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Sample records for symmetry-based rf pulse

  1. Numerical design of RNnν symmetry-based RF pulse schemes for recoupling and decoupling of nuclear spin interactions at high MAS frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbst, Christian; Herbst, Jirada; Leppert, Joerg; Ohlenschlaeger, Oliver; Goerlach, Matthias; Ramachandran, Ramadurai

    2009-01-01

    An approach for the efficient implementation of RN n ν symmetry-based pulse schemes that are often employed for recoupling and decoupling of nuclear spin interactions in biological solid state NMR investigations is demonstrated at high magic-angle spinning frequencies. RF pulse sequences belonging to the RN n ν symmetry involve the repeated application of the pulse sandwich {R φ R -φ }, corresponding to a propagator U RF = exp(-i4φI z ), where φ = πν/N and R is typically a pulse that rotates the nuclear spins through 180 o about the x-axis. In this study, broadband, phase-modulated 180 o pulses of constant amplitude were employed as the initial 'R' element and the phase-modulation profile of this 'R' element was numerically optimised for generating RN n ν symmetry-based pulse schemes with satisfactory magnetisation transfer characteristics. At representative MAS frequencies, RF pulse sequences were implemented for achieving 13 C- 13 C double-quantum dipolar recoupling and through bond scalar coupling mediated chemical shift correlation and evaluated via numerical simulations and experimental measurements. The results from these investigations are presented here

  2. Recoupling and decoupling of nuclear spin interactions at high MAS frequencies: numerical design of CNnν symmetry-based RF pulse schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbst, Christian; Herbst, Jirada; Kirschstein, Anika; Leppert, Joerg; Ohlenschlaeger, Oliver; Goerlach, Matthias; Ramachandran, Ramadurai

    2009-01-01

    The CN n ν class of RF pulse schemes, commonly employed for recoupling and decoupling of nuclear spin interactions in magic angle spinning solid state NMR studies of biological systems, involves the application of a basic 'C' element corresponding to an RF cycle with unity propagator. In this study, the design of CN n ν symmetry-based RF pulse sequences for achieving 13 C- 13 C double-quantum dipolar recoupling and through bond scalar coupling mediated 13 C- 13 C chemical shift correlation has been examined at high MAS frequencies employing broadband, constant-amplitude, phase-modulated basic 'C' elements. The basic elements were implemented as a sandwich of a small number of short pulses of equal duration with each pulse characterised by an RF phase value. The phase-modulation profile of the 'C' element was optimised numerically so as to generate efficient RF pulse sequences. The performances of the sequences were evaluated via numerical simulations and experimental measurements and are presented here

  3. RF Pulsed Heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pritzkau, David P.

    2002-01-03

    RF pulsed heating is a process by which a metal is heated from magnetic fields on its surface due to high-power pulsed RF. When the thermal stresses induced are larger than the elastic limit, microcracks and surface roughening will occur due to cyclic fatigue. Pulsed heating limits the maximum magnetic field on the surface and through it the maximum achievable accelerating gradient in a normal conducting accelerator structure. An experiment using circularly cylindrical cavities operating in the TE{sub 011} mode at a resonant frequency of 11.424 GHz is designed to study pulsed heating on OFE copper, a material commonly used in normal conducting accelerator structures. The high-power pulsed RF is supplied by an X-band klystron capable of outputting 50 MW, 1.5 {micro}s pulses. The test pieces of the cavity are designed to be removable to allow testing of different materials with different surface preparations. A diagnostic tool is developed to measure the temperature rise in the cavity utilizing the dynamic Q change of the resonant mode due to heating. The diagnostic consists of simultaneously exciting a TE{sub 012} mode to steady-state in the cavity at 18 GHz and measuring the change in reflected power as the cavity is heated from high-power pulsed RF. Two experimental runs were completed. One run was executed at a calculated temperature rise of 120 K for 56 x 10{sup 6} pulses. The second run was executed at a calculated temperature rise of 82 K for 86 x 10{sup 6} pulses. Scanning electron microscope pictures show extensive damage occurring in the region of maximum temperature rise on the surface of the test pieces.

  4. Pulsed rf operation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puglisi, M.; Cornacchia, M.

    1981-01-01

    The need for a very low final amplifier output impedance, always associated with class A operation, requires a very large power waste in the final tube. The recently suggested pulsed rf operation, while saving a large amount of power, increases the inherent final amplifier non linearity. A method is presented for avoiding the large signal non linear analysis and it is shown how each component of the beam induced voltage depends upon all the beam harmonics via some coupling coefficients which are evaluated

  5. RF pulse compression development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, Z.D.; Weaver, J.N.

    1987-10-01

    The body of this paper discusses the theory and some rules for designing a multistage Binary Energy Compressor (BEC) including its response to nonstandard phase coding, describes some proof-of-principle experiments with a couple of low power BECs, presents the design parameters for some sample linear collider rf systems that could possibly use a BEC to advantage and outlines in the conclusion some planned R and D efforts. 8 refs., 26 figs., 4 tabs

  6. Review of pulsed rf power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavine, T.L.

    1992-04-01

    I am going to talk about pulsed high-power rf generation for normal-conducting electron and positron linacs suitable for applications to high-energy physics in the Next Linear Collider, or NLC. The talk will cover some basic rf system design issues, klystrons and other microwave power sources, rf pulse-compression devices, and test facilities for system-integration studies

  7. Superconductors for pulsed rf accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campisi, I.E.; Farkas, Z.D.

    1985-04-01

    The choice of superconducting materials for accelerator rf cavities has been determined in the past only in part by basic properties of the superconductors, such as the critical field, and to a larger extent by criteria which include fabrication processes, surface conditions, heat transfer capabilities and so on. For cw operated cavities the trend has been toward choosing materials with higher critical temperatures and lower surface resistance, from Lead to Niobium, from Niobium to Nb 3 Sn. This trend has been dictated by the specific needs of storage ring cw system and by the relatively low fields which could be reached without breakdown. The work performed at SLAC on superconducting cavities using microsecond long high power rf pulses has shown that in Pb, Nb, and Nb 3 Sn fields close to the critical magnetic fields can be reached without magnetic breakdown

  8. Pulsed rf excited spectrometer having improved pulse width control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    RF excitation for a spectrometer is obtained by pulse width modulating an RF carrier to produce the desired broadband RF exciting spectrum. The RF excitation includes a train of composite RF pulses, each composite pulse having a primary pulse portion of a first RF phase and a second pulse portion of a second RF phase opposite that of the first. In this manner, the finite rise and fall times of the primary pulse portion are compensated for by the corresponding rise and fall times of the secondary pulse portion. The primary pulse portion is lengthened by an amount equal to the secondary pulse portion so that the secondary pulse portion cancels the added primary pulse portion. In a spectrometer, the compensating second pulse component removes certain undesired side bands of the RF excitation caused by the finite rise and fall times of the applied RF pulses. The compensating second pulse component removes certain undesired side bands associated with each of the resonant lines of the excited resonance spectrum of the sample under analysis, particularly for wide band RF excitation

  9. Pulsed rf systems for large storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, P.B.

    1979-03-01

    The possibility is considered that by using a pulsed rf system a substantial reduction can be made in the rf power requirement for the next generation of large storage rings. For a ring with a sufficiently large circumference, the time between bunch passages, T/sub b/, can exceed the cavity filling time, T/sub f/. As the ratio T/sub b//T/sub f/ increases, it is clear that at some point the average power requirement can be reduced by pulsing the rf to the cavities. In this mode of operation, the rf power is turned on a filling time or so before the arrival of a bunch and is switched off again at the time of bunch passage. There is no rf energy in the accelerating structure, and hence no power dissipation, for most of the period between bunches

  10. Pulsed rf superconductivity program at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campisi, I.E.; Farkas, Z.D.

    1984-08-01

    Recent tests performed at SLAC on superconducting TM 010 caavities using short rf pulses (less than or equal to 2.5 μs) have established that at the cavity surface magnetic fields can be reached in the vicinity of the theoretical critical fields without an appreciable increase in average losses. Tests on niobium and lead cavities are reported. The pulse method seems to be best suited to study peak field properties of superconductors in the microwave band, without the limitations imposed by defects. The short pulses also seem to be more effective in decreasing the causes of field emission by rf processing. Applications of the pulsed rf superconductivity to high-gradient linear accelerators are also possible

  11. Pulsed RF Sources for Linear Colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernow, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    These proceedings represent papers presented at the workshop on pulsed RF sources for linear colliders. The workshop examined the performance of RF sources for possible future linear colliders. Important sources were presented on new type of klystrons, gyrotrons and gyroklystrons. A number of auxiliary topics were covered, including modulators, pulse compression, power extraction, windows, electron guns and gun codes. The workshop was sponsored by the International Committee for Future Accelerators(ICFA), the U.S. Department of Energy and the Center for Accelerator Physics at Brookhaven National Laboratory. There were forty one papers presented at the workshop and all forty one have been abstracted for the Energy Science and Technology database

  12. Binary rf pulse compression experiment at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavine, T.L.; Spalek, G.; Farkas, Z.D.; Menegat, A.; Miller, R.H.; Nantista, C.; Wilson, P.B.

    1990-06-01

    Using rf pulse compression it will be possible to boost the 50- to 100-MW output expected from high-power microwave tubes operating in the 10- to 20-GHz frequency range, to the 300- to 1000-MW level required by the next generation of high-gradient linacs for linear for linear colliders. A high-power X-band three-stage binary rf pulse compressor has been implemented and operated at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). In each of three successive stages, the rf pulse-length is compressed by half, and the peak power is approximately doubled. The experimental results presented here have been obtained at low-power (1-kW) and high-power (15-MW) input levels in initial testing with a TWT and a klystron. Rf pulses initially 770 nsec long have been compressed to 60 nsec. Peak power gains of 1.8 per stage, and 5.5 for three stages, have been measured. This corresponds to a peak power compression efficiency of about 90% per stage, or about 70% for three stages, consistent with the individual component losses. The principle of operation of a binary pulse compressor (BPC) is described in detail elsewhere. We recently have implemented and operated at SLAC a high-power (high-vacuum) three-stage X-band BPC. First results from the high-power three-stage BPC experiment are reported here

  13. Experimental study of rf pulsed heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Laurent

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Cyclic thermal stresses produced by rf pulsed heating can be the limiting factor on the attainable reliable gradients for room temperature linear accelerators. This is especially true for structures that have complicated features for wakefield damping. These limits could be pushed higher by using special types of copper, copper alloys, or other conducting metals in constructing partial or complete accelerator structures. Here we present an experimental study aimed at determining the potential of these materials for tolerating cyclic thermal fatigue due to rf magnetic fields. A special cavity that has no electric field on the surface was employed in these studies. The cavity shape concentrates the magnetic field on one flat surface where the test material is placed. The materials tested in this study have included oxygen free electronic grade copper, copper zirconium, copper chromium, hot isostatically pressed copper, single crystal copper, electroplated copper, Glidcop®, copper silver, and silver plated copper. The samples were exposed to different machining and heat treatment processes prior to rf processing. Each sample was tested to a peak pulsed heating temperature of approximately 110°C and remained at this temperature for approximately 10×10^{6} rf pulses. In general, the results showed the possibility of pushing the gradient limits due to pulsed heating fatigue by the use of copper zirconium and copper chromium alloys.

  14. Experimental study of rf pulsed heating

    CERN Document Server

    Laurent, L; Nantista, C; Dolgashev, V; Higashi, Y; Aicheler, M; Tantawi, S; Wuensch, W

    2011-01-01

    Cyclic thermal stresses produced by rf pulsed heating can be the limiting factor on the attainable reliable gradients for room temperature linear accelerators. This is especially true for structures that have complicated features for wakefield damping. These limits could be pushed higher by using special types of copper, copper alloys, or other conducting metals in constructing partial or complete accelerator structures. Here we present an experimental study aimed at determining the potential of these materials for tolerating cyclic thermal fatigue due to rf magnetic fields. A special cavity that has no electric field on the surface was employed in these studies. The cavity shape concentrates the magnetic field on one flat surface where the test material is placed. The materials tested in this study have included oxygen free electronic grade copper, copper zirconium, copper chromium, hot isostatically pressed copper, single crystal copper, electroplated copper, Glidcop (R), copper silver, and silver plated co...

  15. RF pulse compression in the NLC test accelerator at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavine, T.L.

    1995-01-01

    At the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), the authors are designing a Next Linear Collider (NLC) with linacs powered by X-band klystrons with rf pulse compression. The design of the linac rf system is based on X-band prototypes which have been tested at high power, and on a systems-integration test - the Next Linear Collider Test Accelerator (NLCTA) - which is currently under construction at SLAC. This paper discusses some of the systems implications of rf pulse compression, and the use of pulse compression in the NLCTA, both for peak power multiplication and for controlling, by rf phase modulation, intra-pulse variations in the linac beam energy

  16. New fat suppression RF pulse with shorter duration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Kojiro; Ukai, Hiroyuki

    2010-01-01

    The fat suppression radio frequency pulse currently employed for MRI, which selectively saturates the frequency of the fat, has the narrow-band frequency characteristics. Therefore, the application duration for the pulse employed tends to be prolonged. In the present study, we designed a new fat suppression radiofrequency (RF) pulse using the Laguerre function in order to shorten the duration for fat suppression RF pulse and conducted an evaluation with the clinical equipment. The length of the RF pulse that we created allowed to reduce the duration by 47.3% compared with that employed for the clinical equipment. In addition, in the MR imaging evaluation, the new pulse was confirmed to have the fat suppression effect equivalent to that employed for the clinical equipment. (author)

  17. RF pulse compression in the NLC test accelerator at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavine, T.L.

    1995-01-01

    At the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), we are designing a Next Linear Collider (NLC) with linacs powered by X-band klystrons with rf pulse compression. The design of the linac rf system is based on X-band prototypes which have been tested at high power, and on a systems-integration test---the Next Linear Collider Test Accelerator (NLCTA)---which is currently under construction at SLAC. This paper discusses some of the systems implications of rf pulse compression, and the use of pulse compression in the NLCTA, both for peak power multiplication and for controlling, by rf phase modulation, intra-pulse variations in the linac beam energy. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  18. Lasertron, a pulsed RF-source using laser triggered photocathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, Masakazu.

    1988-12-01

    A new pulsed RF-source, 'Lasertron', are being developed as a possible RF-power source for future electron-positron linear colliders. In a series of systematic study, a prototype lasertron has been fabricated and tested. A peak power of 80 kW is attained at 2.856 GHz RF-frequency in 1-μs time duration. This paper describes the experimental results of the lasertron including the developments of the photocathode and the laser system. Test results are compared with the analysis of beam dynamics in the lasertron. (author)

  19. Electron pulse shaping in the FELIX RF accelerator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weits, H. H.; van der Geer, C. A. J.; Oepts, D.; van der Meer, A. F. G.

    1999-01-01

    The FELIX free-electron laser uses short pulses of relativistic electrons produced by an RF accelerator. The design target for the duration of these electron bunches was around 3 ps. In experiments we observed that the bunches emit coherently enhanced spontaneous emission (CSE) when they travel

  20. ASL: Comparison of presaturation and RF pulse optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, David; Sidaros, Karam

    2005-01-01

    In arterial spin labelling, the difference between the tag and control image is on the order of 1% of the equilibrium magnetization. A small offset between the images not related to perfusion, can therefore lead to large errors in the measured perfusion. One source of error is non-ideal RF pulses...... resulting in the inversion pulse affecting the acquired signal from the imaging area. This systematic error can be reduced by increasing the gap between the inversion and imaging regions, by using optimized inversion pulses e.g. FOCI1 or by saturating the signal from static tissue in the imaging area prior...

  1. A new RF tagging pulse based on the Frank poly-phase perfect sequence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Christoffer; Greferath, Marcus; Ringgaard, Steffen

    2014-01-01

    Radio frequency (RF) spectrally selective multiband pulses or tagging pulses, are applicable in a broad range of magnetic resonance methods. We demonstrate through simulations and experiments a new phase-modulation-only RF pulse for RF tagging based on the Frank poly-phase perfect sequence...

  2. Compact rf polarizer and its application to pulse compression systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Franzi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel method of reducing the footprint and increasing the efficiency of the modern multi-MW rf pulse compressor. This system utilizes a high power rf polarizer to couple two circular waveguide modes in quadrature to a single resonant cavity in order to replicate the response of a traditional two cavity configuration using a 4-port hybrid. The 11.424 GHz, high-Q, spherical cavity has a 5.875 cm radius and is fed by the circularly polarized signal to simultaneously excite the degenerate TE_{114} modes. The overcoupled spherical cavity has a Q_{0} of 9.4×10^{4} and coupling factor (β of 7.69 thus providing a loaded quality factor Q_{L} of 1.06×10^{4} with a fill time of 150 ns. Cold tests of the polarizer demonstrated good agreement with the numerical design, showing transmission of -0.05  dB and reflection back to the input rectangular WR 90 waveguide less than -40  dB over a 100 MHz bandwidth. This novel rf pulse compressor was tested at SLAC using XL-4 Klystron that provided rf power up to 32 MW and generated peak output power of 205 MW and an average of 135 MW over the discharged signal. A general network analysis of the polarizer is discussed as well as the design and high power test of the rf pulse compressor.

  3. Simple Theory of Thermal Fatigue Caused by RF Pulse Heating

    CERN Document Server

    Kuzikov, S

    2004-01-01

    The projects of electron-positron linear colliders imply that accelerating structures and other RF components will undergo action of extremely high RF fields. Except for breakdown threat there is an effect of the damage due to multi-pulse mechanical stress caused by Ohmic heating of the skin layer. A new theory of the thermal fatigue is considered. The theory is based on consideration of the quasi-elastic interaction between neighbor grains of metal due to the expansion of the thermal skin-layer. The developed theory predicts a total number of the RF pulses needed for surface degradation in dependence on temperature rise, pulse duration, and average temperature. The unknown coefficients in the final formula were found, using experimental data obtained at 11.4 GHz for the copper. In order to study the thermal fatigue at higher frequencies and to compare experimental and theoretical results, the experimental investigation of degradation of the copper cavity exposed to 30 GHz radiation is carried out now, basing...

  4. Active RF Pulse Compression Using An Electrically Controlled Semiconductor Switch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Jiquan; Tantawi, Sami; /SLAC

    2007-01-10

    First we review the theory of active pulse compression systems using resonant delay lines. Then we describe the design of an electrically controlled semiconductor active switch. The switch comprises an active window and an overmoded waveguide three-port network. The active window is based on a four-inch silicon wafer which has 960 PIN diodes. These are spatially combined in an overmoded waveguide. We describe the philosophy and design methodology for the three-port network and the active window. We then present the results of using this device to compress 11.4 GHz RF signals with high compression ratios. We show how the system can be used with amplifier like sources, in which one can change the phase of the source by manipulating the input to the source. We also show how the active switch can be used to compress a pulse from an oscillator like sources, which is not possible with passive pulse compression systems.

  5. The Development of the Electrically Controlled High Power RF Switch and Its Application to Active RF Pulse Compression Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Jiquan [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2008-12-01

    In the past decades, there has been increasing interest in pulsed high power RF sources for building high-gradient high-energy particle accelerators. Passive RF pulse compression systems have been used in many applications to match the available RF sources to the loads requiring higher RF power but a shorter pulse. Theoretically, an active RF pulse compression system has the advantage of higher efficiency and compactness over the passive system. However, the key component for such a system an element capable of switching hundreds of megawatts of RF power in a short time compared to the compressed pulse width is still an open problem. In this dissertation, we present a switch module composed of an active window based on the bulk effects in semiconductor, a circular waveguide three-port network and a movable short plane, with the capability to adjust the S-parameters before and after switching. The RF properties of the switch module were analyzed. We give the scaling laws of the multiple-element switch systems, which allow the expansion of the system to a higher power level. We present a novel overmoded design for the circular waveguide three-port network and the associated circular-to-rectangular mode-converter. We also detail the design and synthesis process of this novel mode-converter. We demonstrate an electrically controlled ultra-fast high power X-band RF active window built with PIN diodes on high resistivity silicon. The window is capable of handling multi-megawatt RF power and can switch in 2-300ns with a 1000A current driver. A low power active pulse compression experiment was carried out with the switch module and a 375ns resonant delay line, obtaining 8 times compression gain with a compression ratio of 20.

  6. Electron pulse shaping in the FELIX RF accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weits, H.H.; Geer, C.A.J. van der; Oepts, D.; Meer, A.F.G. van der

    1999-01-01

    The FELIX free-electron laser uses short pulses of relativistic electrons produced by an RF accelerator. The design target for the duration of these electron bunches was around 3 ps. In experiments we observed that the bunches emit coherently enhanced spontaneous emission (CSE) when they travel through an undulator. It was demonstrated that the power level of the CSE critically depends on the settings of the accelerator. In this article we seek to explain these observations by studying the length and shape of the electron bunches as a function of the settings of the accelerator. A particle-tracking model was used to simulate the acceleration and transport processes. These include bunch compression in a 14-cell travelling wave buncher cavity, acceleration in a travelling wave linear accelerator, and passage through a (dispersive) chicane structure. The effect of the phase setting of the RF accelerating field with respect to the arrival time of the electron bunch in each accelerator structure was studied. The parameter range of the simulations is related to that of an actual free-electron laser experiment using these bunches. We find that, for specific settings of the accelerating system, electron pulses with a length of 350 μm FWHM (1 ps) are produced. The charge in the bunch rises steeply within a distance of 25 μm. This bunch shape explains the high level of coherently enhanced spontaneous emission observed in the FELIX laser. (author)

  7. Medium Power 352 MHZ solid state pulsed RF amplifiers for the CERN LINAC4 Project

    CERN Document Server

    Broere, J; Gómez Martínez, Y; Rossi, M

    2011-01-01

    Economic, modular and highly linear pulsed RF amplifiers have recently been developed to be used for the three buncher cavities in the CERN Linac4. The amplifiers are water-cooled and can provide up to 33 kW pulsed RF Power, 1.5 ms pulse length and 50 Hz repetition rate. Furthermore a 60 kW unit is under construction to provide the required RF Power for the debuncher cavity. The concept is based on 1.2 kW RF power modules using the latest 6th generation LDMOS technology. For integration into the CERN control environment the amplifiers have an internal industrial controller, which will provide easy control and extended diagnostic functions. This paper describes the construction, performance, including linearity, phase stability and EMC compliance tests

  8. 1 ms pulse beam generation and acceleration by photo-cathode RF gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Ken; Hayano, Hitoshi; Urakawa, Jyunji

    2012-01-01

    We report successful generation of 1 ms long pulse and multi-bunch electron beam by a normal conducting photo-cathode RF gun at KEK-STF (Superconducting accelerator Test Facility). The 1 ms long Pulse beam generated by the RF gun is delivered to the injection line to examine stable acceleration and precise RF control. The 1 ms pulse beam is also used to demonstrate high brightness X-ray generation by inverse laser Compton scattering which will be also carried out at STF, supported by MEXT Quantum Beam project. The RF gun cavity has been fabricated by DESY-FNAL-KEK collaboration. Performing high power RF process and ethanol rinse to the cavity, a stable operation of the cavity up to 4.0 MW RF input power with ∼1 ms pulse length was achieved by keeping even low dark current. The beam generation test has been started since February 2012, 1 ms pulse was generated in March 2012. We explain about the STF injector and report the basic property of this 1 ms beam generation. (author)

  9. Electron Beam Energy Compensation by Controlling RF Pulse Shape

    CERN Document Server

    Kii, T; Kusukame, K; Masuda, K; Nakai, Y; Ohgaki, H; Yamazaki, T; Yoshikawa, K; Zen, H

    2005-01-01

    We have studied on improvement of electron beam macropulse properties from a thermionic RF gun. Though a thermionic RF gun has many salient features, there is a serious problem that back-bombardment effect worsens quality of the beam. To reduce beam energy degradation by this effect, we tried to feed non-flat RF power into the gun. As a result, we successfully obtained about 1.5 times longer macropulse and two times larger total charge per macropulse. On the other hand, we calculated transient evolution of RF power considering non-constant beam loading. The beam loading is evaluated from time evolution of cathode temperature, by use of one dimensional heat conduction model and electron trajectories' calculations by a particle simulation code. Then we found good agreement between the experimental and calculation results. Furthermore, with the same way, we studied the electron beam output dependence on the cathode radius.

  10. RF pulse methods for use with surface coils: Frequency-modulated pulses and parallel transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garwood, Michael; Uğurbil, Kamil

    2018-06-01

    The first use of a surface coil to obtain a 31P NMR spectrum from an intact rat by Ackerman and colleagues initiated a revolution in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS). Today, we take it for granted that one can detect signals in regions external to an RF coil; at the time, however, this concept was most unusual. In the approximately four decade long period since its introduction, this simple idea gave birth to an increasing number of innovations that has led to transformative changes in the way we collect data in an in vivo magnetic resonance experiment, particularly with MRI of humans. These innovations include spatial localization and/or encoding based on the non-uniform B1 field generated by the surface coil, leading to new spectroscopic localization methods, image acceleration, and unique RF pulses that deal with B1 inhomogeneities and even reduce power deposition. Without the surface coil, many of the major technological advances that define the extraordinary success of MRI in clinical diagnosis and in biomedical research, as exemplified by projects like the Human Connectome Project, would not have been possible.

  11. Slice-selective RF pulses for in vivo B1+ inhomogeneity mitigation at 7 tesla using parallel RF excitation with a 16-element coil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setsompop, Kawin; Alagappan, Vijayanand; Gagoski, Borjan; Witzel, Thomas; Polimeni, Jonathan; Potthast, Andreas; Hebrank, Franz; Fontius, Ulrich; Schmitt, Franz; Wald, Lawrence L; Adalsteinsson, Elfar

    2008-12-01

    Slice-selective RF waveforms that mitigate severe B1+ inhomogeneity at 7 Tesla using parallel excitation were designed and validated in a water phantom and human studies on six subjects using a 16-element degenerate stripline array coil driven with a butler matrix to utilize the eight most favorable birdcage modes. The parallel RF waveform design applied magnitude least-squares (MLS) criteria with an optimized k-space excitation trajectory to significantly improve profile uniformity compared to conventional least-squares (LS) designs. Parallel excitation RF pulses designed to excite a uniform in-plane flip angle (FA) with slice selection in the z-direction were demonstrated and compared with conventional sinc-pulse excitation and RF shimming. In all cases, the parallel RF excitation significantly mitigated the effects of inhomogeneous B1+ on the excitation FA. The optimized parallel RF pulses for human B1+ mitigation were only 67% longer than a conventional sinc-based excitation, but significantly outperformed RF shimming. For example the standard deviations (SDs) of the in-plane FA (averaged over six human studies) were 16.7% for conventional sinc excitation, 13.3% for RF shimming, and 7.6% for parallel excitation. This work demonstrates that excitations with parallel RF systems can provide slice selection with spatially uniform FAs at high field strengths with only a small pulse-duration penalty. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Multiphoton photoemission from a copper cathode illuminated by ultrashort laser pulses in an RF photoinjector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musumeci, P; Cultrera, L; Ferrario, M; Filippetto, D; Gatti, G; Gutierrez, M S; Moody, J T; Moore, N; Rosenzweig, J B; Scoby, C M; Travish, G; Vicario, C

    2010-02-26

    In this Letter we report on the use of ultrashort infrared laser pulses to generate a copious amount of electrons by a copper cathode in an rf photoinjector. The charge yield verifies the generalized Fowler-Dubridge theory for multiphoton photoemission. The emission is verified to be prompt using a two pulse autocorrelation technique. The thermal emittance associated with the excess kinetic energy from the emission process is comparable with the one measured using frequency tripled uv laser pulses. In the high field of the rf gun, up to 50 pC of charge can be extracted from the cathode using a 80 fs long, 2 microJ, 800 nm pulse focused to a 140 mum rms spot size. Taking into account the efficiency of harmonic conversion, illuminating a cathode directly with ir laser pulses can be the most efficient way to employ the available laser power.

  13. Multiphoton Photoemission from a Copper Cathode Illuminated by Ultrashort Laser Pulses in an rf Photoinjector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musumeci, P.; Gutierrez, M. S.; Moody, J. T.; Moore, N.; Rosenzweig, J. B.; Scoby, C. M.; Travish, G.; Cultrera, L.; Ferrario, M.; Filippetto, D.; Gatti, G.; Vicario, C.

    2010-01-01

    In this Letter we report on the use of ultrashort infrared laser pulses to generate a copious amount of electrons by a copper cathode in an rf photoinjector. The charge yield verifies the generalized Fowler-Dubridge theory for multiphoton photoemission. The emission is verified to be prompt using a two pulse autocorrelation technique. The thermal emittance associated with the excess kinetic energy from the emission process is comparable with the one measured using frequency tripled uv laser pulses. In the high field of the rf gun, up to 50 pC of charge can be extracted from the cathode using a 80 fs long, 2 μJ, 800 nm pulse focused to a 140 μm rms spot size. Taking into account the efficiency of harmonic conversion, illuminating a cathode directly with ir laser pulses can be the most efficient way to employ the available laser power.

  14. RF-sheath assessment of ICRF antenna geometry for long pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colas, L.; Bremond, S.

    2003-01-01

    Monitoring powered ion cyclotron resonance frequency (ICRF) antennas in magnetic fusion devices has revealed localized modifications of the plasma edge in the antenna shadow, most of them probably related to an enhanced polarization of the scrape-off layer (SOL) through radio-frequency (RF) sheath rectification. Although tolerable on present short RF pulses, sheaths should be minimized, as they may hinder proper operation of steady-state antennas and other subsystems connected magnetically to them, such as lower hybrid grills. As a first step towards mitigating RF sheaths in the design of future antennas, the present paper analyses the spatial structure of sheath potential maps in their vicinity, in relation with the 3D topology of RF near fields and the geometry of antenna front faces. Various combinations of poloidal radiating straps are first considered, and results are confronted to those inferred from transmission line theory. The dependence of sheath potentials on RF voltages or RF currents is studied. The role of RF near-field symmetries along tilted field lines is stressed to interpret such effects as that of strap phasing. A generalization of the 'dipole effect' is proposed. With similar arguments, the behavior of Faraday screen corners, where hot spots concentrate on Tore-Supra (TS), is then studied. The merits of aligning the antenna structure with the tilted magnetic field are thus discussed. The effect of switching from TS (high RF voltage near corners) to ITER-like electrical configurations of the straps (high voltage near equatorial plane) is also analyzed. (authors)

  15. 1 MW, 352.2 MHz, CW and Pulsed RF test stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badapanda, M.K.; Tripathi, Akhilesh; Upadhyay, Rinki; Tyagi, Rajiv; Hannurkar, P.R.

    2011-01-01

    A 1 MW, 352.2 MHz, RF test stand based on Thales make TH 2089 klystron amplifier is being developed at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT), Indore for characterization and qualification of RF components, cavities and related subsystems. Provision to vary RF power from 50 kW to 1 MW with adequate flexibility for testing wide range of HV components, RF components and cavities is incorporated in this test stand. The paper presents a brief detail of various power supplies like high voltage cathode bias power supply, modulating anode power supply, filament power supply, electromagnet power supplies and ion pump power supplies along with their interconnections for biasing TH 2089 klystron amplifier. A digital control and interlock system is being developed to realize proper sequence of operation of various power supplies and to monitor the status of crucial parameters in this test set up. This RF test stand will be a unique national facility, capable of providing both CW and pulse RF power for realizing reliable RF power sources for various projects including the development of high energy proton linac under ADSS program of the Department of Atomic Energy. (author)

  16. RF-superimposed DC and pulsed DC sputtering for deposition of transparent conductive oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stowell, Michael; Mueller, Joachim; Ruske, Manfred; Lutz, Mark; Linz, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Transparent conductive oxide films are widely used materials for electronic applications such as flat panel displays and solar cells. The superposition of DC and pulsed DC power by a certain fraction of RF power was applied to deposit indium tin oxide films. This technique allows an additional tuning of different parameters relevant to film growth, and yields high quality films even under kinetically limited conditions. A long-term stable RF/DC process could be realized by using different combinations of standard power supply components, which includes a fully reliable arc handling system for both the RF and DC generators. The effectiveness of the arc handling system is illustrated by the current and voltage behavior recorded for actual arcing events. The resistivity of indium tin oxide films is strongly influenced by the respective sputtering mode. The best resistivity values of 145-148 μΩ cm were obtained by RF-superimposed pulsed DC sputtering at a pulse frequency between 100 and 200 kHz and a substrate temperature as low as 140 deg. C. In addition, the films were extremely smooth with a surface roughness of 1-2.5 nm

  17. Efficient method to design RF pulses for parallel excitation MRI using gridding and conjugate gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shuo; Ji, Jim

    2014-04-01

    Parallel excitation (pTx) techniques with multiple transmit channels have been widely used in high field MRI imaging to shorten the RF pulse duration and/or reduce the specific absorption rate (SAR). However, the efficiency of pulse design still needs substantial improvement for practical real-time applications. In this paper, we present a detailed description of a fast pulse design method with Fourier domain gridding and a conjugate gradient method. Simulation results of the proposed method show that the proposed method can design pTx pulses at an efficiency 10 times higher than that of the conventional conjugate-gradient based method, without reducing the accuracy of the desirable excitation patterns.

  18. High-power rf pulse compression with SLED-II at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nantista, C.

    1993-04-01

    Increasing the peak rf power available from X-band microwave tubes by means of rf pulse compression is envisioned as a way of achieving the few-hundred-megawatt power levels needed to drive a next-generation linear collider with 50--100 MW klystrons. SLED-II is a method of pulse compression similar in principal to the SLED method currently in use on the SLC and the LEP injector linac. It utilizes low-los resonant delay lines in place of the storage cavities of the latter. This produces the added benefit of a flat-topped output pulse. At SLAC, we have designed and constructed a prototype SLED-II pulse-compression system which operates in the circular TE 01 mode. It includes a circular-guide 3-dB coupler and other novel components. Low-power and initial high-power tests have been made, yielding a peak power multiplication of 4.8 at an efficiency of 40%. The system will be used in providing power for structure tests in the ASTA (Accelerator Structures Test Area) bunker. An upgraded second prototype will have improved efficiency and will serve as a model for the pulse compression system of the NLCTA (Next Linear Collider Test Accelerator)

  19. Experimental Study of RF Pulsed Heating on Oxygen Free Electronic Copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pritzkau, David P.

    2003-02-10

    When the thermal stresses induced by RF pulsed heating are larger than the elastic limit, microcracks and surface roughening will occur due to cyclic fatigue. Therefore, pulsed heating limits the maximum surface magnetic field and through it the maximum achievable accelerating gradient. An experiment using circularly cylindrical cavities operating in the TE{sub 011} mode at a resonant frequency of 11.424 GHz was designed to study pulsed heating on Oxygen Free Electronic (OFE) copper. An X-band klystron delivered up to 10 MW to the cavities in 1.5 {micro}s pulses at 60 Hz repetition rate. One run was executed at a temperature rise of 120 K for 56 x 10{sup 6} pulses. Cracks at grain boundaries, slip bands and cracks associated with these slip bands were observed. The second run consisted of 86 x 10{sup 6} pulses with a temperature rise of 82 K, and cracks at grain boundaries and slip bands were seen. Additional information can be derived from the power-coupling iris, and we conclude that a pulsed temperature rise of 250 K for several million pulses leads to destruction of copper. These results can be applied to any mode of any OFE copper cavity.

  20. A z-gradient array for simultaneous multi-slice excitation with a single-band RF pulse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertan, Koray; Taraghinia, Soheil; Sadeghi, Alireza; Atalar, Ergin

    2018-07-01

    Multi-slice radiofrequency (RF) pulses have higher specific absorption rates, more peak RF power, and longer pulse durations than single-slice RF pulses. Gradient field design techniques using a z-gradient array are investigated for exciting multiple slices with a single-band RF pulse. Two different field design methods are formulated to solve for the required current values of the gradient array elements for the given slice locations. The method requirements are specified, optimization problems are formulated for the minimum current norm and an analytical solution is provided. A 9-channel z-gradient coil array driven by independent, custom-designed gradient amplifiers is used to validate the theory. Performance measures such as normalized slice thickness error, gradient strength per unit norm current, power dissipation, and maximum amplitude of the magnetic field are provided for various slice locations and numbers of slices. Two and 3 slices are excited by a single-band RF pulse in simulations and phantom experiments. The possibility of multi-slice excitation with a single-band RF pulse using a z-gradient array is validated in simulations and phantom experiments. Magn Reson Med 80:400-412, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  1. Study of Pulsed vs. RF Plasma Properties for Surface Processing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ricky; Hopkins, Matthew; Barnat, Edward; Miller, Paul

    2015-09-01

    The ability to manipulate the plasma parameters (density, E/N) was previously demonstrated using a double-pulsed column discharge. Experiments extending this to large-surface plasmas of interest to the plasma processing community were conducted. Differences between an audio-frequency pulsed plasma and a radio-frequency (rf) discharge, both prevalent in plasma processing applications, were studied. Optical emission spectroscopy shows higher-intensity emission in the UV/visible range for the pulsed plasma comparing to the rf plasma at comparable powers. Data suggest that the electron energy is higher for the pulsed plasma leading to higher ionization, resulting in increased ion density and ion flux. Diode laser absorption measurements of the concentration of the 1S5 metastable and 1S4 resonance states of argon (correlated with the plasma E/N) provide comparisons between the excitation/ionization states of the two plasmas. Preliminary modeling efforts suggest that the low-frequency polarity switch causes a much more abrupt potential variation to support interesting transport phenomena, generating a ``wave'' of higher temperature electrons leading to more ionization, as well as ``sheath capture'' of a higher density bolus of ions that are then accelerated during polarity switch.

  2. RF system developments for CW and/or long pulse linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, M.

    1998-01-01

    High Power Proton Linacs are under development or proposed for development at Los Alamos and elsewhere. By current standards these linacs all require very large amounts of RF power. The Accelerator for Production of Tritium (APT) is a CW accelerator with an output current and energy of 100 mA and 1,700 MeV, respectively. The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), in its ultimate configuration, is a pulsed accelerator with an average output power of 4 MW of beam. Other accelerators such as those that address transmutation and upgrades to LANSCE have similar requirements. For these high average power applications, the RF systems represent approximately half of the total cost of the linac and are thus key elements in the design and configuration of the accelerator. Los Alamos is fortunate to be actively working on both APT and SNS. For these programs the author is pursuing a number of component developments which are aimed at one or more of the key issues for large RF systems: technical performance, capital cost, reliability, and operating efficiency. This paper briefly describes some of the linac applications and then provides updates on the key RF developments being pursued

  3. High-quality electron pulse generation from a laser photocathode RF gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jinfeng; Sakai, Fumio; Aoki, Yasushi

    1999-01-01

    A laser photocathode RF gun system was developed for ultra short X-ray pulse generation via the inverse Compton scattering. The gun is a BNL-type S-band RF gun and the performance test of the gun was performed at the Linear Accelerator Facility in the Institute of Scientific and Industries Research, Osaka University. The gun system produced 115 pC electron bunches with the energy of 1.6 MeV under the condition of RF peak power of 1.5 MW and laser pulse energy of 65 μJ. The quantum efficiency and dark current were obtained to be 10 -5 and 0.6 nA at the repetition rate of 10 Hz, respectively. The energy and charge of the electron bunch were measured as a function of laser injection phase. Furthermore, the electron bunches were accelerated up to 117 MeV by three s-band TW linacs and the energy monochromaticity (ΔE/E) of the beam was 1.2%. The transverse emittance was also experimentally investigated at the end of the linacs. (author)

  4. Acoustic pressure waves induced in human heads by RF pulses from high-field MRI scanners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, James C; Wang, Zhangwei

    2010-04-01

    The current evolution toward greater image resolution from magnetic resonance image (MRI) scanners has prompted the exploration of higher strength magnetic fields and use of higher levels of radio frequencies (RFs). Auditory perception of RF pulses by humans has been reported during MRI with head coils. It has shown that the mechanism of interaction for the auditory effect is caused by an RF pulse-induced thermoelastic pressure wave inside the head. We report a computational study of the intensity and frequency of thermoelastic pressure waves generated by RF pulses in the human head inside high-field MRI and clinical scanners. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (U.S. FDA) guides limit the local specific absorption rate (SAR) in the body-including the head-to 8 W kg(-1). We present results as functions of SAR and show that for a given SAR the peak acoustic pressures generated in the anatomic head model were essentially the same at 64, 300, and 400 MHz (1.5, 7.0, and 9.4 T). Pressures generated in the anatomic head are comparable to the threshold pressure of 20 mPa for sound perception by humans at the cochlea for 4 W kg(-1). Moreover, results indicate that the peak acoustic pressure in the brain is only 2 to 3 times the auditory threshold at the U.S. FDA guideline of 8 W kg(-1). Even at a high SAR of 20 W kg(-1), where the acoustic pressure in the brain could be more than 7 times the auditory threshold, the sound pressure levels would not be more than 17 db above threshold of perception at the cochlea.

  5. Modelling of pulsed RF corona discharges in high-pressure air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auzas, F; Makarov, M; Naidis, G V

    2012-01-01

    An approach to description of pulsed RF corona discharges in high-pressure air is developed, based on the model of a filamentary discharge sustained by an electromagnetic wave guided along the plasma filament. Results of numerical simulation of spatial-temporal discharge dynamics at the quasi-stationary stage are obtained for various values of gas pressure and wave frequency. Experimental data on the discharge length versus the power absorbed by the discharge are presented. Their comparison with simulation results is given. (paper)

  6. EXCESS RF POWER REQUIRED FOR RF CONTROL OF THE SPALLATION NEUTRON SOURCE (SNS) LINAC, A PULSED HIGH-INTENSITY SUPERCONDUCTING PROTON ACCELERATOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, M.; Kwon, S.

    2001-01-01

    A high-intensity proton linac, such as that being planned for the SNS, requires accurate RF control of cavity fields for the entire pulse in order to avoid beam spill. The current design requirement for the SNS is RF field stability within ±0.5% and ±0.5 o [1]. This RF control capability is achieved by the control electronics using the excess RF power to correct disturbances. To minimize the initial capital costs, the RF system is designed with 'just enough' RF power. All the usual disturbances exist, such as beam noise, klystron/HVPS noise, coupler imperfections, transport losses, turn-on and turn-off transients, etc. As a superconducting linac, there are added disturbances of large magnitude, including Lorentz detuning and microphonics. The effects of these disturbances and the power required to correct them are estimated, and the result shows that the highest power systems in the SNS have just enough margin, with little or no excess margin

  7. Preliminary tests of a second harmonic rf system for the intense pulsed neutron source synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norem, J.; Brandeberry, F.

    1983-01-01

    The Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS) of the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS) operating at Argonne National Laboratory is presently producing intensities of 2 to 2.5 x 10 12 protons per pulse (ppp) with the addition of a new ion source. This intensity is close to the space charge limit of the machine, estimated at approx. 3 x 10 12 ppp, depending somewhat on the available aperture. Accelerator improvements are being directed at (1) increasing beam intensities for neutron science, (2) lowering acceleration losses to minimize activation, and (3) gaining better control of the beam so that losses can be made to occur when and where they can be most easily controlled. We are now proposing a third cavity for the RF system which would provide control of the longitudinal bunch shape during the cycle which would permit raising the effective space charge limit of the accelerator and reducing losses by providing more RF voltage at maximum acceleration. This paper presents an outline of the expected benefits together with recent results obtained during low energy operation with one of the two existing cavities operating at the second harmonic

  8. Generation of femtosecond electron single pulse using laser photocathode RF gun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uesaka, M.; Kinoshita, K.; Watanabe, T. [Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory, University of Tokyo, Tokai, Ibaraki (JP)] [and others

    1998-11-01

    A new laser photocathode RF electron gun was installed in the second linac of the S-band twin linac system of Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory(NERL) of University of Tokyo in August in 1997. Since then, the behavior of the new gun has been tested and the characteristic parameters have been evaluated. At the exit of the gun, the energy is 4.7 MeV, the charge per bunch 1 nC, the pulse width is 10 ps(FWHM), respectively, for 6 MW RF power supply from a klystron. The electron bunch is accelerated up to 17 MeV. The horizontal normalized emittance is 1 {pi} mm.mrad. Then, the bunch is compressed to be 440 fs(FWHM) with 0.35 nC by the chicane-type magnetic pulse compressor. The gun is planned to be used for femtosecond X-ray generation via the head-on Thomson scattering and laser wakefield acceleration in 1998. (author)

  9. Active high-power RF pulse compression using optically switched resonant delay lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tantawi, S.G.; Ruth, R.D.; Vlieks, A.E.

    1996-11-01

    The authors present the design and a proof of principle experimental results of an optically controlled high power rf pulse compression system. The design should, in principle, handle few hundreds of Megawatts of power at X-band. The system is based on the switched resonant delay line theory. It employs resonant delay lines as a means of storing rf energy. The coupling to the lines is optimized for maximum energy storage during the charging phase. To discharge the lines, a high power microwave switch increases the coupling to the lines just before the start of the output pulse. The high power microwave switch, required for this system, is realized using optical excitation of an electron-hole plasma layer on the surface of a pure silicon wafer. The switch is designed to operate in the TE 01 mode in a circular waveguide to avoid the edge effects present at the interface between the silicon wafer and the supporting waveguide; thus, enhancing its power handling capability

  10. Hybrid Simulation of Duty Cycle Influences on Pulse Modulated RF SiH4/Ar Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xifeng; Song, Yuanhong; Zhao, Shuxia; Dai, Zhongling; Wang, Younian

    2016-04-01

    A one-dimensional fluid/Monte-Carlo (MC) hybrid model is developed to describe capacitively coupled SiH4/Ar discharge, in which the lower electrode is applied by a RF source and pulse modulated by a square-wave, to investigate the modulation effects of the pulse duty cycle on the discharge mechanism. An electron Monte Carlo simulation is used to calculate the electron energy distribution as a function of position and time phase. Rate coefficients in chemical reactions can then be obtained and transferred to the fluid model for the calculation of electron temperature and densities of different species, such as electrons, ions, and radicals. The simulation results show that, the electron energy distribution f(ɛ) is modulated evidently within a pulse cycle, with its tail extending to higher energies during the power-on period, while shrinking back promptly in the afterglow period. Thus, the rate coefficients could be controlled during the discharge, resulting in modulation of the species composition on the substrate compared with continuous excitation. Meanwhile, more negative ions, like SiH-3 and SiH-2, may escape to the electrodes owing to the collapse of ambipolar electric fields, which is beneficial to films deposition. Pulse modulation is thus expected to provide additional methods to customize the plasma densities and components. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11275038)

  11. Temporal laser pulse shaping for RF photocathode guns: the cheap and easy way using UV birefringent crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Power, J.G.; Jing, C.

    2009-01-01

    We report experimental investigations into a new technique for achieving temporal laser pulse shaping for RF photocathode gun applications using inexpensive UV birefringent crystals. Exploiting the group velocity mismatch between the two different polarizations of a birefringent crystal, a stack of UV pulses can be assembled into the desired temporal pulse shape. The scheme is capable of generating a variety of temporal pulse shapes including: (i) flat-top pulses with fast rise-time and variable pulse duration. (ii) microbunch trains, and (iii) ramped pulse generation. We will consider two applications for beam generation at the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA) including a flat-top laser pulse for low emittance production and matched bunch length for enhanced transformer ratio production. Streak camera measurements of the temporal profiles generated with a 2-crystal set and a 4-crystal set are presented.

  12. Reduction of field emission in superconducting cavities with high power pulsed RF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graber, J.; Crawford, C.; Kirchgessner, J.; Padamsee, H.; Rubin, D.; Schmueser, P.

    1994-01-01

    A systematic study is presented of the effects of pulsed high power RF processing (HPP) as a method of reducing field emission (FE) in superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities to reach higher accelerating gradients for future particle accelerators. The processing apparatus was built to provide up to 150 kW peak RF power to 3 GHz cavities, for pulse lengths from 200 μs to 1 ms. Single-cell and nine-cell cavities were tested extensively. The thermal conductivity of the niobium for these cavities was made as high as possible to ensure stability against thermal breakdown of superconductivity. HPP proves to be a highly successful method of reducing FE loading in nine-cell SRF cavities. Attainable continuous wave (CW) fields increase by as much as 80% from their pre-HPP limits. The CW accelerating field achieved with nine-cell cavities improved from 8-15 MV/m with HPP to 14-20 MV/m. The benefits are stable with subsequent exposure to dust-free air. More importantly, HPP also proves effective against new field emission subsequently introduced by cold and warm vacuum ''accidents'' which admitted ''dirty'' air into the cavities. Clear correlations are obtained linking FE reduction with the maximum surface electric field attained during processing. In single cells the maximums reached were E peak =72 MV/m and H peak =1660 Oe. Thermal breakdown, initiated by accompanying high surface magnetic fields is the dominant limitation on the attainable fields for pulsed processing, as well as for final CW and long pulse operation. To prove that the surface magnetic field rather than the surface electric fields is the limitation to HPP effectiveness, a special two-cell cavity with a reduced magnetic to electric field ratio is successfully tested. During HPP, pulsed fields reach E peak =113 MV/m (H peak =1600 Oe) and subsequent CW low power measurement reached E peak =100 MV/m, the highest CW field ever measured in a superconducting accelerator cavity. ((orig.))

  13. Comparison of selective arterial spin labeling using 1D and 2D tagging RF pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konstandin, Simon; Heiler, Patrick M.; Schad, Lothar R. [Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Computer Assisted Clinical Medicine; Scharf, Johann [Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Dept. of Neuroradiology

    2011-07-01

    Generic arterial spin labeling (ASL) techniques label all brain feeding arteries. In this work, we used two different selective ASL (SASL) methods to show the perfusion of one single artery. A slice selective inversion of an area including the desired vessel was compared to a multidimensional RF pulse with Gaussian profile to label only the artery of interest. Perfusion images with a resolution of 2 x 2 x 5 mm{sup 3} are shown that were acquired after tagging only the internal carotid artery of healthy volunteers. In addition, both techniques were applied to a patient with an extra-intracranial bypass to illustrate its perfusion territory. These perfusion images are consistent with a standard angiography. SASL imaging with a resolution of 2 x 2 x 5 mm{sup 3} is possible in a total scan time of 5 min. The presented MR techniques may in part replace the assessment of revascularization success by conventional angiography. (orig.)

  14. Comparison of selective arterial spin labeling using 1D and 2D tagging RF pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstandin, Simon; Heiler, Patrick M.; Schad, Lothar R.; Scharf, Johann

    2011-01-01

    Generic arterial spin labeling (ASL) techniques label all brain feeding arteries. In this work, we used two different selective ASL (SASL) methods to show the perfusion of one single artery. A slice selective inversion of an area including the desired vessel was compared to a multidimensional RF pulse with Gaussian profile to label only the artery of interest. Perfusion images with a resolution of 2 x 2 x 5 mm 3 are shown that were acquired after tagging only the internal carotid artery of healthy volunteers. In addition, both techniques were applied to a patient with an extra-intracranial bypass to illustrate its perfusion territory. These perfusion images are consistent with a standard angiography. SASL imaging with a resolution of 2 x 2 x 5 mm 3 is possible in a total scan time of 5 min. The presented MR techniques may in part replace the assessment of revascularization success by conventional angiography. (orig.)

  15. A phase stabilized and pulse shaped Ti:Sapphire oscillator-amplifier laser system for the LCLS rf photoinjector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotseroglou, T.; Alley, R.; Clendenin, J.; Fisher, A.; Frisch, J.

    1998-04-01

    The authors have designed a laser system for the Linac Coherent Light Source rf photoinjector consisting of a Ti:Sapphire oscillator and 2 amplifiers using Chirped Pulse Amplification. The output after tripling will be 0.5 mJ tunable UV pulses at 120 Hz, with wavelength around 260 nm, pulsewidth of 10 ps FWHM and 200 fs rise and fall times. Amplitude stability is expected to be 1% rms in the UV and timing jitter better than 500 fs rms

  16. Tilt optimized flip uniformity (TOFU) RF pulse for uniform image contrast at low specific absorption rate levels in combination with a surface breast coil at 7 Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kalleveen, Irene M L; Boer, Vincent O; Luijten, Peter R; Klomp, Dennis W J

    2015-08-01

    Going to ultrahigh field MRI (e.g., 7 Tesla [T]), the nonuniformity of the B1+ field and the increased radiofrequency (RF) power deposition become challenging. While surface coils improve the power efficiency in B1+, its field remains nonuniform. In this work, an RF pulse was designed that uses the slab selection to compensate the inhomogeneous B1+ field of a surface coil without a substantial increase in specific absorption rate (SAR). A breast surface coil was used with a decaying B1+ field in the anterior-posterior direction of the human breast. Slab selective RF pulses were designed and compared with adiabatic and spokes RF pulses. Proof of principle was demonstrated with FFE and B1+ maps of the human breast. In vivo measurements obtained with the breast surface coil show that the tilt optimized flip uniformity (TOFU) RF pulses can improve the flip angle homogeneity by 31%, while the SAR will be lower compared with BIR-4 and spokes RF pulses. By applying TOFU RF pulses to the breast surface coil, we are able to compensate the inhomogeneous B1+ field, while keeping the SAR low. Therefore stronger T1 -weighting in FFE sequences can be obtained, while pulse durations can remain short, as shown in the human breast at 7T. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. RF windows used at s-band pulsed klystrons in KEK linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michizono, S.; Saito, Y. [KEK, National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1997-04-01

    The breakdown of the alumina RF-windows used in high-power klystrons is one of the most serious problems in the development of klystrons. This breakdown results from excess heating of alumina due to multipactor bombardments and/or localized RF dissipations. A statistical research of window materials was carried out, and high-power tests were performed in order to develop RF windows having high durability for the KEKB klystrons. The breakdown mechanism of RF windows is being considered. An improved RF window installed in a KEKB klystron is also being tested. (J.P.N)

  18. Thermo-structural analysis of the rf-induced pulsed surface heating of the CLIC accelerating structures

    CERN Document Server

    Huopana, Jouni Juhani

    2006-01-01

    The CLIC (Compact LInear Collider) is being studied at CERN as a potential multi-TeV e+e- collider. The acceleration of the particles is done by RF (Radio Frequency). The surfaces of the RF (radio frequency) accelerating cavities are exposed to high pulsed RF currents which induce cyclic thermal stresses. These cyclic stresses are crucial for the fatigue lifetime of the cavities. To study the fatigue phenomenon properly the induced stresses must be well known. ANSYS FEM simulations were made to study the thermo-structural behaviour of the CLIC accelerating structure in copper zirconium, bimetallic and diamond coated constructions. The simulations showed the existence of high thermal stresses and low stress level shockwaves. It was also shown that the bimetallic structure increases stress values due to the differences in material properties. Diamond coating was found to reduce the thermal stresses.

  19. Relativistic acceleration and retardation effects on photoemission of intense electron short pulses, in RF-FEL photoinjectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolique, J.M.; Coacolo, M.

    1991-01-01

    In high-power free electron lasers, self-field effects in the electron beam are often the most important phenomenon on which the beam quality depends. These effects are generally conceived as space-charge effects, and described by a Poisson equation in a beam frame. In RF-FEL photoinjectors, the electrons of the intense short pulse produced by laser irradiation are submitted, just after their photoemission, to such a strong acceleration that relativistic acceleration and retardation effects are discussed, from the rigorous calculation of the Lienard-Wiechert velocity- and acceleration electric and magnetic fields, as a function of RF-electric field and beam parameters. The beam pulse is assumed to be axisymmetric, with a constant photoemitted current density. Consequences for the maximum current density that can be extracted are considered (the 'self-field limit,' a name more appropriate than 'space-charge limit' for the present conditions where electro-dynamic phenomena play an important role)

  20. Practical use of the amplitude and phase modulation of a high-power RF pulse via feed-forward control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawase, Keigo; Kato, Ryukou; Irizawa, Akinori; Isoyama, Goro; Kashiwagi, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    A new feed-forward control system to precisely control the amplitude and phase of the pulsed RF power in an electron linear accelerator (linac) is developed to make the accelerating field constant. Fast variations and ripples in the amplitude and phase in the RF pulses are compensated by modulating the amplitude and phase in the low-level system with a variable attenuator and phase shifter. The system is innovated the overdrive technique, which is commonly used in analog circuits, to speed up the slow response of the phase shifter, while the control signals are digitally processed; thus, the method is a hybrid of analog and digital techniques. By using the new control system, we find that the peak-to-peak variations in the amplitude and phase are reduced from 11.6% to 0.4% and from 6.1 degrees to 0.3 degrees, respectively, in 7.6-μs-long RF pulses for the L-band electron linac at Osaka University. (author)

  1. Tilt optimized flip uniformity (TOFU) RF pulse for uniform image contrast at low specific absorption rate levels in combination with a surface breast coil at 7 Tesla

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kalleveen, Irene M. L.; Boer, VO; Luijten, Peter R.; Klomp, DWJ

    Purpose: Going to ultrahigh field MRI (e. g., 7 Tesla [ T]), the nonuniformity of the B_1 field and the increased radiofrequency (RF) power deposition become challenging. While surface coils improve the power efficiency in B_1, its field remains nonuniform. In this work, an RF pulse was designed

  2. Development of high power CW and pulsed RF test facility based on 1 MW, 352.2 MHz klystron amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badapanda, M.K.; Tripathi, Akhilesh; Upadhyay, Rinki; Rao, J.N.; Tiwari, Ashish; Jain, Akhilesh; Lad, M.R.; Hannurkar, P.R.

    2013-01-01

    A high power 1 MW, 352.2 MHz RF Test facility having CW and Pulse capability is being developed at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT), Indore for performance evaluation of various RF components, accelerating structures and related subsystems. Thales make 1 MW, 352.2 MHz klystron amplifier (TH 2089) will be employed in this high power test facility, which is thoroughly tested for its performance parameters at rated operating conditions. Auxiliary power supplies like filament, electromagnet, ion pump and mod anode power supply as well as 200 W solid state driver amplifier necessary for this high power test facility have been developed. A high voltage floating platform is created for floating filament and mod anode power supplies. Interconnection of various power supplies and other subsystems of this test facility are being carried out. A high voltage 100 kV, 25 Amp DC crowbar less power supply and low conductivity water (LCW) plant required for this klystron amplifier are in advanced stage of development. NI make cRIO 9081 real time (RT) controller based control and interlock system has been developed to realize proper sequence of operation of various power supplies and to monitor the status of crucial parameters in this test facility. This RF test facility will provide confidence for development of RF System of future accelerators like SNS and ADSS. (author)

  3. Synchronization of femtosecond laser pulses and RF signal by using a Sagnac loop Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Hui; Hajima, Ryoichi

    2008-11-01

    For future advanced energy recovery linac to generate femtosecond X-ray pulses, precise synchronization between sub-systems is highly desired. Typical synchronization methods based on direct photo detection are limited by detector nonlinearities, which lead to amplitude-to-phase conversion and introduce excess timing jitter. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate an optical-electronic mixed phase lock loop to synchronize the RF signal and laser pulses. In this synchronism setup, a Sagnac-loop Mach-Zehnder interferometer has been used to suppress the excess noise of direct photo detection. This scheme transfers the timing information into a intensity imbalance between the two output beams of the interferometer. As experimental demonstration, the single side-band phase noise of RF signal from the VCO is locked to the mode-locked Ti:Sapphire laser in the spectrum covering the range of 10 kHz to 1 MHz. This synchronization scheme greatly reduces the phase noise and timing jitter of the RF signal. (author)

  4. Control Instabilities in a Pulsed Multi-Cavity RF System with Vector Sum Feedback (A Mathematical Analysis)

    CERN Document Server

    Tückmantel, Joachim

    2001-01-01

    Upcoming projects relying on pulsed linear accelerators intend to use superconducting RF systems. Cost reasons suggest driving several cavities by a common transmitter, controlled over a vector sum feedback system, possibly supported by a feed forward system. Numerical simulations hint that such a system may become uncontrollable under certain conditions. In the present paper, for a model very close to reality, we will present a mathematical proof that in fact spontaneous symmetry braking is possible for these configurations, defining also the precise conditions under which it will take place. These can be used as an estimate for the real RF system stability limits. The listing of a small program demonstrating the mechanism numerically for two cavities is attached.

  5. Control Instabilities in a Pulsed Multi-Cavity RF System with Vector Sum Feedback (A Mathematical Analysis) 052

    CERN Document Server

    Tückmantel, Joachim

    2001-01-01

    Upcoming projects relying on pulsed linear accelerators intend to use superconducting RF systems. Cost reasons suggest driving several cavities by a common transmitter, controlled over a vector sum feedback system, possibly supported by a feed forward system. Numerical simulations hint that such a system may become uncontrollable under certain conditions. In the present paper, for a model very close to reality, we will present a mathematical proof that in fact spontaneous symmetry braking is possible for these configurations, defining also the precise conditions under which it will take place. These can be used as an estimate for the real RF system stability limits. The listing of a small program demonstrating the mechanism numerically for two cavities is attached.

  6. Very long pulse high-RF power test of a lower hybrid frequency antenna module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goniche, M; Brossaud, J; Barral, C; Berger-By, G; Bibet, Ph; Poli, S; Rey, G; Tonon, G [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d` Etudes Nucleaires de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee; Seki, M; Obara, K [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; and others

    1994-03-01

    Outgassing, induced by very long RF waves injection at high power density was studied in a module, able to be used for a lower hybrid frequency antenna. Good RF properties of the module are reported, however, resonance phenomena with strong absorption of RF power (15%) was observed at high temperature (T>400 deg C). A large outgassing data base is provided by the 75 shots cumulating 27 hours of RF injection. The comparison with previous experiments (Tore Supra and TdV prototype modules) confirm the effect of baking and results are consistent. Outgassing increases exponentially with -1/T, and a desorption model with an activation energy Ed {approx} 0.35 eV fits the data up to 400 deg C. In order to design vacuum pumping system for large lower hybrid frequency antenna, outgassing rates are given for different working temperatures. (author). 11 refs., 55 figs.

  7. Very long pulse high-RF power test of a lower hybrid frequency antenna module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goniche, M.; Brossaud, J.; Barral, C.; Berger-By, G.; Bibet, Ph.; Poli, S.; Rey, G.; Tonon, G.; Seki, M.; Obara, K.

    1994-03-01

    Outgassing, induced by very long RF waves injection at high power density was studied in a module, able to be used for a lower hybrid frequency antenna. Good RF properties of the module are reported, however, resonance phenomena with strong absorption of RF power (15%) was observed at high temperature (T>400 deg C). A large outgassing data base is provided by the 75 shots cumulating 27 hours of RF injection. The comparison with previous experiments (Tore Supra and TdV prototype modules) confirm the effect of baking and results are consistent. Outgassing increases exponentially with -1/T, and a desorption model with an activation energy Ed ∼ 0.35 eV fits the data up to 400 deg C. In order to design vacuum pumping system for large lower hybrid frequency antenna, outgassing rates are given for different working temperatures. (author). 11 refs., 55 figs

  8. Phase and amplitude stability of a pulsed RF system on the example of the CLIC drive beam LINAC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2132320; Prof. BANTEL, Michael

    The CLIC drive beam accelerator consists of the Drive Beam Injector (DBI) and two Drive Beam Linacs (DBLs). The drive beam injector is composed of a thermionic electron source, 3 Sub Harmonic Bunchers (SHBs), a pre-buncher, and several acceleration structures. In the electron source the DC electron beam is produced from a thermionic cathode. The following buncher cavities group ("bunch") the electrons to be accelerated by RF later on. Each electron bunch has an energy of 140 keV, a length of 3 mm, and a charge qb = 8.4 nC. Afterwards the electrons are accelerated in the 1 GHz accelerating structures up to 50MeV. The pulsed Radio Frequency (RF) power for this acceleration is provided by 1 GHz, 20MW modulator-klystron units, one per acceleration structure. A klystron is an RF amplifier based on a linear-beam vacuum tube. The high voltage modulator supplies the acceleration voltage to this tube. A DC electron beam gets modulated with an input signal, the modulation enhances in a drift space, and finally the powe...

  9. Effects of RF pulse profile and intra-voxel phase dispersion on MR fingerprinting with balanced SSFP readout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Su-Chin; Lin, Te-Ming; Lin, Jyh-Miin; Chung, Hsiao-Wen; Ko, Cheng-Wen; Büchert, Martin; Bock, Michael

    2017-09-01

    To investigate possible errors in T1 and T2 quantification via MR fingerprinting with balanced steady-state free precession readout in the presence of intra-voxel phase dispersion and RF pulse profile imperfections, using computer simulations based on Bloch equations. A pulse sequence with TR changing in a Perlin noise pattern and a nearly sinusoidal pattern of flip angle following an initial 180-degree inversion pulse was employed. Gaussian distributions of off-resonance frequency were assumed for intra-voxel phase dispersion effects. Slice profiles of sinc-shaped RF pulses were computed to investigate flip angle profile influences. Following identification of the best fit between the acquisition signals and those established in the dictionary based on known parameters, estimation errors were reported. In vivo experiments were performed at 3T to examine the results. Slight intra-voxel phase dispersion with standard deviations from 1 to 3Hz resulted in prominent T2 under-estimations, particularly at large T2 values. T1 and off-resonance frequencies were relatively unaffected. Slice profile imperfections led to under-estimations of T1, which became greater as regional off-resonance frequencies increased, but could be corrected by including slice profile effects in the dictionary. Results from brain imaging experiments in vivo agreed with the simulation results qualitatively. MR fingerprinting using balanced SSFP readout in the presence of intra-voxel phase dispersion and imperfect slice profile leads to inaccuracies in quantitative estimations of the relaxation times. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. High-efficiency resonant rf spin rotator with broad phase space acceptance for pulsed polarized cold neutron beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.-N. Seo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available High precision fundamental neutron physics experiments have been proposed for the intense pulsed spallation neutron beams at JSNS, LANSCE, and SNS to test the standard model and search for new physics. Certain systematic effects in some of these experiments have to be controlled at the few ppb level. The NPDGamma experiment, a search for the small parity-violating γ-ray asymmetry A_{γ} in polarized cold neutron capture on parahydrogen, is one example. For the NPDGamma experiment we developed a radio-frequency resonant spin rotator to reverse the neutron polarization in a 9.5  cm×9.5  cm pulsed cold neutron beam with high efficiency over a broad cold neutron energy range. The effect of the spin reversal by the rotator on the neutron beam phase space is compared qualitatively to rf neutron spin flippers based on adiabatic fast passage. We discuss the design of the spin rotator and describe two types of transmission-based neutron spin-flip efficiency measurements where the neutron beam was both polarized and analyzed by optically polarized ^{3}He neutron spin filters. The efficiency of the spin rotator was measured at LANSCE to be 98.8±0.5% for neutron energies from 3 to 20 meV over the full phase space of the beam. Systematic effects that the rf spin rotator introduces to the NPDGamma experiment are considered.

  11. Generation of high intensity rf pulses in the ionosphere by means of in situ compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowley, S.C.; Perkins, F.W.; Valeo, E.J.

    1993-04-01

    We demonstrate, using a simple model, that high intensity pulses can be generated from a frequency-chirped modifier of much lower intensity by making use of the dispersive properties of the ionosphere. We show that a frequency-chirped pulse can be constructed so that its various components overtake each other at a prescribed height, resulting in large (up to one hundred times) transient intensity enhancements as compared to those achievable from a steady modifier operating at the same power. We examine briefly one possible application: the enhancement of plasma wave amplitudes which occurs as a result of the interaction of such a compressed pulse with pre-generated turbulence

  12. Compression and radiation of high-power short rf pulses. II. A novel antenna array design with combined compressor/radiator elements

    KAUST Repository

    Sirenko, Kostyantyn

    2011-01-01

    The paper discusses the radiation of compressed high power short RF pulses using two different types of antennas: (i) A simple monopole antenna and (ii) a novel array design, where each of the elements is constructed by combining a compressor and a radiator. The studies on the monopole antenna demonstrate the possibility of a high power short RF pulse\\'s efficient radiation even using simple antennas. The studies on the novel array design demonstrate that a reduced size array with lower pulse distortion and power decay can be constructed by assembling the array from elements each of which integrates a compressor and a radiator. This design idea can be used with any type of antenna array; in this work it is applied to a phased array.

  13. The drive beam pulse compression system for the CLIC RF power source

    CERN Document Server

    Corsini, R

    1999-01-01

    The Compact LInear Collider (CLIC) is a high energy (0.5 to 5 TeV) e ± linear collider that uses a high- current electron beam (the drive beam) for 30 GHz RF power production by the Two-Beam Acceleration (TBA) method. Recently, a new cost­effective and efficient generation scheme for the drive beam has been developed. A fully­loaded normal­conducting linac operating at lower frequency (937 MHz) generates and accelerates the drive beam bunches, and a compression system composed of a delay­line and two combiner rings produces the proper drive beam time structure for RF power generation in the drive beam decelerator. In this paper, a preliminary design of the whole compression system is presented. In particular, the fundamental issue of preserving the bunch quality along the complex is studied and its impact on the beam parameters and on the various system components is assessed. A first design of the rings and delay­line lattice, including path length tuning chicanes, injection and extraction regions is a...

  14. Compression and radiation of high-power short rf pulses. II. A novel antenna array design with combined compressor/radiator elements

    KAUST Repository

    Sirenko, Kostyantyn; Pazynin, Vadim L.; Sirenko, Yu K.; Bagci, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    The paper discusses the radiation of compressed high power short RF pulses using two different types of antennas: (i) A simple monopole antenna and (ii) a novel array design, where each of the elements is constructed by combining a compressor and a

  15. Deposition of PZT thin film onto copper-coated polymer films by mean of pulsed-DC and RF-reactive sputtering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Suchaneck, G.; Labitzke, R.; Adolphi, B.; Jastrabík, Lubomír; Adámek, Petr; Drahokoupil, Jan; Hubička, Zdeněk; Kiselev, D.A.; Kholkin, A. L.; Gerlach, G.; Dejneka, Alexandr

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 205, č. 2 (2011), S241-S244 ISSN 0257-8972 R&D Projects: GA ČR GC202/09/J017; GA AV ČR KAN301370701; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : pulsed DC reactive sputtering * RF reactive sputtering * complex oxide film deposition * polymer substrate Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.867, year: 2011

  16. Measurements of the temporal and spatial phase variations of a 33 GHz pulsed free electron laser amplifier and application to high gradient RF acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volfbeyn, P.; Bekefi, G. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    We report the results of temporal and spatial measurements of phase of a pulsed free electron laser amplifier (FEL) operating in combined wiggler and axial guide magnetic fields. The 33 GHz FEL is driven by a mildly relativistic electron beam (750 kV, 90-300 A, 30 ns) and generates 61 MW of radiation with a high power magnetron as the input source. The phase is measured by an interferometric technique from which frequency shifting is determined. The results are simulated with a computer code. Experimental studies on a CERN-CLIC 32.98 GHz 26-cell high gradient accelerating section (HGA) were carried out for input powers from 0.1 MW to 35 MW. The FEL served as the r.f. power source for the HGA. The maximum power in the transmitted pulse was measured to be 15 MW for an input pulse of 35 MW. The theoretically calculated shunt impedance of 116 M{Omega}/m predicts a field gradient of 65 MeV/m inside the HGA. For power levels >3MW the pulse transmitted through the HGA was observed to be shorter than the input pulse and pulse shortening became more serious with increasing power input. At the highest power levels the output pulse length (about 5 nsec) was about one quarter of the input pulse length. Various tests suggest that these undesirable effects occur in the input coupler to the HGA. Light and X-ray production inside the HGA have been observed.

  17. Symmetry-based reciprocity: evolutionary constraints on a proximate mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campennì, Marco; Schino, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    Background. While the evolution of reciprocal cooperation has attracted an enormous attention, the proximate mechanisms underlying the ability of animals to cooperate reciprocally are comparatively neglected. Symmetry-based reciprocity is a hypothetical proximate mechanism that has been suggested to be widespread among cognitively unsophisticated animals. Methods. We developed two agent-based models of symmetry-based reciprocity (one relying on an arbitrary tag and the other on interindividual proximity) and tested their ability both to reproduce significant emergent features of cooperation in group living animals and to promote the evolution of cooperation. Results. Populations formed by agents adopting symmetry-based reciprocity showed differentiated "social relationships" and a positive correlation between cooperation given and received: two common aspects of animal cooperation. However, when reproduction and selection across multiple generations were added to the models, agents adopting symmetry-based reciprocity were outcompeted by selfish agents that never cooperated. Discussion. In order to evolve, hypothetical proximate mechanisms must be able to stand competition from alternative strategies. While the results of our simulations require confirmation using analytical methods, we provisionally suggest symmetry-based reciprocity is to be abandoned as a possible proximate mechanism underlying the ability of animals to reciprocate cooperative interactions.

  18. Design and preliminary characterization of a miniature pulsed RF APGD torch with downstream injection of the source of reactive species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leveille, V; Coulombe, S

    2005-01-01

    The design of a miniature low-power atmospheric pressure glow discharge torch (APGD-t) and the results of its preliminary electrical and spectroscopic characterization are presented. A capacitively-coupled pulsed RF (13.56 MHz) helium plasma jet is formed in a converging confinement tube and O 2 is injected downstream in the plasma afterglow region through a capillary electrode. With 1 SLM He, the APGD-t produced a non-thermal plasma jet of 500 μm-diameter and ∼2.5 mm-long at power levels ranging from 1 to 5 W. At ∼1 W, the gas temperature and He excitation temperature near the nozzle exit were ∼50 0 C and slightly below 2000 K, respectively. The breakdown voltage in 1 SLM He is approximately 220 V pk-to-0 . Careful electric probe measurements and circuit analysis revealed the strong effect of the voltage probe on the total load impedance. The injection of 10 SCCM O 2 through the capillary electrode led to the transport of atomic O further downstream in the plasma jet and to a slight increase of the He excitation temperature without significant effects on the electrical properties and jet length. Alternatively, the addition of an equivalent amount of O 2 (1 v/v%) to the plasma-forming gas affected the electrical properties slightly, but led to a drastic contraction of the plasma jet. The atomic oxygen production and transport conditions provided by the APGD-t are promising for precise bio-applications such as the treatment of skin tissues and cells

  19. Arcing and rf signal generation during target irradiation by a high-energy, pulsed neutral particle beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robiscoe, R.T.

    1988-02-01

    We present a theory describing the dynamics of arc discharges in bulk dielectric materials on board space-based vehicles. Such ''punch-through'' arcs can occur in target satellites irradiated by high-energy (250 MeV), pulsed (100 mA x 10 ms) neutral particle beams. We treat the arc as a capacitively limited avalanche current in the target dielectric material, and we find expressions for the arc duration, charge transport, currents, and discharge energy. These quantities are adjusted to be consistent with known scaling laws for the area of charge depleted by the arc. After a brief account of the statistical distribution of voltages at which the arc starts and stops, we calculate the signal strength and frequency spectrum of the electromagnetic radiation broadcast by the arc. We find that arcs from thick (/similar to/1 cm) targets can generate rf signals detectable up to 1000 km from the target, bu a radio receiver operating at frequency 80 MHz, bandwidth 100 kHz, and detection threshold -105 dBm. These thick-target arc signals are 10 to 20 dB above ambient noise at the receiver, and they provide target hit assessment if the signal spectrum can be sampled at several frequencies in the nominal range 30-200 MHz. Thin-target (/similar to/1 mm) arc signals are much weaker, but when they are detecable in conjunction with thick-target signals, target discrimination is possible by comparing the signal frequency spectra. 24 refs., 12 figs

  20. A 12 kV, 1 kHz, Pulse Generator for Breakdown Studies of Samples for CLIC RF Accelerating Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Soares, R H; Kovermann, J; Calatroni, S; Wuensch, W

    2012-01-01

    Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) RF structures must be capable of sustaining high surface electric fields, in excess of 200 MV/m, with a breakdown (BD) rate below 3×10-7 breakdowns/pulse/m. Achieving such a low rate requires a detailed understanding of all the steps involved in the mechanism of breakdown. One of the fundamental studies is to investigate the statistical characteristics of the BD rate phenomenon at very low values to understand the origin of an observed dependency of the surface electric field raised to the power of 30. To acquire sufficient BD data, in a reasonable period of time, a high repetition rate pulse generator is required for an existing d.c. spark system at CERN. Following BD of the material sample the pulse generator must deliver a current pulse of several 10’s of Amperes for ~2 μs. A high repetition rate pulse generator has been designed, built and tested; this utilizes pulse forming line technology and employs MOSFET switches. This paper describes the design of the pulse generat...

  1. RF Energy Compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, Z.D.

    1980-02-01

    The RF Energy Compressor, REC described here, transforms cw rf into periodic pulses using an energy storage cavity, ESC, whose charging is controlled by 180 0 bi-phase modulation, PSK, and external Q switching, βs. Compression efficiency, C/sub e/, of 100% can be approached at any compression factor C/sub f/

  2. Hybrid simulation of electron energy distributions and plasma characteristics in pulsed RF CCP sustained in Ar and SiH4/Ar discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xi-Feng; Jia, Wen-Zhu; Song, Yuan-Hong; Zhang, Ying-Ying; Dai, Zhong-Ling; Wang, You-Nian

    2017-11-01

    Pulsed-discharge plasmas offer great advantages in deposition of silicon-based films due to the fact that they can suppress cluster agglomeration, moderate the energy of bombarding ions, and prolong the species' diffusion time on the substrate. In this work, a one-dimensional fluid/Monte-Carlo hybrid model is applied to study pulse modulated radio-frequency (RF) plasmas sustained in capacitively coupled Ar and SiH4/Ar discharges. First, the electron energy distributions in pulsed Ar and SiH4/Ar plasmas have been investigated and compared under identical discharge-circuit conditions. The electron energy distribution function (EEDF) in Ar discharge exhibits a familiar bi-Maxwellian shape during the power-on phase of the pulse, while a more complex (resembling a multi-Maxwellian) distribution with extra inflection points at lower energies is observed in the case of the SiH4/Ar mixture. These features become more prominent with the increasing fraction of SiH4 in the gas mixture. The difference in the shape of the EEDF (which is pronounced inside the plasma but not in the RF sheath where electron heating occurs) is mainly attributed to the electron-impact excitations of SiH4. During the power-off phase of the pulse, the EEDFs in both Ar and SiH4/Ar discharges evolve into bi-Maxwellian shapes, with shrinking high energy tails. Furthermore, the parameter of ion species in the case of SiH4/Ar discharge is strongly modulated by pulsing. For positive ions, such as SiH3+ and Si2H4+ , the particle fluxes overshoot at the beginning of the power-on interval. Meanwhile, for negative ions such as SiH2- and SiH3- , density profiles observed between the electrodes are saddle-shaped due to the repulsion by the self-bias electric field as it builds up. During the power-off phase, the wall fluxes of SiH2- and SiH3- gradually increase, leading to a significant decrease in the net surface charge density on the driven electrode. Compared with ions, the density of SiH3 is poorly modulated

  3. Design of a high charge (10 - 100 nC) and short pulse (2 - 5 ps) rf photocathode gun for wakefield acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gai, W.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we present a design report on a 1-1/2 cell, L Band RF photocathode gun that is capable of generating and accelerating electron beams with peak currents >10 kA. We have performed simulation for bunch intensities in the range of 10-100 nC with peak axial electrical field at the photocathode of 30-100 MV/m. Unlike conventional short electron pulse generation, this design does not require magnetic pulse compression. Based on numerical simulations using SUPERFISH and PARMELA, this design will produce 20-100 nC beam at 18 MeV with rms bunch length 0.6-1.25 mm and normalized transverse emittance 30-108 mm mrad. Applications of this beam for wakefield acceleration is also discussed

  4. Development and contribution of rf heating and current drive systems to long pulse, high performance experiments in JT-60U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriyama, Shinichi; Seki, Masami; Terakado, Masayuki; Shimono, Mitsugu; Ide, Shunsuke; Isayama, Akihiko; Suzuki, Takahiro; Fujii, Tsuneyuki

    2005-01-01

    To contribute to high performance long pulse (∼65 s) experiments in JT-60U, the target of the electron cyclotron (EC) operation in long pulse is 0.6 MW for 30 s with four gyrotrons, though 10 MJ (2.8 MW and 3.6 s) was achieved in high power operation before 2003. One of the critical issues for the long pulse operation is detuning due to decay in beam current of the gyrotron. This decay comes from the cathode cooling by continuous electron emission. As a countermeasure for this issue, active adjustments for the heater current and anode voltage during the pulse have successfully extended the duration of a good oscillation condition for the gyrotron. As a result, 0.4 MW for 16 s with one gyrotron to the dummy load and for 8.7 s to the plasma have been achieved up to now

  5. Growth of Sr1-xNdxCuOy thin films by rf-magnetron sputtering and pulsed-laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugii, N.; Ichikawa, M.; Kuba, K.; Sakurai, T.; Iamamoto, K.; Yamauchi, H.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on Sr 1- x Nd x CuO y thin films grown on SrTiO 3 substrates by rf-magnetron sputtering and pulsed-laser deposition. The sputter-deposited film with x=0 has an infinite-layer structure whose lattice constants are: a=0.390 nm and c=0.347 nm. When x is larger than 0.1, the films contain a phase of the Sr 14 Cu 24 O 41 structure. The laser-deposited films of Sr 1- x Nd x CuO y with x ≥ 0.075 were single phase of the infinite-layer structure. The lattice parameter c decreased and the lattice parameter a increased, as the Nd content, x, increased. The films with x=0.10 and 0.125 exhibited superconducting onset temperatures around 26 K. Weak Meissner signals were observed for these films at temperatures below 30 K

  6. SU-F-J-112: Clinical Feasibility Test of An RF Pulse-Based MRI Method for the Quantitative Fat-Water Segmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yee, S; Wloch, J; Pirkola, M [William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Quantitative fat-water segmentation is important not only because of the clinical utility of fat-suppressed MRI images in better detecting lesions of clinical significance (in the midst of bright fat signal) but also because of the possible physical need, in which CT-like images based on the materials’ photon attenuation properties may have to be generated from MR images; particularly, as in the case of MR-only radiation oncology environment to obtain radiation dose calculation or as in the case of hybrid PET/MR modality to obtain attenuation correction map for the quantitative PET reconstruction. The majority of such fat-water quantitative segmentations have been performed by utilizing the Dixon’s method and its variations, which have to enforce the proper settings (often predefined) of echo time (TE) in the pulse sequences. Therefore, such methods have been unable to be directly combined with those ultrashort TE (UTE) sequences that, taking the advantage of very low TE values (∼ 10’s microsecond), might be beneficial to directly detect bones. Recently, an RF pulse-based method (http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mri.2015.11.006), termed as PROD pulse method, was introduced as a method of quantitative fat-water segmentation that does not have to depend on predefined TE settings. Here, the clinical feasibility of this method is verified in brain tumor patients by combining the PROD pulse with several sequences. Methods: In a clinical 3T MRI, the PROD pulse was combined with turbo spin echo (e.g. TR=1500, TE=16 or 60, ETL=15) or turbo field echo (e.g. TR=5.6, TE=2.8, ETL=12) sequences without specifying TE values. Results: The fat-water segmentation was possible without having to set specific TE values. Conclusion: The PROD pulse method is clinically feasible. Although not yet combined with UTE sequences in our laboratory, the method is potentially compatible with UTE sequences, and thus, might be useful to directly segment fat, water, bone and air.

  7. Possible effects of RF field near ICRF antenna on density control during long pulse discharge in LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, K.; Kumazawa, R.; Mutoh, T.; Seki, T.; Watari, T.; Nakamura, Y.; Sakamoto, M.; Noda, N.; Watanabe, T.; Shoji, M.; Masuzaki, S.; Morita, S.; Goto, M.; Torii, Y.; Takeuchi, N.; Shimpo, F.; Nomura, G.; Yokota, M.; Kato, A.; Zhao, Y.

    2005-01-01

    In the large helical device (LHD), the plasma duration time was extended up to 150 s by ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) heating. Time-integrated total input power reached 71 MJ. However, this discharge terminated due to radiation collapse accompanied by an increase of electron density. The temperature of the divertor plates and the intensity of H α were locally increased in the same toroidal section, near the ICRF antenna. One of the possible causes of the increase of radiation power is an outgassing from the divertor plates that were heated by particles accelerated in the cyclotron resonance layer near the antenna. Another possible cause is the outgassing from the ICRF antenna itself due to a temperature increase of the ICRF antenna owing to high-energy particles, or the formation of an RF (radio frequency) sheath

  8. SiOx Ink-Repellent Layer Deposited by Radio Frequency (RF) Plasmas in Continuous Wave and Pulse Mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Qiang; Fu Yabo; Pang Hua; Zhang Yuefei; Zhang Guangqiu

    2007-01-01

    Low surface energy layers, proposed application for non-water printing in computer to plate (CTP) technology, are deposited in both continuous wave and pulse radio frequency (13.56 MHz) plasma with hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) as precursor. It is found that the plasma mode dominates the polymer growth rate and the surface composition. Derived from the spectra of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and combined with printable test it is concluded that concentration of Si in coatings plays an important role for the ink printability and the ink does not adhere on the surface with high silicon concentration

  9. Complete theory of symmetry-based indicators of band topology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Po, Hoi Chun; Vishwanath, Ashvin; Watanabe, Haruki

    2017-06-30

    The interplay between symmetry and topology leads to a rich variety of electronic topological phases, protecting states such as the topological insulators and Dirac semimetals. Previous results, like the Fu-Kane parity criterion for inversion-symmetric topological insulators, demonstrate that symmetry labels can sometimes unambiguously indicate underlying band topology. Here we develop a systematic approach to expose all such symmetry-based indicators of band topology in all the 230 space groups. This is achieved by first developing an efficient way to represent band structures in terms of elementary basis states, and then isolating the topological ones by removing the subset of atomic insulators, defined by the existence of localized symmetric Wannier functions. Aside from encompassing all earlier results on such indicators, including in particular the notion of filling-enforced quantum band insulators, our theory identifies symmetry settings with previously hidden forms of band topology, and can be applied to the search for topological materials.Understanding the role of topology in determining electronic structure can lead to the discovery, or appreciation, of materials with exotic properties such as protected surface states. Here, the authors present a framework for identifying topologically distinct band-structures for all 3D space groups.

  10. Depth-profile analysis of thermoelectric layers on Si wafers by pulsed r.f. glow discharge time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinsberg, K.-G.; Schumacher, C.; Tempez, A.; Nielsch, K.; Broekaert, J.A.C.

    2012-01-01

    In this work the depth-profile analysis of thermoelectric layers deposited on Au and Cr covered Si wafers with the aid of pulsed radiofrequency glow discharge time-of-flight mass spectrometry (pulsed RF-GD-TOFMS also called plasma profiling TOFMS (PP-TOFMS™)) is described. For thermoelectric materials the depth resolutions obtained with both PP-TOFMS and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) are shown to be well comparable and in the order of the roughness of the corresponding layers (between 20 and 3700 nm). With both methods a direct solid analysis without any preparation steps is possible. In addition, the analysis of the samples with PP-TOFMS proved to be faster by a factor of 26 compared to SIMS, as sputtering rates were found to be 80 nm s −1 and 3 nm s −1 , respectively. For the analyzed samples the results of PP-TOFMS and SIMS show that a homogeneous deposition was obtained. Quantitative results for all samples could also be obtained directly by PP-TOFMS when the stoichiometry of one sample was determined beforehand for instance by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and scanning electron microscopy energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (SEM-EDX). For Bi 2 Te 3 the standard deviation for the main component concentrations within one sample then is found to be between 1.1% and 1.9% and it is 3.6% from sample to sample. For Sb 2 Te 3 the values within one sample are from 1.7% to 4.2% and from sample to sample 5.3%, respectively. - Highlights: ► Depth resolution in sub micrometer size by glow discharge mass spectrometry. ► Bi and Sb telluride layers composition with GD-TOF-MS, ICP-OES and SEM-EDX agree. ► Homogeneities of layers measured with GD-TOF-MS and SIMS agree.

  11. RF gun using laser-triggered photocathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, H.; Otake, Y.; Naito, T.; Takeuchi, Y.; Yoshioka, M.

    1992-01-01

    An RF gun using laser-triggered photocathode has many advantages as an injector of the linear colliders since it can generate a low emittance and high current pulsed beam. The experimental facility for the RF gun, such as an RF system, a laser system and a photocathode have been fabricated to study the fundamental characteristics. The dynamics of the RF gun has also studied by the 1D sheet beam model. (author)

  12. RF transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choroba, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the techniques of transport of high-power radiofrequency (RF) power from a RF power source to the cavities of an accelerator. Since the theory of electromagnetic waves in waveguides and of waveguide components is very well explained in a number of excellent text books it will limit itself on special waveguide distributions and on a number of, although not complete list of, special problems which sometimes occur in RF power transportation systems. (author)

  13. Depth-profile analysis of thermoelectric layers on Si wafers by pulsed r.f. glow discharge time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinsberg, K.-G. [Institute for Inorganic and Applied Chemistry, University of Hamburg, Martin-Luther-King-Platz 6, D-20146 Hamburg (Germany); Schumacher, C. [Institute for Applied Physics, University of Hamburg, Jungiusstrasse 11, D-20355 Hamburg (Germany); Tempez, A. [HORIBA Jobin Yvon, 16-18 rue du Canal, F-91160 Longjumeau (France); Nielsch, K. [Institute for Applied Physics, University of Hamburg, Jungiusstrasse 11, D-20355 Hamburg (Germany); Broekaert, J.A.C., E-mail: jose.broekaert@chemie.uni-hamburg.de [Institute for Inorganic and Applied Chemistry, University of Hamburg, Martin-Luther-King-Platz 6, D-20146 Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    In this work the depth-profile analysis of thermoelectric layers deposited on Au and Cr covered Si wafers with the aid of pulsed radiofrequency glow discharge time-of-flight mass spectrometry (pulsed RF-GD-TOFMS also called plasma profiling TOFMS (PP-TOFMS Trade-Mark-Sign )) is described. For thermoelectric materials the depth resolutions obtained with both PP-TOFMS and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) are shown to be well comparable and in the order of the roughness of the corresponding layers (between 20 and 3700 nm). With both methods a direct solid analysis without any preparation steps is possible. In addition, the analysis of the samples with PP-TOFMS proved to be faster by a factor of 26 compared to SIMS, as sputtering rates were found to be 80 nm s{sup -1} and 3 nm s{sup -1}, respectively. For the analyzed samples the results of PP-TOFMS and SIMS show that a homogeneous deposition was obtained. Quantitative results for all samples could also be obtained directly by PP-TOFMS when the stoichiometry of one sample was determined beforehand for instance by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and scanning electron microscopy energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (SEM-EDX). For Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} the standard deviation for the main component concentrations within one sample then is found to be between 1.1% and 1.9% and it is 3.6% from sample to sample. For Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} the values within one sample are from 1.7% to 4.2% and from sample to sample 5.3%, respectively. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Depth resolution in sub micrometer size by glow discharge mass spectrometry. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bi and Sb telluride layers composition with GD-TOF-MS, ICP-OES and SEM-EDX agree. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Homogeneities of layers measured with GD-TOF-MS and SIMS agree.

  14. The FELIX RF system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manintveld, P.; Delmee, P.F.M.; Geer, C.A.J. van der; Meddens, B.J.H.; Meer, A.F.G. van der; Amersfoort, P.W. van

    1992-01-01

    The performance of the RF system for the Free Electron Laser for Infrared eXperiments (FELIX) is discussed. The RF system provides the input power for a triode gun (1 GHz, 100 W), a prebuncher (1 GHz, 10 kW), a buncher (3 GHz, 20 MW), and two linacs (3 GHz, 8 MW each). The pulse length in the system is 20 μs. The required electron beam stability imposes the following demands on the RF system: a phase stability better than 0.3 deg for the 1 GHz signals and better than 1 deg for the 3 GHz signals; the amplitude stability has to be better than 1% for the 1 GHz and better than 0.2% for the 3 GHz signals. (author) 3 refs.; 6 figs

  15. RF MEMS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    At the bare die level the insertion loss, return loss and the isolation ... ing and packaging of a silicon on glass based RF MEMS switch fabricated using DRIE. ..... follows the power law based on the asperity deformation model given by Pattona & ... Surface mount style RF packages (SMX series 580465) from Startedge Corp.

  16. The TESLA RF System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choroba, S.

    2003-01-01

    The TESLA project proposed by the TESLA collaboration in 2001 is a 500 to 800GeV e+/e- linear collider with integrated free electron laser facility. The accelerator is based on superconducting cavity technology. Approximately 20000 superconducting cavities operated at 1.3GHz with a gradient of 23.4MV/m or 35MV/m will be required to achieve the energy of 500GeV or 800GeV respectively. For 500GeV ∼600 RF stations each generating 10MW of RF power at 1.3GHz at a pulse duration of 1.37ms and a repetition rate of 5 or 10Hz are required. The original TESLA design was modified in 2002 and now includes a dedicated 20GeV electron accelerator in a separate tunnel for free electron laser application. The TESLA XFEL will provide XFEL radiation of unprecedented peak brilliance and full transverse coherence in the wavelength range of 0.1 to 6.4nm at a pulse duration of 100fs. The technology of both accelerators, the TESLA linear collider and the XFEL, will be identical, however the number of superconducting cavities and RF stations for the XFEL will be reduced to 936 and 26 respectively. This paper describes the layout of the entire RF system of the TESLA linear collider and the TESLA XFEL and gives an overview of its various subsystems and components

  17. RF linacs for FELs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwettman, H.A.

    1992-01-01

    There are twenty rf linac-driven Free Electron Lasers (FELs) existing or under construction throughout the world and proposals for several more. A number of these FELs have recently been established as facilities to produce coherent optical beams for materials and biomedical research. Both short pulse low duty factor and long pulse high duty factor linac-driven FELs will be discussed. Accelerator issues that influence the performance of an FEL as a scientific instrument will be indicated. (Author) 6 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  18. High power RF oscillator with Marx generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murase, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Izumi

    1980-01-01

    A method to maintain RF oscillation by using many Marx generators was proposed and studied experimentally. Many charging circuits were connected to an oscillator circuit, and successive pulsed charging was made. This successive charging amplified and maintained the RF oscillation. The use of vacuum gaps and high power silicon diodes improved the characteristics of RF current cut-off of the circuit. The efficiency of the pulsed charging from Marx generators to a condenser was theoretically investigated. The theoretical result showed the maximum efficiency of 0.98. The practical efficiency obtained by using a proposed circuit with a high power oscillator was in the range 0.50 to 0.56. The obtained effective output power of the RF pulses was 11 MW. The maximum holding time of the RF pulses was about 21 microsecond. (Kato, T.)

  19. Microscopic investigation of RF surfaces of 3 GHz niobium accelerator cavities following RF processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graber, J.; Barnes, P.; Flynn, T.; Kirchgessner, J.; Knobloch, J.; Moffat, D.; Muller, H.; Padamsee, H.; Sears, J.

    1993-01-01

    RF processing of Superconducting accelerating cavities is achieved through a change in the electron field emission (FE) characteristics of the RF surface. The authors have examined the RF surfaces of several single-cell 3 GHz cavities, following RF processing, in a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The RF processing sessions included both High Peak Power (P ≤ 50 kW) pulsed processing, and low power (≤ 20 W) continuous wave processing. The experimental apparatus also included a thermometer array on the cavity outer wall, allowing temperature maps to characterize the emission before and after RF processing gains. Multiple sites have been located in cavities which showed improvements in cavity behavior due to RF processing. Several SEM-located sites can be correlated with changes in thermometer signals, indicating a direct relationship between the surface site and emission reduction due to RF processing. Information gained from the SEM investigations and thermometry are used to enhance the theoretical model of RF processing

  20. RF-source development for ITER: Large area H- beam extraction, modifications for long pulse operation and design of a half size ITER source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraus, W.; Heinemann, B.; Falter, H.D.; Franzen, P.; Speth, E.; Entscheva, A.; Fantz, U.; Franke, T.; Holtum, D.; Martens, Ch.; McNeely, P.; Riedl, R.; Wilhelm, R.

    2005-01-01

    With an extraction area of 152 cm 2 a calorimetrically measured H - current density of 19.3 mA/cm 2 has been achieved at 0.45 Pa with 90 kW RF power. With 306 cm 2 the electrically measured H - current has reached up to 9.7 A corresponding to 32 mA/cm 2 at 100 kW. The current on the calorimeter is limited by the extraction system. Down to 0.2 Pa only a weak dependence on the source pressure has been observed. The test bed will be upgraded to demonstrate cw operation with deuterium. Based on the tested prototype a half size ITER RF-source of 80 cm x 90 cm with 360 kW RF power has been designed

  1. Design of an L-band normally conducting RF gun cavity for high peak and average RF power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paramonov, V., E-mail: paramono@inr.ru [Institute for Nuclear Research of Russian Academy of Sciences, 60-th October Anniversary prospect 7a, 117312 Moscow (Russian Federation); Philipp, S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Rybakov, I.; Skassyrskaya, A. [Institute for Nuclear Research of Russian Academy of Sciences, 60-th October Anniversary prospect 7a, 117312 Moscow (Russian Federation); Stephan, F. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany)

    2017-05-11

    To provide high quality electron bunches for linear accelerators used in free electron lasers and particle colliders, RF gun cavities operate with extreme electric fields, resulting in a high pulsed RF power. The main L-band superconducting linacs of such facilities also require a long RF pulse length, resulting in a high average dissipated RF power in the gun cavity. The newly developed cavity based on the proven advantages of the existing DESY RF gun cavities, underwent significant changes. The shape of the cells is optimized to reduce the maximal surface electric field and RF loss power. Furthermore, the cavity is equipped with an RF probe to measure the field amplitude and phase. The elaborated cooling circuit design results in a lower temperature rise on the cavity RF surface and permits higher dissipated RF power. The paper presents the main solutions and results of the cavity design.

  2. RF transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James L.; Helenberg, Harold W.; Kilsdonk, Dennis J.

    1979-01-01

    There is provided an improved RF transformer having a single-turn secondary of cylindrical shape and a coiled encapsulated primary contained within the secondary. The coil is tapered so that the narrowest separation between the primary and the secondary is at one end of the coil. The encapsulated primary is removable from the secondary so that a variety of different capacity primaries can be utilized with one secondary.

  3. Femtosecond precision measurement of laser–rf phase jitter in a photocathode rf gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Libing; Zhao, Lingrong; Lu, Chao; Jiang, Tao; Liu, Shengguang; Wang, Rui; Zhu, Pengfei; Xiang, Dao

    2017-01-01

    We report on the measurement of the laser–rf phase jitter in a photocathode rf gun with femtosecond precision. In this experiment four laser pulses with equal separation are used to produce electron bunch trains; then the laser–rf phase jitter is obtained by measuring the variations of the electron bunch spacing with an rf deflector. Furthermore, we show that when the gun and the deflector are powered by the same rf source, it is possible to obtain the laser–rf phase jitter in the gun through measurement of the beam–rf phase jitter in the deflector. Based on these measurements, we propose an effective time-stamping method that may be applied in MeV ultrafast electron diffraction facilities to enhance the temporal resolution.

  4. Femtosecond precision measurement of laser–rf phase jitter in a photocathode rf gun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Libing; Zhao, Lingrong; Lu, Chao; Jiang, Tao; Liu, Shengguang; Wang, Rui; Zhu, Pengfei; Xiang, Dao, E-mail: dxiang@sjtu.edu.cn

    2017-03-21

    We report on the measurement of the laser–rf phase jitter in a photocathode rf gun with femtosecond precision. In this experiment four laser pulses with equal separation are used to produce electron bunch trains; then the laser–rf phase jitter is obtained by measuring the variations of the electron bunch spacing with an rf deflector. Furthermore, we show that when the gun and the deflector are powered by the same rf source, it is possible to obtain the laser–rf phase jitter in the gun through measurement of the beam–rf phase jitter in the deflector. Based on these measurements, we propose an effective time-stamping method that may be applied in MeV ultrafast electron diffraction facilities to enhance the temporal resolution.

  5. Short range RF communication for jet engine control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Daniel White (Inventor); Hershey, John Erik (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A method transmitting a message over at least one of a plurality of radio frequency (RF) channels of an RF communications network is provided. The method comprises the steps of detecting a presence of jamming pulses in the at least one of the plurality of RF channels. The characteristics of the jamming pulses in the at least one of the plurality of RF channels is determined wherein the determined characteristics define at least interstices between the jamming pulses. The message is transmitted over the at least one of the plurality of RF channels wherein the message is transmitted within the interstices of the jamming pulse determined from the step of determining characteristics of the jamming pulses.

  6. Reducing Energy Degradation Due to Back-bombardment Effect with Modulated RF Input in S-band Thermionic RF Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kii, Toshiteru; Nakai, Yoko; Fukui, Toshio; Zen, Heishun; Kusukame, Kohichi; Okawachi, Norihito; Nakano, Masatsugu; Masuda, Kai; Ohgaki, Hideaki; Yoshikawa, Kiyoshi; Yamazaki, Tetsuo

    2007-01-01

    Energy degradation due to back-bombardment effect is quite serious to produce high-brightness electron beam with long macro-pulse with thermionic rf gun. To avoid the back-bombardment problem, a laser photo cathode is used at many FEL facilities, but usually it costs high and not easy to operate. Thus we have studied long pulse operation of the rf gun with thermionic cathode, which is inexpensive and easy to operate compared to the photocathode rf gun. In this work, to reduce the energy degradation, we controlled input rf power amplitude by controlling pulse forming network of the power modulator for klystron. We have successfully increased the pulse duration up to 4 μs by increasing the rf power from 7.8 MW to 8.5 MW during the macro pulse.

  7. Experimental investigations on the influence of the photocathode laser pulse parameters on the electron bunch quality in an RF-photoelectron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haenel, Marc

    2010-06-01

    Free Electron Lasers based on the SASE principle like the European XFEL require electron bunches having peak currents of several kiloamperes as well as very low transverse emittance. While high peak currents can be generated using longitudinal bunch compression techniques, the transverse emittance must have values as low as 1mmmrad already at the source. The development of electron sources fulfilling these demanding specifications is the goal of the Photo Injector Test Facility (PITZ) in DESY, Zeuthen site. The key component of a photoinjector is the electron gun cavity where the electrons bunches are generated and immediately accelerated. The extraction of the electrons is based on the photoelectric effect of the cathode which requires a laser system having special capabilities. In the first part of the thesis, measurements are presented which were performed to investigate whether the laser and the laser transport system fulfill these requirements. The second part of the thesis is dedicated to simulations as well as experimental studies on the impact of the temporal and spatial parameters of the laser pulses on the electron bunch quality. This influence is possible because the response time of the Cs 2 Te photocathode is short compared to the laser pulse duration. Based on these investigations, suggestions for improvements are given and tolerances for the laser pulse properties are defined. (orig.)

  8. Experimental investigations on the influence of the photocathode laser pulse parameters on the electron bunch quality in an RF-photoelectron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haenel, Marc

    2010-07-15

    Free Electron Lasers based on the SASE principle like the European XFEL require electron bunches having peak currents of several kiloamperes as well as very low transverse emittance. While high peak currents can be generated using longitudinal bunch compression techniques, the transverse emittance must have values as low as 1mmmrad already at the source. The development of electron sources fulfilling these demanding specifications is the goal of the Photo Injector Test Facility (PITZ) in DESY, Zeuthen site. The key component of a photoinjector is the electron gun cavity where the electrons bunches are generated and immediately accelerated. The extraction of the electrons is based on the photoelectric effect of the cathode which requires a laser system having special capabilities. In the first part of the thesis, measurements are presented which were performed to investigate whether the laser and the laser transport system fulfill these requirements. The second part of the thesis is dedicated to simulations as well as experimental studies on the impact of the temporal and spatial parameters of the laser pulses on the electron bunch quality. This influence is possible because the response time of the Cs{sub 2}Te photocathode is short compared to the laser pulse duration. Based on these investigations, suggestions for improvements are given and tolerances for the laser pulse properties are defined. (orig.)

  9. Development and advances in conventional high power RF systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, P.B.

    1995-06-01

    The development of rf systems capable of producing high peak power (hundreds of megawatts) at relatively short pulse lengths (0.1--5 microseconds) is currently being driven mainly by the requirements of future high energy linear colliders, although there may be applications to industrial, medical and research linacs as well. The production of high peak power rf typically involves four basic elements: a power supply to convert ac from the ''wall plug'' to dc; a modulator, or some sort of switching element, to produce pulsed dc power; an rf source to convert the pulsed dc to pulsed rf power; and possibly an rf pulse compression system to further enhance the peak rf power. Each element in this rf chain from wall plug to accelerating structure must perform with high efficiency in a linear collider application, such that the overall system efficiency is 30% or more. Basic design concepts are discussed for klystrons, modulators and rf pulse compression systems, and their present design status is summarized for applications to proposed linear colliders

  10. An extension to SUf3 and Dirac particle of the transformation between physical bases and symmetry bases for dibaryon states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ping Jialun

    1994-01-01

    The transformation between physical bases and symmetry bases is extended from SU f 2 to SU f 3 . Its application in dibaryon calculation for both nonrelativistic and relativistic quark model is discussed

  11. RF power generation for future linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowkes, W.R.; Allen, M.A.; Callin, R.S.; Caryotakis, G.; Eppley, K.R.; Fant, K.S.; Farkas, Z.D.; Feinstein, J.; Ko, K.; Koontz, R.F.; Kroll, N.; Lavine, T.L.; Lee, T.G.; Miller, R.H.; Pearson, C.; Spalek, G.; Vlieks, A.E.; Wilson, P.B.

    1990-06-01

    The next linear collider will require 200 MW of rf power per meter of linac structure at relatively high frequency to produce an accelerating gradient of about 100 MV/m. The higher frequencies result in a higher breakdown threshold in the accelerating structure hence permit higher accelerating gradients per meter of linac. The lower frequencies have the advantage that high peak power rf sources can be realized. 11.42 GHz appears to be a good compromise and the effort at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) is being concentrated on rf sources operating at this frequency. The filling time of the accelerating structure for each rf feed is expected to be about 80 ns. Under serious consideration at SLAC is a conventional klystron followed by a multistage rf pulse compression system, and the Crossed-Field Amplifier. These are discussed in this paper

  12. The RF system of FELI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morii, Y.; Miyauchi, Y.; Koga, A.; Abe, H.; Keishi, T.; Bessho, I.; Tomimasu, T.

    1994-01-01

    FELI (Free Electron Laser Research Institute, Inc.) is constructing a Free Electron Laser facility covering from 20 μm (infra red region) to 0.35 μm (ultra violet region), using an S-band linac. The building will be completed in November 1993 and installation of the linac will start in December 1993. The linac consists of a thermoionic 0.5ns-pulse triggered gun, a 714 MHz SHB (subharmonic buncher), a 2856 MHz standing wave type buncher, and 7 ETL (Electrotechnical Laboratory) type accelerating sections. An RF system of the linac for FELs is required of long pulse duration and high stability. S-band klystrons (TOSHIBA E3729) are operated in three pulse operation modes (pulse width and peak RF power); 24 μs - 24 MW, 12.5 μs - 34 MW, 0.5 μs - 70 MW. Each klystron modulator has the PFN consisting of 4 parallel networks of 24 capacitors and 24 inductors, and it has a line switch of an optical thyristor stack. These equipments are manufactured now, and an S-band klystron and modulator will be combined to test their performance at the works of NISSIN ELECTRIC Co. in October 1993. (author)

  13. Epitaxial growth of InN on c-plane sapphire by pulsed laser deposition with r.f. nitrogen radical source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, J.; Fujioka, H.; Honke, T.; Oshima, M.

    2004-01-01

    We have grown InN films on c-plane sapphire substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) with a radio frequency nitrogen radical source for the first time and investigated the effect of the substrate surface nitridation on the structural and electrical properties of InN films with reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED), atomic force microscope, the Hall effect measurements and high-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD). RHEED and HRXRD characterizations revealed that high-quality InN grows epitaxially on sapphire by PLD and its epitaxial relationship is InN (0 0 0 1) parallel sapphire (0 0 0 1) and InN [2 -1 -1 0] parallel sapphire [1 0 -1 0]. The InN crystalline quality and the electron mobility are improved by the substrate nitridation process. The area of the pits at the InN surface is reduced by the substrate nitridation process probably due to the reduction in the interface energy between InN and the substrate. The full width at half maximum of the -1 -1 2 4 X-ray rocking curve for InN grown by the present technique without using any buffer layers was as small as 34.8 arcmin. These results indicate that the present technique is promising for the growth of the high-quality InN films

  14. Development of L-band pillbox RF window

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Y.; Fukuda, S.; Hisamatsu, H.; Saito, Y.; Takahashi, A.

    1994-01-01

    A pillbox RF output window was developed for the L-band pulsed klystron for the Japanese Hadron Project (JHP) 1-GeV proton linac. The window was designed to withstand a peak RF power of 6 MW, where the pulse width is 600 μsec and the repetition rate is 50 Hz. A high power model was fabricated using an alumina ceramic which has a low loss tangent of 2.5x10 -5 . A high power test was successfully performed up to a 113 kW RF average power with a 4 MW peak power, a 565 μsec pulse width and a 50 Hz repetition rate. By extrapolating the data of this high power test, the temperature rise of the ceramic is estimated low enough at the full RF power of 6 MW. Thus this RF window is expected to satisfy the specifications of the L-band Klystron. (author)

  15. Adaptive compensation of Lorentz force detuning in superconducting RF cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pischalnikov, Yuriy [Fermilab; Schappert, Warren [Fermilab

    2011-11-01

    The Lorentz force can dynamically detune pulsed Superconducting RF cavities and considerable additional RF power can be required to maintain the accelerating gradient if no effort is made to compensate. Fermilab has developed an adaptive compensation system for cavities in the Horizontal Test Stand, in the SRF Accelerator Test Facility, and for the proposed Project X.

  16. Electron dynamics in RF sources with a laser controlled emission

    CERN Document Server

    Khodak, I V; Metrochenko, V V

    2001-01-01

    Photoemission radiofrequency (RF) electron sources are sources of electron beams with extremely high brightness. Beam bunching processes in such devices are well studied in case when laser pulse duration is much lower of rf oscillation period.At the same time photoemission RF guns have some merits when operating in 'long-pulse' mode. In this case the laser pulse duration is much higher of rf oscillation period but much lower of rise time of oscillations in a gun cavity. Beam parameters at the gun output are compared for photoemission and thermoemission cathode applications. The paper presents results of a beam dynamics simulation in such guns with different resonance structures. Questions connected with defining of the current pulse peak value that can be obtained in such guns are discussed.

  17. Modulator considerations for the SNS RF system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallerico, P.J.; Reass, W.A.

    1998-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is an intense neutron source for neutron scattering experiments. The project is in the research stage, with construction funding beginning next year. The SNS is comprised of an ion source, a 1,000 MeV, H - linear accelerator, an accumulator ring, a neutron producing target, and experimental area to utilize the scattering of the neutrons. The linear accelerator is RF driven, and the peak beam current is 27 mA and the beam duty factor is 5.84%. The peak RF power required is 104 MW, and the H - beam pulse length is 0.97 ms at a 60 Hz repetition rate. The RF pulses must be about 0.1 ms longer than the beam pulses, due to the Q of the accelerating cavities, and the time required to establish control of the cavity fields. The modulators for the klystrons in this accelerator are discussed in this paper. The SNS is designed to be expandable, so the beam power can be doubled or even quadrupled in the future. One of the double-power options is to double the beam pulse length and duty factor. The authors are specifying the klystrons to operate in this twice-duty-factor mode, and the modulator also should be expandable to 2 ms pulses at 60 Hz. Due to the long pulse length and low RF frequency of 805 MHz, the klystron power is specified at 2.5 MW peak, and the RF system will have 56 klystrons at 805 MHz, and three 1.25 MW peak power klystrons at 402.5 MHz for the low energy portion of the accelerator. The low frequency modulators are conventional floating-deck modulation anode control systems

  18. RF Electron Gun with Driven Plasma Cathode

    CERN Document Server

    Khodak, Igor

    2005-01-01

    It's known that RF guns with plasma cathodes based on solid-state dielectrics are able to generate an intense electron beam. In this paper we describe results of experimental investigation of the single cavity S-band RF gun with driven plasma cathode. The experimental sample of the cathode based on ferroelectric ceramics has been designed. Special design of the cathode permits to separate spatially processes of plasma development and electron acceleration. It has been obtained at RF gun output electron beam with particle energy ~500 keV, pulse current of 4 A and pulse duration of 80 ns. Results of experimental study of beam parameters are referred in. The gun is purposed to be applied as the intense electron beam source for electron linacs.

  19. RF sources for recent linear accelerator projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrien, J.C.; Faillon, G.; Guidee, P.

    1992-01-01

    We present the state of the art of high power klystrons at Thomson Tubes Electroniques, along with the main technological limitations for peak power and pulse width. Then we describe the work that is under way to upgrade performance and some of the alternative RF sources that have been developed. (Author) 3 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Geometry Optimization of DC/RF Photoelectron Gun

    CERN Document Server

    Chen Ping; Yu, David

    2005-01-01

    Pre-acceleration of photoelectrons in a pulsed, high voltage, short, dc gap and its subsequent injection into an rf gun is a promising method to improve electron beam emittance in rf accelerators. Simulation work has been performed in order to optimize the geometric shapes of a dc/rf gun and improve electron beam properties. Variations were made on cathode and anode shapes, dc gap distance, and inlet shape of the rf cavity. Simulations showed that significant improvement on the normalized emittance (< 1 mm-mrad), compared to a dc gun with flat cathode, could be obtained after the geometric shapes of the gun were optimized.

  1. Method of electron emission control in RF guns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khodak, I.V.; Kushnir, V.A.

    2001-01-01

    The electron emission control method for a RF gun is considered.According to the main idea of the method,the additional resonance system is created in a cathode region where the RF field strength could be varied using the external pulse equipment. The additional resonance system is composed of a coaxial cavity coupled with a RF gun cylindrical cavity via an axial hole. Computed results of radiofrequency and electrodynamic performances of such a two-cavity system and results of the RF gun model pilot study are presented in. Results of particle dynamics simulation are described

  2. Method of electron emission control in RF guns

    CERN Document Server

    Khodak, I V

    2001-01-01

    The electron emission control method for a RF gun is considered.According to the main idea of the method,the additional resonance system is created in a cathode region where the RF field strength could be varied using the external pulse equipment. The additional resonance system is composed of a coaxial cavity coupled with a RF gun cylindrical cavity via an axial hole. Computed results of radiofrequency and electrodynamic performances of such a two-cavity system and results of the RF gun model pilot study are presented in. Results of particle dynamics simulation are described.

  3. A design and performance analysis tool for superconducting RF systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilcher, T.; Simrock, S.N.; Merminga, L.; Wang, D.X.

    1997-01-01

    Superconducting rf systems are usually operated with continuous rf power or with rf pulse lengths exceeding 1 ms to maximize the overall wall plug power efficiency. Typical examples are CEBAF at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) and the TESLA Test Facility at DESY. The long pulses allow for effective application of feedback to stabilize the accelerating field in presence of microphonics, Lorentz force detuning, and fluctuations of the beam current. In this paper the authors describe a set of tools to be used with MATLAB and SIMULINK, which allow to analyze the quality of field regulation for a given design. The tools include models for the cavities, the rf power source, the beam, sources of field perturbations, and the rf feedback system. The rf control relevant electrical and mechanical characteristics of the cavity are described in form of time-varying state space models. The power source is modeled as a current generator and includes saturation characteristics and noise.An arbitrary time structure can be imposed on the beam current to reflect a macro-pulse structure and bunch charge fluctuations. For rf feedback several schemes can be selected: Traditional amplitude and phase control as well as I/Q control. The choices for the feedback controller include analog or digital approaches and various choices of frequency response. Feed forward can be added to further suppress repetitive errors. The results of a performance analysis of the CEBAF and the TESLA Linac rf system using these tools are presented

  4. Storage of RF photons in minimal conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromières, J.-P.; Chanelière, T.

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the minimal conditions to store coherently a RF pulse in a material medium. We choose a commercial quartz as a memory support because it is a widely available component with a high Q-factor. Pulse storage is obtained by varying dynamically the light-matter coupling with an analog switch. This parametric driving of the quartz dynamics can be alternatively interpreted as a stopped-light experiment. We obtain an efficiency of 26%, a storage time of 209 μs and a time-to-bandwidth product of 98 by optimizing the pulse temporal shape. The coherent character of the storage is demonstrated. Our goal is to connect different types of memories in the RF and optical domain for quantum information processing. Our motivation is essentially fundamental.

  5. Modification of hemiplegic compensatory gait pattern by symmetry-based motion controller of HAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Hiroaki; Kadone, Hideki; Sakurai, Takeru; Sankai, Yoshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    As one of several characteristics of hemiplegic patients after stroke, compensatory gait caused by affected limb is often seen. The purpose of this research is to apply a symmetry-based controller of a wearable type lower limb robot, Hybrid Assistive Limb (HAL) to hemiplegic patients with compensatory gait, and to investigate improvement of gait symmetry. The controller is designed respectively for swing phase and support phase according to characteristics of hemiplegic gait pattern. The controller during swing phase stores the motion of the unaffected limb and then provides motion support on the affected limb during the subsequent swing using the stored pattern to realize symmetric gait based on spontaneous limb swing. Moreover, the controller during support phase provides motion to extend hip and knee joints to support wearer's body. Clinical tests were conducted in order to assess the modification of gait symmetry. Our case study involved participation of one chronic stroke patient who performs abnormally-compensatory gait for both of the affected and unaffected limbs. As a result, the patient's gait symmetry was improved by providing motion support during the swing phase on the affected side and motion constraint during the support phase on the unaffected side. The study showed promising basis for the effectiveness of the controller for the future clinical study.

  6. Additivity of Feature-based and Symmetry-based Grouping Effects in Multiple Object Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chundi eWang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Multiple object tracking (MOT is an attentional process wherein people track several moving targets among several distractors. Symmetry, an important indicator of regularity, is a general spatial pattern observed in natural and artificial scenes. According to the laws of perceptual organization proposed by Gestalt psychologists, regularity is a principle of perceptual grouping, such as similarity and closure. A great deal of research reported that feature-based similarity grouping (e.g., grouping based on color, size, or shape among targets in MOT tasks can improve tracking performance. However, no additive feature-based grouping effects have been reported where the tracking objects had two or more features. Additive effect refers to a greater grouping effect produced by grouping based on multiple cues instead of one cue. Can spatial symmetry produce a similar grouping effect similar to that of feature similarity in MOT tasks? Are the grouping effects based on symmetry and feature similarity additive? This study includes four experiments to address these questions. The results of Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated the automatic symmetry-based grouping effects. More importantly, an additive grouping effect of symmetry and feature similarity was observed in Experiments 3 and 4. Our findings indicate that symmetry can produce an enhanced grouping effect in MOT and facilitate the grouping effect based on color or shape similarity. The where and what pathways might have played an important role in the additive grouping effect.

  7. RF Processing Experience with the GTF Prototype RF Gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmerge, J.F.

    2010-01-01

    The SSRL Gun Test Facility (GTF) was built to develop a high brightness electron injector for the LCLS and has been operational since 1996. A total of five different metal cathodes (4 Cu and 1 Mg) have been installed on the GTF gun. The rf processing history with the different cathodes will be presented including peak field achieved at the cathode. The LCLS gun is intended to operate at 120 MV/m and fields up to 140 MV/m have been achieved in the GTF gun. After installing a new cathode the number of rf pulses required to reach 120 MV/m is approximately 5-10 million. Total emitted dark current and Fowler Nordheim plots are also shown over the life of the cathode. The GTF photo-injector gun is an S-band standing-wave structure, with two resonant cavities and an intervening thick washer (Figure 1). The flat, back wall of the first cavity is a copper plate that serves as photocathode when illuminated with ultraviolet light from a pulsed, high-power laser. RF power enters the gun through an iris on the outer wall of the second cavity, and is coupled to the first through the axial opening of the washer. The first cavity is often referred to as a half cell, because its full-cell length has been truncated by the cathode plate and the second cavity is called the full cell. The gun is designed to operate in a π mode, with the peak field on axis in each cell approximately equal. The maximum in the half cell occurs at the cathode, and in the full cell near the center of the cavity. The field profile and tuning procedures are discussed in a separate tech note (1).

  8. RF extraction issues in the relativistic klystron amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serlin, Victor; Friedman, Moshe; Lampe, Martin; Hubbard, Richard F.

    1994-05-01

    Relativistic klystron amplifiers (RKAs) were successfully operated at NRL in several frequency regimes and power levels. In particular, an L-band RKA was optimized for high- power rf extraction into the atmosphere and an S-band RKA was operated, both in a two-beam and a single-beam configuration. At L-band the rf extraction at maximum power levels (>= 15 GW) was hindered by pulse shortening and poor repeatability. Preliminary investigation showed electron emission in the radiating horn, due to very high voltages associated with the multi-gigawatt rf power levels. This electron current constituted an electric load in parallel with the radiating antenna, and precipitated the rf pulse collapse. At S-band the peak extracted power reached 1.7 GW with power efficiency approximately 50%. However, pulse shortening limited the duration to approximately 50 nanoseconds. The new triaxial RKA promises to solve many of the existing problems.

  9. DESIGN OF A DC/RF PHOTOELECTRON GUN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    YU, D.; NEWSHAM, Y.; SMIRONOV, A.; YU, J.; SMEDLEY, J.; SRINIVASAN RAU, T.; LEWELLEN, J.; ZHOLENTS, A.

    2003-01-01

    An integrated dc/rf photoelectron gun produces a low-emittance beam by first rapidly accelerating electrons at a high gradient during a short (∼1 ns), high-voltage pulse, and then injecting the electrons into an rf cavity for subsequent acceleration. Simulations show that significant improvement of the emittance appears when a high field (∼ 0.5-1 GV/m) is applied to the cathode surface. An adjustable dc gap ((le) 1 mm) which can be integrated with an rf cavity is designed for initial testing at the Injector Test Stand at Argonne National Laboratory using an existing 70-kV pulse generator. Plans for additional experiments of an integrated dc/rf gun with a 250-kV pulse generator are being made

  10. An RF cavity for barrier bucket experiment in the AGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujieda, M.; Iwashita, Y. [Kyoto Univ. (Japan); Mori, Y. [and others

    1998-11-01

    A barrier bucket experiment in the AGS is planed in 1998. An accumulation of the beam, which intensity of 1.0 x 10{sup 14}ppp is, acceleration after the injection with a barrier bucket scheme and other RF gymnastics experiments will be studied. An isolated RF pulse of 40 kV per cavity is necessary for the experiment. The RF frequency is 2 MHz and the isolated pulse is generated at the repetition rate of the revolution frequency of 357 kHz. We have developed the barrier cavity for this experiment. The cavity is loaded with FINEMET core. It has low Q value but high shunt impedance. It makes the necessary power less than that of ferrite-loaded cavity for an isolated RF pulse. (author)

  11. Measures to alleviate the back bombardment effect of thermionic rf electron gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Y.; Xie, J.

    1991-01-01

    Thermionic rf electron gun finds application as a high brightness electron source for rf linacs. However, cathode heating from back-bombardment effect causes a ramp in the macro-pulse beam current and limit the usable pulse width. Three methods: ring cathode, magnetic deflection and laser assisted heating are studied in theory and in experiment. The results of these studies are reported

  12. RF installation for the grain disinfestation

    CERN Document Server

    Zajtzev, B V; Kobetz, A F; Rudiak, B I

    2001-01-01

    The ecologically pure method of grain product disinfestations through the grain treatment with the RF electric field is described. The experimental data obtained showed that with strengths of the electrical RF field of E=5 kV/cm and frequency of 80 MHz the relative death rate is 100%.The time of the grain treatment it this case is 1 sec. The pulses with a duration of 600 mu s and repetition rate of 2 Hz were used, the duration of the front was 10 mu s. The schematic layout of installation with a productivity of 50 tones/h and power of 10 kW is given.

  13. rf driven multicusp H- ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, K.N.; DeVries, G.J.; DiVergilio, W.F.; Hamm, R.W.; Hauck, C.A.; Kunkel, W.B.; McDonald, D.S.; Williams, M.D.

    1991-01-01

    An rf driven multicusp source capable of generating 1-ms H - beam pulses with a repetition rate as high as 150 Hz has been developed. This source can be operated with a filament or other types of starter. There is almost no lifetime limitation and a clean plasma can be maintained for a long period of operation. It is demonstrated that rf power as high as 25 kW could be coupled inductively to the plasma via a glass-coated copper-coil antenna. The extracted H - current density achieved is about 200 mA/cm 2

  14. RF feedback for KEKB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezura, Eizi; Yoshimoto, Shin-ichi; Akai, Kazunori [National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1996-08-01

    This paper describes the present status of the RF feedback development for the KEK B-Factory (KEKB). A preliminary experiment concerning the RF feedback using a parallel comb-filter was performed through a choke-mode cavity and a klystron. The RF feedback has been tested using the beam of the TRISTAN Main Ring, and has proved to be effective in damping the beam instability. (author)

  15. RF guns: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travier, C.

    1990-06-01

    Free Electron Lasers and future linear colliders require very bright electron beams. Conventional injectors made of DC guns and RF bunchers have intrinsic limitations. The recently proposed RF guns have already proven their capability to produce bright beams. The necessary effort to improve further these performances and to gain reliability is now undertaken by many laboratories. More than twenty RF gun projects both thermionic and laser-driven are reviewed. Their specific characteristics are outlined and their nominal performances are given

  16. The RF system for FELI linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morii, Y.; Abe, S.; Keishi, T.; Tomimasu, T.

    1995-01-01

    FELI (Free Electron Laser Research Institute, Inc.) is constructing a Free Electron Laser facility covering from 20μm (infra red region) to 0.35μm (ultra violet region), using as S-band linac. The linac consists of a thermoionic 0.5ns-pulse triggered gun, a 714-MHz SHB (subharmonic buncher), a 2856-MHz standing wave type buncher, and seven ETL (Electro-technical Laboratory) type accelerating sections. An RF system of the linac for FELs is required of long pulse duration and high stability. Two S-band klystrons (TOSHIBA E3729) are operated in three pulse operation modes (pulse width and peak RF power): 24μs-24MW, 12.5μs-34MW, 0.5μs-70MW. Each klystron modulator has a PFN consisting of 4 parallel networks of 24 capacitors and 24 variable inductors, and it has a line switch of an optical thyristor stack. An S-band klystron and its modulator were combined to test their performance at the works of NISSIN ELECTRIC Co. in December 1993. These equipments were installed at FELI in January 1994. The design and experimental results of the RF system are summarized in this paper. (author)

  17. Directions for rf-controlled intelligent microvalve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enderling, Stefan; Varadan, Vijay K.; Abbott, Derek

    2001-03-01

    In this paper, we consider the novel concept of a Radio Frequency (RF) controllable microvalve for different medical applications. Wireless communication via a Surface Acoustic Wave Identification-mark (SAW ID-tag) is used to control, drive and locate the microvalve inside the human body. The energy required for these functions is provided by RF pulses, which are transmitted to the valve and back by a reader/transmitter system outside of the body. These RF bursts are converted into Surface Acoustic Waves (SAWs), which propagate along the piezoelectric actuator material of the microvalve. These waves cause deflections, which are employed to open and close the microvalve. We identified five important areas of application of the microvalve in biomedicine: 1) fertility control; 2) artificial venous valves; 3) flow cytometry; 4) drug delivery and 5) DNA mapping.

  18. Rf power sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper, the author reports on RF power sources for accelerator applications. The approach will be with particular customers in mind. These customers are high energy physicists who use accelerators as experimental tools in the study of the nucleus of the atom, and synchrotron light sources derived from electron or positron storage rings. The author pays close attention to electron- positron linear accelerators since the RF sources have always defined what is possible to achieve with these accelerators. Circular machines, cyclotrons, synchrotrons, etc. have usually not been limited by the RF power available and the machine builders have usually had their RF power source requirements met off the shelf. The main challenge for the RF scientist has been then in the areas of controls. An interesting example of this is in the Conceptual Design Report of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) where the RF system is described in six pages of text in a 700-page report. Also, the cost of that RF system is about one-third of a percent of the project's total cost. The RF system is well within the state of the art and no new power sources need to be developed. All the intellectual effort of the system designer would be devoted to the feedback systems necessary to stabilize beams during storage and acceleration, with the main engineering challenges (and costs) being in the superconducting magnet lattice

  19. Practical RF system design

    CERN Document Server

    Egan, William F

    2003-01-01

    he ultimate practical resource for today's RF system design professionals Radio frequency components and circuits form the backbone of today's mobile and satellite communications networks. Consequently, both practicing and aspiring industry professionals need to be able to solve ever more complex problems of RF design. Blending theoretical rigor with a wealth of practical expertise, Practical RF System Design addresses a variety of complex, real-world problems that system engineers are likely to encounter in today's burgeoning communications industry with solutions that are not easily available in the existing literature. The author, an expert in the field of RF module and system design, provides powerful techniques for analyzing real RF systems, with emphasis on some that are currently not well understood. Combining theoretical results and models with examples, he challenges readers to address such practical issues as: * How standing wave ratio affects system gain * How noise on a local oscillator will affec...

  20. Saturation Recovery Myocardial T1 Mapping with a Composite Radiofrequency Pulse on a 3T MR Imaging System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Kosuke; Oda, Seitaro; Utsunomiya, Daisuke; Nakaura, Takeshi; Matsubara, Takatoshi; Goto, Makoto; Okuaki, Tomoyuki; Yuki, Hideaki; Nagayama, Yasunori; Kidoh, Masafumi; Hirata, Kenichiro; Iyama, Yuij; Taguchi, Narumi; Hatemura, Masahiro; Hashida, Masahiro; Yamashita, Yasuyuki

    2018-01-10

    To evaluate the effect of a composite radiofrequency (RF) pulse on saturation recovery (SR) myocardial T 1 mapping using a 3T MR system. Phantom and in vivo studies were performed with a clinical 3T MR scanner. Accuracy and reproducibility of the SR T 1 mapping using conventional and composite RF pulses were first compared in phantom experiments. An in vivo study was performed of 10 healthy volunteers who were imaged with conventional and composite RF pulse methods twice each. In vivo reproducibility of myocardial T 1 value and the inter-segment variability were assessed. The phantom study revealed significant differences in the mean T 1 values between the two methods, and the reproducibility for the composite RF pulse was significantly smaller than that for the conventional RF pulse. For both methods, the correlations of the reference and measured T 1 values were excellent (r 2 = 0.97 and 0.98 for conventional and composite RF pulses, respectively). The in vivo study showed that the mean T 1 value for composite RF pulse was slightly lower than that for conventional RF pulse, but this difference was not significant (P = 0.06). The inter-segment variability for the composite RF pulse was significantly smaller than that for conventional RF pulse (P composite RF pulses (r = 0.83 and 0.29, respectively). SR T 1 mapping using composite RF pulse provides accurate quantification of T 1 values and can lessen measurement variability and enable reproducible T 1 measurements.

  1. Material studies for CLIC RF cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Taborelli, M

    2004-01-01

    Following the EST/SM suggestion of replacing copper by molybdenum or tungsten for the construction of the RF cavity irises, different CLIC main beam accelerating structures were produced, extensively operated and disassembled for iris surface inspection. The observed surface modifications were found to be very similar to those obtained by sparking in a dedicated laboratory set-up, showing the superior behaviour of both Mo and W with respect to Cu, in terms of surface erosion and conditioning. The iris thermomechanical fatigue due to RF heating was simulated by high power pulsed laser irradiation. A CuZr alloy was found to be much more resistant than pure Cu. Measurements at higher pulse number will be performed on CuZr in order to extrapolate its fatigue behaviour up to the nominal CLIC duration. Finally a possible future development of a hybrid probe beam acceleration structure will be presented.

  2. Four-way rf beam separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neil, V.K.

    1982-01-01

    A method for separating a continuous beam of relativistic particles into four pulsed beams is investigated theoretically. The separation is periodic with period 2π/#betta# so that each of the four beams consists of current pulses of duration π/#betta#. The separation is accomplished by a series of rf cavities in the beam line. The cavities operate in the TM 110 and have frequencies, #betta#, 3#betta#, 5#betta#, 7#betta#, etc. The transverse momentum imparted to the beam particles results in a time-dependent displacement of the beam centroid at a position downstream of the cavity array. The mathematical limitations imposed by truncating a Fourier series are discussed, and an expression derived for the necessary phase and amplitude of each cavity. The rf induced by the beam in the cavities is treated in detail, and does not appear to be a serious problem

  3. A NEW THERMIONIC RF ELECTRON GUN FOR SYNCHROTRON LIGHT SOURCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutsaev, Sergey; Agustsson, R.; Hartzell, J; Murokh, A.; Nassiri, A.; Savin, E.; Smirnov, A.V.; Smirnov, A. Yu; Sun, Y.; Verma, A; Waldschmidt, Geoff; Zholents, A.

    2017-06-02

    A thermionic RF gun is a compact and efficient source of electrons used in many practical applications. RadiaBeam Systems and the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory collaborate in developing of a reliable and robust thermionic RF gun for synchrotron light sources which would offer substantial improvements over existing thermionic RF guns and allow stable operation with up to 1A of beam peak current at a 100 Hz pulse repetition rate and a 1.5 μs RF pulse length. In this paper, we discuss the electromagnetic and engineering design of the cavity and report the progress towards high power tests of the cathode assembly of the new gun.

  4. Microfluidic stretchable RF electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shi; Wu, Zhigang

    2010-12-07

    Stretchable electronics is a revolutionary technology that will potentially create a world of radically different electronic devices and systems that open up an entirely new spectrum of possibilities. This article proposes a microfluidic based solution for stretchable radio frequency (RF) electronics, using hybrid integration of active circuits assembled on flex foils and liquid alloy passive structures embedded in elastic substrates, e.g. polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). This concept was employed to implement a 900 MHz stretchable RF radiation sensor, consisting of a large area elastic antenna and a cluster of conventional rigid components for RF power detection. The integrated radiation sensor except the power supply was fully embedded in a thin elastomeric substrate. Good electrical performance of the standalone stretchable antenna as well as the RF power detection sub-module was verified by experiments. The sensor successfully detected the RF radiation over 5 m distance in the system demonstration. Experiments on two-dimensional (2D) stretching up to 15%, folding and twisting of the demonstrated sensor were also carried out. Despite the integrated device was severely deformed, no failure in RF radiation sensing was observed in the tests. This technique illuminates a promising route of realizing stretchable and foldable large area integrated RF electronics that are of great interest to a variety of applications like wearable computing, health monitoring, medical diagnostics, and curvilinear electronics.

  5. Versatile rf controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, D.

    1985-05-01

    The low level rf system developed for the new Bevatron local injector provides precise control and regulation of the rf phase and amplitude for three 200 MHz linac cavities. The main features of the system are: extensive use of inexpensive, off-the-shelf components, ease of maintenance, and adaptability to a wide range of operation frequencies. The system utilizes separate function, easily removed rf printed circuit cards interconnected via the edge connectors. Control and monitoring are available both locally and through the computer. This paper will describe these features as well as the few component changes that would be required to adapt the techniques to other operating frequencies. 2 refs

  6. High gradient RF breakdown study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurent, L.; Luhmann, N.C. Jr.; Scheitrum, G.; Hanna, S.; Pearson, C.; Phillips, R.

    1998-01-01

    Stanford Linear Accelerator Center and UC Davis have been investigating high gradient RF breakdown and its effects on pulse shortening in high energy microwave devices. RF breakdown is a critical issue in the development of high power microwave sources and next generation linear accelerators since it limits the output power of microwave sources and the accelerating gradient of linacs. The motivation of this research is to find methods to increase the breakdown threshold level in X-band structures by reducing dark current. Emphasis is focused on improved materials, surface finish, and cleanliness. The test platform for this research is a traveling wave resonant ring. A 30 MW klystron is employed to provide up to 300 MW of traveling wave power in the ring to trigger breakdown in the cavity. Five TM 01 cavities have previously been tested, each with a different combination of surface polish and/or coating. The onset of breakdown was extended up to 250 MV/m with a TiN surface finish, as compared to 210 MV/m for uncoated OFE copper. Although the TiN coating was helpful in depressing the field emission, the lowest dark current was obtained with a 1 microinch surface finish, single-point diamond-turned cavity

  7. SLAC collider injector, RF-drive synchronization and trigger electronics, and 15-AMP thermionic-gun development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koontz, R.; Miller, R.; McKinney, T.; Wilmunder, A.

    1981-02-01

    The rf drive system for the Collider Injector Development (EL CID) including laser timing, subharmonic buncher drive and phasing, and accelerator rf drive is described. The rf synchronized master trigger generation scheme for the collider is outlined. Also, a 15 amp peak, 200 kV short pulse gun being developed at SLAC as a backup to the Sinclair laser gun is described

  8. Long-pulse applications of pulse-forming lines for high-power linac application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeberling, R.F.; Tallerico, P.J.

    1981-01-01

    The ever present demands for high efficiency in the RF power stations for particle accelerators have caused increased interest in longer RF pulses (ten's of microseconds) for linacs such as the Pion Generator for Medical Irradiation (PIGMI) and Free Electron Laser (FEL). For either RF power station, a fundamental decision is whether to use a modulating anode/hard-tube driver or pulsed cathode/line-type pulser configuration. The choices in the extremes of low power for very long pulses or for very-high-power, short pulses are, respectively, a modulated anode/hard tube modulator and pulsed cathode/pulse forming line. However, the demarcation between these two extremes is not clearcut. The criteria (cost, flexibility performance, reliability, efficiency) that resulted in the RF station definition of these two specific systems will be described

  9. Rheumatoid factor (RF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003548.htm Rheumatoid factor (RF) To use the sharing features on this ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  10. RF radiation safety handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitchen, Ronald.

    1993-01-01

    Radio frequency radiation can be dangerous in a number of ways. Hazards include electromagnetic compatibility and interference, electro-explosive vapours and devices, and direct effects on the human body. This book is a general introduction to the sources and nature of RF radiation. It describes the ways in which our current knowledge, based on relevant safety standards, can be used to safeguard people from any harmful effects of RF radiation. The book is designed for people responsible for, or concerned with, safety. This target audience will primarily be radio engineers, but includes those skilled in other disciplines including medicine, chemistry or mechanical engineering. The book covers the problems of RF safety management, including the use of measuring instruments and methods, and a review of current safety standards. The implications for RF design engineers are also examined. (Author)

  11. The RF power system for the SNS linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallerico, P.J.; Reass, W.A.

    1998-01-01

    The initial goal of the SNS project is to produce a 1 MW average beam of protons with short pulse lengths onto a neutron-producing target. The objective of the SNS RF system is to generate 117 MW peak of pulsed 805 MHz microwave power with an accelerated beam pulse length of 1.04 ms at a 60 Hz repetition rate. The power system must be upgradeable in peak power to deliver 2 MW average power to the neutron target. The RF system also requires about 3 MW peak of RF power at 402.5 MHz, but that system is not discussed here. The design challenge is to produce an RF system at minimum cost, that is very reliable and economical to operate. The combination of long pulses and high repetition rates make conventional solutions, such as the pulse transformer and transmission line method, very expensive. The klystron, with a modulating anode, and 1.5 MW of peak output power is the baseline RF amplifier, an 56 are required in the baseline design. The authors discuss four power system configurations that are the candidates for the design. The baseline design is a floating-deck modulating anode system. A second power system being investigated is the fast-pulsed power supply, that can be turned on and off with a rise time of under 0.1 ms. This could eliminate the need for a modulator, and drastically reduce the energy storage requirements. A third idea is to use a pulse transformer with a series IGBT switch and a bouncer circuit on the primary side, as was done for the TESLA modulator. A fourth method is to use a series IGBT switch at high voltage, and not use a pulse transformer. The authors discuss the advantages and problems of these four types of power systems, but they emphasize the first two

  12. Microbunching and RF Compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venturini, M.; Migliorati, M.; Ronsivalle, C.; Ferrario, M.; Vaccarezza, C.

    2010-01-01

    Velocity bunching (or RF compression) represents a promising technique complementary to magnetic compression to achieve the high peak current required in the linac drivers for FELs. Here we report on recent progress aimed at characterizing the RF compression from the point of view of the microbunching instability. We emphasize the development of a linear theory for the gain function of the instability and its validation against macroparticle simulations that represents a useful tool in the evaluation of the compression schemes for FEL sources.

  13. Rf power sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, M.A.

    1988-05-01

    This paper covers RF power sources for accelerator applications. The approach has been with particular customers in mind. These customers are high energy physicists who use accelerators as experimental tools in the study of the nucleus of the atom, and synchrotron light sources derived from electron or positron storage rings. This paper is confined to electron-positron linear accelerators since the RF sources have always defined what is possible to achieve with these accelerators. 11 refs., 13 figs

  14. RF Measurement Concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Caspers, F

    2014-01-01

    For the characterization of components, systems and signals in the radiofrequency (RF) and microwave ranges, several dedicated instruments are in use. In this article the fundamentals of the RF signal techniques are discussed. The key element in these front ends is the Schottky diode which can be used either as a RF mixer or as a single sampler. The spectrum analyser has become an absolutely indispensable tool for RF signal analysis. Here the front end is the RF mixer as the RF section of modern spectrum analyses has a ra ther complex architecture. The reasons for this complexity and certain working principles as well as limitations are discussed. In addition, an overview of the development of scalar and vector signal analysers is given. For the determination of the noise temperature of a one-port and the noise figure of a two-port, basic concepts and relations are shown as well as a brief discussion of commonly used noise-measurement techniques. In a further part of this article the operating principles of n...

  15. Performance of an rf beam monitor on the NBS-Los Alamos racetrack microtron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, L.M.; Cutler, R.I.

    1985-01-01

    A prototype rf beam-position, current, and phase monitor has been used on the 100-keV injector beamline of the racetrack microtron (RTM) where performance was measured with the chopped and bunched beam. This monitor works with both a pulsed beam and a cw beam. The pulsed beam consists of beam pulses with a FWHM of 40 ns. The rf beam monitor was tested with beam currents from approx. 50 to 600 μA. The rf beam monitor will be described and its performance will be reported. 6 refs., 5 figs

  16. Crane RF accelerator for high current radiation damage studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitham, K.; Anamkath, H.; Evans, K.; Lyons, S.; Palmer, D.; Miller, R.; Treas, P.; Zante, T.

    1992-01-01

    An electron accelerator was designed and built for the Naval Weapons Support Center for transient radiation effects on electronics experiments and testing. The Crane L Band RF Electron Linac was designed to provide high currents over a wide range of pulse widths and energies. The energy extends to 60 MeV and pulse widths vary from a few ns to 10 μsec. Beam currents range from 20 amps in the short pulse case to 1.5 amps in the long pulse case. This paper describes the linac, its architecture, the e-gun and pulser, waveguides, klystrons and modulator, vacuum system, beam transport, and control systems. fig., tab

  17. The IPNS second harmonic RF upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middendorf, M.E.; Brumwell, F.R.; Dooling, J.C.; Horan, D.; Kustom, R.L.; Lien, M.K.; McMichael, G.E.; Moser, M.R.; Nassiri, A.; Wang, S.

    2008-01-01

    The intense pulsed neutron source (IPNS) rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS) is used to accelerate protons from 50 MeV to 450 MeV, at a repetition rate of 30 Hz. The original ring design included two identical rf systems, each consisting of an accelerating cavity, cavity bias supply, power amplifiers and low-level analog electronics. The original cavities are located 180 degrees apart in the ring and provide a total peak accelerating voltage of ∼21 kV over the 2.21-MHz to 5.14-MHz revolution frequency sweep. A third rf system has been constructed and installed in the RCS. The third rf system is capable of operating at the fundamental revolution frequency for the entire acceleration cycle, providing an additional peak accelerating voltage of up to ∼11 kV, or at the second harmonic of the revolution frequency for the first ∼4 ms of the acceleration cycle, providing an additional peak voltage of up to ∼11 kV for bunch shape control. We describe here the hardware implementation and operation to date of the third rf cavity in the second harmonic mode.

  18. RF Design of the LCLS Gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limborg-Deprey, C.

    2010-01-01

    Final dimensions for the LCLS RF gun are described. This gun, referred to as the LCLS gun, is a modified version of the UCLA/BNL/SLAC 1.6 cell S-Band RF gun (1), referred to as the prototype gun. The changes include a larger mode separation (15 MHz for the LCLS gun vs. 3.5 MHz for the prototype gun), a larger radius at the iris between the 2 cells, a reduced surface field on the curvature of the iris between the two cells, Z power coupling, increased cooling channels for operation at 120 Hz, dual rf feed, deformation tuning of the full cell, and field probes in both cells. Temporal shaping of the klystron pulse, to reduce the average power dissipated in the gun, has also been adopted. By increasing the mode separation, the amplitude of the 0-mode electric field on the cathode decreases from 10% of the peak on axis field for the prototype gun to less than 3% for the LCLS gun for the steady state fields. Beam performance is improved as shown by the PARMELA simulations. The gun should be designed to accept a future load lock system. Modifications follow the recommendations of our RF review committee (2). Files and reference documents are compiled in Section IV.

  19. RF and feedback systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boussard, D.

    1994-01-01

    The radiofrequency system of the Tau Charm Factory accelerating 10 11 particles per bunch and a circulating current of 0.5 A is presented. In order to produce the very short bunches required, the RF system of TCF must provide a large RF voltage (8 MV) at a frequency in the neighbourhood of 400-500 MHz. It appears very attractive to produce the high voltage required with superconducting cavities, for which wall losses are negligible. A comparison between the sc RF system proposed and a possible copper system run at an average 1 MV/m, shows the clear advantage of sc cavities for TCF. (R.P.). 2 figs,. 1 tab

  20. ISR RF cavities

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    In each ISR ring the radiofrequency cavities were installed in one 9 m long straight section. The RF system of the ISR had the main purpose to stack buckets of particles (most of the time protons)coming from the CPS and also to accelerate the stacked beam. The installed RF power per ring was 18 kW giving a peak accelerating voltage of 20 kV. The system had a very fine regulation feature allowing to lower the voltage down to 75 V in a smooth and well controlled fashion.

  1. Conventional RF system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puglisi, M.

    1994-01-01

    The design of a conventional RF system is always complex and must fit the needs of the particular machine for which it is planned. It follows that many different design criteria should be considered and analyzed, thus exceeding the narrow limits of a lecture. For this reason only the fundamental components of an RF system, including the generators, are considered in this short seminar. The most common formulas are simply presented in the text, while their derivations are shown in the appendices to facilitate, if desired, a more advanced level of understanding. (orig.)

  2. Absorption efficiency and heating kinetics of nanoparticles in the RF range for selective nanotherapy of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letfullin, Renat R; Letfullin, Alla R; George, Thomas F

    2015-02-01

    Radio-frequency (RF) waves have an excellent ability to penetrate into the human body, giving a great opportunity to activate/heat nanoparticles delivered inside the body as a contrast agent for diagnosis and treatment purposes. However the heating of nanoparticles in the RF range of the spectrum is controversial in the research community because of the low power load of RF waves and low absorption of nanoparticles in the RF range. This study uses a phenomenological approach to estimate the absorption efficiency of metal and dielectric nanoparticles in the RF range through a study of heating kinetics of those particles in radio wave field. We also discuss the specific features of heating kinetics of nanoparticles, such as a short time scale for heating and cooling of nanoparticles in a liquid biological environment, and the effect of the radiation field structure on the heating kinetics by single-pulse and multipulse RF radiation. In this study a phenomenological approach was applied to estimate the absorption efficiency of radiofrequency radiation (RF) by metal and dielectric nanoparticles. Such nanoparticles can be designed and used for therapeutic purposes, like for localized heating and to activate nanoparticles by RF. The authors also discuss the differences in heating kinetics using single-pulse and multi-pulse RF radiation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. RF assisted switching in magnetic Josephson junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, R.; Massarotti, D.; Bolginov, V. V.; Ben Hamida, A.; Karelina, L. N.; Miano, A.; Vernik, I. V.; Tafuri, F.; Ryazanov, V. V.; Mukhanov, O. A.; Pepe, G. P.

    2018-04-01

    We test the effect of an external RF field on the switching processes of magnetic Josephson junctions (MJJs) suitable for the realization of fast, scalable cryogenic memories compatible with Single Flux Quantum logic. We show that the combined application of microwaves and magnetic field pulses can improve the performances of the device, increasing the separation between the critical current levels corresponding to logical "0" and "1." The enhancement of the current level separation can be as high as 80% using an optimal set of parameters. We demonstrate that external RF fields can be used as an additional tool to manipulate the memory states, and we expect that this approach may lead to the development of new methods of selecting MJJs and manipulating their states in memory arrays for various applications.

  4. A self-adaptive feedforward rf control system for linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Renshan; Ben-Zvi, I.; Xie Jialin

    1993-01-01

    The design and performance of a self-adaptive feedforward rf control system are reported. The system was built for the linac of the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Variables of time along the linac macropulse, such as field or phase are discretized and represented as vectors. Upon turn-on or after a large change in the operating-point, the control system acquires the response of the system to test signal vectors and generates a linearized system response matrix. During operation an error vector is generated by comparing the linac variable vectors and a target vector. The error vector is multiplied by the inverse of the system's matrix to generate a correction vector is added to an operating point vector. This control system can be used to control a klystron to produce flat rf amplitude and phase pulses, to control a rf cavity to reduce the rf field fluctuation, and to compensate the energy spread among bunches in a rf linac. Beam loading effects can be corrected and a programmed ramp can be produced. The performance of the control system has been evaluated on the control of a klystron's output as well as an rf cavity. Both amplitude and phase have been regulated simultaneously. In initial tests, the rf output from a klystron has been regulated to an amplitude fluctuation of less than ±0.3% and phase variation of less than ±0.6deg. The rf field of the ATF's photo-cathode microwave gun cavity has been regulated to ±5% in amplitude and simultaneously to ±1deg in phase. Regulating just the rf field amplitude in the rf gun cavity, we have achieved amplitude fluctuation of less than ±2%. (orig.)

  5. Remote RF Battery Charging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, H.J.; Pop, V.; Op het Veld, J.H.G.; Vullers, R.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    The design of a remote RF battery charger is discussed through the analysis and design of the subsystems of a rectenna (rectifying antenna): antenna, rectifying circuit and loaded DC-to-DC voltage (buck-boost) converter. Optimum system power generation performance is obtained by adopting a system

  6. Beyond the RF photogun

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiten, O.J.; Rozenzweig, J.; Travish, G.

    2003-01-01

    Laser-triggered switching of MV DC voltages enables acceleration gradients an order of magnitude higher than in state-of-the-art RF photoguns. In this way ultra-short, high-brightness electron bunches may be generated without the use of magnetic compression. The evolution of the bunch during the

  7. AC/RF Superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciovati, G [Jefferson Lab (United States)

    2014-07-01

    This contribution provides a brief introduction to AC/RF superconductivity, with an emphasis on application to accelerators. The topics covered include the surface impedance of normal conductors and superconductors, the residual resistance, the field dependence of the surface resistance, and the superheating field.

  8. AC/RF Superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciovati, Gianluigi [JLAB

    2015-02-01

    This contribution provides a brief introduction to AC/RF superconductivity, with an emphasis on application to accelerators. The topics covered include the surface impedance of normal conductors and superconductors, the residual resistance, the field dependence of the surface resistance, and the superheating field.

  9. Optimum Choice of RF Frequency for Two Beam Linear Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Braun, Hans Heinrich

    2003-01-01

    Recent experimental results on normal conducting RF structures indicate that the scaling of the gradient limit with frequency is less favourable than what was believed. We therefore reconsider the optimum choice of RF frequency and iris aperture for a normal conducting, two-beam linear collider with E_CMS=3 TeV, a loaded accelerating gradient of 150 MV/m and a luminosity of 8 10^34 cm-^2 s^-1. The optimisation criterion is minimizing overall RF costs for investment and operation with constraints put on peak surface electric fields and pulsed heating of accelerating structures. Analytical models are employed where applicable, while interpolation on simulation program results is used for the calculation of luminosity and RF structure properties.

  10. An rf modulated electron gun pulser for linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legg, R.; Hartline, R.

    1991-01-01

    Present linac injector designs often make use of sub-harmonic prebuncher cavities to properly bunch the electron beam before injection into a buncher and subsequent accelerating cavities. This paper proposes an rf modulated thermionic gun which would allow the sub-harmonic buncher to be eliminated from the injector. The performance parameters for the proposed gun are 120 kV operating voltage, macropulse duration-single pulse mode 2 nsec, multiple pulse mode 100 nsec, rf modularing frequency 500 MHz, charge per micropulse 0.4 nC, macropulse repetition frequency 10 Hz (max). The gun pulser uses a grid modulated planar triode to drive the gun cathode. The grid driver takes advantage of recently developed modular CATV rf drivers, high performance solid state pulser devices, and high-frequency fiber optic transmitters for telecommunications. Design details are presented with associated SPICE runs simulating operation of the gun

  11. Los Alamos free-electron laser (FEL) rf system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallerico, P.J.; Lynch, M.T.

    1985-01-01

    The FEL rf system was designed for 3.6-MW rf pulses from two klystrons to drive two linacs and one deflection cavity at 1300 MHz. Two 108.33-MHz subharmonic buncher cavities and one fundamental buncher were also built, each powered by a 5-kW amplifier. A single phase-coherent source drives the various amplifiers as well as the grid of the electron gun, which is pulsed at 21.67 MHz. The initial buncher system did not work as well as expected, and the first linac tank required more rf power than anticipated. The light output was extremely sensitive to amplitude and phase errors. More powerful klystrons were developed and installed, and a method was discovered for operating a single subharmonic buncher and allowing the first linac to complete the bunching process. This paper shows the actual configuration used to operate the laser and discusses future improvements

  12. A low-power RF system with accurate synchronization for a S-band RF-gun using a laser-triggered photocathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otake, Y.; Naito, T.; Shintake, T.; Takata, K.; Takeuchi, Y.; Urakawa, J.; Yoshioka, M.; Akiyama, H.

    1992-01-01

    An S-band RF-gun using a laser-triggered photocathode and its low-power RF system have been constructed. The main elements of the low-power RF system comprise a 600-W amplifier, an amplitude modulator, a phase detector, a phase shifter and a frequency-divider module. Synchronization between the RF fields for acceleration and the mode-locked laser pulses for beam triggering are among the important points concerning the RF-gun. The frequency divider module which down-converts from 2856 MHz(RF) to 89.25 MHz(laser), and the electrical phase-shifter were specially developed for stable phase control. The phase jitter of the frequency divider should be less than 10 ps to satisfy our present requirements. The first experiments to trigger and accelerate beams with the above-mentioned system were carried out in January, 1992. (Author) 6 figs., 5 refs

  13. Development of new S-band RF window for stable high-power operation in linear accelerator RF system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Youngdo; Lee, Byung-Joon; Kim, Seung-Hwan; Kong, Hyung-Sup; Hwang, Woonha; Roh, Sungjoo; Ryu, Jiwan

    2017-09-01

    For stable high-power operation, a new RF window is developed in the S-band linear accelerator (Linac) RF systems of the Pohang Light Source-II (PLS-II) and the Pohang Accelerator Laboratory X-ray Free-Electron Laser (PAL-XFEL). The new RF window is designed to mitigate the strength of the electric field at the ceramic disk and also at the waveguide-cavity coupling structure of the conventional RF window. By replacing the pill-box type cavity in the conventional RF window with an overmoded cavity, the electric field component perpendicular to the ceramic disk that caused most of the multipacting breakdowns in the ceramic disk was reduced by an order of magnitude. The reduced electric field at the ceramic disk eliminated the Ti-N coating process on the ceramic surface in the fabrication procedure of the new RF window, preventing the incomplete coating from spoiling the RF transmission and lowering the fabrication cost. The overmoded cavity was coupled with input and output waveguides through dual side-wall coupling irises to reduce the electric field strength at the waveguide-cavity coupling structure and the possibility of mode competitions in the overmoded cavity. A prototype of the new RF window was fabricated and fully tested with the Klystron peak input power, pulse duration and pulse repetition rate of 75 MW, 4.5 μs and 10 Hz, respectively, at the high-power test stand. The first mass-produced new RF window installed in the PLS-II Linac is running in normal operation mode. No fault is reported to date. Plans are being made to install the new RF window to all S-band accelerator RF modules of the PLS-II and PAL-XFEL Linacs. This new RF window may be applied to the output windows of S-band power sources like Klystron as wells as the waveguide windows of accelerator facilities which operate in S-band.

  14. Accelerator and RF system development for NLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlieks, A.E.; Callin, R.; Deruyter, H.; Early, R.; Fant, K.S.; Farkas, Z.D.; Fowkes, W.R.; Galloway, C.; Hoag, H.A.; Koontz, R.

    1993-01-01

    An experimental station for an X-band Next Linear Collider has been constructed at SLAC. This station consists of a klystron and modulator, a low-loss waveguide system for rf power distribution, a SLED II pulse-compression and peak-power multiplication system, acceleration sections and beam-line components (gun, pre-buncher, pre-accelerator, focussing elements, and spectrometer). An extensive program of experiments to evaluate the performance of all components is underway. The station is described in detail in this paper, and results to date are presented

  15. RK-TBA prototype RF source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houck, T.; Anderson, D.; Giordano, G.

    1996-01-01

    A prototype rf power source based on the Relativistic Klystron Two-Beam Accelerator (RK-TBA) concept is being constructed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory to study physics, engineering, and costing issues. The prototype is described and compared to a full scale design appropriate for driving the Next Linear Collider (NLC). Specific details of the induction core tests and pulsed power system are presented. The 1-MeV, 1.2-kA induction gun currently under construction is also described in detail

  16. Barrier rf systems in synchrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhat, Chandra M.

    2004-01-01

    Recently, many interesting applications of the barrier RF system in hadron synchrotrons have been realized. A remarkable example of this is the development of longitudinal momentum mining and implementation at the Fermilab Recycler for extraction of low emittance pbars for the Tevatron shots. At Fermilab, we have barrier RF systems in four different rings. In the case of Recycler Ring, all of the rf manipulations are carried out using a barrier RF system. Here, the author reviews various uses of barrier rf systems in particle accelerators including some new schemes for producing intense proton beam and possible new applications

  17. Racetrack microtron rf system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallerico, P.J.; Keffeler, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    The rf system for the National Bureau of Standards (NBS)/Los Alamos cw racetrack microtron is described. The low-power portion consists of five 75-W amplifers that drive two input ports in each of two chopper deflection cavities and one port in the prebuncher cavity. A single 500-kW klystron drives four separate 2380-MHz cavity sections: the two main accelerator sections, a capture section, and a preaccelerator section. The phases and amplitudes in all cavities are controlled by electronic or electromechanical controls. The 1-MW klystron power supply and crowbar system were purchased as a unit; several modifications are described that improve power-supply performance. The entire rf system has been tested and shipped to the NBS, and the chopper-buncher system has been operated with beam at the NBS. 5 refs., 2 figs

  18. RF Gun Optimization Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alicia Hofler; Pavel Evtushenko

    2007-01-01

    Injector gun design is an iterative process where the designer optimizes a few nonlinearly interdependent beam parameters to achieve the required beam quality for a particle accelerator. Few tools exist to automate the optimization process and thoroughly explore the parameter space. The challenging beam requirements of new accelerator applications such as light sources and electron cooling devices drive the development of RF and SRF photo injectors. A genetic algorithm (GA) has been successfully used to optimize DC photo injector designs at Cornell University [1] and Jefferson Lab [2]. We propose to apply GA techniques to the design of RF and SRF gun injectors. In this paper, we report on the initial phase of the study where we model and optimize a system that has been benchmarked with beam measurements and simulation

  19. Microwave and RF engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sorrentino, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    An essential text for both students and professionals, combining detailed theory with clear practical guidance This outstanding book explores a large spectrum of topics within microwave and radio frequency (RF) engineering, encompassing electromagnetic theory, microwave circuits and components. It provides thorough descriptions of the most common microwave test instruments and advises on semiconductor device modelling. With examples taken from the authors' own experience, this book also covers:network and signal theory;electronic technology with guided electromagnetic pr

  20. KSTAR RF heating system development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, J. G.; Kim, S. K.; Hwang, C. K. (and others)

    2007-10-15

    Design, high-voltage test, and installation of 6 MW ICRF heating system for KSTAR is completed. The antenna demonstrated satisfactory standoff at high voltages up to 41 kV for 300 sec. The result indicates good power handling capabilities of the antenna as high as 10 MW/m2. This power density is equivalent to RF power coupling of 6 MW into a 4 {omega}/m target plasma, and is typical of advanced tokamak heating scenarios. In addition, vacuum feed through, DC break, and liquid stub developed for 300 sec operation are installed, as well as a 2 MW, 30-60MHz transmitter. The transmitter successfully produced output powers of 600 kW continuously, 1.5{approx}1.8 MW for 300 sec, and 2 MW for 100 msec or shorter pulses. A realtime control system based on DSP and EPICS is developed, installed, and tested on the ICRF system. Initial results from feasibility study indicate that the present antenna and the transmission lines could allow load-resilient operation on KSTAR. Until the KSTAR tokamak start to produce plasmas in 2008, however, hands-on operational experiences are obtained from participating in ICRF heating experiments at ASDEX and DIII-D tokamaks arranged through international cooperation.

  1. Effect of RF Parameters on Breakdown Limits in High-Vacuum X-Band Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgashev, Valery A.

    2003-01-01

    RF breakdown is one of the major factors determining performance of high power rf components and rf sources. RF breakdown limits working power and produces irreversible surface damage. The breakdown limit depends on the rf circuit, structure geometry, and rf frequency. It is also a function of the input power, pulse width, and surface electric and magnetic fields. In this paper we discuss multi-megawatt operation of X-band rf structures at pulse width on the order of one microsecond. These structures are used in rf systems of high gradient accelerators. Recent experiments at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) have explored the functional dependence of breakdown limit on input power and pulse width. The experimental data covered accelerating structures and waveguides. Another breakdown limit of accelerating structures was associated with high magnetic fields found in waveguide-to-structure couplers. To understand and quantify these limits we simulated 3D structures with the electrodynamics code Ansoft HFSS and the Particle-In-Cell code MAGIC3D. Results of these simulations together with experimental data will be discussed in this paper

  2. RF power source for the compact linear collider test facility (CTF3)

    CERN Document Server

    McMonagle, G; Brown, Peter; Carron, G; Hanni, R; Mourier, J; Rossat, G; Syratchev, I V; Tanner, L; Thorndahl, L

    2004-01-01

    The CERN CTF3 facility will test and demonstrate many vital components of CLIC (Compact Linear Collider). This paper describes the pulsed RF power source at 2998.55 MHz for the drive-beam accelerator (DBA), which produces a beam with an energy of 150 MeV and a current of 3.5 Amps. Where possible, existing equipment from the LEP preinjector, especially the modulators and klystrons, is being used and upgraded to achieve this goal. A high power RF pulse compression system is used at the output of each klystron, which requires sophisticated RF phase programming on the low level side to achieve the required RF pulse. In addition to the 3 GHz system two pulsed RF sources operating at 1.5 GHz are being built. The first is a wide-band, low power, travelling wave tube (TWT) for the subharmonic buncher (SHB) system that produces a train of "phase coded" subpulses as part of the injector scheme. The second is a high power narrow band system to produce 20 MW RF power to the 1.5 GHz RF deflectors in the delay loop situate...

  3. A compact rf driven H- ion source for linac injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rymer, J.P.; Engeman, G.A.; Hamm, R.W.; Potter, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    A compact rf driven H - ion source has been developed for use as an injector for the AccSys radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linacs. A multicusp magnetic bucket geometry developed at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory confines the plasma created by an antenna driven by 35 kW (peak) of pulsed rf power at 1.8 MHz. A three electrode system is used to extract and accelerate the H - beam, which is then focused into the RFQ by an einzel lens. Permanent magnets in the extraction region sweep electrons onto the second electrode at energies up to half of the full acceleration voltage. A fast pulsed valve allows the hydrogen gas supply to be pulsed, thus minimizing the average gas flow rate into the system. The design features and performance data from the prototype are discussed

  4. Locking Lasers to RF in an Ultrafast FEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilcox, R.; Huang, G.; Doolittle, L.; White, W.; Frisch, J.; Coffee, R.

    2010-01-01

    Using a novel, phase-stabilized RF-over-fiber scheme, they transmit 3GHz over 300m with 27fs RMS error in 250kHz bandwidth over 12 hours, and phase lock a laser to enable ultrafast pump-probe experiments. Free-electron lasers (FELs) are capable of producing short-duration (< 10fs), high-energy X-ray pulses for a range of scientific applications. The recently activated Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) FEL facility at SLAC will support experiments which require synchronized light pulses for pump-probe schemes. They developed and operated a fiber optic RF transmission system to synchronize lasers to the emitted X-ray pulses, which was used to enable the first pump-probe experiments at the LCLS.

  5. Improving the beam quality of rf guns by correction of rf and space-charge effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serafini, L.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper we describe two possible strategies to attain ultra-low emittance electron beam generation by laser-driven RF guns. The first one is based on the exploitation of multi-mode resonant cavities to neutralize the emittance degradation induced by RF effects. Accelerating cigar-like (long and thin) electron bunches in multi-mode operated RF guns the space charge induced emittance is strongly decreased at the same time: high charged bunches, as typically requested by future TeV e - e + colliders, can be delivered by the gun at a quite low transverse emittance and good behaviour in the longitudinal phase space, so that they can be magnetically compressed to reach higher peak currents. The second strategy consists in using disk-like electron bunches, produced by very short laser pulses illuminating the photocathode. By means of an analytical study a new regime has been found, where the normalized transverse emittance scales like the inverse of the peak current, provided that the laser pulse intensity distribution is properly shaped in the transverse direction. Preliminary numerical simulations confirm the analytical predictions and show that the minimum emittance achievable is set up, in this new regime, by the wake-field interaction between the bunch and the cathode metallic wall

  6. Phase Stable RF-over-fiber Transmission using Heterodyne Interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilcox, R.; Byrd, J.M.; Doolittle, L.; Huang, G.; Staples, J.W.

    2010-01-01

    New scientific applications require phase-stabilized RF distribution to multiple remote locations. These include phased-array radio telescopes and short pulse free electron lasers. RF modulated onto a CW optical carrier and transmitted via fiber is capable of low noise, but commercially available systems aren't long term stable enough for these applications. Typical requirements are for less than 50fs long term temporal stability between receivers, which is 0.05 degrees at 3GHz. Good results have been demonstrated for RF distribution schemes based on transmission of short pulses, but these require specialized free-space optics and high stability mechanical infrastructure. We report a method which uses only standard telecom optical and RF components, and achieves less than 20fs RMS error over 300m of standard single-mode fiber. We demonstrate stable transmission of 3GHz over 300m of fiber with less than 0.017 degree (17fs) RMS phase error. An interferometer measures optical phase delay, providing information to a feed-forward correction of RF phase.

  7. A 12 GHz RF Power Source for the CLIC Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schirm, Karl; /CERN; Curt, Stephane; /CERN; Dobert, Steffen; /CERN; McMonagle, Gerard; /CERN; Rossat, Ghislain; /CERN; Syratchev, Igor; /CERN; Timeo, Luca; /CERN; Haase, Andrew /SLAC; Jensen, Aaron; /SLAC; Jongewaard, Erik; /SLAC; Nantista, Christopher; /SLAC; Sprehn, Daryl; /SLAC; Vlieks, Arnold; /SLAC; Hamdi, Abdallah; /Saclay; Peauger, Franck; /Saclay; Kuzikov, Sergey; /Nizhnii Novgorod, IAP; Vikharev, Alexandr; /Nizhnii Novgorod, IAP

    2012-07-03

    The CLIC RF frequency has been changed in 2008 from the initial 30 GHz to the European X-band 11.9942 GHz permitting beam independent power production using klystrons for CLIC accelerating structure testing. A design and fabrication contract for five klystrons at that frequency has been signed by different parties with SLAC. France (IRFU, CEA Saclay) is contributing a solid state modulator purchased in industry and specific 12 GHz RF network components to the CLIC study. RF pulses over 120 MW peak at 230 ns length will be obtained by using a novel SLED-I type pulse compression scheme designed and fabricated by IAP, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia. The X-band power test stand is being installed in the CLIC Test Facility CTF3 for independent structure and component testing in a bunker, but allowing, in a later stage, for powering RF components in the CTF3 beam lines. The design of the facility, results from commissioning of the RF power source and the expected performance of the Test Facility are reported.

  8. A 12 GHZ RF Power source for the CLIC study

    CERN Document Server

    Peauger, F; Curt, S; Doebert, S; McMonagle, G; Rossat, G; Schirm, KM; Syratchev, I; Timeo, L; Kuzikhov, S; Vikharev, AA; Haase, A; Sprehn, D; Jensen, A; Jongewaard, EN; Nantista, CD; Vlieks, A

    2010-01-01

    The CLIC RF frequency has been changed in 2008 from the initial 30 GHz to the European X-band 11.9942 GHz permitting beam independent power production using klystrons for CLIC accelerating structure testing. A design and fabrication contract for five klystrons at that frequency has been signed by different parties with SLAC. France (IRFU, CEA Saclay) is contributing a solid state modulator purchased in industry and specific 12 GHz RF network components to the CLIC study. RF pulses over 120 MW peak at 230 ns length will be obtained by using a novel SLED-I type pulse compression scheme designed and fabricated by IAP, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia. The X-band power test stand is being installed in the CLIC Test Facility CTF3 for independent structure and component testing in a bunker, but allowing, in a later stage, for powering RF components in the CTF3 beam lines. The design of the facility, results from commissioning of the RF power source and the expected performance of the Test Facility are reported.

  9. RF-Based Accelerators for HEDP Research

    CERN Document Server

    Staples, John W; Keller, Roderich; Ostroumov, Peter; Sessler, Andrew M

    2005-01-01

    Accelerator-driven High-Energy Density Physics experiments require typically 1 nanosecond, 1 microcoulomb pulses of mass 20 ions accelerated to several MeV to produce eV-level excitations in thin targets, the "warm dense matter" regime. Traditionally the province of induction linacs, RF-based acceleration may be a viable alternative with recent breakthroughs in accelerating structures and high-field superconducting solenoids. A reference design for an RF-based accelerator for HEDP research is presented using 15 T solenoids and multiple-gap RF structures configured with either multiple parallel beams (combined at the target) or a single beam and a small stacking ring that accumulates 1 microcoulomb of charge. In either case, the beam is ballistically compressed with an induction linac core providing the necessary energy sweep and injected into a plasma-neutralized drift compression channel resulting in a 1 mm radius beam spot 1 nanosecond long at a thin foil or low-density target.

  10. Sensing RF signals with the optical wideband converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valley, George C.; Sefler, George A.; Shaw, T. J.

    2013-01-01

    The optical wideband converter (OWC) is a system for measuring properties of RF signals in the GHz band without use of high speed electronics. In the OWC the RF signal is modulated on a repetitively pulsed optical field with a large wavelength chirp, the optical field is diffracted onto a spatial light modulator (SLM) whose pixels are modulated with a pseudo-random bit sequences (PRBSs), and finally the optical field is directed to a photodiode and the resulting current integrated for each PRBS. When the number of PRBSs and measurements equals the number of SLM pixels, the RF signal can be obtained in principle by multiplying the measurement vector by the inverse of the square matrix given by the PRBSs and the properties of the optics. When the number of measurements is smaller than the number of pixels, a compressive sensing (CS) measurement can be performed, and sparse RF signals can be obtained using one of the standard CS recovery algorithms such as the penalized l1 norm (also known as basis pursuit) or one of the variants of matching pursuit. Accurate reconstruction of RF signals requires good calibration of the OWC. In this paper, we present results using the OWC for RF signals consisting of 2 sinusoids recovered using 3 techniques (matrix inversion, basis pursuit, and matching pursuit). We compare results obtained with orthogonal matching pursuit with nonlinear least squares to basis pursuit with an over-complete dictionary.

  11. High Power RF Transmitters for ICRF Applications on EAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Yuzhou; Yuan Shuai; Zhao Yanping; Zhang Xinjun; Chen Gen; Cheng Yan; Wang Lei; Ju Songqing; Deng Xu; Qin Chengming; Yang Lei; Kumazawa, R.

    2013-01-01

    An Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency (ICRF) system with a radio frequency (RF) power of 4 × 1.5 MW was developed for the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). High RF power transmitters were designed as a part of the research and development (R and D) for an ICRF system with long pulse operation at megawatt levels in a frequency range of 25 MHz to 70 MHz. Studies presented in this paper cover the following parts of the high power transmitter: the three staged high power amplifier, which is composed of a 5 kW wideband solid state amplifier, a 100 kW tetrode drive stage amplifier and a 1.5 MW tetrode final stage amplifier, and the DC high voltage power supply (HVPS). Based on engineering design and static examinations, the RF transmitters were tested using a matched dummy load where an RF output power of 1.5 MW was achieved. The transmitters provide 6 MW RF power in primary phase and will reach a level up to 12 MW after a later upgrade. The transmitters performed successfully in stable operations in EAST and HT-7 devices. Up to 1.8 MW of RF power was injected into plasmas in EAST ICRF heating experiments during the 2010 autumn campaign and plasma performance was greatly improved.

  12. Optimization of an RF driven H- ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, K.N.; DiVergilio, W.F.; Hauck, C.A.; Kunkel, W.B.; McDonald, D.S.

    1991-04-01

    A radio-frequency driven multicusp source has recently been developed to generate volume-produced H - ion beams with extracted current density higher than 200 mA/cm 2 . We have improved the output power of the rf generator and the insulation coating of the antenna coil. We have also optimized the antenna positions and geometry and the filter magnetic field for high power pulsed operation. A total H - current of 30 mA can be obtained with a 5.4-mm-diam extraction aperture and with an rf input power of 50 kW. 4 refs., 5 figs

  13. Modeling high-power RF accelerator cavities with SPICE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphries, S. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The dynamical interactions between RF accelerator cavities and high-power beams can be treated on personal computers using a lumped circuit element model and the SPICE circuit analysis code. Applications include studies of wake potentials, two-beam accelerators, microwave sources, and transverse mode damping. This report describes the construction of analogs for TM mn0 modes and the creation of SPICE input for cylindrical cavities. The models were used to study continuous generation of kA electron beam pulses from a vacuum cavity driven by a high-power RF source

  14. High power testing of a 17 GHz photocathode RF gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.C.; Danly, B.G.; Gonichon, J.

    1995-01-01

    The physics and technological issues involved in high gradient particle acceleration at high microwave (RF) frequencies are under study at MIT. The 17 GHz photocathode RF gun has a 1 1/2 cell (π mode) room temperature cooper cavity. High power tests have been conducted at 5-10 MW levels with 100 ns pulses. A maximum surface electric field of 250 MV/m was achieved. This corresponds to an average on-axis gradient of 150 MeV/m. The gradient was also verified by a preliminary electron beam energy measurement. Even high gradients are expected in our next cavity design

  15. Pulsed laser illumination of photovoltaic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yater, Jane A.; Lowe, Roland A.; Jenkins, Phillip P.; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1995-01-01

    In future space missions, free electron lasers (FEL) may be used to illuminate photovoltaic receivers to provide remote power. Both the radio-frequency (RF) and induction FEL produce pulsed rather than continuous output. In this work we investigate cell response to pulsed laser light which simulates the RF FEL format. The results indicate that if the pulse repetition is high, cell efficiencies are only slightly reduced compared to constant illumination at the same wavelength. The frequency response of the cells is weak, with both voltage and current outputs essentially dc in nature. Comparison with previous experiments indicates that the RF FEL pulse format yields more efficient photovoltaic conversion than does an induction FEL format.

  16. RF impedance measurement calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, P.J.; Song, J.J.

    1993-01-01

    The intent of this note is not to explain all of the available calibration methods in detail. Instead, we will focus on the calibration methods of interest for RF impedance coupling measurements and attempt to explain: (1). The standards and measurements necessary for the various calibration techniques. (2). The advantages and disadvantages of each technique. (3). The mathematical manipulations that need to be applied to the measured standards and devices. (4). An outline of the steps needed for writing a calibration routine that operated from a remote computer. For further details of the various techniques presented in this note, the reader should consult the references

  17. Low frequency rf current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hershkowitz, N.

    1992-01-01

    An unshielded antenna for rf heating has been developed and tested during this report period. In addition to design specifications being given, some experimental results are presented utilizing: (1) an unprotected Faraday shield, (2) insulating guard limiters, (3) unshielded antenna experiments, (4) method for detecting small rf driven currents, (5) rf fast wave current drive experiments, (6) alfven wave interactions with electrons, and (7) machine conditioning, impurity generation and density control

  18. Adaptive feedforward in the LANL rf control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziomek, C.D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes an adaptive feedforward system that corrects repetitive errors in the amplitude and phase of the RF field of a pulsed accelerator. High-frequency disturbances that are beyond the effective bandwidth of the RF field feedback control system can be eliminated with a feedforward system. Many RF field disturbances for a pulsed accelerator are repetitive, occurring at the same relative time in every pulse. This design employs digital signal processing hardware to adaptively determine and track the control signals required to eliminate the repetitive errors in the feedback control system. In order to provide the necessary high-frequency response, the adaptive feedforward hardware provides the calculated control signal prior to the repetitive disturbance that it corrects. This system has been demonstrated to reduce the transient disturbances caused by beam pulses. Furthermore, it has been shown to negate high-frequency phase and amplitude oscillations in a high-power klystron amplifier caused by PFN ripple on the high-voltage. The design and results of the adaptive feedforward system are presented

  19. Adaptive feed forward in the LANL RF control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziomek, C.D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes an adaptive feed forward system that corrects repetitive errors in the amplitude and phase of the RF field of a pulsed accelerator. High-frequency disturbances that are beyond the effective bandwidth of the RF-field feedback control system can be eliminated with a feed forward system. Many RF-field disturbances for a pulsed accelerator are repetitive, occurring at the same relative time in every pulse. This design employs digital signal processing hardware to adaptively determine and track the control signals required to eliminate the repetitive errors in the feedback control system. In order to provide the necessary high-frequency response, the adaptive feed forward hardware provides the calculated control signal prior to the repetitive disturbance that it corrects. This system has been demonstrated to reduce the transient disturbances caused by beam pulses. Furthermore, it has been shown to negate high-frequency phase and amplitude oscillations in a high-power klystron amplifier caused by PFN ripple on the high-voltage. The design and results of the adaptive feed forward system are presented. (Author) 3 figs., 2 refs

  20. SPS RF Accelerating Cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    1979-01-01

    This picture shows one of the 2 new cavities installed in 1978-1979. The main RF-system of the SPS comprises four cavities: two of 20 m length and two of 16.5 m length. They are all installed in one long straight section (LSS 3). These cavities are of the travelling-wave type operating at a centre frequency of 200.2 MHz. They are wideband, filling time about 700 ns and untuned. The power amplifiers, using tetrodes are installed in a surface building 200 m from the cavities. Initially only two cavities were installed, a third cavity was installed in 1978 and a forth one in 1979. The number of power amplifiers was also increased: to the first 2 MW plant a second 2 MW plant was added and by end 1979 there were 8 500 kW units combined in pairs to feed each of the 4 cavities with up to about 1 MW RF power, resulting in a total accelerating voltage of about 8 MV. See also 7412016X, 7412017X, 7411048X

  1. rf experiments on PLT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosea, J.; Wilson, J.R.; Hooke, W.

    1986-01-01

    A variety of rf experiments are being conducted on PLT in order to explore rf techniques which could improve tokamak performance parameters. Of special importance are the studies of ion Bernstein wave (IBW) heating, lower hybrid MHD stabilization and electron heating, down-shifted electron cyclotron heating, and fast wave current drive. Ion Bernstein wave heating results at modest power indicate that the particle confinement time could be enhanced relative to that for fast wave heating in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) and neutral beam heating. At these power levels a conclusive determination of energy confinement scaling with power cannot yet be given. Central sawtooth and m = 1 MHD stabilization is being obtained with centrally peaked lower hybrid (LH) current drive and the central electron temperature is peaking to values (approx.5 keV) well outside the bounds of ''profile consistency.'' In this case the electron energy confinement is apparently increased relative to the ohmic value. The production of relativistic electrons via heating at the down-shifted electron cyclotron (EC) frequency is found to be consistent with theoretical predictions and lends support to the use of this method for heating in relatively high magnetic field devices

  2. Accurate modeling of complete functional RF blocks: CHAMELEON RF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, H.H.J.M.; Niehof, J.; Schilders, W.H.A.; Ciuprina, G.; Ioan, D.

    2007-01-01

    Next-generation nano-scale RF-IC designs have an unprecedented complexity and performance that will inevitably lead to costly re-spins and loss of market opportunities. In order to cope with this, the aim of the European Framework 6 CHAMELEON RF project is to develop methodologies and prototype

  3. The Spallation Neutron Source RF Reference System

    CERN Document Server

    Piller, Maurice; Crofford, Mark; Doolittle, Lawrence; Ma, Hengjie

    2005-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) RF Reference System includes the master oscillator (MO), local oscillator(LO) distribution, and Reference RF distribution systems. Coherent low noise Reference RF signals provide the ability to control the phase relationships between the fields in the front-end and linear accelerator (linac) RF cavity structures. The SNS RF Reference System requirements, implementation details, and performance are discussed.

  4. Circuit design for RF transceivers

    CERN Document Server

    Leenaerts, Domine; Vaucher, Cicero S

    2007-01-01

    Second edition of this successful 2001 RF Circuit Design book, has been updated, latest technology reviews have been added as well as several actual case studies. Due to the authors being active in industry as well as academia, this should prove to be an essential guide on RF Transceiver Design for students and engineers.

  5. RF-Station control crate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beuzekom, M.G. van; Es, J.T. van.

    1992-01-01

    This report gives a description of the electronic control-system for the RF-station of AmPS. The electronics form the connection between the computer-system and the hardware of the RF-station. Only the elements of the systems which are not described in the other NIKHEF-reports are here discussed in detail. (author). 7 figs

  6. Investigation of MIM Diodes for RF Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Adnan

    2015-01-01

    zero bias condition as well as the possibility of realizing them through printing makes them attractive for (Radio Frequency) RF applications. However, MIM diodes have not been explored much for RF applications. One reason preventing their widespread RF

  7. Refurbishments of RF systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baelde, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    This document describes the activities of the R.F. System group during the years 1995-1996 in the frame of the refurbishment of the control system at GANIL accelerator. Modifications concerning the following sub-assemblies are mentioned: 1. voltage standards; 2. link card between the step by step motor control and the local control systems; 3. polarization system; 4. computer software for different operations. Also reported is the installation of ECR 4 source for the CO2. In this period the R2 Regrouping system has been installed, tested and put into operation. Several problems concerning the mechanical installation of the coupling loop and other problems related to the electronics operation were solved. The results obtained with the THI machine are presented

  8. Beam induced RF heating

    CERN Document Server

    Salvant, B; Arduini, G; Assmann, R; Baglin, V; Barnes, M J; Bartmann, W; Baudrenghien, P; Berrig, O; Bracco, C; Bravin, E; Bregliozzi, G; Bruce, R; Bertarelli, A; Carra, F; Cattenoz, G; Caspers, F; Claudet, S; Day, H; Garlasche, M; Gentini, L; Goddard, B; Grudiev, A; Henrist, B; Jones, R; Kononenko, O; Lanza, G; Lari, L; Mastoridis, T; Mertens, V; Métral, E; Mounet, N; Muller, J E; Nosych, A A; Nougaret, J L; Persichelli, S; Piguiet, A M; Redaelli, S; Roncarolo, F; Rumolo, G; Salvachua, B; Sapinski, M; Schmidt, R; Shaposhnikova, E; Tavian, L; Timmins, M; Uythoven, J; Vidal, A; Wenninger, J; Wollmann, D; Zerlauth, M

    2012-01-01

    After the 2011 run, actions were put in place during the 2011/2012 winter stop to limit beam induced radio frequency (RF) heating of LHC components. However, some components could not be changed during this short stop and continued to represent a limitation throughout 2012. In addition, the stored beam intensity increased in 2012 and the temperature of certain components became critical. In this contribution, the beam induced heating limitations for 2012 and the expected beam induced heating limitations for the restart after the Long Shutdown 1 (LS1) will be compiled. The expected consequences of running with 25 ns or 50 ns bunch spacing will be detailed, as well as the consequences of running with shorter bunch length. Finally, actions on hardware or beam parameters to monitor and mitigate the impact of beam induced heating to LHC operation after LS1 will be discussed.

  9. Wavelet Domain Radiofrequency Pulse Design Applied to Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M Huettner

    Full Text Available A new method for designing radiofrequency (RF pulses with numerical optimization in the wavelet domain is presented. Numerical optimization may yield solutions that might otherwise have not been discovered with analytic techniques alone. Further, processing in the wavelet domain reduces the number of unknowns through compression properties inherent in wavelet transforms, providing a more tractable optimization problem. This algorithm is demonstrated with simultaneous multi-slice (SMS spin echo refocusing pulses because reduced peak RF power is necessary for SMS diffusion imaging with high acceleration factors. An iterative, nonlinear, constrained numerical minimization algorithm was developed to generate an optimized RF pulse waveform. Wavelet domain coefficients were modulated while iteratively running a Bloch equation simulator to generate the intermediate slice profile of the net magnetization. The algorithm minimizes the L2-norm of the slice profile with additional terms to penalize rejection band ripple and maximize the net transverse magnetization across each slice. Simulations and human brain imaging were used to demonstrate a new RF pulse design that yields an optimized slice profile and reduced peak energy deposition when applied to a multiband single-shot echo planar diffusion acquisition. This method may be used to optimize factors such as magnitude and phase spectral profiles and peak RF pulse power for multiband simultaneous multi-slice (SMS acquisitions. Wavelet-based RF pulse optimization provides a useful design method to achieve a pulse waveform with beneficial amplitude reduction while preserving appropriate magnetization response for magnetic resonance imaging.

  10. A Micromechanical RF Channelizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akgul, Mehmet

    The power consumption of a radio generally goes as the number and strength of the RF signals it must process. In particular, a radio receiver would consume much less power if the signal presented to its electronics contained only the desired signal in a tiny percent bandwidth frequency channel, rather than the typical mix of signals containing unwanted energy outside the desired channel. Unfortunately, a lack of filters capable of selecting single channel bandwidths at RF forces the front-ends of contemporary receivers to accept unwanted signals, and thus, to operate with sub-optimal efficiency. This dissertation focuses on the degree to which capacitive-gap transduced micromechanical resonators can achieve the aforementioned RF channel-selecting filters. It aims to first show theoretically that with appropriate scaling capacitive-gap transducers are strong enough to meet the needed coupling requirements; and second, to fully detail an architecture and design procedure needed to realize said filters. Finally, this dissertation provides an actual experimentally demonstrated RF channel-select filter designed using the developed procedures and confirming theoretical predictions. Specifically, this dissertation introduces four methods that make possible the design and fabrication of RF channel-select filters. The first of these introduces a small-signal equivalent circuit for parallel-plate capacitive-gap transduced micromechanical resonators that employs negative capacitance to model the dependence of resonance frequency on electrical stiffness in a way that facilitates the analysis of micromechanical circuits loaded with arbitrary electrical impedances. The new circuit model not only correctly predicts the dependence of electrical stiffness on the impedances loading the input and output electrodes of parallel-plate capacitive-gap transduced micromechanical device, but does so in a visually intuitive way that identifies current drive as most appropriate for

  11. Measured performance of the GTA rf systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denney, P.M.; Jachim, S.P.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the performance of the RF systems on the Ground Test Accelerator (GTA). The RF system architecture is briefly described. Among the RF performance results presented are RF field flatness and stability, amplitude and phase control resolution, and control system bandwidth and stability. The rejection by the RF systems of beam-induced disturbances, such as transients and noise, are analyzed. The observed responses are also compared to computer-based simulations of the RF systems for validation

  12. Recent development on RF-driven multicusp H- ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, K.N.; De Vries, G.J.; Kunkel, W.B.; Perkins, L.T.; Pickard, D.S.; Saadatmand, K.; Wengrow, A.B.; Williams, M.D.

    1996-06-01

    The radio-frequency (rf) driven multicusp source was originally developed for use in the Superconducting Super Collider injector. The source routinely provided 35 keV, 30 mA of beam at 0.1% duty factor. By using a new cesium dispensing system, beam current in excess of 100 mA and e/H - ∼1 have been observed. For pulse mode operation, the rf discharge can be started by means of a xenon flash lamp. Extracted electrons in the beam can be efficiently removed by employing a permanent magnet insert structure. Chopping of the H - beam can be accomplished by applying a pulsed positive voltage on the plasma electrode

  13. SQIF Arrays as RF Sensors (Briefing Charts)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yukon, Stanford P

    2007-01-01

    ... (Superconducting Quantum Interference Filter) arrays may be employed as sensitive RF sensors. RF SQIF arrays fabricated with high Tc Josephson junctions can be cooled with small Sterling microcoolers...

  14. The effect of applied electric field on pulsed radio frequency and pulsed direct current plasma jet array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, J. T.; Liu, X. Y.; Liu, J. H.; Xiong, Z. L.; Liu, D. W.; Lu, X. P.; Iza, F.; Kong, M. G.

    2012-01-01

    Here we compare the plasma plume propagation characteristics of a 3-channel pulsed RF plasma jet array and those of the same device operated by a pulsed dc source. For the pulsed-RF jet array, numerous long life time ions and metastables accumulated in the plasma channel make the plasma plume respond quickly to applied electric field. Its structure similar as “plasma bullet” is an anode glow indeed. For the pulsed dc plasma jet array, the strong electric field in the vicinity of the tube is the reason for the growing plasma bullet in the launching period. The repulsive forces between the growing plasma bullets result in the divergence of the pulsed dc plasma jet array. Finally, the comparison of 309 nm and 777 nm emissions between these two jet arrays suggests the high chemical activity of pulsed RF plasma jet array.

  15. High Power RF Test Facility at the SNS

    CERN Document Server

    Kang, Yoon W; Campisi, Isidoro E; Champion, Mark; Crofford, Mark; Davis, Kirk; Drury, Michael A; Fuja, Ray E; Gurd, Pamela; Kasemir, Kay-Uwe; McCarthy, Michael P; Powers, Tom; Shajedul Hasan, S M; Stirbet, Mircea; Stout, Daniel; Tang, Johnny Y; Vassioutchenko, Alexandre V; Wezensky, Mark

    2005-01-01

    RF Test Facility has been completed in the SNS project at ORNL to support test and conditioning operation of RF subsystems and components. The system consists of two transmitters for two klystrons powered by a common high voltage pulsed converter modulator that can provide power to two independent RF systems. The waveguides are configured with WR2100 and WR1150 sizes for presently used frequencies: 402.5 MHz and 805 MHz. Both 402.5 MHz and 805 MHz systems have circulator protected klystrons that can be powered by the modulator capable of delivering 11 MW peak and 1 MW average power. The facility has been equipped with computer control for various RF processing and complete dual frequency operation. More than forty 805 MHz fundamental power couplers for the SNS superconducting linac (SCL) cavitites have been RF conditioned in this facility. The facility provides more than 1000 ft2 floor area for various test setups. The facility also has a shielded cave area that can support high power tests of normal conducti...

  16. Low Level RF System for Jefferson Lab Cryomodule Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomasz Plawski; Trent Allison; Jean Delayen; J. Hovater; Thomas Powers

    2003-01-01

    The Jefferson Lab Cryomodule Test Facility (CMTF) has been upgraded to test and commission SNS and CEBAF Energy Upgrade cryomodules. Part of the upgrade was to modernize the superconducting cavity instrumentation and control. We have designed a VXI based RF control system exclusively for the production testing of superconducting cavities. The RF system can be configured to work either in Phase Locked Loop (PLL) or Self Excited Loop (SEL) mode. It can be used to drive either SNS 805 MHz or CEBAF Energy Upgrade 1497 MHz superconducting cavities and can be operated in pulsed or continuous wave (CW) mode. The base design consists of RF-analog and digital sections. The RF-analog section includes a Voltage Control Oscillator (VCO), phase detector, IandQ modulator and ''low phase shift'' limiter. The digital section controls the analog section and includes ADC, FPGA, and DAC . We will discuss the design of the RF system and how it relates to the support of cavity testing

  17. Solid state NMR of proteins at high MAS frequencies: symmetry-based mixing and simultaneous acquisition of chemical shift correlation spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellstedt, Peter; Herbst, Christian; Häfner, Sabine; Leppert, Jörg; Görlach, Matthias; Ramachandran, Ramadurai

    2012-01-01

    We have carried out chemical shift correlation experiments with symmetry-based mixing sequences at high MAS frequencies and examined different strategies to simultaneously acquire 3D correlation spectra that are commonly required in the structural studies of proteins. The potential of numerically optimised symmetry-based mixing sequences and the simultaneous recording of chemical shift correlation spectra such as: 3D NCAC and 3D NHH with dual receivers, 3D NC′C and 3D C′NCA with sequential 13 C acquisitions, 3D NHH and 3D NC′H with sequential 1 H acquisitions and 3D CANH and 3D C’NH with broadband 13 C– 15 N mixing are demonstrated using microcrystalline samples of the β1 immunoglobulin binding domain of protein G (GB1) and the chicken α-spectrin SH3 domain.

  18. Solid state NMR of proteins at high MAS frequencies: symmetry-based mixing and simultaneous acquisition of chemical shift correlation spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellstedt, Peter [Fritz Lipmann Institute, Biomolecular NMR spectroscopy, Leibniz Institute for Age Research (Germany); Herbst, Christian [Ubon Ratchathani University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science (Thailand); Haefner, Sabine; Leppert, Joerg; Goerlach, Matthias; Ramachandran, Ramadurai, E-mail: raman@fli-leibniz.de [Fritz Lipmann Institute, Biomolecular NMR spectroscopy, Leibniz Institute for Age Research (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    We have carried out chemical shift correlation experiments with symmetry-based mixing sequences at high MAS frequencies and examined different strategies to simultaneously acquire 3D correlation spectra that are commonly required in the structural studies of proteins. The potential of numerically optimised symmetry-based mixing sequences and the simultaneous recording of chemical shift correlation spectra such as: 3D NCAC and 3D NHH with dual receivers, 3D NC Prime C and 3D C Prime NCA with sequential {sup 13}C acquisitions, 3D NHH and 3D NC Prime H with sequential {sup 1}H acquisitions and 3D CANH and 3D C'NH with broadband {sup 13}C-{sup 15}N mixing are demonstrated using microcrystalline samples of the {beta}1 immunoglobulin binding domain of protein G (GB1) and the chicken {alpha}-spectrin SH3 domain.

  19. RF-Plasma Source Commissioning in Indian Negative Ion Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, M. J.; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Yadava, Ratnakar; Chakraborty, A. K.; Bansal, G.; Gahlaut, A.; Soni, J.; Kumar, Sunil; Pandya, K.; Parmar, K. G.; Sonara, J.; Kraus, W.; Heinemann, B.; Riedl, R.; Obermayer, S.; Martens, C.; Franzen, P.; Fantz, U.

    2011-01-01

    The Indian program of the RF based negative ion source has started off with the commissioning of ROBIN, the inductively coupled RF based negative ion source facility under establishment at Institute for Plasma research (IPR), India. The facility is being developed under a technology transfer agreement with IPP Garching. It consists of a single RF driver based beam source (BATMAN replica) coupled to a 100 kW, 1 MHz RF generator with a self excited oscillator, through a matching network, for plasma production and ion extraction and acceleration. The delivery of the RF generator and the RF plasma source without the accelerator, has enabled initiation of plasma production experiments. The recent experimental campaign has established the matching circuit parameters that result in plasma production with density in the range of 0.5-1x10 18 /m 3 , at operational gas pressures ranging between 0.4-1 Pa. Various configurations of the matching network have been experimented upon to obtain a stable operation of the set up for RF powers ranging between 25-85 kW and pulse lengths ranging between 4-20 s. It has been observed that the range of the parameters of the matching circuit, over which the frequency of the power supply is stable, is narrow and further experiments with increased number of turns in the coil are in the pipeline to see if the range can be widened. In this paper, the description of the experimental system and the commissioning data related to the optimisation of the various parameters of the matching network, to obtain stable plasma of required density, are presented and discussed.

  20. RF-Plasma Source Commissioning in Indian Negative Ion Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M. J.; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Bansal, G.; Gahlaut, A.; Soni, J.; Kumar, Sunil; Pandya, K.; Parmar, K. G.; Sonara, J.; Yadava, Ratnakar; Chakraborty, A. K.; Kraus, W.; Heinemann, B.; Riedl, R.; Obermayer, S.; Martens, C.; Franzen, P.; Fantz, U.

    2011-09-01

    The Indian program of the RF based negative ion source has started off with the commissioning of ROBIN, the inductively coupled RF based negative ion source facility under establishment at Institute for Plasma research (IPR), India. The facility is being developed under a technology transfer agreement with IPP Garching. It consists of a single RF driver based beam source (BATMAN replica) coupled to a 100 kW, 1 MHz RF generator with a self excited oscillator, through a matching network, for plasma production and ion extraction and acceleration. The delivery of the RF generator and the RF plasma source without the accelerator, has enabled initiation of plasma production experiments. The recent experimental campaign has established the matching circuit parameters that result in plasma production with density in the range of 0.5-1×1018/m3, at operational gas pressures ranging between 0.4-1 Pa. Various configurations of the matching network have been experimented upon to obtain a stable operation of the set up for RF powers ranging between 25-85 kW and pulse lengths ranging between 4-20 s. It has been observed that the range of the parameters of the matching circuit, over which the frequency of the power supply is stable, is narrow and further experiments with increased number of turns in the coil are in the pipeline to see if the range can be widened. In this paper, the description of the experimental system and the commissioning data related to the optimisation of the various parameters of the matching network, to obtain stable plasma of required density, are presented and discussed.

  1. Photoemission starting of induction rf-driven multicusp ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickard, D.S.; Leung, K.N.; Perkins, L.T.; Ponce, D.M.; Young, A.T.

    1996-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that pulsed and continuous wave, rf-driven hydrogen discharges can be started with photoemission. The extracted H - current from a photoemission-started plasma has been investigated and does not differ significantly from that of a filament-started plasma. The minimum pressure for photoemissive starting was found to be higher than that of filament starting, 17 mTorr compared to 7 mTorr, respectively, in this particular configuration. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  2. Transition of RF internal antenna plasma by gas control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamajima, Takafumi; Yamauchi, Toshihiko; Kobayashi, Seiji; Hiruta, Toshihito; Kanno, Yoshinori [Advanced Institute of Industrial Technology, 1-10-40 HigashiOhi, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo, 140-0011 (Japan); Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken, 319-1195 (Japan)

    2012-07-11

    The transition between the capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) and the inductively coupled plasma (ICP) was investigated with the internal radio frequency (RF) multi-turn antenna. The transition between them showed the hysteresis curve. The radiation power and the period of the self-pulse mode became small in proportion to the gas pressure. It was found that the ICP transition occurred by decreasing the gas pressure from 400 Pa.

  3. The gyroklystron as a possible RF source for future TeV colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, J.; Lawson, W.; Calame, J.P.; Latham, P.E.; Granatstein, V.L.; Reiser, M.

    1995-01-01

    At the University of Maryland we have been investigating the feasibility of using gyroklystrons as a possible RF source for the next generation of linear colliders. The preliminary sets of fundamental and second harmonic gyroklystron tube experiments have achieved a combination of pulse length, frequency and peak powers beyond the previous state of the art in RF capabilities. Production of 1 μsec pulse lengths at X and K band frequencies have shown that gyroklystrons can be a promising RF source but the achieved power levels of 30 MW still fall short of predicted requirements for future TeV colliders. An upgrade of the gyroklystron experimental facility to achieve 100 MW peak power levels will move us closer to realizing the goals for RF sources. This paper will detail the past achievements of the 30 MW system as well as modifications for the future 100 MW system. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  4. RF Noise Generation in High-Pressure Short-Arc DC Xenon Lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minayeva, Olga; Doughty, Douglas

    2007-10-01

    Continuous direct current xenon arcs will generate RF noise under certain circumstance, which can lead to excessive electro- magnetic interference in systems that use these arcs as light sources. Phenomenological observations are presented for xenon arcs having arc gaps ˜1 mm, cold fill pressures of ˜2.5 MPa, and currents up to 30 amps. Using a loop antenna in the vicinity of an operating lamp, it is observed that as the current to the arc is lowered there is a reproducible threshold at which the RF noise generation begins. This threshold is accompanied by a small abrupt drop in voltage (˜0.2 volts). The RF emission appears in pulses ˜150 nsec wide separated by ˜300 nec - the pulse interval decreases with decreasing current. The properties of the RF emission as a function of arc parameters (such as pressure, arc gap, electrode design) will be discussed and a semi-quantitative model presented.

  5. Absolute number density and kinetic analysis of CF, CF{sub 2} and C{sub 2}F{sub 4} molecules in pulsed CF{sub 4}/H{sub 2} rf plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepanov, Sergey

    2010-04-26

    Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy in the mid InfraRed spectral range (IR-TDLAS) has been applied to investigate the behaviour of CF, CF{sub 2} and C{sub 2}F{sub 4} species produced in pulsed CF{sub 4}/H{sub 2} capacitively coupled radio frequency plasmas (13.56 MHz CCP). This experimental technique was shown to be suitable for temporally resolved measurements of the absolute number density of the target molecules in the studied fluorocarbon discharges. The temporal resolution of about 20..40 ms typically achieved in the standard data acquisition mode (''stream mode'') was sufficient for the real-time measurements of CF{sub 2} and C{sub 2}F{sub 4}, but not of CF whose kinetics was observed to be much faster. Therefore, a more sophisticated approach (''burst mode'') providing a temporal resolution of 0.94 ms was established and successfully applied to CF density measurements. In order to enable the TDLAS measurements of the target species, preliminary investigations on their spectroscopic data had been carried out. In particular, pure C{sub 2}F{sub 4} has been produced in laboratory by means of vacuum thermal decomposition (pyrolysis) of polytetrafluoroethylene and used as a reference gas. Therefore, an absorption structure consisting of several overlapping C{sub 2}F{sub 4} lines around 1337.11 cm{sup -1} was selected and carefully calibrated, which provided the first absolute measurements of the species by means of the applied experimental technique. The absolute number density traces measured for CF, CF{sub 2} and C{sub 2}F{sub 4} in the studied pulsed plasmas were then analysed, in which two differential balance equations were proposed for each of the species to describe their behaviour during both ''plasma on'' and ''plasma off'' phases. Analytical solutions of the balance equations were used to fit the experimental data and hence to deduce important information on the

  6. Absolute number density and kinetic analysis of CF, CF{sub 2} and C{sub 2}F{sub 4} molecules in pulsed CF{sub 4}/H{sub 2} rf plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepanov, Sergey

    2010-04-26

    Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy in the mid InfraRed spectral range (IR-TDLAS) has been applied to investigate the behaviour of CF, CF{sub 2} and C{sub 2}F{sub 4} species produced in pulsed CF{sub 4}/H{sub 2} capacitively coupled radio frequency plasmas (13.56 MHz CCP). This experimental technique was shown to be suitable for temporally resolved measurements of the absolute number density of the target molecules in the studied fluorocarbon discharges. The temporal resolution of about 20..40 ms typically achieved in the standard data acquisition mode (''stream mode'') was sufficient for the real-time measurements of CF{sub 2} and C{sub 2}F{sub 4}, but not of CF whose kinetics was observed to be much faster. Therefore, a more sophisticated approach (''burst mode'') providing a temporal resolution of 0.94 ms was established and successfully applied to CF density measurements. In order to enable the TDLAS measurements of the target species, preliminary investigations on their spectroscopic data had been carried out. In particular, pure C{sub 2}F{sub 4} has been produced in laboratory by means of vacuum thermal decomposition (pyrolysis) of polytetrafluoroethylene and used as a reference gas. Therefore, an absorption structure consisting of several overlapping C{sub 2}F{sub 4} lines around 1337.11 cm{sup -1} was selected and carefully calibrated, which provided the first absolute measurements of the species by means of the applied experimental technique. The absolute number density traces measured for CF, CF{sub 2} and C{sub 2}F{sub 4} in the studied pulsed plasmas were then analysed, in which two differential balance equations were proposed for each of the species to describe their behaviour during both ''plasma on'' and ''plasma off'' phases. Analytical solutions of the balance equations were used to fit the experimental data and hence to deduce important information on the kinetics of the studied molecules. In particular, during the ''plasma off'' phase

  7. SPEAR 2 RF SYSTEM LOADS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The design and performance of higher order mode (HOM) dampers for the SPEAR 2 RF system is presented. The SPEAR beam had experienced occasional periods of instability due to transverse oscillations which were driven by HOMs in the RF cavities. A substantial fraction of this RF energy was coupled out of the cavity into the waveguide connecting the cavity to the klystron. This waveguide was modified by adding a stub of smaller cross section, terminated by a ferrite tile load, to the system. Design considerations of the load, and its effect on HOMs and beam stability will be discussed

  8. Effect on antenna structure of high power rf during plasma operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haste, G.R.; Thomas, C.E.; Fadnek, A.; Carter, M.D.; Beaumont, B.; Becoulet, A.; Kuus, H.; Saoutic, B.

    1993-01-01

    High-power, long-pulse operation on the Tore Supra tokamak results in considerable stress on the plasma-facing components. The ICH antennas must deliver high-power rf(up to 4 MW per antenna) in this environment. The antenna structure is therefore subjected to the power flux resulting from the interaction between rf and the edge plasma. The structure's response during operation is described, as is the condition of the antenna after prolonged use

  9. Feedback system of the RF phase in KEK-ATF linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okugi, T.; Hayano, H.; Kuriki, M.; Naito, T. [Accelerator Laboratory, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    KEK-ATF linac is built in the Assembly Hall for TRISTAN project in 1991. The thermal condition of the hall is not good enough for a stable linac operation, because the temperature of the klystron gallery is drifted by 1degC within one day. RF phase is also drifted by 3-5deg of the S-band frequency in day and night. In order to control the RF phase, we installed RF phase detectors, which have S/H circuit in order to use for pulsed RF. By using the phase detector, an RF phase feedback system was tested. It was found that a stable klystron operation could be performed within the phase drift of {+-}0.5deg in a day. (author)

  10. Synchronization circuit for shaping picosecond accelerated-electron pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlov, Y.S.; Solov'ev, N.G.; Tomnikov, A.P.

    1986-01-01

    The authors discuss a high-speed circuit for synchronization of trigger pulses of the deflector modulator of an accelerator with a given phase of rf voltage of 200 MHz. The measured time instability between the output trigger pulses of the circuit and the input rf voltage is ≤ + or - 0.05 nsec. The circuit is implemented by ECL integrated circuits of series K100 and K500, and operates in both the pulse (pulse duration 3 μsec and repetition frequency 400 Hz) and continuous modes

  11. Fast thermometry for superconducting rf cavity testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orris, Darryl; Bellantoni, Leo; Carcagno, Ruben H.; Edwards, Helen; Harms, Elvin Robert; Khabiboulline, Timergali N.; Kotelnikov, Sergey; Makulski, Andrzej; Nehring, Roger; Pischalnikov, Yuriy; Fermilab

    2007-01-01

    Fast readout of strategically placed low heat capacity thermometry can provide valuable information of Superconducting RF (SRF) cavity performance. Such a system has proven very effective for the development and testing of new cavity designs. Recently, several resistance temperature detectors (RTDs) were installed in key regions of interest on a new 9 cell 3.9 GHz SRF cavity with integrated HOM design at FNAL. A data acquisition system was developed to read out these sensors with enough time and temperature resolution to measure temperature changes on the cavity due to heat generated from multipacting or quenching within power pulses. The design and performance of the fast thermometry system will be discussed along with results from tests of the 9 cell 3.9GHz SRF cavity

  12. Fast thermometry for superconducting rf cavity testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orris, Darryl; Bellantoni, Leo; Carcagno, Ruben H.; Edwards, Helen; Harms, Elvin Robert; Khabiboulline, Timergali N.; Kotelnikov, Sergey; Makulski, Andrzej; Nehring, Roger; Pischalnikov, Yuriy; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    Fast readout of strategically placed low heat capacity thermometry can provide valuable information of Superconducting RF (SRF) cavity performance. Such a system has proven very effective for the development and testing of new cavity designs. Recently, several resistance temperature detectors (RTDs) were installed in key regions of interest on a new 9 cell 3.9 GHz SRF cavity with integrated HOM design at FNAL. A data acquisition system was developed to read out these sensors with enough time and temperature resolution to measure temperature changes on the cavity due to heat generated from multipacting or quenching within power pulses. The design and performance of the fast thermometry system will be discussed along with results from tests of the 9 cell 3.9GHz SRF cavity.

  13. Mechanical design of a RF electron gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodle, M.H.; Batchelor, K.; Sheehan, J.

    1989-01-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory is building an Accelerator Test Facility at which we plan to study laser acceleration of electrons, inverse free electron lasers and the production of X-rays by non-linear Compton scattering. The facility contains an electron gun, linac, lasers and ancillary systems which will enable the production of 6 ps duration pulses of 50-100 MeV electrons. The electron source is an one and one half cell RF Electron gun which utilizes either a thermionic or photoemissive cathode to produce 5 MeV electrons. This paper discusses how gun mechanical design considerations such as material, vacuum maintenance, surface finish, fabrication methods, cavity tuning, and cathode replacement were reconciled to arrive at the final design. 9 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Mechanical design of a rf electron gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodle, M.H.; Batchelor, K.; Sheehan, J.

    1988-01-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory is building an Accelerator Test Facility at which we plan to study laser acceleration of electrons inverse free electron lasers and the production of X-rays by non- linear Compton scattering. The facility contains an electron gun, linac, lasers and ancillary systems which will enable the production of 6 ps duration pulses of 50--100 MeV electrons. The electron source is an one and one half cell RF Electron gun which utilizes either a thermionic or photoemissive cathode to produce 5 MeV electrons. This paper discusses how gun mechanical design considerations such as material, vacuum maintenance, surface finish, fabrication methods, cavity tuning, and cathode replacement were reconciled to arrive at the final design. 9 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Photocathode operation of a thermionic RF gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorin, S.; Cutic, N.; Lindau, F.; Werin, S.; Curbis, F.

    2009-01-01

    The thermionic RF gun using a BaO cathode at the MAX-lab linac injector has been successfully commissioned for additional operation as a photocathode gun. By retaining the BaO cathode, lowering the temperature below thermal emission and illuminating it with a UV (263 nm) 9 ps laser pulse a reduced emittance and enhanced emission control has been achieved. Measurements show a normalised emittance of 5.5 mm mrad at 200 pC charge and a maximum quantum efficiency of 1.1x10 -4 . The gun is now routinely switched between storage ring injections in thermionic mode and providing a beam for the MAX-lab test FEL in photocathode mode.

  16. Gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission line generator of high voltage pulses modulated at 4 GHz frequency with 1000 Hz pulse repetition rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulmasculov, M R; Sharypov, K A; Shunailov, S A; Shpak, V G; Yalandin, M I; Pedos, M S; Rukin, S N

    2017-01-01

    Results of testing of a generator based on a solid-state drive and the parallel gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission lines with external bias are presented. Stable rf-modulated high-voltage nanosecond pulses were shaped in each of the four channels in 1 s packets with 1000 Hz repetition frequencies. Pulse amplitude reaches -175 kV, at a modulation depth of rf-oscillations to 50 % and the effective frequency ∼4 GHz. (paper)

  17. RF superconductivity at CEBAF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) is a 4 GeV continuous beam electron accelerator being constructed to perform nuclear physics research. Construction began in February 1987 and initial operation is scheduled for February 1994. The present report describes its prototyping, problems/solutions, further development, facilities, design status, production and upgrade potential. The accelerator is 1.4 km in circumference, and has a race-track shape. It is of the recirculated linear accelerator type, and employs a total of five passes. Two linacs on opposite sides of the race-track each provide 400 MeV per pass. Beams of various energies are transported by separated arcs at each end of the straight sections to provide the recirculation. There are 4 recirculation arcs at the injector end, and 5 arcs at the other end. The full energy beam is routed by an RF separator to between one and three end stations, as desired, on a bucket-by-bucket basis. The average output beam current is 200 microamperes. Acceleration is provided by 338 superconducting cavities, which are arranged in pairs, each of which is enclosed in a helium vessel and suspended inside a vacuum jacket without ends. (N.K.)

  18. Observation of Repetition-Rate Dependent Emission From an Un-Gated Thermionic Cathode Rf Gun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelen, J. P.; Sun, Y.; Harris, J.R.; Lewellen, J.W.

    2017-06-02

    Recent work at Fermilab in collaboration with the Advanced Photon Source and members of other national labs, designed an experiment to study the relationship between the RF repetition rate and the average current per RF pulse. While existing models anticipate a direct relationship between these two parameters we observed an inverse relationship. We believe this is a result of damage to the barium coating on the cathode surface caused by a change in back-bombardment power that is unaccounted for in the existing theories. These observations shed new light on the challenges and fundamental limitations associated with scaling an ungated thermionic cathode RF gun to high average current.

  19. Photoemission using femtosecond laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan-Rao, T.; Tsang, T.; Fischer, J.

    1991-10-01

    Successful operation of short wavelength FEL requires an electron bunch of current >100 A and normalized emittance < 1 mm-mrad. Recent experiments show that RF guns with photocathodes as the electron source may be the ideal candidate for achieving these parameters. To reduce the emittance growth due to space charge and RF dynamics effects, the gun may have to operate at high field gradient (hence at high RF frequency) and a spot size small compared to the aperture. This may necessitate the laser pulse duration to be in the subpicosecond regime to reduce the energy spread. We will present the behavior of metal photocathodes upon irradiation with femtosecond laser beams, comparison of linear and nonlinear photoemission, and scalability to high currents. Theoretical estimate of the intrinsic emittance at the photocathode in the presence of the anomalous heating of the electrons, and the tolerance on the surface roughness of the cathode material will be discussed

  20. Radiation induced currents in MRI RF coils: application to linac/MRI integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, B.; Fallone, B. G.; Rathee, S.

    2010-02-01

    The integration of medical linear accelerators (linac) with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems is advancing the current state of image-guided radiotherapy. The MRI in these integrated units will provide real-time, accurate tumor locations for radiotherapy treatment, thus decreasing geometric margins around tumors and reducing normal tissue damage. In the real-time operation of these integrated systems, the radiofrequency (RF) coils of MRI will be irradiated with radiation pulses from the linac. The effect of pulsed radiation on MRI radio frequency (RF) coils is not known and must be studied. The instantaneous radiation induced current (RIC) in two different MRI RF coils were measured and presented. The frequency spectra of the induced currents were calculated. Some basic characterization of the RIC was also done: isolation of the RF coil component responsible for RIC, dependence of RIC on dose rate, and effect of wax buildup placed on coil on RIC. Both the time and frequency characteristics of the RIC were seen to vary with the MRI RF coil used. The copper windings of the RF coils were isolated as the main source of RIC. A linear dependence on dose rate was seen. The RIC was decreased with wax buildup, suggesting an electronic disequilibrium as the cause of RIC. This study shows a measurable RIC present in MRI RF coils. This unwanted current could be possibly detrimental to the signal to noise ratio in MRI and produce image artifacts.

  1. Water cooling of RF structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battersby, G.; Zach, M.

    1994-06-01

    We present computer codes for heat transfer in water cooled rf cavities. RF parameters obtained by SUPERFISH or analytically are operated on by a set of codes using PLOTDATA, a command-driven program developed and distributed by TRIUMF [1]. Emphasis is on practical solutions with designer's interactive input during the computations. Results presented in summary printouts and graphs include the temperature, flow, and pressure data. (authors). 4 refs., 4 figs

  2. Unbalanced field RF electron gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofler, Alicia

    2013-11-12

    A design for an RF electron gun having a gun cavity utilizing an unbalanced electric field arrangement. Essentially, the electric field in the first (partial) cell has higher field strength than the electric field in the second (full) cell of the electron gun. The accompanying method discloses the use of the unbalanced field arrangement in the operation of an RF electron gun in order to accelerate an electron beam.

  3. High power RF systems for LEHIPA of ADS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pande, Manjiri; Shrotriya, Sandip; Sharma, Sonal; Rao, B.V.R.; Mishra, J.K.; Patel, Niranjan; Gupta, S.K.

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide accelerator driven sub-critical system (ADS) has generated a huge interest for various reasons. In India, as a part of accelerator driven sub-critical system (ADS) program, a normal conducting, low energy high intensity proton accelerator (LEHIPA) of energy 20 MeV and beam current of 30 mA is being developed in Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC). LEHIPA comprises of Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source (50 KeV), Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator (3 MeV) and Drift tube Linac (DTL) 1 and 2 (10 MeV and 20 MeV respectively). As per the accelerator physics design, RFQ requires nearly 530 kW RF power while each of DTL need 900 kW. Each accelerating cavity will be driven by a one- megawatt (CW) klystron based high power RF (HPRF) system at 352.21 MHz. Three such RF systems will be developed. The RF system has been designed around five cavity klystron tube TH2089F (Thales make) capable of delivering 1 MW continuous wave power at 352.21 MHz. The klystron has a gain of 40 dB and efficiency around 62 %. Each of the RF system comprises of a low power solid state driver (∼ 100 W), klystron tube, harmonic filter, directional coupler, Y-junction circulator (AFT make), RF load and WR2300 wave guide based RF transmission line each of 1 MW capacity. It also includes other subsystems like bias supplies (high voltage (HV) and low voltage (LV)), HV interface system, interlock and protection circuits, dedicated low conductivity water-cooling, pulsing circuitry/mechanisms etc. WR 2300 based RF transmission line transmits and feeds the RE power from klystron source to respective accelerating cavity. This transmission line starts from second port of the circulator and consists of straight sections, full height to half height transition, magic Tee, termination load at the centre of magic tee, half height sections, directional couplers and RE windows. For X-ray shielding, klystron will be housed in a lead (3 mm) based shielded cage. This system set up has a

  4. Studies on gas breakdown in pulsed radio frequency atmospheric pressure glow discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huo, W. G.; Jian, S. J.; Yao, J.; Ding, Z. F.

    2014-01-01

    In pulsed RF atmospheric pressure glow discharges, the gas breakdown judged by the rapid drop in the amplitude of the pulsed RF voltage is no longer universally true. The steep increment of the plasma-absorbed RF power is proposed to determine the gas breakdown. The averaged plasma-absorbed RF power over a pulse period is used to evaluate effects of the preceding pulsed RF discharge on the breakdown voltage of the following one, finding that the breakdown voltage decreases with the increment in the averaged plasma-absorbed RF power under constant pulse duty ratio. Effects of the pulse off-time on the breakdown voltage and the breakdown delay time are also studied. The obtained dependence of the breakdown voltage on the pulse off-time is indicative of the transitional plasma diffusion processes in the afterglow. The breakdown voltage varies rapidly as the plasma diffuses fast in the region of moderate pulse off-time. The contribution of nitrogen atom recombination at the alumina surface is demonstrated in the prolonged memory effect on the breakdown delay time vs. the pulse off-time and experimentally validated by introducing a trace amount of nitrogen into argon at short and long pulse off-times

  5. Dispersion - does it degrade a pulse envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deighton, M.O.

    1985-01-01

    In hostile environments, transmitting information as ultrasonic Lamb wave pulses has advantages, since the stainless steel strip serving as a waveguide is very durable. Besides attenuation, velocity dispersion (inherent in Lamb waves) can be important even in fairly short guides. Theory shows that unlimited propagation of a pulsed r.f. envelope is possible, even with dispersion present. The constant group velocity needed would favour asub(o)-mode pulses over other modes, provided ordinary attenuation is small. An approximate formula indicates the useful range of a pulse, when group velocity does vary. (author)

  6. Low Level RF Including a Sophisticated Phase Control System for CTF3

    CERN Document Server

    Mourier, J; Nonglaton, J M; Syratchev, I V; Tanner, L

    2004-01-01

    CTF3 (CLIC Test Facility 3), currently under construction at CERN, is a test facility designed to demonstrate the key feasibility issues of the CLIC (Compact LInear Collider) two-beam scheme. When completed, this facility will consist of a 150 MeV linac followed by two rings for bunch-interleaving, and a test stand where 30 GHz power will be generated. In this paper, the work that has been carried out on the linac's low power RF system is described. This includes, in particular, a sophisticated phase control system for the RF pulse compressor to produce a flat-top rectangular pulse over 1.4 µs.

  7. Pulse Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Lawrence (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    An apparatus and a computer-implemented method for generating pulses synchronized to a rising edge of a tachometer signal from rotating machinery are disclosed. For example, in one embodiment, a pulse state machine may be configured to generate a plurality of pulses, and a period state machine may be configured to determine a period for each of the plurality of pulses.

  8. Performance of photocathode rf gun electron accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Zvi, I.

    1993-01-01

    In Photo-Injectors (PI) electron guns, electrons are emitted from a photocathode by a short laser pulse and then accelerated by intense rf fields in a resonant cavity. The best known advantage of this technique is the high peak current with a good emittance (high brightness). This is important for short wavelength Free-Electron Lasers and linear colliders. PIs are in operation in many electron accelerator facilities and a large number of new guns are under construction. Some applications have emerged, providing, for example, very high pulse charges. PIs have been operated over a wide range of frequencies, from 144 to 3000 MHz (a 17 GHz gun is being developed). An exciting new possibility is the development of superconducting PIs. A significant body of experimental and theoretical work exists by now, indicating the criticality of the accelerator elements that follow the gun for the preservation of the PI's performance as well as possible avenues of improvements in brightness. Considerable research is being done on the laser and photocathode material of the PI, and improvement is expected in this area

  9. Solid-state high voltage modulator and its application to rf source high voltage power supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tooker, J.F.; Huynh, P.; Street, R.W.

    2009-01-01

    A solid-state high voltage modulator is described in which series-connected insulated-gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) are switched at a fixed frequency by a pulse width modulation (PWM) regulator, that adjusts the pulse width to control the voltage out of an inductor-capacitor filter network. General Atomics proposed the HV power supply (HVPS) topology of multiple IGBT modulators connected to a common HVdc source for the large number of 1 MW klystrons in the linear accelerator of the Accelerator Production of Tritium project. The switching of 24 IGBTs to obtain 20 kVdc at 20 A for short pulses was successfully demonstrated. This effort was incorporated into the design of a -70 kV, 80 A, IGBT modulator, and in a short-pulse test 12 IGBTs regulated -5 kV at 50 A under PWM control. These two tests confirm the practicality of solid-state IGBT modulators to regulate high voltage at reasonable currents. Tokamaks such as ITER require large rf heating and current drive systems with multiple rf sources. A HVPS topology is presented that readily adapts to the three rf heating systems on ITER. To take advantage of the known economy of scale for power conversion equipment, a single HVdc source feeds multiple rf sources. The large power conversion equipment, which is located outside, converts the incoming utility line voltage directly to the HVdc needed for the class of rf sources connected to it, to further reduce cost. The HVdc feeds a set of IGBT modulators, one for each rf source, to independently control the voltage applied to each source, maximizing operational flexibility. Only the modulators are indoors, close to the rf sources, minimizing the use of costly near-tokamak floor space.

  10. HIGH POWER TESTS OF A MULTIMODE X-BAND RF DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tantawi, S

    2004-01-01

    We present a multimode X-band rf pulse compression system suitable for the Next Linear Collider (NLC). The NLC main linacs operate at 11.424 GHz. A single NLC rf unit is required which produce 400 ns pulses with 600 MW of peak power. Each rf unit should power approximately 5 meters of accelerator structures. These rf units consist of two 75 MW klystrons and a dual-moded resonant delay line pulse compression system [1] that produce a flat output pulse. The pulse compression system components are all over moded and most components are design to operate with two modes at the same time. This approach allows increasing the power handling capabilities of the system while maintain a compact inexpensive system. We detail the design of this system and present experimental cold test results. The high power testing of the system is verified using four 50-MW solenoid focused klystrons. These Klystrons should be able to push the system beyond NLC requirements

  11. Additive manufacturing of RF absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Matthew S.

    The ability of additive manufacturing techniques to fabricate integrated electromagnetic absorbers tuned for specific radio frequency bands within structural composites allows for unique combinations of mechanical and electromagnetic properties. These composites and films can be used for RF shielding of sensitive electromagnetic components through in-plane and out-of-plane RF absorption. Structural composites are a common building block of many commercial platforms. These platforms may be placed in situations in which there is a need for embedded RF absorbing properties along with structural properties. Instead of adding radar absorbing treatments to the external surface of existing structures, which adds increased size, weight and cost; it could prove to be advantageous to integrate the microwave absorbing properties directly into the composite during the fabrication process. In this thesis, a method based on additive manufacturing techniques of composites structures with prescribed electromagnetic loss, within the frequency range 1 to 26GHz, is presented. This method utilizes screen printing and nScrypt micro dispensing to pattern a carbon based ink onto low loss substrates. The materials chosen for this study will be presented, and the fabrication technique that these materials went through to create RF absorbing structures will be described. The calibration methods used, the modeling of the RF structures, and the applications in which this technology can be utilized will also be presented.

  12. RF Group Annual Report 2011

    CERN Document Server

    Angoletta, M E; Betz, M; Brunner, O; Baudrenghien, P; Calaga, R; Caspers, F; Ciapala, E; Chambrillon, J; Damerau, H; Doebert, S; Federmann, S; Findlay, A; Gerigk, F; Hancock, S; Höfle, W; Jensen, E; Junginger, T; Liao, K; McMonagle, G; Montesinos, E; Mastoridis, T; Paoluzzi, M; Riddone, G; Rossi, C; Schirm, K; Schwerg, N; Shaposhnikova, E; Syratchev, I; Valuch, D; Venturini Delsolaro, W; Völlinger, C; Vretenar, M; Wuensch, W

    2012-01-01

    The highest priority for the RF group in 2011 was to contribute to a successful physics run of the LHC. This comprises operation of the superconducting 400 MHz accelerating system (ACS) and the transverse damper (ADT) of the LHC itself, but also all the individual links of the injector chain upstream of the LHC – Linac2, the PSB, the PS and the SPS – don’t forget that it is RF in all these accelerators that truly accelerates! A large variety of RF systems had to operate reliably, often near their limit. New tricks had to be found and implemented to go beyond limits; not to forget the equally demanding operation with Pb ions using in addition Linac3 and LEIR. But also other physics users required the full attention of the RF group: CNGS required in 2011 beams with very short, intense bunches, AD required reliable deceleration and cooling of anti-protons, Isolde the post-acceleration of radioactive isotopes in Rex, just to name a few. In addition to the supply of beams for physics, the RF group has a num...

  13. Rf system specifications for a linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, A.; Eaton, L.E.

    1992-01-01

    A linear accelerator contains many systems; however, the most complex and costly is the RF system. The goal of an RF system is usually simply stated as maintaining the phase and amplitude of the RF signal within a given tolerance to accelerate the charged particle beam. An RF system that drives a linear accelerator needs a complete system specification, which should contain specifications for all the subsystems (i.e., high-power RF, low-level RF, RF generation/distribution, and automation control). This paper defines a format for the specifications of these subsystems and discusses each RF subsystem independently to provide a comprehensive understanding of the function of each subsystem. This paper concludes with an example of a specification spreadsheet allowing one to input the specifications of a subsystem. Thus, some fundamental parameters (i.e., the cost and size) of the RF system can be determined

  14. Rf breakdown studies in room temperature electron linac structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loew, G.A.; Wang, J.W.

    1988-05-01

    This paper is an overall review of studies carried out by the authors and some of their colleagues on RF breakdown, Field Emission and RF processing in room temperature electron linac structure. The motivation behind this work is twofold: in a fundamental way, to contribute to the understanding of the RF breakdown phenomenon, and as an application, to determine the maximum electric field gradient that can be obtained and used safely in future e/sup +-/ linear colliders. Indeed, the next generation of these machines will have to reach into the TeV (10 12 eV) energy range, and the accelerating gradient will be to be of the crucial parameters affecting their design, construction and cost. For a specified total energy, the gradient sets the accelerator length, and once the RF structure, frequency and pulse repetition rate are selected, it also determines the peak and average power consumption. These three quantities are at the heart of the ultimate realizability and cost of these accelerators. 24 refs., 19 figs., 4 tabs

  15. RF Beam Position Monitor for the SNS Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetter, Kurt; Cameron, Peter; Dawson, Craig; Degen, Chris; Kesselman, Martin; Mead, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source Ring accumulates 1060 pulses of 38-mA peak current 1-GeV H-minus particles from the Linac through the HEBT line, then delivers this accumulated beam in a single pulse to a mercury target via the RTBT line. The dynamic range over the course of the accumulation cycle is 60 dB. As a result of particle energy distribution the 402.5-MHz RF bunching frequency quickly de-coheres during the first few turns. In order to measure first-turn position a dual-mode BPM has been designed to process 402.5-MHz signal energy during the first few turns then switch to a Baseband mode to process de-cohered energy in the low MHz region. The design has been implemented as a dual mother/daughter board PCI architecture. Both Baseband and RF calibration are included on the RF BPM board. A prototype system has been installed in the SNS Linac

  16. Operational Performance and Improvements to the RF Power Sources for the Compact Linear Collider Test Facility (CTF3) at CERN

    OpenAIRE

    McMonagle, Gerard

    2006-01-01

    The CERN CTF3 facility is being used to test and demonstrate key technical issues for the CLIC (Compact Linear Collider) study. Pulsed RF power sources are essential elements in this test facility. Klystrons at S-band (29998.55 GHz), in conjunction with pulse compression systems, are used to power the Drive Beam Accelerator (DBA) to achieve an electron beam energy of 150 MeV. The L-Band RF system, includes broadband Travelling Wave Tubes (TWTs) for beam bunching with 'phase coded' sub pulses ...

  17. Desickling of Sickle Cell Erythrocytes by Pulsed RF Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-16

    spectrophotometery. Field induced menbrane potential which causes the L partyl breakdown of the memrbrane and the formation of pores was calculated... plasma . Fig.5 shows the photographs of sickled and desickled SS erythrocytes which are suspended in Hank’s solution. As shown, desickled erythrocytes

  18. Klystron equalization for RF feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corredoura, P.

    1993-01-01

    The next generation of colliding beam storage rings support higher luminosities by significantly increasing the number of bunches and decreasing the spacing between respective bunches. The heavy beam loading requires large RF cavity detuning which drives several lower coupled bunch modes very strongly. One technique which has proven to be very successful in reducing the coupled bunch mode driving impedance is RF feedback around the klystron-cavity combination. The gain and bandwidth of the feedback loop is limited by the group delay around the feedback loop. Existing klystrons on the world market have not been optimized for this application and contribute a large portion of the total loop group delay. This paper describes a technique to reduce klystron group delay by adding an equalizing filter to the klystron RF drive. Such a filter was built and tested on a 500 kill klystron as part of the on going PEP-II R ampersand D effort here at SLAC

  19. High field conditioning of cryogenic RF cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, M.; Debiak, T.; Lom, C.; Shephard, W.; Sredniawski, J.

    1993-01-01

    Space-based and other related accelerators have conditioning and operation requirements that are not found in most machines. The use of cryogenic copper, relatively poor vacuum, and limited power storage and operating time put unusual demands on the high-field conditioning process and present some concerns. Two CW cryogenic engineering model open-quotes sparkerclose quotes cavities have been fabricated and tested to fairly high field levels. Tests included initial and repeated conditioning as well as sustained RF operations. The two cavities were an engineering model TDL and an engineering model RFQ. Both cavities operated at 425 MHz. The DTL was conditioned to 46 MV/m at 100% duty factor (CW) at cryogenic temperature. This corresponds to a gap voltage of 433 kV and a real estate accelerating gradient (energy gain/total cavity length) of 6.97 MV/m. The authors believe this to be record performance for cryo CW operation. During cryo pulsed operation, the same cavity reached 48 MV/m with 200 μsec pulses at 0.5% DF. The RFQ was conditioned to 30 MV/m CW at cryo, 85 kV gap voltage. During a brief period of cryo pulsed operation, the RFQ operated at 46 MV/m, or 125 kV gap voltage. Reconditioning experiments were performed on both cavities and no problems were encountered. It should be noted that the vacuum levels were not very stringent during these tests and no special cleanliness or handling procedures were followed. The results of these tests indicate that cavities can run CW without difficulty at cryogenic temperatures at normal conservative field levels. Higher field operation may well be possible, and if better vacuums are used and more attention is paid to cleanliness, much higher fields may be attainable

  20. RF Loads for Energy Recovery

    CERN Document Server

    Federmann, S; Caspers, F

    2012-01-01

    Different conceptional designs for RF high power loads are presented. One concept implies the use of solid state rectifier modules for direct RF to DC conversion with efficiencies beyond 80%. In addition, robust metallic low-Q resonant structures, capable of operating at high temperatures (>150 ◦C) are discussed. Another design deals with a very high temperature (up to 800 ◦C) air cooled load using a ceramic foam block inside a metal enclosure. This porous ceramic block is the microwave absorber and is not brazed to the metallic enclosure.

  1. rf reference line for PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, H.D.; Weaver, J.N.

    1979-03-01

    A rf phase reference line in 6 segments around the 2200 meter circumference PEP storage ring is described. Each segment of the reference line is phase stabilized by its own independent feedback system, which uses an amplitude modulated reflection from the end of each line. The modulation is kept small and decoupled from the next segment to avoid crosstalk and significant modulation of the rf drive signal. An error evaluation of the system is made. The technical implementation and prototype performance are described. Prototype tests indicate that the phase error around the ring can be held below 1 degree with this relatively simple system

  2. rf reference line for PEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, H.D.; Weaver, J.N.

    1979-03-01

    A rf phase reference line in 6 segments around the 2200 meter circumference PEP storage ring is described. Each segment of the reference line is phase stabilized by its own independent feedback system, which uses an amplitude modulated reflection from the end of each line. The modulation is kept small and decoupled from the next segment to avoid crosstalk and significant modulation of the rf drive signal. An error evaluation of the system is made. The technical implementation and prototype performance are described. Prototype tests indicate that the phase error around the ring can be held below 1 degree with this relatively simple system.

  3. Femtosecond electron bunches from an RF-gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimjaem, Sakhorn; Farias, Ruy; Thongbai, Chitrlada; Vilaithong, Thiraphat; Wiedemann, Helmut

    2004-01-01

    Sub-picosecond electron pulses become a tool of increasing importance to study dynamics at an atomic level. Such electron pulses can be used directly or be converted into intense coherent far infrared radiation or equally short X-ray pulses. In principle, sub-picosecond electron pulses can be obtained in large, high-energy electron linear accelerator systems by repeatedly applying an energy slew and magnetic compression. Another process is the production of short electron pulses at low energies from an RF-gun with a thermionic cathode together with a bunch compressing α-magnet. In this paper, we present a systematic analysis of capabilities and limits of sub-picosecond electron pulses from such a source. We discuss particular parameter choices as well as the impact of geometric and electric specifications on the 6-dimensional phase space electron distribution. Numerical beam simulations with the computer code PARMELA are performed including effects and limitations due to space charge forces. While the production of femtosecond electron bunches is of primary concern, we also consider the preservation of such short bunches along a beam transport line

  4. HOM Dampers or not in Superconducting RF Proton Linacs

    CERN Document Server

    Tückmantel, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    Circular machines are plagued by Coupled Bunch Instabilities, driven by impedance peaks, irrespectively of their frequency relation to machine lines; hence all cavity Higher Order Modes are possible drivers. This is the fundamental reason that all superconducting RF cavities in circular machines are equipped with HOM dampers. This raises the question if HOM damping would not be imperative also in high current proton linacs where a mechanism akin to CBI might exist. To clarify this question we have simulated the longitudinal bunched beam dynamics in linacs, allowing bunch-to-bunch variations in time-of-arrival. Simulations were executed for a generic proton linac with properties close to SNS or the planned SPL at CERN. It was found that for monopole HOMs with high Qext large beam scatter or even beam loss cannot be excluded. Therefore omitting HOM dampers on superconducting RF cavities in high current proton linacs, even pulsed ones, is a very risky decision.

  5. HOM Dampers or not in SUPERCONDUCTING RF Proton Linacs

    CERN Document Server

    Tückmantel, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    Circular machines are plagued by Coupled Bunch Instabilities, driven by impedance peaks, irrespectively of their frequency relation to machine lines; hence all cavity Higher Order Modes are possible drivers. This is the fundamental reason that all superconducting RF cavities in circular machines are equipped with HOM dampers. This raises the question if HOM damping would not be imperative also in high current proton linacs where a mechanism akin to CBI might exist. To clarify this question we have simulated the longitudinal bunched beam dynamics in linacs, allowing bunch-to-bunch variations in time-of-arrival. Simulations were executed for a generic proton linac with properties close to SNS or the planned SPL at CERN. It was found that for monopole HOMs with high Qext large beam scatter or even beam loss cannot be excluded. Therefore omitting HOM dampers on superconducting RF cavities in high current proton linacs, even pulsed ones, is a very risky decision.

  6. TRANSIENT BEAM LOADING EFFECTS IN RF SYSTEMS IN JLEIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Haipeng [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Guo, Jiquan [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Rimmer, Robert A. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Wang, Shaoheng [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The pulsed electron bunch trains generated from the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) linac to inject into the proposed Jefferson Lab Electron Ion Collider (JLEIC) e-ring will produce transient beam loading effects in the Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) systems that, if not mitigated, could cause unacceptably large beam energy deviation in the injection capture, or exceed the energy acceptance of CEBAF’s recirculating arcs. In the electron storage ring, the beam abort or ion clearing gaps or uneven bucket filling can cause large beam phase transients in the (S)RF cavity control systems and even beam loss due to Robinson instability. We have first analysed the beam stability criteria in steady state and estimated the transient effect in Feedforward and Feedback RF controls. Initial analytical models for these effects are shown for the design of the JLEIC e-ring from 3GeV to 12GeV.

  7. Modeling and design of an X-band rf photoinjector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Marsh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A design for an X-band rf photoinjector that was developed jointly by SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL is presented. The photoinjector is based around a 5.59 cell rf gun that has state-of-the-art features including: elliptical contoured irises; improved mode separation; an optimized initial half cell length; a racetrack input coupler; and coupling that balances pulsed heating with cavity fill time. Radio-frequency and beam dynamics modeling have been done using a combination of codes including PARMELA, HFSS, IMPACT-T, ASTRA, and the ACE3P suite of codes developed at SLAC. The impact of lower gradient operation, magnet misalignment, solenoid multipole errors, beam offset, mode beating, wakefields, and beam line symmetry have been analyzed and are described. Fabrication and testing plans at both LLNL and SLAC are discussed.

  8. L-band pulsed klystron for the JHP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, S.; Takeuchi, Y.; Hisamatsu, H.; Anami, S.; Kihara, M.; Takahashi, A.

    1994-01-01

    An L-band high-power klystron for the JHP (6 MW output power and 600 μsec pulse width) was designed at KEK. High-power tests of the test diodes were performed up to a beam voltage of 140 kV, a pulse width of 600 μsec and a repetition rate of 50 pps. The capability to meet the specifications of the gun and the collector was confirmed. High-power tests of the rf window were also performed up to rf powers of 4 MW (600 μsec pulse width) and 5 MW (375 μsec pulse width). We obtained good results for an rf window using high-purity alumina (99.7%). The design considerations and manufacturing process are also described. Manufacturing a prototype tube has been completed and the tube is undergoing the high-power tests. (author)

  9. Emittance growth in rf linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jameson, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    As the space-charge limit is approached, the current that can be accelerated in an rf linac and the output emittance that can be expected are discussed. The role of the envelope equations to estimate limits is outlined. The results of numerical experiments to explore general properties of emittance growth are given

  10. Field emission in RF cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonin, B.

    1996-01-01

    Electron field emission limits the accelerating gradient in superconducting cavities. It is shown how and why it is an important problem. The phenomenology of field emission is then described, both in DC and RF regimes. Merits of a few plausible 'remedies' to field emission are discussed. (author)

  11. Modern technologies in rf superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lengeler, H.

    1994-01-01

    The development and application of superconducting rf cavities in particle accelerators is a fine example of advanced technology and of close cooperation with industry. This contribution examines the theoretical and present-day practical limitations of sc cavities and describes some advanced technologies needed for their large scale applications. (orig.)

  12. Broadband direct RF digitization receivers

    CERN Document Server

    Jamin, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    This book discusses the trade-offs involved in designing direct RF digitization receivers for the radio frequency and digital signal processing domains.  A system-level framework is developed, quantifying the relevant impairments of the signal processing chain, through a comprehensive system-level analysis.  Special focus is given to noise analysis (thermal noise, quantization noise, saturation noise, signal-dependent noise), broadband non-linear distortion analysis, including the impact of the sampling strategy (low-pass, band-pass), analysis of time-interleaved ADC channel mismatches, sampling clock purity and digital channel selection. The system-level framework described is applied to the design of a cable multi-channel RF direct digitization receiver. An optimum RF signal conditioning, and some algorithms (automatic gain control loop, RF front-end amplitude equalization control loop) are used to relax the requirements of a 2.7GHz 11-bit ADC. A two-chip implementation is presented, using BiCMOS and 65nm...

  13. Introduction to RF linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, M.

    1994-01-01

    The basic features of RF linear accelerators are described. The concept of the 'loaded cavity', essential for the synchronism wave-particle, is introduced, and formulae describing the action of electromagnetic fields on the beam are given. The treatment of intense beams is mentioned, and various existing linear accelerators are presented as examples. (orig.)

  14. MOSFET Degradation Under RF Stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sasse, G.T.; Kuper, F.G.; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    2008-01-01

    We report on the degradation of MOS transistors under RF stress. Hot-carrier degradation, negative-bias temperature instability, and gate dielectric breakdown are investigated. The findings are compared to established voltage- and field-driven models. The experimental results indicate that the

  15. The LHC Low Level RF

    CERN Document Server

    Baudrenghien, Philippe; Molendijk, John Cornelis; Olsen, Ragnar; Rohlev, Anton; Rossi, Vittorio; Stellfeld, Donat; Valuch, Daniel; Wehrle, Urs

    2006-01-01

    The LHC RF consists of eight 400 MHz superconducting cavities per ring, with each cavity independently powered by a 300 kW klystron, via a circulator. The challenge for the Low Level is to cope with very high beam current (more than 1 A RF component) and achieve excellent beam lifetime (emittance growth time in excess of 25 hours). Each cavity has an associated Cavity Controller rack consisting of two VME crates which implement high gain RF Feedback, a Tuner Loop with a new algorithm, a Klystron Ripple Loop and a Conditioning system. In addition each ring has a Beam Control system (four VME crates) which includes a Frequency Program, Phase Loop, Radial Loop and Synchronization Loop. A Longitudinal Damper (dipole and quadrupole mode) acting via the 400 MHz cavities is included to reduce emittance blow-up due to filamentation from phase and energy errors at injection. Finally an RF Synchronization system implements the bunch into bucket transfer from the SPS into each LHC ring. When fully installed in 2007, the...

  16. Simulation of synchrotron motion with rf noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leemann, B.T.; Forest, E.; Chattopadhyay, S.

    1986-08-01

    The theoretical formulation is described that is behind an algorithm for synchrotron phase-space tracking with rf noise and some preliminary simulation results of bunch diffusion under rf noise obtained by actual tracking

  17. Pulsed energy storage antennas for ionospheric modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. F. Wuerker

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Interesting, "new", very high peak-power pulsed radio frequency (RF antennas have been assembled at the HIPAS Observatory (Alaska, USA and also at the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA, USA; namely, a pair of quarter wavelength (λ/4 long cylindrical conductors separated by a high voltage spark gap. Such a combination can radiate multi-megawatt RF pulses whenever the spark gap fires. The antenna at HIPAS is 53m long (λ/2 with a central pressurized SF6 spark gap. It is mounted 5 meters (λ/21 above a ground plane. It radiates at 2.85MHz. The two antenna halves are charged to ± high voltages by a Tesla coil. Spark gap voltages of 0.4 MV (at the instant of spark gap closure give peak RF currents of ~1200A which correspond to ~14 MW peak total radiated power, or ~56 MW of Effective Radiated Power (ERP. The RF pulse train is initially square, decaying exponentially in time with Qs of ~50. Two similar but smaller 80-MHz antennas were assembled at UCLA to demonstrate their synchronization with a pulsed laser which fired the spark gaps in the two antennas simultanoeously. These experiments show that one can anticipate a pulsed array of laser synchronized antennas having a coherent Effective Radiated Power (ERP>10GW. One can even reconsider a pulse array radiating at 1.43MHz which corresponds to the electron gyrofrequency in the Earth's magnetic field at ~200km altitude. These "new" pulsed high power antennas are hauntingly similar to the ones used originally by Hertz (1857-1894 during his (1886-1889 seminal verifications of Maxwell's (1864 theory of electrodynamics.

  18. Pulsed energy storage antennas for ionospheric modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. F. Wuerker

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Interesting, "new", very high peak-power pulsed radio frequency (RF antennas have been assembled at the HIPAS Observatory (Alaska, USA and also at the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA, USA; namely, a pair of quarter wavelength (λ/4 long cylindrical conductors separated by a high voltage spark gap. Such a combination can radiate multi-megawatt RF pulses whenever the spark gap fires. The antenna at HIPAS is 53m long (λ/2 with a central pressurized SF6 spark gap. It is mounted 5 meters (λ/21 above a ground plane. It radiates at 2.85MHz. The two antenna halves are charged to ± high voltages by a Tesla coil. Spark gap voltages of 0.4 MV (at the instant of spark gap closure give peak RF currents of ~1200A which correspond to ~14 MW peak total radiated power, or ~56 MW of Effective Radiated Power (ERP. The RF pulse train is initially square, decaying exponentially in time with Qs of ~50. Two similar but smaller 80-MHz antennas were assembled at UCLA to demonstrate their synchronization with a pulsed laser which fired the spark gaps in the two antennas simultanoeously. These experiments show that one can anticipate a pulsed array of laser synchronized antennas having a coherent Effective Radiated Power (ERP>10GW. One can even reconsider a pulse array radiating at 1.43MHz which corresponds to the electron gyrofrequency in the Earth's magnetic field at ~200km altitude. These "new" pulsed high power antennas are hauntingly similar to the ones used originally by Hertz (1857-1894 during his (1886-1889 seminal verifications of Maxwell's (1864 theory of electrodynamics.

  19. RF power sources for 5--15 TeV linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, P.B.

    1996-09-01

    After outlining the design of the NLC rf system at 1 TeV, the possibility of a leap in linear collider energy into the 5--15 TeV energy range is considered. To keep the active accelerator length and ac wall-plug power within reasonable bounds, higher accelerating gradients at higher rf frequencies will be necessary. Scaling relations are developed for basic rf system parameters as a function of frequency, and some specific parameter examples are given for colliders at 34 Ghz and 91 Ghz. Concepts for rf pulse compression system design and for high power microwave sources at 34 Ghz (for example sheet-beam and multiple-beam klystrons) are briefly discussed

  20. Formation of a high quality electron beam using photo cathode RF electron gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washio, Masakazu

    2000-01-01

    Formation of a high quality electron beam using photo cathode RF electron gun is expected for formation of a next generation high brilliant X-ray beam and a source for electron and positron collider. And, on a field of material science, as is possible to carry out an experiment under ultra short pulse and extremely high precision in time, it collects large expectation. Recently, formation of high quality beam possible to develop for multi directions and to use by everyone in future has been able to realize. Here were explained on electron beam source, principle and component on RF electron gun, working features on RF gun, features and simulation of RF gun under operation, and some views in near future. (G.K.)

  1. RF Negative Ion Source Development at IPP Garching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraus, W.; McNeely, P.; Berger, M.; Christ-Koch, S.; Falter, H. D.; Fantz, U.; Franzen, P.; Froeschle, M.; Heinemann, B.; Leyer, S.; Riedl, R.; Speth, E.; Wuenderlich, D.

    2007-01-01

    IPP Garching is heavily involved in the development of an ion source for Neutral Beam Heating of the ITER Tokamak. RF driven ion sources have been successfully developed and are in operation on the ASDEX-Upgrade Tokamak for positive ion based NBH by the NB Heating group at IPP Garching. Building on this experience a RF driven H- ion source has been under development at IPP Garching as an alternative to the ITER reference design ion source. The number of test beds devoted to source development for ITER has increased from one (BATMAN) by the addition of two test beds (MANITU, RADI). This paper contains descriptions of the three test beds. Results on diagnostic development using laser photodetachment and cavity ringdown spectroscopy are given for BATMAN. The latest results for long pulse development on MANITU are presented including the to date longest pulse (600 s). As well, details of source modifications necessitated for pulses in excess of 100 s are given. The newest test bed RADI is still being commissioned and only technical details of the test bed are included in this paper. The final topic of the paper is an investigation into the effects of biasing the plasma grid

  2. Laser-to-RF phase detection with femtosecond precision for remote reference phase stabilization in particle accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamb, Thorsten

    2017-05-15

    The operation of modern free-electron lasers (FELs) requires the synchronization of different accelerator subsystems with femtosecond precision. A pulsed optical synchronization system is for this reason operated at the Free-Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH) and it is under construction for the upcoming European X-ray Free-Electron Laser (XFEL). Laser pulses from the optical master oscillator are transmitted by timing stabilized optical fiberlinks to dedicated end stations along the accelerator. Devices which cannot operate with optical synchronization signals are instead conventionally synchronized with radio frequency (RF) reference signals. These signals are distributed in the accelerator by coaxial cables. Especially the low -level radio frequency (LLRF) system requires RF reference signals with femtosecond stability in order to meet nowadays femtosecond demands. Due to cable drifts and the length of the accelerators, this level of stability cannot be provided by conventional RF transport. A laser-to-RF (L2RF) phase detector has been invented, which allows to measure with femtosecond precision the relative phase between a phase stable optical pulse train from an optical fiberlink and an RF signal. The L2RF phase detector is based on an integrated MACH-ZEHNDER modulator (MZM) in which the phase error between both signals is encoded in an amplitude modulation of the optical pulse train. Different configurations, based on single output and dual output MZMs have been evaluated for different operation scenarios. A full mathematical representation of the chosen configuration has been derived. The impact of multiple error sources has been investigated. It has been proven that most error sources have only second or higher order influence on the detection principle which is a significant advantage over existing schemes. The invented L2RF phase detector is for example balanced and in its working point insensitive to power variations of the optical reference pulse train

  3. Laser-to-RF phase detection with femtosecond precision for remote reference phase stabilization in particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamb, Thorsten

    2017-05-01

    The operation of modern free-electron lasers (FELs) requires the synchronization of different accelerator subsystems with femtosecond precision. A pulsed optical synchronization system is for this reason operated at the Free-Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH) and it is under construction for the upcoming European X-ray Free-Electron Laser (XFEL). Laser pulses from the optical master oscillator are transmitted by timing stabilized optical fiberlinks to dedicated end stations along the accelerator. Devices which cannot operate with optical synchronization signals are instead conventionally synchronized with radio frequency (RF) reference signals. These signals are distributed in the accelerator by coaxial cables. Especially the low -level radio frequency (LLRF) system requires RF reference signals with femtosecond stability in order to meet nowadays femtosecond demands. Due to cable drifts and the length of the accelerators, this level of stability cannot be provided by conventional RF transport. A laser-to-RF (L2RF) phase detector has been invented, which allows to measure with femtosecond precision the relative phase between a phase stable optical pulse train from an optical fiberlink and an RF signal. The L2RF phase detector is based on an integrated MACH-ZEHNDER modulator (MZM) in which the phase error between both signals is encoded in an amplitude modulation of the optical pulse train. Different configurations, based on single output and dual output MZMs have been evaluated for different operation scenarios. A full mathematical representation of the chosen configuration has been derived. The impact of multiple error sources has been investigated. It has been proven that most error sources have only second or higher order influence on the detection principle which is a significant advantage over existing schemes. The invented L2RF phase detector is for example balanced and in its working point insensitive to power variations of the optical reference pulse train

  4. High power tests of X-band RF windows at KEK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otake, Yuji [Earthquake Research Inst., Tokyo Univ., Tokyo (Japan); Tokumoto, Shuichi; Kazakov, Sergei Yu.; Odagiri, Junichi; Mizuno, Hajime

    1997-04-01

    Various RF windows comprising a short pill-box, a long pill-box, a TW (traveling wave)-mode and three TE11-mode horn types have been developed for an X-band high-power pulse klystron with two output windows for JLC (Japan Linear Collider). The output RF power of the klystron is designed to be 130 MW with the 800 ns pulse duration. Since this X-band klystron has two output windows, the maximum RF power of the window must be over 85 MW. The design principle for the windows is to reduce the RF-power density and/or the electric-field strength at the ceramic part compared with that of an ordinary pill-box-type window. Their reduction is effective to increase the handling RF power of the window. To confirm that the difference among the electric-field strengths depends on their RF structures, High-power tests of the above-mentioned windows were successfully carried out using a traveling-wave resonator (TWR) for the horns and the TW-mode type and, installing them directly to klystron output waveguides for the short and long pill-box type. Based upon the operation experience of S-band windows, two kinds of ceramic materials were used for these tests. The TE11-mode 1/2{lambda}g-1 window was tested up to the RF peak-power of 84 MW with the 700 ns pulse duration in the TWR. (J.P.N)

  5. Digital low level RF control system for the DESY TTF VUV-FEL Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayvazyan, V.; Choroba, S.; Matyushin, A.; Moeller, G.; Petrosyan, G.; Rehlich, K.; Simrock, S.N.; Vetrov, P.

    2005-01-01

    In the RF system for the Vacuum Ultraviolet Free Electron Laser (VUV-FEL) Linac each klystron supplies RF power to up to 32 cavities. The superconducting cavities are operated in pulsed mode and high accelerating gradients close to the performance limit. The RF control of the cavity fields to the level of 10 -4 for amplitude and 0.1 degree for phase however presents a significant technical challenge due to the narrow bandwidth of the cavities which results in high sensitivity to perturbations of the resonance frequency by mechanical vibrations (microphonics) and Lorenz force detuning. The VUV-FEL Linac RF control system employs a completely digital feedback system to provide flexibility in the control algorithms, precise calibration of the accelerating field vector-sum, and extensive diagnostics and exception handling capabilities. The RF control algorithm is implemented in DSP (Digital Signal Processor) firmware and DOOCS (Distributed Object Oriented Control System) servers. The RF control system design objectives are discussed. Hardware and software design of the DSP based RF control are presented. (orig.)

  6. Digital low level RF control system for the DESY TTF VUV-FEL Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayvazyan, V.; Choroba, S.; Matyushin, A.; Moeller, G.; Petrosyan, G.; Rehlich, K.; Simrock, S.N.; Vetrov, P.

    2005-07-01

    In the RF system for the Vacuum Ultraviolet Free Electron Laser (VUV-FEL) Linac each klystron supplies RF power to up to 32 cavities. The superconducting cavities are operated in pulsed mode and high accelerating gradients close to the performance limit. The RF control of the cavity fields to the level of 10{sup -4} for amplitude and 0.1 degree for phase however presents a significant technical challenge due to the narrow bandwidth of the cavities which results in high sensitivity to perturbations of the resonance frequency by mechanical vibrations (microphonics) and Lorenz force detuning. The VUV-FEL Linac RF control system employs a completely digital feedback system to provide flexibility in the control algorithms, precise calibration of the accelerating field vector-sum, and extensive diagnostics and exception handling capabilities. The RF control algorithm is implemented in DSP (Digital Signal Processor) firmware and DOOCS (Distributed Object Oriented Control System) servers. The RF control system design objectives are discussed. Hardware and software design of the DSP based RF control are presented. (orig.)

  7. Exposure Metrics for RF Epidemiology: Cellular Phone Handsets (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balzano, Q.

    1999-01-01

    The parameters are described that characterise the exposure of the users of cellular phones. The parameters are distinguished in two classes: the human and the cell phone parameters. Among the human parameters the following are discussed: size and shape of head and neck, manner of holding the phone (left vs. right, finger tips vs. palm contact) and phone position on the face of the user. The cell phone parameters causing the largest exposure variations are: antenna geometry (size, shape, extended or retracted) and matching conditions; operating RF power level; proximity of tissue to RF currents on metal parts, channel access method (analogue, pulsed, CDMA). The large variability of the RF exposure is further expanded by the variety (ever increasing) of phone models available to users who may change service frequently or sporadically. After a brief discussion of possible dose definitions and the uncertainty of the 'user' of a cell phone for a specific call, the paper analyses the critical exposure parameters that should be investigated to characterise statistically the RF exposure of the subjects of an epidemiological study. The improved exposure assessment of the users of cellular phones requires the cooperation of network operators and equipment manufacturers. The statistics of the most critical parameters, those with variability greater than 10:1, can be collected by modifying the software and hardware of the cell phone equipment. The paper suggests base station software modifications and the introduction of cell phone 'dosemeter' devices that record some of the critical exposure parameters. A certain number of these 'dosemeters' should be distributed among subscribers to determine the statistical variations of the RF exposure from cell phones. The paper concludes by recommending a pilot dosimetric study independent from any epidemiological study. (author)

  8. Development of a Solid State RF Amplifier in the kW Regime for Application with Low Beta Superconducting RF Cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Piel, Christian; Borisov, A; Kolesov, Sergej; Piel, Helmut

    2005-01-01

    Projects based on the use of low beta superconducting cavities for ions are under operation or development at several labs worldwide. Often these cavities are individually driven by RF power sources in the kW regime. For an ongoing project a modular 2 kW, 176 MHz unconditionally stable RF amplifier for CW and pulsed operation was designed, built, and tested. Extended thermal analysis was used to develop a water cooling system in order to optimize the performance of the power transistors and other thermally loaded components. The paper will outline the design concept of the amplifier and present first results on the test of the amplifier with a superconducting cavity.

  9. Discussion of high brightness rf linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jameson, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    The fundamental aspects of high-brightness rf linacs are outlined, showing the breadth and complexity of the technology and indicating that synergism with advancements in other areas is important. Areas of technology reviewed include ion sources, injectors, rf accelerator structures, beam dynamics, rf power, and automatic control

  10. High-brightness rf linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jameson, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    The issue of high brightness and its ramifications in linacs driven by radio-frequency fields is discussed. A history of the RF linacs is reviewed briefly. Some current applications are then examined that are driving progress in RF linacs. The physics affecting the brightness of RF linacs is then discussed, followed by the economic feasibility of higher brightness machines

  11. RF phase distribution systems at the SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jobe, R.K.; Schwarz, H.D.

    1989-04-01

    Modern large linear accelerators require RF distribution systems with minimal phase drifts and errors. Through the use of existing RF coaxial waveguides, and additional installation of phase reference cables and monitoring equipment, stable RF distribution for the SLC has been achieved. This paper discusses the design and performance of SLAC systems, and some design considerations for future colliders. 6 refs., 4 figs

  12. Linear collider RF: Introduction and summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, R.B.

    1995-01-01

    The relation of acceleration gradient with RF frequency is examined, and approximate general RF power requirements are derived. Considerations of efficiency and cost are discussed. RF Sources, presented at the conference, are reviewed. Overall efficiencies of the linear collider proposals are compared. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  13. Pulsed lower-hybrid wave penetration in reactor plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, R.H.; Bonoli, P.T.; Porkolab, M.; Rognlien, T.D.

    1989-01-01

    Providing lower-hybrid power in short, intense (GW) pulses allows enhanced wave penetration in reactor-grade plasmas. We examine nonlinear absorption, ray propagation, and parametric instability of the intense pulses. We find that simultaneously achieving good penetration while avoiding parametric instabilities is possible, but imposes restrictions on the peak power density, pulse duration, and/or r.f. spot shape. In particular, power launched in narrow strips, elongated along the field direction, is desired

  14. Investigation of rf plasma light sources for dye laser excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendall, J.S.; Jaminet, J.F.

    1975-06-01

    Analytical and experimental studies were performed to assess the applicability of radio frequency (rf) induction heated plasma light sources for potential excitation of continuous dye lasers. Experimental efforts were directed toward development of a continuous light source having spectral flux and emission characteristics approaching that required for pumping organic dye lasers. Analytical studies were performed to investigate (1) methods of pulsing the light source to obtain higher radiant intensity and (2) methods of integrating the source with a reflective cavity for pumping a dye cell. (TFD)

  15. SNS Superconducting RF cavity modeling-iterative learning control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, S.-I.; Regan, Amy; Wang, Y.-M.

    2002-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) Superconducting RF (SRF) linear accelerator is operated with a pulsed beam. For the SRF control system to track the repetitive electromagnetic field reference trajectory, both feedback and feedforward controllers have been proposed. The feedback controller is utilized to guarantee the closed loop system stability and the feedforward controller is used to improve the tracking performance for the repetitive reference trajectory and to suppress repetitive disturbances. As the iteration number increases, the feedforward controller decreases the tracking error. Numerical simulations demonstrate that inclusion of the feedforward controller significantly improves the control system performance over its performance with just the feedback controller

  16. SNS Superconducting RF cavity modeling-iterative learning control

    CERN Document Server

    Kwon, S I; Wang, Y M

    2002-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) Superconducting RF (SRF) linear accelerator is operated with a pulsed beam. For the SRF control system to track the repetitive electromagnetic field reference trajectory, both feedback and feedforward controllers have been proposed. The feedback controller is utilized to guarantee the closed loop system stability and the feedforward controller is used to improve the tracking performance for the repetitive reference trajectory and to suppress repetitive disturbances. As the iteration number increases, the feedforward controller decreases the tracking error. Numerical simulations demonstrate that inclusion of the feedforward controller significantly improves the control system performance over its performance with just the feedback controller.

  17. Dynamic modelling of tearing mode stabilization by RF current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giruzzi, G.; Zabiego, M.; Gianakon, T.A.; Garbet, X.; Bernabei, S.

    1998-01-01

    The theory of tearing mode stabilization in toroidal plasmas by RF-driven currents that are modulated in phase with the island rotation is investigated. A time scale analysis of the phenomena involved indicates that transient effects, such as finite time response of the driven currents, island rotation during the power pulses, and the inductive response of the plasma, are intrinsically important. A dynamic model of such effects is developed, based on a 3-D Fokker-Planck code coupled to both the electric field diffusion and the island evolution equations. Extensive applications to both Electron Cyclotron and Lower Hybrid current drive in ITER are presented. (author)

  18. rf impedance of the accelerating beam gap and its significance to the TRIUMF rf system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, R.

    1979-03-01

    The rf system at TRIUMF is now operating with the highest Q, the lowest rf leakage into the beam gap, the best voltage stability, and the lowest resonator strongback temperatures ever measured since it was first put into operation. This paper describes the calculation of the rf impedance of the beam gap and its correlation to the rf problems encountered, which eventually led to modifications to the flux guides and resonator tips to accomplish the improved operation of the rf system

  19. The design of a 3 GHz thermionic RF-gun and energy filter for MAX-lab

    CERN Document Server

    Anderberg, B; Demirkan, M; Eriksson, M; Malmgren, L; Werin, S

    2002-01-01

    A new pre-injector has been designed for the MAX-laboratory. It consists of an RF-gun and a magnetic energy filter. The newly designed RF-gun geometry will be operated at 3 GHz in the thermionic mode using a BaO cathode. The pre-injector will provide a 2.3 MeV electron beam in 3 ps micro pulses to a new injector system currently under construction.

  20. Development and performance test of a new high power RF window in S-band PLS-II LINAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Woon-Ha; Joo, Young-Do; Kim, Seung-Hwan; Choi, Jae-Young; Noh, Sung-Ju; Ryu, Ji-Wan; Cho, Young-Ki

    2017-12-01

    A prototype of RF window was developed in collaboration with the Pohang Accelerator Laboratory (PAL) and domestic companies. High power performance tests of the single RF window were conducted at PAL to verify the operational characteristics for its application in the Pohang Light Source-II (PLS-II) linear accelerator (Linac). The tests were performed in the in-situ facility consisting of a modulator, klystron, waveguide network, vacuum system, cooling system, and RF analyzing equipment. The test results with Stanford linear accelerator energy doubler (SLED) have shown no breakdown up to 75 MW peak power with 4.5 μs RF pulse width at a repetition rate of 10 Hz. The test results with the current operation level of PLS-II Linac confirm that the RF window well satisfies the criteria for PLS-II Linac operation.

  1. Stochastic cooling with a double rf system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Jie.

    1992-01-01

    Stochastic cooling for a bunched beam of hadrons stored in an accelerator with a double rf system of two different frequencies has been investigated. The double rf system broadens the spread in synchrotron-oscillation frequency of the particles when they mostly oscillate near the center of the rf bucket. Compared with the ease of a single rf system, the reduction rates of the bunch dimensions are significantly increased. When the rf voltage is raised, the reduction rate, instead of decreasing linearly, now is independent of the ratio of the bunch area to the bucket area. On the other hand, the spread in synchrotron-oscillation frequency becomes small with the double rf system, if the longitudinal oscillation amplitudes of the particles are comparable to the dimension of the rf bucket. Consequently, stochastic cooling is less effective when the bunch area is close to the bucket area

  2. RF system modeling and controller design for the European XFEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Christian

    2011-06-01

    The European XFEL is being constructed at the Deutsche Elektronen Synchrotron DESY to generate intense, ultrashort pulses of highly coherent and monochromatic X-Rays for material science research. X-ray flashes are generated by accelerating electron bunches within superconducting cavities with radio frequency (RF) fields to energies up to 17.5 GeV. The digital control of these fields requires extremely high quality in order to achieve the physical processes of photon generation. DESY offers with FLASH a pilot test facility, allowing to test and develop most necessary components, even before the XFEL is conducted. Current field control is based on a proportional feedback controller in addition to a constant feedforward drive, which do not meet the high requirements of the XFEL. This thesis shows that a model based controller design can achieve the necessary field regulation requirements. A linear, time invariant ''black box model'' is estimated, which characterizes the essential dynamic behavior. This model is not based on physical assumptions, but describes exclusively the transfer behavior of the plant. The acceleration modules are operated in a pulsed mode, in which the RF field must be kept constant for a finite period. The character of the disturbances and variations from pulse-to-pulse, together with the properties of the system, require a combination of controlled feedforward drive and feedback. Generally unpredictable, low frequency pulse-to-pulse variations are suppressed by the feedback controller. The structural design of the complex multivariable feedback controller is given, which constrains the model based design approach to assign the controller parameters only. Estimation of the parameters, which can not be tuned manually, is done by the method of H loop shaping which is often applied in modern control theory. However, disturbances within a pulse are in a high frequency range concerning the short pulse duration. They are not sufficiently suppressed

  3. RF system modeling and controller design for the European XFEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Christian

    2011-06-15

    The European XFEL is being constructed at the Deutsche Elektronen Synchrotron DESY to generate intense, ultrashort pulses of highly coherent and monochromatic X-Rays for material science research. X-ray flashes are generated by accelerating electron bunches within superconducting cavities with radio frequency (RF) fields to energies up to 17.5 GeV. The digital control of these fields requires extremely high quality in order to achieve the physical processes of photon generation. DESY offers with FLASH a pilot test facility, allowing to test and develop most necessary components, even before the XFEL is conducted. Current field control is based on a proportional feedback controller in addition to a constant feedforward drive, which do not meet the high requirements of the XFEL. This thesis shows that a model based controller design can achieve the necessary field regulation requirements. A linear, time invariant ''black box model'' is estimated, which characterizes the essential dynamic behavior. This model is not based on physical assumptions, but describes exclusively the transfer behavior of the plant. The acceleration modules are operated in a pulsed mode, in which the RF field must be kept constant for a finite period. The character of the disturbances and variations from pulse-to-pulse, together with the properties of the system, require a combination of controlled feedforward drive and feedback. Generally unpredictable, low frequency pulse-to-pulse variations are suppressed by the feedback controller. The structural design of the complex multivariable feedback controller is given, which constrains the model based design approach to assign the controller parameters only. Estimation of the parameters, which can not be tuned manually, is done by the method of H{sub {infinity}} loop shaping which is often applied in modern control theory. However, disturbances within a pulse are in a high frequency range concerning the short pulse duration

  4. One nanosecond pulsed electron gun systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koontz, R.F.

    1979-02-01

    At SLAC there has been a continuous need for the injection of very short bunches of electrons into the accelerator. Several time-of-flight experiments have used bursts of short pulses during a normal 1.6 micro-second rf acceleration period. Single bunch beam loading experiments made use of a short pulse injection system which included high power transverse beam chopping equipment. Until the equipment described in this paper came on line, the basic grid-controlled gun pulse was limited to a rise time of 7 nanoseconds and a pulse width of 10 nanoseconds. The system described here has a grid-controlled rise time of less than 500 pico-seconds, and a minimum pulse width of less than 1 nanosecond. Pulse burst repetition rate has been demonstrated above 20 MHz during a 1.6 microsecond rf accelerating period. The order-of-magnitude increase in gun grid switching speed comes from a new gun design which minimizes lead inductance and stray capacitance, and also increases gun grid transconductance. These gun improvements coupled with a newly designed fast pulser mounted directly within the gun envelope make possible subnanosecond pulsing of the gun

  5. Linear collider applications of superconducting RF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    The most promising technology for producing interactions of electrons and positrons in TeV energy range is the linear collider. In the linear collider each and every collision of charged particles depends on the production of the charges at rest and then the acceleration of those charges to full energy. The particles that exit the interaction region are discharded. A consequence of this mode of operation is that the luminosity of the machine is ultimately determined by the efficiency with which AC power can be converted into beam power. The consideration of superconducting cavities is motivated by the need for high efficiency. Thus, the high emittance around a beam collider and low emittance around beams are discussed first in the present report. Flat beams are then addressed focusing on the characteristics of the source, final focus, and beam stability. The beam stability, in particular, is discussed in detail in relation to the multiple bunch transverse stability, wake field induced energy spread, trapped modes, pulse width, duty cycle, RF power, and refrigerator power. (N.K.)

  6. Superconducting rf and beam-cavity interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisognano, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    Beam-cavity interactions can limit the beam quality and current handling capability of linear and circular accelerators. These collective effects include cumulative and regenerative transverse beam breakup (BBU) in linacs, transverse multipass beam breakup in recirculating linacs and microtrons, longitudinal and transverse coupled-bunch instabilities in storage rings, and a variety of transverse and longitudinal single-bunch phenomena (instabilities, beam breakup, and energy deposition). The superconducting radio frequency (SRF) environment has a number of features which distinguish it from room temperature configuration with regard to these beam-cavity interactions. Typically the unloaded Qs of the lower higher order modes (HOM) are at the 10 9 level and require significant damping through couplers. High gradient CW operation, which is a principal advantage of SRF, allows for better control of beam quality, which for its preservation requires added care which respect to collective phenomena. Gradients are significantly higher than those attainable with copper in CW operation but remain significantly lower than those obtainable with pulsed copper cavities. Finally, energy deposition by the beam into the cavity can occur in a cryogenic environment. In this note those characteristics of beam-cavity interactions which are of particular importance for superconducting RF cavities are highlighted. 6 refs., 4 figs

  7. Rf System for the NLCTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.W.; Adolphsen, C.; Eichner, J.; Fuller, R.W.; Gold, S.L.; Hanna, S.M.; Hoag, H.A.; Holmes, S.G.; Koontz, R.F.; Lavine, Theodore L.; Loewen, R.J.; Miller, R.H.; Nantista, C.D.; Pope, R.; Rifkin, J.; Ruth, R.D.; Tantawi, S.G.; Vlieks, A.E.; Wilson, Z.; Yeremian, A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes an X-Band RF system for the Next Linear Collider Test Accelerator. The RF system consists of a 90 MeV injector and a 540 MeV linac. The main components of the injector are two low-Q single-cavity prebunchers and two 0.9-m-long detuned accelerator sections. The linac system consists of six 1.8-m-long detuned and damped detuned accelerator sections powered in pairs. The rf power generation, compression, delivery, distribution and measurement systems consist of klystrons, SLEDII energy compression systems, rectangular waveguides, magic-T's, and directional couplers. The phase and amplitude for each prebuncher is adjusted via a magic-T type phase shifter/attenuator. Correct phasing between the two 0.9 m accelerator sections is obtained by properly aligning the sections and adjusting two squeeze type phase shifters. Bunch phase and bunch length can be monitored with special microwave cavities and measurement systems. The design, fabrication, microwave measurement, calibration, and operation of the sub-systems and their components are briefly presented.

  8. Low jitter RF distribution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Russell; Doolittle, Lawrence; Huang, Gang

    2012-09-18

    A timing signal distribution system includes an optical frequency stabilized laser signal amplitude modulated at an rf frequency. A transmitter box transmits a first portion of the laser signal and receive a modified optical signal, and outputs a second portion of the laser signal and a portion of the modified optical signal. A first optical fiber carries the first laser signal portion and the modified optical signal, and a second optical fiber carries the second portion of the laser signal and the returned modified optical signal. A receiver box receives the first laser signal portion, shifts the frequency of the first laser signal portion outputs the modified optical signal, and outputs an electrical signal on the basis of the laser signal. A detector at the end of the second optical fiber outputs a signal based on the modified optical signal. An optical delay sensing circuit outputs a data signal based on the detected modified optical signal. An rf phase detect and correct signal circuit outputs a signal corresponding to a phase stabilized rf signal based on the data signal and the frequency received from the receiver box.

  9. Oak Ridge rf Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, W.L.; Hoffman, D.J.; McCurdy, H.C.; McManamy, T.J.; Moeller, J.A.; Ryan, P.M.

    1985-01-01

    The rf Test Facility (RFTF) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) provides a national facility for the testing and evaluation of steady-state, high-power (approx.1.0-MW) ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) systems and components. The facility consists of a vacuum vessel and two fully tested superconducting development magnets from the ELMO Bumpy Torus Proof-of-Principle (EBT-P) program. These are arranged as a simple mirror with a mirror ratio of 4.8. The axial centerline distance between magnet throat centers is 112 cm. The vacuum vessel cavity has a large port (74 by 163 cm) and a test volume adequate for testing prototypic launchers for Doublet III-D (DIII-D), Tore Supra, and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). Attached to the internal vessel walls are water-cooled panels for removing the injected rf power. The magnets are capable of generating a steady-state field of approx.3 T on axis in the magnet throats. Steady-state plasmas are generated in the facility by cyclotron resonance breakdown using a dedicated 200-kW, 28-GHz gyrotron. Available rf sources cover a frequency range of 2 to 200 MHz at 1.5 kW and 3 to 18 MHz at 200 kW, with several sources at intermediate parameters. Available in July 1986 will be a >1.0-MW, cw source spanning 40 to 80 MHz. 5 figs

  10. Operational Performance and Improvements to the RF Power Sources for the Compact Linear Collider Test Facility (CTF3) at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    McMonagle, Gerard

    2006-01-01

    The CERN CTF3 facility is being used to test and demonstrate key technical issues for the CLIC (Compact Linear Collider) study. Pulsed RF power sources are essential elements in this test facility. Klystrons at S-band (29998.55 GHz), in conjunction with pulse compression systems, are used to power the Drive Beam Accelerator (DBA) to achieve an electron beam energy of 150 MeV. The L-Band RF system, includes broadband Travelling Wave Tubes (TWTs) for beam bunching with 'phase coded' sub pulses in the injector and a narrow band high power L-Band klystron powering the transverse 1.5GHz RF deflector in the Delay Loop immediately after the DBA. This paper describes these different systems and discusses their operational performance.

  11. Operational performance and improvements to the rf power sources for the Compact Linear Collider Test Facility (CTF3) at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    McMonagle, Gerard

    2006-01-01

    The CERN CTF3 facility is being used to test and demonstrate key technical issues for the CLIC (Compact Linear Collider) study. Pulsed RF power sources are essential elements in this test facility. Klystrons at S-band (29998.55 GHz), in conjunction with pulse compression systems, are used to power the Drive Beam Accelerator (DBA) to achieve an electron beam energy of 150 MeV. The L-Band RF system, includes broadband Travelling Wave Tubes (TWTs) for beam bunching with 'phase coded' sub pulses in the injector and a narrow band high power L-Band klystron powering the transverse 1.5 GHz RF deflector in the Delay Loop immediately after the DBA. This paper describes these different systems and discusses their operational performance.

  12. New MR pulse sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harms, S.E.; Flamig, D.P.; Griffey, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a method for fat suppression for three-dimensional MR imaging. The FATS (fat-suppressed acquisition with echo time shortened) sequence employs a pair of opposing adiabatic half-passage RF pulses tuned on fat resonance. The imaging parameters are as follows: TR, 20 msec; TE, 21.7-3.2 msec; 1,024 x 128 x 128 acquired matrix; imaging time, approximately 11 minutes. A series of 54 examinations were performed. Excellent fat suppression with water excitation is achieved in all cases. The orbital images demonstrate superior resolution of small orbital lesions. The high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in cranial studies demonstrates excellent petrous bone and internal auditory canal anatomy

  13. 1.3 GHz superconducting RF cavity program at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginsburg, C.M.; Arkan, T.; Barbanotti, S.; Carter, H.; Champion, M.; Cooley, L.; Cooper, C.; Foley, M.; Ge, M.; Grimm, C.; Harms, E.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    At Fermilab, 9-cell 1.3 GHz superconducting RF (SRF) cavities are prepared, qualified, and assembled into cryomodules (CMs) for Project X, an International Linear Collider (ILC), or other future projects. The 1.3 GHz SRF cavity program includes targeted R&D on 1-cell 1.3 GHz cavities for cavity performance improvement. Production cavity qualification includes cavity inspection, surface processing, clean assembly, and one or more cryogenic low-power CW qualification tests which typically include performance diagnostics. Qualified cavities are welded into helium vessels and are cryogenically tested with pulsed high-power. Well performing cavities are assembled into cryomodules for pulsed high-power testing in a cryomodule test facility, and possible installation into a beamline. The overall goals of the 1.3 GHz SRF cavity program, supporting facilities, and accomplishments are described.

  14. RF generation in the DARHT Axis-II beam dump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekdahl, Carl A. Jr. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-05-03

    We have occasionally observed radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic signals in the downstream transport (DST) of the second axis linear induction accelerator (LIA) at the dual-axis radiographic hydrodynamic testing (DARHT) facility. We have identified and eliminated some of the sources by eliminating the offending cavities. However, we still observe strong RF in the range 1 GHz t0 2 GHz occurring late in the {approx}2-{micro}s pulse that can be excited or prevented by varying the downstream tune. The narrow frequency width (<0.5%) and near exponential growth at the dominant frequency is indicative of a beam-cavity interaction, and electro-magnetic simulations of cavity structure show a spectrum rich in resonances in the observed frequency range. However, the source of beam produced RF in the cavity resonance frequency range has not been identified, and it has been the subject of much speculation, ranging from beam-plasma or beam-ion instabilities to unstable cavity coupling.

  15. rf traveling-wave electron gun for photoinjectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaer, Mattia; Citterio, Alessandro; Craievich, Paolo; Reiche, Sven; Stingelin, Lukas; Zennaro, Riccardo

    2016-07-01

    The design of a photoinjector, in particular that of the electron source, is of central importance for free electron laser (FEL) machines where a high beam brightness is required. In comparison to standard designs, an rf traveling-wave photocathode gun can provide a more rigid beam with a higher brightness and a shorter pulse. This is illustrated by applying a specific optimization procedure to the SwissFEL photoinjector, for which a brightness improvement up to a factor 3 could be achieved together with a double gun output energy compared to the reference setup foreseeing a state-of-the-art S-band rf standing-wave gun. The higher brightness is mainly given by a (at least) double peak current at the exit of the gun which brings benefits for both the beam dynamics in the linac and the efficiency of the FEL process. The gun design foresees an innovative coaxial rf coupling at both ends of the structure which allows a solenoid with integrated bucking coil to be placed around the cathode in order to provide the necessary focusing right after emission.

  16. rf traveling-wave electron gun for photoinjectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattia Schaer

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The design of a photoinjector, in particular that of the electron source, is of central importance for free electron laser (FEL machines where a high beam brightness is required. In comparison to standard designs, an rf traveling-wave photocathode gun can provide a more rigid beam with a higher brightness and a shorter pulse. This is illustrated by applying a specific optimization procedure to the SwissFEL photoinjector, for which a brightness improvement up to a factor 3 could be achieved together with a double gun output energy compared to the reference setup foreseeing a state-of-the-art S-band rf standing-wave gun. The higher brightness is mainly given by a (at least double peak current at the exit of the gun which brings benefits for both the beam dynamics in the linac and the efficiency of the FEL process. The gun design foresees an innovative coaxial rf coupling at both ends of the structure which allows a solenoid with integrated bucking coil to be placed around the cathode in order to provide the necessary focusing right after emission.

  17. Generation of Femtosecond Electron and Photon Pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Thongbai, Chitrlada; Kangrang, Nopadol; Kusoljariyakul, Keerati; Rhodes, Michael W; Rimjaem, Sakhorn; Saisut, Jatuporn; Vilaithong, Thiraphat; Wichaisirimongkol, Pathom; Wiedemann, Helmut

    2005-01-01

    Femtosecond electron and photon pulses become a tool of interesting important to study dynamics at molecular or atomic levels. Such short pulses can be generated from a system consisting of an RF-gun with a thermionic cathode, an alpha magnet as a magnetic bunch compressor, and a linear accelerator. The femtosecond electron pulses can be used directly or used as sources to produce electromagnetic radiation of equally short pulses by choosing certain kind of radiation pruduction processes. At the Fast Neutron Research Facility (Thailand), we are especially interested in production of radiation in Far-infrared and X-ray regime. In the far-infrared wavelengths which are longer than the femtosecond pulse length, the radiation is emitted coherently producing intense radiation. In the X-ray regime, development of femtosecond X-ray source is crucial for application in ultrafast science.

  18. A long pulse modulator for reduced size and cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeffer, H.; Bartelson, L.; Bourkland, K.; Jensen, C.; Kerns, Q.; Prieto, P.; Saewert, G.; Wolff, D.

    1994-07-01

    A novel modulator has been designed, built and tested for the TESLA test facility. This e + e - accelerator concept uses superconducting RF cavities and requires 2ms of RF power at 10 pps. As the final accelerator will require several hundred modulators, a cost effective, space saving and high efficiency design is desired. This modulator used a modest size switched capacitor bank that droops approximately 20% during the pulse. This large droop is compensated for by the use of a resonant LC circuit. The capacitor bank is connected to the high side of a pulse transformer primary using a series GTO switch. The resonant circuit is connected to the low side of the pulse transformer primary. The output pulse is flat to within 1% for 1.9 ms during a 2.3 ms base pulse width. Measured efficiency, from breaker to klystron and including energy lost in the rise time, is approximately 85%

  19. A precision master trigger system for SLC based on the accelerator RF drive system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koontz, R.F.; Leger, G.; Paffrath, L.; Wilmunder, A.

    1984-01-01

    A new trigger system consisting of a single 476 MHz rf doublet pulse superimposed on the main 476 MHz rf Drive Line signal that transits the 3 km accelerator has been implemented and is working well. This paper describes the general concept of this system, outlines the operation of the main master trigger generator, the fiducial (476 MHz doublet) generator, and the fiducial pickoff system. A companion paper by Paffrath et al describes the counter electronics that produces precision timed triggers for all SLC operations along the accelerator. (orig.)

  20. High power tests of dressed supconducting 1.3 GHz RF cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hocker, A.; Harms, E.R.; Lunin, A.; Sukhanov, A.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    A single-cavity test cryostat is used to conduct pulsed high power RF tests of superconducting 1.3 GHz RF cavities at 2 K. The cavities under test are welded inside individual helium vessels and are outfitted ('dressed') with a fundamental power coupler, higher-order mode couplers, magnetic shielding, a blade tuner, and piezoelectric tuners. The cavity performance is evaluated in terms of accelerating gradient, unloaded quality factor, and field emission, and the functionality of the auxiliary components is verified. Test results from the first set of dressed cavities are presented here.

  1. Beam dynamics simulations in the photo-cathode RF gun for the CLIC test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchand, P.; Rinolfi, L.

    1992-01-01

    The CERN CLIC Test Facility (CTF) uses an RF gun with a laser driven photo-cathode in order to generate electron pulses of high charge (≥10 nC) and short duration (≤20 ps). The RF gun consists of a 3 GHz 1 + 1/2 cell cavity based on the design originally proposed at BNL which minimizes the non-linearities in the transverse field. The beam dynamics in the cavity is simulated by means of the multiparticle tracking code PARMELA. The results are compared to previous simulations as well as to the first experimental data. (author). 4 refs., 4 tabs., 4 figs

  2. Status of Tristan superconducting RF program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguchi, S.; Akai, K.; Arinaga, M.

    1988-01-01

    The TRISTAN accelerator complex consists of an injector linac system, an accumulation ring (AR) and a main colliding beam ring (MR). The injector linac system is composed of a 2.5 GeV main linac, a 200 MeV high current (10 A) linac for positron generation and a 250 MeV positron preaccelerator. These linacs are now operated with a pulse width of 2 nsec and a repetition rate of 20 pps, which is raised to 50 pps in the near future. The TRISTAN AR is used as a beam accumulator and energy booster for the TRISTAN MR, and additionally it can be operated as an electron-positron collider and as a storage ring for the synchrotron radiation research. The electron (positron) beam of 50 mA (10 mA) peak current is injected from the main linac. The accumulation rate of positrons is now typically 5 mA/min. There are 8 RF cavity sections in two long straight sections, of which 6 sections are occupied by 11 cell APS cavities and 2 sections are used for the beam test of the superconducting cavities. The TRISTAN MR was designed so that it could achieve as high energy as possible for its size, therefore it has very long straight sections for RF cavities. The normal conducting cavities, which are 9-cell APS type and have a shunt impedance of 22.5 M Omega/m, are distributed to 3 straight sections. The remaining straight section named NIKKO division, is allotted to the superconducting cavities. MR accelerated the first electron beam to 25.5 GeV on 24th of October 1986. The energy upgrading program was approved in 1986 and the construction of 32 5-cell superconducting cavities and a 4.5 KW helium refrigerator system started. It is expected that the accelerating field and the Q value are better than 5 MV/m and 1 x 10 9 , respectively. 8 references, 13 figures, 4 tables

  3. RF and microwave microelectronics packaging II

    CERN Document Server

    Sturdivant, Rick

    2017-01-01

    Reviews RF, microwave, and microelectronics assembly process, quality control, and failure analysis Bridges the gap between low cost commercial and hi-res RF/Microwave packaging technologies Engages in an in-depth discussion of challenges in packaging and assembly of advanced high-power amplifiers This book presents the latest developments in packaging for high-frequency electronics. It is a companion volume to “RF and Microwave Microelectronics Packaging” (2010) and covers the latest developments in thermal management, electrical/RF/thermal-mechanical designs and simulations, packaging and processing methods, and other RF and microwave packaging topics. Chapters provide detailed coverage of phased arrays, T/R modules, 3D transitions, high thermal conductivity materials, carbon nanotubes and graphene advanced materials, and chip size packaging for RF MEMS. It appeals to practicing engineers in the electronic packaging and high-frequency electronics domain, and to academic researchers interested in underst...

  4. Lasers for RF guns: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan-Rao, T.

    1994-01-01

    In the past decade, laser driven RF guns have matured from a device under development to a proven source for high brightness and low emittance electron beams. The reliability of the electron beam from these sources is dictated by the laser system that drives it. In addition, capabilities of the laser systems play a vital role in the design of the electron source for future machines such as the TESLA and NLC. The purpose of this workshop was to provide a forum for discussing the design criteria for the laser systems so that the reliability of the existing sources could be improved and the future machines could be serviced. The Workshop brought together experts in RF Guns, accelerators, and lasers, from both the commercial and academic community. Most of the presentations, discussions and conclusions at the workshop are included in these proceedings. The contents are divided into three sections, Section I contains the invited talks that outline the requirements of the RF Guns and the capabilities of the laser systems to meet these requirements. Section II includes most of the papers presented in the poster session. These papers describe various laser systems used with electron guns, schemes to modify the laser beam profile to optimize the electron bunch, and computer simulations of electron trajectories. Section III contains the summaries of the working groups. As the summary section indicates, with sufficient feed back systems, the electron gun could be made to operate reliably with minimum downtime, using commercial lasers currently available. The design of laser systems for future colliders depend critically on the choice of the cathode m the gun and its efficiency. Tentative designs of laser systems for the TESLA test facility and LCLS had been drawn assuming a copper cathode. Using a more efficient cathode will ease the energy requirement of the laser and simplify the design. The individual papers have been cataloged separately elsewhere

  5. Long Pulse EBW Start-up Experiments in MAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shevchenko V.F.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Start-up technique reported here relies on a double mode conversion (MC for electron Bernstein wave (EBW excitation. It consists of MC of the ordinary (O mode, entering the plasma from the low field side of the tokamak, into the extraordinary (X mode at a mirror-polarizer located at the high field side. The X mode propagates back to the plasma, passes through electron cyclotron resonance (ECR and experiences a subsequent X to EBW MC near the upper hybrid resonance (UHR. Finally the excited EBW mode is totally absorbed at the Doppler shifted ECR. The absorption of EBW remains high even in cold rarefied plasmas. Furthermore, EBW can generate significant plasma current giving the prospect of a fully solenoid-free plasma start-up. First experiments using this scheme were carried out on MAST [1]. Plasma currents up to 33 kA have been achieved using 28 GHz 100kW 90ms RF pulses. Recently experimental results were extended to longer RF pulses showing further increase of plasma currents generated by RF power alone. A record current of 73kA has been achieved with 450ms RF pulse of similar power. The current drive enhancement was mainly achieved due to RF pulse extension and further optimisation of the start-up scenario.

  6. Use of the Frank sequence in pulsed EPR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tseitlin, Mark; Quine, Richard W.; Eaton, Sandra S.

    2011-01-01

    The Frank polyphase sequence has been applied to pulsed EPR of triarylmethyl radicals at 256MHz (9.1mT magnetic field), using 256 phase pulses. In EPR, as in NMR, use of a Frank sequence of phase steps permits pulsed FID signal acquisition with very low power microwave/RF pulses (ca. 1.5m......W in the application reported here) relative to standard pulsed EPR. A 0.2mM aqueous solution of a triarylmethyl radical was studied using a 16mm diameter cross-loop resonator to isolate the EPR signal detection system from the incident pulses. Keyword: Correlation spectroscopy,Multi-pulse EPR,Low power pulses,NMR,EPR...

  7. On the frequency scalings of RF guns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, L.C.; Chen, S.C.; Wurtele, J.S.

    1995-01-01

    A frequency scaling law for RF guns is derived from the normalized Vlasov-Maxwell equations. It shows that higher frequency RF guns can generate higher brightness beams under the assumption that the accelerating gradient and all beam and structure parameters are scaled with the RF frequency. Numerical simulation results using MAGIC confirm the scaling law. A discussion of the range of applicability of the law is presented. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  8. Analog techniques in CEBAF's RF control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hovater, C.; Fugitt, J.

    1989-01-01

    Recent developments in high-speed analog technology have progressed into the areas of traditional RF technology. Diode related devices are being replaced by analog IC's in the CEBAF RF control system. Complex phase modulators and attenuators have been successfully tested at 70 MHz. They have three advantages over existing technology: lower cost, less temperature sensitivity, and more linearity. RF signal conditioning components and how to implement the new analog IC's will be covered in this paper. 4 refs., 5 figs

  9. Analog techniques in CEBAF'S RF control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hovater, C.; Fugitt, J.

    1989-01-01

    Recent developments in high-speed analog technology have progressed into the areas of traditional rf technology. Diode-related devices are being replaced by analog IC's in the CEBAF rf control system. Complex phase modulators and attenuators have been successfully tested at 70 MHz. They have three advantages over existing technology: lower cost, less temperature sensitivity, and more linearity. Rf signal conditioning components and how to implement the new analog IC's will be covered in this paper. 4 refs., 5 figs

  10. RF front-end world class designs

    CERN Document Server

    Love, Janine

    2009-01-01

    All the design and development inspiration and direction a harware engineer needs in one blockbuster book! Janine Love site editor for RF Design Line,columnist, and author has selected the very best RF design material from the Newnes portfolio and has compiled it into this volume. The result is a book covering the gamut of RF front end design from antenna and filter design fundamentals to optimized layout techniques with a strong pragmatic emphasis. In addition to specific design techniques and practices, this book also discusses various approaches to solving RF front end design problems and h

  11. High power RF transmission line component development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, B. G.; Hwang, C. K.; Bae, Y. D.; Yoon, J. S.; Wang, S. J.; Gu, S. H.; Yang, J. R.; Hahm, Y. S.; Oh, G. S.; Lee, J. R.; Lee, W. I.; Park, S. H.; Kang, M. S.; Oh, S. H.; Lee, W.I.

    1999-12-01

    We developed the liquid stub and phase shifter which are the key high RF power transmission line components. They show reliable operation characteristics and increased insulation capability, and reduced the size by using liquid (silicon oil, dielectric constant ε=2.72) instead of gas for insulating dielectric material. They do not have finger stock for the electric contact so the local temperature rise due to irregular contact and RF breakdown due to scratch in conductor are prevented. They can be utilized in broadcasting, radar facility which require high RF power transmission. Moreover, they are key components in RF heating system for fusion reactor. (author)

  12. High power RF transmission line component development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, B. G.; Hwang, C. K.; Bae, Y. D.; Yoon, J. S.; Wang, S. J.; Gu, S. H.; Yang, J. R.; Hahm, Y. S.; Oh, G. S.; Lee, J. R.; Lee, W. I.; Park, S. H.; Kang, M. S.; Oh, S. H.; Lee, W.I

    1999-12-01

    We developed the liquid stub and phase shifter which are the key high RF power transmission line components. They show reliable operation characteristics and increased insulation capability, and reduced the size by using liquid (silicon oil, dielectric constant {epsilon}=2.72) instead of gas for insulating dielectric material. They do not have finger stock for the electric contact so the local temperature rise due to irregular contact and RF breakdown due to scratch in conductor are prevented. They can be utilized in broadcasting, radar facility which require high RF power transmission. Moreover, they are key components in RF heating system for fusion reactor. (author)

  13. EAST ICRF system for long pulse operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Y.P.; Zhang, X.J.; Mao, Y.Z.

    2013-01-01

    Radio frequency (RF) power in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) is one of the primary auxiliary heating techniques for Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). A 6.0 MW ICRF systems in the range of 25-70 MHz has been put into operation during the EAST 2012 spring campaign. The ICRF systems consist of two port-mounted antennas and each antenna is driven by two independent 1.5 MW RF power source. Another four 1.5 MW ICRF system is under way of construction.The system will deliver more than 10 MW of RF power to the plasma for 1000 sec pulse length. This paper gives brief introduction of the ICRF systems capability on EAST. (author)

  14. RF Power Generation in LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Brunner, O C; Valuch, D

    2003-01-01

    The counter-rotating proton beams in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will be captured and then accelerated to their final energies of 2 x 7 TeV by two identical 400 MHz RF systems. The RF power source required for each beam comprises eight 300 kW klystrons. The output power of each klystron is fed via a circulator and a waveguide line to the input coupler of a single-cell super-conducting (SC) cavity. Four klystrons are powered by a 100 kV, 40A AC/DC power converter, previously used for the operation of the LEP klystrons. A five-gap thyratron crowbar protects the four klystrons in each of these units. The technical specification and measured performance of the various high-power elements are discussed. These include the 400MHz/300kW klystrons with emphasis on their group delay and the three-port circulators, which have to cope with peak reflected power levels up to twice the simultaneously applied incident power of 300 kW. In addition, a novel ferrite loaded waveguide absorber, used as termination for port No...

  15. SPS RF System Amplifier plant

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    The picture shows a 2 MW, 200 MHz amplifier plant with feeder lines. The main RF-system of the SPS comprises four cavities: two of 20 m length and two of 16.5 m length. They are all installed in one long straight section (LSS 3). These cavities are of the travelling-wave type operating at a centre frequency of 200.2 MHz. They are wideband, filling time about 700 ns and untuned. The power amplifiers, using tetrodes are installed in a surface building 200 m from the cavities. Initially only two cavities were installed, a third cavity was installed in 1978 and a forth one in 1979. The number of power amplifiers was also increased: to the first 2 MW plant a second 2 MW plant was added and by end 1979 there were 8 500 kW units combined in pairs to feed each of the 4 cavities with up to about 1 MW RF power, resulting in a total accelerating voltage of about 8 MV. See also 7412016X, 7412017X, 7411048X.

  16. Direct RF modulation transmitter, sampling clock frequency setting method for direct RF modulation transmitter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fukuda, Shuichi; Nauta, Bram

    2013-01-01

    PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a direct RF modulation transmitter capable of satisfying a radiation level regulation even without providing a SAW filter. SOLUTION: A direct RF modulation transmitter includes: digital/RF converters 105, 106 to which an I digital baseband signal, a Q digital

  17. Direct RF modulation transmitter, sampling clock frequency setting method for direct RF modulation transmitter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fukuda, Shuichi; Nauta, Bram

    2014-01-01

    PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a direct RF modulation transmitter capable of satisfying a radiation level regulation even without providing a SAW filter. SOLUTION: A direct RF modulation transmitter includes: digital/RF converters 105, 106 to which an I digital baseband signal, a Q digital

  18. High RF power test of a CFC antenna module for lower hybrid current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maebara, S.; Seki, M.; Ikeda, Y.; Kiyono, K.; Suganuma, K.; Imai, T.; Goniche, M.; Bibet, Ph.; Brossaud, J.; Cano, V.; Kazarian-Vibert, F.; Froissard, P.; Rey, G.

    1998-01-01

    A mock-up of a 3.7 GHz Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD) antenna module was fabricated from Carbon Fibre Composite (CFC) for the development of heat resistive low Z front facing the plasma. This 2 divided waveguide module is made from CFC plates and rods which are Cu-plated to reduce the RF losses. The withstand-voltage, the RF properties and the outgassing rates for long pulses and high RF power were tested at the Lower Hybrid test bed facility of Cadarache. A reference module made from Dispersion Strengthened Copper (DSC) was also fabricated. After the short pulse conditioning, long pulses with a power density ranging between 50 and 150 MW/m 2 were performed with no breakdowns on the CFC module. It was also checked that the highest power density, up to 150 MW/m 2 , could be transmitted when the waveguides are filled with H2 at a pressure of 5 x 10 -2 Pa. During a long pulse, the power reflection coefficient remains low in the 0.8-1.3 % range and no significant change in the reflection coefficient is measured after the thermal cycling provided by the long pulse operation. From thermocouple measurements, RF losses of the copper coated CFC and the DSC modules were compared. No significant differences were measured. From pressure measurements, it was found that the outgassing rate of Cu-plated CFC is about 6-7 times larger than of DSC at 300 deg.C. It is concluded that a CFC module is an attractive candidate for the hardening of the tip of the LHCD antenna. (author)

  19. Experimental studies of the overshoot and undershoot in pulse-modulated radio-frequency atmospheric discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huo, W. G.; Li, R. M.; Shi, J. J. [School of Physics and Electronic Technology, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116029 (China); Ding, Z. F., E-mail: huowg.wg@tom.com [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2016-08-15

    The overshoot and undershoot of the applied voltage on the electrodes, the discharge current, and radio frequency (RF) power were observed at the initial phase of pulse-modulated (PM) RF atmospheric pressure discharges, but factors influencing the overshoot and undershoot have not been fully elucidated. In this paper, the experimental studies were performed to seek the reasons for the overshoot and undershoot. The experimental results show that the overshoot and undershoot are associated with the pulse frequency, the rise time of pulse signal, and the series capacitor C{sub s} in the inversely L-shaped matching network. In the case of a high RF power discharge, these overshoot and undershoot become serious when shortening the rise time of a pulse signal (5 ns) or operating at a moderate pulse frequency (500 Hz or 1 kHz).

  20. Steady state plasma operation in RF dominated regimes on EAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, X. J.; Zhao, Y. P.; Gong, X. Z.; Hu, C. D.; Liu, F. K.; Hu, L. Q.; Wan, B. N., E-mail: bnwan@ipp.ac.cn; Li, J. G. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2015-12-10

    Significant progress has recently been made on EAST in the 2014 campaign, including the enhanced CW H&CD system over 20MW heating power (LHCD, ICRH and NBI), more than 70 diagnostics, ITER-like W-monoblock on upper divertor, two inner cryo-pumps and RMP coils, enabling EAST to investigate long pulse H mode operation with dominant electron heating and low torque to address the critical issues for ITER. H-mode plasmas were achieved by new H&CD system or 4.6GHz LHCD alone for the first time. Long pulse high performance H mode has been obtained by LHCD alone up to 28s at H{sub 98}∼1.2 or by combing of ICRH and LHCD, no or small ELM was found in RF plasmas, which is essential for steady state operation in the future Tokamak. Plasma operation in low collision regimes were implemented by new 4.6GHz LHCD with core Te∼4.5keV. The non-inductive scenarios with high performance at high bootstrap current fraction have been demonstrated in RF dominated regimes for long pulse operation. Near full non-inductive CD discharges have been achieved. In addition, effective heating and decoupling method under multi-transmitter for ICRF system were developed in this campaign, etc. EAST could be in operation with over 30MW CW heating and current drive power (LHCD ICRH NBI and ECRH), enhanced diagnostic capabilities and full actively-cooled metal wall from 2015. It will therefore allow to access new confinement regimes and to extend these regimes towards to steady state operation.

  1. High-power, solid-state rf source for accelerator cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaughan, D.R.; Mols, G.E.; Reid, D.W.; Potter, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    During the past few years the Defense and Electronics Center of Westinghouse Electric Corporation has developed a solid-state, 250-kW peak, rf amplifier for use with the SPS-40 radar system. This system has a pulse length of 60 μs and operates across the frequency band from 400 to 450 MHz. Because of the potential use of such a system as an rf source for accelerator applications, a collaborative experiment was initiated between Los Alamos National Laboratory and Westinghouse to simulate the resonant load conditions of an accelerator cavity. This paper describes the positive results of that experiment as well as the solid-state amplifier architecture. It also explores the future of high-power, solid-state amplifiers as rf sources for accelerator structures

  2. Stroboscopic topographies on iron borate crystal in 9.6 MHz rf magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsui, Takaya; Imai, Yasuhiko; Kikuta, Seishi

    2003-01-01

    The influence of magnetoacoustic wave on the crystal deformation was studied by stroboscopic double crystal X-ray topography. The acoustic wave was excited by the rf magnetic field, which was synchronized with synchrotron radiation X-ray pulse. In measured rocking curves of FeBO 3 (4 4 4) reflection, we observed, for the first time, that the application of rf magnetic field (|H rf | max >8.4 Oe) brought about the extreme narrowing of full width at half maximum (FWHM). Recorded topographs showed that the narrowing of FWHM was due to the magnetoacoustic standing wave which is excited in FeBO 3 crystal. In our experiments, the influence of additional static magnetic field on the magnetoacoustic standing wave of FeBO 3 crystal was investigated too

  3. Possible role of rf melted microparticles on the operation of high-gradient accelerating structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Nusinovich

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available High-gradient accelerating structures should operate reliably for a long time. Therefore studies of various processes which may lead to disruption of such an operation are so important. In the present paper, the dissipation of rf electromagnetic energy in metallic microparticles is analyzed accounting for the temperature dependence of the skin depth. Such particles may appear in structures, for example, due to mechanical fracture of irises in strong rf electric fields. It is shown that such microparticles with dimensions on the order of the skin depth, being immersed in the region of strong rf magnetic field, can absorb enough energy in long-pulse operation to be melted. Then, the melted clumps can impinge on the surface of a structure and create nonuniformities leading to field enhancement and corresponding emission of dark current. Results are given for several geometries and materials of microparticles.

  4. Diagnosis of the σ-, π- and (σ+π-Aromaticity by the Shape of the NICSzz-Scan Curves and Symmetry-Based Selection Rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantinos A. Tsipis

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The NICSzz-scan curves of aromatic organic, inorganic and “all-metal” molecules in conjunction with symmetry-based selection rules provide efficient diagnostic tools of the σ-, π- and/or double (σ + π-aromaticity. The NICSzz-scan curves of σ-aromatic molecules are symmetric around the z-axis, having half-band widths approximately less than 3 Å with the induced diatropic ring current arising from Tx,y-allowed transitions involving exclusively σ-type molecular orbitals. Broad NICSzz-scan curves (half-band width approximately higher than 3 Å characterize double (σ + π-aromaticity, the chief contribution to the induced diatropic ring current arising from Tx,y-allowed transitions involving both σ- and π-type molecular orbitals. NICSzz-scan curves exhibiting two maxima at a certain distance above and below the molecular plane are typical for (σ + π-aromatics where the π-diatropic ring current overwhelms the σ-type one. In the absence of any contribution from the σ-diatropic ring current, the NICSzz(0 value is close to zero and the molecule exhibits pure π-aromaticity.

  5. 17th International Conference on RF Superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Laxdal, Robert E.; Schaa, Volker R.W.

    2015-01-01

    RF superconductivity is the key technology of accelerators for particle physics, nuclear physics and light sources. SRF 2015 covered the latest advances in the science, technology, and applications of superconducting RF. There was also an industrial exhibit during the conference with the key vendors in the community available to discuss their capabilities and products.

  6. 47 CFR 101.1525 - RF safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false RF safety. 101.1525 Section 101.1525 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Service and Technical Rules for the 70/80/90 GHz Bands § 101.1525 RF safety. Licensees in the 70...

  7. 47 CFR 90.1335 - RF safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false RF safety. 90.1335 Section 90.1335 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Wireless Broadband Services in the 3650-3700 MHz Band § 90.1335 RF safety...

  8. 47 CFR 95.1125 - RF safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false RF safety. 95.1125 Section 95.1125 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Wireless Medical Telemetry Service (WMTS) General Provisions § 95.1125 RF safety. Portable devices...

  9. 47 CFR 27.52 - RF safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false RF safety. 27.52 Section 27.52 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Technical Standards § 27.52 RF safety. Licensees and manufacturers are subject to the...

  10. RF SYSTEM FOR THE SNS ACCUMULATOR RING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BLASKIEWICZ, M.; BRENNAN, J.M.; BRODOWSKI, J.; DELONG, J.; METH, M.; SMITH, K.; ZALTSMAN, A.

    2001-01-01

    During accumulation the RF beam current in the spallation neutron source ring rises from 0 to 50 amperes. A clean, 250 nanosecond gap is needed for the extraction kicker risetime. Large momentum spread and small peak current are needed to prevent instabilities and stopband related losses. A robust RF system meeting these requirements has been designed

  11. Bevalac injector final stage RF amplifier upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, D.; Calvert, J.; Dwinell, R.; Lax, J.; Lindner, A.; Richter, R.; Ridgeway, W.

    1991-01-01

    With the assistance of the DOE In-house Energy Management Program, the Bevalac injector final stage RF amplifier systems have been successfully upgraded to reduce energy consumption and operating costs. This recently completed project removed the energy-inefficient plate voltage modulator circuits that were used in conjunction with the final stage RF amplifiers. Construction, design, and operating parameters are described in detail

  12. Plasma edge cooling during RF heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suckewer, S.; Hawryluk, R.J.

    1978-01-01

    A new approach to prevent the influx of high-Z impurities into the core of a tokamak discharge by using RF power to modify the edge plasma temperature profile is presented. This concept is based on spectroscopic measurements on PLT during ohmic heating and ATC during RF heating. A one dimensional impurity transport model is used to interpret the ATC results

  13. Design study of a low-emittance high-repetition rate thermionic rf gun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Opanasenko

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel gridless continuous-wave radiofrequency (rf thermionic gun capable of generating nC ns electron bunches with a rms normalized slice emittance close to the thermal level of 0.3 mm mrad. In order to gate the electron emission, an externally heated thermionic cathode is installed into a stripline-loop conductor. Two high-voltage pulses propagating towards each other in the stripline-loop overlap in the cathode region and create a quasielectrostatic field gating the electron emission. The repetition rate of pulses is variable and can reach up to one MHz with modern solid-state pulsers. The stripline attached to a rf gun cavity wall has with the wall a common aperture that allows the electrons to be injected into the rf cavity for further acceleration. Thanks to this innovative gridless design, simulations suggest that the bunch emittance is approximately at the thermal level after the bunch injection into the cavity provided that the geometry of the cathode and aperture are properly designed. Specifically, a concave cathode is adopted to imprint an Ƨ-shaped distribution onto the beam transverse phase-space to compensate for an S-shaped beam distribution created by the spherical aberration of the aperture-cavity region. In order to compensate for the energy spread caused by rf fields of the rf gun cavity, a 3rd harmonic cavity is used. A detailed study of the electrodynamics of the stripline and rf gun cavity as well as the beam optics and bunch dynamics are presented.

  14. Tunable Q-Factor RF Cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balcazar, Mario D. [Fermilab; Yonehara, Katsuya [Fermilab; Moretti, Alfred [Fermilab; Kazakevitch, Gregory [Fermilab

    2018-01-01

    Intense neutrino beam is a unique probe for researching beyond the standard model. Fermilab is the main institution to produce the most powerful and widespectrum neutrino beam. From that respective, a radiation robust beam diagnostic system is a critical element in order to maintain the quality of the neutrino beam. Within this context, a novel radiation-resistive beam profile monitor based on a gasfilled RF cavity is proposed. The goal of this measurement is to study a tunable Qfactor RF cavity to determine the accuracy of the RF signal as a function of the quality factor. Specifically, measurement error of the Q-factor in the RF calibration is investigated. Then, the RF system will be improved to minimize signal error.

  15. Control and performance improvements of a pulse compressor in use for testing accelerating structures at high power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Woolley

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available New developments relating to compact X-band, SLED-I type pulse compressors being developed at CERN for testing high gradient structures are described. Pulse compressors of interest take rf pulses from one or more high power klystrons with duration typically >1.5  μs and deliver up to 5 times the input power for a shorter duration <250  ns. Time domain models for pulse compressor operation with low level rf (LLRF control have been developed. Input drive amplitude and phase for each pulse is evolved with a control algorithm from the pulse compressor output for previous pulses. The goal is to deliver precise amplitude for pulses to test stands and precise amplitude and phase for pulses to accelerator systems. Control algorithms have been developed and validated experimentally.

  16. Electron runaway in rf discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, F.F.

    1992-10-01

    The critical electric field is computed as a function of pressure and starting energy for electrons to run away to high energies in moderate pressure discharges. The runaway conditions depend critically on the shape of the elastic cross section vs. energy curve. Computations are made for H, H 2 , and He gases, and it is shown that runaway occurs much more readily in atomic hydrogen than in the other gases. The values of the runaway fields are larger than would normally occur in dc discharges, where large voltages would lead to arc formation. However, in rf discharges such electric fields can be sustained over times long compared to electron transit times but short compared to ion transit times. (author)

  17. Design of rf conditioner cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govil, R.; Rimmer, R.A.; Sessler, A.; Kirk, H.G.

    1992-06-01

    Theoretical studies are made of radio frequency structures which can be used to condition electron beams so as to greatly reduce the stringent emittance requirements for successful lasing in a free-electron laser. The basic strategy of conditioning calls for modulating an electron beam in the transverse dimension, by a periodic focusing channel, while it traverses a series of rf cavities, each operating in a TM 210 mode. In this paper, we analyze the cavities both analytically and numerically (using MAFIA simulations). We find that when cylindrical symmetry is broken the coupling impedance can be greatly enhanced. We present results showing various performance characteristics as a function of cavity parameters, as well as possible designs for conditioning cavities

  18. High-quality beam generation using an RF gun and a 150 MeV microtron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, R.; Washio, M.; Kashiwagi, S.; Kobuki, T.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Wang, X. J.; Hori, T.; Sakai, F.; Tsunemi, A.; Urakawa, J.; Hirose, T.

    2000-11-01

    Low-emittance sub-picosecond electron pulses are expected to be used in a wide field, such as free electron laser, laser acceleration, femtosecond X-ray generation by Inverse Compton scattering, pulse radiolysis, etc. In order to produce the low-emittance sub-picosecond electron pulse, we are developing a compact Racetrack Microtron (RTM) with a new 5 MeV injection system adopting a laser photo cathode RF gun (Washio et al., Seventh China-Japan Bilateral Symposium on Radiation Chemistry, October 28, Cengdu, China, 1996). The operation of RTM has been kept under a steady state of beam loading for long pulse mode so far (Washio et al., J. Surf. Sci. Soc. Jpn. 19 (2) (1998) 23). In earlier work (Washio et al., PAC99, March 31, New York, USA, 1999), we have succeeded in the numerical simulation for the case of single short pulse acceleration. Finally, the modified RTM was demonstrated as a useful accelerator for a picosecond electron pulse generation under a transient state of beam loading. In the simulation, a picosecond electron pulse was accelerated to 149.6 MeV in RTM for the injection of 5 MeV electron bunch with a pulse length of 10 ps (FWHM), a charge of 1 nC per pulse, and an emittance of 3 πmm mrad.

  19. Knee implant imaging at 3 Tesla using high-bandwidth radiofrequency pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachschmidt, Theresa J; Sutter, Reto; Jakob, Peter M; Pfirrmann, Christian W A; Nittka, Mathias

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the impact of high-bandwidth radiofrequency (RF) pulses used in turbo spin echo (TSE) sequences or combined with slice encoding for metal artifact correction (SEMAC) on artifact reduction at 3 Tesla in the knee in the presence of metal. Local transmit/receive coils feature increased maximum B1 amplitude, reduced SAR exposition and thus enable the application of high-bandwidth RF pulses. Susceptibility-induced through-plane distortion scales inversely with the RF bandwidth and the view angle, hence blurring, increases for higher RF bandwidths, when SEMAC is used. These effects were assessed for a phantom containing a total knee arthroplasty. TSE and SEMAC sequences with conventional and high RF bandwidths and different contrasts were tested on eight patients with different types of implants. To realize scan times of 7 to 9 min, SEMAC was always applied with eight slice-encoding steps and distortion was rated by two radiologists. A local transmit/receive knee coil enables the use of an RF bandwidth of 4 kHz compared with 850 Hz in conventional sequences. Phantom scans confirm the relation of RF bandwidth and through-plane distortion, which can be reduced up to 79%, and demonstrate the increased blurring for high-bandwidth RF pulses. In average, artifacts in this RF mode are rated hardly visible for patients with joint arthroplasties, when eight SEMAC slice-encoding steps are applied, and for patients with titanium fixtures, when TSE is used. The application of high-bandwidth RF pulses by local transmit coils substantially reduces through-plane distortion artifacts at 3 Tesla. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Development of multi-channel high power rectangular RF window for LHCD system employing high temperature vacuum brazing technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, P K; Ambulkar, K K; Parmar, P R; Virani, C G; Thakur, A L; Joshi, L M; Nangru, S C

    2010-01-01

    A 3.7 GHz., 120 kW (pulsed), lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) system is employed to drive non-inductive plasma current in ADITYA tokamak. The rf power is coupled to the plasma through grill antenna and is placed in vacuum environment. A vacuum break between the pressurized transmission line and the grill antenna is achieved with the help of a multi (eight) channel rectangular RF vacuum window. The phasing between adjacent channels of 8-channel window (arranged in two rows) is important for launching lower hybrid waves and each channel should have independent vacuum window so that phase information is retained. The geometrical parameter of the grill antenna, like periodicity (9mm), channel dimensions (cross sectional dimension of 76mm x 7mm), etc. is to be maintained. These design constraint demanded a development of a multi channel rectangular RF vacuum window. To handle rf losses and thermal effects, high temperature vacuum brazing techniques is desired. Based on the above requirements we have successfully developed a multi channel rectangular rf vacuum window employing high temperature vacuum brazing technique. During the development process we could optimize the chemical processing parameters, brazing process parameters, jigs and fixtures for high temperature brazing and leak testing, etc. Finally the window is tested for low power rf performance using VNA. In this paper we would present the development of the said window in detail along with its mechanical, vacuum and rf performances.

  1. Development of multi-channel high power rectangular RF window for LHCD system employing high temperature vacuum brazing technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, P K; Ambulkar, K K; Parmar, P R; Virani, C G; Thakur, A L [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Joshi, L M; Nangru, S C, E-mail: pramod@ipr.res.i [Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute, Pilani, Rajasthan 333 031 (India)

    2010-02-01

    A 3.7 GHz., 120 kW (pulsed), lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) system is employed to drive non-inductive plasma current in ADITYA tokamak. The rf power is coupled to the plasma through grill antenna and is placed in vacuum environment. A vacuum break between the pressurized transmission line and the grill antenna is achieved with the help of a multi (eight) channel rectangular RF vacuum window. The phasing between adjacent channels of 8-channel window (arranged in two rows) is important for launching lower hybrid waves and each channel should have independent vacuum window so that phase information is retained. The geometrical parameter of the grill antenna, like periodicity (9mm), channel dimensions (cross sectional dimension of 76mm x 7mm), etc. is to be maintained. These design constraint demanded a development of a multi channel rectangular RF vacuum window. To handle rf losses and thermal effects, high temperature vacuum brazing techniques is desired. Based on the above requirements we have successfully developed a multi channel rectangular rf vacuum window employing high temperature vacuum brazing technique. During the development process we could optimize the chemical processing parameters, brazing process parameters, jigs and fixtures for high temperature brazing and leak testing, etc. Finally the window is tested for low power rf performance using VNA. In this paper we would present the development of the said window in detail along with its mechanical, vacuum and rf performances.

  2. Cryomodule tests of four Tesla-like cavities in the Superconducting RF Test Facility at KEK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiji Kako

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A 6-m cryomodule including four Tesla-like cavities was developed, and was tested in the Superconducting RF Test Facility phase-I at KEK. The performance as a total superconducting cavity system was checked in the cryomodule tests at 2 K with high rf power. One of the four cavities achieved a stable pulsed operation at 32  MV/m, which is higher than the operating accelerating gradient in the ILC. The maximum accelerating gradient (E_{acc,max⁡} obtained in the vertical cw tests was maintained or slightly improved in the cryomodule tests operating in a pulse mode. Compensation of the Lorentz force detuning at 31  MV/m was successfully demonstrated by a piezo tuner and predetuning.

  3. Electron beam characterization of a combined diode rf electron gun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ganter

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Experimental and simulation results of an electron gun test facility, based on pulsed diode acceleration followed by a two-cell rf cavity at 1.5 GHz, are presented here. The main features of this diode-rf combination are: a high peak gradient in the diode (up to 100  MV/m obtained without breakdown conditioning, a cathode shape providing an electrostatic focusing, and an in-vacuum pulsed solenoid to focus the electron beam between the diode and the rf cavity. Although the test stand was initially developed for testing field emitter arrays cathodes, it became also interesting to explore the limits of this electron gun with metallic photocathodes illuminated by laser pulses. The ultimate goal of this test facility is to fulfill the requirements of the SwissFEL project of Paul Scherrer Institute [B. D. Patterson et al., New J. Phys. 12, 035012 (2010NJOPFM1367-263010.1088/1367-2630/12/3/035012]; a projected normalized emittance below 0.4  μm for a charge of 200 pC and a bunch length of less than 10 ps (rms. A normalized projected emittance of 0.23  μm with 13 pC has been measured at 5 MeV using a Gaussian laser longitudinal intensity distribution on the photocathode. Good agreements with simulations have been obtained for different electron bunch charge and diode geometries. Emittance measurements at a bunch charge below 1 pC were performed for different laser spot sizes in agreement with intrinsic emittance theory [e.g. 0.54  μm/mm of laser spot size (rms for Cu at 274 nm]. Finally, a projected emittance of 1.25+/-0.2  μm was measured with 200 pC and 100  MV/m diode gradient.

  4. An all metal array of antennae for RF heating of TOKAMAKS in the ion cyclotron range of frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquinot, J.; Lebot, H.; Adam, J.; Kuus, H.

    1980-09-01

    500 KW, the maximum available RF power, at a frequency of 60 MHz and in 50 to 100 ms pulses, has been launched in TFR plasmas using an array of 4 half turn antennae. The array has a potential power capability of 1 MW through a single port. The electrical coupling efficiency is about 90%

  5. High RF power test of a lower hybrid module mock-up in carbon fiber composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goniche, M.; Bibet, P.; Brossaud, J.; Cano, V.; Froissard, P.; Kazarian, F.; Rey, G.; Maebara, S.; Kiyono, K.; Seki, M.; Suganuma, K.; Ikeda, Y.; Imai, T.

    1999-02-01

    A mock-up module of a Lower Hybrid Current Drive antenna module of a Carbon Fiber Composite (CFC) was fabricated for the development of heat resistive front facing the plasma. This module is made from CFC plates and rods which are copper coated to reduce the RF losses. The withstand-voltage, the RF properties and outgassing rates for long pulses and high RF power were tested at the Lower Hybrid test bed facility of Cadarache. After the short pulse conditioning, long pulses with a power density ranging between 50 and 150 MW/m 2 were performed with no breakdowns. During these tests, the module temperature was increasing from 100-200 deg. C to 400-500 deg. C. It was also checked that high power density, up to 150 MW/m 2 , could be transmitted when the waveguides are filled with H 2 at a pressure of 5 x 10 -2 Pa. No significant change in the reflection coefficient is measured after the long pulse operation. During a long pulse, the power reflection increases during the pulse typically from 0.8% to 1.3%. It is concluded that the outgassing rate of Cu-plated CFC is about 6 times larger than of Dispersion Strengthened Copper (DSC) module at the module temperature of 300 deg. C. No significant increase of the global outgassing of the CFC module was measured after hydrogen pre-filling. After the test, visual inspection revealed that peeling of the copper coating occurred at one end of the module only on a very small area (0.2 cm 2 ). It is assessed that a CFC module is an attractive candidate for the hardening of the tip of the LHCD antenna. (authors)

  6. High RF power test of a lower hybrid module mock-up in Carbon Fiber Composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maebara, Sunao; Kiyono, Kimihiro; Seki, Masami

    1997-11-01

    A mock-up module of a Lower Hybrid Current Drive antenna module of a Carbon Fiber Composite (CFC) was fabricated for the development of heat resistive front facing the plasma. This module is made from CFC plates and rods which are copper coated to reduce the RF losses. The withstand-voltage, the RF properties and outgassing rates for long pulses and high RF power were tested at the Lower Hybrid test bed facility of Cadarache. After the short pulse conditioning, long pulses with a power density ranging between 50 and 150 MW/m 2 were performed with no breakdowns. During these tests, the module temperature was increasing from 100-200degC to 400-500degC. It was also checked that high power density, up to 150 MW/m 2 , could be transmitted when the waveguides are filled with H 2 at a pressure of 5 x 10 -2 Pa. No significant change in the reflection coefficient is measured after the long pulse operation. During a long pulse, the power reflection increases during the pulse typically from 0.8 % to 1.3 %. It is concluded that the outgassing rate of Cu-plated CFC is about 6-7 times larger than of Dispersion Strengthened Copper (DSC) module at the module temperature of 300degC. No significant increase of the global outgassing of the CFC module was measured after hydrogen prefilling. After the test, visual inspection revealed that peeling of the copper coating occurred at one end of the module only on a very small area (0.2 cm 2 ). It is assessed that a CFC module is an attractive candidate for the hardening of the tip of the LHCD antenna. (author)

  7. The drive laser for the APS LEUTL FEL Rf photoinjector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, N.; Koldenhoven, R.; Travish, G.

    1999-01-01

    The APS LEUTL free-electron laser (FEL) is a high-gain, short-wavelength device requiring a high-current, low-emittance beam. An rf photoinjector driven by a laser is used to provide the requisite beam. The drive laser consists of a diode-pumped Nd:Glass oscillator and a chirped pulse amplification (CPA) system consisting of a grating stretcher, a flashlamp-pumped Nd:Glass regenerative amplifier, and a grating compressor. The system generates 4-mj pulses in the R with a pulse length as short as 2 ps FWHM and a repetition rate of 6 Hz. Nonlinear doubling crystals are used to generate fourth-harmonic output of ∼500 microJ in the UV (263 nm), which is required to exceed the work function of the copper cathode in the gun. This paper describes the drive laser as well as the extensive controls implemented to allow for remote operation and monitoring. Performance measurements as well as the operating experience are presented

  8. Generation of multiple analog pulses with different duty cycles within VME control system for ICRH Aditya system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Ramesh; Singh, Manoj; Jadav, H M; Misra, Kishor; Kulkarni, S V, E-mail: rjoshi@ipr.res.i [Institute for plasma research, Bhat, Gandhinagar- 382428 (India)

    2010-02-01

    Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ICRH) is a promising heating method for a fusion device due to its localized power deposition profile, a direct ion heating at high density, and established technology for high RF power generation and transmission at low cost. Multiple analog pulse with different duty cycle in master of digital pulse for Data acquisition and Control system for steady state RF ICRH System(RF ICRH DAC) to be used for operating of RF Generator in Aditya to produce pre ionization and second analog pulse will produce heating. The control system software is based upon single digital pulse operation for RF source. It is planned to integrate multiple analog pulses with different duty cycle in master of digital pulse for Data acquisition and Control system for RF ICRH System(RF ICRH DAC) to be used for operating of RF Generator in Aditya tokamak. The task of RF ICRH DAC is to control and acquisition of all ICRH system operation with all control loop and acquisition for post analysis of data with java based tool. For pre ionization startup as well as heating experiments using multiple RF Power of different powers and duration. The experiment based upon the idea of using single RF generator to energize antenna inside the tokamak to radiate power twice, out of which first analog pulse will produce pre ionization and second analog pulse will produce heating. The whole system is based on standard client server technology using tcp/ip protocol. DAC Software is based on linux operating system for highly reliable, secure and stable system operation in failsafe manner. Client system is based on tcl/tk like toolkit for user interface with c/c++ like environment which is reliable programming languages widely used on stand alone system operation with server as vxWorks real time operating system like environment. The paper is focused on the Data acquisition and monitoring system software on Aditya RF ICRH System with analog pulses in slave mode with digital pulse in

  9. Generation of multiple analog pulses with different duty cycles within VME control system for ICRH Aditya system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Ramesh; Singh, Manoj; Jadav, H M; Misra, Kishor; Kulkarni, S V

    2010-01-01

    Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ICRH) is a promising heating method for a fusion device due to its localized power deposition profile, a direct ion heating at high density, and established technology for high RF power generation and transmission at low cost. Multiple analog pulse with different duty cycle in master of digital pulse for Data acquisition and Control system for steady state RF ICRH System(RF ICRH DAC) to be used for operating of RF Generator in Aditya to produce pre ionization and second analog pulse will produce heating. The control system software is based upon single digital pulse operation for RF source. It is planned to integrate multiple analog pulses with different duty cycle in master of digital pulse for Data acquisition and Control system for RF ICRH System(RF ICRH DAC) to be used for operating of RF Generator in Aditya tokamak. The task of RF ICRH DAC is to control and acquisition of all ICRH system operation with all control loop and acquisition for post analysis of data with java based tool. For pre ionization startup as well as heating experiments using multiple RF Power of different powers and duration. The experiment based upon the idea of using single RF generator to energize antenna inside the tokamak to radiate power twice, out of which first analog pulse will produce pre ionization and second analog pulse will produce heating. The whole system is based on standard client server technology using tcp/ip protocol. DAC Software is based on linux operating system for highly reliable, secure and stable system operation in failsafe manner. Client system is based on tcl/tk like toolkit for user interface with c/c++ like environment which is reliable programming languages widely used on stand alone system operation with server as vxWorks real time operating system like environment. The paper is focused on the Data acquisition and monitoring system software on Aditya RF ICRH System with analog pulses in slave mode with digital pulse in

  10. Generation of multiple analog pulses with different duty cycles within VME control system for ICRH Aditya system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Ramesh; Singh, Manoj; Jadav, H. M.; Misra, Kishor; Kulkarni, S. V.; ICRH-RF Group

    2010-02-01

    Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ICRH) is a promising heating method for a fusion device due to its localized power deposition profile, a direct ion heating at high density, and established technology for high RF power generation and transmission at low cost. Multiple analog pulse with different duty cycle in master of digital pulse for Data acquisition and Control system for steady state RF ICRH System(RF ICRH DAC) to be used for operating of RF Generator in Aditya to produce pre ionization and second analog pulse will produce heating. The control system software is based upon single digital pulse operation for RF source. It is planned to integrate multiple analog pulses with different duty cycle in master of digital pulse for Data acquisition and Control system for RF ICRH System(RF ICRH DAC) to be used for operating of RF Generator in Aditya tokamak. The task of RF ICRH DAC is to control and acquisition of all ICRH system operation with all control loop and acquisition for post analysis of data with java based tool. For pre ionization startup as well as heating experiments using multiple RF Power of different powers and duration. The experiment based upon the idea of using single RF generator to energize antenna inside the tokamak to radiate power twise, out of which first analog pulse will produce pre ionization and second analog pulse will produce heating. The whole system is based on standard client server technology using tcp/ip protocol. DAC Software is based on linux operating system for highly reliable, secure and stable system operation in failsafe manner. Client system is based on tcl/tk like toolkit for user interface with c/c++ like environment which is reliable programming languages widely used on stand alone system operation with server as vxWorks real time operating system like environment. The paper is focused on the Data acquisition and monitoring system software on Aditya RF ICRH System with analog pulses in slave mode with digital pulse in

  11. Feasibility Study for High Power RF – Energy Recovery in Particle Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Betz, Michael

    2010-01-01

    When dealing with particle accelerators, especially in systems with travelling wave structures and low beam loading, a substantial amount of RF power is dissipated in 50Ω termination loads. For the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) at Cern this is 69 % of the incident RF power or about 1 MW. Different ideas, making use of that otherwise dissipated power, are presented and their feasibility is reviewed. The most feasible one, utilizing an array of semiconductor based RF/DC modules, is used to create a design concept for energy recovery in the SPS. The modules are required to operate at high power, high efficiency and with low harmonic radiation. Besides the actual RF rectifier, they contain additional components to ensure a graceful degradation of the overall system. Different rectifier architectures and semiconductor devices are compared and the most suitable ones are chosen. Two prototype devices were built and operated with up to 400 W of pulsed RF power. Broadband measurements – capturing all harmonics up ...

  12. Development of a low-level RF control system for PET cyclotron CYCIAE-14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Pengzhan, E-mail: lipengzhan@ciae.ac.cn; Yin, Zhiguo; Ji, Bin; Zhang, Tianjue; Zhao, Zhenlu

    2014-01-21

    The project of a 14 MeV PET cyclotron aiming at medical diagnosis and treatment was proposed and started at CIAE in 2010. The low-level RF system is designed to stabilize acceleration voltage and control the resonance of the cavity. Based on the experience of the existing CRM Cyclotron in CIAE, a new start-up sequence is developed and tested. The frequency sweeping is used to activate the RF system. Before the tuner is put into use, a new state called “DDS tuning” is applied to trace the resonance frequency to the designed value. This new option state helps to cover the tuning range, if a large frequency variation occurs because of a thermal cavity deformation. The logic control unit detects the spark, reflection, Pulse/CW state and the frequency of the RF source to perform all kinds of protection and state operations. The test bench and on-line test are carried out to verify the initial design. -- Highlights: • The low-level RF system is designed and verified for PET cyclotron CYCIAE-14. • The frequency sweeping is used to activate the RF system. • A new state called “DDS tuning” is applied to trace the resonance frequency. • This new option state helps to cover the tuning range. • Protection module allows a quick restart after an alarm and improves cyclotron's efficiency.

  13. Conceptual design of independently tunable cells RF gun with external injecting structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Junjun; Feng Guangyao; Pei Yuanji; Pang Jian

    2012-01-01

    To obtain the micro-pulse bunch with the order of hundred femtoseconds length and high repetition rate, the pa- per proposes the independently tunable cells (ITC) RF gun, which has a double-cell structure with the cells being power fed independently. By choosing appropriate feeding power and phase of the two cells, this ITC-RF gun can achieve bunches of excellent characteristics. Additionally, the application of a-magnet and laser system can be avoided, which leads to more compact layout. An external injecting ITC-RF gun (DC-ITC-RF gun) structure is designed accordingly. The external injecting structure can increase beam current, decrease energy spread, and cancel the back-bombardment effect almost completely. By means of 1-D and 3- D beam dynamics calculation with different structure parameters, a group of RF parameters are obtained for better beam characteristics. Then the paper designs a pre-injector so that particles can be accelerated to 10 MeV. By choosing appropriate feeding power and incident particle phase for the pre-injector, the bunch length can be further compressed. (authors)

  14. Beam Dynamics Simulation of Photocathode RF Electron Gun at the PBP-CMU Linac Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buakor, K.; Rimjaem, S.

    2017-09-01

    Photocathode radio-frequency (RF) electron guns are widely used at many particle accelerator laboratories due to high quality of produced electron beams. By using a short-pulse laser to induce the photoemission process, the electrons are emitted with low energy spread. Moreover, the photocathode RF guns are not suffered from the electron back bombardment effect, which can cause the limited electron current and accelerated energy. In this research, we aim to develop the photocathode RF gun for the linac-based THz radiation source. Its design is based on the existing gun at the PBP-CMU Linac Laboratory. The gun consists of a one and a half cell S-band standing-wave RF cavities with a maximum electric field of about 60 MV/m at the centre of the full cell. We study the beam dynamics of electrons traveling through the electromagnetic field inside the RF gun by using the particle tracking program ASTRA. The laser properties i.e. transverse size and injecting phase are optimized to obtain low transverse emittance. In addition, the solenoid magnet is applied for beam focusing and emittance compensation. The proper solenoid magnetic field is then investigated to find the optimum value for proper emittance conservation condition.

  15. Aspects of operation of the Fermilab Booster RF System at very high intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, J.E.

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this note is to examine the likelihood and problems associated with operation of the Fermilab Booster rf systems as it presently exists, or with only minor modifications, at beam intensity approaching 5x10 13 protons per pulse. Beam loading of the rf system at such an intensity will be one order of magnitude larger than at the present operation level. It is assumed that the injection energy will be raised to 1 GeV with no major increase in the injected energy spread (longitudinal emittance). The beam will be bunched by adiabatic capture as is presently done although it may be necessary to remove one or two bunches prior to acceleration to allow clean extraction at 8 GeV. At very high intensity the charge in each bunch will interact with the vacuum chamber impedance (and with itself) in such a way as to reduce in some cases the bucket area generated by the rf voltage. Because this decrement must be made up by changes in the rf ring voltage if the required bucket area is to be maintained, these effects must be taken into consideration in any analysis of the capability of the rf system to accelerate very large intensity

  16. Development of an Automatic Frequency Control (AFC) System for RF Electron Linear Accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Sungsu; Kim, Yujong; Lee, Byeong-No; Joo, Youngwoo; Lee, Soo Min; Lee, Byung Cheol; Cha, Hyungki; Park, Hyung Dal; Lee, Seung Hyun

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the design, fabrication, and RF power test of the AFC system for the X-band linac are presented. The main function of the AFC system is automatically matching of the resonance frequency of the accelerating structure and the RF frequency of the magnetron. For the frequency tuning, a fine tuning of 10 kHz is possible by rotating the tuning shaft with a rotation of 0.72 degree per pulse. Therefore, the frequency deviation is about 0.01%, and almost full RF power (2.1 MW) transmission was obtained because the reflected power is minimized. The Radiation Equipment Research Division of the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute has been developing and upgrading a medical/industrial X-band RF electron linear accelerators. The medical compact RF electron linear accelerator consists of an electron gun, an acceleration tube (accelerating structure), two solenoid magnets, two steering magnets, a magnetron, modulator, an automatic frequency control (AFC) system, and an X-ray generating target. The accelerating structure of the component is composed of oxygen-free high-conductivity copper (OFHC). Therefore, the volume of the structure, hence, its resonance frequency can easily be changeable if the ambient temperature and pressure are changed. If the RF frequency of the 9300 MHz magnetron and the resonance frequency of accelerating structure are not matched, performance of the structure can be degraded. An AFC system is automatically matched with the RF frequency of the magnetron and resonance frequency of the accelerating structure, which obtained a high output power and reliable accelerator operation

  17. Development of an Automatic Frequency Control (AFC) System for RF Electron Linear Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Sungsu; Kim, Yujong; Lee, Byeong-No; Joo, Youngwoo; Lee, Soo Min; Lee, Byung Cheol; Cha, Hyungki [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hyung Dal [Radiation Technology eXcellence, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung Hyun [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In this paper, the design, fabrication, and RF power test of the AFC system for the X-band linac are presented. The main function of the AFC system is automatically matching of the resonance frequency of the accelerating structure and the RF frequency of the magnetron. For the frequency tuning, a fine tuning of 10 kHz is possible by rotating the tuning shaft with a rotation of 0.72 degree per pulse. Therefore, the frequency deviation is about 0.01%, and almost full RF power (2.1 MW) transmission was obtained because the reflected power is minimized. The Radiation Equipment Research Division of the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute has been developing and upgrading a medical/industrial X-band RF electron linear accelerators. The medical compact RF electron linear accelerator consists of an electron gun, an acceleration tube (accelerating structure), two solenoid magnets, two steering magnets, a magnetron, modulator, an automatic frequency control (AFC) system, and an X-ray generating target. The accelerating structure of the component is composed of oxygen-free high-conductivity copper (OFHC). Therefore, the volume of the structure, hence, its resonance frequency can easily be changeable if the ambient temperature and pressure are changed. If the RF frequency of the 9300 MHz magnetron and the resonance frequency of accelerating structure are not matched, performance of the structure can be degraded. An AFC system is automatically matched with the RF frequency of the magnetron and resonance frequency of the accelerating structure, which obtained a high output power and reliable accelerator operation.

  18. Correction of the calculation of beam loading based in the RF power diffusion equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, R. da.

    1980-01-01

    It is described an empirical correction based upon experimental datas of others authors in ORELA, GELINA and SLAC accelerators, to the calculation of the energy loss due to the beam loading effect as stated by the RF power diffusion equation theory an accelerating structure. It is obtained a dependence of this correction with the electron pulse full width half maximum, but independent of the electron energy. (author) [pt

  19. RF sheaths for arbitrary B field angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ippolito, Daniel; Myra, James

    2014-10-01

    RF sheaths occur in tokamaks when ICRF waves encounter conducting boundaries and accelerate electrons out of the plasma. Sheath effects reduce the efficiency of ICRF heating, cause RF-specific impurity influxes from the edge plasma, and increase the plasma-facing component damage. The rf sheath potential is sensitive to the angle between the B field and the wall, the ion mobility and the ion magnetization. Here, we obtain a numerical solution of the non-neutral rf sheath and magnetic pre-sheath equations (for arbitrary values of these parameters) and attempt to infer the parametric dependences of the Child-Langmuir law. This extends previous work on the magnetized, immobile ion regime. An important question is how the rf sheath voltage distributes itself between sheath and pre-sheath for various B field angles. This will show how generally previous estimates of the rf sheath voltage and capacitance were reasonable, and to improve the RF sheath BC. Work supported by US DOE grants DE-FC02-05ER54823 and DE-FG02-97ER54392.

  20. Pulse plating

    CERN Document Server

    Hansal, Wolfgang E G; Green, Todd; Leisner, Peter; Reichenbach, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The electrodeposition of metals using pulsed current has achieved practical importance in recent years. Although it has long been known that changes in potential, with or without polarity reversal, can significantly affect the deposition process, the practical application of this has been slow to be adopted. This can largely be explained in terms of the complex relationship between the current regime and its effect on the electrodeposition process. In order to harness these effects, an understanding of the anodic and cathodic electrochemical processes is necessary, together with the effects of polarity reversal and the rate of such reversals. In this new monograph, the basics of metal electrodeposition from solution are laid out in great detail in seven distinct chapters. With this knowledge, the reader is able to predict how a given pulse train profile can be adopted to achieve a desired outcome. Equally important is the choice of a suitable rectifier and the ancillary control circuits to enable pulse platin...

  1. Design and Calibration of an RF Actuator for Low-Level RF Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Zheqiao; Hong, Bo

    2016-02-01

    X-ray free electron laser (FEL) machines like the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at SLAC require high-quality electron beams to generate X-ray lasers for various experiments. Digital low-level RF (LLRF) systems are widely used to control the high-power RF klystrons to provide a highly stable RF field in accelerator structures for beam acceleration. Feedback and feedforward controllers are implemented in LLRF systems to stabilize or adjust the phase and amplitude of the RF field. To achieve the RF stability and the accuracy of the phase and amplitude adjustment, low-noise and highly linear RF actuators are required. Aiming for the upgrade of the S-band Linac at SLAC, an RF actuator is designed with an I/Qmodulator driven by two digital-to-analog converters (DAC) for the digital LLRF systems. A direct upconversion scheme is selected for RF actuation, and an on-line calibration algorithm is developed to compensate the RF reference leakage and the imbalance errors in the I/Q modulator, which may cause significant phase and amplitude actuation errors. This paper presents the requirements on the RF actuator, the design of the hardware, the calibration algorithm, and the implementation in firmware and software and the test results at LCLS.

  2. IHEP S-band 45 MW pulse power klystron development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Dong; Zhou Zusheng; Zhang Liang; Li Gangying; Tian Shuangmin

    2006-01-01

    S-band 45 MW pulse power klystron has been developed in the Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP) for the Beijing Electron Positron Collider (BEPC) upgrade projects (BEPC-II). This new klystron has 5 cavities in its RF-beam interaction and single RF output window, and the RF output power is 45 MW at 310 kV, the gain is 50 dB, the efficiency 40%. The manufacturing, training and testing of a prototype klystron has been finished in IHEP and RF power 45 MW at 300 kV has been reached. The testing results show that all the parameters of the 45 MW klystron reach the design goal. (authors)

  3. RF heating systems evolution for the WEST project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magne, R.; Achard, J.; Armitano, A.; Argouarch, A.; Berger-By, G.; Bernard, J. M.; Bouquey, F.; Charabot, N.; Colas, L.; Corbel, E.; Delpech, L.; Ekedahl, A.; Goniche, M.; Guilhem, D.; Hillairet, J.; Jacquot, J.; Joffrin, E.; Litaudon, X.; Lombard, G.; Mollard, P. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); and others

    2014-02-12

    Tore Supra is dedicated to long pulse operation at high power, with a record in injected energy of 1 GJ (2.8 MW × 380 s) and an achieved capability of 12 MW injected power delivered by 3 RF systems: Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD), Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ICRH) and Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH). The new WEST project (W [tungsten] Environment in Steady-state Tokamak) aims at fitting Tore Supra with an actively cooled tungsten coated wall and a bulk tungsten divertor. This new device will offer to ITER a test bed for validating the relevant technologies for actively cooled metallic components, with D-shaped H-mode plasmas. For WEST operation, different scenarii able to reproduce ITER relevant conditions in terms of steady state heat loads have been identified, ranging from a high RF power scenario (15 MW, 30 s) to a high fluence scenario (10 MW, 1000 s). This paper will focus on the evolution of the RF systems required for WEST. For the ICRH system, the main issues are its ELM resilience and its CW compatibility, three new actively cooled antennas are being designed, with the aim of reducing their sensitivity to the load variations induced by ELMs. The LH system has been recently upgraded with new klystrons and the PAM antenna, the possible reshaping of the antenna mouths is presently studied for matching with the magnetic field line in the WEST configuration. For the ECRH system, the device for the poloidal movement of the mirrors of the antenna is being changed for higher accuracy and speed.

  4. Status of SPring-8 Photocathode Rf Gun for Future Light Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Tomizawa, H; Dewa, H; Hanaki, H; Kobayashi, T; Mizuno, A; Suzuki, S; Taniuchi, T; Yanagida, K

    2005-01-01

    We have been studying photocathode single-cell pillbox rf gun for future light sources since 1996. We achieved a rmaximum field gradient of 187 MV/m with chemical-etching processed cavity. We have been developed stable and highly qualified UV-laser source for the rf gun intensively last 3 years. The UV-laser pulse (10 Hz) energy is up to 850 uJ/pulse. The energy stability (rms) of laser has been improved down to 0.2~0.3 % at the fundamental and 0.7~1.3% at the third harmonic generation. This stability is held for two months continuously. In this improvement, we just passively stabilized the system in a humidity-controlled clean room. On the other hand, the ideal spatial and temporal profiles of a shot-by-shot single laser pulse are essential to suppress the emittance growth of the electron beam from the rf gun. We prepared a deformable mirror for spatial shaping, and a spatial light modulator based on fused-silica plates for temporal shaping. With a deformable mirror, we obtained an emittance of1.6

  5. The Bohm criterion for rf discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meijer, P.M.; Goedheer, W.J.

    1991-01-01

    The well-known dc Bohm criterion is extended to rf discharges. Both low- (ω rf much-lt ω pi ) and high-(ω pi much-lt ω rf ) frequency regimes are considered. For low frequencies, the dc Bohm criterion holds. This criterion states that the initial energy of the ions entering the sheath must exceed a limit in order to obtain a stable sheath. For high frequencies, a modified limit is derived, which is somewhat lower than that of the dc Bohm criterion. The resulting ion current density in a high-frequency sheath is only a few percent lower than that for the dc case

  6. RF Control System Upgrade at CAMD

    CERN Document Server

    Suller, Victor P; Jines, Paul; Launey, Daren

    2005-01-01

    A description is given of the new control system for the RF system of the CAMD light source. The new design being implemented brings all RF signals into the data acquisition system via a modular, custom made, RF detector and renders the amplitude and tune control loops in the VME computer. On line calculations ensure monitoring of proper operation and display the information to the user in an efficient way. In addition, an advanced load impedance monitoring diagnostic has been implemented, being displayed as a Smith Chart, which is based on the system used at the SRS in Daresbury, England.

  7. Multi-level RF identification system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Kerry D.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Gilbert, Ronald W.

    2004-07-20

    A radio frequency identification system having a radio frequency transceiver for generating a continuous wave RF interrogation signal that impinges upon an RF identification tag. An oscillation circuit in the RF identification tag modulates the interrogation signal with a subcarrier of a predetermined frequency and modulates the frequency-modulated signal back to the transmitting interrogator. The interrogator recovers and analyzes the subcarrier signal and determines its frequency. The interrogator generates an output indicative of the frequency of the subcarrier frequency, thereby identifying the responding RFID tag as one of a "class" of RFID tags configured to respond with a subcarrier signal of a predetermined frequency.

  8. RF engineering basic concepts: S-parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Caspers, F

    2011-01-01

    The concept of describing RF circuits in terms of waves is discussed and the S-matrix and related matrices are defined. The signal flow graph (SFG) is introduced as a graphical means to visualize how waves propagate in an RF network. The properties of the most relevant passive RF devices (hybrids, couplers, non-reciprocal elements, etc.) are delineated and the corresponding S-parameters are given. For microwave integrated circuits (MICs) planar transmission lines such as the microstrip line have become very important.

  9. Bunch Compression Stability Dependence on RF Parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Limberg, T

    2005-01-01

    In present designs for FEL's with high electron peak currents and short bunch lengths, higher harmonic RF systems are often used to optimize the final longitudinal charge distributions. This opens degrees of freedom for the choice of RF phases and amplitudes to achieve the necessary peak current with a reasonable longitudinal bunch shape. It had been found empirically that different working points result in different tolerances for phases and amplitudes. We give an analytical expression for the sensitivity of the compression factor on phase and amplitude jitter for a bunch compression scheme involving two RF systems and two magnetic chicanes as well numerical results for the case of the European XFEL.

  10. rf coupler technology for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    Radio frequency (rf) oscillations at critical frequencies have successfully provided a means to convey power to fusion plasmas due to the electrical-magnetic properties of the plasma. While large rf systems to couple power to the plasma have been designed, built, and tested, the main link to the plasma, the coupler, is still in an evolutionary stage of development. Design and fabrication of optimal antennas for fusion applications are complicated by incomplete characterizations of the harsh plasma environment and of coupling mechanisms. A brief description of rf coupler technology required for plasma conditions is presented along with an assessment of the status and goals of coupler development

  11. Practical guide to RF-MEMS

    CERN Document Server

    Iannacci, Jacopo

    2013-01-01

    Closes the gap between hardcore-theoretical and purely experimental RF-MEMS books. The book covers, from a practical viewpoint, the most critical steps that have to be taken in order to develop novel RF-MEMS device concepts. Prototypical RF-MEMS devices, both including lumped components and complex networks, are presented at the beginning of the book as reference examples, and these are then discussed from different perspectives with regard to design, simulation, packaging, testing, and post-fabrication modeling. Theoretical concepts are introduced when necessary to complement the practical

  12. Longitudinal beam dynamics with rf noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, H.J.; Ellison, J.A.; Cogburn, R.; Newberger, B.S.

    1993-06-01

    The Dome-Krinsky-Wang (DKW) diffusion-inaction theory for rf-noise-induced emittance dilution is reviewed and related to recent work on the approximation of stochastic processes by Markov processes. An accurate and efficient numerical procedure is developed to integrate the diffusion equation of the DKW theory. Tracking simulations are undertaken to check the validity of the theory in the parameter range of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) and to provide additional information. The study of effects of rf noise is applied to two problems of interest at the SSC: (1) determination of noise tolerance levels in the rf system, and (2) feasibility of beam extraction using crystal channeling

  13. Interaction of UV laser pulses with reactive dusty plasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Wetering, F.M.J.H.; Beckers, J.; Nijdam, S.; Oosterbeek, W.; Kovacevic, E.; Berndt, J.

    2016-01-01

    This contribution deals with the effects of UV photons on the synthesis and transport of nanoparticles in reactive complex plasmas (capacitively coupled RF discharge). First measurements showed that the irradiation of a reactive acetylene-argon plasma with high-energy, ns UV laser pulses (355 nm, 75

  14. Flat-beam Rf photocathode sources for linear collider applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenzweig, J.B.

    1991-01-01

    Laser driven rf photocathodes represent a recent advance in high-brightness electron beam sources. The authors investigate here a variation on these devices, that obtained by using a ribbon laser pulse to illuminate the cathode, yielding a flat beam (σ x much-gt σ y ) which has asymmetric emittances at the cathode proportional to the beam size each transverse dimension. The flat-beam geometry mitigates space charge forces which lead to intensity dependent transverse and longitudinal emittance growth, thus limiting the beam brightness. The fundamental limit on achievable emittance and brightness is set by the transverse momentum distribution and peak current density of the photoelectrons (photon energy and cathode material dependent effects) and appears to allow, taking into account space charge and rf effects, normalized emittances ε x -5 m-rad and ε -6 m-rad, with Q = 5 nC and σ z = 1 mm. These source emittances are adequate for superconducting linear collider applications, and could preclude the use of a damping ring for the electrons in these schemes

  15. A space-based classification system for RF transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, K.R.; Call, D.; Johnson, S.; Payne, T.; Ford, W.; Spencer, K.; Wilkerson, J.F.; Baumgart, C.

    1993-01-01

    The FORTE (Fast On-Orbit Recording of Transient Events) small satellite is scheduled for launch in mid 1995. The mission is to measure and classify VHF (30--300 MHz) electromagnetic pulses, primarily due to lightning, within a high noise environment dominated by continuous wave carriers such as TV and FM stations. The FORTE Event Classifier will use specialized hardware to implement signal processing and neural network algorithms that perform onboard classification of RF transients and carriers. Lightning events will also be characterized with optical data telemetered to the ground. A primary mission science goal is to develop a comprehensive understanding of the correlation between the optical flash and the VHF emissions from lightning. By combining FORTE measurements with ground measurements and/or active transmitters, other science issues can be addressed. Examples include the correlation of global precipitation rates with lightning flash rates and location, the effects of large scale structures within the ionosphere (such as traveling ionospheric disturbances and horizontal gradients in the total electron content) on the propagation of broad bandwidth RF signals, and various areas of lightning physics. Event classification is a key feature of the FORTE mission. Neural networks are promising candidates for this application. The authors describe the proposed FORTE Event Classifier flight system, which consists of a commercially available digital signal processing board and a custom board, and discuss work on signal processing and neural network algorithms

  16. Travelling Wave Structure of an SPS RF Cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1974-01-01

    The RF cavities for acceleration of particles in the SPS have a travelling-wave structure. They operate at a fixed frequency of 200 MHz (h = 4620). With a quality factor of Q = 100, the bandwidth covers the small frequency swing for the acceleration of protons from as low as 10 GeV to the top energy of 450 GeV. Later on, for the acceleration of ions, with a larger frequency swing, turn-to-turn phase jumps did the trick. Two cavities, each consisting of 5 tank sections, were installed in long straight section 3. Each cavity is driven by a power amplifier of 750 kW CW (1 MW pulsed). Another 2 cavities were added later on. See also 7411033 and 7802190.

  17. Repetitive Bunches from RF-Photo Gun Radiate Coherently

    CERN Document Server

    Van der Geer, C A J; Van der Geer, S B

    2004-01-01

    We consider to feed the laser wake field accelerator of the alpha-X project by a train of low charge pancake electron bunches to reduce undesired expansion due to space-charge forces. To this purpose the photo excitation laser of the rf-injector is split into a train of sub-pulses, such that each of the produced electron bunches falls into a successive ponderomotive well of the plasma accelerator. This way the total accelerated charge is not reduced. The repetitive photo gun can be tested, at low energy, by connecting it directly to the undulator and monitoring the radiation. The assertions are based on the results of new GPT simulations.

  18. Development of Phase Change Materials for RF Switch Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Matthew Russell

    changes in ON-state resistance with increasing pulse number, where initially porous and granular GeTe was converted to large crystalline domains comprising the majority of the RF gap. A phenomenological model for this morphology was presented in which the OFF pulse melts a given width of GeTe and upon cooling the crystalline template outside the melt region acts as a template for an inward-propagating crystalline growth front. This model was further extended to explain observed morphology for ON pulses. The voids observed along the device centerline were connected to increasing OFF state resistance and a relatively stable ON state with increasing pulse number via a series resistance model. As a result of this analysis, OFF state resistance was suggested as an early indicator of device reliability. Finally, microstructural and electrical property observations were used as a basis for implementing improvements to the GeTe deposition process in the form of a heated substrate platform. It was shown that this provides a viable method for attaining stable as-deposited GeTe morphology and a substantially improved crystalline resistivity (2 ohm-mum). This body of work ultimately provides a blueprint which connects fundamental GeTe properties with deposition processes and device performance.

  19. SNS Low-Level RF Control System Design and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Hengjie; Crofford, Mark; Doolittle, Lawrence; Kasemir, Kay-Uwe; Piller, Maurice; Ratti, Alessandro

    2005-01-01

    A full digital Low-Level RF controller has been developed for SNS LINAC. Its design is a good example of a modern digital implementation of the classic control theory. The digital hardware for all the control and DSP functionalities, including the final vector modulation, is implemented on a single high-density FPGA. Two models for the digital hardware have been written in VHDL and Verilog respectively, based on a very low latency control algorithm, and both have been being used for supporting the testing and commissioning the LINAC to the date. During the commissioning, the flexibility and ability for precise controls that only digital design on a larger FPGA can offer has proved to be a necessity for meeting the great challenge of a high-power pulsed SCL.

  20. RF Systems for a Proposed Next Step Option (FIRE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, M.D.; Swain, D.W.

    1999-04-12

    FIRE (Fusion Ignition Research Experiment) is a high-field, burning-plasma tokamak that is being studied as a possible option for future fusion research. Preliminary parameters for this machine are R0 approximately equal to 2 m, a approximately equal to 0.5 m, B0 approximately equal to 10 T, and Ip approximately equal to 6 MA. Magnetic field coils are to be made of copper and precooled with LN2 before each shot. The flat-top pulse length desired is greater than or equal to 10s. Ion cyclotron and lower hybrid rf systems will be used for heating and current drive. Present specifications call for 30 MW of ion cyclotron heating power, with 25 MW of lower hybrid power as an upgrade option.

  1. RF Systems for a Proposed Next Step Option (FIRE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, M.D.; Swain, D.W.

    1999-01-01

    FIRE (Fusion Ignition Research Experiment) is a high-field, burning-plasma tokamak that is being studied as a possible option for future fusion research. Preliminary parameters for this machine are R 0 approximately equal to 2 m, a approximately equal to 0.5 m, B 0 approximately equal to 10 T, and I p approximately equal to 6 MA. Magnetic field coils are to be made of copper and precooled with LN 2 before each shot. The flat-top pulse length desired is greater than or equal to 10s. Ion cyclotron and lower hybrid rf systems will be used for heating and current drive. Present specifications call for 30 MW of ion cyclotron heating power, with 25 MW of lower hybrid power as an upgrade option

  2. RF plasma source for heavy ion beam charge neutralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efthimion, Philip C.; Gilson, Erik; Grisham, Larry; Davidson, Ronald C.; Yu, Simon S.; Logan, B. Grant

    2003-01-01

    Highly ionized plasmas are being used as a medium for charge neutralizing heavy ion beams in order to focus the ion beam to a small spot size. A radio frequency (RF) plasma source has been built at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) in support of the joint Neutralized Transport Experiment (NTX) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to study ion beam neutralization with plasma. The goal is to operate the source at pressures ∼ 10 -5 Torr at full ionization. The initial operation of the source has been at pressures of 10 -4 -10 -1 Torr and electron densities in the range of 10 8 -10 11 cm -3 . Recently, pulsed operation of the source has enabled operation at pressures in the 10 -6 Torr range with densities of 10 11 cm -3 . Near 100% ionization has been achieved. The source has been integrated with the NTX facility and experiments have begun

  3. Material Selection and Characterization for High Gradient RF Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Arnau-Izquierdo, G; Heikkinen, S; Ramsvik, T; Sgobba, Stefano; Taborelli, M; Wuensch, W

    2007-01-01

    The selection of candidate materials for the accelerating cavities of the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) is carried out in parallel with high power RF testing. The maximum DC breakdown field of copper, copper alloys, refractory metals, aluminium and titanium have been measured with a dedicated setup. Higher maximum fields are obtained for refractory metals and for titanium, which exhibits, however, important damages after conditioning. Fatigue behaviour of copper alloys has been studied for surface and bulk by pulsed laser irradiation and ultrasonic excitation, respectively. The selected copper alloys show consistently higher fatigue resistance than copper in both experiments. In order to obtain the best local properties in the device a possible solution is a bi-metallic assembly. Junctions of molybdenum and copper-zirconium UNS C15000 alloy, achieved by HIP (Hot Isostatic Pressing) diffusion bonding or explosion bonding were evaluated for their mechanical strength. The reliability of the results obtained wit...

  4. Niobium superconducting rf cavity fabrication by electrohydraulic forming

    CERN Document Server

    Cantergiani, E.; Léaux, F.; Perez Fontenla, A.T.; Prunet, S.; Dufay-Chanat, L.; Koettig, T.; Bertinelli, F.; Capatina, O.; Favre, G.; Gerigk, F.; Jeanson, A. C.; Fuzeau, J.; Avrillaud, G.; Alleman, D.; Bonafe, J.; Marty, P.

    2016-01-01

    Superconducting rf (SRF) cavities are traditionally fabricated from superconducting material sheets or made of copper coated with superconducting material, followed by trim machining and electron-beam welding. An alternative technique to traditional shaping methods, such as deep-drawing and spinning, is electrohydraulicforming (EHF). InEHF, half-cells areobtainedthrough ultrahigh-speed deformation ofblank sheets, using shockwaves induced in water by a pulsed electrical discharge. With respect to traditional methods, such a highly dynamic process can yield interesting results in terms of effectiveness, repeatability, final shape precision, higher formability, and reduced springback. In this paper, the first results of EHFon high purity niobium are presented and discussed. The simulations performed in order to master the multiphysics phenomena of EHF and to adjust its process parameters are presented. The microstructures of niobium half- cells produced by EHFand by spinning have been compared in terms of damage...

  5. TESLA superconducting RF cavity development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koepke, K.

    1995-01-01

    The TESLA collaboration has made steady progress since its first official meeting at Cornell in 1990. The infrastructure necessary to assemble and test superconducting rf cavities has been installed at the TESLA Test Facility (TTF) at DESY. 5-cell, 1.3 GHz cavities have been fabricated and have reached accelerating fields of 25 MV/m. Full sized 9-cell copper cavities of TESLA geometry have been measured to verify the higher order modes present and to evaluate HOM coupling designs. The design of the TESLA 9-cell cavity has been finalized and industry has started delivery. Two prototype 9-cell niobium cavities in their first tests have reached accelerating fields of 10 MV/m and 15 MV/m in a vertical dewar after high peak power (HPP) conditioning. The first 12 m TESLA cryomodule that will house 8 9-cell cavities is scheduled to be delivered in Spring 1995. A design report for the TTF is in progress. The TTF test linac is scheduled to be commissioned in 1996/1997. (orig.)

  6. The CEBAF RF separator system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hovater, C.; Arnold, G.; Fugitt, J.; Harwood, L.; Kazimi, R.; Lahti, G.; Mammosser, J.; Nelson, R.; Piller, C.; Turlington, L.

    1996-01-01

    The 4 GeV CEBAF accelerator at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) is arranged in a five-pass racetrack configuration, with two superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) linacs joined by independent magnetic transport arcs. The 1497 MHz continuous electron beam is composed of three interlaced variable-intensity 499 MHz beams that can be independently directed from any of the five passes to any of the three experimental halls. Beam extraction is made possible by a system of nine warm sub-harmonic separator cavities capable of delivering a 100 urad kick to any pass at a maximum machine energy of 6 GeV. Each separator cavity is a half-wavelength, two cell design with a high transverse shunt impedance and a small transverse dimension. The cavities are powered by 1 kW solid state amplifiers operating at 499 MHz. Cavity phase and gradient control are provided through a modified version of the same control module used for the CEBAF SRF cavity controls. The system has recently been tested while delivering beam to Hall C. In this paper we present a description of the RF separator system and recent test results with beam. (author)

  7. “Virtual IED sensor” at an rf-biased electrode in low-pressure plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdanova, M. A.; Zyryanov, S. M. [Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University, SINP MSU, Moscow (Russian Federation); Faculty of Physics, Moscow State University, MSU, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lopaev, D. V.; Rakhimov, A. T. [Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University, SINP MSU, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-07-15

    Energy distribution and the flux of the ions coming on a surface are considered as the key-parameters in anisotropic plasma etching. Since direct ion energy distribution (IED) measurements at the treated surface during plasma processing are often hardly possible, there is an opportunity for virtual ones. This work is devoted to the possibility of such indirect IED and ion flux measurements at an rf-biased electrode in low-pressure rf plasma by using a “virtual IED sensor” which represents “in-situ” IED calculations on the absolute scale in accordance with a plasma sheath model containing a set of measurable external parameters. The “virtual IED sensor” should also involve some external calibration procedure. Applicability and accuracy of the “virtual IED sensor” are validated for a dual-frequency reactive ion etching (RIE) inductively coupled plasma (ICP) reactor with a capacitively coupled rf-biased electrode. The validation is carried out for heavy (Ar) and light (H{sub 2}) gases under different discharge conditions (different ICP powers, rf-bias frequencies, and voltages). An EQP mass-spectrometer and an rf-compensated Langmuir probe (LP) are used to characterize plasma, while an rf-compensated retarded field energy analyzer (RFEA) is applied to measure IED and ion flux at the rf-biased electrode. Besides, the pulsed selfbias method is used as an external calibration procedure for ion flux estimating at the rf-biased electrode. It is shown that pulsed selfbias method allows calibrating the IED absolute scale quite accurately. It is also shown that the “virtual IED sensor” based on the simplest collisionless sheath model allows reproducing well enough the experimental IEDs at the pressures when the sheath thickness s is less than the ion mean free path λ{sub i} (s < λ{sub i}). At higher pressure (when s > λ{sub i}), the difference between calculated and experimental IEDs due to ion collisions in the sheath is observed in the low

  8. Modular open RF architecture: extending VICTORY to RF systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melber, Adam; Dirner, Jason; Johnson, Michael

    2015-05-01

    Radio frequency products spanning multiple functions have become increasingly critical to the warfighter. Military use of the electromagnetic spectrum now includes communications, electronic warfare (EW), intelligence, and mission command systems. Due to the urgent needs of counterinsurgency operations, various quick reaction capabilities (QRCs) have been fielded to enhance warfighter capability. Although these QRCs were highly successfully in their respective missions, they were designed independently resulting in significant challenges when integrated on a common platform. This paper discusses how the Modular Open RF Architecture (MORA) addresses these challenges by defining an open architecture for multifunction missions that decomposes monolithic radio systems into high-level components with welldefined functions and interfaces. The functional decomposition maximizes hardware sharing while minimizing added complexity and cost due to modularization. MORA achieves significant size, weight and power (SWaP) savings by allowing hardware such as power amplifiers and antennas to be shared across systems. By separating signal conditioning from the processing that implements the actual radio application, MORA exposes previously inaccessible architecture points, providing system integrators with the flexibility to insert third-party capabilities to address technical challenges and emerging requirements. MORA leverages the Vehicular Integration for Command, Control, Communication, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (C4ISR)/EW Interoperability (VICTORY) framework. This paper concludes by discussing how MORA, VICTORY and other standards such as OpenVPX are being leveraged by the U.S. Army Research, Development, and Engineering Command (RDECOM) Communications Electronics Research, Development, and Engineering Center (CERDEC) to define a converged architecture enabling rapid technology insertion, interoperability and reduced SWaP.

  9. New developments in RF power sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.H.

    1994-06-01

    The most challenging rf source requirements for high-energy accelerators presently being studied or designed come from the various electron-positron linear collider studies. All of these studies except TESLA (the superconducting entry in the field) have specified rf sources with much higher peak powers than any existing tubes at comparable high frequencies. While circular machines do not, in general, require high peak power, the very high luminosity electron-positron rings presently being designed as B factories require prodigious total average rf power. In this age of energy conservation, this puts a high priority on high efficiency for the rf sources. Both modulating anodes and depressed collectors are being investigated in the quest for high efficiency at varying output powers

  10. RF accelerating unit installed in the PSB

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1972-01-01

    RF accelerating unit installed in the PSB ring between two bending magnets. Cool air from a heat exchanger is injected into the four cavities from the central feeder and the hot air recirculated via the lateral ducts.

  11. ORIC RF system: preparation for HHIRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosko, S.W.; Rylander, J.D.; Schulze, G.K.

    1977-01-01

    The integration of the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron (ORIC) into the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility (HHIRF) requires several rf system modifications to permit injection of ion beams from the 25 MV tandem electrostatic accelerator into ORIC. A new dee eliminates structural interference with the injected beam path and provides an opportunity to improve the mechanical stability of the resonator and to reduce rf voltage gradients in areas susceptible to sparking. Space for structural improvements is realized by reducing the ion beam aperture from 4.8 cm to 2.4 cm. The complexity of the original ORIC rf power system was substantially reduced. A new broadband solid state driver amplifier between the frequency synthesizer and the main power amplifier eliminates most circuit tuning and permits the use of a new simplified dee rf voltage regulator loop. Most of the remaining instrumentation and control circuitry is TTL compatible and will eventually tie to the ORIC computer control system through a CAMAC interface

  12. Prototype rf cavity for the HISTRAP accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosko, S.W.; Dowling, D.T.; Olsen, D.K.

    1989-01-01

    HISTRAP, a proposed synchrotron-cooling-storage ring designed to both accelerate and decelerate very highly charged very heavy ions for atomic physics research, requires an rf accelerating system to provide /+-/2.5 kV of peak accelerating voltage per turn while tuning through a 13.5:1 frequency range in a fraction of a second. A prototype half-wave, single gap rf cavity with biased ferrite tuning was built and tested over a continuous tuning range of 200 kHz through 2.7 MHz. Initial test results establish the feasibility of using ferrite tuning at the required rf power levels. The resonant system is located entirely outside of the accelerator's 15cm ID beam line vacuum enclosure except for a single rf window which serves as an accelerating gap. Physical separation of the cavity and the beam line permits in situ vacuum baking of the beam line at 300/degree/C

  13. Superconducting RF for energy-recovery linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liepe, M.; Knobloch, J.

    2006-01-01

    Since superconducting RF for particle accelerators made its first appearance in the 1970s, it has found highly successful application in a variety of machines. Recent progress in this technology has made so-called Energy-Recovery Linacs (ERLs)-originally proposed in 1965-feasible, and interest in this type of machine has increased enormously. A superconducting linac is the driving heart of ERLs, and emittance preservation and cost efficiency is of utmost importance. The resulting challenges for the superconducting cavity technology and RF field control are manifold. In March 2005 the first international workshop on ERLs was held at Newport News, VA, to explore the potential of ERLs and to discuss machine-physics and technology challenges and their solutions. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in superconducting RF and RF control for ERLs, and summarizes the discussions of the SRF working group on this technology during the ERL2005 workshop

  14. CAT/RF Simulation Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-11

    IVSS-2003-MAS-7 CAT /RF Simulation Lessons Learned Christopher Mocnik Vetronics Technology Area, RDECOM TARDEC Tim Lee DCS Corporation...developed a re- configurable Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) simulation for the Crew integration and Automation Test bed ( CAT ) and Robotics Follower (RF...Advanced Technology Demonstration (ATD) experiments. This simulation was developed as a component of the Embedded Simulation System (ESS) of the CAT

  15. Normal Conducting RF Cavity for MICE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, D.; DeMello, A.; Virostek, S.; Zisman, M.; Summers, D.

    2010-01-01

    Normal conducting RF cavities must be used for the cooling section of the international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE), currently under construction at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in the UK. Eight 201-MHz cavities are needed for the MICE cooling section; fabrication of the first five cavities is complete. We report the cavity fabrication status including cavity design, fabrication techniques and preliminary low power RF measurements.

  16. Vortex formation during rf heating of plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motley, R.W.

    1980-05-01

    Experiments on a test plasma show that the linear theory of waveguide coupling to slow plasma waves begins to break down if the rf power flux exceeds approx. 30 W/cm 2 . Probe measurements reveal that within 30 μs an undulation appears in the surface plasma near the mouth of the twin waveguide. This surface readjustment is part of a vortex, or off-center convective cell, driven by asymmetric rf heating of the plasma column

  17. A no-load RF calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernoff, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    The described device can be used to measure the output of any dc powered RF source. No dummy load is required for the measurements. The device is, therefore, called the 'no-load calorimeter' (NLC). The NLC measures the power actually fed to the antenna or another useful load. It is believed that the NLC can compete successfully with directional coupler type systems in measuring the output of high-power RF sources.

  18. RF study and 3-D simulations of a side-coupling thermionic RF-gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimjaem, S.; Kusoljariyakul, K.; Thongbai, C.

    2014-01-01

    A thermionic RF-gun for generating ultra-short electron bunches was optimized, developed and used as a source at a linac-based THz radiation research laboratory of the Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Chiang Mai University, Thailand. The RF-gun is a π/2-mode standing wave structure, which consists of two S-band accelerating cells and a side-coupling cavity. The 2856 MHz RF wave is supplied from an S-band klystron to the gun through the waveguide input-port at the cylindrical wall of the second cell. A fraction of the RF power is coupled from the second cell to the first one via a side-coupling cavity. Both the waveguide input-port and the side-coupling cavity lead to an asymmetric geometry of the gun. RF properties and electromagnetic field distributions inside the RF-gun were studied and numerically simulated by using computer codes SUPERFISH 7.19 and CST Microwave Studio 2012 © . RF characterizations and tunings of the RF-gun were performed to ensure the reliability of the gun operation. The results from 3D simulations and measurements are compared and discussed in this paper. The influence of asymmetric field distributions inside the RF-gun on the electron beam properties was investigated via 3D beam dynamics simulations. A change in the coupling-plane of the side-coupling cavity is suggested to improve the gun performance

  19. RF study and 3-D simulations of a side-coupling thermionic RF-gun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rimjaem, S., E-mail: sakhorn.rimjaem@cmu.ac.th [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics (ThEP), Commission on Higher Education, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Kusoljariyakul, K.; Thongbai, C. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics (ThEP), Commission on Higher Education, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2014-02-01

    A thermionic RF-gun for generating ultra-short electron bunches was optimized, developed and used as a source at a linac-based THz radiation research laboratory of the Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Chiang Mai University, Thailand. The RF-gun is a π/2-mode standing wave structure, which consists of two S-band accelerating cells and a side-coupling cavity. The 2856 MHz RF wave is supplied from an S-band klystron to the gun through the waveguide input-port at the cylindrical wall of the second cell. A fraction of the RF power is coupled from the second cell to the first one via a side-coupling cavity. Both the waveguide input-port and the side-coupling cavity lead to an asymmetric geometry of the gun. RF properties and electromagnetic field distributions inside the RF-gun were studied and numerically simulated by using computer codes SUPERFISH 7.19 and CST Microwave Studio 2012{sup ©}. RF characterizations and tunings of the RF-gun were performed to ensure the reliability of the gun operation. The results from 3D simulations and measurements are compared and discussed in this paper. The influence of asymmetric field distributions inside the RF-gun on the electron beam properties was investigated via 3D beam dynamics simulations. A change in the coupling-plane of the side-coupling cavity is suggested to improve the gun performance.

  20. RF study and 3-D simulations of a side-coupling thermionic RF-gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimjaem, S.; Kusoljariyakul, K.; Thongbai, C.

    2014-02-01

    A thermionic RF-gun for generating ultra-short electron bunches was optimized, developed and used as a source at a linac-based THz radiation research laboratory of the Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Chiang Mai University, Thailand. The RF-gun is a π/2-mode standing wave structure, which consists of two S-band accelerating cells and a side-coupling cavity. The 2856 MHz RF wave is supplied from an S-band klystron to the gun through the waveguide input-port at the cylindrical wall of the second cell. A fraction of the RF power is coupled from the second cell to the first one via a side-coupling cavity. Both the waveguide input-port and the side-coupling cavity lead to an asymmetric geometry of the gun. RF properties and electromagnetic field distributions inside the RF-gun were studied and numerically simulated by using computer codes SUPERFISH 7.19 and CST Microwave Studio 2012©. RF characterizations and tunings of the RF-gun were performed to ensure the reliability of the gun operation. The results from 3D simulations and measurements are compared and discussed in this paper. The influence of asymmetric field distributions inside the RF-gun on the electron beam properties was investigated via 3D beam dynamics simulations. A change in the coupling-plane of the side-coupling cavity is suggested to improve the gun performance.

  1. The CEBAF RF Separator System Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hovater, J.; Mark Augustine; Al Guerra; Richard Nelson; Robert Terrell; Mark Wissmann

    2004-01-01

    The CEBAF accelerator uses RF deflecting cavities operating at the third sub-harmonic (499 MHz) of the accelerating frequency (1497 MHz) to ''kick'' the electron beam to the experimental halls. The cavities operate in a TEM dipole mode incorporating mode enhancing rods to increase the cavity's transverse shunt impedance [1]. As the accelerators energy has increased from 4 GeV to 6 GeV the RF system, specifically the 1 kW solid-state amplifiers, have become problematic, operating in saturation because of the increased beam energy demands. Two years ago we began a study to look into replacement for the RF amplifiers and decided to use a commercial broadcast Inductive Output Tube (IOT) capable of 30 kW. The new RF system uses one IOT amplifier on multiple cavities as opposed to one amplifier per cavity as was originally used. In addition, the new RF system supports a proposed 12 GeV energy upgrade to CEBAF. We are currently halfway through the upgrade with three IOTs in operation and the remaining one nearly installed. This paper reports on the new RF system and the IOT performance

  2. RF measurements I: signal receiving techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Caspers, F

    2011-01-01

    For the characterization of components, systems and signals in the RF and microwave range, several dedicated instruments are in use. In this paper the fundamentals of the RF-signal sampling technique, which has found widespread applications in 'digital' oscilloscopes and sampling scopes, are discussed. The key element in these front-ends is the Schottky diode which can be used either as an RF mixer or as a single sampler. The spectrum analyser has become an absolutely indispensable tool for RF signal analysis. Here the front-end is the RF mixer as the RF section of modern spectrum analysers has a rather complex architecture. The reasons for this complexity and certain working principles as well as limitations are discussed. In addition, an overview of the development of scalar and vector signal analysers is given. For the determination of the noise temperature of a one-port and the noise figure of a two-port, basic concepts and relations are shown. A brief discussion of commonly used noise measurement techniq...

  3. Superconducting RF activities at Cornell University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchgessner, J.; Moffat, D.; Padamsee, H.; Rubin, D.; Sears, J.; Shu, Q.S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper outlines the RF superconductivity research and development work that has taken place at Cornell Laboratory of Nuclear Studies over the past years. The work that has been performed since the last RF superconductivity workshop is emphasized together with a discussion of the direction of future efforts. Past work is summarized first, focusing on research and development activities in the area of RF superconductivity. Superconducting TeV linear collider is then discussed focusing on the application of superconducting RF to a future TeV linear collider. Linear collider structure development is then described centering on the development of a simpler (thereby cheaper) structure for a TeV linear collider. B-factory with superconducting RF is outlined focusing on the formulation of a conceptual design for a B-factory. B-factory structure development is discussed in relation to the advancement in the capability of SC cavities to carry beam currents of several amperes necessary for a high luminosity storage ring. High gradients are discussed as the key to the realization of a high energy superconducting linac or a superconducting RF B-factory. (N.K.)

  4. Low reflectance high power RF load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, R. Lawrence; Mizuhara, Yosuke M.

    2016-02-02

    A load for traveling microwave energy has an absorptive volume defined by cylindrical body enclosed by a first end cap and a second end cap. The first end cap has an aperture for the passage of an input waveguide with a rotating part that is coupled to a reflective mirror. The inner surfaces of the absorptive volume consist of a resistive material or are coated with a coating which absorbs a fraction of incident RF energy, and the remainder of the RF energy reflects. The angle of the reflector and end caps is selected such that reflected RF energy dissipates an increasing percentage of the remaining RF energy at each reflection, and the reflected RF energy which returns to the rotating mirror is directed to the back surface of the rotating reflector, and is not coupled to the input waveguide. Additionally, the reflector may have a surface which generates a more uniform power distribution function axially and laterally, to increase the power handling capability of the RF load. The input waveguide may be corrugated for HE11 mode input energy.

  5. A kilohertz picosecond x-ray pulse generation scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, W.; Borland, M.; Harkay, K. C.; Wang, C.-X.; Yang, B.

    2007-01-01

    The duration of the x-ray pulse generated at a synchrotron light source is typically tens of picoseconds. Shorter pulses are highly desired by the users. In electron storage rings, the vertical beam size is usually orders of magnitude less than the bunch length due to radiation damping; therefore, a shorter pulse can be obtained by slitting the vertically tilted bunch. Zholents proposed tilting the bunch using rf deflection. We found that tilted bunches can also be generated by a dipole magnet kick. A vertical tilt is developed after the kick in the presence of nonzero chromaticity. The tilt was successfully observed and a 4.2-ps pulse was obtained from a 27-ps electron bunch at the Advanced Photon Source. Based on this principle we propose a short-pulse generation scheme that produces picosecond x-ray pulses at a repetition rate of 1 utilde2 kHz, which can be used for pump-probe experiments

  6. Method for integrating a train of fast, nanosecond wide pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, C.R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes a method used to integrate a train of fast, nanosecond wide pulses. The pulses come from current transformers in a RF LINAC beamline. Because they are ac signals and have no dc component, true mathematical integration would yield zero over the pulse train period or an equally erroneous value because of a dc baseline shift. The circuit used to integrate the pulse train first stretches the pulses to 35 ns FWHM. The signals are then fed into a high-speed, precision rectifier which restores a true dc baseline for the following stage - a fast, gated integrator. The rectifier is linear over 55dB in excess of 25 MHz, and the gated integrator is linear over a 60 dB range with input pulse widths as short as 16 ns. The assembled system is linear over 30 dB with a 6 MHz input signal

  7. Pulsed power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The key element of our pulsed power program is concentration of power in time and space by suppression of breakdown in dielectrics and in vacuum. Magnetically insulated vacuum transmission lines and magnetic suppression of insulator flashover have continued as the main reserch directions. Vacuum insulated line studies at Physics International have been expanded and a test bed at Sandia, called MITE (Magnetically Insulated Transmission Experiment), is under development. The choice for the baseline EBFA design will depend on the outcome of these studies and should be made in July 1977. The slow and intermediate speed pulsed power approaches to EBFA will be based on Proto I and Proto II results and several of the projected EBFA subsystems are presently being tested in Proto II. A further stage of power concentration, within the vacuum diode itself, would considerably ease the burden on dielectrics; methods of power multiplication involving magnetically imploded plasmas are being considered and tests have begun using the Ripple III apparatus

  8. BRS 369RF and BRS 370RF: Glyphosate tolerant, high-yielding upland cotton cultivars for central Brazilian savanna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo de Lelis Morello

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BRS 369RF and BRS 370RF were developed by the EMBRAPA as a part of efforts to create high-yielding germplasm with combinations of transgenic traits. BRS 369RF and BRS 370RF are midseason cultivars and have yield stability, adaptation to the central Brazilian savanna, good fiber quality and tolerance to glyphosate herbicide.

  9. Development of localized arc filament RF plasma actuators for high-speed and high Reynolds number flow control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.-H.; Nishihara, M.; Adamovich, I.V.; Samimy, M.; Gorbatov, S.V.; Pliavaka, F.V.

    2010-01-01

    Recently developed localized arc filament plasma actuators (LAFPAs) have shown tremendous control authority in high-speed and high Reynolds number flow for mixing enhancement and noise mitigation. Previously, these actuators were powered by a high-voltage pulsed DC plasma generator with low energy coupling efficiency of 5-10%. In the present work, a new custom-designed 8-channel pulsed radio frequency (RF) plasma generator has been developed to power up to 8 plasma actuators operated over a wide range of forcing frequencies (up to 50 kHz) and duty cycles (1-50%), and at high energy coupling efficiency (up to 80-85%). This reduces input electrical power requirements by approximately an order of magnitude, down to 12 W per actuator operating at 10% duty cycle. The new pulsed RF plasma generator is scalable to a system with a large number of channels. Performance of pulsed RF plasma actuators used for flow control was studied in a Mach 0.9 circular jet with a Reynolds number of about 623,000 and compared with that of pulsed DC actuators. Eight actuators were distributed uniformly on the perimeter of a 2.54-cm diameter circular nozzle extension. Both types of actuators coupled approximately the same amount of power to the flow, but with drastically different electrical inputs to the power supplies. Particle image velocimetry measurements showed that jet centerline Mach number decay produced by DC and RF actuators operating at the same forcing frequencies and duty cycles is very similar. At a forcing Strouhal number near 0.3, close to the jet column instability frequency, well-organized periodic structures, with similar patterns and dimensions, were generated in the jets forced by both DC and RF actuators. Far-field acoustic measurements demonstrated similar trends in the overall sound pressure level (OASPL) change produced by both types of actuators, resulting in OASPL reduction up to 1.2-1.5 dB in both cases. We conclude that pulsed RF actuators demonstrate flow

  10. SLAC pulsed X-ray facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipe, N. E.; McCall, R. C.; Baker, E. D.

    1986-05-01

    The Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) operates a high energy (up to 33 GeV) linear accelerator delivering pulses up to a few microseconds wide. The pulsed nature of the electron beam creates problems in the detection and measurement of radiation both from the accelerator beam and the klystrons that provide the RF power for the accelerator. Hence, a pulsed X-ray facility has been built at SLAC mainly for the purpose of testing the response of different radiation detection instruments to pulsed radiation fields. The X-ray tube consists of an electron gun with a control grid. This provides a stream of pulsed electrons that can be accelerated towards a confined target-window. The window is made up of aluminum 0.051 cm (20 mils) thick, plated on the vacuum side with a layer of gold 0.0006 cm (1/4 mil) thick. The frequency of electron pulses can be varied by an internal pulser from 60 to 360 pulses per second with pulse widths of 360 ns to 5 ms. The pulse amplitude can be varied over a wide range of currents. An external pulser can be used to obtain other frequencies or special pulse shapes. The voltage across the gun can be varied from 0 to 100 kV. The major part of the X-ray tube is enclosed in a large walk-in-cabinet made of 1.9 cm (3/4 in) plywood and lined with 0.32 cm (1/8 in) lead to make a very versatile facility.

  11. SLAC pulsed x-ray facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ipe, N.E.; McCall, R.C.; Baker, E.D.

    1986-05-01

    The Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) operates a high energy (up to 33 GeV) linear accelerator delivering pulses up to a few microseconds wide. The pulsed nature of the electron beam creates problems in the detection and measurement of radiation both from the accelerator beam and the klystrons that provide the rf power for the accelerator. Hence, a pulsed x-ray facility has been built at SLAC mainly for the purpose of testing the response of different radiation detection instruments to pulsed radiation fields. The x-ray tube consists of an electron gun with a control grid. This provides a stream of pulsed electrons that can be accelerated towards a confined target-window. The window is made up of aluminium 0.051 cm (20 mils) thick, plated on the vacuum side with a layer of gold 0.0006 cm (1/4 mil) thick. The frequency of electron pulses can be varied by an internal pulser from 60 to 360 pulses per second with pulse widths of 360 ns to 5 μs. The pulse amplitude can be varied over a wide range of currents. An external pulser can be used to obtain other frequencies or special pulse shapes. The voltage across the gun can be varied from 0 to 100 kV. The major part of the x-ray tube is enclosed in a large walk-in-cabinet made of 1.9 cm (3/4 in) plywood and lined with 0.32 cm (1/8 in) lead to make a very versatile facility. 3 refs., 5 figs

  12. Upgrade of the SLAC SLED II Pulse Compression System Based on Recent High Power Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlieks, A.E.; Fowkes, W.R.; Loewen, R.J.; Tantawi, S.G.

    2011-01-01

    In the Next Linear Collider (NLC) it is expected that the high power rf components be able to handle peak power levels in excess of 400 MW. We present recent results of high power tests designed to investigate the RF breakdown limits of the X-band pulse compression system used at SLAC. (SLED-II). Results of these tests show that both the TE 01 -TE 10 mode converter and the 4-port hybrid have a maximum useful power limit of 220-250 MW. Based on these tests, modifications of these components have been undertaken to improve their peak field handling capability. Results of these modifications will be presented. As part of an international effort to develop a new 0.5-1.5 TeV electron-positron linear collider for the 21st century, SLAC has been working towards a design, referred to as 'The Next Linear Collider' (NLC), which will operate at 11.424 GHz and utilize 50-75 MW klystrons as rf power sources. One of the major challenges in this design, or any other design, is how to generate and efficiently transport extremely high rf power from a source to an accelerator structure. SLAC has been investigating various methods of 'pulse compressing' a relatively wide rf pulse ((ge) 1 μs) from a klystron into a narrower, but more intense, pulse. Currently a SLED-II pulse compression scheme is being used at SLAC in the NLC Test Accelerator (NLCTA) and in the Accelerator Structures Test Area (ASTA) to provide high rf power for accelerator and component testing. In ASTA, a 1.05 μs pulse from a 50 MW klystron was successfully pulse compressed to 205 MW with a pulse width of 150 ns. Since operation in NLC will require generating and transporting rf power in excess of 400 MW it was decided to test the breakdown limits of the SLED-II rf components in ASTA with rf power up to the maximum available of 400 MW. This required the combining of power from two 50 MW klystrons and feeding the summed power into the SLED-II pulse compressor. Results from this experiment demonstrated that two of

  13. Pregnant women models analyzed for RF exposure and temperature increase in 3T RF shimmed birdcages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murbach, Manuel; Neufeld, Esra; Samaras, Theodoros; Córcoles, Juan; Robb, Fraser J; Kainz, Wolfgang; Kuster, Niels

    2017-05-01

    MRI is increasingly used to scan pregnant patients. We investigated the effect of 3 Tesla (T) two-port radiofrequency (RF) shimming in anatomical pregnant women models. RF shimming improves B 1 + uniformity, but may at the same time significantly alter the induced current distribution and result in large changes in both the level and location of the absorbed RF energy. In this study, we evaluated the electrothermal exposure of pregnant women in the third, seventh, and ninth month of gestation at various imaging landmarks in RF body coils, including modes with RF shimming. Although RF shimmed configurations may lower the local RF exposure for the mother, they can increase the thermal load on the fetus. In worst-case configurations, whole-body exposure and local peak temperatures-up to 40.8°C-are equal in fetus and mother. Two-port RF shimming can significantly increase the fetal exposure in pregnant women, requiring further research to derive a very robust safety management. For the time being, restriction to the CP mode, which reduces fetal SAR exposure compared with linear-horizontal polarization modes, may be advisable. Results from this study do not support scanning pregnant patients above the normal operating mode. Magn Reson Med 77:2048-2056, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  14. Technology development of solid state rf systems at 350 MHz and 325 MHz for RF accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rama Rao, B.V.; Mishra, J.K.; Pande, Manjiri; Gupta, S.K.

    2011-01-01

    For decades vacuum tubes and klystrons have been used in high power application such as RF accelerators and broadcast transmitters. However, now, the solid-state technology can give power output in kilowatt regime. Higher RF power output can be achieved by combining several solid-state power amplifier modules using power combiners. This technology presents several advantages over traditional RF amplifiers, such as simpler start-up procedure, high modularity, high redundancy and flexibility, elimination of high voltage supplies and high power circulators, low operational cost, online maintenance without shut down of RF power station and no warm up time. In BARC, solid state amplifier technology development is being done both at 350 MHz and 325 MHz using RF transistors such as 1 kW LDMOS and 350 Watt VDMOS. Topology of input and output matching network in RF modules developed, consist of two L type matching sections with each section having a combination of series micro-strip line and parallel capacitor. The design is of equal Q for both the sections and of 25 ohm characteristics impedance of micro strip lines. Based on this, lengths of micro strips lines and values of shunt capacitors have been calculated. The calculated and simulated values of network elements have been compared. Similarly power combiners have been designed and developed based on Wilkinson techniques without internal resistors and using coaxial technology. This paper presents design and development of RF power amplifier modules, associated power combiner technologies and then integrated RF power amplifier. (author)

  15. Low frequency RF heating of plasmas in a toroidal stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovato, S.N.

    1977-01-01

    Studies of transit-time magnetic pumping and Alfven wave heating have been done in the Proto-Cleo stellarator. Both plasma heating and plasma confinement have been investigated. A traveling wave was launched around the Proto-Cleo l = 2, 6 field period stellarator to attempt transit-time magnetic pumping of a pulsed electron beam moving along the magnetic field lines. An apparent loss of the beam was seen when the transit-time magnetic pumping was applied. A random walk diffusion of the beam electrons with a step size determined by the radial EXB drift due to the poloidal electric field agrees well with the experimental results. Alfven wave heating was applied to plasmas in the Proto-Cleo l = 3, 7 field period stellarator. Global excitation of Alfven waves was accomplished by exciting an electrostatically shielded helical winding corresponding to a q = 3 rational field line with a pulsed, high-power RF source. Theoretical analysis of this helical wave launcher predicted effective energy absorption in the Proto-Cleo gun-produced plasma

  16. A reflexing electron microwave amplifier for rf particle accelerator applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazio, M.V.; Hoeberling, R.F.

    1988-01-01

    The evolution of rf-accelerator technology toward high-power, high-current, low-emittance beams produces an ever-increasing demand for efficient, very high power microwave power sources. The present klystron technology has performed very well but is not expected to produce reliable gigawatt peak-power units in the 1- to 10-GHz regime. Further major advancements must involve other types of sources. The reflexing-electron class of sources can produce microwave powers at the gigawatt level and has demonstrated operation from 800-MHz to 40-GHz. The pulse length appears to be limited by diode closure, and reflexing-electron devices have been operated in a repetitively pulsed mode. A design is presented for a reflexing electron microwave amplifier that is frequency and phase locked. In this design, the generated microwave power can be efficiently coupled to one or several accelerator loads. Frequency and phase-locking capability may permit parallel-source operation for higher power. The low-frequency (500-MHz to 10-GHz) operation at very high power required by present and proposed microwave particle accelerators makes an amplifier, based on reflexing electron phenomena, a candidate for the development of new accelerator power sources. (author)

  17. Characteristic performance of radio-frequency(RF) plasma heating using inverter RF power supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, Takahiro; Uesugi, Yoshihiko; Takamura, Shuichi; Sawada, Hiroyuki; Hattori, Norifumi

    2000-01-01

    High heat flux plasma are produced by high powe (∼14 kW) ICRF heating using inverter power supplies in the linear divertor simulator NAGDIS-II. The power flow of radiated rf power is investigated by a calorimetric method. Conventional power calculation using antenna voltage and current gives that about 70% of the rf power is radiated into the plasma. But increase of the heat load at the target and anode is about 10% of the rf power. Through this experiment, we find that about half of the rf power is lost at the antenna surface through the formation of rf induced sheath. And about 30% of the power is lost into the vacuum vessel through the charge exchange and elastic collision of ions with neutrals. (author)

  18. RF characterization and testing of ridge waveguide transitions for RF power couplers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Jose, Mentes; Singh, G.N. [Ion Accelerator Development Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Kumar, Girish [Department of Electrical Engineering, IIT Bombay, Mumbai 400076,India (India); Bhagwat, P.V. [Ion Accelerator Development Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2016-12-01

    RF characterization of rectangular to ridge waveguide transitions for RF power couplers has been carried out by connecting them back to back. Rectangular waveguide to N type adapters are first calibrated by TRL method and then used for RF measurements. Detailed information is obtained about their RF behavior by measurements and full wave simulations. It is shown that the two transitions can be characterized and tuned for required return loss at design frequency of 352.2 MHz. This opens the possibility of testing and conditioning two transitions together on a test bench. Finally, a RF coupler based on these transitions is coupled to an accelerator cavity. The power coupler is successfully tested up to 200 kW, 352.2 MHz with 0.2% duty cycle.

  19. RF BREAKDOWN STUDIES USING PRESSURIZED CAVITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Rolland

    2014-09-21

    Many present and future particle accelerators are limited by the maximum electric gradient and peak surface fields that can be realized in RF cavities. Despite considerable effort, a comprehensive theory of RF breakdown has not been achieved and mitigation techniques to improve practical maximum accelerating gradients have had only limited success. Part of the problem is that RF breakdown in an evacuated cavity involves a complex mixture of effects, which include the geometry, metallurgy, and surface preparation of the accelerating structures and the make-up and pressure of the residual gas in which plasmas form. Studies showed that high gradients can be achieved quickly in 805 MHz RF cavities pressurized with dense hydrogen gas, as needed for muon cooling channels, without the need for long conditioning times, even in the presence of strong external magnetic fields. This positive result was expected because the dense gas can practically eliminate dark currents and multipacting. In this project we used this high pressure technique to suppress effects of residual vacuum and geometry that are found in evacuated cavities in order to isolate and study the role of the metallic surfaces in RF cavity breakdown as a function of magnetic field, frequency, and surface preparation. One of the interesting and useful outcomes of this project was the unanticipated collaborations with LANL and Fermilab that led to new insights as to the operation of evacuated normal-conducting RF cavities in high external magnetic fields. Other accomplishments included: (1) RF breakdown experiments to test the effects of SF6 dopant in H2 and He gases with Sn, Al, and Cu electrodes were carried out in an 805 MHz cavity and compared to calculations and computer simulations. The heavy corrosion caused by the SF6 components led to the suggestion that a small admixture of oxygen, instead of SF6, to the hydrogen would allow the same advantages without the corrosion in a practical muon beam line. (2) A

  20. Investigation of MIM Diodes for RF Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Adnan

    2015-05-01

    Metal Insulator Metal (MIM) diodes that work on fast mechanism of tunneling have been used in a number of very high frequency applications such as (Infra-Red) IR detectors and optical Rectennas for energy harvesting. Their ability to operate under zero bias condition as well as the possibility of realizing them through printing makes them attractive for (Radio Frequency) RF applications. However, MIM diodes have not been explored much for RF applications. One reason preventing their widespread RF use is the requirement of a very thin oxide layer essential for the tunneling operation that requires sophisticated nano-fabrication processes. Another issue is that the reliability and stable performance of MIM diodes is highly dependent on the surface roughness of the metallic electrodes. Finally, comprehensive RF characterization has not been performed for MIM diodes reported in the literature, particularly from the perspective of their integration with antennas as well as their rectification abilities. In this thesis, various metal deposition methods such as sputtering, electron beam evaporation, and Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) are compared in pursuit of achieving low surface roughness. It is worth mentioning here that MIM diodes realized through ALD method have been presented for the first time in this thesis. Amorphous metal alloy have also been investigated in terms of their low surface roughness. Zinc-oxide has been investigated for its suitability as a thin dielectric layer for MIM diodes. Finally, comprehensive RF characterization of MIM diodes has been performed in two ways: 1) by standard S-parameter methods, and 2) by investigating their rectification ability under zero bias operation. It is concluded from the Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) imaging that surface roughness as low as sub 1 nm can be achieved reliably from crystalline metals such as copper and platinum. This value is comparable to surface roughness achieved from amorphous alloys, which are non

  1. Status of RF superconductivity at Argonne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepard, K.W.

    1990-01-01

    Development of a superconducting slow-wave structures began at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in 1971, and led to the first superconducting heavy-ion linac (ATLAS - the Argonne Tandem-Linac Accelerator System). The Physics Division at ANL has continued to develop superconducting RF technology for accelerating heavy-ions, with the result that the linac has been in an almost continuous process of upgrade and expansion. In 1987, the Engineering Physics Division at ANL began developing of superconducting RF components for the acceleration of high-brightness proton and deuterium beams. The two divisions collaborate in work on several applications of RF superconductivity, and also in work to develop the technology generally. The present report briefly describes major features of the superconducting heavy-ion linac (very-low-velocity superconducting linac, positive ion injector), proton accelerating structures (superconducting resonant cavities for acceleration of high-current proton and deuteron beams, RF properties of oxide superconductors), and future work. Both divisions expect to continue a variety of studies, frequently in collaboration, to advance the basic technology of RF superconductivity. (N.K.)

  2. Radiofrequency (RF) radiation measurement for diathermy machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozaimah Abdul Rahim; Roha Tukimin; Mohd Amirul Nizam; Ahmad Fadzli; Mohd Azizi

    2010-01-01

    Full-text: Diathermy machine is one of medical device that use widely in hospital and clinic. During the diathermy treatment, high radiofrequency (RF) currents (shortwave and microwave) are used to heat deep muscular tissues through electromagnetic energy to body tissues. The heat increases blood flow, relieve pain and speeding up recovery. The stray RF radiation from the machine can exposes to unintended tissue of the patient, to the operator (physical therapist) and also can cause electromagnetic interference (EMI) effect to medical devices around the machine. The main objective of this study is to establish a database of the RF radiation exposure levels experienced by the operator and patient during the treatments. RF radiation (electric and magnetic field) produced by the diathermy machines were measured using special RF survey meters. The finding of this study confirms that radiation levels on the surface and near the applicator of the diathermy machine much more elevated due to the much closer distance to the source and they exceeding the occupational and general public exposure limit. The results also shows the field strengths drop very significantly when the distance of measurement increase. (author)

  3. Phase calibration strategies for synchrotron RF signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreev, Aleksandr [TEMF, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany); Klingbeil, Harald [TEMF, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Lens, Dieter [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    For the FAIR facility that is currently under construction, the beam quality requirements impose several demands on the low-level RF (LLRF) systems. For example the phase error of the gap voltage of a specific RF cavity must be less than 1 . The RF reference signals for the FAIR synchrotron RF cavity systems are generated by direct digital synthesis modules (DDS) mounted in one crate called Group-DDS. In order to allow performing various multi-harmonic operations, each DDS unit operates at a certain mode defined by the harmonic number that can be changed during the operation. Since the DDS modules generate reference RF signals for different LLRF systems, the precise calibration of units to compensate the different phase response is of importance. The currently used calibration procedure is done with a fixed harmonic number for each module and uses the DDS module configured to the highest harmonic number as a reference. If the harmonic number of the DDS module is changed, one then has to repeat the calibration for the new values. Therefore, a new calibration method with respect to the absolute phases of DDS modules is under development and will be presented.

  4. Battery-Powered RF Pre-Ionization System for the Caltech Magnetohydrodynamically-Driven Jet Experiment: RF Discharge Properties and MHD-Driven Jet Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, Vernon H.

    This thesis describes investigations of two classes of laboratory plasmas with rather different properties: partially ionized low pressure radiofrequency (RF) discharges, and fully ionized high density magnetohydrodynamically (MHD)-driven jets. An RF pre-ionization system was developed to enable neutral gas breakdown at lower pressures and create hotter, faster jets in the Caltech MHD-Driven Jet Experiment. The RF plasma source used a custom pulsed 3 kW 13.56 MHz RF power amplifier that was powered by AA batteries, allowing it to safely float at 4-6 kV with the cathode of the jet experiment. The argon RF discharge equilibrium and transport properties were analyzed, and novel jet dynamics were observed. Although the RF plasma source was conceived as a wave-heated helicon source, scaling measurements and numerical modeling showed that inductive coupling was the dominant energy input mechanism. A one-dimensional time-dependent fluid model was developed to quantitatively explain the expansion of the pre-ionized plasma into the jet experiment chamber. The plasma transitioned from an ionizing phase with depressed neutral emission to a recombining phase with enhanced emission during the course of the experiment, causing fast camera images to be a poor indicator of the density distribution. Under certain conditions, the total visible and infrared brightness and the downstream ion density both increased after the RF power was turned off. The time-dependent emission patterns were used for an indirect measurement of the neutral gas pressure. The low-mass jets formed with the aid of the pre-ionization system were extremely narrow and collimated near the electrodes, with peak density exceeding that of jets created without pre-ionization. The initial neutral gas distribution prior to plasma breakdown was found to be critical in determining the ultimate jet structure. The visible radius of the dense central jet column was several times narrower than the axial current channel

  5. PULSE COLUMN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimmett, E.S.

    1964-01-01

    This patent covers a continuous countercurrent liquidsolids contactor column having a number of contactor states each comprising a perforated plate, a layer of balls, and a downcomer tube; a liquid-pulsing piston; and a solids discharger formed of a conical section at the bottom of the column, and a tubular extension on the lowest downcomer terminating in the conical section. Between the conical section and the downcomer extension is formed a small annular opening, through which solids fall coming through the perforated plate of the lowest contactor stage. This annular opening is small enough that the pressure drop thereacross is greater than the pressure drop upward through the lowest contactor stage. (AEC)

  6. Pulse radiolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenshields, H.; Seddon, W.A.

    1982-03-01

    This supplement to two bibliographies published in 1970 and 1972 lists 734 references to the literature of pulse radiolysis, arranged under eight broad subject headings. The references were compiled by searching Biological Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts, Nuclear Science Abstracts and the Weekly List of Papers in Radiation Chemistry issued by the Radiation Chemistry Data Center of Notre Dame University. Full bibliographic data is given for papers published in the period 1971 to 1974. A personal author index listing more than 600 authors and a similar number of co-authors is included

  7. Reliability impact of RF tube technology for the NPB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueck, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    Two reliability options, redundancy and operating margin, are examined to determine their effect on power system configurations using RF tube technology (klystron and klystrode) powered Neutral Particle Beam weapons. Redundance is addressed by providing an additional identical RF tube to the tubes required to power an accelerator RF element (DTL section, RFQ, or CCL). RF elements do not share RF power with other RF elements. Operating margin provides increased reliability by sizing the RF tubes such that tube operating levels may be increased compensate for the loss of a tube. It is shown that power system mass is affected by the choice of reliability measures, that higher power tubes coupled with higher power RF elements may mitigate mass increases, and that redundancy appears preferable to operating margin as a method of improving RF system reliability

  8. An updated overview of the LEB RF system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, J.D.; Ferrell, J.H.; Curbow, J.E.; Friedrichs, C.

    1992-01-01

    Each of the Low Energy Booster (LEB) rf systems consists of the following major subsystems: a vacuum tube final rf amplifier driven by a solid state rf amplifier, a ferrite-tuned rf cavity used to bunch and accelerate the beam, a low-level rf system including rf feedback systems, a computer-based supervisory control system, and associated power supplies. The LEB rf system is broadband with the exception of the rf cavity, which is electronically tuned from approximately 47.5 MHz to 59.7 MHz in 50 ms. The design and development status of the LEB rf system is presented, with particular emphasis on the cavity and tuner, and the tuner bias power supply

  9. Rf Station For Ion Beam Staking In Hirfl-csr

    CERN Document Server

    Arbuzov, V S; Bushuev, A A; Dranichnikov, A N; Gorniker, E I; Kendjebulatov, E K; Kondakov, A A; Kondaurov, M; Kruchkov, Ya G; Krutikhin, S A; Kurkin, G Ya; Mironenko, L A; Motygin, S V; Osipov, V N; Petrov, V M; Pilan, Andrey M; Popov, A M; Rashenko, V V; Selivanov, A N; Shteinke, A R; Vajenin, N F

    2004-01-01

    BINP has developed and produced the RF station for Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Lanzhou, China, for multipurpose accelerator complex with electron cooling. The RF station will be used for accumulation of ion beams in the main ring of the system. It was successfully tested in IMP and installed into the main accelerator ring of the complex. The RF station includes accelerating RF cavity and RF power generator with power supplies. The station works within frequency range 6.0 - 14.0 MHz, maximum voltage across the accelerating gap of the RF cavity - 20 kV. In the RF cavity the 200 VNP ferrite is utilized. A residual gas pressure in vacuum chamber does not exceed 2,5E-11 mbar. Maximum output power of the RF generator 25 kW. The data acquisition and control of the RF station is based on COMPACT - PCI bus and provides all functions of monitoring and control.

  10. New Control Structure of the 200 MHz RF System in the CERN PS

    CERN Document Server

    Damerau, H; CERN. Geneva. AB Department

    2008-01-01

    The 200 MHz RF system is an essential tool for the preparation of high-intensity beams in the CERN PS. Presently, six RF cavities are operated to control the longitudinal bunch emittance and rebunching of the beam before the transfer to the SPS. Cavities are selected for the various processes with a dedicated hardware matrix, switching the individual timing pulses and voltage programs per cavity. However, the electronics used for the matrix hardware is obsolete and its reliability cannot be guaranteed due to a lack of spare modules and components. Instead of replacing the old hardware matrix by modern hardware, this note describes a new control structure for the 200MHz RF system so that no dedicated hardware will be required anymore. The implementation of the new control structure is based on two main concepts. Firstly, linked timing trees per blow-up or rebunching are used to handle all related timing and to store one row of the matrix. Secondly, as a reflection of the RF signal generation for the 200 MHz sy...

  11. Gyrokinetic Calculations of Microinstabilities and Transport During RF H-Modes on Alcator C-Mod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redi, M.H.; Fiore, C.; Bonoli, P.; Bourdelle, C.; Budny, R.; Dorland, W.D.; Ernst, D.; Hammett, G.; Mikkelsen, D.; Rice, J.; Wukitch, S.

    2002-01-01

    Physics understanding for the experimental improvement of particle and energy confinement is being advanced through massively parallel calculations of microturbulence for simulated plasma conditions. The ultimate goal, an experimentally validated, global, non-local, fully nonlinear calculation of plasma microturbulence is still not within reach, but extraordinary progress has been achieved in understanding microturbulence, driving forces and the plasma response in recent years. In this paper we discuss gyrokinetic simulations of plasma turbulence being carried out to examine a reproducible, H-mode, RF heated experiment on the Alcator CMOD tokamak3, which exhibits an internal transport barrier (ITB). This off axis RF case represents the early phase of a very interesting dual frequency RF experiment, which shows density control with central RF heating later in the discharge. The ITB exhibits steep, spontaneous density peaking: a reduction in particle transport occurring without a central particle source. Since the central temperature is maintained while the central density is increasing, this also suggests a thermal transport barrier exists. TRANSP analysis shows that ceff drops inside the ITB. Sawtooth heat pulse analysis also shows a localized thermal transport barrier. For this ICRF EDA H-mode, the minority resonance is at r/a * 0.5 on the high field side. There is a normal shear profile, with q monotonic

  12. Design study on an independently-tunable-cells thermionic RF gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hama, H.; Tanaka, T.; Hinode, F.; Kawai, M.

    2006-01-01

    Characteristics of a thermionic RF gun have been studied by a 3-D simulation code developed using an FDTD (Finite Difference Time Domain) method as a Maxwell's equations solver. The gun is consists of two independent power feeding cavities, so that we call it independently-tunable-cells (ITC)'-RF gun. The first cell is the cathode cell and the second one is an accelerating cell. The ITC gun can be operated at various modes of different RF-power ratio and phase between two cavities. Simulation study shows a velocity-bunching like effect may be occurred in the gun, so that the short pulse beam from the thermionic RF gun is a better candidate to produce the coherent THz synchrotron radiation. Expected bunch length with a total charge of ∼20 pC (1% energy width from the top energy) is around 200 fs (fwhm). Even the beam energy extracted from the gun is varied by which the input powers are changed, almost same shape of the longitudinal phase space can be produced by tuning the phase. (author)

  13. High power test of RF window and coaxial line in vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, D.; Champion, M.; Gormley, M.; Kerns, Q.; Koepke, K.; Moretti, A.

    1993-01-01

    Primary rf input couplers for the superconducting accelerating cavities of the TESLA electron linear accelerator test to be performed at DESY, Hamburg, Germany are under development at both DESY and Fermilab. The input couplers consist of a WR650 waveguide to coaxial line transition with an integral ceramic window, a coaxial connection to the superconducting accelerating cavity with a second ceramic window located at the liquid nitrogen heat intercept location, and bellows on both sides of the cold window to allow for cavity motion during cooldown, coupling adjustments and easier assembly. To permit in situ high peak power processing of the TESLA superconducting accelerating cavities, the input couplers are designed to transmit nominally 1 ms long, 2 MW peak, 1.3 GHz rf pulses from the WR650 waveguide at room temperature to the cavities at 1.8 K. The coaxial part of the Fermilab TESLA input coupler design has been tested up to 1.7 MW using the prototype 805 MHz rf source located at the A0 service building of the Tevatron. The rf source, the testing system and the test results are described

  14. Microwave source development for 9 MeV RF electron LINAC for cargo scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, V.; Chandan, Shiv; Tillu, A.R.; Bhattacharjee, D.; Chavan, R.B.; Dixit, K.P.; Mittal, K.C.; Gantayet, L.M.

    2011-01-01

    For cargo scanning, high energy X-rays are required. These X-rays can be generated from accelerated electrons. A 9 MeV Cargo scanning RF LINAC has been developed at ECIL, Hyderabad. The Microwave power source required for RF Linac is a klystron-based system generating 5.5 MW peak, 10 kW average, at 2.856 GHz. Various components required for microwave source were identified, procured, tested and integrated into the source. Microwave source was tested on water load, then it was connected to LINAC and RF conditioning and e-beam trials were successfully done. For operating the microwave source, a PC based remote handling system was also designed and developed for operating various power supplies and instruments of the microwave source, including the Klystron modulator, Signal generator and other devices. The accelerator operates in pulse mode, requiring synchronous operation of the Klystron modulator, RF driver amplifier and E-gun modulator. For this purpose, a synchronous trigger generator was designed and developed. This paper describes the development and testing of microwave source and its remote operating system. The results of beam trials are also discussed in this paper. (author)

  15. New high power 200 MHz RF system for the LANSCE drift tube linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyles, J.; Friedrichs, C.; Lynch, M.

    1998-01-01

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) linac provides an 800 MeV direct H + proton beam, and injects H - to the upgraded proton storage ring for charge accumulation for the Short Pulse Spallation Source. Accelerating these interlaced beams requires high average power from the 201.25 MHz drift tube linac (DTL) RF system. Three power amplifiers have operated at up to three Megawatts with 12% duty factor. The total number of electron power tubes in the RF amplifiers and their modulators has been reduced from fifty-two to twenty-four. The plant continues to utilize the original design of a tetrode driving a super power triode. Further increases in the linac duty factor are limited, in part, by the maximum dissipation ratings of the triodes. A description of the system modifications proposed to overcome these limitations includes new power amplifiers using low-level RF modulation for tank field control. The first high power Diacrode reg-sign is being delivered and a new amplifier cavity is being designed. With only eight power tubes, the new system will deliver both peak power and high duty factor, with lower mains power and cooling requirements. The remaining components needed for the new RF system will be discussed

  16. New Control Structure of the 10 MHz RF System in the CERN PS

    CERN Document Server

    Damerau, H

    2013-01-01

    The 10MHz cavities comprise the main RF system in the CERN PS and the only one that allows acceleration. In total 11 tunable cavities (10 operational and a hot spare, grouped into 3+1 tuning groups and up to presently 6 voltage program groups) are distributed all around the circumference of the PS ring. Next to the RF drive signal each of the cavities is controlled by a voltage program and timing pulses to open and close the relays to short-circuit the cavity gaps. These control signals are presently generated by a dedicated hardware matrix. It translates voltage functions and relay timing pulses per cavity group into functions and timings per cavity. However, due to its central position in the RF beam control system, the dedicated hardware matrix can cause significant downtime in case of a major hardware failure. Instead of upgrading the existing obsolete hardware, this note suggests a replacement by standard controls hardware and dedicated application software. Thanks to advanced software concepts like “M...

  17. Status of the IPP RF Negative Ion Source Development for the ITER NBI System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter Franzen, P.; Falter, H.-D.; Fantz, U.

    2006-01-01

    For heating and current drive the ITER neutral beam system requires negative hydrogen ion sources capable of delivering above 40 A of D - ions from a 1.5 x 0.6 m 2 source for up to one hour pulses with an accelerated current density of 200 A/m 2 . In order to reduce the losses by electron stripping in the acceleration system and the power loading of the grids, the source pressure is required to be 0.3 Pa at an electron/ion ratio 2 H - / 230 A/m 2 D - ) in excess of the ITER requirements have been already achieved on the small test facility '' BATMAN '' (Bavarian Test Machine for Negative Ions) at the required source pressure (0.3 Pa) and electron/ion ratio ( 2 ) and limited pulse length ( 2 and the pulse length up to 3600 s, using the same source as it is used at BATMAN. In order to demonstrate the required homogeneity of a large RF plasma source as well as the operation of an ITER relevant RF circuit, a so called '' half-size source '' - with roughly the width and half the height of the ITER source - was designed and went into operation on a dedicated plasma source test bed ('' RADI ''). An extensive diagnostic and modelling programme is accompanying those activities. The paper will present as an overview a summary of the latest results of the RF source development, with an emphasis on the first results of the operation of the half size ITER source and on the status of the long pulse operation. The details will be presented in several other papers. (author)

  18. Pulse pile-up. I: Short pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, D.H.

    1990-07-01

    The search for rare large pulses against an intense background of smaller ones involves consideration of pulse pile-up. Approximate methods are presented, based on ruin theory, by which the probability of such pile-up may be estimated for pulses of arbitrary form and of arbitrary pulse-height distribution. These methods are checked against cases for which exact solutions are available. The present paper is concerned chiefly with short pulses of finite total duration. (Author) (5 refs., 24 figs.)

  19. High RF Power Production for CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Syratchev, I; Adli, E; Taborelli, M

    2007-01-01

    The CLIC Power Extraction and Transfer Structure (PETS) is a passive microwave device in which bunches of the drive beam interact with the impedance of the periodically loaded waveguide and excite preferentially the synchronous mode. The RF power produced (several hundred MW) is collected at the downstream end of the structure by means of the Power Extractor and delivered to the main linac structure. The PETS geometry is a result of multiple compromises between beam stability and main linac RF power needs. Another requirement is to provide local RF power termination in case of accelerating structure failure (ON/OFF capability). Surface electric and magnetic fields, power extraction method, HOM damping, ON/OFF capability and fabrication technology were all evaluated to provide a reliable design

  20. Prospects for advanced RF theory and modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batchelor, D. B.

    1999-01-01

    This paper represents an attempt to express in print the contents of a rather philosophical review talk. The charge for the talk was not to summarize the present status of the field and what we can do, but to assess what we will need to do in the future and where the gaps are in fulfilling these needs. The objective was to be complete, covering all aspects of theory and modeling in all frequency regimes, although in the end the talk mainly focussed on the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF). In choosing which areas to develop, it is important to keep in mind who the customers for RF modeling are likely to be and what sorts of tasks they will need for RF to do. This occupies the first part of the paper. Then we examine each of the elements of a complete RF theory and try to identify the kinds of advances needed. (c) 1999 American Institute of Physics

  1. X-Band RF Gun Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlieks, A.E.

    2012-01-01

    In support of the MEGa-ray program at LLNL and the High Gradient research program at SLAC, a new X-band multi-cell RF gun is being developed. This gun, similar to earlier guns developed at SLAC for Compton X-ray source program, will be a standing wave structure made of 5.5 cells operating in the pi mode with copper cathode. This gun was designed following criteria used to build SLAC X-band high gradient accelerating structures. It is anticipated that this gun will operate with surface electric fields on the cathode of 200 MeV/m with low breakdown rate. RF will be coupled into the structure through a final cell with symmetric duel feeds and with a shape optimized to minimize quadrupole field components. In addition, geometry changes to the original gun, operated with Compton X-ray source, will include a wider RF mode separation, reduced surface electric and magnetic fields.

  2. Computational Tools for RF Structure Design

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, E

    2004-01-01

    The Finite Differences Method and the Finite Element Method are the two principally employed numerical methods in modern RF field simulation programs. The basic ideas behind these methods are explained, with regard to available simulation programs. We then go through a list of characteristic parameters of RF structures, explaining how they can be calculated using these tools. With the help of these parameters, we introduce the frequency-domain and the time-domain calculations, leading to impedances and wake-fields, respectively. Subsequently, we present some readily available computer programs, which are in use for RF structure design, stressing their distinctive features and limitations. One final example benchmarks the precision of different codes for calculating the eigenfrequency and Q of a simple cavity resonator.

  3. RF MEMS theory, design, and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Rebeiz, Gabriel M

    2003-01-01

    Ultrasmall Radio Frequency and Micro-wave Microelectromechanical systems (RF MEMs), such as switches, varactors, and phase shifters, exhibit nearly zero power consumption or loss. For this reason, they are being developed intensively by corporations worldwide for use in telecommunications equipment. This book acquaints readers with the basics of RF MEMs and describes how to design practical circuits and devices with them. The author, an acknowledged expert in the field, presents a range of real-world applications and shares many valuable tricks of the trade.

  4. Single-particle dynamics - RF acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montague, B.W.

    1977-01-01

    In this paper the rf acceleration of both synchronous and non-synchronous particles is discussed and a simple linearized equation of small amplitude synchrotron oscillations is derived. Phase stability, the hamiltonian for synchrotron oscillations, oscillation amplitudes and adiabatic damping are then briefly discussed. The final sections of the paper contain a description of the basic principles of rf beam stacking in the longitudinal phase space of intersecting Storage Rings and a description of phase displacement acceleration which inspite of certain disadvantages, remains an attractive technique for proton storage rings. (B.D.)

  5. The RF spectrum: managing community health concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maclean, I.

    2001-01-01

    In this presentation I would like to share with you the way in which the Australian Communications Authority (ACA) goes about 'managing' community issues relating to the RF spectrum. In particular, I would like to refer to community issues associated with concerns about health. I will refer only briefly to the siting of mobile phone base stations as that will be covered elsewhere. Before getting into the community issues, I would like to provide some context about the ACA and the arrangements it has for regulating radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF EMR). Copyright (2001) Australasian Radiation Protection Society Inc

  6. Designing focusing solenoids for superconducting RF accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, G.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Page, T.; Terechkine, I.; Tompkins, J.; Wokas, T.; /Fermilab

    2006-08-01

    The design of a focusing solenoid for use in a superconducting RF linac requires resolving a range of problems with conflicting requirements. Providing the required focusing strength contradicts the goal of minimizing the stray field on the surfaces of adjacent superconducting RF cavities. The requirement of a compact solenoid, able to fit into a gap between cavities, contradicts the need of mechanical support necessary to restrain electromagnetic forces that can result in coil motion and subsequent quenching. In this report we will attempt to address these and other issues arising during the development of focusing solenoids. Some relevant test data will also be presented.

  7. Performance of the Brookhaven photocathode rf gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batchelor, K.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Fernow, R.C.; Fischer, J.; Fisher, A.S.; Gallardo, J.; Ingold, G.; Kirk, H.G.; Leung, K.P.; Malone, R.; Pogorelsky, I.; Srinivasan-Rao, T.; Rogers, J.; Tsang, T.; Sheehan, J.; Ulc, S.; Woodle, M.; Xie, J.; Zhang, R.S.; Lin, L.Y.; McDonald, K.T.; Russell, D.P.; Hung, C.M.; Wang, X.J.

    1991-01-01

    The Brookhaven Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) uses a photocathode rf gun to provide a high-brightness electron beam intended for FEL and laser-acceleration experiments. The rf gun consists of 1 1/2 cells driven at 2856 MHz in π-mode with a maximum cathode field of 100 MV/m. To achieve long lifetimes, the photocathode development concentrates on robust metals such as copper, yttrium and samarium. We illuminate these cathodes with a 10-ps, frequency-quadrupled Nd:YAG laser. We describe the initial operation of the gun, including measurements of transverse and longitudinal emittance, quantum efficiencies, and peak current. The results are compared to models

  8. Operation of the APS rf gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewellen, J. W.

    1998-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) has a thermionic-cathode rf gun system capable of providing beam to the APS linac. The gun system consists of a 1.6-cell thermionic-cathode rf gun, a fast kicker for beam current control, and an alpha magnet for bunch compression and injection into the APS linac line. This system is intended for use both as an injector for positron creation, and as a first beam source for the Low-Energy Undulator Test Line (LEUTL) project [1]. The first measured performance characteristics of the gun are presented.

  9. SSRL photocathode RF gun test stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, M.; Baltay, M.; Boyce, A.

    1995-01-01

    A photocathode RF gun test stand designed for the production and study of high brightness electron beams will be constructed at SSRL. The beam will be generated from a laser driven third generation photocathode RF gun being developed in collaboration with BNL, LBL, and UCLA. The 3-5 [MeV] beam from the gun will be accelerated using a SLAC three meter S-band accelerator section, in order to achieve the desired low emittance beam, emittance compensation with solenoidal focusing will be employed

  10. Understanding the Double Quantum Muonium RF Resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreitzman, S. R.; Cottrell, S. P.; Fleming, D. G.; Sun-Mack, S.

    A physically intuitive analytical solution to the Mu + RF Hamiltonian and lineshape is developed. The method is based on reformulating the problem in a basis set that explicitly accounts for the 1q RF transitions and identifying an isolated upper 1q quasi-eigenstate within that basis. Subsequently the double quantum resonance explicitly manifests itself via the non-zero interaction term between the pair of lower ortho-normalized 1q basis states, which in this field region are substantially the | \\uparrow \\uparrow > and | \\downarrow \\downarrow > Mu states.

  11. RF torch discharge combined with conventional burner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janca, J.; Tesar, C.

    1996-01-01

    The design of the combined flame-rf-plasma reactor and experimental examination of this reactor are presented. For the determination of the temperature in different parts of the combined burner plasma the methods of emission spectroscopy were used. The temperatures measured in the conventional burner reach the maximum temperature 1900 K but in the burner with the superimposed rf discharge the neutral gas temperature substantially increased up to 2600 K but also the plasma volume increases substantially. Consequently, the resident time of reactants in the reaction zone increases

  12. Control electronics of the PEP RF system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellegrin, J.L.; Schwarz, H.

    1981-01-01

    The operation of the major components used for controlling the phase and field level of the PEP RF cavities is described. The control electronics of one RF station is composed of several control loops: each cavity has a tuners' servo loop which maintains the frequency constant and also keeps the fields of each cavity balanced; the total gap voltage developed by a pair of cavities is regulated by a gap voltage controller; finally, the phase variation along the amplification chain, the klystron and the cavities are compensated by a phase lock loop. The design criteria of each loop are set forth and the circuit implementation and test results are presented

  13. RF control system of the HIMAC synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanazawa, M.; Sato, K.; Itano, A.

    1992-01-01

    An RF control system of the HIMAC synchrotron has been constructed. In this control system we have adopted a digital feed back system with a digital synthesizer (DS). Combining a high power system, performance of the control system have been tested in a factory (Toshiba) with a simulator circuit of the synchrotron oscillation. Following this test, We had beam acceleration test with this control system at TARN-II in INS (Institute for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo). This paper describes the RF control system and its tested results. (author)

  14. Fundamentals of RF and microwave transistor amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Bahl, Inder J

    2009-01-01

    A Comprehensive and Up-to-Date Treatment of RF and Microwave Transistor Amplifiers This book provides state-of-the-art coverage of RF and microwave transistor amplifiers, including low-noise, narrowband, broadband, linear, high-power, high-efficiency, and high-voltage. Topics covered include modeling, analysis, design, packaging, and thermal and fabrication considerations. Through a unique integration of theory and practice, readers will learn to solve amplifier-related design problems ranging from matching networks to biasing and stability. More than 240 problems are included to help read

  15. Cryogenic system for TRISTAN superconducting RF cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosoyama, K.; Hara, K.; Kabe, A.; Kojima, Yuuji; Ogitsu, T.; Sakamoto, Y.; Kawamura, S.; Ishimaru, Y.

    1990-01-01

    A cryogenic system consisting of a helium refrigerator (4 kW at 4.4 K) and a liquid helium distribution transfer system for TRISTAN 508 MHz 32 x 5-cell superconducting RF cavities was designed and constructed. After the performance test of the cryogenic system, 16 x 5-cell superconducting RF cavities in 8 cryostats were installed in underground TRISTAN electron-positron collider and connected to the helium refrigerator on the ground level through the transfer line (total length about 330 m) and cooled by liquid helium pool boiling in parallel. The cryogenic system and its operation experience are described. (author)

  16. Lumped elements for RF and microwave circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Bahl, Inder

    2003-01-01

    Due to the unprecedented growth in wireless applications over the past decade, development of low-cost solutions for RF and microwave communication systems has become of great importance. This practical new book is the first comprehensive treatment of lumped elements, which are playing a critical role in the development of the circuits that make these cost-effective systems possible. The books offers you an in-depth understanding of the different types of RF and microwave circuit elements, including inductors, capacitors, resistors, transformers, via holes, airbridges, and crossovers. Support

  17. RF and microwave diagnostics of plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, J.

    1976-01-01

    A brief review of RF and microwave investigations carried out at laboratory plasma is presented. Both the immersive and non-immersive RF probes of various types are discussed, the major emphasis being laid on the work carried out in extending the scope of the immersive impedance probe and non-immersive coil probe. The standard microwave methods for plasma diagnosis are mentioned. The role of relatively new diagnostic tool, viz., a dielectric-rod waveguide, is described, and the technique of measuring the admittance of such a waveguide (or an antenna) enveloped in plasma is discussed. (K.B.)

  18. Emittance investigation of RF photo-injector

    CERN Document Server

    Yang Mao Rong; Li Zheng; Li Ming; Xu Zhou

    2002-01-01

    A high-power laser beam illuminates a photocathode surface placed on an end wall of an RF cavity. The emitted electrons are accelerated immediately to a relativistic energy by the strong RF find in the cavity. But space charge effect induces beam emittance growth especially near the cathode where the electrons are still nonrelativistic. The author analyzes the factors which lead the transverse emittance growth and method how to resolve this problem. After introducing solenoidal focusing near the photocathode, the beam emittance growth is suppressed dramatically. The beam emittance is given also after compensation and simulation results. The measurements show these results are coincident

  19. RF and dc desensitized electroexplosive device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krainiak, John W.; Speaks, Paul D.; Cornett, Michael S.

    1989-07-01

    This patent application relates to electroexplosive devices (EEDs) such as detonators, blasting caps and squibs, in particular to a method and device for desensitizing EEDs to electromagnetic radiation and electrostatic charges with the added ability to desensitize the device to essentially dc currents. An insensitive electroexplosive device to electrically ignite explosive is disclosed. This device is inherently immune to radio frequency (RF) radiation, and also provides protection against dc or very low frequency RF induced by arcing. A central feature is use of zeners and capacitors to form a reactively balanced bridge circuit. When constructed in semiconductor form, as described in this application, the device is capable of incorporation in small caliber ordnance.

  20. The RF Design of an HOM Polarized RF Gun for the ILC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.W.; Clendenin, J.E.; Colby, E.R.; Miller, R.A.; Lewellen, J.W.

    2006-01-01

    The ILC requires a polarized electron beam. While a highly polarized beam can be produced by a GaAs-type cathode in a DC gun of the type currently in use at SLAC, JLAB and elsewhere, the ILC injector system can be simplified and made more efficient if a GaAs-type cathode can be combined with a low emittance RF gun. Since this type of cathode is known to be extremely sensitive to vacuum contamination including back bombardment by electrons and ions, any successful polarized RF gun must have a significantly improved operating vacuum compared to existing RF guns. We present a new RF design for an L-Band normal conducting (NC) RF gun for the ILC polarized electron source. This design incorporates a higher order mode (HOM) structure, whose chief virtue in this application is an improved conductance for vacuum pumping on the cathode. Computer simulation models have been used to optimize the RF parameters with two principal goals: first to minimize the required RF power; second to reduce the peak surface field relative to the field at the cathode in order to suppress field emitted electron bombardment. The beam properties have been simulated initially using PARMELA. Vacuum and other practical issues for implementing this design are discussed

  1. Estimation of in-vivo pulses in medical ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    1994-01-01

    and the three-dimensional, attenuated ultrasound field for a concave transducer. Pulses are estimated from in-vivo liver data showing good resemblance to a pulse measured as the response from a planar reflector and then properly attenuated. The main application for the algorithm is to function......An algorithm for the estimation of one-dimensional in-vivo ultrasound pulses is derived. The routine estimates a set of ARMA parameters describing the pulse and uses data from a number of adjacent rf lines. Using multiple lines results in a decrease in variance on the estimated parameters...... and significantly reduces the risk of terminating the algorithm at a local minimum. Examples from use on synthetic data confirms the reduction in variance and increased chance of successful minimization termination. Simulations are also reported indicating the relation between the one-dimensional pulse...

  2. A 70 MHz pulsing beam system for protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Shizhong; Zhang Tianjue; Wu Longcheng; Lv Yinlong; Song Guofang; Guan Fengping; Jia Xianlu

    2008-01-01

    A test beam line for pulsed beam generation for 10 MeV central region model (CRM) of a compact cyclotron is under construction as China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE). A 70 MHz continuous H - beam with the energy of dozens of keV or a hundred keV will be pulsed to pulse length of less than 10 ns with the repetition rate of 1-8 MHz. A 70.487 MHz buncher will be used to compress the DC beam into the RF phase acceptance of ±30° of the CRM cyclotron. The 2.2 MHz sine waveform will be used for the chopper. A pulse with the repetition rate to 4.4 MHz and pulse length less than 10 ns is expected after CRM cyclotron. (authors)

  3. Design of universal parallel-transmit refocusing kT -point pulses and application to 3D T2 -weighted imaging at 7T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gras, Vincent; Mauconduit, Franck; Vignaud, Alexandre; Amadon, Alexis; Le Bihan, Denis; Stöcker, Tony; Boulant, Nicolas

    2018-07-01

    T 2 -weighted sequences are particularly sensitive to the radiofrequency (RF) field inhomogeneity problem at ultra-high-field because of the errors accumulated by the imperfections of the train of refocusing pulses. As parallel transmission (pTx) has proved particularly useful to counteract RF heterogeneities, universal pulses were recently demonstrated to save precious time and computational efforts by skipping B 1 calibration and online RF pulse tailoring. Here, we report a universal RF pulse design for non-selective refocusing pulses to mitigate the RF inhomogeneity problem at 7T in turbo spin-echo sequences with variable flip angles. Average Hamiltonian theory was used to synthetize a single non-selective refocusing pulse with pTx while optimizing its scaling properties in the presence of static field offsets. The design was performed under explicit power and specific absorption rate constraints on a database of 10 subjects using a 8Tx-32Rx commercial coil at 7T. To validate the proposed design, the RF pulses were tested in simulation and applied in vivo on 5 additional test subjects. The root-mean-square rotation angle error (RA-NRMSE) evaluation and experimental data demonstrated great improvement with the proposed universal pulses (RA-NRMSE ∼8%) compared to the standard circularly polarized mode of excitation (RA-NRMSE ∼26%). This work further completes the spectrum of 3D universal pulses to mitigate RF field inhomogeneity throughout all 3D MRI sequences without any pTx calibration. The approach returns a single pulse that can be scaled to match the desired flip angle train, thereby increasing the modularity of the proposed plug and play approach. Magn Reson Med 80:53-65, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  4. A method to reduce the suppression of relevant pulses in pulse weight discriminators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, P.

    1975-01-01

    The pulse height analyzer is used, for instance, with proportional counters. Pulses are broken down into amplitude ranges in accordance with their maximum amplitudes. In pulse height analyzers with real time analog-digital conversion only one deadtime is needed for the respective range selected. For this purpose, all discriminator thresholds of the amplitude stores connected parallel are actuated as an input pulse arrives. The leading edges of the discriminator signals set the amplitude range flip-flop. Only the flip-flop circuit of the maximum amplitude range reached remains set whilst all the others are erased. The trailing edge of the discriminator signals actuates the evaluation of the information stored by the flip-flop circuit selected. It triggers a pulse extender and resets the flip-flop selected. Therefore, only the amplitude range selected needs a deadtime. The pulse extender in addition reduces the processing time of the analyzer by the output pulse length. The characteristic used for the trailing edge is the backward count of the real time analog-digital converter. (DG/RF) [de

  5. A low-frequency high-voltage rf-barrier-bunching system for high-intensity neutron source compressor rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardek, T.W.; Ziomek, C.; Rees, D.

    1995-01-01

    A Los Alamos design for a 1-MW pulsed neutron source incorporates a ring utilizing an rf-barrier bunching system. This bunching concept allows uniform longitudinal beam distributions with low momentum spread. Bunching cavities are operated at the revolution frequency (1.5 MHz in this case) and each of the 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th revolution frequency harmonics. Their effects combine to maintain a beam free gap in the longitudinal distribution of the accumulated beam. The cavities are driven by low-plate-resistance common-cathode configured retrode amplifiers incorporating local rf feedback. Additional adaptive feed-forward hardware is included to reduce the beam-induced bunching-gap voltages well below that achievable solely with rf feedback. Details of this system are presented along with a discussion of the various feed-back and feed-forward techniques incorporated

  6. Effect of power modulation on properties of pulsed capacitively coupled radiofrequency discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samara, V; Bowden, M D; Braithwaite, N St J

    2010-01-01

    We describe measurements of plasma properties of pulsed, low pressure, capacitively coupled discharges operated in argon. The study aims to determine the effect of modulating the radiofrequency power during the discharge part of the pulse cycle. Measurements of local electron density and optical emission were made in capacitively coupled rf discharges generated in a Gaseous Electronics Conference (GEC) reference reactor. Gas pressure was in the range 7-70 Pa, rf power in the range 1-100 W and pulse durations in the range 10 μs-100 ms. The results indicate that the ignition and afterglow decay processes in pulsed discharges can be controlled by modulating the shape of applied radiofrequency pulse.

  7. Measurement of RF characteristics of magnetic alloys for an RF cavity of the accumulator cooler ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, M.; Chiba, Y.; Katayama, T.; Koseki, T.; Ohtomo, K.; Tsutsui, H.

    2004-01-01

    The magnetic alloy (MA)-loaded RF cavity has been studied for an RF stacking system of the accumulator cooler ring (ACR). RF characteristics of several high-permeability MA cores were measured in the frequency range between 1 and 50 MHz. The effects of the cut-core configuration, cutting the core and leaving air gaps between two circular halves, were also investigated. The results show that the shunt impedance remains high and the appropriate inductance and Q-value can be obtained by increasing the gap width of the cut core in the frequency region of the ACR cavity

  8. Simulations of S-band RF gun with RF beam control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnyakov, A. M.; Levichev, A. E.; Maltseva, M. V.; Nikiforov, D. A.

    2017-08-01

    The RF gun with RF control is discussed. It is based on the RF triode and two kinds of the cavities. The first cavity is a coaxial cavity with cathode-grid assembly where beam bunches are formed, the second one is an accelerating cavity. The features of such a gun are the following: bunched and relativistic beams in the output of the injector, absence of the back bombarding electrons, low energy spread and short length of the bunches. The scheme of the injector is shown. The electromagnetic field simulation and longitudinal beam dynamics are presented. The possible using of the injector is discussed.

  9. Digital Low-Level RF Controls for Future Superconducting Linear Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Simrock, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    The requirements for RF Control Systems of Superconducting Linear Colliders are not only defined in terms of the quality of field control but also with respect to operability, availability, and maintainability of the RF System, and the interfaces to other subsystems. The field control of the vector-sum of many cavities driven by one klystron in pulsed mode at high gradients is a challenging task since severe Lorentz force detuning, microphonics and beam induced field errors must be suppressed by several orders of magnitude. This is accomplished by a combination of local and global feedback and feedforward control. Sensors monitor individual cavity probe signals, and forward and reflected wave as well as the beam properties including beam energy and phase while actuators control the incident wave of the klystron and individual cavity resonance frequencies. The operability of a large llrf system requires a high degree of automation while the high availability requires robust algorithms, redundancy, and extremel...

  10. High voltage power supplies for ITER RF heating and current drive systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gassmann, T.; Arambhadiya, B.; Beaumont, B.; Baruah, U.K.; Bonicelli, T.; Darbos, C.; Purohit, D.; Decamps, H.; Albajar, F.; Gandini, F.; Henderson, M.; Kazarian, F.; Lamalle, P.U.; Omori, T.; Parmar, D.; Patel, A.; Rathi, D.; Singh, N.P.

    2011-01-01

    The RF heating and current drive (H and CD) systems to be installed for the ITER fusion machine are the electron cyclotron (EC), ion cyclotron (IC) and, although not in the first phase of the project, lower hybrid (LH). These systems require high voltage, high current power supplies (HVPS) in CW operation. These HVPS should deliver around 50 MW electrical power to each of the RF H and CD systems with stringent requirements in terms of accuracy, voltage ripple, response time, turn off time and fault energy. The PSM (Pulse Step Modulation) technology has demonstrated over the past 20 years its ability to fulfill these requirements in many industrial facilities and other fusion reactors and has therefore been chosen as reference design for the IC and EC HVPS systems. This paper describes the technical specifications, including interfaces, the resulting constraints on the design, the conceptual design proposed for ITER EC and IC HVPS systems and the current status.

  11. A high-gradient high-duty-factor Rf photo-cathode electron gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimmer, Robert A.; Hartman, Neal; Lidia, Steven M.; Wang, Shaoheng

    2002-01-01

    We describe the analysis and preliminary design of a high-gradient, high-duty factor RF photocathode gun. The gun is designed to operate at high repetition rate or CW, with high gradient on the cathode surface to minimize emittance growth due to space charge forces at high bunch charge. The gun may also be operated in a solenoidal magnetic field for emittance compensation. The design is intended for use in short-pulse, high-charge, and high-repetition rate applications such as linac based X-ray sources. We present and compare the results of gun simulations using different codes, as well as RF and thermal analysis of the structure

  12. A high-gradient high-duty-factor RF photo-cathode electron gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimmer, Robert; Hartman, N.; Lidia, S.; Wang, S.H.

    2002-01-01

    We describe the analysis and preliminary design of a high-gradient, high-duty factor RF photocathode gun. The gun is designed to operate at high repetition rate or CW, with high gradient on the cathode surface to minimize emittance growth due to space charge forces at high bunch charge. The gun may also be operated in a solenoidal magnetic field for emittance compensation. The design is intended for use in short-pulse, high-charge, and high-repetition rate applications such as linac based X-ray sources. We present and compare the results of gun simulations using different codes, as well as RF and thermal analysis of the structure

  13. Status and plans for the development of a RF negative ion source for ITER NBI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzen, P.; Falter, H.D.; Speth, E.; Kraus, W.; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Encheva, A.; Fantz, U.; Franke, Th.; Heinemann, B.; Holtum, D.; Martens, C.; McNeely, P.; Riedl, R.; Tanga, A.; Wilhelm, R.

    2005-01-01

    IPP Garching is currently developing a RF driven negative ion source for the ITER neutral beam injection system as an alternative to the present design with filamented sources. This paper reports an overview on the present status and the further prospects of the RF source development. Current densities of 26 mA/cm 2 and 15 mA/cm 2 have been achieved for hydrogen and deuterium, respectively, at a pressure of less than 0.5 Pa and an electron/ion ratio of 1. Size scaling experiments indicate a maximum extraction area which can be illuminated by a driver without losses of beam quality and uniformity. The preparation of a test facility for pulse lengths of up to 3600 s is proceeding; commissioning is expected end of 2004. As an intermediate step tests of a large source with the half size of the ITER source are foreseen to be commissioned in 2005

  14. Theory and experiments on RF plasma heating, current drive and profile control in TORE SUPRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreau, D.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reviews the main experimental and theoretical achievements related to the study of RF heating and non-inductive current drive and particularly phenomena related to the current density profile control and the potentiality of producing stationary enhanced performance regimes: description of the Lower Hybrid (LH) and Ion Cyclotron Resonant Frequency (ICRF) systems; long pulse coupling performance of the RF systems; observation of the transition to the so-called ''stationary LHEP regime'' in which the (flat) central current density and (peaked) electron temperature profiles are fully decoupled; experiments on ICRF sawtooth stabilization with the combined effect of LHCD modifying the current density profile; diffusion of fast electrons generated by LH waves; ramp-up experiments in which the LH power provided a significant part of the resistive poloidal flux and flux consumption scaling; theory of spectral wave diffusion and multipass absorption; fast wave current drive modelling with the Alcyon full wave code; a reflector LH antenna concept. 18 figs., 48 refs

  15. Density measurements in the boundary layer of the ASDEX RF heated plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Shaer, M.

    1986-11-01

    The boundary layer in the main chamber of ASDEX is diagnosed using a movable 2.2 mm microwave interferometer. The measured radial density profile decreases exponentially outside of the separatrix with three different e-folding lengths, the middle part of the profile is flatter with a larger e-folding length. The boundary density increases proportionally to the increase of the main plasmy density near the separatrix, far from the separatrix this increase is weaker. The boundary density increases with the increase of the main magnetic field in the discharge. With the application of the RF heating at the lower hybrid frequency the boundary density is submitted to a large modification. The behavior of this modification in the density profile depends on the rate of injection of the cold feeding gas. In the discharge with a constant or decreasing gas feeding rate the density profile flattens, and with an increasing rate it steepens when the RF pulse is applied. (orig.)

  16. RF-Breakdown kicks at the CTF3 two-beam test stand

    CERN Document Server

    Palaia, Andrea; Muranaka, Tomoko; Ruber, Roger; Ziemann, V; Farabolini, W

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of the effects of RF-breakdown on the beam in CLIC prototype accelerator structures is one of the key aspects of the CLIC two-beam acceleration scheme being addressed at the Two-beam Test Stand (TBTS) at CTF3. RF-breakdown can randomly cause energy loss and transverse kicks to the beam. Transverse kicks have been measured by means of a screen intercepting the beam after the accelerator structure. In correspondence of a RFbreakdown we detect a double beam spot which we interpret as a sudden change of the beam trajectory within a single beam pulse. To time-resolve such effect, the TBTS has been equipped with five inductive Beam Position Monitors (BPMs) and a spectrometer line to measure both relative changes of the beam trajectory and energy losses. Here we discuss the methodology used and we present the latest results of such measurements

  17. Study of HV Dielectrics for High Frequency Operation in Linear & Nonlinear Transmission Lines & Simulation & Development of Hybrid Nonlinear Lines for RF Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-27

    As shown in [4], [5], the capacitors based on PZT (lead-zirconate- titanate) and BT dielectrics have dielectric BD strength of the order of 50 kV/cm...results. Depending on the nonlinearity properties of the capacitor dielectric , input pulse rise time, output pulse sharpening and or RF soliton... capacitors in a frequency range up to 2 MHz, below the resonant frequency of the both dielectrics . As seen in Fig. 1, PZTs have better performance than

  18. Compact field programmable gate array-based pulse-sequencer and radio-frequency generator for experiments with trapped atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruttivarasin, Thaned, E-mail: thaned.pruttivarasin@riken.jp [Quantum Metrology Laboratory, RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Katori, Hidetoshi [Quantum Metrology Laboratory, RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Innovative Space-Time Project, ERATO, JST, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Department of Applied Physics, Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    We present a compact field-programmable gate array (FPGA) based pulse sequencer and radio-frequency (RF) generator suitable for experiments with cold trapped ions and atoms. The unit is capable of outputting a pulse sequence with at least 32 transistor-transistor logic (TTL) channels with a timing resolution of 40 ns and contains a built-in 100 MHz frequency counter for counting electrical pulses from a photo-multiplier tube. There are 16 independent direct-digital-synthesizers RF sources with fast (rise-time of ∼60 ns) amplitude switching and sub-mHz frequency tuning from 0 to 800 MHz.

  19. Status of RF superconductivity at Argonne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepard, K.W.

    1989-01-01

    Development of a superconducting (SC) slow-wave structures began at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in 1971, and led to the first SC heavy-ion linac (ATLAS - the Argonne Tandem-Linac Accelerating System), which began regularly scheduled operation in 1978. To date, more than 40,000 hours of bean-on target operating time has been accumulated with ATLAS. The Physics Division at ANL has continued to develop SC RF technology for accelerating heavy-ions, with the result that the SC linac has, up to the present, has been in an almost continuous process of upgrade and expansion. It should be noted that this has been accomplished while at the same time maintaining a vigorous operating schedule in support of the nuclear and atomic physics research programs of the division. In 1987, the Engineering Physics Division at ANL began development of SC RF components for the acceleration of high-brightness proton and deuterium beams. This work has included the evaluation of RF properties of high-T c oxide superconductors, both for the above and for other applications. The two divisions collaborated while they worked on several applications of RF SC, and also worked to develop the technology generally. 11 refs., 6 figs

  20. Modelling of an RF plasma shower

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atanasova, M.; Carbone, E.A.D.; Mihailova, D.B.; Benova, E.; Degrez, G.; Mullen, van der J.J.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    A capacitive radiofrequency (RF) discharge at atmospheric pressure is studied by means of a time-dependent, two-dimensional fluid model. The plasma is created in a stationary argon gas flow guided through two perforated electrodes, hence resembling a shower. The inner electrode, the electrode facing