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Sample records for sympathetic nerve abnormalities

  1. Usefulness of cardiac 125I-metaiodobenzylguanidine uptake for evaluation of cardiac sympathetic nerve abnormalities in diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Nanami; Kashiwagi, Atsunori; Shigeta, Yukio

    1992-01-01

    We investigated cardiac sympathetic nerve abnormalities in streptozocin-induced diabetic rats using 125 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG). The radioactivity ratio of cardiac tissue to 1 ml blood (H/B) was used as an index of cardiac MIBG uptake. Cardiac 125 I-MIBG uptake (H/B) in 4-, 8- and 20-wk diabetic rats was 48% lower than that in control rats. Similar results were obtained even when the data were corrected for g wet tissue weight. Although there was no improvement in H/B following 2-wk insulin treatment, the H/B ratio increased significantly, to 85% of control levels, following 4 wk insulin treatment indicating the reversibility of impaired MIBG uptake in diabetic rats. In vivo reserpine treatment resulted in a 50% reduction in the H/B value in control rats. However, the treatment did not significantly suppress uptake in diabetic rats. Cardiac norepinephrine content in both * 4- and ** 8-wk diabetic rats was significantly ( * p ** p 125 I-MIBG in diabetic rats is significantly impaired due to cardiac sympathetic nerve abnormalities. These abnormalities are reversible, however, dependent on the diabetic state. (author)

  2. Abnormal sympathetic nerve activity in women exposed to cigarette smoke: a potential mechanism to explain increased cardiac risk.

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    Middlekauff, Holly R; Park, Jeanie; Agrawal, Harsh; Gornbein, Jeffrey A

    2013-11-15

    In women, cardiac deaths attributable to tobacco exposure have reached the same high levels as men. Normally, sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) fluctuates according to the menstrual phase, but in habitual smokers, SNA levels remain constant. Our purpose is to extend these observations to other groups of women exposed to tobacco smoke and to explore potential mechanisms. We hypothesize that women exposed to secondhand smoke, but not former smokers, have nonfluctuating SNA compared with never smokers, and that impaired baroreflex suppression of SNA, and/or heightened central SNA responses, underlie this nonfluctuating SNA. We also hypothesize that female smokers have impaired nocturnal blood pressure dipping, normally mediated by modulation of SNA. In 49 females (19 never, 12 current, 9 former, 9 passive smokers), SNA was recorded (microneurography) during high- and low-hormone ovarian phases at rest, during pharmacological baroreflex testing, and during the cold pressor test (CPT). Twenty-four hour blood pressure (BP) monitoring was performed. Current and passive smokers, but not former smokers, had a nonfluctuating pattern of SNA, unlike never smokers in whom SNA varied with the menstrual phase. Baroreflex control of SNA was significantly blunted in current smokers, independent of menstrual phase. In passive smokers, SNA response to CPT was markedly increased. Nondipping was unexpectedly high in all groups. SNA does not vary during the menstrual cycle in active and passive smokers, unlike never and former smokers. Baroreflex control of SNA is blunted in current smokers, whereas SNA response to CPT is heightened in passive smokers. Smoking cessation is associated with return of the altered SNA pattern to normal.

  3. Sympathetic vasoconstrictor nerve function in alcoholic neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K; Andersen, K; Smith, T

    1984-01-01

    (18% and 48% decrease respectively). However, in three patients with moderate neuropathy, and in one patient with no signs of neuropathy, this veno-arteriolar reflex was absent, indicating dysfunction of the peripheral sympathetic adrenergic nerve fibres. The three patients also showed a lesser degree......The peripheral sympathetic vasomotor nerve function was investigated in 18 male chronic alcoholics admitted for intellectual impairment or polyneuropathy. By means of the local 133Xenon washout technique, the sympathetic veno-arteriolar axon-reflex was studied. This normally is responsible for a 50...... comprise not only the peripheral sensory and motor nerve fibres, but also the thin pseudomotor and vasomotor nerves....

  4. The progression to permanent atrial fibrillation with congestive heart failure is associated with sympathetic nerve abnormality. A study with I-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, Yusuke; Akutsu, Yasushi; Li, Hui-Ling; Kinohira, Yukihiko; Yamanaka, Hideyuki; Shinozuka, Akira; Katagiri, Takashi

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between congestive heart failure (CHF) and atrial fibrillation (AF) using iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphic imaging. Ninety-two AF patients (47 male and 45 female patients; mean age, 67±13 years) who did not suffer from structural heart disease or myocardial ischemia underwent MIBG scintigraphy. Global MIBG uptake was assessed by measuring the heart-to-mediastinal ratio (H/M) and washout rate (WR) on planar images, and the abnormal score (AS) was calculated on delayed MIBG single photon emission computed tomography images. Echocardiography was performed within a week after MIBG scintigraphy, to measure left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) and deceleration time (DT). The AF patients were divided into four groups: patients with permanent AF with (n=23, group A) or without (n=19, group B) a history of CHF, and patients with paroxysmal AF with (n=19, group C) or without (n=39, group D) a history of CHF. The H/M ratio was significantly lower in group A than in other groups (2.0±0.6 vs. group B: 2.7±0.6, group C: 2.3±0.5, and group D: 2.6±0.8, P<0.05), and in group C than in group D (P<0.05). Similarly, the WR was significantly higher in group A than in groups B and C (45.9±2.0 vs. group B: 38.9±1.9 and group C: 38.4±2.3, P<0.05). The AS was the highest in group A (19.7±8.2 vs. group B: 7.1±6.6, P<0.01; group C: 11.6±10.6 and group D: 13.5±9.0, P<0.05). The DT was significantly longer in group A than in groups B and D (222.0±59.4 vs. group B: 179.5±49.1, P<0.05 and group D: 177.9±37.1, P<0.01), but did not differ between groups A and C (222.0±59.4 vs. 197.4±51.1). There was no difference in EF among the groups. Although CHF with AF is associated with diastolic dysfunction, the progression to permanent AF from paroxysmal AF with CHF might be caused mainly by sympathetic nerve abnormality. (author)

  5. Sympathetic Nerve Injury in Thyroid Cancer

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    Evangelos Diamantis

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The double innervation of the thyroid comes from the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system. Injury rates during surgery are at 30% but can be minimized by upwardly preparing the thyroid vessels at the level of thyroid capsule. Several factors have been accused of increasing the risk of injury including age and tumor size. Our aim was to investigate of there is indeed any possible correlations between these factors and a possible increase in injury rates following thyroidectomy. Seven studies were included in the meta-analysis. Statistical correlation was observed for a positive relationship between injury of the sympathetic nerve and thyroid malignancy surgery (p < 0.001; I2 = 74% No statistical correlations were observed for a negative or positive relationship between injury of the sympathetic nerve and tumor size. There was also no statistically significant value observed for the correlation of the patients’ age with the risk of sympathetic nerve injury (p = 0.388. Lack of significant correlation reported could be due to the small number of studies and great heterogeneity between them.

  6. Renal sympathetic nerve ablation for treatment-resistant hypertension

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    Krum, Henry; Schlaich, Markus; Sobotka, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Hypertension is a major risk factor for increased cardiovascular events with accelerated sympathetic nerve activity implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of disease. Blood pressure is not adequately controlled in many patients, despite the availability of effective pharmacotherapy. Novel procedure- as well as device-based strategies, such as percutaneous renal sympathetic nerve denervation, have been developed to improve blood pressure in these refractory patients. Renal sympathetic denervation not only reduces blood pressure but also renal as well as systemic sympathetic nerve activity in such patients. The reduction in blood pressure appears to be sustained over 3 years after the procedure, which suggests absence of re-innervation of renal sympathetic nerves. Safety appears to be adequate. This approach may also have potential in other disorders associated with enhanced sympathetic nerve activity such as congestive heart failure, chronic kidney disease and metabolic syndrome. This review will focus on the current status of percutaneous renal sympathetic nerve denervation, clinical efficacy and safety outcomes and prospects beyond refractory hypertension. PMID:23819768

  7. Assessment of cardiac sympathetic nerve integrity with positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raffel, David M.; Wieland, Donald M.

    2001-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system plays a critical role in the regulation of cardiac function. Abnormalities of cardiac innervation have been implicated in the pathophysiology of many heart diseases, including sudden cardiac death and congestive heart failure. In an effort to provide clinicians with the ability to regionally map cardiac innervation, several radiotracers for imaging cardiac sympathetic neurons have been developed. This paper reviews the development of neuronal imaging agents and discusses their emerging role in the noninvasive assessment of cardiac sympathetic innervation

  8. Does transcutaneous nerve stimulation have effect on sympathetic skin response?

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    Okuyucu, E Esra; Turhanoğlu, Ayşe Dicle; Guntel, Murat; Yılmazer, Serkan; Savaş, Nazan; Mansuroğlu, Ayhan

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on the sympathetic nerve system by sympathetic skin response test. Fifty-five healthy volunteers received either: (i) 30minutes TENS (25 participants) (ii) 30minutes sham TENS (30 participants) and SSR test was performed pre- and post-TENS. The mean values of latency and peak-to-peak amplitude of five consecutive SSRs were calculated. A significant amplitude difference was found between TENS and sham TENS group both in right and left hand (p=0.04, p=0.01, respectively). However there was no significant latancy difference between two groups (p>0.05 ). TENS has an inhibitory effect on elicited SNS responses when compared with sham TENS control group. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Pet measurements of presynaptic sympathetic nerve terminals in the heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwaiger, M.; Hutchins, G.D.; Wieland, D.M.

    1991-01-01

    [ 18 F]Metaraminol (FMR) and [ 11 C]hydroxyephedrine (HED) are catecholamine analogues that have been developed at the University of Michigan for the noninvasive characterization of the sympathetic nervous system of the heart using positron emission tomography (PET). Pharmacological studies employing neurotoxins and uptake inhibitors have demonstrated that both FMR and HED specifically trace the uptake and storage of catecholamines in sympathetic nerve terminals with little nonspecific tracer accumulation. These compounds exhibit excellent qualitative imaging characteristics with heart-to-blood ratios exceeding 6:1 as early as 15 min after intravenous injection in both animals (HED and FMR) and humans (HED). Tracer kinetic modeling techniques have been employed for the quantitative assessment of neuronal catecholamine uptake and storage. Indices of neuronal function, such as the volume of tracer distribution derived from the kinetic models, have been employed in preliminary human studies. Comparison of the tissue distribution volume of HED between normal (control subjects) and denervated (recent transplant patients) cardiac tissue demonstrates a dynamic range of approximately 5:1. This distribution volume is reduced by 60% from normal in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy, indicating dysfunction of the sympathetic system. These results show that HED used in combination with PET provides a sophisticated quantitative approach for studying the sympathetic nervous system of the normal and diseased human heart

  10. Sympathetic network drive during water deprivation does not increase respiratory or cardiac rhythmic sympathetic nerve activity.

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    Holbein, Walter W; Toney, Glenn M

    2013-06-15

    Effects of water deprivation on rhythmic bursting of sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) were investigated in anesthetized, bilaterally vagotomized, euhydrated (control) and 48-h water-deprived (WD) rats (n = 8/group). Control and WD rats had similar baseline values of mean arterial pressure, heart rate, end-tidal CO2, and central respiratory drive. Although integrated splanchnic SNA (sSNA) was greater in WD rats than controls (P analysis of respiratory rhythmic bursting of sSNA revealed that inspiratory rhythmic burst amplitude was actually smaller (P analysis revealed that water deprivation had no effect on either the amplitude or periodicity of the cardiac rhythmic oscillation of sSNA. Collectively, these data indicate that the increase of sSNA produced by water deprivation is not attributable to either increased respiratory or cardiac rhythmic burst discharge. Thus the sympathetic network response to acute water deprivation appears to differ from that of chronic sympathoexcitation in neurogenic forms of arterial hypertension, where increased respiratory rhythmic bursting of SNA and baroreflex adaptations have been reported.

  11. Percutaneous renal sympathetic nerve ablation for loin pain haematuria syndrome.

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    Gambaro, Giovanni; Fulignati, Pierluigi; Spinelli, Alessio; Rovella, Valentina; Di Daniele, Nicola

    2013-09-01

    Loin pain haematuria syndrome (LPHS) is a severe renal pain condition of uncertain origin and often resistant to treatment. Nephrectomy and renal autotrasplantation have occasionally been performed in very severe cases. Its pathogenesis is controversial. A 40-year-old hypertensive lady was diagnosed with LPHS after repeated diagnostic imaging procedures had ruled out any renal, abdominal or spinal conditions to justify pain. Notwithstanding treatment with three drugs, she had frequent hypertensive crises during which the loin pain was dramatically exacerbated. Vascular causes of the pain and hypertension were investigated and excluded. Her renal function was normal. The patient was referred to a multidisciplinary pain clinic, but had no significant improvement in her pain symptoms despite the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, adjuvant antidepressants and opioid-like agents. The pain and the discomfort were so severe that her quality of life was very poor, and her social and professional activities were compromised. Nephrectomy and renal autotransplantation have occasionally been performed in these cases. Since visceral pain signals flow through afferent sympathetic fibres, we felt that percutaneous catheter-based radiofrequency ablation of the renal sympathetic nerve fibres (recently introduced for the treatment of drug-resistant hypertension) could be valuable for pain relief. We treated the patient with radiofrequency ablation (Medtronic Symplicity Catheter) applied only to the right renal artery. After a 6-month follow-up, the patient is pain free and normotensive with all drugs withdrawn. She has experienced no hypertensive crises in the meantime. This observation suggests that percutaneous sympathetic denervation could prove to be an effective mini-invasive strategy for the treatment of chronic renal pain, and LPHS in particular.

  12. Study of sympathetic nerve activity in young Indian obese individuals

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    B Kalpana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is the culmination of a chronic imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure. This energy balance can be potentially affected by the activity of autonomic nervous system (ANS. Altered sympathetic nerve function may be of importance in obesity. Objective: The present study is an attempt to pinpoint the defect (if any in the activity of sympathetic limb of the ANS in obesity, by subjecting to isometric exercise stress. Materials and Methods: A total of 81 females belonging to the age group of 18-22 years were recruited for the study. The participants were divided into two groups as normal weight and obese based on WHO guidelines for Asia Pacific region. After recording the resting blood pressure, they were subjected to isometric exercise by Handgrip dynamometer. Blood pressure was recorded again, and the difference was noted down. All recorded parameters were compared between two groups using unpaired t test. The relationship between body mass index (BMI and rise in diastolic pressure was quantified by Pearson′s correlation test. A P value less than 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: In obese, the diastolic pressure was significantly higher at rest, but showed reduced rise during handgrip test in comparison with normal weight individuals. Also, the rise in diastolic pressure exhibited a negative relation with BMI. Conclusion: The result is suggestive of impaired autonomic function at rest and reduced sympathetic activity in the group of obese when subjected to stress. This could make them more prone for future development of hypertension or other cardiovascular disorders.

  13. Acute sex hormone suppression reduces skeletal muscle sympathetic nerve activity.

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    Day, Danielle S; Gozansky, Wendolyn S; Bell, Christopher; Kohrt, Wendy M

    2011-10-01

    Comparisons of sympathetic nervous system activity (SNA) between young and older women have produced equivocal results, in part due to inadequate control for potential differences in sex hormone concentrations, age, and body composition. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of a short-term reduction in sex hormones on tonic skeletal muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), an indirect measure of whole body SNA, using an experimental model of sex hormone deficiency in young women. We also assessed the independent effects of estradiol and progesterone add-back therapy on MSNA. MSNA was measured in 9 women (30±2 years; mean±SE) on three separate occasions: during the mid-luteal menstrual cycle phase, on the fifth day of gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist (GnRHant) administration, and after 5 days add-back of either estradiol (n=4) or progesterone (n=3) during continued GnRHant administration. In response to GnRHant, there were significant reductions in serum estradiol and progesterone (both psuppression attenuates MSNA and that this may be related to the suppression of progesterone rather than estradiol.

  14. Study of nerve fibers nature reinforcing duodenal contractions by electrical stimulation of sympathetic nerve

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    Sveshnikov D.S.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the article is to investigate the mechanism of increased reactions by electrical stimulation of the sympathetic nerve. Materials and methods: Experiments on dogs have shown that stimulant reactions during blockade of a-adrenergic by phentolamine and (3-adrenergic receptors with propranolol were completely eliminated by lizer-gol —the blocker of 5-HT12-receptors. Results: Infusion of lizergol did not influence on duodenal motor activity and the function of the vagus nerve. Conclusion: Effector neuron is found out to be serotonergic and its action is provided by 5-HT1 2 receptors

  15. Sympathetic nerves: How do they affect angiogenesis, particularly during wound healing of soft tissues?

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    Pan, Liangli; Tang, Jianbing; Liu, Hongwei; Cheng, Biao

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis is essential for wound healing, and angiogenesis impairment can result in chronic ulcers. Studies have shown that the sympathetic nervous system has an important role in angiogenesis. In recent years, researchers have focused on the roles of sympathetic nerves in tumor angiogenesis. In fact, sympathetic nerves can affect angiogenesis in the wound healing of soft tissues, and may have a similar mechanism of action as that seen in tumorigenesis. Sympathetic nerves act primarily through interactions between the neurotransmitters released from nerve endings and receptors present in target organs. Among this, activation or inhibition of adrenergic receptors (mainly β-adrenergic receptors) influence formation of new blood vessels considerably. As sympathetic nerves locate near pericytes in microvessel, go along the capillaries and there are adrenergic receptors present in endothelial cells and pericytes, sympathetic nerves may participate in angiogenesis by influencing the endothelial cells and pericytes of new capillaries. Studying the roles of sympathetic nerves on the angiogenesis of wound healing can contribute to understanding the mechanisms of tissue repair, tissue regeneration, and tumorigenesis, thereby providing new therapeutic perspectives.

  16. Effect of sympathetic nerve block on acute inflammatory pain and hyperalgesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, J L; Rung, G W; Kehlet, H

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sympathetic nerve blocks relieve pain in certain chronic pain states, but the role of the sympathetic pathways in acute pain is unclear. Thus the authors wanted to determine whether a sympathetic block could reduce acute pain and hyperalgesia after a heat injury in healthy volunteers....... The duration and quality of blocks were evaluated by the sympatogalvanic skin response and skin temperature. Bilateral heat injuries were produced on the medial surfaces of the calves with a 50 x 25 mm thermode (47 degrees C, 7 min) 45 min after the blocks. Pain intensity induced by heat, pain thresholds...... between sympathetic block and placebo for pain or mechanical allodynia during injury, or pain thresholds, pain responses to heat, or areas of secondary hyperalgesia after the injury. The comparisons were done for the period when the block was effective. CONCLUSION: Sympathetic nerve block did not change...

  17. Alterations of sympathetic nerve fibers in avascular necrosis of femoral head.

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    Li, Deqiang; Liu, Peilai; Zhang, Yuankai; Li, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Avascular necrosis of the femoral head (ANFH) was mainly due to alterations of bone vascularity. And noradrenaline (NA), as the neurotransmitter of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), leads to the vasoconstriction by activating its α-Receptor. This study was to explore the nerve fiber density of the femoral head in the rabbit model of ANFH. Twenty New Zealand white rabbits were used in this study. The rabbit model of ANFH was established by the injection of methylprednisolone acetate. The nerve fiber density and distribution in the femoral head was determined using an Olympus BH2 microscope. Significant fewer sympathetic nerve fibers was found in the ANFH intertrochanteric bone samples (P = 0.036) with osteonecrosis. The number of sympathetic nerve fibers was compared between the two groups. And less sympathetic nerve fibers were found in later stage ANFH samples in comparison with those of early stages. ANFH might be preceded by an inflammatory reaction, and an inflammatory response might lead to arthritic changes in tissue samples, which in turn reduces the number of sympathetic nerve fibers.

  18. Myocardial Infarction Causes Transient Cholinergic Transdifferentiation of Cardiac Sympathetic Nerves via gp130.

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    Olivas, Antoinette; Gardner, Ryan T; Wang, Lianguo; Ripplinger, Crystal M; Woodward, William R; Habecker, Beth A

    2016-01-13

    Sympathetic and parasympathetic control of the heart is a classic example of norepinephrine (NE) and acetylcholine (ACh) triggering opposing actions. Sympathetic NE increases heart rate and contractility through activation of β receptors, whereas parasympathetic ACh slows the heart through muscarinic receptors. Sympathetic neurons can undergo a developmental transition from production of NE to ACh and we provide evidence that mouse cardiac sympathetic nerves transiently produce ACh after myocardial infarction (MI). ACh levels increased in viable heart tissue 10-14 d after MI, returning to control levels at 21 d, whereas NE levels were stable. At the same time, the genes required for ACh synthesis increased in stellate ganglia, which contain most of the sympathetic neurons projecting to the heart. Immunohistochemistry 14 d after MI revealed choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) in stellate sympathetic neurons and vesicular ACh transporter immunoreactivity in tyrosine hydroxylase-positive cardiac sympathetic fibers. Finally, selective deletion of the ChAT gene from adult sympathetic neurons prevented the infarction-induced increase in cardiac ACh. Deletion of the gp130 cytokine receptor from sympathetic neurons prevented the induction of cholinergic genes after MI, suggesting that inflammatory cytokines induce the transient acquisition of a cholinergic phenotype in cardiac sympathetic neurons. Ex vivo experiments examining the effect of NE and ACh on rabbit cardiac action potential duration revealed that ACh blunted both the NE-stimulated decrease in cardiac action potential duration and increase in myocyte calcium transients. This raises the possibility that sympathetic co-release of ACh and NE may impair adaptation to high heart rates and increase arrhythmia susceptibility. Sympathetic neurons normally make norepinephrine (NE), which increases heart rate and the contractility of cardiac myocytes. We found that, after myocardial infarction, the sympathetic neurons

  19. RESISTIN, AN ADIPOKINE WITH NON-GENERALISED ACTIONS ON SYMPATHETIC NERVE ACTIVITY

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    Emilio eBadoer

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organisation has called obesity a global epidemic. There is a strong association between body weight gain and blood pressure. A major determinant of blood pressure is the level of activity in sympathetic nerves innervating cardiovascular organs. A characteristic of obesity, in both humans and in animal models, is an increase in sympathetic nerve activity to the skeletal muscle vasculature and to the kidneys. Obesity is now recognised as a chronic, low level inflammatory condition and pro-inflammatory cytokines are elevated including those produced by adipose tissue. The most well known adipokine released from fat tissue is leptin. The adipokine, resistin,, is also released from adipose tissue. Resistin can act in the central nervous system to influence the sympathetic nerve activity. Here, we review the effects of resistin on sympathetic nerve activity and compare them with leptin. We build an argument that resistin and leptin may have complex interactions. Firstly, they may augment each other as both are excitatory on sympathetic nerves innervating cardiovascular organs; In contrast, they could antagonize each other’s actions on brown adipose tissue, a key metabolic organ. These interactions may be important in conditions in which leptin and resistin are elevated, such as in obesity.

  20. Loss of Sympathetic Nerves in Spleens from Patients with End Stage Sepsis

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    Donald B. Hoover

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The spleen is an important site for central regulation of immune function by noradrenergic sympathetic nerves, but little is known about this major region of neuroimmune communication in humans. Experimental studies using animal models have established that sympathetic innervation of the spleen is essential for cholinergic anti-inflammatory responses evoked by vagal nerve stimulation, and clinical studies are evaluating this approach for treating inflammatory diseases. Most data on sympathetic nerves in spleen derive from rodent studies, and this work has established that remodeling of sympathetic innervation can occur during inflammation. However, little is known about the effects of sepsis on spleen innervation. Our primary goals were to (i localize noradrenergic nerves in human spleen by immunohistochemistry for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, a specific noradrenergic marker, (ii determine if nerves occur in close apposition to leukocytes, and (iii determine if splenic sympathetic innervation is altered in patients who died from end stage sepsis. Staining for vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT was done to screen for cholinergic nerves. Archived paraffin tissue blocks were used. Control samples were obtained from trauma patients or patients who died after hemorrhagic stroke. TH + nerves were associated with arteries and arterioles in all control spleens, occurring in bundles or as nerve fibers. Individual TH + nerve fibers entered the perivascular region where some appeared in close apposition to leukocytes. In marked contrast, spleens from half of the septic patients lacked TH + nerves fibers and the average abundance of TH + nerves for the septic group was only 16% of that for the control group (control: 0.272 ± 0.060% area, n = 6; sepsis: 0.043 ± 0.026% area, n = 8; P < 0.005. All spleens lacked cholinergic innervation. Our results provide definitive evidence for the distribution of noradrenergic

  1. Renal sympathetic nerve, blood flow, and epithelial transport responses to thermal stress.

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    Wilson, Thad E

    2017-05-01

    Thermal stress is a profound sympathetic stress in humans; kidney responses involve altered renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), renal blood flow, and renal epithelial transport. During mild cold stress, RSNA spectral power but not total activity is altered, renal blood flow is maintained or decreased, and epithelial transport is altered consistent with a sympathetic stress coupled with central volume loaded state. Hypothermia decreases RSNA, renal blood flow, and epithelial transport. During mild heat stress, RSNA is increased, renal blood flow is decreased, and epithelial transport is increased consistent with a sympathetic stress coupled with a central volume unloaded state. Hyperthermia extends these directional changes, until heat illness results. Because kidney responses are very difficult to study in humans in vivo, this review describes and qualitatively evaluates an in vivo human skin model of sympathetically regulated epithelial tissue compared to that of the nephron. This model utilizes skin responses to thermal stress, involving 1) increased skin sympathetic nerve activity (SSNA), decreased skin blood flow, and suppressed eccrine epithelial transport during cold stress; and 2) increased SSNA, skin blood flow, and eccrine epithelial transport during heat stress. This model appears to mimic aspects of the renal responses. Investigations of skin responses, which parallel certain renal responses, may aid understanding of epithelial-sympathetic nervous system interactions during cold and heat stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Anatomic assessment of sympathetic peri-arterial renal nerves in man.

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    Sakakura, Kenichi; Ladich, Elena; Cheng, Qi; Otsuka, Fumiyuki; Yahagi, Kazuyuki; Fowler, David R; Kolodgie, Frank D; Virmani, Renu; Joner, Michael

    2014-08-19

    Although renal sympathetic denervation therapy has shown promising results in patients with resistant hypertension, the human anatomy of peri-arterial renal nerves is poorly understood. The aim of our study was to investigate the anatomic distribution of peri-arterial sympathetic nerves around human renal arteries. Bilateral renal arteries were collected from human autopsy subjects, and peri-arterial renal nerve anatomy was examined by using morphometric software. The ratio of afferent to efferent nerve fibers was investigated by dual immunofluorescence staining using antibodies targeted for anti-tyrosine hydroxylase and anti-calcitonin gene-related peptide. A total of 10,329 nerves were identified from 20 (12 hypertensive and 8 nonhypertensive) patients. The mean individual number of nerves in the proximal and middle segments was similar (39.6 ± 16.7 per section and 39.9 ± 1 3.9 per section), whereas the distal segment showed fewer nerves (33.6 ± 13.1 per section) (p = 0.01). Mean subject-specific nerve distance to arterial lumen was greatest in proximal segments (3.40 ± 0.78 mm), followed by middle segments (3.10 ± 0.69 mm), and least in distal segments (2.60 ± 0.77 mm) (p renal sympathetic nerve fibers is lower in distal segments and dorsal locations. There is a clear predominance of efferent nerve fibers, with decreasing prevalence of afferent nerves from proximal to distal peri-arterial and renal parenchyma. Understanding these anatomic patterns is important for refinement of renal denervation procedures. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Defective propagation of signals generated by sympathetic nerve stimulation in the liver of connexin32-deficient mice.

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    Nelles, E; Bützler, C; Jung, D; Temme, A; Gabriel, H D; Dahl, U; Traub, O; Stümpel, F; Jungermann, K; Zielasek, J; Toyka, K V; Dermietzel, R; Willecke, K

    1996-09-03

    The gap junctional protein connexin32 is expressed in hepatocytes, exocrine pancreatic cells, Schwann cells, and other cell types. We have inactivated the connexin32 gene by homologous recombination in the mouse genome and have generated homozygous connexin32-deficient mice that were viable and fertile but weighed on the average approximately 17% less than wild-type controls. Electrical stimulation of sympathetic nerves in connexin32-deficient liver triggered a 78% lower amount of glucose mobilization from glycogen stores, when compared with wild-type liver. Thus, connexin32-containing gap junctions are essential in mouse liver for maximal intercellular propagation of the noradrenaline signal from the periportal (upstream) area, where it is received from sympathetic nerve endings, to perivenous (downstream) hepatocytes. In connexin32-defective liver, the amount of connexin26 protein expressed was found to be lower than in wild-type liver, and the total area of gap junction plaques was approximately 1000-fold smaller than in wild-type liver. In contrast to patients with connexin32 defects suffering from X chromosome-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMTX) due to demyelination in Schwann cells of peripheral nerves, connexin32-deficient mice did not show neurological abnormalities when analyzed at 3 months of age. It is possible, however, that they may develop neurodegenerative symptoms at older age.

  4. Effect of percutaneous renal sympathetic nerve radiofrequency ablation in patients with severe heart failure.

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    Dai, Qiming; Lu, Jing; Wang, Benwen; Ma, Genshan

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the clinical feasibility and effects of percutaneous renal sympathetic nerve radiofrequency ablation in patients with heart failure. A total of 20 patients with heart failure were enrolled, aged from 47 to 75 years (63±10 years). They were divided into the standard therapy (n = 10), and renal nerve radiofrequency ablation groups (n = 10). There were 15 males and 5 female patients, including 8 ischemic cardiomyopathy, 8 dilated cardiomyopathy, and 8 hypertensive cardiopathy. All of the patients met the criteria of New York Heart Association classes III-IV cardiac function. Patients with diabetes and renal failure were excluded. Percutaneous renal sympathetic nerve radiofrequency ablation was performed on the renal artery wall under X-ray guidance. Serum electrolytes, neurohormones, and 24 h urine volume were recorded 24 h before and after the operation. Echocardiograms were performed to obtain left ventricular ejection fraction at baseline and 6 months. Heart rate, blood pressure, symptoms of dyspnea and edema were also monitored. After renal nerve ablation, 24 h urine volume was increased, while neurohormone levels were decreased compared with those of pre-operation and standard therapy. No obvious change in heart rate or blood pressure was recorded. Symptoms of heart failure were improved in patients after the operation. No complications were recorded in the study. Percutaneous renal sympathetic nerve radiofrequency ablation may be a feasible, safe, and effective treatment for the patients with severe congestive heart failure.

  5. Sympathetic nerve-derived ATP regulates renal medullary blood flow via vasa recta pericytes

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    Scott S Wildman

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Pericyte cells are now known to be a novel locus of blood flow control, being able to regulate capillary diameter via their unique morphology and expression of contractile proteins. We have previously shown that exogenous ATP causes constriction of vasa recta via renal pericytes, acting at a variety of membrane bound P2 receptors on descending vasa recta, and therefore may be able to regulate medullary blood flow (MBF. Regulation of MBF is essential for appropriate urine concentration and providing essential oxygen and nutrients to this region of high, and variable, metabolic demand. Various sources of endogenous ATP have been proposed, including from epithelial, endothelial and red blood cells in response to stimuli such as mechanical stimulation, local acidosis, hypoxia, and exposure to various hormones. Extensive sympathetic innervation of the nephron has previously been shown, however the innervation reported has focused around the proximal and distal tubules, and ascending loop of Henle. We hypothesise that sympathetic nerves are an additional source of ATP acting at renal pericytes and therefore regulate MBF. Using a rat live kidney slice model in combination with video imaging and confocal microscopy techniques we firstly show sympathetic nerves in close proximity to vasa recta pericytes in both the outer and inner medulla. Secondly, we demonstrate pharmacological stimulation of sympathetic nerves in situ (by tyramine evokes pericyte-mediated vasoconstriction of vasa recta capillaries; inhibited by the application of the P2 receptor antagonist suramin. Lastly, tyramine-evoked vasoconstriction of vasa recta by pericytes is significantly less than ATP-evoked vasoconstriction. Sympathetic innervation may provide an additional level of functional regulation in the renal medulla that is highly localized. It now needs to be determined under which physiological/pathophysiological circumstances that sympathetic innervation of renal pericytes is

  6. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity is related to a surrogate marker of endothelial function in healthy individuals.

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    Yrsa Bergmann Sverrisdóttir

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence from animal studies indicates the importance of an interaction between the sympathetic nervous system and the endothelium for cardiovascular regulation. However the interaction between these two systems remains largely unexplored in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate whether directly recorded sympathetic vasoconstrictor outflow is related to a surrogate marker of endothelial function in healthy individuals. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 10 healthy normotensive subjects (3 f/7 m, (age 37+/-11 yrs, (BMI 24+/-3 kg/m(2 direct recordings of sympathetic action potentials to the muscle vascular bed (MSNA were performed and endothelial function estimated with the Reactive Hyperaemia- Peripheral Arterial Tonometry (RH-PAT technique. Blood samples were taken and time spent on leisure-time physical activities was estimated. In all subjects the rate between resting flow and the maximum flow, the Reactive Hyperemic index (RH-PAT index, was within the normal range (1.9-3.3 and MSNA was as expected for age and gender (13-44 burst/minute. RH-PAT index was inversely related to MSNA (r = -0.8, p = 0.005. RH-PAT index and MSNA were reciprocally related to time (h/week spent on physical activity (p = 0.005 and p = 0.006 respectively and platelet concentration (PLT (p = 0.02 and p = 0.004 respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that sympathetic nerve activity is related to a surrogate marker of endothelial function in healthy normotensive individuals, indicating that sympathetic outflow may be modulated by changes in endothelial function. In this study time spent on physical activity is identified as a predictor of sympathetic nerve activity and endothelial function in a group of healthy individuals. The results are of importance in understanding mechanisms underlying sympathetic activation in conditions associated with endothelial dysfunction and emphasise the importance of a daily exercise routine for maintenance of cardiovascular

  7. Recurrent postoperative CRPS I in patients with abnormal preoperative sympathetic function.

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    Ackerman, William E; Ahmad, Mahmood

    2008-02-01

    A complex regional pain syndrome of an extremity that has previously resolved can recur after repeat surgery at the same anatomic site. Complex regional pain syndrome is described as a disease of the autonomic nervous system. The purpose of this study was to evaluate preoperative and postoperative sympathetic function and the recurrence of complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS I) in patients after repeat carpal tunnel surgery. Thirty-four patients who developed CRPS I after initial carpal tunnel releases and required repeat open carpal tunnel surgeries were studied. Laser Doppler imaging (LDI) was used to assess preoperative sympathetic function 5-7 days prior to surgery and to assess postoperative sympathetic function 19-22 days after surgery or 20-22 days after resolution of the CRPS I. Sympathetic nervous system function was prospectively examined by testing reflex-evoked vasoconstrictor responses to sympathetic stimuli recorded with LDI of both hands. Patients were assigned to 1 of 2 groups based on LDI responses to sympathetic provocation. Group I (11 of 34) patients had abnormal preoperative LDI studies in the hands that had prior surgeries, whereas group II (23 of 34) patients had normal LDI studies. Each patient in this study had open repeat carpal tunnel surgery. In group I, 8 of 11 patients had recurrent CRPS I, whereas in group II, 3 of 23 patients had recurrent CRPS I. All of the recurrent CRPS I patients were successfully treated with sympathetic blockade, occupational therapy, and pharmacologic modalities. Repeat LDI after recurrent CRPS I resolution was abnormal in 8 of 8 group I patients and in 1 of 3 group II patients. CRPS I can recur after repeat hand surgery. Our study results may, however, identify those individuals who may readily benefit from perioperative therapies. Prognostic I.

  8. The gross anatomy of the renal sympathetic nerves revisited.

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    Mompeo, Blanca; Maranillo, Eva; Garcia-Touchard, Arturo; Larkin, Theresa; Sanudo, Jose

    2016-07-01

    Catheter-based renal denervation techniques focus on reducing blood pressure in resistant hypertension. This procedure requires exact knowledge of the anatomical interrelation between the renal arteries and the targeted renal nervous plexus. The aim of this work was to build on classical anatomical studies and describe the gross anatomy and anatomical relationships of the renal arteries and nerve supply to the kidneys in a sample of human cadavers. Twelve human cadavers (six males and six females), age range 73 to 94 years, were dissected. The nervous fibers and renal arteries were dissected using a surgical microscope. The renal plexus along the hilar renal artery comprised a fiber-ganglionic ring surrounding the proximal third of the renal artery, a neural network along the middle and distal thirds, and smaller accessory ganglia along the course of the nerve fibers. The fibers of the neural network were mainly located on the superior (95.83%) and inferior (91.66%) surfaces of the renal artery and they were sparsely interconnected by diagonal fibers. Polar arteries were present in 33.33% of cases and the renal nerve pattern for these was similar to that of the hilar arteries. Effective renal denervation needs to target the superior and inferior surfaces of the hilar and polar arteries, where the fibers of the neural network are present. Clin. Anat. 29:660-664, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Change in sympathetic nerve firing pattern associated with dietary weight loss in the metabolic syndrome

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    Elisabeth Annie Lambert

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Sympathetic activation in subjects with the metabolic syndrome (MS plays a role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease development. Diet-induced weight loss decreases sympathetic outflow. However the mechanisms that account for sympathetic inhibition are not known. We sought to provide a detailed description of the sympathetic response to diet by analyzing the firing behavior of single-unit sympathetic nerve fibres. Fourteen subjects (57±2 years, 9 men, 5 females fulfilling ATP III criteria for the MS underwent a 3-month low calorie diet. Metabolic profile, hemodynamic parameters and multi-unit and single unit muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA, microneurography were assessed prior to and at the end of the diet. Patients’ weight dropped from 96±4 to 88±3 kg (P<0.001. This was associated with a decrease in systolic and diastolic blood pressure (-12 ±3 and -5±2 mmHg, P<0.05, and in heart rate (-7±2 bpm, P<0.01 and an improvement in all metabolic parameters (fasting glucose: -0.302.1±0.118 mmol/l, total cholesterol: -0.564±0.164 mmol/l, triglycerides: -0.414±0.137 mmol/l, P<0.05. Multi-unit MSNA decreased from 68±4 to 59±5 bursts per 100 heartbeats (P<0.05. Single-unit MSNA indicated that the firing rate of individual vasoconstrictor fibres decreased from 59±10 to 32±4 spikes per 100 heart beats (P<0.05. The probability of firing decreased from 34±5 to 23±3 % of heartbeats (P<0.05, and the incidence of multiple firing decreased from 14±4 to 6±1 % of heartbeats (P<0.05. Cardiac and sympathetic baroreflex function were significantly improved (cardiac slope: 6.57±0.69 to 9.57±1.20 msec.mmHg-1; sympathetic slope: -3.86±0.34 to -5.05±0.47 bursts per 100 heartbeats.mmHg-1 P<0.05 for both. Hypocaloric diet decreased sympathetic activity and improved hemodynamic and metabolic parameters. The sympathoinhibition associated with weight loss involves marked changes, not only in the rate but also in the firing pattern of

  10. Renal hemodynamic effects of activation of specific renal sympathetic nerve fiber groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBona, G F; Sawin, L L

    1999-02-01

    To examine the effect of activation of a unique population of renal sympathetic nerve fibers on renal blood flow (RBF) dynamics, anesthetized rats were instrumented with a renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) recording electrode and an electromagnetic flow probe on the ipsilateral renal artery. Peripheral thermal receptor stimulation (external heat) was used to activate a unique population of renal sympathetic nerve fibers and to increase total RSNA. Total RSNA was reflexly increased to the same degree with somatic receptor stimulation (tail compression). Arterial pressure and heart rate were increased by both stimuli. Total RSNA was increased to the same degree by both stimuli but external heat produced a greater renal vasoconstrictor response than tail compression. Whereas both stimuli increased spectral density power of RSNA at both cardiac and respiratory frequencies, modulation of RBF variability by fluctuations of RSNA was small at these frequencies, with values for the normalized transfer gain being approximately 0.1 at >0.5 Hz. During tail compression coherent oscillations of RSNA and RBF were found at 0.3-0.4 Hz with normalized transfer gain of 0.33 +/- 0.02. During external heat coherent oscillations of RSNA and RBF were found at both 0.2 and 0.3-0.4 Hz with normalized transfer gains of 0. 63 +/- 0.05 at 0.2 Hz and 0.53 +/- 0.04 to 0.36 +/- 0.02 at 0.3-0.4 Hz. Renal denervation eliminated the oscillations in RBF at both 0.2 and 0.3-0.4 Hz. These findings indicate that despite similar increases in total RSNA, external heat results in a greater renal vasoconstrictor response than tail compression due to the activation of a unique population of renal sympathetic nerve fibers with different frequency-response characteristics of the renal vasculature.

  11. Sympathetic Nerves in Breast Cancer: Angiogenesis and Antiangiogenic Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    an enzyme found only outside nerve terminals (6). We showed that splenic NE and NMN were markedly elevated 3 days after DMI implantation relative to...daily ISO treatment (Figs. 3A; attached manuscript day x treatment interaction, p = 0.14). To further investigate potential ß-AR-induced effects on...It has high affinity for ß2-AR, but is unable to desensitize ß-AR, resulting in a long-term effectiveness that cannot be achieved with most ß-agonists

  12. CT-clinical approach to patients with symptoms related to the V, VII, IX-XII cranial nerves and cervical sympathetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalovidouris, A.; Mancuso, A.A.; Dillon, W.

    1984-01-01

    Forty-three patients who had signs and symptoms possibly related to the extracranial course of cranial nerves V, VII, IX, X-XII, and the cervical sympathetics were examined prospectively using high resolution CT to obtain images of thin sections during rapid drip infusion of contrast material. Anatomic areas in the scan protocols included the posterior fossa, cavernous and paranasal sinuses, skull base, temporal bone, nasopharynx, parotid gland, tongue base, and neck. Nine of the 23 patients with possible fifth nerve deficits had extracranial structural lesions that explained the symptoms; none of these nine, however, had typical trigeminal neuralgia. Of eight patients with peripheral seventh nerve abnormalities, two had positive findings on scans. Of five patients presenting with referred ear pain, three had carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract. The authors' experience suggests that patients at high risk for structural lesions responsible for cranial nerve deficits can be selected by clinical criteria. Protocols for each clinical setting are presented

  13. Effects and Mechanisms of Radiofrequency Ablation of Renal Sympathetic Nerve on Anti-Hypertension in Canine

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    Wei Chen

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Radiofrequency ablation of renal sympathetic nerve (RDN shows effective BP reduction in hypertensive patients while the specific mechanisms remain unclear. Objective: We hypothesized that abnormal levels of norepinephrine (NE and changes in NE-related enzymes and angiotensinconverting enzyme 2 (ACE2, angiotensin (Ang-(1-7 and Mas receptor mediate the anti-hypertensive effects of RDN. Methods: Mean values of systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP and mean arterial pressure (MAP were assessed at baseline and follow-up. Plasma and renal norepinephrine (NE concentrations were determined using highperformance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection, and levels of NE-related enzyme and ACE2-Ang(1-7- Mas were measured using real time PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry or Elisa in a hypertensive canine model fed with high-fat diet and treated with RDN. The parameters were also determined in a sham group treated with renal arteriography and a control group fed with normal diet. Results: RDN decreased SBP, DBP, MAP, plasma and renal NE. Compared with the sham group, renal tyrosine hydroxylase (TH expression was lower and renalase expression was higher in the RDN group. Compared with the control group, renal TH and catechol-o-methyl transferase (COMT were higher and renalase was lower in the sham group. Moreover, renal ACE2, Ang-(1-7 and Mas levels of the RDN group were higher than those of the sham group, which were lower than those of the control group. Conclusion: RDN shows anti-hypertensive effect with reduced NE and activation of ACE2-Ang(1-7-Mas, indicating that it may contribute to the anti-hypertensive effect of RDN.

  14. Functional role of diverse changes in sympathetic nerve activity in regulating arterial pressure during REM sleep.

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    Yoshimoto, Misa; Yoshida, Ikue; Miki, Kenju

    2011-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether REM sleep evoked diverse changes in sympathetic outflows and, if so, to elucidate why REM sleep evokes diverse changes in sympathetic outflows. Male Wistar rats were chronically implanted with electrodes to measure renal (RSNA) and lumbar sympathetic nerve activity (LSNA), electroencephalogram, electromyogram, and electrocardiogram, and catheters to measure systemic arterial and central venous pressure; these parameters were measured simultaneously and continuously during the sleep-awake cycle in the same rat. REM sleep resulted in a step reduction in RNSA by 36.1% ± 2.7% (P sleep. In contrast to REM sleep, RSNA, LSNA, systemic arterial pressure, and heart rate increased in a unidirectional manner associated with increases in physical activity levels in the order from NREM sleep, quiet awake, moving, and grooming state. Thus, the relationship between RSNA vs. LSNA and systemic arterial pressure vs. heart rate observed during REM sleep was dissociated compared with that obtained during the other behavioral states. It is suggested that the diverse changes in sympathetic outflows during REM sleep may be needed to increase systemic arterial pressure by balancing vascular resistance between muscles and vegetative organs without depending on the heart.

  15. Chronic renin inhibition lowers blood pressure and reduces upright muscle sympathetic nerve activity in hypertensive seniors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Yoshiyuki; Jarvis, Sara S; Best, Stuart A; Bivens, Tiffany B; Adams-Huet, Beverley; Levine, Benjamin D; Fu, Qi

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular risk remains high in patients with hypertension even with adequate blood pressure (BP) control. One possible mechanism may be sympathetic activation via the baroreflex. We tested the hypothesis that chronic inhibition of renin reduces BP without sympathetic activation, but diuresis augments sympathetic activity in elderly hypertensives. Fourteen patients with stage-I hypertension (66 ± 5 (SD) years) were treated with a direct renin inhibitor, aliskiren (n= 7), or a diuretic, hydrochlorothiazide (n= 7), for 6 months. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), BP, direct renin and aldosterone were measured during supine and a graded head-up tilt (HUT; 5 min 30° and 20 min 60°), before and after treatment. Sympathetic baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) was assessed. Both groups had similar BP reductions after treatment (all P < 0.01), while MSNA responses were different between hydrochlorothiazide and aliskiren (P= 0.006 pre/post × drug). Both supine and upright MSNA became greater after hydrochlorothiazide treatment (supine, 72 ± 18 post vs. 64 ± 15 bursts (100 beats)−1 pre; 60° HUT, 83 ± 10 vs. 78 ± 13 bursts (100 beats)−1; P= 0.002). After aliskiren treatment, supine MSNA remained unchanged (69 ± 13 vs. 64 ± 8 bursts (100 beats)−1), but upright MSNA was lower (74 ± 15 vs. 85 ± 10 bursts (100 beats)−1; P= 0.012 for pre/post × posture). Direct renin was greater after both treatments (both P < 0.05), while upright aldosterone was greater after hydrochlorothiazide only (P= 0.002). The change in upright MSNA by the treatment was correlated with the change of aldosterone (r= 0.74, P= 0.002). Upright sympathetic BRS remained unchanged after either treatment. Thus, chronic renin inhibition may reduce upright MSNA through suppressed renin activity, while diuresis may evoke sympathetic activation via the upregulated renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system, without changing intrinsic sympathetic baroreflex function in elderly hypertensive

  16. Eppur Si Muove: The dynamic nature of physiological control of renal blood flow by the renal sympathetic nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Alicia M; Pellegrino, Peter Ricci; Zucker, Irving H

    2017-05-01

    Tubuloglomerular feedback and the myogenic response are widely appreciated as important regulators of renal blood flow, but the role of the sympathetic nervous system in physiological renal blood flow control remains controversial. Where classic studies using static measures of renal blood flow failed, dynamic approaches have succeeded in demonstrating sympathetic control of renal blood flow under normal physiological conditions. This review focuses on transfer function analysis of renal pressure-flow, which leverages the physical relationship between blood pressure and flow to assess the underlying vascular control mechanisms. Studies using this approach indicate that the renal nerves are important in the rapid regulation of the renal vasculature. Animals with intact renal innervation show a sympathetic signature in the frequency range associated with sympathetic vasomotion that is eliminated by renal denervation. In conscious rabbits, this sympathetic signature exerts vasoconstrictive, baroreflex control of renal vascular conductance, matching well with the rhythmic, baroreflex-influenced control of renal sympathetic nerve activity and complementing findings from other studies employing dynamic approaches to study renal sympathetic vascular control. In this light, classic studies reporting that nerve stimulation and renal denervation do not affect static measures of renal blood flow provide evidence for the strength of renal autoregulation rather than evidence against physiological renal sympathetic control of renal blood flow. Thus, alongside tubuloglomerular feedback and the myogenic response, renal sympathetic outflow should be considered an important physiological regulator of renal blood flow. Clinically, renal sympathetic vasomotion may be important for solving the problems facing the field of therapeutic renal denervation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Electroacupuncture Improved the Function of Myocardial Ischemia Involved in the Hippocampus-Paraventricular Nucleus-Sympathetic Nerve Pathway

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    Shuai Cui

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the hippocampus-paraventricular nucleus- (PVN- sympathetic nerve pathway in electroacupuncture (EA at the heart meridian for the treatment of myocardial ischemia by observing PVN neuronal discharge, sympathetic nerve discharge, and hemodynamics parameters. Sprague Dawley (SD rats were equally divided into four groups: Sham, Model, Model + EA, and Model + EA + Lesion. The model rat was established by ligating the left anterior descending branch of the coronary artery. Changes in the sympathetic nerve discharge and hemodynamic parameters were observed. The Model + EA exhibited a significantly lower discharge frequency of PVN neurons compared with the Model. The Model + EA + Lesion had a significantly higher discharge frequency compared with the Model + EA. The total discharge frequency of PVN neurons and interneurons were positively correlated with the sympathetic nerve discharge. The total discharge frequency of PVN neurons was positively correlated with heart rate (HR and negatively correlated with mean arterial pressure (MAP and rate pressure product (RPP. The discharge frequency of interneurons was positively correlated with HR and negatively correlated with MAP and RPP. The hippocampus-PVN-sympathetic nerve pathway is involved in electroacupuncture at the heart meridian and interneurons are the key neurons in PVNs.

  18. Can nerve regeneration on an artificial nerve conduit be enhanced by ethanol-induced cervical sympathetic ganglion block?

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    Yoshiki Shionoya

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine whether nerve regeneration by means of an artificial nerve conduit is promoted by ethanol-induced cervical sympathetic ganglion block (CSGB in a canine model. This study involved two experiments-in part I, the authors examined the effect of CSGB by ethanol injection on long-term blood flow to the orofacial region; part II involved evaluation of the effect of CSGB by ethanol injection on inferior alveolar nerve (IAN repair using polyglycolic acid-collagen tubes. In part I, seven Beagles were administered left CSGB by injection of 99.5% ethanol under direct visualization by means of thoracotomy, and changes in oral mucosal blood flow in the mental region and nasal skin temperature were evaluated. The increase in blood flow on the left side lasted for 7 weeks, while the increase in average skin temperature lasted 10 weeks on the left side and 3 weeks on the right. In part II, fourteen Beagles were each implanted with a polyglycolic acid-collagen tube across a 10-mm gap in the left IAN. A week after surgery, seven of these dogs were administered CSGB by injection of ethanol. Electrophysiological findings at 3 months after surgery revealed significantly higher sensory nerve conduction velocity and recovery index (ratio of left and right IAN peak amplitudes after nerve regeneration in the reconstruction+CSGB group than in the reconstruction-only group. Myelinated axons in the reconstruction+CSGB group were greater in diameter than those in the reconstruction-only group. Administration of CSGB with ethanol resulted in improved nerve regeneration in some IAN defects. However, CSGB has several physiological effects, one of which could possibly be the long-term increase in adjacent blood flow.

  19. Can nerve regeneration on an artificial nerve conduit be enhanced by ethanol-induced cervical sympathetic ganglion block?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunada, Katsuhisa; Shigeno, Keiji; Nakada, Akira; Honda, Michitaka; Nakamura, Tatsuo

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether nerve regeneration by means of an artificial nerve conduit is promoted by ethanol-induced cervical sympathetic ganglion block (CSGB) in a canine model. This study involved two experiments—in part I, the authors examined the effect of CSGB by ethanol injection on long-term blood flow to the orofacial region; part II involved evaluation of the effect of CSGB by ethanol injection on inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) repair using polyglycolic acid-collagen tubes. In part I, seven Beagles were administered left CSGB by injection of 99.5% ethanol under direct visualization by means of thoracotomy, and changes in oral mucosal blood flow in the mental region and nasal skin temperature were evaluated. The increase in blood flow on the left side lasted for 7 weeks, while the increase in average skin temperature lasted 10 weeks on the left side and 3 weeks on the right. In part II, fourteen Beagles were each implanted with a polyglycolic acid-collagen tube across a 10-mm gap in the left IAN. A week after surgery, seven of these dogs were administered CSGB by injection of ethanol. Electrophysiological findings at 3 months after surgery revealed significantly higher sensory nerve conduction velocity and recovery index (ratio of left and right IAN peak amplitudes) after nerve regeneration in the reconstruction+CSGB group than in the reconstruction-only group. Myelinated axons in the reconstruction+CSGB group were greater in diameter than those in the reconstruction-only group. Administration of CSGB with ethanol resulted in improved nerve regeneration in some IAN defects. However, CSGB has several physiological effects, one of which could possibly be the long-term increase in adjacent blood flow. PMID:29220373

  20. Increase in Operator's Sympathetic Nerve Activity during Complicated Hepatobiliary Surgery: Evidence for Surgeons' Mental Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanouchi, Kosho; Hayashida, Naomi; Kuba, Sayaka; Sakimura, Chika; Kuroki, Tamotsu; Togo, Michita; Katayama, Noritada; Takamura, Noboru; Eguchi, Susumu

    2015-11-01

    Surgeons often experience stress during operations. The heart rate variability (HRV) is the variability in the beat-to-beat interval, which has been used as parameters of stress. The purpose of this study was to evaluate mental stress of surgeons before, during and after operations, especially during pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) and living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). Additionally, the parameters were compared in various procedures during the operations. By frequency domain method using electrocardiograph, we measured the high frequency (HF) component, representing the parasympathetic activity, and the low frequency (LF)/HF ratio, representing the sympathetic activity. In all 5 cases of PD, the surgeon showed significantly lower HF component and higher LF/HF during operation, indicating predominance of sympathetic nervous system and increased stress, than those before the operation (p operation. Out of the 4 LDLT cases, the value of HF was decreased in two and the LF/HF increased in three cases (p operation compared to those before the operation. In all cases, the value of HF was decreased and/or the LF/HF increased significantly during the reconstruction of the vessels or bile ducts than during the removal of the liver. Thus, sympathetic nerve activity increased during hepatobiliary surgery compared with the level before the operation, and various procedures during the operations induced diverse changes in the autonomic nervous activities. The HRV analysis could assess the chronological changes of mental stress by measuring the autonomic nervous balances.

  1. Influence of ventilation and hypocapnia on sympathetic nerve responses to hypoxia in normal humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, V K; Mark, A L; Zavala, D C; Abboud, F M

    1989-11-01

    The sympathetic response to hypoxia depends on the interaction between chemoreceptor stimulation (CRS) and the associated hyperventilation. We studied this interaction by measuring sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) to muscle in 13 normal subjects, while breathing room air, 14% O2, 10% O2, and 10% O2 with added CO2 to maintain isocapnia. Minute ventilation (VE) and blood pressure (BP) increased significantly more during isocapnic hypoxia (IHO) than hypocapnic hypoxia (HHO). In contrast, SNA increased more during HHO [40 +/- 10% (SE)] than during IHO (25 +/- 19%, P less than 0.05). To determine the reason for the lesser increase in SNA with IHO, 11 subjects underwent voluntary apnea during HHO and IHO. Apnea potentiated the SNA responses to IHO more than to HHO. SNA responses to IHO were 17 +/- 7% during breathing and 173 +/- 47% during apnea whereas SNA responses to HHO were 35 +/- 8% during breathing and 126 +/- 28% during apnea. During ventilation, the sympathoexcitation of IHO (compared with HHO) is suppressed, possibly for two reasons: 1) because of the inhibitory influence of activation of pulmonary afferents as a result of a greater increase in VE, and 2) because of the inhibitory influence of baroreceptor activation due to a greater rise in BP. Thus in humans, the ventilatory response to chemoreceptor stimulation predominates and restrains the sympathetic response. The SNA response to chemoreceptor stimulation represents the net effect of the excitatory influence of the chemoreflex and the inhibitory influence of pulmonary afferents and baroreceptor afferents.

  2. Comparison of sympathetic nerve responses to neck and forearm isometric exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, S. L. Jr; Ray, C. A.

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: Although the autonomic and cardiovascular responses to arm and leg exercise have been studied, the sympathetic adjustments to exercise of the neck have not. The purpose of the present study was twofold: 1) to determine sympathetic and cardiovascular responses to isometric contractions of the neck extensors and 2) to compare sympathetic and cardiovascular responses to isometric exercise of the neck and forearm. METHODS: Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and heart rate were measured in nine healthy subjects while performing isometric neck extension (INE) and isometric handgrip (IHG) in the prone position. After a 3-min baseline period, subjects performed three intensities of INE for 2.5 min each: 1) unloaded (supporting head alone), 2) 10% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), and 3) 30% MVC, then subjects performed two intensities (10% and 30% MVC) of IHG for 2.5 min. RESULTS: Supporting the head by itself did not significantly change any of the variables. During [NE, MAP significantly increased by 10 +/- 2 and 31 +/- 4 mm Hg and MSNA increased by 67 +/- 46 and 168 +/- 36 units/30 s for 10% and 30% MVC, respectively. IHG and INE evoked similar responses at 10% MVC, but IHG elicited higher peak MAP and MSNA at 30% MVC (37 +/- 7 mm Hg (P INE can elicit marked increases in MSNA and cardiovascular responses but that it evokes lower peak responses as compared to IHG. We speculate that possible differences in muscle fiber type composition, muscle mass, and/or muscle architecture of the neck and forearm are responsible for these differences in peak responses.

  3. Contemporary review on the pathogenesis of takotsubo syndrome: The heart shedding tears: Norepinephrine churn and foam at the cardiac sympathetic nerve terminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y-Hassan, Shams; De Palma, Rodney

    2017-02-01

    Takotsubo syndrome (TS), an increasingly recognized acute cardiac disease entity, is characterized by a unique pattern of circumferential and typically regional left ventricular wall motion abnormality resulting in a conspicuous transient ballooning of the left ventricle during systole. The mechanism of the disease remains elusive. However, the sudden onset of acute myocardial stunning in a systematic pattern extending beyond a coronary artery territory; the history of a preceding emotional or physical stress factor in two thirds of cases; the signs of sympathetic denervation at the regions of left ventricular dysfunction on sympathetic scintigraphy; the finding of myocardial edema and other signs consistent with (catecholamine-induced) myocarditis shown by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging; and the contraction band necrosis on histopathological examination all argue strongly for the involvement of the cardiac sympathetic nervous system in the pathogenesis of TS. In this narrative review, extensive evidence in support of local cardiac sympathetic nerve hyperactivation, disruption and norepinephrine spillover causing TS in predisposed patients is provided. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of Atorvastatin vs. Rosuvastatin on cardiac sympathetic nerve activity in non-diabetic patients with dilated cardiomyopathy

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    Tsutamoto, Takayoshi; Ibe, Kunihiro [Toyosato Hospital, Toyosato, Shiga (Japan); Sakai, Hiroshi; Yamaji, Masayuki; Kawahara, Chiho; Nakae, Ichiro; Fujii, Masanori; Yamamoto, Takashi; Horie, Minoru [Shiga Univ. of Medical Science, Faculty of Medicine, Otsu, Shiga (Japan)

    2011-08-15

    Effects of statin therapy on cardiac sympathetic nerve activity in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) have not previously been evaluated. To compare the effects of lipophilic atorvastatin and hydrophilic rosuvastatin on cardiac sympathetic nerve activity in CHF patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), 63 stable outpatients with DCM, who were already receiving standard therapy for CHF, were randomized to atorvastatin (n=32) or rosuvastatin (n=31). We evaluated cardiac sympathetic nerve activity by cardiac {sup 123}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy, hemodynamic parameters and neurohumoral factors before and after 6 months of treatment. There were no differences in the baseline characteristics of the 2 groups. In the rosuvastatin group, there were no changes in MIBG parameters, left ventricular ejection fraction or plasma levels of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) after 6 months of treatment. In contrast, the atorvastatin group showed a significant increase in the delayed heart/mediastinum count ratio (2.18{+-}0.4 vs. 2.36{+-}0.4, P<0.0001), and the washout rate was significantly decreased (34.8{+-}5.7 vs. 32.6{+-}6.3%, P=0.0001) after 6 months of treatment compared with the baseline values. The plasma NT-proBNP level was also significantly decreased (729{+-}858 vs. 558{+-}747 pg/ml, P=0.0139). Lipophilic atorvastatin but not hydrophilic rosuvastatin improves cardiac sympathetic nerve activity in CHF patients with DCM. (author)

  5. Direct conscious telemetry recordings demonstrate increased renal sympathetic nerve activity in rats with chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim M Salman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is associated with sympathetic hyperactivity and impaired blood pressure control reflex responses, yet direct evidence demonstrating these features of autonomic dysfunction in conscious animals is still lacking. Here we measured renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA and mean arterial pressure (MAP using telemetry-based recordings in a rat model of CKD, the Lewis Polycystic Kidney (LPK rat, and assessed responses to chemoreflex activation and acute stress. Male LPK and Lewis control animals (total n=16 were instrumented for telemetric recording of RSNA and MAP. At 12–13 weeks-of-age, resting RSNA and MAP, sympathetic and haemodynamic responses to both peripheral (hypoxia: 10% O2 and central chemoreflex (hypercapnia: 7% CO2 activation and acute stress (open-field exposure, were measured. As indicators of renal function, urinary protein (UPro and creatinine (Ucr levels were assessed. LPK rats had higher resting RSNA (1.2±0.1 vs. 0.6±0.1 µV, p<0.05 and MAP (151±8 vs. 97±2 mmHg, p<0.05 compared to Lewis. MAP was negatively correlated with Ucr (r=-0.80, p=0.002 and positively correlated with RSNA (r=0.66, p=0.014, with multiple linear regression modeling indicating the strongest correlation was with Ucr. RSNA and MAP responses to activation of the central chemoreflex and open-field stress were reduced in the LPK relative to the Lewis (all p<0.05. This is the first description of dual conscious telemetry recording of RSNA and MAP in a genetic rodent model of CKD. Elevated RSNA is likely a key contributor to the marked hypertension in this model, while attenuated RSNA and MAP responses to central chemoreflex activation and acute stress in the LPK indicate possible deficits in the neural processing of autonomic outflows evoked by these sympathoexcitatory pathways.

  6. Role of renal sympathetic nerve activity in prenatal programming of hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Michel

    2018-03-01

    Prenatal insults, such as maternal dietary protein deprivation and uteroplacental insufficiency, lead to small for gestational age (SGA) neonates. Epidemiological studies from many different parts of the world have shown that SGA neonates are at increased risk for hypertension and early death from cardiovascular disease as adults. Animal models, including prenatal administration of dexamethasone, uterine artery ligation and maternal dietary protein restriction, result in SGA neonates with fewer nephrons than controls. These models are discussed in this educational review, which provides evidence that prenatal insults lead to altered sodium transport in multiple nephron segments. The factors that could result in increased sodium transport are discussed, focusing on new information that there is increased renal sympathetic nerve activity that may be responsible for augmented renal tubular sodium transport. Renal denervation abrogates the hypertension in programmed rats but has no effect on control rats. Other potential factors that could cause hypertension in programmed rats, such as the renin-angiotensin system, are also discussed.

  7. Effects of acute administration of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors on sympathetic nerve activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiradentes, R.V.; Pires, J.G.P.; Silva, N.F.; Ramage, A.G.; Santuzzi, C.H.; Futuro, H.A. Neto

    2014-01-01

    Serotonergic mechanisms have an important function in the central control of circulation. Here, the acute effects of three selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) on autonomic and cardiorespiratory variables were measured in rats. Although SSRIs require 2-3 weeks to achieve their full antidepressant effects, it has been shown that they cause an immediate inhibition of 5-HT reuptake. Seventy male Wistar rats were anesthetized with urethane and instrumented to record blood pressure, heart rate, renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), and respiratory frequency. At lower doses, the acute cardiovascular effects of fluoxetine, paroxetine and sertraline administered intravenously were insignificant and variable. At middle and higher doses, a general pattern was observed, with significant reductions in sympathetic nerve activity. At 10 min, fluoxetine (3 and 10 mg/kg) reduced RSNA by -33±4.7 and -31±5.4%, respectively, without changes in blood pressure; 3 and 10 mg/kg paroxetine reduced RSNA by -35±5.4 and -31±5.5%, respectively, with an increase in blood pressure +26.3±2.5; 3 mg/kg sertraline reduced RSNA by -59.4±8.6%, without changes in blood pressure. Sympathoinhibition began 5 min after injection and lasted approximately 30 min. For fluoxetine and sertraline, but not paroxetine, there was a reduction in heart rate that was nearly parallel to the sympathoinhibition. The effect of these drugs on the other variables was insignificant. In conclusion, acute peripheral administration of SSRIs caused early autonomic cardiovascular effects, particularly sympathoinhibition, as measured by RSNA. Although a peripheral action cannot be ruled out, such effects are presumably mostly central

  8. Losartan reduces the immediate and sustained increases in muscle sympathetic nerve activity after hyperacute intermittent hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouett, Noah P; Moralez, Gilbert; Raven, Peter B; Smith, Michael L

    2017-04-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by intermittent hypoxemia, which produces elevations in sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) and associated hypertension in experimental models that persist beyond the initial exposure. We tested the hypotheses that angiotensin receptor blockade in humans using losartan attenuates the immediate and immediately persistent increases in 1 ) SNA discharge and 2 ) mean arterial pressure (MAP) after hyperacute intermittent hypoxia training (IHT) using a randomized, placebo-controlled, repeated-measures experimental design. We measured ECG and photoplethysmographic arterial pressure in nine healthy human subjects, while muscle SNA (MSNA) was recorded in seven subjects using microneurography. Subjects were exposed to a series of hypoxic apneas in which they inhaled two to three breaths of nitrogen, followed by a 20-s apnea and 40 s of room air breathing every minute for 20 min. Hyperacute IHT produced substantial and persistent elevations in MSNA burst frequency (baseline: 15.3 ± 1.8, IHT: 24 ± 1.5, post-IHT 20.0 ± 1.3 bursts/min, all P 0.70). This investigation confirms the role of angiotensin II type 1a receptors in the immediate and persistent sympathoexcitatory and pressor responses to IHT. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study demonstrates for the first time in humans that losartan, an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB), abrogates the acute and immediately persistent increases in muscle sympathetic nerve activity and arterial pressure in response to acute intermittent hypoxia. This investigation, along with others, provides important beginning translational evidence for using ARBs in treatment of the intermittent hypoxia observed in obstructive sleep apnea patients. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Effects of acute administration of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors on sympathetic nerve activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiradentes, R.V. [Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Centro Universitário do Espírito Santo, Colatina, ES (Brazil); Pires, J.G.P. [Centro Universitário do Espírito Santo, Colatina, ES (Brazil); Escola de Medicina da Empresa Brasileira de Ensino, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Silva, N.F. [Departamento de Morfologia, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Ramage, A.G. [Department of Neuroscience, Physiology and Pharmacology, University College London, London (United Kingdom); Santuzzi, C.H. [Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Centro Universitário do Espírito Santo, Colatina, ES (Brazil); Futuro, H.A. Neto [Escola de Medicina da Empresa Brasileira de Ensino, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Departamento de Morfologia, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Escola Superior de Ciências da Saúde, Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Vitória, Vitória, ES (Brazil)

    2014-05-30

    Serotonergic mechanisms have an important function in the central control of circulation. Here, the acute effects of three selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) on autonomic and cardiorespiratory variables were measured in rats. Although SSRIs require 2-3 weeks to achieve their full antidepressant effects, it has been shown that they cause an immediate inhibition of 5-HT reuptake. Seventy male Wistar rats were anesthetized with urethane and instrumented to record blood pressure, heart rate, renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), and respiratory frequency. At lower doses, the acute cardiovascular effects of fluoxetine, paroxetine and sertraline administered intravenously were insignificant and variable. At middle and higher doses, a general pattern was observed, with significant reductions in sympathetic nerve activity. At 10 min, fluoxetine (3 and 10 mg/kg) reduced RSNA by -33±4.7 and -31±5.4%, respectively, without changes in blood pressure; 3 and 10 mg/kg paroxetine reduced RSNA by -35±5.4 and -31±5.5%, respectively, with an increase in blood pressure +26.3±2.5; 3 mg/kg sertraline reduced RSNA by -59.4±8.6%, without changes in blood pressure. Sympathoinhibition began 5 min after injection and lasted approximately 30 min. For fluoxetine and sertraline, but not paroxetine, there was a reduction in heart rate that was nearly parallel to the sympathoinhibition. The effect of these drugs on the other variables was insignificant. In conclusion, acute peripheral administration of SSRIs caused early autonomic cardiovascular effects, particularly sympathoinhibition, as measured by RSNA. Although a peripheral action cannot be ruled out, such effects are presumably mostly central.

  10. Contributions of central command and muscle feedback to sympathetic nerve activity in contracting human skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eBoulton

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available During voluntary contractions, muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA to contracting muscles increases in proportion to force but the underlying mechanisms are not clear. To shed light on these mechanisms, particularly the influences of central command and muscle afferent feedback, the present study tested the hypothesis that MSNA is greater during voluntary compared with electrically-evoked contractions. Seven male subjects performed a series of 1-minute isometric dorsiflexion contractions (left leg separated by 2-minute rest periods, alternating between voluntary and electrically-evoked contractions at similar forces (5-10 % of maximum. MSNA was recorded continuously (microneurography from the left peroneal nerve and quantified from cardiac-synchronised, negative-going spikes in the neurogram. Compared with pre-contraction values, MSNA increased by 51 ± 34 % (P 0.05. MSNA analysed at 15-s intervals revealed that this effect of voluntary contraction appeared 15-30 s after contraction onset (P < 0.01, remained elevated until the end of contraction, and disappeared within 15 s after contraction. These findings suggest that central command, and not feedback from contracting muscle, is the primary mechanism responsible for the increase in MSNA to contracting muscle. The time-course of MSNA suggests that there is a longer delay in the onset of this effect compared with its cessation after contraction.

  11. Influence of the polyol pathway on norepinephrine transporter reduction in diabetic cardiac sympathetic nerves: implications for heterogeneous accumulation of MIBG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiyono, Yasushi; Kajiyama, Satomi; Fujiwara, Hiromi; Kanegawa, Naoki; Saji, Hideo

    2005-01-01

    Cardiac scintigraphic studies using 123 I-labeled metaiodobenzylguanidine ([ 123 I]MIBG) have demonstrated heterogeneous myocardial accumulation of MIBG in diabetes. The accumulation has been found to correlate with a heterogeneous decrease in the expression of norepinephrine transporter (NET). In diabetic peripheral nerve tissue, polyol pathways are activated and cause nerve dysfunction and degeneration. However, there has been little research on the polyol pathway and cardiac sympathetic nerves. Therefore, to assess the influence of the polyol pathway on cardiac sympathetic nervous function, we investigated the regional accumulation of MIBG and NET protein expression in diabetic model rats treated with aldose reductase inhibitor (ARI) for the blockade of polyol pathways. Rats were given a single intravenous injection of streptozotocin (n=76, STZ-D rats). Starting the day after STZ injection, ARI was administered daily to 42 of the rats for 4 weeks (ARI-D rats). To assess the cardiac sympathetic nervous function, [ 125 I]MIBG autoradiographic experiments were carried out. Finally, NET protein expression was assessed with a saturation binding assay. The myocardial sorbitol concentration was significantly higher in STZ-D rats than in ARI-D rats. There was no heterogeneous accumulation of MIBG in ARI-D rats. There was a heterogeneous decrease of NET expression in STZ-D rats, but not in ARI-D or control rats. The gathered data indicate that the enhanced polyol pathway correlates with the decrease in regional cardiac sympathetic nervous function, and this impairment may lead to the reduction of NET protein in cardiac sympathetic nerves of the diabetic inferior wall. (orig.)

  12. The pedunculopontine tegmentum controls renal sympathetic nerve activity and cardiorespiratory activities in nembutal-anesthetized rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M Fink

    Full Text Available Elevated renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA accompanies a variety of complex disorders, including obstructive sleep apnea, heart failure, and chronic kidney disease. Understanding pathophysiologic renal mechanisms is important for determining why hypertension is both a common sequelae and a predisposing factor of these disorders. The role of the brainstem in regulating RSNA remains incompletely understood. The pedunculopontine tegmentum (PPT is known for regulating behaviors including alertness, locomotion, and rapid eye movement sleep. Activation of PPT neurons in anesthetized rats was previously found to increase splanchnic sympathetic nerve activity and blood pressure, in addition to altering breathing. The present study is the first investigation of the PPT and its potential role in regulating RSNA. Microinjections of DL-homocysteic acid (DLH were used to probe the PPT in 100-μm increments in Nembutal-anesthetized rats to identify effective sites, defined as locations where changes in RSNA could be evoked. A total of 239 DLH microinjections were made in 18 rats, which identified 20 effective sites (each confirmed by the ability to evoke a repeatable sympathoexcitatory response. Peak increases in RSNA occurred within 10-20 seconds of PPT activation, with RSNA increasing by 104.5 ± 68.4% (mean ± standard deviation from baseline. Mean arterial pressure remained significantly elevated for 30 seconds, increasing from 101.6 ± 18.6 mmHg to 135.9 ± 36.4 mmHg. DLH microinjections also increased respiratory rate and minute ventilation. The effective sites were found throughout the rostal-caudal extent of the PPT with most located in the dorsal regions of the nucleus. The majority of PPT locations tested with DLH microinjections did not alter RSNA (179 sites, suggesting that the neurons that confer renal sympathoexcitatory functions comprise a small component of the PPT. The study also underscores the importance of further investigation to

  13. Slow and deep respiration suppresses steady-state sympathetic nerve activity in patients with chronic heart failure: from modeling to clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Daisuke; Asanoi, Hidetsugu; Takagawa, Junya; Ishise, Hisanari; Ueno, Hiroshi; Oda, Yoshitaka; Goso, Yukiko; Joho, Shuji; Inoue, Hiroshi

    2014-10-15

    Influences of slow and deep respiration on steady-state sympathetic nerve activity remain controversial in humans and could vary depending on disease conditions and basal sympathetic nerve activity. To elucidate the respiratory modulation of steady-state sympathetic nerve activity, we modeled the dynamic nature of the relationship between lung inflation and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in 11 heart failure patients with exaggerated sympathetic outflow at rest. An autoregressive exogenous input model was utilized to simulate entire responses of MSNA to variable respiratory patterns. In another 18 patients, we determined the influence of increasing tidal volume and slowing respiratory frequency on MSNA; 10 patients underwent a 15-min device-guided slow respiration and the remaining 8 had no respiratory modification. The model predicted that a 1-liter, step increase of lung volume decreased MSNA dynamically; its nadir (-33 ± 22%) occurred at 2.4 s; and steady-state decrease (-15 ± 5%), at 6 s. Actually, in patients with the device-guided slow and deep respiration, respiratory frequency effectively fell from 16.4 ± 3.9 to 6.7 ± 2.8/min (P state MSNA was decreased by 31% (P state MSNA. Thus slow and deep respiration suppresses steady-state sympathetic nerve activity in patients with high levels of resting sympathetic tone as in heart failure. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Defective propagation of signals generated by sympathetic nerve stimulation in the liver of connexin32-deficient mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Nelles, E; Bützler, C; Jung, D; Temme, A; Gabriel, H D; Dahl, U; Traub, O; Stümpel, F; Jungermann, K; Zielasek, J; Toyka, K V; Dermietzel, R; Willecke, K

    1996-01-01

    The gap junctional protein connexin32 is expressed in hepatocytes, exocrine pancreatic cells, Schwann cells, and other cell types. We have inactivated the connexin32 gene by homologous recombination in the mouse genome and have generated homozygous connexin32-deficient mice that were viable and fertile but weighed on the average approximately 17% less than wild-type controls. Electrical stimulation of sympathetic nerves in connexin32-deficient liver triggered a 78% lower amount of glucose mob...

  15. Effect of Switching from Cilnidipine to Azelnidipine on Cardiac Sympathetic Nerve Function in Patients with Heart Failure Preserved Ejection Fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiuchi, Shunsuke; Hisatake, Shinji; Kabuki, Takayuki; Oka, Takashi; Dobashi, Shintaro; Fujii, Takahiro; Ikeda, Takanori

    2018-01-27

    Cardiac sympathetic nerve activity is known to play a key role in the development and progression of heart failure (HF). Azelnidipine, an L-type calcium channel blocker (CCB), inhibits the sympathetic nerve activity of the central system. In contrast, cilnidipine, an N-type CCB, inhibits the sympathetic nerve activity of the peripheral system. CCBs are recommended as class IIa in patients with HF preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF); however, there are no comparative data on the difference in effect of cilnidipine and azelnidipine in patients with HFpEF and hypertension. We investigated the difference in effect of azelnidipine compared with cilnidipine in patients with HFpEF. Twenty-four consecutive HF patients who received angiotensin II type1a receptor blocker and beta blocker from April 2013 to January 2015 were enrolled. Cilnidipine was switched to azelnidipine during the follow-up period. Blood pressures, heart rate, blood tests, echocardiography, and 123 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) cardiac-scintigraphy were measured before and after 6 months from azelnidipine administration. B-type natriuretic peptide tended to decrease after switching to azelnidipine; however, there were no significant differences between the pre-state and post-state (pre-state: 118.5 pg/mL and post-state: 78.4 pg/mL, P = 0.137). Other laboratory findings, including catecholamine, also did not change significantly. In echocardiography, there were no significant differences in systolic and diastolic functions at the pre-state and post-state. As for MIBG, there were no significant changes in heart/mediastinum ratio. However, washout rate was significantly reduced (pre-state: 42.9 and post-state: 39.6, P = 0.030). Azelnidipine improved the dysfunction of cardiac sympathetic nerve activity compared with cilnidipine in patients with HFpEF.

  16. The Role of Lumbar Sympathetic Nerves in Regulation of Blood Flow to Skeletal Muscle during Anaphylactic Hypotension in Anesthetized Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Song

    Full Text Available During hypovolemic shock, skeletal muscle blood flow could be redistributed to vital organs via vasoconstriction in part evoked by activation of the innervating sympathetic nerve activity. However, it is not well known whether this mechanism operates during anaphylactic shock. We determined the femoral artery blood flow (FBF and lumbar sympathetic nerve activity (LSNA mainly regulating the hindquater muscle blood flow during anaphylactic hypotension in anesthetized rats. Anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated to the following groups (n = 7/group: (1 non-sensitized, (2 anaphylaxis, (3 anaphylaxis-lumbar sympathectomy (LS and (4 anaphylaxis-sinoaortic denervation (SAD groups. Anaphylaxis was induced by an intravenous injection of the ovalbumin antigen to the sensitized rats. The systemic arterial pressure (SAP, heart rate (HR, central venous pressure (CVP, FBF and LSNA were continuously measured. In the anaphylaxis group, LSNA and HR increased, while SAP and FBF decreased after antigen injection. In the anaphylaxis-SAD group, LSNA did not significantly change during the early phase, but the responses of SAP and FBF were similar to those in the anaphylaxis group. In the anaphylaxis-LS group, both FBF and SAP decreased similarly to the anaphylaxis group during anaphylactic hypotension. These results indicated that LSNA increased via baroreceptor reflex, but this sympathoexcitation or LS did not affect antigen-induced decreases in FBF or SAP. Lumbar sympathetic nerves are not involved in regulation of the blood flow to the hindlimb or systemic blood pressure during anaphylactic hypotension in anesthetized rats.

  17. Evaluation of myocardial sympathetic nerve function in patients with mitral valve prolapse using iodine-123-metaiodobenzylguanidine myocardial scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishi, Fumiko; Nomura, Masahiro; Yukinaka, Michiko

    1996-01-01

    Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is closely related to myocardial sympathetic nerve function. This study evaluated the presence of impaired myocardial sympathetic nerve function by Iodine-123-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy in nine patients with MVP. For comparison, 15 healthy subjects without heart disease were investigated (control group). Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and anterior planar myocardial scintigraphy were performed 15 min (initial images) and 3 hours (delayed images) after injection of MIBG (111 MBq). The location and degrees of reduced tracer uptake were evaluated. Myocardial MIBG uptake was quantified by uptake ratio of the heart (H) to upper mediastinum (M) on the anterior planar images (H/M). Percentage washout of MIBG in nine sectors of all oblique slices along the short-axis was calculated. The washout rates were higher at the inferoposterior and septal segments in patients with anterior leaflet prolapse, and at inferoposterior and lateral segments in patients with posterior leaflet prolapse. The bull's eye map showed increased washout rate in the apical and posteroseptal basal segments. There was no significant difference in the H/M ratio between MVP patients and the control group. These results indicate that MIBG can be used to evaluate localized myocardial sympathetic nerve function in MVP. (author)

  18. Median Sacral Artery, Sympathetic Nerves, and the Coccygeal Body: A Study Using Serial Sections of Human Embryos and Fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhe Wu; Cho, Kwang Ho; Jang, Hyung Suk; Murakami, Gen; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Jose Francisco

    2016-07-01

    To examine how the median sacral artery (MSA) is involved with the coccygeal body or glomus coccygeum, we studied serial frontal or sagittal sections of 14 embryos (approximately 5-6 weeks of gestation) and 12 fetuses (10-18 weeks). At five weeks, the caudal end of the dorsal aorta (i.e., MSA) accompanied putative sympathetic ganglion cells in front of the upper coccygeal and lower sacral vertebrae. At six weeks, a candidate for the initial coccygeal body was identified as a longitudinal arterial plexus involving nerve fibers and sympathetic ganglion cells between arteries. At 10-18 weeks, the MSA exhibited a highly tortuous course at the lower sacral and coccygeal levels, and was attached to and surrounded by veins, nerve fibers, and sympathetic ganglion cells near and between the bilateral origins of the levator ani muscle. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated expression of tyrosine hydroxylase and chromogranin A in the nerves. However, throughout the stages examined, we found no evidence suggestive of an arteriovenous anastomosis, such as well-developed smooth muscle. An acute anterior flexure of the vertebrae at the lower sacrum, as well as regression of the secondary neural tube, seemed to induce arterial plexus formation from an initial straight MSA. Nerves and ganglion cells were likely to be secondarily involved with the plexus because of the close topographical relationship. However, these nerves might play a major role in the extreme change into adult morphology. An arteriovenous anastomosis along the MSA might be an overinterpretation, at least in the prenatal human. Anat Rec, 299:819-827, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Sympathetic nerve damage and restoration after ischemia-reperfusion injury as assessed by {sup 11}C-hydroxyephedrine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, Rudolf A.; Higuchi, Takahiro [University of Wuerzburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Wuerzburg (Germany); University of Wuerzburg, Comprehensive Heart Failure Center, Wuerzburg (Germany); Maya, Yoshifumi [University of Wuerzburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Wuerzburg (Germany); Nihon Medi-Physics Co., Ltd., Research Centre, Chiba (Japan); Rischpler, Christoph [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Muenchen (Germany); Javadi, Mehrbod S. [Johns Hopkins University, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Fukushima, Kazuhito [Hyogo College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Hyogo (Japan); Lapa, Constantin [University of Wuerzburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Wuerzburg (Germany); Herrmann, Ken [University of Wuerzburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Wuerzburg (Germany); David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    An altered state of the cardiac sympathetic nerves is an important prognostic factor in patients with coronary artery disease. The aim of this study was to investigate regional sympathetic nerve damage and restoration utilizing a rat model of myocardial transient ischemia and a catecholamine analog PET tracer, {sup 11}C-hydroxyephedrine ({sup 11}C-HED). Transient myocardial ischemia was induced by coronary occlusion for 20 min and reperfusion in male Wistar rats. Dual-tracer autoradiography was performed subacutely (7 days) and chronically (2 months) after ischemia, and in control rats without ischemia using {sup 11}C-HED as a marker of sympathetic innervation and {sup 201}TI for perfusion. Additional serial in vivo cardiac {sup 11}C-HED and {sup 18}F-FDG PET scans were performed in the subacute and chronic phases after ischemia. After transient ischemia, the {sup 11}C-HED uptake defect areas in both the subacute and chronic phases were clearly larger than the perfusion defect areas in the midventricular wall. The subacute {sup 11}C-HED uptake defect showed a transmural pattern, whereas uptake recovered in the subepicardial portion in the chronic phase. Tyrosine hydroxylase antibody nerve staining confirmed regional denervation corresponding to areas of decreased {sup 11}C-HED uptake. Serial in vivo PET imaging visualized reductions in the area of the {sup 11}C-HED uptake defects in the chronic phase consistent with autoradiography and histology. Higher susceptibility of sympathetic neurons compared to myocytes was confirmed by a larger {sup 11}C-HED defect with a corresponding histologically identified region of denervation. Furthermore, partial reinnervation was observed in the chronic phase as shown by recovery of subepicardial {sup 11}C-HED uptake. (orig.)

  20. Autonomic markers of emotional processing: skin sympathetic nerve activity in humans during exposure to emotionally charged images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rachael; James, Cheree; Henderson, Luke A; Macefield, Vaughan G

    2012-01-01

    The sympathetic innervation of the skin primarily subserves thermoregulation, but the system has also been commandeered as a means of expressing emotion. While it is known that the level of skin sympathetic nerve activity (SSNA) is affected by anxiety, the majority of emotional studies have utilized the galvanic skin response as a means of inferring increases in SSNA. The purpose of the present study was to characterize the changes in SSNA when showing subjects neutral or emotionally charged images from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS). SSNA was recorded via tungsten microelectrodes inserted into cutaneous fascicles of the common peroneal nerve in ten subjects. Neutral images, positively charged images (erotica) or negatively charged images (mutilation) were presented in blocks of fifteen images of a specific type, each block lasting 2 min. Images of erotica or mutilation were presented in a quasi-random fashion, each block following a block of neutral images. Both images of erotica or images of mutilation caused significant increases in SSNA, but the increases in SSNA were greater for mutilation. The increases in SSNA were often coupled with sweat release and cutaneous vasoconstriction; however, these markers were not always consistent with the SSNA increases. We conclude that SSNA, comprising cutaneous vasoconstrictor and sudomotor activity, increases with both positively charged and negatively charged emotional images. Measurement of SSNA provides a more comprehensive assessment of sympathetic outflow to the skin than does the use of sweat release alone as a marker of emotional processing.

  1. Matured Hop Bittering Components Induce Thermogenesis in Brown Adipose Tissue via Sympathetic Nerve Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumie Morimoto-Kobayashi

    Full Text Available Obesity is the principal symptom of metabolic syndrome, which refers to a group of risk factors that increase the likelihood of atherosclerosis. In recent decades there has been a sharp rise in the incidence of obesity throughout the developed world. Iso-α-acids, the bitter compounds derived from hops in beer, have been shown to prevent diet-induced obesity by increasing lipid oxidation in the liver and inhibition of lipid absorption from the intestine. Whereas the sharp bitterness induced by effective dose of iso-α-acids precludes their acceptance as a nutrient, matured hop bittering components (MHB appear to be more agreeable. Therefore, we tested MHB for an effect on ameliorating diet-induced body fat accumulation in rodents. MHB ingestion had a beneficial effect but, compared to iso-α-acids and despite containing structurally similar compounds, acted via different mechanisms to reduce body fat accumulation. MHB supplementation significantly reduced body weight gain, epididymal white adipose tissue weight, and plasma non-esterified free fatty acid levels in diet-induced obese mice. We also found that uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1 expression in brown adipose tissue (BAT was significantly increased in MHB-fed mice at both the mRNA and protein levels. In addition, MHB administration in rats induced the β-adrenergic signaling cascade, which is related to cAMP accumulation in BAT, suggesting that MHB could modulate sympathetic nerve activity innervating BAT (BAT-SNA. Indeed, single oral administration of MHB elevated BAT-SNA in rats, and this elevation was dissipated by subdiaphragmatic vagotomy. Single oral administration of MHB maintained BAT temperature at a significantly higher level than in control rats. Taken together, these findings indicate that MHB ameliorates diet-induced body fat accumulation, at least partly, by enhancing thermogenesis in BAT via BAT-SNA activation. Our data suggests that MHB is a useful tool for developing functional

  2. Sex steroids, insulin sensitivity and sympathetic nerve activity in relation to affective symptoms in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedel, Elizabeth; Gustafson, Deborah; Waern, Margda; Sverrisdottir, Yrsa Bergmann; Landén, Mikael; Janson, Per Olof; Labrie, Fernand; Ohlsson, Claes; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet

    2011-11-01

    Affective symptoms are poorly understood in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Clinical signs of hyperandrogenism and high serum androgens are key features in PCOS, and women with PCOS are more likely to be overweight or obese, as well as insulin resistant. Further, PCOS is associated with high sympathetic nerve activity. To elucidate if self-reported hirsutism, body mass index (BMI) and waistline, circulating sex steroids, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), insulin sensitivity and sympathetic nerve activity are associated with depression and anxiety-related symptoms in women with PCOS. Seventy-two women with PCOS, aged 21-37 years, were recruited from the community. Hirsutism was self-reported using the Ferriman-Gallway score. Serum estrogens, sex steroid precursors, androgens and glucuronidated androgen metabolites were analyzed by gas and liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC-MS/LC-MS/MS) and SHBG by chemiluminiscent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA). Insulin sensitivity was measured with euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp. Sympathetic nerve activity was measured with microneurography. Symptoms of depression and anxiety were self-reported using the Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS-S) and the Brief Scale for Anxiety (BSA-S). Circulating concentrations of testosterone (T) (P=0.026), free T (FT) (P=0.025), and androstane-3α 17β-diol-3glucuronide (3G) (P=0.029) were lower in women with depression symptoms of potential clinical relevance (MADR-S≥11). The odds of having a MADRS-S score ≥11 were higher with lower FT and 3G. No associations with BSA-S were noted. Lower circulating FT and 3G were associated with worse self-reported depression symptoms. The relationship between mental health, sex steroids and corresponding metabolites in PCOS requires further investigation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Transvenous stimulation of the renal sympathetic nerves increases systemic blood pressure: a potential new treatment option for neurocardiogenic syncope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhavan, Malini; Desimone, Christopher V; Ebrille, Elisa; Mulpuru, Siva K; Mikell, Susan B; Johnson, Susan B; Suddendorf, Scott H; Ladewig, Dorothy J; Gilles, Emily J; Danielsen, Andrew J; Asirvatham, Samuel J

    2014-10-01

    Neurocardiogenic syncope (NCS) is a common and sometimes debilitating disorder, with no consistently effective treatment. NCS is due to a combination of bradycardia and vasodilation leading to syncope. Although pacemaker devices have been tried in treating the bradycardic aspect of NCS, no device-based therapy exists to treat the coexistent vasodilation that occurs. The renal sympathetic innervation has been the target of denervation to treat hypertension. We hypothesized that stimulation of the renal sympathetic nerves can increase blood pressure and counteract vasodilation in NCS. High-frequency stimulation (800-900 pps, 10 V, 30-200 seconds) was performed using a quadripolar catheter in the renal vein of 7 dogs and 1 baboon. A significant increase in blood pressure (BP; mean [SD] systolic BP 117 [±28] vs. 128 [±33], diastolic BP 75 [±19] vs. 87 [±29] mmHg) was noted during the stimulation, which returned to baseline after cessation of stimulation. The mean increase in systolic and diastolic BP was 13.0 (±3.3) (P = 0.006) and 10.2 (±4.6) (P = 0.08), respectively. We report the first ever study of feasibility and safety of high-frequency electrical stimulation of the renal sympathetic innervation to increase BP in animal models. This has potential applications in the treatment of hypotensive states such as NCS. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Baroreflex dysfunction and augmented sympathetic nerve responses during mental stress in veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeanie; Marvar, Paul J; Liao, Peizhou; Kankam, Melanie L; Norrholm, Seth D; Downey, Ryan M; McCullough, S Ashley; Le, Ngoc-Anh; Rothbaum, Barbara O

    2017-07-15

    Patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are at a significantly higher risk of developing hypertension and cardiovascular disease. The mechanisms underlying this increased risk are not known. Studies have suggested that PTSD patients have an overactive sympathetic nervous system (SNS) that could contribute to cardiovascular risk; however, sympathetic function has not previously been rigorously evaluated in PTSD patients. Using direct measurements of sympathetic nerve activity and pharmacological manipulation of blood pressure, we show that veterans with PTSD have augmented SNS and haemodynamic reactivity during both combat-related and non-combat related mental stress, impaired sympathetic and cardiovagal baroreflex sensitivity, and increased inflammation. Identifying the mechanisms contributing to increased cardiovascular (CV) risk in PTSD will pave the way for developing interventions to improve sympathetic function and reduce CV risk in these patients. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with increased cardiovascular (CV) risk. We tested the hypothesis that PTSD patients have augmented sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and haemodynamic reactivity during mental stress, as well as impaired arterial baroreflex sensitivity (BRS). Fourteen otherwise healthy Veterans with combat-related PTSD were compared with 14 matched Controls without PTSD.  Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), continuous blood pressure (BP) and electrocardiography were measured at baseline, as well as during two types of mental stress:  combat-related mental stress using virtual reality combat exposure (VRCE) and non-combat related stress using mental arithmetic (MA). A cold pressor test (CPT) was administered for comparison. BRS was tested using pharmacological manipulation of BP via the Modified Oxford technique at rest and during VRCE. Blood samples were analysed for inflammatory biomarkers. Baseline characteristics, MSNA and haemodynamics were similar between

  5. Exposure to a high-fat diet during development alters leptin and ghrelin sensitivity and elevates renal sympathetic nerve activity and arterial pressure in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Larissa J; Davern, Pamela J; Burke, Sandra L; Lim, Kyungjoon; Armitage, James A; Head, Geoffrey A

    2014-02-01

    Exposure to maternal obesity or a maternal diet rich in fat during development may have adverse outcomes in offspring, such as the development of obesity and hypertension. The present study examined the effect of a maternal high-fat diet (m-HFD) on offspring blood pressure and renal sympathetic nerve activity, responses to stress, and sensitivity to central administration of leptin and ghrelin. Offspring of New Zealand white rabbits fed a 13% HFD were slightly heavier than offspring from mothers fed a 4% maternal normal fat diet (Pfat pad mass (P=0.015). Mean arterial pressure, heart rate, and renal sympathetic nerve activity at 4 months of age were 7%, 7%, and 24% greater, respectively (Pfat diet rabbits, and the renal sympathetic nerve activity response to airjet stress was enhanced in the m-HFD group. m-HFD offspring had markedly elevated pressor and renal sympathetic nerve activity responses to intracerebroventricular leptin (5-100 µg) and enhanced sympathetic responses to intracerebroventricular ghrelin (1-5 nmol). In contrast, there was resistance to the anorexic effects of intracerebroventricular leptin and less neuronal activation as detected by Fos immunohistochemistry in the arcuate (-57%; Pfat diet rabbits. We conclude that offspring from mothers consuming an HFD exhibit an adverse cardiovascular profile in adulthood because of altered central hypothalamic sensitivity to leptin and ghrelin.

  6. Changes in the Skin Conductance Monitor as an End Point for Sympathetic Nerve Blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gungor, Semih; Rana, Bhumika; Fields, Kara; Bae, James J; Mount, Lauren; Buschiazzo, Valeria; Storm, Hanne

    2017-11-01

    There is a lack of objective methods for determining the achievement of sympathetic block. This study validates the skin conductance monitor (SCM) as an end point indicator of successful sympathetic blockade as compared with traditional monitors. This interventional study included 13 patients undergoing 25 lumbar sympathetic blocks to compare time to indication of successful blockade between the SCM indices and traditional measures, clinically visible hyperemia, clinically visible engorgement of veins, subjective skin temperature difference, unilateral thermometry monitoring, bilateral comparative thermometry monitoring, and change in waveform amplitude in pulse oximetry plethysmography, within a 30-minute observation period. Differences in the SCM indices were studied pre- and postblock to validate the SCM. SCM showed substantially greater odds of indicating achievement of sympathetic block in the next moment (i.e., hazard rate) compared with all traditional measures (clinically visible hyperemia, clinically visible engorgement of veins, subjective temperature difference, unilateral thermometry monitoring, bilateral comparative thermometry monitoring, and change in waveform amplitude in pulse oximetry plethysmography; P ≤ 0.011). SCM indicated successful block for all (100%) procedures, while the traditional measures failed to indicate successful blocks in 16-84% of procedures. The SCM indices were significantly higher in preblock compared with postblock measurements (P SCM is a more reliable and rapid response indicator of a successful sympathetic blockade when compared with traditional monitors. © 2017 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  7. Clinical usefulness of 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine myocardial scintigraphy in diabetic patients with cardiac sympathetic nerve dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyanaga, Hajime; Yoneyama, Satoshi; Kamitani, Tadaaki; Kawasaki, Shingo; Takahashi, Toru; Kunishige, Hiroshi

    1995-01-01

    To assess the clinical utility of 123 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy in evaluating cardiac sympathetic nerve disturbance in diabetic patients, we performed MIBG scintigraphy in 18 diabetic patients and 11 normal controls. Diabetic patients with symptomatic neuropathy (DM2) had a significantly lower heart to mediastinum uptake ratio than did those without neuropathy or normal controls in initial and delayed images (initial image, 1.90±0.27 vs 2.32±0.38, 2.41±0.40, p<0.01; delayed image, 1.80±0.31 vs 2.48±0.35, 2.56±0.28, p<001, respectively). Defect score, assessed visually, were higher in DM2 patients than in patients in the other two groups (initial image, 7±2.6 vs 1.5±1.9, 0.7±0.9; delayed image 10.6±3.3 vs 4.0±2.5, 1.7±1.6 p<0.01, respectively). The maximum washout rate in DM2 patients was also higher than those in patients in the other two groups. The findings of these indices obtained from MIBG scintigraphy coincided with the % low-frequency power extracted from heart rate fluctuations using a power spectral analysis and the results of the Schellong test, which were used to evaluate sympathetic function. These results suggest that MIBG scintigraphy may be useful for evaluating cardiac sympathetic nerve disturbance in patients with diabetes. (author)

  8. Sympathetic ingrowth: A result of cholinergic nerve injury in the adult mammalian brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.N.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes sympathetic ingrowth, its regulation and function. The study leads to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that probably underlie the regulation of other neuronal rearrangements. The authors examine tritium-2-deoxyglucose uptake in the hippocampal formation after septal leasions. Preliminary experiments suggest that the septo-hippocampal fibers do influence tritium-2-deoxyglucose uptake throughout the hippocampal formation in normal animals. If sympathetic ingrowth also can influence this uptake, this could provide further evidence for an adaptive role of this noradrenergic replacement of cholinergic neurons

  9. Significance of cardiac sympathetic nervous system abnormality for predicting vascular events in patients with idiopathic paroxysmal atrial fibrillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akutsu, Yasushi; Kaneko, Kyouichi; Kodama, Yusuke; Li, Hui-Ling; Kawamura, Mitsuharu; Asano, Taku; Hamazaki, Yuji; Tanno, Kaoru; Kobayashi, Youichi; Suyama, Jumpei; Shinozuka, Akira; Gokan, Takehiko

    2010-01-01

    Neuronal system activity plays an important role for the prognosis of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Using 123 I metaiodobenzylguanidine ( 123 I-MIBG) scintigraphy, we investigated whether a cardiac sympathetic nervous system (SNS) abnormality would be associated with an increased risk of vascular events in patients with paroxysmal AF. 123 I-MIBG scintigraphy was performed in 69 consecutive patients (67 ± 13 years, 62% men) with paroxysmal AF who did not have structural heart disease. SNS integrity was assessed from the heart to mediastinum (H/M) ratio on delayed imaging. Serum concentration of C-reactive protein (CRP) was measured before 123 I-MIBG study. During a mean of 4.5 ± 3.6 years follow-up, 19 patients had myocardial infarction, stroke or heart failure (range: 0.2-11.5 years). SNS abnormality (H/M ratio <2.7) and high CRP (≥0.3 mg/dl) were associated with the vascular events (58.3% in 14 of 24 patients with SNS abnormality vs 11.1% in 5 of 45 patients without SNS abnormality, p < 0.0001, 52.4% in 11 of 21 patients with high CRP vs 16.7% in 8 of 48 patients without high CRP, p < 0.0001). After adjustment for potential confounding variables such as age, left atrial dimension and left ventricular function, SNS abnormality was an independent predictor of vascular events with a hazard ratio of 4.1 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.3-12.6, p = 0.014]. Further, SNS abnormality had an incremental and additive prognostic power in combination with high CRP with an adjusted hazard ratio of 4.1 (95% CI: 1.5-10.9, p = 0.006). SNS abnormality is predictive of vascular events in patients with idiopathic paroxysmal AF. (orig.)

  10. Significance of cardiac sympathetic nervous system abnormality for predicting vascular events in patients with idiopathic paroxysmal atrial fibrillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akutsu, Yasushi; Kaneko, Kyouichi; Kodama, Yusuke; Li, Hui-Ling; Kawamura, Mitsuharu; Asano, Taku; Hamazaki, Yuji; Tanno, Kaoru; Kobayashi, Youichi [Showa University School of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Suyama, Jumpei; Shinozuka, Akira; Gokan, Takehiko [Showa University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan)

    2010-04-15

    Neuronal system activity plays an important role for the prognosis of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Using {sup 123}I metaiodobenzylguanidine ({sup 123}I-MIBG) scintigraphy, we investigated whether a cardiac sympathetic nervous system (SNS) abnormality would be associated with an increased risk of vascular events in patients with paroxysmal AF. {sup 123}I-MIBG scintigraphy was performed in 69 consecutive patients (67 {+-} 13 years, 62% men) with paroxysmal AF who did not have structural heart disease. SNS integrity was assessed from the heart to mediastinum (H/M) ratio on delayed imaging. Serum concentration of C-reactive protein (CRP) was measured before {sup 123}I-MIBG study. During a mean of 4.5 {+-} 3.6 years follow-up, 19 patients had myocardial infarction, stroke or heart failure (range: 0.2-11.5 years). SNS abnormality (H/M ratio <2.7) and high CRP ({>=}0.3 mg/dl) were associated with the vascular events (58.3% in 14 of 24 patients with SNS abnormality vs 11.1% in 5 of 45 patients without SNS abnormality, p < 0.0001, 52.4% in 11 of 21 patients with high CRP vs 16.7% in 8 of 48 patients without high CRP, p < 0.0001). After adjustment for potential confounding variables such as age, left atrial dimension and left ventricular function, SNS abnormality was an independent predictor of vascular events with a hazard ratio of 4.1 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.3-12.6, p = 0.014]. Further, SNS abnormality had an incremental and additive prognostic power in combination with high CRP with an adjusted hazard ratio of 4.1 (95% CI: 1.5-10.9, p = 0.006). SNS abnormality is predictive of vascular events in patients with idiopathic paroxysmal AF. (orig.)

  11. The synthesis of a new cardiac sympathetic nerve imaging agent N-[11C]CH3-dopamine and biodistribution study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yulin He; Weina Zhou; Xiangcheng Wang; Baoliang Bao; Guojian Zhang; Cheng Wang; Chunmei Wang; Xuemei Wang; Wei Fang

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we synthesized and characterized N-[ 11 C]methyl-dopamine ([ 11 C]MDA) for cardiac sympathetic nerve imaging. [ 11 C]MDA was synthesized by direct N-methylation of dopamine with [ 11 C]methyl iodide and purified by semi-preparation reverse high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The total synthesis time was 45 min including HPLC purification. The radiochemical yields of [ 11 C]MDA was 20 ± 3 %, without decay correction. The radiochemical purity was >98 % and the specific activity was about 50 GBq/mmol. The biological properties of [ 11 C]MDA were evaluated by biodistribution study in normal mice. PET imaging was performed in healthy Chinese mini-swines. Biodistribution study showed that [ 11 C]MDA had high myocardium uptake. PET/CT imaging showed [ 11 C]MDA had clear and symmetrical myocardium uptake, which was blocked obviously by injecting imipramine hydrochloride. [ 11 C]MDA would be a promising candidate of radiotracer for cardiac sympathetic nervous system imaging. (author)

  12. Effect of nerve activity on transport of nerve growth factor and dopamine β-hydroxylase antibodies in sympathetic neurones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lees, G.; Chubb, I.; Freeman, C.; Geffen, L.; Rush, R.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of nerve activity on the uptake and retrograde transport of nerve growth factor (NGF) and dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH) antibodies was studied by injecting 125 I-labelled NGF and anti-DBH into the anterior eye chamber of guinea-pigs. Decentralization of the ipsilateral superior cervical ganglion (SCG) had no significant effect on the retrograde transport of either NGF or anti-DBH. Phenoxybenzamine produced a 50% increase in anti-DBH but not NGF accumulation and this effect was prevented by prior decentralization. This demonstrates that NGF is taken up independently of the retrieval of synaptic vesicle components. (Auth.)

  13. Bioelectronic block of paravertebral sympathetic nerves mitigates post-myocardial infarction ventricular arrhythmias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, Ray W; Buckley, Una; Rajendran, Pradeep S; Vrabec, Tina; Shivkumar, Kalyanam; Ardell, Jeffrey L

    2017-11-01

    Autonomic dysfunction contributes to induction of ventricular tachyarrhythmia (VT). To determine the efficacy of charge-balanced direct current (CBDC), applied to the T1-T2 segment of the paravertebral sympathetic chain, on VT inducibility post-myocardial infarction (MI). In a porcine model, CBDC was applied in acute animals (n = 7) to optimize stimulation parameters for sympathetic blockade and in chronic MI animals (n = 7) to evaluate the potential for VTs. Chronic MI was induced by microsphere embolization of the left anterior descending coronary artery. At termination, in anesthetized animals and following thoracotomy, an epicardial sock array was placed over both ventricles and a quadripolar carousel electrode positioned underlying the right T1-T2 paravertebral chain. In acute animals, the efficacy of CBDC carousel (CBDCC) block was assessed by evaluating cardiac function during T2 paravertebral ganglion stimulation with and without CBDCC. In chronic MI animals, VT inducibility was assessed by extrasystolic (S1-S2) stimulations at baseline and under >66% CBDCC blockade of T2-evoked sympathoexcitation. CBDCC demonstrated a current-dependent and reversible block without impacting basal cardiac function. VT was induced at baseline in all chronic MI animals. One animal died after baseline induction. Of the 6 remaining animals, only 1 was reinducible with simultaneous CBDCC application (P block of the T1-T2 paravertebral chain with CBDCC reduced VT in a chronic MI model. CBDCC prolonged VERP, without altering baseline cardiac function, resulting in improved electrical stability. Copyright © 2017 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Abnormal sympathetic innervation of the heart in a patient with Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiita, Takashi; Shimizu, Masami; Kaku, Bunji; Kanaya, Hounin; Horita, Yuki; Uno, Yoshihide; Yamazaki, Tsukasa; Ohka, Takio; Sakata, Kenji; Mabuchi, Hiroshi

    2005-07-01

    A 33-year-old man was admitted for general malaise and vomiting. An electrocardiogram showed a complete atrioventricular block and an echocardiogram showed right atrial dilatation and normal wall motion of left ventricle (LV). Gene analysis showed nonsense mutation in the STA gene, which codes for emerin, and Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy was diagnosed. An endomyocardial biopsy of right ventricle showed mild hypertrophy of myocytes. Myocardial scintigraphic studies with Tc-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI) and I-123-betamethyl-p-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) scintigrams showed no abnormalities. In contrast, I-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigrams showed a diffuse and severe decrease in accumulation of MIBG in the heart. Six months later, his LV wall motion on echocardiograms developed diffuse hypokinesis. These results suggest that the abnormality on I-123 MIBG myocardial scintigrams may predict LV dysfunction in Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy.

  15. Abnormal Cardiovascular Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Responses to Physical and Emotional Stimuli in Depersonalization Disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Paul Owens

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Depersonalization disorder (DPD is characterized by subjective unreality, disembodiment, emotional numbing and reduced psychogenic sympathoexcitation. 3 related experiments used physical and emotional challenges in 14 DPD participants and 16 controls to elucidate whether the cardiovascular sympathetic (SNS and parasympathetic (PNS nervous systems are implicated in DPD and if blunted DPD sympathoexcitation is peripherally or centrally mediated. Participants completed the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI, Dissociative Experience Scale (DES and Cambridge Depersonalization Scale (CDS. Study I recorded heart rate (HR and blood pressure (BP during 5mins supine baseline, 3mins handgrip (HG, 3mins cold pressor (CP and 5mins 60°head-up tilt (HUT. Study II recorded HR, BP and heart rate variability (HRV during 5mins HUT and unpleasant images. Study III examined HR and BP orienting responses (ORs to HUT and unpleasant, neutral and pleasant images. DPD BAI (p=0.0004, DES (p=.0002 and CDS (p=< 0.0001 scores were higher than controls. The DPD group produced diminished diastolic BP (DBP (p=0.045 increases to HG. Other indices were comparable between groups. DPD participants produced diminished systolic BP (SBP (p=0.003 and DBP (p=0.002 increases, but greater (p=0.004 HR increases to CP. In study II, DPD high frequency HRV (HF-HRV – indicating parasympathetic vagal activity - was reduced (p=0.029. In study III, DPD DBP was higher throughout the 5s duration of HUT/pseudorandom unpleasant image presentation (1s [p=0.002], 2s [p=0.033], 3s [p=0.001], 4s [p=0.009], 5s [p=0.029]. Study I’s BP pressor data supports previous findings of suppressed sympathoexcitatioin DPD. The greater HR increases to CP, decreased HF-HRV in study II, and increased DBP during unpleasant ORs in study III implicates the SNS and PNS in DPD pathophysiology. These studies suggest the cardiovascular autonomic dysregulation in DPD is likely to be centrally-mediated

  16. Targeted NGF siRNA delivery attenuates sympathetic nerve sprouting and deteriorates cardiac dysfunction in rats with myocardial infarction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesheng Hu

    Full Text Available Nerve growth factor (NGF is involved in nerve sprouting, hyper-innervation, angiogenesis, anti-apoptosis, and preservation of cardiac function after myocardial infarction (MI. Positively modulating NGF expression may represent a novel pharmacological strategy to improve post-infarction prognosis. In this study, lentivirus encoding NGF short interfering RNA (siRNA was prepared, and MI was modeled in the rat using left anterior descending coronary artery ligation. Rats were randomly grouped to receive intramyocardial injection of lentiviral solution containing NGF-siRNA (n = 19, MI-SiNGF group, lentiviral solution containing empty vector (n = 18, MI-GFP group or 0.9% NaCl solution (n = 18, MI-control group, or to receive thoracotomy and pericardiotomy (n = 17, sham-operated group. At 1, 2, 4, and 8 wk after transduction, rats in the MI-control group had higher levels of NGF mRNA and protein than those in the sham-operated group, rats in the MI-GFP group showed similar levels as the MI-control group, and rats in the MI-SiNGF group had lower levels compared to the MI-GFP group, indicating that MI model was successfully established and NGF siRNA effectively inhibited the expression of NGF. At 8 wk, echocardiographic and hemodynamic studies revealed a more severe cardiac dysfunction in the MI-siRNA group compared to the MI-GFP group. Moreover, rats in the MI-siRNA group had lower mRNA and protein expression levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH and growth-associated protein 43-positive nerve fibers (GAP-43 at both the infarcted border and within the non-infarcted left ventricles (LV. NGF silencing also reduced the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF expression and decreased the arteriolar and capillary densities at the infarcted border compared to the MI-GFP group. Histological analysis indicated a large infarcted size in the MI-SiNGF group. These findings suggested that endogenous NGF silencing attenuated sympathetic nerve sprouting

  17. Phrenic Nerve Conduction Abnormalities Correlate with Diaphragmatic Descent in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Tantawi, Gihan A Younis; Imam, Mohamed H; Morsi, Tamer S

    2015-01-01

    Diaphragmatic weakness in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is ascribed to hyperinflation-induced diaphragm shortening as well as impairment in cellular and subcellular structures. Although phrenic neuropathy is known to cause diaphragmatic weakness, phrenic neuropathy is rarely considered in COPD. This work aimed at assessing phrenic nerve conduction in COPD and its relation to radiographic hyperinflation and pulmonary function. Forty COPD patients were evaluated. Radiographic parameters of lung hyperinflation were measured on postero-anterior and lateral chest x-ray films. Flow volume loop parameters were obtained from all patients. Motor conduction study of the phrenic nerves was performed and potentials were recorded over the xiphoid process and the ipsilateral 7th intercostal space. Twenty-seven healthy subjects were enrolled as controls. Parameters of phrenic nerve conduction differed significantly in patients compared to controls. Phrenic nerve abnormalities were detected in 17 patients (42.5%). Electrophysiological measures correlated with diaphragmatic angle of depression on lateral view films and with lung height on postero-anterior films. They did not correlate with the flow volume loop data or disease severity score. Phrenic nerve conduction abnormality is an appreciated finding in COPD. Nerve stretching associated with diaphragmatic descent can be a suggested mechanism for nerve lesion. The presence of phrenic neuropathy may be an additional contributing factor to diaphragmatic dysfunction in COPD patients.

  18. Assessment of central chemosensitivity and cardiac sympathetic nerve activity using I-123 MIBG imaging in central sleep apnea syndrome in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meguro, Kentaro; Nagai, Ryozo; Toyama, Takuji; Adachi, Hitoshi; Ohshima, Shigeru; Taniguchi, Koichi

    2007-01-01

    Iodine-123 m-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) imaging has been used to study cardiac sympathetic function in various cardiac diseases. Central sleep apnea syndrome (CSAS) occurs frequently in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) and is reported to be associated with a poor prognosis. One of the mechanisms of its poor prognosis may be related to impaired cardiac sympathetic activity. However, the relationship between chemosensitivity to carbon dioxide, which is reported to correlate with the severity of CSAS, and cardiac sympathetic activity has not been investigated. Therefore, this study was undertaken to assess cardiac sympathetic function and chemosensitivity to carbon dioxide in CHF patients. The oxygen desaturation index (ODI) was evaluated in 21 patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (male/female: 19/2, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) 5 times/h underwent polysomnography. Patients with an apnea hypopnea index >15/h but without evidence of obstructive apnea were defined as having CSAS. Early (15 min) and delayed (4 hr) planar MIBG images were obtained from these patients. The mean counts in the whole heart and the mediastinum were obtained. The heart-to-mediastinum count ratio of the delayed image (H/M) and the corrected myocardial washout rate (WR) were also calculated. The central chemoreflex was assessed with the rebreathing method using a hypercapnic gas mixture (7% CO 2 and 93% O 2 ). Ten of the 21 patients had CSAS. The H/M ratio was similar in patients both with and without CSAS (1.57±0.18 vs. 1.59±0.14, p=0.82). However, the WR was higher in patients with CSAS than in patients without CSAS (40±8% vs. 30±12%, p<0.05). ODI significantly correlated with central chemosensitivity to carbon dioxide. Moreover, there was a highly significant correlation between WR and central chemosensitivity (r=0.65, p<0.05). However, there was no correlation between ODI and the WR (r=0.36, p=0.11). Cardiac sympathetic nerve activity in patients with CHF and CSAS is

  19. A microcontroller-based telemetry system for sympathetic nerve activity and ECG measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, E; Yonezawa, Y; Caldwell, W M; Hahn, A W

    1999-01-01

    A telemetry system employing a low power 8-bit microcontroller has been developed for chronic unanesthetized small animal studies. The two-channel system is designed for use with animals in shielded cages. Analog signals from implantable ECG and nerve electrodes are converted to an 8-bit serial digital format. This is accomplished by individual 8 bit A/D converters included in the microcontroller, which also has serial I/O port. The converted serial binary code is applied directly to an antenna wire. Therefore, the system does not need to employ a separate transmitter, such as in FM or infrared optical telemeters. The system is used in a shielded animal cage to reduce interference from external radio signals and 60 Hz power line fields. The code is received by a high input impedance amplifier in the cage and is then demodulated. The telemeter is powered by a small 3 V lithium battery, which provides 100 hours of continuous operation. The circuit is constructed on two 25 x 25 mm. printed circuit boards and encapsulated in epoxy, yielding a total volume of 6.25 cc. The weight is 15 g.

  20. Exposure to a high-fat diet alters leptin sensitivity and elevates renal sympathetic nerve activity and arterial pressure in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Larissa J; Eikelis, Nina; Armitage, James A; Davern, Pamela J; Burke, Sandra L; Montani, Jean-Pierre; Barzel, Benjamin; Head, Geoffrey A

    2010-04-01

    The activation of the sympathetic nervous system through the central actions of the adipokine leptin has been suggested as a major mechanism by which obesity contributes to the development of hypertension. However, direct evidence for elevated sympathetic activity in obesity has been limited to muscle. The present study examined the renal sympathetic nerve activity and cardiovascular effects of a high-fat diet (HFD), as well as the changes in the sensitivity to intracerebroventricular leptin. New Zealand white rabbits fed a 13.5% HFD for 4 weeks showed modest weight gain but a 2- to 3-fold greater accumulation of visceral fat compared with control rabbits. Mean arterial pressure, heart rate, and plasma norepinephrine concentration increased by 8%, 26%, and 87%, respectively (Pdiet rabbits and was correlated to plasma leptin (r=0.87; Pfat accumulation through consumption of a HFD leads to marked sympathetic activation, which is related to increased responsiveness to central sympathoexcitatory effects of leptin. The paradoxical reduction in hypothalamic neuronal activation by leptin suggests a marked "selective leptin resistance" in these animals.

  1. Bradykinin receptor blockade restores the baroreflex control of renal sympathetic nerve activity in cisplatin-induced renal failure rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulla, M H; Duff, M; Swanton, H; Johns, E J

    2016-11-01

    This study investigated the effect of renal bradykinin B1 and B2 receptor blockade on the high- and low-pressure baroreceptor reflex regulation of renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) in rats with cisplatin-induced renal failure. Cisplatin (5 mg/kg) or saline was given intraperitoneally 4 days prior to study. Following chloralose/urethane anaesthesia, rats were prepared for measurement of mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate and RSNA and received intrarenal infusions of either Lys-[des-Arg 9 , Leu 8 ]-bradykinin (LBK), a bradykinin B1 receptor blocker, or bradyzide (BZ), a bradykinin B2 receptor blocker. RSNA baroreflex gain curves and renal sympatho-inhibitory responses to volume expansion (VE) were obtained. In the control and renal failure groups, basal MAP (89 ± 3 vs. 80 ± 8 mmHg) and RSNA (2.0 ± 0.3 vs. 1.7 ± 0.6 μV.s) were similar but HR was lower in the latter group (331 ± 8 vs. 396 ± 9 beats/min). The baroreflex gain for RSNA in the renal failure rats was 39% (P renal failure rats. Intrarenal LBK infusion in the renal failure rats normalized the VE induced renal sympatho-inhibition whereas BZ only partially restored the response. These findings suggest that pro-inflammatory bradykinin acting at different receptors within the kidney generates afferent neural signals which impact differentially within the central nervous system on high- and low-pressure regulation of RSNA. © 2016 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Assessment of cardiac sympathetic nerve activity in children with chronic heart failure using quantitative iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasawa, Kensuke; Ayusawa, Mamoru; Noto, Nobutaka; Sumitomo, Naokata; Okada, Tomoo; Harada, Kensuke

    2000-01-01

    Cardiac sympathetic nerve activity in children with chronic heart failure was examined by quantitative iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) myocardial imaging in 33 patients aged 7.5±6.1 years (range 0-18 years), including 8 with cardiomyopathy, 15 with congenital heart disease, 3 with anthracycrine cardiotoxicity, 3 with myocarditis, 3 with primary pulmonary hypertension and 1 with Pompe's disease. Anterior planar images were obtained 15 min and 3 hr after the injection of iodine-123 MIBG. The cardiac iodine-123 MIBG uptake was assessed as the heart to upper mediastinum uptake activity ratio of the delayed image (H/M) and the cardiac percentage washout rate (%WR). The severity of chronic heart failure was class I (no medication) in 8 patients, class II (no symptom with medication) in 9, class III (symptom even with medication) in 10 and class IV (late cardiac death) in 6. H/M was 2.33±0.22 in chronic heart failure class I, 2.50±0.34 in class II, 1.95±0.61 in class III, and 1.39±0.29 in class IV (p<0.05). %WR was 24.8±12.8% in chronic heart failure class I, 23.3±10.2% in class II, 49.2±24.5% in class III, and 66.3±26.5% in class IV (p<0.05). The low H/M and high %WR were proportionate to the severity of chronic heart failure. Cardiac iodine-123 MIBG showed cardiac adrenergic neuronal dysfunction in children with severe chronic heart failure. Quantitative iodine-123 MIBG myocardial imaging is clinically useful as a predictor of therapeutic outcome and mortality in children with chronic heart failure. (author)

  3. Circumferential targeted renal sympathetic nerve denervation with preservation of the renal arterial wall using intra-luminal ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Austin; Coleman, Leslie; Sakakura, Kenichi; Ladich, Elena; Virmani, Renu

    2015-03-01

    An intra-luminal ultrasound catheter system (ReCor Medical's Paradise System) has been developed to provide circumferential denervation of the renal sympathetic nerves, while preserving the renal arterial intimal and medial layers, in order to treat hypertension. The Paradise System features a cylindrical non-focused ultrasound transducer centered within a balloon that circulates cooling fluid and that outputs a uniform circumferential energy pattern designed to ablate tissues located 1-6 mm from the arterial wall and protect tissues within 1 mm. RF power and cooling flow rate are controlled by the Paradise Generator which can energize transducers in the 8.5-9.5 MHz frequency range. Computer simulations and tissue-mimicking phantom models were used to develop the proper power, cooling flow rate and sonication duration settings to provide consistent tissue ablation for renal arteries ranging from 5-8 mm in diameter. The modulation of these three parameters allows for control over the near-field (border of lesion closest to arterial wall) and far-field (border of lesion farthest from arterial wall, consisting of the adventitial and peri-adventitial spaces) depths of the tissue lesion formed by the absorption of ultrasonic energy and conduction of heat. Porcine studies have confirmed the safety (protected intimal and medial layers) and effectiveness (ablation of 1-6 mm region) of the system and provided near-field and far-field depth data to correlate with bench and computer simulation models. The safety and effectiveness of the Paradise System, developed through computer model, bench and in vivo studies, has been demonstrated in human clinical studies.

  4. Assessment of cardiac sympathetic nerve activity in children with chronic heart failure using quantitative iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karasawa, Kensuke; Ayusawa, Mamoru; Noto, Nobutaka; Sumitomo, Naokata; Okada, Tomoo; Harada, Kensuke [Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    2000-12-01

    Cardiac sympathetic nerve activity in children with chronic heart failure was examined by quantitative iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) myocardial imaging in 33 patients aged 7.5{+-}6.1 years (range 0-18 years), including 8 with cardiomyopathy, 15 with congenital heart disease, 3 with anthracycrine cardiotoxicity, 3 with myocarditis, 3 with primary pulmonary hypertension and 1 with Pompe's disease. Anterior planar images were obtained 15 min and 3 hr after the injection of iodine-123 MIBG. The cardiac iodine-123 MIBG uptake was assessed as the heart to upper mediastinum uptake activity ratio of the delayed image (H/M) and the cardiac percentage washout rate (%WR). The severity of chronic heart failure was class I (no medication) in 8 patients, class II (no symptom with medication) in 9, class III (symptom even with medication) in 10 and class IV (late cardiac death) in 6. H/M was 2.33{+-}0.22 in chronic heart failure class I, 2.50{+-}0.34 in class II, 1.95{+-}0.61 in class III, and 1.39{+-}0.29 in class IV (p<0.05). %WR was 24.8{+-}12.8% in chronic heart failure class I, 23.3{+-}10.2% in class II, 49.2{+-}24.5% in class III, and 66.3{+-}26.5% in class IV (p<0.05). The low H/M and high %WR were proportionate to the severity of chronic heart failure. Cardiac iodine-123 MIBG showed cardiac adrenergic neuronal dysfunction in children with severe chronic heart failure. Quantitative iodine-123 MIBG myocardial imaging is clinically useful as a predictor of therapeutic outcome and mortality in children with chronic heart failure. (author)

  5. Evaluation of sympathetic nerve system activity with MIBG. Comparison with heart rate variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurata, Chinori; Wakabayashi, Yasushi; Shouda, Sakae; Mikami, Tadashi; Tawarahara, Kei; Sugiyama, Tsuyoshi; Nakano, Tomoyasu; Suzuki, Toshihiko.

    1997-01-01

    Authors attempted to elucidate the relations of plasma concentration of norepinephrine (pNE) and findings of heart rate variability and MIBG myocardial scintigraphy and evaluated cardiac autonomic nervous activity in chronic renal failure. Subjects were 211 patients with various heart diseases (coronary artery lesion, cardiomyopathy, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, renal failure and so on), 60 patients with artificial kidney due to chronic renal failure, 13 of whom were found to have coronary arterial disease by Tl myocardial scintigraphy, and 14 normal volunteers. ECG was recorded with the portable recorder for heart rate variability. Together with collection of blood for pNE measurement, myocardial scintigraphy was done at 15 and 150 min after intravenous administration of 111 MBq of MIBG for acquisition of early and delayed, respectively, images of the frontal breast. Accumulation at and elimination during the time points of MIBG were computed in cps unit. Variability of heart rate was found to have the correlation positive with MIBG delayed accumulation and negative with the elimination, and pNE, negative with heart rate variability and the delayed accumulation and positive with the elimination. Thus cardiac autonomic nervous abnormality was suggested to occur before uremic cardiomyopathy. (K.H.)

  6. Ametropia, retinal anatomy, and OCT abnormality patterns in glaucoma. 2. Impacts of optic nerve head parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baniasadi, Neda; Wang, Mengyu; Wang, Hui; Jin, Qingying; Elze, Tobias

    2017-12-01

    Clinicians use retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT) as an adjunct to glaucoma diagnosis. Ametropia is accompanied by changes to the optic nerve head (ONH), which may affect how OCT machines mark RNFLT measurements as abnormal. These changes in abnormality patterns may bias glaucoma diagnosis. Here, we investigate the relationship between OCT abnormality patterns and the following ONH-related and ametropia-associated parameters on 421 eyes of glaucoma patients: optic disc tilt and torsion, central retinal vessel trunk location (CRVTL), and nasal and temporal retinal curvature adjacent to ONH, quantified as nasal/temporal slopes of the inner limiting membrane. We applied multivariate logistic regression with abnormality marks as regressands to 40,401 locations of the peripapillary region and generated spatial maps of locations of false positive/negative abnormality marks independent of glaucoma severity. Effects of torsion and temporal slope were negligible. The effect of tilt could be explained by covariation with ametropia. For CRVTL/nasal slope, abnormality pattern shifts at 7.2%/23.5% of the peripapillary region were detected, respectively, independent of glaucoma severity and ametropia. Therefore, CRVTL and nasal curvature should be included in OCT RNFLT norms. Our spatial location maps may aid clinicians to improve diagnostic accuracy.

  7. Effect of amine uptake inhibitors on the uptake of 14C-bretylium in intact and degenerating sympathetic nerves of the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almgren, O.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of different amine uptake inhibitors on the accumulation of 14 C-bretylium in sympathetically denervated or decentralized salivary glands were studied in vivo in rats 11-14 hours after the surgical intervention. The time period chosen is known to be critical for the delaying effect of bretylium on the degeneration transmitter release in sympathetically innervated organs. Cocaine, desmethylimipramine (DMI), protriptyline or reserpine all depressed the uptake of 14 C-bretylium in both denervated and decentralized salivary glands, cocaine being the most efficient one. DMI and protriptyline, but not cocaine inhibit the degeneration delaying effect of bretylium, while all three agents inhibit amine uptake at level of the nerve cell membrane. Apparently, bretylium reaches the critical sites of its degeneration delaying action by the axonal amine pump but only a small fraction of the drug entering the degenerating adrenergic nerve terminal is needed at the critical sites to interact with the degeneration processes. The difference between the tricyclic antidepressants on one hand and cocaine on the other with respect to the effect on the degeneration delaying action of bretylium, must depend on some action different from the axonal membrane uptake inhibition. Reserpine which is known not to interfere with the delaying effect of bretylium on the denervation degeneration did reduce the uptake of 14 C-bretylium. This fact seems to indicate that the site of action of bretylium is located outside the adrenergic nerve granules. (author)

  8. Relation between myocardial response to dobutamine stress and sympathetic nerve activation in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. A comparison of 123I-MIBG scintigraphic and echocardiographic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naruse, Hitoshi; Arii, Tohru; Kondo, Tomohiro

    2000-01-01

    It is likely that a close association exists between findings obtained by two methods: dobutamine stress echocardiography and 123 I-MIBG scintigraphy. Both of these methods are associated with β-adrenergic receptor mechanisms. This study was conducted to demonstrate the relation between myocardial response to dobutamine stress and sympathetic nerve release of norepinephrine in the failing heart. In 12 patents with heart failure due to idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, the myocardial effects of dobutamine stress were evaluated by low-dose dobutamine stress echocardiography; and sympathetic nerve function was evaluated by scintigraphic imaging with iodine-123[ 123 I]meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), an analogue of norepinephrine. Echocardiography provided quantitative assessment of wall motion and left ventricular dilation; radiotracer studies with 123 I-MIBG provided quantitative assessment of the heart-to-mediastinum (H/M) uptake ratio and washout rate. Results showed that H/M correlated with baseline wall motion (r=0.682, p=0.0146), wall motion after dobutamine stress (r=0.758, p=0.0043), the change in wall motion (r=0.667, p=0.0178), and with left ventricular diastolic diameter (r=0.837, p=0.0007). In addition, the 123 I-MIBG washout rate correlated with baseline wall motion (r=0.608, p=0.0360), wall motion after dobutamine stress (r=0.703, p=0.0107), and with the change in wall motion (r=0.664, p=0.0185). Wall motion, especially in the myocardial response to dobutamine stress, is related to sympathetic nerve activity in heart failure. (author)

  9. Prediction of cardiac sympathetic nerve activity and cardiac functional outcome after treatment in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. Examination using dobutamine gated blood pool scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasama, Shu; Toyama, Takuji; Iwasaki, Tsutomu; Suzuki, Tadashi [Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine; Hoshizaki, Hiroshi; Oshima, Shigeru; Taniguchi, Koichi; Nagai, Ryozo

    2000-07-01

    This study evaluated whether dobutamine gated blood pool scintigraphy can predict improvement of cardiac sympathetic nerve activity and cardiac function. Sixteen patients (10 men and 6 women, mean age 59{+-}13 years) with dilated cardiomyopathy underwent dobutamine gated blood pool scintigraphy to measure left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) using tracer at 0, 5, 10 and 15 {mu}g/kg/min before treatment. Patients were divided into good responders (LVEF increase {>=}15%) 8 patients (GR Group) and poor responders (LVEF increase <15%) 8 patients (PR Group) after treatment with {beta}-blocker or amiodarone with a background treatment of digitalis, diuretics and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor. I-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) imaging to evaluate cardiac sympathetic nerve activity and echocardiography were performed before and at one year after treatment. MIBG imaging was obtained 4 hours after tracer injection, and the heart/mediastinum count ratio (H/M ratio) calculated from the anterior planar image and the total defect score (TDS) from the single photon emission computed tomography image. LVEF and left ventricular endo-diastolic dimension (LVDd) were measured by echocardiography and New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class was evaluated. The GR Group showed TDS decreased from 28{+-}6 to 17{+-}12 (p<0.05), H/M ratio increased from 1.79{+-}0.26 to 2.07{+-}0.32 (p<0.05), LVEF increased from 29{+-}8% to 48{+-}10% (p<0.01), and LVDd decreased from 65{+-}4 mm to 58{+-}5 mm (p<0.05). In contrast, the PR group showed no significant changes in TDS. H/M ratio, LVEF and LVDd. NYHA functional class improved in both groups. The improvement was better in the GR Group than in the PR group. Dobutamine gated blood pool scintigraphy is useful to predict the improvement of the cardiac sympathetic nerve activity and cardiac function, and symptoms after treatment in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. (author)

  10. Effects of perindopril on cardiac sympathetic nerve activity in patients with congestive heart failure: comparison with enalapril

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasama, Shu; Toyama, Takuji; Suzuki, Tadashi; Kurabayashi, Masahiko [Gunma University School of Medicine, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Kumakura, Hisao; Takayama, Yoshiaki; Ichikawa, Shuichi [Cardiovascular Hospital of Central Japan, Department of Internal Medicine, Gunma (Japan)

    2005-08-01

    The production of aldosterone in the heart is suppressed by the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor perindopril in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). Moreover, perindopril has been reported to have more cardioprotective effects than enalapril. Forty patients with CHF [left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) <45%; mean 33{+-}7%] were randomly assigned to perindopril (2 mg/day; n=20) or enalapril (5 mg/day; n=20). All patients were also treated with diuretics. The delayed heart/mediastinum count (H/M) ratio, delayed total defect score (TDS) and washout rate (WR) were determined from {sup 123}I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) images, and plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) concentrations were measured before and 6 months after treatment. The left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV), left ventricular end-systolic volume (LVESV) and LVEF were also determined by echocardiography. After treatment, in patients receiving perindopril, TDS decreased from 39{+-}10 to 34{+-}9 (P<0.01), H/M ratios increased from 1.62{+-}0.27 to 1.76{+-}0.29 (P<0.01), WR decreased from 50{+-}14% to 42{+-}14% (P<0.05) and plasma BNP concentrations decreased from 226{+-}155 to 141{+-}90 pg/ml (P<0.0005). In addition, the LVEDV decreased from 180{+-}30 to 161{+-}30 ml (P<0.05) and the LVESV decreased from 122{+-}35 to 105{+-}36 ml (P<0.05). Although the LVEF tended to increase, the change was not statistically significant (from 33{+-}8% to 36{+-}12%; P=NS). On the other hand, there were no significant changes in these parameters in patients receiving enalapril. Plasma BNP concentrations, {sup 123}I-MIBG scintigraphic and echocardiographic parameters improved after 6 months of perindopril treatment. These findings indicate that perindopril treatment can ameliorate the cardiac sympathetic nerve activity and the left ventricular performance in patients with CHF. (orig.)

  11. Beneficial effect of perindopril on cardiac sympathetic nerve activity and brain natriuretic peptide in patients with chronic heart failure. Comparison with enalapril

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsutamoto, Takayoshi; Tanaka, Toshinari; Sakai, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    In patients with chronic heart failure (CHF), it remains unclear whether perindopril is more cardioprotective than enalapril. Forty-five stable CHF outpatients undergoing conventional therapy including enalapril therapy were randomized to 2 groups [group I (n=24): continuous enalapril treatment; group II (n=21): enalapril was changed to perindopril]. Cardiac sympathetic nerve activity was evaluated using cardiac 123 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy, hemodynamic parameters and neurohumoral factors before and 6 months after treatment. There was no difference in baseline characteristics between the 2 groups. In group I, there were no changes in MIBG parameters, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) or plasma level of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP). In contrast, in group II delayed heart/mediastinum count ratio was significantly increased (2.0±0.07 vs 2.15±0.07, p=0.013) and the washout rate was significantly decreased (33.0±1.4 vs 30.5±1.2, p=0.030) after 6 months compared with the baseline value. In addition, LVEF was significantly increased and the plasma BNP level was significantly decreased. These findings suggest that for the treatment of CHF, perindopril is superior to enalapril with respect of cardiac sympathetic nerve activity and BNP. (author)

  12. Highly localized interactions between sensory neurons and sprouting sympathetic fibers observed in a transgenic tyrosine hydroxylase reporter mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jun-Ming

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sprouting of sympathetic fibers into sensory ganglia occurs in many preclinical pain models, providing a possible anatomical substrate for sympathetically enhanced pain. However, the functional consequences of this sprouting have been controversial. We used a transgenic mouse in which sympathetic fibers expressed green fluorescent protein, observable in live tissue. Medium and large diameter lumbar sensory neurons with and without nearby sympathetic fibers were recorded in whole ganglion preparations using microelectrodes. Results After spinal nerve ligation, sympathetic sprouting was extensive by 3 days. Abnormal spontaneous activity increased to 15% and rheobase was reduced. Spontaneously active cells had Aαβ conduction velocities but were clustered near the medium/large cell boundary. Neurons with sympathetic basket formations had a dramatically higher incidence of spontaneous activity (71% and had lower rheobase than cells with no sympathetic fibers nearby. Cells with lower density nearby fibers had intermediate phenotypes. Immunohistochemistry of sectioned ganglia showed that cells surrounded by sympathetic fibers were enriched in nociceptive markers TrkA, substance P, or CGRP. Spontaneous activity began before sympathetic sprouting was observed, but blocking sympathetic sprouting on day 3 by cutting the dorsal ramus in addition to the ventral ramus of the spinal nerve greatly reduced abnormal spontaneous activity. Conclusions The data suggest that early sympathetic sprouting into the sensory ganglia may have highly localized, excitatory effects. Quantitatively, neurons with sympathetic basket formations may account for more than half of the observed spontaneous activity, despite being relatively rare. Spontaneous activity in sensory neurons and sympathetic sprouting may be mutually re-enforcing.

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging of the elbow. Part II: Abnormalities of the ligaments, tendons, and nerves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kijowski, Richard; Tuite, Michael; Sanford, Matthew [University of Wisconsin Hospital, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Part II of this comprehensive review on magnetic resonance imaging of the elbow discusses the role of magnetic resonance imaging in evaluating patients with abnormalities of the ligaments, tendons, and nerves of the elbow. Magnetic resonance imaging can yield high-quality multiplanar images which are useful in evaluating the soft tissue structures of the elbow. Magnetic resonance imaging can detect tears of the ulnar collateral ligament and lateral collateral ligament of the elbow with high sensitivity and specificity. Magnetic resonance imaging can determine the extent of tendon pathology in patients with medial epicondylitis and lateral epicondylitis. Magnetic resonance imaging can detect tears of the biceps tendon and triceps tendon and can distinguishing between partial and complete tendon rupture. Magnetic resonance imaging is also helpful in evaluating patients with nerve disorders at the elbow. (orig.)

  14. Intracellular mechanism of action of sympathetic hepatic nerves on glucose and lactate balance in perfused rat liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ballé, C.; Beuers, U.; ENGELHARDT, R.; JUNGERMANN, K.

    1987-01-01

    In rat liver perfused in situ stimulation of the nerve plexus around the hepatic artery and the portal vein caused an increase in glucose output and a shift from lactate uptake to output. The effects of nerve stimulation on some key enzymes, metabolites and effectors of carbohydrate metabolism were

  15. Characterization of Abnormal Optic Nerve Head Morphology in Albinism Using Optical Coherence Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Sarim; Gottlob, Irene; Sheth, Viral; Pilat, Anastasia; Lee, Helena; Pollheimer, Ellen; Proudlock, Frank Anthony

    2015-07-01

    To characterize abnormalities in three-dimensional optic nerve head (ONH) morphology in people with albinism (PWA) using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and to determine whether ONH abnormalities relate to other retinal and clinical abnormalities. Spectral-domain OCT was used to obtain three-dimensional images from 56 PWA and 60 age- and sex-matched control subjects. B-scans were corrected for nystagmus-associated motion artefacts. Disc, cup, and rim ONH dimensions and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (ppRNFL) thickness were calculated using Copernicus and ImageJ software. Median disc areas were similar in PWA (median = 1.65 mm2) and controls (1.71 mm2, P = 0.128), although discs were significantly elongated horizontally in PWA (P < 0.001). In contrast, median optic cup area in PWA (0.088 mm2) was 23.7% of that in controls (0.373 mm2, P < 0.001), with 39.4% of eyes in PWA not demonstrating a measurable optic cup. This led to significantly smaller cup to disc ratios in PWA (P < 0.001). Median rim volume in PWA (0.273 mm3) was 136.6% of that in controls (0.200 mm3). The ppRNFL was significantly thinner in PWA compared with controls (P < 0.001), especially in the temporal quadrant. In PWA, ppRNFL thickness was correlated to ganglion cell thickness at the central fovea (P = 0.007). Several ONH abnormalities, such as cup to disc ratio, were related to higher refractive errors in PWA. In PWA, ocular maldevelopment is not just limited to the retina but also involves the ONH. Reduced ppRNFL thickness is consistent with previous reports of reduced ganglion cell numbers in PWA. The thicker rim volumes may be a result of incomplete maturation of the ONH.

  16. Stimulation of Host Bone Marrow Stromal Cells by Sympathetic Nerves Promotes Breast Cancer Bone Metastasis in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, J. Preston; Karolak, Matthew R.; Ma, Yun; Perrien, Daniel S.; Masood-Campbell, S. Kathryn; Penner, Niki L.; Munoz, Steve A.; Zijlstra, Andries; Yang, Xiangli; Sterling, Julie A.; Elefteriou, Florent

    2012-01-01

    Bone and lung metastases are responsible for the majority of deaths in patients with breast cancer. Following treatment of the primary cancer, emotional and psychosocial factors within this population precipitate time to recurrence and death, however the underlying mechanism(s) remain unclear. Using a mouse model of bone metastasis, we provide experimental evidence that activation of the sympathetic nervous system, which is one of many pathophysiological consequences of severe stress and depr...

  17. Effects of cilnidipine on sympathetic nerve activity and cardiorenal function in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: association with BNP and aldosterone levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Masami; Sekioka, Risa; Nishimura, Takeshi; Ichihara, Atsuhiro; Itoh, Hiroshi

    2014-12-01

    Hypertension stimulates the sympathetic nervous system and this phenomenon is exacerbated by diabetes mellitus. We investigated the effects of cilnidipine, an N/L-type calcium channel blocker, on aspects of this system in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. In 33 hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with a calcium channel blocker other than cilnidipine, we evaluated the influence of switching to cilnidipine on blood pressure, heart rate, catecholamine, plasma renin and aldosterone concentration, brain natriuretic peptide, urine liver-type fatty acid binding protein, and urinary albumin excretion ratio in the same patients by a cross-over design. Other biochemical parameters were also evaluated. Switching to cilnidipine did not change blood pressure but caused reduction in catecholamine concentrations in blood and urine and plasma aldosterone concentration, accompanied by significant reduction in brain natriuretic peptide, urine liver-type fatty acid binding protein, and albumin excretion ratio. These parameters other than brain natriuretic peptide were significantly increased after cilnidipine was changed to the original calcium channel blocker. In 33 hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, compared to other calcium channel blockers, cilnidipine suppressed sympathetic nerve activity and aldosterone, and significantly improved markers of cardiorenal disorders. Therefore, cilnidipine may be an important calcium channel blocker for use in combination with renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors when dealing with hypertension complicated with diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of 4G-alpha-glucopyranosyl hesperidin on brown fat adipose tissue- and cutaneous-sympathetic nerve activity and peripheral body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jiao; Nakamura, Hiroyasu; Fujisaki, Yoshiyuki; Tanida, Mamoru; Horii, Yuko; Fuyuki, Risa; Takumi, Hiroko; Shiraishi, Koso; Kometani, Takashi; Nagai, Katsuya

    2009-09-11

    Changes in the activity of the autonomic nervous system are good indicators of alterations in physiological phenomena such as the body temperature, blood glucose, blood pressure. Hesperidin, a flavanone known as vitamin P, has been shown to reduce the levels of serum lipids, cholesterol, and blood pressure. However, hesperidin is not water-soluble and is not well absorbed from the intestine. G-hesperidin (4G-alpha-glucopyranosyl hesperidin) is more water-soluble and more rapidly absorbed than hesperidin. In order to clarify the functions of G-hesperidin, we examined the effects of oral administration of G-hesperidin on interscapular brown adipose tissue-sympathetic nerve activity (BAT-SNA) and cutaneous sympathetic nerve activity (CASNA) in rats weighing about 300 g. In this study, we found that oral administration of 60 mg of G-hesperidin increased the BAT-SNA but decreased the CASNA in urethane-anesthetized rats. Since an elevation in BAT-SNA increases heat production (i.e. body temperature (BT)) and a decrease in CASNA increases cutaneous perfusion, we examined whether oral administration of G-hesperidin had an effect on the peripheral BT in rats. Consequently, we observed that the subcutaneous BT at the caudal end of the back after oral administration of 60 mg of G-hesperidin was significantly higher than the subcutaneous BT after oral administration of water in conscious rats. These findings suggest that G-hesperidin enhances the BAT-SNA and suppresses the CASNA resulting in an increase in the peripheral BT, probably by an increase in the thermogenesis in the BAT and an elevation in the cutaneous blood flow.

  19. Egr3 dependent sympathetic target tissue innervation in the absence of neuron death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Li

    Full Text Available Nerve Growth Factor (NGF is a target tissue derived neurotrophin required for normal sympathetic neuron survival and target tissue innervation. NGF signaling regulates gene expression in sympathetic neurons, which in turn mediates critical aspects of neuron survival, axon extension and terminal axon branching during sympathetic nervous system (SNS development. Egr3 is a transcription factor regulated by NGF signaling in sympathetic neurons that is essential for normal SNS development. Germline Egr3-deficient mice have physiologic dysautonomia characterized by apoptotic sympathetic neuron death and abnormal innervation to many target tissues. The extent to which sympathetic innervation abnormalities in the absence of Egr3 is caused by altered innervation or by neuron death during development is unknown. Using Bax-deficient mice to abrogate apoptotic sympathetic neuron death in vivo, we show that Egr3 has an essential role in target tissue innervation in the absence of neuron death. Sympathetic target tissue innervation is abnormal in many target tissues in the absence of neuron death, and like NGF, Egr3 also appears to effect target tissue innervation heterogeneously. In some tissues, such as heart, spleen, bowel, kidney, pineal gland and the eye, Egr3 is essential for normal innervation, whereas in other tissues such as lung, stomach, pancreas and liver, Egr3 appears to have little role in innervation. Moreover, in salivary glands and heart, two tissues where Egr3 has an essential role in sympathetic innervation, NGF and NT-3 are expressed normally in the absence of Egr3 indicating that abnormal target tissue innervation is not due to deregulation of these neurotrophins in target tissues. Taken together, these results clearly demonstrate a role for Egr3 in mediating sympathetic target tissue innervation that is independent of neuron survival or neurotrophin deregulation.

  20. Developmental abnormalities of the optic nerve head in mouse fetuses caused by simultaneous irradiation of x-rays and ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirai, Shoichiro; Yuguchi, Shuji; Majima, Akio.

    1981-01-01

    Eye abnormalities in mouse fetuses caused by irradiation of X-rays alone, or simultaneous irradiation of X-rays and ultrasound on day 7 of gestation were histologically studied on day 18 of gestation. Developmental abnormalities of the optic nerve head were examined in the present experiment, and the following results were obtained: 1. Developmental abnormalities of the optic nerve head associated with developmental abnormalities of the vitreous were detected in 4 fetuses (5 eyes). In all cases, excessive mesenchymal tissue of components of the primary vitreous was found from the optic nerve head to the vitreous cavity. It was impossible to distinguish between the neuroectodermal tissue of Bergmeister's papilla and the mesodermal tissue of components of the primary vitreous. 2. In 3 fetuses (4 eyes), the fetal fissure involving the optic nerve head was open. At the peripapillary region, the inner layer of the optic cup was everted and hyperplastic. The inner neuroblastic layer of the everted portion contacted the outer coat of the eyeball, directly. In these cases, the optic nerve entrance was very wide. 3. The relation between the congenital optic nerve head anomalies encountered clinically and those observed experimentally in the mouse fetuses was discussed. It was considered that the pathogenesis of congenital optic nerve head anomalies consists of the malformation of the primitive epithelial papilla, the faulty closure of the proximal end of the fetal fissure, the anomalies of Bergmeister's papilla, the anomalies of the hyaloid system, or the abnormal differentiation and growth of the neuroectodermal cells of the optic cup. (author)

  1. Stimulation of host bone marrow stromal cells by sympathetic nerves promotes breast cancer bone metastasis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J Preston; Karolak, Matthew R; Ma, Yun; Perrien, Daniel S; Masood-Campbell, S Kathryn; Penner, Niki L; Munoz, Steve A; Zijlstra, Andries; Yang, Xiangli; Sterling, Julie A; Elefteriou, Florent

    2012-07-01

    Bone and lung metastases are responsible for the majority of deaths in patients with breast cancer. Following treatment of the primary cancer, emotional and psychosocial factors within this population precipitate time to recurrence and death, however the underlying mechanism(s) remain unclear. Using a mouse model of bone metastasis, we provide experimental evidence that activation of the sympathetic nervous system, which is one of many pathophysiological consequences of severe stress and depression, promotes MDA-231 breast cancer cell colonization of bone via a neurohormonal effect on the host bone marrow stroma. We demonstrate that induction of RANKL expression in bone marrow osteoblasts, following β2AR stimulation, increases the migration of metastatic MDA-231 cells in vitro, independently of SDF1-CXCR4 signaling. We also show that the stimulatory effect of endogenous (chronic stress) or pharmacologic sympathetic activation on breast cancer bone metastasis in vivo can be blocked with the β-blocker propranolol, and by knockdown of RANK expression in MDA-231 cells. These findings indicate that RANKL promotes breast cancer cell metastasis to bone via its pro-migratory effect on breast cancer cells, independently of its effect on bone turnover. The emerging clinical implication, supported by recent epidemiological studies, is that βAR-blockers and drugs interfering with RANKL signaling, such as Denosumab, could increase patient survival if used as adjuvant therapy to inhibit both the early colonization of bone by metastatic breast cancer cells and the initiation of the "vicious cycle" of bone destruction induced by these cells.

  2. Magnetic Resonance Neurography Visualizes Abnormalities in Sciatic and Tibial Nerves in Patients With Type 1 Diabetes and Neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaeggemose, Michael; Pham, Mirko; Ringgaard, Steffen; Tankisi, Hatice; Ejskjaer, Niels; Heiland, Sabine; Poulsen, Per L; Andersen, Henning

    2017-07-01

    This study evaluates whether diffusion tensor imaging magnetic resonance neurography (DTI-MRN), T2 relaxation time, and proton spin density can detect and grade neuropathic abnormalities in patients with type 1 diabetes. Patients with type 1 diabetes ( n = 49) were included-11 with severe polyneuropathy (sDPN), 13 with mild polyneuropathy (mDPN), and 25 without polyneuropathy (nDPN)-along with 30 healthy control subjects (HCs). Clinical examinations, nerve conduction studies, and vibratory perception thresholds determined the presence and severity of DPN. DTI-MRN covered proximal (sciatic nerve) and distal (tibial nerve) nerve segments of the lower extremity. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were calculated, as were T2 relaxation time and proton spin density obtained from DTI-MRN. All magnetic resonance findings were related to the presence and severity of neuropathy. FA of the sciatic and tibial nerves was lowest in the sDPN group. Corresponding with this, proximal and distal ADCs were highest in patients with sDPN compared with patients with mDPN and nDPN, as well as the HCs. DTI-MRN correlated closely with the severity of neuropathy, demonstrating strong associations with sciatic and tibial nerve findings. Quantitative group differences in proton spin density were also significant, but less pronounced than those for DTI-MRN. In conclusion, DTI-MRN enables detection in peripheral nerves of abnormalities related to DPN, more so than proton spin density or T2 relaxation time. These abnormalities are likely to reflect pathology in sciatic and tibial nerve fibers. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  3. Sympathetic Nerve Hyperactivity in the Spleen: Causal for Nonpathogenic-Driven Chronic Immune-Mediated Inflammatory Diseases (IMIDs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise L. Bellinger

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Immune-Mediated Inflammatory Diseases (IMIDs is a descriptive term coined for an eclectic group of diseases or conditions that share common inflammatory pathways, and for which there is no definitive etiology. IMIDs affect the elderly most severely, with many older individuals having two or more IMIDs. These diseases include, but are not limited to, type-1 diabetes, obesity, hypertension, chronic pulmonary disease, coronary heart disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and autoimmunity, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA, Sjőgren’s syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and multiple sclerosis. These diseases are ostensibly unrelated mechanistically, but increase in frequency with age and share chronic systemic inflammation, implicating major roles for the spleen. Chronic systemic and regional inflammation underlies the disease manifestations of IMIDs. Regional inflammation and immune dysfunction promotes targeted end organ tissue damage, whereas systemic inflammation increases morbidity and mortality by affecting multiple organ systems. Chronic inflammation and skewed dysregulated cell-mediated immune responses drive many of these age-related medical disorders. IMIDs are commonly autoimmune-mediated or suspected to be autoimmune diseases. Another shared feature is dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system and hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA axis. Here, we focus on dysautonomia. In many IMIDs, dysautonomia manifests as an imbalance in activity/reactivity of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system (ANS. These major autonomic pathways are essential for allostasis of the immune system, and regulating inflammatory processes and innate and adaptive immunity. Pathology in ANS is a hallmark and causal feature of all IMIDs. Chronic systemic inflammation comorbid with stress pathway dysregulation implicate neural-immune cross-talk in the etiology and pathophysiology of IMIDs

  4. Stimulation of host bone marrow stromal cells by sympathetic nerves promotes breast cancer bone metastasis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Preston Campbell

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Bone and lung metastases are responsible for the majority of deaths in patients with breast cancer. Following treatment of the primary cancer, emotional and psychosocial factors within this population precipitate time to recurrence and death, however the underlying mechanism(s remain unclear. Using a mouse model of bone metastasis, we provide experimental evidence that activation of the sympathetic nervous system, which is one of many pathophysiological consequences of severe stress and depression, promotes MDA-231 breast cancer cell colonization of bone via a neurohormonal effect on the host bone marrow stroma. We demonstrate that induction of RANKL expression in bone marrow osteoblasts, following β2AR stimulation, increases the migration of metastatic MDA-231 cells in vitro, independently of SDF1-CXCR4 signaling. We also show that the stimulatory effect of endogenous (chronic stress or pharmacologic sympathetic activation on breast cancer bone metastasis in vivo can be blocked with the β-blocker propranolol, and by knockdown of RANK expression in MDA-231 cells. These findings indicate that RANKL promotes breast cancer cell metastasis to bone via its pro-migratory effect on breast cancer cells, independently of its effect on bone turnover. The emerging clinical implication, supported by recent epidemiological studies, is that βAR-blockers and drugs interfering with RANKL signaling, such as Denosumab, could increase patient survival if used as adjuvant therapy to inhibit both the early colonization of bone by metastatic breast cancer cells and the initiation of the "vicious cycle" of bone destruction induced by these cells.

  5. elPBN neurons regulate rVLM activity through elPBN-rVLM projections during activation of cardiac sympathetic afferent nerves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, John C.; Tjen-A-Looi, Stephanie C.; Fu, Liang-Wu

    2016-01-01

    The external lateral parabrachial nucleus (elPBN) within the pons and rostral ventrolateral medulla (rVLM) contributes to central processing of excitatory cardiovascular reflexes during stimulation of cardiac sympathetic afferent nerves (CSAN). However, the importance of elPBN cardiovascular neurons in regulation of rVLM activity during CSAN activation remains unclear. We hypothesized that CSAN stimulation excites the elPBN cardiovascular neurons and, in turn, increases rVLM activity through elPBN-rVLM projections. Compared with controls, in rats subjected to microinjection of retrograde tracer into the rVLM, the numbers of elPBN neurons double-labeled with c-Fos (an immediate early gene) and the tracer were increased after CSAN stimulation (P < 0.05). The majority of these elPBN neurons contain vesicular glutamate transporter 3. In cats, epicardial bradykinin and electrical stimulation of CSAN increased the activity of elPBN cardiovascular neurons, which was attenuated (n = 6, P < 0.05) after blockade of glutamate receptors with iontophoresis of kynurenic acid (Kyn, 25 mM). In separate cats, microinjection of Kyn (1.25 nmol/50 nl) into the elPBN reduced rVLM activity evoked by both bradykinin and electrical stimulation (n = 5, P < 0.05). Excitation of the elPBN with microinjection of dl-homocysteic acid (2 nmol/50 nl) significantly increased basal and CSAN-evoked rVLM activity. However, the enhanced rVLM activity induced by dl-homocysteic acid injected into the elPBN was reversed following iontophoresis of Kyn into the rVLM (n = 7, P < 0.05). These data suggest that cardiac sympathetic afferent stimulation activates cardiovascular neurons in the elPBN and rVLM sequentially through a monosynaptic (glutamatergic) excitatory elPBN-rVLM pathway. PMID:27225950

  6. High specific radioactivity (1R,2S)-4-[18F]fluorometaraminol: a PET radiotracer for mapping sympathetic nerves of the heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langer, Oliver; Valette, Heric; Dolle, Frederic; Halldin, Christer; Loc'h, Christian; Fuseau, Chantal; Coulon, Christine; Ottaviani, Michele; Bottlaender, Michel; Maziere, Bernard; Crouzel, Christian

    2000-01-01

    The radiolabeled catecholamine analogue (1R,2S)-6-[ 18 F]fluorometaraminol (6-[ 18 F]FMR) is a substrate for the neuronal norepinephrine transporter. It has been used as a positron emission tomography (PET) ligand to map sympathetic nerves in dog heart. 6-[ 18 F]FMR could be only synthesized with low specific radioactivity, which precluded its use in human subjects. We have recently prepared (1R,2S)-4-[ 18 F]fluorometaraminol (4-[ 18 F]FMR), a new fluoro-analogue of metaraminol, with high specific radioactivity (56-106 GBq/μmol). In the present study, we demonstrate in rats that 4-[ 18 F]FMR possesses similar affinity toward myocardial norepinephrine transport mechanisms as 6-[ 18 F]FMR. When compared with control animals, an 80% and 76% reduction in myocardial uptake was observed in animals pretreated with desipramine (an inhibitor of the neuronal norepinephrine transporter) and with reserpine (a blocker of the vesicular storage of monoamines), respectively. The entire radioactivity in rat myocardium represented unmetabolized parent tracer as determined by high performance liquid chromatography analysis of tissue extracts. In dogs, myocardial kinetics of 4-[ 18 F]FMR were assessed using PET. A rapid and high uptake was observed, followed by prolonged cardiac retention. A heart-to-lung ratio of 15 was reached 10 min after injection of the radiotracer. Pretreatment with desipramine reduced the heart half-life of 4-[ 18 F]FMR by 90% compared with control. Moreover, an infusion of tyramine caused a rapid decline of radioactivity in the heart. This demonstrates that 4-[ 18 F]FMR specifically visualizes sympathetic neurons in dog heart. High specific radioactivity 4-[ 18 F]FMR is a promising alternative to 6-[ 18 F]FMR for myocardial neuronal mapping with PET in humans

  7. High specific radioactivity (1R,2S)-4-[{sup 18}F]fluorometaraminol: a PET radiotracer for mapping sympathetic nerves of the heart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langer, Oliver; Valette, Heric; Dolle, Frederic E-mail: dolle@dsvidf.cea.fr; Halldin, Christer; Loc' h, Christian; Fuseau, Chantal; Coulon, Christine; Ottaviani, Michele; Bottlaender, Michel; Maziere, Bernard; Crouzel, Christian

    2000-04-01

    The radiolabeled catecholamine analogue (1R,2S)-6-[{sup 18}F]fluorometaraminol (6-[{sup 18}F]FMR) is a substrate for the neuronal norepinephrine transporter. It has been used as a positron emission tomography (PET) ligand to map sympathetic nerves in dog heart. 6-[{sup 18}F]FMR could be only synthesized with low specific radioactivity, which precluded its use in human subjects. We have recently prepared (1R,2S)-4-[{sup 18}F]fluorometaraminol (4-[{sup 18}F]FMR), a new fluoro-analogue of metaraminol, with high specific radioactivity (56-106 GBq/{mu}mol). In the present study, we demonstrate in rats that 4-[{sup 18}F]FMR possesses similar affinity toward myocardial norepinephrine transport mechanisms as 6-[{sup 18}F]FMR. When compared with control animals, an 80% and 76% reduction in myocardial uptake was observed in animals pretreated with desipramine (an inhibitor of the neuronal norepinephrine transporter) and with reserpine (a blocker of the vesicular storage of monoamines), respectively. The entire radioactivity in rat myocardium represented unmetabolized parent tracer as determined by high performance liquid chromatography analysis of tissue extracts. In dogs, myocardial kinetics of 4-[{sup 18}F]FMR were assessed using PET. A rapid and high uptake was observed, followed by prolonged cardiac retention. A heart-to-lung ratio of 15 was reached 10 min after injection of the radiotracer. Pretreatment with desipramine reduced the heart half-life of 4-[{sup 18}F]FMR by 90% compared with control. Moreover, an infusion of tyramine caused a rapid decline of radioactivity in the heart. This demonstrates that 4-[{sup 18}F]FMR specifically visualizes sympathetic neurons in dog heart. High specific radioactivity 4-[{sup 18}F]FMR is a promising alternative to 6-[{sup 18}F]FMR for myocardial neuronal mapping with PET in humans.

  8. NaCl and osmolarity produce different responses in organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis neurons, sympathetic nerve activity and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsman, Brian J; Browning, Kirsteen N; Stocker, Sean D

    2017-09-15

    Changes in extracellular osmolarity stimulate thirst and vasopressin secretion through a central osmoreceptor; however, central infusion of hypertonic NaCl produces a greater sympathoexcitatory and pressor response than infusion of hypertonic mannitol/sorbitol. Neurons in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT) sense changes in extracellular osmolarity and NaCl. In this study, we discovered that intracerebroventricular infusion or local OVLT injection of hypertonic NaCl increases lumbar sympathetic nerve activity, adrenal sympathetic nerve activity and arterial blood pressure whereas equi-osmotic mannitol/sorbitol did not alter any variable. In vitro whole-cell recordings demonstrate the majority of OVLT neurons are responsive to hypertonic NaCl or mannitol. However, hypertonic NaCl stimulates a greater increase in discharge frequency than equi-osmotic mannitol. Intracarotid or intracerebroventricular infusion of hypertonic NaCl evokes a greater increase in OVLT neuronal discharge frequency than equi-osmotic sorbitol. Collectively, these novel data suggest that subsets of OVLT neurons respond differently to hypertonic NaCl versus osmolarity and subsequently regulate body fluid homeostasis. These responses probably reflect distinct cellular mechanisms underlying NaCl- versus osmo-sensing. Systemic or central infusion of hypertonic NaCl and other osmolytes readily stimulate thirst and vasopressin secretion. In contrast, central infusion of hypertonic NaCl produces a greater increase in arterial blood pressure (ABP) than equi-osmotic mannitol/sorbitol. Although these responses depend on neurons in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT), these observations suggest OVLT neurons may sense or respond differently to hypertonic NaCl versus osmolarity. The purpose of this study was to test this hypothesis in Sprague-Dawley rats. First, intracerebroventricular (icv) infusion (5 μl/10 min) of 1.0 m NaCl produced a significantly greater

  9. Stress and Female Reproductive System: Disruption of Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone/Opiate Balance by Sympathetic Nerve Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Zafari Zangeneh

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays stress is an integral part of everyday living and the physiological and behavioral consequences of exposure to stressful situations have been extensively studied for decades. The stress response is a necessary mechanism but disrupts homeostatic process and it is sub served by a complex system located in both the central nervous system (CNS and the periphery. Stressor-induced activation of the hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal (HPA axis and the sympathetic nervous system (SNS results in a series of neural and endocrine adaptations known as the "stress response" or "stress cascade." The stress cascade is responsible for allowing the body to make the necessary physiological and metabolic changes required to cope with the demands of a homeostatic challenge. Normal activation of the HPA axis is essential for reproduction, growth, metabolic homeostasis, and responses to stress and they are critical for adapting to changes in the external environment. The regulation of gonadal function in men and women is under the control of the HPA. This regulation is complex and sex steroids are important regulators of GnRH and gonadotropin release through classical feedback mechanisms in the hypothalamus and the pituitary. The present overview focuses on the neuroendocrine infrastructure of the adaptive response to stress and its effects on the female reproductive system. 

  10. elPBN neurons regulate rVLM activity through elPBN-rVLM projections during activation of cardiac sympathetic afferent nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhi-Ling; Longhurst, John C; Tjen-A-Looi, Stephanie C; Fu, Liang-Wu

    2016-08-01

    The external lateral parabrachial nucleus (elPBN) within the pons and rostral ventrolateral medulla (rVLM) contributes to central processing of excitatory cardiovascular reflexes during stimulation of cardiac sympathetic afferent nerves (CSAN). However, the importance of elPBN cardiovascular neurons in regulation of rVLM activity during CSAN activation remains unclear. We hypothesized that CSAN stimulation excites the elPBN cardiovascular neurons and, in turn, increases rVLM activity through elPBN-rVLM projections. Compared with controls, in rats subjected to microinjection of retrograde tracer into the rVLM, the numbers of elPBN neurons double-labeled with c-Fos (an immediate early gene) and the tracer were increased after CSAN stimulation (P neurons contain vesicular glutamate transporter 3. In cats, epicardial bradykinin and electrical stimulation of CSAN increased the activity of elPBN cardiovascular neurons, which was attenuated (n = 6, P neurons in the elPBN and rVLM sequentially through a monosynaptic (glutamatergic) excitatory elPBN-rVLM pathway. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Effect of heat-killed Lactobacillus brevis SBC8803 on cutaneous arterial sympathetic nerve activity, cutaneous blood flow and transepidermal water loss in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horii, Y; Kaneda, H; Fujisaki, Y; Fuyuki, R; Nakakita, Y; Shigyo, T; Nagai, K

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of the effects of heat-killed Lactobacillus brevis SBC8803 (HK-SBC8803) on the standard physiological markers of skin health of cutaneous arterial sympathetic nerve activity (CASNA), cutaneous blood flow and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and to determine whether SBC8803 targets serotonin 5-HT3 receptors in rats. A set of three experiments were conducted to examine the effects of SBC8803 on CASNA, cutaneous blood flow and TEWL using Wistar and hairless rats. Two additional experiments further attempted to determine whether HK-SBC8803 was targeting the serotonin 5-HT3 receptors by pretreatment with the 5-HT3 antagonist granisetron. Administration of HK-SBC8803 in the first three experiments caused marked inhibition of CASNA and significant elevation of cutaneous blood flow under urethane anaesthesia as well as significant decrease in TEWL on the dorsal skin of conscious hairless rats. Pretreatment with granisetron decreased the effects of HK-SBC8803 on CASNA and cutaneous blood flow. These findings suggest that HK-SBC8803 reduces CASNA, increases cutaneous blood flow and decreases TEWL and that 5-HT3 receptors may be involved in CASNA and cutaneous blood flow responses. HK-SBC8803 could be a useful substance in the treatment/prevention of skin problems, specifically chapped or dry skin. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. Sympathetic chain Schwannoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mashat, Faisal M.

    2009-01-01

    Schwannomas are rare, benign, slowly growing tumors arising from Schwann cells that line nerve sheaths. Schwannomas arising from the cervical sympathetic chain are extremely rare. Here, we report a case of a 70-year-old man who presented with only an asymptomatic neck mass. Physical examination revealed a left sided Horner syndrome and a neck mass with transmitted pulsation and anterior displacement of the carotid artery. Computed tomography (CT) showed a well-defined non-enhancing mass with vascular displacement. The nerve of origin of this encapsulated tumor was the sympathetic chain. The tumor was excised completely intact. The pathologic diagnosis was Schwannoma (Antoni type A and Antoni type B). The patient has been well and free of tumor recurrence for 14 months with persistence of asymptomatic left sided Horner syndrome. The clinical, radiological and pathological evaluations, therapy and postoperative complications of this tumor are discussed. (author)

  13. Contribution of α-adrenoceptors to depolarization and contraction evoked by continuous asynchronous sympathetic nerve activity in rat tail artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, J A; McLachlan, E M; Rayner, S E

    1997-01-01

    The effects of continuous but asynchronous nerve activity induced by ciguatoxin (CTX-1) on the membrane potential and contraction of smooth muscle cells have been investigated in rat proximal tail arteries isolated in vitro. These effects have been compared with those produced by the continuous application of phenylephrine (PE).CTX-1 (0.4 nM) and PE (10 μM) produced a maintained depolarization of the arterial smooth muscle that was almost completely blocked by α-adrenoceptor blockade. In both cases, the depolarization was more sensitive to the selective α2-adrenoceptor antagonist, idazoxan (0.1 μM), than to the selective α1-adrenoceptor antagonist, prazosin (0.01 μM).In contrast, the maintained contraction of the tail artery induced by CTX-1 (0.2 nM) and PE (2 and 10 μM) was more sensitive to prazosin (0.01) μM, than to idazoxan (0.01 μM). In combination, these antagonists almost completely inhibited contraction to both agents.Application of the calcium channel antagonist, nifedipine (1 μM), had no effect on the depolarization induced by either CTX-1 or PE but maximally reduced the force of the maintained contraction to both agents by about 50%.We conclude that the constriction of the tail artery induced by CTX-1, which mimics the natural discharge of postganglionic perivascular axons, is due almost entirely to α-adrenoceptor activation. The results indicate that neuronally released noradrenaline activates more than one α-adrenoceptor subtype. The depolarization is dependent primarily on α2-adrenoceptor activation whereas the contraction is dependent primarily on α1-adrenoceptor activation. The links between α-adrenoceptor activation and the voltage-dependent and voltage-independent mechanisms that deliver Ca2+ to the contractile apparatus appear to be complex. PMID:9113373

  14. Microstructural abnormalities in the trigeminal nerves of patients with trigeminal neuralgia revealed by multiple diffusion metrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yaou [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Beijing Key laboratory of MRI and Brain Informatics, Beijing (China); Li, Jiping [Department of Functional Neurosurgery, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Butzkueven, Helmut [Department of Medicine, University of Melbourne, Parkville 3010 (Australia); Duan, Yunyun; Zhang, Mo [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Shu, Ni [State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Li, Yongjie [Department of Functional Neurosurgery, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Zhang, Yuqing, E-mail: yuqzhang@sohu.com [Department of Functional Neurosurgery, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Li, Kuncheng, E-mail: kunchengli55@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China)

    2013-05-15

    Objective: To investigate microstructural tissue changes of trigeminal nerve (TGN) in patients with unilateral trigeminal neuralgia (TN) by multiple diffusion metrics, and correlate the diffusion indexes with the clinical variables. Methods: 16 patients with TN and 6 healthy controls (HC) were recruited into our study. All participants were imaged with a 3.0 T system with three-dimension time-of-flight (TOF) magnetic resonance angiography and fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) DTI-sequence. We placed regions of interest over the root entry zone of the TGN and measured fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD) and radial diffusivity (RD). The mean values of FA, MD, AD and RD were compared between the affected and unaffected sides in the same patient, and to HC values. The correlation between the side-to-side diffusion metric difference and clinical variables (disease duration and visual analogy scale, VAS) was further explored. Results: Compared with the unaffected side and HC, the affected side showed significantly decreased FA and increased RD; however, no significant changes of AD were found. A trend toward significantly increased MD was identified on the affected side comparing with the unaffected side. We also found the significant correlation between the FA reduction and VAS of pain (r = −0.55, p = 0.03). Conclusion: DTI can quantitatively assess the microstructural abnormalities of the affected TGN in patients with TN. Our results suggest demyelination without significant axonal injury is the essential pathological basis of the affected TGN by multiple diffusion metrics. The correlation between FA reduction and VAS suggests FA as a potential objective MRI biomarker to correlate with clinical severity.

  15. Microstructural abnormalities in the trigeminal nerves of patients with trigeminal neuralgia revealed by multiple diffusion metrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yaou; Li, Jiping; Butzkueven, Helmut; Duan, Yunyun; Zhang, Mo; Shu, Ni; Li, Yongjie; Zhang, Yuqing; Li, Kuncheng

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate microstructural tissue changes of trigeminal nerve (TGN) in patients with unilateral trigeminal neuralgia (TN) by multiple diffusion metrics, and correlate the diffusion indexes with the clinical variables. Methods: 16 patients with TN and 6 healthy controls (HC) were recruited into our study. All participants were imaged with a 3.0 T system with three-dimension time-of-flight (TOF) magnetic resonance angiography and fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) DTI-sequence. We placed regions of interest over the root entry zone of the TGN and measured fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD) and radial diffusivity (RD). The mean values of FA, MD, AD and RD were compared between the affected and unaffected sides in the same patient, and to HC values. The correlation between the side-to-side diffusion metric difference and clinical variables (disease duration and visual analogy scale, VAS) was further explored. Results: Compared with the unaffected side and HC, the affected side showed significantly decreased FA and increased RD; however, no significant changes of AD were found. A trend toward significantly increased MD was identified on the affected side comparing with the unaffected side. We also found the significant correlation between the FA reduction and VAS of pain (r = −0.55, p = 0.03). Conclusion: DTI can quantitatively assess the microstructural abnormalities of the affected TGN in patients with TN. Our results suggest demyelination without significant axonal injury is the essential pathological basis of the affected TGN by multiple diffusion metrics. The correlation between FA reduction and VAS suggests FA as a potential objective MRI biomarker to correlate with clinical severity

  16. Role of the renin-angiotensin system, renal sympathetic nerve system, and oxidative stress in chronic foot shock-induced hypertension in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Tao; Chen, Jing-Wei; Tian, Li-Li; Wang, Lin-Hui; Jiang, Ren-Di; Zhang, Zhe; Xu, Jian-Bing; Zhao, Xiao-Dong; Zhu, Wei; Wang, Guo-Qing; Sun, Wan-Ping; Zhang, Guo-Xing

    2015-01-01

    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and renal sympathetic nerve system (RSNS) are involved in the development of hypertension. The present study is designed to explore the possible roles of the RAS and the RSNS in foot shock-induced hypertension. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into six groups: control, foot shock, RSNS denervation, denervation plus foot shock, Captopril (angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitor, ACE inhibitor) plus foot shock, and Tempol (superoxide dismutase mimetic) plus foot shock. Rats received foot shock for 14 days. We measured the quantity of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), corticosterone, renin, and angiotensin II (Ang II) in plasma, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and renal noradrenaline content. RAS component mRNA and protein levels were quantified in the cerebral cortex and hypothalamus. The two week foot shock treatment significantly increased systolic blood pressure, which was accompanied by an increase in angiotensinogen, renin, ACE1, and AT1a mRNA and protein expression in the cerebral cortex and hypothalamus, an increase of the plasma concentrations of renin, Ang II, corticosterone, and TBARS, as well as a decrease in plasma SOD and GSH-Px activities. Systolic blood pressure increase was suppressed by denervation of the RSNS or treatment with Captopril or Tempol. Interestingly, denervation or Tempol treatment both decreased main RAS components not only in the circulatory system, but also in the central nervous system. In addition, decreased antioxidant levels and increased TBARS and corticosterone levels were also partially restored by denervation or treatment with Tempol or Captopril. RAS, RSNS and oxidative stress reciprocally potentiate to play important roles in the development of foot shock-induced hypertension.

  17. Evaluation of cardiac sympathetic nerve activity and aldosterone suppression in patients with acute decompensated heart failure on treatment containing intravenous atrial natriuretic peptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasama, Shu; Toyama, Takuji; Kurabayashi, Masahiko; Iwasaki, Toshiya; Sumino, Hiroyuki; Kumakura, Hisao; Minami, Kazutomo; Ichikawa, Shuichi; Matsumoto, Naoya; Nakata, Tomoaki

    2014-01-01

    Aldosterone prevents the uptake of norepinephrine in the myocardium. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), a circulating hormone of cardiac origin, inhibits aldosterone synthase gene expression in cultured cardiocytes. We evaluated the effects of intravenous ANP on cardiac sympathetic nerve activity (CSNA) and aldosterone suppression in patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). We studied 182 patients with moderate nonischemic ADHF requiring hospitalization and treated with standard therapy containing intravenous ANP and 10 age-matched normal control subjects. ANP was continuously infused for >96 h. In all subjects, delayed total defect score (TDS), heart to mediastinum ratio, and washout rate were determined by 123 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy. Left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume, and ejection fraction were determined by echocardiography. All patients with acute heart failure (AHF) were examined once within 3 days and then 4 weeks after admission, while the control subjects were examined only once (when their hemodynamics were normal). Moreover, for 62 AHF patients, plasma aldosterone concentrations were measured at admission and 1 h before stopping ANP infusion. 123 I-MIBG scintigraphic and echocardiographic parameters in normal subjects were more favorable than those in patients with AHF (all p < 0.001). After treatment, all these parameters improved significantly in AHF patients (all p < 0.001). We also found significant correlation between percent changes of TDS and aldosterone concentrations (r = 0.539, p < 0.001) in 62 AHF patients. The CSNA and LV performance were all improved in AHF patients. Furthermore, norepinephrine uptake of myocardium may be ameliorated by suppressing aldosterone production after standard treatment containing intravenous ANP. (orig.)

  18. Evaluation of cardiac sympathetic nerve activity and aldosterone suppression in patients with acute decompensated heart failure on treatment containing intravenous atrial natriuretic peptide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasama, Shu [Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Medicine and Biological Science (Cardiovascular Medicine), Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Cardiovascular Hospital of Central Japan (Kitakanto Cardiovascular Hospital), Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Gunma (Japan); Toyama, Takuji; Kurabayashi, Masahiko [Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Medicine and Biological Science (Cardiovascular Medicine), Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Iwasaki, Toshiya; Sumino, Hiroyuki; Kumakura, Hisao; Minami, Kazutomo; Ichikawa, Shuichi [Cardiovascular Hospital of Central Japan (Kitakanto Cardiovascular Hospital), Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Gunma (Japan); Matsumoto, Naoya [Nihon University School of Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Tokyo (Japan); Nakata, Tomoaki [Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Second (Cardiology) Department of Internal Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan)

    2014-09-15

    Aldosterone prevents the uptake of norepinephrine in the myocardium. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), a circulating hormone of cardiac origin, inhibits aldosterone synthase gene expression in cultured cardiocytes. We evaluated the effects of intravenous ANP on cardiac sympathetic nerve activity (CSNA) and aldosterone suppression in patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). We studied 182 patients with moderate nonischemic ADHF requiring hospitalization and treated with standard therapy containing intravenous ANP and 10 age-matched normal control subjects. ANP was continuously infused for >96 h. In all subjects, delayed total defect score (TDS), heart to mediastinum ratio, and washout rate were determined by {sup 123}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy. Left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume, and ejection fraction were determined by echocardiography. All patients with acute heart failure (AHF) were examined once within 3 days and then 4 weeks after admission, while the control subjects were examined only once (when their hemodynamics were normal). Moreover, for 62 AHF patients, plasma aldosterone concentrations were measured at admission and 1 h before stopping ANP infusion. {sup 123}I-MIBG scintigraphic and echocardiographic parameters in normal subjects were more favorable than those in patients with AHF (all p < 0.001). After treatment, all these parameters improved significantly in AHF patients (all p < 0.001). We also found significant correlation between percent changes of TDS and aldosterone concentrations (r = 0.539, p < 0.001) in 62 AHF patients. The CSNA and LV performance were all improved in AHF patients. Furthermore, norepinephrine uptake of myocardium may be ameliorated by suppressing aldosterone production after standard treatment containing intravenous ANP. (orig.)

  19. Abnormal Origin and Course of the Accessory Phrenic Nerve: Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraskevas, George; Koutsouflianiotis, Konstantinos; Kitsoulis, Panagiotis; Spyridakis, Ioannis

    In the current cadaveric study an unusual sizeable accessory phrenic nerve (APN) was encountered emerging from the trunk of the supraclavicular nerves and forming a triangular loop that was anastomosing with the phrenic nerve. That neural loop surrounded the superficial cervical artery which displayed a spiral course. The form of a triangular loop of APN involving the aforementioned artery and originating from the supraclavicular nerve to the best of our knowledge has not been documented previously in the literature. The variable morphological features of the APN along with its clinical applications are briefly discussed.

  20. Abnormal Origin and Course of the Accessory Phrenic Nerve: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Paraskevas

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the current cadaveric study an unusual sizeable accessory phrenic nerve (APN was encountered emerging from the trunk of the supraclavicular nerves and forming a triangular loop that was anastomosing with the phrenic nerve. That neural loop surrounded the superficial cervical artery which displayed a spiral course. The form of a triangular loop of APN involving the aforementioned artery and originating from the supraclavicular nerve to the best of our knowledge has not been documented previously in the literature. The variable morphological features of the APN along with its clinical applications are briefly discussed.

  1. Streptozocin-induced type-1 diabetes mellitus results in decreased density of CGRP sensory and TH sympathetic nerve fibers that are positively correlated with bone loss at the mouse femoral neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enríquez-Pérez, Iris A; Galindo-Ordoñez, Karla E; Pantoja-Ortíz, Christian E; Martínez-Martínez, Arisaí; Acosta-González, Rosa I; Muñoz-Islas, Enriqueta; Jiménez-Andrade, Juan M

    2017-08-10

    Type-1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) results in loss of innervation in some tissues including epidermis and retina; however, the effect on bone innervation is unknown. Likewise, T1DM results in pathological bone loss and increased risk of fracture. Thus, we quantified the density of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP + ) sensory and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH + ) sympathetic nerve fibers and determined the association between the innervation density and microarchitecture of trabecular bone at the mouse femoral neck. Ten weeks-old female mice received 5 daily administrations of streptozocin (i.p. 50mg/kg) or citrate (control group). Twenty weeks later, femurs were analyzed by microCT and processed for immunohistochemistry. Confocal microscopy analysis revealed that mice with T1DM had a significant loss of both CGRP + and TH + nerve fibers in the bone marrow at the femoral neck. Likewise, microCT analysis revealed a significant decrease in the trabecular bone mineral density (tBMD), bone volume/total volume ratio (BV/TB), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), trabecular number (Tb.N) and trabecular separation (Tb.Sp) in mice with T1DM as compared to control mice. Analysis of correlation revealed a positive and significant association between density of CGRP + or TH + nerve fibers with tBMD, BV/TV, Tb.Th and Tb.Sp, but not with trabecular number (there was a positive association only for CGRP + ) and degree of anisotropy (DA). This study suggests an interaction between sensory and sympathetic nervous system and T1DM-induced bone loss. Identification of the factors involved in the loss of CGRP + sensory and TH + sympathetic fibers and how they regulate bone loss may result in new avenues to treat T1DM-related osteoporosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of adding intravenous nicorandil to standard therapy on cardiac sympathetic nerve activity and myocyte dysfunction in patients with acute decompensated heart failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasama, Shu [Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Medicine and Biological Science (Cardiovascular Medicine), Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Cardiovascular Hospital of Central Japan (Kitakanto Cardiovascular Hospital), Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Gunma (Japan); Toyama, Takuji; Funada, Ryuichi; Takama, Noriaki; Koitabashi, Norimichi; Kurabayashi, Masahiko [Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Medicine and Biological Science (Cardiovascular Medicine), Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Ichikawa, Shuichi [Cardiovascular Hospital of Central Japan (Kitakanto Cardiovascular Hospital), Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Gunma (Japan); Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Matsumoto, Naoya [Nihon University School of Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Tokyo (Japan); Sato, Yuichi [Health Park Clinic, Department of Imaging, Takasaki, Gunma (Japan)

    2015-04-01

    Nicorandil, an adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channel opener, improves cardiac sympathetic nerve activity (CSNA) in ischemic heart disease or chronic heart failure. However, its effects on CSNA and myocyte dysfunction in acute heart failure (AHF) remain unclear. We investigated the effects of adding intravenous nicorandil to standard therapy on CSNA and myocyte dysfunction in AHF. We selected 70 patients with mild to moderate nonischemic AHF who were treated with standard conventional therapy soon after admission. Thirty-five patients were assigned to additionally receive intravenous nicorandil (4-12 mg/h; group A), whereas the remaining patients continued their current drug regimen (group B). Delayed total defect score (TDS), delayed heart to mediastinum count (H/M) ratio, and washout rate (WR) were determined by {sup 123}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy within 3 days of admission and 4 weeks later. High sensitivity troponin T (hs-TnT) level was also measured at the same time points. After treatment, MIBG scintigraphic parameters significantly improved in both groups. However, the extent of the changes in these parameters in group A significantly exceeded the extent of the changes in group B [TDS -11.3 ± 4.3 in group A vs -4.0 ± 6.0 in group B (p < 0.01); H/M ratio 0.31 ± 0.16 vs 0.14 ± 0.16 (p < 0.01); WR -13.8 ± 7.8 % vs -6.1 ± 8.9 % (p < 0.01)]. The hs-TnT level decreased significantly from 0.052 ± 0.043 to 0.041 ± 0.033 ng/ml (p < 0.05) in group A, but showed no significant change in group B. Moreover, in both groups, no relationships between the extent of changes in MIBG parameters and hs-TnT level were observed. Adding intravenous nicorandil to standard therapy provides additional benefits for CSNA and myocyte dysfunction over conventional therapy alone in AHF patients. Furthermore, the mechanisms of improvement in CSNA and myocyte dysfunction after nicorandil treatment in AHF patients were distinct. (orig.)

  3. Morphological abnormalities of embryonic cranial nerves after in utero exposure to valproic acid: implications for the pathogenesis of autism with multiple developmental anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashiro, Yasura; Oyabu, Akiko; Imura, Yoshio; Uchida, Atsuko; Narita, Naoko; Narita, Masaaki

    2011-06-01

    Autism is often associated with multiple developmental anomalies including asymmetric facial palsy. In order to establish the etiology of autism with facial palsy, research into developmental abnormalities of the peripheral facial nerves is necessary. In the present study, to investigate the development of peripheral cranial nerves for use in an animal model of autism, rat embryos were treated with valproic acid (VPA) in utero and their cranial nerves were visualized by immunostaining. Treatment with VPA after embryonic day 9 had a significant effect on the peripheral fibers of several cranial nerves. Following VPA treatment, immunoreactivity within the trigeminal, facial, glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves was significantly reduced. Additionally, abnormal axonal pathways were observed in the peripheral facial nerves. Thus, the morphology of several cranial nerves, including the facial nerve, can be affected by prenatal VPA exposure as early as E13. Our findings indicate that disruption of early facial nerve development is involved in the etiology of asymmetric facial palsy, and may suggest a link to the etiology of autism. Copyright © 2011 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. MR imaging of the cisternal segment of the posterior group of cranial nerves: Neurovascular relationships and abnormal changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang Changhu, E-mail: tigerlch@163.co [Shandong University, Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute, CT Room, 324, Jingwu Road, Jinan, Shandong (China); Du Yinglin, E-mail: duyinglinzhuo@sohu.co [Shandong Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Public Health Institute, 72, Jingshi Road, Jinan, Shandong (China); Xu Jinfa, E-mail: xuke5598@icom.c [Liao Cheng City People' s Hospital, Dongchang Road, Liaocheng, Shandong (China); Wu Lebin, E-mail: Lebinwu518@163.co [Shandong University, Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute, CT Room, 324, Jingwu Road, Jinan, Shandong (China); Liu Cheng, E-mail: cacab2a@126.co [Shandong University, Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute, CT Room, 324, Jingwu Road, Jinan, Shandong (China); Wang Ximing, E-mail: wxming369@163.co [Shandong University, Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute, CT Room, 324, Jingwu Road, Jinan, Shandong (China); Wang Haiyan, E-mail: whyott@163.co [Shandong University, Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute, CT Room, 324, Jingwu Road, Jinan, Shandong (China); Yu Fuhua, E-mail: changhu1970@163.co [Weifang Medical College, 7166, West Road Baotong Weifang, Shandong (China)

    2010-07-15

    Objective: To evaluate the detailed anatomic features, neurovascular relationships of the cisternal segment of the posterior group of cranial nerves (PGCN: IX, X, XI, XII); to evaluate the utility of magnetic resonance (MR) in demonstrating the PGCN with disorders caused by abnormal compression related to artery or tumor. Methods: A total of 59 volunteers, 12 patients with abnormal symptom in the PGCN underwent three-dimensional (3D) Fourier transformation constructive interference in steady-state (CISS) MR imaging, and 22 of these volunteers and 12 patients also underwent MR angiography in which a time-of-flight (TOF) sequence was used to further distinguish the PGCN from the adjacent blood vessels. Anatomical features, neurovascular relationships of the PGCN in 59 volunteers and abnormal changes in 12 patients caused by neurovascular compression or tumor were observed from multi-planar reconstruction (MPR) images, cryomicrotome section and 3D-CISS MR imaging of cranial cadaver were used to testify the PGCN displayed in 59 volunteers. Results: 3D-CISS MR imaging depicted the proximal cisternal segment of the cranial nerves complex (CN IX, X, XI) at the oblique axial, sagittal planes in 100% (118/118), 99% (117/118) of 118 sides; CNXII in the oblique axial, sagittal planes in 90% (106/118), 91% (107/118) of 118 sides. At the sagittal planes, the CN IX, X, XI were found parallel to each other in the cisternal segment in 45.2% (53/117) of 117 sides, gathering into a bundle of nerves complex before entering the jugular foramen (JF) in 54.7% (64/117) of 117sides. VAs were blood vessels more often identified, they were found to be in contact with the PGCN in 28.0% (33/118) of 118 sides, and not in contact in 72.0% (85/118) of 118 sides. 3D-CISS MR imaging of volunteers revealed the similar result corresponding to cryomicrotome section and 3D-CISS MR imaging of cranial cadaver. Twelve patients with abnormal changes in the PGCN were all displayed well, among them 8 were

  5. MR imaging of the cisternal segment of the posterior group of cranial nerves: Neurovascular relationships and abnormal changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Changhu; Du Yinglin; Xu Jinfa; Wu Lebin; Liu Cheng; Wang Ximing; Wang Haiyan; Yu Fuhua

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the detailed anatomic features, neurovascular relationships of the cisternal segment of the posterior group of cranial nerves (PGCN: IX, X, XI, XII); to evaluate the utility of magnetic resonance (MR) in demonstrating the PGCN with disorders caused by abnormal compression related to artery or tumor. Methods: A total of 59 volunteers, 12 patients with abnormal symptom in the PGCN underwent three-dimensional (3D) Fourier transformation constructive interference in steady-state (CISS) MR imaging, and 22 of these volunteers and 12 patients also underwent MR angiography in which a time-of-flight (TOF) sequence was used to further distinguish the PGCN from the adjacent blood vessels. Anatomical features, neurovascular relationships of the PGCN in 59 volunteers and abnormal changes in 12 patients caused by neurovascular compression or tumor were observed from multi-planar reconstruction (MPR) images, cryomicrotome section and 3D-CISS MR imaging of cranial cadaver were used to testify the PGCN displayed in 59 volunteers. Results: 3D-CISS MR imaging depicted the proximal cisternal segment of the cranial nerves complex (CN IX, X, XI) at the oblique axial, sagittal planes in 100% (118/118), 99% (117/118) of 118 sides; CNXII in the oblique axial, sagittal planes in 90% (106/118), 91% (107/118) of 118 sides. At the sagittal planes, the CN IX, X, XI were found parallel to each other in the cisternal segment in 45.2% (53/117) of 117 sides, gathering into a bundle of nerves complex before entering the jugular foramen (JF) in 54.7% (64/117) of 117sides. VAs were blood vessels more often identified, they were found to be in contact with the PGCN in 28.0% (33/118) of 118 sides, and not in contact in 72.0% (85/118) of 118 sides. 3D-CISS MR imaging of volunteers revealed the similar result corresponding to cryomicrotome section and 3D-CISS MR imaging of cranial cadaver. Twelve patients with abnormal changes in the PGCN were all displayed well, among them 8 were

  6. Sympathetic rhythms and nervous integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbey, Michael P

    2007-04-01

    1. The present review focuses on some of the processes producing rhythms in sympathetic nerves influencing cardiovascular functions and considers their potential relevance to nervous integration. 2. Two mechanisms are considered that may account for rhythmic sympathetic discharges. First, neuronal elements of peripheral or central origin produce rhythmic activity by phasically exciting and/or inhibiting neurons within central sympathetic networks. Second, rhythms arise within central sympathetic networks. Evidence is considered that indicates the operation of both mechanisms; the first in muscle and the second in skin sympathetic vasoconstrictor networks. 3. Sympathetic activity to the rat tail, a model for the nervous control of skin circulation, is regulated by central networks involved in thermoregulation and those associated with fear and arousal. In an anaesthetized preparation, activity displays an apparently autonomous rhythm (T-rhythm; 0.4-1.2 Hz) and the level of activity can be manipulated by regulating core body temperature. This model has been used to study rhythm generation in central sympathetic networks and possible functional relevance. 4. A unique insight provided by the T rhythm, into possible physiological function(s) underlying rhythmic sympathetic discharges is that the activity of single sympathetic post-ganglionic neurons within a population innervating the same target can have different rhythm frequencies. Therefore, the graded and dynamic entrainment of the rhythms by inputs, such as central respiratory drive and/or lung inflation-related afferent activity, can produce graded and dynamic synchronization of sympathetic discharges. The degree of synchronization may influence the efficacy of transmission in a target chain of excitable cells. 5. The T-rhythm may be generated within the spinal cord because the intrathecal application of 5-hydroxytryptamine at the L1 level of the spinal cord of a rat spinalized at T10-T11 produces a T-like rhythm

  7. Paranode Abnormalities and Oxidative Stress in Optic Nerve Vulnerable to Secondary Degeneration: Modulation by 670 nm Light Treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charis R Szymanski

    Full Text Available Secondary degeneration of nerve tissue adjacent to a traumatic injury results in further loss of neurons, glia and function, via mechanisms that may involve oxidative stress. However, changes in indicators of oxidative stress have not yet been demonstrated in oligodendrocytes vulnerable to secondary degeneration in vivo. We show increases in the oxidative stress indicator carboxymethyl lysine at days 1 and 3 after injury in oligodendrocytes vulnerable to secondary degeneration. Dihydroethidium staining for superoxide is reduced, indicating endogenous control of this particular reactive species after injury. Concurrently, node of Ranvier/paranode complexes are altered, with significant lengthening of the paranodal gap and paranode as well as paranode disorganisation. Therapeutic administration of 670 nm light is thought to improve oxidative metabolism via mechanisms that may include increased activity of cytochrome c oxidase. Here, we show that light at 670 nm, delivered for 30 minutes per day, results in in vivo increases in cytochrome c oxidase activity co-localised with oligodendrocytes. Short term (1 day 670 nm light treatment is associated with reductions in reactive species at the injury site. In optic nerve vulnerable to secondary degeneration superoxide in oligodendrocytes is reduced relative to handling controls, and is associated with reduced paranode abnormalities. Long term (3 month administration of 670 nm light preserves retinal ganglion cells vulnerable to secondary degeneration and maintains visual function, as assessed by the optokinetic nystagmus visual reflex. Light at a wavelength of 670 nm may serve as a therapeutic intervention for treatment of secondary degeneration following neurotrauma.

  8. [Nerve growth factor and the physiology of pain: the relationships among interoception, sympathetic neurons and the emotional response indicated by the molecular pathophysiology of congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indo, Yasuhiro

    2015-05-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a neurotrophic factor essential for the survival and maintenance of neurons. Congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis (CIPA) is caused by loss-of-function mutations in NTRK1, which encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase, TrkA, for NGF. Mutations in NTRK1 cause the selective loss of NGF-dependent neurons, including both NGF-dependent primary afferents and sympathetic postganglionic neurons, in otherwise intact systems. The NGF-dependent primary afferents are thinly myelinated AΔ or unmyelinated C-fibers that are dependent on the NGF-TrkA system during development. NGF-dependent primary afferents are not only nociceptive neurons that transmit pain and temperature sensation, but also are polymodal receptors that play essential roles for interoception by monitoring various changes in the physiological status of all tissues in the body. In addition, they contribute to various inflammatory processes in acute, chronic and allergic inflammation. Together with sympathetic postganglionic neurons, they maintain the homeostasis of the body and emotional responses via interactions with the brain, immune and endocrine systems. Pain is closely related to emotions that accompany physical responses induced by systemic activation of the sympathetic nervous system. In contrast to a negative image of emotions in daily life, Antonio Damasio proposed the 'Somatic Marker Hypothesis', wherein emotions play critical roles in the decision-making and reasoning processes. According to this hypothesis, reciprocal communication between the brain and the body-proper are essential for emotional responses. Using the pathophysiology of CIPA as a foundation, this article suggests that NGF-dependent neurons constitute a part of the neuronal network required for homeostasis and emotional responses, and indicates that this network plays important roles in mediating the reciprocal communication between the brain and the body-proper.

  9. The superiority of 3D-CISS sequence in displaying the cisternal segment of facial, vestibulocochlear nerves and their abnormal changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang Changhu, E-mail: tigerlch@163.co [Shandong University, Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute, CT Room, 324, Jingwu Road, Jinan, Shandong (China); Zhang Bin, E-mail: liangchangbo.student@sina.co [Liao Cheng City People' s Hospital, Dongchang Road, Liaocheng, Shandong (China); Wu Lebin, E-mail: Lebinwu518@163.co [Shandong University, Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute, CT Room, 324, Jingwu Road, Jinan, Shandong (China); Du Yinglin, E-mail: duyinglinzhuo@sohu.co [Shandong Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Public Health Institute, 72, Jingshi Road, Jinan, Shandong (China); Wang Ximing, E-mail: wxminmg369@163.co [Shandong University, Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute, CT Room, 324, Jingwu Road, Jinan, Shandong (China); Liu Cheng, E-mail: cacab2a@126.co [Shandong University, Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute, CT Room, 324, Jingwu Road, Jinan, Shandong (China); Yu Fuhua, E-mail: changhu1970@163.co [Weifang Medical College, 7166, West Road Baotong Weifang, Shandong (China)

    2010-06-15

    Objective: To select the best imaging method for clinical otologic patients through evaluating 3D constructive interference of steady state (CISS) image quality in visualizing the facial, vestibulocochlear nerves (CN:VII-VIII) and their abnormal changes. Methods: The CN:VII-VIII as well as inner ear structures in 48 volunteers were examined using 3D-CISS and 3D turbo spin echo (TSE) sequences respectively, and displayed to the full at the reformatted and maximum intensity projection (MIP) images. The nerve identification and image quality were graded for the CN:VII-VIII as well as inner ear structures. Statistical analysis was performed using the Wilcoxin test, p < 0.05 was considered significant. In addition, 8 patients with abnormality in facial or vestibulocochlear nerves were also examined using 3D-CISS sequence. Results: The identification rates for the cisternal segment of facial, vestibulocochlear nerves and corresponding membranous labyrinth were 100%. Abnormal changes of the facial or vestibulocochlear nerves were clearly shown in 8 patients, among them 1 was caused by bilateral acoustic neurinoma, 1 by cholesteatoma at cerebellopontine angle, 1 by arachnoid cyst, 1 by neurovascular adhesion, 4 by neurovascular compression. Conclusion: With 3D-CISS sequence the fine structure of the CN:VII-VIII and corresponding membranous labyrinth can be clearly demonstrated; lesions at the site of cerebellopontine angle can also be found easily.

  10. Netrin-1 controls sympathetic arterial innervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunet, Isabelle; Gordon, Emma; Han, Jinah; Cristofaro, Brunella; Broqueres-You, Dong; Liu, Chun; Bouvrée, Karine; Zhang, Jiasheng; del Toro, Raquel; Mathivet, Thomas; Larrivée, Bruno; Jagu, Julia; Pibouin-Fragner, Laurence; Pardanaud, Luc; Machado, Maria J C; Kennedy, Timothy E; Zhuang, Zhen; Simons, Michael; Levy, Bernard I; Tessier-Lavigne, Marc; Grenz, Almut; Eltzschig, Holger; Eichmann, Anne

    2014-07-01

    Autonomic sympathetic nerves innervate peripheral resistance arteries, thereby regulating vascular tone and controlling blood supply to organs. Despite the fundamental importance of blood flow control, how sympathetic arterial innervation develops remains largely unknown. Here, we identified the axon guidance cue netrin-1 as an essential factor required for development of arterial innervation in mice. Netrin-1 was produced by arterial smooth muscle cells (SMCs) at the onset of innervation, and arterial innervation required the interaction of netrin-1 with its receptor, deleted in colorectal cancer (DCC), on sympathetic growth cones. Function-blocking approaches, including cell type-specific deletion of the genes encoding Ntn1 in SMCs and Dcc in sympathetic neurons, led to severe and selective reduction of sympathetic innervation and to defective vasoconstriction in resistance arteries. These findings indicate that netrin-1 and DCC are critical for the control of arterial innervation and blood flow regulation in peripheral organs.

  11. Sympathetic block by metal clips may be a reversible operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Lars L; Mikkelsen, Rasmus T; Derejko, Miroslawa

    2014-01-01

    , but the question of reversibility remains controversial. Two recent experimental studies found severe histological signs of nerve damage 4-6 weeks after clip removal, but they only used conventional histopathological staining methods. METHODS: Thoracoscopic clipping of the sympathetic trunk was performed in adult...... the sympathetic chain vary tremendously. Most surgeons transect or resect the sympathetic chain, but application of a metal clip that blocks transmission of nerve impulses in the sympathetic chain is used increasingly worldwide. This approach offers potential reversibility if patients regret surgery...... suggests in theory that application of metal clips to the sympathetic chain is a reversible procedure if only the observation period is prolonged. Further studies with longer periods between application and removal as well as investigations of nerve conduction should be encouraged, because we do not know...

  12. Acute corneal epithelial debridement unmasks the corneal stromal nerve responses to ocular stimulation in rats: implications for abnormal sensations of the eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Harumitsu; Mizerska, Kamila; Dallacasagrande, Valentina; Guaiquil, Victor H; Rosenblatt, Mark I

    2017-05-01

    It is widely accepted that the mechanisms for transducing sensory information reside in the nerve terminals. Occasionally, however, studies have appeared demonstrating that similar mechanisms may exist in the axon to which these terminals are connected. We examined this issue in the cornea, where nerve terminals in the epithelial cell layers are easily accessible for debridement, leaving the underlying stromal (axonal) nerves undisturbed. In isoflurane-anesthetized rats, we recorded extracellularly from single trigeminal ganglion neurons innervating the cornea that are excited by ocular dryness and cooling: low-threshold (2°C) cold-sensitive plus dry-sensitive neurons playing possible roles in tearing and ocular pain. We found that the responses in both types of neurons to dryness, wetness, and menthol stimuli were effectively abolished by the debridement, indicating that their transduction mechanisms lie in the nerve terminals. However, some responses to the cold, heat, and hyperosmolar stimuli in low-threshold cold-sensitive plus dry-sensitive neurons still remained. Surprisingly, the responses to heat in approximately half of the neurons were augmented after the debridement. We were also able to evoke these residual responses and follow the trajectory of the stromal nerves, which we subsequently confirmed histologically. The residual responses always disappeared when the stromal nerves were cut at the limbus, suggesting that the additional transduction mechanisms for these sensory modalities originated most likely in stromal nerves. The functional significance of these residual and enhanced responses from stromal nerves may be related to the abnormal sensations observed in ocular disease. NEW & NOTEWORTHY In addition to the traditional view that the sensory transduction mechanisms exist in the nerve terminals, we report here that the proximal axons (stromal nerves in the cornea from which these nerve terminals originate) may also be capable of transducing

  13. Imbalance between sympathetic and sensory innervation in peritoneal endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Julia; Barcena de Arellano, Maria L; Rüster, Carola; Vercellino, Giuseppe F; Chiantera, Vito; Schneider, Achim; Mechsner, Sylvia

    2012-01-01

    To investigate possible mechanisms of pain pathophysiology in patients with peritoneal endometriosis, a clinical study on sensory and sympathetic nerve fibre sprouting in endometriosis was performed. Peritoneal lesions (n=40) and healthy peritoneum (n=12) were immunostained and analysed with anti-protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5), anti-substance P (SP) and anti-tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), specific markers for intact nerve fibres, sensory nerve fibres and sympathetic nerve fibres, respectively, to identify the ratio of sympathetic and sensory nerve fibres. In addition, immune cell infiltrates in peritoneal endometriotic lesions were analysed and the nerve growth factor (NGF) and interleukin (IL)-1β expression was correlate with the nerve fibre density. Peritoneal fluids from patients with endometriosis (n=40) and without endometriosis (n=20) were used for the in vitro neuronal growth assay. Cultured chicken dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and sympathetic ganglia were stained with anti-growth associated protein 43 (anti-GAP 43), anti-SP and anti-TH. We could detect an increased sensory and decreased sympathetic nerve fibres density in peritoneal lesions compared to healthy peritoneum. Peritoneal fluids of patients with endometriosis compared to patients without endometriosis induced an increased sprouting of sensory neurites from DRG and decreased neurite outgrowth from sympathetic ganglia. In conclusion, this study demonstrates an imbalance between sympathetic and sensory nerve fibres in peritoneal endometriosis, as well as an altered modulation of peritoneal fluids from patients with endometriosis on sympathetic and sensory innervation which might directly be involved in the maintenance of inflammation and pain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Modulation of the sympathetic nerve action on carbohydrate and ketone body metabolism by fatty acids, glucagon und insulin in perfused rat liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Küster, J.; Beuers, U.; JUNGERMANN, K.

    1989-01-01

    Rat liver was perfused in situ via the portal vein without recirculation: 1) Nerve stimulation (20 Hz, 2 ms, 20 V) increased glucose output and shifted lactate uptake to output; the alterations were diminished by oleate but not octanoate. 2) Glucagon (1nM) stimulated glucose output maximally also in

  15. Sympathetic and parasympathetic regulation of rectal motility in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridolfi, Timothy J; Tong, Wei-Dong; Takahashi, Toku; Kosinski, Lauren; Ludwig, Kirk A

    2009-11-01

    The colon and rectum are regulated by the autonomic nervous system (ANS). Abnormalities of the ANS are associated with diseases of the colon and rectum while its modulation is a putative mechanism for sacral nerve stimulation. The purpose of this study is to establish a rat model elucidating the role of the efferent ANS on rectal motility. Rectal motility following transection or stimulation of parasympathetic pelvic nerves (PN) or sympathetic hypogastric nerves (HGN) was measured with rectal strain gauge transducers and quantified as a motility index (MI). Colonic transit was measured 24 hours after transection by calculating the geometric center (GC) of distribution of (51)Cr Transection of PN and HGN decreased MI to 518 +/- 185 g*s (p < 0.05) and increased MI to 5,029 +/- 1,954 g*s (p < 0.05), respectively, compared to sham (975 +/- 243 g*s). Sectioning of PN and HGN decreased transit with GC = 4.9 +/- 0.2 (p < 0.05) and increased transit with GC = 8.1 +/- 0.7 (p < 0.02), respectively, compared to sham (GC = 5.8 +/- 0.3). Stimulation of PN and HGN increased MI to 831 +/- 157% (p < 0.01) and decreased MI to 251 +/- 24% (p < 0.05), respectively. Rectal motility is significantly altered by sectioning or stimulating either HGN or PN. This model may be useful in studying how sacral nerve stimulation exerts its effects and provide insight into the maladies of colonic motility.

  16. Endoplasmic reticulum stress increases brain MAPK signaling, inflammation and renin-angiotensin system activity and sympathetic nerve activity in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shun-Guang; Yu, Yang; Weiss, Robert M; Felder, Robert B

    2016-10-01

    We previously reported that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is induced in the subfornical organ (SFO) and the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of heart failure (HF) rats and is reduced by inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. The present study further examined the relationship between brain MAPK signaling, ER stress, and sympathetic excitation in HF. Sham-operated (Sham) and HF rats received a 4-wk intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion of vehicle (Veh) or the ER stress inhibitor tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA, 10 μg/day). Lower mRNA levels of the ER stress biomarkers GRP78, ATF6, ATF4, and XBP-1s in the SFO and PVN of TUDCA-treated HF rats validated the efficacy of the TUDCA dose. The elevated levels of phosphorylated p44/42 and p38 MAPK in SFO and PVN of Veh-treated HF rats, compared with Sham rats, were significantly reduced in TUDCA-treated HF rats as shown by Western blot and immunofluorescent staining. Plasma norepinephrine levels were higher in Veh-treated HF rats, compared with Veh-treated Sham rats, and were significantly lower in the TUDCA-treated HF rats. TUDCA-treated HF rats also had lower mRNA levels for angiotensin converting enzyme, angiotensin II type 1 receptor, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, cyclooxygenase-2, and NF-κB p65, and a higher mRNA level of IκB-α, in the SFO and PVN than Veh-treated HF rats. These data suggest that ER stress contributes to the augmented sympathetic activity in HF by inducing MAPK signaling, thereby promoting inflammation and renin-angiotensin system activity in key cardiovascular regulatory regions of the brain.

  17. Overexpression of Sarcoendoplasmic Reticulum Calcium ATPase 2a Promotes Cardiac Sympathetic Neurotransmission via Abnormal Endoplasmic Reticulum and Mitochondria Ca2+ Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, Julia; Herring, Neil; Johnson, Errin; Liu, Kun; Li, Dan

    2017-01-01

    Reduced cardiomyocyte excitation–contraction coupling and downregulation of the SERCA2a (sarcoendoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 2a) is associated with heart failure. This has led to viral transgene upregulation of SERCA2a in cardiomyocytes as a treatment. We hypothesized that SERCA2a gene therapy expressed under a similar promiscuous cytomegalovirus promoter could also affect the cardiac sympathetic neural axis and promote sympathoexcitation. Stellate neurons were isolated from 90 to 120 g male, Sprague–Dawley, Wistar Kyoto, and spontaneously hypertensive rats. Neurons were infected with Ad-mCherry or Ad-mCherry-hATP2Aa (SERCA2a). Intracellular Ca2+ changes were measured using fura-2AM in response to KCl, caffeine, thapsigargin, and carbonylcyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazine to mobilize intracellular Ca2+ stores. The effect of SERCA2a on neurotransmitter release was measured using [3H]-norepinephrine overflow from 340 to 360 g Sprague–Dawley rat atria in response to right stellate ganglia stimulation. Upregulation of SERCA2a resulted in greater neurotransmitter release in response to stellate stimulation compared with control (empty: 98.7±20.5 cpm, n=7; SERCA: 186.5±28.41 cpm, n=8; Pneurons, SERCA2a overexpression facilitated greater depolarization-induced Ca2+ transients (empty: 0.64±0.03 au, n=57; SERCA: 0.75±0.03 au, n=68; Pneurons resulted in increased neurotransmission and increased Ca2+ loading into intracellular stores. Whether the increased Ca2+ transient and neurotransmission after SERCA2A overexpression contributes to enhanced sympathoexcitation in heart failure patients remains to be determined. PMID:28223472

  18. Adaptive optics imaging of healthy and abnormal regions of retinal nerve fiber bundles of patients with glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Monica F; Chui, Toco Y P; Alhadeff, Paula; Rosen, Richard B; Ritch, Robert; Dubra, Alfredo; Hood, Donald C

    2015-01-08

    To better understand the nature of glaucomatous damage of the macula, especially the structural changes seen between relatively healthy and clearly abnormal (AB) retinal regions, using an adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope (AO-SLO). Adaptive optics SLO images and optical coherence tomography (OCT) vertical line scans were obtained on one eye of seven glaucoma patients, with relatively deep local arcuate defects on the 10-2 visual field test in one (six eyes) or both hemifields (one eye). Based on the OCT images, the retinal nerve fiber (RNF) layer was divided into two regions: (1) within normal limits (WNL), relative RNF layer thickness within mean control values ±2 SD; and (2) AB, relative thickness less than -2 SD value. As seen on AO-SLO, the pattern of AB RNF bundles near the border of the WNL and AB regions differed across eyes. There were normal-appearing bundles in the WNL region of all eyes and AB-appearing bundles near the border with the AB region. This region with AB bundles ranged in extent from a few bundles to the entire AB region in the case of one eye. All other eyes had a large AB region without bundles. However, in two of these eyes, a few bundles were seen within this region of otherwise missing bundles. The AO-SLO images revealed details of glaucomatous damage that are difficult, if not impossible, to see with current OCT technology. Adaptive optics SLO may prove useful in following progression in clinical trials, or in disease management, if AO-SLO becomes widely available and easy to use. Copyright 2015 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  19. Abnormal retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and macula lutea in patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, LiYan; Liu, Ying; Li, XiaoHong; Bai, QuanHao; Liu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    We investigated possible abnormalities in the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and macula lutea of patients diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and tested for any correlation with the severity of dementia. A total of 72 subjects, comprising 25 AD patients, 26 MCI patients and 21 healthy individuals (controls) were enrolled in this study. The thickness of the RNFL and volume of the macula lutea was determined using optical coherence tomography (OCT). When compared with controls, we found statistically significant thinning of the RNFL in AD patients at all clock-hour positions except 12:00, and nasal quadrant, 2:00, 3:00 and 4:00. After adjusting several risk factors, the average thickness of the RNFL was reduced in MCI patients compared to AD patients, with specific reductions at inferior quadrant, 5:00 and 6:00. Compared to controls, MCI patients showed a significant decrease in RNFL thickness only in the temporal quadrant, 8:00, 9:00 and 10:00. We found significant reduction in the volume of the macula lutea both in AD and MCI patients. Finally, we could not establish any correlation between patient Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores (an estimation of the severity of cognitive impairment) and any OCT parameter. Retinal degeneration in AD and MCI patients results in decreased thickness of the RNFL, and reduced macular volume in AD and MCI patients. However, there seems to be no correlation between these changes and the severity of dementia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Fibromyalgia: When Distress Becomes (Un)sympathetic Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez-Lavin, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Fibromyalgia is a painful stress-related disorder. A key issue in fibromyalgia research is to investigate how distress could be converted into pain. The sympathetic nervous system is the main element of the stress response system. In animal models, physical trauma, infection, or distressing noise can induce abnormal connections between the sympathetic nervous system and the nociceptive system. Dorsal root ganglia sodium channels facilitate this type of sympathetic pain. Similar mechanisms may...

  1. Recovery of colonic transit following extrinsic nerve damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridolfi, Timothy J; Tong, Wei Dong; Kosinski, Lauren; Takahashi, Toku; Ludwig, Kirk A

    2011-06-01

    Injury to pelvic sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves from surgical and obstetrical trauma has long been cited as a cause for abnormal colorectal motility in humans. Using a rat model, acute transaction of these extrinsic nerves has been shown to effect colorectal motility. The aim of this study is to determine in a rat model how transection of these extrinsic nerves affects colonic transit over time. Eighty-two Sprague-Dawley rats underwent placement of a tunneled catheter into the proximal colon. Bilateral hypogastric, pelvic nerves (HGN and PN) or both were transected in 66 rats. The remaining 16 rats received a sham operation. Colonic transit was evaluated at postoperative days (PODs) 1, 3, and 7 by injecting and calculating the geometric center (GC) of the distribution of (51)Cr after 3 h of propagation. At POD 1, transection of PNs significantly delayed colonic transit (GC = 4.9, p < 0.05), while transection of HGNs (GC = 8.5, p < 0.05) or transection of both nerves (GC = 7.8, p < 0.05) significantly accelerated colonic transit, when compared with sham operation (GC = 6.0). A significant trend toward recovery was noted in both the HGN and PN transection groups at POD 7. Damage to the extrinsic sympathetic and/or parasympathetic PNs affects colonic transit acutely. These changes in large bowel motor function normalize over time implicating a compensatory mechanism within the bowel itself.

  2. Clinical and Electrodiagnostic Abnormalities of the Median Nerve in US Army Dental Assistants at the Onset of Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    EMG studies). Data Management and Analysis Descriptive statistics for subject demographics and nerve conduction study variables were calculated using...military N/A Family history of CTS; previous work history as electrician, guitar player 49 (R) None N/A Dental assistant; waiter NCS indicates

  3. Congenital oval or round window anomaly with or without abnormal facial nerve course: surgical results for 15 ears.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomeer, H.G.; Kunst, H.P.; Verbist, B.M.; Cremers, C.W.R.J.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the audiometric results in a consecutive series of patients with congenital ossicular aplasia (Class 4a) or dysplasia of the oval and/or round window (Class 4b), which might include a possible anomalous course of the facial nerve. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective chart study.

  4. Muscle afferent receptors engaged in augmented sympathetic responsiveness in peripheral artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua eLi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The exercise pressor reflex (EPR is a neural control mechanism responsible for the cardiovascular responses to exercise. As exercise is initiated, thin fiber muscle afferent nerves are activated by mechanical and metabolic stimuli arising in the contracting muscles. This leads to reflex increases in arterial blood pressure and heart rate primarily through activation of sympathetic nerve activity (SNA. Studies of humans and animals have indicated that the EPR is exaggerated in a number of cardiovascular diseases. For the last several years, studies have specifically employed a rodent model to examine the mechanisms at receptor and cellular levels by which responses of SNA and blood pressure to static exercise are heightened in peripheral artery disease (PAD, one of the most common cardiovascular disorders. A rat model of this disease has well been established. Specifically, femoral artery occlusion is used to study intermittent claudication that is observed in human PAD. The receptors on thin fiber muscle afferents that are engaged in this disease include transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1, purinergic P2X and acid sensing ion channel (ASIC. The role played by nerve growth factor (NGF in regulating those sensory receptors in the processing of amplified EPR was also investigated. The purpose of this review is to focus on a theme namely that PAD accentuates autonomic reflex responses to exercise and further address regulatory mechanisms leading to abnormal sympathetic responsiveness. This review will present some of recent results in regard with several receptors in muscle sensory neurons in contribution to augmented autonomic reflex responses in PAD. Review of the findings from recent studies would lead to a better understanding in integrated processing of sympathetic nervous system in PAD.

  5. Sympathetic Responses to Central Hypovolemia: New Insights from Microneurographic Recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    Surgical Research, Fort Sam Houston, TX, USA 2 Department of Health and Kinesiology , The University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, USA Edited...suggested that this phenomenon may represent sympathetic baroreflex deafferentation (Cooke et al., 2009), as the fused bursts observed during intense ...Convertino, V. A. (2009). Muscle sympathetic nerve activity during intense lower body negative pressure to presyn- cope in humans. J. Physiol. (Lond

  6. Congenital oval or round window anomaly with or without abnormal facial nerve course: surgical results for 15 ears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomeer, Henricus; Kunst, Henricus; Verbist, Berit; Cremers, Cor

    2012-07-01

    To describe the audiometric results in a consecutive series of patients with congenital ossicular aplasia (Class 4a) or dysplasia of the oval and/or round window (Class 4b), which might include a possible anomalous course of the facial nerve. Retrospective chart study. Tertiary referral center. A tertiary referral center study with a total of 14 patients with congenital minor ear anomalies as part of a consecutive series (n = 89) who underwent exploratory tympanotomies (15 ears). Audiometric results. In 8 of 15 ears, ossicular reconstruction was attempted. In the short term (1 mo), there was a serviceable hearing outcome (air-bone gap closure to within 25 dB) in 4 ears. However, the long-term results showed deterioration because of an increased air-bone gap in all but 1 ear. No facial nerve lesion was observed postoperatively. Congenital dysplasia or aplasia of the oval and/or round window is an uncommon congenital minor ear anomaly. Classical microsurgical opportunities are rare in this group of anomalies. Newer options for hearing rehabilitation, such as the osseointegrated passive bone conduction devices, have become viable alternatives for conventional air conduction hearing devices. In the near future, upcoming active bone conduction devices might become the most preferred surgical option. In cases in which the facial nerve is only partially overlying the oval window, a type of malleostapedotomy procedure might result in a serviceable postoperative hearing level.

  7. Resting sympathetic activity is associated with the sympathetically mediated component of energy expenditure following a meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limberg, Jacqueline K; Malterer, Katherine R; Matzek, Luke J; Levine, James A; Charkoudian, Nisha; Miles, John M; Joyner, Michael J; Curry, Timothy B

    2017-08-01

    Individuals with high plasma norepinephrine (NE) levels at rest have a smaller reduction in resting energy expenditure (REE) following β -adrenergic blockade. If this finding extends to the response to a meal, it could have important implications for the role of the sympathetic nervous system in energy balance and weight gain. We hypothesized high muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) would be associated with a low sympathetically mediated component of energy expenditure following a meal. Fourteen young, healthy adults completed two visits randomized to continuous saline (control) or intravenous propranolol to achieve systemic β -adrenergic blockade. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity and REE were measured (indirect calorimetry) followed by a liquid mixed meal (Ensure). Measures of energy expenditure continued every 30 min for 5 h after the meal and are reported as an area under the curve (AUC). Sympathetic support of energy expenditure was calculated as the difference between the AUC during saline and β -blockade (AUC P ropranolol -AUC S aline , β -REE) and as a percent (%) of control (AUC P ropranolol ÷AUC S aline  × 100). β -REE was associated with baseline sympathetic activity, such that individuals with high resting MSNA (bursts/100 heart beats) and plasma NE had the greatest sympathetically mediated component of energy expenditure following a meal (MSNA: β -REE R  =   -0.58, P =  0.03; %REE R  = -0.56, P =  0.04; NE: β -REE R  = -0.55, P  = 0.0535; %REE R  = -0.54, P  = 0.0552). Contrary to our hypothesis, high resting sympathetic activity is associated with a greater sympathetically mediated component of energy expenditure following a liquid meal. These findings may have implications for weight maintenance in individuals with varying resting sympathetic activity. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  8. The articulo-cardiac sympathetic reflex in spinalized, anesthetized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Tomohiro; Suzuki, Atsuko; Ito, Ryuzo

    2006-04-01

    Somatic afferent regulation of heart rate by noxious knee joint stimulation has been proven in anesthetized cats to be a reflex response whose reflex center is in the brain and whose efferent arc is a cardiac sympathetic nerve. In the present study we examined whether articular stimulation could influence heart rate by this efferent sympathetic pathway in spinalized rats. In central nervous system (CNS)-intact rats, noxious articular movement of either the knee or elbow joint resulted in an increase in cardiac sympathetic nerve activity and heart rate. However, although in acutely spinalized rats a noxious movement of the elbow joint resulted in a significant increase in cardiac sympathetic nerve activity and heart rate, a noxious movement of the knee joint had no such effect and resulted in only a marginal increase in heart rate. Because this marginal increase was abolished by adrenalectomy suggests that it was due to the release of adrenal catecholamines. In conclusion, the spinal cord appears to be capable of mediating, by way of cardiac sympathetic nerves, the propriospinally induced reflex increase in heart rate that follows noxious stimulation of the elbow joint, but not the knee joint.

  9. Rapid diagnosis of retina and optic nerve abnormalities in canine patients with and without cataracts using chromatic pupil light reflex testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grozdanic, Sinisa D; Kecova, Helga; Lazic, Tatjana

    2013-09-01

    To develop fast and reliable testing routines for diagnosing retina and optic nerve diseases in canine cataract patients based on chromatic properties of the pupillary light reflex response. Seventy-seven canine patients with a history of cataract and decreased vision (43 patients with cataracts and no evidence of retina or optic nerve disease, 21 patients with cataracts and retinal degeneration [RD], 13 patients with cataracts and retinal detachment [RDT]), 11 canine patients with optic neuritis (ON) and 23 healthy dogs were examined using chromatic pupillary light reflex (cPLR) analysis with red and blue light and electroretinography. Electroretinography analysis showed statistically significant deficits in a- and b-wave amplitudes in dogs with cataracts and RD, or cataracts and RDT, when compared to dogs with cataracts without evidence of retinal abnormalities. Evaluation of b-wave amplitudes showed that presence of 78.5-μV (or lower) amplitudes had high sensitivity of 100% (95% CI: 87.2-100%) and high specificity of 96.7% (95% CI: 88.4-100%) in RD and RDT. Evaluation of cPLR responses using red light showed that presence of the pupil end constriction diameter of 5.5 mm (or higher) had moderately high sensitivity of 76.5% (95% CI: 50.1-93.2%) and high specificity of 100% (95% CI: 91.2-100%) in detecting RD and RDT. Optic neuritis patients had absent cPLR responses, regardless of the visual status. Chromatic evaluation of the pupillary light reflex is a rapid and accurate test for diagnosing retina and optic nerve diseases in canine patients. © 2012 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  10. The sympathetic innervation of the heart: Important new insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coote, J H; Chauhan, R A

    2016-08-01

    Autonomic control of the heart has a significant influence over development of life threatening arrhythmias that can lead to sudden cardiac death. Sympathetic activity is known to be upregulated during these conditions and hence the sympathetic nerves present a target for treatment. However, a better understanding of the anatomy and physiology of cardiac sympathetic nerves is required for the progression of clinical interventions. This review explores the organization of the cardiac sympathetic nerves, from the preganglionic origin to the postganglionic innervations, and provides an overview of literature surrounding anti-arrhythmic therapies including thoracic sympathectomy and dorsal spinal cord stimulation. Several features of the innervation are clear. The cardiac nerves differentially supply the nodal and myocardial tissue of the heart and are dependent on activity generated in spinal neurones in the upper thoracic cord which project to synapse with ganglion cells in the stellate complex on each side. Networks of spinal interneurones determine the pattern of activity. Groups of spinal neurones selectively target specific regions of the heart but whether they exhibit a functional selectivity has still to be elucidated. Electrical or ischemic signals can lead to remodeling of nerves in the heart or ganglia. Surgical and electrical methods are proving to be clinically beneficial in reducing atrial and ventricular arrhythmias, heart failure and severe cardiac pain. This is a rapidly developing area and we need more basic understanding of how these methods work to ensure safety and reduction of side effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The Sympathetic Release Test: A Test Used to Assess Thermoregulation and Autonomic Control of Blood Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansey, E. A.; Roe, S. M.; Johnson, C. J.

    2014-01-01

    When a subject is heated, the stimulation of temperature-sensitive nerve endings in the skin, and the raising of the central body temperature, results in the reflex release of sympathetic vasoconstrictor tone in the skin of the extremities, causing a measurable temperature increase at the site of release. In the sympathetic release test, the…

  12. Sympathetic Innervation during Development Is Necessary for Pancreatic Islet Architecture and Functional Maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Borden

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Sympathetic neurons depend on target-derived neurotrophic cues to control their survival and growth. However, whether sympathetic innervation contributes reciprocally to the development of target tissues is less clear. Here, we report that sympathetic innervation is necessary for the formation of the pancreatic islets of Langerhans and for their functional maturation. Genetic or pharmacological ablation of sympathetic innervation during development resulted in altered islet architecture, reduced insulin secretion, and impaired glucose tolerance in mice. Similar defects were observed with pharmacological blockade of β-adrenergic signaling. Conversely, the administration of a β-adrenergic agonist restored islet morphology and glucose tolerance in deinnervated animals. Furthermore, in neuron-islet cocultures, sympathetic neurons promoted islet cell migration in a β-adrenergic-dependent manner. This study reveals that islet architecture requires extrinsic inductive cues from neighboring tissues such as sympathetic nerves and suggests that early perturbations in sympathetic innervation might underlie metabolic disorders.

  13. Subtle involvement of the sympathetic nervous system in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oey, P.L.; Vos, P.E.; Wieneke, G.H.; Wokke, J.H.J.; Blankestijn, P.J.; Karemaker, J.M.

    2002-01-01

    The literature on the involvement of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is conflicting. We therefore investigated several aspects of autonomic function, namely muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), blood pressure, cardiac function (electrocardiogram; ECG),

  14. Subtle involvement of the sympathetic nervous system in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oey, P. Liam; Vos, Pieter E.; Wieneke, George H.; Wokke, John H. J.; Blankestijn, Peter J.; Karemaker, John M.

    2002-01-01

    The literature on the involvement of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is conflicting. We therefore investigated several aspects of autonomic function, namely muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), blood pressure, cardiac function (electrocardiogram; ECG),

  15. Renal Sympathetic Denervation: Hibernation or Resurrection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papademetriou, Vasilios; Doumas, Michael; Tsioufis, Costas

    The most current versions of renal sympathetic denervation have been invented as minimally invasive approaches for the management of drug-resistant hypertension. The anatomy, physiology and pathophysiology of renal sympathetic innervation provide a strong background supporting an important role of the renal nerves in the regulation of blood pressure (BP) and volume. In addition, historical data with surgical sympathectomy and experimental data with surgical renal denervation indicate a beneficial effect on BP levels. Early clinical studies with transcatheter radiofrequency ablation demonstrated impressive BP reduction, accompanied by beneficial effects in target organ damage and other disease conditions characterized by sympathetic overactivity. However, the failure of the SYMPLICITY 3 trial to meet its primary efficacy end point raised a lot of concerns and put the field of renal denervation into hibernation. This review aims to translate basic research into clinical practice by presenting the anatomical and physiological basis for renal sympathetic denervation, critically discussing the past and present knowledge in this field, where we stand now, and also speculating about the future of the intervention and potential directions for research. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Sympathetic Innervation Promotes Arterial Fate by Enhancing Endothelial ERK Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardanaud, Luc; Pibouin-Fragner, Laurence; Dubrac, Alexandre; Mathivet, Thomas; English, Isabel; Brunet, Isabelle; Simons, Michael; Eichmann, Anne

    2016-08-19

    Arterial endothelial cells are morphologically, functionally, and molecularly distinct from those found in veins and lymphatic vessels. How arterial fate is acquired during development and maintained in adult vessels is incompletely understood. We set out to identify factors that promote arterial endothelial cell fate in vivo. We developed a functional assay, allowing us to monitor and manipulate arterial fate in vivo, using arteries isolated from quails that are grafted into the coelom of chick embryos. Endothelial cells migrate out from the grafted artery, and their colonization of host arteries and veins is quantified. Here we show that sympathetic innervation promotes arterial endothelial cell fate in vivo. Removal of sympathetic nerves decreases arterial fate and leads to colonization of veins, whereas exposure to sympathetic nerves or norepinephrine imposes arterial fate. Mechanistically, sympathetic nerves increase endothelial ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) activity via adrenergic α1 and α2 receptors. These findings show that sympathetic innervation promotes arterial endothelial fate and may lead to novel approaches to improve arterialization in human disease. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Intracranial Pressure Is a Determinant of Sympathetic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric A. Schmidt

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Intracranial pressure (ICP is the pressure within the cranium. ICP rise compresses brain vessels and reduces cerebral blood delivery. Massive ICP rise leads to cerebral ischemia, but it is also known to produce hypertension, bradycardia and respiratory irregularities due to a sympatho-adrenal mechanism termed Cushing response. One still unresolved question is whether the Cushing response is a non-synaptic acute brainstem ischemic mechanism or part of a larger physiological reflex for arterial blood pressure control and homeostasis regulation. We hypothesize that changes in ICP modulates sympathetic activity. Thus, modest ICP increase and decrease were achieved in mice and patients with respectively intra-ventricular and lumbar fluid infusion. Sympathetic activity was gauged directly by microneurography, recording renal sympathetic nerve activity in mice and muscle sympathetic nerve activity in patients, and gauged indirectly in both species by heart-rate variability analysis. In mice (n = 15, renal sympathetic activity increased from 29.9 ± 4.0 bursts.s−1 (baseline ICP 6.6 ± 0.7 mmHg to 45.7 ± 6.4 bursts.s−1 (plateau ICP 38.6 ± 1.0 mmHg and decreased to 34.8 ± 5.6 bursts.s−1 (post-infusion ICP 9.1 ± 0.8 mmHg. In patients (n = 10, muscle sympathetic activity increased from 51.2 ± 2.5 bursts.min−1 (baseline ICP 8.3 ± 1.0 mmHg to 66.7 ± 2.9 bursts.min−1 (plateau ICP 25 ± 0.3 mmHg and decreased to 58.8 ± 2.6 bursts.min−1 (post-infusion ICP 14.8 ± 0.9 mmHg. In patients 7 mmHg ICP rise significantly increases sympathetic activity by 17%. Heart-rate variability analysis demonstrated a significant vagal withdrawal during the ICP rise, in accordance with the microneurography findings. Mice and human results are alike. We demonstrate in animal and human that ICP is a reversible determinant of efferent sympathetic outflow, even at relatively low ICP levels. ICP is a biophysical stress related to the forces within the brain. But ICP

  18. Regional sympathetic denervation after myocardial infarction in humans detected noninvasively using I-123-metaiodobenzylguanidine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanton, M.S.; Tuli, M.M.; Radtke, N.L.; Heger, J.J.; Miles, W.M.; Mock, B.H.; Burt, R.W.; Wellman, H.N.; Zipes, D.P. (Indiana Univ. School of Medicine, IN (USA))

    1989-11-15

    Transmural myocardial infarction in dogs produces denervation of sympathetic nerves in viable myocardium apical to the infarct that may be arrhythmogenic. It is unknown whether sympathetic denervation occurs in humans. The purpose of this study was to use iodine-123-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), a radiolabeled guanethidine analog that is actively taken up by sympathetic nerve terminals, to image noninvasively the cardiac sympathetic nerves in patients with and without ventricular arrhythmias after myocardial infarction. Results showed that 10 of 12 patients with spontaneous ventricular tachyarrhythmias after myocardial infarction exhibited regions of thallium-201 uptake indicating viable perfused myocardium, with no MIBG uptake. Such a finding is consistent with sympathetic denervation. One patient had frequent episodes of nonsustained ventricular tachycardia induced at exercise testing that was eliminated by beta-adrenoceptor blockade. Eleven of the 12 patients had ventricular tachycardia induced at electrophysiologic study and metoprolol never prevented induction. Sympathetic denervation was also detected in two of seven postinfarction patients without ventricular arrhythmias. Normal control subjects had no regions lacking MIBG uptake. This study provides evidence that regional sympathetic denervation occurs in humans after myocardial infarction and can be detected noninvasively by comparing MIBG and thallium-201 images. Although the presence of sympathetic denervation may be related to the onset of spontaneous ventricular tachyarrhythmias in some patients, it does not appear to be related to sustained ventricular tachycardia induced at electrophysiologic study.

  19. Sympathetic activation during early pregnancy in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Sara S; Shibata, Shigeki; Bivens, Tiffany B; Okada, Yoshiyuki; Casey, Brian M; Levine, Benjamin D; Fu, Qi

    2012-01-01

    Sympathetic activity has been reported to increase in normotensive pregnant women, and to be even greater in women with gestational hypertension and preeclampsia at term. Whether sympathetic overactivity develops early during pregnancy, remaining high throughout gestation, or whether it only occurs at term providing the substrate for hypertensive disorders is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that sympathetic activation occurs early during pregnancy in humans. Eleven healthy women (29 ± 3 (SD) years) without prior hypertensive pregnancies were tested during the mid-luteal phase (PRE) and early pregnancy (EARLY; 6.2 ± 1.2 weeks of gestation). Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and haemodynamics were measured supine, at 30 deg and 60 deg upright tilt for 5 min each. Blood samples were drawn for catecholamines, direct renin, and aldosterone. MSNA was significantly greater during EARLY than PRE (supine: 25 ± 8 vs. 14 ± 8 bursts min−1, 60 deg tilt: 49 ± 14 vs. 40 ± 10 bursts min−1; main effect, P < 0.05). Resting diastolic pressure trended lower (P = 0.09), heart rate was similar, total peripheral resistance decreased (2172 ± 364 vs. 2543 ± 352 dyne s cm−5; P < 0.05), sympathetic vascular transduction was blunted (0.10 ± 0.05 vs. 0.36 ± 0.47 units a.u.−1 min−1; P < 0.01), and both renin (supine: 27.9 ± 6.2 vs. 14.2 ± 8.7 pg ml−1, P < 0.01) and aldosterone (supine: 16.7 ± 14.1 vs. 7.7 ± 6.8 ng ml−1, P = 0.05) were higher during EARLY than PRE. These results suggest that sympathetic activation is a common characteristic of early pregnancy in humans despite reduced diastolic pressure and total peripheral resistance. These observations challenge conventional thinking about blood pressure regulation during pregnancy, showing marked sympathetic activation occurring within the first few weeks of conception, and may provide the substrate for pregnancy induced cardiovascular complications. PMID:22687610

  20. Sympathetic mediated vasomotion and skin capillary permeability in diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lefrandt, JD; Hoeven, JH; Roon, AM; Smit, AJ; Hoogenberg, K

    Aims/hypothesis. A loss of sympathetic function could lead to changes in capillary fluid filtration in diabetic patients. We investigated whether a decreased sympathetically mediated vasomotion in the skin in diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy is associated with an abnormal capillary

  1. Sympathetic skin responses in patients with hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozke, E; Ozyurt, Z; Dortcan, N; Ore, O; Kocer, A; Ozer, E

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the disorders of sympathetic nervous system in patients with hyperthyroidism using sympathetic skin response (SSR). Twenty-two newly diagnosed cases with hyperthyroidism were included in the study. The results were compared with those of 20 healthy controls. SSR was recorded with the contralateral electrical stimulation of the median nerve (of the upper extremities) and tibial nerve (of the lower extremities) with active electrodes placed on palms and soles and reference electrodes attached on the dorsal aspects of hands and feet. Ages of the cases with hyperthyroidism and controls ranged between 15-65 years (mean: 46.7 +/- 15.0 years) and 24-62 years (mean: 39.6 +/- 9.8 years) respectively (p > 0.05). In all the control subjects SSR could be obtained, while from the lower extremities of 4 cases with hyperthyroidism (18.0%) SSR could not be elicited. Mean SSR latencies of lower extremities were found significantly longer than control group (p nervous system involvement in cases with hyperthyroidism.

  2. Cardiorespiratory Coupling: Common Rhythms in Cardiac, Sympathetic, and Respiratory Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Thomas E.; Hsieh, Yee-Hsee; Dhingra, Rishi R.; Baekey, David M.; Galán, Roberto F.; Wehrwein, Erica; Morris, Kendall F.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiorespiratory coupling is an encompassing term describing more than the well-recognized influences of respiration on heart rate and blood pressure. Our data indicate that cardiorespiratory coupling reflects a reciprocal interaction between autonomic and respiratory control systems, and the cardiovascular system modulates the ventilatory pattern as well. For example, cardioventilatory coupling refers to the influence of heart beats and arterial pulse pressure on respiration and is the tendency for the next inspiration to start at a preferred latency after the last heart beat in expiration. Multiple complementary, well-described mechanisms mediate respiration’s influence on cardiovascular function, whereas mechanisms mediating the cardiovascular system’s influence on respiration may only be through the baroreceptors but are just being identified. Our review will describe a differential effect of conditioning rats with either chronic intermittent or sustained hypoxia on sympathetic nerve activity but also on ventilatory pattern variability. Both intermittent and sustained hypoxia increase sympathetic nerve activity after 2 weeks but affect sympatho-respiratory coupling differentially. Intermittent hypoxia enhances sympatho-respiratory coupling, which is associated with low variability in the ventilatory pattern. In contrast, after constant hypobaric hypoxia, 1-to-1 coupling between bursts of sympathetic and phrenic nerve activity is replaced by 2-to-3 coupling. This change in coupling pattern is associated with increased variability of the ventilatory pattern. After baro-denervating hypobaric hypoxic-conditioned rats, splanchnic sympathetic nerve activity becomes tonic (distinct bursts are absent) with decreases during phrenic nerve bursts and ventilatory pattern becomes regular. Thus, conditioning rats to either intermittent or sustained hypoxia accentuates the reciprocal nature of cardiorespiratory coupling. Finally, identifying a compelling physiologic

  3. Unilateral blindness with third cranial nerve palsy and abnormal enhancement of extraocular muscles on magnetic resonance imaging of orbit after the ingestion of methanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Tae Nyoung; Kim, Sun Wook; Park, Yoo Seok; Park, Incheol

    2010-05-01

    Methanol is generally known to cause visual impairment and various systemic manifestations. There are a few reported specific findings for methanol intoxication on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain. A case is reported of unilateral blindness with third cranial nerve palsy oculus sinister (OS) after the ingestion of methanol. Unilateral damage of the retina and optic nerve were confirmed by fundoscopy, flourescein angiography, visual evoked potential and electroretinogram. The optic nerve and extraocular muscles (superior rectus, medial rectus, inferior rectus and inferior oblique muscle) were enhanced by gadolinium-DTPA on MRI of the orbit. This is the first case report of permanent monocular blindness with confirmed unilateral damage of the retina and optic nerve, combined with third cranial nerve palsy after methanol ingestion.

  4. AMPUTATION AND REFLEX SYMPATHETIC DYSTROPHY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GEERTZEN, JHB; EISMA, WH

    Reflex sympathetic dystrophy is a chronic pain syndrome characterized by chronic burning pain, restricted range of motion, oedema and vasolability. Patients are difficult to treat and the prognosis is very often poor. This report emphasizes that an amputation in case of a reflex sympathetic

  5. The sympathetic nervous system in polycystic ovary syndrome: a novel therapeutic target?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansdown, Andrew; Rees, D Aled

    2012-12-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine condition associated with long-term health risks, including type 2 diabetes and vascular dysfunction in addition to reproductive sequelae. Many of the common features of PCOS, such as central obesity, hyperinsulinaemia and obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), are associated with chronic sympathetic overactivity, suggesting that sympathoexcitation may be involved in the pathogenesis of this condition. Rodent models of polycystic ovaries have shown that ovarian sympathetic outflow may be increased, accompanied by elevated intra-ovarian synthesis of nerve growth factor (NGF) which may be involved in initiation of ovarian pathology. Patients with PCOS have evidence of increased muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), altered heart rate variability and attenuated heart rate recovery postexercise, compared with age- and BMI-matched controls, suggesting a generalized increase in sympathetic nerve activity. Active weight loss can reduce MSNA and whole body noradrenaline spillover, whereas low-frequency electroacupuncture decreased MSNA in overweight women with PCOS. Treatment of OSA with continuous positive airways pressure may reduce plasma noradrenaline levels and diastolic blood pressure and improve cardiac sympathovagal balance. Renal sympathetic denervation also reduced MSNA, noradrenaline spillover and blood pressure in two PCOS subjects with hypertension, accompanied by improved insulin sensitivity. The sympathetic nervous system may thus offer a new therapeutic target in PCOS but larger and longer-term studies are needed before these treatments can be considered in clinical practice. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Sympathetic Blocks Provided Sustained Pain Relief in a Patient with Refractory Painful Diabetic Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianguo Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The sympathetic nervous system has been implicated in pain associated with painful diabetic neuropathy. However, therapeutic intervention targeted at the sympathetic nervous system has not been established. We thus tested the hypothesis that sympathetic nerve blocks significantly reduce pain in a patient with painful diabetic neuropathy who has failed multiple pharmacological treatments. The diagnosis of small fiber sensory neuropathy was based on clinical presentations and confirmed by skin biopsies. A series of 9 lumbar sympathetic blocks over a 26-month period provided sustained pain relief in his legs. Additional thoracic paravertebral blocks further provided control of the pain in the trunk which can occasionally be seen in severe diabetic neuropathy cases, consequent to extensive involvement of the intercostal nerves. These blocks provided sustained and significant pain relief and improvement of quality of life over a period of more than two years. We thus provided the first clinical evidence supporting the notion that sympathetic nervous system plays a critical role in painful diabetic neuropathy and sympathetic blocks can be an effective management modality of painful diabetic neuropathy. We concluded that the sympathetic nervous system is a valuable therapeutic target of pharmacological and interventional modalities of treatments in painful diabetic neuropathy patients.

  7. Nerve Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Nerve Blocks A nerve block is an injection to ... the limitations of Nerve Block? What is a Nerve Block? A nerve block is an anesthetic and/ ...

  8. Renal sympathetic denervation for resistant hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froeschl, Michael; Hadziomerovic, Adnan; Ruzicka, Marcel

    2013-05-01

    Resistant hypertension is an increasingly prevalent health problem associated with important adverse cardiovascular outcomes. The pathophysiology that underlies this condition involves increased function of both the sympathetic nervous system and the renin-angiotensin II-aldosterone system. A crucial link between these 2 systems is the web of sympathetic fibres that course within the adventitia of the renal arteries. These nerves can be targeted by applying radiofrequency energy from the lumen of the renal arteries to renal artery walls (percutaneous renal sympathetic denervation [RSD]), an approach that has attracted great interest. This paper critically reviews the evidence supporting the use of RSD. Small studies suggest that RSD can produce dramatic blood pressure reductions: In the randomized Symplicity HTN-2 trial of 106 patients, the mean fall in blood pressure at 6 months in patients who received the treatment was 32/12 mm Hg. However, there are limitations to the evidence for RSD in the treatment of resistant hypertension. These include the small number of patients studied; the lack of any placebo-controlled evidence; the fact that blood pressure outcomes were based on office assessments, as opposed to 24-hour ambulatory monitoring; the lack of longer-term efficacy data; and the lack of long-term safety data. Some of these concerns are being addressed in the ongoing Renal Denervation in Patients With Uncontrolled Hypertension (Symplicity HTN-3) trial. The first percutaneous RSD system was approved by Health Canada in the spring of 2012. But until more and better-quality data are available, this procedure should generally be reserved for those patients whose resistant hypertension is truly uncontrolled. Copyright © 2013 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Vestibular control of sympathetic activity. An otolith-sympathetic reflex in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, H; Biaggioni, I; Voustianiouk, A; Diedrich, A; Costa, F; Clarke, R; Gizzi, M; Raphan, T; Cohen, B

    2002-04-01

    It has been proposed that a vestibular reflex originating in the otolith organs and other body graviceptors modulates sympathetic activity during changes in posture with regard to gravity. To test this hypothesis, we selectively stimulated otolith and body graviceptors sinusoidally along different head axes in the coronal plane with off-vertical axis rotation (OVAR) and recorded sympathetic efferent activity in the peroneal nerve (muscle sympathetic nerve activity, MSNA), blood pressure, heart rate, and respiratory rate. All parameters were entrained during OVAR at the frequency of rotation, with MSNA increasing in nose-up positions during forward linear acceleration and decreasing when nose-down. MSNA was correlated closely with blood pressure when subjects were within +/-90 degrees of nose-down positions with a delay of 1.4 s, the normal latency of baroreflex-driven changes in MSNA. Thus, in the nose-down position, MSNA was probably driven by baroreflex afferents. In contrast, when subjects were within +/-45 degrees of the nose-up position, i.e., when positive linear acceleration was maximal along the naso-ocipital axis, MSNA was closely related to gravitational acceleration at a latency of 0.4 s. This delay is too short for MSNA changes to be mediated by the baroreflex, but it is compatible with the delay of a response originating in the vestibular system. We postulate that a vestibulosympathetic reflex, probably originating mainly in the otolith organs, contributes to blood pressure maintenance during forward linear acceleration. Because of its short latency, this reflex may be one of the earliest mechanisms to sustain blood pressure upon standing.

  10. Abnormal cardiovascular response to exercise in hypertension: contribution of neural factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jere H

    2017-06-01

    During both dynamic (e.g., endurance) and static (e.g., strength) exercise there are exaggerated cardiovascular responses in hypertension. This includes greater increases in blood pressure, heart rate, and efferent sympathetic nerve activity than in normal controls. Two of the known neural factors that contribute to this abnormal cardiovascular response are the exercise pressor reflex (EPR) and functional sympatholysis. The EPR originates in contracting skeletal muscle and reflexly increases sympathetic efferent nerve activity to the heart and blood vessels as well as decreases parasympathetic efferent nerve activity to the heart. These changes in autonomic nerve activity cause an increase in blood pressure, heart rate, left ventricular contractility, and vasoconstriction in the arterial tree. However, arterial vessels in the contracting skeletal muscle have a markedly diminished vasoconstrictor response. The markedly diminished vasoconstriction in contracting skeletal muscle has been termed functional sympatholysis. It has been shown in hypertension that there is an enhanced EPR, including both its mechanoreflex and metaboreflex components, and an impaired functional sympatholysis. These conditions set up a positive feedback or vicious cycle situation that causes a progressively greater decrease in the blood flow to the exercising muscle. Thus these two neural mechanisms contribute significantly to the abnormal cardiovascular response to exercise in hypertension. In addition, exercise training in hypertension decreases the enhanced EPR, including both mechanoreflex and metaboreflex function, and improves the impaired functional sympatholysis. These two changes, caused by exercise training, improve the muscle blood flow to exercising muscle and cause a more normal cardiovascular response to exercise in hypertension. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  11. SYMPATHETIC SOLAR FILAMENT ERUPTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Rui; Liu, Ying D.; Zimovets, Ivan; Hu, Huidong; Yang, Zhongwei [State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Dai, Xinghua, E-mail: liuxying@spaceweather.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2016-08-10

    The 2015 March 15 coronal mass ejection as one of the two that together drove the largest geomagnetic storm of solar cycle 24 so far was associated with sympathetic filament eruptions. We investigate the relations between the different filaments involved in the eruption. A surge-like small-scale filament motion is confirmed as the trigger that initiated the erupting filament with multi-wavelength observations and using a forced magnetic field extrapolation method. When the erupting filament moved to an open magnetic field region, it experienced an obvious acceleration process and was accompanied by a C-class flare and the rise of another larger filament that eventually failed to erupt. We measure the decay index of the background magnetic field, which presents a critical height of 118 Mm. Combining with a potential field source surface extrapolation method, we analyze the distributions of the large-scale magnetic field, which indicates that the open magnetic field region may provide a favorable condition for F2 rapid acceleration and have some relation with the largest solar storm. The comparison between the successful and failed filament eruptions suggests that the confining magnetic field plays an important role in the preconditions for an eruption.

  12. Inhibition of facilitation of sympathetic neurotransmission and angiotensin II-induced pressor effects in the pithed rat: comparison between valsartan, candesartan, eprosartan and embusartan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balt, J. C.; Mathy, M. J.; Pfaffendorf, M.; van Zwieten, P. A.

    2001-01-01

    In the pithed rat model, endogenously generated angiotensin (Ang) II can enhance sympathetic neurotransmission by acting on Ang II type 1 (AT1) receptors that are located on sympathetic nerve terminals. To compare the inhibitory potency of candesartan, valsartan, eprosartan and embusartan in

  13. Efficacy of B-Type Natriuretic Peptide Is Coupled to Phosphodiesterase 2A in Cardiac Sympathetic Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Lu, Chieh-Ju; Hao, Guoliang; Wright, Hannah; Woodward, Lavinia; Liu, Kun; Vergari, Elisa; Surdo, Nicoletta C; Herring, Neil; Zaccolo, Manuela; Paterson, David J

    2015-07-01

    Elevated B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) regulates cGMP-phosphodiesterase activity. Its elevation is regarded as an early compensatory response to cardiac failure where it can facilitate sympathovagal balance and cardiorenal homeostasis. However, recent reports suggest a paradoxical proadrenergic action of BNP. Because phosphodiesterase activity is altered in cardiovascular disease, we tested the hypothesis that BNP might lose its efficacy by minimizing the action of cGMP on downstream pathways coupled to neurotransmission. BNP decreased norepinephrine release from atrial preparations in response to field stimulation and also significantly reduced the heart rate responses to sympathetic nerve stimulation in vitro. Using electrophysiological recording and fluorescence imaging, BNP also reduced the depolarization evoked calcium current and intracellular calcium transient in isolated cardiac sympathetic neurons. Pharmacological manipulations suggested that the reduction in the calcium transient was regulated by a cGMP/protein kinase G pathway. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer measurements for cAMP, and an immunoassay for cGMP, showed that BNP increased cGMP, but not cAMP. In addition, overexpression of phosphodiesterase 2A after adenoviral gene transfer markedly decreased BNP stimulation of cGMP and abrogated the BNP responses to the calcium current, intracellular calcium transient, and neurotransmitter release. These effects were reversed on inhibition of phosphodiesterase 2A. Moreover, phosphodiesterase 2A activity was significantly elevated in stellate neurons from the prohypertensive rat compared with the normotensive control. Our data suggest that abnormally high levels of phosphodiesterase 2A may provide a brake against the inhibitory action of BNP on sympathetic transmission. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Agmatine suppresses peripheral sympathetic tone by inhibiting N-type Ca(2+) channel activity via imidazoline I2 receptor activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Hwan; Jeong, Ji-Hyun; Ahn, Duck-Sun; Chung, Seungsoo

    2016-08-26

    Agmatine, a putative endogenous ligand of imidazoline receptors, suppresses cardiovascular function by inhibiting peripheral sympathetic tone. However, the molecular identity of imidazoline receptor subtypes and its cellular mechanism underlying the agmatine-induced sympathetic suppression remains unknown. Meanwhile, N-type Ca(2+) channels are important for the regulation of NA release in the peripheral sympathetic nervous system. Therefore, it is possible that agmatine suppresses NA release in peripheral sympathetic nerve terminals by inhibiting Ca(2+) influx through N-type Ca(2+) channels. We tested this hypothesis by investigating agmatine effect on electrical field stimulation (EFS)-evoked contraction and NA release in endothelium-denuded rat superior mesenteric arterial strips. We also investigated the effect of agmatine on the N-type Ca(2+) current in superior cervical ganglion (SCG) neurons in rats. Our study demonstrates that agmatine suppresses peripheral sympathetic outflow via the imidazoline I2 receptor in rat mesenteric arteries. In addition, the agmatine-induced suppression of peripheral vascular sympathetic tone is mediated by modulating voltage-dependent N-type Ca(2+) channels in sympathetic nerve terminals. These results suggest a potential cellular mechanism for the agmatine-induced suppression of peripheral sympathetic tone. Furthermore, they provide basic and theoretical information regarding the development of new agents to treat hypertension. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Sympathetic Overactivity in Chronic Kidney Disease: Consequences and Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasdeep Kaur

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD is increasing worldwide, with more than 26 million people suffering from CKD in the United States alone. More patients with CKD die of cardiovascular complications than progress to dialysis. Over 80% of CKD patients have hypertension, which is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Another common, perhaps underappreciated, feature of CKD is an overactive sympathetic nervous system. This elevation in sympathetic nerve activity (SNA not only contributes to hypertension but also plays a detrimental role in the progression of CKD independent of any increase in blood pressure. Indeed, high SNA is associated with poor prognosis and increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality independent of its effect on blood pressure. This brief review will discuss some of the consequences of sympathetic overactivity and highlight some of the potential pathways contributing to chronically elevated SNA in CKD. Mechanisms leading to chronic sympathoexcitation in CKD are complex, multifactorial and to date, not completely understood. Identification of the mechanisms and/or signals leading to sympathetic overactivity in CKD are crucial for development of effective therapeutic targets to reduce the increased cardiovascular risk in this patient group.

  16. Adrenergic innervation of the developing chick heart: neural crest ablations to produce sympathetically aneural hearts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirby, M.; Stewart, D.

    1984-01-01

    Ablation of various regions of premigratory trunk neural crest which gives rise to the sympathetic trunks was used to remove sympathetic cardiac innervation. Neuronal uptake of [ 3 H]-norepinephrine was used as an index of neuronal development in the chick atrium. Following ablation of neural crest over somites 10-15 or 15-20, uptake was significantly decreased in the atrium at 16 and 17 days of development. Ablation of neural crest over somites 5-10 and 20-25 caused no decrease in [ 3 H]-norepinephrine uptake. Removal of neural crest over somites 5-25 or 10-20 caused approximately equal depletions of [ 3 H]-norepinephrine uptake in the atrium. Cardiac norepinephrine concentration was significantly depressed following ablation of neural crest over somites 5-25 but not over somites 10-20. Light-microscopic and histofluorescent preparations confirmed the absence of sympathetic trunks in the region of the normal origin of the sympathetic cardiac nerves following neural crest ablation over somites 10-20. The neural tube and dorsal root ganglia were damaged in the area of the neural-crest ablation; however, all of these structures were normal cranial and caudal to the lesioned area. Development of most of the embryos as well as the morphology of all of the hearts was normal following the lesion. These results indicate that it is possible to produce sympathetically aneural hearts by neural-crest ablation; however, sympathetic cardiac nerves account for an insignificant amount of cardiac norepinephrine

  17. Morphologic Changes in Autonomic Nerves in Diabetic Autonomic Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heung Yong Jin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic neuropathy is one of the major complications of diabetes, and it increases morbidity and mortality in patients with both type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Because the autonomic nervous system, for example, parasympathetic axons, has a diffuse and wide distribution, we do not know the morphological changes that occur in autonomic neural control and their exact mechanisms in diabetic patients with diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN. Although the prevalence of sympathetic and parasympathetic neuropathy is similar in T1DM versus T2DM patients, sympathetic nerve function correlates with parasympathetic neuropathy only in T1DM patients. The explanation for these discrepancies might be that parasympathetic nerve function was more severely affected among T2DM patients. As parasympathetic nerve damage seems to be more advanced than sympathetic nerve damage, it might be that parasympathetic neuropathy precedes sympathetic neuropathy in T2DM, which was Ewing's concept. This could be explained by the intrinsic morphologic difference. Therefore, the morphological changes in the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves of involved organs in T1DM and T2DM patients who have DAN should be evaluated. In this review, evaluation methods for morphological changes in the epidermal nerves of skin, and the intrinsic nerves of the stomach will be discussed.

  18. Micro-anatomy of the renal sympathetic nervous system: a human postmortem histologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, Daniel S; Deep, Nicholas L; Mendelsohn, Farrell O

    2012-07-01

    Hypertension remains an epidemic uncontrolled with pharmacologic therapies. A novel catheter inserted into the renal artery has been shown to lower blood pressure by ablating the renal sympathetic nerves with radiofrequency energy delivered through the arterial wall. We report a histologic study describing the anatomic substrate for this technique, specifically the renal sympathetic nervous system. Histological sections from proximal, middle, and distal renal artery segments from nine renal arteries (five human autopsies) were analyzed. Nerves were manually counted and their distance from the lumen-intima interface was measured using a micrometer. The nerves were then categorized by location into 0.5-mm-wide "rings" that were arranged circumferentially around the renal artery lumen. Of all nerves detected, 1.0% was in the 0-0.5 mm ring, 48.3% were in the 0.5-1.0 mm ring, 25.6% were in the 1.0-1.5 mm ring, 15.5% were in the 1.5-2.0 mm ring, and 9.5% were in the 2.0-2.5 mm ring. Beyond 0.5 mm, the proportion of nerves tended to decrease as the distance from the lumen increased. Totally, 90.5% of all nerves in this study existed within 2.0 mm of the renal artery lumen. Additionally, the number of nerves tended to increase along the length of the artery from proximal to distal segments (proximal = 216; middle = 323; distal = 417). In conclusion, our analysis indicates that a great proportion of renal sympathetic nerves have close proximity to the lumen-intima interface and should thus be accessible via renal artery interventional approaches such as catheter ablation. This data provides important anatomic information for the development of ablation and other type devices for renal sympathetic denervation. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. [Increased sympathetic activity assessed by spectral analysis of heart rate variability in patients with CRPS I].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, J; Troeger, C

    2010-02-01

    The complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS I) is a painful neuropathic disorder with an antecedent disproportionate trauma leading to spontaneous pain, hyperalgesia, impaired motor function, swelling, changes in sweating and vascular abnormalities without nerve injury. Whether this syndrome is the result of central or peripheral autonomic dysfunction is still a matter of debate. The purpose of this study was to determine the activity of the sympathetic nervous system in patients with CRPS I by power spectral analysis of heart rate variability. This is a pilot study on 6 patients (mean age 50 years; 4 female, 2 male) diagnosed as suffering from CRPS I and 6 age-matched healthy controls. In the pain-free interval and after taking rest for 5 min, 512 subsequent heart beats were obtained with an ECG standard lead II in the supine and then sitting position. Using an autoregressive model, power spectral densities were calculated for the following frequency bands: CRPS I compared to the healthy controls in the supine position (LF/HF=4.01 vs. LF/HF=1.27; p=0.041). The application of stress by changing to the sitting position even increased that difference (6.72 vs. 1.93). Our results support the hypothesis that the pathogenesis of the early stage CRPS I might be related to an increased sympathetic activity. By assessing the autonomic influence on the heart rate variability in CRPS I patients we could also conclude that this disturbance occurs rather at a central level. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart, New York.

  20. The morphological substrate for Renal Denervation: Nerve distribution patterns and parasympathetic nerves. A post-mortem histological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Amsterdam, Wouter A C; Blankestijn, Peter J; Goldschmeding, Roel; Bleys, Ronald L A W

    2016-03-01

    Renal Denervation as a possible treatment for hypertension has been studied extensively, but knowledge on the distribution of nerves surrounding the renal artery is still incomplete. While sympathetic and sensory nerves have been demonstrated, there is no mention of the presence of parasympathetic nerve fibers. To provide a description of the distribution patterns of the renal nerves in man, and, in addition, provide a detailed representation of the relative contribution of the sympathetic, parasympathetic and afferent divisions of the autonomic nervous system. Renal arteries of human cadavers were each divided into four longitudinal segments and immunohistochemically stained with specific markers for afferent, parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves. Nerve fibers were semi-automatically quantified by computerized image analysis, and expressed as cross-sectional area relative to the distance to the lumen. A total of 3372 nerve segments were identified in 8 arteries of 7 cadavers. Sympathetic, parasympathetic and afferent nerves contributed for 73.5% (95% CI: 65.4-81.5%), 17.9% (10.7-25.1%) and 8.7% (5.0-12.3%) of the total cross-sectional nerve area, respectively. Nerves are closer to the lumen in more distal segments and larger bundles that presumably innervate the kidney lie at 1-3.5mm distance from the lumen. The tissue-penetration depth of the ablation required to destroy 50% of the nerve fibers is 2.37 mm in the proximal segment and 1.78 mm in the most distal segments. Sympathetic, parasympathetic and afferent nerves exist in the vicinity of the renal artery. The results warrant further investigation of the role of the parasympathetic nervous system on renal physiology, and may contribute to refinement of the procedure by focusing the ablation on the most distal segment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Optogenetic release of norepinephrine from cardiac sympathetic neurons alters mechanical and electrical function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wengrowski, Anastasia M; Wang, Xin; Tapa, Srinivas; Posnack, Nikki Gillum; Mendelowitz, David; Kay, Matthew W

    2015-02-01

    Release of norepinephrine (NE) from sympathetic neurons enhances heart rate (HR) and developed force through activation of β-adrenergic receptors, and this sympathoexcitation is a key risk for the generation of cardiac arrhythmias. Studies of β-adrenergic modulation of cardiac function typically involve the administration of exogenous β-adrenergic receptor agonists to directly elicit global β-adrenergic receptor activation by bypassing the involvement of sympathetic nerve terminals. In this work, we use a novel method to activate sympathetic fibres within the myocardium of Langendorff-perfused hearts while measuring changes in electrical and mechanical function. The light-activated optogenetic protein channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) was expressed in murine catecholaminergic sympathetic neurons. Sympathetic fibres were then photoactivated to examine changes in contractile force, HR, and cardiac electrical activity. Incidence of arrhythmia was measured with and without exposure to photoactivation of sympathetic fibres, and hearts were optically mapped to detect changes in action potential durations and conduction velocities. Results demonstrate facilitation of both developed force and HR after photostimulated release of NE, with increases in contractile force and HR of 34.5 ± 5.5 and 25.0 ± 9.3%, respectively. Photostimulation of sympathetic fibres also made hearts more susceptible to arrhythmia, with greater incidence and severity. In addition, optically mapped action potentials displayed a small but significant shortening of the plateau phase (-5.5 ± 1.0 ms) after photostimulation. This study characterizes a powerful and clinically relevant new model for studies of cardiac arrhythmias generated by increasing the activity of sympathetic nerve terminals and the resulting activation of myocyte β-adrenergic receptors. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Temporary Blindness after Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barodiya, Animesh; Thukral, Rishi; Agrawal, Shaila Mahendra; Rai, Anshul; Singh, Siddharth

    2017-03-01

    Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block (IANB) anaesthesia is one of the common procedures in dental clinic. This procedure is safe, but complications may still occur. Ocular complications such as diplopia, loss of vision, or ophthalmoplegia are extremely rare. This case report explains an event where due to individual anatomic variation of the sympathetic vasoconstrictor nerve and maxillary and middle meningeal arteries, intravascular administration of anaesthetic agent caused unusual ocular signs and symptoms such as temporary blindness.

  3. The morphological substrate for Renal Denervation : Nerve distribution patterns and parasympathetic nerves. A post-mortem histological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Amsterdam, Wouter A C; Blankestijn, Peter J; Goldschmeding, Roel; Bleys, Ronald L A W

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Renal Denervation as a possible treatment for hypertension has been studied extensively, but knowledge on the distribution of nerves surrounding the renal artery is still incomplete. While sympathetic and sensory nerves have been demonstrated, there is no mention of the presence of

  4. Effect of sympathetic activity on capsaicin-evoked pain, hyperalgesia, and vasodilatation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, R; Wasner, G; Borgstedt, R; Hastedt, E; Schulte, H; Binder, A; Kopper, F; Rowbotham, M; Levine, J D; Fields, H L

    1999-03-23

    Painful nerve and tissue injuries can be exacerbated by activity in sympathetic neurons. The mechanisms of sympathetically maintained pain (SMP) are unclear. To determine the effect of cutaneous sympathetic activity on pain induced by primary afferent C-nociceptor sensitization with capsaicin in humans. In healthy volunteers capsaicin was applied topically (n = 12) or injected into the forearm skin (n = 10) to induce spontaneous pain, dynamic and punctate mechanical hyperalgesia, and antidromic (axon reflex) vasodilatation (flare). Intensity of pain and hyperalgesia, axon reflex vasodilatation (laser Doppler), and flare size and area of hyperalgesia (planimetry) were assessed. The local skin temperature at the application and measurement sites was kept constant at 35 degrees C. In each individual the analyses were performed during the presence of high and low sympathetic skin activity induced by whole-body cooling and warming with a thermal suit. By this method sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity is modulated in the widest range that can be achieved physiologically. The degree of vasoconstrictor discharge was monitored by measuring skin blood flow (laser Doppler) and temperature (infrared thermometry) at the index finger. The intensity and spatial distribution of capsaicin-evoked spontaneous pain and dynamic and punctate mechanical hyperalgesia were identical during the presence of high and low sympathetic discharge. Antidromic vasodilatation and flare size were significantly diminished when sympathetic vasoconstrictor neurons were excited. Cutaneous sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity does not influence spontaneous pain and mechanical hyperalgesia after capsaicin-induced C-nociceptor sensitization. When using physiologic stimulation of sympathetic activity, the capsaicin model is not useful for elucidating mechanisms of SMP. In neuropathic pain states with SMP, different mechanisms may be present.

  5. Increased Sympathetic Renal Innervation in Hemodialysis Patients Is the Anatomical Substrate of Sympathetic Hyperactivity in End-Stage Renal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauriello, Alessandro; Rovella, Valentina; Anemona, Lucia; Servadei, Francesca; Giannini, Elena; Bove, Pierluigi; Anselmo, Alessandro; Melino, Gerry; Di Daniele, Nicola

    2015-11-26

    Renal denervation represents an emerging treatment for resistant hypertension in patients with end-stage renal disease, but data about the anatomic substrate of this treatment are lacking. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the morphological basis of sympathetic hyperactivity in the setting of hemodialysis patients to identify an anatomical substrate that could warrant the use of this new therapeutic approach. The distribution of sympathetic nerves was evaluated in the adventitia of 38 renal arteries that were collected at autopsy or during surgery from 25 patients: 9 with end-stage renal disease on dialysis (DIAL group) and 16 age-matched control nondialysis patients (CTRL group). Patients in the DIAL group showed a significant increase in nerve density in the internal area of the peri-adventitial tissue (within the first 0.5 mm of the beginning of the adventitia) compared with the CTRL group (4.01±0.30 versus 2.87±0.28×mm(2), P=0.01). Regardless of dialysis, hypertensive patients with signs of severe arteriolar damage had a greater number of nerve endings in the most internal adventitia, and this number was significantly higher than in patients without hypertensive arteriolar damage (3.90±0.36 versus 2.87±0.41×mm(2), P=0.04), showing a correlation with hypertensive arteriolar damage rather than with hypertensive clinical history. The findings from this study provide a morphological basis underlying sympathetic hyperactivity in patients with end-stage renal disease and might offer useful information to improve the use of renal denervation in this group of patients. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  6. Pinched Nerve

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You are here Home » Disorders » All Disorders Pinched Nerve Information Page Pinched Nerve Information Page What research is being done? Within the NINDS research programs, pinched nerves are addressed primarily through studies associated with pain ...

  7. Modifications of the sympathetic skin response in workers chronically exposed to lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.B. Nora

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The long-term effects of low-level lead intoxication are not known. The sympathetic skin response (SSR was evaluated in a group of 60 former workers of a primary lead smelter, located in Santo Amaro, BA, Brazil. The individuals participating in the study were submitted to a clinical-epidemiological evaluation including questions related to potential risk factors for intoxication, complaints related to peripheral nervous system (PNS involvement, neurological clinical examination, and also to electromyography and nerve conduction studies and SSR evaluation. The sample consisted of 57 men and 3 women aged 34 to 69 years (mean ± SD: 46.8 ± 6.9. The neurophysiologic evaluation showed the presence of lumbosacral radiculopathy in one of the individuals (1.7%, axonal sensorimotor polyneuropathy in 2 (3.3%, and carpal tunnel syndrome in 6 (10%. SSR was abnormal or absent in 12 cases, representing 20% of the sample. More than half of the subjects (53.3% reported a history of acute abdominal pain requiring hospitalization during the period of work at the plant. A history of acute palsy of radial and peroneal nerves was reported by about 16.7 and 8.3% of the individuals, respectively. Mean SSR amplitude did not differ significantly between patients presenting or not the various characteristics in the current neurological situation, except for diaphoresis. The results suggest that chronic lead intoxication induces PNS damage, particularly affecting unmyelinated small fibers. Further systematic study is needed to more precisely define the role of lead in inducing PNS injury.

  8. Role of the Sympathetic Nervous System and Its Modulation in Renal Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sata, Yusuke; Head, Geoffrey A; Denton, Kate; May, Clive N; Schlaich, Markus P

    2018-01-01

    The kidneys are densely innervated with renal efferent and afferent nerves to communicate with the central nervous system. Innervation of major structural components of the kidneys, such as blood vessels, tubules, the pelvis, and glomeruli, forms a bidirectional neural network to relay sensory and sympathetic signals to and from the brain. Renal efferent nerves regulate renal blood flow, glomerular filtration rate, tubular reabsorption of sodium and water, as well as release of renin and prostaglandins, all of which contribute to cardiovascular and renal regulation. Renal afferent nerves complete the feedback loop via central autonomic nuclei where the signals are integrated and modulate central sympathetic outflow; thus both types of nerves form integral parts of the self-regulated renorenal reflex loop. Renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) is commonly increased in pathophysiological conditions such as hypertension and chronic- and end-stage renal disease. Increased RSNA raises blood pressure and can contribute to the deterioration of renal function. Attempts have been made to eliminate or interfere with this important link between the brain and the kidneys as a neuromodulatory treatment for these conditions. Catheter-based renal sympathetic denervation has been successfully applied in patients with resistant hypertension and was associated with significant falls in blood pressure and renal protection in most studies performed. The focus of this review is the neural contribution to the control of renal and cardiovascular hemodynamics and renal function in the setting of hypertension and chronic kidney disease, as well as the specific roles of renal efferent and afferent nerves in this scenario and their utility as a therapeutic target.

  9. Role of the Sympathetic Nervous System and Its Modulation in Renal Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Sata

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The kidneys are densely innervated with renal efferent and afferent nerves to communicate with the central nervous system. Innervation of major structural components of the kidneys, such as blood vessels, tubules, the pelvis, and glomeruli, forms a bidirectional neural network to relay sensory and sympathetic signals to and from the brain. Renal efferent nerves regulate renal blood flow, glomerular filtration rate, tubular reabsorption of sodium and water, as well as release of renin and prostaglandins, all of which contribute to cardiovascular and renal regulation. Renal afferent nerves complete the feedback loop via central autonomic nuclei where the signals are integrated and modulate central sympathetic outflow; thus both types of nerves form integral parts of the self-regulated renorenal reflex loop. Renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA is commonly increased in pathophysiological conditions such as hypertension and chronic- and end-stage renal disease. Increased RSNA raises blood pressure and can contribute to the deterioration of renal function. Attempts have been made to eliminate or interfere with this important link between the brain and the kidneys as a neuromodulatory treatment for these conditions. Catheter-based renal sympathetic denervation has been successfully applied in patients with resistant hypertension and was associated with significant falls in blood pressure and renal protection in most studies performed. The focus of this review is the neural contribution to the control of renal and cardiovascular hemodynamics and renal function in the setting of hypertension and chronic kidney disease, as well as the specific roles of renal efferent and afferent nerves in this scenario and their utility as a therapeutic target.

  10. Origins of the sympathetic innervation to the nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT): an anatomical substrate for a neuroimmune connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marafetti, Lucas E; Romeo, Horacio E

    2014-11-15

    The participation of sympathetic nerve fibers in the innervation of the nasal-associated lymphoid tissues (NALT) was investigated in hamsters. Vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2), an established sympathetic marker, is expressed in all neurons of superior cervical ganglia (SCG). In addition, VMAT2 -immunoreactive nerve fibers were localized in the NALT as well as in adjacent anatomical structures of the upper respiratory tract. Unilateral surgical ablation of the SCG abolished VMAT2 innervation patterns ipsilaterally while the contra lateral side is unaffected. These results provide the anatomical substrate for a neuroimmune connection in the NALT. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Control of sympathetic vasomotor tone by catecholaminergic C1 neurones of the rostral ventrolateral medulla oblongata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marina, Nephtali; Abdala, Ana P.L.; Korsak, Alla; Simms, Annabel E.; Allen, Andrew M.; Paton, Julian F.R.; Gourine, Alexander V.

    2011-01-01

    Aims Increased sympathetic tone in obstructive sleep apnoea results from recurrent episodes of systemic hypoxia and hypercapnia and might be an important contributor to the development of cardiovascular disease. In this study, we re-evaluated the role of a specific population of sympathoexcitatory catecholaminergic C1 neurones of the rostral ventrolateral medulla oblongata in the control of sympathetic vasomotor tone, arterial blood pressure, and hypercapnia-evoked sympathetic and cardiovascular responses. Methods and results In anaesthetized rats in vivo and perfused rat working heart brainstem preparations in situ, C1 neurones were acutely silenced by application of the insect peptide allatostatin following cell-specific targeting with a lentiviral vector to express the inhibitory Drosophila allatostatin receptor. In anaesthetized rats with denervated peripheral chemoreceptors, acute inhibition of 50% of the C1 neuronal population resulted in ∼50% reduction in renal sympathetic nerve activity and a profound fall in arterial blood pressure (by ∼25 mmHg). However, under these conditions systemic hypercapnia still evoked vigorous sympathetic activation and the slopes of the CO2-evoked sympathoexcitatory and cardiovascular responses were not affected by inhibition of C1 neurones. Inhibition of C1 neurones in situ resulted in a reversible fall in perfusion pressure and the amplitude of respiratory-related bursts of thoracic sympathetic nerve activity. Conclusion These data confirm a fundamental physiological role of medullary catecholaminergic C1 neurones in maintaining resting sympathetic vasomotor tone and arterial blood pressure. However, C1 neurones do not appear to mediate sympathoexcitation evoked by central actions of CO2. PMID:21543384

  12. Sympathetic neural modulation of the immune system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madden, K.S.

    1989-01-01

    One route by which the central nervous system communicates with lymphoid organs in the periphery is through the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). To study SNS regulation of immune activity in vivo, selective removal of peripheral noradrenergic nerve fibers was achieved by administration of the neurotoxic drug, 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), to adult mice. To assess SNS influence on lymphocyte proliferation in vitro, uptake of 125 iododeoxyuridine ( 125 IUdR), a DNA precursor, was measured following 6-OHDA treatment. Sympathectomy prior to epicutaneous immunization with TNCB did not alter draining lymph nodes (LN) cell proliferation, whereas 6-OHDA treatment before footpad immunization with KLH reduced DNA synthesis in popliteal LN by 50%. In mice which were not deliberately immunized, sympathectomy stimulated 125 IUdR uptake inguinal and axillary LN, spleen, and bone marrow. In vitro, these LN and spleen cells exhibited decreased proliferation responses to the T cell mitogen, concanavalin A (Con A), whereas lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated IgG secretion was enhanced. Studies examining 51 Cr-labeled lymphocyte trafficking to LN suggested that altered cell migration may play a part in sympathectomy-induced changes in LN cell function

  13. Separate neurochemical classes of sympathetic postganglionic neurons project to the left ventricle of the rat heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, R J; Grkovic, I; Allen, A M; Anderson, C R

    2006-04-01

    The sympathetic innervation of the rat heart was investigated by retrograde neuronal tracing and multiple label immunohistochemistry. Injections of Fast Blue made into the left ventricular wall labelled sympathetic neurons that were located along the medial border of both the left and right stellate ganglia. Cardiac projecting sympathetic postganglionic neurons could be grouped into one of four neurochemical populations, characterised by their content of calbindin and/or neuropeptide Y (NPY). The subpopulations of neurons contained immunoreactivity to both calbindin and NPY, immunoreactivity to calbindin only, immunoreactivity to NPY only and no immunoreactivity to calbindin or NPY. Sympathetic postganglionic neurons were also labelled in vitro with rhodamine dextran applied to the cut end of a cardiac nerve. The same neurochemical subpopulations of sympathetic neurons were identified by using this technique but in different proportions to those labelled from the left ventricle. Preganglionic terminals that were immunoreactive for another calcium-binding protein, calretinin, preferentially surrounded retrogradely labelled neurons that were immunoreactive for both calbindin and NPY. The separate sympathetic pathways projecting to the rat heart may control different cardiac functions.

  14. The role of sympathetic nervous system in the progression of chronic kidney disease in the era of catheter based sympathetic renal denervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petras, Dimitrios; Koutroutsos, Konstantinos; Kordalis, Athanasios; Tsioufis, Costas; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2013-08-01

    The kidney has been shown to be critically involved as both trigger and target of sympathetic nervous system overactivity in both experimental and clinical studies. Renal injury and ischemia, activation of renin angiotensin system and dysfunction of nitric oxide system have been implicated in adrenergic activation from kidney. Conversely, several lines of evidence suggest that sympathetic overactivity, through functional and morphological alterations in renal physiology and structure, may contribute to kidney injury and chronic kidney disease progression. Pharmacologic modulation of sympathetic nervous system activity has been found to have a blood pressure independent renoprotective effect. The inadequate normalization of sympathoexcitation by pharmacologic treatment asks for novel treatment options. Catheter based renal denervation targets selectively both efferent and afferent renal nerves and functionally denervates the kidney providing blood pressure reduction in clinical trials and renoprotection in experimental models by ameliorating the effects of excessive renal sympathetic drive. This review will focus on the role of sympathetic overactivity in the pathogenesis of kidney injury and CKD progression and will speculate on the effect of renal denervation to these conditions.

  15. Renal sympathetic denervation in hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumas, Michael; Faselis, Charles; Papademetriou, Vasilios

    2011-11-01

    Despite the abundance of antihypertensive drugs, resistant hypertension remains a major clinical problem. Recent technological advances render interventional management of resistant hypertension one of the hottest topics in the hypertension field. The aim of this review is to present the pathophysiologic background and the mechanisms mediating blood pressure reduction after renal sympathetic denervation, to analyze recent findings with this fascinating approach and to critically suggest future research directions. Catheter-based, ablation-induced renal sympathetic denervation was initially studied in 45 patients with resistant hypertension in a proof-of-concept study. Impressive blood pressure reductions of about 30/15  mmHg were achieved at 6 months, without serious complications. A second, controlled, randomized (but not blinded) study confirmed the results, verifying the efficacy and safety of the procedure. A recent report revealed the 2-year durability of blood pressure reduction. Data published so far indicate that ablation-induced renal denervation is a feasible, effective, and well tolerated interventional approach for the management of resistant hypertension. The groundbreaking studies of renal denervation in drug-resistant hypertension pave the way for further research in other disease conditions in which sympathetic overactivity seems to play a critical role. This initial wave of enthusiasm needs to be followed by rigorous investigation, for the proper identification of the potential and the limitations, indications, and contraindications of this approach.

  16. Isolated trochlear nerve palsy with midbrain hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghavendra S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Midbrain hemorrhage causing isolated fourth nerve palsy is extremely rare. Idiopathic, traumatic and congenital abnormalities are the most common causes of fourth nerve palsy. We report acute isolated fourth nerve palsy in an 18-year-old lady due to a midbrain hemorrhage probably due to a midbrain cavernoma. The case highlights the need for neuroimaging in selected cases of isolated trochlear nerve palsy.

  17. An implantable nerve cooler for the exercising dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgdorff, P; Versteeg, P G

    1984-01-01

    An implantable nerve cooler has been constructed to block cervical vago-sympathetic activity in the exercising dog reversibly. An insulated gilt brass container implanted around the nerve is perfused with cooled alcohol via silicone tubes. The flow of alcohol is controlled by an electromagnetic valve to keep nerve temperature at the required value. Nerve temperature is measured by a thermistor attached to the housing and in contact with the nerve. It is shown that, during cooling, temperature at this location differs less than 2 degrees C from nerve core temperature. Measurement of changes in heart rate revealed that complete vagal block in the conscious animal is obtained at a nerve temperature of 2 degrees C and can be achieved within 50 s. During steady-state cooling in the exercising animal nerve temperature varied less than 0.5 degree C. When the coolers after 2 weeks of implantation were removed they showed no oxydation and could be used again.

  18. Genetic instability in nerve sheath cell tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogatto, Silvia Regina; Casartelli, Cacilda; Rainho, Claudia Aparecida

    1995-01-01

    After in vitro culture, we analyzed cytogenetically four acoustic nerve neurinomas, one intraspinal neurinoma and one neurofibroma obtainedfrom unrelated patients. Monosomy of chromosomes 22 and 16 was an abnormality common to all cases, followed in frequency by loss of chromosomes 18 (three cases...... by the presence of polyploid cells with inconsistent abnormalities, endoreduplications and telomeric associations resulting in dicentric chromosomes. It is probable that these cytogenetic abnormalities represent some kind of evolutionary advantage for the in vitro progression of nerve sheath tumors....

  19. [Improvement of approach to performance of lumbar sympathetic blockade in patients with tissue ischemia of the lower extremities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panov, V M; Fesenko, U A; Kutsyn, V M

    2014-06-01

    New access for performance of sympathic blockade in region of aortal bifurcation, was elaborated, basing on calculations, conducted on 30 spiral computeric tomograms of lumbar and sacral parts of vertebral column. Application of the method permits to escape such complications, as a renal and the main vessels damage, the sympathetic nerves blockade, do not demand roentgenological control.

  20. Electrical modulation of the sympathetic nervous system in order to augment cerebral blood flow : a protocol for an experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ter Laan, Mark; van Dijk, J. Marc C.; Staal, Michiel J.; Elting, Jan-Willem J.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Cerebral blood flow (CBF) is regulated by several mechanisms. Neurogenic control has been a matter of debate, even though several publications reported the effects of changes in sympathetic tone on CBF. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and spinal-cord stimulation have been

  1. Sympathetically maintained pain presenting first as temporomandibular disorder, then as parotid dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Subha; Nixdorf, Donald

    2007-03-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic condition characterized by intense pain, swelling, redness, hypersensitivity and additional sudomotor effects. In all 13 cases of CRPS in the head and neck region reported in the literature, nerve injury was identified as the etiology for pain initiation. In this article, we present the case of a 30-year-old female patient with sympathetically maintained pain without apparent nerve injury. Her main symptoms--left-side preauricular pain and inability to open her mouth wide--mimicked temporomandibular joint arthralgia and myofascial pain of the masticatory muscles. Later, symptoms of intermittent preauricular pain and swelling developed, along with hyposalivation, which mimicked parotitis. After an extensive diagnostic process, no definitive underlying pathology could be identified and a diagnosis of neuropathic pain with a prominent sympathetic component was made. Two years after the onset of symptoms and initiation of care, treatment with repeated stellate ganglion blocks and enteral clonidine pharmacotherapy provided adequate pain relief.

  2. Lower cranial nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldatos, Theodoros; Batra, Kiran; Blitz, Ari M; Chhabra, Avneesh

    2014-02-01

    Imaging evaluation of cranial neuropathies requires thorough knowledge of the anatomic, physiologic, and pathologic features of the cranial nerves, as well as detailed clinical information, which is necessary for tailoring the examinations, locating the abnormalities, and interpreting the imaging findings. This article provides clinical, anatomic, and radiological information on lower (7th to 12th) cranial nerves, along with high-resolution magnetic resonance images as a guide for optimal imaging technique, so as to improve the diagnosis of cranial neuropathy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Artifacts produced during electrical stimulation of the vestibular nerve in cats. [autonomic nervous system components of motion sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, P. C.

    1973-01-01

    Evidence is presented to indicate that evoked potentials in the recurrent laryngeal, the cervical sympathetic, and the phrenic nerve, commonly reported as being elicited by vestibular nerve stimulation, may be due to stimulation of structures other than the vestibular nerve. Experiments carried out in decerebrated cats indicated that stimulation of the petrous bone and not that of the vestibular nerve is responsible for the genesis of evoked potentials in the recurrent laryngeal and the cervical sympathetic nerves. The phrenic response to electrical stimulation applied through bipolar straight electrodes appears to be the result of stimulation of the facial nerve in the facial canal by current spread along the petrous bone, since stimulation of the suspended facial nerve evoked potentials only in the phrenic nerve and not in the recurrent laryngeal nerve. These findings indicate that autonomic components of motion sickness represent the secondary reactions and not the primary responses to vestibular stimulation.

  4. Optic nerve hypoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savleen Kaur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH is a congenital anomaly of the optic disc that might result in moderate to severe vision loss in children. With a vast number of cases now being reported, the rarity of ONH is obviously now refuted. The major aspects of ophthalmic evaluation of an infant with possible ONH are visual assessment, fundus examination, and visual electrophysiology. Characteristically, the disc is small, there is a peripapillary double-ring sign, vascular tortuosity, and thinning of the nerve fiber layer. A patient with ONH should be assessed for presence of neurologic, radiologic, and endocrine associations. There may be maternal associations like premature births, fetal alcohol syndrome, maternal diabetes. Systemic associations in the child include endocrine abnormalities, developmental delay, cerebral palsy, and seizures. Besides the hypoplastic optic nerve and chiasm, neuroimaging shows abnormalities in ventricles or white- or gray-matter development, septo-optic dysplasia, hydrocephalus, and corpus callosum abnormalities. There is a greater incidence of clinical neurologic abnormalities in patients with bilateral ONH (65% than patients with unilateral ONH. We present a review on the available literature on the same to urge caution in our clinical practice when dealing with patients with ONH. Fundus photography, ocular coherence tomography, visual field testing, color vision evaluation, neuroimaging, endocrinology consultation with or without genetic testing are helpful in the diagnosis and management of ONH. (Method of search: MEDLINE, PUBMED.

  5. Recruitment pattern of sympathetic muscle neurons during premature ventricular contractions in heart failure patients and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslov, Petra Zubin; Breskovic, Toni; Brewer, Danielle N; Shoemaker, J Kevin; Dujic, Zeljko

    2012-12-01

    Premature ventricular contractions (PVC) elicit larger bursts of multiunit muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), reflecting the ability to increase postganglionic axonal recruitment. We tested the hypothesis that chronic heart failure (CHF) limits the ability to recruit postganglionic sympathetic neurons as a response to PVC due to the excessive sympathetic activation in these patients. Sympathetic neurograms of sufficient signal-to-noise ratio were obtained from six CHF patients and from six similarly aged control individuals. Action potentials (APs) were extracted from the multiunit sympathetic neurograms during sinus rhythm bursts and during the post-PVC bursts. These APs were classified on the basis of the frequency per second, the content per burst, and the peak-to-peak amplitude, which formed the basis of binning the APs into active clusters. Compared with controls, CHF had higher APs per burst and higher number of active clusters per sinus rhythm burst (P < 0.05). Compared with sinus rhythm bursts, both groups increased AP frequency and the number of active clusters in the post-PVC burst (P < 0.05). However, compared with controls, the increase in burst integral, AP frequency, and APs per burst during the post-PVC burst was less in CHF patients. Nonetheless, the PVC-induced increase in active clusters per burst was similar between the groups. Thus, these CHF patients retained the ability to recruit larger APs but had a diminished ability to increase overall AP content.

  6. SYMPATHETIC NEURAL AND HEMODYNAMIC RESPONSES DURING COLD PRESSOR TEST IN ELDERLY BLACKS AND WHITES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Yoshiyuki; Jarvis, Sara S.; Best, Stuart A.; Edwards, Jeffrey G.; Hendrix, Joseph M.; Adams-Huet, Beverley; Vongpatanasin, Wanpen; Levine, Benjamin D.; Fu, Qi

    2016-01-01

    The sympathetic response during the cold pressor test (CPT) has been reported to be greater in young blacks than whites, especially in those with a family history of hypertension. Since blood pressure (BP) increases with age, we evaluated whether elderly blacks have greater sympathetic activation during CPT than age-matched whites. BP, heart rate (HR), cardiac output (Qc), and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) were measured during supine baseline, 2-min CPT, and 3-min recovery in 47 elderly [68±7 (SD) yrs] volunteers (12 blacks, 35 whites). Baseline BP, HR, Qc, or MSNA did not differ between races. Systolic and diastolic BP (DBP) and HR increased during CPT (all P0.05). Qc increased during CPT and up to 30 sec of recovery in both groups, but was lower in blacks than whites. MSNA increased during CPT in both groups (both P<0.001); the increase in burst frequency was similar between groups, while the increase in total activity was smaller in blacks (P=0.030 for interaction). Peak change (Δ) in DBP was correlated with Δ total activity at 1 min into CPT in both blacks (r=0.78, P=0.003) and whites (r=0.43, P=0.009), while the slope was significantly greater in blacks (P=0.007). Thus, elderly blacks have smaller sympathetic and central hemodynamic (e.g., Qc) responses, but a greater pressor response for a given sympathetic activation during CPT than elderly whites. This response may stem from augmented sympathetic vascular transduction, greater sympathetic activation to other vascular bed(s), and/or enhanced non-adrenergically mediated vasoconstriction in elderly blacks. PMID:27021009

  7. Sympathetic stimulation alters left ventricular relaxation and chamber size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burwash, I G; Morgan, D E; Koilpillai, C J; Blackmore, G L; Johnstone, D E; Armour, J A

    1993-01-01

    Alterations in left ventricular (LV) contractility, relaxation, and chamber dimensions induced by efferent sympathetic nerve stimulation were investigated in nine anesthetized open-chest dogs in sinus rhythm. Supramaximal stimulation of acutely decentralized left stellate ganglia augmented heart rate, LV systolic pressure, and rate of LV pressure rise (maximum +dP/dt, 1,809 +/- 191 to 6,304 +/- 725 mmHg/s) and fall (maximum -dP/dt, -2,392 +/- 230 to -4,458 +/- 482 mmHg/s). It also reduced the time constant of isovolumic relaxation, tau (36.5 +/- 4.8 to 14.9 +/- 1.1 ms). Simultaneous two-dimensional echocardiography recorded reductions in end-diastolic and end-systolic LV cross-sectional chamber areas (23 and 31%, respectively), an increase in area ejection fraction (32%), and increases in end-diastolic and end-systolic wall thicknesses (14 and 13%, respectively). End-systolic and end-diastolic wall stresses were unchanged by stellate ganglion stimulation (98 +/- 12 to 95 +/- 9 dyn x 10(3)/cm2; 6.4 +/- 2.4 to 2.4 +/- 0.3 dyn x 10(3)/cm2, respectively). Atrial pacing to similar heart rates did not alter monitored indexes of contractility. Dobutamine and isoproterenol induced changes similar to those resulting from sympathetic neuronal stimulation. These data indicate that when the efferent sympathetic nervous system increases left ventricular contractility and relaxation, concomitant reductions in systolic and diastolic dimensions of that chamber occur that are associated with increasing wall thickness such that LV wall stress changes are minimized.

  8. Renal sympathetic denervation in the treatment of resistant hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Álvarez, Catalina; González-Vélez, Miguel; Stilp, Erik; Ward, Charisse; Mena-Hurtado, Carlos

    2014-12-01

    Arterial hypertension (HTN) is a major health problem worldwide. Treatment-resistant hypertension (trHTN) is defined as the failure to achieve target blood pressure despite the concomitant use of maximally tolerated doses of three different antihypertensive medications, including a diuretic. trHTN is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Renal sympathetic denervation (RDn) is available and implemented abroad as a strategy for the treatment of trHTN and is currently under clinical investigation in the United States. Selective renal sympathectomy via an endovascular approach effectively decreases renal sympathetic nerve hyperactivity leading to a decrease in blood pressure. The Symplicity catheter, currently under investigation in the United States, is a 6-French compatible system advanced under fluoroscopic guidance via percutaneous access of the common femoral artery to the distal lumen of each of the main renal arteries. Radiofrequency (RF) energy is then applied to the endoluminal surface of the renal arteries via an electrode located at the tip of the catheter. Two clinical trials (Symplicity HTN 1 and Symplicity HTN 2) have shown the efficacy of RDn with a post-procedure decline of 27/17 mmHg at 12 months and 32/12 mmHg at 6 months, respectively, with few minor adverse events. Symplicity HTN-3 study is a, multi-center, prospective, single-blind, randomized, controlled study currently under way and will provide further insights about the safety and efficacy of renal denervation in patients with trHTN.

  9. Terminal nerve: cranial nerve zero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Eduardo Duque Parra

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been stated, in different types of texts, that there are only twelve pairs of cranial nerves. Such texts exclude the existence of another cranial pair, the terminal nerve or even cranial zero. This paper considers the mentioned nerve like a cranial pair, specifying both its connections and its functional role in the migration of liberating neurons of the gonadotropic hormone (Gn RH. In this paper is also stated the hypothesis of the phylogenetic existence of a cerebral sector and a common nerve that integrates the terminal nerve with the olfactory nerves and the vomeronasals nerves which seem to carry out the odors detection function as well as in the food search, pheromone detection and nasal vascular regulation.

  10. RAGE mediates the inactivation of nAChRs in sympathetic neurons under high glucose conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandna, Andrew R; Nair, Manoj; Chang, Christine; Pennington, Paul R; Yamamoto, Yasuhiko; Mousseau, Darrell D; Campanucci, Verónica A

    2015-02-01

    Autonomic dysfunction is a serious complication of diabetes and can lead to cardiovascular abnormalities and premature death. It was recently proposed that autonomic dysfunction is triggered by oxidation-mediated inactivation of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), impairing synaptic transmission in sympathetic ganglia and resulting in autonomic failure. We investigated whether the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and its role in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) could be contributing to the events that initiate sympathetic malfunction under high glucose conditions. Using biochemical, live imaging and electrophysiological tools we demonstrated that exposure of sympathetic neurons to high glucose increases RAGE expression and oxidative markers, and that incubation with RAGE ligands (e.g. AGEs, S100 and HMGB1) mimics both ROS elevation and nAChR inactivation. In contrast, co-treatment with either antioxidants or an anti-RAGE IgG prevented the inactivation of nAChRs. Lastly, a role for RAGE in this context was corroborated by the lack of sensitivity of sympathetic neurons from RAGE knock-out mice to high glucose. These data define a pivotal role for RAGE in initiating the events associated with exposure of sympathetic neurons to high glucose, and strongly support RAGE signaling as a potential therapeutic target in the autonomic complications associated with diabetes. © 2014 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Release of NPY in pig pancreas: Dual parasympathetic and sympathetic regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikh, S.P.; Holst, J.J.; Skak-Nielsen, T.; Knigge, U.; Warberg, J.; Theodorsson-Norheim, E.; Hoekfelt, T.; Lundberg, J.M.; Schwartz, T.W.

    1988-01-01

    Several lines of evidence have connected neuropeptide Y (NPY), a 36-residue polypeptide, to the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system. The authors studied the localization, the molecular characteristics, and the release of NPY and norepinephrine (NE) in the porcine pancreas. Immunohistochemical investigations revealed that NPY nerves around blood vessels were likely to be of adrenergic nature, whereas NPY-immunoreactive fibers close to exocrine and endocrine cells may originate from local ganglia also containing VIP (vasoactive intestinal peptide) and PHI (peptide histidine isoleucine). Electrical stimulation of the splanchnic nerve supply to the isolated perfused pig pancreas resulted in a corelease of NPY and NE into the venous effluent. Stimulation of the vagal nerves caused a sevenfold larger release of NPY without affecting the NE secretion. Characterization of the NPY immunoreactivity in the pancreatic tissue and in the venous effluent by gel filtration, high-performance liquid chromatography, and isoelectric focusing shoed that the immunoreactive NPY was indistinguishable from synthetic porcine NPY. It is concluded that, although NPY is associated with sympathetic perivascular neurons, the majority of the pancreatic NPY-containing nerve fibers are likely to belong to the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system

  12. Device-based approaches for renal nerve ablation for hypertension and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorp, Alicia A; Schlaich, Markus P

    2015-01-01

    Animal and human studies have demonstrated that chronic activation of renal sympathetic nerves is critical in the pathogenesis and perpetuation of treatment-resistant hypertension. Bilateral renal denervation has emerged as a safe and effective, non-pharmacological treatment for resistant hypertension that involves the selective ablation of efferent and afferent renal nerves to lower blood pressure. However, the most recent and largest randomized controlled trial failed to confirm the primacy of renal denervation over a sham procedure, prompting widespread re-evaluation of the therapy's efficacy. Disrupting renal afferent sympathetic signaling to the hypothalamus with renal denervation lowers central sympathetic tone, which has the potential to confer additional clinical benefits beyond blood pressure control. Specifically, there has been substantial interest in the use of renal denervation as either a primary or adjunct therapy in pathological conditions characterized by central sympathetic overactivity such as renal disease, heart failure and metabolic-associated disorders. Recent findings from pre-clinical and proof-of-concept studies appear promising with renal denervation shown to confer cardiovascular and metabolic benefits, largely independent of changes in blood pressure. This review explores the pathological rationale for targeting sympathetic renal nerves for blood pressure control. Latest developments in renal nerve ablation modalities designed to improve procedural success are discussed along with prospective findings on the efficacy of renal denervation to lower blood pressure in treatment-resistant hypertensive patients. Preliminary evidence in support of renal denervation as a possible therapeutic option in disease states characterized by central sympathetic overactivity is also presented.

  13. Potential Role of Semaphorin 3A and Its Receptors in Regulating Aberrant Sympathetic Innervation in Peritoneal and Deep Infiltrating Endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yanchun; Wang, Wei; Huang, Jiaming; Tan, Hao; Liu, Tianyu; Shang, Chunliang; Liu, Duo; Guo, Luyan; Yao, Shuzhong

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the involvement of nerve repellent factors in regulation of the imbalanced innervation of endometriosis. This prospective study aims to explore the role of Sema 3A in regulating aberrant sympathetic innervation in peritoneal and deep infiltrating endometriosis. Ectopic endometriotic lesion were collected from patients with peritoneal endometriosis (n = 24) and deep infiltrating endometriosis of uterosacral ligament (n = 20) undergoing surgery for endometriosis. Eutopic endometrial samples were collected from patients with endometriosis (n = 22) or without endometriosis (n = 26). Healthy peritoneum (n = 13) from the lateral pelvic wall and healthy uterosacral ligament (n = 13) were obtained from patients who had no surgical and histological proof of endometriosis during hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Firstly, we studied the immunostaining of Sema 3A, Plexin A1 and NRP-1 in all the tissues described above. Then we studied the nerve fiber density (NFD) of endometriosis-associated (sympathetic) nerve and para-endometriotic (sympathetic) nerve by double immunofluorescence staining. Finally we analyzed the relationship between expression of Sema 3A in stromal cells of endometriotic lesion and the aberrant innervation of endometriosis. Semi-quantitative immunostaining demonstrated that (1) Higher immunostaining of Sema 3A were found in the eutopic endometrial glandular epithelial cells from patients with endometriosis (p = 0.041) than those without endometriosis; (2) Sema 3A immunostaining was higher in glandular epithelial cells of peritoneal endometriosis (Pendometriosis, while its expression in ectopic stormal cells in both groups were significantly lower than that from eutopic endometrium of women without endometirosis (Pendometriosis-associated sympathetic nerve of peritoneal endometriosis (pendometriosis of uterosacral ligament (pperitoneal and deep infiltrating endometriosis.

  14. Potential Role of Semaphorin 3A and Its Receptors in Regulating Aberrant Sympathetic Innervation in Peritoneal and Deep Infiltrating Endometriosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yanchun; Wang, Wei; Huang, Jiaming; Tan, Hao; Liu, Tianyu; Shang, Chunliang; Liu, Duo; Guo, Luyan; Yao, Shuzhong

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the involvement of nerve repellent factors in regulation of the imbalanced innervation of endometriosis. This prospective study aims to explore the role of Sema 3A in regulating aberrant sympathetic innervation in peritoneal and deep infiltrating endometriosis. Ectopic endometriotic lesion were collected from patients with peritoneal endometriosis (n = 24) and deep infiltrating endometriosis of uterosacral ligament (n = 20) undergoing surgery for endometriosis. Eutopic endometrial samples were collected from patients with endometriosis (n = 22) or without endometriosis (n = 26). Healthy peritoneum (n = 13) from the lateral pelvic wall and healthy uterosacral ligament (n = 13) were obtained from patients who had no surgical and histological proof of endometriosis during hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. Firstly, we studied the immunostaining of Sema 3A, Plexin A1 and NRP-1 in all the tissues described above. Then we studied the nerve fiber density (NFD) of endometriosis-associated (sympathetic) nerve and para-endometriotic (sympathetic) nerve by double immunofluorescence staining. Finally we analyzed the relationship between expression of Sema 3A in stromal cells of endometriotic lesion and the aberrant innervation of endometriosis. Semi-quantitative immunostaining demonstrated that (1) Higher immunostaining of Sema 3A were found in the eutopic endometrial glandular epithelial cells from patients with endometriosis (p = 0.041) than those without endometriosis; (2) Sema 3A immunostaining was higher in glandular epithelial cells of peritoneal endometriosis (Pendometriosis, while its expression in ectopic stormal cells in both groups were significantly lower than that from eutopic endometrium of women without endometirosis (Pendometriosis-associated sympathetic nerve of peritoneal endometriosis (pendometriosis of uterosacral ligament (pendometriosis. PMID:26720585

  15. Early life stress sensitizes the renal and systemic sympathetic system in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loria, Analia S; Brands, Michael W; Pollock, David M; Pollock, Jennifer S

    2013-08-01

    We hypothesized that maternal separation (MS), an early life stress model, induces a sensitization of the sympathetic system. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the renal and systemic sympathetic system in 12- to 14-wk-old male control or MS rats with the following parameters: 1) effect of renal denervation on conscious renal filtration capacity, 2) norepinephrine (NE) content in key organs involved in blood pressure control, and 3) acute systemic pressor responses to adrenergic stimulation or ganglion blockade. MS was performed by separating pups from their mothers for 3 h/day from day 2 to 14; controls were nonhandled littermates. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was examined in renal denervated (DnX; within 2 wk) or sham rats using I¹²⁵-iothalamate plasma clearance. MS-DnX rats showed significantly increased GFR compared with MS-SHAM rats (3.8 ± 0.4 vs. 2.4 ± 0.2 ml/min, respectively, P renal nerves regulate GFR in MS rats. NE content was significantly increased in organ tissues from MS rats (P renal and systemic sympathetic system. Conscious MS rats displayed a significantly greater increase in mean arterial pressure (MAP) in response to NE (2 μg/kg ip) and a greater reduction in MAP in response to mecamylamine (2 mg/kg ip, P renal and systemic sympathetic system ultimately impairing blood pressure regulation.

  16. Renal sympathetic nervous system and the effects of denervation on renal arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Arun; Medina, Raul Ivan; Nagajothi, Nagapradeep; Balamuthusamy, Saravanan

    2014-08-26

    Resistant hypertension is associated with chronic activation of the sympathetic nervous system resulting in various comorbidities. The prevalence of resistant hypertension is often under estimated due to various reasons. Activation of sympathetic nervous system at the renal- as well as systemic- level contributes to the increased level of catecholamines and resulting increase in the blood pressure. This increased activity was demonstrated by increased muscle sympathetic nerve activity and renal and total body noradrenaline spillover. Apart from the hypertension, it is hypothesized to be associated with insulin resistance, congestive heart failure and obstructive sleep apnea. Renal denervation is a novel procedure where the sympathetic afferent and efferent activity is reduced by various techniques and has been used successfully to treat drug-resistant hypertension improvement of various metabolic derangements. Renal denervation has the unique advantage of offering the denervation at the renal level, thus mitigating the systemic side effects. Renal denervation can be done by various techniques including radiofrequency ablation, ultrasound guided ablation and chemical ablation. Various trials evaluated the role of renal denervation in the management of resistant hypertension and have found promising results. More studies are underway to evaluate the role of renal denervation in patients presenting with resistant hypertension in different scenarios. Appropriate patient selection might be the key in determining the effectiveness of the procedure.

  17. Sympathetic responses during saline infusion into the veins of an occluded limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jian; McQuillan, Patrick; Moradkhan, Raman; Pagana, Charles; Sinoway, Lawrence I

    2009-07-15

    Animal studies have shown that the increased intravenous pressure stimulates the group III and IV muscle afferent fibres, and in turn induce cardiovascular responses. However, this pathway of autonomic regulation has not been examined in humans. The aim of this study was to examine the hypothesis that infusion of saline into the venous circulation of an arterially occluded vascular bed evokes sympathetic activation in healthy individuals. Blood pressure, heart rate, and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) responses were assessed in 19 young healthy subjects during local infusion of 40 ml saline into a forearm vein in the circulatory arrested condition. From baseline (11.8 +/- 1.2 bursts min(-1)), MSNA increased significantly during the saline infusion (22.5 +/- 2.6 bursts min(-1), P Blood pressure also increased significantly during the saline infusion. Three control trials were performed during separate visits. The results from the control trial show that the observed MSNA and blood pressure responses were not due to muscle ischaemia. The present data show that saline infusion into the venous circulation of an arterially occluded vascular bed induces sympathetic activation and an increase in blood pressure. We speculate that the infusion under such conditions stimulates the afferent endings near the vessels, and evokes the sympathetic activation.

  18. Altered differential control of sympathetic outflow following sedentary conditions: Role of subregional neuroplasticity in the RVLM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhan Subramanian

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite the classically held belief of an all-or-none activation of the sympathetic nervous system, differential responses in sympathetic nerve activity (SNA can occur acutely at varying magnitudes and in opposing directions. Sympathetic nerves also appear to contribute differentially to various disease states including hypertension and heart failure. Previously we have reported that sedentary conditions enhanced responses of splanchnic SNA (SSNA but not lumbar SNA (LSNA to activation of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM in rats. Bulbospinal RVLM neurons from sedentary rats also exhibit increased dendritic branching in rostral regions of the RVLM. We hypothesized that regionally specific structural neuroplasticity would manifest as enhanced SSNA but not LSNA following activation of the rostral RVLM. To test this hypothesis, groups of physically active (10-12 weeks on running wheels or sedentary, male Sprague-Dawley rats were instrumented to record mean arterial pressure, LSNA and SSNA under Inactin anesthesia and during microinjections of glutamate (30 nl, 10 mM into multiple sites within the RVLM. Sedentary conditions enhanced SSNA but not LSNA responses and SSNA responses were enhanced at more central and rostral sites. Results suggest that enhanced SSNA responses in rostral RVLM coincide with enhanced dendritic branching in rostral RVLM observed previously. Identifying structural and functional neuroplasticity in specific populations of RVLM neurons may help identify new treatments for cardiovascular diseases, known to be more prevalent in sedentary individuals.

  19. Sympathetic, sensory, and nonneuronal contributions to the cutaneous vasoconstrictor response to local cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, John M; Yen, Tony C; Zhao, Kun; Kosiba, Wojciech A

    2005-04-01

    Previous work indicates that sympathetic nerves participate in the vascular responses to direct cooling of the skin in humans. We evaluated this hypothesis further in a four-part series by measuring changes in cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) from forearm skin locally cooled from 34 to 29 degrees C for 30 min. In part 1, bretylium tosylate reversed the initial vasoconstriction (-14 +/- 6.6% control CVC, first 5 min) to one of vasodilation (+19.7 +/- 7.7%) but did not affect the response at 30 min (-30.6 +/- 9% control, -38.9 +/- 6.9% bretylium; both P 0.05 between treatments). In part 2, yohimbine and propranolol (YP) also reversed the initial vasoconstriction (-14.3 +/- 4.2% control) to vasodilation (+26.3 +/- 12.1% YP), without a significant effect on the 30-min response (-26.7 +/- 6.1% YP, -43.2 +/- 6.5% control; both P 0.05 between sites). In part 3, the NPY Y1 receptor antagonist BIBP 3226 had no significant effect on either phase of vasoconstriction (P > 0.05 between sites both times). In part 4, sensory nerve blockade by anesthetic cream (Emla) also reversed the initial vasoconstriction (-20.1 +/- 6.4% control) to one of vasodilation (+213.4 +/- 87.0% Emla), whereas the final levels did not differ significantly (-37.7 +/- 10.1% control, -37.2 +/- 8.7% Emla; both P 0.05 between treatments). These results indicate that local cooling causes cold-sensitive afferents to activate sympathetic nerves to release norepinephrine, leading to a local cutaneous vasoconstriction that masks a nonneurogenic vasodilation. Later, a vasoconstriction develops with or without functional sensory or sympathetic nerves.

  20. Carotid body (Thermoreceptors, sympathetic neural activation, and cardiometabolic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Iturriaga

    Full Text Available The carotid body (CB is the main peripheral chemoreceptor that senses the arterial PO2, PCO2 and pH. In response to hypoxemia, hypercapnia and acidosis, carotid chemosensory discharge elicits reflex respiratory, autonomic and cardiovascular adjustments. The classical construct considers the CB as the main peripheral oxygen sensor, triggering reflex physiological responses to acute hypoxemia and facilitating the ventilatory acclimation to chronic hypoxemia at high altitude. However, a growing body of experimental evidence supports the novel concept that an abnormally enhanced CB chemosensory input to the brainstem contributes to overactivation of the sympathetic nervous system, and consequent pathology. Indeed, the CB has been implicated in several diseases associated with increases in central sympathetic outflow. These include hypertension, heart failure, sleep apnea, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and metabolic syndrome. Indeed, ablation of the CB has been proposed for the treatment of severe and resistant hypertension in humans. In this review, we will analyze and discuss new evidence supporting an important role for the CB chemoreceptor in the progression of autonomic and cardiorespiratory alterations induced by heart failure, obstructive sleep apnea, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and metabolic syndrome.

  1. Ulnar nerve dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuropathy - ulnar nerve; Ulnar nerve palsy; Mononeuropathy; Cubital tunnel syndrome ... Damage to one nerve group, such as the ulnar nerve, is called mononeuropathy . Mononeuropathy means there is damage to a single nerve. Both ...

  2. Radial nerve dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuropathy - radial nerve; Radial nerve palsy; Mononeuropathy ... Damage to one nerve group, such as the radial nerve, is called mononeuropathy . Mononeuropathy means there is damage to a single nerve. Both ...

  3. Diabetic and sympathetic influences on the water permeability barrier function of human skin as measured using transepidermal water loss: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seung Hoon; Park, Ji Woong

    2017-11-01

    The presence of long-standing hyperglycemic conditions has been suggested to lead to many skin problems associated with an impaired skin barrier function. However, the relationship between impaired skin barrier status and altered peripheral nervous system function has not yet been determined. The purpose of this study was to investigate the water evaporation rate as a measure of the permeability barrier function of diabetic skin and its relationship to diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy (DSPN) and peripheral autonomic neuropathy (PAN) using well-controlled confounding variables.This case-control study included 42 participants with chronic diabetes and 43 matched healthy controls. The diabetic group underwent a nerve conduction study and sympathetic skin response (SSR) test to confirm the presence of DSPN and PAN, respectively. Different skin regions were analyzed using the noninvasive Tewameter instrument (Courage + Khazaka Electronic GmbH, Cologne, Germany). The impacts of PAN, DSPN, age, and diabetes duration on the values of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) were each analyzed and compared between the groups.Regardless of the presence of DSPN or PAN, the TEWL values as measured on the distal extremities were significantly lower in the diabetic group than in the control group. In the diabetic group, participants with abnormal SSR test results showed decreased TEWL values in the finger, sole, and first toe, as compared with participants with normal SSR test results. In the control group, age showed a negative correlation with the TEWL values with respect to some measured regions. However, in the diabetic group, there was no significant correlation between either patient age or diabetes duration and TEWL values.The presence of a long-term hyperglycemic state can reduce the permeability barrier function of the skin, a phenomenon that might be related to the presence of an impaired peripheral sympathetic nervous system, rather than peripheral sensorimotor

  4. Renal sympathetic denervation attenuates hypertension and vascular remodeling in renovascular hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Huang, Pei-Pei; Yang, Yun; Liu, Chi; Lu, Yan; Wang, Fang; Sun, Wei; Kong, Xiang-Qing

    2017-01-01

    Li P, Huang P, Yang Y, Liu C, Lu Y, Wang F, Sun W, Kong X. Renal sympathetic denervation attenuates hypertension and vascular remodeling in renovascular hypertensive rats. J Appl Physiol 122: 121-129, 2017. First published October 14, 2016; doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.01019.2015-Sympathetic activity is enhanced in patients with essential or secondary hypertension, as well as in various hypertensive animal models. Therapeutic targeting of sympathetic activation is considered an effective antihypertensive strategy. We hypothesized that renal sympathetic denervation (RSD) attenuates hypertension and improves vascular remodeling and renal disease in the 2-kidney, 1-clip (2K1C) rat model. Rats underwent 2K1C modeling or sham surgery; then rats underwent RSD or sham surgery 4 wk later, thus resulting in four groups (normotensive-sham, normotensive-RSD, 2K1C-sham, and 2K1C-RSD). Norepinephrine was measured by ELISA. Echocardiography was used to assess heart function. Fibrosis and apoptosis were assessed by Masson and TUNEL staining. Changes in mean arterial blood pressure in response to hexamethonium and plasma norepinephrine levels were used to evaluate basal sympathetic nerve activity. The 2K1C modeling success rate was 86.8%. RSD reversed the elevated systolic blood pressure induced by 2K1C, but had no effect on body weight. Compared with rats in the 2K1C-sham group, rats in the 2K1C-RSD group showed lower left ventricular mass/body weight ratio, interventricular septal thickness in diastole, left ventricular end-systolic diameter, and left ventricular posterior wall thickness in systole, whereas fractional shortening and ejection fraction were higher. Right kidney apoptosis and left kidney hypertrophy were not changed by RSD. Arterial fibrosis was lower in animals in the 2K1C-RSD group compared with those in the 2K1C-sham group. RSD reduced plasma norepinephrine and basal sympathetic activity in rats in the 2K1C-RSD group compared with rats in the 2K1C-sham group. These

  5. Peripheral nerve involvement in Bell's palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Bueri

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available A group of patients with Bell's palsy were studied in order to disclose the presence of subclinical peripheral nerve involvement. 20 patients, 8 male and 12 female, with recent Bell's palsy as their unique disease were examined, in all cases other causes of polyneuropathy were ruled out. Patients were investigated with CSF examination, facial nerve latencies in the affected and in the sound sides, and maximal motor nerve conduction velocities, as well as motor terminal latencies from the right median and peroneal nerves. CSF laboratory examination was normal in all cases. Facial nerve latencies were abnormal in all patients in the affected side, and they differed significantly from those of control group in the clinically sound side. Half of the patients showed abnormal values in the maximal motor nerve conduction velocities and motor terminal latencies of the right median and peroneal nerves. These results agree with previous reports which have pointed out that other cranial nerves may be affected in Bell's palsy. However, we have found a higher frequency of peripheral nerve involvement in this entity. These findings, support the hypothesis that in some patients Bell's palsy is the component of a more widespread disease, affecting other cranial and peripheral nerves.

  6. Anatomic Patterns of Renal Arterial Sympathetic Innervation: New Aspects for Renal Denervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imnadze, Guram; Balzer, Stefan; Meyer, Baerbel; Neumann, Joerg; Krech, Rainer Horst; Thale, Joachim; Franz, Norbert; Warnecke, Henning; Awad, Khaled; Hayek, Salim S; Devireddy, Chandan

    2016-12-01

    Initial studies of catheter-based renal arterial sympathetic denervation to lower blood pressure in resistant hypertensive patients renewed interest in the sympathetic nervous system's role in the pathogenesis of hypertension. However, the SYMPLICITY HTN-3 study failed to meet its prespecified blood pressure lowering efficacy endpoint. To date, only a limited number of studies have described the microanatomy of renal nerves, of which, only two involve humans. Renal arteries were harvested from 15 cadavers from the Klinikum Osnabruck and Schuchtermann Klinik, Bad Rothenfelde. Each artery was divided longitudinally in equal thirds (proximal, middle, and distal), with each section then divided into equal superior, inferior, anterior, and posterior quadrants, which were then stained. Segments containing no renal nerves were given a score value = 0, 1-2 nerves with diameter 4 nerves or nerve diameter ≥600 µm a score = 3. A total of 22 renal arteries (9 right-sided, 13 left-sided) were suitable for examination. Overall, 691 sections of 5 mm thickness were prepared. Right renal arteries had significantly higher mean innervation grade (1.56 ± 0.85) compared to left renal arteries (1.09 ± 0.87) (P renal artery has significantly higher innervation scores than the left. The anterior and superior quadrants of the renal arteries scored higher in innervation than the posterior and inferior quadrants did. The distal third of the renal arteries are more innervated than the more proximal segments. These findings warrant further evaluation of the spatial innervation patterns of the renal artery in order to understand how it may enhance catheter-based renal arterial denervation procedural strategy and outcomes. The SYMPLICITY HTN-3 study dealt a blow to the idea of the catheter-based renal arterial sympathetic denervation. We investigated the location and patterns of periarterial renal nerves in cadaveric human renal arteries. To quantify the density of the

  7. External light activates hair follicle stem cells through eyes via an ipRGC-SCN-sympathetic neural pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Sabrina Mai-Yi; Chang, Yi-Ting; Chen, Chih-Lung; Wang, Wei-Hung; Pan, Ming-Kai; Chen, Wen-Pin; Huang, Wen-Yen; Xu, Zijian; Huang, Hai-En; Chen, Ting; Plikus, Maksim V; Chen, Shih-Kuo; Lin, Sung-Jan

    2018-06-29

    Changes in external light patterns can alter cell activities in peripheral tissues through slow entrainment of the central clock in suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). It remains unclear whether cells in otherwise photo-insensitive tissues can achieve rapid responses to changes in external light. Here we show that light stimulation of animals' eyes results in rapid activation of hair follicle stem cells with prominent hair regeneration. Mechanistically, light signals are interpreted by M1-type intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs), which signal to the SCN via melanopsin. Subsequently, efferent sympathetic nerves are immediately activated. Increased norepinephrine release in skin promotes hedgehog signaling to activate hair follicle stem cells. Thus, external light can directly regulate tissue stem cells via an ipRGC-SCN autonomic nervous system circuit. Since activation of sympathetic nerves is not limited to skin, this circuit can also facilitate rapid adaptive responses to external light in other homeostatic tissues.

  8. Sympathetic vasoconstriction takes an unexpected pannexin detour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schak Nielsen, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Sympathetic vasoconstriction plays an important role in the control of blood pressure and the distribution of blood flow. In this issue of Science Signaling, Billaud et al. show that sympathetic vasoconstriction occurs through a complex scheme involving the activation of large-pore pannexin 1...... channels and the subsequent release of adenosine triphosphate that promotes contraction in an autocrine and paracrine manner. This elaborate mechanism may function as a point of intercept for other signaling pathways-for example, in relation to the phenomenon "functional sympatholysis," in which exercise...... abrogates sympathetic vasoconstriction in skeletal muscle. Because pannexin 1 channels are inhibited by nitric oxide, they may function as a switch to turn off adrenergic signaling in skeletal muscle during exercise....

  9. Nerve endings in the heart of teleosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S

    1979-01-01

    The nerve endings in the heart of fishes were studied using silver impregnation techniques. The heart chambers are profusely innervated by the sympathetic, parasympathetic (vagal) and postganglionic fibers of the intracardiac ganglia situated at the sinuatrial and the atrioventricular junctions. The plexuses are composed of medullated and nonmedullated fibers. The nerve fibers generally end freely and are slightly branched or unbranched terminations of myelinated and unmyelinated fibers. Moreover, a few nerve fibers end redundant in the form of end-rings, bulb-like, bush-like, club-shaped end end-coil like structures. The complex unencapsulated types of endings are also found in the myocardium of the atrium and the ventricle. The encapsulated endings (Vater-Pacinian; Krause end-bulb) could not be observed.

  10. Polyphenols, Antioxidants and the Sympathetic Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Rosa Maria; Ghiadoni, Lorenzo

    2018-01-01

    A high dietary intake of polyphenols has been associated with a reduced cardiovascular mortality, due to their antioxidant properties. However, growing evidence suggests that counteracting oxidative stress in cardiovascular disease might also reduce sympathetic nervous system overactivity. This article reviews the most commonly used techniques to measure sympathetic activity in humans; the role of sympathetic activation in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases; current evidence demonstrating that oxidative stress is involved in the regulation of sympathetic activity and how antioxidants and polyphenols might counteract sympathetic overactivity, particularly focusing on preliminary data from human studies. The main mechanisms by which polyphenols are cardioprotective are related to the improvement of vascular function and their anti-atherogenic effect. Furthermore, a blood pressure-lowering effect was consistently demonstrated in randomized controlled trials in humans, when the effect of flavonoid-rich foods, such as tea and chocolate, was tested. More recent studies suggest that inhibition of sympathetic overactivity might be one of the mechanisms by which these substances exert their cardioprotective effects. Indeed, an increased adrenergic traffic to the vasculature is a major mechanism of disease in a number of cardiovascular and extra-cardiac diseases, including hypertension, obesity, metabolic syndrome and heart failure. A considerable body of evidence, mostly from experimental studies, support the hypothesis that reactive oxygen species might exert sympathoexcitatory effects both at the central and at the peripheral level. Accordingly, supplementation with antioxidants might reduce adrenergic overdrive to the vasculature and blunt cardiovascular reactivity to stress. While supplementation with "classical" antioxidants such as ROS-scavengers has many limitations, increasing the intake of polyphenol-rich foods seems to be a promising novel therapeutic

  11. Abnormal Neurocirculatory Control During Exercise in Humans with Chronic Renal Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeanie; Middlekauff, Holly R.

    2014-01-01

    Abnormal neurocirculatory control during exercise is one important mechanism leading to exercise intolerance in patients with both end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and earlier stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD). This review will provide an overview of mechanisms underlying abnormal neurocirculatory and hemodynamic responses to exercise in patients with kidney disease. Recent studies have shown that ESRD and CKD patients have an exaggerated increase in blood pressure (BP) during both isometric and rhythmic exercise. Subsequent studies examining the role of the exercise pressor reflex in the augmented pressor response revealed that muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) was not augmented during exercise in these patients, and metaboreflex-mediated increases in MSNA were blunted, while mechanoreflex-mediated increases were preserved under basal conditions. However, normalizing the augmented BP response during exercise via infusion of nitroprusside (NTP), and thereby equalizing baroreflex-mediated suppression of MSNA, an important modulator of the final hemodynamic response to exercise, revealed that CKD patients had an exaggerated increase in MSNA during isometric and rhythmic exercise. In addition, mechanoreflex-mediated control was augmented, and metaboreceptor blunting was no longer apparent in CKD patients with baroreflex normalization. Factors leading to mechanoreceptor sensitization, and other mechanisms underlying the exaggerated exercise pressor response, such as impaired functional sympatholysis, should be investigated in future studies. PMID:25458430

  12. Clinical evaluation of 123I-MIBG for assessment of sympathetic nervous system in the heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirosawa, Koushitiro; Tanaka, Takeshi; Hisada, Kin-ichi; Bunko, Hisashi.

    1991-01-01

    Multi-center clinical trial of 123 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine ( 123 I-MIBG) was carried out to assess its utility as a scintigraphic imaging agent reflecting sympathetic neuronal function in cardiovascular field. Studies were performed on patients with heart diseases of three categories, myocardial infarction, angina pectoris and cardiomyopathy. Scintigraphic images, reflecting sympathetic neuronal function, were obtained with 123 I-MIBG from all of those categories of patients and the efficacy of the imaging was revealed in 781 (95.0%) out of 822 patients. In some patients abnormality was suggested in sympathetic neuronal function with 123 I-MIBG imaging, in spite of normal findings with myocardial perfusion scintigraphy by 201 TlCl. In all 981 patients studied with 123 I-MIBG, there have been no severe adverse reactions, except complaints of burning on injection site of the agent or nausea, ect. from 4 patients. We conclude that 123 I-MIBG imaging is one of the effective tools for diagnostic use reflecting topical sympathetic neuronal function in the heart, judging from its safety and efficacy. (author)

  13. Functional Nerve Preservation in Extracranial Head and Neck Schwannoma Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijichi, Kei; Kawakita, Daisuke; Maseki, Shinichiro; Beppu, Shintaro; Takano, Gaku; Murakami, Shingo

    2016-05-01

    A schwannoma is an uncommon, benign neurogenic tumor of Schwann cells. Tumor enucleation is the recommended surgical method to preserve function of the original nerve, although enucleation does not guarantee completely intact nerve function after the operation. To establish a strategy for functional preservation in extracranial head and neck schwannoma treatment by using an electromyographic (EMG) system during tumor resection. A retrospective cohort study was conducted of 15 patients who underwent surgery for removal of schwannoma tumors between April 1, 2006, and March 31, 2015, at an academic tertiary referral center. Data analysis was conducted from April 3, 2006, to September 15, 2015. Neurogenic tumors were diagnosed according to preoperative findings, and during surgery tumors were exposed and given EMG-controlled electrical stimulation to analyze their origins. In motor nerve cases, the electrical activity of the muscle was measured and recorded by EMG. The tumor was then enucleated by incision along tumor fibers mapped using EMG stimulation. If a nerve bundle was visible, we incised along there and enucleated the tumor. A strategy using electrical stimulation to improve preservation of nerve function in extracranial head and neck schwannoma operations. Frequency and duration of postoperative neurologic complications associated with functional preservation surgery with tumor enucleation was evaluated using EMG monitoring according to tumor origin. Of the 15 patients with extracranial schwannoma, 9 (60%) were women (mean [SD] age, 36.3 [15.3] years). All 15 patients underwent surgery using a transcervical approach. The most common nerves of origin were the vagus nerve and the sympathetic chain. In sensory or sympathetic nerve cases, the EMG response was absent. Two of 5 patients with vagus schwannoma had postoperative temporary vocal nerve palsy. These symptoms showed improvement after 1 year. There was no tumor recurrence during the follow-up period in any

  14. Literary ethnographic writing as sympathetic experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Anne Line

    perhaps only implicitly) of research. But we have no direct access to the subjective world of others and can only inhabit their point of view by way of imagination. Writing literary ethnographic text is one way, I will argue, of experimenting with such sympathetic imagination. By putting together observed...

  15. Imaging the Facial Nerve: A Contemporary Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, S.; Roehm, P.C.; Mends, F.; Hagiwara, M.; Fatterpekar, G.

    2013-01-01

    Imaging plays a critical role in the evaluation of a number of facial nerve disorders. The facial nerve has a complex anatomical course; thus, a thorough understanding of the course of the facial nerve is essential to localize the sites of pathology. Facial nerve dysfunction can occur from a variety of causes, which can often be identified on imaging. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are helpful for identifying bony facial canal and soft tissue abnormalities, respectively. Ultrasound of the facial nerve has been used to predict functional outcomes in patients with Bell’s palsy. More recently, diffusion tensor tractography has appeared as a new modality which allows three-dimensional display of facial nerve fibers

  16. Congenital Abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tube defects. However, there is also a genetic influence to this type of congenital anomaly. Unknown Causes The vast majority of congenital abnormalities have no known cause. This is particularly troubling for parents who plan to have more children, because there is no way to predict if ...

  17. Effects of renal sympathetic denervation on cardiac sympathetic activity and function in patients with therapy resistant hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Brussel, Peter M.; Eeftinck Schattenkerk, Daan W.; Dobrowolski, Linn C.; de Winter, Robbert J.; Reekers, Jim A.; Verberne, Hein J.; Vogt, Liffert; van den Born, Bert-Jan H.

    2016-01-01

    Renal sympathetic denervation (RSD) is currently being investigated in multiple studies of sympathetically driven cardiovascular diseases such as heart failure and arrhythmias. Our aim was to assess systemic and cardiac sympatholytic effects of RSD by the measurement of cardiac sympathetic activity

  18. Cardiac Sympathetic Hyperactivity after Chemotherapy: Early Sign of Cardiotoxicity?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimarães, Sarita Lígia Pessoa de Melo Machado [Pós-Graduação em Ciências da Saúde da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (PGCS-UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Hospital Agamenon Magalhães (HAM), Recife, PE (Brazil); Brandão, Simone Cristina Soares, E-mail: simonecordis@yahoo.com.br [Pós-Graduação em Ciências da Saúde da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (PGCS-UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Andrade, Luciana Raposo [Hospital Santa Joana, Recife, PE (Brazil); Maia, Rafael José Coelho [Pós-Graduação em Ciências da Saúde da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (PGCS-UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Hospital Agamenon Magalhães (HAM), Recife, PE (Brazil); Markman Filho, Brivaldo [Pós-Graduação em Ciências da Saúde da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (PGCS-UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2015-09-15

    Chemotherapy with anthracyclines and trastuzumab can cause cardiotoxicity. Alteration of cardiac adrenergic function assessed by metaiodobenzylguanidine labeled with iodine-123 ({sup 123}I-mIBG) seems to precede the drop in left ventricular ejection fraction. To evaluate and to compare the presence of cardiovascular abnormalities among patients with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy with anthracyclines and trastuzumab, and only with anthracycline. Patients with breast cancer were analyzed clinical, laboratory, electrocardiographic and echocardiographic and cardiac sympathetic activity. In scintigraphic images, the ratio of {sup 123}I-mIBG uptake between the heart and mediastinum, and the washout rate were calculated. The variables were compared between patients who received anthracyclines and trastuzumab (Group 1) and only anthracyclines (Group 2). Twenty patients, with mean age 57 ± 14 years, were studied. The mean left ventricular ejection fraction by echocardiography was 67.8 ± 4.0%. Mean washout rate was 28.39 ± 9.23% and the ratio of {sup 123}I-mIBG uptake between the heart and mediastinum was 2.07 ± 0.28. Of the patients, 82% showed an increased in washout rate, and the ratio of {sup 123}I-mIBG uptake between the heart and mediastinum decreased in 25%. Concerning the groups, the mean washout rate of Group 1 was 32.68 ± 9.30% and of Group 2 was 24.56 ± 7.72% (p = 0,06). The ratio of {sup 123}I-mIBG uptake between the heart and mediastinum was normal in all patients in Group 2, however, the Group 1, showed 50% the ratio of {sup 123}I-mIBG uptake between the heart and mediastinum ≤ 1.8 (p = 0.02). In women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy, assessment of cardiac sympathetic activity with {sup 123}I-mIBG appears to be an early marker of cardiotoxicity. The combination of chemotherapy showed higher risk of cardiac adrenergic hyperactivity.

  19. Sympathetic reflex control of blood flow in human peripheral tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, O

    1991-01-01

    Sympathetic vasoconstrictor reflexes are essential for the maintenance of arterial blood pressure in upright position. It has been generally believed that supraspinal sympathetic vasoconstrictor reflexes elicited by changes in baroreceptor activity play an important role. Recent studies on human...... sympathetic vasoconstrictor reflexes are blocked. Blood flow has been measure by the local 133Xe-technique. The results indicate the presence of spinal as well as supraspinal sympathetic vasoconstrictor reflexes to human peripheral tissues. Especially is emphasized the presence of a local sympathetic veno...... skeletal muscle, cutaneous and subcutaneous tissues of the limbs indicate that the situation is more complex. Measurements have been carried out during acute as well as chronic sympathetic denervation. Spinal sympathetic reflex mechanisms have been evaluated in tetraplegic patients, where supraspinal...

  20. MR-guided Periarterial Ethanol Injection for Renal Sympathetic Denervation: A Feasibility Study in Pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streitparth, F.; Walter, A.; Stolzenburg, N.; Heckmann, L.; Breinl, J.; Rinnenthal, J. L.; Beck, A.; De Bucourt, M.; Schnorr, J.; Bernhardt, U.; Gebauer, B.; Hamm, B.; Günther, R. W.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of image-guided periarterial ethanol injection as an alternative to transluminal radiofrequency ablation. Methods. Unilateral renal periarterial ethanol injection was performed under general anesthesia in 6 pigs with the contralateral kidney serving as control. All interventions were performed in an open 1.0 T MRI system under real-time multiplanar guidance. The injected volume was 5 ml (95 % ethanol labelled marked MR contrast medium) in 2 pigs and 10 ml in 4 pigs. Four weeks after treatment, the pigs underwent MRI including MRA and were killed. Norepinephrine (NE) concentration in the renal parenchyma served as a surrogate parameter to analyze the efficacy of sympathetic denervation. In addition, the renal artery and sympathetic nerves were examined histologically to identify evidence of vascular and neural injury. Results. In pigs treated with 10 ml ethanol, treatment resulted in neural degeneration. We found a significant reduction of NE concentration in the kidney parenchyma of 53 % (p < 0.02) compared with the untreated contralateral kidney. In pigs treated with 5 ml ethanol, no significant changes in histology or NE were observed. There was no evidence of renal arterial stenosis in MRI, macroscopy or histology in any pig. Conclusion. MR-guided periarterial ethanol injection was feasible and efficient for renal sympathetic denervation in a swine model. This technique may be a promising alternative to the catheter-based approach in the treatment of resistant arterial hypertension.

  1. Bed rest attenuates sympathetic and pressor responses to isometric exercise in antigravity leg muscles in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Atsunori; Michikami, Daisaku; Shiozawa, Tomoki; Iwase, Satoshi; Hayano, Junichiro; Kawada, Toru; Sunagawa, Kenji; Mano, Tadaaki

    2004-05-01

    Although spaceflight and bed rest are known to cause muscular atrophy in the antigravity muscles of the legs, the changes in sympathetic and cardiovascular responses to exercises using the atrophied muscles remain unknown. We hypothesized that bed rest would augment sympathetic responses to isometric exercise using antigravity leg muscles in humans. Ten healthy male volunteers were subjected to 14-day 6 degrees head-down bed rest. Before and after bed rest, they performed isometric exercises using leg (plantar flexion) and forearm (handgrip) muscles, followed by 2-min postexercise muscle ischemia (PEMI) that continues to stimulate the muscle metaboreflex. These exercises were sustained to fatigue. We measured muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in the contralateral resting leg by microneurography. In both pre- and post-bed-rest exercise tests, exercise intensities were set at 30 and 70% of the maximum voluntary force measured before bed rest. Bed rest attenuated the increase in MSNA in response to fatiguing plantar flexion by approximately 70% at both exercise intensities (both P antigravity leg muscles.

  2. MR-guided Periarterial Ethanol Injection for Renal Sympathetic Denervation: A Feasibility Study in Pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streitparth, F., E-mail: florian.streitparth@charite.de; Walter, A.; Stolzenburg, N.; Heckmann, L.; Breinl, J. [Charite, Humboldt University, Department of Radiology (Germany); Rinnenthal, J. L. [Charite, Humboldt University, Department of Neuropathology (Germany); Beck, A.; De Bucourt, M.; Schnorr, J. [Charite, Humboldt University, Department of Radiology (Germany); Bernhardt, U. [InnoRa GmbH (Germany); Gebauer, B.; Hamm, B.; Guenther, R. W. [Charite, Humboldt University, Department of Radiology (Germany)

    2013-06-15

    Purpose. To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of image-guided periarterial ethanol injection as an alternative to transluminal radiofrequency ablation. Methods. Unilateral renal periarterial ethanol injection was performed under general anesthesia in 6 pigs with the contralateral kidney serving as control. All interventions were performed in an open 1.0 T MRI system under real-time multiplanar guidance. The injected volume was 5 ml (95 % ethanol labelled marked MR contrast medium) in 2 pigs and 10 ml in 4 pigs. Four weeks after treatment, the pigs underwent MRI including MRA and were killed. Norepinephrine (NE) concentration in the renal parenchyma served as a surrogate parameter to analyze the efficacy of sympathetic denervation. In addition, the renal artery and sympathetic nerves were examined histologically to identify evidence of vascular and neural injury. Results. In pigs treated with 10 ml ethanol, treatment resulted in neural degeneration. We found a significant reduction of NE concentration in the kidney parenchyma of 53 % (p < 0.02) compared with the untreated contralateral kidney. In pigs treated with 5 ml ethanol, no significant changes in histology or NE were observed. There was no evidence of renal arterial stenosis in MRI, macroscopy or histology in any pig. Conclusion. MR-guided periarterial ethanol injection was feasible and efficient for renal sympathetic denervation in a swine model. This technique may be a promising alternative to the catheter-based approach in the treatment of resistant arterial hypertension.

  3. Effects of the α-adrenoceptor antagonists phentolamine, phenoxybenzamine, and Idazoxan on sympathetic blood flow control in the periodontal ligament of the cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwall, B.; Gazelius, B.

    1988-01-01

    Blood flow changes in the periodontal ligament (PDL) were measured indirectly by monitoring the local clearance of 125 I - during electric sympathetic nerve stimulation or close intra-arterial infusions of either noradrenaline (NA) or adrenaline (ADR) before and after administration of phentolamine (PA), phenoxybenzamine (PBZ) or Idazoxan (RX). At the doses used in the present study, PA was the only antagonist that significantly reduced the blood flow decrease seen on activation of sympathetic fibers, although PBZ also reduced this response. Idazoxan, however, did not induce the consistent effect on blood flow decreases seen on sympathetic activation. All three α-adrenoceptor antagonists almost abolished the effects of exogenously administered NA and ADR. The results suggest the presence of functional post-junctional adrenoceptors of both the α 1 and α 2 subtypes in the sympathetic regulation of the blood flow in the PDL of the cat. A component of the response elicited by electrical sympathetic stimulation appeared to be resistant to α-adrenoceptor blockade. Administration of guanethidine (which inhibits further release of NA and neuropeptide Y) after PA abolished this residual sympathetic response

  4. Excess of nerve growth factor in the ovary causes a polycystic ovary-like syndrome in mice, which closely resembles both reproductive and metabolic aspects of the human syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jenny L; Chen, Weiyi; Dissen, Gregory A; Ojeda, Sergio R; Cowley, Michael A; Garcia-Rudaz, Cecilia; Enriori, Pablo J

    2014-11-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), the most common female endocrine disorder of unknown etiology, is characterized by reproductive abnormalities and associated metabolic conditions comprising insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia. We previously reported that transgenic overexpression of nerve growth factor (NGF), a marker of sympathetic hyperactivity, directed to the ovary by the mouse 17α-hydroxylase/C17-20 lyase promoter (17NF mice), results in ovarian abnormalities similar to those seen in PCOS women. To investigate whether ovarian overproduction of NGF also induces common metabolic alterations of PCOS, we assessed glucose homeostasis by glucose tolerance test, plasma insulin levels, and body composition by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan in young female 17NF mice and wild-type mice. 17NF mice exhibited increased body weight and alterations in body fat distribution with a greater accumulation of visceral fat compared with sc fat (P ovary may suffice to cause both reproductive and metabolic alterations characteristic of PCOS and support the hypothesis that sympathetic hyperactivity may contribute to the development and/or progression of PCOS.

  5. Developmental androgen excess programs sympathetic tone and adipose tissue dysfunction and predisposes to a cardiometabolic syndrome in female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohara, Kazunari; Waraich, Rizwana S; Liu, Suhuan; Ferron, Mathieu; Waget, Aurélie; Meyers, Matthew S; Karsenty, Gérard; Burcelin, Rémy; Mauvais-Jarvis, Franck

    2013-06-15

    Among women, the polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is considered a form of metabolic syndrome with reproductive abnormalities. Women with PCOS show increased sympathetic tone, visceral adiposity with enlarged adipocytes, hypoadiponectinemia, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, increased inactive osteocalcin, and hypertension. Excess fetal exposure to androgens has been hypothesized to play a role in the pathogenesis of PCOS. Previously, we showed that neonatal exposure to the androgen testosterone (NT) programs leptin resistance in adult female mice. Here, we studied the impact of NT on lean and adipose tissues, sympathetic tone in cardiometabolic tissues, and the development of metabolic dysfunction in mice. Neonatally androgenized adult female mice (NTF) displayed masculinization of lean tissues with increased cardiac and skeletal muscle as well as kidney masses. NTF mice showed increased and dysfunctional white adipose tissue with increased sympathetic tone in both visceral and subcutaneous fat as well as increased number of enlarged and insulin-resistant adipocytes that displayed altered expression of developmental genes and hypoadiponectinemia. NTF exhibited dysfunctional brown adipose tissue with increased mass and decreased energy expenditure. They also displayed decreased undercarboxylated and active osteocalcin and were predisposed to obesity during chronic androgen excess. NTF showed increased renal sympathetic tone associated with increased blood pressure, and they developed glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. Thus, developmental exposure to testosterone in female mice programs features of cardiometabolic dysfunction, as can be observed in women with PCOS, including increased sympathetic tone, visceral adiposity, insulin resistance, prediabetes, and hypertension.

  6. Cardiac sympathetic neuronal damage precedes myocardial fibrosis in patients with Anderson-Fabry disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imbriaco, Massimo; Piscopo, Valentina; Ponsiglione, Andrea; Nappi, Carmela; Puglia, Marta; Dell'Aversana, Serena; Spinelli, Letizia; Cuocolo, Alberto; Pellegrino, Teresa; Petretta, Mario; Riccio, Eleonora; Pisani, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Cardiac sympathetic denervation may be detectable in patients with Anderson-Fabry disease (AFD), suggesting its usefulness for early detection of the disease. However, the relationship between sympathetic neuronal damage measured by 123 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) imaging with myocardial fibrosis on cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is still unclear. Cardiac sympathetic innervation was assessed by 123 I-MIBG single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in 25 patients with genetically proved AFD. Within one month from MIBG imaging, all patients underwent contrast-enhanced CMR. MIBG defect size and fibrosis size on CMR were measured for the left ventricle (LV) and expressed as %LV. Patients were divided into three groups according to MIBG and CMR findings: (1) matched normal, without MIBG defects and without fibrosis on CMR (n = 10); (2) unmatched, with MIBG defect but without fibrosis (n = 5); and (3) matched abnormal, with MIBG defect and fibrosis (n = 10). The three groups did not differ with respect to age, gender, α-galactosidase, proteinuria, glomerular filtration rate, and troponin I, while New York Heart Association class (p = 0.008), LV hypertrophy (p = 0.05), and enzyme replacement therapy (p = 0.02) were different among groups. Although in patients with matched abnormal findings, there was a significant correlation between MIBG defect size and area of fibrosis at CMR (r 2 = 0.98, p < 0.001), MIBG defect size was larger than fibrosis size (26 ± 23 vs. 18 ± 13%LV, p = 0.02). Sympathetic neuronal damage is frequent in AFD patients, and it may precede myocardial damage, such as fibrosis. Thus, 123 I-MIBG imaging can be considered a challenging technique for early detection of cardiac involvement in AFD. (orig.)

  7. Cardiac sympathetic neuronal damage precedes myocardial fibrosis in patients with Anderson-Fabry disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imbriaco, Massimo; Piscopo, Valentina; Ponsiglione, Andrea; Nappi, Carmela; Puglia, Marta; Dell' Aversana, Serena; Spinelli, Letizia; Cuocolo, Alberto [University Federico II, Department of Advanced Biomedical Sciences, Naples (Italy); Pellegrino, Teresa [National Council of Research, Institute of Biostructure and Bioimaging, Naples (Italy); Petretta, Mario [University Federico II, Department of Translational Medical Sciences, Naples (Italy); Riccio, Eleonora; Pisani, Antonio [University of Naples Federico II, Department of Public Health, Naples (Italy)

    2017-12-15

    Cardiac sympathetic denervation may be detectable in patients with Anderson-Fabry disease (AFD), suggesting its usefulness for early detection of the disease. However, the relationship between sympathetic neuronal damage measured by {sup 123}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) imaging with myocardial fibrosis on cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is still unclear. Cardiac sympathetic innervation was assessed by {sup 123}I-MIBG single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in 25 patients with genetically proved AFD. Within one month from MIBG imaging, all patients underwent contrast-enhanced CMR. MIBG defect size and fibrosis size on CMR were measured for the left ventricle (LV) and expressed as %LV. Patients were divided into three groups according to MIBG and CMR findings: (1) matched normal, without MIBG defects and without fibrosis on CMR (n = 10); (2) unmatched, with MIBG defect but without fibrosis (n = 5); and (3) matched abnormal, with MIBG defect and fibrosis (n = 10). The three groups did not differ with respect to age, gender, α-galactosidase, proteinuria, glomerular filtration rate, and troponin I, while New York Heart Association class (p = 0.008), LV hypertrophy (p = 0.05), and enzyme replacement therapy (p = 0.02) were different among groups. Although in patients with matched abnormal findings, there was a significant correlation between MIBG defect size and area of fibrosis at CMR (r{sup 2} = 0.98, p < 0.001), MIBG defect size was larger than fibrosis size (26 ± 23 vs. 18 ± 13%LV, p = 0.02). Sympathetic neuronal damage is frequent in AFD patients, and it may precede myocardial damage, such as fibrosis. Thus, {sup 123}I-MIBG imaging can be considered a challenging technique for early detection of cardiac involvement in AFD. (orig.)

  8. Quantitation of cardiac sympathetic innervation in rabbits using 11C-hydroxyephedrine PET: relation to 123I-MIBG uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Yusuke; Kajinami, Kouji; Matsunari, Ichiro; Takamatsu, Hiroyuki; Murakami, Yoshihiro; Matsuya, Takahiro; Chen, Wei-Ping; Taki, Junichi; Nakajima, Kenichi; Nekolla, Stephan G.

    2006-01-01

    Although 11 C-hydroxyephedrine ( 11 C-HED) PET is used to map cardiac sympathetic innervation, no studies have shown the feasibility of quantitation of 11 C-HED PET in small- to medium-sized animals. Furthermore, its relation to 123 I-MIBG uptake, the most widely used sympathetic nervous tracer, is unknown. The aims of this study were to establish in vivo sympathetic nerve imaging in rabbits using 11 C-HED PET, and to compare the retention of 11 C-HED with that of 123 I-MIBG. Twelve rabbits were assigned to three groups; control (n=4), chemical denervation by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) (n=4) and reserpine treated to inhibit vesicular uptake (n=4). After simultaneous injection of 11 C-HED and 123 I-MIBG, all animals underwent dynamic 11 C-HED PET for 40 min with arterial blood sampling. The 11 C-HED retention fraction and normalised 11 C-HED activity measured by tissue sampling were compared with those measured by PET. Both the 11 C-HED retention fraction and the normalised 11 C-HED activity measured by PET correlated closely with those measured by tissue sampling (R=0.96027, p 11 C-HED and 123 I-MIBG. Reserpine pretreatment reduced 11 C-HED retention by 50%, but did not reduce 123 I-MIBG retention at 40 min after injection. Non-invasive quantitation of cardiac sympathetic innervation using 11 C-HED PET is feasible and gives reliable estimates of cardiac sympathetic innervation in rabbits. Additionally, although both 11 C-HED and 123 I-MIBG are specific for sympathetic neurons, 11 C-HED may be more specific for intravesicular uptake than 123 I-MIBG in some situations, such as that seen in reserpine pretreatment. (orig.)

  9. Sympathetic nervous dysregulation in the absence of systolic left ventricular dysfunction in a rat model of insulin resistance with hyperglycemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suuronen Erik J

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus is strongly associated with cardiovascular dysfunction, derived in part from impairment of sympathetic nervous system signaling. Glucose, insulin, and non-esterified fatty acids are potent stimulants of sympathetic activity and norepinephrine (NE release. We hypothesized that sustained hyperglycemia in the high fat diet-fed streptozotocin (STZ rat model of sustained hyperglycemia with insulin resistance would exhibit progressive sympathetic nervous dysfunction in parallel with deteriorating myocardial systolic and/or diastolic function. Methods Cardiac sympathetic nervous integrity was investigated in vivo via biodistribution of the positron emission tomography radiotracer and NE analogue [11C]meta-hydroxyephedrine ([11C]HED. Cardiac systolic and diastolic function was evaluated by echocardiography. Plasma and cardiac NE levels and NE reuptake transporter (NET expression were evaluated as correlative measurements. Results The animal model displays insulin resistance, sustained hyperglycemia, and progressive hypoinsulinemia. After 8 weeks of persistent hyperglycemia, there was a significant 13-25% reduction in [11C]HED retention in myocardium of STZ-treated hyperglycemic but not euglycemic rats as compared to controls. There was a parallel 17% reduction in immunoblot density for NE reuptake transporter, a 1.2 fold and 2.5 fold elevation of cardiac and plasma NE respectively, and no change in sympathetic nerve density. No change in ejection fraction or fractional area change was detected by echocardiography. Reduced heart rate, prolonged mitral valve deceleration time, and elevated transmitral early to atrial flow velocity ratio measured by pulse-wave Doppler in hyperglycemic rats suggest diastolic impairment of the left ventricle. Conclusions Taken together, these data suggest that sustained hyperglycemia is associated with elevated myocardial NE content and dysregulation of sympathetic nervous system

  10. Vagal nerve stimulation therapy: what is being stimulated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kember, Guy; Ardell, Jeffrey L; Armour, John A; Zamir, Mair

    2014-01-01

    Vagal nerve stimulation in cardiac therapy involves delivering electrical current to the vagal sympathetic complex in patients experiencing heart failure. The therapy has shown promise but the mechanisms by which any benefit accrues is not understood. In this paper we model the response to increased levels of stimulation of individual components of the vagal sympathetic complex as a differential activation of each component in the control of heart rate. The model provides insight beyond what is available in the animal experiment in as much as allowing the simultaneous assessment of neuronal activity throughout the cardiac neural axis. The results indicate that there is sensitivity of the neural network to low level subthreshold stimulation. This leads us to propose that the chronic effects of vagal nerve stimulation therapy lie within the indirect pathways that target intrinsic cardiac local circuit neurons because they have the capacity for plasticity.

  11. Vagal nerve stimulation therapy: what is being stimulated?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Kember

    Full Text Available Vagal nerve stimulation in cardiac therapy involves delivering electrical current to the vagal sympathetic complex in patients experiencing heart failure. The therapy has shown promise but the mechanisms by which any benefit accrues is not understood. In this paper we model the response to increased levels of stimulation of individual components of the vagal sympathetic complex as a differential activation of each component in the control of heart rate. The model provides insight beyond what is available in the animal experiment in as much as allowing the simultaneous assessment of neuronal activity throughout the cardiac neural axis. The results indicate that there is sensitivity of the neural network to low level subthreshold stimulation. This leads us to propose that the chronic effects of vagal nerve stimulation therapy lie within the indirect pathways that target intrinsic cardiac local circuit neurons because they have the capacity for plasticity.

  12. Reactive oxygen species in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus alter sympathetic activity during metabolic syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSIANE CAMPOS CRUZ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN contains heterogeneous populations of neurons involved in autonomic and neuroendocrine regulation. The PVN plays an important role in the sympathoexcitatory response to increasing circulating levels of angiotensin II (Ang-II, which activates AT1 receptors in the circumventricular organs (OCVs, mainly in the subfornical organ (SFO. Circulating Ang-II induces a de novo synthesis of Ang-II in SFO neurons projecting to pre-autonomic PVN neurons. Activation of AT1 receptors induces intracellular increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS, leading to increases in sympathetic nerve activity (SNA. Chronic sympathetic nerve activation promotes a series of metabolic disorders that characterizes the metabolic syndrome (MetS: dyslipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, glucose intolerance, hyperleptinemia and elevated plasma hormone levels, such as noradrenaline, glucocorticoids, leptin, insulin and Ang-II. This review will discuss the contribution of our laboratory and others regarding the sympathoexcitation caused by peripheral Ang-II-induced reactive oxygen species along the subfornical organ and paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. We hypothesize that this mechanism could be involved in metabolic disorders underlying MetS.

  13. Revision on Renal Sympathetic Ablation in the Treatment of Resistant Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Ana Filipa

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is one of the most prevalent diseases in the world, with about 1 billion people affected and a possible increase to 1.5 billion by 2025. Despite advances in treatment, a proportion of patients remain resistant to conventional treatment and uncontrolled, and this can adversely affect future cardiovascular events and mortality. This alarming growth is already reflected in an important public health problem and one of the largest economic burdens of health, requiring new approaches and development of different strategies to fight this problem. This review will focus on the definition of resistant hypertension and its etiology, as well as in contemporary evidence supporting the usefulness of renal sympathetic denervation while addressing current and emerging devices, potential treatment indications in the future and unresolved issues that need to be addressed before renal sympathetic denervation can be adopted not only as a last resort exclusively for resistant hypertension. Finally an evaluation algorithm for patients with resistant hypertension which should be implemented before the execution of this technique will be proposed. Renal sympathetic denervation is a technique that possibly could have future implications in the population with hypertension, especially those with true resistant hypertension. This technique aims to reduce the renal sympathetic activation (a component in the pathophysiology of hypertension) through the destruction of the renal sympathetic nerves located in the adventitia of the renal arteries. There are several catheters that can be used; each with its specifications and therefore their selection should be made individually depending on the profile of the patient. However, a detailed pre-procedure evaluation is extremely important to exclude the large percentage of individuals with uncontrolled hypertension due to several factors that make it impossible to control blood pressure, but are likely to be corrected and as such should

  14. Diabetic cardiac autonomic dysfunction. Parasympathetic versus sympathetic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uehara, Akihiko; Kurata, Chinori; Sugi, Toshihiko; Mikami, Tadashi; Shouda, Sakae

    1999-01-01

    Diabetic cardiac autonomic dysfunction often causes lethal arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death. 123 I-Metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) can evaluate cardiac sympathetic dysfunction, and analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) can reflect cardiac parasympathetic activity. We examined whether cardiac parasympathetic dysfunction assessed by HRV may correlate with sympathetic dysfunction assessed by MIBG in diabetic patients. In 24-hour electrocardiography, we analyzed 4 HRV parameters: high-frequency power (HF), HF in the early morning (EMHF), rMSSD and pNN50. MIBG planar images and SPECT were obtained 15 minutes (early) and 150 minutes (late) after injection and the heart washout rate was calculated. The defect score in 9 left ventricular regions was scored on a 4 point scale (0=normal - 3=severe defect). In 20 selected diabetic patients without congestive heart failure, coronary artery disease and renal failure, parasympathetic HRV parameters had a negative correlation with the sum of defect scores (DS) in the late images (R=-0.47 to -0.59, p<0.05) and some parameters had a negative correlation with the washout rate (R=-0.50 to -0.55, p<0.05). In a total of 64 diabetic patients also, these parameters had a negative correlation with late DS (R=-0.28 to -0.35, p<0.05) and early DS (R=-0.27 to -0.32, p<0.05). The progress of diabetic cardiac parasympathetic dysfunction may parallel the sympathetic one. (author)

  15. 1.5 T augmented reality navigated interventional MRI: paravertebral sympathetic plexus injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marker, David R; U Thainual, Paweena; Ungi, Tamas; Flammang, Aaron J; Fichtinger, Gabor; Iordachita, Iulian I; Carrino, John A; Fritz, Jan

    2017-01-01

    The high contrast resolution and absent ionizing radiation of interventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be advantageous for paravertebral sympathetic nerve plexus injections. We assessed the feasibility and technical performance of MRI-guided paravertebral sympathetic injections utilizing augmented reality navigation and 1.5 T MRI scanner. A total of 23 bilateral injections of the thoracic (8/23, 35%), lumbar (8/23, 35%), and hypogastric (7/23, 30%) paravertebral sympathetic plexus were prospectively planned in twelve human cadavers using a 1.5 Tesla (T) MRI scanner and augmented reality navigation system. MRI-conditional needles were used. Gadolinium-DTPA-enhanced saline was injected. Outcome variables included the number of control magnetic resonance images, target error of the needle tip, punctures of critical nontarget structures, distribution of the injected fluid, and procedure length. Augmented-reality navigated MRI guidance at 1.5 T provided detailed anatomical visualization for successful targeting of the paravertebral space, needle placement, and perineural paravertebral injections in 46 of 46 targets (100%). A mean of 2 images (range, 1-5 images) were required to control needle placement. Changes of the needle trajectory occurred in 9 of 46 targets (20%) and changes of needle advancement occurred in 6 of 46 targets (13%), which were statistically not related to spinal regions (P = 0.728 and P = 0.86, respectively) and cadaver sizes (P = 0.893 and P = 0.859, respectively). The mean error of the needle tip was 3.9±1.7 mm. There were no punctures of critical nontarget structures. The mean procedure length was 33±12 min. 1.5 T augmented reality-navigated interventional MRI can provide accurate imaging guidance for perineural injections of the thoracic, lumbar, and hypogastric sympathetic plexus.

  16. Pneumatic antishock garment inflation activates the human sympathetic nervous system by abdominal compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvin, Nathan M; Levine, Benjamin D; Raven, Peter B; Pawelczyk, James A

    2014-01-01

    Pneumatic antishock garments (PASG) have been proposed to exert their blood pressure-raising effect mechanically, i.e. by increasing venous return and vascular resistance of the lower body. We tested whether, alternatively, PASG inflation activates the sympathetic nervous system. Five men and four women wore PASG while mean arterial pressure (MAP), muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), heart rate and stroke volume were measured. One leg bladder (LEG) and the abdominal bladder (ABD) of the trousers were inflated individually and in combination (ABD+LEG), at 60 or 90 mmHg for 3 min. By the end of 3 min of inflation, conditions that included the ABD region caused significant increases in MAP in a dose-dependent fashion (7 ± 2, 8 ± 3, 14 ± 4 and 13 ± 5 mmHg for ABD60, ABD+LEG60, ABD90 and ABD+LEG90, respectively, P < 0.05). Likewise, inflation that included ABD caused significant increases in total MSNA compared with control values [306 ± 70, 426 ± 98 and 247 ± 79 units for ABD60, ABD90 and ABD+LEG90, respectively, P < 0.05 (units = burst frequency × burst amplitude]. There were no changes in MAP or MSNA in the LEG-alone conditions. The ABD inflation also caused a significant decrease in stroke volume (-11 ± 3 and -10 ± 3 ml per beat in ABD90 and ABD+LEG90, respectively, P < 0.05) with no change in cardiac output. Neither cardiopulmonary receptor deactivation nor mechanical effects can account for a slowly developing rise in both sympathetic activity and blood pressure during ABD inflation. Rather, these data provide direct evidence that PASG inflation activates the sympathetic nervous system secondarily to abdominal, but not leg, compression.

  17. A new function for ATP: activating cardiac sympathetic afferents during myocardial ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Liang-Wu; Longhurst, John C

    2010-12-01

    Myocardial ischemia activates cardiac sympathetic afferents leading to chest pain and reflex cardiovascular responses. Brief myocardial ischemia leads to ATP release in the interstitial space. Furthermore, exogenous ATP and α,β-methylene ATP (α,β-meATP), a P2X receptor agonist, stimulate cutaneous group III and IV sensory nerve fibers. The present study tested the hypothesis that endogenous ATP excites cardiac afferents during ischemia through activation of P2 receptors. Nerve activity of single unit cardiac sympathetic afferents was recorded from the left sympathetic chain or rami communicates (T(2)-T(5)) in anesthetized cats. Single fields of 45 afferents (conduction velocities = 0.25-4.92 m/s) were identified in the left ventricle with a stimulating electrode. Five minutes of myocardial ischemia stimulated 39 of 45 cardiac afferents (8 Aδ, 37 C fibers). Epicardial application of ATP (1-4 μmol) stimulated six ischemically sensitive cardiac afferents in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, epicardial ATP (2 μmol), ADP (2 μmol), a P2Y agonist, and α,β-meATP (0.5 μmol) significantly activated eight other ischemically sensitive afferents. Third, pyridoxal phosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulfonic acid, a P2 receptor antagonist, abolished the responses of six afferents to epicardial ATP (2 μmol) and attenuated the ischemia-related increase in activity of seven other afferents by 37%. In the absence of P2 receptor blockade, cardiac afferents responded consistently to repeated application of ATP (n = 6) and to recurrent myocardial ischemia (n = 6). Finally, six ischemia-insensitive cardiac spinal afferents did not respond to epicardial ATP (2-4 μmol), although these afferents did respond to epicardial bradykinin. Taken together, these data indicate that, during ischemia, endogenously released ATP activates ischemia-sensitive, but not ischemia-insensitive, cardiac spinal afferents through stimulation of P2 receptors likely located on the cardiac sensory

  18. Device-based approaches for renal nerve ablation for hypertension and beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Alicia Ann Thorp; Markus Peter Schlaich; Markus Peter Schlaich

    2015-01-01

    Animal and human studies have demonstrated that chronic activation of renal sympathetic nerves is critical in the pathogenesis and perpetuation of treatment-resistant hypertension. Bilateral renal denervation has emerged as a safe and effective, non-pharmacological treatment for resistant hypertension that involves the selective ablation of efferent and afferent renal nerves to lower blood pressure. However, the most recent and largest randomized controlled trial failed to confirm the primacy...

  19. Unusually large quiescent ancient schwannoma of hypoglossal nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta P Wanjari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ancient schwannoma is considered as a variant of schwannoma, comprising about 10% of all schwanommas. Schwannoma is a benign neoplasm derived from the nerve sheath of peripheral motor, sensory and sympathetic nerves and from the cranial nerve pairs. It usually presents as a solitary soft-tissue lesion which is slow growing, encapsulated and is often associated with nerve attached peripherally. Diagnosis is often confirmed with the microscopic examination. The long standing schwannoma attributes to degenerative changes and is termed "ancient" schwannoma. Present case is of a 68-year-old female patient who reported with an asymptomatic large swelling below mandible on the left side since last 23 years. The lesion was surgically excised under general anesthesia.

  20. Implantable electrode for recording nerve signals in awake animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninomiya, I.; Yonezawa, Y.; Wilson, M. F.

    1976-01-01

    An implantable electrode assembly consisting of collagen and metallic electrodes was constructed to measure simultaneously neural signals from the intact nerve and bioelectrical noises in awake animals. Mechanical artifacts, due to bodily movement, were negligibly small. The impedance of the collagen electrodes, measured in awake cats 6-7 days after implantation surgery, ranged from 39.8-11.5 k ohms at a frequency range of 20-5 kHz. Aortic nerve activity and renal nerve activity, measured in awake conditions using the collagen electrode, showed grouped activity synchronous with the cardiac cycle. Results indicate that most of the renal nerve activity was from postganglionic sympathetic fibers and was inhibited by the baroceptor reflex in the same cardiac cycle.

  1. Morphology of Donor and Recipient Nerves Utilised in Nerve Transfers to Restore Upper Limb Function in Cervical Spinal Cord Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Messina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Loss of hand function after cervical spinal cord injury (SCI impacts heavily on independence. Multiple nerve transfer surgery has been applied successfully after cervical SCI to restore critical arm and hand functions, and the outcome depends on nerve integrity. Nerve integrity is assessed indirectly using muscle strength testing and intramuscular electromyography, but these measures cannot show the manifestation that SCI has on the peripheral nerves. We directly assessed the morphology of nerves biopsied at the time of surgery, from three patients within 18 months post injury. Our objective was to document their morphologic features. Donor nerves included teres minor, posterior axillary, brachialis, extensor carpi radialis brevis and supinator. Recipient nerves included triceps, posterior interosseus (PIN and anterior interosseus nerves (AIN. They were fixed in glutaraldehyde, processed and embedded in Araldite Epon for light microscopy. Eighty percent of nerves showed abnormalities. Most common were myelin thickening and folding, demyelination, inflammation and a reduction of large myelinated axon density. Others were a thickened perineurium, oedematous endoneurium and Renaut bodies. Significantly, very thinly myelinated axons and groups of unmyelinated axons were observed indicating regenerative efforts. Abnormalities exist in both donor and recipient nerves and they differ in appearance and aetiology. The abnormalities observed may be preventable or reversible.

  2. Nerve supply to the internal anal sphincter differs from that to the distal rectum: an immunohistochemical study of cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinugasa, Yusuke; Arakawa, Takashi; Murakami, Gen; Fujimiya, Mineko; Sugihara, Kenichi

    2014-04-01

    Fecal incontinence is a common problem after anal sphincter-preserving operations. The intersphincteric autonomic nerves supplying the internal anal sphincter (IAS) are formed by the union of: (1) nerve fibers from Auerbach's nerve plexus of the most distal part of the rectum and (2) the inferior rectal branches of the pelvic plexus (IRB-PX) running along the conjoint longitudinal muscle coat. The aim of the present study is to identify the detailed morphology of nerves to the IAS. The study comprised histological and immunohistochemical evaluations of paraffin-embedded sections from a large block of anal canal from the preserved 10 cadavers. The IRB-PX came from the superior aspect of the levator ani and ran into the anal canal on the anterolateral side. These nerves contained both sympathetic and parasympathetic fibers, but the sympathetic content was much higher than in nerves from the distal rectum. All intramural ganglion cells in the distal rectum were neuronal nitric oxide synthase-positive and tyrosine hydroxylase-negative and were restricted to above the squamous-columnar epithelial junction. Parasympathetic nerves formed a lattice-like plexus in the circular smooth muscles of the distal rectum, whereas the IAS contained short, longitudinally running sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves, although sympathetic nerves were dominant. The major autonomic nerve input to the IAS seemed not to originate from the distal rectum but from the IRB-PX. Injury to the IRB-PX during surgery seemed to result in loss of innervation to the major part of the IAS.

  3. US and MR imaging of peripheral nerves in leprosy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinoli, C.; Derchi, L.E.; Gandolfo, N.; Bertolotto, M.; Bianchi, S.; Fiallo, P.; Nunzi, E.

    2000-01-01

    Objective. To analyze peripheral nerves with ultrasonography (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MR) in leprosy and assess the role of imaging in leprosy patients. Results. Leprosy nerves were classified into three groups based on imaging appearance: group I consisted of 17 normal-appearing nerves; group II, of 30 enlarged nerves with fascicular abnormalities; group III, of 11 nerves with absent fascicular structure. Group II nerves were from patients subjected to reversal reactions; 75% of patients with group III nerves had a history of erythema nodosum leprosum. Nerve compression in osteofibrous tunnels was identified in 33% of group II and 18% of group III nerves. Doppler US and MR imaging were 74% and 92% sensitive in identifying active reactions, based on detection of endoneural color flow signals, long T2 and Gd enhancement. In 64% of cases, follow-up studies showed decreased color flow and Gd uptake after steroids and decompressive surgery.Conclusions. US and MR imaging are able to detect nerves abnormalities in leprosy. Active reversal reactions are indicated by endoneural color flow signals as well as by an increased T2 signal and Gd enhancement. These signs would suggest rapid progression of nerve damage and a poor prognosis unless antireactional treatment is started. (orig.)

  4. US and MR imaging of peripheral nerves in leprosy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinoli, C. [Department of Radiology ' ' R' ' , DICMI, University of Genoa, Genoa (Italy); Cattedra di Radiologia ' ' R' ' , Universita di Genova, Largo Rosanna Benzi, 8, I-16132 Genoa (Italy); Derchi, L.E.; Gandolfo, N. [Department of Radiology ' ' R' ' , DICMI, University of Genoa, Genoa (Italy); Bertolotto, M. [Department of Radiology, University of Trieste, Strada di Fiume, I-34149 Trieste (Italy); Bianchi, S. [Division de Radiodiagnostic. Hopital Cantonal Huniversitaire, Rue Micheli du Crest, Geneva (Switzerland); Fiallo, P.; Nunzi, E. [Department of Tropical Medicine, University of Genoa, Largo Rosanna Benzi 8, I-16132 Genoa (Italy)

    2000-03-30

    Objective. To analyze peripheral nerves with ultrasonography (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MR) in leprosy and assess the role of imaging in leprosy patients. Results. Leprosy nerves were classified into three groups based on imaging appearance: group I consisted of 17 normal-appearing nerves; group II, of 30 enlarged nerves with fascicular abnormalities; group III, of 11 nerves with absent fascicular structure. Group II nerves were from patients subjected to reversal reactions; 75% of patients with group III nerves had a history of erythema nodosum leprosum. Nerve compression in osteofibrous tunnels was identified in 33% of group II and 18% of group III nerves. Doppler US and MR imaging were 74% and 92% sensitive in identifying active reactions, based on detection of endoneural color flow signals, long T2 and Gd enhancement. In 64% of cases, follow-up studies showed decreased color flow and Gd uptake after steroids and decompressive surgery.Conclusions. US and MR imaging are able to detect nerves abnormalities in leprosy. Active reversal reactions are indicated by endoneural color flow signals as well as by an increased T2 signal and Gd enhancement. These signs would suggest rapid progression of nerve damage and a poor prognosis unless antireactional treatment is started. (orig.)

  5. Device-based approaches for renal nerve ablation for hypertension and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Ann Thorp

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Animal and human studies have demonstrated that chronic activation of renal sympathetic nerves is critical in the pathogenesis and perpetuation of treatment-resistant hypertension. Bilateral renal denervation has emerged as a safe and effective, non-pharmacological treatment for resistant hypertension that involves the selective ablation of efferent and afferent renal nerves to lower blood pressure. However, the most recent and largest randomized controlled trial failed to confirm the primacy of renal denervation over a sham procedure, prompting widespread re-evaluation of the therapy’s efficacy. Disrupting renal afferent sympathetic signalling to the hypothalamus with renal denervation lowers central sympathetic tone, which has the potential to confer additional clinical benefits beyond blood pressure control. Specifically, there has been substantial interest in the use of renal denervation as either a primary or adjunct therapy in pathological conditions characterized by central sympathetic over-activity such as renal disease, heart failure and metabolic-associated disorders. Recent findings from pre-clinical and proof-of–concept studies appear promising with renal denervation shown to confer cardiovascular and metabolic benefits, largely independent of changes in blood pressure. This review explores the pathological rationale for targeting sympathetic renal nerves for blood pressure control. Latest developments in renal nerve ablation modalities designed to improve procedural success are discussed along with prospective findings on the efficacy of renal denervation to lower blood pressure in treatment-resistant hypertensive patients. Preliminary evidence in support of renal denervation as a possible therapeutic option in disease states characterized by central sympathetic over-activity is also presented.

  6. Device-based approaches for renal nerve ablation for hypertension and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorp, Alicia A.; Schlaich, Markus P.

    2015-01-01

    Animal and human studies have demonstrated that chronic activation of renal sympathetic nerves is critical in the pathogenesis and perpetuation of treatment-resistant hypertension. Bilateral renal denervation has emerged as a safe and effective, non-pharmacological treatment for resistant hypertension that involves the selective ablation of efferent and afferent renal nerves to lower blood pressure. However, the most recent and largest randomized controlled trial failed to confirm the primacy of renal denervation over a sham procedure, prompting widespread re-evaluation of the therapy's efficacy. Disrupting renal afferent sympathetic signaling to the hypothalamus with renal denervation lowers central sympathetic tone, which has the potential to confer additional clinical benefits beyond blood pressure control. Specifically, there has been substantial interest in the use of renal denervation as either a primary or adjunct therapy in pathological conditions characterized by central sympathetic overactivity such as renal disease, heart failure and metabolic-associated disorders. Recent findings from pre-clinical and proof-of-concept studies appear promising with renal denervation shown to confer cardiovascular and metabolic benefits, largely independent of changes in blood pressure. This review explores the pathological rationale for targeting sympathetic renal nerves for blood pressure control. Latest developments in renal nerve ablation modalities designed to improve procedural success are discussed along with prospective findings on the efficacy of renal denervation to lower blood pressure in treatment-resistant hypertensive patients. Preliminary evidence in support of renal denervation as a possible therapeutic option in disease states characterized by central sympathetic overactivity is also presented. PMID:26217232

  7. Comparison of thermogenic sympathetic response to food intake between obese and non-obese young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, T; Miyawaki, C; Ue, H; Kanda, T; Yoshitake, Y; Moritani, T

    2001-02-01

    Sympathetic nervous system abnormality in humans is still a matter of debate. The present study was designed to examine diet-induced autonomic nervous system activity and metabolic change in obese and non-obese young women. Sixteen age- and height-matched obese and non-obese young women participated in this study. Sympathovagal activities were assessed by means of our newly developed spectral analysis procedure of heart-rate variability during the resting condition and after mixed-food ingestion (480 kcal). Energy expenditure was also measured under these two conditions. There was no significant difference in any of the parameters of the heart-rate variability between the obese group and control group during the resting condition. In the control group, both absolute values (221.5 +/- 54.5 vs. 363.8 +/- 43.7 ms2, p frequency component and global sympathetic nervous system index (1.46 +/- 0.19 vs. 3.26 +/- 0.61, p food ingestion compared with the values obtained after resting condition. However, no such sympathetic response was found in the obese group. Energy expenditure increased in the two groups after the meal, but the magnitude of the increase above the preprandial resting condition was significantly greater in the control group than in the obese group (11.2 +/- 2.3 vs. 6.7 +/- 0.8%, p food intake, which might be related to lowered capacity of thermogenesis and the state of obesity.

  8. [Bilateral traumatic abducens nerve palsy without skull fracture or intracranial hematoma-a report of 3 cases and consideration of the mechanism of injury (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, H; Miyasaka, Y; Kuramae, T; Ohwada, T; Tsunoda, M

    1976-10-01

    Three cases of bilateral traumatic abducens nerve palsy were presented and the mechanism of damage to the abducens nerve was discussed in relation to the analysis of traumatic force at the time of impact and topographical anatomy of the abducens nerve in detail. Case 1. A 70 year old man sustained a traffic accident with one hour loss of consciousness. Physical examination revealed a contused area on the medial side of his right forehead. Neurological examination revealed bilateral abducens nerve palsy (Fig. 1). There were no ther cranial nerve abnormalities. Roentgenograms of the skull, including views of the base and orbit showed no fracture. At follow up examination 12 months later, bilateral Duane's retraction syndrome could be noticed with slight increase in size of the pupil on each side of lateral gaze (Fig. 2). Case 2. A 32 year old women sustained a traffic accident with 31 days of loss of consciousness. At the time of admission, bilateral abducens nerve palsy and slight left hemiparesis were noticed in semicomatose condition. Right carotid angiogtam showed no evidence of intracranial hematoma. One month later, the right eye began to abduct and 2 months later, the left eye began to abduct. Three months after the injury, bilateral abducens nerve palsy could no longer be demonstrated. No retraction syndrome was observed during this period. Case 3. A 3 year old boy sustained a traffic accident with 32 days of loss of consciousness. At the time of admission, neurological examination showed bilateral abducens palsy and left sided decerebrate posture in comatose condition. At the time of discharge 3 months after admission, bilateral abducens palsy, right hemiataxia, left spastic hemiparesis and scanning speach were noticed. Three months later, right eye began to abduct and 4 months later, the left eye began to abduct. At follow up examination 6 months later, there was no evidence of abducens nerve palsy. Topographical details of anatomy of the abducens nerve are

  9. Chemistry and biology of radiotracers that target changes in sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems in heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckelman, William C; Dilsizian, Vasken

    2015-06-01

    Following the discovery of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system, numerous adrenoceptor drugs were radiolabeled and potent radioligands were prepared in order to image the β-adrenergic and the muscarinic systems. But the greatest effort has been in preparing noradrenaline analogs, such as norepinephrine, (11)C-metahydroxyephedrine, and (123)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine that measure cardiac sympathetic nerve varicosities. Given the technical and clinical challenges in designing and validating targeted adrenoceptor-binding radiotracers, namely the heavily weighted flow dependence and relatively low target-to-background ratio, both requiring complicated mathematic analysis, and the inability of targeted adrenoceptor radioligands to have an impact on clinical care of heart disease, the emphasis has been on radioligands monitoring the norepinephrine pathway. The chemistry and biology of such radiotracers, and the clinical and prognostic impact of these innervation imaging studies in patients with heart disease, are examined. © 2015 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  10. Optic Nerve Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    The optic nerve is a bundle of more than 1 million nerve fibers that carry visual messages. You have one connecting ... retina) to your brain. Damage to an optic nerve can cause vision loss. The type of vision ...

  11. Optic Nerve Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Us Donate In This Section Optic Nerve Imaging email Send this article to a friend ... measurements of nerve fiber damage (or loss). The Nerve Fiber Analyzer (GDx) uses laser light to measure ...

  12. Femoral nerve damage (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The femoral nerve is located in the leg and supplies the muscles that assist help straighten the leg. It supplies sensation ... leg. One risk of damage to the femoral nerve is pelvic fracture. Symptoms of femoral nerve damage ...

  13. Ulnar nerve damage (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ulnar nerve originates from the brachial plexus and travels down arm. The nerve is commonly injured at the elbow because of elbow fracture or dislocation. The ulnar nerve is near the surface of the body where ...

  14. Optic nerve injury demonstrated by MRI with STIR sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takehara, S.; Tanaka, T.; Uemura, K.; Shinohara, Y.; Yamamoto, T.; Tokuyama, T.; Satoh, A.

    1994-01-01

    We studied nine patients with optic nerve injury associated with closed head trauma by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with short inversion time inversion recovery (STIR) sequences on 11 occasions from 4 days to 14 years after the injury: three studies were within 17 days and eight over 4 months to 14 years. MRI revealed abnormal high signal in 10 of the 11 injured nerves. MRI 4 days after the injury showed no abnormality. (orig.)

  15. Bony exostosis of the atlas with resultant cranial nerve palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavotinek, J.P.; Sage, M.R.; Brophy, B.P.

    1991-01-01

    A case of tenth and twelfth nerve compression secondary to a bony exostosis of the first cervical vertebra is described. This uncommon phenomenon serves to outline the importance of imaging the course of a cranial nerve when no intracranial abnormality is demonstrable on CT or MRI. The radiologic features of spinal osteochondromas are reviewed. (orig.)

  16. Neurological abnormalities associated with CDMA exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, B; Westerman, R

    2001-09-01

    Dysaesthesiae of the scalp and neurological abnormality after mobile phone use have been reported previously, but the roles of the phone per se or the radiations in causing these findings have been questioned. We report finding a neurological abnormality in a patient after accidental exposure of the left side of the face to mobile phone radiation [code division multiple access (CDMA)] from a down-powered mobile phone base station antenna. He had headaches, unilateral left blurred vision and pupil constriction, unilateral altered sensation on the forehead, and abnormalities of current perception thresholds on testing the left trigeminal ophthalmic nerve. His nerve function recovered during 6 months follow-up. His exposure was 0.015-0.06 mW/cm(2) over 1-2 h. The implications regarding health effects of radiofrequency radiation are discussed.

  17. The role of the renal afferent and efferent nerve fibres in heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsea C Booth

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Renal nerves contain afferent, sensory and efferent, sympathetic nerve fibres. In heart failure (HF there is an increase in renal sympathetic nerve activity, which can lead to renal vasoconstriction, increased renin release and sodium retention. These changes are thought to contribute to renal dysfunction, which is predictive of poor outcome in patients with HF. In contrast, the role of the renal afferent nerves remains largely unexplored in HF. This is somewhat surprising as there are multiple triggers in HF that have the potential to increase afferent nerve activity, including increased venous pressure and reduced kidney perfusion. Some of the few studies investigating renal afferents in HF have suggested that at least the sympatho-inhibitory reno-renal reflex is blunted. In experimentally induced HF, renal denervation, both surgical and catheter-based, has been associated with some improvements in renal and cardiac function. It remains unknown whether the effects are due to removal of the efferent renal nerve fibres, afferent renal nerve fibres, or a combination of both. Here, we review the effects of HF on renal efferent and afferent nerve function and critically assess the latest evidence supporting renal denervation as a potential treatment in HF.

  18. The role of the renal afferent and efferent nerve fibers in heart failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Lindsea C.; May, Clive N.; Yao, Song T.

    2015-01-01

    Renal nerves contain afferent, sensory and efferent, sympathetic nerve fibers. In heart failure (HF) there is an increase in renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), which can lead to renal vasoconstriction, increased renin release and sodium retention. These changes are thought to contribute to renal dysfunction, which is predictive of poor outcome in patients with HF. In contrast, the role of the renal afferent nerves remains largely unexplored in HF. This is somewhat surprising as there are multiple triggers in HF that have the potential to increase afferent nerve activity, including increased venous pressure and reduced kidney perfusion. Some of the few studies investigating renal afferents in HF have suggested that at least the sympatho-inhibitory reno-renal reflex is blunted. In experimentally induced HF, renal denervation, both surgical and catheter-based, has been associated with some improvements in renal and cardiac function. It remains unknown whether the effects are due to removal of the efferent renal nerve fibers or afferent renal nerve fibers, or a combination of both. Here, we review the effects of HF on renal efferent and afferent nerve function and critically assess the latest evidence supporting renal denervation as a potential treatment in HF. PMID:26483699

  19. Functional role of peripheral opioid receptors in the regulation of cardiac spinal afferent nerve activity during myocardial ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, John C.

    2013-01-01

    Thinly myelinated Aδ-fiber and unmyelinated C-fiber cardiac sympathetic (spinal) sensory nerve fibers are activated during myocardial ischemia to transmit the sensation of angina pectoris. Although recent observations showed that myocardial ischemia increases the concentrations of opioid peptides and that the stimulation of peripheral opioid receptors inhibits chemically induced visceral and somatic nociception, the role of opioids in cardiac spinal afferent signaling during myocardial ischemia has not been studied. The present study tested the hypothesis that peripheral opioid receptors modulate cardiac spinal afferent nerve activity during myocardial ischemia by suppressing the responses of cardiac afferent nerve to ischemic mediators like bradykinin and extracellular ATP. The nerve activity of single unit cardiac afferents was recorded from the left sympathetic chain (T2–T5) in anesthetized cats. Forty-three ischemically sensitive afferent nerves (conduction velocity: 0.32–3.90 m/s) with receptive fields in the left and right ventricles were identified. The responses of these afferent nerves to repeat ischemia or ischemic mediators were further studied in the following protocols. First, epicardial administration of naloxone (8 μmol), a nonselective opioid receptor antagonist, enhanced the responses of eight cardiac afferent nerves to recurrent myocardial ischemia by 62%, whereas epicardial application of vehicle (PBS) did not alter the responses of seven other cardiac afferent nerves to ischemia. Second, naloxone applied to the epicardial surface facilitated the responses of seven cardiac afferent nerves to epicardial ATP by 76%. Third, administration of naloxone enhanced the responses of seven other afferent nerves to bradykinin by 85%. In contrast, in the absence of naloxone, cardiac afferent nerves consistently responded to repeated application of ATP (n = 7) or bradykinin (n = 7). These data suggest that peripheral opioid peptides suppress the

  20. Alternating myocardial sympathetic neural function of athlete's heart in professional cycle racers examined with iodine-123-MIBG myocardial scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Keiko; Inoue, Tomio; Hasegawa, Akira; Oriuchi, Noboru; Okamoto, Eiichi; Tomaru, Yumi; Endo, Keigo

    2001-01-01

    Myocardial sympathetic neural function in professional athletes who had the long-term tremendous cardiac load has not been fully investigated by myocardial iodine-123-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) uptake in comparison with power spectral analysis (PSA) in electrocardiography. Eleven male professional cycle racers and age-matched 11 male healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study. The low frequency components in the power spectral density (LF), the high frequency components in the power spectral density (HF), the LF/HF ratio and mean R-R interval were derived from PSA and time-domain analysis of heart rate variability in electrocardiography. The mean heart-to-mediastinum uptake ratio (H/M ratio) of the MIBG uptake, in professional cycle racers was significantly lower than that in healthy volunteers (p<0.01) and HF power in professional cycle racers was significantly higher than that in healthy volunteers (p<0.05). In the group of professional cycle racers, the H/M ratio showed a significant correlation with the R-R interval, as indices of parasympathetic nerve activity (r=0.80, p<0.01), but not with the LF/HF ratio as an index of sympathetic nerve activity. These results may indicate that parasympathetic nerve activity has an effect on MIBG uptake in a cyclist's heart. (author)

  1. CaMKII Regulates Synaptic NMDA Receptor Activity of Hypothalamic Presympathetic Neurons and Sympathetic Outflow in Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, De-Pei; Zhou, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Jixiang; Pan, Hui-Lin

    2017-11-01

    NMDAR activity in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) is increased and critically involved in heightened sympathetic vasomotor tone in hypertension. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) binds to and modulates NMDAR activity. In this study, we determined the role of CaMKII in regulating NMDAR activity of PVN presympathetic neurons in male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). NMDAR-mediated EPSCs and puff NMDA-elicited currents were recorded in spinally projecting PVN neurons in SHRs and male Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. The basal amplitude of evoked NMDAR-EPSCs and puff NMDA currents in retrogradely labeled PVN neurons were significantly higher in SHRs than in WKY rats. The CaMKII inhibitor autocamtide-2-related inhibitory peptide (AIP) normalized the increased amplitude of NMDAR-EPSCs and puff NMDA currents in labeled PVN neurons in SHRs but had no effect in WKY rats. Treatment with AIP also normalized the higher frequency of NMDAR-mediated miniature EPSCs of PVN neurons in SHRs. CaMKII-mediated phosphorylation level of GluN2B serine 1303 (S1303) in the PVN, but not in the hippocampus and frontal cortex, was significantly higher in SHRs than in WKY rats. Lowering blood pressure with celiac ganglionectomy in SHRs did not alter the increased level of phosphorylated GluN2B S1303 in the PVN. In addition, microinjection of AIP into the PVN significantly reduced arterial blood pressure and lumbar sympathetic nerve discharges in SHRs. Our findings suggest that CaMKII activity is increased in the PVN and contributes to potentiated presynaptic and postsynaptic NMDAR activity to elevate sympathetic vasomotor tone in hypertension. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Heightened sympathetic vasomotor tone is a major contributor to the development of hypertension. Although glutamate NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-mediated excitatory drive in the hypothalamus plays a critical role in increased sympathetic output in hypertension, the molecular mechanism involved in

  2. Reversible acute axonal polyneuropathy associated with Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome: impaired physiological nerve conduction due to thiamine deficiency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, S; Yokota, T; Shiojiri, T; Matunaga, T; Tanaka, H; Nishina, K; Hirota, H; Inaba, A; Yamada, M; Kanda, T; Mizusawa, H

    2003-05-01

    Acute axonal polyneuropathy and Wernicke-Korsakoff encephalopathy developed simultaneously in three patients. Nerve conduction studies (NCS) detected markedly decreased compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) and sensory nerve action potentials (SNAPs) with minimal conduction slowing; sympathetic skin responses (SSRs) were also notably decreased. Sural nerve biopsies showed only mild axonal degeneration with scattered myelin ovoid formation. The symptoms of neuropathy lessened within two weeks after an intravenous thiamine infusion. CMAPs, SNAPs, and SSRs also increased considerably. We suggest that this is a new type of peripheral nerve impairment: physiological conduction failure with minimal conduction delay due to thiamine deficiency.

  3. MRI of peripheral nerve lesions of the lower limbs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacour-Petit, M.C.; Ducreux, D. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Hopital Bicetre, Kremlin-Bicetre (France); Lozeron, P. [Dept. of Neurology, Hopital Bicetre, Kremlin-Bicetre (France)

    2003-03-01

    Our aim is to illustrate the contribution of MRI to diagnosis of lesions of the lower-limb nerve trunks. We report six patients who had clinical and electrophysiological examination for a peroneal or tibial nerve palsy. MRI of the knee showed in three cases a nonenhancing cystic lesion of the peroneal nerve suggesting an intraneural ganglion cyst, confirmed by histological study in one case. One patient with known neurofibromatosis had an enhancing nodular lesion of the peroneal nerve compatible with a neurofibroma. Two patients had diffuse hypertrophy with high signal on T2-weighted images, without contrast enhancement of the sciatic nerve or its branches. These lesions were compatible with localised hypertrophic neuropathy. In one case, biopsy of the superficial branch of the peroneal nerve showed insignificant axonal degeneration. MRI can provide information about the size and site of the abnormal segment of a nerve before treatment and can be used to distinguish different patterns of focal lesion. (orig.)

  4. Renal sympathetic denervation: MDCT evaluation of the renal arteries.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hutchinson, Barry D

    2013-08-01

    Percutaneous transluminal renal sympathetic denervation is a new treatment of refractory systemic hypertension. The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical utility of MDCT to evaluate the anatomic configuration of the renal arteries in the context of renal sympathetic denervation.

  5. The Effect of Sympathetic Antagonists on the Antidepressant Action ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alprazolam is an anti-anxiety drug shown to be effective in the treatment of depression. In this study, the effect of sympathetic receptor antagonists on alprazolam–induced antidepressant action was studied using a mouse model of forced swimming behavioral despair. The interaction of three sympathetic receptor ...

  6. http://www.bioline.org.br/js 101 Aetiological Profile of Facial Nerve ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jen

    Background: Facial nerve abnormalities represent a broad spectrum of lesions which are commonly seen by the otolaryngologist. The aim of this paper is to highlight the aetiologic profile of facial nerve palsy. Methods: A retrospective study of patients with facial nerve palsy seen in the Ear, Nose and Throat clinic for 5 years.

  7. Localization and neurochemical characteristics of the extrinsic sympathetic neurons projecting to the pylorus in the domestic pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalecki, Michal

    2012-01-01

    The pylorus, an important part of the digestive tract controlling the flow of chyme between the stomach and the duodenum, is widely innervated by intrinsic and extrinsic nerves. To determine the locations of postganglionic sympathetic perikarya that innervate the pylorus of the domestic pig, a retrograde tracing method with application of Fast Blue tracer was used. All positive neuronal cell bodies (ca. 1750) were found in the celiac-cranial mesenteric ganglion complex (CSMG), however, the coeliac poles of this complex provided the major input to the pylorus. Afterwards, the immunohistochemical staining procedure was applied to determine biologically active substances expressed in the FB-labeled perikarya. Approximately 77% of the FB-positive cell bodies contained tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), 87% dopamine β-hydroxylase (DβH), 40% neuropeptide Y (NPY), 12% somatostatin (SOM) and 7% galanin (GAL). The presence of all these substances in the ganglion tissue was confirmed by RT-PCR technique. Double immunocytochemistry revealed that all of the TH-positive perikarya contained DβH, about 40% NPY, 12% SOM and 8% GAL. Additionally, all above-cited immunohistochemical markers as well as VIP, PACAP, ChAT, LEU, MET, SP and nNOS were observed within nerve fibers associated with the FB-positive perikarya. Immunocytochemical labeling of the pyloric wall tissue disclosed that TH+, DβH+ and NPY+ nerve fibers innervated ganglia of the myenteric and submucosal plexuses, blood vessels, both muscular layers and the muscularis mucosae; nerve fibers immunoreactive to GAL mostly innervated both muscular layers, while SOM+ nerve fibers were observed within the myenteric plexus. Presented study revealed sources of origin and immunohistochemical characteristics of the sympathetic postganglionic perikarya innervating the porcine pylorus. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Anatomy of the nerves and ganglia of the aortic plexus in males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beveridge, Tyler S; Johnson, Marjorie; Power, Adam; Power, Nicholas E; Allman, Brian L

    2015-01-01

    It is well accepted that the aortic plexus is a network of pre- and post-ganglionic nerves overlying the abdominal aorta, which is primarily involved with the sympathetic innervation to the mesenteric, pelvic and urogenital organs. Because a comprehensive anatomical description of the aortic plexus and its connections with adjacent plexuses are lacking, these delicate structures are prone to unintended damage during abdominal surgeries. Through dissection of fresh, frozen human cadavers (n = 7), the present study aimed to provide the first complete mapping of the nerves and ganglia of the aortic plexus in males. Using standard histochemical procedures, ganglia of the aortic plexus were verified through microscopic analysis using haematoxylin & eosin (H&E) and anti-tyrosine hydroxylase stains. All specimens exhibited four distinct sympathetic ganglia within the aortic plexus: the right and left spermatic ganglia, the inferior mesenteric ganglion and one previously unidentified ganglion, which has been named the prehypogastric ganglion by the authors. The spermatic ganglia were consistently supplied by the L1 lumbar splanchnic nerves and the inferior mesenteric ganglion and the newly characterized prehypogastric ganglion were supplied by the left and right L2 lumbar splanchnic nerves, respectively. Additionally, our examination revealed the aortic plexus does have potential for variation, primarily in the possibility of exhibiting accessory splanchnic nerves. Clinically, our results could have significant implications for preserving fertility in men as well as sympathetic function to the hindgut and pelvis during retroperitoneal surgeries. PMID:25382240

  9. Differential Toxicities of Intraneurally Injected Mercuric Chloride for Sympathetic and Somatic Motor Fibers: An Ultrastructural Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Jung Cheng

    2011-02-01

    Conclusion: This study demonstrated an undue susceptibility of sympathetic fibers to mercury intoxication. The mechanisms that underlie the selective reaction of sympathetic fibers to mercury warrant further investigation.

  10. Tonic aortic depressor nerve stimulation does not impede baroreflex dynamic characteristics concomitantly mediated by the stimulated nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, Toru; Turner, Michael J; Shimizu, Shuji; Kamiya, Atsunori; Shishido, Toshiaki; Sugimachi, Masaru

    2018-03-01

    Although electrical activation of the carotid sinus baroreflex (baroreflex activation therapy) is being explored as a device therapy for resistant hypertension, possible effects on baroreflex dynamic characteristics of interaction between electrical stimulation and pressure inputs are not fully elucidated. To examine whether the electrical stimulation of the baroreceptor afferent nerve impedes normal short-term arterial pressure (AP) regulation mediated by the stimulated nerve, we electrically stimulated the right aortic depressor nerve (ADN) while estimating the baroreflex dynamic characteristics by imposing pressure inputs to the isolated baroreceptor region of the right ADN in nine anesthetized rats. A Gaussian white noise signal with a mean of 120 mmHg and standard deviation of 20 mmHg was used for the pressure perturbation. A tonic ADN stimulation (2 or 5 Hz, 10 V, 0.1-ms pulse width) decreased mean sympathetic nerve activity (367.0 ± 70.9 vs. 247.3 ± 47.2 arbitrary units, P ADN stimulation did not affect the slope of dynamic gain in the neural arc transfer function from pressure perturbation to sympathetic nerve activity (16.9 ± 1.0 vs. 14.7 ± 1.6 dB/decade, not significant). These results indicate that electrical stimulation of the baroreceptor afferent nerve does not significantly impede the dynamic characteristics of the arterial baroreflex concomitantly mediated by the stimulated nerve. Short-term AP regulation by the arterial baroreflex may be preserved during the baroreflex activation therapy.

  11. Novel Approaches for the Treatment of the Patient with Resistant Hypertension: Renal Nerve Ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Vinay; White, William B.

    2013-01-01

    Sympathetic innervation of the kidneys plays a major role in the pathogenesis of hypertension through modulation of renin secretion, glomerular filtration rate and renal absorption of sodium. Targeted interventions for renal nerve ablation are being developed for treatment of drug resistant hypertension in the USA and rest of the world. Early studies with the use of radiofrequency based renal denervation systems have shown encouraging results with significant reduction of blood pressure in patients inadequately controlled despite nearly maximal drug therapy regimens. Thus far, the renal denervation procedure has been associated with minimal side effects. Long term efficacy and safety beyond 3 years needs to be determined for renal nerve ablation. This review focuses on the physiology of the renal sympathetic system, the rationale for renal nerve ablation and current evidence in support of the available therapeutic renal denervation systems. PMID:24244757

  12. Review of the State of Renal Nerve Ablation for Patients with Severe and Resistant Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Vinay; White, William B.

    2013-01-01

    Through modulation of renin secretion, glomerular filtration rate and renal absorption of sodium, the sympathetic innervation of the kidneys plays an important role in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Renal nerve ablation technology is being developed for treatment of drug-treatment resistant hypertension worldwide. Preliminary research with the use of radiofrequency based renal denervation systems have demonstrated encouraging results with significant reduction of blood pressure in patients inadequately controlled despite nearly maximal drug therapy regimens. From work done thus far, the renal denervation procedure has not been associated with serious adverse effects. Long term efficacy and safety still needs to be established for renal nerve ablation. This review focuses on the impact of the renal sympathetic system on blood pressure regulation, the clinical rationale for renal nerve ablation in severe and drug-treatment resistant hypertension and current evidence from the more advanced renal denervation devices. PMID:23953998

  13. Microvascular Cranial Nerve Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Microvascular Cranial Nerve Palsy Sections What Is Microvascular Cranial Nerve Palsy? ... Microvascular Cranial Nerve Palsy Treatment What Is Microvascular Cranial Nerve Palsy? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es una parálisis ...

  14. Facial nerve mapping and monitoring in lymphatic malformation surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiara, Jospeh; Kinney, Greg; Slimp, Jefferson; Lee, Gi Soo; Oliaei, Sepehr; Perkins, Jonathan A

    2009-10-01

    Establish the efficacy of preoperative facial nerve mapping and continuous intraoperative EMG monitoring in protecting the facial nerve during resection of cervicofacial lymphatic malformations. Retrospective study in which patients were clinically followed for at least 6 months postoperatively, and long-term outcome was evaluated. Patient demographics, lesion characteristics (i.e., size, stage, location) were recorded. Operative notes revealed surgical techniques, findings, and complications. Preoperative, short-/long-term postoperative facial nerve function was standardized using the House-Brackmann Classification. Mapping was done prior to incision by percutaneously stimulating the facial nerve and its branches and recording the motor responses. Intraoperative monitoring and mapping were accomplished using a four-channel, free-running EMG. Neurophysiologists continuously monitored EMG responses and blindly analyzed intraoperative findings and final EMG interpretations for abnormalities. Seven patients collectively underwent 8 lymphatic malformation surgeries. Median age was 30 months (2-105 months). Lymphatic malformation diagnosis was recorded in 6/8 surgeries. Facial nerve function was House-Brackmann grade I in 8/8 cases preoperatively. Facial nerve was abnormally elongated in 1/8 cases. EMG monitoring recorded abnormal activity in 4/8 cases--two suggesting facial nerve irritation, and two with possible facial nerve damage. Transient or long-term facial nerve paresis occurred in 1/8 cases (House-Brackmann grade II). Preoperative facial nerve mapping combined with continuous intraoperative EMG and mapping is a successful method of identifying the facial nerve course and protecting it from injury during resection of cervicofacial lymphatic malformations involving the facial nerve.

  15. The nerves around the shoulder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, Alain; Lecocq, Sophie; Louis, Matthias; Wassel, Johnny; Moisei, Andreea; Teixeira, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Neuropathies of the shoulder are considered to be entrapment syndromes. They are relatively common, accounting for about 2% of cases of sport-related shoulder pain. Many instances involve suprascapular neuropathy, but the clinical diagnosis is often delayed because of nonspecific symptoms. Classically, EMG is the gold standard investigation but MRI currently reveals muscular abnormality in 50% of cases. Muscle edema, the most characteristic symptom, is nonspecific. In general, the topography of edema, the presence of a lesion compressing the nerve and clinical history contribute to the diagnosis. Although atrophy and fatty degeneration may persist after the disappearance of edema, they are rarely symptomatic. The main differential diagnosis is Parsonage–Turner syndrome. Evidence of a cyst pressing on a nerve may prompt puncture-infiltration guided by ultrasonography or CT-scan

  16. The nerves around the shoulder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, Alain, E-mail: alain.blum@gmail.com [Service d’Imagerie GUILLOZ, CHU Nancy, Nancy 54000 (France); Lecocq, Sophie; Louis, Matthias; Wassel, Johnny; Moisei, Andreea; Teixeira, Pedro [Service d’Imagerie GUILLOZ, CHU Nancy, Nancy 54000 (France)

    2013-01-15

    Neuropathies of the shoulder are considered to be entrapment syndromes. They are relatively common, accounting for about 2% of cases of sport-related shoulder pain. Many instances involve suprascapular neuropathy, but the clinical diagnosis is often delayed because of nonspecific symptoms. Classically, EMG is the gold standard investigation but MRI currently reveals muscular abnormality in 50% of cases. Muscle edema, the most characteristic symptom, is nonspecific. In general, the topography of edema, the presence of a lesion compressing the nerve and clinical history contribute to the diagnosis. Although atrophy and fatty degeneration may persist after the disappearance of edema, they are rarely symptomatic. The main differential diagnosis is Parsonage–Turner syndrome. Evidence of a cyst pressing on a nerve may prompt puncture-infiltration guided by ultrasonography or CT-scan.

  17. Clinical evaluation of carbon-11-phenylephrine: MAO-sensitive marker of cardiac sympathetic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffel, D M; Corbett, J R; del Rosario, R B; Gildersleeve, D L; Chiao, P C; Schwaiger, M; Wieland, D M

    1996-12-01

    The sympathomimetic drug phenylephrine recently has been labeled with 11C for use in PET studies of cardiac sympathetic innervation. Previous reports using isolated perfused rat heart models indicate that phenylephrine is metabolized by intraneuronal monoamine oxidase (MAO). This report compares the imaging characteristics, neuronal selectivity and kinetics of (-)-[11C]phenylephrine (PHEN) to the structurally similar but MAO-resistant analog (-)-[11C]-meta-hydroxyephedrine (HED), an established heart neuronal marker. Fourteen healthy volunteers were studied with PET and PHEN. Ten had paired studies with HED; four of the 10 were scanned a second time with each tracer after oral administration of desipramine, a selective neuronal transport blocker. Hemodynamic and electrocardiographic responses were monitored. Blood levels of intact radiotracer and radiolabeled metabolites were determined from venous blood samples taken during the PET study. Myocardial retention indices for both tracers were calculated. No hemodynamic or electrocardiographic effects were observed with either tracer. PHEN showed reduced myocardial retention at 50 min compared to HED; however, image quality and uniformity of distribution were comparable. PHEN cleared from myocardium with a mean half-time of 59 +/- 5 min, while myocardial levels of HED remained constant. PHEN metabolites appeared in the blood approximately three times faster than HED metabolites. Desipramine pretreatment markedly reduced (> 60%) myocardial retention of both PHEN and HED. PHEN provides PET images of human heart comparable in quality and uniformity to HED. Like HED, PHEN localizes in the sympathetic nerves of the heart. However, the more rapid efflux of PHEN, that is likely mediated by MAO, may provide information on the functional status of cardiac sympathetic neurons unobtainable with HED.

  18. Reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome: MR imaging study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masciocchi, C.; Fascetti, E.; Bonanni, G.; Calvisi, V.; Buoni, C.; Passariello, R.

    1987-01-01

    Reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome (RSDS) is characterized by pain, swelling, and limitation of motion. The etiology and pathophysiology mechanism have not yet been identified. We considered eight patients with clinical signs of RSDS, in five cases located at the knee joint and in three cases in the hip. In all cases conventional radiography and radionuclide bone scanning were performed before MR imaging. Conventional radiography was negative in three cases while scintigraphy demonstrated the lesion in all patients. MR imaging showed an area of low intensity signal on T1-weighted scans and an increased signal intensity on T2-weighted images. This area is located at the bone marrow and its regular and homogeneous. This specific finding on MR images is due to reflect edema by hyperemia of the bone marrow. The MR imaging diagnosis was confirmed on clinical and radiological follow-up. MR imaging can have a role in the differential diagnosis when other studies are nondiagnostic or nonspecific for RSDS

  19. Sympathetic cooling of nanospheres with cold atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Cris; Witherspoon, Apryl; Ranjit, Gambhir; Casey, Kirsten; Kitching, John; Geraci, Andrew

    2016-05-01

    Ground state cooling of mesoscopic mechanical structures could enable new hybrid quantum systems where mechanical oscillators act as transducers. Such systems could provide coupling between photons, spins and charges via phonons. It has recently been shown theoretically that optically trapped dielectric nanospheres could reach the ground state via sympathetic cooling with trapped cold atoms. This technique can be beneficial in cases where cryogenic operation of the oscillator is not practical. We describe experimental advances towards coupling an optically levitated dielectric nanosphere to a gas of cold Rubidium atoms. The sphere and the cold atoms are in separate vacuum chambers and are coupled using a one-dimensional optical lattice. This work is partially supported by NSF, Grant Nos. PHY-1205994,PHY-1506431.

  20. Cardiac sympathetic neuronal imaging using PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lautamaeki, Riikka; Tipre, Dnyanesh; Bengel, Frank M.

    2007-01-01

    Balance of the autonomic nervous system is essential for adequate cardiac performance, and alterations seem to play a key role in the development and progression of various cardiac diseases. PET imaging of the cardiac autonomic nervous system has advanced extensively in recent years, and multiple pre- and postsynaptic tracers have been introduced. The high spatial and temporal resolution of PET enables noninvasive quantification of neurophysiologic processes at the tissue level. Ligands for catecholamine receptors, along with radiolabeled catecholamines and catecholamine analogs, have been applied to determine involvement of sympathetic dysinnervation at different stages of heart diseases such as ischemia, heart failure, and arrhythmia. This review summarizes the recent findings in neurocardiological PET imaging. Experimental studies with several radioligands and clinical findings in cardiac dysautonomias are discussed. (orig.)

  1. Imaging of muscular denervation secondary to motor cranial nerve dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connor, S.E.J.; Chaudhary, N.; Fareedi, S.; Woo, E.K.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of motor cranial nerve dysfunction on the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances of head and neck muscles are reviewed. Patterns of denervation changes are described and illustrated for V, VII, X, XI and XII cranial nerves. Recognition of the range of imaging manifestations, including the temporal changes in muscular appearances and associated muscular grafting or compensatory hypertrophy, will avoid misinterpretation as local disease. It will also prompt the radiologist to search for underlying cranial nerve pathology, which may be clinically occult. The relevant cranial nerve motor division anatomy will be described to enable a focussed search for such a structural abnormality

  2. Imaging of muscular denervation secondary to motor cranial nerve dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connor, S.E.J. [Neuroradiology Department, Kings College Hospital, Denmark Hill, London SE5 9RS (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: sejconnor@tiscali.co.uk; Chaudhary, N. [Neuroradiology Department, Kings College Hospital, Denmark Hill, London SE5 9RS (United Kingdom); Fareedi, S. [Neuroradiology Department, Kings College Hospital, Denmark Hill, London SE5 9RS (United Kingdom); Woo, E.K. [Neuroradiology Department, Kings College Hospital, Denmark Hill, London SE5 9RS (United Kingdom)

    2006-08-15

    The effects of motor cranial nerve dysfunction on the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances of head and neck muscles are reviewed. Patterns of denervation changes are described and illustrated for V, VII, X, XI and XII cranial nerves. Recognition of the range of imaging manifestations, including the temporal changes in muscular appearances and associated muscular grafting or compensatory hypertrophy, will avoid misinterpretation as local disease. It will also prompt the radiologist to search for underlying cranial nerve pathology, which may be clinically occult. The relevant cranial nerve motor division anatomy will be described to enable a focussed search for such a structural abnormality.

  3. Coping with dehydration: sympathetic activation and regulation of glutamatergic transmission in the hypothalamic PVN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardgett, Megan E.; Chen, Qing-Hui; Guo, Qing; Calderon, Alfredo S.; Andrade, Mary Ann

    2014-01-01

    Autonomic and endocrine profiles of chronic hypertension and heart failure resemble those of acute dehydration. Importantly, all of these conditions are associated with exaggerated sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) driven by glutamatergic activation of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Here, studies sought to gain insight into mechanisms of disease by determining the role of PVN ionotropic glutamate receptors in supporting SNA and mean arterial pressure (MAP) during dehydration and by elucidating mechanisms regulating receptor activity. Blockade of PVN N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors reduced (P dehydrated (DH) (48 h water deprivation) rats, but had no effect in euhydrated (EH) controls. Blockade of PVN α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors had no effect in either group. NMDA in PVN caused dose-dependent increases of renal SNA and MAP in both groups, but the maximum agonist evoked response (Emax) of the renal SNA response was greater (P dehydration increases excitatory NMDA receptor tone in PVN. Reduced glial-mediated glutamate uptake was identified as a key contributing factor. Defective glutamate uptake in PVN could therefore be an important, but as yet unexplored, mechanism driving sympathetic hyperactivity in chronic cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24671240

  4. Sympathetic dysfunction in vasovagal syncope and the postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth eLambert

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Orthostatic intolerance is the inability to tolerate the upright posture and is relieved by recumbence. It most commonly affects young women and has a major impact on quality of life and psychosocial well being. Several forms of orthostatic intolerance have been described. The most common one is the recurrent vasovagal syncope (VVS phenotype which presents as a transient and abrupt loss of consciousness and postural tone that is followed by rapid recovery. Another common type of orthostatic intolerance is the postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS which is characterized by an excessive rise in heart rate upon standing and is associated with symptoms of presyncope such as light-headedness, fatigue, palpitations and nausea. Maintenance of arterial pressure under condition of reduced central blood volume during the orthostasis is accomplished in large part through sympathetic efferent nerve traffic to the peripheral vasculature. Therefore sympathetic nervous system (SNS dysfunction is high on the list of possible contributors to the pathophysiology of orthostatic intolerance. Investigations into the role of the SNS in orthostatic intolerance have yielded mixed results. This review outlines the current knowledge of the function of the SNS in both VVS and POTS.

  5. Sympathetic Denervation Accelerates Wound Contraction but Inhibits Reepithelialization and Pericyte Proliferation in Diabetic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifang Zheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies focused on the effects of sympathetic denervation with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA on nondiabetic wounds, but the effects of 6-OHDA on diabetic wounds have not been previously reported. In this study, treated mice received intraperitoneal 6-OHDA, and control mice received intraperitoneal injections of normal saline. Full-thickness wounds were established on the backs of mice. The wounds were sectioned (four mice per group for analysis at 2, 5, 7, 10, 14, 17, and 21 days after injury. The wound areas in the control group were larger than those in the treatment group. Histological scores for epidermal and dermal regeneration were reduced in the 6-OHDA-treated group on day 21. The mast cells (MCs in each field decreased after sympathectomy on days 17 and 21. The expression levels of norepinephrine, epidermal growth factor (EGF, interleukin-1 beta, NG2 proteoglycan, and desmin in the treatment group were less than those in the control group. In conclusion, 6-OHDA delays reepithelialization during wound healing in diabetic mice by decreasing EGF, but increases wound contraction by reducing IL-1β levels and the number of MCs. Besides, 6-OHDA led to reduced pericyte proliferation in diabetic wounds, which might explain the vascular dysfunction after sympathetic nerve loss in diabetic wounds.

  6. Insulin growth factors regulate the mitotic cycle in cultured rat sympathetic neuroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiCicco-Bloom, E.; Black, I.B.

    1988-01-01

    While neuronal mitosis is uniquely restricted to early development, the underlying regulation remains to be defined. The authors have now developed a dissociated, embryonic sympathetic neuron culture system that uses fully defined medium in which cells enter the mitotic cycle. The cultured cells expressed two neuronal traits, tyrosine hydroxylase and the neuron-specific 160-kDa neurofilament subunit protein, but were devoid of glial fibrillary acidic protein, a marker for non-myelin-forming Schwann cells in ganglia. Approximately one-third of the tyrosine hydroxylase-positive cells synthesized DNA in culture, specifically incorporating [ 3 H]thymidine into their nuclei. They used this system to define factors regulating the mitotic cycle in sympathetic neuroblasts. Members of the insulin family of growth factors, including insulin and insulin-like growth factors I and II, regulated DNA synthesis in the presumptive neuroblasts. Insulin more than doubled the proportion of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive cells entering the mitotic cycle, as indicated by autoradiography of [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation into nuclei. Scintillation spectrometry was an even more sensitive index of DNA synthesis. In contrast, the trophic protein nerve growth factor exhibited no mitogenic effect, suggesting that the mitogenic action of insulin growth factors is highly specific. The observations are discussed in the context of the detection of insulin growth factors and receptors in the developing brain

  7. Assessing the strength of cardiac and sympathetic baroreflex controls via transfer entropy during orthostatic challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porta, Alberto; Marchi, Andrea; Bari, Vlasta; De Maria, Beatrice; Esler, Murray; Lambert, Elisabeth; Baumert, Mathias

    2017-05-01

    The study assesses the strength of the causal relation along baroreflex (BR) in humans during an incremental postural challenge soliciting the BR. Both cardiac BR (cBR) and sympathetic BR (sBR) were characterized via BR sequence approaches from spontaneous fluctuations of heart period (HP), systolic arterial pressure (SAP), diastolic arterial pressure (DAP) and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA). A model-based transfer entropy method was applied to quantify the strength of the coupling from SAP to HP and from DAP to MSNA. The confounding influences of respiration were accounted for. Twelve young healthy subjects (20-36 years, nine females) were sequentially tilted at 0°, 20°, 30° and 40°. We found that (i) the strength of the causal relation along the cBR increases with tilt table inclination, while that along the sBR is unrelated to it; (ii) the strength of the causal coupling is unrelated to the gain of the relation; (iii) transfer entropy indexes are significantly and positively associated with simplified causality indexes derived from BR sequence analysis. The study proves that causality indexes are complementary to traditional characterization of the BR and suggests that simple markers derived from BR sequence analysis might be fruitfully exploited to estimate causality along the BR. This article is part of the themed issue `Mathematical methods in medicine: neuroscience, cardiology and pathology'.

  8. Glutamate and GABA in vestibulo-sympathetic pathway neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gay R Holstein

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The vestibulo-sympathetic reflex actively modulates blood pressure during changes in posture. This reflex allows humans to stand up and quadrupeds to rear or climb without a precipitous decline in cerebral perfusion. The vestibulo-sympathetic reflex pathway conveys signals from the vestibular end organs to the caudal vestibular nuclei. These cells, in turn, project to pre-sympathetic neurons in the rostral and caudal ventrolateral medulla (RVLM and CVLM, respectively. The present study assessed glutamate- and GABA-related immunofluorescence associated with central vestibular neurons of the vestibulo-sympathetic reflex pathway in rats. Retrograde FluoroGold tract tracing was used to label vestibular neurons with projections to RVLM or CVLM, and sinusoidal galvanic vestibular stimulation was employed to activate these pathways. Central vestibular neurons of the vestibulo-sympathetic reflex were identified by co-localization of FluoroGold and cFos protein, which accumulates in some vestibular neurons following galvanic stimulation. Triple-label immunofluorescence was used to co-localize glutamate- or GABA- labeling in the identified vestibulo-sympathetic reflex pathway neurons. Most activated projection neurons displayed intense glutamate immunofluorescence, suggestive of glutamatergic neurotransmission. To support this, anterograde tracer was injected into the caudal vestibular nuclei. Vestibular axons and terminals in RVLM and CVLM co-localized the anterograde tracer and vesicular glutamate transporter-2 signals. Other retrogradely-labeled cFos-positive neurons displayed intense GABA immunofluorescence. Vestibulo-sympathetic reflex pathway neurons of both phenotypes were present in the caudal medial and spinal vestibular nuclei, and projected to both RVLM and CVLM. As a group, however, triple-labeled vestibular cells with intense glutamate immunofluorescence were located more rostrally in the vestibular nuclei than the GABAergic neurons. Only the

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging in optic nerve lesions with multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Shigeyuki; Hirayama, Keizo; Kakisu, Yonetsugu; Adachi, Emiko

    1990-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the optic nerve was performed in 10 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) using short inversion time inversion recovery (STIR) pulse sequences, and the results were compared with the visual evoked potentials (VEP). The 10 patients had optic neuritis in the chronic or remitting phase together with additional symptoms or signs allowing a diagnosis of clinically definite or probable MS. Sixteen optic nerves were clinically affected and 4 were unaffected. MRI was performed using a 0.5 tesla supeconducting unit, and multiple continuous 5 mm coronal and axial STIR images were obtained. A lesion was judged to be present if a focal or diffuse area of increased signal intensity was detectd in the optic nerve. In VEP, a delay in peak latency or no P 100 component was judged to be abnormal. With regard to the clinically affected optic nerves, MRI revealed a region of increased signal intensity in 14/16 (88%) and the VEP was abnormal in 16/16 (100%). In the clinically unaffected optic nerves, MRI revealed an increased signal intensity in 2/4 (50%). One of these nerves had an abnormal VEP and the other had a VEP latency at the upper limit of normal. The VEP was abnormal in 1/4 (25%). In the clinically affected optic nerves, the degree of loss of visual acuity was not associated with the longitudinal extent of the lesions shown by MRI. The mean length was 17.5 mm in optic nerves with a slight disturbance of visual acuity and 15.0 mm in nerves with severe visual loss. MRI using STIR pulse sequences was found to be almost as sensitive as VEP in detecting both clinically affected and unaffected optic nerve lesions in patients with MS, and was useful in visualizing the location or size of the lesions. (author)

  10. Noninvasive evaluation of sympathetic nervous system in human heart by positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwaiger, M.; Kalff, V.; Rosenspire, K.; Haka, M.S.; Molina, E.; Hutchins, G.D.; Deeb, M.; Wolfe, E. Jr.; Wieland, D.M.

    1990-01-01

    The noninvasive functional characterization of the cardiac sympathetic nervous system by imaging techniques may provide important pathophysiological information in various cardiac disease states. Hydroxyephedrine labeled with carbon 11 has been developed as a new catecholamine analogue to be used in the in vivo evaluation of presynaptic adrenergic nerve terminals by positron emission tomography (PET). To determine the feasibility of this imaging approach in the human heart, six normal volunteers and five patients with recent cardiac transplants underwent dynamic PET imaging after intravenous injection of 20 mCi [11C]hydroxyephedrine. Blood and myocardial tracer kinetics were assessed using a regions-of-interest approach. In normal volunteers, blood 11C activity cleared rapidly, whereas myocardium retained 11C activity with a long tissue half-life. Relative tracer retention in the myocardium averaged 79 +/- 31% of peak activity at 60 minutes after tracer injection. The heart-to-blood 11C activity ratio exceeded 6:1 as soon as 30 minutes after tracer injection, yielding excellent image quality. Little regional variation of tracer retention was observed, indicating homogeneous sympathetic innervation throughout the left ventricle. In the transplant recipients, myocardial [11C]hydroxyephedrine retention at 60 minutes was significantly less (-82%) than that of normal volunteers, indicating only little non-neuronal binding of the tracer in the denervated human heart. Thus, [11C]hydroxyephedrine, in combination with dynamic PET imaging, allows the noninvasive delineation of myocardial adrenergic nerve terminals. Tracer kinetic modeling may permit quantitative assessment of myocardial catecholamine uptake, which will in turn provide insights into the effects of various disease processes on the neuronal integrity of the heart

  11. Strength training reduces arterial blood pressure but not sympathetic neural activity in young normotensive subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jason R.; Ray, Chester A.; Downs, Emily M.; Cooke, William H.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of resistance training on arterial blood pressure and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) at rest have not been established. Although endurance training is commonly recommended to lower arterial blood pressure, it is not known whether similar adaptations occur with resistance training. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that whole body resistance training reduces arterial blood pressure at rest, with concomitant reductions in MSNA. Twelve young [21 +/- 0.3 (SE) yr] subjects underwent a program of whole body resistance training 3 days/wk for 8 wk. Resting arterial blood pressure (n = 12; automated sphygmomanometer) and MSNA (n = 8; peroneal nerve microneurography) were measured during a 5-min period of supine rest before and after exercise training. Thirteen additional young (21 +/- 0.8 yr) subjects served as controls. Resistance training significantly increased one-repetition maximum values in all trained muscle groups (P < 0.001), and it significantly decreased systolic (130 +/- 3 to 121 +/- 2 mmHg; P = 0.01), diastolic (69 +/- 3 to 61 +/- 2 mmHg; P = 0.04), and mean (89 +/- 2 to 81 +/- 2 mmHg; P = 0.01) arterial blood pressures at rest. Resistance training did not affect MSNA or heart rate. Arterial blood pressures and MSNA were unchanged, but heart rate increased after 8 wk of relative inactivity for subjects in the control group (61 +/- 2 to 67 +/- 3 beats/min; P = 0.01). These results indicate that whole body resistance exercise training might decrease the risk for development of cardiovascular disease by lowering arterial blood pressure but that reductions of pressure are not coupled to resistance exercise-induced decreases of sympathetic tone.

  12. The crosstalk between the kidney and the central nervous system: the role of renal nerves in blood pressure regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Erika E; Bergamaschi, Cássia T; Campos, Ruy R

    2015-04-20

    What is the topic of this review? This review describes the role of renal nerves as the key carrier of signals from the kidneys to the CNS and vice versa; the brain and kidneys communicate through this carrier to maintain homeostasis in the body. What advances does it highlight? Whether renal or autonomic dysfunction is the predominant contributor to systemic hypertension is still debated. In this review, we focus on the role of the renal nerves in a model of renovascular hypertension. The sympathetic nervous system influences the renal regulation of arterial pressure and body fluid composition. Anatomical and physiological evidence has shown that sympathetic nerves mediate changes in urinary sodium and water excretion by regulating the renal tubular water and sodium reabsorption throughout the nephron, changes in the renal blood flow and the glomerular filtration rate by regulating the constriction of renal vasculature, and changes in the activity of the renin-angiotensin system by regulating the renin release from juxtaglomerular cells. Additionally, renal sensory afferent fibres project to the autonomic central nuclei that regulate blood pressure. Hence, renal nerves play a key role in the crosstalk between the kidneys and the CNS to maintain homeostasis in the body. Therefore, the increased sympathetic nerve activity to the kidney and the renal afferent nerve activity to the CNS may contribute to the outcome of diseases, such as hypertension. © 2014 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2014 The Physiological Society.

  13. Sympathetic arousal as a marker of chronicity in childhood stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zengin-Bolatkale, Hatun; Conture, Edward G; Walden, Tedra A; Jones, Robin M

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated whether sympathetic activity during a stressful speaking task was an early marker for stuttering chronicity. Participants were 9 children with persisting stuttering, 23 children who recovered, and 17 children who do not stutter. Participants performed a stress-inducing picture-naming task and skin conductance was measured across three time points. Findings indicated that at the initial time point, children with persisting stuttering exhibited higher sympathetic arousal during the stressful speaking task than children whose stuttering recovered. Findings are taken to suggest that sympathetic activity may be an early marker of heightened risk for chronic stuttering.

  14. Molecular Mechanisms Underlying β-Adrenergic Receptor-Mediated Cross-Talk between Sympathetic Neurons and Immune Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne Lorton

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cross-talk between the sympathetic nervous system (SNS and immune system is vital for health and well-being. Infection, tissue injury and inflammation raise firing rates of sympathetic nerves, increasing their release of norepinephrine (NE in lymphoid organs and tissues. NE stimulation of β2-adrenergic receptors (ARs in immune cells activates the cAMP-protein kinase A (PKA intracellular signaling pathway, a pathway that interfaces with other signaling pathways that regulate proliferation, differentiation, maturation and effector functions in immune cells. Immune–SNS cross-talk is required to maintain homeostasis under normal conditions, to develop an immune response of appropriate magnitude after injury or immune challenge, and subsequently restore homeostasis. Typically, β2-AR-induced cAMP is immunosuppressive. However, many studies report actions of β2-AR stimulation in immune cells that are inconsistent with typical cAMP–PKA signal transduction. Research during the last decade in non-immune organs, has unveiled novel alternative signaling mechanisms induced by β2-AR activation, such as a signaling switch from cAMP–PKA to mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathways. If alternative signaling occurs in immune cells, it may explain inconsistent findings of sympathetic regulation of immune function. Here, we review β2-AR signaling, assess the available evidence for alternative signaling in immune cells, and provide insight into the circumstances necessary for “signal switching” in immune cells.

  15. Reduction of Blood Pressure Following After Renal Artery Adventitia Stripping During Total Nephroureterectomy: Potential Effect of Renal Sympathetic Denervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, Keisuke; Satou, Shunsuke; Setojima, Keita; Shono, Shinjiro; Miyajima, Shigero; Ishii, Tatsu; Shirai, Kazuyuki; Urata, Hidenori

    2018-05-16

    BACKGROUND Catheter-based renal sympathetic denervation has been reported to be effective for treatment resistance hypertension in Australia and Europe. However, in the blinded SYMPLICITY HTN-3 trial, renal denervation did not achieve a significant decrease in blood pressure (BP) in comparison to sham controls. There have been various discussions on the factors that influenced this result. CASE REPORT Two men on antihypertensive therapy underwent unilateral radical nephroureterectomy for cancer of the renal pelvis. When the renal artery adventitia was stripped and cauterized just before renal artery ligation, the measured BP of the 2 men increased after stripping adventitia and decreased gradually after cauterization of the renal artery. This was presumably due to removal of renal artery sympathetic nerves, similar to the mechanism of catheter-based renal sympathetic denervation, although anesthesia, fluid infusion, and/or mesenteric traction may have had an influence. CONCLUSIONS A similar strategy involving thoracolumbar sympathectomy was reported about 50 years ago. The clinically significant blood pressure reduction in these patients suggests renal denervation is effective.

  16. The vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoudiba, F; Toulgoat, F; Sarrazin, J-L

    2013-10-01

    The vestibulocochlear nerve (8th cranial nerve) is a sensory nerve. It is made up of two nerves, the cochlear, which transmits sound and the vestibular which controls balance. It is an intracranial nerve which runs from the sensory receptors in the internal ear to the brain stem nuclei and finally to the auditory areas: the post-central gyrus and superior temporal auditory cortex. The most common lesions responsible for damage to VIII are vestibular Schwannomas. This report reviews the anatomy and various investigations of the nerve. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  17. Schwanomma From Cervical Sympathetic Chain Ganglion – A Rare Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asma, A. Affee

    2015-01-01

    Schwanommas arising from cervical sympathetic chain are tumours that are rare in occurrence. These lesions are usually difficult to differentiate from a vagal schwanomma and a carotid body tumour during the initial workup. In this report, a rarely seen huge cervical sympathetic chain schwanomma case with partial Horner’s syndrome is being presented in detail, which to our known knowledge, is one of the few cases reported in literature. PMID:26557566

  18. Sympathetic skin response evoked by laser skin stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Rossi, P.; Truini, A.; Serrao, M.; Iannetti, G. D.; Parisi, L.; Pozzessere, G.; Cruccu, G.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evoke sympathetic skin responses (SSRs) in healthy subjects using laser stimulation and to compare these responses with those induced by conventional electrical stimuli. Twenty healthy subjects were investigated. SSRs were obtained using electrical and laser stimuli delivered to the wrist controlateral to the recording site. The sympathetic sudomotor conduction velocity (SSFCV) was measured in 8 subjects by simultaneously recording the SSR from the hand and ...

  19. Schwanomma From Cervical Sympathetic Chain Ganglion - A Rare Presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asma, A Affee; Kannah, E

    2015-10-01

    Schwanommas arising from cervical sympathetic chain are tumours that are rare in occurrence. These lesions are usually difficult to differentiate from a vagal schwanomma and a carotid body tumour during the initial workup. In this report, a rarely seen huge cervical sympathetic chain schwanomma case with partial Horner's syndrome is being presented in detail, which to our known knowledge, is one of the few cases reported in literature.

  20. Bone mineral density in reflex sympathetic dystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saghaphi, M.; Azarian, A.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy (RSD) is a complex of symptoms that produce pain burning sensation, swelling, tenderness, autonomic and physical dysfunction in joint areas, particularly distal of a limb. Osteopenia or osteoporosis is an important finding that is produced gradually in involved limb. Three phase bone can scan help to diagnosis of RSD. The disease may be bilateral but is mostly unilateral. As it is believed that bone densitometry will show osteopenia more accurate than plain comparative radiographs of the involved limbs, we investigated in patients with RSD. Methods: During last three years, 8 patients with RSD were admitted. Bone mineral density was measured for 5 patients by DEXA method. The patients were 3 males and 2 females with age range of 20 to 48 years (mean 32 years). The involved areas were ankle and foot in 4, and wrist and hand in one patient. Results: Mean Bone Mineral Content (BMC) of 4 involved lower limbs were 475 +-73 grams comparing with 516+-72 grams of uninvolved limbs (p t h patient was not significant. conclusion: comparative bone mineral density in patients with RSD of the lower limbs contributes to more accurate diagnosis than plain radiographs

  1. Radial nerve dysfunction (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The radial nerve travels down the arm and supplies movement to the triceps muscle at the back of the upper arm. ... the wrist and hand. The usual causes of nerve dysfunction are direct trauma, prolonged pressure on the ...

  2. Degenerative Nerve Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degenerative nerve diseases affect many of your body's activities, such as balance, movement, talking, breathing, and heart function. Many ... viruses. Sometimes the cause is not known. Degenerative nerve diseases include Alzheimer's disease Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis Friedreich's ...

  3. Nerve conduction velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003927.htm Nerve conduction velocity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Nerve conduction velocity (NCV) is a test to see ...

  4. Distal median nerve dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... later on. Inflammation of the tendons ( tendonitis ) or joints ( arthritis ) can also put pressure on the nerve. ... how fast electrical signals move through a nerve Neuromuscular ultrasound to view problems with the muscles and ...

  5. Increased intrinsic excitability of muscle vasoconstrictor preganglionic neurons may contribute to the elevated sympathetic activity in hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briant, Linford J B; Stalbovskiy, Alexey O; Nolan, Matthew F; Champneys, Alan R; Pickering, Anthony E

    2014-12-01

    Hypertension is associated with pathologically increased sympathetic drive to the vasculature. This has been attributed to increased excitatory drive to sympathetic preganglionic neurons (SPN) from brainstem cardiovascular control centers. However, there is also evidence supporting increased intrinsic excitability of SPN. To test this hypothesis, we made whole cell recordings of muscle vasoconstrictor-like (MVClike) SPN in the working-heart brainstem preparation of spontaneously hypertensive (SH) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. The MVClike SPN have a higher spontaneous firing frequency in the SH rat (3.85 ± 0.4 vs. 2.44 ± 0.4 Hz in WKY; P = 0.011) with greater respiratory modulation of their activity. The action potentials of SH SPN had smaller, shorter afterhyperpolarizations (AHPs) and showed diminished transient rectification indicating suppression of an A-type potassium conductance (IA). We developed mathematical models of the SPN to establish if changes in their intrinsic properties in SH rats could account for their altered firing. Reduction of the maximal conductance density of IA by 15-30% changed the excitability and output of the model from the WKY to a SH profile, with increased firing frequency, amplified respiratory modulation, and smaller AHPs. This change in output is predominantly a consequence of altered synaptic integration. Consistent with these in silico predictions, we found that intrathecal 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) increased sympathetic nerve activity, elevated perfusion pressure, and augmented Traube-Hering waves. Our findings indicate that IA acts as a powerful filter on incoming synaptic drive to SPN and that its diminution in the SH rat is potentially sufficient to account for the increased sympathetic output underlying hypertension. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  6. RESTING SYMPATHETIC BAROREFLEX SENSITIVITY IN SUBJECTS WITH LOW AND HIGH TOLERANCE TO CENTRAL HYPOVOLEMIA INDUCED BY LOWER BODY NEGATIVE PRESSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen eHinojosa-Laborde

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Central hypovolemia elicited by orthostasis or hemorrhage triggers sympathetically-mediated baroreflex responses to maintain organ perfusion; these reflexes are less sensitive in patients with orthostatic intolerance, and during conditions of severe blood loss, may result in cardiovascular collapse (decompensatory or circulatory shock. The ability to tolerate central hypovolemia is variable and physiological factors contributing to tolerance are emerging. We tested the hypothesis that resting muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA and sympathetic baroreflex sensitivity (BRS are attenuated in male and female subjects who have low tolerance (LT to central hypovolemia induced by lower body negative pressure (LBNP. MSNA and diastolic arterial pressure (DAP were recorded in 47 human subjects who subsequently underwent LBNP to tolerance (onset of presyncopal symptoms. LT subjects experienced presyncopal symptoms prior to completing LBNP of -60 mm Hg, and subjects with high tolerance (HT experienced presyncopal symptoms after completing LBNP after -60 mmHg. Contrary to our hypothesis, resting MSNA burst incidence was not different between LT and HT subjects, and was not related to time to presyncope. BRS was assessed as the slope of the relationship between spontaneous fluctuations in DAP and MSNA during 5 min of supine rest. MSNA burst incidence/DAP correlations were greater than or equal to 0.5 in 37 subjects (LT: n= 9; HT: n=28, and BRS was not different between LT and HT (-1.8 ± 0.3 vs. -2.2 ± 0.2 bursts•(100 beats-1•mmHg-1, p=0.29. We conclude that tolerance to central hypovolemia is not related to either resting MSNA or sympathetic BRS.

  7. The sympathetic nervous system is controlled by transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 in the regulation of body temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alawi, Khadija M.; Aubdool, Aisah A.; Liang, Lihuan; Wilde, Elena; Vepa, Abhinav; Psefteli, Maria-Paraskevi; Brain, Susan D.; Keeble, Julie E.

    2015-01-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is involved in sensory nerve nociceptive signaling. Recently, it has been discovered that TRPV1 receptors also regulate basal body temperature in multiple species from mice to humans. In the present study, we investigated whether TRPV1 modulates basal sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity. C57BL6/J wild-type (WT) mice and TRPV1 knockout (KO) mice were implanted with radiotelemetry probes for measurement of core body temperature. AMG9810 (50 mg/kg) or vehicle (2% DMSO/5% Tween 80/10 ml/kg saline) was injected intraperitoneally. Adrenoceptor antagonists or vehicle (5 ml/kg saline) was injected subcutaneously. In WT mice, the TRPV1 antagonist, AMG9810, caused significant hyperthermia, associated with increased noradrenaline concentrations in brown adipose tissue. The hyperthermia was significantly attenuated by the β-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol, the mixed α-/β-adrenoceptor antagonist labetalol, and the α1-adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin. TRPV1 KO mice have a normal basal body temperature, indicative of developmental compensation. d-Amphetamine (potent sympathomimetic) caused hyperthermia in WT mice, which was reduced in TRPV1 KO mice, suggesting a decreased sympathetic drive in KOs. This study provides new evidence that TRPV1 controls thermoregulation upstream of the SNS, providing a potential therapeutic target for sympathetic hyperactivity thermoregulatory disorders.—Alawi, K. M., Aubdool, A. A., Liang, L., Wilde, E., Vepa, A., Psefteli, M.-P., Brain, S. D., Keeble, J. E. The sympathetic nervous system is controlled by transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 in the regulation of body temperature. PMID:26136480

  8. Sex differences in the modulation of vasomotor sympathetic outflow during static handgrip exercise in healthy young humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Sara S.; VanGundy, Tiffany B.; Galbreath, M. Melyn; Shibata, Shigeki; Okazaki, Kazunobu; Reelick, Miriam F.; Levine, Benjamin D.

    2011-01-01

    Sex differences in sympathetic neural control during static exercise in humans are few and the findings are inconsistent. We hypothesized women would have an attenuated vasomotor sympathetic response to static exercise, which would be further reduced during the high sex hormone [midluteal (ML)] vs. the low hormone phase [early follicular (EF)]. We measured heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in 11 women and 10 men during a cold pressor test (CPT) and static handgrip to fatigue with 2 min of postexercise circulatory arrest (PECA). HR increased during handgrip, reached its peak at fatigue, and was comparable between sexes. BP increased during handgrip and PECA where men had larger increases from baseline. Mean ± SD MSNA burst frequency (BF) during handgrip and PECA was lower in women (EF, P < 0.05), as was ΔMSNA-BF smaller (main effect, both P < 0.01). ΔTotal activity was higher in men at fatigue (EF: 632 ± 418 vs. ML: 598 ± 342 vs. men: 1,025 ± 416 a.u./min, P < 0.001 for EF and ML vs. men) and during PECA (EF: 354 ± 321 vs. ML: 341 ± 199 vs. men: 599 ± 327 a.u./min, P < 0.05 for EF and ML vs. men). During CPT, HR and MSNA responses were similar between sexes and hormone phases, confirming that central integration and the sympathetic efferent pathway was comparable between the sexes and across hormone phases. Women demonstrated a blunted metaboreflex, unaffected by sex hormones, which may be due to differences in muscle mass or fiber type and, therefore, metabolic stimulation of group IV afferents. PMID:21508291

  9. The renal nerves in chronic heart failure: efferent and afferent mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Alicia M.; Pellegrino, Peter R.; Zucker, Irving H.

    2015-01-01

    The function of the renal nerves has been an area of scientific and medical interest for many years. The recent advent of a minimally invasive catheter-based method of renal denervation has renewed excitement in understanding the afferent and efferent actions of the renal nerves in multiple diseases. While hypertension has been the focus of much this work, less attention has been given to the role of the renal nerves in the development of chronic heart failure (CHF). Recent studies from our laboratory and those of others implicate an essential role for the renal nerves in the development and progression of CHF. Using a rabbit tachycardia model of CHF and surgical unilateral renal denervation, we provide evidence for both renal efferent and afferent mechanisms in the pathogenesis of CHF. Renal denervation prevented the decrease in renal blood flow observed in CHF while also preventing increases in Angiotensin-II receptor protein in the microvasculature of the renal cortex. Renal denervation in CHF also reduced physiological markers of autonomic dysfunction including an improvement in arterial baroreflex function, heart rate variability, and decreased resting cardiac sympathetic tone. Taken together, the renal sympathetic nerves are necessary in the pathogenesis of CHF via both efferent and afferent mechanisms. Additional investigation is warranted to fully understand the role of these nerves and their role as a therapeutic target in CHF. PMID:26300788

  10. Diffusion tensor imaging with quantitative evaluation and fiber tractography of lumbar nerve roots in sciatica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Yin; Zong, Min; Xu, Xiaoquan; Zou, Yuefen; Feng, Yang; Liu, Wei; Wang, Chuanbing; Wang, Dehang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: •In the present study, we first elected ROIs corresponding to the proximal, medial, and distal levels of the lumbar foraminal zone. •The ROC analysis for FA values of distal nerves indicated a high level of reliability in the diagnosis of sciatica. •The declining trend of FA values from proximal to distal along the nerve tract may correlate with the disparity of axonal regeneration at different levels. •DTI is able to quantitatively evaluate compressed nerve roots and has a higher sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing sciatica than conventional MR imaging. •DTT enables visualization of abnormal nerve tracts, providing vivid anatomic information and probable localization of nerve compression. -- Abstract: Objective: To quantitatively evaluate nerve roots by measuring fractional anisotropy (FA) values in healthy volunteers and sciatica patients, visualize nerve roots by tractography, and compare the diagnostic efficacy between conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and DTI. Materials and methods: Seventy-five sciatica patients and thirty-six healthy volunteers underwent MR imaging using DTI. FA values for L5–S1 lumbar nerve roots were calculated at three levels from DTI images. Tractography was performed on L3–S1 nerve roots. ROC analysis was performed for FA values. Results: The lumbar nerve roots were visualized and FA values were calculated in all subjects. FA values decreased in compressed nerve roots and declined from proximal to distal along the compressed nerve tracts. Mean FA values were more sensitive and specific than MR imaging for differentiating compressed nerve roots, especially in the far lateral zone at distal nerves. Conclusions: DTI can quantitatively evaluate compressed nerve roots, and DTT enables visualization of abnormal nerve tracts, providing vivid anatomic information and localization of probable nerve compression. DTI has great potential utility for evaluating lumbar nerve compression in sciatica

  11. Diffusion tensor imaging with quantitative evaluation and fiber tractography of lumbar nerve roots in sciatica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Yin; Zong, Min; Xu, Xiaoquan; Zou, Yuefen; Feng, Yang; Liu, Wei; Wang, Chuanbing; Wang, Dehang, E-mail: njmu_wangdehang@126.com

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: •In the present study, we first elected ROIs corresponding to the proximal, medial, and distal levels of the lumbar foraminal zone. •The ROC analysis for FA values of distal nerves indicated a high level of reliability in the diagnosis of sciatica. •The declining trend of FA values from proximal to distal along the nerve tract may correlate with the disparity of axonal regeneration at different levels. •DTI is able to quantitatively evaluate compressed nerve roots and has a higher sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing sciatica than conventional MR imaging. •DTT enables visualization of abnormal nerve tracts, providing vivid anatomic information and probable localization of nerve compression. -- Abstract: Objective: To quantitatively evaluate nerve roots by measuring fractional anisotropy (FA) values in healthy volunteers and sciatica patients, visualize nerve roots by tractography, and compare the diagnostic efficacy between conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and DTI. Materials and methods: Seventy-five sciatica patients and thirty-six healthy volunteers underwent MR imaging using DTI. FA values for L5–S1 lumbar nerve roots were calculated at three levels from DTI images. Tractography was performed on L3–S1 nerve roots. ROC analysis was performed for FA values. Results: The lumbar nerve roots were visualized and FA values were calculated in all subjects. FA values decreased in compressed nerve roots and declined from proximal to distal along the compressed nerve tracts. Mean FA values were more sensitive and specific than MR imaging for differentiating compressed nerve roots, especially in the far lateral zone at distal nerves. Conclusions: DTI can quantitatively evaluate compressed nerve roots, and DTT enables visualization of abnormal nerve tracts, providing vivid anatomic information and localization of probable nerve compression. DTI has great potential utility for evaluating lumbar nerve compression in sciatica.

  12. Parkinson disease affects peripheral sensory nerves in the pharynx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Liancai; Sobotka, Stanislaw; Chen, Jingming; Su, Hungxi; Sanders, Ira; Nyirenda, Themba; Adler, Charles H; Shill, Holly A; Caviness, John N; Samanta, Johan E; Sue, Lucia I; Beach, Thomas G

    2013-07-01

    Dysphagia is very common in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) and often leads to aspiration pneumonia, the most common cause of death in PD. Current therapies are largely ineffective for dysphagia. Because pharyngeal sensation normally triggers the swallowing reflex, we examined pharyngeal sensory nerves in PD patients for Lewy pathology.Sensory nerves supplying the pharynx were excised from autopsied pharynges obtained from patients with clinically diagnosed and neuropathologically confirmed PD (n = 10) and healthy age-matched controls (n = 4). We examined the glossopharyngeal nerve (cranial nerve IX), the pharyngeal sensory branch of the vagus nerve (PSB-X), and the internal superior laryngeal nerve (ISLN) innervating the laryngopharynx. Immunohistochemistry for phosphorylated α-synuclein was used to detect Lewy pathology. Axonal α-synuclein aggregates in the pharyngeal sensory nerves were identified in all of the PD subjects but not in the controls. The density of α-synuclein-positive lesions was greater in PD patients with dysphagia versus those without dysphagia. In addition, α-synuclein-immunoreactive nerve fibers in the ISLN were much more abundant than those in cranial nerve IX and PSB-X. These findings suggest that pharyngeal sensory nerves are directly affected by pathologic processes in PD. These abnormalities may decrease pharyngeal sensation, thereby impairing swallowing and airway protective reflexes and contributing to dysphagia and aspiration.

  13. Optic Nerve Pit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Optic Nerve Pit What is optic nerve pit? An optic nerve pit is a ... may be seen in both eyes. How is optic pit diagnosed? If the pit is not affecting ...

  14. Diagnostic nerve ultrasonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeumer, T.; Grimm, A.; Schelle, T.

    2017-01-01

    For the diagnostics of nerve lesions an imaging method is necessary to visualize peripheral nerves and their surrounding structures for an etiological classification. Clinical neurological and electrophysiological investigations provide functional information about nerve lesions. The information provided by a standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination is inadequate for peripheral nerve diagnostics; however, MRI neurography is suitable but on the other hand a resource and time-consuming method. Using ultrasonography for peripheral nerve diagnostics. With ultrasonography reliable diagnostics of entrapment neuropathies and traumatic nerve lesions are possible. The use of ultrasonography for neuropathies shows that a differentiation between different forms is possible. Nerve ultrasonography is an established diagnostic tool. In addition to the clinical examination and clinical electrophysiology, structural information can be obtained, which results in a clear improvement in the diagnostics. Ultrasonography has become an integral part of the diagnostic work-up of peripheral nerve lesions in neurophysiological departments. Nerve ultrasonography is recommended for the diagnostic work-up of peripheral nerve lesions in addition to clinical and electrophysiological investigations. It should be used in the clinical work-up of entrapment neuropathies, traumatic nerve lesions and spacy-occupying lesions of nerves. (orig.) [de

  15. Deleterious effect of salusin-β in paraventricular nucleus on sympathetic activity and blood pressure via NF-κB signaling in a rat model of obesity hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaodong; Wang, Yanchun; Ren, Kuang

    2015-08-01

    The paraventricular nucleus (PVN) has been shown to play a critical role in regulating blood pressure and sympathetic activity in obesity hypertension (OH). Salusin-β is a bioactive peptide with potential roles in mediating cardiovascular activity. The study was designed to test the hypothesis that salusin-β in the PVN can modulate sympathetic activity and blood pressure in OH. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used to induce OH by a 12-week feeding of a high-fat diet (42% kcal as fat). Microinjection of salusin-β into the PVN increased the renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) in a dose-dependent manner, whereas salusin-β antibody elicited significant decreases in RSNA, MAP and HR, and abolished the effects of salusin-β only in the OH rats. As expected, the OH rats had a higher norepinephrine level, which was further increased by salusin-β. Furthermore, salusin-β in the PVN accelerated the nuclear translocation of the p65 subunit of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-KB) and the degradation of IKB-α (an endogenous inhibitor of NF-KB). Pretreatment with pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (an exogenous inhibitor of NF-KB) decreased RSNA, MAP and HR, and abolished the effects of salusin-β in the PVN in the OH rats. We concluded that salusin-β in the PVN markedly increased sympathetic outflow and blood pressure in diet-induced OH rats via NF-κB signaling.

  16. Limb venous distension evokes sympathetic activation via stimulation of the limb afferents in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jian; McQuillan, Patrick M.; Blaha, Cheryl; Kunselman, Allen R.

    2012-01-01

    We have recently shown that a saline infusion in the veins of an arterially occluded human forearm evokes a systemic response with increases in muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and blood pressure. In this report, we examined whether this response was a reflex that was due to venous distension. Blood pressure (Finometer), heart rate, and MSNA (microneurography) were assessed in 14 young healthy subjects. In the saline trial (n = 14), 5% forearm volume normal saline was infused in an arterially occluded arm. To block afferents in the limb, 90 mg of lidocaine were added to the same volume of saline in six subjects during a separate visit. To examine whether interstitial perfusion of normal saline alone induced the responses, the same volume of albumin solution (5% concentration) was infused in 11 subjects in separate studies. Lidocaine abolished the MSNA and blood pressure responses seen with saline infusion. Moreover, compared with the saline infusion, an albumin infusion induced a larger (MSNA: Δ14.3 ± 2.7 vs. Δ8.5 ± 1.3 bursts/min, P blood pressure responses. These data suggest that venous distension activates afferent nerves and evokes a powerful systemic sympathoexcitatory reflex. We posit that the venous distension plays an important role in evoking the autonomic adjustments seen with postural stress in human subjects. PMID:22707559

  17. Transient facial nerve palsy after occipital nerve block: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Lauren; Loder, Elizabeth; Rizzoli, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Occipital nerve blocks are commonly performed to treat a variety of headache syndromes and are generally believed to be safe and well tolerated. We report the case of an otherwise healthy 24-year-old woman with left side-locked occipital, parietal, and temporal pain who was diagnosed with probable occipital neuralgia. She developed complete left facial nerve palsy within minutes of blockade of the left greater and lesser occipital nerves with a solution of bupivicaine and triamcinolone. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain with gadolinium contrast showed no abnormalities, and symptoms had completely resolved 4-5 hours later. Unintended spread of the anesthetic solution along tissue planes seems the most likely explanation for this adverse event. An aberrant course of the facial nerve or connections between the facial and occipital nerves also might have played a role, along with the patient's prone position and the use of a relatively large injection volume of a potent anesthetic. Clinicians should be aware that temporary facial nerve palsy is a possible complication of occipital nerve block. © 2014 American Headache Society.

  18. Effect of diabetic retinopathy and panretinal photocoagulation on retinal nerve fiber layer and optic nerve appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Michele C; Tanimoto, Suzana A; Furlani, Bruno A; Lum, Brent; Pinto, Luciano M; Eliason, David; Prata, Tiago S; Brandt, James D; Morse, Lawrence S; Park, Susanna S; Melo, Luiz A S

    2009-07-01

    To determine if panretinal photocoagulation (PRP) alters retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness and optic nerve appearance. Patients with diabetes who did and did not undergo PRP and nondiabetic control subjects were enrolled in a prospective study. Participants underwent optical coherence tomography of the peripapillary retina and optic nerve. Stereoscopic optic nerve photographs were graded in a masked fashion. Ninety-four eyes of 48 healthy individuals, 89 eyes of 55 diabetic patients who did not undergo PRP, and 37 eyes of 24 subjects with diabetes who underwent PRP were included in this study. Eyes that had been treated with PRP had thinner peripapillary RNFL compared with the other groups; this was statistically significantly different in the inferior (P = .004) and nasal (P = .003) regions. Optic nerve cupping did not increase with severity of disease classification, but the proportion of optic nerves graded as suspicious for glaucoma or as having nonglaucomatous optic neuropathy did (P = .008). These grading categories were associated with thinner RNFL measurements. Diabetic eyes that have been treated with PRP have thinner RNFL than nondiabetic eyes. Optic nerves in eyes treated with PRP are more likely to be graded as abnormal, but their appearance is not necessarily glaucomatous and may be related to thinning of the RNFL.

  19. Intraoperative cranial nerve monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, C Michel

    2004-03-01

    The purpose of intraoperative monitoring is to preserve function and prevent injury to the nervous system at a time when clinical examination is not possible. Cranial nerves are delicate structures and are susceptible to damage by mechanical trauma or ischemia during intracranial and extracranial surgery. A number of reliable electrodiagnostic techniques, including nerve conduction studies, electromyography, and the recording of evoked potentials have been adapted to the study of cranial nerve function during surgery. A growing body of evidence supports the utility of intraoperative monitoring of cranial nerve nerves during selected surgical procedures.

  20. Optic nerve oxygenation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefánsson, Einar; Pedersen, Daniella Bach; Jensen, Peter Koch

    2005-01-01

    The oxygen tension of the optic nerve is regulated by the intraocular pressure and systemic blood pressure, the resistance in the blood vessels and oxygen consumption of the tissue. The oxygen tension is autoregulated and moderate changes in intraocular pressure or blood pressure do not affect...... the optic nerve oxygen tension. If the intraocular pressure is increased above 40 mmHg or the ocular perfusion pressure decreased below 50 mmHg the autoregulation is overwhelmed and the optic nerve becomes hypoxic. A disturbance in oxidative metabolism in the cytochromes of the optic nerve can be seen...... at similar levels of perfusion pressure. The levels of perfusion pressure that lead to optic nerve hypoxia in the laboratory correspond remarkably well to the levels that increase the risk of glaucomatous optic nerve atrophy in human glaucoma patients. The risk for progressive optic nerve atrophy in human...

  1. Peripheral Nerve Dysfunction in Middle-Aged Subjects Born with Thalidomide Embryopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Nicotra

    Full Text Available Phocomelia is an extremely rare congenital malformation that emerged as one extreme of a range of defects resulting from in utero exposure to thalidomide. Individuals with thalidomide embryopathy (TE have reported developing symptoms suggestive of peripheral nervous system dysfunction in the mal-developed limbs in later life.Case control study comparing TE subjects with upper limb anomalies and neuropathic symptoms with healthy controls using standard neurophysiological testing. Other causes of a peripheral neuropathy were excluded prior to assessment.Clinical examination of 17 subjects with TE (aged 50.4±1.3 [mean±standard deviation] years, 10 females and 17 controls (37.9±9.0 years; 8 females demonstrated features of upper limb compressive neuropathy in three-quarters of subjects. Additionally there were examination findings suggestive of mild sensory neuropathy in the lower limbs (n = 1, L5 radiculopathic sensory impairment (n = 1 and cervical myelopathy (n = 1. In TE there were electrophysiological changes consistent with a median large fibre neuropathic abnormality (mean compound muscle action potential difference -6.3 mV ([-9.3, -3.3], p = 0.0002 ([95% CI], p-value and reduced sympathetic skin response amplitudes (-0.8 mV ([-1.5, -0.2], p = 0.0089 in the affected upper limbs. In the lower limbs there was evidence of sural nerve dysfunction (sensory nerve action potential -5.8 μV ([-10.7, -0.8], p = 0.0232 and impaired warm perception thresholds (+3.0°C ([0.6, 5.4], p = 0.0169.We found a range of clinical features relevant to individuals with TE beyond upper limb compressive neuropathies supporting the need for a detailed neurological examination to exclude other treatable pathologies. The electrophysiological evidence of large and small fibre axonal nerve dysfunction in symptomatic and asymptomatic limbs may be a result of the original insult and merits further investigation.

  2. Sex Comparisons in Muscle Sympathetic Nerve Activity and Arterial Pressure Oscillations During Progressive Central Hypovolemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    underwent a urine pregnancy test within 24 h before experimentation and were excluded if pregnant. Subjects were instructed to maintain their normal sleep...during return to one gravity. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 28:45–52. Convertino, V. A. 1998a. Gender differences in autonomic function associated with blood

  3. Effect of cortisol on muscle sympathetic nerve activity in Pima Indians and Caucasians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vozarova, Barbora; Weyer, Christian; Snitker, Soren

    2003-01-01

    . Although glucocorticoids inhibit SNS activity, Pima Indians are not hypercortisolemic compared with Caucasians. This does not exclude the possibility that the SNS is more responsive to an inhibitory effect of cortisol in the former than in the latter group. We measured fasting plasma ACTH and cortisol...... (metyrapone) followed by cortisol replacement (hydrocortisone) on plasma ACTH, cortisol, and MSNA. There were no ethnic differences in fasting plasma ACTH or cortisol, but MSNA adjusted for percent body fat was lower in Pimas than in Caucasians (P cortisol...... to a tonic inhibitory effect of cortisol. However, an acute release of cortisol is likely to more effectively contain sympathoexcitation during stress in Pima Indians than in Caucasians, which may be an important mechanism of cardioprotection in this Native American population....

  4. Transient sixth cranial nerve palsy following orgasm abrogated by treatment with sympathomimetic amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Check, J H; Katsoff, B

    2014-01-01

    To describe a unique disorder where a transient 6th nerve palsy leading to diploplia following orgasm developed in a 28-year-old woman. This coincided with a weight gain of 100 pounds in a short time without a corresponding change in dietary habits. She was treated with the sympathomimetic amine dextroamphetamine sulfate. Indeed she immediately responded to treatment with dextroamphetamine sulfate sustained release capsules with complete resolution of the episodes of 6th nerve palsy following orgasm. The main importance of this case is that it suggests that orgasm causes a transient generalized decrease in sympathetic nervous system activity and that the achievement of an orgasm may require an increase in the sympathetic nervous system activity.

  5. Scintigraphic assessment of cardiac sympathetic innervation with I-123-metaiodobenzylguanidine in cardiomyopathy. Special reference to cardiac arrhythmia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asano, Takahisa; Otsuka, Nobuaki; Sone, Teruki; Mimura, Hiroaki; Yanagimoto, Shinichi; Tomomitsu, Tatsushi; Fukunaga, Masao [Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan); Morita, Koichi

    1999-07-01

    Cardiac sympathetic imagings with I-123-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) were carried out in 5 cases with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), 26 cases with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), and 4 cases without cardiac disease as a control to assess cardiac sympathetic innervation qualitatively and quantitatively, and to clarify the relation of MIBG accumulation to arrhythmia. MIBG scintigraphy was performed at 15 min. (early image) and 4 hr. (delayed image) after intravenous injection of MIBG 111 MBq. The MIBG uptake ratio of mediastinum (H/M) and the cardiac washout rate (WR) from early to delayed images were calculated. On both early and delayed SPECTs, MIBG uptake was assessed by defect scores (DSs). Regarding the cases with HCM, the MIBG uptake ratio, WR, and DS were also compared in cases with and without arrhythmia. In DCM, the MIBG uptake on delayed SPECT was markedly low, the H/M ratio was significantly lower, and the DS was significantly higher than in the control (all p<0.05). As for the WR, there was no significant difference between HCM, DCM and the control. In HCM, significantly reduced MIBG uptake was observed in cases with ventricular techycardia (VT) and in cases with atrial fibrillation (Af), as compared with cases without arrhythmia (all p<0.05). There results suggest that MIBG scintigraphy might be a useful tool in the assessment of cardiac sympathetic abnormalities in cardiomyopathy, especially in cases with arrhythmia. (author)

  6. Cervical Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potential in Hypoglossal Nerve Schwannoma: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekaran, Aravind Kumar; Savardekar, Amey Rajan; Shivashankar, Nagaraja Rao

    2018-02-01

    Schwannoma of the hypoglossal nerve is rare. This case report documents an atypical abnormality of the cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP) in a patient with schwannoma of the hypoglossal nerve. The observed abnormality was attributed to the proximity of the hypoglossal nerve to the spinal accessory nerve in the medullary cistern and base of the skull. To report cVEMP abnormality in a patient with hypoglossal nerve schwannoma and provide an anatomical correlation for this abnormality. Case report. A 44-yr-old woman. Pure-tone and speech audiometry, tympanometry, acoustic stapedial reflex, auditory brainstem response, and cVEMP testing were performed. The audiological test results were normal except for the absence of cVEMP on the lesion side (right). A cVEMP abnormality indicating a compromised spinal accessory nerve was observed in a patient with hypoglossal nerve schwannoma. This case report highlights the importance of recording cVEMP in relevant neurological conditions and provides clinical proof for the involvement of the spinal accessory nerve in the vestibulocollic reflex pathway. American Academy of Audiology

  7. Inflammation in CRPS: role of the sympathetic supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlereth, Tanja; Drummond, Peter D; Birklein, Frank

    2014-05-01

    Acute Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) is associated with signs of inflammation such as increased skin temperature, oedema, skin colour changes and pain. Pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-1beta, IL-6) are up-regulated, whereas anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-10) are diminished. Adaptive immunity seems to be involved in CRPS pathophysiology as many patients have autoantibodies directed against β2 adrenergic and muscarinic-2 receptors. In an animal tibial fracture model changes in the innate immune response such as up-regulation of keratinocytes are also found. Additionally, CRPS is accompanied by increased neurogenic inflammation which depends mainly on neuropeptides such as CGRP and Substance P. Besides inflammatory signs, sympathetic nervous system involvement in CRPS results in cool skin, increased sweating and sympathetically-maintained pain. The norepinephrine level is lower in the CRPS-affected than contralateral limb, but sympathetic sprouting and up-regulation of alpha-adrenoceptors may result in an adrenergic supersensitivity. The sympathetic nervous system and inflammation interact: norepinephrine influences the immune system and the production of cytokines. There is substantial evidence that this interaction contributes to the pathophysiology and clinical presentation of CRPS, but this interaction is not straightforward. How inflammation in CRPS might be exaggerated by sympathetic transmitters requires further elucidation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Urine - abnormal color

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003139.htm Urine - abnormal color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine ...

  9. Tooth - abnormal colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003065.htm Tooth - abnormal colors To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Abnormal tooth color is any color other than white to yellowish- ...

  10. Abnormal uterine bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anovulatory bleeding; Abnormal uterine bleeding - hormonal; Polymenorrhea - dysfunctional uterine bleeding ... ACOG committee opinion no. 557: Management of acute abnormal uterine bleeding in nonpregnant reproductive-aged women. Reaffirmed 2015. www. ...

  11. Imaging the trigeminal nerve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, Alexandra; Casselman, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Of all cranial nerves, the trigeminal nerve is the largest and the most widely distributed in the supra-hyoid neck. It provides sensory input from the face and motor innervation to the muscles of mastication. In order to adequately image the full course of the trigeminal nerve and its main branches a detailed knowledge of neuroanatomy and imaging technique is required. Although the main trunk of the trigeminal nerve is consistently seen on conventional brain studies, high-resolution tailored imaging is mandatory to depict smaller nerve branches and subtle pathologic processes. Increasing developments in imaging technique made possible isotropic sub-milimetric images and curved reconstructions of cranial nerves and their branches and led to an increasing recognition of symptomatic trigeminal neuropathies. Whereas MRI has a higher diagnostic yield in patients with trigeminal neuropathy, CT is still required to demonstrate the bony anatomy of the skull base and is the modality of choice in the context of traumatic injury to the nerve. Imaging of the trigeminal nerve is particularly cumbersome as its long course from the brainstem nuclei to the peripheral branches and its rich anastomotic network impede, in most cases, a topographic approach. Therefore, except in cases of classic trigeminal neuralgia, in which imaging studies can be tailored to the root entry zone, the full course of the trigeminal nerve has to be imaged. This article provides an update in the most recent advances on MR imaging technique and a segmental imaging approach to the most common pathologic processes affecting the trigeminal nerve.

  12. Imaging the trigeminal nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Alexandra [Radiology Department, Instituto Portugues de Oncologia Francisco Gentil, Centro de Lisboa, Rua Prof. Lima Basto, 1093, Lisboa (Portugal)], E-mail: borgalexandra@gmail.com; Casselman, Jan [Department of Radiology, A. Z. St Jan Brugge and A. Z. St Augustinus Antwerpen Hospitals (Belgium)

    2010-05-15

    Of all cranial nerves, the trigeminal nerve is the largest and the most widely distributed in the supra-hyoid neck. It provides sensory input from the face and motor innervation to the muscles of mastication. In order to adequately image the full course of the trigeminal nerve and its main branches a detailed knowledge of neuroanatomy and imaging technique is required. Although the main trunk of the trigeminal nerve is consistently seen on conventional brain studies, high-resolution tailored imaging is mandatory to depict smaller nerve branches and subtle pathologic processes. Increasing developments in imaging technique made possible isotropic sub-milimetric images and curved reconstructions of cranial nerves and their branches and led to an increasing recognition of symptomatic trigeminal neuropathies. Whereas MRI has a higher diagnostic yield in patients with trigeminal neuropathy, CT is still required to demonstrate the bony anatomy of the skull base and is the modality of choice in the context of traumatic injury to the nerve. Imaging of the trigeminal nerve is particularly cumbersome as its long course from the brainstem nuclei to the peripheral branches and its rich anastomotic network impede, in most cases, a topographic approach. Therefore, except in cases of classic trigeminal neuralgia, in which imaging studies can be tailored to the root entry zone, the full course of the trigeminal nerve has to be imaged. This article provides an update in the most recent advances on MR imaging technique and a segmental imaging approach to the most common pathologic processes affecting the trigeminal nerve.

  13. Remodelling of cardiac sympathetic re-innervation with thoracic spinal cord stimulation improves left ventricular function in a porcine model of heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Song-Yan; Liu, Yuan; Zuo, Mingliang; Zhang, Yuelin; Yue, Wensheng; Au, Ka-Wing; Lai, Wing-Hon; Wu, Yangsong; Shuto, Chika; Chen, Peter; Siu, Chung-Wah; Schwartz, Peter J; Tse, Hung-Fat

    2015-12-01

    Thoracic spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has been shown to improve left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in heart failure (HF). Nevertheless, the optimal duration (intermittent vs. continuous) of stimulation and the mechanisms of action remain unclear. We performed chronic thoracic SCS at the level of T1-T3 (50 Hz, pulse width 0.2 ms) in 30 adult pigs with HF induced by myocardial infarction and rapid ventricular pacing for 4 weeks. All the animals were treated with daily oral metoprolol succinate (25 mg) plus ramipril (2.5 mg), and randomized to a control group (n = 10), intermittent SCS (4 h ×3, n = 10) or continuous SCS (24 h, n = 10) for 10 weeks. Serial measurements of LVEF and +dP/dt and serum levels of norepinephrine and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) were measured. After sacrifice, immunohistological studies of myocardial sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve sprouting and innervation were performed. Echocardiogram revealed a significant increase in LVEF and +dP/dt at 10 weeks in both the intermittent and continuous SCS group compared with controls (P < 0.05). In both SCS groups, there was diffuse sympathetic nerve sprouting over the infarct, peri-infarct, and normal regions compared with only the peri-infarct and infarct regions in the control group. In addition, sympathetic innervation at the peri-infarct and infarct regions was increased following SCS, but decreased in the control group. Myocardium norepinephrine spillover and serum BNP at 10 weeks was significantly decreased only in the continuous SCS group (P < 0.05). In a porcine model of HF, SCS induces significant remodelling of cardiac sympathetic innervation over the peri-infarct and infarct regions and is associated with improved LV function and reduced myocardial norepinephrine spillover. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Vascular Mural Cells Promote Noradrenergic Differentiation of Embryonic Sympathetic Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Fortuna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The sympathetic nervous system controls smooth muscle tone and heart rate in the cardiovascular system. Postganglionic sympathetic neurons (SNs develop in close proximity to the dorsal aorta (DA and innervate visceral smooth muscle targets. Here, we use the zebrafish embryo to ask whether the DA is required for SN development. We show that noradrenergic (NA differentiation of SN precursors temporally coincides with vascular mural cell (VMC recruitment to the DA and vascular maturation. Blocking vascular maturation inhibits VMC recruitment and blocks NA differentiation of SN precursors. Inhibition of platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR signaling prevents VMC differentiation and also blocks NA differentiation of SN precursors. NA differentiation is normal in cloche mutants that are devoid of endothelial cells but have VMCs. Thus, PDGFR-mediated mural cell recruitment mediates neurovascular interactions between the aorta and sympathetic precursors and promotes their noradrenergic differentiation.

  15. Vascular Mural Cells Promote Noradrenergic Differentiation of Embryonic Sympathetic Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuna, Vitor; Pardanaud, Luc; Brunet, Isabelle; Ola, Roxana; Ristori, Emma; Santoro, Massimo M; Nicoli, Stefania; Eichmann, Anne

    2015-06-23

    The sympathetic nervous system controls smooth muscle tone and heart rate in the cardiovascular system. Postganglionic sympathetic neurons (SNs) develop in close proximity to the dorsal aorta (DA) and innervate visceral smooth muscle targets. Here, we use the zebrafish embryo to ask whether the DA is required for SN development. We show that noradrenergic (NA) differentiation of SN precursors temporally coincides with vascular mural cell (VMC) recruitment to the DA and vascular maturation. Blocking vascular maturation inhibits VMC recruitment and blocks NA differentiation of SN precursors. Inhibition of platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) signaling prevents VMC differentiation and also blocks NA differentiation of SN precursors. NA differentiation is normal in cloche mutants that are devoid of endothelial cells but have VMCs. Thus, PDGFR-mediated mural cell recruitment mediates neurovascular interactions between the aorta and sympathetic precursors and promotes their noradrenergic differentiation. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Renal Nerves in Chronic Heart Failure: Afferent and Efferent Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Marie Schiller

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The function of the renal nerves has been an area of scientific and medical interest for many years. The recent advent of a minimally invasive catheter-based method of renal denervation has renewed excitement in understanding the afferent and efferent actions of the renal nerves in multiple diseases. While hypertension has been the focus of much this work, less attention has been given to the role of the renal nerves in the development of chronic heart failure (CHF. Recent studies from our laboratory and those of others implicate an essential role for the renal nerves in the development and progression of CHF. Using a rabbit tachycardia model of CHF and surgical unilateral renal denervation, we provide evidence for both renal efferent and afferent mechanisms in the pathogenesis of CHF. Renal denervation prevented the decrease in renal blood flow observed in CHF while also preventing increases in Angiotensin-II receptor protein in the microvasculature of the renal cortex. Renal denervation in CHF also reduced physiological markers of autonomic dysfunction including an improvement in arterial baroreflex function, heart rate variability, and decreased resting cardiac sympathetic tone. Taken together, the renal sympathetic nerves are necessary in the pathogenesis of CHF via both efferent and afferent

  17. Delineating neurotrophin-3 dependent signaling pathways underlying sympathetic axon growth along intermediate targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeler, Austin B; Suo, Dong; Park, Juyeon; Deppmann, Christopher D

    2017-07-01

    Postganglionic sympathetic neurons detect vascular derived neurotrophin 3 (NT3) via the axonally expressed receptor tyrosine kinase, TrkA, to promote chemo-attraction along intermediate targets. Once axons arrive to their final target, a structurally related neurotrophic factor, nerve growth factor (NGF), also acts through TrkA to promote final target innervation. Does TrkA signal differently at these different locales? We previously found that Coronin-1 is upregulated in sympathetic neurons upon exposure to NGF, thereby endowing the NGF-TrkA complex with new signaling capabilities (i.e. calcium signaling), which dampens axon growth and branching. Based on the notion that axons do not express functional levels of Coronin-1 prior to final target innervation, we developed an in vitro model for axon growth and branching along intermediate targets using Coro1a -/- neurons grown in NT3. We found that, similar to NGF-TrkA, NT3-TrkA is capable of inducing MAPK and PI3K in the presence or absence of Coronin-1. However, unlike NGF, NT3 does not induce calcium release from intracellular stores. Using a combination of pharmacology, knockout neurons and in vitro functional assays, we suggest that the NT3-TrkA complex uses Ras/MAPK and/or PI3K-AKT signaling to induce axon growth and inhibit axon branching along intermediate targets. However, in the presence of Coronin-1, these signaling pathways lose their ability to impact NT3 dependent axon growth or branching. This is consistent with a role for Coronin-1 as a molecular switch for axon behavior and suggests that Coronin-1 suppresses NT3 dependent axon behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Participation of the hypothalamus-hypophysis axis in the sympathetic activation of human obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, G; Seravalle, G; Dell'Oro, R; Turri, C; Pasqualinotto, L; Colombo, M; Mancia, G

    2001-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that hypothalamic and hypophyseal factors are involved in the acute sympathoexcitation induced by a variety of laboratory stimuli. Whether a chronic condition of sympathetic activation, such as that characterizing human obesity, is also dependent on these factors has never been investigated. In 40 normotensive obese subjects ([mean+/-SEM] age, 39.1+/-0.8 years) we measured blood pressure (Finapres), heart rate (ECG), and postganglionic muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) (microneurography). In 20 subjects measurements were repeated, according to a double-blind randomized sequence, after a midnight oral dose of dexamethasone (1 mg) (n=10) or placebo (n=10), while in the remaining subjects they were performed again after 1 week of a daily evening oral administration of 1 mg of dexamethasone (n=10) or placebo (n=10). The same protocol was performed in 16 age-matched lean normotensives. In both groups acute dexamethasone administration markedly reduced plasma cortisol (radioimmunoassay), without affecting hemodynamic and neural variables. In contrast to the acute administration, in obese subjects prolonged dexamethasone administration, although not affecting blood pressure and heart rate, significantly reduced both plasma cortisol (from 16.0+/-1.3 to 0.7+/-0.1 microg/dL; P<0.01) and MSNA (from 59.5+/-2.8 to 39.6+/-2.9 bursts per 100 heartbeats; P<0.02; -33.1+/-4.1%). This was not the case in lean subjects, in which the dexamethasone-induced reduction in plasma cortisol was associated with a slight and nonsignificant MSNA decrease. In both lean and obese subjects, placebo administration caused no change in any variable. Thus, prolonged dexamethasone administration exerts in obese subjects marked sympathoinhibitory effects that are not detectable in lean individuals. This suggests that hypothalamic and hypophyseal factors substantially contribute to the sympathoexcitation of obesity.

  19. Conjoined lumbosacral nerve roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyoshima, Kazumitsu; Nishiura, Iwao; Koyama, Tsunemaro

    1986-01-01

    Several kinds of the lumbosacral nerve root anomalies have already been recognized, and the conjoined nerve roots is the most common among them. It does not make symptoms by itself, but if there is a causation of neural entrapment, for example, disc herniation, lateral recessus stenosis, spondylolisthesis, etc., so called ''biradicular syndrome'' should occur. Anomalies of the lumbosacral nerve roots, if not properly recognized, may lead to injury of these nerves during operation of the lumbar spine. Recently, the chance of finding these anomalous roots has been increased more and more with the use of metrizamide myelography and metrizamide CT, because of the improvement of the opacification of nerve roots. We describe the findings of the anomalous roots as revealed by these two methods. They demonstrate two nerve roots running parallel and the asymmetrical wide root sleeve. Under such circumstances, it is important to distinguish the anomalous roots from the normal ventral and dorsal roots. (author)

  20. Role of sympathetic nervous system and neuropeptides in obesity hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.E. Hall

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is the most common cause of human essential hypertension in most industrialized countries. Although the precise mechanisms of obesity hypertension are not fully understood, considerable evidence suggests that excess renal sodium reabsorption and a hypertensive shift of pressure natriuresis play a major role. Sympathetic activation appears to mediate at least part of the obesity-induced sodium retention and hypertension since adrenergic blockade or renal denervation markedly attenuates these changes. Recent observations suggest that leptin and its multiple interactions with neuropeptides in the hypothalamus may link excess weight gain with increased sympathetic activity. Leptin is produced mainly in adipocytes and is believed to regulate energy balance by acting on the hypothalamus to reduce food intake and to increase energy expenditure via sympathetic activation. Short-term administration of leptin into the cerebral ventricles increases renal sympathetic activity, and long-term leptin infusion at rates that mimic plasma concentrations found in obesity raises arterial pressure and heart rate via adrenergic activation in non-obese rodents. Transgenic mice overexpressing leptin also develop hypertension. Acute studies suggest that the renal sympathetic effects of leptin may depend on interactions with other neurochemical pathways in the hypothalamus, including the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4-R. However, the role of this pathway in mediating the long-term effects of leptin on blood pressure is unclear. Also, it is uncertain whether there is resistance to the chronic renal sympathetic and blood pressure effects of leptin in obese subjects. In addition, leptin also has other cardiovascular and renal actions, such as stimulation of nitric oxide formation and improvement of insulin sensitivity, which may tend to reduce blood pressure in some conditions. Although the role of these mechanisms in human obesity has not been elucidated, this

  1. Nitric Oxide Orchestrates a Power-Law Modulation of Sympathetic Firing Behaviors in Neonatal Rat Spinal Cords

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Kuei Su

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is a diffusible gas and has multifarious effects on both pre- and postsynaptic events. As a consequence of complex excitatory and inhibitory integrations, NO effects on neuronal activities are heterogeneous. Using in vitro preparations of neonatal rats that retain the splanchnic sympathetic nerves and the thoracic spinal cord as an experimental model, we report here that either enhancement or attenuation of NO production in the neonatal rat spinal cords could increase, decrease, or not change the spontaneous firing behaviors recorded from splanchnic sympathetic single fibers. To elucidate the mathematical features of NO-mediated heterogeneous responses, the ratios of changes in firing were plotted against their original firing rates. In log-log plots, a linear data distribution demonstrated that NO-mediated heterogeneity in sympathetic firing responses was well described by a power function. Selective antagonists were applied to test if glycinergic, GABAergic, glutamatergic, and cholinergic neurotransmission in the spinal cord are involved in NO-mediated power-law firing modulations (plFM. NO-mediated plFM diminished in the presence of mecamylamine (an open-channel blocker of nicotinic cholinergic receptors, indicating that endogenous nicotinic receptor activities were essential for plFM. Applications of strychnine (a glycine receptor blocker, gabazine (a GABAA receptor blocker, or kynurenate (a broad-spectrum ionotropic glutamate receptor blocker also caused plFM. However, strychnine- or kynurenate-induced plFM was diminished by L-NAME (an NO synthase inhibitor pretreatments, indicating that the involvements of glycine or ionotropic glutamate receptor activities in plFM were secondary to NO signaling. To recapitulate the arithmetic natures of the plFM, the plFM were simulated by firing changes in two components: a step increment and a fractional reduction of their basal firing activities. Ionotropic glutamate receptor

  2. [Facial nerve neurinomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokołowski, Jacek; Bartoszewicz, Robert; Morawski, Krzysztof; Jamróz, Barbara; Niemczyk, Kazimierz

    2013-01-01

    Evaluation of diagnostic, surgical technique, treatment results facial nerve neurinomas and its comparison with literature was the main purpose of this study. Seven cases of patients (2005-2011) with facial nerve schwannomas were included to retrospective analysis in the Department of Otolaryngology, Medical University of Warsaw. All patients were assessed with history of the disease, physical examination, hearing tests, computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging, electronystagmography. Cases were observed in the direction of potential complications and recurrences. Neurinoma of the facial nerve occurred in the vertical segment (n=2), facial nerve geniculum (n=1) and the internal auditory canal (n=4). The symptoms observed in patients were analyzed: facial nerve paresis (n=3), hearing loss (n=2), dizziness (n=1). Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography allowed to confirm the presence of the tumor and to assess its staging. Schwannoma of the facial nerve has been surgically removed using the middle fossa approach (n=5) and by antromastoidectomy (n=2). Anatomical continuity of the facial nerve was achieved in 3 cases. In the twelve months after surgery, facial nerve paresis was rated at level II-III° HB. There was no recurrence of the tumor in radiological observation. Facial nerve neurinoma is a rare tumor. Currently surgical techniques allow in most cases, the radical removing of the lesion and reconstruction of the VII nerve function. The rate of recurrence is low. A tumor of the facial nerve should be considered in the differential diagnosis of nerve VII paresis. Copyright © 2013 Polish Otorhinolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z.o.o. All rights reserved.

  3. Diffusion tensor imaging with quantitative evaluation and fiber tractography of lumbar nerve roots in sciatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yin; Zong, Min; Xu, Xiaoquan; Zou, Yuefen; Feng, Yang; Liu, Wei; Wang, Chuanbing; Wang, Dehang

    2015-04-01

    To quantitatively evaluate nerve roots by measuring fractional anisotropy (FA) values in healthy volunteers and sciatica patients, visualize nerve roots by tractography, and compare the diagnostic efficacy between conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and DTI. Seventy-five sciatica patients and thirty-six healthy volunteers underwent MR imaging using DTI. FA values for L5-S1 lumbar nerve roots were calculated at three levels from DTI images. Tractography was performed on L3-S1 nerve roots. ROC analysis was performed for FA values. The lumbar nerve roots were visualized and FA values were calculated in all subjects. FA values decreased in compressed nerve roots and declined from proximal to distal along the compressed nerve tracts. Mean FA values were more sensitive and specific than MR imaging for differentiating compressed nerve roots, especially in the far lateral zone at distal nerves. DTI can quantitatively evaluate compressed nerve roots, and DTT enables visualization of abnormal nerve tracts, providing vivid anatomic information and localization of probable nerve compression. DTI has great potential utility for evaluating lumbar nerve compression in sciatica. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of symptomatic nerve root of patients with lumbar disk herniation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eguchi, Yawara; Ohtori, Seiji; Yamashita, Masaomi; Yamauchi, Kazuyo; Suzuki, Munetaka; Orita, Sumihisa; Kamoda, Hiroto; Arai, Gen; Ishikawa, Tetsuhiro; Miyagi, Masayuki; Ochiai, Nobuyasu; Kishida, Shunji; Inoue, Gen; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Masuda, Yoshitada; Ochi, Shigehiro; Kikawa, Takashi; Toyone, Tomoaki; Takaso, Masashi; Aoki, Yasuchika

    2011-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) can provide valuable structural information that may be useful for evaluating pathological changes of the lumbar nerve root. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) neurography has recently been introduced as an alternative way to visualize nerves, but to date, quantitative DWI and MR neurography have not been applied to evaluate the pathology of lumbar nerve roots. Our purpose was to visualize lumbar nerve roots and to analyze their morphology by MR neurography, and to measure the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of lumbar nerve roots compressed by herniated disks using 1.5-T MR imaging. Ten consecutive patients (median age, 48.0 and range, 20-72 years) with monoradicular symptoms caused by a lumbar herniated disk and 14 healthy volunteers were studied. Regions of interests were placed on the lumbar roots at dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and distal spinal nerves on DWI to quantify mean ADC values. The spinal nerve roots were also visualized by MR neurography. In the patients, mean ADC values were significantly greater in the compressed DRG and distal spinal nerves than in intact nerves. MR neurography also showed abnormalities such as nerve swelling at and below the compression in the symptomatic nerve root. Increased ADC values were considered to be because of edema and Wallerian degeneration of compressed nerve roots. DWI is a potential tool for analysis of the pathophysiology of lumbar nerve roots compressed by herniated disks. (orig.)

  5. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of symptomatic nerve root of patients with lumbar disk herniation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eguchi, Yawara; Ohtori, Seiji; Yamashita, Masaomi; Yamauchi, Kazuyo; Suzuki, Munetaka; Orita, Sumihisa; Kamoda, Hiroto; Arai, Gen; Ishikawa, Tetsuhiro; Miyagi, Masayuki; Ochiai, Nobuyasu; Kishida, Shunji; Inoue, Gen; Takahashi, Kazuhisa [Chiba University, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba (Japan); Masuda, Yoshitada; Ochi, Shigehiro; Kikawa, Takashi [Chiba University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Chiba (Japan); Toyone, Tomoaki [Teikyo University Chiba Medical Center, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Chiba (Japan); Takaso, Masashi [Kitasato University, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, School of Medicine, Sagamihara City, Kanagawa (Japan); Aoki, Yasuchika [Chiba Rosai Hospital, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Ichihara, Chiba (Japan)

    2011-09-15

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) can provide valuable structural information that may be useful for evaluating pathological changes of the lumbar nerve root. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) neurography has recently been introduced as an alternative way to visualize nerves, but to date, quantitative DWI and MR neurography have not been applied to evaluate the pathology of lumbar nerve roots. Our purpose was to visualize lumbar nerve roots and to analyze their morphology by MR neurography, and to measure the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of lumbar nerve roots compressed by herniated disks using 1.5-T MR imaging. Ten consecutive patients (median age, 48.0 and range, 20-72 years) with monoradicular symptoms caused by a lumbar herniated disk and 14 healthy volunteers were studied. Regions of interests were placed on the lumbar roots at dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and distal spinal nerves on DWI to quantify mean ADC values. The spinal nerve roots were also visualized by MR neurography. In the patients, mean ADC values were significantly greater in the compressed DRG and distal spinal nerves than in intact nerves. MR neurography also showed abnormalities such as nerve swelling at and below the compression in the symptomatic nerve root. Increased ADC values were considered to be because of edema and Wallerian degeneration of compressed nerve roots. DWI is a potential tool for analysis of the pathophysiology of lumbar nerve roots compressed by herniated disks. (orig.)

  6. Central nervous system abnormalities in vaginismus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasson, Emma; Graziottin, Alessandra; Priori, Alberto; Dall'ora, Elisa; Didonè, Giuseppe; Garbin, Emilio Luigi; Vicentini, Silvana; Bertolasi, Laura

    2009-01-01

    To investigate possible altered CNS excitability in vaginismus. In 10 patients with primary idiopathic lifelong vaginismus, 10 with vulvar vestibulitis syndrome accompanied by vaginismus and healthy controls we recorded EMG activity from the levator ani (LA) and external anal sphincter (EAS) muscles and tested bulbocavernosus reflex (BCR). Pudendal-nerve somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) were tested after a single stimulus. Pudendal-nerve SEP recovery functions were assessed using a paired conditioning-test paradigm at interstimulus intervals (ISIs) of 5, 20 and 40ms. EMG in patients showed muscular hyperactivity at rest and reduced inhibition during straining. The BCR polysynaptic R2 had larger amplitude (pvaginismus. The neurophysiological abnormalities in patients with vaginismus indicate concomitant CNS changes in this disorder.

  7. Communication between radial nerve and medial cutaneous nerve of forearm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R R Marathe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Radial nerve is usually a branch of the posterior cord of the brachial plexus. It innervates triceps, anconeous, brachialis, brachioradialis, extensor carpi radialis longus muscles and gives the posterior cutaneous nerve of the arm, lower lateral cutaneous nerve of arm, posterior cutaneous nerve of forearm; without exhibiting any communication with the medial cutaneous nerve of forearm or any other nerve. We report communication between the radial nerve and medial cutaneous nerve of forearm on the left side in a 58-year-old male cadaver. The right sided structures were found to be normal. Neurosurgeons should keep such variations in mind while performing the surgeries of axilla and upper arm.

  8. Rate of rise in diastolic blood pressure influences vascular sympathetic response to mental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sayed, Khadigeh; Macefield, Vaughan G; Hissen, Sarah L; Joyner, Michael J; Taylor, Chloe E

    2016-12-15

    Research indicates that individuals may experience a rise (positive responders) or fall (negative responders) in muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) during mental stress. In this study, we examined the early blood pressure responses (including the peak, time of peak and rate of rise in blood pressure) to mental stress in positive and negative responders. Negative MSNA responders to mental stress exhibit a more rapid rise in diastolic pressure at the onset of the stressor, suggesting a baroreflex-mediated suppression of MSNA. In positive responders there is a more sluggish rise in blood pressure during mental stress, which appears to be MSNA-driven. This study suggests that whether MSNA has a role in the pressor response is dependent upon the reactivity of blood pressure early in the task. Research indicates that individuals may experience a rise (positive responders) or fall (negative responders) in muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) during mental stress. The aim was to examine the early blood pressure response to stress in positive and negative responders and thus its influence on the direction of change in MSNA. Blood pressure and MSNA were recorded continuously in 21 healthy young males during 2 min mental stressors (mental arithmetic, Stroop test) and physical stressors (cold pressor, handgrip exercise, post-exercise ischaemia). Participants were classified as negative or positive responders according to the direction of the mean change in MSNA during the stressor tasks. The peak changes, time of peak and rate of changes in blood pressure were compared between groups. During mental arithmetic negative responders experienced a significantly greater rate of rise in diastolic blood pressure in the first minute of the task (1.3 ± 0.5 mmHg s -1 ) compared with positive responders (0.4 ± 0.1 mmHg s -1 ; P = 0.03). Similar results were found for the Stroop test. Physical tasks elicited robust parallel increases in blood pressure and MSNA across

  9. Construction of nerve guide conduits from cellulose/soy protein composite membranes combined with Schwann cells and pyrroloquinoline quinone for the repair of peripheral nerve defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lihua; Gan, Li; Liu, Yongming; Tian, Weiqun; Tong, Zan; Wang, Xiong; Huselstein, Celine; Chen, Yun

    2015-02-20

    Regeneration and functional reconstruction of peripheral nerve defects remained a significant clinical challenge. Nerve guide conduits, with seed cells or neurotrophic factors (NTFs), had been widely used to improve the repair and regeneration of injured peripheral nerve. Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) was an antioxidant that can stimulate nerve growth factors (NGFs) synthesis and accelerate the Schwann cells (SCs) proliferation and growth. In present study, three kinds of nerve guide conduits were constructed: one from cellulose/SPI hollow tube (CSC), another from CSC combined with SCs (CSSC), and the third one from CSSC combined with PQQ (CSSPC), respectively. And then they were applied to bridge and repair the sciatic nerve defect in rats, using autograft as control. Effects of different nerve guide conduits on the nerve regeneration were comparatively evaluated by general analysis, sciatic function index (SFI) and histological analysis (HE and TEM). Newly-formed regenerative nerve fibers were observed and running through the transparent nerve guide conduits 12 weeks after surgery. SFI results indicated that the reconstruction of motor function in CSSPC group was better than that in CSSC and CSC groups. HE images from the cross-sections and longitudinal-sections of the harvested regenerative nerve indicated that regenerative nerve fibers had been formed and accompanied with new blood vessels and matrix materials in the conduits. TEM images also showed that lots of fresh myelinated and non-myelinated nerve fibers had been formed. Parts of vacuolar, swollen and abnormal axons occurred in CSC and CSSC groups, while the vacuolization and swell of axons was the least serious in CSSPC group. These results indicated that CSSPC group had the most ability to repair and reconstruct the nerve structure and functions due to the comprehensive contributions from hollow CSC tube, SCs and PQQ. As a result, the CSSPC may have the potential for the applications as nerve guide

  10. Distribution of lymphatic tissues and autonomic nerves in supporting ligaments around the cervix uteri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianping; Feng, Lanlan; Lu, Yi; Guo, Dongxia; Xi, Tengteng; Wang, Xiaochun

    2013-05-01

    To investigate the distribution of lymphatic tissues and nerves in the supporting ligaments around the cervix uteri for their tomographical relationship, 9 adult female cadavers were used in this study. Following the incision of all supporting ligaments around the cervix, hematoxylin and esosin (H&E) and immunohistochemical staining of various sections of these ligaments was performed to enable the distribution of lymph tissues and autonomic nerves to be observed. Four lymph nodes were identified in three cadaver specimens. Three lymph nodes were present at a distance of 2.0 cm from the cervix in the cranial side of the cardinal ligaments (CLs), and one lymph node was located at a distance of 4.0 cm from the cervix in the cranial side of the uterosacral ligament (USL). The lymphatic vessels were dispersed in the CLs, scattered in the cervical side of the USLs, and occasionally distributed in the vesicouterine ligaments (VULs). In the CLs, parasympathetic nerves were located at the pelvic lateral wall and went downwards and medially into the cervix, while sympathetic fibers were located in the middle and lower parts of the ligaments. In the USLs, the autonomic nerves, which consisted primarily of sympathetic fibers, went downwards and laterally from the pelvic wall to the cervix. In the VULs, parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves were located in the inner sides of the vesical veins in the deep layers of the ligaments. It is concluded that there are few lymphatic tissues in the supporting ligaments around the cervix uteri, and that nerve‑sparing radical hysterectomy (NSRH) may be a safe method for the treatment of early‑stage cervical cancer.

  11. Positron emission tomographic imaging of cardiac sympathetic innervation and function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, D.S.; Chang, P.C.; Eisenhofer, G.; Miletich, R.; Finn, R.; Bacher, J.; Kirk, K.L.; Bacharach, S.; Kopin, I.J.

    1990-01-01

    Sites of uptake, storage, and metabolism of [ 18 F]fluorodopamine and excretion of [ 18 F]fluorodopamine and its metabolites were visualized using positron emission tomographic (PET) scanning after intravenous injection of the tracer into anesthetized dogs. Radioactivity was concentrated in the renal pelvis, heart, liver, spleen, salivary glands, and gall bladder. Uptake of 18F by the heart resulted in striking delineation of the left ventricular myocardium. Pretreatment with desipramine markedly decreased cardiac positron emission, consistent with dependence of the heart on neuronal uptake (uptake-1) for removal of circulating catecholamines. In reserpinized animals, cardiac positron emission was absent within 30 minutes after injection of [ 18 F]-6-fluorodopamine, demonstrating that the emission in untreated animals was from radioactive labeling of the sympathetic storage vesicles. Decreased positron emission from denervated salivary glands confirmed that the tracer was concentrated in sympathetic neurons. Radioactivity in the gall bladder and urinary system depicted the hepatic and renal excretion of the tracer and its metabolites. Administration of tyramine or nitroprusside increased and ganglionic blockade with trimethaphan decreased the rate of loss of myocardial radioactivity. The results show that PET scanning after administration of [ 18 F]fluorodopamine can be used to visualize sites of sympathetic innervation, follow the metabolism and renal and hepatic excretion of catecholamines, and examine cardiac sympathetic function

  12. Dynamic resistance training decreases sympathetic tone in hypertensive ovariectomized rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimojo, G.L.; Palma, R.K.; Brito, J.O.; Sanches, I.C.; Irigoyen, M.C.; De Angelis, K.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of resistance exercise training on hemodynamics and cardiac autonomic control in ovariectomized spontaneously hypertensive rats. Female rats were divided into 4 groups: sedentary control (SC), sedentary hypertensive (SH), sedentary hypertensive ovariectomized (SHO), and resistance-trained hypertensive ovariectomized (RTHO). Resistance exercise training was performed on a vertical ladder (5 days/week, 8 weeks) at 40-60% maximal load. Direct arterial pressure was recorded. Vagal and sympathetic tones were measured by heart rate (HR) responses to methylatropine (3 mg/kg, iv) and propranolol (4 mg/kg, iv). Ovariectomy resulted in additional increases in blood pressure in hypertensive rats and was associated with decreased vagal tone. Resistance exercise trained rats had lower mean arterial pressure than untrained rats (RTHO: 159±2.2 vs SHO: 177±3.4 mmHg), as well as resting bradycardia (RTHO: 332±9.0 vs SHO: 356±5 bpm). Sympathetic tone was also lower in the trained group. Moreover, sympathetic tone was positively correlated with resting HR (r=0.7, P<0.05). The additional arterial pressure increase in hypertensive rats caused by ovarian hormone deprivation was attenuated by moderate-intensity dynamic resistance training. This benefit may be associated with resting bradycardia and reduced cardiac sympathetic tone after training, which suggests potential benefits of resistance exercise for the management of hypertension after ovarian hormone deprivation

  13. Dynamic resistance training decreases sympathetic tone in hypertensive ovariectomized rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimojo, G.L.; Palma, R.K.; Brito, J.O.; Sanches, I.C. [Laboratório de Fisiologia Translacional, Programa de Ciências da Reabilitação, Universidade Nove de Julho, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Irigoyen, M.C. [Instituto do Coração, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); De Angelis, K. [Laboratório de Fisiologia Translacional, Programa de Ciências da Reabilitação, Universidade Nove de Julho, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-03-27

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of resistance exercise training on hemodynamics and cardiac autonomic control in ovariectomized spontaneously hypertensive rats. Female rats were divided into 4 groups: sedentary control (SC), sedentary hypertensive (SH), sedentary hypertensive ovariectomized (SHO), and resistance-trained hypertensive ovariectomized (RTHO). Resistance exercise training was performed on a vertical ladder (5 days/week, 8 weeks) at 40-60% maximal load. Direct arterial pressure was recorded. Vagal and sympathetic tones were measured by heart rate (HR) responses to methylatropine (3 mg/kg, iv) and propranolol (4 mg/kg, iv). Ovariectomy resulted in additional increases in blood pressure in hypertensive rats and was associated with decreased vagal tone. Resistance exercise trained rats had lower mean arterial pressure than untrained rats (RTHO: 159±2.2 vs SHO: 177±3.4 mmHg), as well as resting bradycardia (RTHO: 332±9.0 vs SHO: 356±5 bpm). Sympathetic tone was also lower in the trained group. Moreover, sympathetic tone was positively correlated with resting HR (r=0.7, P<0.05). The additional arterial pressure increase in hypertensive rats caused by ovarian hormone deprivation was attenuated by moderate-intensity dynamic resistance training. This benefit may be associated with resting bradycardia and reduced cardiac sympathetic tone after training, which suggests potential benefits of resistance exercise for the management of hypertension after ovarian hormone deprivation.

  14. Sympathetic neural responses to smoking are age dependent

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hering, D.; Somers, V. K.; Kára, T.; Kucharska, W.; Jurák, Pavel; Bieniaszewski, L.; Narkiewicz, K.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 4 (2006), s. 691-695 ISSN 0263-6352 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA102/05/0402 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : sympathetic neural response * blood pressure * heart rate * smoking Subject RIV: FS - Medical Facilities ; Equipment Impact factor: 4.021, year: 2006

  15. Sympathetic Wigner-function tomography of a dark trapped ion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirkhalaf, Safoura; Mølmer, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    A protocol is provided to reconstruct the Wigner function for the motional state of a trapped ion via fluorescence detection on another ion in the same trap. This “sympathetic tomography” of a dark ion without optical transitions suitable for state measurements is based on the mapping of its...

  16. Reflex sympathetic dystrophy/complex regional pain syndrome, type 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    with MRI every 3 months and the bone marrow oedema disappeared after 6 months. Introduction ... SA JOURNAL OF RADIOLOGY • August 2004. Reflex sympathetic dystrophy/complex regional pain syndrome, type 1 ... may be either trauma of external origin or iatrogenic, post surgery. In some patients particularly children ...

  17. The clinical value of cardiac sympathetic imaging in heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Emil; Kjaer, Andreas; Hasbak, Philip

    2014-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system plays an important role in the pathology of heart failure. The single-photon emission computed tomography tracer iodine-123-metaiodobenzylguanidine ((123) I-MIBG) can be used to investigate the activity of the predominant neurotransmitter of the sympathetic nervous...

  18. Baroreflex control of sympathetic activity in experimental hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C.C. Irigoyen

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The arterial baroreceptor reflex system is one of the most powerful and rapidly acting mechanisms for controlling arterial pressure. The purpose of the present review is to discuss data relating sympathetic activity to the baroreflex control of arterial pressure in two different experimental models: neurogenic hypertension by sinoaortic denervation (SAD and high-renin hypertension by total aortic ligation between the renal arteries in the rat. SAD depresses baroreflex regulation of renal sympathetic activity in both the acute and chronic phases. However, increased sympathetic activity (100% was found only in the acute phase of sinoaortic denervation. In the chronic phase of SAD average discharge normalized but the pattern of discharges was different from that found in controls. High-renin hypertensive rats showed overactivity of the renin angiotensin system and a great depression of the baroreflexes, comparable to the depression observed in chronic sinoaortic denervated rats. However, there were no differences in the average tonic sympathetic activity or changes in the pattern of discharges in high-renin rats. We suggest that the difference in the pattern of discharges may contribute to the increase in arterial pressure lability observed in chronic sinoaortic denervated rats.

  19. Isolated optic nerve pseudotumour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patankar, T.; Prasad, S.; Krishnan, A.; Laxminarayan, R.

    2000-01-01

    Isolated optic nerve involvement by the idiopathic inflammatory process is a rare finding and very few reports are available. Here a case of an isolated optic nerve inflammatory pseudotumour presenting with gradually progressive unilateral loss of vision is described. It showed dramatic response to a trial of steroids and its differential diagnoses are discussed. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  20. Axillary nerve dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... changes in sensation or movement No history of injury to the area No signs of nerve damage These medicines reduce swelling and pressure on the nerve. They may be injected directly into the area or taken by mouth. Other medicines include: Over-the-counter pain ...

  1. Tibial nerve (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nerve is commonly injured by fractures or other injury to the back of the knee or the lower leg. It may be affected by systemic diseases such as diabetes mellitus. The nerve can also be damaged by pressure from a tumor, abscess, or bleeding into the ...

  2. Plant abnormality inspection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takenaka, Toshio.

    1990-01-01

    The present invention concerns a plant abnormality inspection device for conducting remote or automatic patrolling inspection in a plant and, more particularly, relates to such a device as capable of detecting abnormal odors. That is, the device comprises a moving device for moving to a predetermined position in the plant, a plurality of gas sensors for different kind of gases to be inspected mounted thereon, a comparator for comparing the concentration of a gas detected by the gas sensor with the normal gas concentration at the predetermined position and a judging means for judging the absence or presence of abnormality depending on the combination of the result of the comparison and deliverying a signal if the state is abnormal. As a result, a slight amount of gas responsible to odors released upon abnormality of the plant can be detected by a plurality of gas sensors for different kinds gases to rapidly and easily find abnormal portions in the plant. (I.S.)

  3. Reversible sympathetic vasomotor dysfunction in POTS patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, J; Santos, R; Azevedo, E; Costa, O; Carvalho, M; de Freitas, A F

    2000-11-01

    Orthostatic intolerance refers to the development upon assuming an upright posture of disabling symptoms, which are partly relieved by resuming the supine position. Postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is an orthostatic intolerance syndrome characterized by palpitations due to excessive orthostatic sinus tachycardia, lightheadedness, tremor, and near-syncope. Patients usually undergo extensive medical, cardiac, endocrine, neurological and psychiatric evaluation, which usually fails to identify a specific abnormality. We investigated the autonomic and hemodynamic profile of POTS patients and the efficacy of bisoprolol and or fludrocortisone. We evaluated eleven female patients with POTS before and after medical treatment with a cardio-selective beta blocker (bisoprolol) and/or fludrocortisone, and eleven age-matched controls. Variability of heart rate and systolic blood pressure was assessed by Fast Fourier Transform, and spontaneous baroreceptor gain by temporal sequences slope and alpha index. Modelflow was used to quantify hemodynamics. All patients improved greatly after medication. The autonomic and hemodynamic impairment observed in patients with POTS, particularly after orthostatic stress, is treated effectively with bisoprolol and/or fludrocortisone. These results need further confirmation in a controlled double-blind study. Proper medical treatment dramatically improves the clinical and autonomic/hemodynamic disturbances observed in patients with POTS. The data support the hypothesis that POTS is due to a hyperadrenergic activation and/or hypovolemia during orthostasis.

  4. Anomalous facial nerve canal with cochlear malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo, L V; Curtin, H D

    2001-05-01

    Anteromedial "migration" of the first segment of the facial nerve canal has been previously identified in a patient with a non-Mondini-type cochlear malformation. In this study, several patients with the same facial nerve canal anomaly were reviewed to assess for the association and type of cochlear malformation. CT scans of the temporal bone of 15 patients with anteromedial migration of the first segment of the facial nerve canal were collected from routine departmental examinations. In seven patients, the anomalous course was bilateral, for a total of 22 cases. The migration was graded relative to normal as either mild/moderate or pronounced. The cochlea in each of these cases was examined for the presence and size of the basilar, second, and apical turns. The turns were either absent, small, normal, or enlarged. The CT scans of five patients with eight Mondini malformations were examined for comparison. The degree of the facial nerve migration was pronounced in nine cases and mild/moderate in 13. All 22 of these cases had associated cochlear abnormalities of the non-Mondini variety. These included common cavity anomalies with lack of definition between the cochlea and vestibule (five cases), cochleae with enlarged basilar turns and absent second or third turns (five cases), and cochleae with small or normal basilar turns with small or absent second or third turns (12 cases). None of the patients with Mondini-type cochlear malformations had anteromedial migration of the facial nerve canal. Anteromedial migration of the facial nerve canal occurs in association with some cochlear malformations. It did not occur in association with the Mondini malformations. A cochlea with a Mondini malformation, being similar in size to a normal cochlea, may physically prohibit such a deviation in course.

  5. MRI of the facial nerve in idiopathic facial palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saatci, I.; Sahintuerk, F.; Sennaroglu, L.; Boyvat, F.; Guersel, B.; Besim, A.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective study was to define the enhancement pattern of the facial nerve in idiopathic facial paralysis (Bell's palsy) on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with routine doses of gadolinium-DTPA (0.1 mmol/kg). Using 0.5 T imager, 24 patients were examined with a mean interval time of 13.7 days between the onset of symptoms and the MR examination. Contralateral asymptomatic facial nerves constituted the control group and five of the normal facial nerves (20.8%) showed enhancement confined to the geniculate ganglion. Hence, contrast enhancement limited to the geniculate ganglion in the abnormal facial nerve (3 of 24) was referred to a equivocal. Not encountered in any of the normal facial nerves, enhancement of other segments alone or associated with geniculate ganglion enhancement was considered to be abnormal and noted in 70.8% of the symptomatic facial nerves. The most frequently enhancing segments were the geniculate ganglion and the distal intracanalicular segment. (orig.)

  6. MRI of the facial nerve in idiopathic facial palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saatci, I. [Dept. of Radiology, Hacettepe Univ., Hospital Sihhiye, Ankara (Turkey); Sahintuerk, F. [Dept. of Radiology, Hacettepe Univ., Hospital Sihhiye, Ankara (Turkey); Sennaroglu, L. [Dept. of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Hacettepe Univ., Hospital Sihhiye, Ankara (Turkey); Boyvat, F. [Dept. of Radiology, Hacettepe Univ., Hospital Sihhiye, Ankara (Turkey); Guersel, B. [Dept. of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Hacettepe Univ., Hospital Sihhiye, Ankara (Turkey); Besim, A. [Dept. of Radiology, Hacettepe Univ., Hospital Sihhiye, Ankara (Turkey)

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this prospective study was to define the enhancement pattern of the facial nerve in idiopathic facial paralysis (Bell`s palsy) on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with routine doses of gadolinium-DTPA (0.1 mmol/kg). Using 0.5 T imager, 24 patients were examined with a mean interval time of 13.7 days between the onset of symptoms and the MR examination. Contralateral asymptomatic facial nerves constituted the control group and five of the normal facial nerves (20.8%) showed enhancement confined to the geniculate ganglion. Hence, contrast enhancement limited to the geniculate ganglion in the abnormal facial nerve (3 of 24) was referred to a equivocal. Not encountered in any of the normal facial nerves, enhancement of other segments alone or associated with geniculate ganglion enhancement was considered to be abnormal and noted in 70.8% of the symptomatic facial nerves. The most frequently enhancing segments were the geniculate ganglion and the distal intracanalicular segment. (orig.)

  7. α-Amylase as a reliable and convenient measure of sympathetic activity: don't start salivating just yet!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Jos A; Veerman, Enno C I; de Geus, Eco J; Proctor, Gordon B

    2011-05-01

    Recent years have seen a growing interest in salivary α-amylase (sAA) as a non-invasive marker for sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity. Saliva offers many advantages as a biomarker fluid and sAA is one of its most plentiful components. sAA is a digestive enzyme that breaks down starch, which provides a simple means of quantification by measuring its enzymatic activity. This commentary will address a number of common misconceptions and methodological issues that surround the use of sAA as a marker of SNS activity and limit its utility in biobehavioral research. The usefulness of sAA as an SNS marker is undermined by the fact that the parasympathetic nerves also play a significant role in sAA release. Local parasympathetic nerves regulate sAA activity via: (1) α-amylase release from glands that are solely or mainly parasympathetically innervated; (2) via synergistic sympathetic-parasympathetic effects on protein secretion (known as 'augmented secretion'); and (3) via effects on salivary flow rate. Regarding methodology, we discuss why it is problematic: (1) to ignore the contribution of salivary flow rate; (2) to use absorbent materials for saliva collection, and; (3) to stimulate saliva secretion by chewing. While these methodological problems can be addressed by using standardized and timed collection of unstimulated saliva, the physiological regulation of sAA secretion presents less resolvable issues. We conclude that at present there is insufficient support for the use and interpretation of sAA activity as a valid and reliable measure of SNS activity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor of the oculomotor nerve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozic, D; Nagulic, M; Ostojic, J

    2006-01-01

    We present the short-term follow-up magnetic resonance (MR) studies and 1H-MR spectroscopy in a child with malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor of the oculomotor nerve associated with other less aggressive cranial nerve schwannomas. The tumor revealed perineural extension and diffuse nerve...

  9. External branch spinal nerve paralysis on keloid scar | Frioui | Pan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paralysis of the external branch of spinal nerve is very rare. It manifests clinically by a weakness and abnormal morphology of the shoulder. We must think about it in front of any simple surgery of the cervical region. We report the case of a 20 year old patient, who consulted several doctors for pain and progressive ...

  10. Defining Abnormally Low Tenders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ølykke, Grith Skovgaard; Nyström, Johan

    2017-01-01

    The concept of an abnormally low tender is not defined in EU public procurement law. This article takes an interdisciplinary law and economics approach to examine a dataset consisting of Swedish and Danish judgments and verdicts concerning the concept of an abnormally low tender. The purpose...

  11. Computed tomography of cystic nerve root sleeve dilatation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neave, V C; Wycoff, R R

    1983-10-01

    A case of cystic nerve root sleeve dilatation in the lumbar area associated with a chronic back pain syndrome is presented. Prominent computed tomography (CT) findings include: (a) rounded masses in the region of the foramina isodense with cerebrospinal fluid in the subarachnoid space; (b) associated asymmetry of epidural fat distribution; (c) enlargement of the neural foramina in axial sections with scalloped erosion of the adjacent posteriolateral vertebral body, pedicle, and pedicular-laminar junction with preservation of cortex and without bony sclerosis or infiltrative appearance; (d) prominent or ectatic dural sac with lack of usual epidural landmarks between the sac and vertebral body; and (e) multilevel abnormalities throughout the entire lumbar region. Myelographic and CT correlations are demonstrated with a review of the literature. A discussion of the various cystic abnormalities involving nerve root sheaths is undertaken in an attempt to clarify the confusing nomenclature applied to nerve root sleeve pathology.

  12. Pre- and post-synaptic sympathetic function in human hibernating myocardium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John, Anna S.; Pepper, John R.; Dreyfus, Gilles D.; Pennell, Dudley J. [Imperial College, Hammersmith Hospital, National Heart and Lung Institute, London (United Kingdom); Mongillo, Marco; Khan, Muhammad T. [Imperial College, Hammersmith Hospital, Medical Research Council Clinical Sciences Centre, London (United Kingdom); Depre, Christophe [University of Medicine and Dentistry New Jersey, Cardiovascular Research Institute, Department of Cell Biology and Molecular Medicine, New Jersey, NJ (United States); University of Medicine and Dentistry New Jersey, Cardiovascular Research Institute, Department of Medicine, New Jersey, NJ (United States); Rimoldi, Ornella E. [Imperial College, Hammersmith Hospital, National Heart and Lung Institute, London (United Kingdom); Imperial College, Hammersmith Hospital, Medical Research Council Clinical Sciences Centre, London (United Kingdom); New York Medical College, Cardiovascular Research Institute, Department of Medicine, Valhalla, NY (United States); Camici, Paolo G. [Imperial College, Hammersmith Hospital, National Heart and Lung Institute, London (United Kingdom); Imperial College, Hammersmith Hospital, Medical Research Council Clinical Sciences Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2007-12-15

    Impaired pre-synaptic noradrenaline uptake-1 mechanism has been reported in a swine model of hibernating myocardium (HM). To ascertain whether adrenergic neuroeffector abnormalities are present in human HM, we combined functional measurements in vivo using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) and positron emission tomography (PET) to assess pre- and post-synaptic sympathetic function. Twelve patients with coronary artery disease and chronic left ventricular (LV) dysfunction underwent CMR at baseline and 6 months after bypass for assessment of regional and global LV function and identification of segments with reversible dysfunction. Before surgery, myocardial noradrenaline uptake-1 ([{sup 11}C]meta-hydroxy-ephedrine; HED) and {beta}-adrenoceptor ({beta}-AR) density ([{sup 11}C]CGP-12177) were measured with PET. Patient PET data were compared with those in 18 healthy controls. The volume of distribution (V{sub d}) of HED in HM (47.95{+-}28.05 ml/g) and infarcted myocardium (42.69{+-}25.76 ml/g) was significantly reduced compared with controls (66.09{+-}14.48 ml/g). The V{sub d} of HED in normal myocardium (49.93{+-}20.48 ml/g) of patients was also lower than that in controls and the difference was close to statistical significance (p=0.06). Myocardial {beta}-AR density was significantly lower in HM (5.49{+-}2.35 pmol/g), infarcted (4.82{+-}2.61 pmol/g) and normal (5.86{+-}1.81 pmol/g) segments of patients compared with healthy controls (8.61{+-}1.32 pmol/g). Noradrenaline uptake-1 mechanism and {beta}-AR density are reduced in the myocardium of patients with chronic LV dysfunction and evidence of HM. The increased sympathetic activity to the heart in these patients is a generalised rather than regional phenomenon which is likely to contribute to the remodelling process of the whole LV rather than playing a causative role in HM. (orig.)

  13. Continuous Thoracic Sympathetic Ganglion Block in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Patients with Spinal Cord Stimulation Implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EungDon Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The sympathetic block is widely used for treating neuropathic pain such as complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS. However, single sympathetic block often provides only short-term effect. Moreover, frequent procedures for sympathetic block may increase the risk of complications. The use of epidural route may be limited by concern of infection in case of previous implantation of the spinal cord stimulation (SCS. In contrast, a continuous sympathetic block can be administered without such concerns. The continuous thoracic sympathetic block (TSGB has been used to treat the ischemic disease and other neuropathic conditions such as postherpetic neuralgia. We administered continuous thoracic sympathetic block using catheter in CRPS patients who underwent SCS implantations and achieved desirable outcomes. We believe a continuous sympathetic block is a considerable option before performing neurolysis or radiofrequency rhizotomy and even after SCS implantation.

  14. Role of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) in the patterning of vestibular system influences on sympathetic nervous system outflow to the upper and lower body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Yoichiro; Suzuki, Takeshi; Yates, Bill J

    2011-05-01

    Research on animal models as well as human subjects has demonstrated that the vestibular system contributes to regulating the distribution of blood in the body through effects on the sympathetic nervous system. Elimination of vestibular inputs results in increased blood flow to the hindlimbs during vestibular stimulation, because it attenuates the increase in vascular resistance that ordinarily occurs in the lower body during head-up tilts. Additionally, the changes in vascular resistance produced by vestibular stimulation differ between body regions. Electrical stimulation of vestibular afferents produces an inhibition of most hindlimb vasoconstrictor fibers and a decrease in hindlimb vascular resistance, but an initial excitation of most upper body vasoconstrictor fibers accompanied by an increase in upper body vascular resistance. The present study tested the hypothesis that neurons in the principal vasomotor region of the brainstem, the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), whose projections extended past the T10 segment, to spinal levels containing sympathetic preganglionic neurons regulating lower body blood flow, respond differently to electrical stimulation of the vestibular nerve than RVLM neurons whose axons terminate rostral to T10. Contrary to our hypothesis, the majority of RVLM neurons were excited by vestibular stimulation, despite their level of projection in the spinal cord. These findings indicate that the RVLM is not solely responsible for establishing the patterning of vestibular-sympathetic responses. This patterning apparently requires the integration by spinal circuitry of labyrinthine signals transmitted from the brainstem, likely from regions in addition to the RVLM.

  15. Perinatal exposure to a high-fat diet is associated with reduced hepatic sympathetic innervation in one-year old male Japanese macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmon F Grant

    Full Text Available Our group recently demonstrated that maternal high-fat diet (HFD consumption is associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, increased apoptosis, and changes in gluconeogenic gene expression and chromatin structure in fetal nonhuman primate (NHP liver. However, little is known about the long-term effects that a HFD has on hepatic nervous system development in offspring, a system that plays an important role in regulating hepatic metabolism. Utilizing immunohistochemistry and Real-Time PCR, we quantified sympathetic nerve fiber density, apoptosis, inflammation, and other autonomic components in the livers of fetal and one-year old Japanese macaques chronically exposed to a HFD. We found that HFD exposure in-utero and throughout the postnatal period (HFD/HFD, when compared to animals receiving a CTR diet for the same developmental period (CTR/CTR, is associated with a 1.7 fold decrease in periportal sympathetic innervation, a 5 fold decrease in parenchymal sympathetic innervation, and a 2.5 fold increase in hepatic apoptosis in the livers of one-year old male animals. Additionally, we observed an increase in hepatic inflammation and a decrease in a key component of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway in one-year old HFD/HFD offspring. Taken together, these findings reinforce the impact that continuous exposure to a HFD has in the development of long-term hepatic pathologies in offspring and highlights a potential neuroanatomical basis for hepatic metabolic dysfunction.

  16. Characterization of Japanese standards for myocardial sympathetic and metabolic imaging in comparison with perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Shinro; Nakajima, Kenichi; Okuda, Koichi; Yamashina, Shohei; Sakata, Kazuyuki; Momose, Mitsuru; Hashimoto, Jun; Kumita, Shinichiro; Kawano, Masaya

    2009-01-01

    The standard patterns of myocardial radiotracer distribution of 123 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) and 123 I-β-methyl-p-iodophenyl-pentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) should be defined in a Japanese population. The purpose of this study was to present and provide data on the characteristics of MIBG and BMIPP with respect to myocardial single photon emission computed tomography. The normal database included 123 I-MIBG and 123 I-BMIPP imaging and a 99 mTc-sestamibi/tetrofosmin myocardial perfusion study. The projection images were transferred by digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) format and reconstructed and analyzed with polar maps. The projection data from multiple centers were successfully transferred to a common format for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) reconstruction. When the average values were analyzed using a 17-segment model, MIBG uptake in the inferior and apical wall appeared to be slightly lower than anterior uptake (P 99m Tc-tracer uptake (P<0.05). Myocardial sympathetic nerve and metabolic scintigraphy data that were specific for the Japanese population were generated and found to be different from that of perfusion tracers. The normal database can serve as a standard for nuclear cardiology work conducted in Japan. (author)

  17. Sympathetic Nervous System Modulation of Inflammation and Remodeling in the Hypertensive Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levick, Scott P.; Murray, David B.; Janicki, Joseph S.; Brower, Gregory L.

    2010-01-01

    Chronic activation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is a key component of cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. However, previous studies have provided evidence to also implicate inflammatory cells, including mast cells, in the development of cardiac fibrosis. The current study investigated the potential interaction of cardiac mast cells with the SNS. Eight week old male SHR were sympathectomized to establish the effect of the SNS on cardiac mast cell density, myocardial remodeling and cytokine production in the hypertensive heart. Age-matched WKY served as controls. Cardiac fibrosis and hypertension were significantly attenuated and left ventricular mass normalized while cardiac mast cell density was markedly increased in sympathectomized SHR. Sympathectomy normalized myocardial levels of IFN-γ, IL-6 and IL-10, but had no effect on IL-4. The effect of norepinephrine and substance P on isolated cardiac mast cell activation was investigated as potential mechanisms of interaction between the two. Only substance P elicited mast cell degranulation. Substance P was also shown to induce the production of angiotensin II by a mixed population of isolated cardiac inflammatory cells, including mast cells, lymphocytes and macrophages. These results demonstrate the ability of neuropeptides to regulate inflammatory cell function, providing a potential mechanism by which the SNS and afferent nerves may interact with inflammatory cells in the hypertensive heart. PMID:20048196

  18. Renal Sympathetic Denervation by CT-scan-Guided Periarterial Ethanol Injection in Sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firouznia, Kavous; Hosseininasab, Sayed jaber; Amanpour, Saeid; Haj-Mirzaian, Arya; Miri, Roza; Muhammadnejad, Ahad; Muhammadnejad, Samad; Jalali, Amir H.; Ahmadi, Farrokhlagha; Rokni-Yazdi, Hadi

    2015-01-01

    BackgroundRenal nerves are a recent target in the treatment of hypertension. Renal sympathetic denervation (RSD) is currently performed using catheter-based radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and because this method has limitations, percutaneous magnetic resonance (MR)-guided periarterial ethanol injection is a suggested alternative. However, few studies have been conducted on the effectiveness of percutaneous ethanol injection for RSD.AimTo evaluate the feasibility, efficacy, and complications of computed tomography (CT)-guided periarterial ethanol injection.MethodsEthanol (10 ml, 99.6 %) was injected around the right renal artery in six sheep under CT guidance with the left kidney serving as a control. Before and after the intervention, the sheep underwent MR imaging studies and the serum creatinine level was measured. One month after the intervention, the sheep were euthanized and norepinephrine (NE) concentration in the renal parenchyma was measured to evaluate the efficacy of the procedure. The treated tissues were also examined histopathologically to evaluate vascular, parenchymal, and neural injury.ResultsThe right kidney parenchymal NE concentration decreased significantly compared with the left kidney after intervention (average reduction: 40 %, P = 0.0016). Histologic examination revealed apparent denervation with no other vascular or parenchymal injuries observed in the histological and imaging studies.ConclusionEffective and feasible RSD was achieved using CT-guided periarterial ethanol injection. This technique may be a potential alternative to catheter-based RFA in the treatment of hypertension

  19. Renal Sympathetic Denervation by CT-scan-Guided Periarterial Ethanol Injection in Sheep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firouznia, Kavous, E-mail: k-firouznia@yahoo.com; Hosseininasab, Sayed jaber, E-mail: dr.hosseininasab@gmail.com [Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TMUS), Advanced Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology Research Center (ADIR), Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Amanpour, Saeid, E-mail: saeidamanpour@yahoo.com [Tehran University of Medical Science, Cancer Models Research Center, Cancer Institute of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Haj-Mirzaian, Arya, E-mail: arya.mirzaian@gmail.com [Tehran University of Medical Science, Department of Radiology and Imaging, MIC, Imam Khomeini Hospital (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Miri, Roza, E-mail: rosa.miri@yahoo.com [Tehran University of Medical Science, Department of Pathology, Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Muhammadnejad, Ahad, E-mail: mohamadnejad@yahoo.com [Tehran University of Medical Science, Cancer Research Center, Cancer Institute of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Muhammadnejad, Samad, E-mail: s-muhammadnejad@sina.tums.ac.ir [Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Research Center for Molecular and Cellular Imaging (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jalali, Amir H., E-mail: amirjalali51@yahoo.com [Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TMUS), Advanced Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology Research Center (ADIR), Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ahmadi, Farrokhlagha, E-mail: ahmadi@tums.ac.ir [Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Nephrology Research Center, Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rokni-Yazdi, Hadi, E-mail: rokniyaz@tums.ac.ir [Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TMUS), Advanced Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology Research Center (ADIR), Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    BackgroundRenal nerves are a recent target in the treatment of hypertension. Renal sympathetic denervation (RSD) is currently performed using catheter-based radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and because this method has limitations, percutaneous magnetic resonance (MR)-guided periarterial ethanol injection is a suggested alternative. However, few studies have been conducted on the effectiveness of percutaneous ethanol injection for RSD.AimTo evaluate the feasibility, efficacy, and complications of computed tomography (CT)-guided periarterial ethanol injection.MethodsEthanol (10 ml, 99.6 %) was injected around the right renal artery in six sheep under CT guidance with the left kidney serving as a control. Before and after the intervention, the sheep underwent MR imaging studies and the serum creatinine level was measured. One month after the intervention, the sheep were euthanized and norepinephrine (NE) concentration in the renal parenchyma was measured to evaluate the efficacy of the procedure. The treated tissues were also examined histopathologically to evaluate vascular, parenchymal, and neural injury.ResultsThe right kidney parenchymal NE concentration decreased significantly compared with the left kidney after intervention (average reduction: 40 %, P = 0.0016). Histologic examination revealed apparent denervation with no other vascular or parenchymal injuries observed in the histological and imaging studies.ConclusionEffective and feasible RSD was achieved using CT-guided periarterial ethanol injection. This technique may be a potential alternative to catheter-based RFA in the treatment of hypertension.

  20. Sympathetic skin response and R-R interval variation in cases with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozke, E; Erdogan, N; Akyuz, G; Turan, B; Akyuz, E; Us, O

    2003-03-01

    To investigate the autonomic nervus system involvement in cases with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by assesing sympathetic skin response (SSR) and R-R interval variation (RRIV), 14 healthy women and 10 women with RA, all of them without clinic dysautonomies were examined. SSR's were recorded palmar surface of both hands and soles of both feet, after stimulating median and tibial nerves individually. RRIV's were assessed at rest and during six deep breathing in one minute with electrodes placed on dorsal surfaces of both hands. SSR could not be obtained from lower extremities of one case with RA. We could not find any significant difference between two groups in terms of SSR latencies. RRIV values obtained during deep breathing to those recorded at rest (D%/R%) was found to be significantly lower in RA cases than healthy controls. RRIV values increased with deep breathing in healthy subjects, while they decreased in 50% of the RA cases. We conclude that assessment of SSR and RRIV are valuble methods for revelation of subclinical autonomic involvement in cases with RA.

  1. The sympathetic skin response in diabetic neuropathy and its relationship to autonomic symptoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Moallem, Mansour A.; Zaidan, Radwan M.; Alkali, Nura H.

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to examine the utility of the sympathetic skin response (SSR) as a measure of impaired autonomic function among diabetic patients in Saudi Arabia. In this case-control study, baseline SSR was obtained from 18 healthy subjects, followed by nerve conduction studies and SSR testing on a consecutive cohort of 50 diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy. The SSR in diabetic patients was compared between those with autonomic neuropathy and those without autonomic neuropathy. This study was conducted at the King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from June 2006 to June 2007. The SSR was present in all healthy subjects and in 32 diabetic patients. Among 16 patients with autonomic neuropathy, the SSR was absent in 14 and present in 2, while 4 of 34 patients lacking evidence of autonomic neuropathy had absent SSR. Using Fisher's exact test, we found a strong association between absent SSR and autonomic neuropathy (p<0.001), however, not with age or duration of diabetes mellitus. As a diagnostic test of autonomic neuropathy, the SSR had a sensitivity of 87.5%, a specificity of 88.2%, a positive predictive value of 77.8%, and a negative predictive value of 93.7%. Absence of the SSR is a reliable indicator of autonomic neuropathy among patients with diabetes mellitus in Saudi Arabia. (author)

  2. Modification of sympathetic neuronal function in the rat tail artery by dietary lipid treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panek, R.L.; Dixon, W.R.; Rutledge, C.O.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of dietary lipid treatment on sympathetic neuronal function was examined in isolated perfused tail arteries of adult rats. The hypothesis that dietary manipulations alter the lipid environment of receptor proteins which may result in the perturbation of specific membrane-associated processes that regulate peripheral adrenergic neurotransmission in the vasculature was the basis for this investigation. In the present study, rats were fed semisynthetic diets enriched in either 16% coconut oil (saturated fat) or 16% sunflower oil (unsaturated fat). The field stimulation-evoked release of endogenous norepinephrine and total 3 H was decreased significantly in rats receiving the coconut oil diet when compared to either sunflower oil- or standard lab chow-fed rats. Norepinephrine content in artery segments from coconut oil-treated rats was significantly higher compared to either sunflower oil- or standard lab chow-fed rats. Tail arteries from rats receiving the coconut oil diet displayed significantly lower perfusion pressure responses to nerve stimulation at all frequencies tested when compared to the sunflower oil- or standard lab chow-fed rats. Vasoconstrictor responses of perfused tail arteries exposed to exogenous norepinephrine resulted in an EC50 for norepinephrine that was not changed by the dietary treatment, but adult rats receiving the sunflower oil diet displayed a significantly greater maximum response to exogenous norepinephrine (10(-5) M) compared to arteries from either coconut oil- or standard lab chow-fed rats

  3. Nanofiber Nerve Guide for Peripheral Nerve Repair and Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    1 Award Number: W81XWH-11-2-0047 TITLE: Nanofiber Nerve Guide for Peripheral Nerve Repair and Regeneration PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Ahmet Höke...TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-11-2-0047 Nanofiber nerve guide for peripheral nerve repair and regeneration 5b. GRANT NUMBER...goal of this collaborative research project was to develop next generation engineered nerve guide conduits (NGCs) with aligned nanofibers and

  4. Construction of nerve guide conduits from cellulose/soy protein composite membranes combined with Schwann cells and pyrroloquinoline quinone for the repair of peripheral nerve defect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Lihua [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Center of Molecular Medicine, School of Medicine, Hubei University of Arts and Sciences, Xiangyang 441053 (China); Gan, Li; Liu, Yongming; Tian, Weiqun; Tong, Zan [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wang, Xiong; Huselstein, Celine [Ingénierie Moléculaire et Physiopathologie Articulaire (IMoPA), UMR 7365 CNRS – Université de Lorraine, Biopôle, 54500 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Chen, Yun, E-mail: yunchen@whu.edu.cn [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2015-02-20

    Regeneration and functional reconstruction of peripheral nerve defects remained a significant clinical challenge. Nerve guide conduits, with seed cells or neurotrophic factors (NTFs), had been widely used to improve the repair and regeneration of injured peripheral nerve. Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) was an antioxidant that can stimulate nerve growth factors (NGFs) synthesis and accelerate the Schwann cells (SCs) proliferation and growth. In present study, three kinds of nerve guide conduits were constructed: one from cellulose/SPI hollow tube (CSC), another from CSC combined with SCs (CSSC), and the third one from CSSC combined with PQQ (CSSPC), respectively. And then they were applied to bridge and repair the sciatic nerve defect in rats, using autograft as control. Effects of different nerve guide conduits on the nerve regeneration were comparatively evaluated by general analysis, sciatic function index (SFI) and histological analysis (HE and TEM). Newly-formed regenerative nerve fibers were observed and running through the transparent nerve guide conduits 12 weeks after surgery. SFI results indicated that the reconstruction of motor function in CSSPC group was better than that in CSSC and CSC groups. HE images from the cross-sections and longitudinal-sections of the harvested regenerative nerve indicated that regenerative nerve fibers had been formed and accompanied with new blood vessels and matrix materials in the conduits. TEM images also showed that lots of fresh myelinated and non-myelinated nerve fibers had been formed. Parts of vacuolar, swollen and abnormal axons occurred in CSC and CSSC groups, while the vacuolization and swell of axons was the least serious in CSSPC group. These results indicated that CSSPC group had the most ability to repair and reconstruct the nerve structure and functions due to the comprehensive contributions from hollow CSC tube, SCs and PQQ. As a result, the CSSPC may have the potential for the applications as nerve guide

  5. Renal artery nerve distribution and density in the porcine model: biologic implications for the development of radiofrequency ablation therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellez, Armando; Rousselle, Serge; Palmieri, Taylor; Rate, William R; Wicks, Joan; Degrange, Ashley; Hyon, Chelsea M; Gongora, Carlos A; Hart, Randy; Grundy, Will; Kaluza, Greg L; Granada, Juan F

    2013-12-01

    Catheter-based renal artery denervation has demonstrated to be effective in decreasing blood pressure among patients with refractory hypertension. The anatomic distribution of renal artery nerves may influence the safety and efficacy profile of this procedure. We aimed to describe the anatomic distribution and density of periarterial renal nerves in the porcine model. Thirty arterial renal sections were included in the analysis by harvesting a tissue block containing the renal arteries and perirenal tissue from each animal. Each artery was divided into 3 segments (proximal, mid, and distal) and assessed for total number, size, and depth of the nerves according to the location. Nerve counts were greatest proximally (45.62% of the total nerves) and decreased gradually distally (mid, 24.58%; distal, 29.79%). The distribution in nerve size was similar across all 3 sections (∼40% of the nerves, 50-100 μm; ∼30%, 0-50 μm; ∼20%, 100-200 μm; and ∼10%, 200-500 μm). In the arterial segments ∼45% of the nerves were located within 2 mm from the arterial wall whereas ∼52% of all nerves were located within 2.5 mm from the arterial wall. Sympathetic efferent fibers outnumbered sensory afferent fibers overwhelmingly, intermixed within the nerve bundle. In the porcine model, renal artery nerves are seen more frequently in the proximal segment of the artery. Nerve size distribution appears to be homogeneous throughout the artery length. Nerve bundles progress closer to the arterial wall in the distal segments of the artery. This anatomic distribution may have implications for the future development of renal denervation therapies. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Diabetic Nerve Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at the wrong times. This damage is called diabetic neuropathy. Over half of people with diabetes get ... you change positions quickly Your doctor will diagnose diabetic neuropathy with a physical exam and nerve tests. ...

  7. Diabetes and nerve damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetic neuropathy; Diabetes - neuropathy; Diabetes - peripheral neuropathy ... In people with diabetes, the body's nerves can be damaged by decreased blood flow and a high blood sugar level. This condition is ...

  8. Tumors of peripheral nerves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Michael; Lutz, Amelie M.

    2017-01-01

    Differentiation between malignant and benign tumors of peripheral nerves in the early stages is challenging; however, due to the unfavorable prognosis of malignant tumors early identification is required. To show the possibilities for detection, differential diagnosis and clinical management of peripheral nerve tumors by imaging appearance in magnetic resonance (MR) neurography. Review of current literature available in PubMed and MEDLINE, supplemented by the authors' own observations in clinical practice. Although not pathognomonic, several imaging features have been reported for a differentiation between distinct peripheral nerve tumors. The use of MR neurography enables detection and initial differential diagnosis in tumors of peripheral nerves. Furthermore, it plays an important role in clinical follow-up, targeted biopsy and surgical planning. (orig.) [de

  9. Optic nerve oxygen tension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, M; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Eysteinsson, T

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the influence of acute changes in intraocular pressure on the oxygen tension in the vicinity of the optic nerve head under control conditions and after intravenous administration of 500 mg of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor dorzolamide.......To investigate the influence of acute changes in intraocular pressure on the oxygen tension in the vicinity of the optic nerve head under control conditions and after intravenous administration of 500 mg of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor dorzolamide....

  10. Simulating sympathetic detonation using the hydrodynamic models and constitutive equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bo Hoon; Kim, Min Sung; Yoh, Jack J. [Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sun, Tae Boo [Hanwha Corporation Defense Rand D Center, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    A Sympathetic detonation (SD) is a detonation of an explosive charge by a nearby explosion. Most of times it is unintended while the impact of blast fragments or strong shock waves from the initiating donor explosive is the cause of SD. We investigate the SD of a cylindrical explosive charge (64 % RDX, 20 % Al, 16 % HTPB) contained in a steel casing. The constitutive relations for high explosive are obtained from a thermo-chemical code that provides the size effect data without the rate stick data typically used for building the rate law and equation of state. A full size SD test of eight pallet-packaged artillery shells is performed that provides the pressure data while the hydrodynamic model with proper constitutive relations for reactive materials and the fragmentation model for steel casing is conducted to replicate the experimental findings. The work presents a novel effort to accurately model and reproduce the sympathetic detonation event with a reduced experimental effort.

  11. Experiencing Physical Pain Leads to More Sympathetic Moral Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Qianguo; Zhu, Yi; Luo, Wen-bo

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that observing another’s pain can evoke other-oriented emotions, which instigate empathic concern for another’s needs. It is not clear whether experiencing first-hand physical pain may also evoke other-oriented emotion and thus influence people’s moral judgment. Based on the embodied simulation literature and neuroimaging evidence, the present research tested the idea that participants who experienced physical pain would be more sympathetic in their moral judgments. Study 1 showed that ice-induced physical pain facilitated higher self-assessments of empathy, which motivated participants to be more sympathetic in their moral judgments. Study 2 confirmed findings in study 1 and also showed that State Perspective Taking subscale of the State Empathy Scale mediated the effects of physical pain on moral judgment. These results provide support for embodied view of morality and for the view that pain can serve a positive psychosocial function. PMID:26465603

  12. The biophysics of renal sympathetic denervation using radiofrequency energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Hitesh C; Dhillon, Paramdeep S; Mahfoud, Felix; Lindsay, Alistair C; Hayward, Carl; Ernst, Sabine; Lyon, Alexander R; Rosen, Stuart D; di Mario, Carlo

    2014-05-01

    Renal sympathetic denervation is currently performed in the treatment of resistant hypertension by interventionists who otherwise do not typically use radiofrequency (RF) energy ablation in their clinical practice. Adequate RF lesion formation is dependent upon good electrode-tissue contact, power delivery, electrode-tissue interface temperature, target-tissue impedance and the size of the catheter's active electrode. There is significant interplay between these variables and hence an appreciation of the biophysical determinants of RF lesion formation is required to provide effective and safe clinical care to our patients. In this review article, we summarize the biophysics of RF ablation and explain why and how complications of renal sympathetic denervation may occur and discuss methods to minimise them.

  13. Increased sympathetic tone in forearm subcutaneous tissue in primary hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vagn Nielsen, H; Hasselström, K; Feldt-Rasmussen, U

    1987-01-01

    vasoconstriction normally seen after lowering the forearm 40 cm below heart level was absent since SBF only decreased by 4% (+/- 7%, P greater than 0.1) during these conditions. In head-up vertical position we noticed a diminished baroreceptor response as SBF at heart level was reduced by 11% (+/- 7%, P greater...... than 0.1) compared to supine position. After proximal local anaesthesia SBF increased by 351% (+/- 81%, P less than 0.01) and disclosed a normal vasoconstrictor response as SBF was reduced by 53% (+/- 5%, P less than 0.01) during arm lowering. Five of the treated patients were restudied.......02)). In conclusion sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity in adipose tissue is markedly increased in primary hypothyroidism. Sympathetic tone and arterial pressure are reduced during treatment....

  14. Should we routinely expose recurrent laryngeal nerve(s) during thyroid surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M.; Aurangzeb, A.; Rashid, A.Z.; Qureshi, M.A.; Iqbal, N.; Boota, M.; Ashfaq, M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare the frequency of recurrent laryngeal nerve(s) (RLNs) palsy after various thyroid procedures with and without identification of recurrent laryngeal nerve during the operation. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Surgery, Military Hospital, Rawalpindi, from August 2008 to April 2010. Methodology: Patients undergoing indirect laryngoscopy with normal vocal cords and those with carcinoma and re-do surgery having normal vocal cord were included in the study. Patients with hoarseness of voice, abnormal vocal cord movements and with solitary nodule in the isthmus were excluded. These patients were randomly divided into 2 groups of 50 each using random number tables. RLN was identified by exposing the inferior thyroid artery and traced along its entire course in group-A. Whereas, in group-B, nerves were not identified during the operations. Immediate postoperative direct laryngoscopy was performed by a surgeon with the help of an anaesthesiologist for the assessment of vocal cords. Patients with persistent hoarseness of voice were followed-up with indirect laryngoscopy at 3 and 6 months. Results: Temporary unilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve palsies occurred in 2 (4%) patients in group-A where the voice and cord movements returned to normal in 6 months. In group-B, it occurred in 8 (16%) patients, 2 bilateral (4%) injuries requiring tracheostomy and 6 unilateral injuries (12%). Among the 2 bilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve injuries, the tracheostomy was removed in one case after 6 months with persistent hoarseness of voice but no respiratory difficulty during routine activities. Tracheostomy was permanent in the other case. Among the 6 cases of unilateral nerve injuries, the voice improved considerably in 4 cases within 6 months but in 2 cases hoarseness persisted even after 6 months. Frequency of recurrent laryngeal nerve palsies was significantly lower in group-A as compared to group-B (p = 0

  15. Developmental neurotoxicity targeting hepatic and cardiac sympathetic innervation: effects of organophosphates are distinct from those of glucocorticoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidler, Frederic J; Slotkin, Theodore A

    2011-05-30

    Early-life exposure to organophosphate pesticides leads to subsequent hyperresponsiveness of β-adrenergic receptor-mediated cell signaling that regulates hepatic gluconeogenesis, culminating in metabolic abnormalities resembling prediabetes. In the current study, we evaluated the effects of chlorpyrifos or parathion on presynaptic sympathetic innervation to determine whether the postsynaptic signaling effects are accompanied by defects in neuronal input. We administered either chlorpyrifos or parathion to newborn rats using exposure paradigms known to elicit the later metabolic changes but found no alterations in either hepatic or cardiac norepinephrine levels in adolescence or adulthood. However, shifting chlorpyrifos exposure to the prenatal period did evoke changes: exposure early in gestation produced subsequent elevations in norepinephrine, whereas later gestational exposure produced significant deficits. We also distinguished the organophosphate effects from those of the glucocorticoid, dexamethasone, a known endocrine disruptor that leads to later-life metabolic and cardiovascular disruption. Postnatal exposure to dexamethasone elicited deficits in peripheral norepinephrine levels but prenatal exposure did not. Our results indicate that early-life exposure to organophosphates leads to subsequent abnormalities of peripheral sympathetic innervation through mechanisms entirely distinct from those of glucocorticoids, ruling out the possibility that the organophosphate effects are secondary to stress or disruption of the HPA axis. Further, the effects on innervation were separable from those on postsynaptic signaling, differing in critical period as well as tissue- and sex-selectivity. Organophosphate targeting of both presynaptic and postsynaptic β-adrenergic sites, each with different critical periods of vulnerability, thus sets the stage for compounding of hepatic and cardiac functional abnormalities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Central vs. peripheral neuraxial sympathetic control of porcine ventricular electrophysiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakawa, Kentaro; Howard-Quijano, Kimberly; Zhou, Wei; Rajendran, Pradeep; Yagishita, Daigo; Vaseghi, Marmar; Ajijola, Olujimi A.; Armour, J. Andrew; Shivkumar, Kalyanam; Ardell, Jeffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    Sympathoexcitation is associated with ventricular arrhythmogenesis. The aim of this study was to determine the role of thoracic dorsal root afferent neural inputs to the spinal cord in modulating ventricular sympathetic control of normal heart electrophysiology. We hypothesize that dorsal root afferent input tonically modulates basal and evoked efferent sympathetic control of the heart. A 56-electrode sock placed on the epicardial ventricle in anesthetized Yorkshire pigs (n = 17) recorded electrophysiological function, as well as activation recovery interval (ARI) and dispersion in ARI, at baseline conditions and during stellate ganglion electrical stimulation. Measures were compared between intact states and sequential unilateral T1–T4 dorsal root transection (DRTx), ipsilateral ventral root transection (VRTx), and contralateral dorsal and ventral root transections (DVRTx). Left or right DRTx decreased global basal ARI [Lt.DRTx: 369 ± 12 to 319 ± 13 ms (P < 0.01) and Rt.DRTx: 388 ± 19 to 356 ± 15 ms (P < 0.01)]. Subsequent unilateral VRTx followed by contralateral DRx+VRTx induced no further change. In intact states, left and right stellate ganglion stimulation shortened ARIs (6 ± 2% vs. 17 ± 3%), while increasing dispersion (+139% vs. +88%). There was no difference in magnitude of ARI or dispersion change with stellate stimulation following spinal root transections. Interruption of thoracic spinal afferent signaling results in enhanced basal cardiac sympathoexcitability without diminishing the sympathetic response to stellate ganglion stimulation. This suggests spinal dorsal root transection releases spinal cord-mediated tonic inhibitory control of efferent sympathetic tone, while maintaining intrathoracic cardiocentric neural networks. PMID:26661096

  17. Temperament affects sympathetic nervous function in a normal population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bora; Lee, Jae-Hon; Kang, Eun-Ho; Yu, Bum-Hee

    2012-09-01

    Although specific temperaments have been known to be related to autonomic nervous function in some psychiatric disorders, there are few studies that have examined the relationship between temperaments and autonomic nervous function in a normal population. In this study, we examined the effect of temperament on the sympathetic nervous function in a normal population. Sixty eight healthy subjects participated in the present study. Temperament was assessed using the Korean version of the Cloninger Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Autonomic nervous function was determined by measuring skin temperature in a resting state, which was recorded for 5 minutes from the palmar surface of the left 5th digit using a thermistor secured with a Velcro® band. Pearson's correlation analysis and multiple linear regression were used to examine the relationship between temperament and skin temperature. A higher harm avoidance score was correlated with a lower skin temperature (i.e. an increased sympathetic tone; r=-0.343, p=0.004) whereas a higher persistence score was correlated with a higher skin temperature (r=0.433, p=0.001). Hierarchical linear regression analysis revealed that harm avoidance was able to predict the variance of skin temperature independently, with a variance of 7.1% after controlling for sex, blood pressure and state anxiety and persistence was the factor predicting the variance of skin temperature with a variance of 5.0%. These results suggest that high harm avoidance is related to an increased sympathetic nervous function whereas high persistence is related to decreased sympathetic nervous function in a normal population.

  18. Temperament Affects Sympathetic Nervous Function in a Normal Population

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Bora; Lee, Jae-Hon; Kang, Eun-Ho; Yu, Bum-Hee

    2012-01-01

    Objective Although specific temperaments have been known to be related to autonomic nervous function in some psychiatric disorders, there are few studies that have examined the relationship between temperaments and autonomic nervous function in a normal population. In this study, we examined the effect of temperament on the sympathetic nervous function in a normal population. Methods Sixty eight healthy subjects participated in the present study. Temperament was assessed using the Korean vers...

  19. Imaging of Cranial Nerves III, IV, VI in Congenital Cranial Dysinnervation Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Hyoung; Hwang, Jeong Min

    2017-06-01

    Congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders are a group of diseases caused by abnormal development of cranial nerve nuclei or their axonal connections, resulting in aberrant innervation of the ocular and facial musculature. Its diagnosis could be facilitated by the development of high resolution thin-section magnetic resonance imaging. The purpose of this review is to describe the method to visualize cranial nerves III, IV, and VI and to present the imaging findings of congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders including congenital oculomotor nerve palsy, congenital trochlear nerve palsy, Duane retraction syndrome, Möbius syndrome, congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles, synergistic divergence, and synergistic convergence. © 2017 The Korean Ophthalmological Society.

  20. Enhancement of multiple cranial and spinal nerves in vanishing white matter: expanding the differential diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eluvathingal Muttikkal, Thomas Jose; Montealegre, Denia Ramirez; Matsumoto, Julie Ann

    2018-03-01

    Abnormal cranial or spinal nerve contrast enhancement on MRI in cases of suspected pediatric leukodystrophy is recognized as an important clue to the diagnosis of either metachromatic leukodystrophy or globoid cell leukodystrophy (Krabbe disease). We report a case of genetically confirmed childhood vanishing white matter with enhancement of multiple cranial and spinal nerves in addition to the more typical intracranial findings. This case expands the limited differential diagnosis of cranial nerve or spinal nerve enhancement in cases of suspected leukodystrophy and may aid in more efficient work-up and earlier diagnosis of vanishing white matter.

  1. Facial nerve palsy: Evaluation by contrast-enhanced MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, T.; Ishii, K.; Okitsu, T.; Okudera, T.; Ogawa, T.

    2001-01-01

    AIM: The purpose of this study was to investigate the value of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in patients with peripheral facial nerve palsy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MR imaging was performed in 147 patients with facial nerve palsy, using a 1.0 T unit. All of 147 patients were evaluated by contrast-enhanced MR imaging and the pattern of enhancement was compared with that in 300 control subjects evaluated for suspected acoustic neurinoma. RESULTS: The intrameatal and labyrinthine segments of the normal facial nerve did not show enhancement, whereas enhancement of the distal intrameatal segment and the labyrinthine segment was respectively found in 67% and 43% of patients with Bell's palsy. The geniculate ganglion or the tympanic-mastoid segment was enhanced in 21% of normal controls versus 91% of patients with Bell's palsy. Abnormal enhancement of the non-paralyzed facial nerve was found in a patient with bilateral temporal bone fracture. CONCLUSION: Enhancement of the distal intrameatal and labyrinthine segments is specific for facial nerve palsy. Contrast-enhanced MR imaging can reveal inflammatory facial nerve lesions and traumatic nerve injury, including clinically silent damage in trauma. Kinoshita T. et al. (2001)

  2. Facial nerve palsy: Evaluation by contrast-enhanced MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, T.; Ishii, K.; Okitsu, T.; Okudera, T.; Ogawa, T

    2001-11-01

    AIM: The purpose of this study was to investigate the value of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in patients with peripheral facial nerve palsy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MR imaging was performed in 147 patients with facial nerve palsy, using a 1.0 T unit. All of 147 patients were evaluated by contrast-enhanced MR imaging and the pattern of enhancement was compared with that in 300 control subjects evaluated for suspected acoustic neurinoma. RESULTS: The intrameatal and labyrinthine segments of the normal facial nerve did not show enhancement, whereas enhancement of the distal intrameatal segment and the labyrinthine segment was respectively found in 67% and 43% of patients with Bell's palsy. The geniculate ganglion or the tympanic-mastoid segment was enhanced in 21% of normal controls versus 91% of patients with Bell's palsy. Abnormal enhancement of the non-paralyzed facial nerve was found in a patient with bilateral temporal bone fracture. CONCLUSION: Enhancement of the distal intrameatal and labyrinthine segments is specific for facial nerve palsy. Contrast-enhanced MR imaging can reveal inflammatory facial nerve lesions and traumatic nerve injury, including clinically silent damage in trauma. Kinoshita T. et al. (2001)

  3. Hypertrophy of Neurons Within Cardiac Ganglia in Human, Canine, and Rat Heart Failure: The Potential Role of Nerve Growth Factor

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Sanjay; Sayers, Scott; Walter, James S.; Thomas, Donald; Dieter, Robert S.; Nee, Lisa M.; Wurster, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Autonomic imbalances including parasympathetic withdrawal and sympathetic overactivity are cardinal features of heart failure regardless of etiology; however, mechanisms underlying these imbalances remain unknown. Animal model studies of heart and visceral organ hypertrophy predict that nerve growth factor levels should be elevated in heart failure; whether this is so in human heart failure, though, remains unclear. We tested the hypotheses that neurons in cardiac ganglia are hyper...

  4. Microanatomical and immunohistochemical study of the human lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve of forearm at the antecubital fossa and its clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, S Chakravarthy; Kumar, Pramod; Dhalapathy, S; Prasad, Keerthana; Marx, C Anitha

    2010-09-01

    Changes in the intraneural anatomy with age can cause poor prognosis of nerve repair in patients after nerve injury. The occurrence of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome-Type II, secondary to peripheral nerve injury, is common. The purpose of this study is to asses changes in cross-sectional anatomy of the lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve of forearm (LCNF) at the antecubital fossa in the fascicular, nonfascicular components (adipose and nonadipose tissue), and sympathetic fibers area with respect to age. For the purpose of the study, 32 human (37-88 years) fresh cadaveric LCNF were collected from left-antecubital fossae and processed for histological, morphometric analysis [total cross-sectional (Asc), fascicular (Af), and nonfascicular area (Anonf)], and immunohistochemical method (tyrosine hydroxylase) for sympathetic fibers. The LCNF's average total cross-sectional area was 3.024 mm(2), and fascicular area was 0.582 mm(2). The average number of fascicles per mm(2) was 3.09. The cross-sectional area in the nerve was mainly occupied by nonfascicular connective tissue (80.75%). There was increased adipose tissue deposition (48.48% of Asc) and decreased collagen fibers (32.24% of Asc) in interfascicular domains without any definite relationship with age. The average sympathetic fiber area was 0.026 mm(2) within the nerve fascicular area without any correlation with age. In LCNF, there was more adipose tissue and less collagen fibers deposition in the interfascicular domains of all age cases, and this may act as an obstacle for nerve fiber regeneration on using LCNF as an interpositional nerve graft.

  5. Paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity: An entity to keep in mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, D A; Panhke, P; Guerrero Suarez, P D; Murillo-Cabezas, F

    2017-12-15

    Paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity (PSH) is a potentially life-threatening neurological emergency secondary to multiple acute acquired brain injuries. It is clinically characterized by the cyclic and simultaneous appearance of signs and symptoms secondary to exacerbated sympathetic discharge. The diagnosis is based on the clinical findings, and high alert rates are required. No widely available and validated homogeneous diagnostic criteria have been established to date. There have been recent consensus attempts to shed light on this obscure phenomenon. Its physiopathology is complex and has not been fully clarified. However, the excitation-inhibition model is the theory that best explains the different aspects of this condition, including the response to treatment with the available drugs. The key therapeutic references are the early recognition of the disorder, avoiding secondary injuries and the triggering of paroxysms. Once sympathetic crises occur, they must peremptorily aborted and prevented. of the later the syndrome is recognized, the poorer the patient outcome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  6. Sympathetic cooling of ions in a hybrid atom ion trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeltkemeier, Bastian

    2016-10-27

    In this thesis the dynamics of a trapped ion immersed in a spatially localized buffer gas is investigated. For a homogeneous buffer gas, the ion's energy distribution reaches a stable equilibrium only if the mass of the buffer gas atoms is below a critical value. This limitation can be overcome by using multipole traps in combination and/or a spatially confined buffer gas. Using a generalized model for elastic collisions of the ion with the buffer gas atoms, the ion's energy distribution is numerically determined for arbitrary buffer gas distributions and trap parameters. Three regimes characterized by the respective analytic form of the ion's equilibrium energy distribution are found. One of these is a novel regime at large atom-to-ion mass ratios where the final ion temperature can tuned by adiabatically decreasing the spatial extension of the buffer gas and the effective ion trap depth (forced sympathetic cooling). The second part of the thesis presents a hybrid atom ion trap designed for sympathetic cooling of hydroxide anions. In this hybrid trap the anions are immersed in a cloud of laser cooled rubidium atoms. The translational and rovibrational temperatures of the anions is probed by photodetachment tomography and spectroscopy which shows the first ever indication of sympathetic cooling of anions by laser cooled atoms.

  7. Direct control of peripheral lipid deposition by CNS GLP-1 receptor signaling is mediated by the sympathetic nervous system and blunted in diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueiras, Ruben; Pérez-Tilve, Diego; Veyrat-Durebex, Christelle; Morgan, Donald A; Varela, Luis; Haynes, William G; Patterson, James T; Disse, Emmanuel; Pfluger, Paul T; López, Miguel; Woods, Stephen C; DiMarchi, Richard; Diéguez, Carlos; Rahmouni, Kamal; Rohner-Jeanrenaud, Françoise; Tschöp, Matthias H

    2009-05-06

    We investigated a possible role of the central glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1) receptor system as an essential brain circuit regulating adiposity through effects on nutrient partitioning and lipid metabolism independent from feeding behavior. Both lean and diet-induced obesity mice were used for our experiments. GLP-1 (7-36) amide was infused in the brain for 2 or 7 d. The expression of key enzymes involved in lipid metabolism was measured by real-time PCR or Western blot. To test the hypothesis that the sympathetic nervous system may be responsible for informing adipocytes about changes in CNS GLP-1 tone, we have performed direct recording of sympathetic nerve activity combined with experiments in genetically manipulated mice lacking beta-adrenergic receptors. Intracerebroventricular infusion of GLP-1 in mice directly and potently decreases lipid storage in white adipose tissue. These effects are independent from nutrient intake. Such CNS control of adipocyte metabolism was found to depend partially on a functional sympathetic nervous system. Furthermore, the effects of CNS GLP-1 on adipocyte metabolism were blunted in diet-induced obese mice. The CNS GLP-1 system decreases fat storage via direct modulation of adipocyte metabolism. This CNS GLP-1 control of adipocyte lipid metabolism appears to be mediated at least in part by the sympathetic nervous system and is independent of parallel changes in food intake and body weight. Importantly, the CNS GLP-1 system loses the capacity to modulate adipocyte metabolism in obese states, suggesting an obesity-induced adipocyte resistance to CNS GLP-1.

  8. Chromosomal abnormalities and autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida El-Baz

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Chromosomal abnormalities were not detected in the studied autistic children, and so the relation between the genetics and autism still needs further work up with different study methods and techniques.

  9. Chromosomal Abnormalities in ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of fragile X syndrome, velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS, and other cytogenetic abnormalities among 100 children (64 boys with combined type ADHD and normal intelligence was assessed at the NIMH and Georgetown University Medical Center.

  10. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  11. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... especially the progestin-only pill (also called the “mini-pill”) can actually cause abnormal bleeding for some ... Basics Sports Safety Injury Rehabilitation Emotional Well-Being Mental Health Sex and Birth Control Sex and Sexuality ...

  12. End-to-side neurorrhaphy repairs peripheral nerve injury: sensory nerve induces motor nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qing; Zhang, She-Hong; Wang, Tao; Peng, Feng; Han, Dong; Gu, Yu-Dong

    2017-10-01

    End-to-side neurorrhaphy is an option in the treatment of the long segment defects of a nerve. It involves suturing the distal stump of the disconnected nerve (recipient nerve) to the side of the intimate adjacent nerve (donor nerve). However, the motor-sensory specificity after end-to-side neurorrhaphy remains unclear. This study sought to evaluate whether cutaneous sensory nerve regeneration induces motor nerves after end-to-side neurorrhaphy. Thirty rats were randomized into three groups: (1) end-to-side neurorrhaphy using the ulnar nerve (mixed sensory and motor) as the donor nerve and the cutaneous antebrachii medialis nerve as the recipient nerve; (2) the sham group: ulnar nerve and cutaneous antebrachii medialis nerve were just exposed; and (3) the transected nerve group: cutaneous antebrachii medialis nerve was transected and the stumps were turned over and tied. At 5 months, acetylcholinesterase staining results showed that 34% ± 16% of the myelinated axons were stained in the end-to-side group, and none of the myelinated axons were stained in either the sham or transected nerve groups. Retrograde fluorescent tracing of spinal motor neurons and dorsal root ganglion showed the proportion of motor neurons from the cutaneous antebrachii medialis nerve of the end-to-side group was 21% ± 5%. In contrast, no motor neurons from the cutaneous antebrachii medialis nerve of the sham group and transected nerve group were found in the spinal cord segment. These results confirmed that motor neuron regeneration occurred after cutaneous nerve end-to-side neurorrhaphy.

  13. Abnormal sound detection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Izumi; Matsui, Yuji.

    1995-01-01

    Only components synchronized with rotation of pumps are sampled from detected acoustic sounds, to judge the presence or absence of abnormality based on the magnitude of the synchronized components. A synchronized component sampling means can remove resonance sounds and other acoustic sounds generated at a synchronously with the rotation based on the knowledge that generated acoustic components in a normal state are a sort of resonance sounds and are not precisely synchronized with the number of rotation. On the other hand, abnormal sounds of a rotating body are often caused by compulsory force accompanying the rotation as a generation source, and the abnormal sounds can be detected by extracting only the rotation-synchronized components. Since components of normal acoustic sounds generated at present are discriminated from the detected sounds, reduction of the abnormal sounds due to a signal processing can be avoided and, as a result, abnormal sound detection sensitivity can be improved. Further, since it is adapted to discriminate the occurrence of the abnormal sound from the actually detected sounds, the other frequency components which are forecast but not generated actually are not removed, so that it is further effective for the improvement of detection sensitivity. (N.H.)

  14. Deferoxamine improves coronary vascular responses to sympathetic stimulation in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattori, Naoya; Bengel, Frank M.; Nekolla, Stephan G.; Drzezga, Alexander E.; Schwaiger, Markus [Nuklearmedizinische Klinik und Poliklinik, Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Technischen Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Schnell, Oliver; Rihl, Julian; Standl, Eberhard [Diabetes Research Center, Schwabing City Hospital, Munich (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    Effects of oxygen-derived free radicals are suggested to be a potential pathogenic factor for endothelial dysfunction. In this study we sought to evaluate the effect of hydroxyl radicals on the human coronary vascular bed in type I diabetes mellitus using positron emission tomography (PET). Thirteen patients with type 1 diabetes underwent PET using nitrogen-13 ammonia at rest and during sympathetic stimulation with the cold pressor test (CPT). The rest-stress study protocol was repeated twice (on different days) using pre-stress infusion of either saline as placebo or deferoxamine, an iron chelator which inhibits generation of hydroxyl radicals. At rest, global MBF was higher in diabetics than in normal controls (78.1{+-}17.5 vs 63.2{+-}14.9 mg 100 g{sup -1} min{sup -1}, P<0.05) and myocardial vascular resistance (MVR) showed a trend towards lower values (patients, 1.28{+-}0.35; controls, 1.55{+-}0.32, P=NS). CPT increased MBF in all controls while 7/13 diabetics responded normally. CPT decreased MVR in 10/13 controls but in only 4/13 diabetics. There was no significant difference in the duration of diabetes, HbA1c, daily insulin dose, body mass index, or lipid profiles between patients with and patients without abnormal MBF or MVR responses. Pre-stress infusion of deferoxamine normalized MBF response in all six patients, and MVR response in six of the nine patients. Another group consisting of seven patients underwent a rest-rest protocol after infusion of deferoxamine and saline to investigate the effect of deferoxamine on resting MBF. Deferoxamine did not change the resting MBF (deferoxamine, 81{+-}17 ml 100 g{sup -1} min{sup -1}; saline, 75{+-}19 ml 100 g{sup -1} min{sup -1}, P=NS) or MVR (deferoxamine, 1.0{+-}0.5 mmHg ml{sup -1} 100 g{sup -1} min{sup -1}; saline, 1.2{+-}0.6 mmHg ml{sup -1} 100 g{sup -1} min{sup -1}, P=NS). In conclusion, inhibition of hydroxyl radical formation using deferoxamine significantly improved the responses of coronary

  15. Ultrasonographic findings of posterior interosseous nerve syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, You Dong; Ha, Doo Hoe; Lee, Sang Min [Dept. of Radiology, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ultrasonographic findings associated with posterior interosseous nerve (PIN) syndrome. Approval from the Institutional Review Board was obtained. A retrospective review of 908 patients' sonographic images of the upper extremity from January 2001 to October 2010 revealed 10 patients suspicious for a PIN abnormality (7 male and 3 female patients; mean age of 51.8±13.1 years; age range, 32 to 79 years). The ultrasonographic findings of PIN syndrome, including changes in the PIN and adjacent secondary changes, were evaluated. The anteroposterior diameter of the pathologic PIN was measured in eight patients and the anteroposterior diameter of the contralateral asymptomatic PIN was measured in six patients, all at the level immediately proximal to the proximal supinator border. The size of the pathologic nerves and contralateral asymptomatic nerves was compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. Swelling of the PIN proximal to the supinator canal by compression at the arcade of Fröhse was observed in four cases. Swelling of the PIN distal to the supinator canal was observed in one case. Loss of the perineural fat plane in the supinator canal was observed in one case. Four soft tissue masses were noted. Secondary denervation atrophy of the supinator and extensor muscles was observed in two cases. The mean anteroposterior diameter of the pathologic nerves (n=8, 1.79±0.43 mm) was significantly larger than that of the contralateral asymptomatic nerves (n=6, 1.02±0.22 mm) (P=0.003). Ultrasonography provides high-resolution images of the PIN and helps to diagnose PIN syndrome through visualization of its various causes and adjacent secondary changes.

  16. Regeneration of Optic Nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwok-Fai So

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The optic nerve is part of the central nervous system (CNS and has a structure similar to other CNS tracts. The axons that form the optic nerve originate in the ganglion cell layer of the retina and extend through the optic tract. As a tissue, the optic nerve has the same organization as the white matter of the brain in regard to its glia. There are three types of glial cells: Oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, and microglia. Little structural and functional regeneration of the CNS takes place spontaneously following injury in adult mammals. In contrast, the ability of the mammalian peripheral nervous system (PNS to regenerate axons after injury is well documented. A number of factors are involved in the lack of CNS regeneration, including: (i the response of neuronal cell bodies against the damage; (ii myelin-mediated inhibition by oligodendrocytes; (iii glial scarring, by astrocytes; (iv macrophage infiltration; and (v insufficient trophic factor support. The fundamental difference in the regenerative capacity between CNS and PNS neuronal cell bodies has been the subject of intensive research. In the CNS the target normally conveys a retrograde trophic signal to the cell body. CNS neurons die because of trophic deprivation. Damage to the optic nerve disconnects the neuronal cell body from its target-derived trophic peptides, leading to the death of retinal ganglion cells. Furthermore, the axontomized neurons become less responsive to the peptide trophic signals they do receive. On the other hand, adult PNS neurons are intrinsically responsive to neurotrophic factors and do not lose trophic responsiveness after axotomy. In this talk different strategies to promote optic-nerve regeneration in adult mammals are reviewed. Much work is still needed to resolve many issues. This is a very important area of neuroregeneration and neuroprotection, as currently there is no cure after traumatic optic nerve injury or retinal disease such as glaucoma, which

  17. Acellular Nerve Allografts in Peripheral Nerve Regeneration: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Amy M.; MacEwan, Matthew; Santosa, Katherine B.; Chenard, Kristofer E.; Ray, Wilson Z.; Hunter, Daniel A.; Mackinnon, Susan E.; Johnson, Philip J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Processed nerve allografts offer a promising alternative to nerve autografts in the surgical management of peripheral nerve injuries where short deficits exist. Methods Three established models of acellular nerve allograft (cold-preserved, detergent-processed, and AxoGen® -processed nerve allografts) were compared to nerve isografts and silicone nerve guidance conduits in a 14 mm rat sciatic nerve defect. Results All acellular nerve grafts were superior to silicone nerve conduits in support of nerve regeneration. Detergent-processed allografts were similar to isografts at 6 weeks post-operatively, while AxoGen®-processed and cold-preserved allografts supported significantly fewer regenerating nerve fibers. Measurement of muscle force confirmed that detergent-processed allografts promoted isograft-equivalent levels of motor recovery 16 weeks post-operatively. All acellular allografts promoted greater amounts of motor recovery compared to silicone conduits. Conclusions These findings provide evidence that differential processing for removal of cellular constituents in preparing acellular nerve allografts affects recovery in vivo. PMID:21660979

  18. Remnants of occipital vertebrae: proatlas segmentation abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Arnold H; Fenoy, Kathleen A

    2009-05-01

    Developmental remnants around the foramen magnum, or proatlas segmentation abnormalities, have been recorded in postmortem studies but very rarely in a clinical setting. Because of their rarity, the pathological anatomy has been misunderstood, and treatment has been fraught with failures. The objectives of this prospective study were to understand the correlative anatomy, pathology, and embryology and to recognize the clinical presentation and gain insights on the treatment and management. Our craniovertebral junction (CVJ) database started in 1977 and comprises 5200 cases. This prospective study has retrieval capabilities. Neurodiagnostic studies changed with the evolution of imaging. Seventy-two patients were recognized as having symptomatic proatlas segmentation abnormalities. Ventral bony masses from the clivus or medial occipital condyle occurred in 66% (44/72), lateral or anterolateral compressive masses in 37% (27 of 72 patients), and dorsal bony compression in 17% (12 of 72 patients). Hindbrain herniation was associated in 33%. The age at presentation was 3 to 23 years. Motor symptoms occurred in 72% (52 of 72 patients); palsies in Cranial Nerves IX, X, and XII in 33% (24 of 72 patients); and vertebrobasilar symptoms in 25% (18 of 72 patients). Trauma precipitated symptoms in 55% (40 of 72 patients). The best definition of the abnormality was demonstrated by 3-dimensional computed tomography combined with magnetic resonance imaging. Treatment was aimed at decompression of the pathology and stabilization. Remnants of the occipital vertebrae around the foramen magnum were recognized in 72 of 5200 CVJ cases (7.2%). Magnetic resonance imaging with 3-dimensional computed tomography of the CVJ provides the best definition and understanding of the lesions. Brainstem myelopathy and lower cranial nerve deficits are common clinical presentations in the first and second decades of life. Treatment is aimed at decompression of the pathology and CVJ stabilization.

  19. Neuromuscular ultrasound of cranial nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, Eman A; Walker, Francis O; Cartwright, Michael S

    2015-04-01

    Ultrasound of cranial nerves is a novel subdomain of neuromuscular ultrasound (NMUS) which may provide additional value in the assessment of cranial nerves in different neuromuscular disorders. Whilst NMUS of peripheral nerves has been studied, NMUS of cranial nerves is considered in its initial stage of research, thus, there is a need to summarize the research results achieved to date. Detailed scanning protocols, which assist in mastery of the techniques, are briefly mentioned in the few reference textbooks available in the field. This review article focuses on ultrasound scanning techniques of the 4 accessible cranial nerves: optic, facial, vagus and spinal accessory nerves. The relevant literatures and potential future applications are discussed.

  20. Chitin biological absorbable catheters bridging sural nerve grafts transplanted into sciatic nerve defects promote nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Yong; Wang, Jian-Wei; Qin, Li-Hua; Zhang, Wei-Guang; Zhang, Pei-Xun; Jiang, Bao-Guo

    2018-06-01

    To investigate the efficacy of chitin biological absorbable catheters in a rat model of autologous nerve transplantation. A segment of sciatic nerve was removed to produce a sciatic nerve defect, and the sural nerve was cut from the ipsilateral leg and used as a graft to bridge the defect, with or without use of a chitin biological absorbable catheter surrounding the graft. The number and morphology of regenerating myelinated fibers, nerve conduction velocity, nerve function index, triceps surae muscle morphology, and sensory function were evaluated at 9 and 12 months after surgery. All of the above parameters were improved in rats in which the nerve graft was bridged with chitin biological absorbable catheters compared with rats without catheters. The results of this study indicate that use of chitin biological absorbable catheters to surround sural nerve grafts bridging sciatic nerve defects promotes recovery of structural, motor, and sensory function and improves muscle fiber morphology. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. The bony crescent sign - a new sign of facial nerve schwannoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watts, A.; Fagan, P.

    1992-01-01

    Schwannomas are relatively uncommon intracranial tumours. They most commonly involve the acoustic nerve followed in frequency by the trigeminal nerve. Other cranial nerves are rarely involved. Facial nerve schwannomas occurring within the petrous temporal bone are very rare. Their diagnosis may be missed prospectively even when appropriate computerized tomography (CT) scans are performed. Even in retrospect the site of abnormality may be difficult to identify, especially if there is an associated middle ear mass such as a cholesteatoma. In the 4 cases presented the facial nerve schwannoma was seen on high resolution CT as a soft tissue mass bounded anteriorly by a thin rim of bone. This bony crescent sign is a previously undescribed feature of facial nerve schwannoma which appears to be strongly indicative of the presence of this tumour. Recognition of this sign makes these tumours arising in the region of the geniculate ganglion easy to diagnose prospectively. 12 refs., 6 figs

  2. 142 Key words: Brachialis, radial nerve, musculocutaneous nerve.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AWORI KIRSTEEN

    The innervation of brachialis muscle by the musculocutaneous nerve has been described as either type I or type II and the main trunk to this muscle is rarely absent. The contribution .... brachialis muscle by fiber analysis of supply nerves].

  3. Nerve conduction and excitability studies in peripheral nerve disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Christian; Moldovan, Mihai

    2009-01-01

    counterparts in the peripheral nervous system, in some instances without peripheral nervous system symptoms. Both hereditary and acquired demyelinating neuropathies have been studied and the effects on nerve pathophysiology have been compared with degeneration and regeneration of axons. SUMMARY: Excitability......PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review is aimed at providing information about the role of nerve excitability studies in peripheral nerve disorders. It has been known for many years that the insight into peripheral nerve pathophysiology provided by conventional nerve conduction studies is limited. Nerve...... excitability studies are relatively novel but are acquiring an increasingly important role in the study of peripheral nerves. RECENT FINDINGS: By measuring responses in nerve that are related to nodal function (strength-duration time constant, rheobase and recovery cycle) and internodal function (threshold...

  4. The sympathetic and sensory innervation of rat airways: origin and neurochemical characterisation

    OpenAIRE

    Radtke, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Sensory and sympathetic innervation of Brown Norway rat airways were investigated using retrograde neuronal tracing with fluorescent dyes and double labelling immunofluorescence. Sensory neurons projecting to the lung are located in nodose and jugular vagal ganglia. Sympathetic neuronal supply of the lung originates in the stellate ganglia and superior cervical ganglia. Concerning immuno-reactivity for the SP and NOS in sensory and NPY and TH in sympathetic neurons were investigated. IR for S...

  5. Cranial nerve palsies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggieri, P.; Adelizzi, J.; Modic, M.T.; Ross, J.S.; Tkach, J.; Masaryk, T.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper evaluates the utility of multiplanar reconstructions (MPRs) of three-dimensional (3D) MR angiography data sets in the examination of patients with cranial nerve palsies. The authors hypothesis was that 3D data could be reformatted to highlight the intricate spatial relationships of vessels to adjacent neural tissues by taking advantage of the high vessel-parenchyma contrast in high-resolution 3D time-of-flight sequences. Twenty patients with cranial nerve palsies and 10 asymptomatic patients were examined with coronal T1-weighted and axial T2-weighted imaging plus a gadolinium-enhanced 3D MRA sequence (40/7/15 degrees, axial 60-mm volume, 0.9-mm isotropic resolution). Cranial nerves II-VIII were subsequently evaluated on axial and reformatted coronal and/or sagittal images

  6. Relationship Between Optic Nerve Appearance and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness as Explored with Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Tomas S.; Huang, Jiayan; Garrity, Sean T.; Carter, Stuart B.; Aleman, Wendy D.; Ying, Gui-shuang; Tamhankar, Madhura A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To study the relationship between the appearance of the optic nerve and the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness determined by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods Records from patients with spectral domain-OCT imaging in a neuro-ophthalmology practice were reviewed. Eyes with glaucoma/glaucoma suspicion, macular/optic nerve edema, pseudophakia, and with refractive errors > 6D were excluded. Optic nerve appearance by slit lamp biomicroscopy was related to the RNFL thickness by spectral domain-OCT and to visual field results. Results Ninety-one patients (176 eyes; mean age: 49 ± 15 years) were included. Eighty-three eyes (47%) showed optic nerve pallor; 89 eyes (50.6%) showed RNFL thinning (sectoral or average peripapillary). Average peripapillary RNFL thickness in eyes with pallor (mean ± SD = 76 ± 17 μm) was thinner compared to eyes without pallor (91 ± 14 μm, P < 0.001). Optic nerve pallor predicted RNFL thinning with a sensitivity of 69% and a specificity of 75%. Optic nerve appearance predicted RNFL thinning (with a sensitivity and specificity of 81%) when RNFL had thinned by ∼ 40%. Most patients with pallor had RNFL thinning with (66%) or without (25%) visual field loss; the remainder had normal RNFL and fields (5%) or with visual field abnormalities (4%). Conclusions Optic nerve pallor as a predictor of RNFL thinning showed fair sensitivity and specificity, although it is optimally sensitive/specific only when substantial RNFL loss has occurred. Translational Relevance Finding an acceptable relationship between the optic nerve appearance by ophthalmoscopy and spectral domain-OCT RNFL measures will help the clinician's interpretation of the information provided by this technology, which is gaining momentum in neuro-ophthalmic research. PMID:25374773

  7. Marital conflict and children's externalizing behavior: interactions between parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system activity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Beauchaine, Theodore P; Moore, Ginger A

    2009-01-01

    "Toward greater specificity in the prediction of externalizing problems in the context of interparental conflict, interactions between children's parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system (PNS and SNS...

  8. Burst Activity and Heart Rhythm Modulation in the Sympathetic Outflow to the Heart

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baselli, G

    2001-01-01

    In 13 decerebrate, artificially ventilated cats preganglionic sympathetic outflow to the heart was recorded with ECG and ventilation signal, A novel algorithm was implemented that extracts weighted...

  9. Tumors of the optic nerve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Jens; Heegaard, Steffen

    2009-01-01

    A variety of lesions may involve the optic nerve. Mainly, these lesions are inflammatory or vascular lesions that rarely necessitate surgery but may induce significant visual morbidity. Orbital tumors may induce proptosis, visual loss, relative afferent pupillary defect, disc edema and optic...... atrophy, but less than one-tenth of these tumors are confined to the optic nerve or its sheaths. No signs or symptoms are pathognomonic for tumors of the optic nerve. The tumors of the optic nerve may originate from the optic nerve itself (primary tumors) as a proliferation of cells normally present...... in the nerve (e.g., astrocytes and meningothelial cells). The optic nerve may also be invaded from tumors originating elsewhere (secondary tumors), invading the nerve from adjacent structures (e.g., choroidal melanoma and retinoblastoma) or from distant sites (e.g., lymphocytic infiltration and distant...

  10. Abnormal response to mental stress in patients with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy detected by gated single photon emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sciagra, Roberto; Genovese, Sabrina; Pupi, Alberto; Parodi, Guido; Bellandi, Benedetta; Antoniucci, David; Del Pace, Stefano; Zampini, Linda; Gensini, Gian Franco

    2010-01-01

    Persistent abnormalities are usually not detected in patients with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC). Since sympathetically mediated myocardial damage has been proposed as a causative mechanism of TTC, we explored whether mental stress could evoke abnormalities in these patients. One month after an acute event, 22 patients fulfilling all TTC diagnostic criteria and 11 controls underwent resting and mental stress gated single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Perfusion, wall motion, transient ischaemic dilation (TID) and left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) were evaluated. None of the controls showed stress-induced abnormalities. Mental stress evoked regional changes (perfusion defects and/or wall motion abnormality) in 16 TTC subjects and global abnormalities (LVEF fall >5% and/or TID >1.10) in 13; 3 had a completely negative response. TID, delta LVEF and delta wall motion score were significantly different in TTC vs control patients: 1.08 ± 0.20 vs 0.95 ± 0.11 (p < 0.05), -1.7 ± 6% vs 4 ± 5% (p < 0.02) and 2.5 (0, 4.25) vs 0 (0, 0) (p < 0.002), respectively. Mental stress may evoke regional and/or global abnormalities in most TTC patients. The abnormal response to mental stress supports the role of sympathetic stimulation in TTC. Mental stress could thus be helpful for TTC evaluation. (orig.)

  11. TARGETED STELLATE DECENTRALIZATION: IMPLICATIONS FOR SYMPATHETIC CONTROL OF VENTRICULAR ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Una; Yamakawa, Kentaro; Takamiya, Tatsuo; Armour, J. Andrew; Shivkumar, Kalyanam; Ardell, Jeffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Selective, bilateral cervicothoracic sympathectomy has proven to be effective for managing ventricular arrhythmias in the setting of structural heart disease. The procedure currently employed removes the caudal portions of both stellate ganglia, along with thoracic chain ganglia down to T4 ganglia. Objective To define the relative contributions of T1-T2 and the T3-T4 paravertebral ganglia in modulating ventricular electrical function. Methods In anesthetized vagotomised porcine subjects (n=8), the heart was exposed via sternotomy along with right and left paravertebral sympathetic ganglia to the T4 level. A 56-electrode epicardial sock was placed over both ventricles to assess epicardial activation recovery intervals (ARI) in response to individually stimulating right and left stellate vs T3 paravertebral ganglia. Responses to T3 stimuli were repeated following surgical removal of the caudal portions of stellate ganglia and T2 bilaterally. Results In intact preparations, stellate ganglion vs T3 stimuli (4Hz, 4ms duration) were titrated to produce equivalent decreases in global ventricular ARIs (right-side 85±6 vs 55±10 ms; left-side 24±3 vs 17±7 ms). Threshold of stimulus intensity applied to T3 ganglia to achieve threshold was 3 times that of T1 threshold. ARIs in unstimulated states were unaffected by bilateral stellate-T2 ganglion removal. Following acute decentralization, T3 stimulation failed to change ARIs. Conclusion Preganglionic sympathetic efferents arising from the T1-T4 spinal cord that project to the heart transit through stellate ganglia via the paravertebral chain. T1-T2 surgical excision is thus sufficient to functionally interrupt central control of peripheral sympathetic efferent activity. PMID:26282244

  12. Sympathetic ophthalmia after 23-gauge transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatoshi Haruta

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Masatoshi Haruta1, Hirokazu Mukuno2, Kazuaki Nishijima3, Hitoshi Takagi4, Mihori Kita51Department of Ophthalmology, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume, Fukuoka, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Konan Hospital, Kobe, Hyogo, Japan; 3Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, Kyoto, Japan; 4Department of Ophthalmology, St Marianna University School of Medicine, Kawasaki, Kanagawa, Japan; 5Department of Ophthalmology, Hyogo Prefectural Amagasaki Hospital, Amagasaki, Hyogo, JapanPurpose: We report a case of a sympathetic ophthalmia that occurred after 23-gauge transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy for a retinal detachment.Case report: A 41-year-old Japanese woman underwent combined phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation and 23-gauge transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy for a rhegmatogenous retinal detachment in the right eye. Endolaser photocoagulation and silicone oil tamponade were used to manage inferior retinal holes. Four weeks after the surgery, she returned with a 5-day history of reduced vision and metamorphopsia in her left eye. Slit-lamp examination showed a shallow anterior chamber in the right eye and moderate anterior uveitis bilaterally. Silicone oil bubbles and pigment dispersion were observed in the subconjunctival space adjacent to the right eye’s superonasal sclerotomy site. Fundus examination showed multifocal serous retinal detachments in both eyes. A diagnosis of sympathetic ophthalmia was made and the patient was treated with intensive topical and systemic steroids. The subretinal fluid cleared in both eyes following treatment. Twelve months after the onset of inflammation, the patient’s condition was stable on a combination of oral cyclosporine and topical steroids. Sunset glow retinal changes remain, but there has been no evidence of recurrent inflammation.Conclusion: Sympathetic ophthalmia can develop after 23-gauge

  13. Sympathetic, Metabolic Adaptations, and Oxidative Stress in Autism Spectrum Disorders: How Far From Physiology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonietta Messina

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASD is a complex and multifaceted neurobehavioral syndrome with no specific cause still identified, despite the worldwide increasing (prevalence for 1,000 children from 6.7 to 14.6, between 2000 and 2012. Many biological and instrumental markers have been suggested as potential predictive factors for the precocious diagnosis during infancy and/or pediatric age. Many studies reported structural and functional abnormalities in the autonomic system in subjects with ASD. Sleep problems in ASD are a prominent feature, having an impact on the social interaction of the patient. Considering the role of orexins (A and B in wake-sleep circadian rhythm, we could speculate that ASD subjects may present a dysregulation in orexinergic neurotransmission. Conversely, oxidative stress is implicated in the pathophysiology of many neurological disorders. Nonetheless, little is known about the linkage between oxidative stress and the occurrence or the progress of autism and autonomic functioning; some markers, such as heart rate (HR, heart rate variability (HRV, body temperature, and galvanic skin response (GSR, may be altered in the patient with this so complex disorder. In the present paper, we analyzed an autism case report, focusing on the rule of the sympathetic activity with the aim to suggest that it may be considered an important tool in ASD evaluation. The results of this case confirm our hypothesis even if further studies needed.

  14. Higher exercise intensity delays postexercise recovery of impedance-derived cardiac sympathetic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Scott; Jay, Ollie; Graham, Kenneth S; Davis, Glen M

    2017-08-01

    Systolic time intervals (STIs) provide noninvasive insights into cardiac sympathetic neural activity (cSNA). As the effect of exercise intensity on postexercise STI recovery is unclear, this study investigated the STI recovery profile after different exercise intensities. Eleven healthy males cycled for 8 min at 3 separate intensities: LOW (40%-45%), MOD (75%-80%), and HIGH (90%-95%) of heart-rate (HR) reserve. Bio-impedance cardiography was used to assess STIs - primarily pre-ejection period (PEP; inversely correlated with cSNA), as well as left ventricular ejection time (LVET) and PEP:LVET - during 10 min seated recovery immediately postexercise. Heart-rate variability (HRV), i.e., natural-logarithm of root mean square of successive differences (Ln-RMSSD), was calculated as an index of cardiac parasympathetic neural activity (cPNA). Higher preceding exercise intensity elicited a slower recovery of HR and Ln-RMSSD (p return to baseline by 10 min following any intensity (p ≤ 0.009). Recovery of STIs was also slower following higher intensity exercise (p ≤ 0.002). By 30 s postexercise, higher preceding intensity resulted in a lower PEP (98 ± 14 ms, 75 ± 6 ms, 66 ± 5 ms for LOW, MOD, and HIGH, respectively, p fashion. While exercise intensity must be considered, acute recovery may be a valuable period during which to concurrently monitor these noninvasive indices, to identify potentially abnormal cardiac autonomic responses.

  15. Single-side renal sympathetic denervation to treat malignant refractory hypertension in a solitary kidney patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribichini, Flavio; Ferrara, Angela; Pighi, Michele; Pesarini, Gabriele; Gambaro, Alessia; Valvo, Enrico; Lupo, Antonio; Vassanelli, Corrado

    2014-12-01

    Renal sympathetic denervation (RSD) is emerging as a new therapeutic option for patients with severe hypertension refractory to medical therapy. Patients affected by renovascular or anatomical abnormalities have hitherto been systematically excluded from clinical trials with RSD because of concern about safety and the unknown efficacy of the procedure in this subgroup of patients. We describe the management of a case of RSD in a single-kidney patient with refractory hypertension; the patient had had a previous surgical right nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma that subsequently required no other oncologic treatment. After multidisciplinary assessment, the patient underwent RSD. The procedure was performed through a 6F femoral access using the Symplicity™ RSD system (Medtronic, Mountain View, CA, USA). Radiofrequency was applied to the renal artery wall in 6 different points under general sedation with midazolam to control back pain caused by the procedure, that was performed without periprocedural complications. The patient was discharged 2 days later after a control of the vascular access site and routine biochemical examinations. The following 9-month follow up showed a significant reduction in blood pressure and stable renal function, without signs of renal damage. Our report confirms the feasibility of RSD in this delicate context, without evident negative effects on kidney function and with a significant reduction in blood pressure. Future studies are needed to fully clarify the value of RSD in single-kidney patients.

  16. Memory coherence of a sympathetically cooled trapped-ion qubit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Home, J. P.; McDonnell, M. J.; Szwer, D. J.; Keitch, B. C.; Lucas, D. M.; Stacey, D. N.; Steane, A. M.

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate sympathetic cooling of a 43 Ca + trapped-ion 'memory' qubit by a 40 Ca + 'coolant' ion sufficiently near the ground state of motion for fault-tolerant quantum logic, while maintaining coherence of the qubit. This is an essential ingredient in trapped-ion quantum computers. The isotope shifts are sufficient to suppress decoherence and phase shifts of the memory qubit due to the cooling light which illuminates both ions. We measure the qubit coherence during ten cycles of sideband cooling, finding a coherence loss of 3.3% per cooling cycle. The natural limit of the method is O(10 -4 ) infidelity per cooling cycle.

  17. Functionality of the baroreceptor nerves in heart rate regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, Johnny T.; Olufsen, Mette

    2011-01-01

    are a consequence of the memory encapsulated by the models, and the nonlinearity gives rise to sigmoidal response curves. The nonlinear afferent baroreceptor models are coupled with an effector model, and the coupled model has been used to predict baroreceptor feedback regulation of heart rate during postural...... change from sitting to standing and during head-up tilt. The efferent model couples the afferent nerve paths to the sympathetic and parasympathetic outflow, and subsequently predicts the build up of an action potential at the sinus knot of the heart. In this paper, we analyze the nonlinear afferent model...... and show that the coupled model is able to predict heart rate regulation using blood pressure data as an input...

  18. Exploring vocal recovery after cranial nerve injury in Bengalese finches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbano, Catherine M; Peterson, Jennifer R; Cooper, Brenton G

    2013-02-08

    Songbirds and humans use auditory feedback to acquire and maintain their vocalizations. The Bengalese finch (Lonchura striata domestica) is a songbird species that rapidly modifies its vocal output to adhere to an internal song memory. In this species, the left side of the bipartite vocal organ is specialized for producing louder, higher frequencies (≥2.2kHz) and denervation of the left vocal muscles eliminates these notes. Thus, the return of higher frequency notes after cranial nerve injury can be used as a measure of vocal recovery. Either the left or right side of the syrinx was denervated by resection of the tracheosyringeal portion of the hypoglossal nerve. Histologic analyses of syringeal muscle tissue showed significant muscle atrophy in the denervated side. After left nerve resection, songs were mainly composed of lower frequency syllables, but three out of five birds recovered higher frequency syllables. Right nerve resection minimally affected phonology, but it did change song syntax; syllable sequence became abnormally stereotyped after right nerve resection. Therefore, damage to the neuromuscular control of sound production resulted in reduced motor variability, and Bengalese finches are a potential model for functional vocal recovery following cranial nerve injury. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Altered protein phosphorylation in sciatic nerve from rats with streptozocin-induced diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrama, L.H.; Berti-Mattera, L.N.; Eichberg, J.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of experimental diabetes on the phosphorylation of proteins in the rat sciatic nerve was studied. Nerves from animals made diabetic with streptozocin were incubated in vitro with [ 32 P]orthophosphate and divided into segments from the proximal to the distal end, and proteins from each segment were then separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The principal labeled species were the major myelin proteins, P0, and the basic proteins. After 6 wk of diabetes, the incorporation of isotope into these proteins rose as a function of distance along the nerve in a proximal to distal direction and was significantly higher at the distal end compared with incorporation into nerves from age-matched controls. The overall level of isotope uptake was similar in nerves from diabetic animals and weight-matched controls. The distribution of 32 P among proteins also differed in diabetic nerve compared with both control groups in that P0 and the small basic protein accounted for a greater proportion of total label incorporated along the entire length of nerve. In contrast to intact nerve, there was no significant difference in protein phosphorylation when homogenates from normal and diabetic nerve were incubated with [ 32 P]-gamma-ATP. The results suggest that abnormal protein phosphorylation, particularly of myelin proteins, is a feature of experimental diabetic neuropathy and that the changes are most pronounced in the distal portion of the nerve

  20. CT of pleural abnormalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, W.R.

    1995-01-01

    Briefly discussed were CT diagnosis of pleural thickening, CT technique for examining the pleura or pleuro-pulmonary disease, diagnosis of pleural collections, diagnosis of pleural fluid abnormalities in patients with pneumonia, pleural neoplasms, malignant (diffuse) mesothelioma, metastases, local fibrous tumor of the pleura (benign mesothelioma) (21 refs.)

  1. CT of pleural abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, W R [California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    1996-12-31

    Briefly discussed were CT diagnosis of pleural thickening, CT technique for examining the pleura or pleuro-pulmonary disease, diagnosis of pleural collections, diagnosis of pleural fluid abnormalities in patients with pneumonia, pleural neoplasms, malignant (diffuse) mesothelioma, metastases, local fibrous tumor of the pleura (benign mesothelioma) (21 refs.).

  2. Neurologic abnormalities in murderers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, P Y; Pincus, J H; Buckner, C

    1995-09-01

    Thirty-one individuals awaiting trial or sentencing for murder or undergoing an appeal process requested a neurologic examination through legal counsel. We attempted in each instance to obtain EEG, MRI or CT, and neuropsychological testing. Neurologic examination revealed evidence of "frontal" dysfunction in 20 (64.5%). There were symptoms or some other evidence of temporal lobe abnormality in nine (29%). We made a specific neurologic diagnosis in 20 individuals (64.5%), including borderline or full mental retardation (9) and cerebral palsy (2), among others. Neuropsychological testing revealed abnormalities in all subjects tested. There were EEG abnormalities in eight of the 20 subjects tested, consisting mainly of bilateral sharp waves with slowing. There were MRI or CT abnormalities in nine of the 19 subjects tested, consisting primarily of atrophy and white matter changes. Psychiatric diagnoses included paranoid schizophrenia (8), dissociative disorder (4), and depression (9). Virtually all subjects had paranoid ideas and misunderstood social situations. There was a documented history of profound, protracted physical abuse in 26 (83.8%) and of sexual abuse in 10 (32.3%). It is likely that prolonged, severe physical abuse, paranoia, and neurologic brain dysfunction interact to form the matrix of violent behavior.

  3. Anatomy of the trigeminal nerve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijden, T.M.G.J.; Langenbach, G.E.J.; Baart, J.A.; Brand, H.S.

    2017-01-01

    The trigeminal nerve is the fifth cranial nerve (n. V), which plays an important role in the