intervention.

  2. Comparison of metagenomic samples using sequence signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Bai

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sequence signatures, as defined by the frequencies of k-tuples (or k-mers, k-grams, have been used extensively to compare genomic sequences of individual organisms, to identify cis-regulatory modules, and to study the evolution of regulatory sequences. Recently many next-generation sequencing (NGS read data sets of metagenomic samples from a variety of different environments have been generated. The assembly of these reads can be difficult and analysis methods based on mapping reads to genes or pathways are also restricted by the availability and completeness of existing databases. Sequence-signature-based methods, however, do not need the complete genomes or existing databases and thus, can potentially be very useful for the comparison of metagenomic samples using NGS read data. Still, the applications of sequence signature methods for the comparison of metagenomic samples have not been well studied. Results We studied several dissimilarity measures, including d2, d2* and d2S recently developed from our group, a measure (hereinafter noted as Hao used in CVTree developed from Hao’s group (Qi et al., 2004, measures based on relative di-, tri-, and tetra-nucleotide frequencies as in Willner et al. (2009, as well as standard lp measures between the frequency vectors, for the comparison of metagenomic samples using sequence signatures. We compared their performance using a series of extensive simulations and three real next-generation sequencing (NGS metagenomic datasets: 39 fecal samples from 33 mammalian host species, 56 marine samples across the world, and 13 fecal samples from human individuals. Results showed that the dissimilarity measure d2S can achieve superior performance when comparing metagenomic samples by clustering them into different groups as well as recovering environmental gradients affecting microbial samples. New insights into the environmental factors affecting microbial compositions in metagenomic samples

  3. Spread and Liquidity Issues: A markets comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strašek Sebastjan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The financial crises are closely connected with spread changes and liquidity issues. After defining and addressing spread considerations, we research in this paper the topic of liquidity issues in times of economic crisis. We analyse the liquidity effects as recorded on spreads of securities from different markets. We stipulate that higher international risk aversion in times of financial crises coincides with widening security spreads. The paper then introduces liquidity as a risk factor into the standard value-at-risk framework, using GARCH methodology. The comparison of results of these models suggests that the size of the tested markets does not have a strong effect on the models. Thus, we find that spread analysis is an appropriate tool for analysing liquidity issues during a financial crisis.

  4. Patent documentation - comparison of two MT strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offersgaard, Lene; Povlsen, Claus

    2007-01-01

    . The distinctive text type of patents pose special demands for machine translation and these aspects are discussed based on linguistic observations with focus on the users point of view. Two main demands are automatic pre processing of the documents and implementation of a module which in a flexible and user......This paper focuses on two matters: A comparison of how two different MT strategies manage translating the text type of patent documentation and a survey of what is needed to transform a MT research prototype system to a translation application for patent texts. The two MT strategies is represented...... by PaTrans - a transfer and rule based system being used for more than 15 years by the translation agency Lingtech A/S and SpaTrans - a SMT system based on the Pharaoh framework. The SMT systems are characterised by shorter development time and low development cost compared to rulebased systems...

  5. Comparison of Module Performance Characterization Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KROPOSKI,B.; MARION,W.; KING,DAVID L.; BOYSON,WILLIAM EARL; KRATOCHVIL,JAY A.

    2000-10-03

    The rating and modeling of photovoltaic PW module performance has been of concern to manufacturers and system designers for over 20 years. Both the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) have developed methodologies to predict module and array performance under actual operating conditions. This paper compares the two methods of determining the performance of PV modules, The methods translate module performance to actual or reference conditions using slightly different approaches. The accuracy of both methods is compared for both hourly, daily, and annual energy production over a year of data recorded at NREL in Golden, CO. The comparison of the two methods will be presented for five different PV module technologies.

  6. An Operational Comparison of Lightning Warning Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. L.; Janota, D. E.; Hay, J. E.

    1982-05-01

    During the spring-summer of 1979, six lightning warning devices were evaluated in a side-by-side comparison study at three test sites. Stock commercial devices were selected based upon distinct concepts of operation. The devices tested included a sferics counter, a corona point, a radioactive probe, a field mill, an azimuth/range locator and a triangulation locator. The test sites were chosen to provide varied thunderstorm conditions: 1) San Antonio, Texas (cold air advection), 2) Kennedy Space Center, Florida (localized surface heating) and 3) Langmuir Laboratory, New Mexico (orographic effects). The evaluation parameters were advance warning time, time to clear after hazard, alarm reliability, and false alarm and failure to alarm probabilities. The triangulation locator provided the best overall performance; however, all systems indicated a need for improvement in the failure to alarm rate.

  7. Comparison of future energy scenarios for Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwon, Pil Seok; Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2012-01-01

    Scenario-making is becoming an important tool in energy policy making and energy systems analyses. This article probes into the making of scenarios for Denmark by presenting a comparison of three future scenarios which narrate 100% renewable energy system for Denmark in 2050; IDA 2050, Climate...... Commission 2050, and CEESA (Coherent Energy and Environmental System Analysis). Generally, although with minor differences, the scenarios suggest the same technological solutions for the future such as expansion of biomass usage and wind power capacity, integration of transport sector into the other energy...... sectors. The methodologies used in two academic scenarios, IDA 2050 and CEESA, are compared. The main differences in the methodologies of IDA 2050 and CEESA are found in the estimation of future biomass potential, transport demand assessment, and a trial to examine future power grid in an electrical...

  8. The politics of comparison in mediated publics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkbak, Andreas

    News media and social media are often compared in a way that focuses on their contrasts, e.g. as between objective news and passionate opinions – or between a clear-cut public and multiple issue-oriented quasi-publics. If we do not assume such divisions to be pre-given, it becomes possible to study...... these comparative practices are different, or do we focus on how they interlink? I argue that if we want to learn from the comparative work being done with media, the politics of linkages is more interesting. In the paper, I try to demonstrate empirically what is at stake in these politics of comparisons through...... two case studies. For instance, it becomes possible to not just describe how news media and social media handle issues through setting up socio-technical ‘comparators’ (Deville et al. 2013), but also attend to how actors draw creatively on a range of interlinked comparators in their navigation...

  9. Insights from Human/Mouse genome comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennacchio, Len A.

    2003-03-30

    Large-scale public genomic sequencing efforts have provided a wealth of vertebrate sequence data poised to provide insights into mammalian biology. These include deep genomic sequence coverage of human, mouse, rat, zebrafish, and two pufferfish (Fugu rubripes and Tetraodon nigroviridis) (Aparicio et al. 2002; Lander et al. 2001; Venter et al. 2001; Waterston et al. 2002). In addition, a high-priority has been placed on determining the genomic sequence of chimpanzee, dog, cow, frog, and chicken (Boguski 2002). While only recently available, whole genome sequence data have provided the unique opportunity to globally compare complete genome contents. Furthermore, the shared evolutionary ancestry of vertebrate species has allowed the development of comparative genomic approaches to identify ancient conserved sequences with functionality. Accordingly, this review focuses on the initial comparison of available mammalian genomes and describes various insights derived from such analysis.

  10. Flexible Substrates Comparison for Pled Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenna, G.; Miscioscia, R.; Tassini, P.; Minarini, C.; Vacca, P.; Valentino, O.

    2008-08-01

    Flexible substrate displays are critical to organic electronics, e-paper's and e-ink's development. Many different types of materials are under investigation, including glass, polymer films and metallic foils. In this work we report a comparison study of polymer films as flexible substrates for polymer light emitting diodes (PLEDs) technology. The selected polymer substrates are two thermoplastic semi-crystalline polymers (PET and PEN) and a high Tg material that cannot be melt processed (PAR). Firstly, the chosen films were characterized in morphology and optical properties with the aim to confirm their suitability for optoelectronic applications. Transmittance was analysed by UV-Vis spectrophotometry and roughness by a surface profilometer. Finally, the surface energy of substrates (untreated and after UV-ozone treatment) was estimated by contact angle measurements in order to evaluate their wettability for active materials deposition.

  11. Fast alignment and comparison of RNA structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegels, Tim; Bienert, Stefan; Torda, Andrew E

    2013-03-01

    To recognize remote relationships between RNA molecules, one must be able to align structures without regard to sequence similarity. We have implemented a method, which is swift [O(n(2))], sensitive and tolerant of large gaps and insertions. Molecules are broken into overlapping fragments, which are characterized by their memberships in a probabilistic classification based on local geometry and H-bonding descriptors. This leads to a probabilistic similarity measure that is used in a conventional dynamic programming method. Examples are given of database searching, the detection of structural similarities, which would not be found using sequence based methods, and comparisons with a previously published approach. Source code (C and perl) and binaries for linux are freely available at www.zbh.uni-hamburg.de/fries.

  12. Thermoeconomic comparison of industrial heat pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Markussen, Christen Malte; Reinholdt, L.

    2011-01-01

    , limitations and design, a generic comparison is used. To establish the optimal individual temperature range of operation, a thermoeconomic evaluation is performed, with heat price as the decision parameter. Each individual heat pump is favourable in specific temperature intervals, which will vary according......Four natural working fluids in various heat pump cycles are expected to cover the heating range between 50oC and 150°C. The different thermodynamic cycles are the Condensing Vapour, Transcritical and Compression/Absorption. As the considered technologies have significant differences in application...... to the temperature lift between sink and source. At temperature lifts below 30°C the entire temperature range is covered. Exceeding this temperature lift, the range of sink temperatures is not completely covered above 125°C. Three of the heat pumps prove very cost competitive when compared to heating with natural...

  13. Comparison of BIPV and BIPVT: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Debbarma

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Building-Integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV is a smart energy production system that incorporates solar PV panels as part of the roof, windows, facades and shading devices. When active heat recovery is combined with BIPV systems either in closed loop (like PV-T with liquid loop or in an open loop with forced air they are known as building-integrated photovoltaic-thermal (BIPVT systems. This paper reviews the BIPV and BIPVT technology. The paper shows various technologies involved in BIPV and BIPVT as well as their function, cost and aesthetics. In addition a review of the application of BIPV and BIPVT installations is described. In comparison to BIPV systems, BIPVT system has significant benefits and potential for wide use in buildings. The building integrated photovoltaic-thermal system design (BIPVT is also becoming popular among architects and design engineers.

  14. Comparison of select reference management tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingting

    2012-01-01

    Bibliographic management tools have been widely used by researchers to store, organize, and manage their references for research papers, theses, dissertations, journal articles, and other publications. There are a number of reference management tools available. In order for users to decide which tool is best for their needs, it is important to know each tool's strengths and weaknesses. This article compares four reference management tools, one of which is licensed by University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey libraries and the other three are open source and freely available. They were chosen based on their functionality, ease of use, availability to library users, and popularity. These four tools are EndNote/EndNote Web, Zotero, Connotea, and Mendeley Desktop/Mendeley Web. Each tool is analyzed in terms of the following features: accessing, collecting, organizing, collaborating, and citing/formatting. A comparison table is included to summarize the key features of these tools. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  15. Assessing the GDP structure in global comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Palát

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with identifying relationships between the household consumption and the GDP on the selected sample of countries of the world. It provides an analysis of the GDP structure and its development and, on the basis of available statistic data, carries out evaluation of the development of the GDP structure from the point of view of the expenditure method of its estimating in the selected sample of the world countries. In this respect, the validity of a hypothesis is also verified that countries with higher GDP per capita reach the lower proportion of consumption in the total GDP than countries with a lower GDP per capita, namely at the global comparison on the more heterogeneous sample of countries than analyses published so far.

  16. Society and Education: An Outline of Comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moutsios, Stavros

    than ever before. The book demonstrates the embeddedness of education in its cultural context and should, therefore, be of great interest to academics, researchers and postgraduate students who are involved with comparative education, the sociology and history of education, education policy...... in Europe. Elaborating on the Castoriadian ontology, the book delves into the magma of social imaginary significations that characterise and associate pivotal epochs of the continent’s history, Classical Greece and Modernity, and exemplifies their incarnation in educational systems and in the formation......'Society and Education: An Outline of Comparison' explores the relation of society to education in Europe, as well as its comparative perspective towards overseas societies and their institutions. It is an enquiry into the social-historical institution of education and cross-cultural studies...

  17. A comparison of phase I control charts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coelho, Margarethe

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A carefully done Phase I analysis is a vital part of an overall statistical process control and monitoring regime. Distribution-free control charts can play a useful role in this analysis, as a parametric model assumption often cannot be adequately verified. The performance of two distribution-free charts for the location – the mean-rank and the median chart – are compared in this paper. For benchmarking reasons, the parametric -chart is included in the comparisons. It is seen that the distribution-free charts are in-control robust, whereas the -chart is not, and they both perform similarly to the -chart for normally distributed data. However, for non-normal data, they both outperform the -chart. The results provide evidence in favour of using distribution-free Phase I charts in practice. Concluding remarks and suggestions for future research are given.

  18. Comparison of Two Recent Launch Abort Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittemore, Gary D.; Harding, Adam

    2011-01-01

    The development of new and safer manned space vehicles is a top priority at NASA. Recently two different approaches of how to accomplish this mission of keeping astronauts safe was successfully demonstrated. With work already underway on an Apollo-like launch abort system for the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), an alternative design concept named the Max Launch Abort System, or MLAS, was developed as a parallel effort. The Orion system, managed by the Constellation office, is based on the design of a single solid launch abort motor in a tower positioned above the capsule. The MLAS design takes a different approach placing the solid launch abort motor underneath the capsule. This effort was led by the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC). Both escape systems were designed with the Ares I Rocket as the launch vehicle and had the same primary requirement to safely propel a crew module away from any emergency event either on the launch pad or during accent. Beyond these two parameters, there was little else in common between the two projects, except that they both concluded in successful launches that will further promote the development of crew launch abort systems. A comparison of these projects from the standpoint of technical requirements; program management and flight test objectives will be done to highlight the synergistic lessons learned by two engineers who worked on each program. This comparison will demonstrate how the scope of the project architecture and management involvement in innovation should be tailored to meet the specific needs of the system under development.

  19. SUPPLEMENTARY COMPARISON - EUROMET.L-S11 comparison on surface texture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koenders, L.; Andreasen, Jan Lasson; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2004-01-01

    of the calibration of the standards are presented. A considerable number of the over 600 measurement results did not fulfil the En criterion. Some of the problems are related to the determination of the depth of grooves on the depth-setting standard. This was really not expected at the beginning of the comparison...... of those used are traced back to SI by national metrology institutes (NMi), which should participate in international comparison to proof the validation of measurement results. Sixteen NMi from the EUROMET region carried out measurements on standards between May 2001 and March 2003. The set of standards....... Other problems are related to more complex parameters like RSm and Rk and their ambiguous definition in the written standards....

  20. Task Characteristics and Target Choice in Social Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorenflo, Daniel W.

    Festinger's (1954) theory of social comparison holds that in the absence of objective standards, people use the attitudes or judgments of similar others to determine the correctness of their own positions. More recent studies have suggested, however, that people often prefer dissimilar comparison targets. A study was undertaken to examine the…

  1. Social Comparison Processes in an Organizational Context: New Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Paul S.; Haisley, Emily

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this article is to frame some new directions to social comparison research in organizational settings. Four themes are developed. First, we examine the role of organizational variables in shaping the basic sub processes in social comparison, such as the selection of referents. The second theme focuses on the meaning of level of…

  2. Positive identification by X-rays bone trabeculae comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quatrehomme, Gérald; Biglia, Elodie; Padovani, Bernard; du Jardin, Philippe; Alunni, Véronique

    2014-12-01

    Positive (certain, absolute) identification of human remains needs a scientific comparison between ante mortem and post-mortem biologic features, as fingerprint, odontological, radiological or DNA comparisons. X-rays comparison has been extensively used, usually comparing some peculiarities such as outlines of the bones, degenerative evolution or pathological conditions. Trabeculae comparisons are sparsely underlined in the forensic literature. We report on a case of decomposed body where fingerprint, DNA and odontological comparisons were not possible. After dissecting the leg and preparing the bones, comparison of ante mortem and postmortem trabeculae led to a positive identification. It was observed that tens of radiolucencies and radiodensities drawn by the trabeculae were useful for comparison, within a very small part of bone. In the case reported here the positive identity could have been assessed only by the comparison of the first metatarsal. The statement of positive identification needs scientific criteria that will be discussed in this article. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A New Comparison Principle for Impulsive Functional Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We establish a new comparison principle for impulsive differential systems with time delay. Then, using this comparison principle, we obtain some sufficient conditions for several stabilities of impulsive delay differential equations. Finally, we present an example to show the effectiveness of our results.

  4. Numerical Order and Quantity Processing in Number Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turconi, Eva; Campbell, Jamie I. D.; Seron, Xavier

    2006-01-01

    We investigated processing of numerical order information and its relation to mechanisms of numerical quantity processing. In two experiments, performance on a quantity-comparison task (e.g. 2 5; which is larger?) was compared with performance on a relative-order judgment task (e.g. 2 5; ascending or descending order?). The comparison task…

  5. Gender Differences in Comparisons and Entitlement: Implications for Comparable Worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Brenda

    1989-01-01

    Addresses the role of comparison processes in the persistence of the gender wage gap, its toleration by those disadvantaged by it, and resistance to comparable worth as a corrective strategy. Argues that gender segregation and undercompensation for women's jobs leads women to use different comparison standards when evaluating what they deserve.…

  6. Social Comparison Orientation in Monozygotic and Dizygotic Twins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huguet, Pascal; Carlier, Michèle; Dolan, Conor V; de Geus, Eco J; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2017-01-01

    Twin research has offered evidence that monozygotic (MZ) twins are more socially close than dizygotic (DZ) twins, but has not paid much attention to the way twins compare themselves with their co-twin. The few studies in this area suggest that 'horizontal comparisons' (social comparison motivated by

  7. Social comparison orientation as related to two types of closeness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, Abraham P.; Dijkstra, Pieternel; Bosch, Zwenneke A.; Dijkstra, Arie; Barelds, Dick P. H.

    Two studies examined the relationship between social comparison orientation (SCO) and two types of closeness (dimensional closeness and psychological closeness) in the context of appearance-related comparisons among women. A pilot study showed that these two types were relatively independent

  8. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis of core gene of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nucleotides and deduced amino acid sequence comparison of six isolates was performed with each other and with two HCV genotype 3a type examples reported from Japan. Phylogenetic tree of HCV core sequences was constructed using CLC software. Nucleotides sequence comparison showed that our sequences ...

  9. Comparison preferences after success or failure at school

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wehrens, M. J. P. W.; Kuyper, H.; Buunk, A. P.; van der Werf, M. P. C.

    2011-01-01

    Getting an insufficient grade at school might be threatening for students. In such a situation the choice of a lower comparison level possibly functions as a self-protective strategy. The present study investigated whether students in high school reported a lower absolute preferred comparison level

  10. The Age and Sex in the Social Comparison Orientation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alfonso Urzua, M.; Patricia Zuniga, B.; Buunk, Abraham P.

    2012-01-01

    The Social Comparison Orientation (SCO) is the personal disposition of individuals prone to social comparison. The aim of this study was to analyze the SCO at different ages in men and women. The main hypothesis is that the average is higher in SCO younger age ranges and decreases as age increases.

  11. Comparison of INMARSAT and ATS3 satellite communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-29

    There exists a need to provide communication through a satellite- based network which allows a user to communicate from a remote site to a fixed site. This discussion provides a comparison, both technical and financial, between the existing ATS3 satellite system and the commercial INMARSAT system. This comparison identified the limitations of each system to provide various types of communication.

  12. RDV77 VLBA Hardware/Software Correlator Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, David

    2010-01-01

    Results of a hardware vs. software correlation of the RDV77 session are presented. Group delays are found to agree (WRMS differences) at an average level of 4.2 psec and with a noise floor of 2.5 psec. These RDV77 comparisons agree well with several previous correlator comparison studies.

  13. Development of Fraction Comparison Strategies: A Latent Transition Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinne, Luke F.; Ye, Ai; Jordan, Nancy C.

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the development of fraction comparison strategies through a longitudinal analysis of children's responses to a fraction comparison task in 4th through 6th grades (N = 394). Participants were asked to choose the larger value for 24 fraction pairs blocked by fraction type. Latent class analysis of performance over item…

  14. Social comparison in the Dutch classroom : discussion and conclusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, P.; Barelds, D. P. H.; Kuyper, H.

    2011-01-01

    In the context of the classroom students often make use of social comparisons, particularly with regard to their own school performance. These social comparisons may have both positive and negative effects. In this special issue of Pedagogische Studien, four studies are discussed that focus on the

  15. Design and Comparison Direct Torque Control Techniques for Induction Motors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Kazmierkowski, Marian P.; Zelechowski, Marcin

    2005-01-01

    In this paper a comparison of two significant control methods of induction motor are presented. The first one is a classical Direct Torque and Flux Control (DTC) and is compared with a scheme, which uses Space Vector Modulator (DTC-SVM). A comparison in respect to dynamic and steady state...

  16. Non primary standards SIM force comparison up to 10 kn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Santo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This force comparison was performed among IDIC (Chile, LATU (Uruguay and CENAM (Mexico, national laboratories within the Interamerican Metrology System (SIM region. Each laboratory used its national standard for the established measuring range. The comparison started in August 2002 and finished in September 2004. This comparison is the second part of a SIM primary standards comparison carried out with the participation of INMETRO (Brazil, INTI (Argentina and SIC (Colombia, having CENAM as pilot laboratory, (SIM comparison number SIM 7.7. This comparison has an overlap with the force steps used in the CIPM Key Comparison CCM.F-K1.a and CCM.F-K1.b., force points 5 kN and 10 kN.The objective of the comparison was to estimate the level of agreement for the realization of the quantity force and the uncertainty associated to its measurement in the range up to 10 kN. Two transducers (load cells were used as transfer standards, to obtain its maximum accuracy, thecomparison range was selected from 4 kN to 10 kN (starting at 40% of the full load cells range. The results obtained by the participating laboratories were in agreement according to the analysis of comparability performed by the normalized error equation and the Youden plot techniques used.

  17. Social Comparisons and Well-Being Following Widowhood and Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Zur, Hasida; Michael, Keren

    2009-01-01

    A sample of 196 participants (mean age 45.94 years, 54% women) completed inventories assessing upward and downward positive and negative social comparisons and general well-being. Widows and widowers were higher on upward negative comparisons than divorced or married persons while being lower on well-being measures of life satisfaction and…

  18. Optimism, Social Comparisons, and Coping with Vision Loss in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Zur, Hasida; Debi, Zoharit

    2005-01-01

    This study of 90 adults (aged 55?80) who lost their vision assessed their dispositional optimism, social comparisons, coping strategies, and wellbeing. The findings suggest that optimism and positive social comparisons play an important role in stimulating the motivation to cope adaptively with vision loss and that enhancing optimism and social…

  19. Comparison of Blackbodies for Calibration of Infrared Ear Thermometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pušnik, Igor; Clausen, Sønnik; Favreau, Jacques-Olivier

    2011-01-01

    The article presents the results of the EURAMET Project No. 927 “Comparison of blackbodies for calibration of infrared ear thermometers (IRETs)”. The objective of the comparison was to determine the agreement of blackbodies used for the calibration of IRETs among European national laboratories...

  20. Finding a Comparison Group: Is Online Crowdsourcing a Viable Option?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzam, Tarek; Jacobson, Miriam R.

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the viability of online crowdsourcing for creating matched-comparison groups. This exploratory study compares survey results from a randomized control group to survey results from a matched-comparison group created from Amazon.com's MTurk crowdsourcing service to determine their comparability. Study findings indicate…

  1. Affect and identification in social comparison after loss of work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ybema, J.F.; Buunk, Abraham (Bram); Heesink, J.A.M.

    This study examined the effects of social comparison among 172 individuals who had recently lost their jobs in a collective dismissal of employees. A part of a fictitious interview with another fired person was presented to the participants. This interview contained social comparison information on

  2. Neuroticism and reactions to social comparison information among cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, K; Buunk, B; Sanderman, R

    In an experimental study neuroticism was examined as a moderator of breast cancer patients' affective reactions to social comparison information about a fellow patient. Fifty-seven women with breast cancer completed Eysenck's Personality Questionnaire and received social comparison information about

  3. Neuroticism and Reactions to Social Comparison Information among Cancer Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Zee, Karen; Buunk, Bram; Sanderman, Robbert

    In an experimental study neuroticism was examined as a moderator of breast cancer patients' affective reactions to social comparison information about a fellow patient. Fifty-seven women with breast cancer completed Eysenck's Personality Questionnaire and received social comparison information about

  4. Regional comparison of absolute gravimeters, EURAMET.M.G-K2 key comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pálinkáš, V.; Francis, O.; Val'ko, M.; Kostelecký, J.; Van Camp, M.; Castelein, S.; Bilker-Koivula, M.; Näränen, J.; Lothhammer, A.; Falk, R.; Schilling, M.; Timmen, L.; Iacovone, D.; Baccaro, F.; Germak, A.; Biolcati, E.; Origlia, C.; Greco, F.; Pistorio, A.; De Plaen, R.; Klein, G.; Seil, M.; Radinovic, R.; Reudink, R.; Dykowski, P.; Sȩkowski, M.; Próchniewicz, D.; Szpunar, R.; Mojzeš, M.; Jańk, J.; Papčo, J.; Engfeldt, A.; Olsson, P. A.; Smith, V.; van Westrum, D.; Ellis, B.; Lucero, B.

    2017-01-01

    In the framework of the regional EURAMET.M.G-K2 comparison of absolute gravimeters, 17 gravimeters were compared in November 2015. Four gravimeters were from different NMIs and DIs, they were used to link the regional comparison to the CCM.G.K2 by means of linking converter. Combined least-squares adjustments with weighted constraint was used to determine KCRV. Several pilot solutions are presented and compared with the official solution to demonstrate influences of different approaches (e.g. definition of weights and the constraint) on results of the adjustment. In case of the official solution, all the gravimeters are in equivalence with declared uncertainties. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  5. SUPPLEMENTARY COMPARISON: Final report on supplementary comparison SADCMET.AUV.V-S1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldman, Ian; von Martens, Hans-Jürgen

    2004-01-01

    A supplementary comparison (SADC.AUV.V-S1) was organized to compare measurements of sinusoidal linear accelerations in the frequency range from 10 Hz to 10 kHz. In this bilateral comparison between the CSIR National Metrology Laboratory (CSIR-NML), South Africa and the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Germany both NMIs applied laser interferometry in compliance with method 3 of the international standard ISO 16063-11:1999. The complex charge sensitivity (magnitude and phase) of two different transfer standards (single-ended accelerometers) was measured at 37 frequencies. The results of the SADCMET.AUV.V-S1 are a set of comparison values and their uncertainties, and degrees of equivalence between these and between the two laboratories. From this complete set of results, six matrices of equivalence per accelerometer were selected and are demonstrated graphically. The deviations between the PTB and NML results were smaller than 0.6° and 2° for the phase shift measurements for the Endevco and Brüel & Kjær accelerometers respectively (37 measurement points each). Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by SADCMET, according to the provisions of the Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  6. Comparison of global ocean colour data records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Djavidnia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The extending record of ocean colour derived information, an important asset for the study of marine ecosystems and biogeochemistry, presently relies on individual satellite missions launched by several space agencies with differences in sensor design, calibration strategies and algorithms. In this study we present an extensive comparative analysis of standard products obtained from operational global ocean colour sensors (SeaWiFS, MERIS, MODIS-Aqua, MODIS-Terra, on both global and regional scales. The analysis is based on monthly mean chlorophyll a (Chl-a sea surface concentration between 2002 and 2009.

    Based on global statistics, the Chl-a records appear relatively consistent. The root mean square (RMS difference Δ between (log-transformed Chl-a from SeaWiFS and MODIS Aqua amounts to 0.137, with a bias of 0.074 (SeaWiFS Chl-a higher. The difference between these two products and MERIS Chl-a is approximately 0.15. Restricting the analysis to 2007 only, Δ between MODIS Aqua and Terra is 0.142. This global convergence is significantly modulated regionally. Statistics for biogeographic provinces representing a partition of the global ocean, show Δ values varying between 0.08 and 0.3. High latitude regions, as well as coastal and shelf provinces are generally the areas with the largest differences. Moreover, RMS differences and biases are modulated in time, with a coefficient of variation of Δ varying between 10% and 40%, with clear seasonal patterns in some provinces.

    The comparison of the province-averaged time series obtained from the various satellite products also shows a level of agreement that is geographically variable. Overall, the Chl-a SeaWiFS and MODIS Aqua series appear to have similar levels of variance and display high correlation coefficients, an agreement likely favoured by the common elements shared by the two missions. These results are degraded if the MERIS

  7. Methods for comparison of cost data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X H; Melfi, C A; Hui, S L

    1997-10-15

    Researchers are increasingly interested in examining costs of care, and large administrative and clinical databases have made relevant data readily available. Because a few patients incur high costs relative to most patients, the distribution of cost data is often skewed. How robust are the usual methods of cost analysis against the skewed distribution of cost data? To determine the methods commonly used for comparing cost data, describe their limitations, and provide an alternate method of analysis. Review of statistical methods used in studies of medical costs published in medical journals between January 1991 and January 1996. Description of a Z-score method appropriate for testing the equality of mean costs between two log-normal samples; and reanalysis of published two-sample comparison results done by using the Z-score method. For two-sample comparisons, three methods were commonly used: the Student t-test on untransformed costs, the Wilcoxon test on untransformed costs, and the Student t-test on log-transformed costs. The t-test on untransformed costs ignores the skewness in cost data, the Wilcoxon test ignores unequal variances, and the t-test on log-transformed costs tests the wrong null hypothesis unless variances in the log-scale are equal. Eleven articles included two-sample tests and had enough information to allow reanalysis of the data using the Z-score method. These articles described a total of 23 Wilcoxon tests and 24 t-tests on untransformed costs. Most results did not change on reanalysis, but six results changed enough to alter conclusions. Specifically, reanalysis of data for which one Wilcoxon test had shown statistically significant results showed nonsignificant results; reanalysis of data for which two Wilcoxon tests had shown nonsignificant results showed statistically significant results. In articles that used t-tests on untransformed costs, two statistically significant results became nonsignificant on reanalysis and one nonsignificant

  8. The man who wasn't there : Subliminal social comparison standards influence self-evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mussweiler, T; Ruter, K; Epstude, K

    Life provides an endless stream of social comparison information. Because opportunities to compare with others are so abundant, social comparison theory traditionally assumes that people are selective in their comparison activities and primarily compare with deliberately selected standards. Recent

  9. A plea for neutral comparison studies in computational sciences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Laure Boulesteix

    Full Text Available In computational science literature including, e.g., bioinformatics, computational statistics or machine learning, most published articles are devoted to the development of "new methods", while comparison studies are generally appreciated by readers but surprisingly given poor consideration by many journals. This paper stresses the importance of neutral comparison studies for the objective evaluation of existing methods and the establishment of standards by drawing parallels with clinical research. The goal of the paper is twofold. Firstly, we present a survey of recent computational papers on supervised classification published in seven high-ranking computational science journals. The aim is to provide an up-to-date picture of current scientific practice with respect to the comparison of methods in both articles presenting new methods and articles focusing on the comparison study itself. Secondly, based on the results of our survey we critically discuss the necessity, impact and limitations of neutral comparison studies in computational sciences. We define three reasonable criteria a comparison study has to fulfill in order to be considered as neutral, and explicate general considerations on the individual components of a "tidy neutral comparison study". R codes for completely replicating our statistical analyses and figures are available from the companion website http://www.ibe.med.uni-muenchen.de/organisation/mitarbeiter/020_professuren/boulesteix/plea2013.

  10. Experimental comparison of two quantum computing architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linke, Norbert M; Maslov, Dmitri; Roetteler, Martin; Debnath, Shantanu; Figgatt, Caroline; Landsman, Kevin A; Wright, Kenneth; Monroe, Christopher

    2017-03-28

    We run a selection of algorithms on two state-of-the-art 5-qubit quantum computers that are based on different technology platforms. One is a publicly accessible superconducting transmon device (www. ibm.com/ibm-q) with limited connectivity, and the other is a fully connected trapped-ion system. Even though the two systems have different native quantum interactions, both can be programed in a way that is blind to the underlying hardware, thus allowing a comparison of identical quantum algorithms between different physical systems. We show that quantum algorithms and circuits that use more connectivity clearly benefit from a better-connected system of qubits. Although the quantum systems here are not yet large enough to eclipse classical computers, this experiment exposes critical factors of scaling quantum computers, such as qubit connectivity and gate expressivity. In addition, the results suggest that codesigning particular quantum applications with the hardware itself will be paramount in successfully using quantum computers in the future.

  11. A comparison of pumping speed measurement methods

    CERN Document Server

    Denison, D R

    1974-01-01

    A comparison of pumping speed measurement method was made using three types of apparatus. These were: (i) the Fischer-Mommsen system, developed at CERN in which the gas flow rate is measured by the pressure drop across an orifice of known conductance at the test vessel inlet and the pressure gauge is arrayed to serve as a molecular flux transducer, (ii) the three gauge system used by some pump manufacturers in which the gas flow rate is determined by measuring the pressure drop across a long tube whose conductance is calculated from its dimensions and (iii) the constant pressure/pipette system in which the time is measured to evacuate a known quantity of gas. A sputter-ion pump with Ti and Ta cathodes and 32 Penning cells was used as the test pump. The Fischer and Mommsen and pipette procedures gave good agreement for the pumping speeds of N/sub 2/ (within 1%) but allowance had to be made for mass discrimination in the gas flow through an orifice when air was pumped. The three gauge method consistently gave a...

  12. The National Ballistics Imaging Comparison (NBIC) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, J; Vorburger, T V; Ballou, S; Thompson, R M; Yen, J; Renegar, T B; Zheng, A; Silver, R M; Ols, M

    2012-03-10

    In response to the guidelines issued by the American Society of Crime Laboratory Directors/Laboratory Accreditation Board (ASCLD/LAB-International) to establish traceability and quality assurance in U.S. crime laboratories, a NIST/ATF joint project entitled National Ballistics Imaging Comparison (NBIC) was initialized in 2008. The NBIC project aims to establish a National Traceability and Quality System for ballistics identifications in crime laboratories within the National Integrated Ballistics Information Network (NIBIN) of the U.S. NIST Standard Reference Material (SRM) 2460 bullets and 2461 cartridge cases are used as reference standards. 19 ballistics examiners from 13 U.S. crime laboratories participated in this project. They each performed 24 periodic image acquisitions and correlations of the SRM bullets and cartridge cases over the course of a year, but one examiner only participated in Phase 1 tests of SRM cartridge case. The correlation scores were collected by NIST for statistical analyses, from which control charts and control limits were developed for the proposed Quality System and for promoting future assessments and accreditations for firearm evidence in U.S. forensic laboratories in accordance with the ISO 17025 Standard. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  13. Comparison between analog and digital filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltan Erdei

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Digital signal processing(DSP is one of the most powerful technologies and will model science and engineering in the 21st century. Revolutionary changes have already been made in different areas of research such as communications, medical imaging, radar and sonar technology, high fidelity audio signal reproducing etc. Each of these fields developed a different signal processing technology with its own algorithms, mathematics and technology, Digital filters are used in two general directions: to separate mixed signals and to restore signals that were compromised in different modes. The objective of this paper is to compare some basic digital filters versus analog filters such as low-pass, high-pass, band-pass filters. Scientists and engineers comprehend that, in comparison with analog filters, digital filters can process the same signal in real-time with broader flexibility. This understanding is considered important to instill incentive for engineers to become interested in the field of DSP. The analysis of the results will be made using dedicated libraries in MATLAB and Simulink software, such as the Signal Processing Toolbox.

  14. Residential energy usage comparison project: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, B.A.; Uhlaner, R.T.; Cason, T.N. (Quantum Consulting, Inc., Berkeley, CA (USA))

    1990-10-01

    This report provides an overveiw of the residential energy usage comparison project, an integrated load and market research project sponsored by EPRI and the Southern California Edison Company. Traditional studies of the relative energy consumption of electric and gas household appliances have relied on laboratory analyses and computer simulations. This project was designed to study the appliance energy consumption patterns of actual households. Ninety-two households in Orange County, California, southeast of Los Angeles, served as the study sample. Half of the households received new electric space-conditioning, water-heating, cooking, and clothes-drying equipment; the other half received gas equipment. The electric space-conditioning and water-heating appliances were heat pump technologies. All of the appliances were metered to collect load-shape and energy consumption data. The households were also surveyed periodically to obtain information on their energy needs and their acceptance of the appliances. The metered energy consumption data provide an important benchmark for comparing the energy consumption and costs of alternative end-use technologies. The customer research results provide new insights into customer preferences for fuel and appliance types. 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Protein sequence comparison and protein evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, W.R. [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry

    1995-12-31

    This tutorial was one of eight tutorials selected to be presented at the Third International Conference on Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology which was held in the United Kingdom from July 16 to 19, 1995. This tutorial examines how the information conserved during the evolution of a protein molecule can be used to infer reliably homology, and thus a shared proteinfold and possibly a shared active site or function. The authors start by reviewing a geological/evolutionary time scale. Next they look at the evolution of several protein families. During the tutorial, these families will be used to demonstrate that homologous protein ancestry can be inferred with confidence. They also examine different modes of protein evolution and consider some hypotheses that have been presented to explain the very earliest events in protein evolution. The next part of the tutorial will examine the technical aspects of protein sequence comparison. Both optimal and heuristic algorithms and their associated parameters that are used to characterize protein sequence similarities are discussed. Perhaps more importantly, they survey the statistics of local similarity scores, and how these statistics can both be used to improve the selectivity of a search and to evaluate the significance of a match. They them examine distantly related members of three protein families, the serine proteases, the glutathione transferases, and the G-protein-coupled receptors (GCRs). Finally, the discuss how sequence similarity can be used to examine internal repeated or mosaic structures in proteins.

  16. Safeguards inventory and process monitoring regulatory comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavaluzzi, Jack M. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Gibbs, Philip W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2013-06-27

    Detecting the theft or diversion of the relatively small amount of fissile material needed to make a nuclear weapon given the normal operating capacity of many of today’s running nuclear production facilities is a difficult task. As throughput increases, the ability of the Material Control and Accountability (MC&A) Program to detect the material loss decreases because the statistical measurement uncertainty also increases. The challenge faced is the ability of current accounting, measurement, and material control programs to detect small yet significant losses under some regulatory approaches can decrease to the point where it is extremely low if not practically non-existent at normal operating capacities. Adding concern to this topic is that there are variations among regulatory bodies as far as what is considered a Significant Quantity (SQ). Some research suggests that thresholds should be lower than those found in any current regulation which if adopted would make meeting detection goals even more difficult. This paper reviews and compares the current regulatory requirements for the MA elements related to physical inventory, uncertainty of the Inventory Difference (ID), and Process Monitoring (PM) in the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Rosatom of the Russian Federation and the Chinese Atomic Energy Agency (CAEA) of China. The comparison looks at how the regulatory requirements for the implementation of various MA elements perform across a range of operating capacities in example facilities.

  17. Geographical variation of shoeprint comparison class correspondences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Indrika; Corke, Elisabeth; Morgan-Smith, Rian; Maynard, Philip; Curran, James M; Buckleton, John; Roux, Claude

    2014-09-01

    The underlying principles involved in the interpretation of shoeprint comparisons have become a topical subject due to criticisms in the 2009 National Academy of Science (NAS) report on forensic sciences[1]. Difficulties in the application and understanding of these principles were also highlighted in a recent court ruling [2-5] and subsequent discussion of the ruling. We report here a survey that may inform some aspects of this interpretation and discuss the implications of findings from this survey in the light of that court ruling and more importantly the NAS report. 1,511 shoeprints were taken from student volunteers in Auckland, Wellington and Dunedin, New Zealand. 500 shoeprints were sampled from student volunteers at Australian universities. 100 from each of the University of Technology in Sydney, University of Queensland in Brisbane, University of Newcastle, Charles Sturt University in Bathurst and University of Canberra, Australia. These cities are distributed along the east coast of Australia. The shoeprints, taken from each country, were compared against each other for the presence of any pattern correspondences However shoeprints have not been compared between countries. In all locations the pattern of some common and many rare outsole patterns was repeated, with Converse Chuck Taylor All Stars and Vans Canvas Era common in all locations. Copyright © 2014 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A Comparison of Simulation Capabilities for Ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, William A [ORNL; Smith, Matt K [ORNL; Gu, Lixing [Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC); New, Joshua Ryan [ORNL

    2014-11-01

    Typically, the cheapest way to install a central air conditioning system in residential buildings is to place the ductwork in the attic. Energy losses due to duct-attic interactions can be great, but current whole-house models are unable to capture the dynamic multi-mode physics of the interactions. The building industry is notoriously fragmented and unable to devote adequate research resources to solve this problem. Builders are going to continue to put ducts in the attic because floor space is too expensive to closet them within living space, and there are both construction and aesthetic issues with other approaches such as dropped ceilings. Thus, there is a substantial need to publicly document duct losses and the cost of energy used by ducts in attics so that practitioners, builders, homeowners and state and federal code officials can make informed decisions leading to changes in new construction and additional retrofit actions. Thus, the goal of this study is to conduct a comparison of AtticSim and EnergyPlus simulation algorithms to identify specific features for potential inclusion in EnergyPlus that would allow higher-fidelity modeling of HVAC operation and duct transport of conditioned air. It is anticipated that the resulting analysis from these simulation tools will inform energy decisions relating to the role of ducts in future building energy codes and standards.

  19. Aerosol Angstrom Absorption Coefficient Comparisons during MILAGRO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, N. A.; Marchany-Rivera, A.; Kelley, K. L.; Mangu, A.; Gaffney, J. S.

    2007-12-01

    Measurements of aerosol absorption were obtained as part of the MAX-Mex component of the MILAGRO field campaign at site T0 (Instituto Mexicano de Petroleo in Mexico City) by using a 7-channel aethalometer (Thermo- Anderson) during the month of March, 2006. The absorption measurements obtained in the field at 370, 470, 520, 590, 660, 880, and 950 nm were used to determine the aerosol Angstrom absorption exponents by linear regression. Since, unlike other absorbing aerosol species (e.g. humic like substances, nitrated PAHs), black carbon absorption is relatively constant from the ultraviolet to the infrared with an Angstrom absorption exponent of -1 (1), a comparison of the Angstrom exponents can indicate the presence of aerosol components with an enhanced UV absorption over that expected from BC content alone. The Angstrom exponents determined from the aerosol absorption measurements obtained in the field varied from - 0.7 to - 1.3 during the study and was generally lower in the afternoon than the morning hours, indicating an increase in secondary aerosol formation and photochemically generated UV absorbing species in the afternoon. Twelve-hour integrated samples of fine atmospheric aerosols (Petroleo (IMP) and CENICA.

  20. Cost comparisons for SSC magnet dependent systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-08-15

    An SSC Cost Estimating Task Force was appointed by the SSC Director in May, 1985. The charge to the task force was to perform a detailed review of costs for all superconducting magnet design styles that are under consideration for the SSC. Cost information on five magnet styles was reviewed in detail by the task force members. The basic cost information was developed by participating laboratories and by industry. Details of the procedure and analysis are presented in Chapter III. The purpose of this report is to provide a comparison of all SSC construction project cost information that is dependent on the various magnet styles. It is emphasized that the costs displayed in the tables of this report are not the total costs for an SSC construction project. Only those systems for which costs vary with magnet style are included. In Appendix E, current results are compared with the relevant parts of the 1984 SSC Reference Designs Study (RDS) cost estimate. Following the method used in the RDS, the costs that are developed here are non-site specific. The labor rates utilized are based on a national average for the various labor categories. The Conventional Systems costs for underground structures are derived from an extension of the ``median-site`` model as described in the RDS.

  1. Comparison of Sequential and Variational Data Assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado Montero, Rodolfo; Schwanenberg, Dirk; Weerts, Albrecht

    2017-04-01

    Data assimilation is a valuable tool to improve model state estimates by combining measured observations with model simulations. It has recently gained significant attention due to its potential in using remote sensing products to improve operational hydrological forecasts and for reanalysis purposes. This has been supported by the application of sequential techniques such as the Ensemble Kalman Filter which require no additional features within the modeling process, i.e. it can use arbitrary black-box models. Alternatively, variational techniques rely on optimization algorithms to minimize a pre-defined objective function. This function describes the trade-off between the amount of noise introduced into the system and the mismatch between simulated and observed variables. While sequential techniques have been commonly applied to hydrological processes, variational techniques are seldom used. In our believe, this is mainly attributed to the required computation of first order sensitivities by algorithmic differentiation techniques and related model enhancements, but also to lack of comparison between both techniques. We contribute to filling this gap and present the results from the assimilation of streamflow data in two basins located in Germany and Canada. The assimilation introduces noise to precipitation and temperature to produce better initial estimates of an HBV model. The results are computed for a hindcast period and assessed using lead time performance metrics. The study concludes with a discussion of the main features of each technique and their advantages/disadvantages in hydrological applications.

  2. Comparison of Agricultural Forecasts with Actual Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.A. Alseleem

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available So far, little has been said regarding the accuracy of forecasting given by the Ministry of Agriculture and Water (MAW. Saudi Arabia. Measures of accuracy are quite useful in comparing several methods of sampling or analysis. A comparison of forecasts with actual data gives us a measure of accuracy. In fact, a current evaluation of the accuracy of crop forecasts appears useful since government agencies, agribusiness firms, and farmers make decisions involving millions of riyals annually on the basis of the forecast, and deficiencies in the forecasts may cause undesirable effects on plans and resource allocation. The present research examines the accuracy of 255 MAW crop area and production forecasts for wheat, barley, tomato, watermelons,  palm dates, grapes, chicken, sheep, and camel for the period 1400-1416 H (i.e. 1979-1995G. The study tested the difference between actual and forecast estimates. The results of this study provide useful information about decision making in crop (animal forecasting procedures to meet users requirements.

  3. Comparison of Spatiotemporal Fusion Models: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Chen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneously capturing spatial and temporal dynamics is always a challenge for the remote sensing community. Spatiotemporal fusion has gained wide interest in various applications for its superiority in integrating both fine spatial resolution and frequent temporal coverage. Though many advances have been made in spatiotemporal fusion model development and applications in the past decade, a unified comparison among existing fusion models is still limited. In this research, we classify the models into three categories: transformation-based, reconstruction-based, and learning-based models. The objective of this study is to (i compare four fusion models (STARFM, ESTARFM, ISTAFM, and SPSTFM under a one Landsat-MODIS (L-M pair prediction mode and two L-M pair prediction mode using time-series datasets from the Coleambally irrigation area and Poyang Lake wetland; (ii quantitatively assess prediction accuracy considering spatiotemporal comparability, landscape heterogeneity, and model parameter selection; and (iii discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the three categories of spatiotemporal fusion models.

  4. Comparison between electroglottography and electromagnetic glottography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titze, Ingo R. [Department of Speech Pathology and Audiology and National Center for Voice and Speech, The University of Iowa and the Denver Center for the Performing Arts, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Story, Brad H. [Department of Speech Pathology and Audiology and National Center for Voice and Speech, The University of Iowa and the Denver Center for the Performing Arts, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Burnett, Gregory C. [Department of Applied Science, University of California at Davis, and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94557 (United States); Holzrichter, John F. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Ng, Lawrence C. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Lea, Wayne A. [Speech Sciences Institute, Apple Valley, Minnesota 55124 (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Newly developed glottographic sensors, utilizing high-frequency propagating electromagnetic waves, were compared to a well-established electroglottographic device. The comparison was made on four male subjects under different phonation conditions, including three levels of vocal fold adduction (normal, breathy, and pressed), three different registers (falsetto, chest, and fry), and two different pitches. Agreement between the sensors was always found for the glottal closure event, but for the general wave shape the agreement was better for falsetto and breathy voice than for pressed voice and vocal fry. Differences are attributed to the field patterns of the devices. Whereas the electroglottographic device can operate only in a conduction mode, the electromagnetic device can operate in either the forward scattering (diffraction) mode or in the backward scattering (reflection) mode. Results of our tests favor the diffraction mode because a more favorable angle imposed on receiving the scattered (reflected) signal did not improve the signal strength. Several observations are made on the uses of the electromagnetic sensors for operation without skin contact and possibly in an array configuration for improved spatial resolution within the glottis. (c) 2000 Acoustical Society of America.

  5. Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool Guidebook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-11-01

    Power through Policy: 'Best Practices' for Cost-Effective Distributed Wind is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-funded project to identify distributed wind technology policy best practices and to help policymakers, utilities, advocates, and consumers examine their effectiveness using a pro forma model. Incorporating a customized feed from the Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency (DSIRE), the Web-based Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool (Policy Tool) is designed to assist state, local, and utility officials in understanding the financial impacts of different policy options to help reduce the cost of distributed wind technologies. The Policy Tool can be used to evaluate the ways that a variety of federal and state policies and incentives impact the economics of distributed wind (and subsequently its expected market growth). It also allows policymakers to determine the impact of policy options, addressing market challenges identified in the U.S. DOE's '20% Wind Energy by 2030' report and helping to meet COE targets.

  6. Comparison of Standard and Fast Charging Methods for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Chlebis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a comparison of standard and fast charging methods used in the field of electric vehicles and also comparison of their efficiency in terms of electrical energy consumption. The comparison was performed on three-phase buck converter, which was designed for EV’s fast charging station. The results were obtained by both mathematical and simulation methods. The laboratory model of entire physical application, which will be further used for simulation results verification, is being built in these days.

  7. Comparison of sea snake (Hydrophiidae) neurotoxin to cobra (Naja) neurotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komori, Yumiko; Nagamizu, Masaya; Uchiya, Kei-Ichi; Nikai, Toshiaki; Tu, Anthony T

    2009-12-01

    Both sea snakes and cobras have venoms containing postsynaptic neurotoxins. Comparison of the primary structures indicates many similarities, especially the positions of the four disulfide bonds. However, detailed examination reveals differences in several amino acid residues. Amino acid sequences of sea snake neurotoxins were determined, and then compared to cobra neurotoxins by computer modeling. This allowed for easy comparison of the similarities and differences between the two types of postsynaptic neurotoxins. Comparison of computer models for the toxins of sea snakes and cobra will reveal the three dimensional difference of the toxins much clearer than the amino acid sequence alone.

  8. Traceable nano geometric structure measurement and international comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Sitian; Du, Hua; Lu, Minzhen; Cui, Jianjun; Shi, Yushu

    2009-02-01

    The accuracy of geometric structure plays a key role to guarantee high quality of the nano function device and electronic device. In June 1998, the Consultative Committee for Length (CCL) of International Committee for Weights and Measures decided to carry out international comparisons of five different types of artifacts: Step height standards, 1D-gratings, line scales, 2D-gratings and line width standards. The paper described the activity of NIM in the international comparison measurement of first three items, include the characters of artifacts, the working principle of instruments, the measuring procedures, the calculation methods, the comparison results and the measurement uncertainty.

  9. Sample Size Growth with an Increasing Number of Comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Hong Tseng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An appropriate sample size is crucial for the success of many studies that involve a large number of comparisons. Sample size formulas for testing multiple hypotheses are provided in this paper. They can be used to determine the sample sizes required to provide adequate power while controlling familywise error rate or false discovery rate, to derive the growth rate of sample size with respect to an increasing number of comparisons or decrease in effect size, and to assess reliability of study designs. It is demonstrated that practical sample sizes can often be achieved even when adjustments for a large number of comparisons are made as in many genomewide studies.

  10. Comparison of high-latitude thermospheric meridionalwinds I: optical and radar experimental comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Griffin

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Thermospheric neutral winds at Kiruna, Sweden (67.4°N, 20.4°E are compared using both direct optical Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FPI measurements and those derived from European incoherent scatter radar (EISCAT measurements. This combination of experimental data sets, both covering well over a solar cycle of data, allows for a unique comparison of the thermospheric meridional component of the neutral wind as observed by different experimental techniques. Uniquely in this study the EISCAT measurements are used to provide winds for comparison using two separate techniques: the most popular method based on the work of Salah and Holt (1974 and the Meridional Wind Model (MWM (Miller et al., 1997 application of servo theory. The balance of forces at this location that produces the observed diurnal pattern are investigated using output from the Coupled Thermosphere and Ionosphere (CTIM numerical model. Along with detailed comparisons from short periods the climatological behaviour of the winds have been investigated for seasonal and solar cycle dependence using the experimental techniques. While there are features which are consistent between the 3 techniques, such as the evidence of the equinoctial asymmetry, there are also significant differences between the techniques both in terms of trends and absolute values. It is clear from this and previous studies that the high-latitude representation of the thermospheric neutral winds from the empirical Horizontal Wind Model (HWM, though improved from earlier versions, lacks accuracy in many conditions. The relative merits of each technique are discussed and while none of the techniques provides the perfect data set to address model performance at high-latitude, one or more needs to be included in future HWM reformulations.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (thermospheric dynamics, Ionosphere (ionosphere-atmosphere interactions, auroral ionosphere

  11. KEY COMPARISON: Key comparison CCQM-K60: Total selenium and selenomethionine in selenised wheat flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goenaga Infante, Heidi; Sargent, Mike

    2010-01-01

    Key comparison CCQM-K60 was performed to assess the analytical capabilities of national metrology institutes (NMIs) to accurately quantitate the mass fraction of selenomethionine (SeMet) and total selenium (at low mg kg-1 levels) in selenised wheat flour. It was organized by the Inorganic Analysis Working Group (IAWG) of the Comité Consultatif pour la Quantité de Matière (CCQM) as a follow-up key comparison to the previous pilot study CCQM-P86 on selenised yeast tablets. LGC Limited (Teddington, UK) and the Institute for National Measurement Standards, National Research Council Canada (NRCC, Ottawa, Canada) acted as the coordinating laboratories. CCQM-K60 was organized in parallel with a pilot study (CCQM-P86.1) involving not only NMIs but also expert laboratories worldwide, thus enabling them to assess their capabilities, discover problems and learn how to modify analytical procedures accordingly. Nine results for total Se and four results for SeMet were reported by the participant NMIs. Methods used for sample preparation were microwave assisted acid digestion for total Se and multiple-step enzymatic hydrolysis and hydrolysis with methanesulfonic acid for SeMet. For total Se, detection techniques included inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) with external calibration, standard additions or isotope dilution analysis (IDMS); instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA); and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) with external calibration. For determination of SeMet in the wheat flour sample, the four NMIs relied upon measurements using species-specific IDMS (using 76Se-enriched SeMet) with HPLC-ICP-MS. Eight of the nine participating NMIs reported results for total Se within 3.5% deviation from the key comparison reference value (KCRV). For SeMet, the four participating NMIs reported results within 3.2% deviation from the KCRV. This shows that the performance of the majority of the CCQM-K60 participants was very good

  12. Comparison of eigensolvers for symmetric band matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldaschl, Michael; Gansterer, Wilfried N

    2014-09-15

    We compare different algorithms for computing eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a symmetric band matrix across a wide range of synthetic test problems. Of particular interest is a comparison of state-of-the-art tridiagonalization-based methods as implemented in Lapack or Plasma on the one hand, and the block divide-and-conquer (BD&C) algorithm as well as the block twisted factorization (BTF) method on the other hand. The BD&C algorithm does not require tridiagonalization of the original band matrix at all, and the current version of the BTF method tridiagonalizes the original band matrix only for computing the eigenvalues. Avoiding the tridiagonalization process sidesteps the cost of backtransformation of the eigenvectors. Beyond that, we discovered another disadvantage of the backtransformation process for band matrices: In several scenarios, a lot of gradual underflow is observed in the (optional) accumulation of the transformation matrix and in the (obligatory) backtransformation step. According to the IEEE 754 standard for floating-point arithmetic, this implies many operations with subnormal (denormalized) numbers, which causes severe slowdowns compared to the other algorithms without backtransformation of the eigenvectors. We illustrate that in these cases the performance of existing methods from Lapack and Plasma reaches a competitive level only if subnormal numbers are disabled (and thus the IEEE standard is violated). Overall, our performance studies illustrate that if the problem size is large enough relative to the bandwidth, BD&C tends to achieve the highest performance of all methods if the spectrum to be computed is clustered. For test problems with well separated eigenvalues, the BTF method tends to become the fastest algorithm with growing problem size.

  13. Serbia 1914, Poland 1939… A comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šćepanjski Vojćeh S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The circumstances of implicating Serbia (in 1914 and Poland (in 1939 into world wars by the forces provoking these conflicts, as well as the history of the heroic resistance of both mentioned organisms against the aggressors having numerous advantages, deserve to be constantly reminded as great lessons for the next generations of Europeans. The anniversaries of the break out of both world wars constitute a great opportunity for this type of reminder. In the presented text, compiling the Serbian experiences of the war started in 1914 with the Polish experience of the war which broke out a quarter of century later, the author stresses the follow­ing issues: - the reaction of Serbia/Poland on declaring the wars 1914/1939 (in detail, and also (in general: - the situation of war seclusion of Serbia/Poland in 1914/1939 experienced despite having the allies, - huge discrepancies of the aggressors' and the defenders' forces, as well as the resistance, exceeding the estimated opportunities, of the attacked countries towards the enemies, - the scale of the Serbian martyrdom in the 1st and Polish in the 2nd world wars, - the appearance of the war success, redeemed with extremely great sacrifice, and the presence of the threat for the Serbian/ Polish nation in the order shaped as a result 1st/2nd world war. The fragments of sources quoted in the article as well as the authors' considerations, are exhibited as key terms and simultane­ously as the common features of the Serbs and the Poles, enhanced at the moments of threat for both the nations and their countries: faith (in victory, in the help of Providence, honour, the spirit of fight and being ready for uncompromising resistance to aggressors. These val­ues constitute an essential element of comparison in the search of understanding the Serbian and Polish history and attitudes as well as the choices made by the Serbs and the Poles.

  14. The Frontier Fields lens modelling comparison project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghetti, M.; Natarajan, P.; Coe, D.; Contini, E.; De Lucia, G.; Giocoli, C.; Acebron, A.; Borgani, S.; Bradac, M.; Diego, J. M.; Hoag, A.; Ishigaki, M.; Johnson, T. L.; Jullo, E.; Kawamata, R.; Lam, D.; Limousin, M.; Liesenborgs, J.; Oguri, M.; Sebesta, K.; Sharon, K.; Williams, L. L. R.; Zitrin, A.

    2017-12-01

    Gravitational lensing by clusters of galaxies offers a powerful probe of their structure and mass distribution. Several research groups have developed techniques independently to achieve this goal. While these methods have all provided remarkably high-precision mass maps, particularly with exquisite imaging data from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), the reconstructions themselves have never been directly compared. In this paper, we present for the first time a detailed comparison of methodologies for fidelity, accuracy and precision. For this collaborative exercise, the lens modelling community was provided simulated cluster images that mimic the depth and resolution of the ongoing HST Frontier Fields. The results of the submitted reconstructions with the un-blinded true mass profile of these two clusters are presented here. Parametric, free-form and hybrid techniques have been deployed by the participating groups and we detail the strengths and trade-offs in accuracy and systematics that arise for each methodology. We note in conclusion that several properties of the lensing clusters are recovered equally well by most of the lensing techniques compared in this study. For example, the reconstruction of azimuthally averaged density and mass profiles by both parametric and free-form methods matches the input models at the level of ∼10 per cent. Parametric techniques are generally better at recovering the 2D maps of the convergence and of the magnification. For the best-performing algorithms, the accuracy in the magnification estimate is ∼10 per cent at μtrue = 3 and it degrades to ∼30 per cent at μtrue ∼ 10.

  15. Multiple treatment comparisons in epilepsy monotherapy trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chadwick David W

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The choice of antiepileptic drug for an individual should be based upon the highest quality evidence regarding potential benefits and harms of the available treatments. Systematic reviews and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials should be a major source of evidence supporting this decision making process. We summarise all available individual patient data evidence from randomised controlled trials that compared at least two out of eight antiepileptic drugs given as monotherapy. Methods Multiple treatment comparisons from epilepsy monotherapy trials were synthesized in a single stratified Cox regression model adjusted for treatment by epilepsy type interactions and making use of direct and indirect evidence. Primary outcomes were time to treatment failure and time to 12 month remission from seizures. A secondary outcome was time to first seizure. Results Individual patient data for 6418 patients from 20 randomised trials comparing eight antiepileptic drugs were synthesized. For partial onset seizures (4628 (72% patients, lamotrigine, carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine provide the best combination of seizure control and treatment failure. Lamotrigine is clinically superior to all other drugs for treatment failure but estimates suggest a disadvantage compared to carbamazepine for time to 12 month remission [Hazard Ratio (95% Confidence Interval = 0.87(0.73 to 1.04] and time to first seizure [1.29(1.13 to 1.48]. Phenobarbitone may delay time to first seizure [0.77(0.61 to 0.96] but at the expense of increased treatment failure [1.60(1.22 to 2.10]. For generalized onset tonic clonic seizures (1790 (28% patients estimates suggest valproate or phenytoin may provide the best combination of seizure control and treatment failure but some uncertainty remains about the relative effectiveness of other drugs. Conclusion For patients with partial onset seizures, results favour carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine and lamotrigine. For

  16. COMPARISON OF METHODS FOR GEOMETRIC CAMERA CALIBRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hieronymus

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Methods for geometric calibration of cameras in close-range photogrammetry are established and well investigated. The most common one is based on test-fields with well-known pattern, which are observed from different directions. The parameters of a distortion model are calculated using bundle-block-adjustment-algorithms. This methods works well for short focal lengths, but is essentially more problematic to use with large focal lengths. Those would require very large test-fields and surrounding space. To overcome this problem, there is another common method for calibration used in remote sensing. It employs measurements using collimator and a goniometer. A third calibration method uses diffractive optical elements (DOE to project holograms of well known pattern. In this paper these three calibration methods are compared empirically, especially in terms of accuracy. A camera has been calibrated with those methods mentioned above. All methods provide a set of distortion correction parameters as used by the photogrammetric software Australis. The resulting parameter values are very similar for all investigated methods. The three sets of distortion parameters are crosscompared against all three calibration methods. This is achieved by inserting the gained distortion parameters as fixed input into the calibration algorithms and only adjusting the exterior orientation. The RMS (root mean square of the remaining image coordinate residuals are taken as a measure of distortion correction quality. There are differences resulting from the different calibration methods. Nevertheless the measure is small for every comparison, which means that all three calibration methods can be used for accurate geometric calibration.

  17. Irritable bowel syndrome: a comparison of subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey de Castro, Nicolas G; Miller, Vivien; Carruthers, Helen R; Whorwell, Peter J

    2015-02-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is traditionally divided into subtypes depending on the bowel habit abnormality, but there is little clarity in the literature about whether these subtypes differ symptomatically or psychologically. Furthermore, there are conflicting reports on the relationship between symptom severity and psychological status. The aim of this study was to address these issues in a large cohort of patients defined by bowel habit. One thousand IBS patients were divided into diarrhea (IBS-D), constipation (IBS-C), and mixed (IBS-M) bowel habit subtypes and completed a series of validated questionnaires capturing symptom severity, non-colonic symptomatology (somatization), quality of life, and anxiety or depression levels. Comparisons were made using SPSS version 20. There were no significant differences between the three subtypes with respect to symptom severity, abdominal pain intensity, non-colonic symptomatology, quality of life, and anxiety or depression scores (all Ps > 0.05). In addition, there was only a small but statistically significant correlation between IBS symptom severity and both anxiety or depression, as well as quality of life (highest r = 0.34), while the relationship between somatization and disease severity was moderate (r = 0.42). This study suggests that there are no differences in the symptom profiles and anxiety or depression scores between different subtypes of IBS. In addition, anxiety and depression do not appear to be strongly associated with symptom severity, although this does not exclude the possible interplay between these and other psychological drivers of severity, such as poor coping skills. © 2014 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  18. A comparison between single and composite milk samples for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparison between single and composite milk samples for the genetic evaluation of milk composition in dairy cattle. ... Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  19. InteraqCT Comparison on Assemblies - Final Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolfi, Alessandro; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    are in accordance with the reference values. L2, L3, and T, which are bidirectional measurands, show lower agreement than L1 and L4, which are unidirectional lengths. The majority of participants obtained similar results in both scanning approaches. A few participants achieved significantly different measurement......An interlaboratory comparison on industrial X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) was organized by the Centre for Geometrical Metrology (CGM), Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark (DTU) and carried as part of the Marie Curie ESR Project INTERAQCT. In the comparison, 22...... and concentricity. A multi-material length is also included in the comparison. Two different scanning approaches were considered within the comparison exercise for Assembly 1. The first approach, coded as “Own Choice”, does not apply any scanning restrictions on any of the scanning parameters. The second one, coded...

  20. Comparison of the Success Rates and Haemodynamic Changes of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of the Success Rates and Haemodynamic Changes of Caudal Block .and Dorsal Penile Nerve Block in Paediatric Day-Case Circumcision. Panda U. Shehu, Abubakar S. Adamu, Samboy Tanimu, Mohammed Tela, Samuelwabada Saniadamu ...

  1. Comparison between preoperative biopsy and post-excision ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison between preoperative biopsy and post-excision histology results in sarcoma: Experience at Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital, Johannesburg, South Africa. KG Panda, MJ Hale, D Kruger, TE Luvhengo ...

  2. Comparison of efficacy of intraperitoneal instillation of bupivacaine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of efficacy of intraperitoneal instillation of bupivacaine alone with bupivacaine – fentanyl and bupivacaine –tramadol combination for alleviation of post-operative pain following laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a randomized prospective study.

  3. A comparison of Simplified Acute Physiology Score II, Acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparison of Simplified Acute Physiology Score II, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation III scoring system in predicting mortality and length of stay at surgical intensive care unit.

  4. Comparison of effective Hough transform-based fingerprint alignment approaches

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mlambo, CS

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, two effective and mostly used Hough Transform (HT) based fingerprint alignment approaches are compared, namely; Local Match Based Alignment (LMBA) and Discretized Rotation Based Alignment (DRBA). The comparison was performed...

  5. On The Comparison of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    West African Journal of Industrial and Academic Research ... This work presented the results of an experimental comparison of two models: Multinomial Logistic Regression (MLR) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) for ... Keywords: Multinomial Logistic Regression, Artificial Neural Network, Correct classification rate.

  6. Tradeoffs Between Branch Mispredictions and Comparisons for Sorting Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Moruz, Gabriel

    2005-01-01

    Branch mispredictions is an important factor affecting the running time in practice. In this paper we consider tradeoffs between the number of branch mispredictions and the number of comparisons for sorting algorithms in the comparison model. We prove that a sorting algorithm using O(dnlog n......) comparisons performs Omega(nlogd n) branch mispredictions. We show that Multiway MergeSort achieves this tradeoff by adopting a multiway merger with a low number of branch mispredictions. For adaptive sorting algorithms we similarly obtain that an algorithm performing O(dn(1+log (1+Inv/n))) comparisons must...... perform Omega(nlogd (1+Inv/n)) branch mispredictions, where Inv is the number of inversions in the input. This tradeoff can be achieved by GenericSort by Estivill-Castro and Wood by adopting a multiway division protocol and a multiway merging algorithm with a low number of branch mispredictions....

  7. Role and Evaluation of Interlaboratory Comparison Results in Laboratory Accreditation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, P.

    2008-08-01

    Participation in interlaboratory comparisons provides laboratories an opportunity for independent assessment of their analytical performance, both in absolute way and in comparison with those by other techniques. However, such comparisons are hindered by differences in the way laboratories participate, e.g. at best measurement capability or under routine conditions. Neutron activation analysis laboratories, determining total mass fractions, often see themselves classified as `outliers' since the majority of other participants employ techniques with incomplete digestion methods. These considerations are discussed in relation to the way results from interlaboratory comparisons are evaluated by accreditation bodies following the requirements of Clause 5.9.1 of the ISO/IEC 17025:2005. The discussion and conclusions come largely forth from experiences in the author's own laboratory.

  8. Development of quality control system for fingerprint comparison processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiquan Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fingerprint evidence played an important role in investigation, prosecution, and trial process due to the belief of its uniqueness and unchanged characteristics. However, in recent years, the science behind the process of fingerprint comparisons has been questioned. Main research questions have been focusing on the opaqueness within the comparison processes, subjective judgments, lack of universal standards, no error rate expression on final conclusions, and poor scientific fundamental research data. Facing the above-mentioned questions, this paper aims to suggest a quality control system (QCS for fingerprint comparison processes. This QCS is based on the use of software (PiAnoS and its technological features, being able to provide a data management model to increase the transparency and quality of fingerprint comparison processes.

  9. Comparison Of Physicochemical And Functional Properties Of Flour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison Of Physicochemical And Functional Properties Of Flour And Starch Extract In Different Methods From Africa Locust Bean (Parkia Biglobosa) Seeds. A Sankhon, I Amadou, WR Yao, H Wang, H Qian, M Sangare ...

  10. HIRENASD Comparisons of FEM modal frequencies and modeshapes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Below are frequency comparisons of different models with experiment Note Modeshapes aren't very descriptive for higher modes. There is coupling between them so this...

  11. A Comparison of Live and Simulated Fire Soldier Shooting Performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scribner, David R; Wiley, Patrick H; Harper, William H

    2007-01-01

    .... This is true for marksmanship and engagement shooting trainers as well. Many marksmanship studies have used simulated fire, but not many of these simulators have been validated with a live fire comparison. The U.S...

  12. Comparison between Herbst appliances with or without miniscrew anchorage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Manni

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions : The miniscrew-Herbst system, described in the present study, allows correction of Class II malocclusion, with a lower anchorage loss, in form of mandibular incisor proclination, during the treatment, in comparison to mandibular acrylic splints Herbst.

  13. Organic and conventional vegetables: Comparison of the physical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Organic and conventional vegetables: Comparison of the physical and chemical characteristics and antioxidant activity. Fernanda de Oliveira Pereira, Renata dos Santos Pereira, Lana de Souza Rosa, Anderson Junger Teodoro ...

  14. (Savory) in comparison with an antibiotic growth promoter on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efficiency of different levels of Satureja hortensis L. (Savory) in comparison with an antibiotic growth promoter on performance, carcass traits, immune responses and serum biochemical parameters in broiler chickens.

  15. Operating Reserves and Wind Power Integration: An International Comparison; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, M.; Donohoo, P.; Lew, D.; Ela, E.; Kirby, B.; Holttinen, H.; Lannoye, E.; Flynn, D.; O' Malley, M.; Miller, N.; Eriksen, P. B.; Gottig, A.; Rawn, B.; Gibescu, M.; Lazaro, E. G.; Robitaille, A.; Kamwa, I.

    2010-10-01

    This paper provides a high-level international comparison of methods and key results from both operating practice and integration analysis, based on an informal International Energy Agency Task 25: Large-scale Wind Integration.

  16. comparison of estimation methods for fitting weibull distribution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tersor

    QuercusroburL.) stands in northwest Spain with the beta distribution. Investigación Agraria: Sistemasy Recursos Forestales 17(3):. 271-281. COMPARISON OF ESTIMATION METHODS FOR FITTING WEIBULL DISTRIBUTION TO THE NATURAL ...

  17. Comparison of the direct enzyme assay method with the membrane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of the direct enzyme assay method with the membrane filtration technique in the quantification and monitoring of microbial indicator organisms – seasonal variations in the activities of coliforms and E. coli, temperature and pH.

  18. Genuine and drug-induced synesthesia: a comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinke, Christopher; Halpern, John H; Zedler, Markus; Neufeld, Janina; Emrich, Hinderk M; Passie, Torsten

    2012-09-01

    Despite some principal similarities, there is no systematic comparison between the different types of synesthesia (genuine, acquired and drug-induced). This comprehensive review compares the three principal types of synesthesia and focuses on their phenomenological features and their relation to different etiological models. Implications of this comparison for the validity of the different etiological models are discussed. Comparison of the three forms of synesthesia show many more differences than similarities. This is in contrast to their representation in the literature, where they are discussed in many respects as being virtually similar. Noteworthy is the much broader spectrum and intensity with the typical drug-induced synesthesias compared to genuine and acquired synesthesias. A major implication of the phenomenological comparison in regard to the etiological models is that genuine and acquired synesthesias point to morphological substrates, while drug-induced synesthesia appears to be based on functional changes of brain activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A comparison of soil moisture relations between standing and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparison of soil moisture relations between standing and clearfelled plots with burnt and unburnt harvest residue treatments of a clonal eucalypt plantation on the Zululand Coastal Plain, South Africa.

  20. Comparison of the spatial and temporal variability of drought indices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of the spatial and temporal variability of drought indices in Somalia and ... annual precipitation, aridity index and spatial distribution of surface water bodies. ... The lessons from the current drought in Horn of Africa are however, ...

  1. A comparison of two psychophysical methods using animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, H; Kitzes, L

    1966-09-01

    A discrimination box containing two levers with a light above each was used to train eight rats to press beneath the brighter light for a milk reinforcer. The brighter light was held constant and the comparison light was varied to produce 12 brightness differences. The animals were run under two experimental methods: the block method in which each brightness level comparison was presented for a block of 11 contiguous trials, and the staircase method in which the sequence of brightness comparisons was determined by the correctness of the response on the preceding comparison. The block method produced a smaller differential brightness threshold and a larger change in discrimination performance for stimulus magnitude changes than did the staircase method.

  2. A Simple Illustration for the Need of Multiple Comparison Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Rickey E.

    2010-01-01

    Statistical adjustments to accommodate multiple comparisons are routinely covered in introductory statistical courses. The fundamental rationale for such adjustments, however, may not be readily understood. This article presents a simple illustration to help remedy this.

  3. Wild Cultures: A Comparison between Chimpanzee and Human Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Rocío Carvajal Contreras

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Review of Wild Cultures: A Comparison between Chimpanzee and Human Cultures. Christophe Boesch. 2012. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 276, 68 b & w illustrations, 11 tables. £60 (hardback. ISBN 9781109025370.

  4. On the extraction of weights from pairwise comparison matrices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Theo K.

    We study properties of weight extraction methods for pairwise comparison matrices that minimize suitable measures of inconsistency, 'average error gravity' measures, including one that leads to the geometric row means. The measures share essential global properties with the AHP inconsistency

  5. A Comparison of Cross-Sector Cyber Security Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert P. Evans

    2005-09-01

    This report presents a review and comparison (commonality and differences) of three cross-sector cyber security standards and an internationally recognized information technology standard. The comparison identifies the security areas covered by each standard and reveals where the standards differ in emphasis. By identifying differences in the standards, the user can evaluate which standard best meets their needs. For this report, only cross-sector standards were reviewed.

  6. Interlaboratory comparison of the measurement of retention curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M. H.; Houvenaghel, G.; Janz, M.

    1999-01-01

    The results of an interlaboratory comparison of the measurement of apparent density, solid density, open porosity and retention curves are presented. Baumberger sandstone and Sander sandstone were used as test materials.Repeatability standard deviation and reproducibility standard deviation for t...... for the measurement of apparent density, solid density, open porosity and retention curve moisture content have been estimated from the results of the interlaboratory comparison. The statical analysis was made along the guidelines given in ISO 5725-2....

  7. Comparison of some Phoenix and gusev soil types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walter..[], Goetz; Hviid, S.F.; Madsen, Morten Bo

    2010-01-01

    The comparison of soil particles at the Phoenix landing site and in Gusev Crater provides clues on their origin and global distribution. Some unusual Phoenix particles are possibly of (more) local origin, as they appear to be absent in Gusev dunes.......The comparison of soil particles at the Phoenix landing site and in Gusev Crater provides clues on their origin and global distribution. Some unusual Phoenix particles are possibly of (more) local origin, as they appear to be absent in Gusev dunes....

  8. International Comparison of Household Savings Behaviour: The German Savings Puzzle

    OpenAIRE

    Axel Börsch-Supan

    2002-01-01

    This mea discussion paper presents excerpts of the International Savings Comparison Project covering household savings behaviour in seven countries. The whole series of comparative country studies can be found in a special issue of the journal “Research in Economics†, Volume 55, Number 2, June 2001. The introduction gives an outline of the research program of the project. A project as complex as the International Savings Comparison Project has sparked discussions and controversy. Tullio J...

  9. Tip studies using CFD and comparison with tip loss models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Johansen, J.

    2004-01-01

    The flow past a rotating LM8.2 blade equipped with two different tips are computed using CFD. The different tip flows are analysed and a comparison with two different tip loss models is made. Keywords: tip flow, aerodynamics, CFD......The flow past a rotating LM8.2 blade equipped with two different tips are computed using CFD. The different tip flows are analysed and a comparison with two different tip loss models is made. Keywords: tip flow, aerodynamics, CFD...

  10. Error Rate Comparison during Polymerase Chain Reaction by DNA Polymerase

    OpenAIRE

    Peter McInerney; Paul Adams; Masood Z. Hadi

    2014-01-01

    As larger-scale cloning projects become more prevalent, there is an increasing need for comparisons among high fidelity DNA polymerases used for PCR amplification. All polymerases marketed for PCR applications are tested for fidelity properties (i.e., error rate determination) by vendors, and numerous literature reports have addressed PCR enzyme fidelity. Nonetheless, it is often difficult to make direct comparisons among different enzymes due to numerous methodological and analytical differe...

  11. Comparison of physical activity programs in football category U7

    OpenAIRE

    Cintler, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Title: Comparison of physical activity programs in football category U7. Objectives: The aim of this thesis is to determine the effect of two different five-week intervention programs for performance in gaming skills at 7 years old football players. Methods: In this thesis was used experimental plan called Switch replication design and own tests of soccer skills. To compare the effect of selected intervention programs was used method of comparison. Results: For shooting on the goal with prove...

  12. Cylinder expansion test and gas gun experiment comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrier, Danielle [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-30

    This is a summer internship presentation by the Hydro Working Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and goes into detail about their cylinder expansion test and gas gun experiment comparison. Specifically, the gas gun experiment is detailed along with applications, the cylinder expansion test is detailed along with applications, there is a comparison of the methods with pros and cons and limitations listed, the summer project is detailed, and future work is talked about.

  13. Hopelessness and social comparison in Turkish adolescent with visual impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erol, S; Ergun, A

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine visually impaired adolescents' level of hopelessness and how they perceive of themselves socially compared to other individuals. Another purpose of this study was to look for relationships between hopelessness and social comparison in adolescents with visual impairment. The research population was comprised of 130 students at a secondary school for the visually impaired in Istanbul, Turkey. Our study demonstrated a weak relationship between social comparison and hopelessness (r=-0.46, P visual impairment was 4.59 ± 3.12 (girls: 4.23 ± 3.10; boys: 4.83 ± 3.11) and social comparison score was 87.50 ± 11.19 (girls: 88.67 ± 11.62; boys: 86.60 ± 10.85). Hopelessness and social comparison were not affected by being blind from birth compared to later or from being a full-time boarding student compared to being a day student. The hopeless (Beck Hopelessness Scale score ≥ 9) adolescents' social comparison scores were found lower than hopeful ones' scores (P social comparison were feelings about their father, teacher and school. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing.

  14. Comparison groups on bills: Automated, personalized energy information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyer, Maithili; Kempton, Willett; Payne, Christopher

    2006-07-01

    A program called ``Innovative Billing?? has been developed to provide individualized energy information for a mass audience?the entireresidential customer base of an electric or gas utility. Customers receive a graph on the bill that compares that customer?s consumption with othersimilar customers for the same month. The program aims to stimulate customers to make ef?ciency improvements. To group as many as severalmillion customers into small ``comparison groups??, an automated method must be developed drawing solely from the data available to the utility.This paper develops and applies methods to compare the quality of resulting comparison groups.A data base of 114,000 customers from a utility billing system was used to evaluate Innovative Billing comparison groups, comparing fouralternative criteria: house characteristics (?oor area, housing type, and heating fuel); street; meter read route; billing cycle. Also, customers wereinterviewed to see what forms of comparison graphs made most sense and led to fewest errors of interpretation. We ?nd that good qualitycomparison groups result from using street name, meter book, or multiple house characteristics. Other criteria we tested, such as entire cycle, entiremeter book, or single house characteristics such as ?oor area, resulted in poor quality comparison groups. This analysis provides a basis forchoosing comparison groups based on extensive user testing and statistical analysis. The result is a practical set of guidelines that can be used toimplement realistic, inexpensive innovative billing for the entire customer base of an electric or gas utility.

  15. Changes in latent fingerprint examiners' markup between analysis and comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulery, Bradford T; Hicklin, R Austin; Roberts, Maria Antonia; Buscaglia, JoAnn

    2015-02-01

    After the initial analysis of a latent print, an examiner will sometimes revise the assessment during comparison with an exemplar. Changes between analysis and comparison may indicate that the initial analysis of the latent was inadequate, or that confirmation bias may have affected the comparison. 170 volunteer latent print examiners, each randomly assigned 22 pairs of prints from a pool of 320 total pairs, provided detailed markup documenting their interpretations of the prints and the bases for their comparison conclusions. We describe changes in value assessments and markup of features and clarity. When examiners individualized, they almost always added or deleted minutiae (90.3% of individualizations); every examiner revised at least some markups. For inconclusive and exclusion determinations, changes were less common, and features were added more frequently when the image pair was mated (same source). Even when individualizations were based on eight or fewer corresponding minutiae, in most cases some of those minutiae had been added during comparison. One erroneous individualization was observed: the markup changes were notably extreme, and almost all of the corresponding minutiae had been added during comparison. Latents assessed to be of value for exclusion only (VEO) during analysis were often individualized when compared to a mated exemplar (26%); in our previous work, where examiners were not required to provide markup of features, VEO individualizations were much less common (1.8%). Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  16. Deciphering chemotaxis pathways using cross species comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Chemotaxis is the process by which motile bacteria sense their chemical environment and move towards more favourable conditions. Escherichia coli utilises a single sensory pathway, but little is known about signalling pathways in species with more complex systems. Results To investigate whether chemotaxis pathways in other bacteria follow the E. coli paradigm, we analysed 206 species encoding at least 1 homologue of each of the 5 core chemotaxis proteins (CheA, CheB, CheR, CheW and CheY). 61 species encode more than one of all of these 5 proteins, suggesting they have multiple chemotaxis pathways. Operon information is not available for most bacteria, so we developed a novel statistical approach to cluster che genes into putative operons. Using operon-based models, we reconstructed putative chemotaxis pathways for all 206 species. We show that cheA-cheW and cheR-cheB have strong preferences to occur in the same operon as two-gene blocks, which may reflect a functional requirement for co-transcription. However, other che genes, most notably cheY, are more dispersed on the genome. Comparison of our operons with shuffled equivalents demonstrates that specific patterns of genomic location may be a determining factor for the observed in vivo chemotaxis pathways. We then examined the chemotaxis pathways of Rhodobacter sphaeroides. Here, the PpfA protein is known to be critical for correct partitioning of proteins in the cytoplasmically-localised pathway. We found ppfA in che operons of many species, suggesting that partitioning of cytoplasmic Che protein clusters is common. We also examined the apparently non-typical chemotaxis components, CheA3, CheA4 and CheY6. We found that though variants of CheA proteins are rare, the CheY6 variant may be a common type of CheY, with a significantly disordered C-terminal region which may be functionally significant. Conclusions We find that many bacterial species potentially have multiple chemotaxis pathways, with grouping

  17. Social Comparison: The End of a Theory and the Emergence of a Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buunk, Abraham P.; Gibbons, Frederick X.

    2007-01-01

    The past and current states of research on social comparison are reviewed with regard to a series of major theoretical developments that have occurred in the past 5 decades. These are, in chronological order: (1) classic social comparison theory, (2) fear-affiliation theory, (3) downward comparison theory, (4) social comparison as social…

  18. Automated UMLS-Based Comparison of Medical Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugas, Martin; Fritz, Fleur; Krumm, Rainer; Breil, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    Medical forms are very heterogeneous: on a European scale there are thousands of data items in several hundred different systems. To enable data exchange for clinical care and research purposes there is a need to develop interoperable documentation systems with harmonized forms for data capture. A prerequisite in this harmonization process is comparison of forms. So far – to our knowledge – an automated method for comparison of medical forms is not available. A form contains a list of data items with corresponding medical concepts. An automatic comparison needs data types, item names and especially item with these unique concept codes from medical terminologies. The scope of the proposed method is a comparison of these items by comparing their concept codes (coded in UMLS). Each data item is represented by item name, concept code and value domain. Two items are called identical, if item name, concept code and value domain are the same. Two items are called matching, if only concept code and value domain are the same. Two items are called similar, if their concept codes are the same, but the value domains are different. Based on these definitions an open-source implementation for automated comparison of medical forms in ODM format with UMLS-based semantic annotations was developed. It is available as package compareODM from http://cran.r-project.org. To evaluate this method, it was applied to a set of 7 real medical forms with 285 data items from a large public ODM repository with forms for different medical purposes (research, quality management, routine care). Comparison results were visualized with grid images and dendrograms. Automated comparison of semantically annotated medical forms is feasible. Dendrograms allow a view on clustered similar forms. The approach is scalable for a large set of real medical forms. PMID:23861827

  19. Automated UMLS-based comparison of medical forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugas, Martin; Fritz, Fleur; Krumm, Rainer; Breil, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    Medical forms are very heterogeneous: on a European scale there are thousands of data items in several hundred different systems. To enable data exchange for clinical care and research purposes there is a need to develop interoperable documentation systems with harmonized forms for data capture. A prerequisite in this harmonization process is comparison of forms. So far--to our knowledge--an automated method for comparison of medical forms is not available. A form contains a list of data items with corresponding medical concepts. An automatic comparison needs data types, item names and especially item with these unique concept codes from medical terminologies. The scope of the proposed method is a comparison of these items by comparing their concept codes (coded in UMLS). Each data item is represented by item name, concept code and value domain. Two items are called identical, if item name, concept code and value domain are the same. Two items are called matching, if only concept code and value domain are the same. Two items are called similar, if their concept codes are the same, but the value domains are different. Based on these definitions an open-source implementation for automated comparison of medical forms in ODM format with UMLS-based semantic annotations was developed. It is available as package compareODM from http://cran.r-project.org. To evaluate this method, it was applied to a set of 7 real medical forms with 285 data items from a large public ODM repository with forms for different medical purposes (research, quality management, routine care). Comparison results were visualized with grid images and dendrograms. Automated comparison of semantically annotated medical forms is feasible. Dendrograms allow a view on clustered similar forms. The approach is scalable for a large set of real medical forms.

  20. Automated UMLS-based comparison of medical forms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Dugas

    Full Text Available Medical forms are very heterogeneous: on a European scale there are thousands of data items in several hundred different systems. To enable data exchange for clinical care and research purposes there is a need to develop interoperable documentation systems with harmonized forms for data capture. A prerequisite in this harmonization process is comparison of forms. So far--to our knowledge--an automated method for comparison of medical forms is not available. A form contains a list of data items with corresponding medical concepts. An automatic comparison needs data types, item names and especially item with these unique concept codes from medical terminologies. The scope of the proposed method is a comparison of these items by comparing their concept codes (coded in UMLS. Each data item is represented by item name, concept code and value domain. Two items are called identical, if item name, concept code and value domain are the same. Two items are called matching, if only concept code and value domain are the same. Two items are called similar, if their concept codes are the same, but the value domains are different. Based on these definitions an open-source implementation for automated comparison of medical forms in ODM format with UMLS-based semantic annotations was developed. It is available as package compareODM from http://cran.r-project.org. To evaluate this method, it was applied to a set of 7 real medical forms with 285 data items from a large public ODM repository with forms for different medical purposes (research, quality management, routine care. Comparison results were visualized with grid images and dendrograms. Automated comparison of semantically annotated medical forms is feasible. Dendrograms allow a view on clustered similar forms. The approach is scalable for a large set of real medical forms.

  1. Current Comparison of Advanced Fuel Cycle Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven J. Piet; B. W. Dixon; A. Goldmann; R. N. Hill; J. J. Jacobson; G. E. Matthern; J. D. Smith; A. M. Yacout

    2006-03-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle includes mining, enrichment, nuclear power plants, recycling (if done), and residual waste disposition. The U.S. Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) has four program objectives to guide research on how best to glue these pieces together, as follows: waste management, proliferation resistance, energy recovery, and systematic management/economics/safety. We have developed a comprehensive set of metrics to evaluate fuel cycle options against the four program objectives. The current list of metrics is long-term heat, long-term dose, radiotoxicity and weapons usable material. This paper describes the current metrics and initial results from comparisons made using these metrics. The data presented were developed using a combination of “static” calculations and a system dynamic model, DYMOND. In many cases, we examine the same issue both dynamically and statically to determine the robustness of the observations. All analyses are for the U.S. reactor fleet. This work aims to clarify many of the issues being discussed within the AFCI program, including Inert Matrix Fuel (IMF) versus Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel, single-pass versus multi-pass recycling, thermal versus fast reactors, and the value of separating cesium and strontium. The results from a series of dynamic simulations evaluating these options are included in this report. The model interface includes a few “control knobs” for flying or piloting the fuel cycle system into the future. The results from the simulations show that the future is dark (uncertain) and that the system is sluggish with slow time response times to changes (i.e., what types of reactors are built, what types of fuels are used, and the capacity of separation and fabrication plants). Piloting responsibilities are distributed among utilities, government, and regulators, compounding the challenge of making the entire system work and respond to changing circumstances. We identify four approaches that would increase our

  2. New York State 2009 NHTS Comparison Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southworth, Frank [ORNL; Reuscher, Tim [Macrosys; Hwang, Ho-Ling [ORNL

    2012-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Transportation (USDOT) initiated an effort in 1969 to collect detailed data on personal travel, with the most recent surveys being the 1995 Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey (NPTS) and the 2001 and 2009 National Household Travel Surveys (NHTS). The primary objective of these surveys is to collect trip-based data on the nature and characteristics of personal travel so that the relationships between the characteristics of personal travel and the socio-economic and demographic characteristics of the traveler and his/her household can be established. In addition to the number of sample households that the national NPTS/NHTS survey allotted to New York State, NYDOT procured an additional sample of households in the 1995, 2001, and 2009 surveys. The comparisons drawn in this report compare the results from these NYS sampled households to the results from households drawn for the rest of the nation. Many of the differences between NYC counties and others in the state result from the striking differences in private vehicle ownership levels, with less than one in two NYC drivers and only 64% of NYC households owning a vehicle in 2009: versus 9 out of 10 drivers owning a vehicle, and between 1.5 and 2 vehicles owned per household, on the average, in the state's other metro areas. And this situation has changed very little over the past fourteen years covered by the three latest NPTS/NHTS surveys. While households in metro areas outside NYC do not own a vehicle largely due to income constraints, many households in NYC/Manhattan do not own a vehicle by choice. However, the statistics suggest that the mobility of zero-vehicle households in NYC/Manhattan is by no means deterred by the lack of a vehicle. While the private vehicle tripmaking rate of NYC residents was between one half and one third that in the state's other metro areas, and their daily VMT about half that of other metro areas, most of their daily travel needs were met by

  3. Development, comparison, and evaluation of software for radial distortion elimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadaki, A. I.; Georgopoulos, A.

    2015-05-01

    Lately the interest of Computer Vision and Photogrammetry community has been focused on the automation of the processes of identification and elimination of the radial distortion, with the aim to correct the image coordinates and finally to obtain digital images with reliable geometric information. This effort has reached the point of development of commercial or free image processing software, claiming that it can automatically identify and remove the radial distortion from an image. In this paper in depth research has been conducted about the radial distortion and the methods of its identification and elimination. Specifically, it has been attempted to evaluate software as the aforementioned, about its effectiveness, accuracy and applicability on the elimination of the radial distortion from images. For the attainment of the desired aim, four different methods of comparison and evaluation of the performance of the software, with respect to the correction of an image, have been employed. The applied methods are (i) the optical evaluation of the produced digital images, (ii) the subtraction of the images, (iii) the comparison of the curves of the remaining radial distortion in the images and (iv) the comparison of the results from the orientation of an image pair. However, it was really important to have a benchmark for the evaluation, in order to ensure the objectivity and accuracy of the comparison. Therefore, a new reliable algorithm has been developed, which was of known and controllable accuracy. The results of these comparisons are presented and evaluated for their reliability and usefulness.

  4. Social comparison processes and catastrophising in fibromyalgia: A path analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Perona, V; Buunk, A P; Terol-Cantero, M C; Quiles-Marcos, Y; Martín-Aragón, M

    2017-06-01

    In addition to coping strategies, social comparison may play a role in illness adjustment. However, little is known about the role of contrast and identification in social comparison in adaptation to fibromyalgia. To evaluate through a path analysis in a sample of fibromyalgia patients, the association between identification and contrast in social comparison, catastrophising and specific health outcomes (fibromyalgia illness impact and psychological distress). 131 Spanish fibromyalgia outpatients (mean age: 50.15, SD = 11.1) filled out a questionnaire. We present a model that explained 33% of the variance in catastrophising by direct effects of more use of upward contrast and downward identification. In addition, 35% of fibromyalgia illness impact variance was explained by less upward identification, more upward contrast and more catastrophising and 42% of the variance in psychological distress by a direct effect of more use of upward contrast together with higher fibromyalgia illness impact. We suggest that intervention programmes with chronic pain and fibromyalgia patients should focus on enhancing the use of upward identification in social comparison, and on minimising the use of upward contrast and downward identification in social comparison.

  5. Model comparison of oxygen ion loss at Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, S.; Liemohn, M. W.; Fang, X.; Ma, Y.; Najib, D.; Brain, D.

    2011-12-01

    We present results from a Mars pick-up ion transport model in order to study the relative role of kinetic processes in planetary ion escape, as part of the first community-wide plasma interaction model comparison. Mars does not have a strong, intrinsic dipole magnetic field and consequently the solar wind directly interacts with the dayside upper atmosphere causing particles to be stripped away from the atmosphere. Ions can be picked up and carried away through this interaction, contributing to non-thermal atmospheric escape. A robust effort involving many of the global Mars space environment models is underway, selecting identical initial and boundary conditions for direct model-model comparisons between the codes. A multi-fluid and multi-species MHD model from this comparison will be used as background electric and magnetic fields for the ions in our Mars pick-up ion transport model. By simulating billions of test particles through these background fields, a comprehensive picture of the velocity space distributions of the pick-up ions is generated. Previous model comparisons have focused on pressure conservation and plasma boundaries, but this study will focus on comparing spatial patterns of escape rates and velocity space distributions at specific locations for the kinetic versus Maxwellian approaches. From these comparisons, conclusions are made about the relative contribution of kinetic and fluid physical processes in controlling the distribution of planetary ions and atmospheric escape.

  6. Assembly and comparison of two closely related Brassica napus genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Philipp E; Hurgobin, Bhavna; Golicz, Agnieszka A; Chan, Chon-Kit Kenneth; Yuan, Yuxuan; Lee, HueyTyng; Renton, Michael; Meng, Jinling; Li, Ruiyuan; Long, Yan; Zou, Jun; Bancroft, Ian; Chalhoub, Boulos; King, Graham J; Batley, Jacqueline; Edwards, David

    2017-12-01

    As an increasing number of plant genome sequences become available, it is clear that gene content varies between individuals, and the challenge arises to predict the gene content of a species. However, genome comparison is often confounded by variation in assembly and annotation. Differentiating between true gene absence and variation in assembly or annotation is essential for the accurate identification of conserved and variable genes in a species. Here, we present the de novo assembly of the B. napus cultivar Tapidor and comparison with an improved assembly of the Brassica napus cultivar Darmor-bzh. Both cultivars were annotated using the same method to allow comparison of gene content. We identified genes unique to each cultivar and differentiate these from artefacts due to variation in the assembly and annotation. We demonstrate that using a common annotation pipeline can result in different gene predictions, even for closely related cultivars, and repeat regions which collapse during assembly impact whole genome comparison. After accounting for differences in assembly and annotation, we demonstrate that the genome of Darmor-bzh contains a greater number of genes than the genome of Tapidor. Our results are the first step towards comparison of the true differences between B. napus genomes and highlight the potential sources of error in future production of a B. napus pangenome. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Eating disorder-related social comparison in college women's everyday lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E

    2017-08-01

    This study examined: frequency of upward and downward body, eating, and exercise comparisons; context in which these comparisons occur; and body, eating, and exercise comparison direction as predictors of concurrent body dissatisfaction and disordered eating thoughts, urges, and behaviors in college women's everyday lives using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Participants were 232 college women who completed a two-week EMA protocol, using their personal electronic devices to answer questions three times per day. First, body, eating, and exercise comparisons were common. Second, when these comparisons were made, they were typically upward. Third, body comparisons were most oftentimes made about weight and shape and eating comparisons about healthiness and amount of food. Exercise comparisons were made on a wider variety of dimensions. Fourth, most body and eating comparisons were made with strangers and close friends, respectively, while exercise comparisons were made with a variety of individuals. Upward comparisons were usually made with acquaintances and strangers. Fifth, results shed light on where college women compare themselves. Sixth, upward comparisons were found to have negative consequences, and downward comparisons were generally not found to have a buffering effect on eating pathology. Results suggest targeting not only body but also eating and exercise comparisons in intervention. Also, prevention/intervention approaches should not promote engagement in downward comparisons, as they were not found to be protective and were even harmful at times. Clinicians should be attuned to the categories on which, with whom, and where college women are most likely to compare. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Comparison for Chinese subordinates as a motivation approach: Scale Development and Psychometric Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Ge

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Chinese people are motivated by social comparison and temporal comparison. Based on this finding, we conceptualized lateral comparison and vertical comparison as two distinct constructs that represent individual self-enhancement toward the nature of social comparison with others and temporal comparison with self over time. We hypothesized that as stable individual psychological difference, lateral comparison and vertical comparison would have differential effects on people’s working behavior in the Chinese organizational context. Design/methodology/approach: Based on a conceptualization approach to Chinese management research, we conducted three studies to develop and validate a two-factor comparison scale which includes three-item lateral comparison and a three-item vertical comparison. Findings: Results from qualitative data in Study 1 provide evidence of convergent and discriminate validity of the scale, while Study 2 demonstrates the scale’s predictive validity. Furthermore, in Study two, a field survey in multiple Chinese organizations showed that lateral comparison and vertical comparison had differential effects on employee task performance and organizational citizenship behavior. Research implications: The theoretical and practical implications of this study are discussed in the working context in Chinese organizations and beyond. Originality/value: This finding integrates insights from previous research in social comparison and temporal comparison into a motivation approach that supervisors use toward subordinates in the Chinese organizational context.

  9. KEY COMPARISON: International comparison CCQM-K51: Carbon monoxide (CO) in nitrogen (5 µmol mol-1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botha, Angelique; Janse van Rensburg, Mellisa; Tshilongo, James; Leshabane, Nompumelelo; Ntsasa, Napo; Kato, Kenji; Matsumoto, Nobuhiro; Stummer, Volker; Konopelko, L. A.; Kustikov, Y. A.; Pankratov, V. V.; Vasserman, I. I.; Zavyalov, C. V.; Gromova, E. V.; Uprichard, Ian; Vargha, Gergely; Maruyama, M.; Heine, Hans-Joachim; Rangel Murillo, Francisco; Serrano Caballero, Victor M.; Pérez Castorena, Alejandro; Mace, Tatiana; Guenther, Franklin; Miller, Walter; Rojo, Andrés; Fernández, Teresa; Cieciora, Dariusz; Cunha, Valnei S.; Ribeiro, Claudia C.; Augusto, Cristiane R.; Qiao, Han; Zhou, Zeyi; Smeulders, Damian; Gerboles, Michel; Kapus, Matej; Wessel, Rob M.; Dias, Florbela; Baptista, Gonçalo; Gupta, Prabhat K.; Johri, P.; Laongsri, Bunthoon; Sinweeruthai, Ratirat; Niederhauser, Bernhard; Ackermann, Andreas; Froehlich, Marina; Wolf, Andreas; Lee, Jeongsoon; Musil, Stanislav; Valkova, Miroslava; Walden, Jari; Laurila, Sisko

    2010-01-01

    The first key comparison on carbon monoxide (CO) in nitrogen dates back to 1992 (CCQM-K1a). It was one of the first types of gas mixtures that were used in an international key comparison. Since then, numerous national metrology institutes (NMIs) have been setting up facilities for gas analysis, and have developed claims for their Calibration and Measurement Capabilities (CMCs) for these mixtures. Furthermore, in the April 2005 meeting of the CCQM (Consultative Committee for Amount of Substance) Gas Analysis Working Group, a policy was proposed to repeat key comparisons for stable mixtures every 10 years. This comparison was performed in line with the policy proposal and provided an opportunity for NMIs that could not participate in the previous comparison. NMISA from South Africa acted as the pilot laboratory. Of the 25 participating laboratories, 19 (76%) showed satisfactory degrees of equivalence to the gravimetric reference value. The results show that the CO concentration is not influenced by the measurement method used, and from this it may be concluded that the pure CO, used to prepare the gas mixtures, was not 13C-isotope depleted. This was confirmed by the isotope ratio analysis carried out by KRISS on a 1% mixture of CO in nitrogen, obtained from the NMISA. There is no indication of positive or negative bias in the gravimetric reference value, as the results from the different laboratories are evenly distributed on both sides of the key comparison reference value. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  10. Conducting Indirect-Treatment-Comparison and Network-Meta-Analysis Studies : Report of the ISPOR Task Force on Indirect Treatment Comparisons Good Research Practices: Part 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoaglin, David C.; Hawkins, Neil; Jansen, Jeroen P.; Scott, David A.; Itzler, Robbin; Cappelleri, Joseph C.; Boersma, Cornelis; Thompson, David; Larholt, Kay M.; Diaz, Mireya; Barrett, Annabel

    Evidence-based health care decision making requires comparison of all relevant competing interventions. In the absence of randomized controlled trials involving a direct comparison of all treatments of interest, indirect treatment comparisons and network meta-analysis provide useful evidence for

  11. The NIH Toolbox Pattern Comparison Processing Speed Test: Normative Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlozzi, Noelle E.; Beaumont, Jennifer L.; Tulsky, David S.; Gershon, Richard C.

    2015-01-01

    The NIH Toolbox Pattern Comparison Processing Speed Test was developed to assess processing speed. While initial validation work provides preliminary support for this test in both children and adults, more work is needed to ensure dependability and generalizability. Thus, this replication study examines descriptive data (including age effects), test–retest reliability, and construct validity in n = 4,859 participants ages 3–85 years (matched to 2010 census data). Although the Pattern Comparison was not appropriate for all 3 and 4 years old, by ages 5 and 6, more meaningful scores were apparent. There was evidence for convergent and discriminant validity. There was also a moderate practice effect (i.e., increase of 5.5 points) over a 1-week time frame. Pattern Comparison exhibits a number of strengths: it is appropriate for use across the lifespan (ages 5–85), it is short and easy to administer, and there is support for construct validity. PMID:26025230

  12. cocor: a comprehensive solution for the statistical comparison of correlations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birk Diedenhofen

    Full Text Available A valid comparison of the magnitude of two correlations requires researchers to directly contrast the correlations using an appropriate statistical test. In many popular statistics packages, however, tests for the significance of the difference between correlations are missing. To close this gap, we introduce cocor, a free software package for the R programming language. The cocor package covers a broad range of tests including the comparisons of independent and dependent correlations with either overlapping or nonoverlapping variables. The package also includes an implementation of Zou's confidence interval for all of these comparisons. The platform independent cocor package enhances the R statistical computing environment and is available for scripting. Two different graphical user interfaces-a plugin for RKWard and a web interface-make cocor a convenient and user-friendly tool.

  13. Logical comparison over RDF resources in bio-informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colucci, S; Donini, F M; Di Sciascio, E

    2017-12-01

    Comparison of resources is a frequent task in different bio-informatics applications, including drug-target interaction, drug repositioning and mechanism of action understanding, among others. This paper proposes a general method for the logical comparison of resources modeled in Resource Description Framework and shows its distinguishing features with reference to the comparison of drugs. In particular, the method returns a description of the commonalities between resources, rather than a numerical value estimating their similarity and/or relatedness. The approach is domain-independent and may be flexibly adapted to heterogeneous use cases, according to a process for setting parameters which is completely explicit. The paper also presents an experiment using the dataset Bioportal as knowledge source; the experiment is fully reproducible, thanks to the elicitation of criteria and values for parameter customization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Efficient quantum private comparison employing single photons and collective detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Gao, Fei; Jia, Heng-yue; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Wei-wei; Wen, Qiao-yan

    2013-02-01

    Two efficient quantum private comparison (QPC) protocols are proposed, employing single photons and collective detection. In the proposed protocols, two distrustful parties (Alice and Bob) compare the equivalence of information with the help of a semi-honest third party (TP). Utilizing collective detection, the cost of practical realization is reduced greatly. In the first protocol, TP gains the result of the comparison. While in the second protocol, TP cannot get the comparison result. In both of our protocols, Alice and Bob only need be equipped with unitary operation machines, such as phase plates. So Alice and Bob need not to have the expensive quantum devices, such as qubit generating machine, quantum memory machine and quantum measuring machine. Security of the protocols is ensured by theorems on quantum operation discrimination.

  15. A socio-economic comparison of green and conventional products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leinikka Dall, Ole; Wenzel, Henrik; Grüttner, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an environmental and socio-economic comparison of functionally equivalent product pairs: a product (or service) complying with eco-labeling criteria towards a conventional product (or service) within the same product/service group. The comparison comprises product pairs within...... the categories of TV-sets, washing machines, textile services, bookshelves and copy paper. The study included development of a methodology for the environmental and socio-economic comparison as well as the application of the methodology on the selected product groups. The study was funded and published...... by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency 2009-2011 [1]. The definition of product pairs took offset in criteria for environmental labeling schemes as The EU Ecolabel and The Nordic Swan – label. The “green product” meets as a minimum requirement the standards for ecolabeling. The similar “conventional...

  16. Price comparisons on the internet based on computational intelligence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Woo Kim

    Full Text Available Information-intensive Web services such as price comparison sites have recently been gaining popularity. However, most users including novice shoppers have difficulty in browsing such sites because of the massive amount of information gathered and the uncertainty surrounding Web environments. Even conventional price comparison sites face various problems, which suggests the necessity of a new approach to address these problems. Therefore, for this study, an intelligent product search system was developed that enables price comparisons for online shoppers in a more effective manner. In particular, the developed system adopts linguistic price ratings based on fuzzy logic to accommodate user-defined price ranges, and personalizes product recommendations based on linguistic product clusters, which help online shoppers find desired items in a convenient manner.

  17. Physical similarity or numerical representation counts in same-different, numerical comparison, physical comparison, and priming tasks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Xin, Ziqiang; Feng, Tingyong; Chen, Yinghe; Szűcs, Denes

    2018-03-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the fact that some tasks used to study symbolic number representations are confounded by judgments about physical similarity. Here, we investigated whether the contribution of physical similarity and numerical representation differed in the often-used symbolic same-different, numerical comparison, physical comparison, and priming tasks. Experiment 1 showed that subjective physical similarity was the best predictor of participants' performance in the same-different task, regardless of simultaneous or sequential presentation. Furthermore, the contribution of subjective physical similarity was larger in a simultaneous presentation than in a sequential presentation. Experiment 2 showed that only numerical representation was involved in numerical comparison. Experiment 3 showed that both subjective physical similarity and numerical representation contributed to participants' physical comparison performance. Finally, only numerical representation contributed to participants' performance in a priming task as revealed by Experiment 4. Taken together, the contribution of physical similarity and numerical representation depends on task demands. Performance primarily seems to rely on numerical properties in tasks that require explicit quantitative comparison judgments (physical or numerical), while physical stimulus properties exert an effect in the same-different task.

  18. BEACON: automated tool for Bacterial GEnome Annotation ComparisON.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkatawi, Manal; Alam, Intikhab; Bajic, Vladimir B

    2015-08-18

    Genome annotation is one way of summarizing the existing knowledge about genomic characteristics of an organism. There has been an increased interest during the last several decades in computer-based structural and functional genome annotation. Many methods for this purpose have been developed for eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Our study focuses on comparison of functional annotations of prokaryotic genomes. To the best of our knowledge there is no fully automated system for detailed comparison of functional genome annotations generated by different annotation methods (AMs). The presence of many AMs and development of new ones introduce needs to: a/ compare different annotations for a single genome, and b/ generate annotation by combining individual ones. To address these issues we developed an Automated Tool for Bacterial GEnome Annotation ComparisON (BEACON) that benefits both AM developers and annotation analysers. BEACON provides detailed comparison of gene function annotations of prokaryotic genomes obtained by different AMs and generates extended annotations through combination of individual ones. For the illustration of BEACON's utility, we provide a comparison analysis of multiple different annotations generated for four genomes and show on these examples that the extended annotation can increase the number of genes annotated by putative functions up to 27%, while the number of genes without any function assignment is reduced. We developed BEACON, a fast tool for an automated and a systematic comparison of different annotations of single genomes. The extended annotation assigns putative functions to many genes with unknown functions. BEACON is available under GNU General Public License version 3.0 and is accessible at: http://www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/BEACON/ .

  19. BEACON: automated tool for Bacterial GEnome Annotation ComparisON

    KAUST Repository

    Kalkatawi, Manal M.

    2015-08-18

    Background Genome annotation is one way of summarizing the existing knowledge about genomic characteristics of an organism. There has been an increased interest during the last several decades in computer-based structural and functional genome annotation. Many methods for this purpose have been developed for eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Our study focuses on comparison of functional annotations of prokaryotic genomes. To the best of our knowledge there is no fully automated system for detailed comparison of functional genome annotations generated by different annotation methods (AMs). Results The presence of many AMs and development of new ones introduce needs to: a/ compare different annotations for a single genome, and b/ generate annotation by combining individual ones. To address these issues we developed an Automated Tool for Bacterial GEnome Annotation ComparisON (BEACON) that benefits both AM developers and annotation analysers. BEACON provides detailed comparison of gene function annotations of prokaryotic genomes obtained by different AMs and generates extended annotations through combination of individual ones. For the illustration of BEACON’s utility, we provide a comparison analysis of multiple different annotations generated for four genomes and show on these examples that the extended annotation can increase the number of genes annotated by putative functions up to 27 %, while the number of genes without any function assignment is reduced. Conclusions We developed BEACON, a fast tool for an automated and a systematic comparison of different annotations of single genomes. The extended annotation assigns putative functions to many genes with unknown functions. BEACON is available under GNU General Public License version 3.0 and is accessible at: http://www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/BEACON/

  20. Comparison of greedy algorithms for α-decision tree construction

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalid, Abdulaziz

    2011-01-01

    A comparison among different heuristics that are used by greedy algorithms which constructs approximate decision trees (α-decision trees) is presented. The comparison is conducted using decision tables based on 24 data sets from UCI Machine Learning Repository [2]. Complexity of decision trees is estimated relative to several cost functions: depth, average depth, number of nodes, number of nonterminal nodes, and number of terminal nodes. Costs of trees built by greedy algorithms are compared with minimum costs calculated by an algorithm based on dynamic programming. The results of experiments assign to each cost function a set of potentially good heuristics that minimize it. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  1. Designing experiments and analyzing data a model comparison perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Maxwell, Scott E

    2013-01-01

    Through this book's unique model comparison approach, students and researchers are introduced to a set of fundamental principles for analyzing data. After seeing how these principles can be applied in simple designs, students are shown how these same principles also apply in more complicated designs. Drs. Maxwell and Delaney believe that the model comparison approach better prepares students to understand the logic behind a general strategy of data analysis appropriate for various designs; and builds a stronger foundation, which allows for the introduction of more complex topics omitt

  2. BLAST Ring Image Generator (BRIG: simple prokaryote genome comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatson Scott A

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Visualisation of genome comparisons is invaluable for helping to determine genotypic differences between closely related prokaryotes. New visualisation and abstraction methods are required in order to improve the validation, interpretation and communication of genome sequence information; especially with the increasing amount of data arising from next-generation sequencing projects. Visualising a prokaryote genome as a circular image has become a powerful means of displaying informative comparisons of one genome to a number of others. Several programs, imaging libraries and internet resources already exist for this purpose, however, most are either limited in the number of comparisons they can show, are unable to adequately utilise draft genome sequence data, or require a knowledge of command-line scripting for implementation. Currently, there is no freely available desktop application that enables users to rapidly visualise comparisons between hundreds of draft or complete genomes in a single image. Results BLAST Ring Image Generator (BRIG can generate images that show multiple prokaryote genome comparisons, without an arbitrary limit on the number of genomes compared. The output image shows similarity between a central reference sequence and other sequences as a set of concentric rings, where BLAST matches are coloured on a sliding scale indicating a defined percentage identity. Images can also include draft genome assembly information to show read coverage, assembly breakpoints and collapsed repeats. In addition, BRIG supports the mapping of unassembled sequencing reads against one or more central reference sequences. Many types of custom data and annotations can be shown using BRIG, making it a versatile approach for visualising a range of genomic comparison data. BRIG is readily accessible to any user, as it assumes no specialist computational knowledge and will perform all required file parsing and BLAST comparisons

  3. Quantum Private Comparison Based on χ-Type Entangled States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong-Ming, Pan

    2017-10-01

    A two-party quantum private comparison (QPC) protocol is constructed with χ-type entangled states in this paper. The proposed protocol employs a semi-honest third party (TP) that is allowed to misbehave on his own but cannot conspire with the adversary. The proposed protocol need perform Bell basis measurements and single-particle measurements but neither unitary operations nor quantum entanglement swapping technology. The proposed protocol possesses good security toward both the outside attack and the participant attack. TP only knows the comparison result of the private information from two parties in the proposed protocol.

  4. A simple statistical method for catch comparison studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, René; Revill, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    For analysing catch comparison data, we propose a simple method based on Generalised Linear Mixed Models (GLMM) and use polynomial approximations to fit the proportions caught in the test codend. The method provides comparisons of fish catch at length by the two gears through a continuous curve...... with a realistic confidence band. We demonstrate the versatility of this method, on field data obtained from the first known testing in European waters of the Rhode Island (USA) 'Eliminator' trawl. These data are interesting as they include a range of species with different selective patterns. Crown Copyright (C...

  5. Development and Comparison of Technical Solutions for Electricity Monitoring Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potapovs, A.; Obushevs, A.

    2017-12-01

    The paper focuses on the elaboration of a demand-side management platform for optimal energy management strategies; the topicality is related to the description and comparison of the developed electricity monitoring and control equipment. The article describes two versions based on Atmega328 and STM32 microcontrollers, a lower and higher level of precision, and other distinct performance parameters. At the end of the article, the results of the testing of the two types of equipment are given and their comparison is made.

  6. [Development of an Excel spreadsheet for meta-analysis of indirect and mixed treatment comparisons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobías, Aurelio; Catalá-López, Ferrán; Roqué, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Meta-analyses in clinical research usually aimed to evaluate treatment efficacy and safety in direct comparison with a unique comparator. Indirect comparisons, using the Bucher's method, can summarize primary data when information from direct comparisons is limited or nonexistent. Mixed comparisons allow combining estimates from direct and indirect comparisons, increasing statistical power. There is a need for simple applications for meta-analysis of indirect and mixed comparisons. These can easily be conducted using a Microsoft Office Excel spreadsheet. We developed a spreadsheet for indirect and mixed effects comparisons of friendly use for clinical researchers interested in systematic reviews, but non-familiarized with the use of more advanced statistical packages. The use of the proposed Excel spreadsheet for indirect and mixed comparisons can be of great use in clinical epidemiology to extend the knowledge provided by traditional meta-analysis when evidence from direct comparisons is limited or nonexistent.

  7. A weighted spectrum metric for comparison of Internet topologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fay, D.; Haddadi, H.; Moore, A.W.; Mortier, R.; Uhlig, S.; Jamakovic, A.

    2010-01-01

    Comparison of graph structures is a frequently encountered problem across a number of problem domains. Comparing graphs requires a metric to discriminate which features of the graphs are considered important. The spectrum of a graph is often claimed to contain all the information within a graph, but

  8. Comparison of the body compositions in obese and nonobese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of the body compositions in obese and nonobese individuals: Can learning body compositions motivate losing weight? ... Having low educational level, female gender, not working, being married, and nonsmoker significantly increased more in obese than nonobese (P < 0.001). Total body water, visceral fat ...

  9. Comparison of parallel data processing and its performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botor, Tomáš; Habiballa, Hashim

    2017-11-01

    Research is focused on parallelization of code in C++ language, using TBB library, OpenMP directives and CUDA technology. There are also comparison of results include. Thanks results we can recommend the best technology for optimization of source code. We present experimental results of computational efficiency of several types of parallelization techniques including GPU execution units.

  10. Comparison Of Seismic Provisions Of EBCS 8 And Current Major ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparison of seismic ptovisions having relevance to the Equivalent Static Force (ESF) method of analysis according to current major building codys worldwide is presented. The codes compared include the latest two editions of the Uniform Building Code (UBC 94 and UBC 97), the International Building Code (IBC 2000) ...

  11. The Trouble with Comparisons: Thoughts from a College President.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Theodore D.

    1981-01-01

    Constant comparison with others is seen as destructive for colleges and universities. The more adept colleges become at using the marketplace terminology, involving the comparative measurement of departments and football teams, the harder it is to re-create an atmosphere that would distinguish one college from all the other front-runners. (MLW)

  12. Determinants of Adolescent Obesity: A Comparison with Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brone, Ronald J.; Fisher, Celia B.

    1988-01-01

    Comparison of childhood and adolescent obesity and anorexia nervosa reveals etiological similarities between the two conditions, particularly regarding family interactional patterns. In both cases, family enmeshment and overprotectiveness resulted in a poor sense of identity and effectiveness. Some children, while compliant and dependent in…

  13. Comparison of gas dehydration methods based on energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of gas dehydration methods based on energy consumption. ... This study compares three conventional methods of natural gas (Associated Natural Gas) dehydration to carry out the dehydration process and suitability of use on the basis of energy requirement. These methods are Triethylene Glycol (TEG) ...

  14. A comparison of three methods of Nitrogen analysis for feedstuffs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    Short paper and poster abstracts: 38th Congress of the South African Society of Animal Science. The South African Journal of Animal Science is available online at http://www.sasas.co.za/Sajas.html. 23. A comparison of three methods of Nitrogen analysis for feedstuffs. D. L. Figenschou. #. , J. P. Marais and M. de Figueiredo.

  15. comparison of euler-lagrangian and fischer's methods of predicting

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-01

    Mar 1, 2013 ... Keywords: dispersion coefficient, euler-lagrangian method, analysis, comparison. 1. Introduction. Mixing and dispersion phenomenon that occur as natural processes in river system help to reduce the local pollution level considerably by distributing the dissolved substances gradually with time [1, 2]. The.

  16. Comparison between in vitro and in vivo antibacterial activity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antimicrobial activity of the extracts of Curcuma zedoaria from Malaysia was compared using in vitro and in vivo systems. The comparison was performed against four bacterial strains including two gram negative strains (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and two gram positive strains (Bacillus cereus and ...

  17. Medical Laboratory Science: An International Comparison for Credentials Evaluators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Solveig M.; Karlsson, Britta

    Information is presented to help medical technology schools abroad evaluate their credentials in comparison to U.S. requirements. After defining the subfields of medical technology, also called medical laboratory science, a summary is provided of the educational requirements, the professional titles, and the certification recognition of medical…

  18. Comparison of various pulping characteristic of Fraxinus angustifolia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of various pulping characteristic of Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl. wood. ... compared with each other for strength and optical properties. Strength properties were found to be higher for kraft and kraft + anthraquinone processes, while optical properties were found to be higher for cold soda and NSSC processes.

  19. The Comparison of Emphatic Tendencies of the Management Department Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belli, Emre; Yildirim, Fatih; Naktiyok, Serkan; Gurbuz, Ali; Aydin, Ali Dursun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current research is to make a comparison between the university students majoring at the department of sport management at Kafkas University and Atatürk University in terms of empathy level. For data collection, "Emphatic Tendency Scale", which was developed by Dökmen (1994) and which included 20 items, was administered to…

  20. Comparison of trace element contamination levels (Cu, Zn, Fe, Cd ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of trace element contamination levels (Cu, Zn, Fe, Cd and Pb) in the soft tissues of the gastropods Tympanotonus fuscatus fuscatus and Tf radula collected in the Ebrié Lagoon (Côte d'Ivoire): Evidence of the risks linked to linked to lead and.

  1. Preference uncertainty, preference learning, and paired comparison experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    David C. Kingsley; Thomas C. Brown

    2010-01-01

    Results from paired comparison experiments suggest that as respondents progress through a sequence of binary choices they become more consistent, apparently fine-tuning their preferences. Consistency may be indicated by the variance of the estimated valuation distribution measured by the error term in the random utility model. A significant reduction in the variance is...

  2. Comparison of Channel Emulation Techniques in Multiprobe Anechoic Chamber Setups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llorente, Ines Carton; Fan, Wei; Nielsen, Jesper Ødum

    2015-01-01

    This paper compares two different techniques for channel emulation in multiprobe anechoic chamber based setups, which is a candidate solution for the standardization of MIMO OTA performance testing of mobile devices. The comparison is performed via simulations of the field distribution, temporal...

  3. A comparison of two extractors for separating meiobenthic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Huling & Gray (1971) recommended that for quantitative work with fine-grained sediments sieving and hand-sorting are necessary. This is an extremely laborious and time-consuming method when dealing with coastal and estuarine muds (Nichols 1979), in comparison with centrifugal flotation of soil suspensions. To date.

  4. Ultrastructure comparison of the sensory morphology of the first- and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ultrastructure comparison of the sensory morphology of the first- and third-instar larvae of Parasarcophaga argyrostoma (Robineau-Desvoidy) (Diptera: Sarcophagidae). Azza Awad, Salah Abdel-Salam, Refat Abou El-Ela, Abdel-Aal Abdel-Aal, Doaa Mohamed ...

  5. A Comparison of Chinese and American Indian (Chumash Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Adams

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chinese and Chumash traditional medical approaches are similar in terms of disease causation, use of acupuncture or healing touch, plants, spiritual and philosophical approaches. This article provides a brief comparison and discussion of Chinese and Chumash traditional medical practices. A table of 66 plants is presented along with Chinese and Chumash uses of each plant. These uses are compared and contrasted.

  6. Attitude of primigravidas to pregnancy: a comparison between the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    developments in assisted reproduction technology resulted in an increasingly age of marriage and age of first pregnancy. Aim: To identify the demographic characteristics, health concerns and behaviours of elderly primigravidas in comparison with their younger counterparts. Materials and Methods: Fifty primigravidas.

  7. An Inter-industry comparison of market orientation in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John

    2006-01-01

    The study makes two contributions to the existing knowledge on market orientation. First it extends the insight obtained from previous research on the antecedents of market orientation into the developing country context. Second, it undertakes an inter-industry comparison with the view to determi...

  8. Cesium Salts of Phosphotungstic Acid: Comparison of Surface ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... synthesized by using Cs2.5H0.5PW12O40 catalyst in high to excellent yields. This catalyst showed highest surface acidity and lowest solubility in reaction media in comparison with the other cesium content salts. KEYWORDS Polyoxometalates, cesium salts, surface acidity, β-ketoenol ethers, heterogeneous catalysis.

  9. Attitudes of undergraduates towards mental illness: A comparison ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    attitudes so often reported in studies.[15] A handful of studies have explored the attitudes among healthcare students and the effectiveness of. Attitudes of undergraduates towards mental illness: A comparison between nursing and business management students in India. P Vijayalakshmi,1 RN, RM, MSN; D Reddy,1 MSW, ...

  10. Comparison of Two Disc Diffusion Methods with Minimum Inhibitory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    criteria for azithromycin are not available by CLSI and AGSP, comparisons could not be done for aithromycin. In India, to the best of our knowledge, our study is the first to compare two disc diffusion methods with MIC. Otherwise, few published reports have compared the E-test with the agar. Table 1: Disc potency of used ...

  11. Comparison of the effectiveness of polymer gel dosimeters (Magic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dosimeters for 3D measurement of dose distribution in brachytherapy, nuclear medicine and teletherapy. Methods: Magic and Pagatug polymer gels were compared with soft tissue based on irradiation with low energy photons during therapeutic applications. Comparison was simulated using Monte-Carlo- based MCNPX ...

  12. Comparison of catalytic ethylene polymerization in slurry and gas phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daftaribesheli, Majid

    2009-01-01

    Polyethylene (PE) with the annual consumption of 70 million tones in 2007 is mostly produced in slurry, gas-phase or combination of both processes. This work focuses on a comparison between the slurry and gas phase processes. Why does PE produced in theses two processes can show extremely different

  13. Comparison of some anthropometric and biologic parameters in two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-05-16

    May 16, 2011 ... data consolidate the impact of pregnant women's nutritional state, breastfeeding on the infant and the infant growth. In comparison ... mental development, training capacity, the organism de- ence capacity, in particular ... of their children in the study. Socio-economic, anthropometric and dietary assessments.

  14. Emotional Analysis of Music: A Comparison of Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soleymani, Mohammad; Aljanaki, Anna|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/34570956X; Yang, Yi-Hsuan; Caro, Michael N.; Eyben, Florian; Markov, Konstantin; Schuller, Bjorn; Veltkamp, Remco|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/084742984; Weninger, Felix; Wiering, Frans|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/141928034

    2014-01-01

    Music as a form of art is intentionally composed to be emotionally expressive. The emotional features of music are invaluable for music indexing and recommendation. In this paper we present a cross-comparison of automatic emotional analysis of music. We created a public dataset of Creative Commons

  15. Comparison of Outcome of Students' Performance Using the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study compared the outcome of students' performance using the standard setting method with the equivalent outcome they would have obtained using the absolute grading method. It involved the comparison of fail, pass, honors and distinction grades in Digestive System, Endocrine System, Cardiovascular System and ...

  16. Comparison of the Therapeutic Efficacy of Double-Modality Therapy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    The use of Ultrasound as an enhancer for Transcutaneous Drug Delivery: Phonophoresis. Physical Therapy. 75 (6) : 539 –. 553. Cagnie B., Vinck E., Rimbaut, S. and Vanderstraeten. G. (2003). Phonophoresis Versus Topical. Application of Ketoprofen: Comparison Between. Tissue and Plasma Levels. Physical Therapy. 83.

  17. Comparison of productive and reproductive efficiency of Afrino ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of productive and reproductive efficiency of Afrino, Dorper and Merino sheep in the False Upper Karoo. ... South African Journal of Animal Science ... A total of 1242 ewe reproductive records was available, while data of respectively 772 and 405 lambs were analysed for the growth traits and slaughter traits.

  18. Comparison of the sickling and gelation properties of acidic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of the sickling and gelation properties of acidic metabolites of Aloe Vera and Cajanus Cajan. ... The number of unsickled erythrocytes increased remarkably with metabolite concentration from 565 to 800 (x 106/ne) A. vera extract as against 127 to 380 (x 106/ne) for C. cajan. A similar trend was observed in the ...

  19. Sexual harassment in northwest Europe - A cross-cultural comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, M.C.; Bajema, C.W.

    1999-01-01

    A substantial body of research addressing the issue of sexual harassment in the workplace has been developed over the past decade. In this article we consider the complexity of cross-cultural comparisons of the incidence rates of sexual harassment and present the results of our research on sexual

  20. Comparison of intravenous colloid and colloid‑crystalloid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-09-25

    Sep 25, 2013 ... Context: Many studies comparing different intravenous fluid types usually do not use equipotent volumes of three to one crystalloid to colloid ratio in such comparisons. Conflicting results emanate from such studies. Aim: This study was designed to compare the efficacy of equipotent volumes of colloid and ...

  1. Commercialising Comparison: Pearson Puts the TLC in Soft Capitalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Anna; Sellar, Sam; Lingard, Bob

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a critical policy analysis of "The Learning Curve" (TLC) (2012), an initiative developed by the multinational edu-business, Pearson, in conjunction with the Economist Intelligence Unit. "TLC" exemplifies the commercialising of comparison and the efforts of edu-businesses to strategically position themselves…

  2. Efficient Multicriteria Protein Structure Comparison on Modern Processor Architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anuj; Manolakos, Elias S

    2015-01-01

    Fast increasing computational demand for all-to-all protein structures comparison (PSC) is a result of three confounding factors: rapidly expanding structural proteomics databases, high computational complexity of pairwise protein comparison algorithms, and the trend in the domain towards using multiple criteria for protein structures comparison (MCPSC) and combining results. We have developed a software framework that exploits many-core and multicore CPUs to implement efficient parallel MCPSC in modern processors based on three popular PSC methods, namely, TMalign, CE, and USM. We evaluate and compare the performance and efficiency of the two parallel MCPSC implementations using Intel's experimental many-core Single-Chip Cloud Computer (SCC) as well as Intel's Core i7 multicore processor. We show that the 48-core SCC is more efficient than the latest generation Core i7, achieving a speedup factor of 42 (efficiency of 0.9), making many-core processors an exciting emerging technology for large-scale structural proteomics. We compare and contrast the performance of the two processors on several datasets and also show that MCPSC outperforms its component methods in grouping related domains, achieving a high F-measure of 0.91 on the benchmark CK34 dataset. The software implementation for protein structure comparison using the three methods and combined MCPSC, along with the developed underlying rckskel algorithmic skeletons library, is available via GitHub.

  3. Comparison and Contrast between First and Second Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, Javed; Amin, Muhammad; Saeed, Faria; Abdullah, Shumaila; Muhammad, Khair

    2016-01-01

    This research paper tends to focus on comparison and contrast between first and second language learning. It investigates the different factors that have inhibiting influences on the language learning process of the learners in the two different environments. There are many factors involved in this respect. The age factor is one of the vital…

  4. Secure comparison protocols in the semi-honest model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veugen, P.J.M.; Blom, F.; Hoogh, S.J.A. de; Erkin, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Due to high complexity, comparison protocols with secret inputs have been a bottleneck in the design of privacy-preserving cryptographic protocols. Different solutions based on homomorphic encryption, garbled circuits and secret sharing techniques have been proposed over the last few years, each

  5. Comparison of the learning effectiveness of computer-based and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    Comparison of the learning effectiveness of computer-based and conventional experiments in science education. N.P.J. Molefe, M. Lemmer* and J.J.A. Smit. North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus,Potchefstroom, 2520 South Africa. An empirical study was conducted to compare the learning effectiveness of two ...

  6. Muscle Distribution in Farm Animals: Comparison Between Goats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    animals~ However, there has been limited study,. 01lmJscl~/4istribution of g~ats and comparison. *CoITcsponding anthor. , data with otller species:'is even more scanty. The aIm of the,ph:sent stitdy was to compare muscle distribution of goats with that of other. , species of farm animals. ''''",'. Materials and Method. • ._ ' _ ,.

  7. Comparison of the asymptotic stability properties for two multirate strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Savcenco (Valeriu)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis paper contains a comparison of the asymptotic stability properties for two multirate strategies. For each strategy, the asymptotic stability regions are presented for a 2 x 2 test problem and the differences between the results are discussed. The considered multirate schemes use

  8. A comparison of ltalian ryegrass (Lolium multillorum) cultivars Bxalta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparison of ltalian ryegrass (Lolium multillorum) cultivars Bxalta and. Midmar with respect to their nutritive value for sheep. H.H. Meissner". Department of Animal and Wldlife Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, 0002 Republic of South Africa. Rceived l7 August 1995; accepted 20 February 1996. The nutritive value ...

  9. A Comparison of MOOC Development and Delivery Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Neil; Caldwell, Helen; Richards, Mike; Bandara, Arosha

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present a comparison of two ways of developing and delivering massive open online courses (MOOCs). One was developed by The Open University in collaboration with FutureLearn; the other was developed independently by a small team at the Northampton University. Design/methodology/approach: The different…

  10. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis of core gene of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Pakistan, more than 10 million people are living with hepatitis C virus (HCV) with high morbidity and mortality. The aims of the present study are to report HCV core gene sequences from Pakistani population and perform their sequence comparison/phylogenetic analysis. The core gene of HCV has been cloned from six ...

  11. A Comparison of Close-Range Photogrammetry to Terrestrial Laser ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes the photogrammetric and laser scan survey of an excavated section of the Laetoli hominid track-way in Tanzania. The survey was designed to allow for comparison to a prior detailed survey of the track-way carried out in 1995, and serves as a means to compare terrestrial laser scanning with ...

  12. The matrix: A comparison of international wilderness laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Landres; Brad Barr; Cyril F. Kormos

    2008-01-01

    The following matrix provides a comparison of wilderness laws around the world. This matrix is divided into four parts, each focusing on a key area of wilderness legislation: the definition of wilderness; the overall legislative purpose; uses allowed by the legislation; and administration and management requirements under law. A more thorough analysis of individual...

  13. Comparison of indices of disproportionality in PR systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Bolun

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Comparative analysis of 12 indices of disproportionality by such characteristics as: metric, definition domain, representation uniformity, invariance and utilization field, is done. As a result of comparison, the opportunity to use as index of disproportionality in elections the Average relative deviation one is argued. Graphic representation for the upper limit of optimal solutions' disproportionality, when using this index, is shown.

  14. Comparison of the composition and opsonic activities of imported ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1994-11-11

    Nov 11, 1994 ... Swiss Serum and Vaccine Institute, Berne, Switzerland; distributed by Swisspharm, Johannesburg. Natal Blood Transfusion Service, Durban. Opsonic activity. For purposes of comparison all the test Ig preparations were used at a fixed concentration of 1 g/100 ml IgG in these assays. The opsonic activity of ...

  15. A Comparison Between Doxycycline and Ampicillin in the treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Comparison Between Doxycycline and Ampicillin in the treatment of Bronchopneumonia complicating measles. I.R. Lang ... differences in the duration of pyrexia and consolidation are discussed and various conclusions drawn. The results did not correspond with sensitivity tests conducted on swabs taken on admission.

  16. Surgical cure ofthe Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome a comparison ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surgical cure ofthe Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome a comparison oftwo techniques. u. o. VON OPPELL, R. N. SCOTT MILLAR, D. A. MILNE. TABLE!. Characteristics of WPW patients referred for surgical ablation of their aberrant atrioventricular pathways. Patient population and methods. We' retrospectively reviewed 19 ...

  17. Forecast Sensitivity and Observation Impact (FSOI) Inter-comparison Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, R.; Auligne, T.; Gelaro, R.; Langland, R.; Groff, D. N.; Hotta, D.

    2016-12-01

    Forecast Sensitivity and Observation Impact (FSOI) techniques provide a practical means to estimate the forecast impact of all assimilated observations for NWP systems. In this presentation, we describe direct comparisons of FSOI quantities between different NWP systems. A common "baseline" set of FSOI experimental parameters are applied for the time period December-February (DJF) 2014/2015. An adjoint-based FSOI approach (Langland and Baker, 2004) is applied for the NWP systems at NASA/GMAO, the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), the UK Met Office (UKMet); where as an ensemble-based FSOI approach (Kalnay et al., 2012) is applied at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) applies both the adjoint-based and ensemble-based FSOI capabilities, enabling a direct comparison between the two techniques. Given the aforementioned experiment, we plan to describe the differences in aggregated FSOI quantities between NWP systems for the relevant observing systems. Additionally, NWP system inter-comparisons of FSOI quantities for common observation subsets within the 3-month period will be presented. The comparisons of observation subsets will provide insight as to the extent to which the aggregate results are representative in both space and time.

  18. Library Research: A Domain Comparison of Two Library Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Karen; Thiele, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Research articles published by the "Community & Junior College Libraries" journal and the "College & Undergraduate Libraries" journal were analyzed to determine their domain. The discussion includes a comparison of past domain studies with the current research. The researchers found the majority of articles (52%) in the…

  19. A comparison of some anatomical characteristics of male and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparison of some anatomical characteristics of male and female reproductive organs of the white Fulani and west African short horn cattle in Ghana: a short ... The lack of difference between female reproductive organs of WASH and White Fulani at the adult age could be due to the confounding effects of the ...

  20. A Comparison of Deaf and Hearing Children's Reading Comprehension Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, Fiona E.; Cain, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Although deaf children typically exhibit severe delays in reading achievement, there is a paucity of research looking at their text-level comprehension skills. We present a comparison of deaf and normally hearing readers' profiles on a commonly used reading comprehension assessment: the Neale Analysis of Reading Ability II. Methods:…

  1. Teacher Job Satisfaction and Burnout Viewed through Social Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchel, Tracy; Smith, Amy R.; Henry, Anna L.; Robinson, J. Shane; Lawver, Rebecca G.; Park, Travis D.; Schell, Ashley

    2012-01-01

    Understanding job satisfaction, stress, and burnout within agricultural education has the potential to impact the profession's future. Studying these factors through the theoretical lens of social comparison takes a cultural approach by investigating how agriculture teachers interact with and compare themselves to others. The purpose of this study…

  2. The nutritional status of patients with tuberculosis in comparison with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To report on the nutritional status of newly diagnosed patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in comparison to contacts who are tuberculosis free. Design: This was a community-based case-control study. Setting and subjects: The study was conducted in Delft, a periurban community in the Western Cape. Forty-three ...

  3. A comparison of two operations for pilonidal sinus disease | Gupta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: A total of 28 patients of chronic pilonidal sinus disease were randomised to undergo radiofrequency sinus excision technique (n=14) or excision and marsupialisation (n=14). The demographic data. Postoperative results complications and recurrence were documented for comparison of the results. Patients from ...

  4. Comparison of the properties of collagen extracted from dried ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The properties of these proteins have been studied and a comparison made of the protein patterns of collagen extracted from marine organisms with those from other organisms, to determine which collagen subtypes are present, and in what proportions. Pepsin-soluble collagen (PSC) from dried jellyfish and dried squid ...

  5. A Comparison of Cataloguing and Classification Education (CCE) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Comparison of Cataloguing and Classification Education (CCE) in Library and Information Science in South Africa, Brazil and the USA (SOBUSA): An Overview. Dennis N. Ocholla, Lyudmila Ocholla, Hope A. Olson, Jeannette R. Glover, José Augusto Guimarães ...

  6. Comparison of the Nature and Strategic features of Facilities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of the Nature and Strategic features of Facilities Management and Other Building Support Practices in Lagos. ... Also that the principles of property management was used predominantly amongst the respondents, while the main work focus of the maintenance manager was rated “most important”. These findings ...

  7. Term Based Comparison Metrics for Controlled and Uncontrolled Indexing Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, B. M.; Tennis, J. T.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: We define a collection of metrics for describing and comparing sets of terms in controlled and uncontrolled indexing languages and then show how these metrics can be used to characterize a set of languages spanning folksonomies, ontologies and thesauri. Method: Metrics for term set characterization and comparison were identified and…

  8. An Adaptive Algorithm for Pairwise Comparison-based Preference Measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meissner, Martin; Decker, Reinhold; Scholz, Sören W.

    2011-01-01

    The Pairwise Comparison‐based Preference Measurement (PCPM) approach has been proposed for products featuring a large number of attributes. In the PCPM framework, a static two‐cyclic design is used to reduce the number of pairwise comparisons. However, adaptive questioning routines that maximize ...

  9. Comparison of murine B-cell proliferative response to bacterial ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    Comparison of murine B-cell proliferative response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide and DNP derivative of. Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens. ANILA PRABHU and R Κ SAXENA. School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110 067, India. MS received 21 July 1993; revised 29 October 1993. Abstract.

  10. Framework for Detailed Comparison of Building Environmental Assessment Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola Eriksson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how Building Environmental Assessments Tools (BEATs measure and define “environmental” building is of great interest to many stakeholders, but it is difficult to understand how BEATs relate to each other, as well as to make detailed and systematic tool comparisons. A framework for comparing BEATs is presented in the following which facilitates an understanding and comparison of similarities and differences in terms of structure, content, aggregation, and scope. The framework was tested by comparing three distinctly different assessment tools; LEED-NC v3, Code for Sustainable Homes (CSH, and EcoEffect. Illustrations of the hierarchical structure of the tools gave a clear overview of their structural differences. When using the framework, the analysis showed that all three tools treat issues related to the main assessment categories: Energy and Pollution, Indoor Environment, and Materials and Waste. However, the environmental issues addressed, and the parameters defining the object of study, differ and, subsequently, so do rating, results, categories, issues, input data, aggregation methodology, and weighting. This means that BEATs measure “environmental” building differently and push “environmental” design in different directions. Therefore, tool comparisons are important, and the framework can be used to make these comparisons in a more detailed and systematic way.

  11. Comparison of maternal health services and indicators in three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and health care service needs. Analysis. Data collected were entered into Stata version 12 and analyzed using frequency distributionand assessment of means for continuous variables. Comparisons among the three districts were conducted using chi square tests for categorical variables and one way analysis of vari-.

  12. The comparison of parents' educational level on the breastfeeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Mother's milk plays an important role in infant's health, and World Health Organization (WHO) recommends infants should be breastfed for 2 years or up. Aim: The main objective of this study was to evaluate the breastfeeding status based on parents' educational level with comparison between Turkman and ...

  13. A comparison of acidic and enzymatic hydrolysis of rutin | Wang ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rutin and its hydrolysis products (isoquercitrin and quercetin) are widely used as important materials in food and pharmaceutical industry. In this study, the effects of various acids and enzymes as catalysts on the hydrolysis reaction of rutin were studied. In comparison with acidic and enzymatic catalysis of rutin, the research ...

  14. Does Matching Quality Matter in Mode Comparison Studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ji; Yin, Ping; Shedden, Kerby A.

    2015-01-01

    This article provides a brief overview and comparison of three matching approaches in forming comparable groups for a study comparing test administration modes (i.e., computer-based tests [CBT] and paper-and-pencil tests [PPT]): (a) a propensity score matching approach proposed in this article, (b) the propensity score matching approach used by…

  15. Efficient Multicriteria Protein Structure Comparison on Modern Processor Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolakos, Elias S.

    2015-01-01

    Fast increasing computational demand for all-to-all protein structures comparison (PSC) is a result of three confounding factors: rapidly expanding structural proteomics databases, high computational complexity of pairwise protein comparison algorithms, and the trend in the domain towards using multiple criteria for protein structures comparison (MCPSC) and combining results. We have developed a software framework that exploits many-core and multicore CPUs to implement efficient parallel MCPSC in modern processors based on three popular PSC methods, namely, TMalign, CE, and USM. We evaluate and compare the performance and efficiency of the two parallel MCPSC implementations using Intel's experimental many-core Single-Chip Cloud Computer (SCC) as well as Intel's Core i7 multicore processor. We show that the 48-core SCC is more efficient than the latest generation Core i7, achieving a speedup factor of 42 (efficiency of 0.9), making many-core processors an exciting emerging technology for large-scale structural proteomics. We compare and contrast the performance of the two processors on several datasets and also show that MCPSC outperforms its component methods in grouping related domains, achieving a high F-measure of 0.91 on the benchmark CK34 dataset. The software implementation for protein structure comparison using the three methods and combined MCPSC, along with the developed underlying rckskel algorithmic skeletons library, is available via GitHub. PMID:26605332

  16. Comparison of phenolic and volatile profiles of edible and toxic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To identify them, a chemical comparison of edible and toxic forms was done in order to highlight differences between both forms. Dichloromethane leaf extracts from toxic and edible trees were analyzed by gas chromatography. Phenolic profile and volatile compounds from fruits extracts were studied respectively by High ...

  17. Comparison of the selected secondary metabolite content present in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extracts of in vitro leaves, field leaves and seeds of the leguminous plant Lessertia frutescens were analyzed using spectrophotometric and gravimetric methods, to the effect of quantitative comparison of their phenolic, flavonoid, alkaloid and saponin contents. As compared to the field leaves and seeds, saponins were ...

  18. A multicenter comparison of whole blood vitamin B6 assays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zelst, Bertrand D.; de Beer, Roseri J. A. C. Roelofsen; Neele, Marjolein; Kos, Snjezana; Kema, Ido P.; Tegelaers, Frans P. W.; Cobbaert, Christa M.; Weykamp, Cas W.; de Jonge, Robert

    Background: The aim of this study was to compare different analytical methods that are currently in use in the Netherlands for the measurement of whole blood vitamin B6. Methods: This method comparison study consisted of two separate parts. (1) Four laboratories participated in a pilot study in

  19. Comparison of CloudSat and TRMM radar reflectivities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. CloudSat CPR; TRMM PR; CFADs; radar reflectivity. Abstract. Comparison of reflectivity data of radars onboard CloudSat and TRMM is performed using coincident overpasses. The contoured frequency by altitude diagrams (CFADs) are constructed for two cases: (a) only include collocated vertical profiles that ...

  20. A comparison of ultraviolet radiometers' long-term performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper we present a comparison of the performance characteristics of two types of broad-band ultraviolet radiometers. The first type of instrument is manufactured by Eppley Laboratories of the USA and the second type is manufactured by Kipp and Zonen of Holland. The results presented in this paper are for a ...

  1. Gender Differences on the Concept of Wisdom: An International Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingworth, Liz; Sánchez-Escobedo, Pedro; Graudina, Liena; Misiuniene, Jurga; Park, Kyubin

    2013-01-01

    The study aims to depict the most common ideas regarding wisdom from young people (ages 15-18) in Latvia, Lithuania, Mexico, Korea and the United States. A questionnaire was administered to nearly 800 adolescents from these countries and comparisons, by country and gender were made regarding participants perceptions of a wise man and a wise woman.…

  2. 16 CFR 233.1 - Former price comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Former price comparisons. 233.1 Section 233.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES AGAINST... a reasonably substantial period of time, it provides a legitimate basis for the advertising of a...

  3. Comparison of educational facilitation approaches for Grade R ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of educational facilitation approaches for Grade R English Additional Language learning in rural Mpumalanga. ... Implications for practice are discussed. Keywords: EAL learning; ELP standards assessment tool; formal instruction;Grade R facilitation; learners' first language; play-based approach ...

  4. Comparison of multi-locus enzyme and protein gel electrophoresis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of multi-locus enzyme and protein gel electrophoresis in the discrimination of five Fusarium species isolated from Egyptian cottons. ... resolution in organizing all isolates in their respective species-specific clusters. A low correlations was detected between geographical origin of isolates and genetic diversity.

  5. Comparison of the efficacy four treatment modalities for recurrent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of the efficacy four treatment modalities for recurrent acute suppurative otitis media. AO Lasisi. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Article Metrics. Metrics Loading ... Metrics powered by PLOS ALM

  6. Comparison of Marital and Parenthood Profile of Severe Mentally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These women were compared using a semi-structured questionnaire which included questions on sociod emo graphic, maritaland parenthood characteristics. Results: A comparison of the two groups of women reveals that: The severely mentally ill women were significantly less likely to be married (67% vs 89%, P < 0.001); ...

  7. Some results regarding the comparison of the Earth's atmospheric models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šegan S.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we examine air densities derived from our realization of aeronomic atmosphere models based on accelerometer measurements from satellites in a low Earth's orbit (LEO. Using the adapted algorithms we derive comparison parameters. The first results concerning the adjustment of the aeronomic models to the total-density model are given.

  8. Face reconstruction from image sequences for forensic face comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, C.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan

    2016-01-01

    The authors explore the possibilities of a dense model-free three-dimensional (3D) face reconstruction method, based on image sequences from a single camera, to improve the current state of forensic face comparison. They propose a new model-free 3D reconstruction method for faces, based on the

  9. EUS Needle Identification Comparison and Evaluation study (with videos)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, S.J.; Vilmann, A.S.; Saftoiu, A.; Wang, W.; Streba, C.T.; Fink, P.P.; Griswold, M.; Wu, R.; Dietrich, C.F.; Jenssen, C.; Hocke, M.; Kantowski, M.; Pohl, J.; Fockens, P.; Annema, J.T.; Heijden, E.H.F.M. van der; Havre, R.F.; Pham, K.D.; Kunda, R.; Deprez, P.H.; Mariana, J.; Vazquez-Sequeiros, E.; Larghi, A.; Buscarini, E.; Fusaroli, P.; Lahav, M.; Puri, R.; Garg, P.K.; Sharma, M.; Maluf-Filho, F.; Sahai, A.; Brugge, W.R.; Lee, L.S.; Aslanian, H.R.; Wang, A.Y.; Shami, V.M.; Markowitz, A.; Siddiqui, A.A.; Mishra, G.; Scheiman, J.M.; Isenberg, G.; Siddiqui, U.D.; Shah, R.J.; Buxbaum, J.; Watson, R.R.; Willingham, F.F.; Bhutani, M.S.; Levy, M.J.; Harris, C.; Wallace, M.B.; Nolsoe, C.P.; Lorentzen, T.; Bang, N.; Sorensen, S.M.; Gilja, O.H.; D'Onofrio, M.; Piscaglia, F.; Gritzmann, N.; Radzina, M.; Sparchez, Z.A.; Sidhu, P.S.; Freeman, S.; McCowan, T.C.; Araujo, C.R., Jr. de; Patel, A.; Ali, M.A.; Campbell, G.; Chen, E.; Vilmann, P.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: EUS-guided FNA or biopsy sampling is widely practiced. Optimal sonographic visualization of the needle is critical for image-guided interventions. Of the several commercially available needles, bench-top testing and direct comparison of these needles have not been done to reveal

  10. Appearance comparison in individuals with body dysmorphic disorder and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anson, Martin; Veale, David; Miles, Sarah

    2015-09-01

    Research investigating appearance comparison in body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) remains very limited, despite the fact that this is one of the most commonly observed behaviors in individuals with the disorder. The present study investigated the self-reported extent and nature of appearance comparison in 35 BDD participants relative to 45 controls using a newly devised and a standardized appearance comparison measure. The results showed that BDD participants reported significantly higher levels of appearance comparison than controls. Individuals with BDD also reported greater levels of comparing in terms of the specific feature(s) of their appearance they were most concerned about as compared to overall appearance, whilst controls showed the opposite pattern. Levels of comparing in BDD participants increased as targets increased in terms of attractiveness, and individuals with BDD rated themselves as being markedly less attractive than targets, and feeling markedly less satisfied with their appearance after comparing. Cognitive-behavioral treatment implications are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Interpreting Visual Preferences in the Visual Paired-Comparison Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Jenny; Colombo, Michael; Hayne, Harlene

    2007-01-01

    Performance on the visual paired-comparison (VPC) task has typically been interpreted with E. Sokolov's (1963) comparator model of the orienting response; novelty preferences are interpreted as evidence of retention, whereas null preferences are interpreted as evidence of forgetting. Here the authors capitalized on the verbal nature of human…

  12. Comparison of Intraocular Pressure Reduction of Initial and Adjunct ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    head cupping, and visual field loss.[1]. Globally, glaucoma is presently the leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide with a projected estimate of 79.6 million cases by the year 2020.[2] In. Comparison of Intraocular Pressure. Reduction of Initial and Adjunct Selective. Laser Trabeculoplasty for Primary Open Angle.

  13. InteraqCT Comparison on Assemblies - Reference Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolfi, Alessandro; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    The InteraqCT comparison on assemblies is as an activity within the Marie Curie ESR Project INTERAQCT - International Network for the Training of Early stage Researchers on Advanced Quality control by Computed Tomography funded by the European Commission's 7th Framework Programme FP7-PEOPLE - Under...

  14. InteraqCT Comparison on Assemblies - Technical Protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolfi, Alessandro; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    The InteraqCT comparison on assemblies is as an activity within the Marie Curie ESR Project INTERAQCT - International Network for the Training of Early stage Researchers on Advanced Quality control by Computed Tomography funded by the European Commission's 7th Framework Programme FP7-PEOPLE - Under...

  15. Multidimensional First-order Dominance Comparisons of Population Wellbeing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siersbæk, Nikolaj; Østerdal, Lars Peter; Arndt, Channing

    2017-01-01

    This chapter conveys the concept of first-order dominance (FOD) with particular focus on applications to multidimensional population welfare comparisons. It gives an account of the fundamental equivalent definitions of FOD both in the one-dimensional and multidimensional setting, illustrated with...

  16. An experimental manipulation of social comparison in social anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Melissa A; Schmidt, Norman B

    2014-01-01

    Negative self-appraisal is thought to maintain social anxiety particularly when comparing oneself to others. Work on social comparison suggests that gender may moderate the effects of social comparison in social anxiety. Self-appraisals of the desirability of one's personality may be more important to women, whereas self-appraisal of signs of anxiety may be more important to men. Within each gender, those with high social anxiety are expected to report more negative self-appraisal when comparing themselves to someone else described as high achieving. This study is the first we are aware of that examined gender-based interactive effects after a social comparison manipulation. Participants read a bogus profile of a fellow student's adjustment to college. They were randomly assigned to read a profile suggesting that the fellow student was "high achieving" or more normative in his/her achievements. When comparing to a "high achieving" individual, men with high social anxiety reported the most negative self-appraisals of their signs of anxiety. In addition, greater social anxiety was associated with a poorer self-appraisal of personality only among men. The implications of the findings for conceptualizing the role of social comparison in social anxiety are discussed.

  17. Trial-type dependent frames of reference for value comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Laurence T; Woolrich, Mark W; Rushworth, Matthew F S; Behrens, Timothy E J

    2013-01-01

    A central question in cognitive neuroscience regards the means by which options are compared and decisions are resolved during value-guided choice. It is clear that several component processes are needed; these include identifying options, a value-based comparison, and implementation of actions to execute the decision. What is less clear is the temporal precedence and functional organisation of these component processes in the brain. Competing models of decision making have proposed that value comparison may occur in the space of alternative actions, or in the space of abstract goods. We hypothesized that the signals observed might in fact depend upon the framing of the decision. We recorded magnetoencephalographic data from humans performing value-guided choices in which two closely related trial types were interleaved. In the first trial type, each option was revealed separately, potentially causing subjects to estimate each action's value as it was revealed and perform comparison in action-space. In the second trial type, both options were presented simultaneously, potentially leading to comparison in abstract goods-space prior to commitment to a specific action. Distinct activity patterns (in distinct brain regions) on the two trial types demonstrated that the observed frame of reference used for decision making indeed differed, despite the information presented being formally identical, between the two trial types. This provides a potential reconciliation of conflicting accounts of value-guided choice.

  18. Trial-type dependent frames of reference for value comparison.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence T Hunt

    Full Text Available A central question in cognitive neuroscience regards the means by which options are compared and decisions are resolved during value-guided choice. It is clear that several component processes are needed; these include identifying options, a value-based comparison, and implementation of actions to execute the decision. What is less clear is the temporal precedence and functional organisation of these component processes in the brain. Competing models of decision making have proposed that value comparison may occur in the space of alternative actions, or in the space of abstract goods. We hypothesized that the signals observed might in fact depend upon the framing of the decision. We recorded magnetoencephalographic data from humans performing value-guided choices in which two closely related trial types were interleaved. In the first trial type, each option was revealed separately, potentially causing subjects to estimate each action's value as it was revealed and perform comparison in action-space. In the second trial type, both options were presented simultaneously, potentially leading to comparison in abstract goods-space prior to commitment to a specific action. Distinct activity patterns (in distinct brain regions on the two trial types demonstrated that the observed frame of reference used for decision making indeed differed, despite the information presented being formally identical, between the two trial types. This provides a potential reconciliation of conflicting accounts of value-guided choice.

  19. Evaluation and Comparison of the Principal Component Analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We employ Nearest-neighbour classification for GTE fault diagnosis and M-fold cross validation to test the performance of our models. Comparison evaluation of performance indicates that, with PCA, 80% of good GTE is classified as good GTE, 77% of the average GTE is classified as average GTE and 67.6% of bad GTE is ...

  20. a comparison between the use of single and composite samples

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr F Neser

    (National Dairy Cattle Performance Testing Scheme: South Africa's Annual Report, 1996). This comparison was, however, not scientifically validated since there was no data available to make a scientific evaluation .... Table 1 True fixed effect levels, average estimated fixed effect levels and 99% confidence interval for the.

  1. Comparison of in vivo biocompatibilities between parylene-C and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Materials Science; Volume 36; Issue 6. Comparison of in vivo biocompatibilities between parylene-C and polydimethylsiloxane for implantable microelectronic devices. Dong Sup Lee Su Jin Kim Eun Bi Kwon Cheol Whee Park Su Min Jun Bumkyoo Choi Sae Woong Kim. Volume 36 Issue 6 November 2013 pp 1127-1132 ...

  2. Comparison of breeding values and genetic trends for production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The other set was obtained in the 2004 South African National Genetic Evaluation, using a Fixed Regression Test-day Model (TDM). This comparison is made for Ayrshire, Guernsey, Holstein and Jersey cows participating in the South African Dairy Animal Improvement Scheme. Specific differences between the two models ...

  3. a comparison between the use of single and composite samples

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr F Neser

    South African Society for Animal Science. 44. A comparison between single and composite milk samples for the genetic evaluation of milk composition in dairy cattle. R. van Dyk1, F.W.C. Neser1# & F.H. Kanfer2. 1 Department of Animal Science, University of the Free State, PO Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300, South Africa.

  4. Prospects of performing multiple-country comparison of dairy sires ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anne Torsell

    Peer-reviewed paper: 10th World Conference on Animal Production. 86. Prospects of performing multiple-country comparison of dairy sires for countries not participating in Interbull international genetic evaluations. A. Loberg. 1,2#. , H. Jorjani. 1,2. , W.F. Fikse. 2. 1 Interbull Centre. 2 Department of Animal Breeding and ...

  5. Burnout and reactions to social comparison information among volunteer caregivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Zee, K.I.; Bakker, A.B.; Buunk, Abraham (Bram)

    2001-01-01

    The present study focused on social comparison processes among volunteer caregivers of terminally ill patients in relation to burnout. First, caregivers' (N = 80) affective reactions to a bogus interview with fellow volunteer workers who were either coping better or worse were considered. Upward

  6. Performance comparison of plant root biofilm, gravel attached ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance comparison of plant root biofilm, gravel attached biofilm and planktonic microbial populations, in phenol removal within a constructed wetland wastewater treatment system. Eyal Kurzbaum1*, Felix Kirzhner2 and Robert Armon2. 1Golan Research Institute, University of Haifa, P.O. Box 97, Katzrin 12900, Israel.

  7. Comparison of Reliability of Rapid Diagonostic Test to Microscopy in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of Reliability of Rapid Diagonostic Test to Microscopy in the Diagnosis of Malaria at Gulu Regional Referral Hospital. ... East African Medical Journal ... Conclusion: RDTs can be used to quickly confirm the clinical diagnosis of malaria to reduce irrational use of anti-malarials when microscopy is not available ...

  8. Strategy Use and Strategy Choice in Fraction Magnitude Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, Lisa K.; DeWolf, Melissa; Siegler, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    We examined, on a trial-by-trial basis, fraction magnitude comparison strategies of adults with more and less mathematical knowledge. College students with high mathematical proficiency used a large variety of strategies that were well tailored to the characteristics of the problems and that were guaranteed to yield correct performance if executed…

  9. Task Demands Determine Comparison Strategy in Whole Probe Change Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udale, Rob; Farrell, Simon; Kent, Chris

    2017-11-20

    Detecting a change in our visual world requires a process that compares the external environment (test display) with the contents of memory (study display). We addressed the question of whether people strategically adapt the comparison process in response to different decision loads. Study displays of 3 colored items were presented, followed by 'whole-display' probes containing 3 colored shapes. Participants were asked to decide whether any probed items contained a new feature. In Experiments 1-4, irrelevant changes to the probed item's locations or feature bindings influenced memory performance, suggesting that participants employed a comparison process that relied on spatial locations. This finding occurred irrespective of whether participants were asked to decide about the whole display, or only a single cued item within the display. In Experiment 5, when the base-rate of changes in the nonprobed items increased (increasing the incentive to use the cue effectively), participants were not influenced by irrelevant changes in location or feature bindings. In addition, we observed individual differences in the use of spatial cues. These results suggest that participants can flexibly switch between spatial and nonspatial comparison strategies, depending on interactions between individual differences and task demand factors. These findings have implications for models of visual working memory that assume that the comparison between study and test obligatorily relies on accessing visual features via their binding to location. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Comparison of Attenuation of petroleum hydrocarbons in surface ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of Attenuation of petroleum hydrocarbons in surface and subsurface soils amended with biostimulants. ... Results suggest that natural attenuation can be a viable remediation strategy in soils with neutral to alkaline pH and that low pH of amendment material used could reduce TPH attenuation. Keywords: ...

  11. Eye movements reflect and shape strategies in fraction comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ischebeck, Anja; Weilharter, Marina; Körner, Christof

    2016-01-01

    The comparison of fractions is a difficult task that can often be facilitated by separately comparing components (numerators and denominators) of the fractions--that is, by applying so-called component-based strategies. The usefulness of such strategies depends on the type of fraction pair to be compared. We investigated the temporal organization and the flexibility of strategy deployment in fraction comparison by evaluating sequences of eye movements in 20 young adults. We found that component-based strategies could account for the response times and the overall number of fixations observed for the different fraction pairs. The analysis of eye movement sequences showed that the initial eye movements in a trial were characterized by stereotypical scanning patterns indicative of an exploratory phase that served to establish the kind of fraction pair presented. Eye movements that followed this phase adapted to the particular type of fraction pair and indicated the deployment of specific comparison strategies. These results demonstrate that participants employ eye movements systematically to support strategy use in fraction comparison. Participants showed a remarkable flexibility to adapt to the most efficient strategy on a trial-by-trial basis. Our results confirm the value of eye movement measurements in the exploration of strategic adaptation in complex tasks.

  12. Comparison of arch width changes following orthodontic treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of arch width changes following orthodontic treatment with and without extraction using three-dimensional models. ... Conclusion: Extraction treatment mechanics did not cause narrow dental arches, but nonextraction treatment increased arch width in all 3 measurements. Treatments with only upper arch ...

  13. Comparison of identification and antimicrobial resistance pattern of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of identification and antimicrobial resistance pattern of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from Amassoma, Bayelsa state, Nigeria. ... Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of S. aureus isolates was performed by Kirby Bauer technique while MRSA was screened for by growth on chromIDTM MRSA plate and confirmed ...

  14. Modeling Expressed Emotions in Music using Pairwise Comparisons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jens; Nielsen, Jens Brehm; Jensen, Bjørn Sand

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a two-alternative forced-choice experimental paradigm to quantify expressed emotions in music using the two wellknown arousal and valence (AV) dimensions. In order to produce AV scores from the pairwise comparisons and to visualize the locations of excerpts in the AV space, we...

  15. Comparison studies of ozone precursors in Phoenix, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, C.; Guyton, J.; Lee, C.P. [Arizona Dept. of Environmental Quality, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Parmar, S. [Atmospheric Analysis and Consulting Co., Ventura, CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    This paper will present the comparison of the ozone precursors monitoring program for Phoenix, Arizona during 1992 and 1993. Specific details and methodologies will be presented involving collection of air samples and analysis of speciated measurements for reactive VOC and carbonyl precursors responsible for ozone formation. Quality control and quality assurance techniques will also be discussed.

  16. Comparison of Two Disc Diffusion Methods with Minimum Inhibitory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC by agar dilution or. E-test).[4] A few studies are available comparing either MIC values with the CLSI disc diffusion method or MIC values with the AGSP method.[7-9] A comparison between all the threein vitro susceptibility methods has not been reported so far. In the present study ...

  17. Comparison of liquid phase operations, Poelitz and Gelsenberg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, R.; Schappert, H.; Gromann, F.; Berger; Jakob; Klinkhardt; Friemelt; Egli, O.I.

    1942-06-18

    A comparison is presented of liquid phase coal hydrogenation at the Poelitz and Gelsenberg plants for January through April 1942. Coal analyses are compared for water and ash content in both raw and cleaned coal. Comparisons of catalyst with reference to dried coal are given for Bayer mass, iron sulfate, and sulfigran. Coal paste solid content and residue composition are also compared. High pressure oil yield is compared based on the available oil yield plus the losses occurring in low pressure operations. Comparisons are also given for amount of solids in centrifuge residue, low temperature carbonization analysis and theoretical liquefaction. Since calculation of gasification did not rest on a sound basis, gasification comparisons are computed from the difference between theoretical liquefaction and high pressure oil yield. Balances for the two plants are compared in a table. Differences in operating results are said to have arisen from varying carbon-content of coal, variable conversion, variable losses in residue processing, variable gasification and indeterminate gas and oil losses, and variable gasoline and lubricating oil concentration in the oil yield. 1 table.

  18. A Comparison of the Health Systems in China and India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    adults were obese and 22.8 percent were overweight. In India, the obesity rate was 1 percent for males and 4 percent for females in the slums ; the...by sponsoring sports and cultural events. 34 A Comparison of the Health Systems in China and India Table 5.1 Policy Levers Used in the Chinese and

  19. A comparison of project participants and extension officers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparison of project participants and extension officers' perception regarding knowledge of production in agricultural projects in the North West Province, ... special machines and equipment requirements, special transport requirements, quality assurance requirements, labour requirements, and time devoted on the ...

  20. Comparison of baseline drinking practices, knowledge, and attitudes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of baseline drinking practices, knowledge, and attitudes of adult s residing in communities taking part in the FAS prevention study in South Africa. CDH Parry, JP Gossage, A-S Marais, R Barnard, M de Vries, J Blankenship, S Seedat, PA May ...

  1. A Comparison of Foraging Site Characteristics of Two African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Comparison of Foraging Site Characteristics of Two African Resident Insectivorous Birds in a Burned Habitat. ... Data on food availability and vegetation structures were obtained by quadrate sampling while foraging spots were determined from four stratified transects each surveyed four times during the study.

  2. A comparison of risky sexual behaviours between circumcised and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cite as: Balekang GB, Dintwa KF. A comparison of risky sexual behaviours between circumcised and ... Another study5 reports that male circumcision pro- vides some level of protection against acquiring HIV, .... The SPSS-PC logistic programme was used to estimate regression coefficients by the maximum likelihood pro-.

  3. Mathematics Comparison Study = Etude Comporative Portant Sur les Mathematiques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Standards Branch.

    At the request of the Council of Ministries of Education, Canada (CMEC), Alberta Learning conducted this Mathematics Comparison Study. The focus of this study is from Kindergarten to Grade 12. All provinces and territories were invited to participate, and only the Quebec region declined. Participating regions were invited to send a representative…

  4. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis of core gene of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-07-19

    Jul 19, 2010 ... In Pakistan, more than 10 million people are living with hepatitis C virus (HCV) with high morbidity and mortality. The aims of the present study are to report HCV core gene sequences from Pakistani population and perform their sequence comparison/phylogenetic analysis. The core gene of HCV has.

  5. Self-efficacy, personal goals, social comparison and scientific productivity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrugt, A.J.; Koenis, M.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the extent to which perceived self-efficacy, personal goals, and upward comparison predict the scientific productivity of academic staff members. 123 academic staff employed at different Dutch universities answered written questions about their judgment of self-efficacy in the area of

  6. comparison of performance of public and private boreholes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    comparison of the performance of three categories of boreholes namely: public operated boreholes owned by the Government ... The corresponding figures for the boreholes owned by individuals but operated for commercial use and the private owned and .... drilling companies, State Water Board,. Maintenance Companies ...

  7. Comparison of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and loop-mediated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for diagnosis of Fusarium solani in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive patients. ... The test was carried out in 1 h reaction at 65°C in a heater block. The specificity of the test was 100% and its sensitivity was a ...

  8. Comparison of the Efficacy, Safety and Tolerability of Ramipril With ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Study Design: An open randomised, controlled, parallel group, single blind comparison of Ramipril with Amlodipine. Subject and Methods: Fifty-five intent to treat hypertensive subjects were sequentially recruited for the study from the medical out-patient Clinics of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu. All had ...

  9. School Autonomy: A Comparison between China and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jiangang; Gao, Xingyuan; Shen, Jianping

    2017-01-01

    This study examined and compared school autonomy in China and the United States. Based on the international PISA 2012 school data, the authors examined three aspects of school autonomy. We found that in comparison with the United States, (1) principals from China were less likely to have responsibility over eleven school decisions (hiring…

  10. Lactation yield: Interval level comparison of milk records for genetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1220 records ... Lactation yield: Interval level comparison of milk records for genetic improvement in Friesian vs Arsi crossbred cows in the highlands of south eastern. Ethiopia. Dumar Wabe1 and Kassahun Asmare2. 1Allage Agricultural Technical, Vocational Education Training College, P.O. Box 077. 2School of Veterinary ...

  11. Lactation yield: Interval level comparison of milk records for genetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Milk recording intervals was studied by analysing 1220 lactation records of Friesian x Arsi crossbred cows kept in south eastern highlands of Ethiopia. Milk Recording Intervals (MRI) comparison was made at 15, 30 and 45 day's length. Accuracy was measured in terms of percentage difference between actual and estimated ...

  12. Comparison between the Behaviour of Coated and Uncoated Lightly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. O. E. OSUAGWU

    2013-06-01

    Jun 1, 2013 ... Comparison between the Behaviour of Coated and Uncoated. Lightly Loaded Piles in Swelling Soils. Basem Sh. Hazzan. Hazzan Foundation Engineering Ltd, India. Abstract. In the last four decades significant effort has been devoted to designing piles in swelling soils. Nevertheless, only a scant effort has ...

  13. Comparison of a modified peptone water transport medium with two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-06-07

    Jun 7, 2010 ... Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Ambrose Alli. University ... Statistical analysis using the students t-test at 90% confidence limit showed ... Key words: Modified peptone water, Stuart, Amies, transport medium, comparison, swab specimens.

  14. Comparison of GARP and Maxent in modelling the geographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of GARP and Maxent in modelling the geographic distribution of Bacillus anthracis in Zimbabwe. ... methods were compared in predicting presence and absence of anthrax in Zimbabwe using accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, Kappa statistic and the Jaccard coefficient as measures of model performance.

  15. Comparison of the irreversible thermomagnetic behaviour of some ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Comparison of the irreversible thermomagnetic behaviour of some ferro- and ferrimagnetic systems. P S ANIL KUMAR†, P A JOY* and S K DATE. Physical and Materials Chemistry Division, National Chemical Laboratory, Pune 411 008, India. †Present Address: Information Storage Technology Group, MESA Research ...

  16. Comparison Of The Cost Of Unvaccinated And Oral Vaccinated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison Of The Cost Of Unvaccinated And Oral Vaccinated Local Chickens With A Malaysian Thermostable Newcastle Disease Vaccine (Ndv 4 hr) In ... Recommendation is made for further studies to determine how often and at what intervals the vaccine can be administered and the benefits of additional vaccinations.

  17. Comparison of performance and emission characteristics of diesel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present work is focused on comparison of diesel and diesel-water blend on emissions and performance parameters of the diesel engine. The emission parameters such as NO, CO and soot are investigated numerically by using commercially available CFD software AVL FIRE. In addition to that, performance parameters ...

  18. Comparison of pressure-driven membrane processes and traditional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Due to the policy of many governments of encouraging the use of alternative water sources instead of groundwater, there is a clear need for enhanced water purification systems such as pressure-driven membrane processes. In this article a comparison is made between drinking water production from surface water using ...

  19. Comparison of Obesity, Overweight and Elevated Blood Pressure in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of Obesity, Overweight and Elevated Blood Pressure in Children. Attending Public and Private Primary Schools in Benin City, Nigeria. WE Sadoh, YT Israel‑Aina, AE Sadoh, JE Uduebor1, M Shaibu2, E Ogonor, FC Enugwuna3. Address for correspondence: WE Sadoh,. Department of Child Health, University of ...

  20. Comparison Of Clustering Techniques And A Univariate Technique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison Of Clustering Techniques And A Univariate Technique In The Site Selection On Multilocation Trial. ... The experiment was carried out in four zones of Kwara Agricultural Development Programmes and each of these techniques was used to group the sixteen locations into groups of similar locations and a critical ...

  1. Continuous improvement comparison between Danish and Mexican companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas Bøhm

    2004-01-01

    comprise such concepts as TQM, Kaizen, Six Sigma and Lean Manufacturing. The paper shows the results of the analysis and a comparison of how and to what degree such tools are used in different places, which allow us to address similarities and dissimilarities of the application. The results are discussed...

  2. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis of core gene of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-07-19

    Jul 19, 2010 ... Our sequences and sequences from Japan are grouped into same cluster in the phylogenetic tree. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis showed that our isolates have high homology with Japanese isolates. Key words: Hepatitis C virus, core, phylogenetic analysis, Pakistan. INTRODUCTION.

  3. Comparison of sequence-based and structure-based phylogenetic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2006-12-12

    Dec 12, 2006 ... Using a dataset of 108 protein domain families of known structures with at least 10 members per family we present a comparison of extent of structural and sequence dissimilarities among pairs of proteins which are inputs into the construction of phylogenetic trees. We find that correlation between the ...

  4. comparison of losartan and enalapril effects on renal function in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-04-01

    Apr 1, 2014 ... COMPARISON OF LOSARTAN AND ENALAPRIL EFFECTS ON RENAL FUNCTION IN HYPERTENSIVE ADULTS. WITH CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE AT A ... Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone System (RAAS) modifiers such as Angiotensin .... Cigarette smoking; n (%). Yes. 16 (8.0). 11 (9.5). 5 (6.0). 0.364.

  5. Identifying and Comparing Scandinavian Ethnography: Comparisons and Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a significant growth in the volume of research production in education ethnography in Scandinavia due partly to a regionally financed network. The present article makes some comparisons between Scandinavian and other education research contexts in relation to aspects of general ethnographic design to try to analyse…

  6. Crystal growth and comparison of vibrational and thermal properties ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    86, No. 3. — journal of. March 2016 physics pp. 719–722. Comments on: “Crystal growth and comparison of vibrational and thermal properties of semi-organic nonlinear optical materials” ... and urea ligands, the title paper by Gunasekaran et al [1] reporting on the growth of the so-called urea thiourea mercuric chloride ...

  7. Characterization of Consistent Completion of Reciprocal Comparison Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Benítez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Analytic hierarchy process (AHP is a leading multi-attribute decision-aiding model that is designed to help make better choices when faced with complex decisions involving several dimensions. AHP, which enables qualitative analysis using a combination of subjective and objective information, is a multiple criteria decision analysis approach that uses hierarchical structured pairwise comparisons. One of the drawbacks of AHP is that a pairwise comparison cannot be completed by an actor or stakeholder not fully familiar with all the aspects of the problem. The authors have developed a completion based on a process of linearization that minimizes the matrix distance defined in terms of the Frobenius norm (a strictly convex minimization problem. In this paper, we characterize when an incomplete, positive, and reciprocal matrix can be completed to become a consistent matrix. We show that this characterization reduces the problem to the solution of a linear system of equations—a straightforward procedure. Various properties of such a completion are also developed using graph theory, including explicit calculation formulas. In real decision-making processes, facilitators conducting the study could use these characterizations to accept an incomplete comparison body given by an actor or to encourage the actor to further develop the comparison for the sake of consistency.

  8. Estimating interleaved comparison outcomes from historical click data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmann, K.; Whiteson, S.; de Rijke, M.

    2012-01-01

    Interleaved comparison methods, which compare rankers using click data, are a promising alternative to traditional information retrieval evaluation methods that require expensive explicit judgments. A major limitation of these methods is that they assume access to live data, meaning that new data

  9. Efficient and Secure Comparison for On-Line Auctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Krøigaard, Mikkel; Geisler, Martin Joakim

    2007-01-01

    with respect to functionality and performance. It minimizes the amount of information bidders need to send, and for comparison of 16 bit numbers with security based on 1024 bit RSA (executed by two parties), our implementation takes 0.28 seconds including all computation and communication. Using precomputation...

  10. Social Comparison as a Basis for Evaluating Others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Glenn S.

    1982-01-01

    Discussed whether similarity affects the relationship between comparison and other-evaluation. Subjects read about an emergency, estimated their reaction, and evaluated a target who failed to help. Results showed increasing discrepancy between self and other's reactions led to more negative evaluations if self and target were the same sex.…

  11. Comparison of some functional properties and chemical constituents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-14

    Dec 14, 2011 ... Comparison of some functional properties and chemical constituents of dietary fibers of Iranian rice bran extracted by chemical and enzymatic methods. Mania Salehifar* and Vajiheh Fadaei. Department of Food Science and Technology, Shahr-e-Qhods Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

  12. A Comparison of Close-Range Photogrammetry to Terrestrial Laser ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Julian Smit

    (although only four hours of site access was granted to the survey team), using both digital photogrammetric and laser scanning techniques. Independent data processing of both these data sets was completed within one month. The data gathered not only provides an informative comparison of the track-way and footprint.

  13. On The Comparison of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. OLIVER OSUAGWA

    real life problems ranging from management sciences, business schools, and others [10], [12],. [14], [17]. Moreover, this study aims at comparisons of the model performance of neural network and statistical technique (Multinomial Logistic. Regression) in view of other objectives, using secondary data from the department of.

  14. Comparison of large networks with sub-sampling strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Waqar; Wegner, Anatol E.; Gaunt, Robert E.; Deane, Charlotte M.; Reinert, Gesine

    2016-07-01

    Networks are routinely used to represent large data sets, making the comparison of networks a tantalizing research question in many areas. Techniques for such analysis vary from simply comparing network summary statistics to sophisticated but computationally expensive alignment-based approaches. Most existing methods either do not generalize well to different types of networks or do not provide a quantitative similarity score between networks. In contrast, alignment-free topology based network similarity scores empower us to analyse large sets of networks containing different types and sizes of data. Netdis is such a score that defines network similarity through the counts of small sub-graphs in the local neighbourhood of all nodes. Here, we introduce a sub-sampling procedure based on neighbourhoods which links naturally with the framework of network comparisons through local neighbourhood comparisons. Our theoretical arguments justify basing the Netdis statistic on a sample of similar-sized neighbourhoods. Our tests on empirical and synthetic datasets indicate that often only 10% of the neighbourhoods of a network suffice for optimal performance, leading to a drastic reduction in computational requirements. The sampling procedure is applicable even when only a small sample of the network is known, and thus provides a novel tool for network comparison of very large and potentially incomplete datasets.

  15. Cross-cultural comparisons of personality : the Netherlands and England

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SANDERMAN, R; EYSENCK, SBG; ARRINDELL, W A

    1991-01-01

    401 men and 475 women completed the Dutch version of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. Factor comparisons all exceeded 0.97 so that the factors of Psychoticism, Extraversion, Neuroticism, and Social Desirability are deemed to be identical in the two countries, England and The Netherlands. Sex

  16. Comparison of aerosol size distribution in coastal and oceanic environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kusmierczyk-Michulec, J.T.; Eijk, A.M.J. van

    2006-01-01

    The results of applying the empirical orthogonal functions (EOF) method to decomposition and approximation of aerosol size distributions are presented. A comparison was made for two aerosol data sets, representing coastal and oceanic environments. The first data set includes measurements collected

  17. European interlaboratory comparison of breath (CO2)-C-13 analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stellaard, F; Geypens, B

    1998-01-01

    The BIOMED I programme Stable Isotopes in Gastroenterology and Nutrition (SIGN) has focused upon evaluation and standardisation of stable isotope breath tests using C-13 labelled substrates. The programme dealt with comparison of C-13 substrates, test meats, test conditions, analysis techniques, and

  18. CCEM key comparison CCEM.RF-K23.F

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrieri, J.; Coder, J.; MacReynolds, K.; Tamura, D.; Gentle, D. G.; Beardmore, A.; Eio, C.; Budovsky, I.; Ji, Y.; Warner, F. M.; Wei-long, W.; Donglin, M.; Dražil, K.; Le Sage, Y.; Allal, D.; Hirose, M.; Kurokawa, S.; Komiyama, K.; Sergey, K.; Sergey, N.; Kang, J.-S.; Kang, N.-W.; Fast, L.; Karlsson, K.; Carlsson, Jan; Pythoud, F.; ÇAKIR, S.; Cetintas, M.

    2016-01-01

    The CCEM international antenna gain comparison CCEM.RF- K23.F was initiated by the Working Group on Radio Frequency quantities (GT_RF) on the Consultative Committee for Electricity and Magnetism. This key comparison report presents results of measurements of on-axis gain of two Ku-band pyramidal horns at 12.4, 15, and 18 GHz. Participants making corrections for mismatch were asked to provide a table of the real and imaginary parts of the reflection coefficients of the antennas. Optionally, participants could measure the swept frequency gain from 12.4 to 18 GHz. Twelve national laboratories participated. The National Institute of Standards and Technology from the United States was the pilot lab. The purpose of the comparison was to evaluate the consistency between the participating laboratories in the measurement of the boresight gain of horn antennas in the WR-62 band. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCEM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  19. A Comparison of Online and Traditional Chemistry Lecture and Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulconer, E. K.; Griffith, J. C.; Wood, B. L.; Acharyya, S.; Roberts, D. L.

    2018-01-01

    While the equivalence between online and traditional classrooms has been well researched, very little effort has been expended to do such comparisons for college level introductory chemistry. The existing literature has only one study that investigated chemistry lectures at an entire course level as opposed to particular course components such as…

  20. The possibilities and limitations of forensic hand comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, A.; Geradts, Z.J.M.H.

    2014-01-01

    On recordings of certain crimes, the face is not always shown. In such cases, hands can offer a solution, if they are completely visible. An important aspect of this study was to develop a method for hand comparison. The research method was based on the morphology, anthropometry, and biometry of

  1. The Effectiveness of Guided Inquiry Learning for Comparison Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asnidar; Khabibah, S.; Sulaiman, R.

    2018-01-01

    This research aims at producing a good quality learning device using guided inquiry for comparison topics and describing the effectiveness of guided inquiry learning for comparison topics. This research is a developmental research using 4-D model. The result is learning device consisting of lesson plan, student’s worksheet, and achievement test. The subjects of the study were class VII students, each of which has 46 students. Based on the result in the experimental class, the learning device using guided inquiry for comparison topics has good quality. The learning device has met the valid, practical, and effective aspects. The result, especially in the implementation class, showed that the learning process with guided inquiry has fulfilled the effectiveness indicators. The ability of the teacher to manage the learning process has fulfilled the criteria good. In addition, the students’ activity has fulfilled the criteria of, at least, good. Moreover, the students’ responses to the learning device and the learning activities were positive, and the students were able to complete the classical learning. Based on the result of this research, it is expected that the learning device resulted can be used as an alternative learning device for teachers in implementing mathematic learning for comparison topics.

  2. Social comparisons of learning disabled and nonexceptional adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, E P; Tracy, D B

    1994-08-01

    36 learning disabled high school subjects rated themselves lower on academic, psychomotor, and verbal performance on a social comparisons task than a control group of 53 nonexceptional peers. Learning disabled students tended to see themselves as less able in most areas involving school achievement but not in areas involving extracurricular activities.

  3. Generic expression hardness results for primitive positive formula comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Bova, Simone; Chen, Hubie; Valeriote, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    We study the expression complexity of two basic problems involving the comparison of primitive positive formulas: equivalence and containment. In particular, we study the complexity of these problems relative to finite relational structures. We present two generic hardness results for the studied problems, and discuss evidence that they are optimal and yield, for each of the problems, a complexity trichotomy.

  4. Comparison of Avifaunal Assemblage and their Association with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Study on the comparison of avifaunal assemblage in the protected and unprotected montane grassland ecosystems of the Bale Mountains National Park was conducted during the wet and dry seasons of 2011–12. Sampling sites based on disturbance were randomly identified and a transect line of one or less than one km ...

  5. Self-comparisons as motivators for healthy behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakya, Holly B; Christakis, Nicholas A; Fowler, James H

    2015-12-01

    We explored whether individuals' comparison of themselves to their social contacts, specifically feeling fitter or thinner than friends, is a significant predictor of three weight-loss behaviors (dieting, reducing alcohol, exercising). We used a longitudinal survey of a national sample of Americans (N = 20,373) to measure respondents' personal social networks and their self-comparisons to their social contacts at two annual waves. Participants who felt thinner than friends in Wave 1 had 1.16 lower odds of dieting in Wave 2. Those who felt fitter than friends in Wave 1 had 1.10 times higher odds of reducing alcohol and 1.18 times higher odds of exercising in Wave 2. We found that 20% of the relationship between feeling thin at baseline and subsequent dieting may be because feeling heavier than friends makes one want to lose weight. This same dynamic accounts for 25% of the relationship between feeling fit and dieting and 12% of the relationship between feeling thin and reducing alcohol. These results suggest that normative self-comparison with important others is a potentially salient determinant of obesity-related health behavior and appears to work differently depending upon the behavior. Interventions may benefit from exploiting social comparisons in targeted ways. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  6. Comparison of PBL Curricua within Control Engineering Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez-Samaca, Liliana; Nielsen, Kirsten M.; Ramirez, Jose Miguel

    2011-01-01

    . In this article, a comparison of two PBL cases will be described in order to study the advantages and disadvantages of the two systems. One case presents a single level comprised of two courses and the other one is an integrated PBL curriculum, and both are focused on control engineering courses. The PBL...

  7. Breaking the computational barriers of pairwise genome comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torreno, Oscar; Trelles, Oswaldo

    2015-08-11

    Conventional pairwise sequence comparison software algorithms are being used to process much larger datasets than they were originally designed for. This can result in processing bottlenecks that limit software capabilities or prevent full use of the available hardware resources. Overcoming the barriers that limit the efficient computational analysis of large biological sequence datasets by retrofitting existing algorithms or by creating new applications represents a major challenge for the bioinformatics community. We have developed C libraries for pairwise sequence comparison within diverse architectures, ranging from commodity systems to high performance and cloud computing environments. Exhaustive tests were performed using different datasets of closely- and distantly-related sequences that span from small viral genomes to large mammalian chromosomes. The tests demonstrated that our solution is capable of generating high quality results with a linear-time response and controlled memory consumption, being comparable or faster than the current state-of-the-art methods. We have addressed the problem of pairwise and all-versus-all comparison of large sequences in general, greatly increasing the limits on input data size. The approach described here is based on a modular out-of-core strategy that uses secondary storage to avoid reaching memory limits during the identification of High-scoring Segment Pairs (HSPs) between the sequences under comparison. Software engineering concepts were applied to avoid intermediate result re-calculation, to minimise the performance impact of input/output (I/O) operations and to modularise the process, thus enhancing application flexibility and extendibility. Our computationally-efficient approach allows tasks such as the massive comparison of complete genomes, evolutionary event detection, the identification of conserved synteny blocks and inter-genome distance calculations to be performed more effectively.

  8. Multicode comparison of selected source-term computer codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermann, O.W.; Parks, C.V.; Renier, J.P.; Roddy, J.W.; Ashline, R.C.; Wilson, W.B.; LaBauve, R.J.

    1989-04-01

    This report summarizes the results of a study to assess the predictive capabilities of three radionuclide inventory/depletion computer codes, ORIGEN2, ORIGEN-S, and CINDER-2. The task was accomplished through a series of comparisons of their output for several light-water reactor (LWR) models (i.e., verification). Of the five cases chosen, two modeled typical boiling-water reactors (BWR) at burnups of 27.5 and 40 GWd/MTU and two represented typical pressurized-water reactors (PWR) at burnups of 33 and 50 GWd/MTU. In the fifth case, identical input data were used for each of the codes to examine the results of decay only and to show differences in nuclear decay constants and decay heat rates. Comparisons were made for several different characteristics (mass, radioactivity, and decay heat rate) for 52 radionuclides and for nine decay periods ranging from 30 d to 10,000 years. Only fission products and actinides were considered. The results are presented in comparative-ratio tables for each of the characteristics, decay periods, and cases. A brief summary description of each of the codes has been included. Of the more than 21,000 individual comparisons made for the three codes (taken two at a time), nearly half (45%) agreed to within 1%, and an additional 17% fell within the range of 1 to 5%. Approximately 8% of the comparison results disagreed by more than 30%. However, relatively good agreement was obtained for most of the radionuclides that are expected to contribute the greatest impact to waste disposal. Even though some defects have been noted, each of the codes in the comparison appears to produce respectable results. 12 figs., 12 tabs.

  9. Social comparison in the brain: A coordinate-based meta-analysis of functional brain imaging studies on the downward and upward comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yi; Eickhoff, Simon B; Hétu, Sébastien; Feng, Chunliang

    2018-01-01

    Social comparison is ubiquitous across human societies with dramatic influence on people's well-being and decision making. Downward comparison (comparing to worse-off others) and upward comparison (comparing to better-off others) constitute two types of social comparisons that produce different neuropsychological consequences. Based on studies exploring neural signatures associated with downward and upward comparisons, the current study utilized a coordinate-based meta-analysis to provide a refinement of understanding about the underlying neural architecture of social comparison. We identified consistent involvement of the ventral striatum and ventromedial prefrontal cortex in downward comparison and consistent involvement of the anterior insula and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex in upward comparison. These findings fit well with the "common-currency" hypothesis that neural representations of social gain or loss resemble those for non-social reward or loss processing. Accordingly, we discussed our findings in the framework of general reinforcement learning (RL) hypothesis, arguing how social gain/loss induced by social comparisons could be encoded by the brain as a domain-general signal (i.e., prediction errors) serving to adjust people's decisions in social settings. Although the RL account may serve as a heuristic framework for the future research, other plausible accounts on the neuropsychological mechanism of social comparison were also acknowledged. Hum Brain Mapp 39:440-458, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Does social comparison make a difference? Optimism as a moderator of the relation between comparison level and academic performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gibbons, FX; Blanton, H; Gerrard, M; Buunk, B; Eggleston, T

    Previous research has demonstrated that poor academic performance is associated with a downward shift in preferred level of academic comparison level (ACL). The current study assessed the long-term impact of this downward shift on the academic performance of college students and also examined the

  11. Student Tuition Charges: Comparisons, Options, and Implications and An Appendix to Student Tuition Charges: Comparisons, Options, and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Porfirio R.

    National and state comparisons of tuition and fee charges, as well as various policy options presented to the New Mexico Commission on Higher Education, are provided. An introduction to tuition and fee calculation is followed by definitions of tuition, required student fees, and student residency status. A study of tuition and fees at New Mexico…

  12. The Relationship Between Goal Orientation, Social Comparison Responses, Self-Efficacy, and Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmona, Carmen; Buunk, Abraham P.; Dijkstra, Arie; Peiro, Jose M.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined whether social comparison responses (identification and contrast in social comparison) mediated the relationship between goal orientation (promotion and prevention) and self-efficacy, and whether self-efficacy was subsequently related with a better performance. As

  13. Comparison of Numerical Analyses with a Static Load Test of a Continuous Flight Auger Pile

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Michal Hoľko; Jakub Stacho

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with numerical analyses of a Continuous Flight Auger (CFA) pile. The analyses include a comparison of calculated and measured load-settlement curves as well as a comparison of the load distribution over a pile's length...

  14. An international comparison of surface texture parameters quantification on polymer artefacts using optical instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Haitjema, H.; Leach, R.K.

    2016-01-01

    An international comparison of optical instruments measuring polymer surfaces with arithmetic mean height values in the sub-micrometre range has been carried out. The comparison involved sixteen optical surface texture instruments (focus variation instruments, confocal microscopes and coherent...

  15. Statistics attack on `quantum private comparison with a malicious third party' and its improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jun; Ho, Chih-Yung; Hwang, Tzonelih

    2018-02-01

    Recently, Sun et al. (Quantum Inf Process:14:2125-2133, 2015) proposed a quantum private comparison protocol allowing two participants to compare the equality of their secrets via a malicious third party (TP). They designed an interesting trap comparison method to prevent the TP from knowing the final comparison result. However, this study shows that the malicious TP can use the statistics attack to reveal the comparison result. A simple modification is hence proposed to solve this problem.

  16. Examining a model of dispositional mindfulness, body comparison, and body satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Pieternel; Barelds, Dick P. H.

    The present study examined the links between dispositional mindfulness, body comparison, and body satisfaction. It was expected that mindfulness would be associated with less body comparison and more body satisfaction. Two models were tested: one exploring body comparison as a mediator between

  17. The Folly of Making EPS Comparisons across Companies: Do Accounting Textbooks Send the Correct Message?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Timothy P.; Hora, Judith A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper demonstrates why EPS comparisons across companies are meaningless. An example is provided showing how a company with a higher ROE than another company may have a lower EPS simply from having a lower book value per share (and more shares outstanding) than the comparison company. While ROE comparisons across companies can be useful,…

  18. Differential Social Comparison Processes in Women with and without Eating Disorder Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corning, Alexandra F.; Krumm, Angela J.; Smitham, Lora A.

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of predictions from social comparison theory (L. Festinger, 1954) and informed by findings from the social comparison and eating disorder literatures, hypotheses were tested regarding the social comparison behaviors of women with eating disorder symptoms and their asymptomatic peers. Results indicated differentiating social-cognitive…

  19. Antecedents and Consequences of the Frequency of Upward and Downward Social Comparisons at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Douglas J.; Ferris, D. Lance; Heller, Daniel; Keeping, Lisa M.

    2007-01-01

    The current paper examines the dispositional and situational antecedents, as well as the attitudinal and behavioral consequences, of the frequency of upward and downward social comparisons. We predicted social comparison frequency would be influenced by uncertainty-related antecedents, and that social comparisons in organizations would be…

  20. Phantom Behavioral Assimilation Effects : Systematic Biases in Social Comparison Choice Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marsh, Herbert W.; Seaton, Marjorie; Kuyper, Hans; Dumas, Florence; Huguet, Pascal; Regner, Isabelle; Buunk, Abraham P.; Monteil, Jean-Marc; Gibbons, Frederick X.

    Consistent with social comparison theory (SCT), Blanton, Buunk, Gibbons, and Kuyper (1999) and Huguet, Dumas, Monteil, and Genestoux (2001) found that students tended to choose comparison targets who slightly outperformed them (i.e., upward comparison choices), and this had a beneficial effect on

  1. Student distress in clinical workplace learning: differences in social comparison behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janet Raat, A N; Schönrock-Adema, Johanna; van Hell, E Ally; Kuks, Jan B M; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2015-03-01

    In medical education, student distress is known to hamper learning and professional development. To address this problem, recent studies aimed at helping students cope with stressful situations. Undergraduate students in clinical practice frequently use experiences of surrounding peers to estimate their abilities to master such challenging situations. This use of the experiences of others, known as social comparison, may affect student distress both positively and negatively. To find characteristics of a beneficial use of social comparison, we examined differences in comparison behaviours between students expressing low and high levels of distress. The participants in our study, response rate 93% (N = 301/321), were all medical students in their first year in clinical practice. They completed the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) to measure distress, and three separate questionnaires to measure: (1) orientation to comparison, (2) motive for comparison, and (3) interpretation of comparison. Differences were analysed using multivariate analysis of variance. Although all students were oriented towards social comparison, the analyses showed that this orientation was less apparent among low-distress students. Besides, the low-distress students were less inclined to use motives indicative for comparisons with peers perceived as performing worse and were less negative in the interpretations of their comparisons. As social comparison is frequently used among all students, we recommend to make them aware of their comparison behaviours and inform them about the pros and cons of the distinguished aspects of the comparison process.

  2. Personal Self and Collective Self: When Academic Choices Depend on the Context of Social Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazal, Sebastien; Guimond, Serge; Darnon, Celine

    2012-01-01

    This research examines the impact of same-sex versus opposite-sex social comparisons on the perception of one's own abilities at school and subsequent reported marks and academic choices. During their final year, male and female high school students were asked to describe themselves either in comparison with boys in their class, in comparison with…

  3. Upward and Downward: Social Comparison Processing of Thin Idealized Media Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiggemann, Marika; Polivy, Janet

    2010-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the role of social comparison processing in women's responses to thin idealized images. In particular, it was predicted that comparison with the images on the basis of appearance would lead to more negative outcomes than comparison on the basis of intelligence. A sample of 114 women viewed fashion magazine…

  4. The Effect of Market and Merchant Comparisons on Customer Satisfaction: The Moderating Role of Information Uncertainty and Price Negotiation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Velitchka D Kaltcheva; Michael Tsiros

    2007-01-01

    ... merchant. Past studies have estimated the impact that each type of comparison has on customer satisfaction separately, but have not examined the relative impact of each comparison simultaneously...

  5. Energy efficiency of road freight hauliers - A Nordic comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liimatainen, Heikki; Nykanen, Lasse; Arvidsson, Niklas

    2014-01-01

    of road freight hauliers. This was achieved by replicating the Finnish haulier survey in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. Energy efficiency index was developed to provide a simple metric for international comparison. The EEL covers various aspects of energy efficiency to provide a comprehensive outlook...... efficiency actions is rather similar between the four countries. The simple and inexpensive actions, like choosing the lorry according to the cargo and idling avoidance, are most widely implemented. The energy efficiency index developed in this research proved to be a very useful tool for comparing......In order to promote policy targets for decarbonising road freight, it is important to gain knowledge on the current energy efficiency practices of hauliers in various countries. This research aimed to provide such knowledge to enable international comparison of the energy efficiency practices...

  6. Skeletal response to simulated weightlessness - A comparison of suspension techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wronski, T. J.; Morey-Holton, E. R.

    1987-01-01

    Comparisons are made of the skeletal response of rats subjected to simulated weightlessness by back or tail suspension. In comparison to pair-fed control rats, back-suspended rats failed to gain weight whereas tail-suspended rats exhibited normal weight gain. Quantitative bone histomorphometry revealed marked skeletal abnormalities in the proximal tibial metaphysis of back-suspended rats. Loss of trabecular bone mass in these animals was due to a combination of depressed longitudinal bone growth, decreased bone formation, and increased bone resorption. In contrast, the proximal tibia of tail-suspended rats was relatively normal by these histologic criteria. However, a significant reduction trabecular bone volume occurred during 2 weeks of tail suspension, possibly due to a transient inhibition of bone formation. The findings indicate that tail suspension may be a more appropriate model for evaluating the effects of simulated weightlessness on skeletal homeostasis.

  7. Solar thermal bowl concepts and economic comparisons for electricity generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, T.A.; Dirks, J.A.; Brown, D.R.; Antoniak, Z.I.; Allemann, R.T.; Coomes, E.P.; Craig, S.N.; Drost, M.K.; Humphreys, K.K.; Nomura, K.K.

    1988-04-01

    This study is aimed at providing a relative comparison of the thermodynamic and economic performance in electric applications for fixed mirror distributed focus (FMDF) solar thermal concepts which have been studied and developed in the DOE solar thermal program. Following the completion of earlier systems comparison studies in the late 1970's there have been a number of years of progress in solar thermal technology. This progress includes developing new solar components, improving component and system design details, constructing working systems, and collecting operating data on the systems. This study povides an update of the expected performance and cost of the major components, and an overall system energy cost for the FMDDF concepts evaluated. The projections in this study are for the late 1990's and are based on the potential capabilities that might be achieved with further technology development.

  8. An Affordability Comparison Tool (ACT) for Space Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleskey, C. M.; Bollo, T. R.; Garcia, J. L.

    2012-01-01

    NASA bas recently emphasized the importance of affordability for Commercial Crew Development Program (CCDP), Space Launch Systems (SLS) and Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). System architects and designers are challenged to come up with architectures and designs that do not bust the budget. This paper describes the Affordability Comparison Tool (ACT) analyzes different systems or architecture configurations for affordability that allows for a comparison of: total life cycle cost; annual recurring costs, affordability figures-of-merit, such as cost per pound, cost per seat, and cost per flight, as well as productivity measures, such as payload throughput. Although ACT is not a deterministic model, the paper develops algorithms and parametric factors that use characteristics of the architectures or systems being compared to produce important system outcomes (figures-of-merit). Example applications of outcome figures-of-merit are also documented to provide the designer with information on the relative affordability and productivity of different space transportation applications.

  9. Numerical analysis for comparison of aerodynamic characteristics of six airfoils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Magedi Moh M.; Mohd, Sofian Bin; Zulkafli, Mohd Fadhli; Shibani, Wanis Mustafa E.

    2017-04-01

    Comparison of six airfoils; FX 63-137, FX76-100, S835, S809, NACA63415, and NACA63215, have been performed using commercial software, FLUENT and XFOIL, in order to choose the best maximum lift to drag ratio in the region of 4×10∧6 Reynolds number, and also to specify their aerodynamic coefficients in Blade Element Momentum theory (BEM). These airfoils are candidates for the use as blade turbines and another application of flying object operating at high Reynolds number. In this study, the two-dimensional model of airfoils was established through Gambit software. The range of angles of attack is from -150 to 150. Comparisons of the numerical results generally show good agreements. Numerical results of FX 63-137 were also validated with experimental data. A good agreement of lift and drag coefficient from numerical simulations of FLUENT and experimental data was obtained at 10∧6 Reynolds number.

  10. Predictive Modeling of Expressed Emotions in Music Using Pairwise Comparisons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jens; Jensen, Bjørn Sand; Larsen, Jan

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a two-alternative forced-choice (2AFC) experimental paradigm to quantify expressed emotions in music using the arousal and valence (AV) dimensions. A wide range of well-known audio features are investigated for predicting the expressed emotions in music using learning curves...... and essential baselines. We furthermore investigate the scalability issues of using 2AFC in quantifying emotions expressed in music on large-scale music databases. The possibility of dividing the annotation task between multiple individuals, while pooling individuals’ comparisons is investigated by looking...... at the subjective differences of ranking emotion in the AV space. We find this to be problematic due to the large variation in subjects’ rankings of excerpts. Finally, solving scalability issues by reducing the number of pairwise comparisons is analyzed. We compare two active learning schemes to selecting...

  11. Envy Up, Scorn Down: How Comparison Divides Us

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiske, Susan T.

    2013-01-01

    Comparison compels people, even as it stresses, depresses, and divides us. Comparison is only natural, but the collateral damage reveals envy upward and scorn downward, and these emotions, arguably, poison people and their relationships. Summaries of several experiments—using questionnaire, psychometric, response-time, electromyographic, and neuroimaging data—illustrate the dynamics of envy up and scorn down, as well as proposing how to mitigate their effects. Initial studies suggest the importance of status. Other data show how scorn down minimizes thought about another’s mind; power deactivates mental concepts. Regarding envy up, other studies demonstrate that Schadenfreude (malicious joy) targets envied outgroups. However, counterstereotypic information, empathy, and outcome dependency can mitigate both scorn and envy. PMID:21058760

  12. Bayesian Model Comparison With the g-Prior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Kjær; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll; Cemgil, Ali Taylan

    2014-01-01

    Model comparison and selection is an important problem in many model-based signal processing applications. Often, very simple information criteria such as the Akaike information criterion or the Bayesian information criterion are used despite their shortcomings. Compared to these methods, Djuric......, and develop new model selection rules for a regression model containing both linear and non-linear parameters. Moreover, we use this framework to give a new interpretation of the popular information criteria and relate their performance to the signal-to-noise ratio of the data. By use of simulations, we also...... demonstrate that our proposed model comparison and selection rules outperform the traditional information criteria both in terms of detecting the true model and in terms of predicting unobserved data. The simulation code is available online....

  13. Student Perceptions of Learning Through an International Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Phillip; Perepelkin, Jason; Mey, Amary; Gapp, Rodney; King, Michelle

    2016-12-25

    Objective. To broaden pharmacy students' international perspectives through a teaching and learning method involving international comparison. Design. Four topics within a pharmacy law and practice course were taught in-person by collaborating faculty members representing two international perspectives (Australian and Canadian). The assessed learning objective was for students to be able to synthesize an international comparative analysis that reflected an international perspective. Assessment. Approximately 70% (n=44) of the class completed an online survey instrument that explored students' perceptions of their own learning. Six domains of inquiry represented in the questionnaire included knowledge development, international perspective, future prospects, personal enjoyment, assessment method, and overall learning experience. Quantitative and qualitative survey results reflected students' strong support for all statements of inquiry. Conclusions. The method involving international comparison, a classroom teaching collaboration and knowledge management using compare-contrast strategy positively influenced student perceptions in a range of ways and was effective in raising international perspectives in the pharmacy curriculum.

  14. Statistical comparison of the geometry of second-phase particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benes, Viktor, E-mail: benesv@karlin.mff.cuni.cz [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Department of Probability and Mathematical Statistics, Sokolovska 83, 186 75 Prague 8-Karlin (Czech Republic); Lechnerova, Radka, E-mail: radka.lech@seznam.cz [Private College on Economical Studies, Ltd., Lindnerova 575/1, 180 00 Prague 8-Liben (Czech Republic); Klebanov, Lev [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Department of Probability and Mathematical Statistics, Sokolovska 83, 186 75 Prague 8-Karlin (Czech Republic); Slamova, Margarita, E-mail: slamova@vyzkum-kovu.cz [Research Institute for Metals, Ltd., Panenske Brezany 50, 250 70 Odolena Voda (Czech Republic); Slama, Peter [Research Institute for Metals, Ltd., Panenske Brezany 50, 250 70 Odolena Voda (Czech Republic)

    2009-10-15

    In microscopic studies of materials, there is often a need to provide a statistical test as to whether two microstructures are different or not. Typically, there are some random objects (particles, grains, pores) and the comparison concerns their density, individual geometrical parameters and their spatial distribution. The problem is that neighbouring objects observed in a single window cannot be assumed to be stochastically independent, therefore classical statistical testing based on random sampling is not applicable. The aim of the present paper is to develop a test based on N-distances in probability theory. Using the measurements from a few independent windows, we consider a two-sample test, which involves a large amount of information collected from each window. An application is presented consisting in a comparison of metallographic samples of aluminium alloys, and the results are interpreted.

  15. Adjustment and testing comparison of absolute gravimeters in November 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Pešková

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on a comparison measurement processing of absolute gravimeters in 2013. The comparison deals with a number of various types of absolute gravimeters and includes also an absolute gravimeter from Geodetic observatory Pecný. Comparative measurements are performed to detect systematic errors of gravimeters. A result of processing is most likely value of a gravity and a systematic error of individual devices. Measured values are input to a adjustment with condition a sum of systematic errors is zero. A part of this process is also verification following output: (i value of a posteriori standard deviation, (ii size of corrections and (iii statistical significance of systematic errors. The results of adjustment are 15 gravity values on the reference places and 25 systematic errors of measuring instruments. Result shows that the presence of systematic errors in measurements is not statistically provable because the systematic errors are similarly sized as their standard deviation.

  16. A detailed comparison of system topologies for dynamic voltage restorers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J.G.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, four different system topologies for dynamic voltage restorers (DVRs) are analyzed and tested, with particular focus on the methods used to acquire the necessary energy during a voltage sag. Comparisons are made between two topologies that can be realized with a minimum amount...... of energy storage, with energy taken from the grid during the voltage sag, and two topologies that take energy from stored energy devices during the voltage sag. Experimental tests using a 10-kVA DVR show that the no-energy storage concept is feasible, but an improved performance can be achieved for certain...... voltage sags using stored energy topologies. The results of this comparison rank the no-storage topology with a passive shunt converter on the load side first, followed by the stored energy topology with a constant dc-link voltage....

  17. [Human identification by comparison if skull roentgen image].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauch, Hansjürg; Wirth, Ingo; Reisinger, Walter

    2002-01-01

    Comparison of X-rays was found to provide information just as accurate as dactyloscopy for person identification, which is attributable to the high variability of the skeletal system. Reported in this paper is the case of an unknown dead female whose body was found in a condition of advanced decay. That is why conventional methods of criminological identification were not practicable. Only inadequate results were obtained from a muscular sample, while no findings at all were obtainable from DNA analysis of two molars. Identification was achievable only after six months had passed from discovery of the corpse, when two X-rays of the presumed person's skull were retrieved. This case of successful identification has once again provided evidence to the fact that even in our era of DNA research X-ray comparison has retained a firm position in forensic diagnostics.

  18. A CFD code comparison of wind turbine wakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laan, van der, Paul Maarten; Storey, R. C.; Sørensen, Niels N.

    2014-01-01

    A comparison is made between the EllipSys3D and SnS CFD codes. Both codes are used to perform Large-Eddy Simulations (LES) of single wind turbine wakes, using the actuator disk method. The comparison shows that both LES models predict similar velocity deficits and stream-wise Reynolds...... simulations using EllipSys3D for a test case that is based on field measurements. In these simulations, two eddy viscosity turbulence models are employed: the k- (ε) model and the k- (ε)-fp model. Where the k- (ε) model fails to predict the velocity deficit, the results of the k- (ε)-fP model show good...

  19. Envy up, scorn down: how comparison divides us.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiske, Susan T

    2010-11-01

    Comparison compels people, even as it stresses, depresses, and divides us. Comparison is only natural, but the collateral damage reveals envy upward and scorn downward, and these emotions, arguably, poison people and their relationships. Summaries of several experiments--using questionnaire, psychometric, response-time, electromyographic, and neuroimaging data--illustrate the dynamics of envy up and scorn down, as well as proposing how to mitigate their effects. Initial studies suggest the importance of status. Other data show how scorn down minimizes thought about another's mind; power deactivates mental concepts. Regarding envy up, other studies demonstrate that Schadenfreude (malicious joy) targets envied outgroups. However, counterstereotypic information, empathy, and outcome dependency can mitigate both scorn and envy. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Women with Childhood ADHD: Comparisons by Diagnostic Group and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babinski, Dara E; Pelham, William E; Molina, Brooke S G; Waschbusch, Daniel A; Gnagy, Elizabeth M; Yu, Jihnhee; Sibley, Margaret H; Biswas, Aparajita

    2011-12-01

    This study compared adult women with childhood ADHD to adult women without childhood ADHD and to adult men with childhood ADHD. The participants, all from a larger longitudinal study, included 30 women and 30 men (approximately age 23 to 24) with childhood ADHD, and 27 women without ADHD. Women with childhood ADHD were matched to comparison women on age, ethnicity, and parental education, and to men with childhood ADHD on age, ethnicity, and IQ. Self- and parent-reports of internalizing, interpersonal, academic, and job impairment, as well as substance use and delinquency indicated group differences on measures of self-esteem, interpersonal and vocational functioning, as well as substance use. Follow-up planned comparison tests revealed that almost all of these differences emerged by diagnostic status, and not by gender. This study adds to research on the negative adult outcomes of ADHD and demonstrates that the outcomes of men and women with childhood ADHD are relatively similar.